Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Background and rationale
 The basis of a concern by urban...
 Scope of planner's concern
 Council's experience with interdisciplinary...
 Proposed work: A summary
 The working groups
 Phasing and operations
 Reporting and dissemination
 Project output

Title: Women, low-income households, and urban services in Latin America
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081745/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women, low-income households, and urban services in Latin America
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Uinted States. Agency for International Development
Publisher: Uinted States. Agency for International Development
Publication Date: 1981
Subject: South America   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: South America -- Brazil
South America -- Mexico
South America -- Peru
South America -- Jamaica
South America
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081745
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Background and rationale
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    The basis of a concern by urban planners for women's access to services
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Scope of planner's concern
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Council's experience with interdisciplinary groups
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Proposed work: A summary
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The working groups
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Phasing and operations
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Reporting and dissemination
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Project output
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text




An Unsolicited Proposal to
The Office of Urban Development

The United States Agency for International Development

February 10, 1981

^ rfc,

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I. Women and Urbanization and Urban
Services -in Latin America
11. The Basis of a Concern by Urban
Planners for Women's Access to Services
iii. Scope of Planners' Concern
iv.. The Council's Experience with Interdisciplinary



i. Composition
ii. Scope of Work
iii. Phasing and Operations
iv. Reporting and Dissemination
v. Time Line Chart


i. Brazil
ii. Mexico
iii. Peru
iv. Jamaica
v. Alternatives
: Uruguay
: Colombia

Logical Framework Matrix





i Cities: An Invisible Factor

in Urban Planning in India, summary by
7indrea Menefee Singh

Curriculum vitae of Dr. Marianne Schmink



(1) Women and Urbanization, and Urban Services in Latin America

Urbanization has proceeded rapidly in Latin Anerica. Mexico City

and Sao Paulo have doubled in size within the last fifteen years and are

becoming the largest metropolises in the world. The impact of this urbanizA-

tion process on women's roles and its subsequent effect on family composition,

household economic strategies, and the quality of urban family life Is largely
unassessed and represents a necessary foundation for planning basic services
In urban areas and for competent policy research on migration and urbanization

in Latin America.

The facts of migration and family composition in urban areas are

somewhat different in Latin America than they are in other regions and these

suggest why special attention should be given to urban women's roles. These in-
clude: (1) the degree of urbanization in Latin America; (2) the dominance

of women in migration streams; (3) the high and increasing proportion of
women headed households; (4) the critical role that low income women,

partnered and unpartnered, migrant and non-migrant, play in income generation

for family survival.
Traditionally, women have outnumbered men in rural to urban migration -

in Latin America. Women dominate the migration streams of Mexico, Panama,

Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,
Equador, Paraguay, Peru and Cuba. Further, in Cuba, Honduras, Mexico,
Panama, and most of the Southern American Countries, females dominate in

almost all age groups. Women who leave their rural homes have often been
sent by their families as adolescents to seek better income-producing

opportunities and greater social prospects than their rural coinIunites

provide them. They also seek jobs and services such as education, health,

and housing which the city seems to offer. On their arrival, however, their

opportunities to find productive employment which allows them to increase

their income and move their families out of poverty are limited by a number
of factors. Many of the young migrants find work but often in domestic

service and informal service or market activities (such as street vendors,

seamstresses, beauty operators, laundresses, and similar categories of

self-employed workers). Work in domestic service in particular is so

typical (50% of the economically active migrants in Sao Paulo, 66% of those

in Lima, 61% in Bogota, 53% in Colombia are domestics)2 that this is

virtually a life cycle stage like pregnancy and child bearing for a majority
of women migrants.
Most migrants and other poor women lack skills and education and are

often forced to accept employment which is underpaid and intermittent. The

job market discriminates against them by limiting the kinds of jobs and

levels of salary available to them. Women migrants are among the poorest
paid of urban workers. Furthermore, they may live in zones where a lack of
services such as transportation affects their access to even domestic

service jobs, inhibits their upgrading their employment and for those

engaged in market activities may be some distance from their prospective
clients. Finally, unlike low-income and migrant males, low-income and

migrant females are less occupationally diversified initially and less

mobile over time. Women who begin in domestic services rarely move beyond
informal sector employment. Although their children may have access to

education, their daughters may never find their way out of low-paid, informal
sector employment.

The combined conscecluences of poor basic services anid ipoor vx.:ploy'..,nt

opportunities may be severe, particularly for the women who head households

and their families. Female headed households may be the poorest viiong low-

Income groups in urban areas and they often comprise a significant proportion

of the population. In Chile, for example, according to the 1970 census,

single mothers make up about 43% of all Chilean women age 15 years and over.

According to the 1970 Comnonwealth Caribbean Census, approximately 50% of

all single women are mothers. In Guatemala, 27% of the total single adult

population is women with dependent children. In Peru, and in Colombia,

single mothers comprise close to 25% of all adult single women.3 Attention

to these women-headed households is critical not only because of their

poverty and numbers, but also the composition of their families. A recent

study in Brazil found that women-headed households had structural character-

istics different from those headed by males.4 For example, compared with

male-headed households in the same income group, they tended to have a

higher number of dependents. Dependent adult household members are also

more likely to be female (mothers, aunts, and both older and younger daughters

and granddaughters with children).

A recent World Bank assisted project in El Salvador found that

over 40% of the households in the project area were headed by women. In
addition, research in the area showed that overall financial responsibility

of the household is a women's responsibility whether she is married, living

with a man or unmarried. However, these observations are based on incomplete

data. Better measures of women's roles, including more accurate measures of

labor force participation, and head of householdship, along with a fuller

description of how families cope with social change and economic stress are

needed to assess the real extent of poverty in urban zones.


C(i) The Basis of a Concern by Urban Planners
for Women's Access to Services

The rationale for concern by urban planners with low-income women

(migrant and native) as a special group and womeo's access to urban services

as a special issue relies on the general acceptance of three principles.

The first of these is that it is valid to identify specific target groups

for urban planning and plan specifically for populations within a given

geographic area. Though this is still an issue, planning for school age

populations is routinely done and housing projects are generally designed

for specific income groups.

The second important issue is to define how urban services fit into the

quality of life. Urban sites and services schemes, both those that create

assets and those that enhance welfare, contribute to the real and full income

of families and therefore play a significant role in determining the quality

of life. The most important component of the urban household's standard of

living is cash income but these cash earnings are often not enough to

sustain a sufficient level of living. They can be stretched by reducing

consumption or substituting unpaid labor for things that would otherwise

have to be purchased, if individuals and families make effective use of

urban services such as water, electricity, health care, community laundry

and marketing facilities and (where they exist) municipally assisted food

production facilities that can stretch their income and improve their living

standard. Here the role of women in using services efficiently is essential.

The third important principle for acceptance by planners and those

doing the analytic research that lays the foundation for urban planning is

that it is analytically necessary and valid to look at men and women

separately, including men and women within the same household.

Women as distinct from men balance three roles: childbearing and

rearing, household provisioning and managing,and in most cases productive

work outside and inside the home for cash or as a substitute for money that

would otherwise have to be paid out. Women's and men's roles in the house-

hold economy in the city are differentiated. Though gender roles are

culture-specific, in most cultures women have areas of responsibility

distinct from men. Typically, women have a greater role and more direct

interest in improving the family's diet, in maintaining the living environ-

ment, in setting aside money for children's schooling and in saving small

sums to cover family emergencies. The move into urban areas may alter a

woman's access to resources or the power relationship in the household with

regard to control of resources without altering the basic areas of male and

female responsibility. For example, a woman may have to ask her husband for

money to buy food which she previously either purchased with her own earnings

or produced. In the face of this, the family's food consumption pattern may

change and/or the woman may take on extra.work at low wages to generate the

cash income needed.

Men and women play different roles in the community--there is a sexual

division of labor in the management of communities. Women are usually

predominant-among the daytime residents of urban communities and because of

their particular relationships with children and. their investment in their

well-being they act as the brokers between the family and neighborhood

networks, official agencies, and service facilities. However, women and men

have different access to services because of cultural factors which may

proscribe the woman's freedom of movement or expose her to risks if she--for

example-- travels outside the neighborhood. This restriction on the woman

can have consequences for other members of the family if, for example,

transport to health services is difficult for women, the medical review of a

sick child may be put off until a man can accompany the child. Thus, it is

important to understand how different social pathways for males and females

influence their use of services and the roles they play in getting the most

for their families.

The final issue is that labor markets are typically sex-segregated and

there is much sex-typing in jobs. This occurs even where there are qualities

in education and skill; men and women simply have different employment

opportunities. In low-income family groups, both male and female headed,

women have an important or supplementary wage earning role. Thus the

failure to pay women an adequate wage, and limiting their types of employment

may actually increase the downward mobility of certain social groups.

In any case, the central point here is that women's spheres of authority

and responsibility are different from men's, critical to family well being,

instrumental to .the household's integration of the benefits of urban living

(including the prospects of the next generation), and cannot be adequately

fulfilled without women's access to and control of resources--broadly

defined to include time, skills, assets, and income.

(iii) Scope of Planners' Concern

It is important to distinguish what urban planners can affect from

that which is beyond their direct reach. Planners cannot directly reduce

gender based segregation in the labor market but in their planning they can

include support services for women's employment by seeing that credit is

available to them, marketing zones are favorably located and that transpor-

tation which supports their marketing role is low cost and accessible. In

determining what kinds of employment-oriented training programs will be

included in, for example, resettlement programs, it is important not to

reinforce the sex segregation which may already exist. Women can be trained

in diversified and non-traditional skills as had happened in a project in

Jamaica; this project trains women in woodworking, which has a much greater

return than embroidery, sewing, handicrafts, etc. In Hyderabad, a program

trains women in repairing watches and other skills for which there is a

demand. In inventorying the need for employment, women's past occupation and

their need to earn should be considered--when, for example, the cost to

residents of relocation is quantified. Plans for resettlement should

include retraining women who will lose their employment because of their

distance from markets or special transport arrangements might even be

possible. In sum, the scope of action for planners in this area is to

minimize the impact of sex-segregated labor markets and where possible to

support and diversify women's economic roles.

Planners can work to maximize the efficiency and utility of those

services that a given municipality can afford with the objective of op-

timizing results for the low-income group. Urban planners can attempt to

remedy inequalities based on gender in projects such as housing schemes

which will give title to male heads of households. They can minimize

economic inefficiencies which penalize women and their families such as

poorly designed services which do not take into consideration how communities

function in terms of the division of labor by sex, and projects which

inadvertently discriminate against women through laws governing property,

regulation of vendors, etc.

An additional advantage for understanding women's economic and community

roles would be to improve urban projects overall. Because so little work

has been done, we must speculate about the likely payoffs. They would seem

to be in the area of deepening knowledge of client groups for urban services

by paying close attention to family structure and the roles that women have

as members of low-income families. The longevity and efficiency of projects

could be improved if the role that women have--or could have--in keeping up

low-cost environmental, social and other urban services where community input

is essential were supported practically. Finally, if the economic roles

that women play were better understood and their income and work con-

tribution accounted for, more accurate determinations could be made

about the family's ability to participate in housing and other schemes

where some cost recovery is intended.

(iv) The Council's Experience with Interdisciplinary Groups

The central modality of idea development and decision making proposed
here is the working group. (The form specific to this project is
described in the document.) It is therefore useful to review what
the Council has learned from interdisciplinary study groups.

The Council has used interdisciplinary groups both as a means of
getting local guidance for our work and as an excellent mechanism
for direct contact with planners at the national level. The modes
for this work vary. One consistent and necessary means given
planners' limited time for new learning is face-to-face contact
in drawing them into problem-centered, substantively useful groups.
As one example, in the Council's West Asia North Africa program (WANA)
some seven study groups focused on topics'ranging from "Population
Information for City Planning and Management" to "Worker Migration
Abroad" have been convened. These are major exercises in what we
call "moving knowledge". These are topics of regional importance,
selected by regional actors. Study groups are convened within the
setting of a regional institution, and a background paper is written
by a local person with a professional interest in the topic under
study. The participants in the study groups are drawn from the region
and include planners, academicians with policy-focused interests,
and occasionally administrators of programs. They discuss a back-
ground paper and contribute their own diverse viewpoints -- focusing
in on the regionally salient issues.

Some of the group products are intangible, such as the implanting of
a new concept in an individual so actively engaged in the administra-
tion or planning process that the study group is a unique opportunity
for them to dip into a pool of new ideas. The other outcomes include
a substantive report -- usually with different sectors by different
members of the group -- and in most cases a series of focused research
awards to look into some dimensions of the topic in-depth. These
research awards are not directly tied to the study groups. For example,
the Council with the Ford Foundation and the International Development
Research Council of Canada sponsor the Middle East Research Awards
(MEAwards). Individuals who participate in study groups -- whether
planners, academicians, or administrators, in fact any individual --
can submit proposals to the MEAwards Committee, whose decisions are
governed by an advisory council of regional individuals. About half
of the awards given through MEAwards (some 20 awards have been given
to-date) are to planners or to those closely associated with the
planning process on issues of immediate policy utility. Recent topics
include the impact of agricultural mechanization on labor demand in
Egypt, and time-use among low-income urban women in Jordan.

What we have learned from this process is that planners and researchers
engage very fruitfully together. We have confirmed the hypothesis that
the best time to reach planners is early in their careers while they
are still shaping their concepts and building up their resources (e.g.,
who to contact for information and opinions, and for specific research
work). We have focused on planners in middle-range decision making
positions because they have a more immediate investment in the perfor-
mance of their sectors, and are generally more interactive with other
sectors; planners at the very top implement political decisions and thus
are less likely to have the time or inclination to be drawn into a
learning dialogue. The face-to-face contact with planners is essential
for them to know and legitimize intellectual resources. The face-to-face
contact is also the only way that those doing policy-related research
will find out what issues are on planners' minds, as they usually do not
write out these concerns or publish them. Planners will read materials,
but generally after their interest has been engaged through some form
of personal diplomacy and contact, and the legitimacy of the knowledge
source (people,or institution) and the issue is firmly established in
their minds. If a good piece of work is done on an important policy
topic, it will be used in plan documents and programs though it will
rarely be specifically identified. The one exception is where a planner
is a co-author. Co-authorship and intellectual partnership with planners
make it more likely that the source of the work will be acknowledged, and
that the product of such a working of interdisciplinary groups will be
directly traceable.

In sum, we are certain of the benefits, albeit often difficult to trace,
of drawing planners into an interdisciplinary learning process. Further,
the mixture of social scientists with planners has benefited the quality
of the social scientist's work and its policy relevance. What has not
been explored in Council work to-date, except for some of the experiments
described in the proposal, is the involvement of those who
implement projects or actually lead action projects. These individuals
were not drawn into the WANA meetings because these meetings are regional,
and therefore the follow-up work that could benefit those leading action
projects such as combined work with researchers or planners, is less
practical. It is our feeling that study groups organized at a national
level could serve purposes the regional study groups currently do not
serve. They will have the possibility of intensifying local participation
and making local input much more continuous. They could meet regularly
over a long period of time without excessive cost, transforming themselves
from study groups into "working groups". Further, organized in this way,
they could draw in more local personalities, particularly those engaged
in project implementation. Field visits to projects would even be possible.
We feel that the action programs have much to offer, but the presentation
of their knowledge will require more flexible meeting formats (more comfort
and less pressure) and the assurance that the information they are pre-
senting is viewed as relevant because of the interest of the other
participants in the needs of the local area. Specifically, the action
groups need assistance in documenting their work, analyzing interventions,
and perhaps in implementing larger scale programs.

A related Council project, the Seeds series, documents small-scale income
generation projects for women in developing countries. Half of these
projects are urban. The response indicates that these documentation
are a useful means of technical assistance and communication between
developing countries as well as within them. We foresee similar docu-
mentation of existing and innovative service approaches as one outcome
of the involvement of action groups in the interdisciplinary groups and
subsequent award process.

Thus, although the Council has experience with interdisciplinary groups
using planners and academicians, two elements of this proposal are
untried. First, the addition of action groups to this mix is new. How-
ever, the Council is fully committed to the inclusion of these groups
(and has designed the working groups to incorporate them), to assure
that such groups get significant benefits -- grants and technical
assistance -- which can be used to expand upon and communicate what they
know. The second element that is untried is the funding of working
groups with a proposed longevity of two years (or more). It will take
a good deal of experimentation with forms to work out the inter-
institutional, interpersonal, and time requirements to make this ,

II. Proposed Work: A Summary

The Council proposes a program of activities to support the

generation of new knowledge about low income women and their individual

and household use of services, and to encourage the application of this

information in the design of urban programs and plans. This program

includes three interrelated activities. We will assist in the develop-

ment and provide technical support to working groups in four national

settings consisting of researchers, planners, and community development

workers which will serve as a primary mechanism through which problems
are defined and actions taken. We will support through these working

groups anaction research awards program which will support relatively

low-budget projects such as documentation of the work of action

projects, the piloting of new service approaches, the reanalysis of
existing quantitative data, and the generation of new qualitative

information. We will disseminate the information and materials
locally through the working groups, nationally and regionally through
the Council's extensive network, including the Regional Working Papers
series and through the readership of Estudios de Poblacion.

Four working groups, consisting of urban planners, govern-

ment researchers and statisticians, program managers, and social
scientists interested in applied research on poor urban women and
low-income households and community leaders will be formed. The

work of each group, though determined by its participants and

reflecting specific national settings and opportunities, will fit
into a broad, specified scope of work. (See pages 18-19.)

It is anticipated that each of the working groups will

meet at least every two months. During their initial meetings, each

group will develop an agenda for future meetings. This will include

a specification for priority topics. It is assumed that each work-

ing group will consider not less than two important issues, such as

health, housing, transport or credit.
The proposed sites are Peru, Jamica, Mexico, and Brazil.

Each of these presents a specific opportunity based on its geographic

characteristics, its regional position and/or its potential substan-

tive contribution. Each working group will reflect its sites.
Peru has an abundance of institutions and individuals

newly concerned with low-income households, women's roles and

access to urban services. Through a working-group mechanism, this

recent interest andnew information can be channeled directly into

policy applications. The prospects for policy impact have increased

with Peru's recent return to a democratic civil regime which has a

strong commitment to meeting the needs of the poor and to the

promotion of popular participation in development activities. These

elements make Peru a logical beginning point for work in the Andean

Region, the poorest sub-area of South America.

Jamaica has forward looking urban policies and has emphasized

the value of a link between a concern with women's roles and planners

by supporting a strong Women's Bureau and establishing a Women's

Desk within the planning agency. The need for this project is great

because a high proportion of urban households are women-headed.

Jamaica, the only island site, has an influential position within

the Carribean; thus a working group mechanism operating here and the

results achieved would be of regional importance.


Brazil is the largest and most influential Latin American

country. It is also the site of many burgeoning cities and it

devotes a highly significant portion of its resources to urban

development. It is also the "source" of this project in the sense

that the initial substantive work defining the problems addressed

here and the first working group experiments were conducted

principally in Brazil. Forward looking aspects of its policies

as well as attempts by action groups to deal with shortfalls in

those policies as they are documented in the working group--will

be communicated regionally. A special attempt will be made to draw

in additional financial resources from both Brazilian and international

institutions to support this working-group.
Mexico is the largest Central American country. Mexico

City promises to be one of the few largest cities in the world in

the next twenty years. The Council's regional offices are located

there. Further, Mexico has a pool of highly skilled individuals and

institutions with an active interest in urban problems. Finally, the

Council has relationships with a good number of national-level

policy bodies. The resources available to this group are particu-

larly impressive. In addition, what is learned here has a demon-

stration value for other Central American countries which owing to

current political turbulences may not'be optimal sites for a Central

American working group.

Dr. Axel Mundigo (The Council's Senior Representative,

located in Mexico City) and Dr. Marianne Schmink, Program Manager,

and other Council regional staff will select sites for the working

groups-and identify appropriate convenors at each site. The

Population Council will make available to each group relevant

materials (in Spanish and/or Portuguese where possible) in order

to stimulate initial discussions and support ongoing substantive


After its initial formation and strengthening, each

working group will begin to review local urban development and

service schemes and award funds to support innovative policy-relevant
research or action projects. Awards will be made on the basis of

proposers' ability to demonstrate the critical and applied nature

of the contribution they plan. In addition to the above-mentioned
Spanish and Portuguese language regional working papers, there will
be an annual report in English of the group's operations and

findings. A final monograph will be produced in English which

reviews the important substantive findings of the project and evalu-
ates the success of the working group's approach. Selected papers

will be reproduced in an annex.
Finally, a seminar to present the findings to interested

regional and international personnel could be cooperatively sponsored
by the Population Council, the Urban Projects Division of the United
States Agency for International Development, any interested working

group, and perhaps a regional body of planners; it would be

planned in the last quarter of the project. (It is not budgeted for

here.) Further dissemination strategies include project design

services to other USAID missions and a technical assistance fund to

support incountry and within region support from existing groups

to nascent groups.
This is a two-year project, beginning in March 1981. The

working groups will be established by the end of the first six

months. The award cycle will begin early in 1982, and will be

concluded by the end of 1982. A full report could be expected within

two months of the conclusion of the project in summer, 1983.

III. The Working Groups

i. Composition
Four working groups are proposed, consisting of urban planners,

government researchers and statisticians, practical development workers,
community leaders and social scientists doing research on and familiar

with poor urban women's lives. They will be convened around their
common interest in issues and problems of the urban poor and low
income urban women in specific national or regional settings. The

Council's experience in working with both planners and researchers

has shown that the best way to integrate research with planning and
direct action is through personal contact between individuals with
cormon interests who can meet in an environment free from institutional
pressures to discuss their ideas. The working groups will provide

support for sustained and structured interaction.
Different members of the groups will use the group experience

in different ways to support their own work. For example, planners are

frequently looking for assistance in how to integrate women into their
projects,but are unaware of the academic resources and have very little

contact with community-action groups in the low-income areas of the city.
Similarly, researchers are remote from the planning process and though they
may call their work policy-focused, they are often unaware of the kinds

of information planners need and at what point in the planning process

this information is strategic. Also, researchers sometimes do not regard
small scale action projects as "sources of information." As researchers
have important skills to offer in collecting systematic information,
it is important that their interest be engaged. Finally, those who

execute small scale action projects often have much to contribute but

either have not been provided the forum or have not been given enough

exposure to know how to exactly present what it is they have learned.

Yet, small scale action projects are excellent sources of data on the

needs of low-income women. (More concrete examples of the interactive
process of the working group format are included in the discussion of
Brazil and Uruguay as potential sites fur the project.)

ii. Scope of Work

the needs

general s

The working groups will define their own agendas specific to

and opportunities presented in their locales. However, the
cope of work can be specified:

1. Compile Socio-Economic Profiles of Low-Income Women

and Households e.g.:

Urban Sex Ratios; Migrant Sex Ratios

Residential Location of Low-Income Women Disaggregated by
marital status,
Education; Unemployment and Employment cultural group, a
Status; Wages and Other Sources of Income class
Internal Family Dynamics
2. Compile Basic Information on the Utilization of Existing

Urban Services: Training, Credit, Housing, Transportation,

Health, Day Care, and Employment Creation

Ideally, such information would distinguish differences

in access and utilization by class, sex, age and household

composition with special attention to women-headed house-

3. Advice on the Design of Urban Projects with regard to:

a) Participation: What is women's participation in programs?

Do they have access to the services they need? How do they

facilitate others' participation? Do they have access to



the services being provided? Are these the services they

b) Performance: How well do women perform in using

services or the benefits of a given urban development

scheme? What inhibits their utilization? What would im-

prove their utilization?

c) Impact: What is the impact of these programs on

women and low-income families? What packages are more or

less effective? Are there things which are not being

done which could be done? Normatively, what would one want
to do for women?

4. Review Approaches to Collecting Information for Project and

Planning Purposes e.g.:

a) Family composition
b) Women's economic participation and work roles
c) Access of different household members to services

5. Award Funds and Support for Action Research Projects to be

Undertaken by Group Members e.g.:

a) Projected impact of specific urban programs or policies
b) Implementation and documentation of innovative service

delivery programs in health, credit, employment referral, etc.

c) Definition of the distinct service needs of migrants

versus native, men versus women.
6. Encourage and Assist in Organizing National and Regional
Seminars and Working Groups to review available knowledge

on the impact of city planning strategies, urban services,

redevelopment schemes on the urban poor, particularly women.

iii. Phasing and Operations

Several distinct phases are envisioned for each working

group. The precise timing of each phase will depend on the dynamics

of each particular group, in addition to the site selected. The

timetable presented on page 22 should be viewed as an overall

guide, the parameters of which could be expected to vary in each

case. This timetable was designed considering work groups in

Brazil, Peru, Jamaica and Mexico (with Colombia and Uruguay as substitutes,

if necessary) for which initial exploratory work has already been

carried out by the Council. At the start, this allows for a relatively

rapid identification of sites and local convenors. Working groups

in other sites not specified here would require an additional lag

time of four to five months in moving through each phase.
Phase 1. Site and Convenors Selection. Assuming a start

date of March 1981, the first phase of 3-6 months would consist of

final selection of the sites, identification of local convenors,

and the arrangement of a locale for the working groups meeting. Dr.

Schmink would be in charge of this task, in close cooperation with

Dr. Mundigo. Previous work of Dr. Schmink supported by the Council

permitted her to do indepth explorations in Brazil, Chile, Colombia,

Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. In addition, exploratory working

groups were organized in Brazil and Uruguay in 1980. These continue to


One key characteristic of local convenors in addition to

their specific disciplinary backgrounds and institutional bases, will

be their skill and judgment in identifying group participants,

administrative ability, and writing ability.

Phase 2. Group Members Selection and Basic Information

Development. Once local convenors have been selected, the second

phase of the project will entail a three-month period during which that

person, in collaboration with Council personnel, will identify group

participants, prepare for the group's first meeting, and assemble from

existing sources a set of basic information on low-income families

with an emphasis on low-income women and their access to services.

(A profile of this information is provided in the section, "The Scope

of Work", III ii).
In virtually all settings, it is anticipated that the data

will be scarce and incomplete. Indeed, one of the purposes of the

working groups is to identify these gaps and work towards generating

needed information.
Phase 3. Initial Meetings and Agenda Creation. The groups'

first meeting, projected for the Fall of 1981, will draw on the

completed socioeconomic and urban service profile, as well as

materials the local convenors feel useful. Given enough lead time,

some materials available from other regions could be translated into

Portuguese or Spanish as needed.
Dr. Schmink will be present at the first meeting of each

group, and as needed at selected subsequent meetings.
At the first meeting, priority topics for discussion at

future meetings will be defined. These topics will generally focus

on presentations by group members or invited guests on specific urban

programs and policies in defined service sectors. For example, the

group may decide to focus on the health sector, discussing a new

urban public health program, and request a planner directly involved

to discuss it. At a second meeting, the group might focus on how

the transport needs affect poor women, and review existing information

using Dr. Schmink's research as background material.

The working group meetings in Phase 3 are important learning

experiences for the members, which will gradually transform the group

into a resource base capable of providing input to urban projects.

Phase 4. Research Awards and Working Groups as Research Groups.

At the end of the project's first year (Spring 1982) the working

group will be in a position to evaluate the information that has been

collected, what they have learned, their own process of group development,

including changed assumptions and perceptions of low-income women's

roles. The working groups are prcblem-centered, and combine the skills and

knowledge of a range of people whose disciplines and roles are diverse.

To make optimum use of their collective capacity, provision of small

research awards has-been made.

At this time the group will develop a work agenda for a year

or two which will include guidelines for the small grants awards

program, which will begin to operate by this time, at the latest.

Each group will have funds obligated to support three to

fie small grant awards (average of $5,000) for action research projects promising

to generate needed information within the broad parameters of their scope
of work (see pages 18-19). The awards will be made to persons or

teams drawn from the group, and occasionally to outsiders. Strong

preference will be given to those proposals which address critical problems
where the information has an immediate application (such as a review

of the prospective impact of a housing scheme, or the gathering of

information to make decisions about housing design). In addition,

proposals requiring funding beyond the group's resources can be


developed with the group and the Coordinator's technical assistance

for funding by national and international sources.

In the ideal, teams of a planner and an action person, or

a social scientist, and an action person, will be formed to undertake

this research. Through this mechanism persons and groups, such as

action groups, often cut off from traditional research efforts and

funding sources, can be drawn in. The award monies will not be li-

mited to research in any classic sense, but will seek to fund
"maverick" projects such as the demonstration and documentation

of new approaches to delivery of critical services to low-income
women. At least half of the awards will be made to applied research
projects as defined by each working group for its national context.
Proposals will be judged by a committee composed of Dr. Schmink,

possibly another Council-designated representative drawn from the local
area, as well as two working group members.
Also in the fourth phase (March December 1982), in con-

trast to the preceding developmental phase, the group will begin

to function as a resource group. It will continue to meet regularly

and discuss specific topics, but will make an aggressive and active

effort to identify programs with significance for the low-income

urban poor and women. Individuals associated with these groups will

be invited to meetings and asked to make presentations. This will be

done in such a way that the invited presenter will see utility in

his/her presentation.
Finally, at this stage, the group may find opportunities

to draw in and provide counsel to groups and institutions in other

locales which share substantive concerns and are interested in

the working group mechanism. Some of these may be assisted in

setting up their own working groups. In order to take advantage of

the opportunities in each local setting, some flexible funds (a Joint

Technical Assistance/Study Travel Award fund) have been included in

the budget. Appeals for the use of this would be made to Dr. Schmink.
Phase.5. Evaluation Dissemination. Near the end of the

project's second year, in early 1983, the working groups will be in a

position to evaluate their achievements. Each working group will

prepare a second annual report. A final monograph will review the

substantive findings of the group and reprint selected papers in the

Annex. One section of this monograph will deal with the interdisciplinary

working group process itself, its history and its utility here as viewed

in the four sites. This discussion will tap into previous knowledge

gained about interdisciplinary working groups.
Depending on the progress and success of this project,

early 1983 might be an appropriate time to plan for a regional meeting

to be attended by representatives from the working groups as well as

regional and (potentially) international personnel working in urban
planning institutions. The deliberations of this meeting might precede
the finalization of the monograph so that the planners' reactions could
be included.
Phase 6. Post-Project Activity.

Formal funding will give members of working groups the opportunity to
know the value of a diversely composed working committee. A working
group as a formal entity might achieve its objectives and might not wish
to continue after two years. This will depend upon its specific needs
and momentum. If a group did not continue as a group but the interactions
and local participation were continued, the goal of the working group
will have been served. The idea is not to establish new institutions but
new connections between existing local institutions and "establishments"
in an effort to find development solutions. The test of the validity and
utility of working groups is whether the post-formal working group, the
broad local participation in urban development, Is sustained and the
specific membership and professional communities from which its member-
ship is drawn, continue to interact in innovative ways, reaching up to
planners and out to action groups.


Any group -- up to four proposed here -- that wishes to continue its
regular meetings would have a variety of strategies to pursue. The
start-up costs, both psychic and fiscal, are greater than the operating
costs. Initially, the idea must be put across, new institutions must be
drawn in, and investments must be made in information preparation, time
and organization that are greater than those needed to sustain the effort
later on. After momentum is achieved, which would certainly be the case
after two years of meetings, meeting places could be donated, the
secretariat function could be rotated, or at least its parameters well
enough established to make it less demanding of time. Further, the
institutions or organizations from which the participants are drawn will
have had demonstrated to them what their self-interest might be in
seeing the group sustained. Thus, these would be willing, one would
presume, to give as much support as they could possibly afford. Moreover,
should a group need funds beyond this for special projects or because in
kind or in cash donations are not sufficient, it will have enough co-
herence,.product, and direction to make it possible for it to seek funds
from both national, regional, and international funding sources for
continued operations.
Similarly, new working groups will have an easier time in forming themselves
than the original working groups. Working groups formed in countries where
the original working groups have begun will draw on the experience and
substantive information of the existing group. Their start-up will require
an organization effort, but the commitment to make that effort can be
drawn from the demonstrated value of the idea. Though it cannot be
guaranteed, a strongly committed group could almost certainly find the
necessary space, secure or otherwise arrange secretarial staff from a
sponsoring institution.
As with the continuation of existing groups, a new group will have an
easier time two years down the road raising any funds they might need
after the value of the idea has been demonstrated. The working group
idea is a low-cost means of technical assistance, drawing on locally-
available resources, and is an important form of local participation.
In sum, if it is valuable, those sorts of efforts will continue under their
own steam -- needing external resources from time to time, but increasingly

Finally, it Is almost certain that meetings will be arranged and funding
support given to urban development efforts long after the project ends.
The project seeks to affect among other things the way in which such
meetings are organized and the group dynamics established, the participants
sought, and the quality and utility of the development work or research
proposed. Sustained activity for this project will in part be measured
by the adoption of some of the principles of the working groups as
regards the value attached to diverse experience, to direct oral exchange,
to drawing in those involved in action projects as well as those in
planning levels, and to working collectively to solve urban problems.

iv. Reporting and Dissemination

Given the decentralized and process-oriented nature of the

project,-reporting will be carried out at several levels. -First, a

brief description of each meeting held by each group will be submitted

to Dr. Schmink. Second, local convenors will each prepare annual

reports on their group's activities. Third, each individual or group

receiving a research award will also be expected to prepare a report

on completion of their project. The final monograph (previously

described) will draw on all these sources.
A small fund has been provided to each group so that substan-

tive reports, as well as annual reports could be issued in the form of

working papers available to a wider audience. These reports could

take a variety of forms such as (i) initial information profiles

collected during the project's second phase, (ii) documentation of

specific programs of service delivery, (iii) documentation of aspects

of the working group process itself, and (iv) reports on projects
funded by the awards program. Depending on the number and quality
of these working papers, some or all could be included within the

final monograph.
The Council has a well-established distribution network in

Latin America. This must be used selectively and expanded in
accordance with the needs of the working groups. Each group will

develop its own distribution list of individuals and institutions

within the country that it wishes to receive reports. The Coordinator

will send these directly, but in addition, the Council will supply the

Coordinator with materials from other groups so that she/he might

also channel these into the network. Regional associations --

development oriented and academic and professional -- will be notified

of available materials, but will be advised to contact one of the

working groups to receive them. In this way, the working groups'
own visibility increases while the knowledge of interested individuals
is not lost to the project as a whole.

Finally, the Council network for the distribution of Seeds,

Estudios de Poblacion, as well as the Regional Working Papers will

alerted. There will be selective automatic mailings to those we
know have a definite interest, and there will be a continual response

to requests for materials. We will make concerted efforts to add

groups like urban planners to our regular distributions channels.

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~ A maximum of four working groups are proposed, with the following

sites strongly recommended by the Council: Brazil, Mexico, Peru and Jamaica.

Other possible sites for some initial contact work are

Colombia and Uruguay.

i. Brazil
The Brazilian site is attractive, because the actual process
of the working group is already underway. Sao Paulo was selected as
the site for a first exploratory working group meeting in June of 1980.
Because of the existence of a solid group of planners, practitioners
and researchers known to the Council, a meeting was convened on the
new urban health policy. Fifteen persons attended, both men and
women, including medical doctors, state-level planners, nurses,
health agents in public and private community programs, and social
scientists. The meeting consisted of presentations by Dr. Schmink
and several representatives of each group, who talked about their
specific research or action experiences, and priority questions
related to the provision of health services.
At the end of the meeting, those present unanimously agreed
to schedule a second meeting to discuss Brazil's imminent health
and family planning policy. In spite of the lack of financial support
(only $300 was left in the budget), members took it upon themselves
to organize the meeting. One person took on the administrative
and infrastructural responsibility, others agreed to prepare presen-
tations, and another agreed to look for minimal extra funding, if
need be. The second meeting took place on September 9, 1980.
A new state-level health program was discussed, examining its philo-
sophy, differences from other programs, and problems it faces. There
were nine participants present at the second meeting, of which five
were from the original group, and four were new. At the second
meeting a third was also scheduled for the end of October, which was
held in conjunction with a group at another Sao Paulo institution.
This experiment with the working group mechanism has
already yielded some results. Small community health clinics have
begun to work with state planners on an agreement which will provide
for the clinic to work with some state programs. This action group
is seeking out social scientists to document and evaluate their
considerable experience in treating low-income women's health problems.
Planners have been able to present problems they are confronting
in the design of new programs for discussion with researchers and
practical health workers. (See the Uruguay site discussion for a
report on the other experimental working group.)
This group is presently at a standstill as a result of a
lack of financial support, but is capable and ready to move forward

with meetings. What is needed is the formation of an administrative
structure managed by a convenor who will commit the necessary time,
and a commitment by a core group of members to continue and expand
the work. Health services would clearly continue to be one of the
group's strongest concerns, but transport, housing and employment
are other strong interests of the core members. Although a core group
would be constant, others could be drawn in as. the topic changes.
There are several possibilities for local convenor and
institutional base, depending on the time availability of a local
convenor. Carmen Barroso or others of the women's research
group at the Fundacao Carlos Chagas, where the first two
meetings were held, are possibilities. The Fundacao has also ad-
ministered the Ford Foundation-sponsored small grants program for
research on women in Brazil. Neide Patarra or others from the
Urban Development Program of the Architecture Faculty at the Uni-
versity of Sao Paulo would be another possibility, as would Elsa
Berguo or Maria da Conceicao Quinteiro, at the Brazilian Center
for Analysis and Planning (CEBRAP). Dr. Anna Sant'Anna, a specialist
in urban planning, may be returning to Brazil, and is another possibility
for taking a lead role in this working group.

Because of the fewer resources allowed to the Brazil working group,
the Coordinator will have to take a very strong management role to get
the most out of local resources. The Council's own contribution will be
in people, time, and ideas; we have exhausted our seed funds for small
projects. There is some possibility that the Council will be able to
fund a documentation of one of the urban-based community health and
service efforts (SOF). Beyond that, it is possible that the Ford Founda-
tion will have a strong interest in the outcome of these groups. Though
Brazil is the wealthiest of the countries discussed here, it also is in
a recession. Thus, the Coordinator and the working group will have to
make special efforts to get additional resources committed -- earlier
in this process than in others. The Council's own Brazilian staff
(Ani Balfaundes) will be involved to the degree that his time permits
and will be aware of the need to draw on additional resources.

ii. Mexico

Mexico presents an attractive site possibility due to the
existence of a large number of very competent researchers actively
researching urban problems and interested planners from large-scale
urban development schemes and other sectors with urban interests.
Further, a variety of small-scale action projects involving women
are already underway in the areas of health, nutrition, employment,
and community development. In 1977, UNICEF sponsored a small study
of low-income families needs which interviewed all family members in-
cluding children. The results are elucidating, but action on them
has been slow. The group could specifically look at ways of applying
existing information. Additionally, the Council's regional offices
are in Mexico City, providing the infrastructure for meetings and the
potential for more direct contact by Council regional staff with the
working group activities.

Selection of a local convenor would by made in close consultation
with the Council's Mexico City office and that of the Ford Foundation,
which are in regular contact with many local groups and individuals.
There are a number of excellent academic researchers studying low-
income families and women, including Lourdes Arizpe, Brigida Garcia,
Humberto Munoz, Orlandina de Oliveira, and Carmen Ramos. The Council has
working -relations with persons in national planning agencies and in
local women's organizations with applied interests, and has sponsored
applied work on health services for women.

The selection of Mexico as the Central America working site makes
good use of Council resources, responds to a high local need, and serves
as a demonstration to other Central American countries where political
climates do not permit this work just now. As interests emerge in
Central America, the technical assistance line in the budget could be
drawn upon to assist the smaller Central American countries.

iii. Peru

In Peru enough initial work has been carried out to demon-
strate the existence of interested and capable persons and groups
to be combined in a working group. In 1979 Dr. Marianne
Schmink met with a group of 14 persons representing at least 11
different institutions and organizations interested in the problems
of low-income urban residents. Many of these have ongoing programs
or research of direct policy relevance for low-income urban women.
Therefore in Peru the next step would be to meet more extensively
with each of these groups in order to evaluate their interests,
strengths, and commitment to a proposed working group, and to
identify an appropriate balance of participants.

Several possible candidates for local convenor have already
been identified, although further contacts are necessary. Alicia
Clara Marchant of the ILO in Lima organized the 1979 meeting, and
has offered ILO meeting space for future meetings. Blanca Figueroa
and Jeanine Anderson of the Associacion Peru Mujer (Peru Women
Association) have both worked extensively on research and action
projects related to urban low-income women in Peru and have expressed
an interest in actively stimulating policy-oriented work. Violetta
Sara-Lafosse and Blanca Fernandez Montenegro, sociologists from the
Catholic University, have an extended history of research on low-
income families in Lima, and have worked with a variety of local
organizations on concrete projects. Other possible sites include
organizations with which the Council has had only limited contact:
the Flora Tristan Center, CENDIPP (Research and Popular Promotion
Center), and ADIM (Association for the Development and Integration
of Women).

iv. Jamaica
Jamaica was the first of the Caribbean countries to establish a
strong Women's Bureau. Current leadership of the Women's Bureau has
expressed a strong belief that a working group on these issues would
benefit Jamaica. Among the reasons for their interest, and the general
interest-of the Jamaican community, are the striking needs of low-income
families, and the high proportion (around 40%) of these which are
women-headed. Further, the Urban Development Corporation, under the
leadership of Gloria Knight, is a possible collaborator in a working
group. Also unique to Jamaica, a women's desk has been established in
the Planning Agency to get more direct planning attention to women's
needs. Either of these two units (the Corporation or the desk) could
potentially serve as the base of the working group. Discussions must
be held in Jamaica to see what is best.

There are other attractive features of basing a project in Jamaica.
With Jamaica's position in the Caribbean, a project there is likely to
have strong regional impact. The tentative design of the Jamaica
working group operations would be for it to undertake a demonstration
working group in Jamaica, with the express idea of sharing both the
substantive and process outcomes with other Caribbean countries, directly
(through technical assistance visits). Regional institutions like the
University of the West Indies, the CARICOM Secretariat -- to name a few --
will be contacted to provide communicational linkages once the project
has experience to report.

v. Alternatives
SUruguay: Uruguay was the site of one of the experimental
working group meetings in May of 1980, and the success of that meeting
demonstrated the potential which already exists for a productive
working group in that country. The Study Group on the Condition of
Women in Uruguay, which hosted the meeting, is a strong interdisciplinary
group composed of researchers, action group representatives, and
experienced planners. The group has already moved towards developing
a comprehensive set of information on low-income urban women in
Uruguay, and the May meeting provided them with an opportunity to
interact with planners and action project managers from outside the
group. The meeting was extremely productive, and the group outlined
a proposed agenda for future meetings, pointing out potentail priori-
ty areas for research and discussion. The following topics were chosen
both because of their importance for low-income women in Uruguay and
because of the existence of concrete programs which could be discussed
by the group: housing; child-care; education, vocational training and
employment; health; and cooperatives. The invited visitors were also
enthusiastic about the prospect of future meetings.
Thus, in Uruguay the structuring of the group, identification of
the local convening institution and the planning or the group's
first few meetings have virtually all been carried out, permitting
work to begin almost immediately after the project's initiation.

Colombia: Colombia would be a productive site for a working
group because of the existence of good, recent research on urban
women at the national level, a set of strong researchers with interest
in the topic, direct access by researchers to some planning structures,
and the existence of an extremely active, policy-oriented action and
research group. In addition, the Council has a regional office in
Bogota where staff are actively involved in policy research on rural
women. Space in the Council's offices could be provided for group
meetings. These elements combine to make Colombia a very promising
site for working groups.
The most desirable person to serve as local convenor
would be Magdalena Leon de Leal of ACEP, who has directed the major
research on women in Colombia, and who is now interested in applying
those results directly to policy questions. The Foundation for
the Integral Development of Women and the Family would also be an
excellent base for the group, with a number of highly competent
members. Elsa Gomez, a demographer at the University of Los Andes
with ties to the National Planning Department also has relevant
skills and contacts.


The project is intended to have output at several levels.

Over the long term, the project has the potential of having an

observable impact on the content of both large-scale and small-scale

urban development schemes. Over the short term, the learning and

decision making process of those concerned with urban development --

national-level planners, social scientists, and small action groups --

may be altered. This project does not simply draw in "local

participation", it will demonstrate in four settings the outcome

of local participation structured to include women's concerns and

a heterodox and broad group of individuals with different disciplinary


1) Concretely, the project will result in the creation

of four working groups which will strengthen the connection between

three currently unconnected groups: planners, social scientists,

and the leaders of action projects.

2) Further, this group itself will serve as a resource

to be drawn closely into the urban planning process with immediate

and positive impact on policies and programs in operation with

benefits for low-income women and the families they support.

3) Both the working groups and the awards programs

will extend the benefits of new knowledge, analytic skills, and

funds to those guiding or participating in action projects which

normally do not have access to policy making bodies or research


4) The experience of the working groups will serve to

test the utility of an interdisciplinary, interactive process as it

operates in four settings. The length of time provided for their


functioning allows for an analysis of the direction such local

participation takes and the conditions under which this process

can be effective. There is time for course correction and learning.

S5) The awards programs will generate new and useful

information about the urban poor and the programs designed to serve


6) A highly tangible, though not necessarily the most

significant, product of the project will be the generation of a

series of working papers documenting both the process of the working

groups and detailing new substantive results.

7) The "model" of the working groups may have broader

effects in Latin America and in other regions. Through the

working papers and other dissemination efforts of the project and

the work of the Council itself, attempts will be made to spread the

positive lessons drawn from this project to other sites in the

region and in the developing world. To this end, project design services

will be provided to selected countries near or after the conclusion of

the project. These countries will be both inside and outside of Latir



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DIr ApjI] 2h. ]^hO

Inddist ('t,.l Rites fr lse in Cost Reimbursement Type Agreincnts With the Agency for lntrrnia i.al
Ihirloipnimcn (AID)

ICAA Audit Reports No. 6171-9E ]60236-0-002, No. 6171-9E16?0237-.0-n05, and
No. 6171-91160532.0-023, and SOD/OSC N'gut: i;t ions with TJ'C

IN I171'71ON The Population Council
'" One Dag HIlar.nmcrskjold Plaza
tilllik New york, New York 10017


t Ilr.ie Period
l.i. l n

Tlj u


A( t iv itv







12-31-76 (a) 15.18
12-31-77 (b) 21.71


Until Amended
Until Amended
Until Amended

(b) 13.27
(b) 30.58
(c) 12.33
(b) 20.54

(b) 26.75
(b) 32.01
(c) 12.68
(b) 20.0
(b) 17.0
(b) 32.0
(c) 12.0

Ateptiiiiit of tihc rate(s) agreed to herein is predicated upon the conditions. (I)

Tot :l Ovrtrhicad
Center for Bioniedi 'I
Res arch
International Programs
Center for Policv Studies
Managemc-nt &.Support Scrvi:
Center for Eioidical

Center for Policy Studies
Management&Support Service
Ctr. for Biomedical Resear
International Programs
Center for Policy Studies
Management&Support Servici
that no costs other than those

i,,, ,ui. .i i)he giiltec/coniractlo weeit included in its indirect cost rate proposal and that such costs are lefal obligations
all Il.1 FI.lrtr/i siiltra'lti. (2) thlt the same costs that have been rated as indiect' costs have not been claimed as direct
S,..1\o. () Il.rl sininli Iypcs of costs have been accorded consistent treatment. and (4) that the information provided b thli
,.1gre'. nIIItIJirI whnriL wa uJsrid Ia the basis foi acceptance of the rate(s) agreed to herein is not subsequently found
h* IIIe 11.1r1it.1ilh rIrL'rn pleIC aI III;j'C c iate.

-- Total direct costs but excluding consultant fees
-- Total direct costs for the activity less consultant fees
-- Total direct costs including applicable overhead but excluding
consultant fees

AIr 1*4041 I11.71

42 IOvIn)


1. Youseff, Nadia, Mayra Buvinic and Ayse Kudat. (Sebstad & Von
Elm contributors). Women in Migration: A Third World Focus,
International Center for Research on Women, June 1979.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Merrick, Thomas and Marianne Schmink. "Households Headed by
Females and Urban Poverty in Brazil." Paper presented at the
Women in Poverty Seminar, May 1978, International Center for
Research on Women.

5. Recognizing the "Invisible" Woman in Development: The World
Bank's Experience. The World Bank, October 1979.




Par iiJnil I) 7-3 705 of the AFency For International Drvelopment Procurement Regulations (All'R). the
iir1:.-ijlrd Ilirect Iusl rates set forth in Part I of this Agreement are incorporaltd into AID Agiremcnts uho.-n below.
TIn Aicnicntl Jujll nnl Lhange any monetary ceiling, oblipaion, or specific cost allowance or dusallomance provided
f(s in ihe CuiriraLit o0 GCints lihsed below or any other Airccmtnl between the parties.

C('onis t/Gtr.n No.


Amendment No.


PRIN1ED OR TYPTD tr E-ge A. Babb -
Assistant Treasurer
--- Op _--r r'-t ,"11 per

DAT.: MAY 11980

Dl. srKBtiflON




A In 14 '^A? i l i AI

Project Number


Donald Dickie
Ovcihead and Special Costs Branch
Services Operations Division
Office of Contract Management
Agency for Intematonal Dc~elopment

x SER/Fn

La7 3

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