Citation
Using Male Research And Extension Personnel To Target Women Farmers

Material Information

Title:
Using Male Research And Extension Personnel To Target Women Farmers
Creator:
Spring, Anita
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
University of Florida. ( LCSH )
Women in development ( fast )
Malawi ( fast )
Agricultural extension work ( fast )
Agricultural laborers ( fast )
Genre:
conference publication ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Malawi

Notes

Abstract:
Anita Spring writes a conference publication of the Women in Agriculture, the conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension. Anita Spring starts with discussing how many gender issues are being ignored and that farmers, in general, have to deal with environmental and infrastructural problems as well. Anita Spring continues to report that technology transfer is frequently hindered with intrahousehold dynamics are considered. Anita Spring writes about women have to balance their time in the different crops, and if they focus on one type of crop they are neglecting the other crops. She continues to discuss the specific methodologies that are needed to understand intrahousehold variables. There is a pre-diagnostic stage, diagnostic stage, technology design stage, testing stage, and extension stage. The major thrust of the document is that the men and women and agricultural researchers and extensionists have to become involved and to target farmers of both genders. The paper concludes with a mechanism whereby the male extensionists are legitimated and mandated to work with female farmers. It is also mentioned that female extension workers are scarce compared to male workers. The reports that worldwide only 19% of the agricultural extension staff members are women. Women are often pressured to work in the home economics programs and are typically not regarded as professionally competent for agricultural knowledge. Anita Spring discusses that many of the extension services are modeled after the systems in Northern American and Western Europe with providing agricultural information to male farmers and providing women with home economics and nutrition information. Anita Spring mentions that those systems are outdated and will not work for the African farm of today. Women farmers also feel that they do not think of themselves are recipients of extension information. Anita Spring mentions some of the household dynamics they observed such as husband and wife are full-time farmers equally. The following section is "Case Study from Malawi". This section starts with a case study from 1981 to 1983 with an agricultural development project funded by the Office of Women in Development and housed within the Ministry of Agriculture in Malawi. Anita Spring continues to mention that women were in Malawi were doing a lot of farming and agriculture. Women were involved in all aspects including land clearing, plowing, applying fertilizer, and crop protection. The WIADP analyzed the extension services in a variety of ways, which included FSR&E surveys and trials. Anita Spring also mentions how group meetings were intended to reach more farmers than personal visits, but this method was not as used by women. Anita Spring continues to mentions the methods of the WIADP disaggregated the NSSA data into three categories and then the practice of giving out the surveys and interviewing farmers. The methods also continue to describe the trials processes. The case study mentions how farmers felt favorably toward fertilizer in both good and poor environments. The case study continues to create a discussion of the intrahousehold dynamics. Anita Spring discusses how women are not regarded as being "credit-worthy" when applying for farming credits and how the credit structure should adjust for the intrahousehold dynamics. The case study continues to describe the dynamics of the male and female extension workers and how they communicated services to the men and women of the household. Anita Spring mentions the circular she created and how people received the circular. The circular was titled " Reaching Female Farmers Through Male Extension Workers". She questions why it continues to be in Malawi that male extension workers cannot worth with women farmers and how that needs to be reexamined. The last section of the report is "Conclusions". The Conclusion starts off by describing the stages, mentioned before, and the data that was collected. There are multiple suggestions given in the trial designs and the various intrahousehold dynamics. The last sections including "Tables", which were referenced in the text from pages 24-33. Afterward the next section is "References", from pages 34-36.
Biographical:
Dr. Anita Spring has devoted her life to research in topics such as international agricultural development; food security; entrepreneurship and African business; women/gender in international development; environment and resource management since the 1970s. She has conducted research and produced many publications at several prestigious universities including Cornell University, San Francisco State University, and recently the University of Florida. She is currently a professor emeritus in the Department of Anthropology and director of the Sub-Saharan Africa Business Environment Report (SABER) Project at the University of Florida.
Creation/Production Credits:
Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Creation/Production Credits:
Women in Agriculture at the University of Florida

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
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