Citation
A Comparison Of Rural Women's Time Use In Two Villages In Malawi

Material Information

Title:
A Comparison Of Rural Women's Time Use In Two Villages In Malawi
Series Title:
Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
Creator:
Engberg, Lila E.
Sabry, Jean H.
Beckerson, Susan
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Africa ( LCSH )
Women in development ( fast )
Malawi ( fast )
Women in agriculture ( fast )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( periodical )
Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Malawi

Notes

Abstract:
This 22-page document is a report based on the Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension. The first section of this paper is the Introduction. The Introduction mentions that the primary purpose of the paper is to present a production activity model for categorizing and comparing time use in rural households and to illustrate the model. The paper will also explain the theoretical perspective that led to the use of the activity model and to describe the research methodology problems related to collecting time use data and its results. The next section is Theoretical Perspective. This section studies the monetized economic sector and not the base economies of the household or family are conventional in the field of economics. The two main categories of production are identified in the production model of market production and home production. The following section is Measuring Home Production. The various types of home productions are very complex. The four methods of collecting the data are 1) the time-diary or self-record, 2) the interview, 3) day-long continuous observations, and 4) random spot observations and a combination of the above. Section 4 is the Methodology for the Study of Labour Allocation in Two Malawi Villages. This section describes the two study phases that were carried out in Malawi. Information from Phase I was used to develop the approached on Phase II. Interviews were carried out in Chichewa by Bunda College of Agriculture students. Section 5 is the Study of Food Supply, Food Consumption and Nutritional Status, which gives a brief summary of the study. On page 9 starts the Results section. Some of the results mentioned are a) both husband and wives are involved in market production as well as home production, b) the household production took the largest proportion of women's time in each of the two villages in each season, c) the mean-time spent by women on all production activities did not vary much from season to season, d) men spent between 4.13 and 6.42 hours in production per day, e) during the tobacco growing season in February, the women in Mkindwa spent fewer hours on subsistence and household production than they did in July, f) both men and women were equally involved in subsistence production during July, in Patsankhodo, and g) only two activities were accounted for within the category social or inseparable production, namely childcare and health care. The following section is Outputs of Production. The outputs mentioned are tobacco, maize, groundnuts, beans, and peas. Section 8 is the Conclusions. This section mentions that a shift in rural women's time use towards cash crop production could lead to lower rather than higher standards of nutritional well-being of all household members. _Page 15 starts the Footnotes. Page 16 is Appendix A which describes the Production Activities. Page 18 starts the References page. Pages 19-22 include Figures mentioned in the paper.
Creation/Production Credits:
Paper prepared for presentation at the Gender Issues and Farming Systems Research and Extension Conference, Sponsored by The Wome in Agriculture Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, February 26- March 1, 1986
Biographical:
Lila E. Enberg is an Associate Professor in the field of Family Economics and Management: Jean Sabry, Professor in Applied Human Nutrition; Susan A. Berkerson, was a graduate student (1981-83) Department of Family Studies. The data for this research was collected in Malawi by Susan Becerkson in 1982.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text













-at the Univefrsi--of -r--n--
Conference on
GENDER ISSUES IN FARMING SYSTEMS
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION










A COMPARISON OF RURAL WOMEN'S TIME USE


IN TWO VILLAGES IN MALAWI







*Lila E. Engberg
Jean H. Sabry, and
Susan Beckerson



Department of Family Studies
University of Guelph
Guelph, Ontario, Canada
NIG 2W1













Paper prepared for presentation at the GENDER ISSUES AND FARMING
SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION CONFERENCE
Sponsored by THE WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE PROGRAM
University of Florida, Gainesville
February 26 March 1, 1986






*Lila E. Engberg is Associate Professor in the field of Family
Economics and Management; Jean Sabry, Professor in Applied Human
Nutrition; Susan A. Beckerson, was a graduate student (1981-83)
Department of Family Studies. The data for this research was
collected in Malawi by Susan Beckerson in 1982.







1. Introduction

The primary purposes of this paper are to present

production activity model for categorizing and comparing

time use in rural households, and to illustrate the use of

the model. A secondary purpose is to discuss the

relationship of women's time use to the food supply and

nutritional status of household members in two Malawi

villages. According to Ettema and Msukwa (1985:49) "Little

is yet known about the dynamics of cropping patterns of the

.smallest farmers, or for that matter, of related issues like

the relationship between cash cropping, the cultivation of

'food crops destined for home consumption, and the

nutritional status of the family."

In this paper we will explain the theoretical

perspective that led to the use of the activity model, then

we will describe the research methodology and methodological

problems related to collecting time use data, then the

results. We are not satisfied that we have truly accurate

records from the Malawi study. The picture is incomplete.

Two seasons only, were examined:- pre-harvest and post-

harvest, and the work of one male and one female (his wife)

in each of 28 households. The sample size was small because

of the detailed measures taken, measures of time use, food

stored, food consumed and nutritional status. Measurement

of each category of variables is complex. Details will

not be described but some of the results will be presented

with the hope that further inter-disciplinary research of

this nature will be encouraged.







2. Theoretical Perspective

Study of the formal, monetized economic sectors and

not the informal or base economies of the household or

family is conventional in the field of economics. Cash crop

agriculture is visible and recognized but two sectors of

economic activity tend to be invisible and overlooked -

subsistence food production and household production (Evenson,

1981). Chipita (1981:6-7) uses the term indigenous

economics when referring to subsistence production. He

argues that conventional economics does not help us

understand how the micro-economic unit of the family or

household operates.

Two main categories of production are identified in the

production model adapted from Beutler and Owen (1980:17) -

market production and home production. The production

activity model attempts to integrate social and economic

theory by taking into account the social relationships

involved in productionI. Market production involves

exchange of money, goods or services. Home production does

not. The output of home production have "use" value rather

than "exchange" value. See figures 1 in the appendix and

note that home production is divided into separable and

inseparable components. Household and subsistence

production are separable or market replacable. Reid's

classic definition of household production stated below has

been considered most appropriate.







Household production consists of those
unpaid activities which are carried on
by and for the members, which
activities might be replaced by market
goods, or paid services, if
circumstances such as income, market
conditions, and personal inclinations
permit the service being delegated to
someone outside the household group
(Reid 1934:11)


Subsistence production has the same characteristics. The

activities can be delegated to paid workers, the outputs

have exchange value on the market and are conceptually

different from outputs which have "use" value.

In addition to market production, household and/or

subsistence production, household members engage in another

kind of production referred to in .the model as social

production. The latter type of production is called

"inseparable" because of the social relationships involved

(Beutler and Owen, 1980:18). Activities identified as

social production are carried out only by a member of the

family and cannot be handed over to paid workers.

Activities are organized by reciprocity and are called

grants (Boulding, 1970). Grants are one-way transfers of

goods and services. Bivens (1976) gives examples and

indicates their "use" value or function. It is to integrate

family members into the system. Beutler and Owen (1981)

subdivide the inseparable, into three categories: (1)

intra-household, grants, (2) inter-household grants, and (3)

community service. Activities such as caring for,

socializing and/or educating the children, caring for the

sick and the elderly, serving as mediators inside the







household would fit the first category. Helping kin or

neighbours in the village, helping at weddings or funerals,

would fit the second category. Community self-help,

voluntary work, and social participation as representatives

of the household would fit the third. All are family

obligations and essential in indigenous economies.

A production activity model such as the one just

described could characterize the various types of

production activities carried out at the level of the

family. It could capture more fully, the activities

and responsibilities of women and help us recognize and

better understand the allocation of their labour.



3. Measuring Home Production

Measuring the various types of home production is very

complex. The invisible nature of the activities, the

seasonality of some activities, the definition of household,

the number of people involved, and the problems of assigning

a monetary value to non-market activities are among the

problems. Reports by the International Centre for Research

on Women (1CRW, 1980) and Minge-Klevana (1980) provide

reviews of methodology related to measurement procedures.

The study of time allocation is the method generally used

for gaining information about all aspects of life.

Basically, there are four methods of collecting the data:

1) the time-diary or self record, 2) the interview, asking

respondents to recall time spent the day before on a limited







number of pre-categorized activities, 3) day-long continuous

observations; 4) random spot observations, and a combination

of the above. The recording may be a free listing or may be

organized according to predetermined categories. The time-

diary method is not possible in a semi-literate population.

Only two approaches the interview recorded recall, and

observation are available. Day-long observations were

chosen for the Malawi research in order to gain a more

complete picture of the actual amount of time spent on each

particular activity (Beckerson, 1983). The methodology used

will be described in the next section.

4, Methodology for Study of Labour Allocation in Two Malawi

Villages

The study carried out in Malawi was divided into two

phases. The first phase, carried out in August 1981, was a

general survey of rural household functioning in the two

villages (Mkwinda and Patsankhondo). For this study

household was defined as a unit which may include both

family members and persons other than kin, who occupy a

housing unit as a social unit in terms of division of

labour, social interaction and sharing of benefits (Janelid,

1980:85). In the case of Mkwinda village 32 registered

tobacco growing households were included, and in

Patsankhondo, 31 subsistence farming households *

Additional criteria for household selection were that the

age of the eldest child born to the resident wife be between

12 and 16 years of age and that the child be presently

living in the selected household. This was, to obtain






comparability of households in terms of the age of the

female respondent and the developmental stage in the family

life cycle. As it turned out, all 32 tobacco producing

households and 22 subsistence producing households were

headed by males during the time of the survey. (Beckerson,

p. 78).

Information collected in Phase I of the study was used

to develop the approaches to the second phase. Phase II of

the study was carried out in February and July, 1982; during

the height of the growing season, and after harvest. For

this more detailed part of the study a smaller sample of 14

households was randomly selected from each of the two

original sets of household total 28. (Beckerson, p. 87).

Interviews were carried out in Chichewa by five Bunda

College of Agriculture students. Four of the students (two

males and two females) continued the survey work throughout

all phases of the study, working as male/female teams with

the researchers (Beckerson, p. 86). Within each season

identical questionnaires were used to interview the males

and females about specific pre-categorized activities. The

respondents were asked to recall three week-days of

activities within each category and to estimate an

approximate block of time spent on the activity. The

interviewer translated the time into hours and minutes on

the record sheets. See the appendix for the list of

activity categories and the tasks for February. A different

set of crop production activities was designed for use in





July. Since each list of activities was pre-determined,

based on information from Phase I of the study it was easier

for the interviewers and respondents to remember the tasks.

Recall of three days was considered sufficient because there

was little variation in the day to day pattern of

activity at each season of the year (Beckerson, p. 93).

Recall is not necessarily the best data collection

procedure because of the difficulty of estimating the

amount of time spent on each activity. The information was

supplemented by observation of seven women in each of the

two villages, (Beckerson, p. 94). A random morning and

random afternoon were selected to observe each woman in each

season. Both primary and secondary activities were recorded

at five minute intervals.

There were no significant differences in mean hours per

day obtained by the recall method as compared to the

observation method except for the report of domestic

activities of tobacco growing households in July, and of

subsistence households in February.3 The mean time reported

in this paper, therefore, is an average of the two the

recall and the observation data.

5. Study of Food Supply, Food Consumption and Nutritional

Status

In the interest of brevity no details will be provided

in this paper regarding the methodology for the study of

food supply, food consumption and nutritional status of

household members. It is important to note that the output

of subsistence and household production has "use" value.

8






6. Results

The mean-time spent by husbands and wives in the two

seasons in each farming system is presented in four graphs

(Figure 2 in the appendix). Graph Al and A2 illustrate the

seasonal labour differences in the tobacco producing

households, B1 and B2 the seasonal labour inputs in the

subsistence households. The following comparisons can be

noted; based on the production activity model presented

earlier in this paper.

a) Both husbands and wives are involved in market

production (tobacco) as well as in home production.

Market production is minimal in the subsistence

households, and minimal in July (after harvest).

b) The Household production took the largest proportion

of women's time in each of the two villages in each

season. In every household the daily time spent on

meal preparation exceeded the time spent on any of the

other household tasks (mean time 1.36 to 2.88 hours).

c) The mean-time spent by women on all production

activities did not vary much from season to season, nor

in each farming system (about 12 hours per day).

d) In comparison to the women, the men spent between 4.13

and 6.42 hours in production per day. The longest

working time for men was in tobacco farming during

February.






e) During the tobacco growing season in February, the

women of Mkwinda spent fewer hours on subsistence and

household production than they did in July. They

shifted their work time away from home production to

market production. No such seasonal shifts were

evident in Patsankhondo the subsistence producing

village.

f) Both men and women were equally involved in subsistence

production during July, in Patsankhodo. At that season

of the year the three tasks that took up the time were

harvesting, carrying maize home from the gardens, and

maize shelling.

g) Only two activities were accounted for within the

category social or inseparable production, namely child

care and health care. Note that both husbands and

wives participated but the mean time spent by wives was

slightly higher than that of their husbands (1.40 mean

hours per day by the wives as compared to 0.91 mean

hours spent by husbands).

The data for this category of production is incomplete.

The time spent in learning, in helping kin or

neighbours, in attendance at funerals or in community

self-help was not recorded. During the time of the

study, for example, interviews had to be re-scheduled

six times in Patsankhondo and five times in Mkwinda,

because of funerals. On some occasions respondents

were away from home for two days at a time (more

frequently during the rainy season in February, than in








July). Whether or not such activities could be

categorized as 'social production' may be debatable.

Nevertheless, attendance and help with funerals is a

family obligation, with reciprocal benefits.

7. Outputs of Production

The complete home production activity model proposed by

Beutler and Owen (1980:24) includes inputs of resources

throughputs of production, and outputs of utility and

standard of living. Among the outputs studied in Malawi

(Beckerson 1983:130-182) were those presented in figures 2

to'6 in the appendix. Figure 3 presents the mean amount of

traditional foods stored by 14 tobacco growing and 14

subsistence farming households. The mean amounts of maize,

groundnuts, beans and peas found stored by the subsistence

households in July was greater than that stored by the

tobacco producers. The mean amount of dried leaves stored

was somewhat greater in the tobacco, as compared to the

subsistence village.
Regarding food consumption note Figures 4 and 5. The

mean number of cups of maize flour (ufa) used per day for

making the dietary staple food nsima was higher in the

subsistence farm households.

Finally, regarding nutritional status it was noted that

the members of sample households from Patsankhondo the

subsistence farming village, were somewhat better off than

those from Mkwinda (Beckerson, p. 184).








a) Significantly fewer children were malnourished in July.

b) The female adults in the sample had significantly higher
mean weights in Feburary and in July.

c) Male and female.adults had significantly less weight
change between February and July.

d) Female adults were less lean in February, as indicated
by a significantly higher mean body mass index.

e) Significantly fewer female adults were underweight in
February and in July.

Note figure 6 which shows that a larger proportion of

the children in subsistence producing households

maintained normal weight for height as compared to those in

the tobacco producing villages between February and July.

The larger stores of maize available in one set of

households compared to the other could account for this

difference. Other aspects of health status could also

account for this difference. At this stage we must be

cautious about making implications about the relationships.

8. Conclusions

The major purpose of this paper was to draw attention to

the fact that household production and subsistence

production are important components of the family economy.

Women contribute a large proportion of their time to these

two sectors of production, but their work tends to be

unrecognized because it is a part of the informal or non-

monetized economy. A comparison of work done in two Malawi

villages by a sample of 28 households suggests that the

women are indeed contributing a larger proportion of their

time to these sectors as compared to their husbands. Women






are also contributing, along with their husbands to cash

crop production through the work done on tobacco. During

the tobacco growing season in February the women tended to

shift their time away from subsistence and household

production towards tobacco production. They did not add to

the length of their working day (mean 12.15 hours) but cut

back on the time spent particularly on meal related

activities. The women were not 'pulled into' additional

housework.

It is suggested that a shift in rural women's time use

towards cash crop production could lead to lower rather than

higher standards of nutritional well-being of all household

members. Such a conclusion is tentative because of the

small sample size and the number of variables examined.

The use of a production activity framework for

categorizing types of production has advantages for

economies such as those in rural Malawi. Market production

and home production are the two major types of production to

be recognized and valued; especially with respect to women's

role. Home production cannot easily be valued in monetary

terms but could be valued in terms of outputs such as health

and well-being or standards of living of households.

Household and subsistence production are both categorized as

separable home production or market replaceable production.

Social production such as care of family, kin and community

is called inseparable home production because of household

members obligations to such activities. It is not market

replaceable and requires more attention in research because







of the trade-offs in terms of time utility.

There are only 24 hours in a day. More time spent in

one type of production means less time available for another

type. If rural women shift their time towards cash crop

production and reduce time spent in home production there

may be drastic consequences in terms of food shortages

during the transition. There is a need for research which

examines more thoroughly the relationships between various

types of production, activity patterns of males, females and

children in small-scale farming systems; and the production

outputs. Much is still to be learned about economic

behaviour and its influences on productivity family well-

being.







FOOTNOTES


1. This is not the whole of the production activity model. See
Beutler, Ivan F. and Owen, Alma J. "A Home Production
Activity Model Home Economics Research Journal Vol. 9, No. 1,
September, 1980O. figure 6 p. Inputs in terms of human and
material resources and outputs of utility and levels of
living are included in the model.

2. See Beckerson, Susan A. "Seasonal Labour Allocation, Food
Supply, and Nutrition in Subsistence and Semi-Subsistence
Farming Households in Malawi, Africa" Master's Thesis,
University of "Guelph, 1983: Tables 6 and 7 p. 88.
The mean number of persons per household in the study was
found to be as follows:

Phase I Households (1981)

Tobacco Semi-Subsistence
Village Village
Number of Households 32 31

Mean number of persons
per household
Adult 2.69 2.56
Children 3.50 3.39
Infants .44 .45

Phase II Households (1982)

Number of Households 14 14

Mean number of persons per
household
Adults 2.29 2.43
Children (Feb.) 4.43 4.43
(July) 4.36 4.43
Infants 0.79 0.79

3. To check the validity of the three day recall data, Beckerson
used two-tailed non-paired, student's t-tests; at the 1% and
5% levels of significance. The mean hours for one day as
observed in each of three activity areas (cash crop
activities food crop activities, and household activities)
for the females was compared to mean hours per day of the
recall data (Beckerson p. 104). Results (Table 13 p. 128)
indicated that the women respondents may have over-estimated
the time spent on household activities.






APPENDIX A

PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

(An activity list for use in February in Malawi, 1982 by
Susan A. Beckerson)

(i) Market Production

(a) Tobacco Production (weeding, fertilizer application,
banking, removing flowers, sucker control,
harvesting, transporting leaves, other tasks).

(b) Other Income-Earning Tasks (making goods for sale,
collecting produce for sale, work for wages).

(c) Marketing (selling or trading)

(ii) Subsistence and Semi-Subsistence Production

(a) Hybrid Maize Production (weeding, banking,
fertilizer application, other tasks).

(b) Production of Local Maize (tasks as above).

(c) Production of Groundnuts, Beans, Peas, Vegetables (as
above)

(d) Sweet Potato Production (as above)

(e) Animal Care (grazing cattle or goats; feeding fowl,
pigs, rabbits, etc., preparing feed; milking,
collecting eggs, slaughtering animals, cleaning
animal shelters, other).

(iii) Household Production

(a) Food Related Activities (gathering fruits or wild
vegetables, collecting insects, planting and caring
for fruit trees, collecting vegetables from the
garden, beermaking for home use, storage of food
items, shelling and pounding maize, meal
preparation, cooking and serving, washing-up and
storing utensils, going to the maize mill).

S(b) Shopping (for food and other household needs)

(c) Obtaining Fuel and Water (collecting firewood and
the domestic water supply, planting trees and care






(d) Household and Farm Maintenance (cleaning the house
and surroundings; building or repairing housing,
food stores, animal shelters, fences, garden
structures, garden tools, furnishings or equipment
for the home).

(e) Clothing Activities (Making and repairing
clothing, laundering, taking materials to the
tailor).
(iv) Inseparable Home Production

(a) Intra household production
Child Care (feeding, bathing, punishing, teaching
and playing with children)

Health Care (tending to the sick at home? taking
the sick to the health centre, clinic, hospital, or
healer, fetching medicines).

*(b) Interhousehold grants

*(c) Community service

*not recorded by Beckerson






REFERENCES


Beckerson, Susan A. "Seasonal Labour Allocation, Food Supply, and
1983 Semi-Subsistence Farming Households in Malawi,
Africa". University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario:
Unpublished Master's.Thesis.

Beutler, Ivan F. And Owen Alma J. "A Home Production Activity
1980 Model". Home Economics Research Journal Vol. 9
No 1.


Bivens, G.
1976


"The Grants Economy and Study of the American Family:
A possible Framework for Trans-disciplinary
Approaches". Home Economics Research Journal Vol. 5
No. 6, pp. 70-78.


Chipeta, C.H.R. Indigenous Economics A Cultural Approach.
1981 Smithtown, New York: Exposition Press.

Ettema Wim, and Msukwa, L. Food Production and Malnutrition in
1985 Malawi University of Malawi, Zomba: Centre for
Social Research.

Evenson, Robert E. "Food Policy and the New Home Economics".
1981 Food Policy pp. 180-193.

ICRW The Productivity of Women in Developing Countries:
1980 Measurement Issues and Recommendations. Washington,
DC: International Center for Research on Women
Office of Women in Development, Agency for
International Development.


Janelid, I..
1979


"Rural Development and the Farm Household as a Unit
of Observation and Action" in The Household, Women
and Agricultural Development. Wageningen, The
Netherlands: Proceedings of a Symposium Department
of Home Economics Agricultural University.


Minge-Klevana, Wanda. "Does Labour Time Decrease with
1980 Industrialization? A Survey of Time Allocation
Studies". Current Anthropology 21. pp. 279-297.












Figure 1.


i .











(Mars















HOME PRODUCTION-
(Grants)


TYPE OF PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES






Figure 2 Mean Time Spent Per Day by Husband and Wife in
Two Farming Seasons
(N = 14 households)


Market
Production



Subsistence



Household
Production


Social
Production


JULY


FEBRUARY
Al Tobacco Producers

1 2 "- 3 4


4.1
.... hours
................8


0.4
:i::::::: :: :: 2.5


0.6


S1 .3
::::1,8


Husbands ml


A2


Food Producers


1 '2 3 4 5


Wives


1 2 3. 4 5 6
F 1 h o


,17 hours
.21


,9,2.4


:4.6
..::r::::: .............:.


0.9 6.1
.................
......................... : :: :: : :


irmnf.l
.''.i:'''':::' 12


1 2 3 4 5
I it t

L0.1 hours
: 0.4

5.4


4.9

0.2
.::::.:::??ii!! !:~_ ::::iiii!iii::::.'.:!!?ii i


.rr 0.4
^1.3


Market



Subsis-
tence


House-
hold



Social


- - -. .- - . .


~-~~2~--rrrrrr~u*L--.


u











Figure 3. Mean Amount of Traditional Foods Stored in July
by Two Types of Farming Systems

(N = 14 households)


SMaize Stored


Cubic Metres
15

10

5 .


Ground Nuts Stored


Cubic Metres

4 .


2 .


Beans and Peas Stored


Dried Leaves


Cubic Centimeters


I Tobacco Producers

Subsistence Producers


400

300

200

100






Figure 4 Mean Number of Meals Per Day


3






1 -


(n.s.)


FEBRUARY


2.7


2.4











JULY


2.4

.:
*:*:-

.*.
.' '



8.


Tobacco
Farmers


Figure 5 Mean Number of Cups of Maize Flour per Day


1:::.I Subsistence
I:I Farmers


JULY


Figure 6 Normal Weight for Height All Children
N = 73
30 28.8%


20


10 6.9%


JULY


Beckerson. p. 162


2.1


(n.s.)


FEBRUARY


FEBRUARY




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
!-- A Comparison Of Rural Women's Time Use In Two Villages Malawi ( Book ) --
METS:mets OBJID UF00081707_00001
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:sobekcm http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm
xmlns:lom http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm_lom
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-4.xsd
http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcmsobekcm.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2020-08-03T12:42:06Z ID LASTMODDATE 2019-10-13T18:24:54Z RECORDSTATUS COMPLETE
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR TYPE ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF,University of Florida
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC - FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
UFAD\renner
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:abstract displayLabel Abstract This 22-page document is a report based on the Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension. The first section of this paper is the Introduction. The Introduction mentions that the primary purpose of the paper is to present a production activity model for categorizing and comparing time use in rural households and to illustrate the model. The paper will also explain the theoretical perspective that led to the use of the activity model and to describe the research methodology problems related to collecting time use data and its results. The next section is Theoretical Perspective. This section studies the monetized economic sector and not the base economies of the household or family are conventional in the field of economics. The two main categories of production are identified in the production model of market production and home production. The following section is Measuring Home Production. The various types of home productions are very complex. The four methods of collecting the data are 1) the time-diary or self-record, 2) the interview, 3) day-long continuous observations, and 4) random spot observations and a combination of the above. Section 4 is the Methodology for the Study of Labour Allocation in Two Malawi Villages. This section describes the two study phases that were carried out in Malawi. Information from Phase I was used to develop the approached on Phase II. Interviews were carried out in Chichewa by Bunda College of Agriculture students. Section 5 is the Study of Food Supply, Food Consumption and Nutritional Status, which gives a brief summary of the study. On page 9 starts the Results section. Some of the results mentioned are a) both husband and wives are involved in market production as well as home production, b) the household production took the largest proportion of women's time in each of the two villages in each season, c) the mean-time spent by women on all production activities did not vary much from season to season, d) men spent between 4.13 and 6.42 hours in production per day, e) during the tobacco growing season in February, the women in Mkindwa spent fewer hours on subsistence and household production than they did in July, f) both men and women were equally involved in subsistence production during July, in Patsankhodo, and g) only two activities were accounted for within the category social or inseparable production, namely childcare and health care. The following section is Outputs of Production. The outputs mentioned are tobacco, maize, groundnuts, beans, and peas. Section 8 is the Conclusions. This section mentions that a shift in rural women's time use towards cash crop production could lead to lower rather than higher standards of nutritional well-being of all household members. _Page 15 starts the Footnotes. Page 16 is Appendix A which describes the Production Activities. Page 18 starts the References page. Pages 19-22 include Figures mentioned in the paper.
mods:accessCondition The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
mods:genre authority marcgt periodical
periodical non-fiction
mods:language
mods:languageTerm type text English
code iso639-2b eng
mods:location
mods:physicalLocation African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
UF
mods:url access object in context http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081707/00001
mods:name personal
mods:namePart Engberg, Lila E.
Sabry, Jean H.
Beckerson, Susan
mods:note creationproduction credits Paper prepared for presentation at the Gender Issues and Farming Systems Research and Extension Conference, Sponsored by The Wome in Agriculture Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, February 26- March 1, 1986
biographical Lila E. Enberg is an Associate Professor in the field of Family Economics and Management: Jean Sabry, Professor in Applied Human Nutrition; Susan A. Berkerson, was a graduate student (1981-83) Department of Family Studies. The data for this research was collected in Malawi by Susan Becerkson in 1982.
mods:originInfo
mods:publisher University of Florida
mods:place
mods:placeTerm Gainesville, Fla.
mods:dateIssued March 1986
mods:recordInfo
mods:recordIdentifier source sobekcm UF00081707_00001
mods:recordContentSource University of Florida
mods:relatedItem series
mods:titleInfo
mods:title Conference on Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extenion, University of Florida, February 26 to March 1, 1986
mods:subject LCSH
mods:topic Africa
fast
Women in development
Malawi
Women in agriculture
SUBJ662
mods:hierarchicalGeographic
mods:continent Africa
mods:country Malawi
A Comparison Of Rural Women's Time Use In Two Villages In Malawi
mods:typeOfResource text
DMD2
OTHERMDTYPE SOBEKCM SobekCM Custom
sobekcm:procParam
sobekcm:Aggregation ALL
SOCIAL
SCIENCES
WORLD
AFRICA1
FAO1
UFIR
WID
IFSA
IUF
sobekcm:MainThumbnail 00001thm.jpg
sobekcm:Wordmark UFSPEC
sobekcm:bibDesc
sobekcm:BibID UF00081707
sobekcm:VID 00001
sobekcm:Publisher
sobekcm:Name University of Florida
sobekcm:Source
sobekcm:statement UF University of Florida
sobekcm:SortDate 725006
METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD DIGIPROV1
DAITSS Archiving Information
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT PROJECT UFDC
METS:techMD TECH1
File Technical Details
sobekcm:FileInfo
sobekcm:File fileid JPEG1 width 630 height 819
JP21 2438 3169
JPEG2 844
JP22 2365
JPEG3 848
JP23 2353
JPEG4 850
JP24 3173
JPEG5 846
JP25 2359 3167
JPEG6
JP26 2341 3145
JPEG7 859
JP27 2329 3175
JPEG8 875
JP28 2303 3199
JPEG9 840
JP29 2345 3127
JPEG10 877
JP210 2311 3217
JPEG11 843
JP211 3157
JPEG12
JP212
JPEG13 858
JP213 2323 3163
JPEG14 852
JP214 3151
JPEG15 853
JP215
JPEG16 860
JP216 3179
JPEG17 847
JP217 2347 3155
JPEG18 865
JP218 2305 3165
JPEG19
JP219 3135
JPEG20 841
JP220 3149
JPEG21 825
JP221 2395 3137
JPEG22 866
JP222
JPEG23 857
JP223
METS:fileSec
METS:fileGrp USE reference
METS:file GROUPID G1 imagejpeg CHECKSUM 50331e8d8d06f9d55d2183e4795df0ad CHECKSUMTYPE MD5 SIZE 53598
METS:FLocat LOCTYPE OTHERLOCTYPE SYSTEM xlink:href 00001.jpg
JPEG1.2 d0c542213ef0c8e7dc36f8c4095dc0ef 41225
00001.QC.jpg
G2 b8bb859bb029811641c99d4fd843662b 48232
00003.jpg
JPEG2.2 d5eef2deea949756b6c569bdf96654e1 40097
00003.QC.jpg
G3 c1c7b2c4b16ca9228adbfc1fb578b0ab 94401
00004.jpg
JPEG3.2 7b42e3baf74ef8a23e475229ba183e2e 73133
00004.QC.jpg
G4 4b38e44d773b0be5b76364511c332fa3 89528
00005.jpg
JPEG4.2 b8b685ac4bbb29f017dd3bfe20c63304 69747
00005.QC.jpg
G5 c3466ddd91453ec7702edd54b1723717 96227
00006.jpg
JPEG5.2 d836c37adf73425979d7d1b07e535193 72397
00006.QC.jpg
G6 487424eebacc6ab3094a8b899179a107 91682
00007.jpg
JPEG6.2 fc4c08b7828b3a69ba0b52144d83554d 71067
00007.QC.jpg
G7 4e932f2a310da782aa28c3246edbde9b 98637
00008.jpg
JPEG7.2 c58500b369e7a1f00a75d2507b058774 76059
00008.QC.jpg
G8 f52109e13ca1d440accdfc83a2626470 94786
00009.jpg
JPEG8.2 01eed9f39d4070ac3a4d4d9f03b47c1d 74407
00009.QC.jpg
G9 e4f6d0ecfb5d4ea4fccb7d06562b7b16 93693
00010.jpg
JPEG9.2 9dd8d46b31a616c8eb3e687fc83d19c2 73678
00010.QC.jpg
G10 5adb9f9c0992c9a6e24f89e7a6fd6671 80944
00011.jpg
JPEG10.2 03698be35156041fab8d28c70cbc4da7 64762
00011.QC.jpg
G11 a167a60e499d2c0fc57930d84c9d38d9 87133
00012.jpg
JPEG11.2 a29a7555baf9c907d6b6c75ccbef33d5 69364
00012.QC.jpg
G12 3ac3d60ad709a98aa57dc0a99e30e07c 86030
00013.jpg
JPEG12.2 46429f5a22afc459933840e67321f14e 68148
00013.QC.jpg
G13 420f15cae5e71a89a0438f8fe77e5487 99784
00014.jpg
JPEG13.2 edcd9ac54eba76cdc42eddaeb453f762 73863
00014.QC.jpg
G14 8716f79d26c4ee483646296c9851c1d3 99356
00015.jpg
JPEG14.2 39ce0393b55a13f66e6db2e0a099b78b 74663
00015.QC.jpg
G15 08d5443ebf4aeede0666eff98af8f8f4 49015
00016.jpg
JPEG15.2 bf796953c9de8352f8100670361052fa 45008
00016.QC.jpg
G16 2cb1a439d89ed9f76780ee8bb7d39c3b 90052
00017.jpg
JPEG16.2 35a9c15334d545129bf3b1758a010767 60031
00017.QC.jpg
G17 245a7c274e1171334060af04429390bf 87764
00018.jpg
JPEG17.2 401c0d33c9e443a7f46bcf44c60f3d96 61863
00018.QC.jpg
G18 b6176721a542d2cc9df472eb2b57ba2d 49165
00019.jpg
JPEG18.2 08513784a58c0f3d4c70e0b1e0777756 41690
00019.QC.jpg
G19 f363ef32c3e7f97d4f2c21b256bd8ffc 93679
00020.jpg
JPEG19.2 0b8874c1bc859a4a435a925f01c99916 63169
00020.QC.jpg
G20 5a75a8177bb29545c5d2ae3525431987 34924
00021.jpg
JPEG20.2 3739d7b354fa6e56716ca6c07305ba80 36570
00021.QC.jpg
G21 c40a7487e98cfb312811aa174e2dff57 76617
00022.jpg
JPEG21.2 11ec7ec12bce89255f6c187a5947597e 57369
00022.QC.jpg
G22 2abfb4fbc469a3f8f396d12832a47528 43270
00023.jpg
JPEG22.2 8389c852fadaed67c34fb787c8f8f665 41662
00023.QC.jpg
G23 e37b6011d9c50e72dfb57bf49ceb73da 50402
00024.jpg
JPEG23.2 7a4c0fb3016a52d901aa9640436e1334 44781
00024.QC.jpg
imagejp2 60155e72fa4569e1030abeac57a45d63 85076
00001.jp2
d5e51544291cc38b92fc3a96a31ea030 62580
00003.jp2
bda98597d144615ebf4db4f067ed9521 114245
00004.jp2
c275a692d86a82c9707e070529760d73 108737
00005.jp2
71337235694aabfb33a4cb35c51166e0 118780
00006.jp2
de74dc2c57baace4b98e25ae9498ad2a 109759
00007.jp2
16489e5c8a0053f2dfbb7078a91343e6 117577
00008.jp2
3b334fb57f4e5d0d262dea34f85aebe1 114794
00009.jp2
c1668021617e087ceb70a7dd346a01df 116169
00010.jp2
8284b986984e2f89fc63d668bf519b65 96161
00011.jp2
a6cefba84e26573ee2163c2815016423 107176
00012.jp2
5df197f8cc1775522c7a8d8d342e2de7 106149
00013.jp2
e98b859f7ddae0c3442385ee69f9e4c0 116331
00014.jp2
718284a82c67f43eef78d7a221372929 119525
00015.jp2
1333341c03974e7c509f3a40d9d68f9c 58020
00016.jp2
61a9b6148c7ba0d3c30f45cee235cc43 109999
00017.jp2
fb88125ded63fad859f0017b54de721f 110313
00018.jp2
bb504a22a587bce01b277f473d009643 58400
00019.jp2
666a8d384cae22a4c8893d900901f7d8 117327
00020.jp2
5db7f48631a786e25371ef53b8bbd569 45297
00021.jp2
98310a903f6900bae204ab422460ced8 112956
00022.jp2
f930c35a32e1d461f3494c02c6e6ccc1 53896
00023.jp2
46a8d680bafd744c3d1a7004f62f2a41 64630
00024.jp2
archive
TIF1 imagetiff b3c1615a0a445c9cf0a7a980ec5b2590 7746508
00001.tif
TIF2 fc4aa7b66190553df83ab4728cb05899 7514700
00003.tif
TIF3 2b78a093a8bc70d52f555bb6b044c6a4 7480256
00004.tif
TIF4 9e28f7e570545dab47b3af2cae7e4fa2 7488672
00005.tif
TIF5 db99a6ac9fadf083debf7b455dad7a13 7494524
00006.tif
TIF6 e2c5a804fe32dfad23b9439345732da0 7385372
00007.tif
TIF7 1f1b5df2fd63e6ea07f4b87074150e5d 7418192
00008.tif
TIF8 544b20269eaec1e2f83c4fc5e2bf5d1f 7390496
00009.tif
TIF9 3f317657f900873b994fc36eb414d12e 7356256
00010.tif
TIF10 e2290b3d8c81cfa4fb9480722b5e54a6 7456784
00011.tif
TIF11 2f9f3f297aa849e577a7e45437db7c10 7470356
00012.tif
TIF12 5a999ef3c72fa0c2e40e387a542587aa 7512728
00013.tif
TIF13 2ad6dd099b4f8ab91325c42d59189bee 7371176
00014.tif
TIF14 ebb2d1113975e6be01c9d4c14c89e9d0 7362204
00015.tif
TIF15 2d8e5ed2674f703e06e696b0f27cd76e 7439304
00016.tif
TIF16 7a0f40b3517c50436aef7c37ffc500a4 7426548
00017.tif
TIF17 c815ccfac60d672803ddb8c101c8e0c4 7427220
00018.tif
TIF18 7228450acfd875cdc9ef48df5ede0a1b 7315636
00019.tif
TIF19 ea4847cdf27a0f4175620563fadb48f4 7324220
00020.tif
TIF20 883fd9893c04fc7252a39c49d83ea599 7449156
00021.tif
TIF21 a9dd42bfd3bcfae05dc92968d426d8af 7535820
00022.tif
TIF22 df7a1663888ef7642e830be29edc6e5b 7325236
00023.tif
TIF23 c9ced68ca56b6de4341c70dc01e8b976 7289396
00024.tif
THUMB1 imagejpeg-thumbnails 93d42352fe4eec43085f1934af1f467b 25446
00001thm.jpg
THUMB2 cd9db1a2b65895ad69402597e28159e0 25321
00003thm.jpg
THUMB3 99431e31bd25156dea1d33b9440e7e7f 35200
00004thm.jpg
THUMB4 1f591db8cbbfc7f8275e71388d56e13d 33949
00005thm.jpg
THUMB5 fe632fef2e8a10a70eed9e2acf0e484b 34922
00006thm.jpg
THUMB6 cff6c5928cb9c1370ca4e3048ae0e5cb 34884
00007thm.jpg
THUMB7 89898949ed3c4828e863687ac26d1cfc 36107
00008thm.jpg
THUMB8 3cac369d4ae9e1e3694baa3d44f5b4a8 35751
00009thm.jpg
THUMB9 2b3742439913e9e5f8cdeb7657421a0a 35928
00010thm.jpg
THUMB10 846836c82279629a256f7f292cbd92fd 32834
00011thm.jpg
THUMB11 decb68e18478f148d6faaea99b4f3bf2 34606
00012thm.jpg
THUMB12 75c46d04b8ad684265a82c21e766554f 34217
00013thm.jpg
THUMB13 75241f7e57c3f8a4246074d4ea52f541 35659
00014thm.jpg
THUMB14 6553da991fcb2e0900f0b019da8919db 35510
00015thm.jpg
THUMB15 c0f913d150d2a9fc46632fb432eae23a 26649
00016thm.jpg
THUMB16 d34c03eac7d32c160a5002e4030ef4fc 31683
00017thm.jpg
THUMB17 0043149bcb5a27dc56399d29aba39756 32462
00018thm.jpg
THUMB18 f240d77521db0588241fc4035035fb60 25324
00019thm.jpg
THUMB19 dccb0f8408d324160d06ca6ea9e45c2f 32595
00020thm.jpg
THUMB20 bb4b89511fb64451ca0f05124b755775 25660
00021thm.jpg
THUMB21 a88a8561efb200eeecd196ccfee0d8de 31862
00022thm.jpg
THUMB22 fe3c70fdca5c92586ec57ee6d4365162 26429
00023thm.jpg
THUMB23 5f201995770f79d9f5ec4be8bab37673 28240
00024thm.jpg
TXT1 textplain
00006.txt
TXT2
00007.txt
TXT3
00012.txt
TXT4
00023.txt
TXT5
00020.txt
TXT6
00011.txt
TXT7
00010.txt
TXT8
00024.txt
TXT9
00022.txt
TXT10
00019.txt
TXT11
00008.txt
TXT12
00016.txt
TXT13
00005.txt
TXT14
00017.txt
TXT15
00018.txt
TXT16
00004.txt
TXT17
00021.txt
TXT18
00009.txt
TXT19
00013.txt
TXT20
00001.txt
TXT21
00014.txt
TXT22
00015.txt
TXT23
00003.txt
G24 METS24 unknownx-mets 1ffbde1c67360aeda3a9d5d1e962ada6 38782
UF00081707_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 Front Cover 1
PAGE1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
PDIV2 2 Chapter
PAGE2
PAGE3
PAGE4 3
PAGE5 4
PAGE6 5
PAGE7 6
PAGE8 7
PAGE9 8
PAGE10 9
PAGE11 10
PAGE12 11
PAGE13 12
PAGE14 13
PAGE15 14
PDIV3 Footnotes
PAGE16 15
PDIV4 Appendix
PAGE17 16
PAGE18 17
PDIV5 References
PAGE19 18
PDIV6 Figures
PAGE20 19
PAGE21 20
PAGE22 21
PAGE23 22
STRUCT2 other
ODIV1 Main
FILES1
FILES2
FILES3
FILES4
FILES5
FILES6
FILES7
FILES8
FILES9
FILES10
FILES11
FILES12
FILES13
FILES14
FILES15
FILES16
FILES17
FILES18
FILES19
FILES20
FILES21
FILES22
FILES23 23
FILES24 24