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Gender roles in Haryana, India, farm households

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Title:
Gender roles in Haryana, India, farm households
Series Title:
Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Creator:
Balakrishnan, Revathi
Stafford, Kathryn
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
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Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
University of Florida. ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( jstor )
Villages ( jstor )
Gender roles ( jstor )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India
North America -- United States of America -- Florida

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Conference on
GENDER ISSUES IN FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION



“

Gender Issues in Farming Systems: Research and Extension

Paper

Authors:

Session:

Date:

Time:

Gainesville, Florida
26-28 February 1986

“Gender Roles in Haryana, India, Farm Households”
Br. Revathi Balakrishnan and Dr. Katheyn Stafford
Gender Issues in International Agricultural Extension
28 Febcuary 1966

8:30 - 12 Noon





GENDER ROLES BY ACTIVITY SPHERES, FARM HOUSEHOLDS
HARYANA, INDIA

Revathi Balakrishnan and Kathryn Stafford
University of Wisconsin The Ohio State University
Stevens Poiat Columbus

Jpe study attempts to analyze the activity spheres of a
sampleMHaryana farm families. The gain objective is to delineate
the pattern of participation by females in comparison vith aales
in the household, in a rural sample draya from three
agro-climatic zones of Haryana.

“Women's work" means activities done by women or fenales
from which men or males are excluded, Women's work cannot be
properly understood without studying the other side of the sexual
division of labor, men's work, nor indeed, without studying the
sexual division of labor itself (Matthaei, 1962: 5). The spheres
of activity for the males and females, the division of labor in
the rural farm household provide an understanding of rural
fanilies in India





Boserup (1970) perceived that the content of male and female
social activities varies fron one society to another; she noted
the impact that different agricultural methods characteristic of
different geographical areas have upon the determination of
gender specific activities and spheres. Papanek (1977: 17)
states,

for studying women's work it is sore
realistic to develop systens of analysis
that accommodate the interplay between types
of work which occur in different arenas and
are differently revarded. An interactionist
approach would by definition, stress the
reciprocal relationship between the vork of
men and women, usually within the context of
household or family; such an approach to
women's and men's work is particularly
important for development planning because
social transformations aimed for almost
alvays involve shifts in the reciprocal
relationships between men and wonen with
respect to work and its revards.

1, 31),



According to Cloud (198!



agricultural production is intrinsically a
collaborative endeavor, with the agricultural
household as the most common unit of

production and consumption; identification of
Gender division of responsibility for labor,







aanegenent, and disposal of all types of

household's production is crucial to project
analysis because the segmentation of control
and responsibilities has practical effects,

Doulding (1978) identified rural women as the periphery in a
society, who possess capabilities and technical resource
reservoirs that industrialized nations and urban third world
centers know little about. Sagchi (1981) found,chat in iledhya
Pradesh in all three crop regions (rice, wheat and cotton) while
handling of the plough is altogether a man's role, the vonan
works alongside the male in most of the leveling, fencing and
binding operations, there is auch higher demand for vomen's labor
in the above operations in rice regions as compared to cotton and
vheat regions. The sowing operations in cotton regions is
handled ia primarily by women alone. In wheat groving regions,
it 15 predominantly a joint operation. The traditional
transplanting of rice has alvays been done by women in India.

30) in her case study analysis of wonen's work
records that,



women were prepared to spend great deal of
time and patience on milch animals,
administering to their needs when they are
calved or when they are sick. Most had
detailed technical knowledge of breeding and
what conditions make for the best nilk yield
or strongest calves, If the net value of
milch aniaal yields’ Rs. 239 (U.S. 5270 ac 51
= Rs.12) per location, then the value of
women's work in this area is considerable and
hardly be called a‘side activity’ in
families whose total monthly income is only
few hundred rupees.



Gopinath and falro (198:
Gujarat state found that,



96) based on a study conducted in

an examination of the econonic activities and
work patterns of women in the selected
villages shoved that they are typically
involved in agriculture, domestic and
community related activities. Among their
agricultural duties, transplanting (for
paddy), weeding, harvesting and threshing are
predominant. In Khoda women also work as
Paid laborers in cotton. Although not
reflected in the field crop data, vonen in
the households with cattle (cows and
buffaloes) invest considerable tine in caring
for cattle and in dairy production.







Decision spheres, for fenale and aale vary betveen cultures,
gnfurban-rural residence of the families, Gore (1968) argued,
thayamong couples with Western education shared decision na‘ing
will be most likely to occur. According to Kolenda, in che
Indian families, women's power will be more if a dovry is not
paid, if there is no village exogany or if there is considerable
distance between the residences of the husband and wife's fanily
(1967:204-205). Conklin documented that rural or urban residence
has the highest correlations with power differences in Dharwar.
low power scores are associated with rural, uneducated vonen.

Yet in lower incone rural fenilies vomen enjoy greater power tha
in higher income households, a factor which becomes increasingly
clear when education is controlled (1981: 23). In India, vonen
have no voice in budgetary matters, particularly in the rura!
areas, where the dependency ratio is higher than in urban areas.
There’are, however exceptions (Ninturn, 1976), In Andra Pradesh
a higher proportion of vonen participate in decisions regarding
family expenditure than anong Tamil Women (Leonard and Leonard ,
1981).





ACTIVITY SPHERES: CONCEPTUAL BASE

Gender activity spheres in the farm households in this study
are classified by the locus of activity. Locus of activity is
defined as the spatial location of the activity. Based an the
loci the activities are grouped as public sphere activities,
private sphere activities and semi public or extended private
sphere activities. Public sphere activities occur in 3 spatial
location external to the house; private sphere activities occur
ina spatial location internal in the house and the soni public
or the extended private sphere activities are those for which
contact outside the house is necessary but are traditionally
women's activities. The spatial distinction anong wonen's
activities is defined and modified by the prevailing social noras
and cropping system of the local agricultural society. These
social norms and cropping system can develop a division of labor
classified as predominantly male spheres of activity,
predominantly female spheres of activity and shared spheres of
activity (Figure 1), The conceptual idea is a modified franevori:
of dichotomy of activity spheres of male and female activities
developed by Rosaldo (1974),







Conceptual Base: Spheres of Activities
Based on Locus of Activity and Gonder Roles





Tocus Gender-Division Retivities Sectors

Spatial or Roles

Public jale or Husband Task Agriculture

Performance

Seni-public Female or Wife Decision Cattle

or Extended laking Hasageseat

Private

Private Shared or Household
Husband-Wi fe Maintenance

Nurturance



Figure 1

In gn urbanized factory systes paid vork location is
distinctly separated from the household nonpaid work location
(Hatthaei, 1982), But in rural farm households where both
production and consumption of resources occur, fenale spheres of
activity overlap with male spheres of activity. Social norns of
the society nay bestow certain responsibilities on females which
are in the public sphere but considered to be inferior manual
tasks. The spatial distinction of activity spheres is modified by
the traditional social norms of the division of labor.



METHOD

ilaryana, a northwestern state of India, is divided inte
three agro-climatic zones. A multistage sampling procedure vas
used for the selection of sample from the three agro-clisatic
zones, namely hot and arid, hot and semi-arid and hot and humid.
From a list of administrative districts falling under each of the
zones, three districts were selected. For each district a list
was prepared of villages which vere iocated within a radius of 20
to 25 kilometers from the Krishi Gyan kendra (University
Agricultural Extension Centers in the district). From these list
of villages 2 villages vere selected at random for each district
representing the agro-climatic zone ( Total of 6 villages). The
classification of state's agro-clinatic zones was done in
consultation with Meteorology Department of the College of
Agriculture, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar.



A list of households with available inforaation on the land
owning status of the families were prepared. Tor each of the





specified land owning status categoies, 10 households vere
selected at random. In one village the desired number of
households for all the categories vas not available. The catal
number of household in the sanple vas 290, Table 1 shows the
sample distribution by the land owning status category. *



Insert Table 1
(Distribution of Sample Households by the Landowning Status:
Three Agro-Clinatic Zones)

Data Collection

Data were collected using structured interview schedules,
administered by three female field investigators under the
supervision of a faculty member. All three investigators had the
ability to speak the local language and English, which
facilitated questioning and translating the responses.
Interviews vere conducted primarily with the male spouses and
wherever necessary femele spouses wore interviewed separately.
Field checking of the interviewers and continual checks for the
completion and accuracy of the data were done.

Data Analysis

To verify gender role patterns in Haryana fern households,
we ran a t test on differences in activity participation lovels
using 9 range instead of a standard deviation (Snedecor and
Cochran:121), In this test, the t statistic is the ratio of the
mean difference to the range across differences. Analyses vere
run by activity sphere and by activity sphere within districts.
Within agricultural public sphere activities, analyses were
run by season, by crop activity and by crop within each district.



SAMPLE PROFILE

Selected socio-denographic characteristics of the sample are
presented in Table 2.

(Insert Table 2)

Socio-demographic Profile of the Sample:
Three Agro-climatic Zones

The female respondents in the sample were mostly 25 years or
older and illiterate, They represented both nuclear and joint
family structure, A large proportion of the sample was from high
caste. Family size varied fron 6 to 13 members per fanily.
There were very few childless women in the sample.

















Table 2
Socio-Demographic Profile of the Sample:
Three Agro Clinatic Zones

Sample Hot & Dry Hot & SeniDry Hor & Humid
Characteristics Hissar Jind Ambala
N= 100 N= 100 y= 90

T.Age of Female Respondents

a. 18 to 25 yrs. 11 26 12

b. > 25 to 35 yrs. 26 15 33

c. > 35 to 45 yrs, 33 30 24

4, above 45 yrs. 30 29 21
II,Education of Female Respondents

av Iilicerace 108 98 86

b. Primary 2 4

c. Hiddle School 1

di Matriculation 1
III. Type of Family

as Mluclear 46 38 40

b. Joine 54 62 50

V. Caste of the Family
a. High Caste:
Jat, Rajput,
Bishnoi, Brahnin
Bania 64 63 63
b. Backward Cast
Doom, Dhobi, Nat,
Hedi, Gujar,
jhinar, Lohar,
Teli, Saini,
Chanby, Naniar
Khumar, Svani,
Khati 2. 20 19
€. Scheduled Caste:
Nochi, Harijan,
Chamar, Dhanak,





Valmiki 15 7 8
Vv. Family Size:
a. 2 to 6 persons 45 43 39
b. 7 to 13 persons 45 47 38
¢. more than 13
persons 10 5 13

Number of Children:
No children 8 3 3
up to.S children 68 68 68
6 to 10 children 22 23 16
nore than 10

children 2 1 2









DISTRICT PROFILE

The three districts representing the agro-climatic zones of
the Haryana state have different crop cultivation pattern in thi
tvo sain cropping seasons namely, Rabi (winter) and Kharif
(summer). The winter crop in Hissar is mainly wheat. ‘lain
winter crops for Jind and Ambala are wheat and sugar cane. ‘iain
summer crop for Hissar is Bajra (millet). Main suamer crop for
Jind and Ambala is rice. While Hissar and Jind ore
predominantly agricultural districts, Ambala v>an industrialized
area.







Conmunity Resource Profile: Sample Villages in Three
Agro-Climatic Zones,

In the sample villages representing the three agro-clinatic zones
the community resources available for the households varied. The
community resource profile of the villages in the three districts
in three zones is presented in Table 3.



(Insert Table 3)

Community Resource Profile: Sample Villages In
Three Climatic Zones

The villages in the districts Hissar and Ambala

have more community facilities compared to villages in Jind.
The physical location of the villages in relation to roads
connecting them to other parts of the state may explain the
disparity in the community resource profile. The two villages in
Hissar district (Balasanand and Ladva) are in the aain road
linking them to Hissar city (adainistrative capital of the
district), In the district Ambala, one of the villages (Mohra
is on the main road linking it to Ambala city (administrative
capital the district) and the village Hlangalai is tvo kilometers
avay from the main road, In contrast the two villages in Jind
district (Kharak Ranji and Khungakothi) are villages in the
interior of the district with no important roads linking then to
najor cities in the district. Such variation in the community
resource structure in these villages may indicate development
bias of villages in the main spatial communication network
receiving the facilities; or villages nearer major cities are
aware of the benefits of development and thus demand

facilities from the administrators.













ACTIVITY PROFILE: DISTRICTS IN THREE AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES



Data from the 1970 census report collected and compiled by
the Government of India Census Bureau for the State of llaryana
were used to identify the activities of the fenales and nales in
the state. The census data document the labor force
participation of female and male by various occupational sectors.







sarin Te ns ae ee wd sets Tor we Bae
vanes elation ‘ean Senna wee asia







aaa ET







fe wittane Se yeas Sg a pe
rersurea as aa a a mat











The comparison by state, occupational categories, district and
gender is presented in Table 4,

Table &

Acitivity Profile : Districts in Three Agro-Clinatic Zones
(Census Daca)





Activity Hot & Dry Hot & Semi Dry Hot & Humid
Hissar Jind Ambala
# F « F x F
Cultivators 206939 21843 140070 21583 116303834
12.82% 1.35% 8.68% 1,332 1am 1058.
Agricultural
Laborer 70415 10530 40680 5105 65069 1890
11,962 1.79% 6.912 86% 11.062 328
Household
industry,
manufacture 11212 906 = 6701-361. 150g 1078
processinge, 17.44% 1.41% 10.43% 156% 23,472 ;
servicing &
repairs



Percentage based on the total Haryana Participation rate
from the Haryana Government 1970 Census data

The census data indicate in the three districts
Ambala had the highest participation of male and female in che
industrial sector, Nale participation rate measured by percentage
represented in the three sectors were relatively higher than for
the female, Ambala had the least percentage of female

cultivators and agricultural laborers relative to the other two
districts. Within the three districts the paricipation of wonen in
the agricultural sector is higher in predominentiy agricultural
districts (Hissar and Jind ) in comparison to the industrial
district (Ambala).

ACTIVITY PROFILE OF THE FEMALE RESPOXDEYTS

In contrast to the official data which classify activities
of male and female in distinct occupational sectors, micro data
elicited from the female respondents may reveal multiple activity
pattern, Responses of the female respondents for the inquiry on
their occupation are presented in Table 5.







Table 5







Activity of Profile of the Female Respondents: Districts
In Three Climatic Zones
(survey data)
Deseription Hot and dry Hot and seni dry Hot and teat
Hissar Jind Ambala
N=100 X=100 R=90
Housekeeping 19 22 34
Housekeeping
@cattle care 15 10 28
Housekeeping
Agriculture & 62 54 8
cattle care
Housekeeping 2 3 o
Agriculture
Housekeeping,
Agriculture &
Cattle care 2 iL °

for wages

As the data indicate most female respondents in the sample
combined housekeeping activities with agricultural and dairy
activities (42.75 percent). The district variation in the
multiple activity pattern indicates, a large percentage of woren
from Hissar and Jind districts were involved in agricultural and
dairy activities in comparison with the Ambala sample.

Relatively large percentage of women from Ambala statedthy do
only housekeeping activities, Ambala District's industrial
growth may partly explain the low participation of wonen in
agricultural and dairy activities. VeryMtionen indicated wage vork
participation (4.48 percent).

ACTIVITY SPHERES BY GENDER AND LOCUS OF ACTIVITY

The data collected from the fenale respondents on the
various activities performed by thea in their households are
conceptually classified as public sphere, private sphere and
semi-public or extended private spheres (Figure 1). The
performance of the activities in the household are studied in the
three spheres for gender specialization.





Agricultural Activities Performed By Season and Gender:
Public Sphere

‘The crop pattern in the three clinatic zones varie!
in two main cropping seasons, nanely Rabi (winter) and
(suaner), The crops represent seasonal dimension which
influences agricultural tasks performed hy aale and female spouse
in the flaryane farm households. The agricultural tasks for each
cropare classified as planting, inclusive of sowing seeds and
transplanting seedlings; care, inclusive of irrigation, weeding,
applying manure or fertilizer and dusting insecticide;
harvesting, inclusive of cutting and picking the final crop. The
agricultural tasks performed by the male end female spouses for
agjor crops in two seasons are presented in Table 6.



harit

(Insert Table 6)

Table 7
T Statistics for Tests of Gender Differences in
Participation Levels in Public Sphere Activities









Sample Classification Hissar Jind Ambala
& Sig, t Sie. © Sige

Within Public Sphere 135-020-436 0143s
Districts Agriculture 146 01 141 fol 66 Lon
Within Winter 1456-05 6372, 10.879.
Season Summer 1582 105 1412 101 i892 Lon
Within Planting +646 .08 1,017 .01 1.034 02
Crop Care 102 [02 133) 1101768 05,
Activity Harvesting 1109 (02 48 = 1101826 105
Within Wheat +889 .05 641 ns 4,638 01
Crop Sugar Cane "m= 13510 ons 6.333 GT
Pulse 711 ns ~ -

Rice => +667 ns 361901

Millet +917 .05 1,009.10 | =~ =o

Cotton 1954 105 1540 “ns 3,400.01



For critical values of ty Table A7 in Snedecor, G. !
and Cochran, W. G. Statistical Hethods. (Ames, Iova: ‘Iowa
State University Press) 1967, pp. 554-555.

Gender differences existed in the public sphere
activities.in selling milk and agricultural activities.









rtetearat Toate Pestovsed by Genter Fre fchcoa} Cranes Then Cio i

















oortty ne Ptaneing B ° 2 a
(hates) face 3 4 3 ‘





-10-

lousehold Activities Performed By Gender: Private Sphere

The activities performed within the spatial context of the
house for the family are the private sphere activities. These
activities are physical tasks to maintain the family and the
nurturent enotional support to help the family. The gender
specialized performance of the activities in the farm households
are presented in Table 8.

Table 8



Household Activities Performed By Gender: Private Sphere



Netivities Wor & Dry Wot & Semibry Wot & Tumit
Hissar Jind Ambala
N=100 M=100 N=90)
H w a Ww u u
Maintenance:
Cooking ° 49 2 58 9 39
Cleaning 0 4a ° 46 0 31
Cook to Sell 0 52 0 33 0 37
Clean to sell 1 30 1 36 1 15
Wash Vessel 0 43 ° 45 0 a1
Wash clothes 0 36 0 26 9 26
Ruturance
Child Care o 43 ° al 2 35
Sick Child
Care ° 36 ° 37 1 33
Sick Adule
Care 1 34 1 30 1 27
Counsel 2 1 5 1 5 1
Relatives
Contact 6 4 15 0 4 1
Festival
Relatives
Contact n 3 7 22 5 1
All Occasions
Contact Outsiders
for Household
Ceremonies 13 1 13 1 6 1
D mean 20.69 19.61 19,46
W range 64 72 44
te = 632 tw = 6272 tee 442

Critical Values = .256





aie

The gender specified cask performance in the privace
spheres, as data indicatedfignificant differcnes between sale
and fondle spouses in each district, “As in nest third world
Societies vonen spectalize in the houschald activities sithin
the private spatial locus of thelr hones



Activities With External Contact: Seni Public Sphere

Semi public sphere activities or extended private sphere
activitiegarg those viich require external contact not
necessarilyqvérforned in spatial locus other then hone. “Further,

ai publipysphere activities may be household or farm
activiti®sathough requiriycontact with outside world, are by
traditional soctetal noras specified to be fenale
activities. Seai public sphere activities perforned by male and
Eeneie spouses in the Haryana farm households ore presented in
Table 9.



Table 9



Semi-Public Sphere Activities: By Gender and Sector







Retivities Wor & Dry Wot & Seni Dry Wot & Wunia
Hissar Jind Anbale
N=100 e100 =90
a W H " a ©
Draft Cattle
Care 3 7 4 13 14 3
Milk Cactle
Care 2 18 4 7 13 3
Use Tools
Ninor 6 o 17 ° 20 °
Use Fodder
Cutter 17 2 un 2 24 a
Purchase
Food 69 3 79 3 65 3
Purchase
Clothing 57 5 75 2 60 4
Neals to
Field 1 46 0 31 i 22
Collect
Water ° 36 1 35 4 16
Collect
Fuel ° 33 1 27 12 10
Collect
Cow dung 9 7 ° 42 ° 26
Treen
W range un 38
tw=.0378 twe.15



Critical Value = .073





There is significant difference between genders in the
performance of activities grouped under seni-public sphere
activities,

RESULTS

The range-based ¢ statistics revealed differences in gender
role patterns in llaryana farm households (Table 7). Gender
differences existed in public and private sphere activities, bu
not in senipublic sphere activities, liore husbands participate
in public sphere activities; nore females participated i
private sphere activities, Within the semi=public sphere, wore
Wives participated in siz of the ten activities within vo
districts and three activities in one district

Within the public sphere, the only activity in which more
wives than husbands participated was selling milk. Nore husbands
than wives participated in all crop related activities, Within
crop related public activities, gender differences were
pervasive. Within each district, gender differences existed b
Season and by crop activity. Gender differences also existed by
crop within each district, although not as pervasively as by
Season or crop activity. In Hissar district, gender differences
existed for wheat, millet, and cotton. In Jind district, gender
differences existed for aillet, In Ambala district, gender
differences existed for all major craps grown -~ wheat, sugar
cane, rice, millet, and cotton. Judging by both the number of
statistically significant t's and the significance levels, Ambala
district had the most distinctly different gender roles within
the public sphere,



Within the private sphere, more husbands than vives
participated in counseling others and maintaining non-nuclear
family contact with relatives and outeiders,activities involving
nen nuclear family contact. More wives participated in the
other, more secluded, activities. Whereas in the public sphere
wives participated extensively, although not as frequentiy as
husbands; in the private sphere husbands participated little, if
at all, in nine of the thirteen activities.





‘dthin the semi~public sphere, nore husbands than wives
participated in machinery maintenance and purchase of food and
clothing. ‘lore vives participated in the other activities. Th
exceptionvas Ambala district, in which more husbands alse
participated in cattle rearing and getting fuel. When these
results are viewed together with the previous results, inbala
emerges as the district with the most traditional gender role
differences. In Ambala, more husbands than vives participate in
activities with any public element. Wives in Anbala are more
secluded than vives in the other districts. Ambala is the most
industrislized of the three districts and one of the sarple
villages was on the main road. Our results appear to support the











-13-

thesis that development with its attendant social transformations
“almost always involves shifts in the reciprocal relationships
between men and vomen with respect to work...."(Papanex, 197)



17)

IMPLICATION FOR RESEARCH AND EXTENSION



In the two predominantly agricultural districts gender roles
of farm households were less distinct than those in
industrialized Ambala. Nevertheless, in all three districts,
women participated in public sphere activities and private spier
activities extensively while men had nil participation in the
private sphere, Further research is needed to identify gender
Specified vork skills in public sphere,seni-public sphere and
private sphere activities.Such documentation of skills will
provide information for developing relavant extension prograns
for the farm households of Maryana.



REFERENCES

Bagchi,
i981" "





omen in agrarian transition in India: Impact of
development." Geografiska Annaler 63 (DB): 100-107

Boserup, E.
1970 ' Women's Roll
Allen and Un



in Economic Develonment. London: George
ia



Boulding, 2.

1978 "'"Women peripheries and food production." Pp. 22-24
in Proceedings of the International Conference on







men and Food. Volume.l. Tucson: Consortium for
International Development, University of Arizona.



Cloud, x.
1985,



Women's productivity in agricultural systens:
Considerations for project design. Pp.17-56 in
Overholt, C., Anderson, M., Cloud, Keand Austin





J.(eds.), Gender Rol jevelopaent Projects. Wes!
Hartford! Kanarien Press>



Conklin, G.
1981 “"Cultural determinants of power for women within the
family: A neglected aspect, of family research.” Pp.
9-27 in Kurian, G. and Ghosh, R. (eds.), Wonen in che
Family and the Economy, Westport: Greenvood Press.





-1é-

Gopinath, C. and Kalro, Avil.
1985" "India: Gujarat 'meditm irrigation project." Pp
283-307 in Overholt, C., Anderson, Kan

Austin, J. (eds), Gender Roles in Development Projects
West Hartford: Xunarian Press





Se
Urbanization and Family Change. Bombay: Popular
Prakashan.





Regional differences in Indian fanily structure."

in Grane, R. (ed.), Regions and Regionalisa in South
Asian Studies: An'Exploratory Study, Durham: ‘lonograph
Number Five of the Duke University Program on Southern
Asia,



Leonard, K.I., and Leonard, J.G.
1981" Social reform and'women's participation in political
culture," in Minaut, G. (ed.), Women and Political
Participation in South Asta. ‘Madras: slonohar-

Hatthaei, J.A.

1982 An Economic History of Women in America.
Schocken Books: p. 5







few York:

Minturn, Ly
1976 '"The Rajputs Restudied." Paper presented to Annua.
Heeting of the Association for Asian Studies

Papanek, I.
1977 "Development planning for vomen." Signs: Journal of
Nomen in Culture and Society 3 (1): 14-21.

Rosaldo, M. Z.
1974 “"Wonen, culture and society,” in Rosaldo, il. Z., an
Lamphere, L. (eds.), Women, Culture and Societ:
Stanford: Stanford University Press.







Sharma, U.

1980° Women, Work and Property

in North Nest India. London:
Tavistock Publications: p

130.





Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G.

1967 Statistical Hethods, Anes, Iowa: Towa State

University Press, pp. 554-555.



Full Text






Conference on
GENDER ISSUES IN FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION
“

Gender Issues in Farming Systems: Research and Extension

Paper

Authors:

Session:

Date:

Time:

Gainesville, Florida
26-28 February 1986

“Gender Roles in Haryana, India, Farm Households”
Br. Revathi Balakrishnan and Dr. Katheyn Stafford
Gender Issues in International Agricultural Extension
28 Febcuary 1966

8:30 - 12 Noon


GENDER ROLES BY ACTIVITY SPHERES, FARM HOUSEHOLDS
HARYANA, INDIA

Revathi Balakrishnan and Kathryn Stafford
University of Wisconsin The Ohio State University
Stevens Poiat Columbus

Jpe study attempts to analyze the activity spheres of a
sampleMHaryana farm families. The gain objective is to delineate
the pattern of participation by females in comparison vith aales
in the household, in a rural sample draya from three
agro-climatic zones of Haryana.

“Women's work" means activities done by women or fenales
from which men or males are excluded, Women's work cannot be
properly understood without studying the other side of the sexual
division of labor, men's work, nor indeed, without studying the
sexual division of labor itself (Matthaei, 1962: 5). The spheres
of activity for the males and females, the division of labor in
the rural farm household provide an understanding of rural
fanilies in India





Boserup (1970) perceived that the content of male and female
social activities varies fron one society to another; she noted
the impact that different agricultural methods characteristic of
different geographical areas have upon the determination of
gender specific activities and spheres. Papanek (1977: 17)
states,

for studying women's work it is sore
realistic to develop systens of analysis
that accommodate the interplay between types
of work which occur in different arenas and
are differently revarded. An interactionist
approach would by definition, stress the
reciprocal relationship between the vork of
men and women, usually within the context of
household or family; such an approach to
women's and men's work is particularly
important for development planning because
social transformations aimed for almost
alvays involve shifts in the reciprocal
relationships between men and wonen with
respect to work and its revards.

1, 31),



According to Cloud (198!



agricultural production is intrinsically a
collaborative endeavor, with the agricultural
household as the most common unit of

production and consumption; identification of
Gender division of responsibility for labor,




aanegenent, and disposal of all types of

household's production is crucial to project
analysis because the segmentation of control
and responsibilities has practical effects,

Doulding (1978) identified rural women as the periphery in a
society, who possess capabilities and technical resource
reservoirs that industrialized nations and urban third world
centers know little about. Sagchi (1981) found,chat in iledhya
Pradesh in all three crop regions (rice, wheat and cotton) while
handling of the plough is altogether a man's role, the vonan
works alongside the male in most of the leveling, fencing and
binding operations, there is auch higher demand for vomen's labor
in the above operations in rice regions as compared to cotton and
vheat regions. The sowing operations in cotton regions is
handled ia primarily by women alone. In wheat groving regions,
it 15 predominantly a joint operation. The traditional
transplanting of rice has alvays been done by women in India.

30) in her case study analysis of wonen's work
records that,



women were prepared to spend great deal of
time and patience on milch animals,
administering to their needs when they are
calved or when they are sick. Most had
detailed technical knowledge of breeding and
what conditions make for the best nilk yield
or strongest calves, If the net value of
milch aniaal yields’ Rs. 239 (U.S. 5270 ac 51
= Rs.12) per location, then the value of
women's work in this area is considerable and
hardly be called a‘side activity’ in
families whose total monthly income is only
few hundred rupees.



Gopinath and falro (198:
Gujarat state found that,



96) based on a study conducted in

an examination of the econonic activities and
work patterns of women in the selected
villages shoved that they are typically
involved in agriculture, domestic and
community related activities. Among their
agricultural duties, transplanting (for
paddy), weeding, harvesting and threshing are
predominant. In Khoda women also work as
Paid laborers in cotton. Although not
reflected in the field crop data, vonen in
the households with cattle (cows and
buffaloes) invest considerable tine in caring
for cattle and in dairy production.




Decision spheres, for fenale and aale vary betveen cultures,
gnfurban-rural residence of the families, Gore (1968) argued,
thayamong couples with Western education shared decision na‘ing
will be most likely to occur. According to Kolenda, in che
Indian families, women's power will be more if a dovry is not
paid, if there is no village exogany or if there is considerable
distance between the residences of the husband and wife's fanily
(1967:204-205). Conklin documented that rural or urban residence
has the highest correlations with power differences in Dharwar.
low power scores are associated with rural, uneducated vonen.

Yet in lower incone rural fenilies vomen enjoy greater power tha
in higher income households, a factor which becomes increasingly
clear when education is controlled (1981: 23). In India, vonen
have no voice in budgetary matters, particularly in the rura!
areas, where the dependency ratio is higher than in urban areas.
There’are, however exceptions (Ninturn, 1976), In Andra Pradesh
a higher proportion of vonen participate in decisions regarding
family expenditure than anong Tamil Women (Leonard and Leonard ,
1981).





ACTIVITY SPHERES: CONCEPTUAL BASE

Gender activity spheres in the farm households in this study
are classified by the locus of activity. Locus of activity is
defined as the spatial location of the activity. Based an the
loci the activities are grouped as public sphere activities,
private sphere activities and semi public or extended private
sphere activities. Public sphere activities occur in 3 spatial
location external to the house; private sphere activities occur
ina spatial location internal in the house and the soni public
or the extended private sphere activities are those for which
contact outside the house is necessary but are traditionally
women's activities. The spatial distinction anong wonen's
activities is defined and modified by the prevailing social noras
and cropping system of the local agricultural society. These
social norms and cropping system can develop a division of labor
classified as predominantly male spheres of activity,
predominantly female spheres of activity and shared spheres of
activity (Figure 1), The conceptual idea is a modified franevori:
of dichotomy of activity spheres of male and female activities
developed by Rosaldo (1974),




Conceptual Base: Spheres of Activities
Based on Locus of Activity and Gonder Roles





Tocus Gender-Division Retivities Sectors

Spatial or Roles

Public jale or Husband Task Agriculture

Performance

Seni-public Female or Wife Decision Cattle

or Extended laking Hasageseat

Private

Private Shared or Household
Husband-Wi fe Maintenance

Nurturance



Figure 1

In gn urbanized factory systes paid vork location is
distinctly separated from the household nonpaid work location
(Hatthaei, 1982), But in rural farm households where both
production and consumption of resources occur, fenale spheres of
activity overlap with male spheres of activity. Social norns of
the society nay bestow certain responsibilities on females which
are in the public sphere but considered to be inferior manual
tasks. The spatial distinction of activity spheres is modified by
the traditional social norms of the division of labor.



METHOD

ilaryana, a northwestern state of India, is divided inte
three agro-climatic zones. A multistage sampling procedure vas
used for the selection of sample from the three agro-clisatic
zones, namely hot and arid, hot and semi-arid and hot and humid.
From a list of administrative districts falling under each of the
zones, three districts were selected. For each district a list
was prepared of villages which vere iocated within a radius of 20
to 25 kilometers from the Krishi Gyan kendra (University
Agricultural Extension Centers in the district). From these list
of villages 2 villages vere selected at random for each district
representing the agro-climatic zone ( Total of 6 villages). The
classification of state's agro-clinatic zones was done in
consultation with Meteorology Department of the College of
Agriculture, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar.



A list of households with available inforaation on the land
owning status of the families were prepared. Tor each of the


specified land owning status categoies, 10 households vere
selected at random. In one village the desired number of
households for all the categories vas not available. The catal
number of household in the sanple vas 290, Table 1 shows the
sample distribution by the land owning status category. *



Insert Table 1
(Distribution of Sample Households by the Landowning Status:
Three Agro-Clinatic Zones)

Data Collection

Data were collected using structured interview schedules,
administered by three female field investigators under the
supervision of a faculty member. All three investigators had the
ability to speak the local language and English, which
facilitated questioning and translating the responses.
Interviews vere conducted primarily with the male spouses and
wherever necessary femele spouses wore interviewed separately.
Field checking of the interviewers and continual checks for the
completion and accuracy of the data were done.

Data Analysis

To verify gender role patterns in Haryana fern households,
we ran a t test on differences in activity participation lovels
using 9 range instead of a standard deviation (Snedecor and
Cochran:121), In this test, the t statistic is the ratio of the
mean difference to the range across differences. Analyses vere
run by activity sphere and by activity sphere within districts.
Within agricultural public sphere activities, analyses were
run by season, by crop activity and by crop within each district.



SAMPLE PROFILE

Selected socio-denographic characteristics of the sample are
presented in Table 2.

(Insert Table 2)

Socio-demographic Profile of the Sample:
Three Agro-climatic Zones

The female respondents in the sample were mostly 25 years or
older and illiterate, They represented both nuclear and joint
family structure, A large proportion of the sample was from high
caste. Family size varied fron 6 to 13 members per fanily.
There were very few childless women in the sample.











Table 2
Socio-Demographic Profile of the Sample:
Three Agro Clinatic Zones

Sample Hot & Dry Hot & SeniDry Hor & Humid
Characteristics Hissar Jind Ambala
N= 100 N= 100 y= 90

T.Age of Female Respondents

a. 18 to 25 yrs. 11 26 12

b. > 25 to 35 yrs. 26 15 33

c. > 35 to 45 yrs, 33 30 24

4, above 45 yrs. 30 29 21
II,Education of Female Respondents

av Iilicerace 108 98 86

b. Primary 2 4

c. Hiddle School 1

di Matriculation 1
III. Type of Family

as Mluclear 46 38 40

b. Joine 54 62 50

V. Caste of the Family
a. High Caste:
Jat, Rajput,
Bishnoi, Brahnin
Bania 64 63 63
b. Backward Cast
Doom, Dhobi, Nat,
Hedi, Gujar,
jhinar, Lohar,
Teli, Saini,
Chanby, Naniar
Khumar, Svani,
Khati 2. 20 19
€. Scheduled Caste:
Nochi, Harijan,
Chamar, Dhanak,





Valmiki 15 7 8
Vv. Family Size:
a. 2 to 6 persons 45 43 39
b. 7 to 13 persons 45 47 38
¢. more than 13
persons 10 5 13

Number of Children:
No children 8 3 3
up to.S children 68 68 68
6 to 10 children 22 23 16
nore than 10

children 2 1 2






DISTRICT PROFILE

The three districts representing the agro-climatic zones of
the Haryana state have different crop cultivation pattern in thi
tvo sain cropping seasons namely, Rabi (winter) and Kharif
(summer). The winter crop in Hissar is mainly wheat. ‘lain
winter crops for Jind and Ambala are wheat and sugar cane. ‘iain
summer crop for Hissar is Bajra (millet). Main suamer crop for
Jind and Ambala is rice. While Hissar and Jind ore
predominantly agricultural districts, Ambala v>an industrialized
area.







Conmunity Resource Profile: Sample Villages in Three
Agro-Climatic Zones,

In the sample villages representing the three agro-clinatic zones
the community resources available for the households varied. The
community resource profile of the villages in the three districts
in three zones is presented in Table 3.



(Insert Table 3)

Community Resource Profile: Sample Villages In
Three Climatic Zones

The villages in the districts Hissar and Ambala

have more community facilities compared to villages in Jind.
The physical location of the villages in relation to roads
connecting them to other parts of the state may explain the
disparity in the community resource profile. The two villages in
Hissar district (Balasanand and Ladva) are in the aain road
linking them to Hissar city (adainistrative capital of the
district), In the district Ambala, one of the villages (Mohra
is on the main road linking it to Ambala city (administrative
capital the district) and the village Hlangalai is tvo kilometers
avay from the main road, In contrast the two villages in Jind
district (Kharak Ranji and Khungakothi) are villages in the
interior of the district with no important roads linking then to
najor cities in the district. Such variation in the community
resource structure in these villages may indicate development
bias of villages in the main spatial communication network
receiving the facilities; or villages nearer major cities are
aware of the benefits of development and thus demand

facilities from the administrators.













ACTIVITY PROFILE: DISTRICTS IN THREE AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES



Data from the 1970 census report collected and compiled by
the Government of India Census Bureau for the State of llaryana
were used to identify the activities of the fenales and nales in
the state. The census data document the labor force
participation of female and male by various occupational sectors.




sarin Te ns ae ee wd sets Tor we Bae
vanes elation ‘ean Senna wee asia







aaa ET







fe wittane Se yeas Sg a pe
rersurea as aa a a mat








The comparison by state, occupational categories, district and
gender is presented in Table 4,

Table &

Acitivity Profile : Districts in Three Agro-Clinatic Zones
(Census Daca)





Activity Hot & Dry Hot & Semi Dry Hot & Humid
Hissar Jind Ambala
# F « F x F
Cultivators 206939 21843 140070 21583 116303834
12.82% 1.35% 8.68% 1,332 1am 1058.
Agricultural
Laborer 70415 10530 40680 5105 65069 1890
11,962 1.79% 6.912 86% 11.062 328
Household
industry,
manufacture 11212 906 = 6701-361. 150g 1078
processinge, 17.44% 1.41% 10.43% 156% 23,472 ;
servicing &
repairs



Percentage based on the total Haryana Participation rate
from the Haryana Government 1970 Census data

The census data indicate in the three districts
Ambala had the highest participation of male and female in che
industrial sector, Nale participation rate measured by percentage
represented in the three sectors were relatively higher than for
the female, Ambala had the least percentage of female

cultivators and agricultural laborers relative to the other two
districts. Within the three districts the paricipation of wonen in
the agricultural sector is higher in predominentiy agricultural
districts (Hissar and Jind ) in comparison to the industrial
district (Ambala).

ACTIVITY PROFILE OF THE FEMALE RESPOXDEYTS

In contrast to the official data which classify activities
of male and female in distinct occupational sectors, micro data
elicited from the female respondents may reveal multiple activity
pattern, Responses of the female respondents for the inquiry on
their occupation are presented in Table 5.




Table 5







Activity of Profile of the Female Respondents: Districts
In Three Climatic Zones
(survey data)
Deseription Hot and dry Hot and seni dry Hot and teat
Hissar Jind Ambala
N=100 X=100 R=90
Housekeeping 19 22 34
Housekeeping
@cattle care 15 10 28
Housekeeping
Agriculture & 62 54 8
cattle care
Housekeeping 2 3 o
Agriculture
Housekeeping,
Agriculture &
Cattle care 2 iL °

for wages

As the data indicate most female respondents in the sample
combined housekeeping activities with agricultural and dairy
activities (42.75 percent). The district variation in the
multiple activity pattern indicates, a large percentage of woren
from Hissar and Jind districts were involved in agricultural and
dairy activities in comparison with the Ambala sample.

Relatively large percentage of women from Ambala statedthy do
only housekeeping activities, Ambala District's industrial
growth may partly explain the low participation of wonen in
agricultural and dairy activities. VeryMtionen indicated wage vork
participation (4.48 percent).

ACTIVITY SPHERES BY GENDER AND LOCUS OF ACTIVITY

The data collected from the fenale respondents on the
various activities performed by thea in their households are
conceptually classified as public sphere, private sphere and
semi-public or extended private spheres (Figure 1). The
performance of the activities in the household are studied in the
three spheres for gender specialization.


Agricultural Activities Performed By Season and Gender:
Public Sphere

‘The crop pattern in the three clinatic zones varie!
in two main cropping seasons, nanely Rabi (winter) and
(suaner), The crops represent seasonal dimension which
influences agricultural tasks performed hy aale and female spouse
in the flaryane farm households. The agricultural tasks for each
cropare classified as planting, inclusive of sowing seeds and
transplanting seedlings; care, inclusive of irrigation, weeding,
applying manure or fertilizer and dusting insecticide;
harvesting, inclusive of cutting and picking the final crop. The
agricultural tasks performed by the male end female spouses for
agjor crops in two seasons are presented in Table 6.



harit

(Insert Table 6)

Table 7
T Statistics for Tests of Gender Differences in
Participation Levels in Public Sphere Activities









Sample Classification Hissar Jind Ambala
& Sig, t Sie. © Sige

Within Public Sphere 135-020-436 0143s
Districts Agriculture 146 01 141 fol 66 Lon
Within Winter 1456-05 6372, 10.879.
Season Summer 1582 105 1412 101 i892 Lon
Within Planting +646 .08 1,017 .01 1.034 02
Crop Care 102 [02 133) 1101768 05,
Activity Harvesting 1109 (02 48 = 1101826 105
Within Wheat +889 .05 641 ns 4,638 01
Crop Sugar Cane "m= 13510 ons 6.333 GT
Pulse 711 ns ~ -

Rice => +667 ns 361901

Millet +917 .05 1,009.10 | =~ =o

Cotton 1954 105 1540 “ns 3,400.01



For critical values of ty Table A7 in Snedecor, G. !
and Cochran, W. G. Statistical Hethods. (Ames, Iova: ‘Iowa
State University Press) 1967, pp. 554-555.

Gender differences existed in the public sphere
activities.in selling milk and agricultural activities.






rtetearat Toate Pestovsed by Genter Fre fchcoa} Cranes Then Cio i

















oortty ne Ptaneing B ° 2 a
(hates) face 3 4 3 ‘


-10-

lousehold Activities Performed By Gender: Private Sphere

The activities performed within the spatial context of the
house for the family are the private sphere activities. These
activities are physical tasks to maintain the family and the
nurturent enotional support to help the family. The gender
specialized performance of the activities in the farm households
are presented in Table 8.

Table 8



Household Activities Performed By Gender: Private Sphere



Netivities Wor & Dry Wot & Semibry Wot & Tumit
Hissar Jind Ambala
N=100 M=100 N=90)
H w a Ww u u
Maintenance:
Cooking ° 49 2 58 9 39
Cleaning 0 4a ° 46 0 31
Cook to Sell 0 52 0 33 0 37
Clean to sell 1 30 1 36 1 15
Wash Vessel 0 43 ° 45 0 a1
Wash clothes 0 36 0 26 9 26
Ruturance
Child Care o 43 ° al 2 35
Sick Child
Care ° 36 ° 37 1 33
Sick Adule
Care 1 34 1 30 1 27
Counsel 2 1 5 1 5 1
Relatives
Contact 6 4 15 0 4 1
Festival
Relatives
Contact n 3 7 22 5 1
All Occasions
Contact Outsiders
for Household
Ceremonies 13 1 13 1 6 1
D mean 20.69 19.61 19,46
W range 64 72 44
te = 632 tw = 6272 tee 442

Critical Values = .256


aie

The gender specified cask performance in the privace
spheres, as data indicatedfignificant differcnes between sale
and fondle spouses in each district, “As in nest third world
Societies vonen spectalize in the houschald activities sithin
the private spatial locus of thelr hones



Activities With External Contact: Seni Public Sphere

Semi public sphere activities or extended private sphere
activitiegarg those viich require external contact not
necessarilyqvérforned in spatial locus other then hone. “Further,

ai publipysphere activities may be household or farm
activiti®sathough requiriycontact with outside world, are by
traditional soctetal noras specified to be fenale
activities. Seai public sphere activities perforned by male and
Eeneie spouses in the Haryana farm households ore presented in
Table 9.



Table 9



Semi-Public Sphere Activities: By Gender and Sector







Retivities Wor & Dry Wot & Seni Dry Wot & Wunia
Hissar Jind Anbale
N=100 e100 =90
a W H " a ©
Draft Cattle
Care 3 7 4 13 14 3
Milk Cactle
Care 2 18 4 7 13 3
Use Tools
Ninor 6 o 17 ° 20 °
Use Fodder
Cutter 17 2 un 2 24 a
Purchase
Food 69 3 79 3 65 3
Purchase
Clothing 57 5 75 2 60 4
Neals to
Field 1 46 0 31 i 22
Collect
Water ° 36 1 35 4 16
Collect
Fuel ° 33 1 27 12 10
Collect
Cow dung 9 7 ° 42 ° 26
Treen
W range un 38
tw=.0378 twe.15



Critical Value = .073


There is significant difference between genders in the
performance of activities grouped under seni-public sphere
activities,

RESULTS

The range-based ¢ statistics revealed differences in gender
role patterns in llaryana farm households (Table 7). Gender
differences existed in public and private sphere activities, bu
not in senipublic sphere activities, liore husbands participate
in public sphere activities; nore females participated i
private sphere activities, Within the semi=public sphere, wore
Wives participated in siz of the ten activities within vo
districts and three activities in one district

Within the public sphere, the only activity in which more
wives than husbands participated was selling milk. Nore husbands
than wives participated in all crop related activities, Within
crop related public activities, gender differences were
pervasive. Within each district, gender differences existed b
Season and by crop activity. Gender differences also existed by
crop within each district, although not as pervasively as by
Season or crop activity. In Hissar district, gender differences
existed for wheat, millet, and cotton. In Jind district, gender
differences existed for aillet, In Ambala district, gender
differences existed for all major craps grown -~ wheat, sugar
cane, rice, millet, and cotton. Judging by both the number of
statistically significant t's and the significance levels, Ambala
district had the most distinctly different gender roles within
the public sphere,



Within the private sphere, more husbands than vives
participated in counseling others and maintaining non-nuclear
family contact with relatives and outeiders,activities involving
nen nuclear family contact. More wives participated in the
other, more secluded, activities. Whereas in the public sphere
wives participated extensively, although not as frequentiy as
husbands; in the private sphere husbands participated little, if
at all, in nine of the thirteen activities.





‘dthin the semi~public sphere, nore husbands than wives
participated in machinery maintenance and purchase of food and
clothing. ‘lore vives participated in the other activities. Th
exceptionvas Ambala district, in which more husbands alse
participated in cattle rearing and getting fuel. When these
results are viewed together with the previous results, inbala
emerges as the district with the most traditional gender role
differences. In Ambala, more husbands than vives participate in
activities with any public element. Wives in Anbala are more
secluded than vives in the other districts. Ambala is the most
industrislized of the three districts and one of the sarple
villages was on the main road. Our results appear to support the








-13-

thesis that development with its attendant social transformations
“almost always involves shifts in the reciprocal relationships
between men and vomen with respect to work...."(Papanex, 197)



17)

IMPLICATION FOR RESEARCH AND EXTENSION



In the two predominantly agricultural districts gender roles
of farm households were less distinct than those in
industrialized Ambala. Nevertheless, in all three districts,
women participated in public sphere activities and private spier
activities extensively while men had nil participation in the
private sphere, Further research is needed to identify gender
Specified vork skills in public sphere,seni-public sphere and
private sphere activities.Such documentation of skills will
provide information for developing relavant extension prograns
for the farm households of Maryana.



REFERENCES

Bagchi,
i981" "





omen in agrarian transition in India: Impact of
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Boserup, E.
1970 ' Women's Roll
Allen and Un



in Economic Develonment. London: George
ia



Boulding, 2.

1978 "'"Women peripheries and food production." Pp. 22-24
in Proceedings of the International Conference on







men and Food. Volume.l. Tucson: Consortium for
International Development, University of Arizona.



Cloud, x.
1985,



Women's productivity in agricultural systens:
Considerations for project design. Pp.17-56 in
Overholt, C., Anderson, M., Cloud, Keand Austin





J.(eds.), Gender Rol jevelopaent Projects. Wes!
Hartford! Kanarien Press>



Conklin, G.
1981 “"Cultural determinants of power for women within the
family: A neglected aspect, of family research.” Pp.
9-27 in Kurian, G. and Ghosh, R. (eds.), Wonen in che
Family and the Economy, Westport: Greenvood Press.


-1é-

Gopinath, C. and Kalro, Avil.
1985" "India: Gujarat 'meditm irrigation project." Pp
283-307 in Overholt, C., Anderson, Kan

Austin, J. (eds), Gender Roles in Development Projects
West Hartford: Xunarian Press





Se
Urbanization and Family Change. Bombay: Popular
Prakashan.





Regional differences in Indian fanily structure."

in Grane, R. (ed.), Regions and Regionalisa in South
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Number Five of the Duke University Program on Southern
Asia,



Leonard, K.I., and Leonard, J.G.
1981" Social reform and'women's participation in political
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Hatthaei, J.A.

1982 An Economic History of Women in America.
Schocken Books: p. 5







few York:

Minturn, Ly
1976 '"The Rajputs Restudied." Paper presented to Annua.
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Papanek, I.
1977 "Development planning for vomen." Signs: Journal of
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Rosaldo, M. Z.
1974 “"Wonen, culture and society,” in Rosaldo, il. Z., an
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Sharma, U.

1980° Women, Work and Property

in North Nest India. London:
Tavistock Publications: p

130.





Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G.

1967 Statistical Hethods, Anes, Iowa: Towa State

University Press, pp. 554-555.