Gender-differential in the impact of technological change in rice-based farming systems in India

Material Information

Gender-differential in the impact of technological change in rice-based farming systems in India
Series Title:
Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Ghosh, Bahnisikha
Mukhopadhyay, Sudhin K.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
University of Florida
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.

Full Text

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I- t I 1ac . k. c r I o plt

- j. by) -
ednn.sikha ch.s

sudi r. - u hop aubve

2. IntroducIoDn eshaelmy as coe

An at nt pt is mde In his pap~r to exmilne In the 11st or rount

lulssr laorers ambnod eueeI seIculrl an~d non-arilturali

2abou ml~rket, an to asses te rle ord mnl ae an coributo or Vlaou Inpt as a~ lo a oao or reity homes ad ulity becoes espcil iotlIntree~tle I wrk is def~iin pesrn to eunventioa pran'tic asfo examlule sone byh~ te cons. at Idi, the bul o th~r onoui seaper rm the cary orul ecnomiall atie a~~ .nd law~ro roprsn r i theiraute couruio ilrs ign ored.r Thu escardn to(i the t cnou ediniis o~r ec n omms=acivties aon appa

to be typicany 1.*- .ctiv. than I.

and micr peaven commodities thatL mat~ have to be purchase againes on in t in of 8n 8 roucts had t 11 fmi1 8abur no
be.n evIlee, mn would i.t. as stontitent paricants In the generatin o r emly Inae a economic unlare, one usy tot redefne 'mlrks or locnonomc a hti --t* is tot subjec the sale oman
oriactivities that .n i.dividal undertaken to Intensive scruthy by the adlication of tme enocton mehodlogy. insofr h. t-tal t91e av1118 1r th8 hue8ld 188 Its 8888888 i te major sour a or Income, ws. analyticl tool provdes ecommists with an
0I~rtr ity to rcn~sie awaymennt concepts (mcoon and aklhopedbyay

Into econic producton' activities and *Man prdutiour activies .s the latter enmpassing not nly such activiie as e na tion, chid crei and domestic wrk, but also actitiies te my beI c allied *expanded economel (Plaradn ad sennet (98)].8 Th1.8r8 utivities like malny or fuel, knttoo, aean, et. These activities, usng market goods and sensue as ell a homegron nput, dining the tl ime t or houanoid momers, roducecomndditie (or 'characteria91c8') th8 are t9e 8r8ue' objects1 of futility. Thee could utifabl

n8 1888 ha p8ue9ton', based upn the8c8ncpt or home 1r8ductin

me pars is a upon data musched through rarm a n huseold surVeys In six villages* In the ditrich. ofL bet, wst ngl. Data 98989189 8 8199818~ 18818 898888 81~lt 9118r~lo 1198 81 nau~ul
'18118881 88189 8898819988, 899,19 81818,Ill~l~~ t. In.
8988l. ol.~ rrat 889198188118 llu.89988981.d .~n

aCtvt7i- - b th 'ecommic rad hinn' and 7o . roduction' - For the

clasurall insa enur brad occupat~~lionaln 6**oi : () oly agricalture. (14) only non-riculure, (atr) both erculur andl nonagriculaore, and (iv other, inexudng the unmployd and perons me in the Ilbour Fo rce ror examintmg the dielrnece In ecommi ttu the

exnatonld oru th o data rm these~ si viaces i hasben~r suplmn te

It. A 9nf 0d -tl casesun or e ulation

lo . ten housnd [ukh hyay (9) on h. r

"o B 9 ra. "4 sno as0 ar acom s~.r tol as aoi gos it

remain oUnumber ene.l man ny as agesoupsvn 0-9 and i-1, at all Other age~s heawrs hang twe. The everaul emete ale sex ratin
**me to be u~iinistn use this peaten. A separrison of the percenpoulation of the stat, so rer as their me distribution is concerd. Famn the sea an agne at ariage it appears that 75 per not. of h. marrins ocur borone age 17 rar menn, and ae 27 men, Data on tertility show that the navrage numbr of childen per romale in thsei sinnes s o 6, abut 17 prcEnt Mher for~i an age than that for rurl

'i- , th.

seeammnic p~dution activties and .22 hoursi on =hnoe productions activities. The romni ain the utser hand, apads only about 1.35 hure

-~~td t 'h- 1-t-11 ht rll ~urt~, hi Ei no~
.1k, --,. knitti- .:"Ii'lt':.t i.- ".: :."(" 'i ' " " .:'.' ,.," t:'It is steaurthy that if the actiities1 niased to home production ae included, the t paul ersns by tne ron arn higher than those for
th. .al. in each occup.ational entager of th I ppul ai po E tidnl y, this to due to 46. Fct that the 7.male spnds -uh a:rger hour. In the home production activities than the mae, whih mde n n esmpensates the ex~e or malel oer romaI nhours In econnte proction actvitim. A tieable relture or thli tIme alloation is that the number of huse spent by the rudel on home production activitiesi is raily steardy and nevr gos olw sa hour per day in spite of variations in number of hours tey spes an economic produestn activities ule the tme apant

The study vil que a re, by and Inge, dominatd by rice prodution which

evename in pa~rticion In rice produton activities are intiumand by so~tll ecnro and tehnl~loical rctrs, such diffrneu are nIne~ paonouncid betwen dievreint aarabiansi in rses cultivation as well as btwen operations in the rtld and In the caused. In wast songal fue~le participation in ridel wrk In ric cultivation Is uncommron among

nities n whom re are participation In Hal cultie~ntIn sreltiely

ens althin the remliy. These raety soen and bited man engage In us,. uhereas ramily male mence~r uork manly in L

oming activiy for the rmaz. Met of this amaze labour Is hired rather hn~ famtly. T w. .nd activity In terms r bour oorption,
necessina and torann. appeas. ao bednnl prmrn actiity or the reIc meers r 4 h_ hueoalW uia ?? percent of roman ramly
abour ad ulnty Ts percent of hired feate labour. & is al n
aiviUuty wlih may be usertaken both Iins he.o andhl adihin hhuehold precase , te firsti type usino solely ma>. remizy useor, wereas. supeninin of processil nga stones operation by hired laboUr to the courty'a n ein ypi~ican uthlin h enu of the emn raily abers but we percnt oi.r &l is undertakn by m~a unr whih is

11 percent or theli ime In two activty.

A pTtnrln or sr buse~n thus mers hic mphaine -gsrio r nI ~ a: latn at ~l drrernti operatio mIssing to re utivano n Hred

heate~ ~abour sypically woks In the flid, spndng most. oer ti e

dl~ o .n re mr theimnd o~ hire ate. nlabour an ough
~n ~ mdLl~~ ei~in Tarin nl~d I I~l~u.rr~ih
lfnott"% ddrcl-ta . .i t ~el~ll~ ~
I-anlI~~rtvtli b ob rlLul Ir.~olo. hi

ticr inn ~( ilr aill hl.d II-d.

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poweurs. Tht Is due to increase n h anatural aciiti, totL1

than the male and this is due to their user p~rticipation In home pneuction actiities (chart nt).+ Waur, in nuriultural ani next as totaz amenseni areation ativitiesl, the ocer or hours urkd by the featel incirase eye. Tv so no technlogy. The bulk er the inacease in acisilturst eatiitY or the roanr ?m

Thriv i asy perap be we tc pnutl o ra that the n 6 hology n

anm inreln lbur nr gar ons for the i he system as ah whle. re one Took nto tlihei h au rdcn acti or t h e emityn~~~

p ruinl rurterio ecun hat ulor eivr nsivit isfor th
doesic.~gu chosn for th fen, er~a. mt.e th. M. . . or .a

tionl acttinies. t is stomety tha asmln a~L rult o th cnge to~p n technlg the~r e to be r n o to u~anal aini hete Mri bnomled female, r~ur t screae eing otavy larger for
. . ve II r .e.

Thebaic hyo s o the paper ota the fect f .ological chana n1 ruD~n cultivtin~ hean~ user ntial set o Inale-remle

abour ue. This hypothesis was.r~io~ exu nduppeeenene. .In .h. 11gt or sursve ia . in ht . il e o. rgorous tes 1
undertaken here on the basis of data from 52 terms cultvtiq) taditio~nel v ~iety and to famei a ng hia. h y.n ding ari1t y .r r . . A Ilineer functional rr is postUthLe and vaiai.on In totl rale aour son and pmoirtions or Irut In totax labour us, are sought to be

enousea or nowas am ourei unan both 60.1~ tne labur and its proportin to totax labour are poitveu 6.aue chase tad to use more holurs in anima l hanbdry, tnepantina, usedine a harting - .11 roman leavr Iintenive actvities on th. user hand two g~rets or rectlilier

are by the n and the tend to eLeplace femle labur that wuld otherto b ne~dd rar plat care and usdno, 'rm su.r my have an Ineven;int. wereFt thnce~ the literactin of a pensive output arrees anda

agile no effect upon thi share or the fele~ my still be iMd~cointe

the Impat not only as totl eale labur use but also~ on two positn

use @Fact upn remale labour use, both asoIltel and reiLtively to laze. The effcts a ocra en d amn sn a not exaItinednt

an additionall eneti rOvide hers

wen or* sIxinume.nden ri aIise., apmly, as L I a ~ fln une u rp rpino

annlll exrte posiieerectnson thproportion or uo a in ol laue~ ou-.2 h hreeqai. s h 7-Zr'" en - o- k ou. of. utp per
eg. aion. o arect -. t. re is i i fct all . hrough . The equa i

b.-iIn r based u on .- r lvel fa toh It f rom th. rie baedrarnts systde inr mr Ea ern Indae eau hat althnnoug the mechan Is

ctiv ion - r nasr~ lzy ~l ==ne ere as com i shl. t- h os relaeD1 allaoerrd supp in subject t sme additional cowints, mIn Ly
1. -j- I.LIlul~r. i~r~liim ~iul . upu o

th :it A4 (: :ik & dt :6 8

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