Gender-differential in the impact of technological change in rice-based farming systems in India

Material Information

Gender-differential in the impact of technological change in rice-based farming systems in India
Series Title:
Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Ghosh, Bahnisikha
Mukhopadhyay, Sudhin K.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
University of Florida
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
Asia -- India

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Full Text

Paper Presented at the Conference on
Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
February 26 March 1, 1986


by -

Sahnisikha Ghosh and Sudhin K. Mukhopadhyay
Department of Economics
University of Kalyani
Kalyani 741 235, India

This paper is an outcome of the Rice-Based Farming Systems Research,
sponsored by the Ford Foundation at the University of Kalyani. The
authors are indebted to the Project Team, and to Shibdas Bandyopadhyay,
Subhas Nandi and Chiranjib Neogi of the Indian Statistical Institute,
for valuable help.


by -

Bahnisikha Ghosh
Sudhin K. Mukhopadhyay

I. Introduction, Methodology and Data-

An attempt is made in this paper to examine in the light of recent
evidences from farm-household surveys in rice-based farming systems,
the differences in the use of male and female time in various acti-
vities. It seeks in particular to examine gender differences in
the total length of time used and its distribution among different
components of agricultural and other activities. The discussion will
be directed to answer the following questions : (i) What is the total
number of hours worked per day by an adult male and female on an
average and what is its distribution among different forms of activi-
ties ? (ii) Is there any difference in the male-female allocation of
time due to socio-economic characteristics, namely, cultivators and
landless labourers and between agricultural and non-agricultural
household ? (iii) What are the differences in the contributions by
male and female workers in the different operations in rice cultiva-
tion ? and (iv) What are the major factors explaining differences in
male-female time allocation in the cultivation of rice and is there
any significant impact of technology upon the share of female to total
labour used ?

Insofar as the concept of 'work' or 'economic activity' still remains
elusive, it becomes difficult to analyse the sex-dichotomy of the
labour market, and to assess the role of woman as a contributor of
labour input as also a geonrator of family income and utility becomes
especially intractable. If work is defined according to conventional
practice as, for example, is done by the Census of India, the bulk of
the women disappear from the category of 'economically active' and a
large proportion of their valuable contribution is ignored. Thus
according to the Census definition of economic activities, women appear

- 2 -

to be typically less active than men.

However, if note is taken of the bulk of their activities which is
necessary for the subsistence and ultimate welfare of the household
and which produces commodities that would have to be purchased aga-
inst cash in the form of final products had this family labour not
been available, women would emerge as significant participants in
the generation of family income and economic welfare. One wqy to
redefine 'work' or 'economic activity' is to subject the whole gamut
of activities that an individual undertakes to intensive scrutiny by
the application of time allocation methodology. Insofar as total
time available for the household from its-members is the major
source of income, this analytical tool provides economists with an
opportunity to reconsider employment concepts L"Ghosh and Mukhopadhyay

With these considerations in view an attempt has been made in this
paper to use time allocation methodology to redefine total activity
into 'economic production' activities and 'home production' activities,
the latter encompassing not only such activities as education, child
care and domestic work, but.also activities which may be called 'expand-
ed economic' L-Pradhan and Bennett (1981)_7. These are activities
like making of fuel, knitting, sewing, etc. These activities, using
market goods and services as well as homegrown inputs, including the
time input of household members, produce commodities (or 'characteris-
tics') that are the 'true' objects of utility. These could justifiably
'be called 'home production', based upon the concept of home production

The paper is based upon data collected through farm and household
surveys in six villages* in the district of Nadia, West Bengal. Data
have been collected on a complete enumeration basis, for all individuals
in the villages, on their detailed allocation of time into all

* The villages are : Barasat, Nagarukhra, Simulpukuria, Bhandarkona,
Singa and Chanda, in the district of Nadia, West Bengal.

-3 -

activities both 'economic production' and 'home production' for the
six-month period of the major rice season in the region. The 'economic
production' activities have been classified into agriculture and non-
agriculture and the 'home production' activities are : education, child
care, domestic work and other activities. The households have been
classified into four broad occupational categories : (i) only agricul-
ture, (ii) only non-agriculture, (iii) both agriculture and non-agricul-
ture, and (iv) others,including the unemployed and persons not in the
labour force. For examining the differences in economic status the
households have also been classified into cultivators (owners and ten-
ants) and landless agricultural labourers. The cultivators have been
further divided into users of traditional technology and modern techno-
logy in the cultivation of rice. The study based upon an intensive
examination of the data from these six villages has been supplemented
by a regression analysis of both these and additional Farm Management
Survey data for two other districts in West Bengal.

II. A Brief Description of the Population

The six villages with their 1570 households have a population totalling
about ten thousand "-Mukhopadhyay (1984)_7. On an average the sex
ratio is 951 female per 1000 male as compared to 911 for the state of
West Bengal. The age-sex composition of these villages suggests that
female outnumber the male only at age-groups 0-9 and 15-19, at all
other ages the reverse being true. The overall female-male sex ratio
seems to be consistent with this pattern. A comparison of the percen-
tage age distribution of total population of these villages with that
of rural West Bengal shows that this population is similar to the rural
population of the state, so far as their age distribution is concerned.
From the data on age at marriage it appears that 75 percent of the
marriages occur before age 17 for women, and age 27^men. Data on
fertility show that the average number of children per female in these
villages is 5, about 17 percent higher for all ages than that for rural
West 9cngal 1S81, leading to a higher overall total fertility rate (TFR).
The relatively low sex ratio, low age at marriage, and the high ferti-
lity rate may have important effects on the time allocation of women in

-4 -

these villages to different activities.

The information on literacy rates of the population suggests that :
(i) Male literacy is much higher than that for female with about 33
percent of the males and almost half of the females being illiterate;
(ii) For both the sexes, literacy is much higher among the recent
cohorts as compared to the older population; (iii) When the popula-
tion is classified into lahdouners and landless labourers, the liter-
acy rate appears to be much higher for the former, the differential
being substantial for the female; (iv) If the landowning families are
further classified into those who have gone over to new technology
a nd those who continue to grow only traditional varieties of rice,
the HYV rice growers appear to be more literate than others, again
the differential being especially noticeable in the case of females.

In these villages the total cultivable land is owned by about 49 percent
of the households. Owner-cum-sharecroppers and pure tenants constitute
a little over 11 percent with about 36 percent of the households owning
and cultivating their own land. Of the remaining households with no
land, 31 percent of the families engage in only non-agricultural activi-
ties and about 14 percent are agricultural labour households. The rest,
constituting about 6'percent of total households earn their living
from both agricultural a nd non-agricultural occupations.

Modern rice technology seems to have exerted a significant influence
upon farmers in these villages. Although 40 percent of all farmers
still adhere to traditional technology of rice cultivation, the rest
have turned either completely to modern technology (about 20 percent)
or are using modern in combination with traditional technology.

III. Conder Differential in Time Allocation

The total population aged 15-50 in the six villages selected for this
study in the predominantly rice-growing state of 'Jest Bengal consists
of 2319 male and 2123 female. On an average, a male and a female in
this age-group spend about 9.47 hours and 9.53 hours per day respecti-
vely on all activities except rest, recreation and personal needs
(Table 1). Out of this, the male spends about 6.25 hours per day on

- 5 -

'economic production' activities and 3.22 hours on 'home production'
activities. The female, on the other hand, spends only about 1.35 hours
per day on economic activities and 8.18 hours per day on activities
related to 'home production' that include education, child care, house-
work, sewing, knitting, making cowdung cakes (fuel) for home use, etc.

It is noteworthy that if the activities related to home production are
included, the total hours spent by the female are higher than those for
the male in each occupational category of the population. Evidently,
this is due to the fact that the female spends much larger hours in the
home production activities than the male, which more than compensates
the excess of male over female hours in economic production activities.
A noticeable feature of this time allocation is that the number of hours
spent by the female on home production activities is fairly steady and
never goes below 5.3 hours per day in spite of variations in number of
hours they spend on economic production activities while the time spent
by the male on home production activities varies substantially depending
on the workload of economic production activities.

The study villages are, by and large, dominated by rice production which
constitutes not only the most important agricultural activity but also
provides the mAjor avenue for income, employment and work. It uould,
therefore, be useful to examine in depth the relative importance of the
male and female in the time used in rice production. Male-female diff-
erences in participation in rice production activities are influenced by
social, economic and technological factors. Such differences are also
pronounced between different operations in rice cultivation as well as
between operations in the field and in the household. In 'Jest Bengal,
female participation'in field work in rice cultivation is uncommon among
Bengali Caste Hindus and Muslims who constitute the vast majority of
farmers in those villages. Scheduled castes and tribes are the commo-
nities among whom female participation in rice cultivation is relatively
more important. But they are a small percentage of the total population
in the villages. It is, therefore, not surprising that the total female
labour input in rico cultivation in these villages is only about 10
percent, the rest coming from the male L-Mukhopadhyay (1985)_7. Among
the different operations, the proportion of female labour is the

-6 -

highest in processing uhich is an activity carried out within the house-
hold premises (Table 2 and Chart I). Such female labour comes mainly
from within the family. These family women and hired men engage in
processing work, whereas family male members work mostly in fieldwork
and in supervision. WeedinQ which consumes the largest proportion of
total labour used in rice cultivation, is also the most important rice
growing activity for the female. Most of this female labour is hired
rather than family. The second activity in terms of labour absorption,
processing and storage, appears to be primarily an activity of the
Female members of the households using 77 percent of female family
labour and only 15 percent of hired female labour. Supervision is an
Activity which may be undertaken both in the field and within the house-
Shold premises, the first type using solely male family labour, whereas
Supervision of processing and storage operations by hired labour in the
* courtyard being typically within the domain of the female family members.
4 About 98 percent of supervision is undertaken by male members which is
About 44 percent of their total work burden, while a very small amount
Sis done by the female. omber of the household who spends only about
11 percent of their time in this activity.

Transplanting and harvesting are important activities for hired labour,
with both male and female hired labour allocating about the same share
of their time to these activities. However, seedbed preparation,
irrigation and application of fertilizer appear to be responsibilities
of male family labour.

A pattern of labour use thus emerges which emphasises sex-specific
allocation of different operations relating to rice cultivation. Hired
female labour typically works in the field, spending most of her time
in such tedious and laborious jobs as transplanting, weeding, harvesting
.and processing while female members of owner-cultivator households
remain busy with noco ni.a. stj~ ora e and supervision activities. The
male, on the other hand, spends most of his time on his own farm on
supervision and fi.ld_ preparation. For the hired male labour, although
the mostimportant activities appear to be weeding, transplanting and
harv3stina, those activities absorb relatively less proportion of their
time thnn of t h female hired labour.

- 7 -

Gender differences in time allocation among the different components of
economic production as well as home production activities are also depen-
dent on the economic status of households. For examining this, as well
as the impact of technology on gender differential in labour use, one* of
the six villages has been subjected to close scrutiny on the basis of
complete enumeration. The total number of households have been divided
into (a) those cultivating 100 percent HYV rice; (b) those cultivating
100 percent TV rice, (c) farmers cultivating different combinations of
HYV and TV; and (d) landless agricultural labour households. Since house-
holds cultivating combinations of HYV and TV rice could not provide
dependable information on the tochnologywise distribution of labour and
other inputs, discussion har becn confined to only categories (a), (b)
and (d) : (a) and (b) are cultivators and (d) landless labourers.

It appears (Table 3) that for the population aged 10 and above a female
spends on an average about nine and half hours per day, as against less
than seven and a half hours for the male, considering both economic produ-
ction and home production activities. As expected, the distribution
between these two activities shows that the bulk of the female time is
spent on home production activities whereas the average male does not
spend much more than three hours in such activities (Chart II). Compared
with cultivators, the average number of hours worked by the female in
landless households increases for economic production activities while
that for home production decreases. For the male, however, the numbers
of hours worked on both sets of activities are higher for the landless
than for the cultivators. This may be due to abject poverty and lack of
any household assets and properties on the part of the landless labourers,
whose female members.may have to scramble for survival outside home, but
with practically nothing to care for by way of home production. At the
margin, in such poor households, the male works some-what more than the

Disaggregation of the cultivators into HYV and TV rice growers and com-
parison with landless labourers shows (Table 4) that total number of hours
worked on an average increases from 6.2 and 9.2 hours respectively for
the male and female for the TV growers to 7.5 and 10 hours for the HYV


-8 -

growers. This is due to increases in agricultural activities, total
economic production activities as well as total home production acti-
vities. The female for both the HYV and TV growers work longer
than the male and this is due to their larger participation in home
production activities (Chart III). However, in agricultural as well as
total economic production activities, the number of hours worked by the
female increases from TV to HYV technology.

The bulk of the increase in agricultural activity for the female from
the TV to HYV is due to rice production and that also in processing and
supervision (Table 5). For the male there has beon a marginal decline
* in the total number of hours worked for rice as a result of the change
:to HYV. This may perhaps be due to the fact that the new technology
Shas brought forth larger volume of output requiring more threshing,
'cleaning, parboiling, etc, whereas the short duration modern varieties
night require smaller hours of work on the field. When one takes into
- consideration the total rice-based farming system including non-rice
* crops and animal husbandry the increase is more pronounced for the to-
tal labour requirement. There is very little gender-differential in
this increased labour requirement for the farming system as a whole.

,When one looks into the home production activities of the family
including domestic chores, child care, education, etc., one notices
S(Table 6) that hero also the workload of the female increases from
7.85 to 8.23 hours per day on an average as a result of change from
TV to HYV rice cultivation. The corresponding increase for the male
is only from 3 to 3.17 hours per day. The composition of this home
production further suggests that the bulk of the activity is for the
domestic chores for the female, whereas for the male it is for educa-
tional activities. It is noteworthy that as a result of the change
to new technology there seems to be a spurt in educational activities
.for both male and female, the increase being relatively larger for
the female.

IV. Effect of Technology

The basic hypothesis of the paper is that the effect of technological
change in rice cultivation has an differential impact on male-female

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labour use. This hypothesis was examined and supported generally in the
light of survey data in the preceding section. A more rigorous test is
undertaken here on the basis of data from 52 farms cultivating traditio-
nal variety and 26 farms growing high yielding variety of rice. A log-
linear functional form is postulated and variations in total female
labour use and proportions of female in total labour use are sought to be
explained with the help of two equations with (i) farm size, (ii) expen-
diture per hectare on seeds (representing quality and plant population),
(iii) farm yard manure and compost, (iv) commercial fertilizer, (v) inse-
cticide, weedicide and plant treatment and (vi) technology. The expected
effects of seed and manure upon both total female labour and its propor-
tion in total labour are positive because these tend to use more hours in
animal husbandry, transplanting, weeding and harvesting all female
labour intensive activities. On the other hand the effects of fertilizer
i and plant treatments are expected to be negative since these are applied
more by the male and they tend to displace female labour that would other-
wise be needed for plant care and weeding. Farm size may have an indeter-
miinate effect through the interaction of a positive output effect and a
Negative substitution effect. Technology in the form of a change from TV
-0to HYV is likely to increase total labour including female labour use
while its effect upon the share of the female may still be indeterminate.
The results presented in Table 7 conform to expected behaviour. It
Demonstrates that the transition to the new technology has a strong posi-
tive impact not only on total female labour use but also on the position
_ of the female vis-a-vis that of the male. It also appears that the
Application of commercial fertilizer and plant treatment has strong nega-
Stive effect upon female labour use, both absolutely and relatively to
Sale. The effects of seed and farm size are not significant.

An additional test is provided here with the help of data from 75 farms
cultivating TV and another 75 cultivating HYV rice in the districts of
Hooghly a nd Birbhum in West Bengal. A log-linear function, similar to
the above, is fitted for three equations : (a) for the TV farmers, (b)
the HYV farmers, and (c) all farmers pooled together. Variations in the
share of women in total labour is explained in thnse functions with the
help of six independent variables, namely, area undar the crop, cropping

- 10 -

intensity, farm business income, expenditure on labour, total value of out-
put per hecthre and technology. It is hypothesised that the proportion of
female labour in a rice-based farming system will be positively affected
by cropping intensity, farm business income and technology, whereas the
effects of area, expenditure on human labour and total value of output per
hectare would bc indeterminate because of the simultaneous operation of
both positive and negative effects. The results (Table 6) show that cropp-
ing intensity, farm business income and expenditure on human labour have-
all exerted positive effects upon the proportion of women in total labour
in all the three equations. The coefficient for value of output per
hectare is also significantly positive in the two equations representing
the tuo technologies separately whereas it is insignificant in the pooled
equation. The effect of areas is insignificant all through. The equation
with the pooled data strongly demonstrates the positive impact of the HYV
technology through'the high and statistically significant coefficient for
the dummy variable representing technology. The statistical exercise
thus provides strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that the new
HYV technology in rice cultivation has exerted a fairly strong positive
impact on female labour use.

V. Conclusion

The' exercise based upon microlovel farm-household data from the rice
based farming system in Eastern India shows that although the mechanism
of allocation of time by men and women in such systems is extremely
complex and is subject to social, cultural, physical and economic factors,
there is overriding evidence that in terms of total time spent on
activities traditionally considered as economic as well as those related
to 'home production' contribution by the female would often be larger
than that of the male. This is inapite of the fact that the female
labour supply is subject to some additional constraints, mainly

- 11 -

demograpnic and sociological. The study also shows that although the
extent of male-female differential varies according to social, economic
and environmental characteristics, such variations are not very signi-
ficant when it comes to the question of the impact of technological
change. The new rice technology has given rise to higher use of female
labour, both absolutely and in comparison with male labour. A dis-
aggregated examination of the components of technology suggests that
the bulk of the increased workload for women would be in the form of
operations which are largely unrecorded, unmeasured and unaccounted
for in traditional economic literature. This is due to the fact that
these activities fall n the category of'home production' which is yet
to be properly acknowledged, at least in most of the developing

Table 1 : Time Allocation of Male and Female Population : Hours per Head per Day

Occupational Categories


Only Agriculture Only Non-agr. Both Others Total

Male Female Male Female Male Femalo Male Female Male Fernle

Economic Production
(Aoriculture Plus

Home Production
(education, child-
care, housework
and other
acrtii f.iti A








10.05 7.18

2.20 5.88

1.95 0.90

7.49 8.50


3.22 8.16

Source : Mukhopadhyay (1984)

Total Uork 7.69 9.11 10.26 11.72 12.08 13.06 9.45 9.40 9.47 9.53

- "-- -- --

"""I'""~'-- ~-------------

~'------- -~~~' ----cl-----L------ -------- -----

Labour Input in Rice Cultivation : Ooerationuise

Percentage of Hours Spent on

Seed Bed




tion of

.Weeding Harvest- Process-
ing ing



25.03 2.03
(78.51) (21.01)



8.94 6.37
(20.59) (1-9.85)

26.01 20.04
(66.04) (68.91)


44.39 100

(18.40) (90.22)


Sub-Total 3.83 12.89 14.73 5.04 2.83 17.89 13.54 8.12 21.12 100
(98.73) (99.55) (88.10) (99.57) (99.65) (86.63) (88.76) (68.65) (98.22)

Female :
Family 0.60 0.31 0.82 0.66 0.13 4,51 4.00 77.25 11.71 100
(0.50) (0.08) (0.16) (0.43) (0.15) (0.71) (0.86) (21.33) ( 1.78) -

Hired 0.40 0.64 26.41 0.07 35.20 21.30 15.97 100
(0.77) (0.37) (11.74) (0.20) (12.66) (10.37) (10.02) -

Sub-Total 0.46 0.54 18.59 0.20 0.09 25.82 16.01 34.69 3.58 100
(1.27) (0.45) (11.90) (0.43) (0.35) (13.37) (11.23) (31.35) (1.78) -

Grand Total 3.51 11.70 15.10 4.56 2.56 18.66 13.77 10.69 19.42 100
(100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00) -

Figures in parentheses indicate column percentages.
Source : Mukhopadhyay (1984)


Male :








_ ~_

____ __ _

_ _II~ _______ ~__ ____ ____~ I ____

~'~~- --- -----" -- --

" --- ~~I"I~CI~

Table 2 : Male-Fcrmalo Differences in

(9.59) (78.56) (55.89)

Table 3 : Time Allocation by Male and Female Population in All Activities
By Different Socio-Economic Groups : Bhandarkona
(Hours per Head per Day)

Landless Labourers Cultivators Total
Male Female Male Female Male Female

Field Work 3.54 0.53 1.05 0.00 1.47 0.11

Processing/Supervision 0.35 0.09 0.42 0.49 0.41 0.41

Total Activity in Rice 3.89 0.62 1.47 .0.49 1.88 0.52

Agriculture:Gthers 0.49 0.26 1.00 0.03 0.92 0.08

Total Agriculture 4.38 0.88 2.45 .0.52 2.80 0.60

Animal Husbandry 0.48 0.85 0.68 1.02 0.64 0.98

Total Agriculture and
Allied Activities 4.86 1.73 3.15 1.54 3.44 1.58

Total Economic
Production 6.90 2.11 3.75 1.57 4.28 1.67

Total Home
Production 3.28 6.88 3.07 0.03 3.10 7.80

Total Wgrk Burden 10.18 8.99 6.82 9.60 7.38 9.47

Table 4 : Time Allocation by Male and Female Population in All Activities :


(By TechnoloQy) and Aq. Labourers
(Hours per Head per Day)

: Bhandarkona

Landless Labourers TV Cultivators HYV Cultivators Total
Activities Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

Agriculture 4.38 0.88 2.36 0.18 2.58 0.90 2.80 0.60

Total Economic
Production 6.90 2.11 3.24 1.35 4.36 1.61 4.28 1.67

Total Hone
Production 3.28 6.88 3.00 7.65 3.17 8.23 3.10 7.60

Total Work
Burden 10.18 8.99 6.24 9.20 7.55 10.04 7.38 9.47

Table 5 : Time Allocation by Male and Female Population in Agricultural
and Allied Activities : Bhandarkona
(Hours per Head per Day)

Landless Labourers TV Cultivators HYV Cultivators Total
Activities ~ -----
Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
Field lJork 3.54 0.53 1.35 0.003 0.68 0.00 1.47 0.11

Processing &
Supervision 0.35 0.09 0.42 0.17 0.41 0.64 0.41 0.41

Total Activity
in Aice 3.89 0.62 1.77 0.17 1.09 0.64 1.E8 0.52

Agriculture:Others 0.49 0.26 0.61 0.01 1.49 0.06 0.92 0.08

Total Agriculture 4.38 0.88 2.38 0.18 2.59 0.90 2.60 0.60

Animal Husbandry 0.48 0.85 0.51 1.12 0.76 0.91 0.64 0.98

Total Agriculture
and Allied Activities 4.86 1.73 2.99 1.29 3.35 1.81 3.44 1.58

Table 6 : Time Allocation by Male and Female Population to Economic Production
and Home Production Activities : Ehandarkona
(Hours per Head per Day)

Landless Agl. Farmers Cultivating Farmers Cultivating
Activities Labourers TV Rice HYV Rice Total

f'ale Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
Production : 6.90 2.11 3.24 1.36 4.38 1.81 4.28 1.67

Home Production :
Education 0.67 0.38 1.33 0.53 1.53 1.62

Childcare 0.25 1.69 0.19 1.59 1.14

Domestic 2.33 4.61 1.22 5.13 1.42 5.15

Others 0.17 0.26 0.50 0.22 0.32

Total 3.28 6.88 3.00 7.85 3.17 8.23 3.10 7.80

Total Work
Burden 10.18 8.99 6.24 9.20 7.55 10.04 7.38 9.47

Table 7 2 Labour Use Functions : Househbld Survey Data (Nadia) t Pooled
(Log Linear)


Independent Variables

Total Female Labour

Dependent Variables

Proportion of Female in Total

Intercept 1.74 3.79

Farm Size -0.02 0.07
(0.13) (0.12)
Seed 0.56 0.23
(0.32) (0.37)
Manure/Compost 0.25 0.04
(0.16) (0.15)
Fertilizer -0.44 0.93 **
(0.14) (0.23)
Plant Treatment -0.31 0.32
(0.10) (0.10)
Dummy (for 0.37 ** 0.11 **
Technology (0.11) (0.03)

R 0.42 0.28

Note : Figures in parentheses denote standard errors
denote significance at 5% level; ** denote significance at 1% level


Table 8 : Labour Use Functions : FMS Data (Hooohly and Birbhum)
(Log Linear)
Dependent Variable : Share of Women in Total Labour Use

Independent Variables
Technology Intercept Area Under Cropping Farm Business Expenditure Total Value Dummy for R2
the Crop Intensity Income on Labour of Output Technology
per Hectare
Local 2.80 0.06 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.54 0.44
(r = 75) (0.08) (0.32) .(0.05) (0.15) (0.25)

HYV 1.07 0.81 0.91 ** 0.20 ** 0.37 016 0.53
(N = 75) (0.81) (0.23) (0.05) (0.25) (0.06)

Pooled 0.75 0.09 0.56' ** 0.20 ** 0.21 -0.01 5.10 ** 0.46
(N = 150) (0.04) (0.14) (0.03) (0.13) (0.12) (0.07)

Note : Figures in parentheses denote standard errors
denotes significance at 5% level; ** denotes significance at 11 level

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Ghosh, Bahnisikha

and Sudhin K. Mukhopadhyay
"Work, Income and Women :.A Macro-Micro Exercise
in India". Paper presented at the Workshop on
Women, Technology and Forms of Production, Madras
Institute of Development Studies, India

SMukhopadhyay, Sudhin K.
1984 Constraints to Technological Progress in Rice
Cultivation An Experiment-Survey Research in
West Beq~al. Sponsored by the Ford Foundation,
University of Kalyani, India

Mukhopadhyay, Sudhin K.
1985 "Labour Use in Rice Cultivation : Male-Female
Differential in Time Allocation". Paper
presented at the International Conference of
Agricultural Economists, Malaga, Spain

Pradhan, Bina and

Lynn Bennett.
"The Role of Women in Hill Farming Systems".
Seminar Proceedings : Appropriate Technology
for Hill Farming Systems. The Department of
Agriculture, HMG, Nepal