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Gender analysis and training techniques : training modules

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Gender analysis and training techniques : training modules
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Kainer, Karen A.
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GENDER ANALYSIS AND TRAINING TECHNIQUES

TRAINING MODULES

Compiled by Karen A. Kainer

Based on
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGF \M

Spring Seminar Series, 1992



INTRODUCTION

Sessions were delivered by a variety of faculty and othiers with experience in gender



analysis and training. The exposure to a diversity of training styles and activities served
to demonstrate the wide variety of training styles and techniques that can be successful,

and that facilitators are only limited by their own creativity.

Each 70-minute session was preempted by a brief explanation of how the current session
related to other sessions within the series. Following each session, the enclosed
evaluation forms were distributed to participants in order to monitor participant learning,

and to facilitate session improvement.



All materials necessary to deliver the sessions are listed in the overview of each module.
‘Some materials, such as particular videotapes or slides, may be easily substituted with
other appropriate materials when necessary. Overheads and handouts are included in

the modules, but suggested fipcharts must be prepared by each facilitator.

Some sessions, such as Sessions V and VIII, may be difficult to deliver without specific

experience conducting Gender Analysis training in international agencies in zn: area of



focus for that session. However, reading lists are proviced wit



each module to assist the

facilitator in expanding his/her knowledge base. The facilitator may also wish to invite



outside speakers who can discuss their experiences with Gender Analysis or Women in

Development training in international organizations.

‘These modules lend themselves to a wide variety of uses. Practitioners are encouraged
to modify sessions as needed, and to view the modules as dynamic resources for

designing and delivering Gender Analysis training.

Readers who are interested in more information about the seminar series may contact
Lisette Staal at the International Training Division, IFAS 352 (904-392-3166). Those with
specific interest in a particular session are advised to contact the facilitator(s) of that

session.





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Vv.

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GENDER ANALYSIS AND TRAINING TECHNIQUES

SESSION

What is Gender?

Gender Analysis Conceptual Framework
User Perspective

Data Collection: Who does what when,
determining access and control

‘Women in Development Training in International
Agencies

‘What is Training?

Specific Training Techniques for Gender Analysis

Using Case Studies for Training in Gender Analysis

FACILITATOR(S)

Suzanna Smith

Sandra Russo

Peter Hildebrand

Mickie Swisher

Anita Spring
Sandra Russo

Van Crowder

Lisette Staal
Bea Covington
Gretchen Greene

Elizabeth Bolton
John Lichte





Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session f WHAT IS GENDER?

OVERVIEW

Total Time: 70 minutes

Rationale: Research and extension projects have historically overlooked or excluded women

from the development process. Inadequate attention to differences between men
and women in agricultural production and use of technologies often leads to

adequate planning and design of development projects. In many cases it has

also resulted in poor acceptance of innovative technologies by the farmers who use
them, and consequently, limited returns on investments. An understanding of the
roles women play in agricultural development is fundamental to achieving greater
development success. ‘The information covered in this session provides the basic
concepts for the following sessions, and insures that all participants are at the same
beginning level of understanding.





ing At the end of this session participants will be able to:

Objectives: 1. Define gender roles.

2. Describe the reasons why women have been invisible in the development
process.

3, List the characteristics of gender-sensitive research.

Materials: —* Flipcharts 1-4
* Overhead projector =
* Overheads:
1.1) Definition of sex and gender
1.2) Major points about gender roles
1.3) Session one: What is gender? Questions for viewing videotape
1.4) Characteristics of gender-sensitive research
* VCR
* Videotape "Invisible Women" (Can be borrowed from the International Training
Division at the University of Florida or <1 Jered with the enclosed order form)
* Handouts:
1.1) Reading list
1.2) Evaluation form
* Purple and red markers



Background
Readings:

Procedure:

See Handout 1.



There are four main activities in this introductory session. Activity I sets the stage
to open participants’ minds to looking at things differently. Activity II is a small
group exercise in which participants are asked to differentiate between gender and
sex. Activity III uses a videotape and discussion to focus on gender roles in
agriculture and their implications for development projects. Activity IV examines
the basic components of gender-sensitive research.





Session I: WHAT IS GENDER?

Activity I: Perceptions. (2 min)

TIME

2 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS





Put up flipchart with the following: [and Flipchart 1
R E A D. Ask what these two diagrams mean. Explain

that few people immediately see "I understand” and "Read

between the lines" because we are all trained to see things one

way, making it difficult to go beyond that initial perception.

Add that in these sessions we hope to help participants go

Leyond initial perceptions in order to observe things in a

different way. ‘



Activity Il: What is gender? (25 min)

TIME

1 min

min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS:
Introduction. Turn to a prepared flipchart listing the session Flipchart 2

objectives and go over the three objectives, stating that at the
end of the session participants will be able to:

1, Define gender roles.

2. Describe the reasons why women have been invisible in the
development process.

3. List the characteristics of gender-sensitive research.

‘Small Group Exercise, Give the following instructions:

1. Get into groups of three or four. Make sure someone is
taking notes.

2. List as many examples of gender roles that you can think
of.

3. You will have three minutes. Don't complain about the
time or you will lose time!

4. Brainstorm! That does not mean to discuss, it means to
get out as many ideas as you can in the time

allotted, Do not evaluaté what people in your group say. Just
be creative and let your ideas flow.

5. After three minutes, groups will report what they listed.



3 min

10 min

10 min

Break into groups and brainstorm.

Ask how many groups listed 20 gender roles? 15? 107 Ask Flipchart 3
each group to give one example of a gender role they came up

with, List these on a flipchart with the title "Gender Roles.

Summarize the groups’ themes, and use their comments as a

springboard for the short lecture.

‘Short Lecture. Point out that in many cases when we look at
social roles we assume they are defined by sex, that is, being a
man or a woman, We assume that these behaviors, such as
being "dominant" or "nurturing", come about naturally, and
that they are merely a reflection of being male or female.
One of the first things we want to do in talking about gender
analysis is to define gender so everyone is clear about the
‘meaning of this term.





Show the overhead, "Definition of sex and gende:
the definition of gender and note that our interest
understanding social behavior. Point to the definition of sex,
and ask, "How important are sex differences in understan

Point to Ovethed LI





_ human behavior for our purposes here?" (Turn off the

Projector.) Continue to explain the following points.

People commonly believe sex differences to be far greater than

they actually are. One stereotype is about male strength,

which we often credit for men’s greater social power. On the

average, inen are somewhat taller and stronger than women

due to greater upper body strength in particular. However, g
males are also more vulnerable to illness and disease, and

Sisplay higher mortality rates, In contrast, females usually live

longer; they show somewhat greater tolerance for heat, and

tend to have more body fat, which gives them an advantage in
activities requiring endurance.





‘The other major biological factor that consistently affects
behavior is women's role i “eproduction. Women bear
children and can breastfeed! them.

Given these basie sex differences, we have constructed social
belief systems, many of them very elaborate, about what are
appropriate roles for men and women, However, research
shows that there is very little biological basis for gender
stereotypes.





Show overhead, "Major points about gender roles", and go ‘Overhead 12
over each point, being sure to mention the following:

1, Gender roles are defined as the activities, behaviors, and
abilities that are associated with being a man or a woman.
Gender roles are based on socially agreed upon criteria of
what is appropriate for men and women, The small groups
came up with a list of common behaviors or traits of men or
women--we can see from the consistency of group responses
the power of society in determining our beliefs about these
roles, and in men’s and women’s tendency to conform to
social expectations.



2. Gender is ever-present in our lives. It structures our work
and family experiences, even the way we interact with each ;
other.

3. Gender role blinders introduce bias into development
projects. Expectations about what men and women do
influence development project research and extension
activities.

4, What we want to do in these sessions is to help you develop
the skills 10 look at things differently. We hope that the
awareness and skills you learn here will help you to be more
effective in your research and extension programs.

Activity III: What are gender roles in agriculture? What are the implications for development

TIME

2min

18 min

projects? (30 min)

Activity MATERIALS

Introduction. Introduce the videotape, explaining that this

tape provides a more in-depth understanding of gender roles

in agriculture, and illustrates how gender roles affect

development projects. Show overhead, "Session One: What is Overhead 13
gender? Questions for Viewing Videotape.” Ask participants

as they view the tape to think about the answers to these

questions:

1. Why are women in agriculture invisible in the development
process?
2, What are the characteristics of gender sensitive research?

Videotape. Play the videotape. Videotape



10 min

Large Group Discussion. Discuss the videotape with the

group, List answers to Question 1 on a flipchart with the title, Flipchart 4
"Why are women invisible?” Use colored markers to code

participants’ answers (i.e. conceptual biases in red,

methodological weaknesses in purple).

Emphasize and elaborate as needed on the following points
from the participants’ answers:

Conceptual biases (red marker)
Household.

In conceptual schemes of agricultural systems, the houschold is
often represented as an undifferentiated box in the systems
diagram.

As a "black box’, differences within the household go
unrecognized. In particular, there is no representation of
divisions within the household by gender or age, although
some research shows that these differences structure
agricultural production activities,

. When households are considered, they are usually assumed to

be headed by men who are married to one wife. ‘This scheme
is based on a traditional, Western nuclear family model that
doesn't take into account the activities of polygynous
households or women-headed households.

Often it i8 assumed that households are static. In reality

household composition and structure chahge over time as 2
people marry, give birth, rear children, age, and die. These

life cycle changes are very important to understand because

they affect the availability of labor for production, and the

demands for food and other resources within the household,



ectations about 1d women’s roles



This Western bias also affects our assumptions aboui who
does what in the farming system. Often it is assumed that men
are the farmers, not women, As a result, we expect to see
men, not women doing certain activities, such as cutting trees.
‘This "conventional wisdom" keeps us from seeing (a) the
realities of the division of labor; and (b) changes that are
occurring in the farming system as a result of economic or





Activity IV:
TIME

13 min

social changes in rural areas, or the impacts of development
projects.

Methodological weaknesses (purple marker)

Who is studied. Usually, men’s fields and men’s activities are
studied, whereas women's work receives little research
attention. Researchers do not ask who does what, when.
(Example of yam production from video: two farmers, male
and female, using the same field for two crops, using 2
different management practices).

Do not look at the continuum of production and how this
affects adoption of technologies. Women are involved in
production at every step of the food cycle and are the link
between production and consumption decisions. This includes
post-harvest storage, processing, and marketing, as well as
planting and weeding.

Do not look at the variety of work roles men and women
play, and how they combine their work to get everything done.
Women have multiple roles and responsibilities: wage labor,
agricultural production, marketing, reproduction and child

care, household maintenance. These are influenced by family

size and life cycle stage.

Do not look at how the dissemination of technologies to men
farmers influences women and other household members,
women’s total work load, and access to and control of
resources.



Gender-sensitive research. (13 min)
ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Short Lecture. State that, based on what we've said and seen

on the tape, we can probably list the characteristics of gender-
ensitivé!research,



‘Show overhead "Characteristics of gender-sensitive research", Overhead 14
and cover the following:

Look at all the activities of all household members. Who does
what, when? Make sure to look behind the scenes at who and
what otherwise might be invisible.



Target women to learn about their production practices.

For example, women are keepers of local taxonomies of plants
and animals, and determine acceptability of certain
technologies.

Identify men’s and women’s activities all along the food chain,
(ie., planting, weeding, harvesting,-processing, storage,
marketing.)

Carefully select project staff and cooperators:

1. Include men and women on the research team.

2. Train men to interview women and carry out gender
analysis.

5. Select women as collaborators.

4, Select women for training programs.

Assess and address the results of new technologies on
‘women’s responsibilities and control of resources. ‘The
introduction of a new technology may increase demands on
women’s labor, More time may be needed to harvest and
process food from an increased harvest. Women may lose
control over the by-products of the harvest or over the sales of
goods if the technology is delivered to men. This can have
grave repercussions for women who are responsible for
feeding their children and paying for schooling.

(Turn off the projector.)

Summary, Conclude the session by reviewing the objectives Flipehart 1
and how these were covered in the session,

Note that this session provided the conceptual background.
Next session will provide the analytic tools to identify the
activities of household members and to determine who has
‘access to and control of resources.

Hand out the reading list. Handout 1.1



DEFINITIONS OF SEX AND GENDER



Determined through the application of socially agreed
upon biological criteria for classifying persons as
males or females (genitalia at birth, chromosome
typing before birth).





Determined by the application of accepted standards
for evaluating men’s and women’s behaviors,
abilities and traits.



MAJOR POINTS ABOUT GENDER ROLES

Gender roles are the activities, behaviors, and abilities
that are associated with being a man or a woman.

Gender roles are based on socially agreed upon criteria.

Gender is ever-present in our lives.

We may wear "blinders" about what men and women do
and can do. in agriculture, based on gender role
expectations. These expectations influence research and
extension activities in development projects.

This course is designed to help you develop the skills to
look at things differently. Awareness and gender
analysis skills should help you to be more effective in
your research and extension programs.



SESSION ONE: WHAT IS GENDER?
Questions for Viewing Videotape

Why have women been invisible in the
development process?

What are the characteristics of gender-
sensitive research?



CHARACTERISTICS OF GENDER-SENSITIVE RESEARCH

@ Examine all of the activities of all household
members. Who does what, when? Look behind the
scenes to see what might otherwise be invisible.

® Target women to learn about their production
practices.

® Identify men’s and women’s activities all along the
food chain, from planting and weeding to harvesting,
storage, processing, and marketing.

© Select project staff and cooperators:
Include men and women researchers
Train men
Select women as collaborators.
Select women for training programs

© Assess and address the repercussions of new
technologies on women’s responsibilities and control
of resources.



Gender Analysis Shortcourse
Week One: What is Gender?
Recommended Reading

Blumberg, Rae Lesser. (1991). Income under female versus male control:
Hypotheses from a theory of gender stratification and data from the Third
World. In Rae Lesser Blumberg (Ed.), Gender, family, and economy, (pp. 97-
127). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Or see 1988 Journal of Family Iss
9,(1), 51-84,

Cloud, Kathleen, (1988). Farm women and the structural transformation of
agriculture: A cross-cultural perspective. In W.G. Haney and J.B. Knowles
(Eds.), Women and farming (pp. 281-199). Boulder CO: Westview Press.

Fenstermaker, Sarah, West, Candace, & Zimmerman, Don H. (1991). Gender
inequality: New conceptual terrain. In Rae Lesser Blumberg (Ed.), Gender,
family, and economy, (pp. 289-307). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Huber, Jean. (1991). A theory of family, economy, and gender. In Rae Lesser

Blumberg (Ed.), Gender, family, and economy, (pp. 35-51). Newbury Park,
CA: Sage.

Marini, Margaret M. (1990). Sex and gender: What do we know? Sociological
Forum, 5(1), 95-120.

Sachs, Carolyn. (1983), Invisible farmers: Women in agricultural produ
Totowa, NJ: Allenheld, Osmun & Co. -



n.

West, Candace & Zimmerman, Don H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and -
Society, 1(2), 125-151.



WHAT IS GENDER?
Evaluation

Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.



1. My understanding
of the difference
between sex and
gender increased





2. My understanding 1 2 3
of gender roles
increased ‘
3. My understanding 1 2 3 4

of the reasons
women in agri-
culture are in-
sible increased



4, My understanding 1 2 3 4
of the character-
istics of gender
sensitive research
increased
5. What did you like most about this session?
6. What could be improved?

7. Please rate the instructor on the following items:

Content



Presentation

8. Comments

Please complete this form and rotuin it via campus mace
by fokding in hats 40 the address on back is showing.





INVISIBLE WOMEN: Gender and Household
Analysis in Agricultural Research and Extension

by Susan V, Poats ons





























Gainesville, Florida
November 1989

° This presentation was developed (o assist
agricultural researchers, eension workers, and
Li. managers of research and extension projects ia k
|. about geoder ives ia agriculture and (0 use gender

analysis a8 a descriptive and abalytica fot in tbe
‘work, Gender anshysis is increasingly being recognized
asa eiieal aspect of programme and project success.









uaa =pomant ist tp in incorporating dey
awareness in agricultural development is (0 reengnize
the roles that women payin allaupecs of the fod

| systema, Learning fo "tee" womed tn agriculture wil

sist research and development workers to better "
understand the dlfereat roles that mea and women play ©

in production and to improve the design and delivery of

technology meant toast farmer both male aod

female fea





MOW TO USE THIS PRESENTATION: "This side” |
presentation was developed as an introductory module i
1: weant to raise sues and stimulate discdssion

about geoder issves in agriculture. It can be used
alone, 38 a separate module on gender within a large
lining course, or as an iolroducdioa to other taining
activities on gender issues. ty) i :

‘AUDIENCE: Apreultural researchers extension
‘workers, and managers of agricultural development
[rojeese Useful for professonals and students of

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Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session II: GENDER ANALYSIS:
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

OVERVIEW

Total Time: 70 minutes

Ra



jonale:

Learning
Objectives

Materials:



Becoming sensitized to the importance of gender differences within the farm
household is the first step to conducting improved development work. Before
research, extension, and training activities are carried out, an analysis of
household labor to determine "who does what" must be implemented. ‘This
analysis must then be followed by an examination of who has access to and control
of available resources as well as who benefits from them. This session introduces
helpful analytical tools for gathering data on farming activities, gender roles within
the farming system, and information on available resources.

At the end of this session participants will be able to:

1. Identify the farmer(s) in a household.

2. Use and apply analytical tools in the conceptual framework.

3. Identify gender roles within the farming system, and "who does what".

* Flipcharts 1-4
* Overhead projector
* Overheads:
2.1) Model of a hypothetical household production system in West Africa
2.2) Farm household
23) Two fundamental facts of life
2.4) Use of conceptual framework
2.5) Gender analysis
2.6) Farming systems calendar
2.7) Resources analysis
2.8) Benefits and incentives analysis
* Slide projector
* Family slide
* Slide show "Invisible Women" (Can be borrowed from the International Trainin:
Division at the University of Florida or ordered with the enclosed order form)
* Handouts:
2.1) Farming systems calendar
2.2) Resources analysis,
2.3) Benefits and incentives analysis





Background
Readings:

Procedure:

2.4) Reading list
2.5) Evaluation

See Handout 2.4.



‘There are five main activities in this session. In Activity I participants are asked
to identify the farmer(s) in a household. Activity II reviews a hypothetical
household model and introduces a conceptual framework for gender aralysis..
Analytical tools are presented in Activity I. In activities IV and V, participants
use those tools and complete a gender analysis of one case study.





Session II; GENDER ANALYSTS:
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Activity I: Identifying the farmer(s). (10 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS
1 min Introduction. Present the session learning objectives, stating

that at the end of the session participants will be able to:

) 1, Identify the farmer(s) in a household.
2, Use and apply analytical tools in the conceptual framework.
3, Identify gender roles within the farming system, and "who

Goes what".
9 min Large Group Discussion. Project the slide of Kenyan (or Family stide

other) farm family. Elicit responses to the following questions:

1. Who is the farmer or who are the farmers in the household?
2. At what stage is the family in the household cycle?

3. Is there a labor shortage or abundance?

4. Who do you think the extension agent would talk to?

5. How does the family access information?

Point out that we cannot assume who the farmer(s) is(are) in a
family until we ask and/or observe their activities, We also
cannot assume that a large family ensures that an abundance
of agricultural labor will be available. Families and

households are dynamic. ‘To understand labor availability for
farm activities, we must know what other-non-farm activities
the family engages in, We also need to determine the family's
life cycle stage, as this affects how many family members of
productive (and dependent) ages are available.

Activity II: Review of hypothetical household model. (15 min)



TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS
6 min Show the overhead, "Model of a hypothetical household Overhead 21

Production system in West Africa" with the 4 blocks within
“Household” covered with a small “post-it”. Discuss general
on-farm and off-farm activities represented in the diagrams
surrounding the covered "Household" block. Remove the
“post-it” covering the "Household" block. Ask participants to





4 min

S min



list the activities for which the adult female is responsible
(ines from "Household" block on diagram). Point out that she
is largely responsible for subsistence/household consumption in
this model,

Show the overhead, "Farm household’, and point out that we Overhead 22
must identify the activities of each of the household members
to fully understand the operations of a farming system.

Read the overhead, "Two fundamental facts of life as a review Overhead 23
of the basic tenets that agricultural households are complex

decision-making units and that cach individual member in the

household has a variety of activities and responsibilities, of

which agricultural labor is only a part,



To better understand the activities of each household
member, particularly the work of adult men and women who
are primarily responsible for production, we must employ
some type of conceptual framework to disaggregate data

by gender. Review the definition of gender analysis: "A system
for analyzing the roles of men and women and application of
that analysis to decisions about research and extension.’







Show the overhead, "Use of conceptual framework", and point Overhead 24
out that by using this framework we can quickly see the basic

functions within the household, and can identify gaps in the

information we collected.





Thoroughly discuss the overhead, "Gender analysis’, identifying. Overbead 25
kkey questions that extensionists and researchers must ask
themselves.

fs Introduction of analytical tools. (10 min)

ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Show the overhead, "Farming systems calendar". ‘Tell Overhead 26

participants that the first step in gender analysis is to fill ot
the calendar, documenting activities carried out during the
year by each household member. Notice if and where time
‘saps, or periods of relative inactivity, exist,



On a flipchart with the moriths labeled, demonstrate an Flipchart 1
example of the calendar for a major crop (i.e., corn). (An

example of a completed gender-disaggregated activities

calendar is found in Feldstein and Poats on page 17).



Distribute the handout, "Farming systems calendar". ‘Handout 21

3 min Show the overhead, "Resources analysis", and’point out that it Overhead 27
is important to know who has access to and control of each of

these resources in order to predict and/or evaluate who should

participate in a project and who the project will potentially

impact. Again the facilitator should focus in on gender

disaggregation of household members’ use of resources.



Distribute the handout, "Resources analysis". Handout 22



3 min Show the overhead, "Benefits and incentives analysis", and Overhead 28,
briefly point out that when we propose a change in the system
we must ask who will control the innovation and who will
benefit from it,



- Distribute the handout, "Benefits and incentives analys ‘Handout 23

Activity IV; Mini-case study. (5 min)

TIME * ACTIVITY MATERIALS

5 min Introduction. Organize the participants into 3 groups, ‘
corresponding to the three analytical tools that have been
reviewed. Give the following instructions to the groups:



1. View the slide show, paying close attention to the Handouts
information that is particularly pertinent for completing the 21-23
handout of the analytical tool assigned to your group.
2. Although you do not have enough information to fill out
nach section of the handout, be as thorough as possible.
3. You have 15 minutes to complete the task.
4. Yon: will be asked to share your results with the rest of the
roup after the 15-minute period.



Slides. Project the series of slides from "Invisible Women" of Slides
the Ivory Coast, in which researchers went into a farmer's field
that was exhibiting a decline in yam yield. The researchers





interviewed the male farmer present, and began to make
recommendations regarding the use of herbicides and other
inputs, However, a female farmer was also present, actively
working on planting tomatoes in the same parcel. Ultimately,
the researchers noticed the woman and changed their
recommendations to take into account the joint activ
the same parcel of land,



Vi Gender analysis of case study. (30



ACTIVITY MATERIALS:

Small Group Work. Each group discusses and completes one
Of the three analytical tools.



10min Large Group Discussion. A representative of each group Flipchart 2
reports on their analysis. To facilitate this presentation, each Flipchart 3
group is provided with a flipchart that is a duplicate of the Flipchart 4

handout of the analytical tool they will present.

5 min Wrap up the session by showing the slide of the Kenyan (or Familystide
other) farm family that was used at the beginning of the
session, Ask participants what other questions would they now
like to ask the family? Ask participants to whom would they
now address their questions? Reiterate that it is not always
obvious "who does what", but through adoption of the
conceptual framework and utilization of the analytical tools
presented, they will be able to determine the answers to these
questions and others on household activities and
responsibilities. = é





Hand out the reading list. Handout 24





Model of a hypothetical household production system in Wost Africa.

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ADULT(S) | ADULTS)
MALE FEMALE
CHILD(REN) | CHILD(REN)
OFF-FARM





OFF-FARM







Two fundamental facts of life:

1. Agricultural activities are undertaken by
households which are complex decision
making units and not by the head of
household alone.

2. Each individual member in a household has a
variety of activities and responsibilities, of
which agricultural labor is only a part.

Source: J. Murphy. 1990. Women and agriculture
in Africa: a Guide to Bank Policy and Programs
for Operations Staff.



USE OF THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

organize existing information ---> pattern

identify relevant additional information
needed ---> focus topics

screen research priorities, technology options
plan on-farm trials and assessments

evaluate technologies by user-specific criteria
and impact

plan appropriate extension activities



GENDER ANALYSIS

1. Who does what?

2. Who has access to or control of resources?
3. Who has access to or control of benefits?

4. Who is included at each stage of research:
- as informants?
- as participants?
- as decision-makers?
- as evaluators of technology? -
- as deliverers of services?
- as clients for service?
- as beneficiaries of research outcomes?



‘oaiamead

‘op Production

Uvesteds

Household Prdusion

ontFom Actstios



FARMING SYSIEMS CALENDAR







Labor
Capital
Cash
Inputs

Markets/
Transportation

Education/
Information

BESQURCES ANALYSIS"

. Policy
Control Comments. Issues,



BENEFITS AND. INCENTIVES ANALYSIS.







Access Controi Uses/ Polic,
- a 2 a Proferences Jssud:



Crop Production

Livestock

Household Production

Off-Farm Activities



Monin /Seasond

Ccrup Prosusisn



Jossehtd traduetion

omrann 4





FARMING SYSTEMS CALENDAR”







RESOURCES ANALYSIS _







Land
Labor
Capital
Cash
Inputs

arhots/
fanspartalion



Education/
information

SontroL

—Camment



Policy
Josue:





__BENEFITS AND INCENTIVES ANALYSIS _

Control Uses/
7 Preferences



Crop Production

Livestock

Household Production

OI-Farm Activities

Policy
Ips



READING LIST

Gender Analysis - Conceptual Framework

Poats, Susan V., Marianne Schmink, and Anita Spring, 1988. Linking FSR/E and
Gender: An Introduction. In Poats, Schmink, and Spring, eds, Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension. Westview Press, Boulder, 1-18,

Feldstein, Hilary Sims and Susan V. Poats. 1989. Working Together: Gender Analysis in
Agriculture. Vol I: Case Studies. Kumarian Press, West Hartford, CT. Chapters 1 and
2.

Overholt, Catherine, Mary B. Anderson, Kathleen Cloud and James E. Austin, eds. 1985.

Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book. Kumarian Press, West Hartford,
CT. Chapters 1,2 and 3,

readinglst



GENDER ANALYSIS CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Evaluation

Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.



|. My understand of, 1 2 3 4
gender roles increased

2.My understanding of =” 2 @ 3 4
women's roles in
agriculture increased

3. My understanding of iF 3 4
gender analysis increased

4. My understanding and + 2 3 4
ability to use gender
‘analytical tools increased.

What did you like most about this session?

6. What could be improved?

7, Please rate the instructor on the following items: ‘



Content 1 2 3 4s
Presentation 1 2 3 aos
8. Comments .

Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address on back is showing,





‘Total Time:

Rationale:

Learning
Objectives:

Materials:

Background
Readings:

Procedure:

Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session III: USER PERSPECTIVE

OVERVIEW

70 minutes

New technologies are often introduced in rural farming areas with the hope of
improving yield and easing work loads. Oftentimes the technologies are not
examined from a user perspective prior to introduction. This frequently results in
negative impacts on various members of the household and community, sometimes
culminating in complete rejection of the new technology.

At the end of this session participants will be able to:

1, Recognize the extent to which the effects of a new technology are highly
complex; a new technology affects a variety of people in a variety of ways.

2, Identify those being impacted by the technology.

3, Identify how the technology impacts those being affected.

* Flipchart 1
* Handouts:
3.1 - 3.9) Role play assignments
3.10) Reading list
3.11) Evaluation form
* Slides of Guatemalan agricultural seting, or other case study developed by the
facilitator

See Handout 3.10.

‘There are six main activities in this session, but prior to the beginning of the
period, randomly select participants for the role play, giving each player a written
role. Defining what is meant by “user perspective" introduces the session in
Activity I. The objectives are then reviewed in Activity II. Activity III involves a
role play to facilitate discussion on the complexity of technology rlevelopment. The
conversational sondeo as a method for information-gathering is presented in
Activity IV. In Activity V, a case study demonstrating problems associated with
introducing a technology is used as a springboard for an exercise in which









participants develop an action plan for discovering why the technology was not
adopted. Activity VI is a wrap up of the session,



Session II: USER PERSPECTIVE
Activity I: Define and re-define "user perspective’. (5 min)
TIME * activity MATERIALS
5 min Solicit definitions/interpretations of "user perspective" from the
audience. Emphasize the interpretations that make it clear

that we want to examine the technology from the perspective
of all people who will be using the technology.

Activity II: State and explain objectives. (2 min)

TMI ACTIVITY MATERIALS
2 min Show flipchart with printed objectives, stating that at the end Flipehart 1

of the session participants will be able to:

1, Recognize the extent to which the effects of a new
technology are highly complex; a new technology affects a
variety of people in a variety of ways.

2. Identify those being impacted upon by the technology.

3, Identify how the technology impacts those being affected.

Activity If: Role play. (13 min)

TIME ACTIVITY = MATERIALS
Employ a role play to facilitate discussionon how a new
technology can have complex repercussions for many members

of a community. The players (who have received a pre-
assigned role on a written handout prior to the session)



include:

1, Male farmer Handout 3.1
2, Female farmer (wife #1) Handout 32,
3, Female farmer (wife #2) Handout £

4. Villager Handout 3.:
5. Male farmer's son Handout 3.
6. Teacher Handout 3.

7, Store owner Handout 3.7
8, Headman Handout 38
9. Iman Handout 39



8 min

S min

Role Play. Introduce the role play which is set at a village
meeting where discussion is taking place about the introduction
of a new technology a mule drawn plow. Throughout the
role play, participants will interject into the discussion their
concerns about how the technology will affect their lives.
Facilitator stays in the role of technology developer/provider
until the "Headman” speaks,

Group Discussion, Discuss the role play with the large group, é
focusing on the key point: Introduction of new technologies

has complex repercussions throughout local farming systems

and communities. It has an impact on many users. Include a

brief discussion with participants about "what happened?",

Point out that although some of the users’ comments were

predictable, other users’ concerns with the introduced

technology were completely unforeseen. Make the transition

to the sondeo by asking, "How can we identify all these

users?",

Activity IV: Conversational sondeo. (15 min)

TM!

45 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Short Lecture. Introduce the conversational sondeo as a rapid
appraisal technique for identifying those people impacted by
technologies. The objective behind the sondeo is to gather
information, not just numbers. It is not a census or a survey,
but is designed 10 comprehend what is happening in a
particular situation by discerning who is affected by
technological introductions,



‘The sonéeo is carried out by multidisciplinary teams without
the aid of a questionnaire. No notes are taken so that those
interviewed are more at ease and so that the interviewers will
concentrate more on what is being said than on taking notes.
By working in interdisciplinary teams the collective knowledge
base is extended and each team member will remember
different parts of the conversation. It is important to hav. &
sense of what is being said, not just quantitative data, Ea’ 1
team member must train themselves to listen.





Activity V: Participant application exercise: Sorghum case study. (30 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS
5 min Introduction. Introduce a Guatemalan (or other) case study Slides

using slides, The case study is set in a dry area with small
farms on the rocky hillsides and larger farms in the valley.
‘Maize, sorghum, and beans are planted in consortium on the
hillsides. Land preparation involves gathering crop residue
not consumed by the livestock that traditionally graze after

: harvest. There is no plowing or hoeing in the system. Rains
are fairly well distributed with a 2- to 4-week period in July or
August, after which beans are harvested. Maize requires the
rains that fall after the bean harvest, and is therefore
harvested in September/October. Sorghum is harvested in
November/December. The cropping system is well developed
for the area, and the key to success is sowing as soon as the
rains begin,

‘Three sorghum varieties (two yellow and a white variety) are
developed and thought to have excellent potential to improve
yield for the small farmers. ‘The organization that developed
the varieties distributes the seed through store owners,
extensionists, and others to spread the technology as far as
possible. Many kilos are planted the year the seeds are
distributed, but none are planted the following year. The new
technology was not adopted,

10 min Small Group Exercise. Divide up the session partiéipants into
three groups and give the following instructions:

1. Plan an approach for determining why the new technology
was not adopted. What type of methodology would you use
for discovering why the new sorghum varieties were not
planted the second year?

2. Prepare to give a 4-minute presentation of your group’s
plan.

12min —_LargeyGroup Discussion. Have each group pre: nt the
‘approaches they developed.

3min Case Study Conclusion. ‘Tell what actually happened, ic., why
the sorghum varieties were not adopted. Male researchers





were unable to discover why the varieties were rejected
because they had not requested the key information from
women, Eventually, the researchers requested assistance from
a female social scientist who quickly learned an important
detail: sorghum was planted not just for animal feed but also
for human consumption. Thus, the yellow varieties with hil
tannin content were quickly rejected by the families. The
families also did not like to admit that they used sorghum for
making tortillas, as corn tortillas were preferred. Therefore
even though the white variety was suitable for human
consumption, they rejected it because the purple glums
associated with this white variety showed up in the tortillas,
“giving away" the sorghum ingredient.



Activity VI: Wrap-up. (5 min)

TIME

Simin

ACTIVITY MATE!

Summarize the session, reviewing the objectives and soliciting
questions,

Hand out the reading list, Handout 310



* DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role play that will
help demonstrate the complex nature of technology introduction.
Dr. Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to
speak up at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency, GENDERBLIND
Inc. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
Headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The new technology is a mule~drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE
Your nane is Mohammed, you have two wives and 3 children,
one of whom is present at the meeting. You are excited about’ the
mule and plow technology because you will be able to prepare more

land in less time and therefore earn more money. You are also
excited about the status that will accompany the ownership of
such a visible technology (although you would never mention it to
anyone). Still, the prospect of increased status makes this plow
even more attractive. Your role is to raise your hand as Dr.
Hildebrand is completing his explanation of the plow and briefly
pledge your support based on the above information (ie. "My name
is Mohammed and as a farmer I think that this new plow will be
wonderful for our village because... and I am therefore willing
to experiment with it on my farm"). Others will follow with
other comments.



Do NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. ‘The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC, (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:

Your name is Gloria and you are one of Mohammed's two wives.
Hearing about the new plow and its justification makes you very
uncomfortable. After all, if more land is plowed and put under
cotton production, you will be’ required to do a lot more weeding,
thus taking time avay from other important activities (like

caring for your children). Your role is to raise your hand after
Dr. Hildebrand has spoken of the plow and briefly voice your
concerns (ie. "My name is Gloria, and I do not like this idea of

increasing cotton production because then I will have too much
work to do...weeding... kids..etc.). Others will also be
speaking, 50 just jump in when you can.



DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. pr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCEW!
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of

Nadalandia. ‘The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND

INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village

headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new

technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)

s production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR _ROLE:

Your nae is Cindy and you are one of Mohammed's two wives.
Hearing about the new plow and its justification makes you very
uncomfortable. After all, if more land is plowed and put under
cotton production, you will likely lose land that you have been
using to grow food crops. This is a prospect that disturbs you
considerably because you must have crops in order to feed your
family. After Dr. Hildebrand and sone others have offered their
opinions on the new plow technology, raise your hand and briefly
voice your concerns ("My name is Cindy and I am married to
Mohammed. I think this new plow is a very bad idea because...").
Others will speak before and after you.





DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. pr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCENE.

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. ‘The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting’to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR_ ROLE

Your name is George and you are a local villager and thus a
farmer. You like the sound of this new plow technology, but you
are skeptical of the promise that it will be shared by the
villagers (ie. you are worried that your field will not be
plowed). Raise your hand and offer lukewarm support for the
project, but briefly express your concern that only a few may
benefit from this idea ("My name is George and I am a local
farmer. I feel that the donkey plow is an interesting idea but I
am quite worried about..."). Others will speak before and after
you so just raise your hand after Dr. Hildebrand and a few others
have spoken.





- DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCE

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting'to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the lecal cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROW

You are a ten year old boy named Jean-Luc. You do not know
too much about plowing and field preparation, but you do know
that in your culture the children care for the animals. Owning a
mule would really be fun and you are certain that as Mohammed's
son it would be you who would be responsible for leading the mule
to pasture each day and watching over it. Your part in this
role-play requires you to raise your hand at the meeting and
after introducing yourself, briefly express your support for the
plow project (ie. "My name is Jean-Luc, I am 10 years old and the
son of Mohammed. As his son it is I who will care for the nule
and thus feel that the project is good. I like mules"). of
course, wait at least until your father Mohammed has spoken
before raising your hand to put in your two cents Others will
also offer opinions.







DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate monent.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting’to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. ‘The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE

Your nane is Lee Ping and you are the local school teacher.
Hearing about the new mule and plow technology sounded
interesting to you until you heard Mohammed's son Jean-Luc
nention that he will accompany the mule to pasture each day and
watch over it. You realized then that this would mean that he
(and other children in the future) would be forced to miss
school. It is difficult enough for you to hold regular classes
when children do not have extra labor requirements, so you must
speak out against this new, poorly thought out technology. After
Dr. Hildebrand has spoken of the new plow, wait for little Jean-
Luc to speak and then raise your hand to speak briefly ("My name
is Lee Ping, I am the local school teacher and I must tell you
that I am concerned about this plow because..."). Others will
voice their opinions as well.



DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. pr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. ‘The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE

Your name is Latoya and you are the local store owner. MWhen
you heard of the new plow technology, "naditas" (the currency of
Nadalandia) danced in your head. Tt'is you who would be selling
the plows and parts and this excites you. You must voice your
support for the project at this meeting because you feel that
this could mean increased commerce for the village. After all,
if the experiment with farmer Mohammed works out many other
villagers will want plows. After Dr. Hildebrand an a few others
have spoken, raise your hand and briefly pledge your support (‘my
name is Latoya and I own the local store. I think that this
village plow project is important because..."). Others will
voice their opinions before and after you.





DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate’ moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. ‘The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
Inc. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.



YOUR ROLE
Your name is Mauricio and you are the village Headman. As
you listen to the proposal for the new mule plow technology and
its potential for increasing cotton production you are intrigued.
Although the original proposal indicated that the plow would be
tested by a local farmer, Mohammed, and then lent out to other
villagers, you are no longer happy with the plan. After all, as
Headman YOU should have rights to the plow and decisions about
its use. After listening to Dr. Hildebrand and the other seven
people offering their views on the subject, you should raise your
hand and in a strong, benevolent and dignified manner explain to
the people at the meeting that you have decided to keep the plow
for your farm to avoid any potential problems...case closed!
(ie. "my name is Mauricio and as the Headman of this village I
have listened with interest to the discussion about this new
plow. In order to avoid potential disagreements, I have decided
to use the plow on MY farn...").





DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE



We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction, Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate’ moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERSLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting’to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.



YOUR ROLI

You are the Iman ("ee-mahn") or religious leader of this
village, You have been listening with increasing horror to the
discussion about the mule plow. Do the people not realize that
mules are not acceptable animals in your religion? After all,
they cannot reproduce which goes against the tennants of your
holy scripture! after all have spoken, and the Headman has
announced that he will, in fact, keep the plow, you must stand up
and be heard! (ie. "I'am the Iman of this village and am
offended by this blasphamy! ‘There will, in the name of God, be
NO mule in our village. Should anyone choose to have one, they
will surely bring shame and misery to the village as is indicated
in the holy scriptures. I cannot allow it!").





BACKGROUND READINGS
Feldstein, H.S. and S.V, Poats (eds). 1989. Working Together: Gender Analysis in
Agriculture, 2 volumes, Kumarian Press, Inc. West Hartford, CT,

Skgnsberg, E 1989. Change in an African Village: Kefa Speaks. Kumarian Press, Inc.
West Hartford, CT. 27Ip.



‘USER PERSPECTIVE

Evaluation



Se perrergereensen

Sonesta | Muay Vyuce
a a 24.

a

11, My understand of the 1 2 3 4
comploxity of introducing
9 proposed technology increased,

My understanding of the 1 2 3 4
importance of identifying those

being impacted upon by the

technology increased

3. My understanding of the 1 2 3 4
importance of identifying how the
‘echnology impacts those being
affected increased :

‘4. What did you like most about this session?
5. What could be improved?

6, Please rate the instructor on the following items:



Content 1 2 3 aos
Presentation 1 2 3 4s
7.Comments +



© complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address om back is showing



‘Total Time:

Rationale:

Learning
Objectives:

Materials:

Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session IV: DATA COLLECTION: WHO DOES WHAT WHEN,
DETERMINING ACCESS AND CONTROL,

OVERVIEW

70 minutes

‘Many agricultural research and extension projects are focused on generating new
technologies and extending them to small producers. The collection of information
that allows the researcher or extensionist to identify gender and age-based
Gifferences within the household is crucial for increasing adoption of newly-
generated technologies. This session helps participants to examine how
information is gathered from rural households in many research and development
Projects. Often the institutions conducting the research are poor, understaffed, and
with limited capabilities for quantitative data analysis, and thus must prudently
choose the kinds of data they will collect.

At the end of this session participants will be able to:

1, Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to examine inter- and intra-
household differences in such factors as: (a) access to and control over
resources, (b) division of labor, and (c) social organization,

2, Determine what kinds of data are needed for the purpose of predicting
adoption of improved agricultural technologies, after examining a specific case
from Zaire.



* Overhead projector
* Overheads:
4,1) Objectives
4.2) Structure of SENARAV
4.3) RAV II Project
4.4) Organizations involved in extension in Zaire
4.5) R & D team organization
4.6) R & D team r-« sonsibilities
4.7) What kinds of «ta may be of interest?
~ . 4.8) Questions for thought
* Handouts: :
4.1) Gender and Age in the Rural Zairian Household: A Case Study of the
Effects of Inter and Intra-household Differences on the Adoption of
Improved Technologies" (3 pages)
4.2) Gender training module #4, Working group 1





g module #4, Working group 2
1g module #4, Working group 3
4.5) Gender training module #4, Working group 4
4.6) Gender training module #4, Working group 5
4.7) Small group discussions

4.8) Evaluation form

Background Handout 4.1.
Readings:



Procedure: Activity I gives the background information on the national agronomic research
and extension institution in Zaire that serves as the case study. Small group work
Activity II helps participants to examine various adoption hypotheses and to
determine what kinds of data would be necessary to collect in order to test the
hypotheses. The summary in Activity III serves to stimulate the participants to
think about methods of data collection that may be used in their work.





Session IV: DATA COLLECTION: WHO DOES WHAT WHEN,

DETERMINING ACCESS AND CONTROL

Activity Iz Introduction. ‘(25 min)

TIME

3 min

22 min

ACTIVITY

Show overhead and explain the objectives of the training
session:



1. Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to examine

inter- and intra-household differences in such factors ast

(a) access to and control over resources, (b) division of labor,
and (c) social organization.

2. Determine what kinds of data ate needed for the purpose
of predicting adoption of improved agricultural technologies,
after examining a specific case from Zaire.

Give a brief overview of the activities for the session.

Short Lecture, Introduce background information for the
case studies. Locate Zaire on a map and briefly describe the
country. Describe SENARAV (National Service of Applied
Agronomic Research and Extension) as an organization that
generates agricultural technologies to benefit small farmers.

Briefly review the structure of SENARAY, focusing on the
research and development (R & D) unit. Within this unit,

R & D teams were organized on a regional level, and were
backstopped by a farming systems unit at a research station.
Upon reviewing technology transfer within the R & D unit, it
was concluded that in reality extension did not take place
within this unit because of staff shortages. However, further
inquiry revealed that extension was taking place through
several hundred state and non-governmental organizations.
‘Thus it was determined that the weak areas in the technology
innovation process within the R & D unit included (2) area-
specific research and (b) technical liaison and support, given
the fact that various organizations in Zaire carried out
extension of newly developed technologies.





‘The regional R & D teams of the R & D unit were composed
of a regional supervisor and two or three local teams. Local
teams usually included two members with formal training in

MATERIALS
Overhead 41

mp of Affin

Overhead 42

Ovetheat 43

Overhead 44

Overhead 45



agronomy and one with some training in rural development. A

review of R & D team responsibilities demonstrated that the Overbead 45
teams served to provide the missing link between research and

extension.

In order to carry out their responsibilities, each R & D team

needed to collect socio-economic data for their local area.

Repeat the fact that the intention of SENARAV was not to

study the rural household per se. The goal was to understand

the gender-based division of labor within the household to

increase the probability that SENARAV-generated

technologies would be adopted. Review in some detail the

many kinds of data that may be of interest to SENARAV, but Overhead 47
caution about the differences between “data that would be nice

to have" and "data that is absolutely necessary’. Data

collection by the R & D teams was designed to make

SENARAV more responsive to farmers, however available

money and staff were insufficient to carry out extensive data

collection,

Activity II; SENARAY examples. (35 min)

TIME

20 min

15 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Instructions. Introduce the five examples that will be
examined by participants, Explain that they must determine:
(a) whether the hypothesis can be tested, and (b) what data to
collect for SENARAV in order to test each hypothesis. Divide

participants into five groups, giving each group their respective -: Handouts
hypothesis and a copy of the instructions Tor the small group 42-46
discussions. Tell the groups that they have 20 minutes to Handout 47

complete the tasks, and that they will be asked to summarize
their results for the rest of the group.

‘Small Group Activity. Each participant group examines their
hypothesis, and determines the types of data they should
collect in order to test the hypothesis,

aurge-Group Presentations. Each group has three minutes to
report the results of their small group discussion. The
facilitator should be very familiar with each of the 5 examples,
particularly the types of data that might be important to
collect. However, the facilitator should add hisfher remarks
during the discussion only when absolutely necessary. The



point is to demonstrate the complexity of research given
limited resources, and the variety of approaches and data
collection techniques that may be used.

Activity III: Summary. (10 min)

IME

10 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Short Lecture. Summarize the session, reiterating the
emphasis within SENARAV on collecting only i
we had to know rather than all that we wanted to know.

Ultimately SENARAV decided to spend 50% of their efforts

on field trials and 50% on the collection of socio-economic
information. :



Show the overhead and leave participants with the following Overhead 48,
questions:

1, What are the differences between the approach to studying
the household introduced in the last session and today?
2, What are the advantages and disadvantages of the two
approaches to data collection that you have discussed during
the last two sessions?

~3, How could you apply these two approaches in your own
work?



Point out that the approach presented during the last session
emphasized general data collection of a more descriptive, or
qualitativé nature, while today’s session concentrated on
collecting specific numerical, or quantitative, data for the
purpose of prediction. Although the approaches are distinctly
different, they should be thought of as complementary
methods, with each being more appropriate for certain goals
and situations.





Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to
examine inter and intra-household differences in
such factors as: access to and control over
resources, division of labor, and social

organization.

Examine a specific case from Zaire, Central
Africa, in order to determine what kinds of data
are needed for the purpose of predicting adoption

of improved agricultural technologies.



STRUCTURE OF SENARAV
(GERVICE NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE APPLIQUEE ET VULGARISATION)

—— ee
































[J ewronorocy |



+ nrmeome:

















RAV 1] PROJET



FIGURE 1. THE TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION PROCESS



ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN EXTENSION IN ZAIRE

STATE ORGANIZATIONS.

SENASEM (Service National de Semence)

SNV (Service National de Vulgarisation)

SENAFIC (Service National de Fertilizantes et ntrants Connexes)
SNR (Service National de Reboisement)

INERA (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique)
L'Inspecteur de t’Agriculture

NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (312 total at last count)
Religious

Catholic
Kimbanguiste
Protestant Denominations

Locally Based NGO’s

Farmers’ Cooperatives
Indigenous Farmers Groups

Farmers’ Collectives
oe si ae 2
Non-Local NGO's





Outside Funded Projects



R & D TEAM ORGANIZATION
REGIONAL SUPERVISOR
AO, 5 YEAR AGRICULTURAL DEGREE
LOCAL TEAMS (2-3 PER REGION)
A1, 3 YEAR AGRICULTURAL DEGREE
A2, 2 YEAR AGRICULTURAL DEGREE
2 YEAR RURAL DEVELOPMENT OR

AGRICULTURAL DEGREE, MUST
SPEAK LOCAL LANGUAGE



R & D TEAM RESPONSIBILITIES

. CONDUCT ON-FARM TRIALS AND
SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESEARCH,
PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR
PRODUCTION TRIALS.

. COORDINATE AND REVIEW ON-
FARM TRIALS AND_ SOCIO-
ECONOMIC DATA COLLECTION BY
PRIMARY COLLABORATORS,
PRIMARILY PRE-DISSEMINATION
TRIALS.

. PROVIDE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
TO PRIMARY COLLABORATORS.

. PROVIDE SITE SPECIFIC TECHNICAL
TRAINING TO PRIMARY
COLLABORATORS.

. CONDUCT PERIODIC EVALUATIONS
OF PRIMARY COLLABORATORS.



WHAT KINDS OF DATA MAY BE
OF INTEREST?

DIVISION OF LABOR

ACCESS TO RESOURCES (LAND,
LABOR, CAPITAL)

CONTROL OVER RESOURCES

RESPONSIBILITIES OTHER THAN
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

CHILD BEARING

FOOD PREPARATION

FOOD PROCESSING

MARKETING 7
HOUSEHOLD ORGANIZATION

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION



WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THE APPROACH TO
STUDYING THE HOUSEHOLD
INTRODUCED IN THE LAST SESSION
AND TODAY?

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF THE TWO
APPROACHES TO DATA COLLECTION
THAT YOU HAVE DISCUSSED DURING
THE LAST TWO SESSIONS?

HOW COULD YOU APPLY THESE TWO
APPROACHES IN YOUR OWN WORK?



GENDER TRAINING MODULE 4
M. E. Swisher, Home Economics

Gender and Age in the Rural Zairian Household:
A Case Study of the Effects of Inter and Intra-Household
Differences on the Adoption of Improved Technologies

In many agricultural development projects, even household level data are not
collected. In other cases, some data, often descriptive, about the household
are collected, but the data are not disaggregated by gender or age.

On the other hand, a growing body of literature exists which describes the rural
household in some detail. These studies are frequently conducted by social
scientists, This body of literature amply demonstrates that the household
cannot be regarded as a homogeneous unit. Gender and age based differences
exist within the household and individual household members’ access to and
control over resources vary, as do the contribution of different household
members to agriculturel production, processing of food and fiber, and
marketing, for example.

As a result of these studies, many agricultural scientists now recognize that
both inter and intra-household differences exist in the rural population.
However, it appears that this recognition has not, by and large, led to a more
sophisticated approach to the role of gender and age in determining household
decision-making. Yet, many decisions that will affect the success or failure of
agricultural development are made not by the household as a whole, but by
individuals within the household. Further, even where final decisions do
represent a "household level” consensus, this consensus may be the result of
‘overt or covert bargaining on the part of different members of the household.



Objectives

Our activities today are based on a actual agricultural development project in
Zaire, Central Africa. First, we will have a brief introduction to SENARAV
(Service National de Recherche Agronomique Appliquee et Vulgarisation) and
its mission and goals. Then, we will break into small groups to examine five
hypoti..ses that were developed by SENARAV's Research and Development
Teams. Our task is to determine what kinds of data should be collected to test
each of these hypotheses.

Our specific objectives are to:



Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to examine inter and intra-
household differences in such factors as: access to and control over
resources, division of labor, and social organization.

Examine a specific case from Zaire, Central Africa, in order to determine
what kinds of data are needed for the purpose of predicting adoption of
improved agricultural technologies,

Background

SENARAV generates agricultural technologies. Most technologies developed
to date consist of improved varieties of corn, manioc, and grain legumes.
Extending these technologies to Zaire’s millions of farmers, predominantly
women in many regions, is SENARAV’s ultimate goal.

The hypotheses that we will examine therefore all deal with how gender and
age-based differences within the household affect the adoption of these
technologies by farmers. In other words, our intention in SENARAV was not
to study the rural household per se. Rather, we were interested in how such
factors as the sexual division of labor within the household will affect the
probability that SENARAV-generated technologies will beaccepteble to farmers.

Just as we had to keep this in mind when we determined our data collection
needs, so will you. | repeatedly warned our technicians about the differences
between “data it would be nice to have" and “data we must have." |
encourage you to keep the same constraints in mind. We are collecting data
for purposes of decision-making within SENARAV. Should we conduct more
research about A or B? Should we plan on making more improved corn seed
or manioc cuttings available next year? How will we select collaborating
outreach entities? SENARAV is a small, underfunded organization. Operating
costs in rural areas are extremely high in Zaire. Data collection, even simple
field plot data collection, is a difficult undertaking. In short, | ask you to enter
into the spirit of our efforts as you work through these materials today: you're
poor, understaffed, and have limited analytical capabilities.



These are only five of many hypotheses that were developed by these teams.
They were selected because | felt that they were particularly relevant to the
issues that we have been discussing in these training sessions, | will remind
you that these hypotheses were developed by agricultural technicians, most
with two or three years of post-high school training.

Module 4 - Gender Training 2



The Hypotheses

For your information, the five hypotheses that we will examine are provided
below. We will be working in five small groups, each dealing with only one of
these hypotheses.

Hypothesis 1:

As markets for corn and peanuts, traditionally produced by women, decline in
Bandundu, women will devote more time to hunting and less time to agricultural
production. These changes in labor allocation will negatively affect the rate of
adoption of SENARAV‘s improved varieties Kasai land Shaba Il (corn) and JL24
(peanut).

Hypothesis 2:

The gender of the para-technical or technical assistant affects the rate of
adoption of SENARAV-generated technologies.

Hypothesis 3: s
Adoption of the improved peanut varieties JL24 and JL85 will be positively

affected by membership of women in women’s work squads in Kasai Occiden-
tal.

Hypothesis 4:

Increasing population in Kinshasa increases the demand for processed manioc
products (chikwonga and cossettes). Increased demand for processed manioc
products increases the labor demands placed on women and children in Bas
Zaire. These changes in labor demands will result in increased rates of adoption
for -24/31 and decreased rates of adoption of F-100.



Hypothesis

Women's access to revenues from manioc production is declining in Kasai
Oriental. Women will therefore move to the production of higher value crops,
including peanuts, leading to increased adoption of peanut varieties JL24 and
YL8S in Kasai Oriental,

Module 4 - Gender Training 3



GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 1



Hypothe:
Changes in labor allocation in Bandandu will negatively affect the rate of
adoption of SENARAV’s improved varieties Kasai land Shaba ll (corn) and JL24
(peanut).

Kinshasa traditionally represented an urban market for agricultural produce from
Bandundu. The road from Kinshasa to Bandundu has seriously deteriorated in
recent years. Many “manioc" (they actually carry all types of products) trucks*
travelling to and from Bandundu have ceased making the trip. Therefore, the
market for corn and beans in Bandundu declined. _

As markets for corn and peanuts, traditionally produced by women, decline in
Bandundu, we observed that women appeared to be devoting more time to
hunting and less time to agricultural production. We were not sure of the
magnitude of this change in labor allocation.

Our hypothesis stated above is based on the fact that both corn and peanuts
are relatively labor intensive crops. Further, the labor demand for corn and
peanut production occurs at more or less the same time of the year in
Bandundu. Finally, labor to produced these crops must be provided in a timely
manner. Weeding, for example, must occur within a relatively short period of
time.

Although not stated in the hypothesis above, we also hypothesized that the
changes in labor allocation from agriculture to hunting would have @ positive
effect on the adoption of improved manioc varieties. Manioc, unlike corn and
peanuts, is a relatively low labor input crop. Further, the demand for labor for
manioc is spread over a long period of time, nor must labor be provided in a
very timely manner. Manioc, too, has a market in Kinshasa, although it is, of
course, a much lower value crop than corn and beans.



GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 2

Hypothesis

The gender of the para-technical or technical assistant affects the rate of
adoption of SENARAV-generated technologies by women.

SENARAV works with food crops, most of which are produced by women in
the areas in Zaire where we worked. The collaborating outreach agencies
which perform the actual "extension" function for SENARAV normally use
either paid or volunteer para-technical or technical assistants as "extension:
agents."



This hypothesis was an important one for us in SENARAV. We utilized 2
number of criteria to select collaborating outreach agencies. One criterion was
the number of women farmers receiving technical assistance from the agency.
Another was the number (or percentage} of para-technical and technical assis-
tants in the agency who were female. Therefore, it was important for us to
know whether the gender of the technical assistant actually had an impact on
adoption rate.



Do not forget that we worked in five of Zaire’s provinces. The degree to which
women were responsible for the production of corn, manioc, and grain legumes
varied from region to region. In addition, women’s access to and control over
household resources also varied both between and among regions. Therefore,
although testing this hypothesis may seem quite straightforward, we found that
the data collection needs were quite extensive because of the large number of
potentially intervening factors.



GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 3

Hypothesis
Adoption of the improved peanut varieties JL24 and JL85 will be positively

affected by membership of women in women’s work squads in Kasai Occiden-
tal.



JL24 and JL85 both respond very positively to (1) tillage prior to planting and
(2) frequency of weeding. Where no tillage occurs and/or where weeding is
infrequent, these two varieties outperform traditional varieties only marginally.
Therefore, these two varieties can be called “high labor demand" varieties.

In Kasai Occidental farmers organize themselves in a number of ways. In'some
villages, almost all work is performed individually. In other villages, women
work in groups or squads. Our hypothesis is that the high labor demand of
JL24 and JL85 can be more effectively met where women work in groups.
Therefore, these varieties should exhibit higher yields relative to traditional
varieties in villages where work groups exist.





GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 4

Hypothesis

Greater demand for women’s and children’s labor to produce processed manioc
products (chikwonga and cossettes) in Bas Zaire and will result in increased
rates of adoption for |-24/31 and decreased rates of adoption of F-100.

Kinshasa’s population, like that of the capital city in many developing nations,
has increased greatly in population aver the last two decades. Unprocessed
manioc roots are bulky and heavy to transport and have limited shelf life.
Transportatiun costs amount to an extremely high percentage of the total
market value of food products in Zaire because of the poor transportation
system. Refrigeration or others methods of extending the shelf life of fresh
produce are not available to the majority of urban dwellers. Therefore, many
urban dwellers prefer to purchase chikwonga (a sort of manioc paste) or cos-
settes (manioc chips) than fresh manioc tubers. The cost is probably (although
we are not sure of this) lower per kilo of actual nutrients and the processed
products definitely have a longer shelf life.



Clearly, selling chikwonga or cossettes instead of manioc tubers increases the
labor demand for the rural household, Processing manioc is primarily done by
women and children.

F-100 has a relatively low percentage dry matter, not much higher than many
traditional manioc varieties. F-100 routinely outyields traditional varieties in
terms of tubers, even under poor production conditions. The low dry matter
content, however, means that processing is a lengthy and labor-consuming
process. The final finished product yield of F-100, particularly of cossettes, will
not be much higher than that of several traditional varieties.



|-24/31 is a new variety in its second year of release by SENARAV. Its total
production (wet tuber weight) per unit area is slightly less than that of F-100
and it does not produce as well as F-100 (relative to local varieties) under poor
roduction conditions. However, it has a much higher dry matter content than
F-100. It is therefore easier to process

Both F-100 and I-24/31 have important characteristics, particularly resistance
to mosaic which is a major disease of manioc in Bas Zaire. Local varieties are,
in general, highly susceptible to mosaic.



GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 5

Hypothesis

Decreased access to income from manioc sales will lead to increased adoption
of peanut varieties JL24 and JL85 in Kasai Oriental.

Kinshasa traditionally represented an urban market for agricultural produce from
Kasai Oriental. Roads from Kinshasa to Kasai Oriental have seriously deter‘orat-
ed in recent years. In the eighteen months prior to September, 1991, air trans-
port to N’Gandajika (provincial capital) also declined. As a result, the market
for peanuts (as did market opportunities for com and manioc) in N’Gandajika
declined. Given that sale of foad crops is a major source of income for women,
the loss of market revenues reduced the proportion of household income earned
by and controlled by women in the province.

We in SENARAV hypothesized that women might try to offset the reduced
income from sales of food crops generally by increasing production of the
higher value crops, particularly peanuts. The higher value crops generally
(peanuts, beans, cowpeas, etc.) have higher labor requirements than manio



Among peanut varieties, JL24 and JL85 can be called “high labor demand"
varieties. JL24 and JL85 both respond very positively to (1) tillage prior to
planting and (2) frequency of weeding. Where no tillage occurs and/or where
weeding is infrequent, these two varieties outperform traditional varieties only
marginally. On the. other hand, both varieties show significant resistance to
two of the most important diseases of peanuts in the region, either of which
can cause devastating yield reductions. - .



SMALL GROUP DISCUSSIONS

You have been provided with background information regarding one of the five
hypotheses for discussion in your group. Your task is to determine:



+ (1) Whether the hypothesis can be tested; and, if the hypothesis can
be tested,

(2) What types of data the R&D Teams should collect in order to test
this hypothesis.

Your group will be asked to make a five minute presentation. You will have
twenty minutes to complete your exercise. You may reformulate the
hypothesis.



DATA COLLECTION, WHO DOES WHAT WHEN, DETERMINING
ACCESS AND CONTROL
Session 4
Evaluation

Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements,



1 My understanding of the
‘kinds of data that can be di 2 3
utilized to examine inter and
intra-household differences in such
factors as: access to and control
over resources, division of labor and
social organization increased.

2. My understanding of the 1 2 3 4
‘kinds of data needed for the
purpose of predicting adoption
of improved agricultural technologies
increased,

3. What did you like most about this session?

= 4 What could be improveul?

5. Please rate the instructor on the following items:



Content 1 2 3 aos
Presentation 1 2 3 aos
6. Comments

Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address on back is showing



Total Time:

Rationale:

Learning
Objectives:

Materials:

Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session V: WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT TRAINING
IN INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES

OVERVIEW

70 minutes

This session is the first of four sessions focusing on Gender Analysis training.
‘These sessions are designed to give the participants the educational skills and.
knowledge that will enable them to train others in Gender Analysis. Women in
Development and Gender Analysis trainings have been carried out by international
esearch and development institutions for the past ten years with various audiences,
Numerous conceptual approaches and training methodologies have been employed
at the various levels of development work. It is important to review these trainings
not only to learn from past mistakes, but also to gain an appreciation of the
historical development of this field.





At the end of this session participants will be able to:

_ 1. Distinguish between: (a) Training women, (b) Training men and women,

(©) Women in Development (WID) trai
training.

2. Describe the current thrust of GA training in the international development
agencies.

3. Identify two conceptual frameworks applied in GA training,

4. Recognize and characterize different target groups which need to be trained
in Gender Analysis. ~



ig, and (d) Gender Analysis (GA)

* Flipcharts 1-2

* Overhead projector

* Overhea
5.1) Major development agencies
5.2) Gender definitions
5.3) Gender Analysis framework
5.4) Gender planning framework
5.5) Policy approaches
5.6) Target groups

*VCR

* FAO videotape (if available)

* Handouts:
5.1) UN. structure





5.2) CGIAR centers

5.3) Gender planning in the Third World (Moser)
5.4) Reading list

5.5) Evaluation form

Background See Handout 5.4.

Readings:



Procedure:

This session is divided into six main activities. Activity I states the objectives and
sets the stage. Two examples of international training are covered in Activity II
Different conceptual frameworks used in Gender Analysis are described in Activity
IH, focusing on two of the most common approaches. Activity IV addresses the
types of training frameworks and methodologies that might be most appropriate
for the various target groups participating in training. Activity V shows a brief
video clip of FAQ's Gender Analysis Workshops. The session is summarized in
Activity VI.





Session V: WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT TRAINING.

IN INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES



Activity Iz State and explain objectives, and set the stage. (10 min)

TIME

5 min

S min



ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Show flipchart with printed objectives, stating that by the end Flipchart 1

of the session participants will be.able t



1. Distinguish between: (a) training women, (b) training

men and women, (c) Women in Development (WID) training,
and (d) Gender Analysis (GA) training.

2. Describe the current thrust of GA training in the
international development agencies.

3. Identify two conceptual frameworks applied in GA training.
4, Recognize and characterize different target groups which
need to be trained in Gender Analysis.

Make it clear that for objective 1, "a and "b" are different
target groups, while "c" and "d are conceptually two different
topics. Training in various international agencies will be
discussed so that participants understand the differences
between the Gender Analysis training they are currently
receiving in an academic setting versus what occurs at
development agencies operating in an international setting.

In order to help set the stage for discussing WID and GA
training in international agencies, review Some definitions and
acronyms common in the international arena, Explain the Ovethead 5
differences between bilateral and multilateral agencies, and

briefly mention the major international development agencies,

Review the concepts of gender, Gender Analysis, and Overhead 52
differentiate between WID versus GA. Emphasize that there

are all sorts of permutations of WID and GA. Mention that

the popularity of WID and GA trainings within international

agencies is a relatively new phenomenon, and that interest is

growing rapidly.





Activity II: ‘Two examples of international training. (30 min)

TIME

15 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Small Lectufe. For the first example, report on preparation Handout 5.1

for Gender Analysis training within the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Be sure to cover
the main points listed below. It is recommended that the
facilitator also review the FAO documents referenced in the
reading list for an improved understanding of the FAO
example.

FAO's preparation for GA training involved two major steps:
steps: (a) conducting a needs assessment, and (b) reviewing
pilot workshops.

‘The needs assessment was designed to examine what type of
training might best address the needs of FAO and the various
organizations with which FAO works. As part of the
assessment, @ paper was commissioned to review how ten
other major international development institutions had
addressed GA and WID training. The paper identified six key
points for a successful training:



“1. ‘There must be an explicit mandate for the training from

the organization that is to receive the training, The higher the
management level from which the training is requested the

better. Support from upper management may improve

coordination and delivery of the training, encourage full

participation by those attending, and ensure better assimilation

of the information into the mainstream of the organization. é
However, wide support at all levels of the organization is also
necessary.



2, Knowledge and skills assimilated during training in WID or
GA may easily be adapted to improve other aspects of
participants’ work.

3. The training program should be managed by a core team
of trainers provided with good logistical support and adequate
preparation time. Training should also be evaluated on a
regular basis.

4, It is best to employ WID and GA experts as trainers and to
teach them how to become good trainers, rather than to
select professional trainers and instruct them on WID and GA





15 min

issues. Self-confidence is an important attribute of a good
trainer.

5. The case study method lends itself well to training in
international agencies, although the case study might need to
bbe region or country specific,

6. Training techniques and methodologies should be carefully
selected.

FAO sponsored three pilot workshops in an attempt to further
identify the type of training that would best meet the
organization's needs. FAO borrowed different features of
these pilot workshops and designed in-house workshops
attended by over 700 senior professionals. FAO personnel
were also trained at their regional offices, with training
materials tailored to the culture and language of the area.

Short Lecture. Report on the second example, training for the
Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
(CGIAR) headquartered at the World Bank. Be sure to
include the points outlined below, and again, It is
recommended that the facilitator review the CGIAR
document referenced in the reading list for improved
understanding of the CGIAR example.

CGIAR centers are located all over the world with each Handout 52
center focusing on a particular agronomic system or crop.

Therefore, center-specific training is necessary to take into

account the nature of the research and the cultural

environment of each center,

Per donor request, WID/GA training was initiated within
CGIAR centers as part of a dual effort to better address
gender issues in the development arena and to examine the
staffing of women in the centers. A four-person team was
organized to carry out a two-year study of these issues. Data
were collected through a center-wide survey and visits to
several centers,

Gender Analysis and/or WID activities varied greatly in
amount and kind between the centers. It was determined that
GA workshops could improve the research and extension
capabilities of all staff, even at centers where Gender Analysis
activities were already occurring.



Activity I:
TIME

8 min

‘The trainers ultimately targeted those research programs that
contained a user perspective component. They gained a good
deal of acceptance with this approach, and eventually were
able to train center scientists in Gender Analysis as well as
tain others'in how to carry out GA workshops.

Conceptual frameworks used in Gender Analysis. (8 min)

ACTIVITY
Short Lecture. There are many conceptual frameworks with

which to carry out GA/WID training. Two of the most
common approaches are the Gender Analysis Framework and
the Gender Planning Framework,

Briefly review the Gender Analysis Framework emphasizing
that it is a technique of looking at activities by gender and
age.

Review the Gender Planning Framework conceived by Moser,
stating that this model is uswally applied in an urban setting.
State that in WID training, Moser makes distinctions between
practical and strategic needs, as well as the different policy
approaches taken when addressing Third World women,
According to Moser, women often prioritize their needs
wanting to address practical needs first as these needs are
often felt more urgently by women. Addressing strategic
needs implies changing the entire social system. Pass out
Handout 5.3 and review the five basic policy approaches used
in WID. Make the following points for each of the respective
‘approaches:



1. The welfare approach is still used most often by
international agencies, in part because it is nonchallenging to
the social structure, Women are seen as passive beneficiaries
of development.



2. The equity: approw:.: is usually not popular with
governments, It is cri‘cized as being Western feminism, and
is sometimes consider: 4 threatening to governments.

3. Anti-poverty is easy for all to accept as it uses a
sympathetic argument and meets women’s practical needs.

MATERIALS

Ovethead 53

(Overhead 54

‘Handout 53

Overhead 55



Activity IV:

TIME

3 min

2min

3 min

4. Efficiency is the most popular with governments and
multilateral agencies, Women are seen entirely in terms of
delivery capacity and ability to extend the working day.

5. Empowerment as an issue has been introduced into the
policy arena primarily by Third World women. It is
sometimes viewed as anti-colonial, emptiasizing Third World
women's self reliance, It tends to be unpopular with
governments.

Addressing different target groups. (8 min)
ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Short Lecture. Show the overhead, "Target Groups", and Overhead 56
emphasize the main points: “Facilitators must know their
target group before attempting to deliver a message, and must
adjust their training accordingly. The first three groups differ
in the amount of monetary power they wield, level of
education, and personal and professional agendas. For
example, policy makers have power and are in charge of the
budget; they are also often male and more accustomed to
traditional educational methods. It is also important to
differentiate between international, national, and local target
groups. "Tripartite training" refers to training at headquarters,
donor agencies, and/or host governments.

Brainstorming. Ask participants to tun to a partner and
brainstorm about the characteristics of one of the three first
groups, and the types of training frameworks and
methodologies that would be appropriate when targeting that
group. Give cach group two minutes to perform the task, and
inform them that they will have approximately three minutes.
to summarize their ideas for the larger audience.

Large Group Report. Jot down the results for each of the Flipchart 2
three grous.: on a flipchart, Participant summaries will make

it clear that different methodological approaches are necessary

when addressing varied target groups.







Activity Vi Video: FAO Gender Analysis workshops. (3 min)

TIME ACTIVITY
3 min If available, ‘show a video clip of some of the participant

responses to the FAO Gender Analysis workshops.

Activity Viz Wrap-up. (1 min)
TIME ACTIVITY

Imin Briefly summarize the session.

MATERIALS:

Videotape

MATERIALS





BILATERAL: (two sides) nation to nation; in development
usually donor to recipient nation

MULTILATERAL: (many sides); usually many nations or
governments participate; in development an international
agency such as the World Bank, IMF, the United Nations
and any of its specialized agencies, i.e, FAO, UNDP;
UNFPA; IFAD; ILO; UNIFEM; INSTRAW; HABITAT;
‘WHO; UNSO; etc.

PVO/NGO: Private Voluntary Organization
Non-governmental Organization; may be international or
local, but is not connected to government; may be civic,
religious; focused on a topic or cause

CGIAR: Consultative Group for International Agricultural
Research

USAID: United States Agency for International
Development

CIDA: Canadian Agency for International Development
SIDA: Swedish Agency for International Development
ODA: (British) Overseas Development Agency

Norad; Finida; Danida

GTZ: German



GENDER: Refers to the social differences that are learned,
changeable over time, and have wide variations within and
between cultures. Gender is a socio-economic variable to
analyze roles, responsibilites, constraints and opportunities
of the people involved; it considers both women and men.

GENDER ANALYSIS: Is the systematic effort to
‘document and understand the roles of women and men
within a given context. Key issues include

(a) the division of labor for both productive and
reproductive activities

(b) the resources individuals can utilize to carry out
their activities and the benefits they derive from them, in
terms of both access and control

(c) the relationship of the above to the social,
economic and environmental factors that constrain
development

WID VERSUS GENDER ANALYSIS: Early efforts in ,
WID focused on highlighting the important roles of women
and in documenting women’s inequitable position in society
and in the development process. Gender Analysis
considers the activities and responsibilities of both women
and men and the similar and/or different impacts that
policies, programs and project activities may have on each.



GENDER ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK--Overholt, Cloud,
Anderson, & Austin

Women’s contribution to development not recognized, but
projects can be redesigned; purpose of the analysis is to
give visibility to women’s contributions.

_Activity Profile
production of goods and services
reproduction and maintenance of human resources

gender and age denomination
time allocations

activity locus/place
agricultural calendar

Access and Control Profile

Resources
Land, labor, equipment, capital, education/
training

Benefits
Outside income, assets ownership; in-kind goods;
education, political power/prestige



GENDER PLANNING FRAMEWORK--MOSER

PGN: PRACTICAL GENDER NEEDS: needs that are
formulated from the concrete conditions women experience
in their position in the sexual division of labor; they do not
‘generally entail a goal such as emancipation or gender
equality

SGN: STRATEGIC GENDER NEEDS: needs that are
formulated from the analysis of women’s subordination in
relation to men, and which are identified as leading to an
alternative, more equal organization of society



POLICY APPROACHES

WELFARE: social welfare approach, bring women into
development as better mothers, i.e.,. reproductive roles,
nutrition, family planning stressed; women are passive
beneficiaries; popular with governments & NGOs as non-
threatening, meets PGN



EQUITY: original WID approach, bring women in as
active participants to gain equity (parity); reduce inequality
with men through top-down interventions; threatening and
not popular with governments; meets SGN

ANTI-POVERTY: toned down equity linked to
redistribution with growth and basic needs; assist poor
women to increase productivity, especially in small-scale
income generation; tendency to focus on productive roles in
isolated ways; popular with some NGOs; meets PGN

EFFICIENCY: current predominant WID approach;
women’s economic participation associated with more
efficient and equitable development, especially in terms of
stabilization and adjustment; women viewed in the context
of the delivery of services; popular with governments and
multilateral agencies; meets PGN

EMPOWERMENT: view of Third World women and
grassroots organizations to empower women through
greater self-reliance; anti-colonial; some F'*/Os, but largely
unsupported by governments; meets PGN and SGN



TARGET GROUPS

-- Policy makers, supervisors, managers

-- Field people, researchers, extensionists, technical
* assistance and project personnel

-- Local groups, local PVOs/NGOs, farmers, women’s
groups, grassroots extensionists



INTERNATIONAL

NATIONAL

LOCAL

TRIPARTITE:
donor

executing agency/personnel
host government





AU es
[Suan tacos oe

Tne UN. is made up of sie main bodies:

GENERAL ASSEMBLY (GA); TheAssemblyisthemain
deliberative body of the United Nations, Apresentatives ofall
‘member governments moot each fll fr approximately three
months and make recommendations ona wide range of iter-
tational questions, approve the UN, budget, and a
UN, expenses. Eich member has one vote, All other UN,
bodies report to the G.A. annually. On the recommendation of
theSecurty Council itelecsthe Secretary General, and adexity
(and can exped members. Most decisions aremade by asimple
tnajriyor consensus (agreemntwithouta vote taken), Raso-
lutions on “imporane” questions, such as maintenance of
Peace, requirea two-thirds vote,

SECURITY COUNCIL(S.C): The UN. Chater givcethe
Security Council the primary responsibilty for maintaining
international peaceand secunty.Ithasthopovertodirect UN.
ation against treats tothe peace. The SC. has IS members.
Fiveare Permanent the U.S, the USSR, the United Kingdom,
France, and China. The other ten ae elected by the G3. for
twvosyeartenms. Resolutions pass withnine yes" votes A “no
otebya permanent memberisa “veto” and blockathe motion.
‘When the Charter was drafted, the voto provision was insisted
conby both the U Sand the USSR and both have subsequently
used

SECRETARIAT: Headed by the Secreary-General, he
SeertariateervesassafftotheotherorgansoftheUNandade |
iinisterstheprojetsand polices lad downlby them lv 13200

._ Menand women rom over 150 countries, work a UN. Fiead-
quarter in New York and in offees in Geneve, Vienna, and
elaawhere. The Secrotary-General is elected for fiveweat re
newable erm. The pos wast held by TrygveL leo! Norway
(194553, followed by Dag Hammarskisld of Sweden (1955-
61), U Thant of Burma (1881-71), Kure Waldheim of Austra
(1972-8), and Javier Perez de Cuellar of Pars (1982 to the
present)

fm ECONOMICAND SOCIAL COUNCIL: ECOSOC coon
nates the economic and soxial work of the UN, and ts
specialized agencies and insitutons ft also overcaesfiva
‘gional economic commissions and sox functional commis-
sons (Satistical Commission, Population Coremision, and
the Commissions for Socal Development on Human Rights,
onthe Satus of Women, and on Narcotic Drugs. tS meme
bers aro elected by jhe G.A. for threesyear tens, ECOSOC
generally holds teromonth-ongsessions each year,oncin New
Yori and onein Geneva

BL TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL (7.C.): Trust Tertories are
former coloniesthat after Werld Wrll, were paced under ne
jarldicion ofthe Trusteeship Counc. The L, assigned them
toadminstecing powers whose job wastoproparethem fri
dependence. Onguully thew were I Trt Teories, mostly










11 Afaca.Allane now independent nations except Micranesia,
| whichis administered by th US. Today the TC sane up of
the US, and other permanent S.C. member. t meets once a
year i discuss the status of Micronesia and other "Non-Seli-
Governing Teriteris”
INTERNATIONAL COURT OF [USTICE (IC): The Court
decides eval disputes between countresthetagreetoaccopris
unsdision also has ised advisory opinions at tho request
‘of the General Assembly and Senurity Counel. ls 13 judges,
elected by theG.A.and theS.C fornine-yearterme, arechosen
jonthebasisof thei qualications, sotharnationallty ‘Rough,
the prnaspaljega systems ofthe worl must be represented
The sua of te Coure nat The Hajue, Netherlands:





Much ofthe workof the U.N. systems done'by the fallowing
specialized agencies, which report the Economic and Socal
‘Ghunell.Exen:sautonomous, withitsownchares budgeand
sft

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAQ):

Helps governs improve the presucton, processing
ine and dutty af fod apd ager pres,
seme rural development, nd eliminate hunger. ke Gis
information and Early Warning Syste denies countees
threatened by food shorages

Mt INTERNATIONAL ENL AVIATION ORCANIZATION
((cAo):Osprive ithe sae and onder growth ofc a
enthroughout the work Sats insratiepal step andar
recommends practic governing the perorrance ofr and
pound ems mates rls fete

INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT (IFAD):Seekstoend hungerand malnutntion
indenlpingsounesbypnginenosapovetheiood

ton. Makan loa an gant t pos that prom
Frrcaturelvesoes devon irigaten taining ey
areas

1 INTERNATIONALLASOUR ORGANISATION (LOME>-
tilted 919 ueder the Lengu of Nations Socks timprove
working conditions. sets ntemational abr standards, asst
‘ener courts in sueh iss vcstina ain ae
zover lanai. ascupatonalealthand safety and seals

1 INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO):
Porotes sonsrationamang goverinentean tech ate
‘esatucene> sping Setsstindacts or marti see
ces maton an the rovenan and cgta ot polltion
tem ses

2 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF)


















rometeinteraional monesary cooperation and fitatthe ©
Expaaon of cade Prete ance ne eine 2
anceof payment difficltiss long withtecicdlsaiees as |
improve their rename managenecl

iy INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS Uiow {
(ITU); Founded 1845 as the Intemational Telegraph Union |
Goal [a linproved and effcine ute of teesommuncisons |
felis Ass tio quence and pons to ges |
onary satelite. Fosters tbecreasonand provement ot ie.
‘communications networks in developing countries. H

@ UN. EDUCATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL
ORGANIZATION (UNESCO): Promotes cllsboraton amon
Sond inthefinids of eatin scence cute andeomme
‘letons Tain teacersand educational planners organs f
scionicesplorations preserves watksofamtand monsment,
and ants developing countries t improve thet mesia. Te
U.S. withdrew from UNESCO in 1965, accusing tts then Dire- |
torGeneral of waste and mismanagemene. |

‘U.N. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION
(UNIDO}: Promotes the ndustralization of developing cone
Ses, Fatiaves tne transfer of feetnalogy t them Oranirs
‘runing programs, and helps them fo obtain extemal ina
ing,

"UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION (UPL): atabished 194,
Repulatesiniernatcnal mail delivery tandentizes ovate
provides raining and expen aavice'o postal syns iniel.
Sping courerisn,

Md) WORLD BANK: Seeksta rls standards of Wing in
‘oping countries by channlingSnanclal exource che, |
Thien done vhrough thos issnations |







“Toterallonal Bank fer Recanstracion and Develg-
sat (IBRD): Lends money and provides tach ase
tance for agnicultura and rural aevelopment pros, §
snengy, pore, pover fis roads, rllway and ce]
noeded iastucture,

“Iotertational Developinent Assocation (IDA Makes

Joans on very easy tenet the poorest among the deve:

oping counties.

“Intemational Fiance Cerportion (UFO: Assits private

ceterpise in developing countries,

Ja WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO): Goal is
“aah for Atby the Year2000" Suppor progamvof heath
and nutron education, safe water, fly pana me
"ston agalnat major disasat ane research

WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION
(PO): Ensures iterations coopentin fr the preston
‘faves was eacemaths, conv

WARLD METEOROLOGICAL RGANIZATION
(W490) eabahad 1973 Prametestnenicrmanonalencnan ge
ot wean Infemmavion. World Weathin Veh coordinates
~formaneu ined fom ld stanons An! Space seies ane

es possbieextesded Wester (reasting fut the ante















(GATT): The prinetpal international body concerned with the
reduction of rade barry, the conciliation of trade disputes,
and international radarclations. GATT isconsidered a “tlt
lateral agrorment’—not a “specialized agency” per se.

IM INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA):
Guides the development of peaceful wes of atomic energy,
cevtablsthesstandants for nuclearsafery, fostestheexthangeot
Scientife and fechnical information on atomic energy. Not a

ined agency" perse, AEA wasestablished “underthe
aegis of the UN?



2 IMPLEMENTING: THE: ::
Pe Le a eee
i GENERAL: ASSEMBEY:

‘Over he years the General Assembly bas created number of
spocal bodies to canry ott work. Ail ace finanew bY Voln=
‘Gry sonmbstlons fom gorernmens an, sometimes from
private chzens,

TB OFFICE OF THE UN. DISASTER RELIEF COORDINA.
TOR (UNDRO}. A ciesringhoise for Information on rele
Jecdsintimenofngturl disasters nuchatearthauakes floods
tna hurricanes, Mobilizes and eoorinates emergency aon
tance fom around the word

im OFFICE OF THE UN. HIGH COMMISSIONER FoR
REFUGEES (UNHCR): Extends international protection and
Irateralassstncetoreisess (excep how nthe Middle,
‘hore aided by UNRV and nay ites with poveraments
‘Sree and epuriatothem,

1B UN, cETREFOR: UMAN St TLEMENTS (HABITAT:
Detis withthe housing prslemotlsnbanandeural poor in
eveiping casein

Wy UN CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICER: Provides technical
and naneal ssnstanceto developing countries for progres
enerting chidren Help ham lon ad extend services In










maternal and child health, applied nutrition, clean water and
sanitation, formal and non-formal education, and mporsible
parenthood.

UN. CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT.
(UNCTAD): Works to establish agrecrenss on commodity
pe sabiaton and eo pence of nero
made.

UN, DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN (UNIFE
‘An autonomous agency associated with UNDP (see below)
‘that suppor projects benefiting women in developing cous



"BUN. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME-(UNDFY: The
ental finding planning, and coordisating oganztion fot
“clic estoy” and development he UN. system
Provides grantnritanceip build shllsand developresoures
innshacsne apc, industry, health HSE,
ns Plans, anrport sad communications

it UN. ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP): Moni
tos signncant changes inthe environment an Works 3 de
‘lop Sound eavronmenal pracens worse

UN. POPULATION FUND (UNFPA}: Tre restate
sada funded our asabranoe to population recrans
In devloping counter Ade goverment develop ny
lansing programs qather and analyae population dea.

‘DUK. INSTITUTE FOR TRAINING AND RESEARCH
(UNITAR) Skea enhance the ercseretso the UN.
framing propams fr government and UN. ofl and r=
seach ena vane of inertial es

UN. RILEE AND WORKS ACENCY FOR PALESTINE
AEFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST (UNRWA): roves esucae
for held and wearesssancete arabretpes infor,
Lebanon Sy tne Wes Danke and Gaza.

UNE UNIVERSITY (UNUs Jopaninsod autonomous
acateni insttion wha worldwide etworkal axcatet
insitons, search uns, Ydiviual schol, ad flows.
Dewonot gt grec

UAC INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING
INSITUTE (NETHAW)-Casie outreach tenga
formation asides to pomte women as yagentsofeeve-
opmere
Fir WORLD FOOD COUNCIL (WFC): A 36eaton tay
that ees annua fhe srt Ive 0 review mae
ues eect the wold food sation

1 WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME QWFP): Jain spon-
sors by the UN, and ERO, pps both emergency fod
tein and fod aldo suppor development ros.











CGIAR Centers

CIAT -- Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia. Founded 1967,
Focus on crop improvement and improving agriculture in the lowland tropics of Latin
America, Research covers rice, beans, cassava, forages, and pastures.

CIMMYT -- Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico, Founded
1964. Focus on crop improvement. Research covers maize, wheat, barley, and triticale,

CIP ~ Centro Internacional de la Papa, Lima, Peru. Founded 1971, Focus on potato
and sweet potato improvement. Research covers potato, sweet potato.

IBPGR ~ International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy. Founded 1974,
Focus on conserving gene pools of current and potential crops and forages. Research
covers plant genetic resources.

ICARDA ~ International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo,
Syria. Founded 1976. Focus on improving farming systems for North Africa and WEst
Asia. Research covers wheat, barley, chickpea, lentils, pasture legumes, and small
ruminants,

ICRAF -- International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya. Founded
1977. Focus on initiating and supporting research on integrating trees in land-use
systems in developing countries,



ICRISAT ~ International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Andhra
Pradesh, India. Founded 1972, Focus on crop improvement; eropping systems.
Research covers sorghum, millet, chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut.

~ IFPRI — International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C, Founded 1975,
Focus on identifying and analyzing policies for meeting food needs of the developing
countries, particularly the poorer groups within those countries, Résearch covers ways to
achieve sustainable food production and land use, improve food consumption and
income levels of the poor, enhance the links between agriculture and other sectors of the
economy, and improve trade and macro economic conditions.

MIMI ~ International Irrigation Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Founded
2984, Focus on improving and sustaining the performance of irrigation systems through
better management,

UTA ~ International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. Founded 1967.
Focus on crop improvement and land management in humid and'sub-humid tropics:
farming systems, Research covers maize, cassava, cowpea, plantain, soybean, rice, and
yam.



TLCA ~- International Livestock Center for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Founded
1974. Focus on farming systems to identify livestock production and marketing
constraints in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research covers ruminants, livestock, and forages.

TLRAD ~ International-Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi, Kenya.
Founded 1974. Focus on control of major livestock diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa,
Research covers theileriosis (East Coast fever) and trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness),

INIBAP ~- International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain,
Montferrier-sur-Lez, France. Founded 1984, Focus on bananas and plantains.



IRRI ~ International Rice Research Institute, Manila, the Philippines. Founded 1960.
Focus on global rice improvement.

ISNAR ~- International Service for National Agricultural Research, The Hague, The
Netherlands. Founded 1979, Focus on strengthening and developing national
agricultural research systems.

WARDA -- West Africa Rice Development Association, Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire. Founded
1971. Focus on rice improvement in West Africa, Research covers rice in mangrove
swamps, inland swamps, upland conditions, and irrigated conditions.





























































Gender Analysis and Training Techniques Seminar Series
Session 5: Drs. Anita Spring and Sandra Russo

READING LIST

Feldstein, H. et al, The Gender Variable in Agricultural Research. Women in
Development Unit, International Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada.

Howard-Borjas, P. et al., (1990). Gender Analysis Workshops for Professional Staff: FAO's
Mid-Terin Review of Lessons Learned, Working Paper Series No. 7. FAO, Rome.

Moser, C. (1989). Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic
Gender Needs, World Devetopment, Vol. 17, No. 11 pp 1799-1825, :

Poats, S. (1990). Gender Issues in the CGIAR System: Lessons and Strategies from
Within, CGIAR, The Hague.

Poats, S. and S, Russo, (1990). ‘Training in Women and Development/Gender Analysis in
Russo, S. 1990 Agricultural Development. A Review of Experiences and Lessons
Learned. FAO. Working Papers Series No. 5.

Russo, S. et.al., (1989). Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management.
WID/PPC/USAID/WDC,

wind:reading Ist



WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT TRAINING IN INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES
Drs. Anita Spring and Sandra Russo
Session 5, Evaluation

Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the
address on back is showing.

Girele the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.

ot oo a i
: ee a




s a
Ea

1. My uaderstoading ofthe

difference between: trating 1 2 3 4

‘women, raising men and women,

‘Women in Development (WID) training

and Gender Analysis (GA) training

increased,
2. My understanding ofthe 1 2 3 4

current thrust of GA training
in the international development
agencies increased.



3. My understanding of two conceptual 1 z 3 4
frameworks applied in GA training
1 2 3 4
characteristics of target groups
needing GA training increased. ¢

~ 5. What did you like most about this session? =
6. What could be improved?

7. Please rate the instructors on a fallovog tems

a oo outa
+ fee too
De, Spring: E = a Soe ge



Content
Presentation

Dr. Russo:
Content 2 3 aos
Presentation 1 2 3 405

8, Additional comments:



Full Text




GENDER ANALYSIS AND TRAINING TECHNIQUES

TRAINING MODULES

Compiled by Karen A. Kainer

Based on
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGF \M

Spring Seminar Series, 1992
INTRODUCTION

Sessions were delivered by a variety of faculty and othiers with experience in gender



analysis and training. The exposure to a diversity of training styles and activities served
to demonstrate the wide variety of training styles and techniques that can be successful,

and that facilitators are only limited by their own creativity.

Each 70-minute session was preempted by a brief explanation of how the current session
related to other sessions within the series. Following each session, the enclosed
evaluation forms were distributed to participants in order to monitor participant learning,

and to facilitate session improvement.



All materials necessary to deliver the sessions are listed in the overview of each module.
‘Some materials, such as particular videotapes or slides, may be easily substituted with
other appropriate materials when necessary. Overheads and handouts are included in

the modules, but suggested fipcharts must be prepared by each facilitator.

Some sessions, such as Sessions V and VIII, may be difficult to deliver without specific

experience conducting Gender Analysis training in international agencies in zn: area of



focus for that session. However, reading lists are proviced wit



each module to assist the

facilitator in expanding his/her knowledge base. The facilitator may also wish to invite
outside speakers who can discuss their experiences with Gender Analysis or Women in

Development training in international organizations.

‘These modules lend themselves to a wide variety of uses. Practitioners are encouraged
to modify sessions as needed, and to view the modules as dynamic resources for

designing and delivering Gender Analysis training.

Readers who are interested in more information about the seminar series may contact
Lisette Staal at the International Training Division, IFAS 352 (904-392-3166). Those with
specific interest in a particular session are advised to contact the facilitator(s) of that

session.


IL

ML

Vv.

Vi.

vu.

vil.





GENDER ANALYSIS AND TRAINING TECHNIQUES

SESSION

What is Gender?

Gender Analysis Conceptual Framework
User Perspective

Data Collection: Who does what when,
determining access and control

‘Women in Development Training in International
Agencies

‘What is Training?

Specific Training Techniques for Gender Analysis

Using Case Studies for Training in Gender Analysis

FACILITATOR(S)

Suzanna Smith

Sandra Russo

Peter Hildebrand

Mickie Swisher

Anita Spring
Sandra Russo

Van Crowder

Lisette Staal
Bea Covington
Gretchen Greene

Elizabeth Bolton
John Lichte


Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session f WHAT IS GENDER?

OVERVIEW

Total Time: 70 minutes

Rationale: Research and extension projects have historically overlooked or excluded women

from the development process. Inadequate attention to differences between men
and women in agricultural production and use of technologies often leads to

adequate planning and design of development projects. In many cases it has

also resulted in poor acceptance of innovative technologies by the farmers who use
them, and consequently, limited returns on investments. An understanding of the
roles women play in agricultural development is fundamental to achieving greater
development success. ‘The information covered in this session provides the basic
concepts for the following sessions, and insures that all participants are at the same
beginning level of understanding.





ing At the end of this session participants will be able to:

Objectives: 1. Define gender roles.

2. Describe the reasons why women have been invisible in the development
process.

3, List the characteristics of gender-sensitive research.

Materials: —* Flipcharts 1-4
* Overhead projector =
* Overheads:
1.1) Definition of sex and gender
1.2) Major points about gender roles
1.3) Session one: What is gender? Questions for viewing videotape
1.4) Characteristics of gender-sensitive research
* VCR
* Videotape "Invisible Women" (Can be borrowed from the International Training
Division at the University of Florida or <1 Jered with the enclosed order form)
* Handouts:
1.1) Reading list
1.2) Evaluation form
* Purple and red markers
Background
Readings:

Procedure:

See Handout 1.



There are four main activities in this introductory session. Activity I sets the stage
to open participants’ minds to looking at things differently. Activity II is a small
group exercise in which participants are asked to differentiate between gender and
sex. Activity III uses a videotape and discussion to focus on gender roles in
agriculture and their implications for development projects. Activity IV examines
the basic components of gender-sensitive research.


Session I: WHAT IS GENDER?

Activity I: Perceptions. (2 min)

TIME

2 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS





Put up flipchart with the following: [and Flipchart 1
R E A D. Ask what these two diagrams mean. Explain

that few people immediately see "I understand” and "Read

between the lines" because we are all trained to see things one

way, making it difficult to go beyond that initial perception.

Add that in these sessions we hope to help participants go

Leyond initial perceptions in order to observe things in a

different way. ‘



Activity Il: What is gender? (25 min)

TIME

1 min

min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS:
Introduction. Turn to a prepared flipchart listing the session Flipchart 2

objectives and go over the three objectives, stating that at the
end of the session participants will be able to:

1, Define gender roles.

2. Describe the reasons why women have been invisible in the
development process.

3. List the characteristics of gender-sensitive research.

‘Small Group Exercise, Give the following instructions:

1. Get into groups of three or four. Make sure someone is
taking notes.

2. List as many examples of gender roles that you can think
of.

3. You will have three minutes. Don't complain about the
time or you will lose time!

4. Brainstorm! That does not mean to discuss, it means to
get out as many ideas as you can in the time

allotted, Do not evaluaté what people in your group say. Just
be creative and let your ideas flow.

5. After three minutes, groups will report what they listed.
3 min

10 min

10 min

Break into groups and brainstorm.

Ask how many groups listed 20 gender roles? 15? 107 Ask Flipchart 3
each group to give one example of a gender role they came up

with, List these on a flipchart with the title "Gender Roles.

Summarize the groups’ themes, and use their comments as a

springboard for the short lecture.

‘Short Lecture. Point out that in many cases when we look at
social roles we assume they are defined by sex, that is, being a
man or a woman, We assume that these behaviors, such as
being "dominant" or "nurturing", come about naturally, and
that they are merely a reflection of being male or female.
One of the first things we want to do in talking about gender
analysis is to define gender so everyone is clear about the
‘meaning of this term.





Show the overhead, "Definition of sex and gende:
the definition of gender and note that our interest
understanding social behavior. Point to the definition of sex,
and ask, "How important are sex differences in understan

Point to Ovethed LI





_ human behavior for our purposes here?" (Turn off the

Projector.) Continue to explain the following points.

People commonly believe sex differences to be far greater than

they actually are. One stereotype is about male strength,

which we often credit for men’s greater social power. On the

average, inen are somewhat taller and stronger than women

due to greater upper body strength in particular. However, g
males are also more vulnerable to illness and disease, and

Sisplay higher mortality rates, In contrast, females usually live

longer; they show somewhat greater tolerance for heat, and

tend to have more body fat, which gives them an advantage in
activities requiring endurance.





‘The other major biological factor that consistently affects
behavior is women's role i “eproduction. Women bear
children and can breastfeed! them.

Given these basie sex differences, we have constructed social
belief systems, many of them very elaborate, about what are
appropriate roles for men and women, However, research
shows that there is very little biological basis for gender
stereotypes.


Show overhead, "Major points about gender roles", and go ‘Overhead 12
over each point, being sure to mention the following:

1, Gender roles are defined as the activities, behaviors, and
abilities that are associated with being a man or a woman.
Gender roles are based on socially agreed upon criteria of
what is appropriate for men and women, The small groups
came up with a list of common behaviors or traits of men or
women--we can see from the consistency of group responses
the power of society in determining our beliefs about these
roles, and in men’s and women’s tendency to conform to
social expectations.



2. Gender is ever-present in our lives. It structures our work
and family experiences, even the way we interact with each ;
other.

3. Gender role blinders introduce bias into development
projects. Expectations about what men and women do
influence development project research and extension
activities.

4, What we want to do in these sessions is to help you develop
the skills 10 look at things differently. We hope that the
awareness and skills you learn here will help you to be more
effective in your research and extension programs.

Activity III: What are gender roles in agriculture? What are the implications for development

TIME

2min

18 min

projects? (30 min)

Activity MATERIALS

Introduction. Introduce the videotape, explaining that this

tape provides a more in-depth understanding of gender roles

in agriculture, and illustrates how gender roles affect

development projects. Show overhead, "Session One: What is Overhead 13
gender? Questions for Viewing Videotape.” Ask participants

as they view the tape to think about the answers to these

questions:

1. Why are women in agriculture invisible in the development
process?
2, What are the characteristics of gender sensitive research?

Videotape. Play the videotape. Videotape
10 min

Large Group Discussion. Discuss the videotape with the

group, List answers to Question 1 on a flipchart with the title, Flipchart 4
"Why are women invisible?” Use colored markers to code

participants’ answers (i.e. conceptual biases in red,

methodological weaknesses in purple).

Emphasize and elaborate as needed on the following points
from the participants’ answers:

Conceptual biases (red marker)
Household.

In conceptual schemes of agricultural systems, the houschold is
often represented as an undifferentiated box in the systems
diagram.

As a "black box’, differences within the household go
unrecognized. In particular, there is no representation of
divisions within the household by gender or age, although
some research shows that these differences structure
agricultural production activities,

. When households are considered, they are usually assumed to

be headed by men who are married to one wife. ‘This scheme
is based on a traditional, Western nuclear family model that
doesn't take into account the activities of polygynous
households or women-headed households.

Often it i8 assumed that households are static. In reality

household composition and structure chahge over time as 2
people marry, give birth, rear children, age, and die. These

life cycle changes are very important to understand because

they affect the availability of labor for production, and the

demands for food and other resources within the household,



ectations about 1d women’s roles



This Western bias also affects our assumptions aboui who
does what in the farming system. Often it is assumed that men
are the farmers, not women, As a result, we expect to see
men, not women doing certain activities, such as cutting trees.
‘This "conventional wisdom" keeps us from seeing (a) the
realities of the division of labor; and (b) changes that are
occurring in the farming system as a result of economic or


Activity IV:
TIME

13 min

social changes in rural areas, or the impacts of development
projects.

Methodological weaknesses (purple marker)

Who is studied. Usually, men’s fields and men’s activities are
studied, whereas women's work receives little research
attention. Researchers do not ask who does what, when.
(Example of yam production from video: two farmers, male
and female, using the same field for two crops, using 2
different management practices).

Do not look at the continuum of production and how this
affects adoption of technologies. Women are involved in
production at every step of the food cycle and are the link
between production and consumption decisions. This includes
post-harvest storage, processing, and marketing, as well as
planting and weeding.

Do not look at the variety of work roles men and women
play, and how they combine their work to get everything done.
Women have multiple roles and responsibilities: wage labor,
agricultural production, marketing, reproduction and child

care, household maintenance. These are influenced by family

size and life cycle stage.

Do not look at how the dissemination of technologies to men
farmers influences women and other household members,
women’s total work load, and access to and control of
resources.



Gender-sensitive research. (13 min)
ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Short Lecture. State that, based on what we've said and seen

on the tape, we can probably list the characteristics of gender-
ensitivé!research,



‘Show overhead "Characteristics of gender-sensitive research", Overhead 14
and cover the following:

Look at all the activities of all household members. Who does
what, when? Make sure to look behind the scenes at who and
what otherwise might be invisible.
Target women to learn about their production practices.

For example, women are keepers of local taxonomies of plants
and animals, and determine acceptability of certain
technologies.

Identify men’s and women’s activities all along the food chain,
(ie., planting, weeding, harvesting,-processing, storage,
marketing.)

Carefully select project staff and cooperators:

1. Include men and women on the research team.

2. Train men to interview women and carry out gender
analysis.

5. Select women as collaborators.

4, Select women for training programs.

Assess and address the results of new technologies on
‘women’s responsibilities and control of resources. ‘The
introduction of a new technology may increase demands on
women’s labor, More time may be needed to harvest and
process food from an increased harvest. Women may lose
control over the by-products of the harvest or over the sales of
goods if the technology is delivered to men. This can have
grave repercussions for women who are responsible for
feeding their children and paying for schooling.

(Turn off the projector.)

Summary, Conclude the session by reviewing the objectives Flipehart 1
and how these were covered in the session,

Note that this session provided the conceptual background.
Next session will provide the analytic tools to identify the
activities of household members and to determine who has
‘access to and control of resources.

Hand out the reading list. Handout 1.1
DEFINITIONS OF SEX AND GENDER



Determined through the application of socially agreed
upon biological criteria for classifying persons as
males or females (genitalia at birth, chromosome
typing before birth).





Determined by the application of accepted standards
for evaluating men’s and women’s behaviors,
abilities and traits.
MAJOR POINTS ABOUT GENDER ROLES

Gender roles are the activities, behaviors, and abilities
that are associated with being a man or a woman.

Gender roles are based on socially agreed upon criteria.

Gender is ever-present in our lives.

We may wear "blinders" about what men and women do
and can do. in agriculture, based on gender role
expectations. These expectations influence research and
extension activities in development projects.

This course is designed to help you develop the skills to
look at things differently. Awareness and gender
analysis skills should help you to be more effective in
your research and extension programs.
SESSION ONE: WHAT IS GENDER?
Questions for Viewing Videotape

Why have women been invisible in the
development process?

What are the characteristics of gender-
sensitive research?
CHARACTERISTICS OF GENDER-SENSITIVE RESEARCH

@ Examine all of the activities of all household
members. Who does what, when? Look behind the
scenes to see what might otherwise be invisible.

® Target women to learn about their production
practices.

® Identify men’s and women’s activities all along the
food chain, from planting and weeding to harvesting,
storage, processing, and marketing.

© Select project staff and cooperators:
Include men and women researchers
Train men
Select women as collaborators.
Select women for training programs

© Assess and address the repercussions of new
technologies on women’s responsibilities and control
of resources.
Gender Analysis Shortcourse
Week One: What is Gender?
Recommended Reading

Blumberg, Rae Lesser. (1991). Income under female versus male control:
Hypotheses from a theory of gender stratification and data from the Third
World. In Rae Lesser Blumberg (Ed.), Gender, family, and economy, (pp. 97-
127). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Or see 1988 Journal of Family Iss
9,(1), 51-84,

Cloud, Kathleen, (1988). Farm women and the structural transformation of
agriculture: A cross-cultural perspective. In W.G. Haney and J.B. Knowles
(Eds.), Women and farming (pp. 281-199). Boulder CO: Westview Press.

Fenstermaker, Sarah, West, Candace, & Zimmerman, Don H. (1991). Gender
inequality: New conceptual terrain. In Rae Lesser Blumberg (Ed.), Gender,
family, and economy, (pp. 289-307). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Huber, Jean. (1991). A theory of family, economy, and gender. In Rae Lesser

Blumberg (Ed.), Gender, family, and economy, (pp. 35-51). Newbury Park,
CA: Sage.

Marini, Margaret M. (1990). Sex and gender: What do we know? Sociological
Forum, 5(1), 95-120.

Sachs, Carolyn. (1983), Invisible farmers: Women in agricultural produ
Totowa, NJ: Allenheld, Osmun & Co. -



n.

West, Candace & Zimmerman, Don H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and -
Society, 1(2), 125-151.
WHAT IS GENDER?
Evaluation

Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.



1. My understanding
of the difference
between sex and
gender increased





2. My understanding 1 2 3
of gender roles
increased ‘
3. My understanding 1 2 3 4

of the reasons
women in agri-
culture are in-
sible increased



4, My understanding 1 2 3 4
of the character-
istics of gender
sensitive research
increased
5. What did you like most about this session?
6. What could be improved?

7. Please rate the instructor on the following items:

Content



Presentation

8. Comments

Please complete this form and rotuin it via campus mace
by fokding in hats 40 the address on back is showing.


INVISIBLE WOMEN: Gender and Household
Analysis in Agricultural Research and Extension

by Susan V, Poats ons





























Gainesville, Florida
November 1989

° This presentation was developed (o assist
agricultural researchers, eension workers, and
Li. managers of research and extension projects ia k
|. about geoder ives ia agriculture and (0 use gender

analysis a8 a descriptive and abalytica fot in tbe
‘work, Gender anshysis is increasingly being recognized
asa eiieal aspect of programme and project success.









uaa =pomant ist tp in incorporating dey
awareness in agricultural development is (0 reengnize
the roles that women payin allaupecs of the fod

| systema, Learning fo "tee" womed tn agriculture wil

sist research and development workers to better "
understand the dlfereat roles that mea and women play ©

in production and to improve the design and delivery of

technology meant toast farmer both male aod

female fea





MOW TO USE THIS PRESENTATION: "This side” |
presentation was developed as an introductory module i
1: weant to raise sues and stimulate discdssion

about geoder issves in agriculture. It can be used
alone, 38 a separate module on gender within a large
lining course, or as an iolroducdioa to other taining
activities on gender issues. ty) i :

‘AUDIENCE: Apreultural researchers extension
‘workers, and managers of agricultural development
[rojeese Useful for professonals and students of

soreonas sod decks TO 2
: hi
able ia





Oia

¢/o Tropical Research
Jee 04) 3341



= Postaae ‘should

AS SE Pee
Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session II: GENDER ANALYSIS:
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

OVERVIEW

Total Time: 70 minutes

Ra



jonale:

Learning
Objectives

Materials:



Becoming sensitized to the importance of gender differences within the farm
household is the first step to conducting improved development work. Before
research, extension, and training activities are carried out, an analysis of
household labor to determine "who does what" must be implemented. ‘This
analysis must then be followed by an examination of who has access to and control
of available resources as well as who benefits from them. This session introduces
helpful analytical tools for gathering data on farming activities, gender roles within
the farming system, and information on available resources.

At the end of this session participants will be able to:

1. Identify the farmer(s) in a household.

2. Use and apply analytical tools in the conceptual framework.

3. Identify gender roles within the farming system, and "who does what".

* Flipcharts 1-4
* Overhead projector
* Overheads:
2.1) Model of a hypothetical household production system in West Africa
2.2) Farm household
23) Two fundamental facts of life
2.4) Use of conceptual framework
2.5) Gender analysis
2.6) Farming systems calendar
2.7) Resources analysis
2.8) Benefits and incentives analysis
* Slide projector
* Family slide
* Slide show "Invisible Women" (Can be borrowed from the International Trainin:
Division at the University of Florida or ordered with the enclosed order form)
* Handouts:
2.1) Farming systems calendar
2.2) Resources analysis,
2.3) Benefits and incentives analysis


Background
Readings:

Procedure:

2.4) Reading list
2.5) Evaluation

See Handout 2.4.



‘There are five main activities in this session. In Activity I participants are asked
to identify the farmer(s) in a household. Activity II reviews a hypothetical
household model and introduces a conceptual framework for gender aralysis..
Analytical tools are presented in Activity I. In activities IV and V, participants
use those tools and complete a gender analysis of one case study.


Session II; GENDER ANALYSTS:
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Activity I: Identifying the farmer(s). (10 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS
1 min Introduction. Present the session learning objectives, stating

that at the end of the session participants will be able to:

) 1, Identify the farmer(s) in a household.
2, Use and apply analytical tools in the conceptual framework.
3, Identify gender roles within the farming system, and "who

Goes what".
9 min Large Group Discussion. Project the slide of Kenyan (or Family stide

other) farm family. Elicit responses to the following questions:

1. Who is the farmer or who are the farmers in the household?
2. At what stage is the family in the household cycle?

3. Is there a labor shortage or abundance?

4. Who do you think the extension agent would talk to?

5. How does the family access information?

Point out that we cannot assume who the farmer(s) is(are) in a
family until we ask and/or observe their activities, We also
cannot assume that a large family ensures that an abundance
of agricultural labor will be available. Families and

households are dynamic. ‘To understand labor availability for
farm activities, we must know what other-non-farm activities
the family engages in, We also need to determine the family's
life cycle stage, as this affects how many family members of
productive (and dependent) ages are available.

Activity II: Review of hypothetical household model. (15 min)



TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS
6 min Show the overhead, "Model of a hypothetical household Overhead 21

Production system in West Africa" with the 4 blocks within
“Household” covered with a small “post-it”. Discuss general
on-farm and off-farm activities represented in the diagrams
surrounding the covered "Household" block. Remove the
“post-it” covering the "Household" block. Ask participants to


4 min

S min



list the activities for which the adult female is responsible
(ines from "Household" block on diagram). Point out that she
is largely responsible for subsistence/household consumption in
this model,

Show the overhead, "Farm household’, and point out that we Overhead 22
must identify the activities of each of the household members
to fully understand the operations of a farming system.

Read the overhead, "Two fundamental facts of life as a review Overhead 23
of the basic tenets that agricultural households are complex

decision-making units and that cach individual member in the

household has a variety of activities and responsibilities, of

which agricultural labor is only a part,



To better understand the activities of each household
member, particularly the work of adult men and women who
are primarily responsible for production, we must employ
some type of conceptual framework to disaggregate data

by gender. Review the definition of gender analysis: "A system
for analyzing the roles of men and women and application of
that analysis to decisions about research and extension.’







Show the overhead, "Use of conceptual framework", and point Overhead 24
out that by using this framework we can quickly see the basic

functions within the household, and can identify gaps in the

information we collected.





Thoroughly discuss the overhead, "Gender analysis’, identifying. Overbead 25
kkey questions that extensionists and researchers must ask
themselves.

fs Introduction of analytical tools. (10 min)

ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Show the overhead, "Farming systems calendar". ‘Tell Overhead 26

participants that the first step in gender analysis is to fill ot
the calendar, documenting activities carried out during the
year by each household member. Notice if and where time
‘saps, or periods of relative inactivity, exist,
On a flipchart with the moriths labeled, demonstrate an Flipchart 1
example of the calendar for a major crop (i.e., corn). (An

example of a completed gender-disaggregated activities

calendar is found in Feldstein and Poats on page 17).



Distribute the handout, "Farming systems calendar". ‘Handout 21

3 min Show the overhead, "Resources analysis", and’point out that it Overhead 27
is important to know who has access to and control of each of

these resources in order to predict and/or evaluate who should

participate in a project and who the project will potentially

impact. Again the facilitator should focus in on gender

disaggregation of household members’ use of resources.



Distribute the handout, "Resources analysis". Handout 22



3 min Show the overhead, "Benefits and incentives analysis", and Overhead 28,
briefly point out that when we propose a change in the system
we must ask who will control the innovation and who will
benefit from it,



- Distribute the handout, "Benefits and incentives analys ‘Handout 23

Activity IV; Mini-case study. (5 min)

TIME * ACTIVITY MATERIALS

5 min Introduction. Organize the participants into 3 groups, ‘
corresponding to the three analytical tools that have been
reviewed. Give the following instructions to the groups:



1. View the slide show, paying close attention to the Handouts
information that is particularly pertinent for completing the 21-23
handout of the analytical tool assigned to your group.
2. Although you do not have enough information to fill out
nach section of the handout, be as thorough as possible.
3. You have 15 minutes to complete the task.
4. Yon: will be asked to share your results with the rest of the
roup after the 15-minute period.



Slides. Project the series of slides from "Invisible Women" of Slides
the Ivory Coast, in which researchers went into a farmer's field
that was exhibiting a decline in yam yield. The researchers


interviewed the male farmer present, and began to make
recommendations regarding the use of herbicides and other
inputs, However, a female farmer was also present, actively
working on planting tomatoes in the same parcel. Ultimately,
the researchers noticed the woman and changed their
recommendations to take into account the joint activ
the same parcel of land,



Vi Gender analysis of case study. (30



ACTIVITY MATERIALS:

Small Group Work. Each group discusses and completes one
Of the three analytical tools.



10min Large Group Discussion. A representative of each group Flipchart 2
reports on their analysis. To facilitate this presentation, each Flipchart 3
group is provided with a flipchart that is a duplicate of the Flipchart 4

handout of the analytical tool they will present.

5 min Wrap up the session by showing the slide of the Kenyan (or Familystide
other) farm family that was used at the beginning of the
session, Ask participants what other questions would they now
like to ask the family? Ask participants to whom would they
now address their questions? Reiterate that it is not always
obvious "who does what", but through adoption of the
conceptual framework and utilization of the analytical tools
presented, they will be able to determine the answers to these
questions and others on household activities and
responsibilities. = é





Hand out the reading list. Handout 24


Model of a hypothetical household production system in Wost Africa.

Upland Field. |
Crops

* Sorghum
it









is ens
=
_ age oe il



Communal Land and Scrub Forest







(ral ooky Mako



maser

a=





vane

-\S Small Lvestock|
+t
|S
| i
ot G\s
%



wus [peas
aguer | "ADULT









ep
ose






‘

\,
YG
We














FARM HOUSEHOLD



























FARM
MALE FEMALE
ADULT(S) | ADULTS)
MALE FEMALE
CHILD(REN) | CHILD(REN)
OFF-FARM





OFF-FARM




Two fundamental facts of life:

1. Agricultural activities are undertaken by
households which are complex decision
making units and not by the head of
household alone.

2. Each individual member in a household has a
variety of activities and responsibilities, of
which agricultural labor is only a part.

Source: J. Murphy. 1990. Women and agriculture
in Africa: a Guide to Bank Policy and Programs
for Operations Staff.
USE OF THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

organize existing information ---> pattern

identify relevant additional information
needed ---> focus topics

screen research priorities, technology options
plan on-farm trials and assessments

evaluate technologies by user-specific criteria
and impact

plan appropriate extension activities
GENDER ANALYSIS

1. Who does what?

2. Who has access to or control of resources?
3. Who has access to or control of benefits?

4. Who is included at each stage of research:
- as informants?
- as participants?
- as decision-makers?
- as evaluators of technology? -
- as deliverers of services?
- as clients for service?
- as beneficiaries of research outcomes?
‘oaiamead

‘op Production

Uvesteds

Household Prdusion

ontFom Actstios



FARMING SYSIEMS CALENDAR




Labor
Capital
Cash
Inputs

Markets/
Transportation

Education/
Information

BESQURCES ANALYSIS"

. Policy
Control Comments. Issues,
BENEFITS AND. INCENTIVES ANALYSIS.







Access Controi Uses/ Polic,
- a 2 a Proferences Jssud:



Crop Production

Livestock

Household Production

Off-Farm Activities
Monin /Seasond

Ccrup Prosusisn



Jossehtd traduetion

omrann 4





FARMING SYSTEMS CALENDAR”




RESOURCES ANALYSIS _







Land
Labor
Capital
Cash
Inputs

arhots/
fanspartalion



Education/
information

SontroL

—Camment



Policy
Josue:


__BENEFITS AND INCENTIVES ANALYSIS _

Control Uses/
7 Preferences



Crop Production

Livestock

Household Production

OI-Farm Activities

Policy
Ips
READING LIST

Gender Analysis - Conceptual Framework

Poats, Susan V., Marianne Schmink, and Anita Spring, 1988. Linking FSR/E and
Gender: An Introduction. In Poats, Schmink, and Spring, eds, Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension. Westview Press, Boulder, 1-18,

Feldstein, Hilary Sims and Susan V. Poats. 1989. Working Together: Gender Analysis in
Agriculture. Vol I: Case Studies. Kumarian Press, West Hartford, CT. Chapters 1 and
2.

Overholt, Catherine, Mary B. Anderson, Kathleen Cloud and James E. Austin, eds. 1985.

Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book. Kumarian Press, West Hartford,
CT. Chapters 1,2 and 3,

readinglst
GENDER ANALYSIS CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Evaluation

Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.



|. My understand of, 1 2 3 4
gender roles increased

2.My understanding of =” 2 @ 3 4
women's roles in
agriculture increased

3. My understanding of iF 3 4
gender analysis increased

4. My understanding and + 2 3 4
ability to use gender
‘analytical tools increased.

What did you like most about this session?

6. What could be improved?

7, Please rate the instructor on the following items: ‘



Content 1 2 3 4s
Presentation 1 2 3 aos
8. Comments .

Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address on back is showing,


‘Total Time:

Rationale:

Learning
Objectives:

Materials:

Background
Readings:

Procedure:

Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session III: USER PERSPECTIVE

OVERVIEW

70 minutes

New technologies are often introduced in rural farming areas with the hope of
improving yield and easing work loads. Oftentimes the technologies are not
examined from a user perspective prior to introduction. This frequently results in
negative impacts on various members of the household and community, sometimes
culminating in complete rejection of the new technology.

At the end of this session participants will be able to:

1, Recognize the extent to which the effects of a new technology are highly
complex; a new technology affects a variety of people in a variety of ways.

2, Identify those being impacted by the technology.

3, Identify how the technology impacts those being affected.

* Flipchart 1
* Handouts:
3.1 - 3.9) Role play assignments
3.10) Reading list
3.11) Evaluation form
* Slides of Guatemalan agricultural seting, or other case study developed by the
facilitator

See Handout 3.10.

‘There are six main activities in this session, but prior to the beginning of the
period, randomly select participants for the role play, giving each player a written
role. Defining what is meant by “user perspective" introduces the session in
Activity I. The objectives are then reviewed in Activity II. Activity III involves a
role play to facilitate discussion on the complexity of technology rlevelopment. The
conversational sondeo as a method for information-gathering is presented in
Activity IV. In Activity V, a case study demonstrating problems associated with
introducing a technology is used as a springboard for an exercise in which






participants develop an action plan for discovering why the technology was not
adopted. Activity VI is a wrap up of the session,
Session II: USER PERSPECTIVE
Activity I: Define and re-define "user perspective’. (5 min)
TIME * activity MATERIALS
5 min Solicit definitions/interpretations of "user perspective" from the
audience. Emphasize the interpretations that make it clear

that we want to examine the technology from the perspective
of all people who will be using the technology.

Activity II: State and explain objectives. (2 min)

TMI ACTIVITY MATERIALS
2 min Show flipchart with printed objectives, stating that at the end Flipehart 1

of the session participants will be able to:

1, Recognize the extent to which the effects of a new
technology are highly complex; a new technology affects a
variety of people in a variety of ways.

2. Identify those being impacted upon by the technology.

3, Identify how the technology impacts those being affected.

Activity If: Role play. (13 min)

TIME ACTIVITY = MATERIALS
Employ a role play to facilitate discussionon how a new
technology can have complex repercussions for many members

of a community. The players (who have received a pre-
assigned role on a written handout prior to the session)



include:

1, Male farmer Handout 3.1
2, Female farmer (wife #1) Handout 32,
3, Female farmer (wife #2) Handout £

4. Villager Handout 3.:
5. Male farmer's son Handout 3.
6. Teacher Handout 3.

7, Store owner Handout 3.7
8, Headman Handout 38
9. Iman Handout 39
8 min

S min

Role Play. Introduce the role play which is set at a village
meeting where discussion is taking place about the introduction
of a new technology a mule drawn plow. Throughout the
role play, participants will interject into the discussion their
concerns about how the technology will affect their lives.
Facilitator stays in the role of technology developer/provider
until the "Headman” speaks,

Group Discussion, Discuss the role play with the large group, é
focusing on the key point: Introduction of new technologies

has complex repercussions throughout local farming systems

and communities. It has an impact on many users. Include a

brief discussion with participants about "what happened?",

Point out that although some of the users’ comments were

predictable, other users’ concerns with the introduced

technology were completely unforeseen. Make the transition

to the sondeo by asking, "How can we identify all these

users?",

Activity IV: Conversational sondeo. (15 min)

TM!

45 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Short Lecture. Introduce the conversational sondeo as a rapid
appraisal technique for identifying those people impacted by
technologies. The objective behind the sondeo is to gather
information, not just numbers. It is not a census or a survey,
but is designed 10 comprehend what is happening in a
particular situation by discerning who is affected by
technological introductions,



‘The sonéeo is carried out by multidisciplinary teams without
the aid of a questionnaire. No notes are taken so that those
interviewed are more at ease and so that the interviewers will
concentrate more on what is being said than on taking notes.
By working in interdisciplinary teams the collective knowledge
base is extended and each team member will remember
different parts of the conversation. It is important to hav. &
sense of what is being said, not just quantitative data, Ea’ 1
team member must train themselves to listen.


Activity V: Participant application exercise: Sorghum case study. (30 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS
5 min Introduction. Introduce a Guatemalan (or other) case study Slides

using slides, The case study is set in a dry area with small
farms on the rocky hillsides and larger farms in the valley.
‘Maize, sorghum, and beans are planted in consortium on the
hillsides. Land preparation involves gathering crop residue
not consumed by the livestock that traditionally graze after

: harvest. There is no plowing or hoeing in the system. Rains
are fairly well distributed with a 2- to 4-week period in July or
August, after which beans are harvested. Maize requires the
rains that fall after the bean harvest, and is therefore
harvested in September/October. Sorghum is harvested in
November/December. The cropping system is well developed
for the area, and the key to success is sowing as soon as the
rains begin,

‘Three sorghum varieties (two yellow and a white variety) are
developed and thought to have excellent potential to improve
yield for the small farmers. ‘The organization that developed
the varieties distributes the seed through store owners,
extensionists, and others to spread the technology as far as
possible. Many kilos are planted the year the seeds are
distributed, but none are planted the following year. The new
technology was not adopted,

10 min Small Group Exercise. Divide up the session partiéipants into
three groups and give the following instructions:

1. Plan an approach for determining why the new technology
was not adopted. What type of methodology would you use
for discovering why the new sorghum varieties were not
planted the second year?

2. Prepare to give a 4-minute presentation of your group’s
plan.

12min —_LargeyGroup Discussion. Have each group pre: nt the
‘approaches they developed.

3min Case Study Conclusion. ‘Tell what actually happened, ic., why
the sorghum varieties were not adopted. Male researchers


were unable to discover why the varieties were rejected
because they had not requested the key information from
women, Eventually, the researchers requested assistance from
a female social scientist who quickly learned an important
detail: sorghum was planted not just for animal feed but also
for human consumption. Thus, the yellow varieties with hil
tannin content were quickly rejected by the families. The
families also did not like to admit that they used sorghum for
making tortillas, as corn tortillas were preferred. Therefore
even though the white variety was suitable for human
consumption, they rejected it because the purple glums
associated with this white variety showed up in the tortillas,
“giving away" the sorghum ingredient.



Activity VI: Wrap-up. (5 min)

TIME

Simin

ACTIVITY MATE!

Summarize the session, reviewing the objectives and soliciting
questions,

Hand out the reading list, Handout 310
* DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role play that will
help demonstrate the complex nature of technology introduction.
Dr. Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to
speak up at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency, GENDERBLIND
Inc. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
Headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The new technology is a mule~drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE
Your nane is Mohammed, you have two wives and 3 children,
one of whom is present at the meeting. You are excited about’ the
mule and plow technology because you will be able to prepare more

land in less time and therefore earn more money. You are also
excited about the status that will accompany the ownership of
such a visible technology (although you would never mention it to
anyone). Still, the prospect of increased status makes this plow
even more attractive. Your role is to raise your hand as Dr.
Hildebrand is completing his explanation of the plow and briefly
pledge your support based on the above information (ie. "My name
is Mohammed and as a farmer I think that this new plow will be
wonderful for our village because... and I am therefore willing
to experiment with it on my farm"). Others will follow with
other comments.
Do NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. ‘The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC, (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE:

Your name is Gloria and you are one of Mohammed's two wives.
Hearing about the new plow and its justification makes you very
uncomfortable. After all, if more land is plowed and put under
cotton production, you will be’ required to do a lot more weeding,
thus taking time avay from other important activities (like

caring for your children). Your role is to raise your hand after
Dr. Hildebrand has spoken of the plow and briefly voice your
concerns (ie. "My name is Gloria, and I do not like this idea of

increasing cotton production because then I will have too much
work to do...weeding... kids..etc.). Others will also be
speaking, 50 just jump in when you can.
DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. pr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCEW!
You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of

Nadalandia. ‘The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND

INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village

headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new

technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)

s production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR _ROLE:

Your nae is Cindy and you are one of Mohammed's two wives.
Hearing about the new plow and its justification makes you very
uncomfortable. After all, if more land is plowed and put under
cotton production, you will likely lose land that you have been
using to grow food crops. This is a prospect that disturbs you
considerably because you must have crops in order to feed your
family. After Dr. Hildebrand and sone others have offered their
opinions on the new plow technology, raise your hand and briefly
voice your concerns ("My name is Cindy and I am married to
Mohammed. I think this new plow is a very bad idea because...").
Others will speak before and after you.


DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. pr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCENE.

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. ‘The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting’to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR_ ROLE

Your name is George and you are a local villager and thus a
farmer. You like the sound of this new plow technology, but you
are skeptical of the promise that it will be shared by the
villagers (ie. you are worried that your field will not be
plowed). Raise your hand and offer lukewarm support for the
project, but briefly express your concern that only a few may
benefit from this idea ("My name is George and I am a local
farmer. I feel that the donkey plow is an interesting idea but I
am quite worried about..."). Others will speak before and after
you so just raise your hand after Dr. Hildebrand and a few others
have spoken.


- DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCE

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting'to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the lecal cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROW

You are a ten year old boy named Jean-Luc. You do not know
too much about plowing and field preparation, but you do know
that in your culture the children care for the animals. Owning a
mule would really be fun and you are certain that as Mohammed's
son it would be you who would be responsible for leading the mule
to pasture each day and watching over it. Your part in this
role-play requires you to raise your hand at the meeting and
after introducing yourself, briefly express your support for the
plow project (ie. "My name is Jean-Luc, I am 10 years old and the
son of Mohammed. As his son it is I who will care for the nule
and thus feel that the project is good. I like mules"). of
course, wait at least until your father Mohammed has spoken
before raising your hand to put in your two cents Others will
also offer opinions.




DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate monent.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting’to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. ‘The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE

Your nane is Lee Ping and you are the local school teacher.
Hearing about the new mule and plow technology sounded
interesting to you until you heard Mohammed's son Jean-Luc
nention that he will accompany the mule to pasture each day and
watch over it. You realized then that this would mean that he
(and other children in the future) would be forced to miss
school. It is difficult enough for you to hold regular classes
when children do not have extra labor requirements, so you must
speak out against this new, poorly thought out technology. After
Dr. Hildebrand has spoken of the new plow, wait for little Jean-
Luc to speak and then raise your hand to speak briefly ("My name
is Lee Ping, I am the local school teacher and I must tell you
that I am concerned about this plow because..."). Others will
voice their opinions as well.
DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. pr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. ‘The technology is a mule-drawn plow.

YOUR ROLE

Your name is Latoya and you are the local store owner. MWhen
you heard of the new plow technology, "naditas" (the currency of
Nadalandia) danced in your head. Tt'is you who would be selling
the plows and parts and this excites you. You must voice your
support for the project at this meeting because you feel that
this could mean increased commerce for the village. After all,
if the experiment with farmer Mohammed works out many other
villagers will want plows. After Dr. Hildebrand an a few others
have spoken, raise your hand and briefly pledge your support (‘my
name is Latoya and I own the local store. I think that this
village plow project is important because..."). Others will
voice their opinions before and after you.


DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE

We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction. Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate’ moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. ‘The head of a local development agency GENDERBLIND
Inc. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.



YOUR ROLE
Your name is Mauricio and you are the village Headman. As
you listen to the proposal for the new mule plow technology and
its potential for increasing cotton production you are intrigued.
Although the original proposal indicated that the plow would be
tested by a local farmer, Mohammed, and then lent out to other
villagers, you are no longer happy with the plan. After all, as
Headman YOU should have rights to the plow and decisions about
its use. After listening to Dr. Hildebrand and the other seven
people offering their views on the subject, you should raise your
hand and in a strong, benevolent and dignified manner explain to
the people at the meeting that you have decided to keep the plow
for your farm to avoid any potential problems...case closed!
(ie. "my name is Mauricio and as the Headman of this village I
have listened with interest to the discussion about this new
plow. In order to avoid potential disagreements, I have decided
to use the plow on MY farn...").


DO NOT SHARE THIS WITH ANYONE ELSE



We would like you to take part in a brief role-play that will
help demonstrate the complexity of technology introduction, Dr.
Hildebrand will begin the exercise, your only task is to speak up
at the appropriate’ moment.

SCENE:

You are at a village meeting in the African Republic of
Nadalandia. The head of a local development agency GENDERSLIND
INC. (Dr. Hildebrand) has, in conjunction with the village
headman, called a meeting’to discuss the introduction of a new
technology that will increase cotton (the local cash crop)
production. The technology is a mule-drawn plow.



YOUR ROLI

You are the Iman ("ee-mahn") or religious leader of this
village, You have been listening with increasing horror to the
discussion about the mule plow. Do the people not realize that
mules are not acceptable animals in your religion? After all,
they cannot reproduce which goes against the tennants of your
holy scripture! after all have spoken, and the Headman has
announced that he will, in fact, keep the plow, you must stand up
and be heard! (ie. "I'am the Iman of this village and am
offended by this blasphamy! ‘There will, in the name of God, be
NO mule in our village. Should anyone choose to have one, they
will surely bring shame and misery to the village as is indicated
in the holy scriptures. I cannot allow it!").


BACKGROUND READINGS
Feldstein, H.S. and S.V, Poats (eds). 1989. Working Together: Gender Analysis in
Agriculture, 2 volumes, Kumarian Press, Inc. West Hartford, CT,

Skgnsberg, E 1989. Change in an African Village: Kefa Speaks. Kumarian Press, Inc.
West Hartford, CT. 27Ip.
‘USER PERSPECTIVE

Evaluation



Se perrergereensen

Sonesta | Muay Vyuce
a a 24.

a

11, My understand of the 1 2 3 4
comploxity of introducing
9 proposed technology increased,

My understanding of the 1 2 3 4
importance of identifying those

being impacted upon by the

technology increased

3. My understanding of the 1 2 3 4
importance of identifying how the
‘echnology impacts those being
affected increased :

‘4. What did you like most about this session?
5. What could be improved?

6, Please rate the instructor on the following items:



Content 1 2 3 aos
Presentation 1 2 3 4s
7.Comments +



© complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address om back is showing
‘Total Time:

Rationale:

Learning
Objectives:

Materials:

Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session IV: DATA COLLECTION: WHO DOES WHAT WHEN,
DETERMINING ACCESS AND CONTROL,

OVERVIEW

70 minutes

‘Many agricultural research and extension projects are focused on generating new
technologies and extending them to small producers. The collection of information
that allows the researcher or extensionist to identify gender and age-based
Gifferences within the household is crucial for increasing adoption of newly-
generated technologies. This session helps participants to examine how
information is gathered from rural households in many research and development
Projects. Often the institutions conducting the research are poor, understaffed, and
with limited capabilities for quantitative data analysis, and thus must prudently
choose the kinds of data they will collect.

At the end of this session participants will be able to:

1, Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to examine inter- and intra-
household differences in such factors as: (a) access to and control over
resources, (b) division of labor, and (c) social organization,

2, Determine what kinds of data are needed for the purpose of predicting
adoption of improved agricultural technologies, after examining a specific case
from Zaire.



* Overhead projector
* Overheads:
4,1) Objectives
4.2) Structure of SENARAV
4.3) RAV II Project
4.4) Organizations involved in extension in Zaire
4.5) R & D team organization
4.6) R & D team r-« sonsibilities
4.7) What kinds of «ta may be of interest?
~ . 4.8) Questions for thought
* Handouts: :
4.1) Gender and Age in the Rural Zairian Household: A Case Study of the
Effects of Inter and Intra-household Differences on the Adoption of
Improved Technologies" (3 pages)
4.2) Gender training module #4, Working group 1


g module #4, Working group 2
1g module #4, Working group 3
4.5) Gender training module #4, Working group 4
4.6) Gender training module #4, Working group 5
4.7) Small group discussions

4.8) Evaluation form

Background Handout 4.1.
Readings:



Procedure: Activity I gives the background information on the national agronomic research
and extension institution in Zaire that serves as the case study. Small group work
Activity II helps participants to examine various adoption hypotheses and to
determine what kinds of data would be necessary to collect in order to test the
hypotheses. The summary in Activity III serves to stimulate the participants to
think about methods of data collection that may be used in their work.


Session IV: DATA COLLECTION: WHO DOES WHAT WHEN,

DETERMINING ACCESS AND CONTROL

Activity Iz Introduction. ‘(25 min)

TIME

3 min

22 min

ACTIVITY

Show overhead and explain the objectives of the training
session:



1. Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to examine

inter- and intra-household differences in such factors ast

(a) access to and control over resources, (b) division of labor,
and (c) social organization.

2. Determine what kinds of data ate needed for the purpose
of predicting adoption of improved agricultural technologies,
after examining a specific case from Zaire.

Give a brief overview of the activities for the session.

Short Lecture, Introduce background information for the
case studies. Locate Zaire on a map and briefly describe the
country. Describe SENARAV (National Service of Applied
Agronomic Research and Extension) as an organization that
generates agricultural technologies to benefit small farmers.

Briefly review the structure of SENARAY, focusing on the
research and development (R & D) unit. Within this unit,

R & D teams were organized on a regional level, and were
backstopped by a farming systems unit at a research station.
Upon reviewing technology transfer within the R & D unit, it
was concluded that in reality extension did not take place
within this unit because of staff shortages. However, further
inquiry revealed that extension was taking place through
several hundred state and non-governmental organizations.
‘Thus it was determined that the weak areas in the technology
innovation process within the R & D unit included (2) area-
specific research and (b) technical liaison and support, given
the fact that various organizations in Zaire carried out
extension of newly developed technologies.





‘The regional R & D teams of the R & D unit were composed
of a regional supervisor and two or three local teams. Local
teams usually included two members with formal training in

MATERIALS
Overhead 41

mp of Affin

Overhead 42

Ovetheat 43

Overhead 44

Overhead 45
agronomy and one with some training in rural development. A

review of R & D team responsibilities demonstrated that the Overbead 45
teams served to provide the missing link between research and

extension.

In order to carry out their responsibilities, each R & D team

needed to collect socio-economic data for their local area.

Repeat the fact that the intention of SENARAV was not to

study the rural household per se. The goal was to understand

the gender-based division of labor within the household to

increase the probability that SENARAV-generated

technologies would be adopted. Review in some detail the

many kinds of data that may be of interest to SENARAV, but Overhead 47
caution about the differences between “data that would be nice

to have" and "data that is absolutely necessary’. Data

collection by the R & D teams was designed to make

SENARAV more responsive to farmers, however available

money and staff were insufficient to carry out extensive data

collection,

Activity II; SENARAY examples. (35 min)

TIME

20 min

15 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Instructions. Introduce the five examples that will be
examined by participants, Explain that they must determine:
(a) whether the hypothesis can be tested, and (b) what data to
collect for SENARAV in order to test each hypothesis. Divide

participants into five groups, giving each group their respective -: Handouts
hypothesis and a copy of the instructions Tor the small group 42-46
discussions. Tell the groups that they have 20 minutes to Handout 47

complete the tasks, and that they will be asked to summarize
their results for the rest of the group.

‘Small Group Activity. Each participant group examines their
hypothesis, and determines the types of data they should
collect in order to test the hypothesis,

aurge-Group Presentations. Each group has three minutes to
report the results of their small group discussion. The
facilitator should be very familiar with each of the 5 examples,
particularly the types of data that might be important to
collect. However, the facilitator should add hisfher remarks
during the discussion only when absolutely necessary. The
point is to demonstrate the complexity of research given
limited resources, and the variety of approaches and data
collection techniques that may be used.

Activity III: Summary. (10 min)

IME

10 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Short Lecture. Summarize the session, reiterating the
emphasis within SENARAV on collecting only i
we had to know rather than all that we wanted to know.

Ultimately SENARAV decided to spend 50% of their efforts

on field trials and 50% on the collection of socio-economic
information. :



Show the overhead and leave participants with the following Overhead 48,
questions:

1, What are the differences between the approach to studying
the household introduced in the last session and today?
2, What are the advantages and disadvantages of the two
approaches to data collection that you have discussed during
the last two sessions?

~3, How could you apply these two approaches in your own
work?



Point out that the approach presented during the last session
emphasized general data collection of a more descriptive, or
qualitativé nature, while today’s session concentrated on
collecting specific numerical, or quantitative, data for the
purpose of prediction. Although the approaches are distinctly
different, they should be thought of as complementary
methods, with each being more appropriate for certain goals
and situations.


Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to
examine inter and intra-household differences in
such factors as: access to and control over
resources, division of labor, and social

organization.

Examine a specific case from Zaire, Central
Africa, in order to determine what kinds of data
are needed for the purpose of predicting adoption

of improved agricultural technologies.
STRUCTURE OF SENARAV
(GERVICE NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE AGRONOMIQUE APPLIQUEE ET VULGARISATION)

—— ee
































[J ewronorocy |



+ nrmeome:














RAV 1] PROJET



FIGURE 1. THE TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION PROCESS
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN EXTENSION IN ZAIRE

STATE ORGANIZATIONS.

SENASEM (Service National de Semence)

SNV (Service National de Vulgarisation)

SENAFIC (Service National de Fertilizantes et ntrants Connexes)
SNR (Service National de Reboisement)

INERA (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique)
L'Inspecteur de t’Agriculture

NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (312 total at last count)
Religious

Catholic
Kimbanguiste
Protestant Denominations

Locally Based NGO’s

Farmers’ Cooperatives
Indigenous Farmers Groups

Farmers’ Collectives
oe si ae 2
Non-Local NGO's





Outside Funded Projects
R & D TEAM ORGANIZATION
REGIONAL SUPERVISOR
AO, 5 YEAR AGRICULTURAL DEGREE
LOCAL TEAMS (2-3 PER REGION)
A1, 3 YEAR AGRICULTURAL DEGREE
A2, 2 YEAR AGRICULTURAL DEGREE
2 YEAR RURAL DEVELOPMENT OR

AGRICULTURAL DEGREE, MUST
SPEAK LOCAL LANGUAGE
R & D TEAM RESPONSIBILITIES

. CONDUCT ON-FARM TRIALS AND
SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESEARCH,
PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR
PRODUCTION TRIALS.

. COORDINATE AND REVIEW ON-
FARM TRIALS AND_ SOCIO-
ECONOMIC DATA COLLECTION BY
PRIMARY COLLABORATORS,
PRIMARILY PRE-DISSEMINATION
TRIALS.

. PROVIDE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
TO PRIMARY COLLABORATORS.

. PROVIDE SITE SPECIFIC TECHNICAL
TRAINING TO PRIMARY
COLLABORATORS.

. CONDUCT PERIODIC EVALUATIONS
OF PRIMARY COLLABORATORS.
WHAT KINDS OF DATA MAY BE
OF INTEREST?

DIVISION OF LABOR

ACCESS TO RESOURCES (LAND,
LABOR, CAPITAL)

CONTROL OVER RESOURCES

RESPONSIBILITIES OTHER THAN
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

CHILD BEARING

FOOD PREPARATION

FOOD PROCESSING

MARKETING 7
HOUSEHOLD ORGANIZATION

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN THE APPROACH TO
STUDYING THE HOUSEHOLD
INTRODUCED IN THE LAST SESSION
AND TODAY?

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF THE TWO
APPROACHES TO DATA COLLECTION
THAT YOU HAVE DISCUSSED DURING
THE LAST TWO SESSIONS?

HOW COULD YOU APPLY THESE TWO
APPROACHES IN YOUR OWN WORK?
GENDER TRAINING MODULE 4
M. E. Swisher, Home Economics

Gender and Age in the Rural Zairian Household:
A Case Study of the Effects of Inter and Intra-Household
Differences on the Adoption of Improved Technologies

In many agricultural development projects, even household level data are not
collected. In other cases, some data, often descriptive, about the household
are collected, but the data are not disaggregated by gender or age.

On the other hand, a growing body of literature exists which describes the rural
household in some detail. These studies are frequently conducted by social
scientists, This body of literature amply demonstrates that the household
cannot be regarded as a homogeneous unit. Gender and age based differences
exist within the household and individual household members’ access to and
control over resources vary, as do the contribution of different household
members to agriculturel production, processing of food and fiber, and
marketing, for example.

As a result of these studies, many agricultural scientists now recognize that
both inter and intra-household differences exist in the rural population.
However, it appears that this recognition has not, by and large, led to a more
sophisticated approach to the role of gender and age in determining household
decision-making. Yet, many decisions that will affect the success or failure of
agricultural development are made not by the household as a whole, but by
individuals within the household. Further, even where final decisions do
represent a "household level” consensus, this consensus may be the result of
‘overt or covert bargaining on the part of different members of the household.



Objectives

Our activities today are based on a actual agricultural development project in
Zaire, Central Africa. First, we will have a brief introduction to SENARAV
(Service National de Recherche Agronomique Appliquee et Vulgarisation) and
its mission and goals. Then, we will break into small groups to examine five
hypoti..ses that were developed by SENARAV's Research and Development
Teams. Our task is to determine what kinds of data should be collected to test
each of these hypotheses.

Our specific objectives are to:
Determine what kinds of data can be utilized to examine inter and intra-
household differences in such factors as: access to and control over
resources, division of labor, and social organization.

Examine a specific case from Zaire, Central Africa, in order to determine
what kinds of data are needed for the purpose of predicting adoption of
improved agricultural technologies,

Background

SENARAV generates agricultural technologies. Most technologies developed
to date consist of improved varieties of corn, manioc, and grain legumes.
Extending these technologies to Zaire’s millions of farmers, predominantly
women in many regions, is SENARAV’s ultimate goal.

The hypotheses that we will examine therefore all deal with how gender and
age-based differences within the household affect the adoption of these
technologies by farmers. In other words, our intention in SENARAV was not
to study the rural household per se. Rather, we were interested in how such
factors as the sexual division of labor within the household will affect the
probability that SENARAV-generated technologies will beaccepteble to farmers.

Just as we had to keep this in mind when we determined our data collection
needs, so will you. | repeatedly warned our technicians about the differences
between “data it would be nice to have" and “data we must have." |
encourage you to keep the same constraints in mind. We are collecting data
for purposes of decision-making within SENARAV. Should we conduct more
research about A or B? Should we plan on making more improved corn seed
or manioc cuttings available next year? How will we select collaborating
outreach entities? SENARAV is a small, underfunded organization. Operating
costs in rural areas are extremely high in Zaire. Data collection, even simple
field plot data collection, is a difficult undertaking. In short, | ask you to enter
into the spirit of our efforts as you work through these materials today: you're
poor, understaffed, and have limited analytical capabilities.



These are only five of many hypotheses that were developed by these teams.
They were selected because | felt that they were particularly relevant to the
issues that we have been discussing in these training sessions, | will remind
you that these hypotheses were developed by agricultural technicians, most
with two or three years of post-high school training.

Module 4 - Gender Training 2
The Hypotheses

For your information, the five hypotheses that we will examine are provided
below. We will be working in five small groups, each dealing with only one of
these hypotheses.

Hypothesis 1:

As markets for corn and peanuts, traditionally produced by women, decline in
Bandundu, women will devote more time to hunting and less time to agricultural
production. These changes in labor allocation will negatively affect the rate of
adoption of SENARAV‘s improved varieties Kasai land Shaba Il (corn) and JL24
(peanut).

Hypothesis 2:

The gender of the para-technical or technical assistant affects the rate of
adoption of SENARAV-generated technologies.

Hypothesis 3: s
Adoption of the improved peanut varieties JL24 and JL85 will be positively

affected by membership of women in women’s work squads in Kasai Occiden-
tal.

Hypothesis 4:

Increasing population in Kinshasa increases the demand for processed manioc
products (chikwonga and cossettes). Increased demand for processed manioc
products increases the labor demands placed on women and children in Bas
Zaire. These changes in labor demands will result in increased rates of adoption
for -24/31 and decreased rates of adoption of F-100.



Hypothesis

Women's access to revenues from manioc production is declining in Kasai
Oriental. Women will therefore move to the production of higher value crops,
including peanuts, leading to increased adoption of peanut varieties JL24 and
YL8S in Kasai Oriental,

Module 4 - Gender Training 3
GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 1



Hypothe:
Changes in labor allocation in Bandandu will negatively affect the rate of
adoption of SENARAV’s improved varieties Kasai land Shaba ll (corn) and JL24
(peanut).

Kinshasa traditionally represented an urban market for agricultural produce from
Bandundu. The road from Kinshasa to Bandundu has seriously deteriorated in
recent years. Many “manioc" (they actually carry all types of products) trucks*
travelling to and from Bandundu have ceased making the trip. Therefore, the
market for corn and beans in Bandundu declined. _

As markets for corn and peanuts, traditionally produced by women, decline in
Bandundu, we observed that women appeared to be devoting more time to
hunting and less time to agricultural production. We were not sure of the
magnitude of this change in labor allocation.

Our hypothesis stated above is based on the fact that both corn and peanuts
are relatively labor intensive crops. Further, the labor demand for corn and
peanut production occurs at more or less the same time of the year in
Bandundu. Finally, labor to produced these crops must be provided in a timely
manner. Weeding, for example, must occur within a relatively short period of
time.

Although not stated in the hypothesis above, we also hypothesized that the
changes in labor allocation from agriculture to hunting would have @ positive
effect on the adoption of improved manioc varieties. Manioc, unlike corn and
peanuts, is a relatively low labor input crop. Further, the demand for labor for
manioc is spread over a long period of time, nor must labor be provided in a
very timely manner. Manioc, too, has a market in Kinshasa, although it is, of
course, a much lower value crop than corn and beans.
GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 2

Hypothesis

The gender of the para-technical or technical assistant affects the rate of
adoption of SENARAV-generated technologies by women.

SENARAV works with food crops, most of which are produced by women in
the areas in Zaire where we worked. The collaborating outreach agencies
which perform the actual "extension" function for SENARAV normally use
either paid or volunteer para-technical or technical assistants as "extension:
agents."



This hypothesis was an important one for us in SENARAV. We utilized 2
number of criteria to select collaborating outreach agencies. One criterion was
the number of women farmers receiving technical assistance from the agency.
Another was the number (or percentage} of para-technical and technical assis-
tants in the agency who were female. Therefore, it was important for us to
know whether the gender of the technical assistant actually had an impact on
adoption rate.



Do not forget that we worked in five of Zaire’s provinces. The degree to which
women were responsible for the production of corn, manioc, and grain legumes
varied from region to region. In addition, women’s access to and control over
household resources also varied both between and among regions. Therefore,
although testing this hypothesis may seem quite straightforward, we found that
the data collection needs were quite extensive because of the large number of
potentially intervening factors.
GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 3

Hypothesis
Adoption of the improved peanut varieties JL24 and JL85 will be positively

affected by membership of women in women’s work squads in Kasai Occiden-
tal.



JL24 and JL85 both respond very positively to (1) tillage prior to planting and
(2) frequency of weeding. Where no tillage occurs and/or where weeding is
infrequent, these two varieties outperform traditional varieties only marginally.
Therefore, these two varieties can be called “high labor demand" varieties.

In Kasai Occidental farmers organize themselves in a number of ways. In'some
villages, almost all work is performed individually. In other villages, women
work in groups or squads. Our hypothesis is that the high labor demand of
JL24 and JL85 can be more effectively met where women work in groups.
Therefore, these varieties should exhibit higher yields relative to traditional
varieties in villages where work groups exist.


GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 4

Hypothesis

Greater demand for women’s and children’s labor to produce processed manioc
products (chikwonga and cossettes) in Bas Zaire and will result in increased
rates of adoption for |-24/31 and decreased rates of adoption of F-100.

Kinshasa’s population, like that of the capital city in many developing nations,
has increased greatly in population aver the last two decades. Unprocessed
manioc roots are bulky and heavy to transport and have limited shelf life.
Transportatiun costs amount to an extremely high percentage of the total
market value of food products in Zaire because of the poor transportation
system. Refrigeration or others methods of extending the shelf life of fresh
produce are not available to the majority of urban dwellers. Therefore, many
urban dwellers prefer to purchase chikwonga (a sort of manioc paste) or cos-
settes (manioc chips) than fresh manioc tubers. The cost is probably (although
we are not sure of this) lower per kilo of actual nutrients and the processed
products definitely have a longer shelf life.



Clearly, selling chikwonga or cossettes instead of manioc tubers increases the
labor demand for the rural household, Processing manioc is primarily done by
women and children.

F-100 has a relatively low percentage dry matter, not much higher than many
traditional manioc varieties. F-100 routinely outyields traditional varieties in
terms of tubers, even under poor production conditions. The low dry matter
content, however, means that processing is a lengthy and labor-consuming
process. The final finished product yield of F-100, particularly of cossettes, will
not be much higher than that of several traditional varieties.



|-24/31 is a new variety in its second year of release by SENARAV. Its total
production (wet tuber weight) per unit area is slightly less than that of F-100
and it does not produce as well as F-100 (relative to local varieties) under poor
roduction conditions. However, it has a much higher dry matter content than
F-100. It is therefore easier to process

Both F-100 and I-24/31 have important characteristics, particularly resistance
to mosaic which is a major disease of manioc in Bas Zaire. Local varieties are,
in general, highly susceptible to mosaic.
GENDER TRAINING MODULE #4
WORKING GROUP 5

Hypothesis

Decreased access to income from manioc sales will lead to increased adoption
of peanut varieties JL24 and JL85 in Kasai Oriental.

Kinshasa traditionally represented an urban market for agricultural produce from
Kasai Oriental. Roads from Kinshasa to Kasai Oriental have seriously deter‘orat-
ed in recent years. In the eighteen months prior to September, 1991, air trans-
port to N’Gandajika (provincial capital) also declined. As a result, the market
for peanuts (as did market opportunities for com and manioc) in N’Gandajika
declined. Given that sale of foad crops is a major source of income for women,
the loss of market revenues reduced the proportion of household income earned
by and controlled by women in the province.

We in SENARAV hypothesized that women might try to offset the reduced
income from sales of food crops generally by increasing production of the
higher value crops, particularly peanuts. The higher value crops generally
(peanuts, beans, cowpeas, etc.) have higher labor requirements than manio



Among peanut varieties, JL24 and JL85 can be called “high labor demand"
varieties. JL24 and JL85 both respond very positively to (1) tillage prior to
planting and (2) frequency of weeding. Where no tillage occurs and/or where
weeding is infrequent, these two varieties outperform traditional varieties only
marginally. On the. other hand, both varieties show significant resistance to
two of the most important diseases of peanuts in the region, either of which
can cause devastating yield reductions. - .
SMALL GROUP DISCUSSIONS

You have been provided with background information regarding one of the five
hypotheses for discussion in your group. Your task is to determine:



+ (1) Whether the hypothesis can be tested; and, if the hypothesis can
be tested,

(2) What types of data the R&D Teams should collect in order to test
this hypothesis.

Your group will be asked to make a five minute presentation. You will have
twenty minutes to complete your exercise. You may reformulate the
hypothesis.
DATA COLLECTION, WHO DOES WHAT WHEN, DETERMINING
ACCESS AND CONTROL
Session 4
Evaluation

Please circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements,



1 My understanding of the
‘kinds of data that can be di 2 3
utilized to examine inter and
intra-household differences in such
factors as: access to and control
over resources, division of labor and
social organization increased.

2. My understanding of the 1 2 3 4
‘kinds of data needed for the
purpose of predicting adoption
of improved agricultural technologies
increased,

3. What did you like most about this session?

= 4 What could be improveul?

5. Please rate the instructor on the following items:



Content 1 2 3 aos
Presentation 1 2 3 aos
6. Comments

Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address on back is showing
Total Time:

Rationale:

Learning
Objectives:

Materials:

Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session V: WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT TRAINING
IN INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES

OVERVIEW

70 minutes

This session is the first of four sessions focusing on Gender Analysis training.
‘These sessions are designed to give the participants the educational skills and.
knowledge that will enable them to train others in Gender Analysis. Women in
Development and Gender Analysis trainings have been carried out by international
esearch and development institutions for the past ten years with various audiences,
Numerous conceptual approaches and training methodologies have been employed
at the various levels of development work. It is important to review these trainings
not only to learn from past mistakes, but also to gain an appreciation of the
historical development of this field.





At the end of this session participants will be able to:

_ 1. Distinguish between: (a) Training women, (b) Training men and women,

(©) Women in Development (WID) trai
training.

2. Describe the current thrust of GA training in the international development
agencies.

3. Identify two conceptual frameworks applied in GA training,

4. Recognize and characterize different target groups which need to be trained
in Gender Analysis. ~



ig, and (d) Gender Analysis (GA)

* Flipcharts 1-2

* Overhead projector

* Overhea
5.1) Major development agencies
5.2) Gender definitions
5.3) Gender Analysis framework
5.4) Gender planning framework
5.5) Policy approaches
5.6) Target groups

*VCR

* FAO videotape (if available)

* Handouts:
5.1) UN. structure


5.2) CGIAR centers

5.3) Gender planning in the Third World (Moser)
5.4) Reading list

5.5) Evaluation form

Background See Handout 5.4.

Readings:



Procedure:

This session is divided into six main activities. Activity I states the objectives and
sets the stage. Two examples of international training are covered in Activity II
Different conceptual frameworks used in Gender Analysis are described in Activity
IH, focusing on two of the most common approaches. Activity IV addresses the
types of training frameworks and methodologies that might be most appropriate
for the various target groups participating in training. Activity V shows a brief
video clip of FAQ's Gender Analysis Workshops. The session is summarized in
Activity VI.


Session V: WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT TRAINING.

IN INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES



Activity Iz State and explain objectives, and set the stage. (10 min)

TIME

5 min

S min



ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Show flipchart with printed objectives, stating that by the end Flipchart 1

of the session participants will be.able t



1. Distinguish between: (a) training women, (b) training

men and women, (c) Women in Development (WID) training,
and (d) Gender Analysis (GA) training.

2. Describe the current thrust of GA training in the
international development agencies.

3. Identify two conceptual frameworks applied in GA training.
4, Recognize and characterize different target groups which
need to be trained in Gender Analysis.

Make it clear that for objective 1, "a and "b" are different
target groups, while "c" and "d are conceptually two different
topics. Training in various international agencies will be
discussed so that participants understand the differences
between the Gender Analysis training they are currently
receiving in an academic setting versus what occurs at
development agencies operating in an international setting.

In order to help set the stage for discussing WID and GA
training in international agencies, review Some definitions and
acronyms common in the international arena, Explain the Ovethead 5
differences between bilateral and multilateral agencies, and

briefly mention the major international development agencies,

Review the concepts of gender, Gender Analysis, and Overhead 52
differentiate between WID versus GA. Emphasize that there

are all sorts of permutations of WID and GA. Mention that

the popularity of WID and GA trainings within international

agencies is a relatively new phenomenon, and that interest is

growing rapidly.


Activity II: ‘Two examples of international training. (30 min)

TIME

15 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Small Lectufe. For the first example, report on preparation Handout 5.1

for Gender Analysis training within the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Be sure to cover
the main points listed below. It is recommended that the
facilitator also review the FAO documents referenced in the
reading list for an improved understanding of the FAO
example.

FAO's preparation for GA training involved two major steps:
steps: (a) conducting a needs assessment, and (b) reviewing
pilot workshops.

‘The needs assessment was designed to examine what type of
training might best address the needs of FAO and the various
organizations with which FAO works. As part of the
assessment, @ paper was commissioned to review how ten
other major international development institutions had
addressed GA and WID training. The paper identified six key
points for a successful training:



“1. ‘There must be an explicit mandate for the training from

the organization that is to receive the training, The higher the
management level from which the training is requested the

better. Support from upper management may improve

coordination and delivery of the training, encourage full

participation by those attending, and ensure better assimilation

of the information into the mainstream of the organization. é
However, wide support at all levels of the organization is also
necessary.



2, Knowledge and skills assimilated during training in WID or
GA may easily be adapted to improve other aspects of
participants’ work.

3. The training program should be managed by a core team
of trainers provided with good logistical support and adequate
preparation time. Training should also be evaluated on a
regular basis.

4, It is best to employ WID and GA experts as trainers and to
teach them how to become good trainers, rather than to
select professional trainers and instruct them on WID and GA


15 min

issues. Self-confidence is an important attribute of a good
trainer.

5. The case study method lends itself well to training in
international agencies, although the case study might need to
bbe region or country specific,

6. Training techniques and methodologies should be carefully
selected.

FAO sponsored three pilot workshops in an attempt to further
identify the type of training that would best meet the
organization's needs. FAO borrowed different features of
these pilot workshops and designed in-house workshops
attended by over 700 senior professionals. FAO personnel
were also trained at their regional offices, with training
materials tailored to the culture and language of the area.

Short Lecture. Report on the second example, training for the
Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research
(CGIAR) headquartered at the World Bank. Be sure to
include the points outlined below, and again, It is
recommended that the facilitator review the CGIAR
document referenced in the reading list for improved
understanding of the CGIAR example.

CGIAR centers are located all over the world with each Handout 52
center focusing on a particular agronomic system or crop.

Therefore, center-specific training is necessary to take into

account the nature of the research and the cultural

environment of each center,

Per donor request, WID/GA training was initiated within
CGIAR centers as part of a dual effort to better address
gender issues in the development arena and to examine the
staffing of women in the centers. A four-person team was
organized to carry out a two-year study of these issues. Data
were collected through a center-wide survey and visits to
several centers,

Gender Analysis and/or WID activities varied greatly in
amount and kind between the centers. It was determined that
GA workshops could improve the research and extension
capabilities of all staff, even at centers where Gender Analysis
activities were already occurring.
Activity I:
TIME

8 min

‘The trainers ultimately targeted those research programs that
contained a user perspective component. They gained a good
deal of acceptance with this approach, and eventually were
able to train center scientists in Gender Analysis as well as
tain others'in how to carry out GA workshops.

Conceptual frameworks used in Gender Analysis. (8 min)

ACTIVITY
Short Lecture. There are many conceptual frameworks with

which to carry out GA/WID training. Two of the most
common approaches are the Gender Analysis Framework and
the Gender Planning Framework,

Briefly review the Gender Analysis Framework emphasizing
that it is a technique of looking at activities by gender and
age.

Review the Gender Planning Framework conceived by Moser,
stating that this model is uswally applied in an urban setting.
State that in WID training, Moser makes distinctions between
practical and strategic needs, as well as the different policy
approaches taken when addressing Third World women,
According to Moser, women often prioritize their needs
wanting to address practical needs first as these needs are
often felt more urgently by women. Addressing strategic
needs implies changing the entire social system. Pass out
Handout 5.3 and review the five basic policy approaches used
in WID. Make the following points for each of the respective
‘approaches:



1. The welfare approach is still used most often by
international agencies, in part because it is nonchallenging to
the social structure, Women are seen as passive beneficiaries
of development.



2. The equity: approw:.: is usually not popular with
governments, It is cri‘cized as being Western feminism, and
is sometimes consider: 4 threatening to governments.

3. Anti-poverty is easy for all to accept as it uses a
sympathetic argument and meets women’s practical needs.

MATERIALS

Ovethead 53

(Overhead 54

‘Handout 53

Overhead 55
Activity IV:

TIME

3 min

2min

3 min

4. Efficiency is the most popular with governments and
multilateral agencies, Women are seen entirely in terms of
delivery capacity and ability to extend the working day.

5. Empowerment as an issue has been introduced into the
policy arena primarily by Third World women. It is
sometimes viewed as anti-colonial, emptiasizing Third World
women's self reliance, It tends to be unpopular with
governments.

Addressing different target groups. (8 min)
ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Short Lecture. Show the overhead, "Target Groups", and Overhead 56
emphasize the main points: “Facilitators must know their
target group before attempting to deliver a message, and must
adjust their training accordingly. The first three groups differ
in the amount of monetary power they wield, level of
education, and personal and professional agendas. For
example, policy makers have power and are in charge of the
budget; they are also often male and more accustomed to
traditional educational methods. It is also important to
differentiate between international, national, and local target
groups. "Tripartite training" refers to training at headquarters,
donor agencies, and/or host governments.

Brainstorming. Ask participants to tun to a partner and
brainstorm about the characteristics of one of the three first
groups, and the types of training frameworks and
methodologies that would be appropriate when targeting that
group. Give cach group two minutes to perform the task, and
inform them that they will have approximately three minutes.
to summarize their ideas for the larger audience.

Large Group Report. Jot down the results for each of the Flipchart 2
three grous.: on a flipchart, Participant summaries will make

it clear that different methodological approaches are necessary

when addressing varied target groups.




Activity Vi Video: FAO Gender Analysis workshops. (3 min)

TIME ACTIVITY
3 min If available, ‘show a video clip of some of the participant

responses to the FAO Gender Analysis workshops.

Activity Viz Wrap-up. (1 min)
TIME ACTIVITY

Imin Briefly summarize the session.

MATERIALS:

Videotape

MATERIALS


BILATERAL: (two sides) nation to nation; in development
usually donor to recipient nation

MULTILATERAL: (many sides); usually many nations or
governments participate; in development an international
agency such as the World Bank, IMF, the United Nations
and any of its specialized agencies, i.e, FAO, UNDP;
UNFPA; IFAD; ILO; UNIFEM; INSTRAW; HABITAT;
‘WHO; UNSO; etc.

PVO/NGO: Private Voluntary Organization
Non-governmental Organization; may be international or
local, but is not connected to government; may be civic,
religious; focused on a topic or cause

CGIAR: Consultative Group for International Agricultural
Research

USAID: United States Agency for International
Development

CIDA: Canadian Agency for International Development
SIDA: Swedish Agency for International Development
ODA: (British) Overseas Development Agency

Norad; Finida; Danida

GTZ: German
GENDER: Refers to the social differences that are learned,
changeable over time, and have wide variations within and
between cultures. Gender is a socio-economic variable to
analyze roles, responsibilites, constraints and opportunities
of the people involved; it considers both women and men.

GENDER ANALYSIS: Is the systematic effort to
‘document and understand the roles of women and men
within a given context. Key issues include

(a) the division of labor for both productive and
reproductive activities

(b) the resources individuals can utilize to carry out
their activities and the benefits they derive from them, in
terms of both access and control

(c) the relationship of the above to the social,
economic and environmental factors that constrain
development

WID VERSUS GENDER ANALYSIS: Early efforts in ,
WID focused on highlighting the important roles of women
and in documenting women’s inequitable position in society
and in the development process. Gender Analysis
considers the activities and responsibilities of both women
and men and the similar and/or different impacts that
policies, programs and project activities may have on each.
GENDER ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK--Overholt, Cloud,
Anderson, & Austin

Women’s contribution to development not recognized, but
projects can be redesigned; purpose of the analysis is to
give visibility to women’s contributions.

_Activity Profile
production of goods and services
reproduction and maintenance of human resources

gender and age denomination
time allocations

activity locus/place
agricultural calendar

Access and Control Profile

Resources
Land, labor, equipment, capital, education/
training

Benefits
Outside income, assets ownership; in-kind goods;
education, political power/prestige
GENDER PLANNING FRAMEWORK--MOSER

PGN: PRACTICAL GENDER NEEDS: needs that are
formulated from the concrete conditions women experience
in their position in the sexual division of labor; they do not
‘generally entail a goal such as emancipation or gender
equality

SGN: STRATEGIC GENDER NEEDS: needs that are
formulated from the analysis of women’s subordination in
relation to men, and which are identified as leading to an
alternative, more equal organization of society
POLICY APPROACHES

WELFARE: social welfare approach, bring women into
development as better mothers, i.e.,. reproductive roles,
nutrition, family planning stressed; women are passive
beneficiaries; popular with governments & NGOs as non-
threatening, meets PGN



EQUITY: original WID approach, bring women in as
active participants to gain equity (parity); reduce inequality
with men through top-down interventions; threatening and
not popular with governments; meets SGN

ANTI-POVERTY: toned down equity linked to
redistribution with growth and basic needs; assist poor
women to increase productivity, especially in small-scale
income generation; tendency to focus on productive roles in
isolated ways; popular with some NGOs; meets PGN

EFFICIENCY: current predominant WID approach;
women’s economic participation associated with more
efficient and equitable development, especially in terms of
stabilization and adjustment; women viewed in the context
of the delivery of services; popular with governments and
multilateral agencies; meets PGN

EMPOWERMENT: view of Third World women and
grassroots organizations to empower women through
greater self-reliance; anti-colonial; some F'*/Os, but largely
unsupported by governments; meets PGN and SGN
TARGET GROUPS

-- Policy makers, supervisors, managers

-- Field people, researchers, extensionists, technical
* assistance and project personnel

-- Local groups, local PVOs/NGOs, farmers, women’s
groups, grassroots extensionists



INTERNATIONAL

NATIONAL

LOCAL

TRIPARTITE:
donor

executing agency/personnel
host government


AU es
[Suan tacos oe

Tne UN. is made up of sie main bodies:

GENERAL ASSEMBLY (GA); TheAssemblyisthemain
deliberative body of the United Nations, Apresentatives ofall
‘member governments moot each fll fr approximately three
months and make recommendations ona wide range of iter-
tational questions, approve the UN, budget, and a
UN, expenses. Eich member has one vote, All other UN,
bodies report to the G.A. annually. On the recommendation of
theSecurty Council itelecsthe Secretary General, and adexity
(and can exped members. Most decisions aremade by asimple
tnajriyor consensus (agreemntwithouta vote taken), Raso-
lutions on “imporane” questions, such as maintenance of
Peace, requirea two-thirds vote,

SECURITY COUNCIL(S.C): The UN. Chater givcethe
Security Council the primary responsibilty for maintaining
international peaceand secunty.Ithasthopovertodirect UN.
ation against treats tothe peace. The SC. has IS members.
Fiveare Permanent the U.S, the USSR, the United Kingdom,
France, and China. The other ten ae elected by the G3. for
twvosyeartenms. Resolutions pass withnine yes" votes A “no
otebya permanent memberisa “veto” and blockathe motion.
‘When the Charter was drafted, the voto provision was insisted
conby both the U Sand the USSR and both have subsequently
used

SECRETARIAT: Headed by the Secreary-General, he
SeertariateervesassafftotheotherorgansoftheUNandade |
iinisterstheprojetsand polices lad downlby them lv 13200

._ Menand women rom over 150 countries, work a UN. Fiead-
quarter in New York and in offees in Geneve, Vienna, and
elaawhere. The Secrotary-General is elected for fiveweat re
newable erm. The pos wast held by TrygveL leo! Norway
(194553, followed by Dag Hammarskisld of Sweden (1955-
61), U Thant of Burma (1881-71), Kure Waldheim of Austra
(1972-8), and Javier Perez de Cuellar of Pars (1982 to the
present)

fm ECONOMICAND SOCIAL COUNCIL: ECOSOC coon
nates the economic and soxial work of the UN, and ts
specialized agencies and insitutons ft also overcaesfiva
‘gional economic commissions and sox functional commis-
sons (Satistical Commission, Population Coremision, and
the Commissions for Socal Development on Human Rights,
onthe Satus of Women, and on Narcotic Drugs. tS meme
bers aro elected by jhe G.A. for threesyear tens, ECOSOC
generally holds teromonth-ongsessions each year,oncin New
Yori and onein Geneva

BL TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL (7.C.): Trust Tertories are
former coloniesthat after Werld Wrll, were paced under ne
jarldicion ofthe Trusteeship Counc. The L, assigned them
toadminstecing powers whose job wastoproparethem fri
dependence. Onguully thew were I Trt Teories, mostly







11 Afaca.Allane now independent nations except Micranesia,
| whichis administered by th US. Today the TC sane up of
the US, and other permanent S.C. member. t meets once a
year i discuss the status of Micronesia and other "Non-Seli-
Governing Teriteris”
INTERNATIONAL COURT OF [USTICE (IC): The Court
decides eval disputes between countresthetagreetoaccopris
unsdision also has ised advisory opinions at tho request
‘of the General Assembly and Senurity Counel. ls 13 judges,
elected by theG.A.and theS.C fornine-yearterme, arechosen
jonthebasisof thei qualications, sotharnationallty ‘Rough,
the prnaspaljega systems ofthe worl must be represented
The sua of te Coure nat The Hajue, Netherlands:





Much ofthe workof the U.N. systems done'by the fallowing
specialized agencies, which report the Economic and Socal
‘Ghunell.Exen:sautonomous, withitsownchares budgeand
sft

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAQ):

Helps governs improve the presucton, processing
ine and dutty af fod apd ager pres,
seme rural development, nd eliminate hunger. ke Gis
information and Early Warning Syste denies countees
threatened by food shorages

Mt INTERNATIONAL ENL AVIATION ORCANIZATION
((cAo):Osprive ithe sae and onder growth ofc a
enthroughout the work Sats insratiepal step andar
recommends practic governing the perorrance ofr and
pound ems mates rls fete

INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT (IFAD):Seekstoend hungerand malnutntion
indenlpingsounesbypnginenosapovetheiood

ton. Makan loa an gant t pos that prom
Frrcaturelvesoes devon irigaten taining ey
areas

1 INTERNATIONALLASOUR ORGANISATION (LOME>-
tilted 919 ueder the Lengu of Nations Socks timprove
working conditions. sets ntemational abr standards, asst
‘ener courts in sueh iss vcstina ain ae
zover lanai. ascupatonalealthand safety and seals

1 INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO):
Porotes sonsrationamang goverinentean tech ate
‘esatucene> sping Setsstindacts or marti see
ces maton an the rovenan and cgta ot polltion
tem ses

2 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF)


















rometeinteraional monesary cooperation and fitatthe ©
Expaaon of cade Prete ance ne eine 2
anceof payment difficltiss long withtecicdlsaiees as |
improve their rename managenecl

iy INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS Uiow {
(ITU); Founded 1845 as the Intemational Telegraph Union |
Goal [a linproved and effcine ute of teesommuncisons |
felis Ass tio quence and pons to ges |
onary satelite. Fosters tbecreasonand provement ot ie.
‘communications networks in developing countries. H

@ UN. EDUCATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL
ORGANIZATION (UNESCO): Promotes cllsboraton amon
Sond inthefinids of eatin scence cute andeomme
‘letons Tain teacersand educational planners organs f
scionicesplorations preserves watksofamtand monsment,
and ants developing countries t improve thet mesia. Te
U.S. withdrew from UNESCO in 1965, accusing tts then Dire- |
torGeneral of waste and mismanagemene. |

‘U.N. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION
(UNIDO}: Promotes the ndustralization of developing cone
Ses, Fatiaves tne transfer of feetnalogy t them Oranirs
‘runing programs, and helps them fo obtain extemal ina
ing,

"UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION (UPL): atabished 194,
Repulatesiniernatcnal mail delivery tandentizes ovate
provides raining and expen aavice'o postal syns iniel.
Sping courerisn,

Md) WORLD BANK: Seeksta rls standards of Wing in
‘oping countries by channlingSnanclal exource che, |
Thien done vhrough thos issnations |







“Toterallonal Bank fer Recanstracion and Develg-
sat (IBRD): Lends money and provides tach ase
tance for agnicultura and rural aevelopment pros, §
snengy, pore, pover fis roads, rllway and ce]
noeded iastucture,

“Iotertational Developinent Assocation (IDA Makes

Joans on very easy tenet the poorest among the deve:

oping counties.

“Intemational Fiance Cerportion (UFO: Assits private

ceterpise in developing countries,

Ja WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO): Goal is
“aah for Atby the Year2000" Suppor progamvof heath
and nutron education, safe water, fly pana me
"ston agalnat major disasat ane research

WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION
(PO): Ensures iterations coopentin fr the preston
‘faves was eacemaths, conv

WARLD METEOROLOGICAL RGANIZATION
(W490) eabahad 1973 Prametestnenicrmanonalencnan ge
ot wean Infemmavion. World Weathin Veh coordinates
~formaneu ined fom ld stanons An! Space seies ane

es possbieextesded Wester (reasting fut the ante












(GATT): The prinetpal international body concerned with the
reduction of rade barry, the conciliation of trade disputes,
and international radarclations. GATT isconsidered a “tlt
lateral agrorment’—not a “specialized agency” per se.

IM INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA):
Guides the development of peaceful wes of atomic energy,
cevtablsthesstandants for nuclearsafery, fostestheexthangeot
Scientife and fechnical information on atomic energy. Not a

ined agency" perse, AEA wasestablished “underthe
aegis of the UN?



2 IMPLEMENTING: THE: ::
Pe Le a eee
i GENERAL: ASSEMBEY:

‘Over he years the General Assembly bas created number of
spocal bodies to canry ott work. Ail ace finanew bY Voln=
‘Gry sonmbstlons fom gorernmens an, sometimes from
private chzens,

TB OFFICE OF THE UN. DISASTER RELIEF COORDINA.
TOR (UNDRO}. A ciesringhoise for Information on rele
Jecdsintimenofngturl disasters nuchatearthauakes floods
tna hurricanes, Mobilizes and eoorinates emergency aon
tance fom around the word

im OFFICE OF THE UN. HIGH COMMISSIONER FoR
REFUGEES (UNHCR): Extends international protection and
Irateralassstncetoreisess (excep how nthe Middle,
‘hore aided by UNRV and nay ites with poveraments
‘Sree and epuriatothem,

1B UN, cETREFOR: UMAN St TLEMENTS (HABITAT:
Detis withthe housing prslemotlsnbanandeural poor in
eveiping casein

Wy UN CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICER: Provides technical
and naneal ssnstanceto developing countries for progres
enerting chidren Help ham lon ad extend services In










maternal and child health, applied nutrition, clean water and
sanitation, formal and non-formal education, and mporsible
parenthood.

UN. CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT.
(UNCTAD): Works to establish agrecrenss on commodity
pe sabiaton and eo pence of nero
made.

UN, DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN (UNIFE
‘An autonomous agency associated with UNDP (see below)
‘that suppor projects benefiting women in developing cous



"BUN. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME-(UNDFY: The
ental finding planning, and coordisating oganztion fot
“clic estoy” and development he UN. system
Provides grantnritanceip build shllsand developresoures
innshacsne apc, industry, health HSE,
ns Plans, anrport sad communications

it UN. ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP): Moni
tos signncant changes inthe environment an Works 3 de
‘lop Sound eavronmenal pracens worse

UN. POPULATION FUND (UNFPA}: Tre restate
sada funded our asabranoe to population recrans
In devloping counter Ade goverment develop ny
lansing programs qather and analyae population dea.

‘DUK. INSTITUTE FOR TRAINING AND RESEARCH
(UNITAR) Skea enhance the ercseretso the UN.
framing propams fr government and UN. ofl and r=
seach ena vane of inertial es

UN. RILEE AND WORKS ACENCY FOR PALESTINE
AEFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST (UNRWA): roves esucae
for held and wearesssancete arabretpes infor,
Lebanon Sy tne Wes Danke and Gaza.

UNE UNIVERSITY (UNUs Jopaninsod autonomous
acateni insttion wha worldwide etworkal axcatet
insitons, search uns, Ydiviual schol, ad flows.
Dewonot gt grec

UAC INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING
INSITUTE (NETHAW)-Casie outreach tenga
formation asides to pomte women as yagentsofeeve-
opmere
Fir WORLD FOOD COUNCIL (WFC): A 36eaton tay
that ees annua fhe srt Ive 0 review mae
ues eect the wold food sation

1 WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME QWFP): Jain spon-
sors by the UN, and ERO, pps both emergency fod
tein and fod aldo suppor development ros.








CGIAR Centers

CIAT -- Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia. Founded 1967,
Focus on crop improvement and improving agriculture in the lowland tropics of Latin
America, Research covers rice, beans, cassava, forages, and pastures.

CIMMYT -- Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico, Founded
1964. Focus on crop improvement. Research covers maize, wheat, barley, and triticale,

CIP ~ Centro Internacional de la Papa, Lima, Peru. Founded 1971, Focus on potato
and sweet potato improvement. Research covers potato, sweet potato.

IBPGR ~ International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy. Founded 1974,
Focus on conserving gene pools of current and potential crops and forages. Research
covers plant genetic resources.

ICARDA ~ International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo,
Syria. Founded 1976. Focus on improving farming systems for North Africa and WEst
Asia. Research covers wheat, barley, chickpea, lentils, pasture legumes, and small
ruminants,

ICRAF -- International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya. Founded
1977. Focus on initiating and supporting research on integrating trees in land-use
systems in developing countries,



ICRISAT ~ International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Andhra
Pradesh, India. Founded 1972, Focus on crop improvement; eropping systems.
Research covers sorghum, millet, chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut.

~ IFPRI — International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C, Founded 1975,
Focus on identifying and analyzing policies for meeting food needs of the developing
countries, particularly the poorer groups within those countries, Résearch covers ways to
achieve sustainable food production and land use, improve food consumption and
income levels of the poor, enhance the links between agriculture and other sectors of the
economy, and improve trade and macro economic conditions.

MIMI ~ International Irrigation Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Founded
2984, Focus on improving and sustaining the performance of irrigation systems through
better management,

UTA ~ International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. Founded 1967.
Focus on crop improvement and land management in humid and'sub-humid tropics:
farming systems, Research covers maize, cassava, cowpea, plantain, soybean, rice, and
yam.
TLCA ~- International Livestock Center for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Founded
1974. Focus on farming systems to identify livestock production and marketing
constraints in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research covers ruminants, livestock, and forages.

TLRAD ~ International-Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi, Kenya.
Founded 1974. Focus on control of major livestock diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa,
Research covers theileriosis (East Coast fever) and trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness),

INIBAP ~- International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain,
Montferrier-sur-Lez, France. Founded 1984, Focus on bananas and plantains.



IRRI ~ International Rice Research Institute, Manila, the Philippines. Founded 1960.
Focus on global rice improvement.

ISNAR ~- International Service for National Agricultural Research, The Hague, The
Netherlands. Founded 1979, Focus on strengthening and developing national
agricultural research systems.

WARDA -- West Africa Rice Development Association, Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire. Founded
1971. Focus on rice improvement in West Africa, Research covers rice in mangrove
swamps, inland swamps, upland conditions, and irrigated conditions.























































Gender Analysis and Training Techniques Seminar Series
Session 5: Drs. Anita Spring and Sandra Russo

READING LIST

Feldstein, H. et al, The Gender Variable in Agricultural Research. Women in
Development Unit, International Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada.

Howard-Borjas, P. et al., (1990). Gender Analysis Workshops for Professional Staff: FAO's
Mid-Terin Review of Lessons Learned, Working Paper Series No. 7. FAO, Rome.

Moser, C. (1989). Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic
Gender Needs, World Devetopment, Vol. 17, No. 11 pp 1799-1825, :

Poats, S. (1990). Gender Issues in the CGIAR System: Lessons and Strategies from
Within, CGIAR, The Hague.

Poats, S. and S, Russo, (1990). ‘Training in Women and Development/Gender Analysis in
Russo, S. 1990 Agricultural Development. A Review of Experiences and Lessons
Learned. FAO. Working Papers Series No. 5.

Russo, S. et.al., (1989). Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management.
WID/PPC/USAID/WDC,

wind:reading Ist
WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT TRAINING IN INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES
Drs. Anita Spring and Sandra Russo
Session 5, Evaluation

Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the
address on back is showing.

Girele the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.

ot oo a i
: ee a




s a
Ea

1. My uaderstoading ofthe

difference between: trating 1 2 3 4

‘women, raising men and women,

‘Women in Development (WID) training

and Gender Analysis (GA) training

increased,
2. My understanding ofthe 1 2 3 4

current thrust of GA training
in the international development
agencies increased.



3. My understanding of two conceptual 1 z 3 4
frameworks applied in GA training
1 2 3 4
characteristics of target groups
needing GA training increased. ¢

~ 5. What did you like most about this session? =
6. What could be improved?

7. Please rate the instructors on a fallovog tems

a oo outa
+ fee too
De, Spring: E = a Soe ge



Content
Presentation

Dr. Russo:
Content 2 3 aos
Presentation 1 2 3 405

8, Additional comments:
Total Time:

Rationale:

Learning
‘Objectives:

Materials:

Background
Readings:

Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session VI: WHAT IS TRAINING?

OVERVIEW

70 minutes

Most of the course parti nts will have little background in adult edvcation
theory to apply to Gender Analysis training. In addition, most of the facilitators
adult learning experiences will be based on a university education model, and
therefore they will not have been exposed to self-directed and experiential learning
models that are used most successfully in gender analysis (and other adult)
trainings. This session exposes the participants to adult learning theories,

and demonstrates how these theories can be applied in the training process.





At the end of this session participants will be able t

1. List the basic differences between education and training,

2. Understand the training process and how to utilize it in educational programs
for adults.

3. Describe the fundamental principles behind experiential learning.

4. Recognize that all adults have different learning styles.

5. Be aware of the implications of different learning styles for planning and
conducting training programs.





* Blackboard (or flipchart)
* Handouts: its
6.1) Teaching, learning and learning styles
6.2) Four curriculum models
6.3) Experience and learning
6.4) How adults learn
6.5) A model of learning problem solving process
6.6) Learning style inventory
6.7) Reading list
6.8) Evaluation form

See Handout 6.7.


‘There are eight activities in this session. Objectives of the session are explained
in Activity I. ‘The difference between education and training is covered in Activity
IL. Activity IIT focuses in on training and the training of self-directed adults.
Activity IV gives a historical account of adult learning theory and experiential
learning, Activity V discusses the implications of adult learning styles for training,
Activity VI allows time for questions and discussion. Participants take a learning
style inventory in Activity VII to identify their own learning styles. ‘The session is
summarized in Activity VIII.
Session VI: WHAT IS TRAINING?

Activity I: State and explain objectives. (2 min)

TIME

2 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

State and explain the specific objectives for the session. At
the end of the session, participants will be able to:

1. List the basic differences between education and training.

2. Understand the training process and how to utilize it in
educational programs for adults.

3. Describe the fundamental principles behind experiential

earning. :
4, Recognize that all adults have different learning styles,

5. Be aware of the implications of different learning styles for
planning and conducting training programs.



Activity II Education and training. (15 min)

TIME

5 min

10 min

ACTIVITY MATER!
Brainstorming. Ask participants to jot down the differences



between training and education, allowing approximately three

minutes to complete the task. Below two column headings,

"Training" and "Education", write down the responses on a Blackboard
blackboard (or flipchart).

Discussion/Short Lecture. Use the above exercise as a spring-
board to discuss the similarities and differences between
education and training. Utilize the information given by the
participants and elaborate on the following points during the
discussion:

“Education” is associated with a teacher or expert who imparts
know. ge, a textbook that symbolizes concepts and ideas, and
a class-oom where learning takes place. Students are
consicered passive receptors who do not have knowledge or
experience. Textbooks are provided as the basis of
knowledge, rather than students’ experiences. The classroom
symbolizes that learning is an activity that is cut off from the
real world. In "education", learning is considered preparation




Activi

TIME

Simin



for some future activity such as employment, and is not
necessarily related to one’s current daily work.

In “training” the premise is that the participants and the
facilitator (versus teacher) are more on the same level. Each
have unique experiences and knowledge from which others can
learn. The experiences of the participants rather than
textbooks are the building blocks upon which new information
is added. "Training" is an active learning process, with the
goal of learning something that participants can immediately
apply in their daily work.

UE: Training and andragogy. (10 min)
CTIVITY

Short Lecture, Explain that training is often described as a
eyelical process with five steps. Go over each step.

Analyze the situation/perform a needs assessment.
Determine the training objectives.

Develop the training plan.

Implement the training.

Evaluate the training.

peepe

These steps are sometimes narrowed down into three broader
phases:

1. Pre-training,
2. Training =
3. Post-training,

Explain the common pitfalls of training. Billions of
development dollars are invested in training each year.
Although a positive correlation between training and
productivity has been demonstrated, there still is some
disillusionment with training results. There still exists a gap
between knowledge or skills obtained during the training and
effective, on-the-job application. How can these problems be
addressed within the context of the training process?

‘The gap between training and effective application can be

attributed to the fact that needs assessments and evaluations
conducted pre- and post-training are often carried out solely
at the individual level rather than at both the individual and



|ATERIALS
Simin

Activity IV: Adult learning theory and experiential lea

TIME

10 min

organizational level. Also, at the post-training end of the

cycle, there tends to be inadequate integration of the new

skills and knowledge obtained during the training into the

everyday work routine. Another common pitfall is the failure
\corporate each individual's experience throughout the

ing process, because of the logistical difficulties in doing





Short Lecture, When training adults, an andragogic approach
generally adopted. Andragogy is the philosophy of
educating "self-directed" adults, as opposed to "other-directed”
children (pedagogy). With this approach it is assumed that as,
adults, the training participants are self-motivated and have
identified a need for further knowledge or skills in a particular
area. It is also assumed that participants’ experiences, as
opposed to a textbook, are the prime resources for the training.
With this approach training is planned and attended in order
to solve existing problems in participants’ daily work.





1g (10 min)

ACTIVI

Short Lecture. Briefly review the historical development of
adult learning theory and experiential learning, Published in
the late 1960's, Freedom to Leart by Carl Rogers was the basis
for adult learning theory, He advocated putting the student at
the center of the entire learning process. He also promoted
the idea that people learn best when there is less threat to
self, so that to maximize learning, the thréat must be removed.

In the 1970's John Knowles differentiated between self-
directed adults and other directed children, He also
emphasized that experience is a rich resource for learning,
and suggested that learning is most effective when adults are
motivated by trying to solve day-to-day problems, rather than
motivated by academic pressure.



Later David Kolb expanded this idea of adult learning through
experfence (experiential learning), emphasizing that experience
is the basis for training adults. He introduced the cyclical
experiential learning model consisting of the following ste





1. Concrete Experience.
2, Reflective Observation.

MATERIALS
Activity

TIME

6 min



3, Abstract Generalization.
4, Active Experimentation/Application.

This theory implies that adults are continuously re-learning,
testing concepts in experience and modifying them as a result
of reflection on their observations of that experience. This
model also implies that the learning process is directed by
‘dual needs and goals, thus learning styles also are highly
lualized. Since people have different ways of learni
ing should be adapted to the various learning styles of :





participants.
Distribute the handouts that supplement these discussions on Handouts
adult learning theory and experiential learning. 6.1 10 6.5

Learning styles and training. (6 min)
ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Short Lecture. Explain how this information, that different
people learn differently, applies to training. State that the
most important thing to do is simply to recognize this fact,
helping the facilitator to become more tolerant of different
learning habits. Secondly, it is important for the learners to be
aware of their own learning preferences,

Training can be tailored to individual learning styles if time
and resources are available. However, there usually are
monetary and time limitations, so often it is best to adopt a
variety of teaching styles to best satisfy th needs of all
participants. In addition, there are two points that are
important to keep in mind:

1. Although individuals may have a particular learning style
that best suits them, they are also flexible in that they are able
to adapt to other teaching styles.

2. The best learning style for an individual may vary,
depending on what type of information the facilitator is trying
to get-across.
Activity VI: Questions and discussion. (13 min)
TIME IVITY MATERIALS

13min Large Group Discussion. Allow the participants time to ask
questions and discuss the information that has been presented,

Activity VII: Learning Styles Inventory. (13 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATI

2 min Exercise. Hand out the Learning Style Inventory and briefly Handout 66
g0 over the basic instructions for completing the inventory.

10min Have each participant complete the inventory.

1 min As the participants begin to complete their inventory, g0
around the room and briefly discuss individual resulis.



Reemphasize to the entire group the
training to each of these different learning styles. Therefore,
it is often best to adopt a variety of teaching styles to best
satisfy the needs of all participants,

culty in tailoring



Activity VII: Summary. (1 min)
TIME ACTIVI > RIALS

1 min Point out that this session on adult education and training,
experiential learning, and individual learning styles serves as
the introduction for the next session that will examine specific
training techniques.



Pass out background readings. Handout 67


‘TEAGHING, LEARNING AND LEARNING STYLES

A Short Theory Overview...*



For most of us, the first associations we have to the word "learning"
are teacher, classroom, and textbook. These associations belie sone i
plicit assumptions that we tend to make about the nature of the learning
process. Our years in’ school have trained us to think that the primary
responsibility for learning lies with the teacher. His/her training and
experience make him/her the expert; we are more passive participants in
the learning process. As students, our job is to observe, read, and meno-
Tize what the teacher assigns, and’ then to repeat "what we have learned"
in examinations. The teacher has the responsibility of evaluating our
performance and telling us what we should learn next. He/she sets require
ments and objectives for learning since it is often assumed that the
student does not yet have the experience to know what is best for him/
herselé. 2



‘The textbook symbolizes the assumption that learning is primarily
concerned with abstract ideas and concepts. Leaming is the process of
acquiring and renenbering ideas and concepts. The more concepts remenbered,
the more you have learned. The relevance and application of these concepts
to your own job will cone later. Concepts cone before experience.

.___, The Classroom symbolizes the assumption that learning is a special
activity cut off fron the real world and unrelated to one's life. Learn-
ing and doing are separate and antithetical activities. Many students at
graduation feel, "Now I am finished with learning, I can begin living.
The belief that learning occurs only in the classtoom is so strong that
academic credentials are assigned great importance in hiring and promotion
decisions - in spite of the fact that research has had little success in
establishing 2 relationship between performance in the classroom (grades)
and success later in life.





As a result of these assumptions, the concept of learning seldom seems
relevant to us in our daily lives and'work. And yet a monent of deeper
reflection says that this cannot be so. In a world where the rate of
chsnge is increasing rapidly every year, in a vine when few people will
end their careers in the same jobs or even in the sane occupations that
they started in, the ability to learn seems an important, if not the most
important, skill.

_.The concept of problem solving, on the other hand, evokes sone asso-
ciations that are opposite to those of the concept of learning. We tend
to think of problem solving as an active, rather than a passive, process.
Although we have a word for someone, wha dicts the learning process

(teacher), we have no sinilar word fé1-the s-oblem-solving process. The

: ‘



“Excerpted from: Kolb, et al., Organizational Payohotogy (2nd ed.).


responsibility for problem solving rests with the problem solver. He/she
must experiment, take risks, and cone to grips with the problem. Usually
no external sources of evaluation are needed. He/she knows when the
problen is solved.

Although general principles can emerge from the solution to a spe-
cific problen, problens are usutlly specific rather than general, concrete
rather than abstract. Problem solving is not separate from the life of
the problem solver. The focus of the problem solving is on a specific
probien felt to be relevant to the problea solver; it is, in fact, his/her
involvenent in the problem that makes it a.problen.



‘A Model of the Learning/Problen-Solving Process

By combining these characteristics of learning and problem solving
and conceiving of then as a single process, we can cone Closer to under-
standing how it is that we generate from our experience concepts, rules,
and principles to guide our behavior in new situations, and how we modity
these concepts in order to improve their effectiveness. This process is
both active and passive, concrete and abstract. It can be conceived of:
as a four-stage cycle: '(1) concrete experience is followed by (2) obser-
vation and reflection which leads to (3) the formation of abstract
concepts and generalizations which lead to (4) hypotheses to be tested in
future action which in tum leads to new experiences.

Concrete

ae experiences SX

Testing concepts in Observation and
new situations reflections

XN Formation of abstract

concepts and generalizations

‘There are several observations to be made about this model of the
Jearising process. First, this learning cycle is continuously recurring in
livin; Inman beings. Me'continuously test our concepts in experience and
modif> them as a Tesult of our observation of the experience. In a very
impgr cant sense, all learning is re-leaming and al] education is
reeducation.






. Second, the direction that learning takes is governed by one's felt
needs and goals. We seek experiences that are related to our goals, inter-
pret them in the light of our goals, and form concepts and test implications
of these concepts that are relevant’ to our felt needs and goals. The
implication of this fact is that the process of learning is erratic and
inefficient when objectives are not clear.

Third, since the learning process is directed by individual needs and
goals, leatning styles ‘become highly individual in both direction and
Process. For example, a mathematician may come to place great emphasis on
abstract concepts, whereas a poet may value concrete experience more highly.
A manager may be primarily concerned with active application of concepts,
whereas a naturalist may develop observational skills. Each of us ina
more personal way develops a learning style that has Some weak points and
strong points. We may jump into experience but fail to observe the lessons
to be derived from these experiences; we may form concepts but fail to test
their validity. In some areas, cur objectives and needs may be clear
guides to learning; in others, ’we wander ainlessly. -

‘The Learning-Style Inventory* was designed as an aid for helping you
identify your own learning style. ‘The four learning modes - concrete
experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active
experimentation - represent the four stages of the learning process. The
inventory is designed to assess the relative importance of each of these
Stages to you so.that you can get sone indication of which learning nodes
you tend to emphasize. No individual mode is better or worse than any
other. :



* For more information about the Learning-Style Inventory, see David A. “f51b,
Organizational Psychofogy: A Book of Readings, “2nd ed.








) FOUR CURRICULUM manELS:











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ee teu e
‘oe er tha









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navi niet te ote


















395 A Change Publication

Experience
and Learning -

An Introduction to
Experiential
Learning
twelve

Se
Roots and Definitions

ee

“«
‘A. BunNen cuILD DREADS THE FIRE
fect." “Experience is the best teacher.” :

Postsecondary education is rediscovering these basic proverbs.

Today's academicé. bear little resemblance 10 that give nece
Athens where Plato gethered his followers, From that carly besin
ning, “academic” has come to meen “theoretical and not epoca
to produce a practical result." Now the social role of highes eae
tion cals for more than simply academic contributions. Literary and
Classical studies are still necessary, but they are no longer caffe
cient. Scholastic traditions and disciplinary conventions green
Bross with the weight of now knowledge and methods, crackicg dt
Viding, redividing, and recombining—no longer provide « corpen,
honsive logic for curricula and higher learning. Pressuses for techs
Bical and professional training run hedd-on into comples scant
problems that call for a more knowledgeable, sophicuosed cen
complex citcenry. Financial exigencies sharpen questions of ee
Pose, effectiveness, and accountability. Under these conditoes,
‘more interest in “experiential learning’ is logical and imperative,

!t wauld be premature to say that experiential learning has finally
come of age. Despite progress in some institutions and income cioee
of “rofessional and general education, itis still far from being ama,
iss: art or science. Understanding and practice are highly variable
assong institutions and programs across the country, For the once
B: -\ experiential learning is still primitive, But interest init fs howe
st.ong and widespread and is not likely to dimisich,

in large measure, the problems of experiential learning are sim:
bly those of good teaching. There are complex questions csncersing
Purposesrsubstance. j concerning students’ abilities and

{lilferences: concerning the contribution and sequence of veriens
learning activities; concerning evaluation and cnet



‘PRACTICE MAKES PER-


















thirteon

For better or worse, we have made our peace with these qu
tons when wo teach familiar subject matter in accustomed mode
‘Any major change upsots that delicate blend of sound judgment,
pedient rationalization, and self-deception, Just as a carefully ta
ered cocktail ean become » muddy mix when the bartender stum-
bles, 20 can the aesthetic qualities of education vanish and its taste
appeal diminish. We then have to start over. To make matters
‘Worse, we are not sure which ingredients go together best, in what
proportions, or in what order.

The purpose of this Change policy paper is neither to bury nor to
exalt efforts at more affective integration of experience and learn.
ing. But a balanced assessment is in order. {t is our aim simply to
share current thinking about prablems and potentials and to offer
some concrete information that may help academics move toward
improved education. There is no single ideal model for teaching and
learning, no magic mix applicable to diverzo students, purposes,
‘ond institutions. But there are many chances to miss even e reason-
ably sound approach. A better understanding of some general prin-
ciples, practical guidelines, and basic problems mey be timely for a
wide range of persons concerned with higher education.

To this end we shall try to identify the major problems concerning
‘educational purposes ond academic quality. the kinds of challenges
presented to faculty members accustomed to traditional practices,
and the varieties of institutionel resistance that can be anticipated.
‘The potentials for more effective student learaing, for faculty sat
faction, and for institutional support and enrichment are also out.
lined. Each teacher wil! have fo balance problems against potentials
and see which way the scales lip. Some guidelines for estimating
costs and general implications for national and local policies con-
clude our brief: review.

‘Administrators contemplating program chsnges may find some
useful considerations concerning educational quality and casts in
this discussion, Faculty members concerned with educational pol
cies and with improving their own teaching may find ideas worth
pursuing. Students concerned with expanding the renge of their
learning may recognize possibilities heretofore ignored.

T should make it clear at the outset that this policy paper con-
coms only what has been called “sponsored” or guided” experi-
ential foarning: that is, learning that accurs while a student is en-
rolled as a part of the ongoing educational program of a collage or
university. Ido not claim to tackle the complex problems end
practices associated with evaluating nnd granting credit for
experiential learning"—that is, for “life experience” learning that
has occurred before enrollment and may be recognized as fulfilling
allor part of the requirements for certain kinds of degrees or pro-
grams. There is currently keen interest in this latter cluster of con-
corns, and relevant work is accumulating rapidly." This brief val-
sume does not attempt to reach that for. despite the kinship between
the two topics.

‘There is nothing really new cr stardling about “experiential learn-
ing.” about the integral relationships between experience and























fourteen

knowledge. When the Bible first reported that Abraham knew
Sorah, fullfloshed experience was the medium rather than lectures,
print, or tape. For Socrates, the unexamined life was not worth li
ing, and Sophocles observed that “one must learn by doing the
thing: For though you think you know it you have no certainty until
you try." Webster's dictionary gives "know" as the first synonym
for “experience.”

In his delightful and scholarly chaptor on the deap traditions of
experiential learning, Cyril Houle reminds us of the craft guilds
‘and apprenticeship sys i
ing from the medieval period through the industrial revalution. (
nificantly, the original word for guild was universitas.) But parallel
to this system there developed a guild of scholars who appropriated
the term while developing institutional homes for themselves at
Bologna and Paris. These models, which gradually spread bath west
end east, basically asked students to master content delivered by
books and lectures. Even in professional areas such as medicine,
learning occurred according to rules laid down by authorities. Sys-
tematic observation, dissection, and practice had no place. Thus the
tradition of experiential learning has been accompanied by a deep
division between “experience” and “learning” that was created by
the universities and maintained in full strength for 700 years.

While vocational training was provided by the guilds and appren-
tice relationships, and scholarly training by the universities, the
education of the elite was carried forth by the chivalric traditions.
This system was highly experiential and competency based. Houle
describes some of the required proficiencios:

“The equie mit beable ta: “Spring upon
‘ rib














rae while fly armed: 49
ath of tine with the nae or



io alse himself betwixt twa partition sralls ta any
‘eight. mount a indder.supon the reverse or under side. solely by
‘the aid of his heads. ich the bar.

Moreover, these practical skills were accompanied by require-
ments exemplified by Chaucer's squire in Canterbury Tales:
ngs nnd poems and recite,

t'dence to. draw to wl

wen dav grew pale
Hed slept az tte os « nigbingste,
Grurteous he was, and humble wing. eb:
He-carved to warve hs father at the tele

‘Then as now, nonformal learning activities provided a rich back-
ground against which the more formal systems cut their figures.
Libraries, monasteries, museums, churches, and courts provided re-
sources and events. Annual rounds of feasts and festivals carried
cultures and taught traditions. Wandering minstrels and story-
tellers, traveling salesmen, and itinerant tradesmen brought news,
myths, and word of other lands. The local pub, inn, and village
green provided meeting grounds to exchange common wisdom, ex:
amine current practice. and share and test new knowledge.
‘Then came the industrial revolution. Factories replaced crafts-












Espinal aaring ta Revie: penal ner
Bfteen

‘ura, unions replaced guilds, and job simplification reduced complex
tasks to easily learned skills. Chivalry died. The once indivisible link
between riches and royalty was broken. Feudalism and monarchy
gave way to economic systems and the polities of republicanism and
democracy. Increasingly, an educated citizenry with a wide range
of professional and vocational skills became essential,

With the death of chivatry and the decline of the guilds. only the
university survived—with its emphasis on content and authority
and its rejection of dicect experience and useful applications. In the
absence of other alternatives, pressures mounted for e university
education that was practical as well as theoretical and met the
needs of new professions in agriculture, engineering, architecture.
snd forestry. The land-grant calloges evolved in the mid-nineteenth
Century, at about the time that the natural sciences were finally
given curricular recognition by the classicists who dominated Ox.
ford and Cambridge.

With the turn of the century, several majar areas of professional
preparation began to require direct exporiences and practical ap-
plications as integral program elements. Medical schools. led by
Johns Hopkins in the late 1900s, incorporated not only laboratory
studies but also hospital internships: law schools included moot
courts and clerkships; normal schools required practice teachi
forestry and agriculture curricula required field work,

‘Then came John Dewey's seminal contributions and efforts by
educators to act on them, Dewey anchored his thinking in the as-
sumption of on “organic connection between education and per.
sonal experionce.” Today's attempts to move toward experiential
learning grapplawith the same problems he addressed co profound-
1y. The slim, 91-page volume Experience and Education, written in
1936, stl states the issues more sharply and succinclly than docs
any other dociment. Consider the timeliness af these words, re-
mombering to take “progressive” in its generic sonse of moving for.
ward or advancing: e

one ettemts to frmulte the phdosophy of education implicit inthe

Pracilees af the new educalign, we may. think, discover eertain tame,

‘on principles. To lnporilion (rom above is opposed expression ted

{ulation of individuality: to externa discipline w appored free athe
sin foe lls todtechatenes W Sea eee ce
Aulsion of them inning ends which make direct vital
‘tppeal: to preparation for @ mare or lors remote future fs oppoced
tseling de mott af the opportunities ef preset li























‘take it thatthe fundamental unity of the newer philosophy is found
Intheidea that theres ieeen the
processes of actual experience and education... The prctlem for pre-
Eressive education ix What isthe place and meaning of subicct vier
‘and organization within experience? How does theanbject m3 func
\ioat Is there anything inherent in experience whlofrtends
Bressive organization? A philosophy which proceedy on the bxsisof fe.
{ction of sheer opposition, will neglect these questions. It yl {end to
suppose thal because the eld education wes bused on rea
‘Rasization,thereforeit suffer










sixteon

rather that there is anaed 1 search fora more elective source of au
Docause the elder education imposed the inowledge. meth

ales of eouductait does not, fllow.thet the bnowl-
‘eige aad sil af the mature percan have ao dtectve value for the ox-
perience of Ue immeture. On the contrary basing elveaton upon per=

Soaal expericce ‘nd more timate com.

{iets between the mature and the immature then ever existed ta the
Arion ol and consoqutdy more rather an es pulance

Dewey's paragraphs express fundamental propositions and iden-
tify basic problems that still hold true for experiential learning.
‘These historical developments set the foundations for further
changes thet occurred as educational systems regained their poise
after the demands and disequilibria of World War II. Cooperative
education and varied work-study arrangements, developed at Anti
‘och, Goddard, Berea, ane a few other small private colleges, begen
fo be recognized across the country during the 1950s and 1960s.
‘Theu came the Society for Field Experience Education. Founded in
1972 by educators, agency supervisors, and students. it seeks to
serve the needs of these three constituencies through a quarterly
eveletter it publishes jointly with the National Center far Public
Service Internships and through enaual conferences dealing with”
issues and practices.

‘The Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning Project,
began in 1973. It coordinated consortial efforts among 10 two- end
four-year colleges and rapidly expanded to include an assembly thet
now has more than 220 institutional members. In fall 1976. the par-
licipating institutions incorporated as the Council for the Advance-
ment of Experiential Learning with two peimary purposes: “(1) to
foster the development of educational programs using better mixes
of experiential learning with theoretical instruction and to foster
more widespread use of such programs; and (2} to sophisticate fur-
ther the understanding and practice of assetsment of the outcomes
of experiential learning."

‘These developments have been accompanied by meetings among
CAEL representatives end persons from a large number of other
organizations with similar interests, This network of organizations
suggests that interest in experiential learning is broad-based in-
deed, spanning a wide range of institutions and agencies concerned
















changes ofthe last decade, suggests that the deep divisions that
persisted since the time of the medieval universities may be healing.
Strictly speaking, al learning is experiential To set some bounda-
ries, we can begin by holding to Webster's simple definitions of
learning and experience: “‘Learning—to gain in inowledge or un-
derstanding of, or skill in, by study. instruction, or experience: Ex.
perietice—the actus; “ing through an event oF events, actual en-



joyiitint or suffering: hence, the effect upon the judgment or feelings
produced by personal and direct impressions." These definitions
are broad enough (o include as educational outcomes knowledge,
understanding, and shills as well as ‘judgment and feelings. They
‘alsoinclude the educational processes of study, instruction, and ex-
perience es well as the actual living through of events, They recos-
hize that both joy and suffering accompany experience and learning.



new Wer Gale oak, Wa Fa
seventeen,

Our concern therefore is not confined to such events as encounter
groups, field observations, travel. or work. Nor does it reject the
Value of lectures, print. films, videotapes and audiotapes, or
other forms of mediated instruction or vicarious experience. There
is no progross to be made by substituting one totality for another.
The problem is to create that combination that is most effective for
the person doing the learning and for the material to be learned,

The elements of that mix have beon variously described, but de-
spite minor wrinkles the level of general agreement is high. Disraeli,
for example, said, “Experience is the child of Thought, and Thought
is the child of Action. We cannot learn men from books.” According
to Coleman, experiential learning involves a sequence not unlike
Disraeli's: ms

nthe first step one earries out an action..and sees the effects of that
‘tion Folowiag he acon and the observes of is eects, the
second step is understanding these effects in a particular instance, $0
that if exactly the same set of circumstances reappeared, one could

at would fellow {com the action. Tha third step is under-
standing the general principle under which the particular fnstance
fallsiw When the general principle Is understood” the last step 1s fs
‘pplication through action ix a new circumstance within the range of
‘reaeralization. Here the distinction fram the action of the fest sep
nly tha the circumstarce in which th iakes place is differen
fand thatthe actor anti










David Kolb's experiential learning model is similar to the steps
Coleman describes. According to Kolb, experiential learning occurs
through a four-stage cycle: “Immediate concrete expetionce is the
basis for observation and reflection. These observations are assimi-
lated into e ‘theory’ from which new implications for action can be
deduced. These implications or hypotheses then serve as guides in-



. The Experiential Learning Model ~

es

‘Testing Implications of Observations end
Concept ta New Situations

~ — Refectione
Me een e ‘

Concepts and Generalizations


eightocn

teracting to create new experioncas."* Effective learning therefore
has four ingredionts that themselves call for four different abilities.
‘The learners must be uble to enter new experiences openly and fully
without bias; they must be able to stand back from those experi
ences, abserve them with ome detachment, and reflect on their si
nificance; they must be able to develdp a logic, a theory, a concep-
‘ual framework that gives some order to the observations: and they
must be able to use those concepts to make decisions, to salva prab-
lems, to take action. + aa

‘Thus the cycle involves two quite different types of direct expe!
ence: active experimentation and hypothesis testing that systemat-
ically apply general theories or propositions, and more open co-
gagement in which such prior judgments or assumptions ere sus-
ended or held in the background. It also involves two quite differ-
ent cognitive processes: first, straightforward recording of reflec-
tions and observations related as closely as possible to the direct
experiences themselves, unfettered by preexisting .;conceptuel
frameworks that might screen out or distert incongruous percep-
tions; and then, analyses of the interrelationships among these, fal-
lowed by syntheses that suggest larger meanings and implications.

Note some critical consequences of this approach when it is
carried out well, First, experiential learning attaches major impor-
tance to ideas. When ideas are used as hypotheses and tested in
action, their significance and the attention given to them is greater
than when they are simply memorized or left as unexamined ab-
stractions. An idea taken os a fixed truth gives no cause for further
thought. An idea as a working hypothesis must undergo continual
scrutiny and modification, That. in turn, creates pressures for ac-
curate and preéise formulation of the idea itself. Second, when an
idea is tested, for its consequences. this means that results must be
acutely observed and carefully analyzed. Activity not checked by

servation and analysis may be enjoyable, but intellectually
it usually leads nowhere, neither to greater clarification nor to
new ideas and experiences. Third, reflective review requires
both discrimination and synthesis to Create a record of the signifi
cant elements of the experience. As Dewey puls it. “To reflect is to
look, back over what has been done so as to extract the net meanings
‘which are the capital stock fér intelligent dealing with future exper-
fences. It is the heart of intellectual organization and of the disei-
plinod mind."* When we talk about experience and learning, we re-
fer to this complex of interactions.

With regard -to concrete examples, there is ah obvious irony in
dealing with experiential learning solely through the medium of
print. We do, after all slip so comfortably into the habitual mode zo
characteristic of college and university teaching: we begin with
some introductory observations end then move quickly to abstract
concepts and goneralizations. In this subject area showing {s more
effective than (elling, but our capacity te show is limited. Even so,
some concrete examples can illustrate the concepts, set a frame:
work for activities by leachers, and provide a basis for later discus-



























sion of,problems and potentials.


i

Annex H
. How Adults Learn

Several neademie journals and many books are deyoted to this field and provide
theoretical and practical guidance on training adults. (Samples of significant
writings are Srinivasan 1977; Tough 1971; Margolis and Bell 1984.) Following are
‘@ number of theories that attempt to outline and justify differences in the learning
needs and styles between children and adults, The basic conclusion is that adults
pursue different goals through learning, and that they should be given much
guidance but little pressure in their learning activities,

Why Should Adults Be Trained Differently Than Children?

Rogers (1951), u widely cited psychologist who proposed that children should be
free to learn at their own pace, formulated a student-centered theory of personality
and behavior, which is applicable to adult education, Its most imporzant hypotheses
are as follows:

+ We cannot teach people directly; we can only facilitate their learning,

* A person learns well only those things that he or she perceives as being
involved in the maintenance of, or enhancement of, the structure of self,

+ Experience that, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organization
of self (that is, modify some central beliefs) tends to be resisted through
denial or distortion of symbolization,

‘+ The structure and organization of self appear to hecome more rigid under
threat, and more relaxed when free from threat. Experience that is perceived
as inconsistent with the self can only be assimilated if the current
organization of self is relaxed and expanded to imchude it,

* The training atmosphere that most effectively promotes significant
learning is.one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a
tminimum; and (b) individualized perception of the field is facilitated to suit
the adult’s needs. 5s

Rogers! popularity in psychotherapy during the 1960s gave a lot of impetus and

eredibility to his theory, though it has boon subjected to very little experimental
verification. This theoretical background gave rise to andragogy (Knowles 1973),
the philosophy of educating self-directed men as opposed to other-directed children
(pedagogy). This theory assumes that as individuals mature, their learning skills
differ from those of children. The differences are due to to the following:

* Changes in self-concept: the self concept moves from total dependeney to
increasing self-directedness, An adult has a need to know and the means to
find the knowledge.

* Role of experience: an expanding reservoir of experience causes an sdult to
become an increasingly rich resource for learning, which can be used by

trainers and trainees alike.

Readiness to learn comes less from academic pressure and more from the
fequirements of evolving social roles (from staff to manager, from
‘housewife to career woman, and so on).









78
* Orientation to learning: children learn the domains of knowledge assigned
to them (for example, must. study English), while adults learn in order to
solve problems (for example, must learn how to read financial statements).
Adults are, therefore, concerned with the immediacy of application.

Adalts seek further training for pleasure, self-esteem, and knowledge to cope
with life changes. Adult learning is a frequent activity in the United States (Tough
1971). It is common for people who engage in it to spend 700 hours a year at learning
projects, of which 70 percent are plarined by learners themselves. They typically
anticipate several desired outcomes and benefits to result, some immediate, others
long-term: satisfying a curiosity, enjoying practicing the skill, enjoying the
activity of learning, producing something, teaching others, predicting what will
‘happen in some future situation, lesrning to cope with marringe, divorce, a new jab,
‘managerial responsibilities, and so on (Zemke and Zemke 1984), Adult educators
have described adult learner orientations in various, frequently overlapping
categories, such as (a) goal-orientation—use of education for accomplishing fairly
clear-cut objectives; (b) artivity-orientation—participation for the sake of having
an activity; and (c) learning-orientation—seeking knowledge for its own’ sake
Houle 1972),









‘Training Implications for Adults

Sinco adults are solf-directod, they can only be given facilitation, not taught. In
facilitating adult learning, it is important to establish a climate conducive to
learning where a two-way transmission of knowledge takes place rather than the
one-way transmission of children’s classrooms (Knowles 1964), There should be

_ an atmosphere of mutual respect, supportiveness, collaboration rather than
competition, openness, and learning. rather than performance-oriented goals,
Needs of learning should be diagnosed, and planning should be undertaken
jointly, The climate is important because adults are usually not obliged to be in
leerning situation. Unless they find the content and mode of presentation
appealing, they will either leave or tune the presenter out.







Learning Relationships

Self-directed learners are able to plan, initiate, and evaluate their own learning
experience. Therefore, they may benefit from learning relationships, such as
working with mentors and learning partners, ar entering into learning contracts
(Kelly 1986; Robinson and Saberton 1985; Bova and Phillips 1984). The sparse
systematic research that exists in this urea suggests that expectations are not
always confirmed (Caffarella and Caffarella 1986).



Instructional Preferences

Adalts tend to be application oriented and thez+*rre, less interested in survey
courses (Zemke and Zemke, 1984), They prefer single-concept, single-theary
training with emphasis on how-to. They also tend :o take fewer risks and prefer
tried-and-true solutions and learning strategies (Zemke and Zemke 1984),
Flexibility to adapt to trainee needs is, therefore, important for adult trainers
(Johnson 1985). “Unfreezing,” unexpected experiences built into an early phase of a






78

course or workshop, can make adults look at themselves more objectively and free
their minds from preconceptions (Knowles 1973).

Teacher Perceptigns and Practices

In one of the few research tests of adult edueation philosophy, teachers agreed
that adults do indeed show more intellectual curiosity, concern with applications,
motivation to learn, willingness to work hard and to take responsibility for
learning, clarity about what they want to learn, less dependence on the teacher, but
also more resistance to new ideas. Teachers, however, did not interact with adults
in the more facilitative, student-centered fashion prescribed by adult. education
theories, even when they were well informed about them (Gorham 1984; Conti 1985),
Apparently, exhortations to be facilitative do not amount ta concrete suggestions on
what behaviors trainers must change.

Considerable thought has been given to the adult learning process, and several
models have been generated in hopes of guiding curriculum design. One example
is the experiential learning model, according to which optimal loarning is a
cyclical event that includes four basic modes (Williams 1984; Kolb 1976)

‘* Conerete exporience: a person must be able to become involved fully, openly,
and without bias in new experiences (for example, trainees observe a film
demonstrating various managerial techniques).

* Reflective observation: @ person must able to reflect on and observe these
experiences from many perspectives (for example, discussion occurs during
observations).

* Abstract conceptualization: A person must be able to create concepts that
integrate these observations into logically sound theories (for example,
lecture and required reading on various aspects of developing managerial
skills add depth.)

+ Active experimentation: A person must be able to use these theories to make
Gecisions and solve problems (for example, trainee takes part in a mock
emplayer/employee session demonstrating previously learned skills).





‘The Utility of Adult Education Theories

‘The theories presented in this section make a lot of intuitive sense, and this may
be one reason why their adherents have not been compelled to test them
experimentally. This problem is complicated by the apparent ignorance or
disregard of cognitive research shown by many authors. Many phenomena
considered characteristic of adults actually characterize all learners (for example,
benefits of audiovisual aids, interference of details in the acquisition of rai
ideas; Zemke and Zemke 1984), Rigorous research in this field would recolve
many questions, among them: (a) precisely which instructional variables are
more effective in ereating lengrter -etention of material by adults, (b) what
components of instructors’ betiavior award adult learners are most effective in
developing the open climatesconside-2d necessary for training mature learners,
and (¢) how various modes-of p: sentation compare in imparting usable
knowledge. Thus far, there has been zractically no research on the instructional or
social variables that operate in seminar settings, Lacking concrete findings,








~

seminar managers can only share empirical advice and generalize from research
on children.

‘The Search for Optimal Methods of Training:
Cognitive Learning Styles

People differ in what they look for in a learning situation and how they plan
their actions, For example, some may work better in groups, while others may work
better alone. Cognitive styles describe the process through which individuais
organize and transform information in a decisionmaking situation, Educators
have hypothesized that if the cognitive style of a learner is identified and material
is presented in a compatible method, learning will be facilitated.

‘The concept has gained pupularity, and multitudes of vague and overlapping
cognitive styles have been generated, Examples are as follow

* Idealistic (thinker and reasoner), versus Pragmatic (application-oriented),
versus Realistic (direct and efficient), versus Existentialistic (no best
‘method exists); (Ward 1982, cited in Sataka 1984)

+ Independent (thinks for himself/herself), versus Dependent (learns only
what is required), versus Collaborative (shares iders), versus Competitive

(earns material to perform better), versus Participant (takes responsibility
for learning), versus Avoidant’ (not interested in course content)
(Reichmann and Grasha 1974, cited in Ash 1986)

Converger (abstract conceputalizer and active experimenter), versus
Diverger (imaginative and emotional), versus Assimilator (abstract,
conceptualizer and reflective observer), versus Accommodator (becomes
involved in new experiences) (Kolb 1976).

* Other styles: Field dependence versus independence, seanning, breadth of
categorizing, conceptualizing styles, cognitive’ complexity versus
simplicity, reflectiveness versus impulsivity, leveling versus sharpening,
constricted versus flexible control, tolerance versus intolerance (Messick
1970, in Ash 1986),

+ Perceptual learning styles: visual, interactive, aural, haptic, kinesthetic,
print (that is, reading), olfactory (James and Galbraith, 1985); the most
common style és visual.

‘The best-known cognitive style that has also received some attention from
psychologists is fleld dependence, a trait that can be reliably diagnosed through a
test of finding embedded figures in complex designs. Field-dependent people are
attentive to external cues and look to the environment for aid in solving problems,
‘They are, therefore, less able to focus on n figure or main idea and more prone to ba
confused by the complexity of the environment (Witkin and Goodenough 1877),
Women tend to be * ‘d-dependent more often than men, Field independent
students re more liciy to favor mathematics and the sciences, subjects that
clearly require cognitive restructuring skills, Field-dependent college students
tend to favor clemento~y education, speech therapy, and nursing (Smith and others
1982), According to anecdotal observations, field dependence may be more common
among students in developing countries,












80

Utility of Cognitive Styles

Designing training after the cognitive styles of learners have been identified
has been fraught with problems. Lacking a firm theoretical basis in cognitive
research, different writers have generated multiple overlapping and conflicting
lists. Diagnosis of a learning style (assuming a person consistently uses one) is
conducted through questionnaires that ask people how they like to learn (for
example, Multimodal Paired Associates Learning, Grashe-Reichmann Student
Learning Scales). Habits are then transformed into learning styles.

Although this area has some devoted followers, learning styles, as used today,
have little utility for most trainers. Training prescriptions (for example, debate,
computer-assisted instruction, case study, goal setting, lecture, role) are not
sufficiently differentiated among learning styles, nor have recommendations,
been frequently subjected to experimental verification. Furthermore, taking time
to diagnose learning styles is impractical in a brief seminar setting. If consistent
styles exist, they probably occur at random, and trainers of adults eannot have in
practice a bag of methods to accommodate all. (How do you teach a person with an
olfactory perceptual style?) The greatest use of cognitive styles may lie in making
learners aware of their own preferences and in making trainers tolerant toward
unusual learning habits,










002-

A MODEL OF LEARNING PROBLEM SOLVING Process
AUDDEL OF LEARNING PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING MOUCL
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING MOUEL.

Concrete Experience (1)

Active
Experimentation Reflective Observatio|
Application (4) @)

Abstract Generalization (5)
: TRADITIONAL NovEL
TRADITIONAL MODEL,
/ Generalization (1)
Conerete °

Experience (4) Reflective Observation

Ae)

Experimentation
Application (3)










Learning| Style Inventor
| |
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ER i
McBer |
Name |
Sue and | | |
Company i | i
1 :
i I
|
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| |
[Self-scoring Test and |
__ {Interpretation Booklet |
eae eee A
|
; ;
107 Newry Sree opi, Dad A. Kol
13 Nev Stet \ecopriahe Osi A Kets, 1976
ons |
x7 4377060





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1

Instructions











































There ate nine sets of four words and a" to the word thats least aim ofthe Inventory & to describe
Fsted below Rank the words in each charactestic of you a8 a leamec ‘your siye of learning, nat 0 evaluate
- set by asigning a "4" to te word Your learing abi,
sat best characterizes your leaming You may find it hard to rank these
se, 2°" tothe word that vente, werde But eep mind ete are Beste oasg a flee vreau
characterizes your learning style, a“2" no right or wrong answers—all the ber to each of the four words mv each
tothe next mest characerstic word, choices are equally acceptable. The set: do nat make ties,
| discriminating —— tentative —— involved practical
2 | — receptive — relevant analytical — inpartal
3 [ feeling watching — thinking — doing
4 [accepting — tiletaker evaluative aware
s. [ — intuitve — productive | —— logical — questioning
6 | absvact — observing concrete active
7. [| present-orented reflecting — future-oiented — pragmatic
| enperence —sbrervation | __conceptuaization | experimentation
) — intense reserved — tational — responsible















Scoring
‘The four columns of words above designated items. For example, for etc). Compute your scale scores by
correspond to the fourleamingstyle your AC score film the rank num-___totaling the rank nuabess m cach et

scales: CE, RO, AC. and AE. To com- bers you have assigned to items 2,3, of boxes below.
ppute your scale scores, wile your rank 4,5, 8, and 9 in the third column















































































maiwitesos tie Ste” hegre
Sexetes scoters set Sete
Rei pe Teena Ee as ae Sy
Tecan tno contoton a e ae 80
Koeretie RAE e ak ge ce é

tect HO fem Ae Pree apeive — 4e-C L]-[] = aero: []-[]
eases

treats nau pietin, hemes see md eet

SLecaterccate Spares

Lewes






ee
Interpretation of Your Scores on the Learning-Style Inventory



The Leaming-Style Inventory (LSI) i= a ing the extent fo which you empha-

simple self-description test, based on _size abstractness over concreteness
experientiableaming theary, that is (AC~CE the other indicating the
designed to measure your strengths extent to which you emphasize

and weaknesses as a leaner Experen- action over tellection (RE = RO)
{al leaming is conceived asa four

stage cycle: (1) immediate concrete,
experience isthe basis for (2) observa
on and teflction: 3) these observa $RE,LSL {9 comare hm wit the
Gorse aad natheaye” 2288 fees Tho tara” on th
from which new implications for ‘basic scales (CE, RO, AC, AE) for 1.933
action can be deduced; (4) these adults, ranging from 18 to 60 years of
roolications or Iypotheses thea setve See. About two-hids ofthe srous
Soakemyorscthe wucsenen alg and the goup srauhcie
‘periences. The most effective highly educated (ovo-thrds of the
Teamer relies on all four different pio Racing et abe oeholgad
leaning medes “Concrete Experience Fitted A wide ange of coeacens
(CE) Rellectve Observation (RO) and educational backgrounds are
AbsactConceptuaiaton (ACL and 3 seaional backgrounds

Aci Eprirenatin (AB That, reyes meting teaches,

the parton must be able to become Fusco. eninge, salespeop
involved fully openty, and without ry Sere are een

One way to increase your understands
ing of the meaning of your scores on
the LS is to compare them with the



bias in new experiences (CEX must be The raw scores for each af the four
able toreiceron and cosene these’ basic scales ar ated'on the soned
experiences from many pewpectives lines ofthe target By eling yor

(ROK must be able to create concepts f@W scores on the four scales and
that integrate these observations info connecting them with straight lines

lopicaly sound theories (ACY and You can create graphic representa:
must be able to use these theeries _tlon of your leaming-style profile. The
to make decisions and salve prob concentric circles on the target repre:
tems (AE sent percentle scores ofthe norma.

£ tive group, For example, if your rew
The LSI measures your relative empha- score on Concrete Experience is 15,

ses on the four leaming modes, by. ‘you score higher on this scale than

asking you to rank a series of four about 55 percent af the people in the
words that describe these different formative group; if your CE score is

abilities. For example, ane set of four 22 or higher you score higher than 29
words i fling, watching, thinking, percent of the normative group. Thus,
and doing, which respectively reflect’ by comparing the shape of your pro

CE, RO, AC, and AE. The inventory file with that of the normative group,

velds si scores: CE, RO. AC, AE and you can see which of the four basic,
two combination scores, one indicat- modes you emphasize.
Learning-Style Profile

) Norms for the Learning-Style
Inventory



Concrete
Experience




Active
Experimentation
be vol 18

Reflective
Observation



Abstract
Conceptualization




A high score on Concrete Experience +
represents a receptive, experience-
based approach to leaming. which
relies heavily on feelings-based judg
‘ments. High-CE individuals tend to be
‘empathic and “people oriented.” They
‘generally find theoretical approaches
to be unhelpful, preferring to treat
‘each situation as a unique case. They
Team best from specific examples in
which they can become involved.
Individuals who emphasize Concrete
Experience tend to be oriented more
to peers than to authority in theie
approach to learning, and they benefit
most from feedback and discussion
with fellow CE learers

A high score on Abstract Concep-
twalization indicates an analytical,
‘conceptual approach to learning,
which relies heavily on logical think-
ing and rational evaluation, High-AC
individuals tend to be ofiented more
to things and symbols than to people.
They lear best in authority-ditected,
impersonal learning situations that
emphasize theory and systematic
analysis. They are frustrated by and
benefit litle from unstructured “dis-
covery” leaming approaches, such as
‘exercises and simulations.

‘A igh score on Active Experimenta
tion indicates an active, “doing” orien-
tation to leaming, which relies heavily
‘on experimentation, High-AE individ-
uals leam best when they can engage
in such activites as projects, Lome
work, or small-group discussions. They
dislike passive learning situations, such
as lectures. These individuals tend to
be extroverss.

A high score on Reflective Observation
indicates a tentative, impartial, and
reflective approach to learning. High:
RO individuals rely heavily on careful
observation in making judgments, and
they prefer learning situations, such as
lectures, that allow them to take the
role of objective observers, These indi
viduals tend to be introvert




Identifying Your Learning-Style Type

Its unlikely that your learning style
will be described accurately by just
one of the four preceding paragraphs.
| because each person’ leaming

dle is 3 combination of the four
basic leaming modes, It is therefore
more meaningful to desenbe your
leaming style by a single data point
that combines your scores on the four
basic modes. Ths is accomplished by
using the to combination scales,
AC~CE and AE~RO. These scales
indicate the degree to which you
emphasize, respectively, abstractness
Percentiles





AERO
Irene wo
1
ot
md
1
1
w+
' Converger
1
or
1
1
so
i
i
i
100

Accommodator

‘over concreteness, and action over
tcflection,

The grid below has the raw scores for
these two scales on the crossed lines
{AC=CE on the vertical and AE—RO-
fon the horizontaN, and percentile

. scores based on the normative group

fon the sides. By marking your raw
scores on the two fines and plotting
their point of intersection, you can
find which of the four learning-style
‘quadrants you fall into, These four
‘quadrants, labeled Accommodator
Diverger, Converper, and Assimilaor





Assimilator

represent the four dominant learning
styles, If your AC—CE score is —4
and your AE—RO score is +8, you
fall strongly into the Accommodator
‘quadrant. An AC=CE score of +4
and an AE—RO score of +3 would
put you only slightly into the Con-
vverger quadrant. The closer your
data point is to the point where the
lines cross, the more balanced is
your leaming style. If your data point
is close to any one ofthe four comers,
this indicates that you rly heavily on
fone particulat leaming style. ~

Diverger



maaan
40 °
Pevcenties|


Descriptions of the Learning-Style Types



The fallawing summary of the four
basic leaming-style types is based on
both research and clinical cbservation
‘of these pattems of LSI scores.

The Converger's dominant leaming
abilities are Abstract Conceptualizar
tion (AC) and Active Experimentation
(AE) This porsoa's greatest strength is
the practical application of ideas. A
person with this style seems to do
best in situations such as conventional
ielligence tests, in which there is a
single correct answer or solution to a
‘question or problem, This person's
knowledge is organized in such a way
that through hypothetical-deductive
reasoning the person can focus the
knowledge on specitic problems,
Research on this style of leaming
shows that Convergers are relatively
‘unemotional peefering to deal with
things rather than people. They tend
to have narrow technical interests,
and often specialize in the physical
sciences, This leaming style is charac
teristic of many engineers,



“The Divergor has the opposite leaming
stenaths of the Cenverger The Diver.
zr i best at Concrete Experience (CE)
and Reflective Observation (RO). This
‘pesson's greatest strength i imagina-
{ive ability, the person excels in view-
ing concrete situations from many per
spectives, We have labeled this style

"Diverger” because a person with this
style performs best in situations that
‘al For generation of ideas, such as a
brainstorming session, Research shows
that Oivergers are interested in people
and tend to be emotional as well as
imaginative. They have broad cultural
interests and often specialize in the
arts, Ths style i characteristic of
‘dividuals with humanities and
libera-arts backgrounds, Counselor,
cerganizationdevelopment specialists,
and personnel managers tend to be
characterized by this learning style,

The Assimilator’s dominant teaming
abilties are Abstract Conceptualiza:
tion (AC) and Reflective Observation
{ROL This person's greatest strength is
the ability to create theoretical mod-
els; the person excels in inductive rea
soning and ia assimilating disparate
cebservations into an integrated explan-
ation. Like the Converger the Assimi-
Intor is less interested in people than
in abstract concepts, but unlike the
Converget the Assimilator is nat much
concesed with the practical use of
theories. For the Assimilator i is more
jimporant that the theory be logically
sound and precise; when a theory oF
plan does not fit the facts, this person.
is likely to disregard or re-examine the
facts. As a resull this learning style

{s more charactetistic of the basic
sciences and mathematics than of the



applied sciences. In organizations, the
‘Assiilator is found mast often in the
‘esearch and planning depanments,

The Accommadatar has the opzesite
learning strengths of the Assimilator
He or she is best at Concrete Experi-
fence (CE) and Active Experimentation
(AE), The Accommodstor's greatest
strength is doing things —carrying cut
plans and experiments —aad involu-
ing him- or herself in new experiences.
“This person tends to be more of a risk
taker than people characterized by
any of the other three learning styles.
We have labeled this person “Accom
‘modator” because he or she tends to
‘excel in thase situations in whieh ane
must adapt oneself to immediate cir-
cumstances, When a theary or plan
does not fit the facts, this person will
most likely discard the plan or theory
The Accornmodtor tends to solve
problems in an intuitive trial-ane-erar
‘manner relying heavily on others for
information, rather thsa a his or her
‘own analytic ability The Accommo-
dator is at ease with people but is
sometimes seen as impatient and
“pushy This person's education is
cften technical or practical, such a¢
training in business administration,

In organizations, people with this
Teaming style are found in “action-
cfiented” jobs, such as marketing

‘and sales,







Surmary
Itshouid be emphasized thatthe LST

dees sat measure your leaming style
‘with 100% accuracy Rather itis only an
indication of haw you see yourself as 3
learner You ill need data from ather

sources it you wish to pinpoint your
Teaming style more exactly (e.g, how you
‘make decisions on the job, how athers
see you, and what kinds of problems you
solve best). Further information oa ex-

periontialleaming theory and statistical
data on the LSI can be Found in The
‘Learning Style Inventary Technical Man
al by David A, Kolb, Bastan, Mass
achusetts: MeBer and Company, 1976,


BACKGROUND READINGS

Abadzi, H. 1990. Cognitive psychology in the seminar room. Seminar Paper No. 41.
Economic Development Institute, World Bank.

Knowles, J, 1973. The Adult Learner: The Neglected Species. Gulf Publishing Company,
Houston, TX.

Knowles, J. 1984, Adult learning theory and practice. In: L. Nadler (ed.), Handbook of
Human Resource Development. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Kolb, D.A. and R. Fry. 1975. Toward an applied theory of experiential learning. In: C.
Cooper (ed.), Theories of Group Processes. John Wiley & Sons, London.

Kolb, D.A. 1976. Learning Style Inventory Technical Manual. McBer and Company,
Boston, MA.

Rogers, CR. 1969, Freedom to Learn: A view of what education might become. CE.
Merrill Publishing Co., Columbus, OH.


WHAT IS TRAINING?
Dr. Van Crowder
Session 6: Evaluation
a cen nfm tn snmp eng at th ch ig.
Circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.
eee
dese

oe



1 My understanding of the é

lunigue. aspects of training 1 2 3 4
adults increased.

2. My understanding of 1 2 3 4
adult learning theories
increased.

3. My understanding of 1 2 3 4

the differences between
education and training
increased.

4. My understanding of 1 2
experiential learning,
increased.

‘5. What did you like most about this session?

6. What could be improved?

7. Please rate the instructor
on the following items:



Content 1 2 3 4s

Presentation 1 2 3 4

Additional comments:
Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session VII: SPECIFIC TRAINING TECHNIQUES
FOR GENDER ANALYSIS

OVERVIEW
‘Total Time: 70 minutes

Rationale: Appropriate selection and manipulation of training techniques and activities is a
difficult task that improves greatly with experience. This session attempts to build
upon the theoretical base for Gender Analysis training that has been established
in the seminar series through the examination and utilization of specific training
activities,

Learning —_At the end of this session participants will be able to:
Objectives: 1. Identify and describe training techniques used in gender analysis.
2, Evaluate and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the training techniques
as related to gender analysis.
3. Select, manipulate and incorporate specific techniques into the framework of
. @Gender Analysis seminar.

Materials: * Flipcharts 1-14

* Overhead projector

* Overheads: ‘
7.4) Activity plan (blank)
7.2) Activity plan (example)

* Handouts:
7.1) Training techniques
7.2) Activity plan (blank)
7.3) Group I task assignment
7.4) Group Il task assignment
7.5) Group III task assignment
7.6) Group IV task assignment
7.7) Table of conte: of The Winning Trainer
718) Evaluati:-s for:



Background See Handout 7,7.
Readings:


Procedure:

This session is divided into four activities. Activity I draws to participants’ attention
the wide variety of techniques that are available in Gender Analysis training.
Activity IT focuses in on choosing appropriate techniques. Activity III allows
participants to select and to use various techniques in predefined scenarios.
Activity IV is a wrap up of the session.
Session VII: SPECIFIC TRAINING TECHNIQUES
FOR GENDER ANALYSIS

Activity I: Setting the stage. (10 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS
4 min Introduction. Put this session into perspective by reminding

Participants that the last session introduced training as a

) method for adult education and focused on different learning
styles. This session will examine training techniques that will
take into account participant differences as well as other
factors.

Ask participants what different training techniques have been

used throughout the sessions, and list these on a flipchart. Flipchart 1
When all the techniques which have been employed Have been

mentioned, ask if there are other training techniques

Participants are aware of that have not been used in the

sessions, Add their responses to the list.

5 min Short Lecture. Explain that there are many training
techniques available. Stress that selection of the technique
that best fits a particular training setting is an art. In selecting
techniques or methods the facilitator must consider the types
of constraints he/she is under (i., types of participants,
facilitator’s skills and personality). ‘This session is designed to
help the facilitator choose the appropriate techniques based on
informed decision making. In order to make a decision, the
facilitator must look at the whole of training. Turn to a
prepared flipchart with the following:



"Understand the. Flipchart 2
learner/audience
environment
instructor/
and instructor role,”

Briefly give examples of the variability within each of these
four factors, and explain that each possible combination of
these factors may merit adopting a different training technique
or combination of techniques. Once again, stress that selection
of the most appropriate training techniques is an art.
1 min

‘Turn to a prepared flipchart with the session’s objectives Flipchart 3
listed, State and explain the specific objectives for this
session. At the end of this session participants will be able to:



1, Identify and describe training techniques used in gender
analysis.

2. Evaluate and discuss strengths and weaknesses of the
training techniques as related to gender analysis,

3. Sclect, manipulate and incorporate specific techniques into
the framework of a Gender Analysis seminar.

Activity I: Choosing appropriate techniques. (20 min)

TIME

Tmin

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Short Lecture. Walk participants through the process of how
to carry out a training session or course, dividing the process
into three steps:

1. Identify the audience and training environment.
2. Determine behavioral objectives.
3, Select specific techniques.



Solicit responses to the following questions that need to be
answered before carrying out a Gender Analysis seminar. Ask
the participants to keep in mind how the responses to these
questions will impact the choice of techniques used in the
seminar. Refer to the questions that are listed on prepared



flipcharts!
1. Who are they? Flipehart 4
2. Why are they here? Flipchart 5



3. What is the composition, size of group?

4, Are they at all familiar with the subject matter?

5. What will they do with the training/information they get?
6. How much time do I have?

7. Are there unique features of the culture/environment?
How will these impact my training?

8. Who am I? What is my role as a facilitator in this
environment?

Ask if there are any other questions that need to be answered.
Add those to the list.
7 min

6 min

Large Group Exercise, Tell participants that it is critical that
the objectives be behavioral or performance oriented (i.e.,
participants will be able to "demonstrate’, "describe", or "list")
in order to be able to measure and test training effectiveness,
Explain that it is crucial to write down the behavioral
objectives, because choosing words will help the facilitator to
select the appropriate activity for meeting the objective.

Demonstrate the relationship between objectives and
appropriate training techniques by using several examples from
previous seminars. Have each of the objectives written out on
a flipchart with the action words and methods of measure
highlighted. Examples of possible objectives include:



At the end of the session participants will:

1, demonstrate an understanding of the impact of new
technologies by identifying users of the technology and
describing the potential impacts on the user.

2. be able to recognize the gender roles within a farming
system by completing an activities calendar,

3. understand the need for gender spe:



je research by

. correctly listing and discussing the reason why women have

been in



ible in the development process.

After reviewing each of the three listed objectives, ask
participants to suggest possible acti . tole play, case
study, sondeo) that would be appropriate to conduct in order
to meet the objectives.



Review that facilitators must know the audience and training
environment and have specific behavioral objectives in order to
have an effective training,

Large Group Exercise, Explain that the next step in planning

training is to select specific training techniques or activities.
Anticipating the previously generated list of activities, have two
flipcharts prepared with two of the following headings on each
flipchart: games, role plays, interviews/focus groups, lecture.
Ask participants to provide a list of descriptors or adjectives
for each of the activities listed (i.e, active, engaging, fun,
boring, technically oriented). Point out that the descriptors
assist in determining whether an activity is more or less
appropriate for a particular audience. Note that activities can

Flipehart 6

Flipehart 7

Flipehart 8

Flipchart 9
Flipchart 10
be reconstructed to meet a variety of needs, with each having

advantages and disadvantages. Distribute the list of potential

techniques, Stress that there is no right choice of activity and Handout 7.1
that in any situation, two facilitators may choose to do two

different things,

Short Lecture, Explain the importance of planning in training,

and demonstrate a typical Activity Plan framework. Conclude Overhead 711
by showing a completed Activity Plan sheet and quickly go Overhend 72
through its components.

Activity II: Application exercise. (37 min)

TIME

2min

20 min

15 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Small Group Exercise. Explain that the best way

appropriate selection of training techniques
and critiquing the different activities. Divide the participants
into four groups and tell them that each group is to follow the
instructions given on their particular group assignment sheet.

‘They will have 20 minutes to complete the task, and then each



group will have five minutes to present results. Distribute to Handout 72
_ each group a blank Activity Plan and their particular Handouts
assignment. 73-76

Allow the groups time to work on their assignments,

Group Presentations. Ask each of the groups to explain their

task and setting to all other groups before beginning their 2
Presentation, This may be facilitated by having each of the Flipcharts
scenarios pre-outlined on flipcharts. 1-14

Activity IV: Summary and wrap up. (3 min)

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Reemphasize that a wide variety of techniques may tv: used in

Gender Analysis training. Reiterate that enjoyable and

engaging activities can stimulate participants’ thinking, and

interactions, and can motivate them to learn, ‘Distribute the

table of contents of The Winning Trainer so that participants Handout 7.7
can review this resource on effective training methods.






ACTIVITY PLAN









TOPIC:
SESSION TITLE:
SESSION OBJECTIVES:
he
2
3.
ACTIVITY TITLE:
OBJECTIVE:
PROCEDURE.
TRAINER ‘TRAINEE TIME EVALUATION |
ACTIVITY ACTIVITY CRITERIA |























MATERIALS:
ACTIVITY PLAN

TOPIC: Gender and ‘Technology
SESSION: Recognizing Gender Roles in Technology Adoption
SESSION OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the session trainees wil

1) be able to identify the technologies used in the local
farming system. *

2) recognize the relationships between gender and technology

use by correctly identifying the users of local

technologies.

3) discuss the impact of technological change on gender roles



ACTIVITY: Brainstorming
OBJECTIVE: At the end of the activity participants will be able to
identify local technologies and their users

TRAINER TRAINEE TIME EVALUATION

ACTIVITY ACTIVITY

I. Welcome none 2 min smiles,
"good happy to be

morning and there

welcome to

the — second
day of our
gender
training
seminar..."

Il. stage
Setting? amie
Trainer trainees

as kos: answer? technologies
trainees the questions offered as
following orally answers are
questions ones used in
1) what do the region

you use to
Plow = your

field?

2) Whe: does

your wife

use to grind

corn?

Are these trainees
technologies agree that
+ are there these items
others = in a © e
Y i es technologies

communi ty? and


Tou. ¢
brainstorm

take the
Paper in
front of you
and for the
next three
minutes,
write down
all the
technologies
you can
think of

IV. Summary

Now that you
have = made.
your own
lists let's
combine them
into one big
one. ( write
aoo won
individual
suggestions
on flip
chart as
trainees
offer them

flip chart
markers

trainees
write
technologies
on pieces of
Pape.
Provided for
them by the
trainer

trainees
offer
selections
from their
list orally

3 min

5 min

MATERIALS:

Pens for each participant
Paper for each participant

understand
that there
are . many
things = in
their
environment.
that are
technologies

trainees are
listing
appropriate
technologies
on their
paper

trainees
offer
suggestions
£ ° Q
Placement on
the master
list


ereniewsy

wonesneersy



stun ty



Stina newts re

int ste ta
‘henata byte pescpnn

(soul val ot pacino,
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TOPIC:
SESSION TITLE:
SESSION OBJECTIVES:
1
2.
3

ACTIVITY TITLE:

ACTIVITY PLAN







OBJECTIVE:
PROCEDURE
TRAINER TRAINEE TIME EVALUATION
ACTIVITY ACTIVITY CRITERIA





























MATERIALS:








GROUP I
Background/Scenario

Throughout this gender analysis workshop, several facilitators have chosen small group
discussions as a training technique, You have all experienced some of the many advantages
and disadvantages to this technique.

Group Task

Inthe next 15 minutes you are to create a SHORT (5 minutes maximum) skit or role play
illustrating some of the advantages and disadvantages of small group discussions. The skit
should take place at a gender analysis training workshop in a developing country. You
should identify:

1) Where you are

2) Who the participants are

3) Who the facilitators are

4) What the objectives of the session are (you may model your session on one
from this course, or choose your own)

Everyone in your group should participate. in the skit. If possible, try to show both
advantages and disadvantages and feel free to make it humorous!

wiad:lsbegg.hnd


GROUP II
BackgroundScenario

‘You are a member of a training team presenting a two-day Gender Analysis workshop. The
workshop has been funded by a consortium of international agricultural research centers.
Each center is located in a different world region and is responsible for a wide variety of
research projects worldwide. The workshop was scheduled at the end of the fiscal year, and
annual reports are due next week for the majority of the research programs.

The 20 participants are directors of those research centers and project directors, whose
projects are funded by the research centers. Attendance at the workshop is mandatory for
the predominantly male audience. The only woman attending the workshop is a newly hired
project director. The purticipants have had no previous training in Gender Analysis.

Itis the end of the Ist day of a 2-day workshop. The first day focused on defining gender
analysis and introduced the gender analysis framework. During the initial sessions of the
course, some of the participants attending the workshop expressed disinterest in the topic,
and one person refused to participate in a roleplay which asked him to play the role of a
‘woman farmer. Several participants left the sessions throughout the day to apparently make
business calls.

Although many of the participants seem to be interested in gender analysis by the end of the
day, comments indicated they are still unclear on why it is important for them and what they
will do with the newly acquired information.

You are responsible for the first session of the 2nd day. Because of the way the 1st day
went, you are meeting as a team to reassess and revise your plans for the next day’s morning
session. The topic of the session is: determining access and control of resources and
benefits.



GROUP TASK:
1. Complete an ACTIVITY PLAN for the session using the attached guideline.

2. Explain why you chose particular techniques in the activity plan and why you did not
choose others.



Make a presentation of your findings to the large ...oup (you will have no more than
5 minutes for your presentation). The presentaticn should include:



a. Brief summary of scenario.

b. Description of your Activity Plan

©, Discussion of why you chose particular techniques and did not choose
others.

wiad:lsbegg.hnd


GROUP III
Background/Scenario

Many training techniques’ use story-telling at least in part, as a way to elicit different kinds
of information and discussion. In general, the facilitator will provide participants with
something which serves as a loose framework for a story (ie. a picture, a plot, a first line,
a theme, ete), She/he will then ask either individuals or groups to tell a story based on the
impetus provided.

As with many techniques, there are a number of variations on this basic idea. In this
exercise you will be working with one of these variations.

Group Task

In the next 15 minutes, create a SHORT (5-minutes maximum) role-play or skit
demonstrating use of the following story-telling technique in a gender analysis training in a
developing country:

Story-telling technique:

1) _ Divide participants into small groups.

2) Hand each group these three pictures and ask them to think up a story about
the pictures, They may use the pictures in any sequence.

3) Bring the group back together and tell the stories.

4) Discuss the similarities/differences between the stories.

Be sure in your skit to establish:
1) Where you are
2) Who the participants are -
3) Who the facilitators are
4) What the objectives of the session are

Everyone in your group should participate in the skit. If possible, try to show both
advantages and disadvantages and feel free to make it huniorous!

wiadslsbegg.hnd


GROUP IV
Background/Scenario

Imagine that this is the first day of your two week training seminar on Gender Analysis,
‘You and three other trainers have been hired by the Ministry of Agriculture to conduct the
seminar. While you have read all of the relevant documentation regarding the country and
the region, this is your first visit to the area. ‘You have not had the opportunity to interact,
with any of the participants prior to today's first session. ‘You have been told that you will
be working primarily with male farmers and extension agents who are involved in the
production of the regions primary cash crops, You have also been told that the farmer
Participants were selected by the extension agents based on their previous interactions with
the agents.

As a general rule, these farmers have completed one or two years of secondary education.
Few have had the opportunity to travel outside of the region. ‘The extension agents have
all completed secondary school and a three month training course at the National Training
Institute in the capitol. As a control measure the ministry of agriculture has a habit of
assigning extension agents to posts in regions that they are not from. Because of recent
pressures from donor agencies, the Ministry of Agriculture has recently been forced to hire
three female extension agents, They too will be attending your seminars. ‘They have had
the same training as their male counterparts and additionally have had the benefit of
receiving BS. degrees in agricultural fields from western universities,



Your objective for the first day of the training session is to acquaint the participants with one
another and to begin to build a team atmosphere among the participants.

SHEE TARR MR EE TREE Ree eE Nene

GROUP TASK: =
1. Complete an ACTIVITY PLAN for the session using the attached guideline.

2, Explain why you chose particular techniques in the activity plan and why you did not
choose others.

3. Make a presentation of your findings to the large group (you will have no more than
5 minutes far.yni.. presentation). ‘The presentation should include:

a, > Brie’ summary of scenario,

b. . Description of your-Activity Plan

& © Discussion of why you chose particular techniques and did not choose
others





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Povslon, Tofu 77359-

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Pax:



Julius E. Eitington


‘The Winning Trainer
Second Edition

Copyright © 1984, 1989 by Gulf Publishing Comes:
Houston, Texas. All rights reserved. Printed in
United States of America. This book, ot pans there:
‘may not be reproduced in any form without permissi
of the publisher.

First Edition, May 1984

Second Printing, August 1986
Second Edition, January 1989

Second Printing, June 1990
‘The work sheets on pages 367—489 may be freely cop
and used provided proper credit is given. Please cont
Gulf Publishing Company for details

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Dat

Eitington, Julius E.
‘The winning trainer.







(Building blocks of human potential)
Includes bibliographies and inde:
1. Employees of. 2. Proviem soit:




‘Study and teaching. 3. C
I. Title. I. Series,
HFSSU9.5-T7E38 989 658,3'124 SSDNA

ganizational behavior





ISBN 0-87201-911-X










CONTENTS



Whatever you can do, or dream you can,



begin it. Boldnessrhas genius, power, ad
‘must ini
—lohann Wolfgsag von Gosthe



(1799-1833)



‘German pot an dramatist





Preface to the Second Edition ..,... viii
Introduction. ix
Acknowledgments 2 xi







How to Start Things Off .. Fp
Planning the Use of Icebreakers and Openers. Worki
‘with Icebreakers. Examples of Icebreakers, Evaluating
Teebreakers. Working with Openers. Icebreakers ana]
lassifications and Cautions. Key Points. Rei

2
Using Small Groups Effectively ...... 13

Small Group Composition, Seating. Assigning Tasks.
Viewing-Listening Teams, The T-Column, Risk Analy-
sis. The Spokesperson and the Recorder. Using Obser\-
ers. Monitoring. Questions and Answers. Leadership in
the Small Group. Coping with Problem Participans.
Key Points. References. Recommended Reading

3

Basie Techniques for
Small Group Training 26

Using Dyads and Triads. Producing Definitions. Devel-
oping and Working with Lists. Sharing Personal Tact
dents. Prediction. Group Debates. Trial for Error (Mock
Trial). Circular Whip. Learning from Field Trips, Mas-
tering Reference Material. Saying Goodbye. Key Points
References, Recommended Reading

2 4
Additional Techniques for
Small Group Training .

‘The Fishbowl. Working with "Mind Pictures"—Fantasy,
Guided Imagery, Ete, Working with Pictures. Using Art
Using Music. The Journal or Diary. Working with Mod-
els. Key Points. References. Recommended Reading.



















5

a



Role Playing .

Purposes and Benefits. ole Playing Desiens. Pro
ing Role Play Data. Video Playback and Heedback. How
to Write a Role Play, Spevial Techniques, Evalustin
sulis. Role Playing: Sone (aestions and Answers.
havior Modelit
mended Rewdin










6

Using Games and Simulations ....... 94

Working with Games, Why Use Games? When to Use
Games. Administering the Game, Designing Your Own
Games. Converting an Exercise into a Game. Working
With Simulations. Advantages of Using Simulations. Im-
plementing the Simulation, Designing a Simulation. Key:
Points. References. Recommended Reading.







7

Using Exercises ...... +107
Sources of Exercise. Exercises That You Can Construct
Yourself. Planning the Conduct of an Exercise. Key

Points. Books Containing Exercises, Reference.



8

Using Puzzles seal

An Assoriment of Puzzles. Puzzles for Fun. Experiential
Learning, Objectives. Forms. Designing Experiential
Learning. Skill Pointers on Processing. Key Points. Ref-
erences. Recommended Reading.







9

Instrumentation—A Tool for

Self-Discovery Learning .. 139
Instrument Formats. When to Use Instruments, How to
Use Instruments, Instruments You Can Make. Guide-
lines for Constructing Instruments. Scoring of Instru-
‘ments. The Pasticipant-Prepared Instrument. A Sum-
‘mary, Key Points. References. Recommended Reading,



10

Defining a Problem and
Generating Data About It .:.

Problem Solvina—Susgested Content. Lat
lem-Solving Training. How t0 Define ae Problem,
Problem fdentiicativn—ABC Approach. How tw Genet.
ate Data About the Problom, Furce Field Analysis
‘Tool for Problem Diagnosis. Key Puints. Rolseenccs,
Recommended Reading











11

Generating Solutions to
a Problem . woes 16S

Brainstorming. The Slip Method. Nominal Group
nique, The Deiphi Technique. Ideawriting. Card Pos
‘Techniques. The Client-Ceatered Approach to Protle:
Solving. Upside-Down Problem Solving. Devices to (
Jeash Idea Development, Using Analogy. The Gorée
‘Technique, Key Points. References.







12

Selecting and Implementing
‘a Solution ..

How to Choose Among Alternatives. How to Plan an
Implement the Solution. Additional Approaches to Prot
lem Solving. Rotational Problem Solving (PSR), Pas
Present/Future Approach. Using the Journalist's Si
Questions. Problem Solving for Quality Control. Quail,
Circles. Study Groups. Knowledge Circles. How t
Maximize Idea Power at Mectings, Personal Need
Analysis. Some Problem-Solving Principles. Some Do
and Don't’s. Key Points, References. Recommend=
Reading.











13

‘Team Building ++ 197

Preliminary Work, Starting the First Session. Core Ac-
tivities in the Team Building Session: Tools for Team
Building. Instrumentation. Evaluation of the Team
Building Effort, Giving Feedback. Key Points. Refer:
ences. Recommended Reading.







14
‘The In-Basket Exercise—How
id Design It
Working with the In-Basket








het. Conan
eessing nf
ence, Sunumary, Ki


15
Other Key Group-in-Action Tools ... 234

Precsvork. Seating to Facilitate Participation. Movement.
Flipcharting, Humor and Fun. Props for Empathy. Us-
ing Handouts. Using Silence. Key Points. References,
Recommended Reading

16

Involving Participants in
Film/Video ....

Film Versus Video. Uses of Films. Previewing. Intro-
ducing a Film. Post-Film Activities. Pre-Film Activities.
‘Stop-Film Technique. Other Aids and Approaches. Plan-
ning for Multiple Film Use. Participant Reactions to
Film Content, Useful Scenes from Popular Movies. Key
Points, References.



17

‘Maximizing Participation and
Learning in the Case Method 21

‘Advantages and Disadvantages. The Case Study—A Pot-
ppourri of Formats. Program Design for Effective Trans-
fer. Monologue. How to Develop Case Material. Learn-
ing from Cases. Techniques to Maximize Learning from
Cases. Key Points. References. Recommended Reading



18
“If You Must Lecture 212297

‘The Lecture—A Problem-Laden Technique, When to
Use the Lecture. Giving the Lecture Polish. Securing
Participation at the Outset. MideTalk Interventions. Us-
Ing the Questions-and-Answer Period Effectively. Ask-
ing Questions of Participants. Involving Individuals.
Key Poins. References. Recommended Reading



19

Using Participative Methods
to Evaluate Training . Su

Participant Reaction Level. Learning (Changed Behav~
lor) in the Classroom, Change in On-the-Job Behavior,
Measurable Impact of Training on the Organization.
Daily Pulse-Taking. The Participant Group—A Self Ap-
praisal, Key Points, References, Recommended Read-
ing.



20

How to Overcome the
‘Transfer Problem . = 320

Making Classroom Application Activities Effe
Formats of Application Activities. Interim (Post-Session)
Action Plans. Contracting at Program's End. Ensuring
Skill Retention in Management Training. Additionai
Ways to Aid the Training Transfer. Conducting the Fol-
low-Up Session. Key Points. References. Recommended
Reading.








21
Ancillary Issues and Techniques .... 334

‘A Participative Approach to Problem Design. Determin-
ing Needs via Participative Methods. Selecting Training
Methods. Climate. Augmenting Trainer Competency.
How to Become a Participative Trainer. Cotraining:
Some ABC's, Broadening the Trainer Base for Manage
ment Training. Vertical Training, Terminology for the
‘Training Effort. Key Points. References. Recommended
Reading.









Glossary ++ 358
Appendices . ++ 366
Index « $1



vil
‘TRAINING TECHNIQUES FOR GENDER ANALYSIS
Bea Covington, Gretchen Greene, Lisette Staal
Session 7: Evaluation
Please complete the form and return it via campus mail by folding in half so the address on back fs showing,
Circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements,

a 5 ee ice
— oe
a Sa e ue at



1 My understanding of the
range of training techniques
used in gender analysis increased.



2. My understanding of the 1 2 3 4
strengths and weaknesses of
training techniques related to 7
onder analysis increased,

3. My understanding of how to 1 2 3 4

select and incorporate specific
techniques into the framework
of a gender analysis seminar increased.

4, What did you like most about this session?

5. What could be improved?

6, Please rate the instructor



on the following items:
BEA COVINGTON
Content 1 2 3 45
Presentation 1 2 3 45
(ORETCHEN GREENE
Content 1 2 3 45
Presentation 1 2 3 45
LUSETTE STAAL
Content 1 2 3) 405
Presentation 1 2 3 4005

Additional comments:
‘Total Time:

Rationale:



Materials:

Gender Analysis and Training Techniques

Session VIII: USING CASE STUDIES FOR
TRAINING IN GENDER ANALYSIS

OVERVIEW

70 minutes

Case studies are commonly used in gender analysis trainings as experiential
learning activities because they enable all participants to share a common
experience which can serve as a springboard for other interactive exercises. This
session examines the case study method, and exposes participants to the practical
use of cases for gender analysis training.

At the end of this session participants will be able to:

1. Understand a definition of case study and the case study methodology.

2. Identify selected aspects of case study methodology using the Pescador,
Columbia case.

3. Discuss experiences in the use of case study methods as a teaching and learning
tool.



* Overhead projector
* Ovetheads:

8.1) Case studies

8.2) Objectives

83) Definitions = é

8.4) Farming systems calendar

8.5) Example of a gender-disaggregated activities calendar

86) Resources analysis

8.7) Benefits and incentives analysis

88) Problems and recommendations
* Handouts:

8.1) Colombia: Production and consumption aspects of technology testing

in Pescador
8.2) A case study
~ 8.3) Farming systems calendar

84) Resources analysis

8,5) Benefits and incentives analysis.

86) Problems and recommendations

8.7) Reading list,

88) Evaluation form
Background
Readings:

Procedure:

See Handout 8.7.

‘There are six main activities in this final session. Activity I gives an introduction
to the history of the case study method as a teaching tool. Activity II defines the
case study. Activity IIT involves the use of a case study. Activity IV recounts
experiences in training with case studies in gender analysis trainings. The
Poats/Feldstein approach to using cases in gender trainings is discussed in Activity
V. Activity VI briefly describes advantages of the case method in certain training
situations, Questions and discussion are the focus of the final activity, Activity VII.


Session VIII: USING CASE STUDIES FOR
TRAINING IN GENDER ANALYSIS

Activity I Introduction, (13 min)

IME

10 min

3 min

te



ITY, RIALS

‘Short Lecture, Explain that the focus of this session is to
examine the case study methodology and how it can be used in
training on Gender Analysis and Women in Agricultural
Development. Tell participants that the first part of the
session is dedicated to examining the case method, and the
second part is reserved for discussing experiences with using
the case study method. Remind participants that they were
given a copy of the Pescador, Colombia case study in the Handout 1
Previous session to review in preparation for this session,

Give a brief historical account of the evolution of the case
study, beginning with the distinction made regarding two kinds
of education. The first kind is when the purpose of education
is to impart factual knowledge, ie., to train human beings "to
know’, The second kind is when the purpose of education is
to train men and women "to act" in different situations, such
that they acquire the facility to act in the presence of new
experiences. This second kind of education is the basis for
employing case studies whereby participants are presented with
new experiences from which they collectively determine the
most appropriate action to take. :





‘Show "Case studies" overhead, and explain that the case Overhead 81
studies method is one of the ways used for training men and

women to think and act in new sittations. Emphasize the

distinct roles of teacher and student when using the case

method, noting that it is important to have a very clear

understanding of these roles before using cases as a training

method. The role of the teacher is to guide, probe, and elicit

participation and discussion. The role of the student is to

carefully read materials p-«-ented, and to participate in

discussion.



Project the overhead, "Objectives", and present the specitic Overhead 82
objectives of this sessions, stating that at the end of the session
participants will be able to:
1. Understand a definition of case study and the methodology.
2, Identify selected aspects of case study methodology using
the Pescador, Colombia case.

3, Discuss experiences in the use of case study methods as a
teaching andi learning tool.

Acknowledge that due to time limitations we will only talk:
about the Pescador case study rather than experience the
essence of the case. List the major references that you, as
facilitator, have reviewed in preparation for this session, (The
background readings are a good initial list of resources.)

Activity II: Defining the ease study. (16 min)

TIME



4 min

9 min

aris

ACTIVITY MATERIALS

Short Lecture. Prepare a short one-paragraph problem
scenario that meets some criteria for use as a case study.
Project a transparency of the paragraph on an overhead
projector (or read the paragraph to the group) and allow one
minute for participants to read the scenario, Ask participants
if the problem presented is appropriate for application of the
case study method. Listen to the expected varied responses.
Emphasize that the main point of this exercise is that the case
study method is very flexible, and can be applied as is needed
by the facilitator.

Brainstorming. Ask participants to briefly write down their
definition of "case study". Give them two minutes for the
exercise. Ask participants to share some of the elements of
their definition.

Short Lecture. Show the overhead, "Definition", and read Overhead 83
aloud this definition of case study that has been extracted from
the Encyclopedia of Educational Evaluation. Examine in detail
various elements of a case study, Explain that after
catailed study of the definition’s elements, we will apply these
slements to examine the Pescador case. Review the following
ciements:





“Complex instance’: In a complex instance inputs and outputs
are not linearly related, thus one cannot predict the resultant
outcome from a given set of inputs, Case studies involve a
complex instance.

"Comprehensive understanding’: ‘The goal when
study is to Gbtain as complete a picture as possible.



Ig a case

"Obtained by extensive description and analysis": Case studies
require detailed, extensive descriptions of the instance.
Information is obtained from first hand observations and a
variety of data sources, and requires extensive data analysis.



"Taken as a whole": The instance must be examined in its,
totality considering all relevant factors. (je., person, event,
region, organization, site, function).

“In its context": ‘The instance must be examined taking into
account the environment in which it occurred. Focusing on
context gives the case study methodology its strength.

Activity III: Pescador ease study. (3 min)

TIME

3 min

ACTIVITY MATERIALS
Distribute the handout "A Case Study", Ask the participants Handout 82

to use this handout detailing the important elements of the
definition of a case study to examine the Pescador case at
home. Instruct the participants to think about how men and
women define their roles or have their roles defined for them.

Read aloud the Perkins quote from the forward to Gender ‘
Roles in Development Projects:

"People working in the field of development have long been
concerned with how the benefits of development are
distributed. Only recently, however, concern with
distributional issues has incorporated differences in income and
economic power between men and women. Concern with
issues of gender, of course, involves more than how gender
affects distribution. Understanding the role played by gender
in development can also make a substantial difference as to
whether growth-oriented projects succeed or fail. Thus,
questions of how men and women define their roles, or have
them defined for them, influences all aspects of the
development process."


Activity IV:
TIME

12 min



TIME

10 min

Experiences with gender analysis case studies. (12 min)
activity

Interject personal experiences using case

ing, taking care to include the points listed
below. (Although it is not absolutely necessary that the
facilitator of this section have personal experience using case
studies, the lecture is greatly enriched if he or she does.)



The use of case studies in gender analysis training began with
teaching cases styled after those used at the Harvard Business
School. The Harvard approach is an intense approach to
learning where long complex case studies are thoroughly
dissected. The facilitator, as well as the participants, must
have an in-depth understanding of the case, and thus must
have read and practically memorized the case prior to the
session, The cases are reviewed in a large group with the
facilitator asking key questions. This approach has many
problems for training outside of an academic setting because
participants often do not have the time or the skills to
scrutinize complex cases.





‘The Harvard approach has been modified by many facilitators
to create a more relaxed learning environment while still
retaining the case studies for an experiential learning activity.
The cases are usually shortened, and time may be allotted
within the training agenda for the case to be read prior to the
session in which it is used. ‘The cases are first discussed in
small groups. Each group then reports their conclusions in a
plenary session, at which time the entire group of participants
discusses and reevaluates the individual group conclusions. It
appears that this modified approach is better suited to a wider
range of clientele.



Make the transition to the next section by stating that this,
approach is outlined by Feldstein and Poats, and includes four
basic tools for gender analysis.

ty Vi Poats/Feldstein approach. (10 min)

ACTIVITY



Short Lecture.

gender analysi

Review the four basic tools commonly used in
Although these tools have been presented in



MATERIALS

MATERIALS


an earlier session, they should be reviewed at this time
because they are used specifically in case study training
methodology to facilitate analysis of the case.

Distribute handouts to the participants. Tell them that these Handout 83
handouts are often distributed to the small groups during Handout 84
analysis of case studies, so that each group can fill them out, Handout 85
and then refer to them when presenting their results to the Handout 86

larger group.

‘Show the overhead, "Farming systems calendar’, and quickly

review the calendar as a specialized look at seasonality of Overhead 84
labor. Show the overhead, "Example of a gender-
disaggregated activities calendar’, and point out that many of Overhead 85



the women’s activities (ie., collecting fuelwood, carrying water,
cooking, childcare) occur throughout the year, and that crop
labor is more seasonal. Explain that any modifications to the
system has an impact throughout the entire system. Give an
example of the impact of introducing of a new maize variety
into the system, Point out that while the new variety may
hypothetically have greater yield, the greater yield may
translate to requiring more processing time by women, which
in turn may mean that they have less time to brew beer, thus
decreasing women’s income.



Show the overhead, "Resources analysis", and briefly review Overhead 86
the items addressed with this tool.

Show the overhead, "Benefits and incentives analysis", and (Overhead 87
briefly review the items addressed with this tool.

Show the overhead, "Problems and recommendations", and ‘Overhead 88
briefly review the items addressed with this tool,

Repeat that during case studly analyses these handouts are
filled out while the participants are still in their small groups
for subsequent presentation in the plenary session. Although
the facilitator has less control over the analysis results when
using this method rather than the Harvard method, it gives the
Participants more experience with using the analytical tools,


Activity VI: Advantages of the case study method. (4 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS

4 min



Short Lette. Describe the advantage of using the case study
training method in groups that are very aware of their status
or position within the group. It allows individuals in these
‘groups to espouse their ideas and philosophies in a fairly open
environment with guidance from the facilitator. In
comparison, a lecture format where participant input is very
limited, only serves to frustrate those individuals that feel the
need to recount their experiences and knowledge to the rest
of the group.

Activity VII Questions and discussion. (11 min)

TIME ACTIVITY MATERIALS
11min Allow participants time to ask questions and to discuss the

information that has been presented,
Case studies are one of the means by which we train men and
women to think in new situations.

It is a way of teaching that relates knowledge to action.

This method then suggests a corresponding role for the
teacher and the student.

The role of the teacher is t



lead the discussion
to guide, not to teach new material, not to give answers

to question and to probe

The role of the student is to:
read all material carefully

participate in discussion

OBJECTIVES
10 UNDERSTAND A DEFINITION OF CASE STUDY AND THE METHODOLOGY

@0 ILLUSTRATE SELECTED ASPECTS OF CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY USING
THE PESCADOR COLUMBIA CASE

TO DISCUSS EXPERIENCES IN THE USE OF CASE STUDY METHODS AS A
TEACHING AND LEARNING TOOL
DEFINITION

"A case study is a method for learning about
a complex instance, based on a comprehensive
understanding of that instance obtained by
extensive description and analysis of that
instance taken as a whole and in its context."




wontns/desuons



crop Production

LAvestock

oft-rerm netivition
arieles and tech+
changes with ex
2 farmers the ex:
he tradeoffs of

‘extension where
vese areas of anal-
lus and incentives,
i of farming sys
‘which FSIVE pro-
‘and how farmers
of analysis is de~
in Appendix 1,

panicularly as this
‘ms, Production dif

at ronticular times

d to know
@® wricn con-
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ductive enterprises



lysing actives by
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fil production are
ion, tasks associated
svhich contbute 10
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Concept Framework 17



Figure 11
Example of a Gender-isagaregated Activities Calendar
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Edueation/Intormstion

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éweatock

Household Production

oft-rarm activities

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Woes? Poiloy

Proferonces reaues
PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS







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Tare: chapters



Cotommin

Proshiction anid Consumption Aspects
(of Technology Testing i9 Pescatlor

Tacqume A Asuwr

COLOMBIA

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A CASE STUDY

A COMPLEX INSTANCE
(NON-LINEAR RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN INPUT AND OUTPUT)

BASED ON A.
COMPREHENSIVE UNDERSTANDING
(COMPLETE PICTURE)

OBTAINED BY
EXTENSIVE DESCRIPTION
AND ANALYSIS

(THICK DESCRIPTIONS,
EXTENSIVE ANALYSIS
DIFFERENT DATA SOURCES)

TAKEN AS A WHOLE
(SIZE CAN BE SMALL
AS 1 PERSON OR LARGE
AS A NATION)

IN ITS CONTEXT
(ALL FACTORS WHICH
COULD AFFECT WHAT
IS HAPPENING)




Honths/foasona



crop Preauetion

Livertock:



oft-rarn notivitse








“Foliey





ceapitet

ampute

Marxote/transportation

aveation/Iarormation








easy

Preferences



crop Proguetion

Livestock

Household Production


PROMLEBS AND RECOMMENDATION:

















‘reauetion

mnatitutiona.

voliey

ootnd


BACKGROUND READINGS

Anderson, S.B, S. Ball, R-T. Murphy & Associates, 1975. Encyclopedia of Educational
Evaluation. Jossey-Bass Publishers. San Francisco, CA.

Christensen, C.R. 1987. Teaching and the Case Method. Harvard Business School
Publishing Division. Harvard Business School, Boston, MA.

Feldstein, H.S., S.V. Poats, K. Cloud, and R. Norem. 1989. Intra-household dynamics.and
conceptual framework and worksheets. In: Feldstein, H.S. and S.V. Poats (eds).
Working Together: Gender Analysis in Agriculture, 2 volumes. Kumarian Press, Inc.
West Hartford, CT.

Overholt, C., M.B. Anderson, K, Cloud, and J.E. Austin (eds). 1985. Gender Roles in
Development Projects. Kumarian Press, Inc. West Hartford, CT.
‘USING CASE STUDIES FOR TRAINING IN GENDER ANALYSIS
Dr. Elizabeth Bolton
Session 8 Evaluation
Please complete the form and retura it via campus mail by folding in half so the address on back is showing,

Circle the number that best describes your answer to the following statements.

ea oe
sR

definition of case study 1 2 3 4
and the methodology increased.







2. My understanding of how to illustrate
selected aspects of ease study 1 2 3 4
methodology increased.

3. My understanding of how to 1 2 3 4
discuss experiences in the
use of ease study methods as a
teaching and learning tool increased.

4. What did you like most about this session?

5. What eould be improved?

6, Please rate the instructor
fn the following items:



Content 1 2 3 45

Presentation 1 2 3 4

~ Addional comments;