BIBLIOGRAPHY ON WOMEN IN CUBA Mary Garcia Castro prepared to Dr. Helen Safa (special emphasis is given to women and work)
First draft limited circulation
Gainesville University of Florida
Center for Latin American Studies
1984 Update on Women
CUBATIMES. January/February 1984
Alvarez, Mercedes, Gonzalez, Fernando, Rodriguez, Oscar
1978 La Participacion de la Mujer en La Fueza de Trabajo en Cuba,
La Habana. Centro de Estudios Demograficos
Alvarez Estevez, Rolando
1976 La Reeducacion de la Mujer Cubana en la Colonia.
La Habana. Ciencias Sociales.
1979 Political Participation and Social Equality in Cuba: The Role
of the Federation of Cuban Women
SECOLAS Annals X March. Pags 66-80
n.b.r. TO BE IDENTIFIED (SEE XEROX IN THE FOLDER)
Women's Development through Revolutionary Mobilization
The author focuses on the women's movement in Cuba, with special emphasis on the FMC roles. It is defended that "up to this point, the women's movement under the revolution represents a mixed record of achievements and shortcomings, characterizing a highly commendable but not quite fully satisfactory attempt by the regime to solve the "woman problem" in Cuban society"-p 361
The following topics are developed: working conditions before the Revolution; Contradictory labor policies for women; Women's political participation; the FMC; and the Family Code
1976 Cuba: The Women's Revolution within a Revolution.
In Integrating the Neglected Majority--Government Responses
to Demand for New Sex-Roles. Eds. Patricia A. Kyle.
Brunswick, Ohio: King's Court Communication
1979 Women's Development through Revolutionary Mobilization: A
study of the Federation of Cuban Women.
Int. J. of Women's Studies. Canada. 2 (1); 27-50
Azicri, Max and Gay Jr., Thomas (ed.) n.r.b. A Third World Perspective of the Liberation of Women.
Scholarly Commentaries appraising two academic
The Institute of Latin American Studies of NorthWestern
Mercy Host College
Bengelsdorf, Carollee and Hageman, Alice
1974 Emerging from Underdevelopment: Women and Work in Cuba
Cuba Review, 4,2; 4-3-12
1978 Race & Class. Spring, vol XIX, no 4.
Balari, Eugenio R. et al 1980 La Mujer Cubana: El Camino hacia su Emancipacion La Habana. Pamphlet.
Benjamin, Medea and Macdonald, Mandy
1982 Women and the Sexual Revolution
Cubatimes, Winter, Vol. 2, no 4
1982 Piensas ya en el Amor?
La Habana. FMC.
This book is followed in courses on sexuality, and chapters of it appear periodically in the magazine Mujeres and in the newspaper Juventud Rebelde.
1978 La Mujer en 1968
La Habana. Gente Nueva Ed.
Cabrera, Heidy Gonzalez
1986 Momentos en la Vida de Esther.
In Mujeres. FMC. La Habana. Dicember. P 54-55
Article on Esther Grave de Peralta, a delegate of the
Circunscription of San Agustin (no 56). She is 72 years old and was inthe FAR (the army). She was Secretary of the "Comissiones Permanentes de Trabajo" of the Municpal Assembly, and member of the "Comission Permanente de Salud" and "Servicios Comunales. Before the Revolution Esther worked in the garment industry. A testimony on this work:
"Cuando oven era obrera de un taller de confecciones. Era casada
y con 2 hijos, me rebele contra el maltrato que soportaban las
operarias del gremio, y decidi trabajar por cuenta propia.
Estableci un pequeno taller en la casa, donde laboraban cinco
mujeres" P 54
Calderon, Mirta Rodriguez
1986 Digame Usted (VI) Ellas y Ellos dicen que...
Gramma. June 26
The journalist Calderon emphasizes in her daily columm in the Cuban newspaper Gramma, women's issue. She calls her columm a colective tribune", and she focuses chiefly on testimonies of readers, and on interviewers with women on working conditions and on men-women relations.
Specifically this number is based on testimonies related to reactions of readers to Calderon's previous articles on women's problems (article on 'por que llora Maria?')
From one woman reader:
UEl machismo no se combate por decreto, es una labor cotidiana y constante en la que las mujeres desempenamos un papel fundamental."
1986 Digame Usted (II) Por que nie Eda Iris Castillo
Calderon talks on Iris Castillo Ramirez, a 56 years old worker from the factory of sweets El Caney, in Santiago de Cuba. Iris has 8 medals --"heronia del trabajo" is the most important-- Iris declares she is happy with the domestic work she has to do after her gainful work. On his husband, she declares:
"hace cosas que es la mujer quien las debe hacer...Es un hombre completou
She is a union leader.
After the presentation of the interview, Mirta Calderon
question the readers on issues related to the interview. For instance, she questions: "there are indeed activities in the house that just women should be doing?"
I recommend a careful reading of Mirta Calderon columm. She
told me that readers react and men and women write continously to her on her articles. The mass-media is an important way to stimulate changes on sexist values and practices in Cuban society.
1986 Digame Usted... (I) Por que llora Maria
Gramma May 12
This article provocated a broad polemic among Gramma's readers, and the author received many letters on it. It is about the problems of Maria Ramirez: her separation when her oldest child was 4 years old--the husband was a womanizer, he was always drunken. She had to support the children. Calderon asks the readers on discriminations against female heads of household, and on the disrepct to the family code-e.g., the fact that fathers do not assume economic responsibility with their children, and the State does not punish them.
1986 Digame Usted (III) Por que se angustia Maria Teresa?
Gramma. May 25
Maria Teresa is a quimical engineer in her 40s. She talks about discrimination against women in the working place. She is a female head of household, and she had to support her children with any help from the ex husband.
1986 Digame Usted (IV) Por que, a ver, por que...?
Gramma. June 11
The article is on textile industry workers of a 'taller ('23 de Agosto') were 135 women and 17 men work. Men were connonly in manager and supervisory _positions, despite the fact that women have more experience than men in the factory. When the manager stepped down and was replaced, there were 11 women workers who presented their name to the position, but a man got it. This fact is criticized by Calderon.
1986 Digame Usted (V) Debate en el Batey
Gramma. June 18
Mirta Calderon focuses on jobs for women, based on collective interviews with 25 members of the FMC. The case of female heads of household is highlighted; the problems with maternity leave, and with preferences to certain workers ('favoritismos') are discussed.
1986 Digame Usted (VII) Que Padre el padre de los Hijos de Maria
Gramma. November 17
The father of the three children of Maria (Gramma May 12) is interviewed.
1986 Digame Usted (VIII) Se puede o no se puede?
Gramma. November 19
The article is on children without fathers, who are supported by the mother; on the legal aspects and how different organizations, e.g., the F.M.C., deals with the subject.
1986 Digame Usted (IX) Un mundo nuevo con ideas nuevas
Gramma. Dicember 12
On women's promotion in the Moa county. The article discuss the participation of women enginners in coper and niquel factories. More thn 30 per cent of the labor force in the mining industry is female in the county. Women managers in the production sphere and with leadership positions in the political sector are interviewed.
Calvet, Nancy Robinson
1978 The Role of Women in Cuba's History
Granma Weekly Review. January. p 12
1970 Cuban Women
Leviathan, vol. 2, no 1. May
1980 Revolution and Conciencia: Women in Cuba.
In Lovett, Clara and Barkin, Carol (eds.). Women, War
New York: Holmes, Meier, Ind.
References to women in labor force in pre revolutionary Cuba and changes.
1976 Una Vez Mas Cumpliremos
Mujeres. 16. Pag 12-13
Castellon, Raul Hernandez
1986 Working Women, Fertility and Demographic Behaviour. Some
Paper presented at the 7th International Demographic Seminar
1975 "Discurso del Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro en el acto de
clausura "Memoria: II Congreso Nacional de la Federacion de
La Habana: Editorial Orbe
1971 The Fundamental Role in the Liberation of Women Must be Played
by the Women themselves through their Incorporation into the
Process, into the Struggle.
Press Conference in Santiago, Chile. Reproduced by Cuba News.
1974 The Revolution has in Cuba Women, today, an Impressive
Speech at the closing Session of the II Congress of the
Federation of Cuban Women.
La Habana. Ed. Ciencias Sociales
1970 The New Role for Women in Cuban Society.
May Day Speech in 1966.
In Women and the Cuban Revolution, A Merit Pamphlet.
New York. Pathfinder Press.
1966 The Revolution within the Revolution
1974 The Struggle for Women's Equality.
Speech on November 1974, at the closing of the FMC Second
Gramma. Weekly Review. December.
1980 Into the Third Decade
Speech on March, at the closing of the FMC Third Congress
Gramma. Weekly Review. March.
Centro de Estudios Demograficos-Universidad de la Habana
1986 Cuba: La Participacion Femenina en la Produccion Social.
Conferencia sobre la Mujer. Poblacion y Desarrollo en America
Latina. Montevideo. November
(SEE XEROX IN THE FOLDER)
Cole, Johnetta B. S 1980 Women in Cuba: The Revolution within the Revolution
Lindsay, Beverly, ed.
Comparative Perspectives of Third World Women: The Impact of Race, Sex and Class. New York; Praeger. Pags. 162-178
In Cole, Johnetta. Anthropology of the Eighties.
New York. The Free Press.
The author compares conditions for women in prerevolutionary Cuba with conditions after 1959 up to 1979. Informations on labor force
Cuba, Ministerio de Justicia
1975 Ley de Maternidad de la Trabajadora
La Habana. Ed. Orbe.
1977 La Mujer en la Cuba Socialista
La Habana. Ed. Orbe.
1979 La Mujer Cubana. 1975-1979
La Habana. n.b.r.
Document prepared to the U.N. World Plan of Accion
Croll, Elisabeth J.
1981 Women in Rural Production and Reproduction in the Soviet
Union, China, Cuba and Tanzania: Socialist Development
Signs. Winter, vol. 7, no 2
1981 Id. part b
Cub Mvi ~Jomen in transition
Vol. IV, no 2
1970 Women in Cuba. Critical Feminist Stand pointing out
Shortcomings of Women's Liberation in Cuba
In New York. Liberated Guardian. June 3.
Dominguez, Jorge I.
1978 Cuba: Order and Revolution
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
See pages 494A 4. The author presents a reviedw of survey results from the sixties on questions affecting women in the revolution. But the equality campaign is from the seventies. An interesting source for comparative studies.
1977 Ideology, Theory and Findings in the Study of Women
In Azicri, Max and Thomas E. Gay Jr. "Scholarly Commentaries
Appraising Two Academic Conferences.
Latin American Monograph Series, 4. October. Pags 16-18
Espin de Castro, Vilma
1981 Entrevista a Vilma Espin en el Dia Internacional de la Mujer
Gramma. La Habana 56.
1980 La Mujer y su Papel en la Sociedad
1980 Informe Central en el III Congreso de la FMC
La Habana. FMC
1961 Speech printed in Cuba Socialista, in Stone, Elizabeth.
1975 Speech in the FMC Second Congress, in Stone, Elizabeth.
1983 Speech in the Commemoration of the XXX Anniversary of the
"Assalto de Moncada"
n.d. IV Congreso. Proyecto de Tesis. La Mujer Cubana. 25 anos de Revolucion.
n.d. IV Congreso. Informe Central
1985 Statistics on Cuban Women.
La Habana. Editorial Letras Cubanas.
1975 III Congreso Nacional de la FMC. Memoria
La Habana. Editorial La Orbe
1982 Boletin FMC. Edicion Especial
La Habana. Ed. Frederico Engels
1981 III Pleno del Comite Nacional de la FMC
Mujeres. May. No. 3
1970 Honor, Shame and Women's Liberation in Cuba. Views of Working
Class Emigre Men in
Pescatello, Ann, Female and Male in Latin America.
Pittsburgh. University of Pittsburgh Press.
Garcia Alonso, Maritza
1975 Pressupuesto del tiempo de la Mujer Cubana: Un Estudio
April. Demanda 3 (1078) 44
For average time spent on domestic responsibilities
1983 La Mujer Fuerza Invencible en los Comites de Defensa de la
Juventud Rebelde. March 8.
1970 Speculations on Women's Liberation in Cuba
In Women--A Journal of Liberation, 1,4 Pag 15
1974 Women's in Castro's Cuba
In Women and Revolution (Journal of the Women's Commission
Spartacist League 6. P. 17
1986 Women and Politics in Cuba.Pags. 271-292
In Women a World Report
A New Internationalist Book. New York. Oxford U. Press
Jancar, Barbara Wolfe
1978 Women under Communism.
Baltinore. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
1970 The sucessful Battle Against Discrimination in Women and
the Cuban Revolution.
New York. Pathfinder Press
1977 Cuba's attack on Women's Second Shift
Latin American Perspectives 4 (1-2). Pags 106-119
The articles deals with women in the labor force and the double journey
1983 Por que hay tantos divorcios
Muchacha, year 3, no 6. August-November
Larguia, Isabel and Dumoulin, John
1983 La mujer en el desarollo; Estrategia y Experiencias de la
Paper presented at the XV Congreso Latino Americano de
"Simon Bolivar", Managua, Nicaragua, October
1975 The Economic Basis of the Status of Women
In Women Cross Culturally-Changes and Challenge.
Ed. Ruby Rohrlich Leavitt.
The Hague Mouton Publications
n.d. Aspectos de la condicion Laboral de la Mujer
La Habana. Casa de las Americas
1982 La Igualdad de la Mujer y la Revolucion en Cuba.
Ponencia presentada en el X Congreso Mundial de Sociologia.
Leghorn, Lisa and Parker, Katherine
1981 Cuba in Leghorn, Lisa and Parker, Catherine, Woman's Worth:
Sexual Economics and the World of Women.
Boston. Routledge & Kegan, Paul
1983 De la Historia de la Federacion de Mujeres Cubanas: Con el
mismo entusiasmo de ayer.
Mujeres. March 31.
1974 Marriage, Class and Color in Nineteenth Century Cuba.
A Study of Racial Attitudes and Sexual Values in a
London: Cambridge University Press.
Ministerio de Justicia
1974 Working Woman maternity Law
Guantanamo. Ed. Combinado Poligrafico de Guantanamo
1975 Codigo de la Familia
La Habana. Ed. Orbe
Morejon, Alfonso Farnos, Quinones, Fernando Gonzalez, and Castellon,
S1982 Las Mujeres Trabajadoras y Los Cambios Demograficos en Cuba
La Habana. CEDEM. Centro de Estudios Demograficos. Mayo,
Morejon, Alfonso Farnos
1979 Algunos Resultados Obtenidos en los Pronosticos de Poblacion
La Habana. Instituto de Economia. Universidad de la Habana.
1985 Y tu que opinas?
FMC, La Habana. June. Pag 32
On the IV Congress of the FMC, "La lucha por la igualdad plena de la mujer". Interviews with textile workers from the factory Mayabeque Zulema on the topic. (SEE XEROX IN THE FOLDER)
1985 Viaje al Cayo La Rosa FMC, La Habana. June. Pags 46-47
On the ARIGUANABO TEXTILE FACTORY. History and interviews (SEE XEROX IN THE FOLDER)
1986 Las Mujeres dicen Si alas Tareas del Poder Popular
FMC, La Habana. October. Pags 4-5
1986 Las Carpinteras de Palmira
FMC, La Habana, October. Pags 58-59
1984 En las Vegas Vueltabajeras. La Mujer Tabacalera
FMC, La Habana, September. Pags 16-17
1986 Zafra Heroica. La Mujer en la Cana de Azucar
FMC, La Habana, April. Pags 14-15
1986 A Ritmo de Victorias. La Mujer en Una Fabrica de Cemento
FMC, La Habana, April. Pag. 57
1985 Asi Somos. (Statistics)
FMC. La Habana, March (no page numbers). (SEE COPY IN THE FOLDER)
1985 Donde Comienza la Calidad
FMC, La Habana, November
About the laws 2331 and 102. Interview with Claudio Arguelles of the "Empresa de Modisteria del Ministerio de la Industria Ligera."
1985 En Juragua, Constructoras de la Electronuclear.
FMC, La Habana. August
1985 Lo que merecen
FMC, La Habana. January
On women in the Tabacco industry. Interview with women on the double
and other problems of gainful women workers
1985 Imponerse al "no puedo".
FMC, La Habana. January. p 12-13
Interview with women workers on problems they face, chiefly about the
difficulties to participate in collective organizations and be responsible to housework and be gainful workers. About problems with transport, with the double journey, etc...( See extracts of these interviews in the Annex).
1986 Desde sus casas y con calidad.
FMC, La Habana. September. Pags 62-63
About a garment homebased shop ('taller de confeccion') with 107 employees in Santa Isabel de las Lajas, called 'Martires Lajeres'. It is owned by the "Industrias Locales del Poder Popular. The production is based in the work of 340 sewers, who work in their homes.
The head of the taller is intrviewed. There are plans to increase to 1000 the number of homebased workers since it is "una fuente segura de empleo para la mujer. Y en su propio domicilio...Es bueno senalar que Lajas es una region eminentemente agricola, lo cual brinda muy pocas posibilidades de incorporacion femenina en otras esferas. Por tanto, las industrias locales deveen solucion laboral para ellas."
1985 Dar Siempre lo Mejor
FMC, La Habana. June. Pags 19-20
Interview with Nitza Fernandez Leon (Industrias Ligeras). She works int he Empresa Nacional Textil "Rubens Martinez Villena", Alquitex, in Alquizar. Provincia de La Habana. She is technic of the Techonology Laboratory, and created the color drapers.
Mulhare, Mirta de la Torre
1969 Sexual Ideology in Pre-Castro Cuba: A Cultural Analysis
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.
1969 Socialism and Feminism. Women and te Cuban Revolution.
Feminist Review, no. 2
1969 Id. Second Part. Feminist Review no 3
1983 The Woman Question in Cuba: An Analysis of Material
Constraints on its Solution Signs. Vol. 9,no 2. Winter
1987 Cuban Women move Out from Under Sexism's Shadow
In Guardian. February 11. Pags 10-11
(SEE XEROX IN THE FOLDER)
1974 The Fall of Burgeoisie, Cuba, 1959-1961
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New Mexico, 1974
For data on prerevolutionary women.
Padula, Alfred and Smith, Louis 7)
forthcoming Women and Power in Socialist Cuba Signs
Padula, Alfred and Smith, Lc6 s
1985 Women in Socialist Cuba, 1959-84
In Halebsky, Sandor and Kirk, John M.. Twenty-Five Years of
The authors point out that the traditional structure of the
family was shatered by the Revolution and that Cuban women are called upon "to excel at work, to volunteer, to study, to participate in sports and politics, and to raise families--to be super women".
There are references and data on the precarious situation of Cuban women workers before 1959, and to the programs and laws that benefitted women after the Revolution.
It is noticed that female employment changed very little during the first revolutionary years. It grew from 14.1 V in 1958 to 15.6 X in 1968. The economic crisis of the 1960 and the flight of maids' employers to Miami are some os the causes. The great increase of female employment was between l68?i969de to the nationalization of small enterprises. In 1969 about 100 000 women joined the labor market. Divorce rates increased from 8.57% to 30.2 % in 1974. And by te late 1980, "the new couple had only 1.8 children (p. 84)
It is claimed that the sexual division of labor persisted because women were absent from the construction industry
According to the authors: "Castro wanted women to work but he
wanted them to perfom jobs that cannot be accomplisehd with machinery,
jobs which are not hard physical labor and not job unsuitable for women". It is also noted that the child__cr centers are insufi-ce no4--in 1980 there were only 832 day care centers for 90 000 children, or for about 8 % of the children six years or under. The authors stress however tat these problems are recognized by the FMC and the Communist Party. These institutions address the question of the double journey as a basic issue. But, while it is given credit to the FMC for the Family code of 1975, and for pressing or more jobs for women, this organizaion is criticized for helding "infrequent national coferences (1962, 1974 and 1980).
The authors point out that in 1984, women comprised 36 % of the work force, and that in many factories a quota of jobs is-reserved to women The authors mentio tha tYw- ftE ne Celia Sanchez textile factory, for example,_ L785 of the 4 089.jobs or 44 have gone to women. By 1980, 22 % of he members of the national assembly were women". But it is also stressed the low prti-c4iati-on of womenin the decision making sphere. According oo the authors: "In the council of State th~eaFr&27 men and 2 women. Of Cuba's 32 minstrs in 1983, only I was a woman. cuba a perhaps 100 ambassadors. About one-half dozen are women" (p. 89).
The above remarks are commonly mentioned in other publications on the topic. The authors also observe that Fidel Castro is called "Cuba's leading feminist" but there are no signs "he would like to share his owers with a woman". The authors do no support this remark with empirical evidences and since they also recognize that women's opportunities depend of a more stable domestic economy, and that men today in Cuba have less power on wives and daughters than before the Revolution, their point is not clearly understood, chiefly if historical explanations and sociologial comprehension more than value judgements are expected. Anyhow the article is recommended chiefly for the updated references and data.
1980 La Mujer Cubana en la Direccion Mas Alta de Nuestro Partido
Gramma. December. 311
Partido Comunista de Cuba
1976 "Sobre el Pleno Ejercicio de la Igualdad de la Mujer"
"Tesis y Resoluciones: Primer Congreso del Partido
Comunista de Cuba". La Habana. Departamento de
1980 Main Report of the Second Congress of the Communist Party.
La Habana. PCC
Perez, Louis A, Jr.
1975 Women in the Revoltuionary War 1953-1958.
Science and Society 39 (1): 104-108
It compiles a collection of sources available in the U.S. dealing with the role of women in the Cuban revolucionary movement. It mainly covers materials printed during 1959-1973 as available in the Center for Cuban studies, the Library of Congress, the Hower Institute and
the UF Library
1977 The Emancipation of Cuban Women
Paper presented at the Institute of cuban Studies Conference
on Women and Change: Comparative Perspectives with Emphasis
on the Cuban Case. Boston, Mass. May
1977 Una Mujer en la Conquista de Cuba: Dona Guiomar de Guzman
Santiago (Cuba) (26-27). Pags 35-58
Dona Guiomar de Guzman was the wife of the accountant Pedro de Paw, and subsequently of the late governor Juanes de Avilla.
Purcell, Susan Kaufman
1973 Modernizing Women for a Modern Society: The Cuban Case.
In Ann Pescatello (ed.) Female and Male in Latin America.
Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Pages 257-271.
1971 Las Mujeres y la Revolucion en Cuba.
Casa de las Americas. 11 (65-66). Pags 56-72
The articles focus on education in the prerevolutionary years.
1981 Women in Cuba: Twenty Years Later
New York: Smyrna Press
1974 Cuban Women Now: Interviews with cuban Women
Toronto: The Women Press.
1975 Las Mujeres Cubanas en 1974
Casa de las Americas. La Habana,15 (88). Pags 63-72
1975 We need a Government of Men and Women. Notes on the Second National
Congress of te FMC
Latin American Perspectives, issue 7, vol. II, no 4.
Rich, Ruby and Arguelles, Lourdes
1984 Homosexuality, Homophobia and Revolution. Notes toward an
Understanding of the Cuban Lesbian and Gay Male Experience
Part I. Signs, Summer 1984
1985 Id. part II. Sings, Autumn
1980 La Mujer Trabajadora.
Bohemia. September 30
1974 Cuba in Rowbothan, Sheila, A History of Women and Revolution in the
Modern World: Women, Resistance and Revolution.
London. Vintage Books
Saavedra, Olga Finlay
1981 La Igualdad de la Mujer en 30 Articulos.
Mujeres. August 8.
Seeland, Inger Holt
1981 Women of Cuba
Connecticut. Lawrence Hill & Co. Inc.
1980 La Mujer Cubana en el Quehacer de la Historia
Mexico. Ed. Siglo XXI
1974 FMC: Feminine, not Feminist
Cuba Review 4. 22
1974 FMC at the Grass-roots.
Cuba Review 4.2. Pag 25-26
Stone, Elizabeth (ed.)
1981 Women and the Cuban Revolution
New York: Pathfinder Press
A collection of speeches by Cuban leaders (Vilma Espin and Fidel Castro,
for instance) on women in Cuba
Stoner, K. Lynn
1983 From the House to the Streets: Women's Movement for
Legal Change in Cuba, 1898-1958
Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Indiana
For data on prerevolutionary women
1987 Gender Issues in Contemporary Cuban Tobacco Farming
In Cuba's Socialist Economy Toward the 1990. Special Issue
(ed. by Andrew Zimbalist). World Development
1969 The Youngest Revolution.
New Yorl. The Dial Press.
Toledo Sander, Luis
1975 Jose Marti hacia la Emancipacion de la Mujer.
Casa de las Americas, 15 (90): 25-41
The author analizes speeches of Marti (1881-1890) on women's emancipation.
Valdes, Nelson P.
1974 A Bibliography of Cuban Women in the Twentieth Century
Cuban Studies Nesletter 4. June. P. 1-31
On literature on women in prerevolutionary Cuba (1900-1958), and on revolutionary Cuba (1959-1973)
1982 A bibliography of Cuban periodicals related to women Cuban Studies 12 (2). Pags 73-80
It lists 56 Cuban magazines published since 1883 dealing with women. It is based on work done with the Biblioteca nacional Jose Marti, in La Habana.
Wheeler, Lynn Stoner
1981 In Defense of Motherhood. Divorce Law in Cuba during the Early
S Republic. In Womenand-Politics4-n-Twentieth-Ceniury Latin
AmercLLa Studies in Third World Societies. Department of
Anthropology. Williambsburd. College of William and Mary