Front Cover
 Title Page
 Aves, or birds
 Back Cover

Group Title: The natural history of the Sacred Scriptures : and guide to general zoology
Title: The Natural history of the Sacred Scriptures
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081865/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Natural history of the Sacred Scriptures and guide to general zoology
Physical Description: 319 p., 300 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bicknell, W. I ( Author, Primary )
London Printing and Publishing Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: London Printing and Publishing Company
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: c1892
Subject: Nature in the Bible -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals in the Bible -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Zoology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1892
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: illustrated by upwards of three hundred coloured engravings, the whole arranged and written from the best and most modern authorities ; by W.I. Bicknell.
General Note: Added t.-p., illustrated in colors.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: Date of publication from inscription.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081865
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002222210
notis - ALG2447
oclc - 194275780

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Index 1
        Index 2
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
        Page 1
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 4a
            Page 4b
            Page 4c
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 6a
            Page 6b
            Page 6c
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 8a
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 10a
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 14a
            Page 14b
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 16a
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 18a
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 22a
            Page 22b
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 24a
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 26a
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 28a
            Page 28b
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 40a
            Page 40b
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 42a
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 44a
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 48a
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 50a
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 52a
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 54a
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 58a
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 60a
            Page 60b
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 62a
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 64a
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 66a
            Page 66b
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 68a
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 70a
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 72a
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 74a
            Page 74b
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 76a
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 80a
            Page 80b
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 82a
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 88a
            Page 88b
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 90a
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 92a
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 94a
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 96a
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 98a
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 100a
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 104a
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 106a
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 108a
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 110a
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
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            Page 114a
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 116a
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 118a
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 120a
            Page 120b
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 122a
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 124a
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 126a
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 128a
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 130a
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 134a
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 136a
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 140a
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 142a
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 144a
            Page 144b
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 146a
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 148a
            Page 148b
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 150a
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 152a
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 156a
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 160a
            Page 160b
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 162a
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 164a
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 166a
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 168a
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 170a
            Page 170b
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 172a
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 174a
            Page 174b
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 176a
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 180a
            Page 180b
            Page 180c
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 182a
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 186a
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 188a
            Page 188b
            Page 188c
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 190a
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 192a
            Page 192b
            Page 192c
            Page 192d
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 194a
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 196a
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 198a
            Page 198b
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 200a
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 202a
            Page 202b
            Page 202c
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 204a
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 206a
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 208a
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Page 210a
            Page 210b
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 216
            Page 216a
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 220a
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 222a
            Page 222b
            Page 222c
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 224a
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 228a
            Page 229
            Page 230
            Page 230a
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 232a
            Page 232b
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 234a
            Page 234b
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 236a
            Page 236b
            Page 236c
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
            Page 240
            Page 240a
            Page 241
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 248a
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 252a
    Aves, or birds
        Page 253
        Page 256
        Page 256a
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 258a
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 260a
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 262a
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 266a
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 268a
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 270a
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 272a
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 274a
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 280a
        Page 280b
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 286a
        Page 286b
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 290a
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 292a
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 294a
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 296a
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 298a
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 300a
        The griffon vulture
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 254a
            Page 255
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 304a
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 306a
            Page 306b
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 308a
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 310a
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 314a
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 316a
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 318a
            Page 319
            Page 320
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

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Agouti 143 Cavay, spotted
Angora, goat of 200 Caucasian .
Antelope 192 Chamois, goat
Ant-eater 148 Chimpanzee
American Indian 5 Chetah, or hunting Le
Ape,Barbary 231 pard
Armadillo .149 Chevrotain, or Guin
Ass .. 171 deer .
wild 173 Chinchilla .
Baboon, ribbed-nosed. 232 Circassian
--- pig-tailed 233 Coati-mondi
Babiroussa, or Indian Condor
hog 164 Deer, fallow
Badger 77 -- rein .
Bat 111 Dogs, remarks on
-- ternate 112 Dolphin
Bear, brown 70 Dromedary.
polar 73 Duck-bill .
Beaver .130 Eagle, golden
Beluga, orwhite Whale 249 white-tailed
Bison, American .210 -- bald
Blackbird 307 harpy
Bloodhound 44 Elephant .
Boar, wild 160 Elk, or moose Deer
domestic 162 Ermine, or Sable
Buffalo 211 Esquimaux dog .
Bull 205 Ethiopian
musk 214 European
Bulldog 41 Falcon
Butcher-bird, or Strike 301 -- peregrine
lesser 303 jer
Buzzard, common 291 Ferret
honey 293 Fieldfare
Cachalot, or sperm Fly-catcher, spotted
Whale 241 azure
Camel 177 Fowls, land.
Cameleopard, or Siraffe 194 Fox .
Cat, domestic' 29 Fox, Arctic
- wild 28 Foxhound

Page Page
. 144 Gazelle 192
5 Giraffe,or Cameleopard 194
. 199 Glutton 80
. 228 Goat, common 197
o- Syrian 201
. 19 Guinea-pig. 143
ea Hamster 133
. 189 Hare 137
S145 Alpine 141
Harrier, hen 294
75 marsh 293
S257 Hart 186
. 188 Hawk, gos 284
. 183 sparrow 286
S34 Hedgehog 115
S250 NewHolland 151
. 180 Hippopotamus 157
. 151 Hobby 282
. 266 Horse 168
. 269 race 170
271 Hottentot 6
. 273 Hymna 67
. 183 -- spotted .. 69
. 181 Jaguar .. 16
S96 Ibex 198
55 Ichneumon 34
6 Jerboa 123
S 5 Kangaroo 216
274 rat 222
279 Kestrel 281
280 Kite 288
S91 swallow-tailed .289
. 315 Leopard 14
304 hunting 19
. 305 Lommer-geyer 261
S252 Lion 7
62 Lion cat, or Angora cat 200
65 Lioness and cubs 9
6O Llama 181


Lynx 26
Lyre-bird 318
Macauco .236
Mackenzie-river dog 64
Malay 5
Mammals, defined 1
Man, remarks on 1
Manis 149
Marmot 124
- Lapland 125
Martin 93
Mastiff .40
Meminna 189
Merlin .283
Mocking-bird 311
Mole .116
Mongolian 6
Monkey, fair 234
- green 235
Mouse. 128
-- field 129
-- shrew 129
Mule 174
Musk-ox 214
- rat 127
Narwhal,or Sea-unicorn 247
Negro 6
Newfoundland dog 62
New South Wales dog 61
Nylghau 193
Ocelot 24
Opossum, Mexican 220
----- Virginian 219
-- Ursine 221
-- Squirrel 222

Opossum, flying
- common brown
- common barn
Ox, Syrian
Porcupine, Canadian.
---- Brazilian
Puma .
Rabbit, domestic
-- wild
Rat .
Rhinoceros, or Unicorn
Sable, the true .
Saint Bernard's dog
Seal .
-- Greenland

Skunk. 96
Sloth 146
Spermaceti Whale 241
Squirrel, common 119
----- grey 121
-- black 121
- flying 122
---- long-tailed 123
Stag, or red Deer 186
Stoat .93
Swine, domestic 162
Tanager, great 306
-- golden 307
Tapir 164
Tartar 5
Tendrac 116
Terrier 49
Thrush 309
Tiger, Bengal 10
Vampyre, or foreign Bat 112
Vulture, griffin 253
-- Egyptian 255
-- king 259
Unai 148
Unicorn 166
Walrus, or Sea-horse 108
Weasel 88
Whale, Greenland 237
- sperm 241
- white 249
Whittington, notice of 32
Wolf 60
Wombat 223
Zebra 175
Zebu 213


PICTORIAL Illustrations of the Holy Scriptures, having,
been usually published in an- expensive form, are, of
course, accessible but to few. The publishers of the pre-
sent work, in compliance with the conditions originally
proposed, having now redeemed the pledge then given,
are pleased to find that their endeavours have been met
with ample encouragement. They do not wish to con-
ceal the satisfaction, which a large sale of the SCRIPTURE
NATURALu HISTORY has afforded them.

The embellishments to the work likewise require no
comment; they will bear comparison with any work of
the same kind, be the price of its publication what it may.
The colouring of the plates has been done by a new-
process; and recommends itself to every lover of the arts.

For himself, the Editor, in conclusion, does not think.
it inconsistent with modesty to aver, that no-pains have
been wanting: on his part, to collect and condense the
largest amount of modern information, into as small' a
compass as possible. Without troubling the readerrwith
many references, it may suffice to say, that the foundation,

of this little work has been based upon the older writers
of Natural History, such as Pliny, Scheuchzer, Linnuus,
Derham, Ray, Buffon, Goldsmith, Lacepede, Harris, and
Paley; while the materials for the superstructure have
been chiefly derived from the more modern productions
of Latreille, Cuvier, Kirby, Spence, Wilson, Audubon,
Griffith, Smith, Pidgeon, Gray, Rennie, Swainson, Gould
and others. The Editor commends both his readers and
his work to the blessing of God.

W. I. B,



IN HEBREW, Adamn-IN ENGLISH, Red ; Handsome.
So God created Man in his own image, in the image of God
created he him ; male and female created he them."-GEN.
chap. i., verse 27.
THE first class of animals, whether living on land
or in water, are called MAMMALS, designating those
which suckle their young; and amongst these, MAN
claims the first order. Although man was the last
of God's works, yet being made, according to the
phraseology of Scripture, "in the image of God,"
we may be sure that he would be endowed with
faculties, intellectual and physical, which should
place him beyond all other creatures. And such
we know to be the fact.
The"structure of the whole human frame demon-
strates that man alone was designed to be in an
erect attitude. He is very properly called bimana,
or two-handed, an appellation which can be given to
no other animal. Examining the skeleton, we find
that the two articulating surfaces of the occiput,
or hinder part of the head, by which the skull is
connected with the spine, are so placed on each side,
that a vertical line passing through the centre of
vL. I. B 1


IN HEBREW, Adamn-IN ENGLISH, Red ; Handsome.
So God created Man in his own image, in the image of God
created he him ; male and female created he them."-GEN.
chap. i., verse 27.
THE first class of animals, whether living on land
or in water, are called MAMMALS, designating those
which suckle their young; and amongst these, MAN
claims the first order. Although man was the last
of God's works, yet being made, according to the
phraseology of Scripture, "in the image of God,"
we may be sure that he would be endowed with
faculties, intellectual and physical, which should
place him beyond all other creatures. And such
we know to be the fact.
The"structure of the whole human frame demon-
strates that man alone was designed to be in an
erect attitude. He is very properly called bimana,
or two-handed, an appellation which can be given to
no other animal. Examining the skeleton, we find
that the two articulating surfaces of the occiput,
or hinder part of the head, by which the skull is
connected with the spine, are so placed on each side,
that a vertical line passing through the centre of
vL. I. B 1

gravity of the head, would fall almost exactly between
them, and on the top of the spine. The muscles,
also, at the back of the head are so large, and so
conveniently arranged for the full exercise of their
power, that the effort required of them to hold up
the head is so slight, that it may be done, throughout
the day, without producing fatigue. In an hori-
zontal position, as in the horse, man would have
the heaviest head, with the least power of support-
ing it. The position of the face is, moreover, pecu-
liar. In man, the face is immediately beneath the
brain, a form exactly adapted for an erect posture.
The eyes, in this position, can best perform their
function with accuracy; the cavities of the nose are
in the best direction for inhaling odours; the jaws
not projecting in front of the forehead and chin.
The position of the back-bone shows the same
fact: for when the body is in an erect posture, its
curves are so arranged, that a vertical line, drawn
from the summit, would fall exactly on the centre of
its base. The lumbar portion of the back, is of
considerable length, and embraced by muscles at
once long and strong, better to overcome the weight
of the bowels in front, and prevent their being
drawn forward or downward. The spinal processes
in man are larger than in other animals, whilst
those of the neck are scarcely prominent, the head
being nearly balanced on the upper bone of the
neck. The reverse of this is the fact in animals.
The sacrum, or lowest bone of the back, is of great
breadth, and fixed between two widely-extended
haunch bones, forming the side walls, so to speak, of
a broad pelvis, or basin. This bone, by its great

width, forms an ample cavity for the support and
defence of many of the viscera, especially in females;
while the distant separation of the haunches and
thighs form the basis of a wider and more secure
The lower extremities of man are likewise remark-
able, being, almost without exception, of greater
length, proportionally, than in other animals. This,
for an horizontal position, would be inconvenient,
although eminently advantageous for one erect. The
length of the thigh is another peculiarity in man,
raising the whole figure, so that the arms, in a
standing posture, only reach to the middle of the
thigh. The human foot is, moreover, very large,
broad, and strong, giving superior stability to the
whole frame; enabling man alone, of all the mam-
mals, to stand upon one leg. The foot is, beside,
peculiar from the bone of the heel, and the position
of the toes, obviously designed for locomotion only.
There is a complexity and completeness in the
upper extremities of man, that, in the opinion of
Sir Charles Bell, "we ought to define the hand as
belonging exclusively to man." Its perfection, as an
organ of prehension, is due partly to its own con-
struction, and partly to the form of the parts with
which it is connected; for "the whole frame must
conform to the hand, and act with reference to it."
A powerful collar-bone, which keeps the shoulder
and arm apart from the chest, gives man much
power, in common with other animals; besides a
powerful lateral and inward motion of the arm, and
a wide range for action beyond the body. The
structural perfection of the human hand is due

chiefly to the size, and strength of the thumb, which
can be brought into exact and powerful opposition
to the extremities of the fingers, they being sepa-
rately moveable, and each in its turn can be
employed in association with the thumb. It is
peculiar to man that the hands and feet are so dif-
ferent from each other. The upper extremities are
employed for prehension and dexterity of handicraft;
while the lower ones are used only for support and
Another peculiarity in man is the ability which
he possesses of living in almost any part of the world,
and of thriving alike in either extreme of natural
temperature. The Greenlanders and Esquimaux,
for example, have reached 700 or 800 of north lati-
tude, while the negro of Africa, and the red man of
America, live under the Equator. Europeans, even,
accustomed to a temperate climate, are but little in-
convenienced by wintering in a high northern lati-
tude, or bearing, with comparative indifference, the
temperature of the hottest climes. In the valleys,
and in elevated table lands, man is found domiciled,
regardless of the various degrees of atmospheric pres-
sure. He can, besides, subsist upon almost all kinds
of food. In temperate climates, where animal and
vegetable food can easily be procured, man is truly
omnivorous; meat, fish, vegetables, fruits, and roots,
are alike devoured by him. Towards the poles, on
the contrary, fish is almost exclusively the diet of the
inhabitants; while in India, thousands never partake
of animal food, but subsist almost entirely upon rice.
The hunters who traverse the regions of the Upper
Missouri and Columbia Rivers, often live, for months

N \\N


r7 V





together, on the flesh of animals only. In these
respects man stands alone; other animals being con-
fined to particular localities. One class cannot bear
the heat, another cannot endure the cold. Even
with the advantages which human art can suggest,
animals, when removed from their own locality, soon
become diseased, and die. So again, in reference to
food. To the carnivorous class of animals flesh is
indispensable, as an article of food; ruminating
animals, on the contrary, must be supplied with a
vegetable diet, or perish.
Slowness of growth, and tardy development, fur-
ther distinguish the human family. Man remains
longer than other animals in a state of infancy
and youth. The bones are slower in becoming com-
plete; while it requires from fifteen to twenty years
ere he attains his full stature. The length of life in
man is proportionably greater than in other animals.
We will only remark in conclusion, that the human
species may be divided into five varieties:-1. The
Caucasian variety: distinguished by a white skin,
with rosy tint, inclining to brown; hair, eye-brows,
and eyes, of various colours; large skull, with small
face; expanded forehead; nose somewhat aquiline;
mouth small; front teeth perpendicular; lips turned
out; chin full and rounded; moral feelings, and in-
tellectual powers, most energetic. This variety in-
cludes all Europeans, except the Finns; the inhabi-
tants of Western Asia, to the river Oby, the Caspian
Sea, and the Ganges; the Tartars Proper; the tribes
occupying the chain of Caucasus; the Georgians,
Circassians, Mingrelians, and Armenians; the Turks,
Persians, Arabians, Affghans, and Hindoos of high

castes; the northern Africans, Egyptians, and Abys-
2. The Mongolian variety: characterized by an
olive colour; black eyes and hair, with little beard;
head of a square form; low forehead; broad flat face,
and features running together; nose small and flat;
round projecting cheeks; eyes very oblique; large
ears; thick lips; and stature short. It includes the
tribes of Central and Northern Asia, as the Mongols,
&c.; the Manchoos and their neighbours; the Sa-
moiedes, &c.; the Chinese and Japanese, with the
inhabitants of Tibet, Tonquin, Ava, and Siam; the
Laplanders and Esquimaux.
3. The Ethiopian variety: presents a black skin;
eyes prominent and black; hair black and woolly;
skull compressed sideways, and elongated in front;
forehead low; cheek bones prominent; jaws project-
ing; teeth oblique; nose broad, thick, and flat; lips
thick. All the natives of Africa, not included in the
first variety, belong to this.
4. The American variety: here the skin is dark
and red; hair black and straight; beard slender; a
countenance and skull similar to the Mongolian;
forehead low; eyes deep; face broad; mouth large;
lips rather thick. This variety includes all the native
Americans, except the Esquimaux.
5. The Malay variety: known by a tawny to a
deep brown skin; hair long and black; head narrow;
face large and prominent; nose full and broad; and
mouth large. This variety comprises the inhabitants
of the Malay Archipelago, New Holland, Tasmania,
New Guinea, New Zealand, and all the islands of the
South Seas.-Such is MAN !






~, c 'a








In HEBREW, Ared.-(Felis Leo.)-IN ENGLISH, The Tearer.
He crouched as a Lion."-GEN. chap. xlix., 9.
IF MAN be the general lord of creation, the lion
may be regarded as king amongst the brutes. He
reigns in the forest, or in the plains, alone; taking
the most prominent position from his immense size,
herculean strength, and undaunted courage. A bet-
ter acquaintance with his history, however, obliges us
to make some drawbacks from the high eulogy
which has been pronounced upon him. He is
naturally sluggish; and it is only when roused by
the influence of strong excitement, hunger, or re-
venge, that he puts forth his native energy, and
innate ferocity. What authors have said of his
generosity, may rather be referred to his cowardice
and irresolution.
A mere glance at a lion is sufficient to convince us
that he was made for aggressive war. The African
lion, the noblest of his compeers, is from eight to
nine feet in length, from five to six feet in height, and
of about five hundred weight. His figure is noble;
his looks determined; his gait stately; and his voice
tremendous. His body, in short, is a perfect model
of strength, combined with wondrous agility. His
general muscular strength is expressed by his pro-
digious leaps and bounds, often to the extent of
twenty feet at once; a single sweep of his tail being
sufficient to throw a man to the ground; while a

blow from his paw will lay the smaller animals dead
at his feet; the skull of a man has been broken
by it. The general structure of the head of the lion
is a masterpiece of art. The bones, though com-
paratively light, are strongly articulated together,
and nearly covered with muscle. The jaws are very
large. The lower jaw, which alone is moveable,
presents a formidable apparatus, so contrived as to
operate in the most efficient manner. Without
going into anatomical detail, it may suffice to say,
that the teeth and jaws of the lion, and other
animals of a like order, operate like the antagonist
blades of a pair of scissors upon the substance sub-
mitted to their cutting edges. The jaws of the lion
are furnished with thirty teeth; six incisor, or
cutting teeth, in each jaw: two canine, or dog teeth,
also, in each jaw; eight molar, or grinding teeth,
in the upper jaw, but six only in the lower. The
canine teeth, the principal prehensile weapons of the
head are, in the lion, of enormous size and length.
The lower jaw is capable of motion only upward and
downward, but not in a horizontal direction, so
necessary for complete mastication. The lion, ac-
cordingly, in common with other carnivorous ani-
mals, can only cut and lacerate his food coarsely,
transmitting it in large portions into the stomach.
In the event of the meal being very sparing and
bony, the tongue greatly assists in getting the flesh
from the bones, being large and very rough. Neither
is this peculiar to the lion, but common to all of the
cat kind. The muscles of the neck are, moreover,
particularly powerful, enabling the animal to carry
away, or drag along, its prey, though of large size

: ~;



and weight. The head is adorned with a shaggy
beautiful mane.
A passing remark must also be given on another
part of the armour of this indomitable warrior. The
fore-paws of the lion have each five toes, and the
hinder-paws four toes, which are armed with very
....., -hooked, and sharp claws, or talons, about an
inch-and-a-quarter long, and well fitted to become a
powerful instrument for seizing and rending the
prey. The claws, a beautiful conformation, are
always preserved, without effort, as in a sheath,
from coming in contact with external bodies, so as
to keep them sharp and ready for action. The talons
thus protected, give the animal another advantage.
The softer part of the paws being alone brought in
contact with the ground, produces that noiseless
tread, in making advances towards its prey, for which
the whole of the cat tribe are so remarkably dis-
THE LIONEss is usually smaller, less bold, and
more gentle than the male. She goes with young
five months, and produces from two to four at a
litter, which are born blind. In a state of nature
both parents contribute to supply the whelps with
food when they begin to eat, and mutually guard
their young with the greatest jealousy. In these
respects, however, the lioness takes the lead, becom-
ing much more rapacious and terrible when she has
Of the strength of the lion most extraordinary and
well attested examples are on record. To carry off a
man appears to be a feat of iio difficulty to this
powerful brute. A Cape lion has been known to
VOL. c 9

seize, and carry off a heifer in his mouth, though the
legs dragged upon the ground, conveying it with the
same ease as a cat does a rat, leaping over a broad
ditch with her, without the least difficulty. Another,
and a young one too, conveyed a horse about a mile
from the spot where he had killed it. Sparrman
relates of a third, that having carried away a two-
year old heifer, was followed on his track by horse..
men for five hours, when it appeared that, through-
out the whole distance, the carcass of the heifer had
only once or twice touched the ground.

(Felis Tigris.)

SHOULD a comparison be instituted between the lion
and the tiger, we doubt whether the first rank would
not be assigned to the latter. These animals are
closely allied to each other in size, in power, in ex-
ternal form, in internal structure, in zoological
character, in prowling habits, and in sanguinary
propensities; yet the tiger is at once distinguished
from the lion, and from every other of their common
genus, by the peculiar markings of its coat. On a
ground which exhibits, in different individuals, va-
rious shades of yellow, he is elegantly striped by a
series of transverse black bands or bars, which oc-
cupy the sides of his head, neck, and body, and are

/ Is~ c


continued upon his tail, in the form of rings, the last
of the series uniformly occupying the extremity of
that organ, and giving it a black tip of greater or
less extent. The under parts of his body, and the
inner sides of his legs, are almost entirely white; he
has no mane; and his whole frame, though less
elevated than that of the lion, is of a slenderer and
more graceful make His head is also shorter, and
more rounded. The dimensions of the tiger, when
fully developed, are most formidable. Hyder Ali, it
is said, presented one to the Nabob of Arcot, which
measured, including the tail, eighteen feet in length.
The average length may be stated at from nine to
six feet, and the height from about four to three
The tigress brings forth four or five cubs at a time.
She is a very fond mother, braving every danger for
them, and furiously attacking man or beast, in their
defence. A proof of this is furnished by Captain
Williamson. When in an Indian district, two of
four tiger-cubs had been brought to him by some
natives, which they had taken from their lair in the
absence of the tigress. The two brought to the
captain were put into a stable, where they made a
loud noise for several nights. The bereaved mother
at length arrived, replying to their cries with fearful
howling; and the cubs were let loose, under the
apprehension that the infuriated tigress might break
in. In the morning it was found that she had
carried them both away.
The tiger seems to have had a less geographical
distribution than the lion; and hence not so often
mentioned by ancient writers. No notice is taken

of it in any part of the sacred volume. The tiger
is to be found in the deserts which separate China
from Siberia, and also as far as the banks of the
Oby. In the south of China, and in the larger East
Indian islands, as Sumatra, it is by no means uncom-
mon. Pennant states, that it is found as far north as
China, and Chinese Tartary, about Lake Aral, and the
Altaic mountains. It inhabits Mount Ararat and
Hiyrcania, of old so famous for wild beasts. Hindoos-
tan, however, may be considered the head-quarters
of this destructive animal: there it is that the tiger
reigns almost unawed. An animal so insidious,
blood-thirsty, and malevolent, must always be a
scourge in a locality where he may be found; but it
is believed that he is comparatively innoxious to
man, until after he has tasted human blood, when
his visits to the abodes of the inhabitants become so
frequent, and d..;l-_. that the whole district are
compelled to go in search of him, to destroy him.
The bound with which the embushed tiger throws
himself upon his prey is as wonderful in its extent,
as it is terrible in its effects. Man is a mere puppet
in his gripe; and the Indian buffalo is not only
borne down by the ferocious beast, but carried off by
his enormous strength. Instances may occur where
he may slink away; but generally, he pursues the
affrighted prey with a speedy activity, which is
seldom exerted in vain. The swiftness imputed to
the tiger, by ancient writers, has been confirmed by
eye-witnesses in modern times, who assert that such
is the vast fleetness of this animal, that a rider,
mounted on a swift horse, would have been over-
taken by a tiger in pursuit of him had bhe not

screened himself in time amidst a circle of armed
The following well attested, but sad story, too well
confirms the truth of the preceding remarks. The son
of Sir Hector Monro, accompanied by three of his
friends, landed, December 22, 1792, on Sawgar
Island, to shoot deer. They continued their sport
till the afternoon, when they retired to the edge of a
jungle to refresh themselves. They had not re-
mained long before one of the party had risen, and
was leaving to resume his sport. At that moment
he saw a large tiger spring upon poor Monro, and
rush with him into the jungle with the greatest ease,
dragging him through everything that obstructed
his course, as if all were made to yield to his amazing
strength. His companions fired; and, after a mo-
ment's pause, the unfortunate gentleman came
staggering towards them, covered with blood. His
head was dreadfully torn, and his neck and shoulders
fearfully lacerated; he had, moreover, received one
of the musket balls, which had been aimed at the
tiger. He lingered for twenty-four hours, in the
greatest agonies, when, in spite of medical aid, he
expired. A similar catastrophe befel Lieutenant
M'Murdo in 1830. The party were engaged, near
Jaulnah, in a tiger hunt, on foot, when the infuriated
animal suddenly sprang upon the lieutenant, and
carried him away. When his comrades last saw him
alive, his left arm appeared thrust down the tiger's
throat, his right arm havin; been shockingly man-
gled in his attempts to extricate himself.



IHEREwE, Yianar.-(Felis Leopardu.)-E xcLII, The Spotted.
" Can the Ehitpii cha;ngye his sbi;?, or the Leopard his spots ?"
ALTHOUGv we are very familiar with the name of
leopard, yet there are several species which so nearly
resemble each other, that the precise distinction o,
the true leopard still remains a problem unresolved.
Some of our modern aid most experienced natural-
ists confess, that though the names of leopard and
panther have long been known, yet that no writer
of the last generation has pointed out, in what
respects the animals differ. Major H. Smith,
whose authority is undeniable, says, that the leopard,
as compared with the jaguar and the panther, is
uniformly of a paler yellowish colour, rather smaller,
and the dots upon her skin rose-formed, or consist-
ing of several dots partially united into a circular
figure in some instances, and into a quadrangular,
triangular, or other less determinate forms in others :
there are also several single isolated black spots,
which more especially occur on the outside of the
limbs. If any reliance is to be placed on the most
accurate figures hitherto published, the small spots
of the leopard, and the large ones of the panther,
must strike even a casual observer, and lead him to
believe that the two animals should be called by dif-
ferent names. But in the absence of internal or
anatomical difference, we may easily come to
wrong conclusions, misled by those which are only
external, and not strongly marked.



/( A

- .-.----


From the frequent reference to leopards by the
sacred writers, it is certain, that they were once lo-
cated either in Palestine itself, or in the neighboring
countries; although they are no longer to be found
there. In central Africa leopards are far from
uncommon. They are found in considerable num-
bers im Lower Guinea, where they often make dread-
ful havoc among the flocks and heads. They are
also to be found in India. In a state of nature they
appear to be very active, climbing trees well, and
taking their prey usually by surprise. Yet are they
characterized as being swift-footed, according to the
allusion made by the prophet Habakkuk, chap. i., 8,
"their horses also are swifter than the leopards."
In captivity they are said to be playful, but apt to
be treacherous. Mrs. Bowditch won the heart of
a leopard by kindness, presenting him with lavender-
water in a tea-tray, of which the animal was fond
almost to ecstasy. Sai, the name given to this
favourite, was however taught, that he should never
be indulged with this luxury, unless he put on his
gloves, that is, kept his claws sheathed.

(Felis Pardus.)
IN size the panther ranges next to the tiger. Its
hair is short and smooth; and is beautifully mInarked
on the back, sides, and flanks, with black spots
B. vv",;""vv=--Z

forming a kind of rosettes; on the face, breast, and
legs the spots are single : the colour of the body, on
the neck and sides is yellow, but of a darker hue
than in the leopard; the belly is white. Its ears
are short and pointed; its eye restless; and its whole
aspect fierce and determined.
The panther attacks alike all the smaller animals;
and when pressed by hunger will dexterously climb
up trees in pursuit of monkeys. It has the repu-
tation of being an untameable animal; but we are
not aware that it is more so than others of the same
family. The ancients were no strangers to the
panther; he being often brought into the arena by
the Romans, to furnish sport in those cruel and
dangerous games then so common.
This species is spread throughout Africa, in the
warmer countries of Asia, and in the Indian Archi-

(Felis Onca.)
THE Jaguar may easily be distinguished from others
of the leopard tribe. It is robust in its form, being
far stouter than the leopard, and very strongly built.
The body is also thicker, the limbs shorter, and more
fleshy, and the tail scarcely reaching the ground where.
the animal stands well on its feet. The head is
larger, and rather shorter, than that of the leopard,


and the profile of the head more prominent. When
full grown, the jaguar measures from four to five feet
from its nose to the root of the tail. The spots on
this animal are twice the size of those on the leopard,
and those arranged along the upper surface, near the
middle line of the back, are distinguished by one or
two small black spots enclosed within their circle; the
middle line itself being marked by one or two regular
longitudinal lines of broad, elongated, deep black
patches, sometimes extending several inches in length,
and occasionally forming an almost continuous band
from between the shoulders to the tail. The black
rings towards the tip of the tail, are also completely
The jaguar is unknown in the old continent, its
localities being principally Paraguay and the Brazils;
it is, however,.to be found from nearly one end of
South America to the other. One of these animals died
in the gardens at the Regent's Park, in 1832. From
its general anatomical structure, it was concluded
that it belonged to a tribe of animals of great energy
and power, although not equal in ferocity or strength
to the tigers of Bengal. This character has been
fully confirmed by the testimony of eye-witnesses.
D'Azara gives the following anecdote: a jaguar had
struck down a horse; and orders had been given
that the latter should be drawn within musket-shot
of a tree, wherein the traveller intended to pass the
night, in the expectation that the jaguar would return
for his prey. While D'Azara was gone to prepare
Himself, the jaguar returned from the opposite side of
a river, broad and deep, seized the horse in its
South, drew it to the water, some sixty paces off,
SVOL. T. n 17

swam across the river with it, landed it, and drew it
into a wood close by. All this was witnessed by a
person whom D'Azara had placed in concealment, to
watch till his return.
Sonnini describes this animal as a most expert
climber. He saw the scratches left by its claws, on
the smooth bark of a lofty tree without branches,
some forty feet high. He traced the marks of
several slips made by the climber, but the animal
had reached the top in safety. Humboldt says that
he has heard the jaguar's yell from the tops of the
trees, followed by the sharp, shrill, long whistle of
the terrified monkeys, as they seemed to flee. Jaguars
openly seize cattle, horses, and sheep, from the en-
closures. Neither are they particular in their choice
of diet; monkeys, birds, fish, or reptiles, being alike
acceptable. The Indians often profit by the dex-
trous cunning of this animal, which is in the habit of
seizing turtles as they come on shore, and turning
them on their backs. The jaguar then insinuates his
paw between the shells, and scoops out the contents
as cleanly as if a butcher's knife had been employed.
The beast often turning more than he can eat at one
meal, the natives regale themselves with the residue.
The number of these animals must be considerable,
since two thousand of their skins are annually ex-
ported from Buenos Ayres alone.
Notwithstanding the strength and ferocity of the
jaguar, instances are not common where he ventures
to attack man. On the other hand, children them-
selves have sometimes escaped unhurt. A large
jaguar, on one occasion, came out of the woods, and
seeing two Indian children at a distance, one a girl


about seven years old, and the other a boy about
nine, he bounded towards them, his head down, and
his back arched, like a cat at play. He approached
the boy, who was not sensible of his danger, and
began to play with him, till at last, the jaguar struck
him so hard on the head, with his paw, as to draw
blood, whereupon the little girl struck him smartly
with a small switch, and he was bounding back, not
at all irritated, when the Indians, alarmed by the
cries of the girl, came up.

(Felis jubata.)
THE chetah, or hunting leopard, was supposed, by
some of our older naturalists, to form a kind of con-
necting link between animals of the cat and the dog
tribe. In the system of dentition, and in its general
habits and peculiarities, it resembles the cat, while
in intelligence, teachableness, and fidelity, it seems to
approach nearer to the dog. Mr. Owen has de-
monstrated that a right place has been given to the
chetah, in arranging it among the true leopards.
It is an animal of great beauty and agility; and,
generally speaking, obtains its prey during the day,
rather than at night. Its colour is a bright yellowish
fawn, in the upper parts of the body, covered above
and on the sides with intensely black spots, closely

approximating to each other. The tail is likewise
spotted, but the spots become more continuous as
they approach its extremity, the three or four last
rings surrounding it completely. The tip of the tail,
the whole of its under surface, with the exception of
the ringed part just mentioned, and the belly, are
pure white. The outside of the ears are short and
rounded, marked by a broad black spot at the base;
the tip and inside of the ears a dingy white. The
extremity of the nose is black. It has a mane,
which is crisp and shaggy. Its fur likewise is coarse,
much resembling hair. The chetah inhabits the
greater part of Asia and Africa; being common in
India, Sumatra, Persia, Senegal, and the neighbour-
hood of the Cape of Good Hope. We remember to
have seen, about the beginning of the present cen-
tury, three beautiful specimens of this animal in
the Tower of London. They were found in the
menagerie of the unfortunate Tippoo Saib, imme-
diately after the capture of Seringapatam, and were
presented, by Lord Harris, to George III. They
did not long survive their arrival in this country.
Another specimen was, at a more recent period, to
be seen in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park.
This survived for a considerable time, being fed
chiefly upon lean mutton.
The habits of the chetah, when in a state of
nature, are but little known; although its general
mode of living, is believed not materially to differ
from animals of the same class. In captivity it
seems singularly amiable; delighting in being noticed
or fondled, when it purrs like a cat. If uneasy or
disappointed, its note consists of a short, uniform,

and repeated mew. It is very playful; but, unlike
the cat, its play is not apt to degenerate into
maliciousness or cruelty; its attachment being real
and lasting. The chetah might, it is thought, be
easily domesticated. The most remarkable trait in
the character of the chetah, is the facility with
which it is trained for the chase. The animals
before referred to, as coming from Seringapatam,
were said to have been great favourites with their
owner, the Sultan of Mysore, who often fed and
caressed them himself; and employed them in
hunting. On these occasions they were led out by
their keepers coupled two together, having the air
and manners of a brace of greyhounds. They were
hooded, and carried to the field, in cars made for the
purpose. These cars were followed by the sultan
and his suite on horseback. When the keepers, or
huntsmen, came within view of a herd of antelopes,
or other game, the chetah was unchained, and un-
hooded, and the game pointed out to him; being
directed in his pursuit by sight. Stealing cautiously
along, and taking every means of masking his at-
tack, till he had approached the herd unseen, within
a short distance, he then suddenly launched himself
forward, with five or six vigorous bounds, instan-
taneously seizing his prey, and killing it. The
huntsman, his attendant, now approached, caressing
and enticing him from his prey, by placing the
blood, which he had collected in a ladle, under his
nose; or by throwing him pieces of meat. The
animal being thus quieted, was again hooded, led
back to the car, and chained. When the chetah
fails in securing his prey, he attempts no pursuit.

(Felis Concolor.)
LIONS, properly so called, are confined to the old
world; but from the size and ferocity of the puma,
it is often designated the American lion, although, in
fact, it more nearly resembles the leopard. Its colour
is a silvery fawn, on the back and sides; the belly
being nearly white. It has neither mane nor spots.
The range which this animal formerly had, extended
from Canada to Patagonia; this is daily becoming
more contracted. It is still sometimes seen about
the mouth of the Columbia River. In the Brazils it
is far from uncommon.
The puma is always a dangerous and formidable
neighbour. When it meets with a herd of cattle it
will slay in all directions, sucking only a portion
of blood from each victim. Fifty sheep have been
killed by it in a single night. The settler knows,
to his sorrow, that the puma is no less dangerous
amongst his swine. It is an expert climber;
although its principal haunts are swamps and prai-
ries. The animal is said to be untameable; this,
however, must be a mistake, since the late Mr.
Edmund Kean kept one in his house, which was
completely domesticated, following the inmates about
the house with the familiarity of a dog.
It is a favourite sport, in South America, to hunt
the puma with dogs. When the dogs are unken-
nelled, they pursue him until he stops to defend
himself. If the dogs fly upon him, the hunter
jumps from his horse and despatches him; but if




, .,


the dogs hesitate, and do not attack him boldly, the
hunter throws his lasso over him, and galloping off,
drags him along till the dogs tear him in pieces.
At another time, the, dogs will drive him up a tree,
when the rifle soon ends the conflict. It is, however,
not very safe for a hunter to attack an infuriated
puma alone. Many lamentable occurrences might
be mentioned, in which the hunter has not escaped
with his life; or without receiving some dreadful
In common with other carnivorous animals, the
female is more to be feared than the male, when she
has young. At this season, she will obtain a supply
of food for her cubs, at all hazards.

(Felis Uncia.)
THE ounce, though greatly resembling the panther,
may yet be distinguished from it from the colour of
the body, being a dirty white. It is allo shorter,
and more stoutly built, for its size, than the panther.
The tail also is peculiar, being decidedly annulated
with black rings, and not spotted. The specimens
seen in England have been brought from India; but
travellers believe that it is not common in any part
of that extensive country. Whether it exists in
other parts of Asia, or in Africa, we have no evi-

dence by which to determine. The specimen in the
British Museum is remarkable for the thickness of
its fur, the paleness of its colour, the irregular form
of the spots, and the great length and thickness of
the tail. Naturalists feel no hesitation in pronounc-
ing the ounce as a distinct species. Although its
habits are unknown, yet there is no reason to
suppose that it essentially differs from other animals
of its own order.

(Felis Pardalis.)
THE Ocelot is an animal of extreme beauty, its skin
being most elegantly variegated, and its shape slen-
der and compact. Its height is about two feet and-a-
half, and its length about four feet. Its general
colour is a bright tawny; a black stripe extends
along the top of the back from head to tail; its fore-
head is spotted with black, as are also its legs; the
shoulders, sides, and rump, being beautifully marbled
with long stripes of black, forming oval figures, filled
in the middle with small black spots; its tail is irre-
gularly marked with large spots, and black at the
end. The colours are less vivid in the female than
the male.
It is a native of South America, living chiefly in
the more mountainous districts of Brazil, concealing
itself amongst the leaves of trees. The ocelot is an
expert climber, often extending itself along the
boughs, as if dead, when on the approach of the

ic-s- i-

* .- -Cr-7

-THE"OCE-LOT-~~:,~ ~~ .;''~ Iy~l'r" r -


Curious monkey, or other smaller animal, it sud-
denly darts forward and secures its prey. Though
very voracious and blood-thirsty, it is also timid,
)flying into the woods for concealment on the ap-
proach of dogs.
Nothing, it is said, can soften the naturally ferocious
Disposition of this animal, or calm the restlessness of
p its motions. This, however, must greatly depend
upon circumstances. If captured after the age of
Puberty, it is to be expected that its innate savage-
Sness would be most apparent, not yielding to the
caresses of its keeper; whereas, if born in captivity,
or taken when quite young, educational kindness
Swill do much to subjugate the fiercer propensities of
,its nature. Bewick relates that an ocelot shewn at
Newcastle, although extremely old, exhibited great
Marks of ferocity, growling even at its keeper, and
appeared constantly restless from sheer ill humour.
STwo ocelots, the same writer remarks, a male and a
female, were brought into France some years ago,
, which had been taken when very young. At the age
.' of three months they became so strong and fierce, as
:j to kill a bitch which had been given them for a
. nurse. The male of these two was also very ungal-
I lant, satisfying his own hunger before he would allow
the female to partake.
The ocelot may not be easily tamed, although the
Straveller D'Azara mentions one, which from domesti-
cation, was so tame, as to be left at liberty, and never
'' attempted to escape from its master, to whom it was
St.ndly attached.

S VOL. 1. E 25

(Felis Lynx.)
Or all animals of the cat family, the lynx is one of the
most singular. Its earlier history is enveloped in fable,
the ancients having assigned to the lynx the charge
of the chariot of Bacchus, in his triumphal career
through India. The sight of this animal was also
reported to have been so extraordinary, that it could
penetrate the most opaque bodies; and that its urine
became converted into precious stones. The truth
is, that the ancients having no precise ideas of the
animal assigned to Bacchus, employed the terms lynx,
panther, and tiger, to it, almost indiscriminately:
the lynx, although it cannot see through brick walls,
has, probably, the longest sight of any quadruped
The lynx is thus described by the accurate
Bewick: ears long and erect, tufted at the end with
long black hairs; the hair on the body is long and
soft, of a red ash colour, marked with dusky spots,
which differ according to the age of the crea-
ture; sometimes the spots are scarcely visible: its
legs and feet are very thick and strong; its tail
short, and black at the extremity; its eyes of a pale
yellow colour; and its aspect softer, and less fero-
cious than that of the panther or the ounce. This
description, however, must be understood as applying
to one particular species of the lynx tribe; viz. the
caracal, or black ear, as the word literally means, and
is a native of Persia, and the countries immediately
adjacent. In truth, of all animals the lynx appears

J i.



to have been more widely distributed than any others,
having had at one time the entire range of the Old
World. It was formerly common in France and
Germany; is still found in Spain; and numerously
scattered over the more northern countries of Europe.
It is found in most parts of Asia, throughout the whole
of Africa, and in America, especially in the northern
parts. This extensive distribution will account for
the many varieties of this animal. Providence has
kindly ordained that the skins of animals should
change by climate and seasons, the fur becoming
much finer, thicker, and warmer, in high latitudes,
particularly during the winter. Man has reason to
guide him in the choice and application of his
Clothing; while the God of nature is pleased him-
Sself to clothe the brutes. Wondrous and beneficent
It is a singular fact, that the skin of the lynx has
long been known as an article of commerce, although
the wearers of it, the lynxes themselves, have been
comparatively unknown to the naturalist. The Rus-
sians have carried on an extensive trade with the
Chinese in the skins of the lynx. A single skin
varies in value from about fifteen shillings to five
or six pounds, exclusive of the fore-feet, which are
Also valuable, and sold separately. The Canadian
lynx is found in such quantities by the fur-gatherers,
that nine thousand skins have been imported in one
year by the Hudson's Bay Company.
The habits of the lynx are rather gentle than savage,
being less voracious than most of the cat kind,
urbless under excitement; offering little resist-
ance when attacked, and being easily killed by a

blow on the back. In a state of nature it is
very playful, walking, leaping, or bounding, like
a cat. It feeds on the smaller animals, monkeys,
squirrels, &c., pursuing them up trees, where also it
will lie in wait to drop on deer or sheep, that may
chance to pass beneath. Having seized its prey, it is
said frequently to suck the blood, and then leave it
for another victim : for this propensity the lynx has
been charged, of all animals, with having the worst
memory. In localities where lions are found, the
lynx, like the jackall, is often in attendance, not to
provide for the lion, but for him self, by sharing the
spoil which the nobler animal may have left.

(Felis Catus.)
THE wild cat, like the last animal described, differs
so much in different localities as to excite a doubt
as to the family to which it belongs. In northern
Europe there are red cats, at the Cape of Good
Hope, blue, and in China and Japan cats are to be
found with pendant ears; while in the British- Isles,
wild cats, now not very common, greatly resemble
our domestic cats, and may in one word be called
tabby. The hair of the wild cat is soft, fine, and
long. It inhabits the more mountainous and woody
parts of this island, living in trees, and hunting for
birds, rabbits, hares, rats, mice, and other small ani-
mals. It not unfrequently makes great havoc among
poultry, and will attack lambs, kids, and fawns. It

\--- _- \ \-

**-- '" --- ^ riT|lifirill~~tlM ^ ^ lll ia mi ll **"
. ,.-. : ... ..^ : f. CA T

''^^r" I1

must be pronounced the fiercest and most destructive
beast of prey in this kingdom. Shooting it even is
sometimess dangerous; since, if slightly wounded, it
Will attack the person who has injured it, and is
not easily repelled.
Some wild cats, says Bewick, have been taken in
this kingdom of a most enormous size. We recollect
one having been killed in the county of Cumberland,
which measured from its nose to the end of its tail,
upwards of five feet. This was something extraordi-
nary, since the ordinary size of the wild cat little
exceeds that of the tame kind.
The Angora cat presents a singular variety from
the wild cat just described, having much longer hair,
especially about the neck, where it forms a fine ruff,
giving the animal a lion-like appearance. This
species varies in colour; some being silvery white;
others of a dun colour, mixed with yellow.

(Felis domestica)
NATURALISTS have long been of opinion that our
domestic cat is the same as the wild cat, only im-
proved by its connection with man. Some modern
writers, especially Mr. Bell, seem to doubt this. It
is, however, a question which we must not stop to
discuss. Unlike the wild cat of the British Isles,
which is uniformly of one colour, the domestic cat is
ever varying in shades and colours; white, black,
black and white, tabby, and tortoise-shell, being alike

common. It is, we believe, a fact, that a male tor-
toise-shell cat is of very rare occurrence.
The eyes of the domestic cat, in common with
those of the lion, are peculiarly constructed, giving
the animal a great advantage in seizing its prey in
the evening, or during the night; a season which
most animals of the cat kind employ for procuring
their food.
The pupil of the eye is so constructed, that it most
readily contracts or dilates in proportion to the degree
of light by which it is affected. This renders the
vision of the cat obscure when in a strong light; but
as evening approaches, the pupil dilates and perfect
vision is enjoyed, of which the animal takes advan-
tage by discovering and- surprising its prey. For
this distinctness of vision in twilight, the animal
owes much to the lining of the pigmentum at the
bottom of the eye, not being black, as in man, but
parti-coloured. This adaptation of the sight to the
circumstances and habits of the animal should not be
The cry of the cat, whether indicative of anger or
love, is singularly loud, piercing, and clamorous; and
taking place, more generally by night than by day,
and often in an elevated situation, as on the house-
top, renders their nocturnal serenading, or catter-
i:,Iili!., still more discordant and disagreeable to
the disturbed listener. Cats are very prolific, bring-
ing forth a progeny of five or six, twice or thrice in a
year. The period of her gestation is fifty-five or
fifty-six days. The cat is, generally speaking, a good
mother; carefully guarding her young in any time
of danger; or, if apprehensive of being disturbed,

will take up her kittens in her mouth, and remove
them, one by one, to a more secure retreat. Her
anxiety is exerted to protect her brood from the
male, lest he should devour them, as he is sometimes
inclined to do. Neither is the female herself, con-
trary to the established law of nature, which binds
the parent to its offspring by an almost indissoluble
tie, always exempted from this propensity, instances
being by no means uncommon in which the unna-
tural mother has eaten her own young the moment
after she has produced them.
The habits of cats are in many instances pecl-
liar. They greatly dislike water, being averse even
to wetting their feet: cold, damp, and bad smells,
are alike repugnant to them. On the contrary, they
are fond of certain perfumes: they are attracted,
almost to phrensy, by the smell of valerian, marum,
and cat-mint, rubbing themselves against these
plants when gTowing in a garden, and if not pre-
vented from coming at them, soon infallibly destroy-
ing them. Little can be said of the attachment, of
the cat to persons. There may be a partial recogni-
tion of the hand which feeds them expressed by the
purr of gratitude; yet the next moment may witness
the same hand being scratched by the capricious and
spiteful inmate. The cat is strictly an independent,
acting for itself alone, and setting, in all its move-
ments, subjection completely at defiance. Towards
places, it is exactly the reverse. Its views are cen-
tred to the place where it has been brought up,
and if carried elsewhere, appears lost and bewildered.
Under such circumstances neither attention nor
caresses can reconcile it to its new quarters; and, if


possible, will escape to its old haunts. Finii.lit in-
stances might be adduced of cats having returned to
the place from whence they had been carried, though
at many miles distant, and across rivers, when they
could not possibly have had any previous knowledge
of the road, or direction which would lead them
to it.
Common as cats now are throughout Great
Britain, it was not always so, being formerly scarce
and dear. The story of Whittington and his cat may
not, perhaps, be familiar to all our readers. The
story runs thus: Whittington was foot-boy to a
merchant in London; who being about to make an
adventure by sea, was desirous that every member of
his household should, according to their ability, do
the same. Whittington, on being asked what he
could send, replied, that he had nothing which he
could offer but his cat, but that she was a good
mouser. The merchant and his family smiled at the
boy's simplicity, but the captain of the ship being
present, agreed to take the mouser, and do the best
with her which he could. On the return of the ship
it appeared, that the captain had chanced to land in
a country swarming with rats and mice. Whitting-
ton's favourite did such execution among the ver-
min, that the prince of the country agreed to buy the
cat, and for a very large price. This unexpected
good fortune furnished Whittington with the means of
going into business; and ultimately he became a rich
man. Three times he served the office of lord major
during the reign of Henry V., by whom also, he was
knighted. This may be a legend, or a story greatly
embellished. Certain, however, it is, that Hoel, king

of Wales, who died in the year 948, thought it neces-
sary, by law, to fix the price of different animals,
among which the cat was included. The price of a
kitten, before it could see, was fixed at one penny;
till proof could be given of its having caught a
mouse, two-pence; after which it was rated at four-
pence, which was. a great sum in those days, when
the value of specie was extremely high; it was like-
wise required that the cat should be perfect in its
senses of hearing and seeing; should be a good
mouser; have its claws whole; and if a female, be
a careful nurse; if it failed in any of these good
qualities, the seller was to forfeit to the buyer a third
part of its value. If any one should steal or kill the
cat which guarded the king's granary, he was either
to forfeit a milch ewe, her fleece, and lamb; or as
much wheat as, when poured on the cat suspended
by its tail, its head touching the floor, would form a
heap high enough to cover the tip of the former.
It is remarkable that the cat should be nowhere
mentioned in the Bible; although it is certain that it
Early became domesticated in Egypt, if not in Pales-
tine also. Mummies of cats have been found in
Thebes, and figures of them are sculptured on monu-
ments devoted to the Pharaohs. It would be ex-
Straordinary if the Egyptians, who, in their high and
palmy days, were the very centre of civilization,
il from whom all surrounding nations received their
S knowledge of the arts, and the refinements of social
S life, should not, among other benefits, have conferred
upon the Jews their domestic favourite, and sacred
,'idol-the cat.

VOL. r 33

IN HEBREW, Kelev.-IN ENGLISH, The Keeper.
" But against any of the children of Israel shall not a doij move
his tongue."-ExoDUs, chap. xi., 7.
No language could more simply, or beautifully, ex-
press the security of the Israelites, on their departure
from Egypt, than that employed in the passage of
scripture above quoted-" against Israel shall not
a dog move his tongue." We are not anxious to ex-
plain these words to the very letter; but the spirit
of the passage clearly and strongly intimates how
secure they are, whom God condescends to protect.
Neither can we conceive how an original language,
like the Hebrew, could more significantly designate
the dog, than by appropriating to him the name of
keeper. Whenever, or however, the dog may have
lost his native liberty, and become the servant of
man, we know not; but certain it is, that to no
animal, not even to our fellow-man, can the appel-
lation of keeper be applied, but to the dog only: he
guards alike the person and the property of his )
master, by day and night, and under all circum-
stances, prosperous or adverse.
The dog, unlike animals of the cat kind, has no
attachment to places, but in connexion with his
owner. Where the master is, there the dog claims
a home as a matter of right; and scarcely has he
entered a house, though it may be perhaps for the

first time, than he assumes his office, barking at any
noise he may hear, and showing marks of displeasure
at the approach of any stranger, be he whom he may.
Of all quadrupeds, the dog is the most intelligent,
not merely capable of being taught, but anxious
also to be instructed in anything, or everything,
which may contribute to make him a better friend to
man. Nature has endowed him with a large share
of courage, and an angry and ferocious disposition-
properties which, in a wild state, make him a for-
midable enemy. Yet these, by education, become so
subdued, that he is seen in a prostrate crouching
position at the feet of his master, willing to exert all
his powers, whatever they may be, to his service, and
waiting only the command, by word, look, or motion,
to shew his implicit obedience.
A recent traveller in Africa gives the following
interesting account of his dogs, in a rencontre with a
lion. The day," observes the traveller, was ex-
ceedingly pleasant, and there was not a cloud to be
seen. For a mile or two we travelled along the
banks of the river, which, in this part, abounded in
tall mat-rushes. The dogs seemed much to enjoy
prowling about, and examining every bushy place,
and at last met with some object among the rushes,
which caused them to set up a most vehement and
determined barking. We explored the spot with
caution, as we suspected, from the peculiar tone of
their barking, that there were lions. Having en-
couraged the dogs to drive them out, a task which
they performed with great willingness, we had a full
view of an enormous black-maned lion and lioness.
he latter was seen only for a minute, as she made

her escape up the river, under the concealment of the
rushes; but the lion came steadily forward, and
stood still to look at us. At this moment we felt our
situation not free from danger, as the animal seemed
preparing to spring upon us, and we were standing
on the bank, at a distance of only a few yards from
him, most of us being on foot, and unarmed, without
any possibility of escaping. I stood well upon my
guard, holding my pistols in my hand, with my
finger upon the trigger, and those who had muskets
kept themselves prepared in the same manner. But
at this instant, the dogs boldly flew in between us
and the lion, and, surrounding him, kept him at bay,
by their violent and resolute barking. The courage
of those faithful animals was most admirable; they
advanced up to the side of the huge beast, and stood
making the greatest clamour in his face, without the
least appearance of fear. The lion, conscious of his
strength, remained unmoved at their noisy attempts,
and kept his head turned towards us. At one mo-
ment, the dogs perceiving his eye thus engaged, had
advanced close to his feet, and seemed as if they
would actually seize hold of him; but they paid
dearly for their imprudence, for without discomposing
the majestic and steady attitude in which he stood
fixed, he merely moved his paw, and, at the next
instant, I beheld two lying dead. In doing this he
made so little exertion, that it was scarcely per-
ceptible by what means they had been killed." Ul-
timately the lion, although wounded, quietly retired !
Like his master, the dog is scattered all over the
world. He is to be found amidst the snows of the
polar regions, or traversing the arid ground between

the tropics; and, in both, without experiencing auy
very great difference by the extreme temperature of
either. It is true, that if man by his foresight pro-
vides himself with dress adapted to the climate, that
the God of nature has wisely arranged that the
natural covering of the dog, in common with other
animals, shall, in a high latitude, become warmer,
thicker, and of a different colour; while, in a
warmer climate, the reverse takes place, by the hair
gradually becoming finer, and sleeker, so as to ac-
commodate the dog to his change of locality. At
first, some little inconvenience may be experienced;
but ultimately he becomes used to the change, as-
suming the appearance of a native denizen of the
soil! In his food, likewise, the dog is omnivorous.
Flesh seems best adapted to his nature; but, in the
Absence of that, he can fatten upon vegetable fare-
, hard biscuits, with a little water, or upon what seems
Seven less suited for food-upon greaves.
From the extensive geographical range which dogs
Possess, and from the numerous and adventitious
, changes to which they are subject, it is scarcely to
,be wondered at should the changes which they un-
Sdergo be greater than even those of men, and their
origin more difficult to trace, consequent upon the
endless varieties which are found among them.
Every dog-fancier seems to have it in his power, by
I crossing the breed, to produce whatever description
,' of dog he may please. Still, amidst all these muta-
,' tions and varieties, the identity of the dog ever re-
I' mains the same; no doubt arising as to the family to
' which they belong. The bones of the body may be
Larger or smaller; the bones of the head thinner or

L I ge or ma7

more obtuse, shewing a greater or less degree of
sagacity; yet, the entire skeleton, or number of
bones, and the manner of their articulation, are
precisely the same in all, from the largest and noblest
of the family, the old Irish greyhound, to the veriest
and ugliest little cur, which you may meet in the
streets; the caudal vertebrae, or bones of the tail, only
excepted, which vary. The whole family is further
distinguished by a similar dental formula. All dogs
have forty-two teeth, twenty in the upper jaw, and
twenty-two in the lower; of these, twelve in the
upper jaw, and fourteen in the lower, are molar, or
grinding teeth, giving the dog a great advantage over
cats, in his power of mastication. These, we repeat,
never change either their shape or number in any of
the canine race whatever. It is also remarkable, that
the term of the female's gestation is uniformly alike:
she goes with young sixty-three days; then pro-
ducing her progeny blind, in which state they remain
for ten or twelve days. The bitch is a tender and
careful nurse; yet such is her desire for progeny,
combined with inexplicable stupidity, that she readily
becomes the foster-mother to the young of other
animals; kittens, rabbits, and even rats, becoming the
objects of her maternity.
The dog is mentioned in holy scripture about forty
times, but always dispraisingly. Of the truth of this,
our readers will be convinced by turning, among
many others, to the following passages: 1 Sam. xvii.
43; xxiv. 14; 2 Sam. ix. 8; 2 Kings, viii. 13. But
for this several substantial reasons may be given.
The Jews had been accustomed, in Egypt, to witness
the profane worship of the dog, under the name of

Anubis, or the barker, having the body of a man
with a dog's head. The capital of the Cynopolitan
prefecture was Anubis, or the city of dogs, where
priests celebrated festivals to the dog, with great
pomp. This practice, no doubt, originated in the
dog-star, Sirius, having, in remote antiquity, risen
just as the river Nile began to rise, the star being
regarded as the harbinger of that event, and which
ultimately degenerated into the profane rites with
which he was honoured. The dog was, also, by the
law of Moses, declared to be unclean, and conse-
quently could not become a domestic among the
Jewish people. In the east, even to this day, dogs
have never been properly domesticated, or treated
well. They are found in almost every town, in great
numbers, but prowl about at random, not belong-
ing to any particular person, or attached to any
particular place. They live in the streets and open
places, upon offal, or any garbage which they may
accidentally meet with. Their native savageness,
therefore, continues; and in large towns especially,
although, during the day, they do not offer any
molestation to persons out of doors, yet, after night-
fall, it becomes very hazardous to pass through the
streets alone, which should not be attempted without
being properly armed. In villages and encampments,
Sthe dogs know the inhabitants, and offer them no
injury; but it is hazardous for strangers to approach
Such places, even by day. When the attempt has
Been made, travellers assure us, that the dogs afford
every demonstration of a disposition to tear the in-
truder to pieces. These facts sufficiently account for
the unfavourable character given of dogs in the bible.

(Canis Malossus.)
THIs dog is one of the largest and strongest of his
kind. His aspect being grave and sullen; his bark
loud and terrific, he seems every way formed for
the important trust of a keeper; guarding and se-
curing all property committed to his care. His ex-
amination of the premises he is to protect is careful,
giving due notice, by his loud and frequent barkings,
that he is ready to defend his charge. Three
mastiffs are reckoned a match for a bear, and four
for a lion.
Great Britain was noted, even in the time of the
Roman emperors, for its breed of mastiffs. An
officer was appointed to superintend the breeding of
these dogs, which were afterwards sent to Rome, to
assist in those sanguinary combats of the amphi-
theatre, then so common. By neglect, the mastiff,
in a pure and unmixed state, is now seldom to be
There is a generosity about large dogs which cannot
but be greatly admired. Conscious of their superior
strength, they often overlook injuries inflicted upon
them by a smaller dog. Sometimes, however, they
have given proof that the impertinence of an inferior
must not always go unpunished. A mastiff, belonging
to the late M. Ridley, Esq., of Heaton, near New-
castle, having been frequently molested by a mongrel,
and teased by its continued barking, at last became
so indignant, that he took up the offending cur in
his mouth, by the skin of the back, and with great



07 --

composure dropped it over the quay, into the river,
without doing any further injury to an enemy, in his
estimation, so much his inferior.

(Canis Taurus.)
IN olden times, England was notorious for the
cruel sport of bull-baiting, and for a race of dogs
peculiarly adapted for the practice. The prac-
tice itself was not merely encouraged, but en-
joined by statute law, an act of parliament being
then in force, and not yet repealed, that no bull
should be slaughtered until after he had been baited.
The better feelings of modern times, combined with
a proper interference of the local magistracy, have
suppressed this brutal sport, and, as one of the re-
sults, this particular breed of dogs has not been
encouraged, and the pure bull-dog is now scarcely
ever to be found. We must do him the justice
to say, that of all the dog kind he was certainly
the fiercest, and probably the most courageous
animal in the world. It is, however, remarkable,
that the true English bull-dog was always found
greatly to degenerate on being removed from his
own country, losing his courage, together with his
native activity and strength. The bull-dog is but
low in stature, although very strong and muscular.
The nose is short; the under jaw projecting be-
yond the upper; and his general aspect fierce and
forbidding. His implicit obedience to his owner
voL. G 41

before the attack begins, is no less remarkable, than
his courage in attacking the bull-his fury in seizing
his victim-and his invincible obstinacy in maintain-
ing his hold. In his attacks, he generally aims at the
head or throat. In seizing an infuriated bull, the
dog fastens either upon the lip, the tongue, the eye,
or some part of the face; where he hangs, in spite
of every effort of the bull to disengage himself.
The bull-dog should always be an object of fear to
a stranger; since, making his attack without bark-
ing, or other notice, it becomes dangerous to ap-
proach him alone, without the greatest precaution.
The following fact is mentioned by Bewick, in his
history of quadrupeds; but which could hardly be
credited, if not related by an eye-witness. Some
years ago, at a bull-baiting, in the north of England,
a young man, confident of the courage of his dog,
laid some trifling wager, that he would, at separate
times, cut off all his four feet; and that, after every
amputation, the dog would attack the bull. The
cruel experiment was tried, and, the poor animal con-
tinued to seize the bull as eagerly as though he had
been perfectly whole. If the dog was a savage, what
must the young man have been, to have made an
experiment so frightful and inhuman!

(Canis Graius.)
NOTHING is more difficult than to trace the progeny
of dogs. Buffon pretends that the common grey-



hound is the same as the Irish greyhound, rendered
thinner, and more delicate, by difference of climate
and culture. On this, we pretend not to decide.
Of all dogs, the greyhound is the swiftest, out-
running every animal of the chase. In consequence,
it stands pre-eminently forward for coursing; but
wanting the faculty of cent, and guided only by the
eye, the run cannot be of long duration, since it
either quickly overtakes and kills the object in pur-
suit, or on losing sight of the game, the affrighted
animal escapes altogetl er from its perilous position.
The greyhound was formerly held in such esti-
mation, that by the forest laws of King Canute, no
person under the rank of a gentleman, was per-
mitted to keep one of these dogs.
Our readers may be amused, by the following
quaint, but accurate description of the greyhound:-
Headed lyke a snake,
Neckyed lyke a drake;
Footted lyke a catte,
Taylled lyke a ratte;
Syded lyke a breme,
And chyned lyke a beme."
Many distinguished individuals in modern times
have paid much attention to the breed of grey-
hounds, and have had some of the best dogs ever
seen. The names of Czarina, Jupiter, Claret, Snow-
ball, the Miller, Schoolboy, Major, and others, will
long be familiar to sportsmen, as greyhounds of pure
blood, and of admirable powers in the chase. Grey-
hounds are accounted at their prime when two years
old, and to begin to run cunning at five or six.


(Canis sanguineus.)
"Soon the sagacious brute, his curling tail
Flourish'd in air low bending, plies around
His busy nose, the steaming vapour snuffs
Inquisitive, nor leaves one turf untried.
Till, conscious of the recent stains, his heart
Beats quick; his snuffling nose, his active tail,
Attest his joy: then with deep-op'ning mouth,
That makes the welkin tren ble, he proclaims
Th' audacious felon: foot bi foot he marks
His winding way, while all the listening crowd
Applaud his reas'nings: o'er the watr'y ford,
Dry sandy heaths, and stony barren hills:
O'er beaten paths, with men and beasts distain'd,
Unerring, he pursues, till at the cot
Arriv'd, and seizing by his guilty throat
The caitiff vile, redeems the captive prey:
So exquisitely delicate his sense!"

THus sang the poet Somerville, than which nothing
can be more true. The blood-hound, of all dogs,
appears the most extraordinary. Unlike the grey-
hound, just described, it places no dependence on
its sight, but on its exquisite scent. Blood, scent, and
the smell of persons, attract the special attention of
this unerring hunter. It was formerly employed,
not merely for pursuing game, but persons also.
The true blood-hound stands rather more than
two feet in height, being muscular, compact, and
strong: the forehead is broad, and the face narrow
towards the nose; the nostrils are wide, and well
developed; the ears large, pendulous, and broad at
the base; the aspect, far from savage or forbidding,

wwom.m-mcF-FKR#.- ..R" rwo

is serene and sagacious; the tail is long, with an
upward curve when in pursuit, at which time the
voice is deep and sonorous.
This singular animal may be pronounced the
policeman of his times; engaged, not merely in
tracing steps of "moss-troopers, children of the
mist, and adventurers;" or, in other words, rob-
bers; but in the pursuit likewise of men- even
such men as Bruce, and Wallace. Barbour, an old
Scottish bard, recounts King Bruce's escapes from
such pursuits; and the wily turns whereby he
threw the hound off his scent. The king hesitated
not, on one occasion, to wade a bow-shot length
down a brook, and to climb a tree, which overhung
the water. Of Wallace, it is also related, that after
a short skirmish at Blackerne side, in which he was
worsted, the English followed up the retreat, which
he was forced to make, attended only by sixteen
men, with a border blood-hound. Nothing but the
spilling of blood, it is said, will stop the hound in its
career. Wallace, at this time, had been joined by
Rawdon, a somewhat suspicious character, and who,
during the retreat, for some cause, real or feigned,
refused to proceed any farther; at which Wallace
became so exasperated, that, after repeated remon-
strances, he struck off his head. When the English
came up, they found the hound standing over the
dead body; Wallace having, in the meantime, ef-
fected his escape.
These dogs were trained when young, with infinite
care. A young dog, accompanied by a stanch old
hound, was led to a spot from whence a deer, or
other animal, had been dragged for a mile or two;

the hounds were then laid on and encouraged, and
after following this drag successfully, were reward.
ed with a portion of the venison which they had
scented. The next step, was to take the young dog,
with his seasoned tutor, to a spot whence a man,
whose shoes had been rubbed with the blood of a
deer, had started on a circuit of two or three miles;
during his progress, the man renewed the blood,
from time to time, to keep the scent well alive. The
circuit was gradually enlarged, at each successive
lesson, until the young'hound became, at last, fully
equal to hunt by himself, either for the purpose of tak,
ing the game, or tracking the poacher to his retreat.
Only about a century ago, when deer-stealing was
a common crime, the park-keepers relied upon their
blood-hounds principally for detecting the thief; and
so adroit were these dogs, that when one of them
was fairly laid on, the escape of the criminal was
considered to be all but impossible. Even now
the breed is not extinct; some experiments having
been made with them, within the last few weeks,
and with complete success. The time may return,
when the English blood-hound will once more assist
the justice's warrant, and the policeman's search.
About the end of the last century, a number of
negroes, at Jamaica, having revolted from their mer-
ciless owners, took refuge in the mountains, from
whence, by ordinary warfare, they could not easily
be dislodged. In 1795, the Christian barbarians of
that island, came to the frightful resolution, in their
House of Assembly, to employ blood-hounds, for the
extirpation of the blacks. Dr. Paley's principle,
maintained in his Moral Philosophy, being thought
1-- 4-- 3c;;~-=, -------

sufficient to justify the act, viz., that if the cause and
end of war be justifiable, all the means necessary to
that end are justifiable also. Accordingly, a com-
missioner was sent to the Havanna, who returned to
Montego Bay, on the 14th of December, 1795, with
forty Spanish hunters, and about a hundred Cuban
blood-hounds, nearly resembling the English breed.
Terror was everywhere spread on the arrival of these
new allies j the streets being cleared, the doors shut,
and not a negro venturing to stir out. Even General
Walpole, the governor of the island, narrowly escaped
with his life; for the dogs being brought on parade,
and maddened by the shout of attack, were with
difficulty stopped before they reached the general,
who found it necessary to seek shelter in his carriage,
from which he had just alighted; and unless the
most strenuous exertions had been made by the
hunters, his horses would to a certainty have been
seized by the ferocious dogs. On the 14th of January,
the expedition advance, having the dogs in the rear.
"It is pleasing to observe," says Mr. Bryan Edwards,
"that not a drop of blood was spilt after the dogs
arrived in the island." We hope it was so; although
we greatly doubt the fact. The report of the dogs
having reached the oppressed Maroons, the name by
which the malcontent negroes were known, they sued
for mercy; and two hundred and sixty of them sur-
rendered, on a promise that their lives should be
A still more frightful account of the blood-hound
is recorded in the history of the island of Hayti, or
St. Domingo. At the peace of 1802, France had
stipulated with England, that the republic of Hayti

should be subjugated. Accordingly Napoleon Bo-
naparte, then chief Consul of France, sent a large
force to Hayti for this purpose; but under the spe-
cious pretext of liberty, and fraternity. The Hay-
tians, however, were better judges of Napoleon's
politics, than to be thus gulled, and having already
proclaimed their independence, they determined to
maintain it. A system of warfare ensued, in which
no quarter was given. The cruel aggressions of the
French were responded to by the fearful lex talionis,
or life for life. Amongst other expedients resorted
to by General Leclerc was that of hunting the people
down by blood-hounds. The dogs having been
trained to tear a man of colour to pieces, wherever
he could be found, many a sad work of destruction
was hereby committed. The same horrid system
was continued by Rochambeau, who had succeeded
to the command, after Leclerc's death. But the
native black troops becoming, almost everywhere,
successful, Rochambeau, and his sickly, desolated
army, were at length shut up in the fortified town of
Port-au-Prince. In the mean time, war having re-
commenced between England and France, a fleet was
sent to blockade the ports of Hayti. In this distressed
situation the sufferings of the French army became
so extreme that they were compelled by famine to
slaughter for food the very dogs with which they bad
hunted the negroes ; and on whose flesh the blood-
hounds had literally been fed. Ultimately, the
famished Frenchmen surrendered to the English as
prisoners of war. In 1825, France acknowledged
the independence of the island. The righteous retri-
bution of the Almighty was in this case so apparent,



S i



that it forms an excellent comment upon the words
of the Psalmist, So that a man shall say, Verily he
is a God that judgeth in the earth." Psalm Iviii. 2.

(Canis familiaris Terrarius.)
FOR the name of this useful dog we are indebted to
the French, the word terrier signifying burrow; and
is appropriately given to this class of dogs, for their
willingness to enter any burrow, after what is
technically called, vermin, from the fox to the rat.
He is not very large, but having an acute smell, and
being hardy, keen, and fierce, he thinks well of him-
self, like most other little people; being ever ready
to fight it out, regardless of consequences.
It is acknowledged that there are two kinds of
terriers, one rough, short-legged, long-backed, very
strong, and generally of a black or yellowish colour,
mixed with white; the other, smooth, sleek, beau-
tifully formed, shorter in the body, more sprightly,
but less hardy and courageous; the colour being
either a reddish-brown, or black. The pepper and
mustard breeds, before referred to, are highly valued.
Dogs employed for badger-baiting are crossed with
the bull-dog. Of this crossed breed was the cele-
brated dog Billy, famous for his destruction of rats,
killing sometimes in a room, a hundred of these
animals in six or seven minutes.
Every pack of hounds, it is said, should be accom-
panied by a brace of terriers, and any colour for such
VOL. 1. H 49
-C- ____=-YV--Y i \

is better than red, least they should be mistaken
for foxes.
The following curious account is taken from
Daniel's Rural Sports. After a very severe run
of more than an hour, the fox took to earth at Heney
Dovehouse, near Sudbury. The terriers were lost;
but as the fox went to ground in view of the head-
most hounds, it was resolved to dig for him. Two
terriers were brought for the purpose; and after con-
siderable labour, the hunted fox was got out, and
given to the hounds. While this was doing, one of
the terriers, a bitch, slipt back into the earth, and
again laid; after more digging, a bitch-fox was taken
out. The terrier had killed two cubs in the earth, but
three others were saved from her fury. These, when
taken home, were committed to the care of the bitch
terrier, although she had a whelp of her own nearly
five weeks old, and the cubs could just see, when this
exchange of progeny took place. The bitch, notwith-
standing, well performed the office of step-mother,
suckling the cubs regularly, and rearing them, until
they were able to shift for themselves.

(Canis Venaticus.)
EVERY class of dogs appears to be characterized by
some peculiar excellency; that of the English fox-
hound for its lightness, combined with strength,
courage, speed, and activity. We say the English
fox-hound, because, from the attachment shown to


~'Ic `


the chase in England, it is not much to be wondered
at, should our hunting-dogs excel those of any
country in the world. Whether this superiority de-
pends upon our climate being congenial to their
nature, or from the great attention paid to their
breeding, education, and maintenance, we pretend
not to determine. The varied causes may possibly
combine to produce the result; certain it is, that
when this particular breed of dogs has been sent only
into France, they have quickly degenerated, and lost,
in a great degree, those qualifications for which they
were so much admired. A well-trained pack of fox-
hounds is of considerable value; that of the late Mr.
Noel, having been sold to Sir William Lowther, Bart.
for a thousand guineas.
No better proof of the wonderful spirit of these
dogs in supporting a continuity of exertion can be
given than the following well-attested, but touching
narrative. A large stag was turned out of Whinfield
Park, in the county of Westmoreland,, and pursued
by the hounds till, by fatigue or accident, the whole
pack was thrown out, excepting two stanch and
favourite dogs, which continued the chase the greater
part of the day. The stag returned to the park from
whence he had set out; and as his last effort, leaped
the wall of the park, and expired as soon as he had
accomplished it. One of the hounds pursued to the
wall, but being unable to get over it, laid down, and
almost immediately died; the other was also found
dead at a short distance. The length of the chase
was computed at not being less than a hundred and
twenty miles.


FRw animals will bear comparison with the mag.
nificent dog which we are now to describe. In him
seems to centre the sagacity of a human being, the
strength of a lion, with the meekness and quietness
of a lamb. He may sometimes, like his masters, be
put out of temper, but generally, he is a model of
patient endurance, faithful attachment, and untiring
effort. He derives his name from the country whence
he was brought; and where he has long distinguished
himself as the friend and servant of the settlers on
those unpropitious shores. He is there chiefly em-
ployed in bringing down wood from the interior:
three or four of these dogs, yoked to a sledge, will
draw two or three hundred weight of wood piled
upon it, for several miles, and that with the greatest
ease. They are attended by no driver, or any
person to guide them; but after having delivered
their loading, they return immediately to the
woods for a farther supply; where also they are
accustomed to be fed with dried fish, or other coarse
The gigantic dimensions of the Newfoundland dog
are about as follow: from the nose to the end of the
tail the length is something more than six feet; the
length of the tail nearly two feet; girth behind
the shoulders, more than three feet; round the head
over the ears, two feet. He is web-footed, and
therefore well adapted for swimming: he is also a
dexterous diver, bringing anything up from the
bottom of the water. Contrary to most dogs, he
(<'_ ____ ______

THE NEW.F.OUN D.AND DOG.- ',- ." -. ,.:.; .

is a great amateur of fish, and which he readily
eats raw.
These dogs, from their extraordinary sagacity,
strength, and attachment to their masters, render
themselves highly valuable under peculiar circum-
stances. During a severe storm, in the winter of
1789, a ship belonging to Newcastle was lost near
Yarmouth, and a Newfoundland dog alone escaped
to shore, bringing in his mouth the captain's pocket-
book. He landed amidst a number of people, several
of whom endeavoured, but in vain, to take the pocket-
book from him. The sagacious animal, as if sensible
of the importance of the charge, which in all proba-
bility was delivered to him by his perishing master,
at length leaped fawmngly against the breast of
a man, who had attracted his notice among the crowd,
and delivered the book to him. The dog immediately
returned to the place where he had landed, and
watched with great attention for everything which
came from the wrecked vessel, seizing them, and
endeavouring to bring them to land.
Many other well-accredited stories might be added
of the Newfoundland dog, but oar limits forbid en-

THE Lurcher may almost be regarded as the king of
marauders, being one, as his name signifies, who
watches to steal. In size he is less than the grey-
hound, but stronger; and his body is covered with a


rough coat of hair, most commonly of a pale yellow
colour. He has an advantage over the greyhound,
in possessing a fine scent, which makes him an
admirable assistant to a poacher. Indeed, so useful
was this dog, that an old practitioner in the trade of
poaching has been heard to boast, that with the aid
of a couple of these dogs he could procure, in the
course of a single night, as many rabbits as he could
carry. The lurcher's habits are dark and cunning.
When taken to a rabbit-warren, he steals out with the
utmost precaution, watching and scenting the rabbits
while they are feeding, and darts upon them without
barking or making the least noise. The marauder is
beside so well trained, that he never fails bringing
the booty so procured to his master, who waits in some
convenient place to receive it. Their skill in these
illicit practices became so notorious, that they are
now proscribed, and the breed has become almost

VISITORS to the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park,
may have noticed the dog of which we are now
to give a description. Coming from North America,
he is but little known in this country, or his peculiar
habits inquired into. He bears considerable resem-
blance to the fox of his native regions, being of
slender make, the muzzle long, with upright pointed
ears. The hair is long and fine, and like most animals
of a cold climate, his winter coat is much thicker

---mmn --m-wa a...,

( ~~~

and whiter than that of summer. His manners
though gentle, are yet somewhat wild; there appear-
ing some difficulty in making this dog thoroughly
domesticated. On one occasion, when a little more
liberty was allowed him at the gardens than usual,
he ran away; and his pursuers experienced consider-
able difficulty in retaking him, and returning him
safely to the garden, being in fact almost as wild as
a fox.

THE Esquimaux are a race of people inhabiting the
most northerly parts of the American continent; and
in a singularly desolate and dreary country, owe the
few comforts which they possess mainly to the assis-
tance of a hardy, wild, and fierce race of dogs, which
are called by their own name. How the inhabitants
of a country covered with snow throughout the whole
year, can subsist at all, or their dogs either, is almost
inexplicable. Yet such is the fact. Captain Parry,
in his second voyage for the discovery of a north-
west passage, supplies us with many interesting de-
tails relative both to the people and the dogs. These
animals are described as being subjected to a con-
stant dependence upon their task-masters, whom
they assist in the chase, in carrying heavy burdens,
or dragging heavy sledges over the trackless snows
of their dreary plains; and, for these services, they
receive a very scanty supply of the coarsest food,
together with an abundance of ill-usage. A number

of them together will perform journeys of sixty
miles in a day, dragging five or six persons, at the
rate of seven or eight miles an hour. The Esquimaux
dog often grumbles, but never rebels; his endurance
never tires, and his fidelity is such, that no blows or
starvation can shake it. To the women the dogs are
more I:ji 'i .'1:;:, obedient, from the kindness with
which they treat them, nursing them when sick or
disabled. This attention gains for the women their
affections; and by whom they can at any time be
caught, and yoked to the sledges. The sufferings of
the severest hunger produce in them no change,
although they are ever ready to turn out of their
way, should they chance to espy any filthy garbage
during their laborious journeys.
Though, on being harnessed, remarks Captain
Parry, they appear huddled together, there is, in
fact, considerable attention paid to their arrange-
ment, particularly in the selection of a dog of pecu-
liar spirit and sagacity, who is allowed, by a longer
trace, to precede the rest as leader, and to whom, in
turning to the right or left, the driver usually ad-
dresses himself. This choice is without regard to
age or sex, the dogs taking precedence according to
their abilities, the least effective being the wheeler.
The leader is .11, about twenty feet from the
fore part of the sledge, and the hindmost about
half that distance; so that when ten or twelve are
running together, several are nearly abreast of each
other. The driver sits quite low in the front of the
sledge, with his feet overhanging the snow on one
side, and having in his hand a whip with a wooden
handle, about eighteen inches long, with a flexible lash
________ ________

of about as many feet in length. The driver, by prac-
tice, acquires considerable tact in using this instru-
ment, either to assist in guiding the dogs, or inflict-
ing on either of them a very severe blow at pleasure.
With a good leader, even in the darkest night, and
in the heaviest snow-drift, there is little or no danger
of their losing the road, the leader keeping his nose
near the ground, and directing the rest with wonder-
ful sagacity.
Without the assistance of these dogs, the wants of
the inhabitants of these inhospitable climes could
hardly be supplied. Such is their exquisite scent,
and undaunted courage in the chase, that scenting a
rein-deer, even at the distance of a quarter of a mile,
they will gallop off furiously in the direction of the
scent; and the animal is soon within reach of the
unerring arrow of the hunter. They will discover a
seal-hole entirely by the scent, and at a very great
distance. Their desire to attack the ferocious bear
is said to be so great, that the word nenhook, or bear,
is often used to encourage them when running in a
sledge; two or three dogs, led forward by a man,
will fasten upon the largest bear without hesitation.
Although the sufferings of these poor animals during
the winter, from sheer hunger, is truly pitiable; yet
such is their sagacity, Captain Parry assures us, that
during the winter they will not drink water unless it
be oily, knowing that their cravings would but be
increased by such an indulgence : they lick the clean
snow as a substitute, which produces a less contrac-
tion of the stomach than water. The Esquimaux dog
never barks, but howls like the wolf. Well or ill-fed
he is always very quarrelsome.
VOL. 1. I 57

THE last dog which we propose noticing, is that of
Great St. Bernard, a convent situated on the top of a
mountain known by that name, near one of the most
dangerous passes of the Alps, between Switzerland
and Savoy. In these regions, the traveller is often
overtaken by a sudden storm, which renders the
roads impassable by drifts of snow and avalanches;
huge loosened masses of snow or ice being swept
into the valleys, carrying trees, and crags of rocks
before them. The monks of this convent then open
their hospitable doors for the reception of the weary
or benighted traveller. They devote themselves to
the dangerous task of searching for those unfor-
tunate persons who may have been overtaken by the
pitiless storm In these truly christian offices, they
are assisted by a breed of noble dogs, brought up in
the establishment, and trained to exert their extra-
ordinary sagacity and strength for the rescue of the
endangered traveller, who, benumbed with cold, falls
into a deep sleep, which, if not speedily relieved, in-
evitably proves the sleep of death. It is then that the
keen scent, and the exquisite docilityof these admirable
dogs, are called into action. Though the perishing
man lie ten, or even twenty, feet beneath the snow,
the delicacy of smell with which they can trace him
offers a chance of escape. Scratching away the snow
with their feet, and setting up a continual hoarse
bark, the monks and labourers of the convent are
hereby aroused to their assistance. To provide for
the chance that the dogs, without farther help, may

--s5 -.- /'-.Y--@is, .^eS-- ,-c __f ,.""--^ .. "
..4fI~II ...... _.



succeed in discovering an unfortunate traveller, one
dog has a small bottle of spirits swung about his
neck, and another a cloak. Even where a rescue is
unsuccessful, the dogs will bring home any corpse
which they may find, and which is often preserved
for a considerable time at the convent, that it may
be recognized by the bereaved family and friends.
One of these noble creatures, before the year 1816,
was seen by many a visitor to the convent, bearing a
medal on his breast, commemorating the fact that he
had saved the lives of twenty-two persons. In that
year, however, like many other devoted missionaries,
this extraordinary dog fell a martyr to his work, in
attempting to convey a poor courier to his anxiously
expectant family. The monks remonstrated, for
some time, against the expedition, on account of the
state of the weather; but at length furnishing the
courier with two guides; each of whom was accom-
panied by a dog, of which one was the remarkable ani-
mal before-mentioned, the party set out. The family
of the unfortunate man had also left their home in
search of him. In an instant, two avalanches over-
whelmed both parties, who all perished.
Our engraving is a faithful portrait of one of these
dogs, with a child on his back. A woman, travelling
with her young son, had been destroyed by an
avalanche; when the child being found unhurt by
one of the St. Bernard dogs, the sagacious animal
induced the poor boy to mount upon his back,
and thus carried him in safety to the gate of the


IN HEB. Zealv.-(Canis Lupus.)-IN ENG. The Afrighter.
Her princes in the midst thereof are like WOLVES ravening the
prey, to shed blood, and to destroy souls, to get dishonest
gain."-EzEK. chap. xxii., 27.
WOLVEs form a very large family, being distributed
nearly over the whole world; and though found of
various colours, as brown, dusky, and black, yet are
essentially the same. The common European wolf
is of a fulvous grey, and which, though not now
to be found in Great Britain in a wild state, may be
seen in almost every collection of wild animals in the
kingdom; and is, therefore, familiar to our readers.
Formerly, the wolf, far from being uncommon, was
to be found, in considerable numbers, in the wild
tracts and deep forests of ancient Britain. In the
reign of King Athelstane (A. D. 925), it was found
necessary to build a retreat at Flixton, in Yorkshire,
to save travellers from being devoured by these
marauders. Edgar, his successor, applied himself
to their extirpation, by commuting the punish-
ment due to convicted felons on the delivery of a
certain number of wolves' tongues. The Welsh,
likewise, had their taxes remitted for an annual
tribute of three hundred wolves. But their extir-
pation not being completed, Edward the First
issued a mandamus, to bailiffs and others, to render
assistance to his faithful and beloved Peter Corbet,
whom the king had enjoined to take and destroy
wolves. In Ireland, wolves were to be found as late
as the year 1710.




The scent of the wolf is equal to that of any
hound; this, combined with his native ferocity and
courage, make him a good hunter; the size and
speed of the elk or the stag, being no protection
against the speed and cunning of the wolf. He is
naturally a solitary animal, loving a stand-up fight,
single-handed; but in case of need, he will unite
with his compeers; when, having seized and devoured
their prey, they instantly disperse. In inhabited
countries, the wolf is too prudent to show himself
during the day, which he passes in sleep; but, on
the approach of night, the sheep-cotes and farm-
yards are liable to his sanguinary visitation. Such
is his cunning and agility, that though the faithful
dogs may give early notice of his approach, the
daring thief will carry away his prey, almost before
the eyes of the robbed farmer. If very hard pressed
by hunger, and all meaner victims fail, he does not
hesitate to prowl into a village, carry off the defence-
less children, or even fall upon the unarmed cottager
The wolf is several times mentioned in the sacred
writings, and everywhere as opposed specially against
sheep and goats, intimating that his cruelty was
equal to his courage, since his attacks were always
directed against the innocent and unprotected.

THE animal now to be mentioned is but a variety of
the common wolf: it has beon ranked with the dogs;


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