Citation
Leaves and flowers, or, Plant studies for young readers

Material Information

Title:
Leaves and flowers, or, Plant studies for young readers
Added title page title:
Plant studies for young readers
Creator:
Spear, Mary A. ( Author, Primary )
D.C. Heath and Company ( Publisher )
J.S. Cushing & Co ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publisher:
D.C. Heath & Co.
Manufacturer:
Typography by J.S. Cushing & Co.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1892
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 103, [10] p. : ill. ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Plants -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Brothers and sisters -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1892 ( rbgenr )
Baldwin -- 1892
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
novel ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mary A. Spear ; late principal of Model School, State Normal School, West Chester, Penn.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
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ALH8240 ( NOTIS )
01224573 ( OCLC )
05025773 ( LCCN )

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~ LEAVES AND FLOWERS

PLANT STUDIES FOR YOUNG READERS

BY

MARY A. SPEAR

Late PRINcIPAL oF MopEL ScHoor, Stare Norman ScHoo.,
West CHESTER, PENN.

BOSTON, U.S.A.
D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS
1892



CoprRrieHt, 1892,

By MARY -A. SPEAR.

TypocraPpHy sy J. S. Cusuinc & Co., Boston, U.S.A.



PREFACE.

f

sat 2 . +

ae

In primary schools, at the present day, considerable time °*

and attention are given to training the perceptive faculties,
and for this purpose elementary science is introduced. This
makes an increasing demand for reading matter which may
be used by pupils to supplement their observation lessons.
The purpose of this work is to furnish short and easy
sentences calculated_to stimulate thought and investigation.

The subjects presented ‘are not beyond the understanding of.

pupils who have been in school two or three years. They
have been tested in classes of little children, and many sen-
tences on these pages are thought expressions given by
pupils. .

Every lesson presents some fact in descriptive botany so
' obvious that it may be discovered by very young children if
they have specimens to examine. After they have made dis-
coveries, they are able to read and to understand the lan-
guage used to express them.

To illustrate these facts, common leaves and flowers have
been chosen. If specimens like those named in a lesson
cannot be obtained, there are many others which are similar,
and which may be used to illustrate the fact mentioned.

iit



iv PREFACE.

When reading about a leaf, twig, or flower, it is essential
that pupils see and handle specimens in order to receive and
retain the thoughts expressed in a lesson. Without this
examination of a plant or its parts, but little real knowledge
will be gained. ;

Botanical specimens are abundant and inexpensive. Pupils
should be encouraged to make collections for both school and
home study. Collections of pressed leaves are valuable in
winter.

Since many teachers have new classes and new pupils in
September, this book has been arranged to begin with mate-
rials which may be easily obtained at that time.

A pupil in Second Grade may begin the study of leaves at
the beginning of the school year, and continue the work
during the fall term, using from pressed collections late in
the season. In spring he is prepared to resume the study
and to watch the growth and unfolding of buds.

“ The study of Botany becomes more and more interesting the more
we learn of it, and affords a constant and unalloyed intellectual gratifica-
tion.” — Gray.

If the study of this book leads any little child to have a
love for the study of Botany, the writer is repaid for her
labors.



CONTENTS.

soe
A PrvIoLE . . 2 . . .
‘A BuapE. . : ; . .
An Oak Lear. . . : .
Many Leaves. ; . . .
CoLtor or BLADES . . . :
Sessine LEAvEs . . : : :
Sessine Leaves . . : . .
In tHe Woops . . . ° .
STIPULES : . . . : .
REvIEW . . . : : °
THe VEINS . : ; : . :
An Ivy Lear : . . . .
A Mippre VEIN . . ; ; .
VEINLETS

A PLANTAIN . . . . .
Tue Usr or VEINS. . . .
REVIEW ©

A Network or VEINS . . .
Nerverrnep Leaves . . . .
PARALLEL VEINS . . : :
PARALLEL-VEINED LEAVES . : :
REvIEWw : ‘ . . : °

PAGE

ww bv

Oo ON DM OFC oO W

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
16
17
18
19
20



vi CONTENTS.

Tue Base or A LEAF
Tue Apex or A LEAF
SHAPES oF LEAVES

In a Park ,
DirrERENT SHAPES

A Wipe Arex

THE CALLa .

. THE ARROW-HEAD

A Preacu Lear

Aw Apple Lear .
Many Forms
CorRDATE LEAVES

Tur CATALPA

REVIEW

MarcGins

CRENATE Marcrns .
SERRATE MARGINS
Dentate Marcins
Otuer Marerns .

Tur Hepatica

Lopes

REviEw

MULLEIN AND THISTLE
AUTUMN

Noprs AND InTERNODES
GATHERING TwiaGs
How Bups are Pruacep
Asout Bup Scaes
Warcuine Lear Bups
Tue Horse-cuHestnvt .

PAGE

21
22
23
24
25
26
28
29
30
32
33
385
35
oT
38
39
40
41
42
44
45
46
47
49
51
52
54
56
58

60



CONTENTS.

Tur Linac.

How Leaves ARE Foupep .
Parts or A FLOWER .
Tue CHERRY Biossom
Tue CALyx .

Tur CoRoLLa

Kinps or CoRoLia
Tue PrRIANTH

Linies .

STAMENS

More apout STAMENS
Tue Pistrin .

Frower TIME

Stems oF FLOWERS
Kinps oF CLUSTERS
SPRING

Witp FLowers

THE VIOLET

SuMMER FLOWERS
Tur BurrEercuP .
Later. FLOWERS .
SEPTEMBER .

vil
PAGE
61
63
65
68
68

72
76
78
78
81
83
85
86
88
91
92
95
96
99
100
103






“ Chide me not, laborious band,
For the idle flowers I brought;
Every aster in my hand
Goes home loaded with a thought.”

EMERSON.



LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

» A PETIOLE.

1} Haney and Frank are standing under a tree. It
is a maple tree.

Some green leaves are on
the ground. They are green
maple leaves.

They fell from the maple
tree, and are called maple
leaves.

Helen picks up a leaf and
gives it to Frank. She has
another leaf in her hand.

Each leaf has a long stem.
The stem of a leaf is called



its petiole.

The petiole of a maple leaf is green.

Can you find a maple leaf?

Frank runs away to some other trees. They are
oak trees.



2 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

He finds leaves on them. He takes some of the
leaves to his sister Helen.

‘They are not like maple leaves. The trees on
which they grew are not like maple trees.

095 0o-—__

A BLADE:

Here is an oak leaf with a short stem. Shall we
call the stem a petiole?

It is green like the petiole of a
maple leaf.

The stem of an oak leaf is not
so long as the stem of a maple leaf.

An oak leaf has a short, green
petiole.

What is the other part of a leaf
called ?

It is called the blade. The broad,
green part of a leaf is the blade.
The blade of an oak leaf is thicker than the blade

of a maple leaf.



Bring five leaves to the class to-morrow. Show
and name -their parts.

Bring some leaves with long petioles. Bring some
~ with short petioles.
Make a drawing of an oak leaf.



MANY LEAVES. 3

‘AN OAK LEAF.

Helen found a pretty oak leaf. She put it into
a book. She did this that she might keep it.

The blade of the oak leaf was dark green. It did
not look like a maple leaf. It was shining.

Helen’s oak leaf was small. The blade was just
three inches long.

The petiole was very short. It was only one-half
an inch long.

Some oak leaves are five inches long. Some oak
leaves are more than five inches long.

The petioles of oak leaves are not so long as the
petioles of maple leaves.

Can you find some oak leaves and some maple
leaves ? )

Tell how their petioles are unlike.

MANY LEAVES.

Here are some leaves. I took two from an oak
tree, and two from a maple tree. I took other leaves
from an elm tree.



4 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

“Hach leaf has a petiole and a blade.
The blade of each leaf is green. The blade of an

f
\' Riggers
\ \ y [X
- . ; oye to
| ye

: ao ee
\ ~
oo (AL ‘



elm leaf is not so long as that of an oak leaf. It is
not shining like an oak leaf.

The blade of an elm leaf is
not so wide as the blade of a
maple leaf.

The petiole of an elm leat
is not like the petiole of an
oak leaf. It is not like the
petiole of a maple leaf.

Can you make a drawing of
an elm leaf?

Try to find two leaves that
have long petioles, and two that have short petioles.





SESSILE LEAVES. 5

COLOR OF BLADES.

YX The broad part of a leaf is the blade. Most leaves
have green blades.
The blades of some leaves are light green. Some
kinds of leaves have dark green blades.
Sometimes the blades of leaves are red and yellow.
Other leaves have pretty brown blades.
- A leaf may have more than one color in its blade.
Some leaves have green blades marked with white lines.
Green leaf blades are sometimes marked with red
or brown lines.
When cold weather comes, green leaves change to
red, yellow, and brown.
Maple leaves change to red and yellow. Oak
leaves change from green to red and brown.
Does an elm leaf change to red, yellow, or brown?
What becomes of the leaves after they change

color?

—0.089¢ 00 —_

SESSILE LEAVES.

One day in the spring, Frank went out to the
woods.

He found some pretty purple flowers. He carried
these flowers and their leaves to his sister Helen.



6 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

She looked at the leaves but did not see any peti-
oles. She thought the petioles had forgotten to grow.
Perhaps they would grow when the leaves were older.

Frank and Helen took the leaves to their mamma.

Mamma said that some leaves never have petioles.
Such leaves grow close to a stalk. They look as if
they were sitting on a stalk.

Frank said that when he found leaves without
petioles, he would call them sitting leaves.

“That will be right,’ said mamma, “but sessile is
a better name for them.”

Sessile means sitting.

——-2-079,00-—$_.

SESSILE LEAVES.

Some leaves do not have
petioles. These are called
sessile leaves.

Sessile leaves grow close
to a stalk. They look as if
they were sitting on a stalk.

Frank and Helen tried to

find some sessile leaves.



They went to mamma’s flower garden. Here they
found a pretty pink flower. It grew on a low plant.



IN THE WOODS. 7

The leaves on this plant did not have petioles.
They were sessile leaves.

Mamma had two kinds of marigolds in her garden.
One kind had sessile leaves. One kind had leaves
with petioles. [|

Frank went to the fields to look for leaves. He
found some that had petioles. He found some that
were sessile.

He found the low cornel or bunchberry. A bunch
of scarlet berries was just above some leaves.

Frank thought the
leaves on this plant were
sessile. He pulled one
off and saw a very short
petiole. The leaf was
nearly sessile.



IN THE WOODS.

© One warm day in May, mamma, Helen, and Frank
went to walk. They went to the woods for wild
flowers.
They found Solomon’s-seal with its pretty white
flowers. The flowers looked like little bells.
Helen and Frank looked at its leaves. They weré

growing close to a stalk. They seemed to be sitting



8 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

on a green stalk. The leaves of Solomon’s-seal are
sessile.

Frank found some flowers near the trunk of a tree.
They were pale yellow bells. Mamma called them
wild oats, or bellwort.

The bellwort had light green leaves. All the
leaves were sessile.

Helen found a flower of a rich yellow color. It
was a marsh marigold. Sometimes it is called a
cowslip, but that is not its right name.

Where the marsh marigold grew, the ground was
wet. It was in a meadow and near a brook.

The dark green leaves of a marsh marigold are
thick and glossy. Those which grow nearest the
flowers are sessile. The lower leaves have petioles.

——00$@¢0-0-——__

STIPULES.

‘One morning Helen went to look for sessile leaves.
She went to some bushes that grew near her home.

Last spring, one of these bushes had pretty red
flowers. Helen called it a Japan quince. It had
another long name which she could not tell.

She took a leaf from this bush to see whether it
was sessile. The leaf had a petiole.



REVIEW. 9

When Helen looked at its petiole, she saw two
little bits of green on it. These bits of green looked
like a pair of leaves
growing from the
petiole.

They looked like
leaf blades, but were



very small. There
was one on each side of the petiole.

“They grew near the end of the petiole. They
were close to the place where it joined the stalk.

These small leaf-like bodies are stipules.

Can you find leaves with stipules?

02-0595 0.

REVIEW.

What part of a leaf is the blade?

Tell some leaves that have broad blades.

Tell some that have long blades.

Tell some that have round blades.

What leaves have dark green blades?

What kinds have light green blades?

Name some leaves which have shining blades.
Name two leaves which have long petioles.
Name two which have short petioles.



10 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Name two which have no petioles.
What are such leaves called ?

What does sessile mean ?

What vine has sessile leaves ?

What are stipules?

Name some leaves that have stipules.

0200

THE VEINS.

Look at this maple leaf. There are some hard
lines in its blade.

These lines are hard, like a stem or petiole. They
seem like branches coming from a petiole.

There are other smaller branches coming from
these.

The five large branches come from the petiole, and
look like the sticks of your fan. |

Of what use are the sticks in your fan?

They make it spread, out, and these little branches
in the blade make a leaf spread out.

The sticks in your fan are made of wood. Are the
branches in this leaf made of wood?

We will call them woody.

The five large branches in the blade of a maple
leaf are called veins.



AN IVY LEAF. 11

There is one vein running straight from the peti-
ole through the middle of the blade.

AN IVY LEAF.

Here is an ivy leaf. It did not grow on a tree, like
an elm leaf. It grew on a vine.

The vine on which it grew is.
as long as two sides of a room.

This ivy leaf has a petiole three
inches long. Some ivy leaves
have longer petioles. Some ivy
leaves have shorter petioles.

Is the ivy leaf sessile ?

The blade of this leaf is about
one-half as long as the petiole.



It has five points.

An ivy leaf like this is dark green on its upper side.
The color is not so dark on its under side.

There are five large, white veins in the blade. One
of these white veins is in the middle of the blade. It
is the middle vein of the leaf.

This ivy leaf has other white veins. They are
smaller than the five large veins.

The blade of an ivy leaf is smooth.



12 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

A MIDDLE VEIN.

In this maple leaf, there are five little branches.
They come out from the petiole, like the branches of
a tree.

These little branches
are called veins.

There is one vein run-
ning straight from the
petiole. It passes through
the middle of the blade.

Look at an oak leaf. -
Do you see any veins?

There is one large vein
in the middle of an oak



leaf.

Look at a beech leaf, an elm leaf, and a leaf from
a cherry tree. Each of these has a large vein in the
middle of its blade.

Look at lilac leaves and grape leaves to see whether
they have middle veins. :

A middle vein is called a midvein.

Frank has looked at a great many leaves. He has
looked at a great rhubarb leaf. It has a very large
vein in the middle of its blade. This is its mid-

vein.



-

VEINLETS. 13

Frank thinks the middle vein of a rhubarb leaf is
as large as one of his fingers.

Helen has found some small leaves. She sees a
midvein in each.

She cannot find a leaf without a midvein. Perhaps
she may find one to-morrow.

Helen and Frank look at a great many leaves.
They try to find one without a midvein.

VEINLETS.

A middle vein is called a midvein.

Look at an oak, an elm, or a beech leaf. Little
branches or veins come out from the
midvein. Other, smaller veins come
from these.

These smallest branches are called
veinlets. This word means little
veins.

All veinlets are not the same size.
Some are so small they are not
easily seen.

Some leaves have more veins



than others. A maple leaf has five
large veins. It has many small veins or veinlets.



14 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Some leaves on a Sassafras tree have three large
veins and many veinlets. You may see other sassa-
fras leaves having only one large vein.

Bring leaves to the class to show the veins and
veinlets in them.

Make drawings of the veins and veinlets in leaves.

2-00, OO ——

A PLANTAIN.

Frank found a pretty green plantain leaf. It was
growing close to the ground.

Plantains often grow\ near
a door-step. In the country,
they grow along the roadside.
Sometimes they are called rib-
worts. Z

A plantain leaf has grooves in
its petiole. Look at a plantain
leaf to see what grooves are.

Frank broke the petiole of a
plantain leaf. There were some
little strings init. These strings



ran far up into the blade.
They were in the veins of the leaf.

These little strings were very strong. Frank pulled



THE USE OF VEINS. 15

them, and this made the blade of the leaf curve.
Then it looked like the bowl of a spoon.

Frank’s leaf had seven large veins. It had many
veinlets. It had a midvein which was larger than
any other vein.

There is more than one kind of plantain. Some
kinds have wide leaves. Other kinds have leaves
that are long and not very wide.

0300

THE USE OF VEINS.

Veins and veinlets keep a leaf spread out. When
leaves spread out, they make shade for us,

When vines are broken, water or juice comes out
of them. This water or juice is called sap.

There are veins and veinlets in every part of a blade.
Sap goes to all parts of a blade through veins and vein-
lets.

Small veins have but little sap. If the veins are
large, there may be much sap in them.

Spaces between veins and veinlets are filled with the
soft green blade.

Where there are many veins and veinlets, there is
much sap and. a great deal of.the soft green blade.

Break some veins, and you can see the sap.

What color is it?



16 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

REVIEW.

What are the branches in leaves called?

Of what use are these branches?

How many midveins are in one leaf?

What is a midvein?

Tell some leaves that have large midveins.

Tell some. that have small midveins.

Have you ever seen a leaf without a midvein ?

Tell some leaves that have more than one large vein.

What are veinlets ?

What leaf have you seen having many veinlets?

What is in the veins of leaves?

What did Frank find in the veins of a plantain
leaf ?

A NETWORK OF VEINS.

Did you ever hold a leaf between your eyes and the
light ?

Helen held up a peach leaf to see its veins and vein-
lets. It looked like lace with a green cover over it.

In the leaf there were tiny veins that seemed to join
other little veins. These veinlets crossed one another
in every way. Helen thought of threads in a piece of

lace.



NET-VEINED LEAVES. 17

She held other leaves between her eyes and the light
Some had veinlets very close together. In others the
veinlets were farther apart.

Helen told her mamma that these leaves looked like
tiny fish-nets.

Mamma said, “ When veins and veinlets join one
another, like these, a leaf is called net-veined.”

—-0$94 00 ———

NET_VEINED LEAVES.

When veins and veinlets run into one another, they

make a net-veined leaf.

Helen and Frank think i iL
they will know net-veined We ape
leaves when they find SS x W) SEZ

7 J
them. If they want to 4 Een
know when a leaf is net- a ‘ Ie ae
veined, they will hold it = =f
between their eyes and 2A ay);
the light. UG

Mi



When veins and vein
lets seem to make a lace-
work all over the blade, the leaf is net-veined.

“ Perhaps all leaves are not net-veined,” said Helen.

“T never thought about that,” said Frank.



18 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Now Helen and Frank will look at different kinds of
leaves to see whether they are net-veined. -

If they can find some which are not net-veined, they
will want to know what those are called.

They will look at the leaves of a birch, a cherry, a
lily of the valley, and at some blades of grass.

09300

PARALLEL VEINS.

In the garden were some lilies of the valley.
Little white bells hung from the upper part of their
stems. These white bells were the
flowers. They were very fragrant.

Mamma gathered some of these
flowers and their leaves. She gave a
leaf to. Helen, and told her to look
at the veins.

The midvem and the other veins
seemed to run side by side.





Helen could not see any branching
veins. She could not see any network
of veins. It was not a net-veined leaf.



Mamma told her that when veins
run side by side, like these, they are called parallel
veins. Many kinds of leaves have parallel veins.



PARALLEL-VEINED LEAVES. 19

Helen will look for parallel-veined leaves. Some-
times she will find those in which the parallel veins
are nearly straight. They are curved but little.

At other times she will find veims with double
curves. If these veins run side by side, the leaf will
be parallel-veined.

PARALLEL-VEINED LEAVES.

Helen has been looking at many leaves. She has
looked at the veming, to see whether a leaf is net-
veined or parallel-veined.

In some leaves she finds paral-
lel veins. They are like those in
a lily of the valley.

She finds other leaves having
parallel veins, but the veins do
not run the same way as the mid-
vein. Helen looks at a calla leaf.
Its veins are side by side. They
branch out from the midvein and



run towards the edge of the leaf.

The veins on one side of the midvein all run the
same way, towards the edge of the leaf. They do
not branch out in different ways like a net-veined leaf.



20 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

When Helen tears a calla leaf, it tears parallel
to its ves. Then she knows it is a parallel-veined
leaf.

Helen has learned there are two kinds of parallel-
veined leaves. One kind has all its veins running the
same way as its midvein. Another kind has. veins
side by side from the midvein to the edge of the leaf.

Can you find a lily leaf that is parallel-veined ? Try
to find a lily leaf that is net-veined.

———0102¢,0-0-—_—

REVIEW.

How can you hold a leaf to see its veining?
How do you know that a leaf is net-veined ?
What makes the network ?
In a net-veined leaf, are the veins large or small?
How do you know that a leaf is parallel-veined ?
Are parallel veins straight or curved ?
What kind of veining do you find in a blade of
grass ?
Is an elm leaf net-veined or parallel-veined ?
Look at a leaf from Indian corn, then tell whether
it is net-veined or parallel-veined.



THE BASE OF A LEAF. 21

THE BASE OF A LEAF.

Look at these white birch leaves. There is one
large vein in each. This large vein is the midvein.

The veins next in size to the
midvein are near the petiole.
They branch out from the mid-
vein.

The blade of a white birch
leaf is wider near its petiole
than in any other part. This
is the broad part of the leaf.

That part of a blade nearest,



the petiole is called the base
of a leaf. A white birch leaf has a broad base.

A white birch leaf has its largest veins in its base.
Helen thinks there must be more sap in these veins
than in the others. Why does she think so?

Helen tries to find another leaf that has a broad base.

There is a sunflower in the garden. On its top,
there is a large blossom. This blossom has a brown
middle with a bright yellow circle around it.

The sunflower is so tall, Helen cannot reach its top.
She can reach some of its leaves. She looks at the
base of one. It has a broad base.

Can you name another leaf which has a broad base ?



22 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

THE APEX OF A LEAF.

Frank has found many leaves that have broad bases.
Leaves from a sycamore, a tulip tree, and a poplar tree
have wide bases. The blade of a linden leaf is wide
near its petiole.

Frank has looked at all these leaves. He has
found large veins
in the base of each.
These veins are
joined to the mid-
vein near the pet-



iole.
k \ A linden leaf has
oS “e the largest part of

its midvein in the

base. The smallest part of its midvein is in the apex
of the leaf.

That part of a blade next the petiole is called its
base, and the other end of the blade is its apex.

The apex of a white birch leaf is a very long point.
The apex of an elm leaf is pointed.

Frank found two kinds of oak trees. He looked at
a leaf from one of them. It had a pointed apex.
Leaves on the other tree were not like this. Each
had a rounded apex.



SHAPES OF LEAVES. 23

Frank will look at a great many leaves to see whether
their bases are alike. When he is learning about
the base of a leaf, he will learn about its apex, also.

Try to find a leaf which has a round apex. Find
one having a pointed apex.



10 £8.0-0- —_.

SHAPES OF LEAVES.

All leaves are not widest at the base. Some are wid-
est between the base and apex.
Look at a leaf from a plum
tree. You will see it does not
have a broad base like a white
birch leaf. Its widest place is



between the base and apex.
The shape of a plum leaf is oval. A pear leaf is

oval, also.



24 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

An eli leaf has a narrow base. There are short
veins and veinlets near the petiole. These veins are
not very large. The largest veins in the leaf are above
these. The widest part of an elm leaf is above its base.

A willow leaf is long and narrow. It has a rounded
base. The base is not wide.

A willow leaf is lance-shaped.

Different shapes of leaves have names. Those
shaped like a willow leaf are called lanceolate, or
lance-shaped. A peach leaf is lanceolate.

Those shaped like a leaf from a plum tree are called
ovate leaves. Ovate means oval with the lower end
largest. It has the outline of a hen’s egg, cut through
lengthwise.

Of what shape is a leaf of the milkweed?

Name a leaf that is ovate.

Name a leaf that is lance-shaped.

What other name has that shape?

0 0:8400-—

IN A PARK.

Helen and Frank went to walk in a park. They
knew the names of some trees which they saw there.
They knew the maple, with its spreading leaves; and
the oak, which had dark green, shining leaves.



DIFFERENT SHAPES. 25

They knew the pretty lindens and the elms. One
elm tree was shaped like a great vase. Another elm
tree looked like a great umbrella.

They saw the tall, dark pine trees, with leaves like
needles. _

When they came home, they told their mamma the
names of trees which they knew. They told her how
many of each they had seen.

There were five oaks and seven maples. How many
oak and maple trees were there?

They saw one-half as many elms as oaks and maples
together. How many elm trees did they see?

They counted one-half as many lindens as elins.
How many lindens did they count?

There were as many pine trees as elms, and two
more. How many pine trees were there?

-———00 £62,0-—_.

DIFFERENT SHAPES.

Frank has a great many leaves today. He took
some of them from trees, some from shrubs, and some
from little plants.

What a great number he has! How many different
shapes! Livery leaf is net-veined, yet they are not
alike.



26 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Each leaf has a midvein from base to apex, but
some of the leaves are wide at the base, and some
are narrow.

Each leaf has veins that branch out
from the midvein. Then there are other
veins and veinlets coming from these.

In all these leaves the longest veins
branch out from the base of the midvein.
But all do not have broad bases. _

There are some in which the long veins
branch out like a white birch leaf. These
have broad bases.

There are others having long veins which
start at the base. Instead of branching



out they turn and grow towards the apex.
Such leaves do not have a broad base. They are
wider near the middle of the blade.
Can you find a leaf of this kind?

A WIDE APEX.

One day Frank and Helen went to look for net-
veined leaves. They wanted to find one with a wide ~
apex. .

They wanted to find one having short veins in its



A WIDE APEX. oT

base, and longer veins in its apex. They thought a
leaf of this kind would have a wide apex.

In mamma's garden, Helen found some small plants.
All their leaves were growing near the ground.

Helen looked at one of
its leaves. She saw it was
wider at its apex than at its
base. -

Its longest veins were near
the apex. All the veins in
its base were short. The base



was very narrow. Helen
picked some of these leaves to show to her brother.
Frank, also, had been looking for a wide apex.
There were some fine shade trees growing near the
house. He picked a thick leaf from one of these trees.
The leaf was dark green on its upper side, and
brownish on its under side. Frank could easily see its
veins. Those in the base were short. Those in the
apex were long.
Frank and Helen will try to find other leaves shaped
‘like these.



28 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

THE CALLA.

Helen has three kinds of leaves, These are violet,
white birch, and lilac leaves. Each is widest at its
base, and is net-veined.

Frank wants to know whether
every leaf with a broad base is
net-veined. .

Helen does not know, so the
children go to ask mamma.

Mamma tells them that they
must use their eyes to find out.

Helen goes to the greenhouse,
and Frank takes a ride into
the country. — |

Helen sees a leaf with a
broad base. It is the leaf of a
calla. She knows this leaf is parallel-veined. Its



veins are side by side from the midvein towards the
edge of the blade.
When Helen holds a calla leaf to the light, she sees
tiny veinlets crossing from one vein to another. They
do not branch out as in a net-veined leaf. They are
nearly straight, and run side by side.
A calla leat has a broad base and is parallel-veined,



THE ARROW-HEAD. 29

A violet, a white birch, or a lilac leaf has a broad base
and is net-veined.

All leaves that have broad bases are not net-veined.

0058300

THE ARROW-HEAD.

Frank went to the country to look for parallel-
veined leaves. He wanted to find some with broad
bases.

He went near a small
pond. The land about this
place was low and wet. It
was sometimes called a
marsh and sometimes a
swamp.

Here Frank found some LP
snow-white flowers. They
were on a plant which grew
near the edge of the pond.

He saw an odd kind of
leaf on this plant. Its veins did not show very
plainly.

When he held it up between his eyes and the light,
he saw it was parallel-veined.

The veins were not large. They looked like threads.



30 _ LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Most of them started from the petiole and ran side by
side to the apex.

A few long veins started from the petiole, but did
not turn upward towards the apex. They did not
spread out to make a broad base. They turned down-
ward.

The plant that has this kind of leaves is an arrow-
head. Some people think its leaves look like the
points or heads of arrows.

Frank found other plants growing in the swamp.
Many of them had parallel-veined leaves, with broad
bases.

He took these leaves home to show to Helen. Now
Frank knows that every leaf which has a broad base
is not net-veined.

A leaf with a broad base may be net-veined or
parallel-veined.

A PEACH LEAF,

A peach leaf is long and narrow. Its midvein is
thick and round at the base. At the apex, it is small,
like a fine thread.

The longest veins in this leaf are about half way
between its base and apex. It is a lance-shaped or a
lanceolate leaf.



A PEACH LEAF. 31

A peach leaf is a net-veined, lanceolate leaf. Are
there other lanceolate leaves having net veins?

Yes, Frank knows where there are some wild asters.
The flowers are pale purple. These asters have net-
veined, lanceolate leaves.

Helen has found a weed. Mamma calls it “lady’s-
thumb.” Its leaves are green, and each
has a dark, heart-shaped spot near the
middle. The leaves are lanceolate.

Frank has some lily leaves. They are
lanceolate, but not net-veined.

Some lanceolate leaves are net-veined
and some are parallel-veined.

Mamma wants Helen and Frank to
know about the shapes of leaves. She
wants them to know about those which
grow on the trees, shrubs, or small plants



near their home.

If they are in a strange place, and see a leaf like
one of these, they will know its name. It will seem
like an old friend.

They can learn to know a tree or a plant by its leaves.
Then as soon as they see a leaf, they may know the
name of the tree, shrub, or plant on which it grew.

Helen has found some leaves having nearly the same
shapes, but their veining is not the same.



32 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

She thinks she will press different kinds of leaves in
a book. She can look at them when she does not have
fresh leaves.

Helen will have a great many pressed leaves. She
will see whether those of the same shapes have the
same kinds of veining.

She can see whether some net-veined leaves have
shapes like some parallel-veined leaves.

Where is the widest part of a poplar leaf?

Where are the largest veins in a willow leaf?

Make a drawing of a beech leaf.

AN APPLE LEAF.

Last week Helen and Frank went to visit their
cousins, Sara and Arthur.

They went out to play under an apple tree. Sara
and Arthur did not know much about leaves. They
asked Frank to tell them some things he had learned.

Frank showed them an apple leaf. Its blade was
two and one-half inches long. Its petiole was one inch
long. He told them which part of the leaf was the
base, and which was the apex.

Frank showed veins and veinlets in the blade. He
told Sara and Arthur about the midvein. He said,



MANY FORMS. 33

“Jt is the vein running from the petiole through the
middle of the blade.” —

Arthur held a leaf between his eyes and the light.
He could see it was a net-veined leaf, because the veins
crossed each other like network.

The leaf which Arthur held
was dark green on its upper side.
The color was not so dark on its
under side.

Sara found some light green
leaves growing on the ends of
twigs. There was something on
them which looked like wool.
When Sara rubbed the leaf, this
wool came off and the leaf was bright green and shining.



Frank said that an apple leaf is an ovate leaf.
Arthur knows another kind of tree that has ovate
leaves.

MANY FORMS.

Frank and Helen had a book in which they had
pressed a great many leaves. These leaves had differ-
ent forms.

One day they took these leaves out of their book.
Mamma told them that each form had a name.



34 ; LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Frank and Helen wanted to learn the names of all
the forms.

Mamma thought there were more than they could
remember. She told them it was best to put the
leaves into three groups. She helped them do this.

Into one group they put those leaves that were
widest between the base and the apex. They had
apple, plum, quince, willow, horsemint, orange, and
blueberry leaves.

Into another group they put the leaves which had
broad bases. These were catnip, liverwort, birch, vio-
let, and morning-glory leaves. ;

Into the last group they put those leaves which were
widest near the apex. All they had for this were some
large, leather-like oak leaves.

Frank thought that a leaf from the sheep-sorrel
would belong to the last group. He is going to the
fields to get one; then he will know.

Every day the children will try to add to their
groups of leaves. When they have a leaf, they will
put it into the group to which it belongs.



THE CATALPA. 35

CORDATE LEAVES.

Helen has some leaves, and each has a broad base.
She sees that the broad bases are not alike.

The base of a lilac leaf is wide, but it is not like the
base of a white birch leaf. A lilac leaf looks as if a
piece had been taken out of its base. It is a heart-
shaped blade.

Helen has leaves of a violet and a morning-glory.
These, too, are heart-shaped. A tall sunflower is grow-
ing near the house. She will look at its leaves to see
whether they belong to the heart-shaped class.

Frank knows where there is a linden. He will find
a great many heart-shaped leaves on that.

Another name for heart-shaped is cordate.

Helen and Frank will find many cordate leaves.
They will make drawings of them.

Can you find a cordate leaf and make a drawing
of it?

0203 00——_

THE CATALPA.

Early one morning, Helen and Frank went out to
find cordate leaves. It was autumn, and the days
were cool.

There were some trees growing near the house.



36 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Their leaves had changed from green to red and yel-
low. On some trees the leaves had changed to brown. —

Many of the red, yellow, and brown leaves had
fallen. They were lying on the green grass. This
made the lawn look like a
pretty carpet.

Looking down amongst
the brown leaves, Helen
saw one that was large and
green. It was a beautiful
heart-shaped leaf.

This leaf looked as if it
had been cut from a piece
of green silk. It had a
silky lustre.

Helen picked it up, and
then looked to see whence



it came.

She saw a large tree. The leaves on it were like
the one she held in her hand. Some of these leaves
were very large. They were larger than any oak leaf.

Helen did not know the name of this tree. She
took a leaf to mamma, and asked its name.

Mamma told her it was a catalpa tree. Some peo-
ple call it Indian bean.

The catalpa has heart-shaped or cordate leaves.



REVIEW. 37

REVIEW.

Name five leaves having broad bases.

Name five which are widest near the middle of
their blades.

What leaves are nearly round? ;

Did you ever see a leaf from a tulip tree? What
kind of an apex has it?

Name a leaf which has a wide apex and a narrow base.

Tell the name of some leaf which is very long and
has a narrow base.

Tell of some leaf which is ovate, or with an outline
that is egg-shaped.

Make a drawing of an ovate leaf.

Make a drawing of an elm leaf.

How do the veins appear on the under side of an
elm leaf?

How do they appear on its upper side?

Of what shape is a willow leaf?

What kind of veining has it?

Make a drawing of some lanceolate leaf.

Name two lanceolate leaves you have seen.

What is the shape of a peach leaf?

Name four cordate leaves.

In what part of their blades can you find the
largest veins ?



38 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Are the four cordate leaves which you have named .
net-veined or parallel-veined ?

Can. you find both net-veined and parallel-veined
leaves with heart-shaped bases ?

+17 —--OF OE O.0-—-—

MARGINS.

A violet, a morning-glory, and a lilac have cordate
or heart-shaped leaves.

The leaf of a violet is not like the leaf of a lilac. Its
edge looks as if little scallops had been cut all around it.

A lilac leaf has a whole edge. There are no cuts
in it. Leaves of a honeysuckle and a morning-glory
have whole edges like a lilac Jeat.

The edge of a leaf is its margin.

A catnip leaf is cordate. In its margin there are
pretty little curves, like those in a violet leaf, Its
color is not the same as a violet leaf.

Ground ivy is a common plant. It grows in gardens
and around houses. You may see it creeping along on
the ground or up on walls.

It has a pretty leaf with a heart-shaped base. The
apex is broad and round. Little scallops are cit
around its margin. They are like the scallops in the
edge of a violet leaf.



CRENATE MARGINS. 39

Write the names of five kinds of leaves having whole
margins.

Write the names of five kinds of leaves having cut
margins.

Find two parallel-veined leaves and tell what kind
of margins they have.

——0@Z0-0—-—_

CRENATE MARGINS.

Frank found a pretty leaf. It came from a plant in
grandma’s garden.

This leaf had an odor like lemons. Grandma told
Frank that it was called lemon
balm.

Margins like those of the vio-
let, catnip, and lemon balm are
crenate.

When the margin of a leaf
has broad, rounded notches, it is
crenate.



Look at geraniums. How many
kinds have leaves with crenate margins? You may
find crenate margins on horseradish leaves.

Do you know any other leaves which have crenate
margins ?



40 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Make a drawing of some leaf having a crenate
margin.

While looking for crenate margins, you may find
leaves having other kinds of margins.

The edges of some leaves are cut like the edge of a
saw, with its sharp teeth pointing forward towards the
apex.

Leaves of an elm and an apple tree have margins of
this kind. Perhaps you may find other leaves with
edges notched like a saw.

—30 F&0-0 ——

SERRATE MARGINS.

One day Helen went out to find leaves having cre-
nate margins.

She found five different kinds which had broad,
rounded notches in their margins.

She looked at each to see whether it was net-veined
or parallel-veined. Not one of her five leaves had
parallel veins.

When she was looking for crenate margins, she saw
leaves having other kinds of margins.

She took some leaves from an elm tree. These did
not have crenate margins.

The margin of an elm leaf is notched like the



DENTATE MARGINS. 4]

teeth of a saw, with the teeth pointing towards its
apex.

Helen took some leaves from a cherry tree, and
some from an apple tree. She
did not put these leaves with
those which had crenate margins.

Leaves from an elm, a cherry,
and an apple tree have serrate
margins.

When the margin of a leaf has
sharp teeth pointing towards the
apex, like the teeth of a saw, it is



saw-toothed or serrate.

—op900—_

DENTATE MARGINS.

When summer days are growing shorter, the wild
asters are in bloom.

We may find them growing in fields and by the
roadside. Some are white and some are purple. A
little spot of yellow is in the centre of each flower.

Helen likes to gather these pretty flowers. One
day she gathered a large bouquet for her mamma.

While she was picking flowers, she looked at some
aster leaves. She saw their margins were neither
crenate nor serrate. They were toothed or notched,



42 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Some margins had sharp teeth, which did not pomt
forwards. They did not point towards the apex, like
teeth in a serrate margin. They pointed outwards
from the middle of the leaf.
These margins were dentate.

When the margin of a
leaf has sharp teeth point--.
ing outwards, it is dentate.

The leaf of a dandelion
has a dentate margin. There



is another plant which has
yellow flowers, and its leaves have dentate margins.
The name of this plant is hawkweed. It grows in
dry and rocky fields.

If you use your eyes, you will find many other
leaves having dentate margins.

Look at the veining of leaves with dentate margins.
Are they net-veined or parallel-veined ?

2026300 ——

OTHER MARGINS.

The edges of leaves are not alike. Helen has
found some that are like aster leaves, with dentate
margins. She has seen others with whole or entire
margins, like a honeysuckle or a lilac leaf. She
knows some leaves that have crenate margins, and
some that have dentate margins. —



OTHER MARGINS. 43

Helen has learned about other margins. The long
leaves of a dock have wavy margins. Some leaves
have crisped or curled margins.

Sometimes leaves that grow on the same plant do not —
have the same kind
of margins. Helen
once found three
kinds of margins on
the leaves of one
plant. It was the




Iberis or candytuft.
Its leaves had en- eS 2
tire margins, wavy
margins, and ser-
rate margins.

She would often
find a single leaf
with two kinds of
notches on its mar-
gin. To give a
name to these margins, she would put together the
names of the different notches.

Leaves like these were on mamma’s geranium.
Helen looked at one, and saw a part of the margin
was crenate and a part of it was dentate. It was
a crenate-dentate margin.



44 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

THE HEPATICA.

Helen’s mamma has a garden which she calls her
wild garden. She gives it this name because all the
plants in it were brought from the woods and fields.

In this garden there is hepatica or liverwort.
Early in spring the hepatica has pretty blue flowers.

When the plant is in blos-

year’s leaves on it. Leaves
stay on the hepatica all win-
ter.

One day Helen took a leaf
from the hepatica. It seemed
to grow from the root of the
plant.



This leaf was thick and
tough, like leather. It was a net-veined leaf.

The base of the blade was broad, and on each side
of the petiole there were curves. The base of the
blade looked as if a piece had been cut out of it.

There were two other cuts in the leaf blade, one
on each side. Jf there were no cuts in the blade, it
would be shaped like a triangle.



LOBES. 45

LOBES.

Helen found other leaves which had deep cuts in
their margins. These cuts would reach about half-
way to the midvein.

These cuts were always between the large veins
of a leaf and never across them.

Is there a name for the parts of a leaf that are
between the cuts?

Helen’s mamma told her that the parts of a blade .
between the cuts are called lobes. Sometimes a leat
has both large lobes. and small lobes.

Frank gathered some oak leaves. He also had some
maple, sassafras, grape, currant, and hepatica leaves.
Some of these had large lobes, and some had small lobes.

All leaves do not have the
same number of lobes. A maple
leaf is five-lobed. The hepat-
ica is three-lobed.

Some leaves on a sassafras
tree have three lobes. The
blades of these leaves are shaped



like a wedge. Other leaves on
the same tree are ovate and have an entire margin.

Helen has seen leaves which have rounded lobes.
She has seen them with pointed lobes.



46 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

The space between two lobes is called a sinus.
Sinuses are not alike, because in some leaves the lobes
spread far apart, in others the lobes are close together.

If lobes spread far apart, a leaf has shallow sinuses.
If lobes do not spread far apart, a leaf has deep sinuses.

Look at some lobed leaf. Are the sinuses shallow or
deep ?

Tell the name of some tree which has lobed leaves.

Tell the name of a common shrub which has lobed
leaves.

209300

REVIEW.

What is the margin of a leaf?

What kind of a margin has a laurel leaf? A horse-
radish leaf? A willow leaf? A tulip leaf? An In-
dian corn leaf?

What is an entire margin? A serrate margin? A
crenate margin? A dentate margin?

Name some vine which has leaves with dentate
margins.

Name some tree whose leaves have serrate margins.

Name a garden plant whose leaves have curled mar-
gins.

What small plant in a greenhouse or a flower garden
has leaves with wavy margins?



MULLEIN AND THISTLE. 47

How many lobes has a sassafras leaf? A cucumber
leaf? A hop leaf?

What are the sinuses of a blade?

When does a blade have deep sinuses ?

When are the sinuses shallow?

Draw an oak leaf.

——0.03903,00—_

MULLEIN AND THISTLE.

One day Helen and. Frank were riding in the coun-

try. By the roadside they saw a?
ys’

a plant which had a tall stem.
The children knew the name Ope

i

of this common plant. It was
amullein. It had golden yel-
low flowers. These flowers
grew near the top of the stem
and close to it.

The leaves on this plant
were a very light green. They
looked as if they were cov-
ered with wool. When Helen
touched one of them, she \
thought of woollen cloth. They
were woolly on both sides.





48 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

The midvein of a leaf was large. The lower part
of it was growing on the tall stem. The bases of the
leaves grew downward on the stem or stalk. This
made the stalk look as if it had wings.

Helen called it a winged stalk. She has seen other
leaves grow to a stalk in
this way. Such leaves are
decurrent.

Frank saw another plant
which had decurrent leaves.
It grew by the roadside,



and had large, purple flowers. These flowers were
very pretty, but Frank did not touch them. There
were too many sharp spines on them.

The leaves of this plant were decurrent. Their
bases grew downward on the stalk. Along their mar
gins there were sharp spines. It was a thistle.



AUTUMN. 49

Both thistle and mullein have decurrent leaves.

In some gardens you may see a plant having pale
yellow flowers. Its leaves are decurrent. Can you tell
the name of this plant?

078300

AUTUMN.

A sultry summer had passed, and the cool days of
autumn had come. The morning sun often shone on
blades of grass glittering with white frost.

Leaves on the trees were changing from green to
red, yellow, and brown. They would fall and rustle
on the ground. Every day some of them came off.
Sometimes a gust of wind would send a great many
down at one time.

Near the home of Helen and Frank was a small
hickory tree. It was covered with pretty yellow leaves.
There was a strong wind one night, and the next day
all the yellow leaves were on the ground.

One day Helen and Frank went out to gather some
bright-colored leaves for mamma. They found the
yellow leaves of a birch and a poplar. They had a
large bunch of sumach leaves. These were red.

They brought home branches of red maple leaves.
They had yellow leaves from a hickory and a few
yellow leaves from a chestnut tree. Helen had a small
beech twig.



50 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Mamma thanked Helen and Frank for the leaves.
She said that her children had learned a great many
things about them, and now they must learn some-
thing about twigs or stems.

She gave a branch of maple to Frank and asked him
to take off a leaf.

How easily it came off! He scarcely touched it,
when it dropped away from the twig.

“What do you see at the place where the leaf came
off?” asked mamma.

“The petiole of the leaf covered a tiny knob or
lump.”

“That little knob is a leaf bud. Some time we will
learn about the buds on a twig.

“Look at the bark on a place that was covered by a
petiole. Is it the same color as the bark on other parts
of the twig?”

“No, mamma, the color is lighter, with a dark line
around it.”

“That light spot is called a scar. Every leaf that
falls leaves a scar to mark the spot where it grew on
the twig.

“ Look at some of these twigs which have no leaves.
Can you tell where leaves grew on them?”

“Yes,” said Frank. “T see scars, that mark the
spots where leaves fell off.” .



NODES AND INTERNODES. 51

Helen, who was looking at a beech twig, said, “The
leaves of a beech do not come off so aoe as maple
leaves.”

2030300

NODES AND INTERNODES.

The places on a stem from which leaves grow out
are called nodes.

When you know how many nodes are on a twig, you
know how many leaves have grown out from that twig.

Spaces on a twig between the
nodes are called internodes.

Helen measured the internodes of



a long twig. She found some spaces
nude..--.-..- =

vsiciida so were longer than others.
/ She measured around a_ twig.
She found the internodes were not
all the same size around.

Those at the base of a twig were
larger than those near its apex.

Helen and Frank measured the
internodes on maple and on chest-
nut twigs.

They found nodes and internodes
on the twigs of some trees that
were growing near their home.



52 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

On some of these twigs, they counted the nodes.
They measured the internodes and found they were
not alike.

Can you bring some twigs to the class to show nodes
and internodes ?

Measure the internodes. ©

Show some twigs on which the internodes are long.

When all the leaves had fallen from a tree, Helen
could tell where they had grown last summer.

On the twigs she could see spots where the petioles
came off. These spots were the scars. Just above
each scar she could see a very small leaf bud.

Before a leaf fell, its petiole covered a tiny leaf bud.
The leaf bud was covered so as to keep it from harm
while it was very tender. Next year it will grow to be
a twig.

When the warm spring days come, she may see a
leat bud growing larger and larger. Then it will open,
and she may watch a growing twig.

029300

GATHERING TWIGS.

One pleasant, sunny day in spring, mamma, Frank,
and Helen went to walk in a park.
There they saw trees which had been bare all winter.



GATHERING TWIGS. 53

A few dead leaves were clinging to some of the
branches.

“Mamma, when shall we see green leaves on these
trees?” asked Frank.

“On some of the trees, you may see leaves in a few
weeks. They will come from leaf buds.

“To-day, we will gather some twigs. They will
help you to learn more about leaf buds.

“Frank may take a twig from this tree near the
path. Do you know what kind of a tree it is?”

“T know,” said Helen, “for last October I found
some pretty red and yellow leaves under it. It is a
maple tree.”

“Here is an oak tree,” said Frank, “and here are
some acorns on the ground. I will get an oak twig.”

“This is a hickory tree,” said mamma; “ Frank may
gather some twigs from a hickory.”

Frank breaks off some twigs. He gives them to
Helen. Then he runs to an elm tree. He breaks
twigs from an elm and a horse-chestnut.

“T know where there is a willow tree. The twigs
grow down so near the ground that I can reach them.
There are a great many twigs lying on the ground
under the tree.”



54 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

HOW BUDS ARE PLACED.

Frank brings home a bundle of twigs. He has
taken them from maple trees and from horse-chestnut
trees. Some grew on oaks and some on elms. He
puts the twigs on a table.

Helen has gathered some twigs which she puts with
Frank’s. She has hickory, willow, and lilac twigs.

Mamma asks the children to look at all of these
twigs, then tell her something about them.

“T can see buds on all the twigs,” said Frank.
“On some they look like little knobs. They are not
the same size, some are larger than others.”

“ Almost every one is cone-shaped,” said Helen.
“They look like the bills of some birds. Sometimes
two buds are close together. Sometimes the
buds are alone.”

“You may see leaf buds growing in two
ways on a stem or twig. Sometimes they are
in pairs, and sometimes they grow singly.
Can you find a twig on which the buds are in
pairs ?” ,

“Yes, mamma, here is a lilac. The lilac



buds are in pairs.”
“Are buds on a maple twig single or in pairs?”
asks mamma.



HOW BUDS ARE PLACED. 55

Frank cannot find a maple twig, but Helen finds
one and says, “ Maple buds are in pairs.”

Helen and Frank look at other twigs on the
table. They find only one which has its buds
in pairs. This is a horse-chestnut.

Mamma tells them they may find many trees
and shrubs which have their buds in pairs.
When buds are in pairs, they are opposite.

Frank looks at the other twigs on the table.



All have single buds; they are not opposite on
the twigs.

When leaf buds are not opposite, they are alternate.
An elm has alternate leaf buds; so have
an oak and a hickory.

When buds are alternate, they seem to
follow after one another along the twig.
They begin at different distances on the
stem.

When buds are opposite, they stand base
to base on a stem. ,

There are buds at the ends of twigs.
Mamma says that these end buds are called



terminal buds.
Can you find a terminal bud on some twig?
Find a twig that has opposite buds, and one that has
alternate buds.



56 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

If buds on a twig are alternate, the leaves on that
twig will be alternate. If buds on a stem are opposite,
the leaves will be in pairs.

Are leaves on a maple tree alternate or opposite ?
How do they grow on an elm tree?

085, co —_

ABOUT BUD SCALES.

All winter the leaf buds gre carefully covered.
Jack Frost cannot harm them.

The cold snows and rains cannot get at
the little leaves within them. Each leaf bud
is closely covered with scales.

Look at the leaf bud of a hickory. See
those little scales folded so tightly over it.



There is no place where the rain can get in
to harm the tender leaves.



, The scales of a hickory bud look like
i
i a velvet coat. Little tender leaves are rolled

velvet. In winter a hickory leaf bud wears

up inside this velvet coat.

In spring, when days are long and bright, the little
leaves grow very fast. Then they push off their velvet
wraps. They do not need them when warm weather

comes.



ABOUT BUD SCALES. 57

The leaves grow away from their velvet coats or
scales. Very soon these scales wither and fall off.
When leaves have grown large and strong, we cannot
see the scales which covered them.

All leaf buds are not like those of a hickory. All
do not have velvet coats to keep their young leaves
warm in winter.

Some trees and plants grow where it is always,
warm. These have buds without scales.

Trees that grow in cold climates have leaf buds cov-
ered with scales. Scales protect the tender leaves
through the winter months. When warm weather
comes, they are no longer needed ; then they fall off.

The scales or coats of most leaf buds have soft lin-
ings. A soft lining is next to the tender young leaves.

Some linings are smooth, like satin. Scales of other
buds are lined with soft, fine hairs. Woolly linings
are in some scales. Do you know why scales have
such soft linings ?

A bud covers its young leaves closely with scales to
keep them from cold and wet. Many kinds of buds
have a covering outside their scales.

Some buds have coverings like wool. Others are
sticky, as if covered with a gum. Many kinds of buds
are covered with something that looks like wax. Snow
and rain cannot get through these coverings.



58 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

WATCHING LEAF BUDS.

Helen and Frank want to know how leaves come
out of a leaf bud. A bud may be very small, but the
leaves that grow from it will be large. How are large
leaves kept in small buds ?

There is a horse-chestnut tree near their home.
Mamma tells them to watch the buds on that.

She says: “The buds are growing larger and larger
every day. Very soon leaves will be on the tree. If
you watch them closely for a few weeks, you will learn
a great deal about them.

“Hvery day you must tell some new thing you have
seen. I will give each a little book. In it you can
write what you learn about buds and leaves.

“A horse-chestnut tree is large, and has many buds.
Do not try to watch them all. You will learn a great
deal more if you watch only a few.

“ Look first for two or three very large buds. When
you have found some of the largest on the tree, tie a
white thread around the twig near them.

“Next look for some very small leaf buds. Tie a
black thread around the twig near these. Do not tie
the threads tightly, for that will cut the bark and
harm the twig.

“‘These threads will help you to find the buds when



WATCHING LEAF BUDS. 59

you wish to look at them. You must watch these
buds to notice the changes from day to day.”

The children are pleased to have mamma help them.

They want to learn more about leaf buds and leaves.
They take some threads and go out to tie them around
twigs,
' On one twig they see four very large buds. They
put a white thread on this. Then they find one hav-
ing six small buds. “We will tie a black thread here,”
said Frank.

Helen can reach a twig which has a great many
buds on it. Some are large and some are small. She
ties both black and white threads around this. She
wants to see whether all these buds will open at the
same time.

The children tie threads on a lilac bush and on a
willow tree. They will watch the buds on these.

Mamma tells them they must not forget to look at
every part of a bud. Every day they must look at its
tip to see how it changes.

Mamina wants them to make a drawing of the same
bud each day for two weeks, to write the date on
each drawing, and to keep it till next summer. After
leaf buds are gone, and when leaves have come, they
will like to look at their drawings.



60 | LEAVES AND FLOWERS. :

THE HORSE-CHESTNUT.

Many times in a day Helen and Frank went out to
look at leaf buds on the horse-chestnut tree.

When Frank tied threads on the twigs, he found
something sticky covering the buds. The lilac and
willow buds were not sticky, like those on the horse:
chestnut.

Day by day the buds grew and the sticky matter on
them became softer. It was like a varnish.

One day Helen saw the scales on a bud had moved
a little. Now the bud would open and show her what
was inside.

First she saw something that looked like brown
wool. The scales spread farther apart, and this brown
wool came out more and more.

Then she saw it was a leaf peeping out,
but it was almost hidden in its woolly wrap-
per. It was closely covered with a woolly
wrapper, as if to keep out the cold.

When it had grown far out of the bud,



and had been warmed by the sun, it began to
open into parts. Then Helen saw a pretty green color.

The leaf was wrinkled. When it opened into parts,
there were seven wrinkled parts. These were to make
a great horse-chestnut leaf.



THE LILAC 61

Frank said they were wrinkled because they had
been folded-away so tightly all winter.

The warm sun made the little leaves grow larger
and larger each day. The spring winds soon began to
shake out their wrinkles.

When the leaves first unfolded, they were very ten-
der. One day there was a strong wind and many
leaves were torn by it.

As the days became warmer, the leaves grew larger
and their wrinkles came out. It was not long before
they were great, spreading leaves that would remain
all summer.

Their color became darker and darker every day.
They did not have the same bright green as when
they first unfolded.

The veins grew larger and became more woody ;
then the leaves were strong. These were the great
leaves that make a cooling shade in hot summer days.

0293 00 ——-

THE LILAC.

All the spring days, Helen and Frank were busy.
They were watching the twigs on trees and shrubs.
A bright sun and warm showers made the little leaf

buds grow. Lilac and willow buds grew fast.



62 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

One sunny day the scales on lilac buds
began to open, so as to let out the young
leaves. There were many little leaves
folded up in each bud.

When the scales on a bud had opened
far enough, Helen saw two little lilac
leaves. Their color was not like horse-
chestnut leaves. They came out without
any soft wool covering.

The first or outside leaves seemed to be
folded around others in the bud. The out-



side leaves must spread
Yh out to make room for
Na, others to unfold.
Warm winds and a
bright sun made the lilac
leaves unfold. Then they
grew very fast and their
wrinkles came out.
The leaves grew so



fast that soon they were
larger than their winter home. In a
few hours they were too large to be
crowded back into their small winter
home.

Frank said that this was the season



HOW LEAVES ARE FOLDED. 63

for a lilac bush to unfold its summer clothing and to
smooth out its wrinkles.

Only a few days after Helen had seen the first buds
open, the lilac bush was covered with leaves. Flower
buds, too, were growing on the lilac bush. They had
been wrapped up inside the leaf buds.

HOW LEAVES ARE FOLDED.

Frank and Helen like to watch leaves as they unfold.
They find that all leaves are not folded in the same
way. ach tree and shrub has its own way for folding
or rolling its young leaves.

There are many ways
for folding or rolling leaves
in a leaf bud.

In some buds the baby
leaves are rolled tightly,



and Helen can see only
one edge of the blade. Be-
fore the leaf unrolls it looks like a little horn.

Again, Helen finds some leaves rolled so that she can
‘see only the under surface of the blade. On another
tree or shrub she finds them rolled so that the upper
surface of the blade is on the outside.



64 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Some leaves are folded like fans. Others are folded
along the midvein, and one-half the blade is placed on
the other half.

Frank and Helen are very busy these
spring days. Every day they write in their
books. They write names of trees on which
new leaves are coming out. They write -
how these leaves are folded or rolled.



They write about the color of leaves, and how they
look when they first come out. They know how buds
open on a birch and a willow; how they open on a
cherry, a maple, and a tulip tree.

Frank and Helen watch some ferns unroll. When
the fern leaves come up out of the cold ground, they
are snugly wrapped in their blankets. Helen
says each leaf makes her think of the spirals
on a snail’s shell.

The children make drawings of buds and
leaves, and can tell a great deal about them.
Can you tell how a currant leaf unfolds ?

Watch a maple or a birch when the buds
are opening. See whether the leaves are
rolled or folded.

Look at the opening buds on an oak, to see



whether the leaves have been packed like those in the
buds of apple trees.



PARTS OF A FLOWER. 65

Did you ever watch a violet leaf to see how it un-
rolls? Are its margins rolled
inward or outward ?

Frank has learned that some
leaves unfold earlier than others.
Some young leaves can unroll



in less time than others.

——07@400-_

PARTS OF A FLOWER.

When spring days come, the sun is warm and bright,
but almost every day clouds will come to hide it.
Almost every day there is a gentle shower.

The rain does not last a long time. In a little while
the clouds break away, and the sun beams out as
brightly as before.

Spring sunshine and spring showers put new life
into all things. They make the little leaf buds swell
and open.

Bright sunshine and warm rains will open another
kind of buds. They will make the flower buds show
their pretty colors.

On pleasant spring days, Frank and Helen like to be
out of doors. They like to watch the buds as they
unfold. Every day they find something new.



66 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

A few days ago they saw the first leaves coming out
on a cherry tree. Then they saw just one little blos-
som. Now the cherry tree is white with flowers.

. Frank takes some of these flowers to his mamma.
He wants to learn about them. He knows many things
about leaves, now he wants to know about flowers.

Mamma tells him that flowers have different parts.
If he wants to know about them, he must carefully
study each part.

Frank looks at the part outside a cherry blossom,
and says, “Here are five little green
leaves outside some white ones. What
are they called, mamma ?”’

“These are the five sepals of the flower ;
all together they are called the calyx.
“The calyx of a flower is the outside
circle of leaves. The word calyx means cup.

“When you see a flower, look for its calyx.”

Frank finds a circle of white leaves next
inside the calyx, or circle of green leaves.

There are five of these white leaves.

They are called petals. All together
they look like a round white dish.

These white petals are not quite smooth. Each has
a wrinkle in it. The petals are not so thick as the

' sepals; they are thin and soft.



PARTS OF A FLOWER. 67

These white petals are the corolla of a cherry blos-
som. The corolla of a flower may be red, yellow, or
blue. The corolla of a cherry blossom is white.

The thin leaves which are within a calyx make the
corolla of a flower. .

Next to the corolla are many ‘little parts. These
look like short threads with yellow tops.

In a cherry flower there are a great WW
many of these short threads. They are called stamens.

Stamens are slender, thread-like parts next inside

the corolla.

In the middle of a cherry blossom is a larger
thread. It does not have a yellow top, like the
stamens. This is a pistil. |

The pistil is im the middle of a flower.

The parts of a flower are calyx, corolla, stamens,

and pistil.










68 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Tue CHEerry Buiossom.

Little cherry blossom
Lived up in a tree,

And a very pretty
Little thing was she;

Clad all through the winter
In a coat of brown,

Warm she was though living
In a northern town.

But one sunny morning,
Thinking it was May,

“Vl not wear,” said blossom,
“This brown dress to-day.”

So she let her brown dress
Drop and blow away,

Putting on a white one,

That fine sunny day.
ANONYMOUS.

———-04 00 —_

THE CALYX.

The outside circle of green leaves is the calyx of
a flower, or its flower cup. like a cup it holds the
tender flower when in bud.

The calyx of a cherry blossom has five leaf-like
parts. These are called sepals.

Look at many kinds of flowers to see whether their
sepals are like those of a cherry blossom.



THE CALYX. 69

When we want to know whether leaves are alike,
we look at their colors and shapes. We look at their
veinings and their bases. We see whether the apex of
one is like that of another.

We must look at sepals in the same way. We
must notice all these things, because sepals are very
much like true leaves.

‘ The apex of each sepal in a cherry blossom is a
sharp point. Sometimes these fine points are rolled
backward towards the stem of the flower. When the
white parts of the flower fall off, the sepals will turn
brown.

In some flowers the sepals are separate, as in a
cherry blossom. Then one can be pulled off without
disturbing another. In other flowers, like a
scarlet catchfly, the sepals grow together.

In the blossom of a pink you will see the
sepals grown together. Each sepal has a pomted
apex. Together these make five points or teeth
on the top of the flower cup. We call it a five-toothed
calyx.

Perhaps each sepal of a calyx has a rounded apex.
If. these grow together their entire length, the edge
of the calyx is crenate. You know what crenate
means.

The teeth or parts in the edge of a calyx show



70 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

how many sepals have grown together. Where five
sepals are joimed, the calyx is five-parted. If only
four sepals are joined, it is a four-parted calyx.

If sepals have grown together, a whole calyx may.
be taken off at one time. The whole calyx of a sage
blossom may be taken off at once. Try to find other

flowers whose calyx may be taken off like this.
The sepals of a flower are not always the
same length. They are not always the same
size. One may be larger or smaller than an-
other. Then we say the calyx is not regular.

Did you ever see a flower without a calyx? You
have seen the buds on a poppy. You did not see the
bright red petals because they were inside a green
calyx. When the bud opened into a flower, the green
sepals fell off; then the flower had no calyx. Do you
know another flower which loses its calyx as soon as it

opens ?

——-059200—__
THE COROLLA.
The flower of a cherry has a white corolla. Each

part is called a petal.
Take off one petal to see its shape. Petals (ype

have two parts, a limb and a claw. The aay,
limbs of most petals are not so thick as the claws.



THE COROLLA. 71

When we look at petals of different flowers we find
the limbs are not alike. Some limbs have entire mar-
gins, like the petals of a buttercup or a rose. Some-
times the limbs of petals have toothed margins, lke
those of a pink. Others are fringed like a ragged-
robin or fringed gentian.

Wavy margins, crenate margins, and lobed margins
are found on petals as well as leaves.

We have seen chickweed growing In our gardens, or
by the roadside, or spreading over waste ground. It
grows in almost any place. We have even seen it
between bricks on a sidewalk.

Its bright green leaves will tempt us to gather some.
Then we can see its pretty white blossom. Its petals
are cut or cleft. Do you think it has ten petals? It
has only five, but they are cut or cleft so deeply that
each petal looks like two.

There is another weed which has white, two-cleft
petals. It is the bladder-campion. This weed is
common in New England. There the children call it
“snappers,” because, when they strike the

calyx on their hands, it bursts with a sharp ‘imb
sound.
A. claw is the lower part of a petal. Ina -- elaw

rose or a buttercup the claws are short. In some
flowers the claws of petals are long. Look at a blos-



72 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

som from a wild mustard, a sweet rocket, or a pink.
The petals of these blossoms have long claws.

What kind of claws do you see in a nasturtium?
Are they short, or are they long?

Petals are almost always some other color than
green. harebell are blue. You can think of many flowers that
have pink, red, or purple petals.

Sometimes petals are as thick as the sepals of a
flower. Not many petals are as thick as the green
leaves of the plant on which they grow.

KINDS OF COROLLA.

A wild rose has five petals. These have broad limbs
and short claws. They spread out like the sepals.
They do not grow so as to cover the
sepals, but they cover the spaces be-

tween them.

Take a flower from an apple tree, a
peach tree, or a cherry tree. The petals
are placed like the petals of a rose.

The flowers of a strawberry, a blackberry, or a rasp-
berry have petals growing in the same way. There are
a great many flowers having corollas shaped like a. rose.



KINDS OF COROLLA. 1

Another kind of corolla is in the shape of a cross.

Look at a flower from a wild mustard
or from a sweet rocket. Each blossom <|
has four petals.

The petals of these flowers have long
claws and spreading limbs. They are
placed so as to form a cross. What other flower has
a corolla shaped like a cross?

Pinks have petals with long claws,
but they do not form a cross. A
double pink has a great many petals.
A single pink has only five petals.
These are set in a long calyx tube,
and are spreading at the top.

We often find a purple flower in
corn-fields. It is the corn cockle.



Farmers do not like it; they call it
a troublesome weed. Its corolla has
five petals, and they are placed like
those of a pink.
You can find other flowers whose
petals are placed like those of a pink.
The corolla of a sweet pea has
five petals. They are not alike in



shape or size.

These petals have names. The upper one is the



74 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

largest. It is called the standard or the banner. The
two side petals are the wings. You find the two
lower petals are partly joined; these are called the
keel. .
A corolla like this is not regular. Flowers of a
locust, a bean, a pea, or a Wistaria are called irregular.
You have seen flowers whose sepals had grown to-
gether. You can also find those having petals
grown together. Then a corolla is in one piece,
instead of being in parts. You
know how a bluebell looks with
its five-cleft or five-toothed
bell. Its corolla is in one piece.
The corolla of a morning-glory is
in one piece. It looks as if the claws
of the petals had grown together,



to make a tube. The limb or border
opens like a funnel. The corolla is funnel-form. What
other flower have you seen
that is shaped like this ?

At the top of a slender
tube, the limbs of petals may
bend to make a flat, spread-



ing border. A corolla of this
kind is salver-form. The

corolla of a phlox is salver-form.



KINDS OF COROLLA. 75

Spreading borders sometimes have deep cuts in
them. The corolla of a lilac is salver-form, with four
deep cuts in the border. It is a four-parted border.

You may think the corolla of a lilac has four petals,
but if you try to pull one out they will all come off
together. All the petals are united, making a slender
tube below the border.

Another flower which is -salver-form is the peri-

winkle. It grows on a trailing





plant that has evergreen leaves.
Its bright blue flowers open early
in the spring.



When a border does not spread out, or when the
limbs are short, the flower is tubular, or like a tube.



76 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

THE PERIANTH.

Sometimes we may want to speak of all the flower
leaves of a blossom. Then we say the perianth of a
flower. The sepals and petals together make a perianth.

A yellow buttercup or a blue harebell has a green
calyx. Do you think the calyx of a flower is always
green? Not always; a flower may have a calyx that
is colored like its corolla. When a calyx and a corolla
are nearly alike, the word perianth is used for both.

-A Japan lily in our garden, or a yellow lily in the
fields, has no green calyx. Have you ever seen a lily
bud just starting to grow? Perhaps it had a greenish
color at first, but before the flower opened the green
color was gone.

You have seen buds on a tiger lily. Their outside
leaves are a dull orange color. Watch them as they
unfold, and you will find other leaves within.

The three colored leaves on the outside make the
calyx. There are three colored leaves within to make
the corolla. These six colored leaves make a perianth.

A tiger lily has a six-parted perianth. Look at the
inside of the perianth. Both sepals and petals are
marked with black or dark brown spots. They roll
backward as if to show their beauty. The perianth
opens to the sunshine and light.



THE PERIANTH. 1

Summer is the season for lilies. A few will come in
the spring, but most of them blossom in summer.
They may be found on hills, in fields, and in meadows.
Some have bright-colored perianths, that can be seen a
great way off.

Frank found a pretty red lily. It was growing
among sweet-fern and blueberry bushes. Its orange-
red perianth was spotted at the base. It looked like a
bell standing on its handle.

Another pretty lily grows in meadows. Frank found
one where some men were cutting meadow grass. Its
pretty yellow flowers were shaped like bells. Inside
they were spotted with dark red. This plant did not
hold its bells up, like the red lily. They were hanging
from the top of a tall stem. One stem had five bells
hanging from its top.

Another hanging lily is white. You have seen it
growing in gardens. Its perianth is shaped more like
a trumpet than like a bell. Have you seen the ridges
on both sepals and petals? Are the sepals and petals
shaped alike? Look at other lilies to see the shape
of their perianths.

Some early spring flowers have pretty colored peri-
anths. Where you see a colored bud, you may expect
to see a colored perianth after it opens.



78 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Litrss.
In my garden there are lilies,
Lilies swinging to and fro,
Garden lilies, rosy lilies,
Lilies white as drifting snow.
"Here the blazing tiger lily,
There the evening lily pale;
And in the corners, dark and shady,
Little lilies of the vale.

in my garden there are lilies;
And the wild bees come and go,
Seeking honey from my lilies
Swinging slowly to and fro.
— Eruet Currrorp.

——.0teyoe—_

STAMENS.

Within the perianth of a flower you can find its
stamens. Their little threads are often white, but
sometimes they are colored.

In some flowers the threads of stamens are coarse.
In other flowers they are very fine; they are almost
as fine as hairs. .

You will find that all flowers do not have the same
number of stamens. In a lilac blossom there are two
stamens. Some flowers have four stamens. You will
find six stamens in a tulip. .



STAMENS. 79

When you look at the stamens in a wild rose or a
buttercup, you find a great many.

There seems to be a little head on the top of each
thread. If you look at these heads in different flowers,
you will find large heads, small heads, flat heads, long
heads, and round heads.

These heads are called: anthers. They are on the
tops of the thread-like parts. Some stamens have
yellow anthers. Others have brown, purple, red, or
white anthers.

You have seen a flower which has brown anthers.
These brown anthers are shaped like boats. Can you
think of a flower that has long anthers?



You know a flower that has yellow anthers, and
another flower which has white anthers. What are
the names of these flowers ?



80 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

After a flower has been opened a while there is a
kind of dust on its anthers. This dust is fine, like
flour. It is pollen.

If you touch the anthers of a flower that has been
opened a short time, the pollen comes off easily.
Pollen often falls on petals where it can be seen.
There it looks like a brown, white, or yellow dust.

After pollen falls from the anthers, a flower begins
to fade. Some time you will learn the use of pollen.

Stamens are not all alike. We find both long and
short stamens. Even in the same flower, some stamens
will be short and some will be long.

Did you ever see a flower in which there were both
long and short stamens? Take the petals from the
flower of a wild mustard. There you will see four
long stamens and two short ones. Look at the little
white alyssum that is found in gardens. What kind of
stamens do you find ?

Sometimes we find flowers having very long stamens.
They will reach out far beyond the border of the corolla.

In July the swamp pink or swamp honeysuckle
opens its fragrant flowers. Then we can see the long
stamens beyond its corolla.

Some tubular flowers have stamens reaching out
beyond the tube. Other tubular flowers have their
stamens hidden in the tube.



MORE-ABOUT STAMENS. gl

In some flowers, the stamens look as if they were
bent or broken. In others they are twisted. Some
flowers have flat stamens.

The Deutzia is a common shrub in our gardens. A
Deutzia has white flowers shaped like bells. If you
look at one of the stamens, you will see it is flattened.
On its top there are three points. A golden anther is
on the middle point.

MORE ABOUT STAMENS.

If you look at many flowers you may find three
things about stamens.

You may find them growing from a corolla. They
may be growing from a calyx. They may be free
from both corolla and calyx.

A phlox and a morning-glory
have stamens jomed to the tube
of a funnel, and growing from it.
When a corolla is taken from a
flower of this kind, stamens come



off with it. The stamens grow
from the corolla.

Again, stamens may join a calyx and grow from it.
Stamens of a rose are fastened to the calyx of a

flower. Look at a blossom from an apple tree, to see -



82 . LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

whether the stamens are fastened to its calyx or to
its corolla.

In many flowers the stamens do not grow to a calyx

or toa corolla. They are free from
these parts of the blossom. The sin-
gle red poppy loses its calyx when
the flower opens. Its corolla may
then be taken off, and the stamens
will remain. They are free from
both calyx and corolla. Stamens in
a wild mandrake or May-apple do



not grow to calyx or corolla.

You have found flowers having their sepals grown
together, and flowers whose petals grew together.
There are some flowers in which the stamens grow
together. Perhaps you may find all the stamens grow-
ing in one bundle, as they grow in a hollyhock.

Did you ever gather the young, green seeds of a
plant and call them “cheeses”? These seeds grow on
plants called mallows.

Look at a flower from a mallow to see how its sta-
mens grow. Break all the stamens from a flower and
look at the base. The stamens have grown together ©
to make a tube. In the tube is a pistil.

Have you seen the blossom of a cotton plant? Its
stamens are grown together like these.



THE PISTIL. 83

There are flowers which have their stamens im two
sets. The blossom of a sweet pea has ten stamens.
Nine of them grow in one bundle or set, and there is
one stamen alone.

Stamens grow in this way in the flowers of a locust,
or in the golden blossoms of a Jaburnum.

When you are looking at flowers, be sure to notice
their stamens, and tell what you know about them.

—-0 205 oo ——_

THE PISTIL.

In the middle of a flower you may find the pistil.
It is larger at the bottom and the top than it is in the
middle.

If you look at the pistil of a cherry blossom,
you can see three parts. The bottom, the top,
and the middle are the three parts of a pistil.

Look at the pistil in a peach blossom to find its
three parts. Perhaps you may not easily find
three parts of a pistil in every flower.

All pistils do not look alike. The pistil of a
spring-beauty is three-parted at the top.

The ovary is the bottom part of a pistil. The
stigma is the top part of a pistil. The style is the
middle part between the ovary and stigma.



84. LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

The style is like a stem of the stigma. Some stig-
mas have long styles and others have very short styles,
just as flowers have long or short stems.

When a stigma has no style, it must sit on the
ovary. Then we say the stigma is sessile.

Look at a tulip blossom. You can see a three-cor-
nered ovary. The stigma is three-parted. Where is
the style? Is the stigma in a tulip sessile ?

Pollen will fall from the anthers of a flower. It will
work its way down through the stigma and style into
the ovary. .

When the petals of a flower are old and withered,
they fall off. The ovary is left on the flower stalk,
and keeps on growing. Young seeds are in it.

The ovary must stay on a flower stalk until the seeds
are ripened.

Perhaps you may find two, or three, or more pistils
in the middle of some flowers. You will know the
pistils from the stamens, because they do not have
anthers and pollen.

In a cherry blossom there is one pistil. In a butter-
cup there are a great many pistils. They are very
small, and are packed closely together. ‘There is a
little ovary at the base of each pistil. You do not see
a style, because the stigma is sessile.

When you have studied many, many flowers, you
will learn other things about stamens and pistils. |





Frower Time.

The bluebell with its soft green leaves,
Looks out upon the sky;

The violet in her shady nook,
Opens her soft blue eye.

The daisy and the buttercup
Are blooming everywhere ;

A thousand pretty woodland flowers,
With fragrance fill the air.

The merry, happy children dance
Beneath the shady trees,
As happy as the little birds
And busy as the bees. — Anon.





86 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

STEMS OF FLOWERS.

Helen and Frank like to go out in the fields to look
for violets. They often find them growing in grassy
spots by the roadside.

Sometimes there will be a great many growing
close together. Each violet grows on a stem. The
stem of a flower is called its peduncle.

Peduncles are not the same length. One flower
may have a short peduncle. The stem or peduncle
of another flower may be very long.

Helen never finds more than one violet growing
on a stem. She may find many flowers which grow
alone on a peduncle.

All flowers do not grow this way. Some kinds
seem to ike company, and a great many will grow
on one peduncle. Then each blossom. may be on a
short stem that branches out from the peduncle.

A short stem that branches out from the peduncle
is called a pedicel. A pedicel is almost always smaller
than a peduncle.

Each little bell or flower on a lily of the valley
has a short stem. Each little bell grows on a pedi-
cel. The pedicels jom the peduncle.

Helen sees the flowers on mamma’s geranium. Each



STEMS OF FLOWERS. 87

is on a pedicel.. A great many pedicels grow from the
large peduncle.

Frank thinks the flowers that grow on locust trees,
or on a mountain ash, are on pedicels. What flowers
have you seen growing on pedicels?

You know what sessile leaves are. Sessile means
sitting. Flowers as well as leaves may be sessile.
They may seem to sit on a twig, or on the main
stalk of a plant.

If flowers have no stems, and grow to the main
stalk of a plant, they are sessile. A mullein has ses-
sile flowers.

On a hollyhock you may find sessile flowers. Now
and then, hollyhock flowers are on short stems; we
say these flowers are nearly sessile. Have you ever
seen a balsam growing in a garden? . Are its flowers
sessile, or are they nearly sessile ?

Flowers may grow on a plant in three ways. They
may be sessile, or growing to the main stalk of a
plant. They may grow on pedicels. There may be
a single flower on a peduncle.

When a peduncle has only one blossom, the flower
is solitary. A common red poppy is a solitary flower.
Only one blossom is on a peduncle.

If there are many flowers growing from one pedun-
cle, they are called a cluster. |



88 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

KINDS OF CLUSTERS.

Clusters are made of several flowers growing from
one peduncle. There are many kinds of clusters.

One kind of cluster is called a raceme. The raceme
has many little flowers. Each is on a pedicel that
joins a peduncle. All the pedicels are nearly the same
length.

One day in early spring Frank went to the woods. -
Here he saw a small tree covered with white blossoms.
The flowers were in racemes.

Last summer Frank came to this tree and found
some nice fruit on it. It was the
wild service-berry. This small tree
is also called June-berry and shad-
flower.

In the flower garden Helen found
some low plants. Some had blue
flowers growing on them, and some
had white flowers. Each little blos-
som had a yellow eye in its centre.

These flowers were growing in
short racemes. Helen called them



forget-me-nots.
Mamma picked the smallest green leaf from one of
these plants. She showed the fine, short hairs grow-



KINDS OF CLUSTERS. 89

ing on it. She said the tiny leaf was shaped like
the ear of a mouse.

Little flowers that do not have pedicels, but grow
close to a stem, form a spike. The flowers on
a spike are sessile.

Frank finds some pale purple flowers grow-
ing in spikes. He finds them in meadows
and in damp places in the woods. Their
corollas are fringed. They grow along a
stem and have no pedicel. They are the pur-
ple fringed orchis, growing in spikes.



You know flowers in a raceme grow on
pedicels. These pedicels grow out along a stem, and
are nearly the same length. Other flowers may grow on |
pedicels of the same length, and
yet the cluster is not a raceme.

Instead of growing along a
stem, all the pedicels may grow
from the same place. They may
start from the top of a peduncle,
and have nearly the same length.

Almost everybody has seen
scarlet geraniums. In warm



weather they grow out of doors.
When winter comes people have them in houses. Look >
at a cluster of their bright red flowers.



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8022073c0c1cb51d5e7483d98223ccc3d8e56601
'2011-12-05T18:00:19-05:00'
describe
'1598' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHD' 'sip-files00010.txt'
e361ec7154d957c4425d4dd5ce56b131
6817e425b036a44207057d8353a3d3f823766673
'2011-12-05T18:02:30-05:00'
describe
'372168' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHE' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
9601aba472f1925cf3d1f87b31b6b6a5
a93fc7117140ea799e9e983bf0da4b3b041cad4a
'2011-12-05T18:01:53-05:00'
describe
'6169' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHF' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
4c30b9cfe88ae50b28d4e475b60a15bd
171d0cccf902fcfbfae212e7b66c0de891654341
'2011-12-05T18:02:11-05:00'
describe
'42297' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHG' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
a2575a77f73e403e87484017762fcec4
013848ec6f221cc9d4340f2b91c0eddc46473308
'2011-12-05T18:02:05-05:00'
describe
'16307' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHH' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
67122ea9d82283ac58239392afc72a2f
33b2415457c733c17f6f46d3cde9aeec10405d09
describe
'3242592' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHI' 'sip-files00011.tif'
a6f4cc6264ed87374ee8e85091106c4d
85a54a1fe8c0ec94e7c9970c1cbc4e047454c630
'2011-12-05T18:01:14-05:00'
describe
'1284' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHJ' 'sip-files00011.txt'
3e1f69d8bee5ae78e32d2eb1ecbdd938
5a1fbf61c5a65585b0cb190d8c8dc54434e11aae
'2011-12-05T18:01:33-05:00'
describe
'4538' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHK' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
9551681cc381a97ae2d21135fe653ce1
8df81dfdea6d17d04f564ae0ab2a75c44b687ec9
'2011-12-05T18:01:29-05:00'
describe
'246745' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHL' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
e298260460a28a2a56d4140f7c5e84d1
17d337f93863b04b7a234aa2a042b897409adb4b
'2011-12-05T18:01:20-05:00'
describe
'7965' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHM' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
256c4e7e51729d90d2ef1b292d2b9a5b
961592802e247d0dbd8a777e51b5e2014660550f
'2011-12-05T18:02:38-05:00'
describe
'2384' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHN' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
3ee3a5b298d855419edfb53570c8859c
ab46115c3bbbe688436e027909e5a8fdb26c8c68
'2011-12-05T18:02:34-05:00'
describe
'3240368' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHO' 'sip-files00012.tif'
19eb771cec5ad34a08d07c2ef02c5e57
9ee575092547800238935eae2fbcd0515a2c0a94
'2011-12-05T18:01:16-05:00'
describe
'864' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHP' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
4e5443981642c4116ea1e8914721c985
f5f56d75fd1696a56c361204d5f11068c694e195
'2011-12-05T18:01:00-05:00'
describe
'301869' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHQ' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
ecee23f52d89586576a0b81edbf0e615
e595dc4c1a1987602e8a59657d18f7a102f79ea2
describe
'15470' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHR' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
7ff8249e4b1983cdd8d2b08c5a6a29e5
8135677b75b30222cf839af0ee1df9b6adadffb7
'2011-12-05T18:00:50-05:00'
describe
'4806' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHS' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
3aee5e8c2068c6b2b6844bf760254f23
b24c03499544860dd3beaab0414ee21a3916abd5
'2011-12-05T18:02:02-05:00'
describe
'3240780' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHT' 'sip-files00013.tif'
c873da9f5ba5df835baa1c65d1192f0c
6f0c898dab586e71eeccd50164e5a98d282c4383
'2011-12-05T17:59:15-05:00'
describe
'271' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHU' 'sip-files00013.txt'
067374d9998eec1615362871dfcc99d5
061bfd5c4111d6e30f944b6fc7860c3486b146e4
'2011-12-05T18:01:41-05:00'
describe
'1571' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHV' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
94e99b9da61a554fc6de21eb35999fe3
09a41be5a38da0f42346ea61081255dfef4a0d93
'2011-12-05T18:00:12-05:00'
describe
'402840' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHW' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
8bc86c59c03161f4ff2b6c86edf2592d
3dffa75ff8305b254933c9ba68f37ef7f777b729
'2011-12-05T18:00:26-05:00'
describe
'65903' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHX' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
11bdac0b9fae597356a4b9ed4bf1115a
a64be0d9d67d8d324e1ef6be27bd62c979b1d8ac
'2011-12-05T17:59:51-05:00'
describe
'21233' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHY' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
0ae6f2301808388717fa846bb3f9709c
7d1f61fdb7584c2232fc1e73998976c39e559a8c
'2011-12-05T17:59:49-05:00'
describe
'3243916' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYHZ' 'sip-files00015.tif'
d99e063861780b5247122a813ada0e88
1f4a0ad6e58583a128408dd90eb6d4783fff4765
'2011-12-05T18:02:12-05:00'
describe
'580' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIA' 'sip-files00015.txt'
85fd7d71cac35392ff20c373d389adef
3bb5c07afa2993c6f84cad8b2a700cbf062328ca
'2011-12-05T18:02:09-05:00'
describe
'5888' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIB' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
cec48926a54e706acbaadfc1623d6ac5
13c766b0ebcd5eebd8dd84e0f7a9e250ac2e29ef
'2011-12-05T18:02:22-05:00'
describe
'402820' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIC' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
2fdeaf3b6c550b58c2b25a95405d1409
3f97445e08ff8a5cc1d32c1545a3f41523af386f
describe
'78315' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYID' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
9db8785a846d2e696c2dc99dedf0ab08
c0e3fc5bc285f79c88afae0c35d3808351ab9c90
'2011-12-05T18:00:10-05:00'
describe
'25999' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIE' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
9946f79f664a6a1170a4c7ec0d7f3efd
68938f5575ce36ad1b7436835e937929c92942c3
'2011-12-05T18:02:26-05:00'
describe
'3244516' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIF' 'sip-files00016.tif'
64aff3739730402a15b41ea0a8365d71
38eae50b2107c18b2a4373146ad2687240d5754c
describe
'1077' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIG' 'sip-files00016.txt'
605832e5461044ee33740549706e981b
f4d9a0c11b164c92831abdddf2063aafff8da7c0
'2011-12-05T18:01:17-05:00'
describe
'7494' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIH' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
6a40dd8eb4ddb33849b11f0149963686
6a3c5242f9be944424be26f8b5bd6f782b916e22
'2011-12-05T18:02:48-05:00'
describe
'402882' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYII' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
3dd7bb1bf6f88fc90eabf7068227346c
e4b9bd2a0599c308ac33dfe0adc2a78254b02ecc
describe
'65091' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIJ' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
219e4d670accd6b287f2c3fee167b546
09ec320289a1fca00b7d7007626241aca67eb892
'2011-12-05T18:00:17-05:00'
describe
'21934' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIK' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
1fa69e564ea1ce09b4b93a44e93aeaf6
b57d633a25c6b5a8256841478a88a713e50774ce
'2011-12-05T18:02:00-05:00'
describe
'3243844' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIL' 'sip-files00017.tif'
93296f9e60b17b352b87183542a0b0aa
c0327cbad914e9000f0b38439634ccb677ff1339
describe
'829' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIM' 'sip-files00017.txt'
7149af8827aa5bb8d76df4a214a3c2ac
cc0fd5b3ad5dc2c01a57f6f7e749dac8b345eb04
'2011-12-05T17:59:21-05:00'
describe
'6549' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIN' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
d3d34d8d7e59d9eed8b7042d87247899
1dcd770338891a2fbff5d0de4597cb6e588da70f
'2011-12-05T17:59:25-05:00'
describe
'373439' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIO' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
747826280b7f023c119b6e576859388f
1875b59b3057d9035efb356f4216d128b09be59c
'2011-12-05T17:59:38-05:00'
describe
'91349' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIP' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
5f72b5e8648e646c6fec405eac55fba3
92a91cccc77cb9e783462bc408b431e219db0bba
describe
'30593' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIQ' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
fc35530b234d7a97591042f4eb29c297
a84c460e23fb4f20a1b321f2a318a5cac65dee70
describe
'3009456' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIR' 'sip-files00018.tif'
476120c425d4c52e14d68d290e80447e
f517e80e9e10684f14dd9c04b4c4eaf848a89899
'2011-12-05T17:59:50-05:00'
describe
'799' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIS' 'sip-files00018.txt'
9cd244225e722f9fc2eb7456073105c1
915cb21652a848a6a8f9c1e758be433dd841f2be
'2011-12-05T18:01:30-05:00'
describe
'8225' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIT' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
d68ecfeb5a9e2c671fc5004b6fc3df4f
f48f920ea596e38f4aeec06f1e71dfcaf9c7a3b7
describe
'402868' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIU' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
6c412448f0f8d3878adb05592526f95c
66eaa3fe9b0291f5ce78fe61ca49221c6d586f1c
describe
'82260' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIV' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
8f3014f2d36c45a0a991dd7cd6ded875
2a8f840d5e808b39e5e202ec2dfc5f7a1ee87d7e
'2011-12-05T17:59:30-05:00'
describe
'27821' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIW' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
2a8842d013ccff400a74f2ede4240761
73228e74b18d996b0de59733f4d515da8bc66911
'2011-12-05T18:00:47-05:00'
describe
'3244696' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIX' 'sip-files00019.tif'
2e0aced23f5c0be590198ed0a182a99a
210d6d98a3927a16bd1f412511fa033f259dbeec
'2011-12-05T18:00:52-05:00'
describe
'1004' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIY' 'sip-files00019.txt'
f2550e16e29a6243eeb59fa13d1d1154
42f260b3aff84e13e59c62340632c169dc9cc2ee
'2011-12-05T18:01:06-05:00'
describe
'7801' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYIZ' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
7e9947ab50b25fb52e3bb2fc8d36329c
3313067e9e6e9c11065c0c51559ffd76a42fcf2b
'2011-12-05T17:59:18-05:00'
describe
'402844' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJA' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
ce556b2f075d6a0575d1c75f6091ad05
1d9a341159e453092a86e839675019e336bab766
'2011-12-05T18:01:03-05:00'
describe
'91445' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJB' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
7c48a22f02306d6cf9f7eba91313127d
adb401fc8a3d477fedb0fe54a4e182efcb9d5968
'2011-12-05T18:02:44-05:00'
describe
'29936' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJC' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
86d474819b8a75f9ba2dc9350649df66
3e374bf5a150073037f6aa3d0a0f9e206fb2e24e
'2011-12-05T18:02:28-05:00'
describe
'3244644' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJD' 'sip-files00020.tif'
b98a2c46176088eb038329d5d0e95901
0e5455e8339a4c6f31e214739b0946cb05e7479d
'2011-12-05T18:00:57-05:00'
describe
'1159' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJE' 'sip-files00020.txt'
83c4b645c4118e424f84dfe9bd8d12d3
b2875e07e3d982fe32ba2825e34d6e4d431c8db8
'2011-12-05T17:59:40-05:00'
describe
'8113' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJF' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
a4c14b3dfa3cd29058faee4f4e6fd22a
cd3e295e9752d2ad8f8d23561fe7e7ef91b67789
'2011-12-05T17:59:20-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJG' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
2f14c3825f05b7b295b60b3bd6484447
568656ae2ab896ac8a2ceb91893fde8209c49ce9
'2011-12-05T18:01:18-05:00'
describe
'85319' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJH' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
2a84a89469460b41308803bb10ddff79
c1f1c4807653bc1b289b92212bc1307b075f21ca
describe
'27085' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJI' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
cbb62bbc457d67573d25a5ff75613be0
fc4ae11bda6652d08fc55f561410d41d15c0735a
describe
'3244632' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJJ' 'sip-files00021.tif'
1a2173763730429bb9a59576865093ab
883e9ac654e5757bc6f50858351a0cc1b5ffd40d
'2011-12-05T18:01:15-05:00'
describe
'981' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJK' 'sip-files00021.txt'
fdb59a18acc9d9f66dc7ebdbc46281f6
440f374a63ea62958772fc917fb083f7b64f955d
describe
'7718' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJL' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
328a3f9b46230c48ed58e67bdd6386e9
6d2041013990922f14e1a586fc77885d47e2a8eb
'2011-12-05T18:00:53-05:00'
describe
'402886' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJM' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
4a71b62d3527eb15761632db77b66893
e06567f2d410bfd75dc01ee63a40ac27d420ff7b
'2011-12-05T18:01:55-05:00'
describe
'85299' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJN' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
68ba7b26b42190aae72e796ca52ef8a2
38507bced357221450fc962e0f70c0e158d5ebca
describe
'28959' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJO' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
7e312d2036fd40341a2590f9f78b0f78
697a18bc2bac56d98ada0567cd1360429953e08d
'2011-12-05T18:02:24-05:00'
describe
'3244684' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJP' 'sip-files00022.tif'
c52b63289b228e50ca4f7e4e10a1183d
5dbff94c5b99eeeb1d0de3f5a20d6c8377f01b9b
describe
'1079' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJQ' 'sip-files00022.txt'
7eed2c5a816f40f99df08f072900ef5c
7a8c3a4f8fb3b613a7afe81d9132f57eed4729b8
'2011-12-05T18:00:11-05:00'
describe
'8056' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJR' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
e627afa84551021483c95d73be544890
ba59780d4f544c57a18f346a651a668aa00c53e2
'2011-12-05T18:01:05-05:00'
describe
'402864' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJS' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
28b308530a2b38ca1f4fce54ddc7322b
c6dc063055f78febc9c3af612819c71e7e5f64ab
'2011-12-05T18:01:11-05:00'
describe
'78036' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJT' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
6379ae67c23eef67f7f98e108047e35f
6b49978b5734a8a132b32f020aaee61aae7a4983
'2011-12-05T18:00:21-05:00'
describe
'25568' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJU' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
067fdf4d98ac57b3205c37de6f6cdbe5
52fb71d0fa7fe29a1481298fef6cc8913628e5b7
'2011-12-05T18:00:24-05:00'
describe
'3244060' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJV' 'sip-files00023.tif'
4e773dc9d1386e7b6749a30fd9108e01
00798c44890279091b7e4afaf6dde687a58c845d
'2011-12-05T18:01:40-05:00'
describe
'879' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJW' 'sip-files00023.txt'
70d1d21a00d1931f2aff4be7074c97fe
477a2e9326edccd0ea23215c2742d2af2de3daf8
'2011-12-05T18:02:03-05:00'
describe
'7013' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJX' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
f954d584c8ea06ad84c830f2cf95b642
1b0e6282164172bca4ce45d3759a68dc2acad573
'2011-12-05T18:00:44-05:00'
describe
'402857' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJY' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
2cd051ab197fcabdca1f0d8e37d83626
d3fd8a9824403895b22432343a7c24e5928bb76a
'2011-12-05T18:02:35-05:00'
describe
'74035' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYJZ' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
9aa41c0bc01f4a6fd504c409d58c2787
8f059cd004d5dd8e576da2b03720979aec5a1837
describe
'24324' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKA' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
6d8ee70922dcceb12beb9dae5aa63e47
6a49f637be8e6dbea4890ac4afd02643a862a5f9
'2011-12-05T17:59:33-05:00'
describe
'3244044' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKB' 'sip-files00024.tif'
8853a3793eca577c104da744ea8efd43
feeacdd86d638e5fc332631fcf5d0fc8b52a36a7
'2011-12-05T18:02:31-05:00'
describe
'924' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKC' 'sip-files00024.txt'
3b800c1b2d1bbf51f6da3eed4d608440
99c7e565c49ff3810c85b1fda9a052042004a873
describe
'6751' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKD' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
b4fb6555cba1dd7a60dc6637d6efc5b5
f46b5709b04f4d0808fabf6a2c73cfb2fb63f815
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKE' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
123f59a52355714a4fb10c009e751d72
9b7679934ce44dfd6dc71d879a39f86e96c5f51c
describe
'86586' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKF' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
5cdb24fa15c98ca7888c59785dea1644
0dac87a63052e433296feed813e046082b1a2bfc
'2011-12-05T18:02:04-05:00'
describe
'27924' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKG' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
54d867d69cc3ec9813a4e32b8c18ac94
bf028d59f1b1ebd2269e65e8f37754fcd26c1ced
describe
'3244652' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKH' 'sip-files00025.tif'
558d30be200fd30e8c7640b1d6def749
b2bb6d369d2d4fc1bb987a2b8e77c1a058e6dfae
describe
'1015' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKI' 'sip-files00025.txt'
00ce28db54ba167f831487b4bea64860
72f917370cd54ac97c32593a2abd54ea11a9fbd5
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'7579' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKJ' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
8414cc60af15fdff1507b10d6bf0276c
8c9922c2f8364e451d0ab71e9f889cd9076c5524
'2011-12-05T17:59:47-05:00'
describe
'402884' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKK' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
d4cb5d7730bf3540cb8de52b0ac8e4f8
8f0bea8b3981ed25d086f043470345683b229347
describe
'81058' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKL' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
67e37357e8fb74b3ad72fea88a6dab52
d9b0cbaa5a22ddc0665b0b8cf71c10cd150af7a7
describe
'27279' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKM' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
4f13433931c4f35cc5c368e53632e1a0
0e28d7fa7b45b4bd46d7834a83542c5ab9eaa905
describe
'3244472' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKN' 'sip-files00026.tif'
1daf982f644cc0829b4c6276047d46c8
81fcd0c767e8d32a86b97420b9c5ca80fc3df9ce
'2011-12-05T17:59:45-05:00'
describe
'1203' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKO' 'sip-files00026.txt'
a39c9a3cc3c373290c7b24ce21fbe92e
824409a3165894f58b9d258084ee72b4f70760c1
'2011-12-05T18:00:32-05:00'
describe
'7501' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKP' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
2ec190348ce972f6491f9130faea029c
5a390e192b81af1bcee07bdb5a4b14b18e0c391a
describe
'402874' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKQ' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
6e06187de8406960910745a97e0ec44b
e7418aac31f18b0cc92caa53e0f3d0081981eba8
describe
'80939' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKR' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
7dd8f6e3ed72f87c11ec044db7cd7f97
d60b9c980381ab503e83790734a00817859d9767
describe
'26876' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKS' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
1bf8c25ae70885e034ff88f57b82fada
62356776910e7157fc492f5e21009175f47efd08
describe
'3244240' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKT' 'sip-files00027.tif'
b73db4b36b3ec6b9d4b98c6160610a83
b6cc3c6db0b054b41d6b078101d57a0361e5c1e8
describe
'870' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKU' 'sip-files00027.txt'
2083bf5e93c50104c9722e212d2ab139
52043d10b391ae0d87e8ea7d715dd745d902aaf3
'2011-12-05T18:01:37-05:00'
describe
'7413' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKV' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
d7900ce7ba1cc54089f5228b87c6dd37
3362a5efbba8d95e86345b376a4b1f0a1da2615a
describe
'402823' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKW' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
420dda712547f300d3ee3fa8c15fda9e
87e43eae203b6bd8e4ce7e7754ee67e428a74854
'2011-12-05T18:00:20-05:00'
describe
'85628' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKX' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
af1653845b3184b91348339d11995238
9edc0b237c11a59017ec3ae5e7e1c5fcfca5d85a
'2011-12-05T18:00:04-05:00'
describe
'28204' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKY' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
5039154c02f63ebdfe18cfe91e8f90b1
8025c5b2b6aaa59c14a7c1f691104eeae80a42dc
'2011-12-05T18:02:42-05:00'
describe
'3244284' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYKZ' 'sip-files00028.tif'
6898998794dd5c5eb3eedbd9306dd6e5
69ea773b22642ef7bc1af1d211fa1d52c799a969
describe
'1189' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLA' 'sip-files00028.txt'
c0debb05668a9f01cce43633dfe62614
cd143b500dc2c796b746970d03561c4fac627c3b
'2011-12-05T18:00:51-05:00'
describe
'7707' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLB' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
44c4a1226af1147d4377f9f6230e2cf7
9286edf1355e14b0968f942f1c03c8d1b4e84892
describe
'402855' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLC' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
2c03fa9ea897b183b7ac65e9d80abbff
1496488a6c345583568c66e7de1edd51e2624ea5
'2011-12-05T18:02:49-05:00'
describe
'86408' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLD' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
24a2a190a48ca89b88c4163aa6ef0a3b
4dfa5384274ba0e7b43cb6a360147edd11435ca7
'2011-12-05T18:00:14-05:00'
describe
'28880' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLE' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
13d6ec29cbad488051a0da3561958d4d
901a1d0ab901df53db175670b624e70176a154ba
'2011-12-05T18:00:31-05:00'
describe
'3244540' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLF' 'sip-files00029.tif'
de97028707a02d8b5b6efcd0fe2584dc
6cdbb7a7c34cf7b40d9848a6d72011613085ffc9
'2011-12-05T18:01:21-05:00'
describe
'1081' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLG' 'sip-files00029.txt'
2903db3ee995e4c88c831fe865fda93e
c56d7258ad0056c0430e06d44138f1c2a6761926
'2011-12-05T18:01:09-05:00'
describe
'7783' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLH' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
48f0c7502942b33b918366656dfbdb0f
0669ff438f22c369a274df6fa6a9b7445c465f4c
describe
'402833' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLI' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
123bb7183dbfdec95ca9a222d9a3c3fc
08926dc2f127c7fe135c8ec6fa742b3eb979663c
'2011-12-05T17:59:53-05:00'
describe
'76599' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLJ' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
f9860385dd9dcc5c83de59515dd4cb6b
fd63be6569f6b53e2acd0891b8eb67ba40066ea0
describe
'25317' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLK' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
0a4c8263ad5b458f55b13f41ae999a01
95cfecbbb80815a9f7285a852cd6c248dc8efb2c
describe
'3244036' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLL' 'sip-files00030.tif'
dd71367fc16714874d697d3fdb954d4e
1d78ce02320c98d4e72e5125b5709c16625246a0
'2011-12-05T17:59:55-05:00'
describe
'955' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLM' 'sip-files00030.txt'
8296d58f23b9e66da5396b7637bba419
9a7731ea638d85a9074f2d1c95f3fd492e2e5173
describe
'7225' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLN' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
917145acfde02d8c73c8de524af8d0ac
f30da95269c2ccd6d0f545c7acbf96fc4dc547bd
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLO' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
820eaaaa7ae065a262952d919bb776a2
0f693ee489081661768c8f0a2cb8428f643ea781
describe
'86942' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLP' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
bf586b53ece67ca90be94c88dc33858a
a0e7887784c3dc2c5453a27efb05219d9f99ee19
'2011-12-05T18:00:18-05:00'
describe
'29114' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLQ' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
8236eae6b6c09fd5163d5355699c756f
b3c69441919be331d34f7488488ad8ddae65c3e7
'2011-12-05T17:59:27-05:00'
describe
'3244568' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLR' 'sip-files00031.tif'
67ac351fde56c99a9eb3aaaff61d3b00
24469f872bb583c5c79bf3e71b642b4e15f3e265
'2011-12-05T18:00:43-05:00'
describe
'905' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLS' 'sip-files00031.txt'
a653eeca9a05b9202edbace4e5af9ba4
338fa970f83a2073e0e533fbf5e2fe950d0d734e
describe
'7836' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLT' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
2d47e8325165fcc04c7d77962d80dea8
7d046dc6ff6ebec49f7d05003da6af884e53bf78
'2011-12-05T17:59:19-05:00'
describe
'402848' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLU' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
8ed93c6d1392dc3be5cebb2f2b347c99
99f8b90dee96f2b70a1a711997846a902816d231
describe
'91870' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLV' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
3609688b79a581c87f2ca915f16e8451
c7fed79cd15c1748d48f998baba6ef1311353b65
'2011-12-05T18:02:32-05:00'
describe
'29903' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLW' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
74b8dea889a3ed59bbea144e75003533
1008f5b85b40367727dbd5f5579f23e83f518f1e
'2011-12-05T18:02:39-05:00'
describe
'3244716' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLX' 'sip-files00032.tif'
8898e1413f9a163060b5b66a4acf898e
c6a7e9dc72c733b5d9123e8645b313323af591f4
describe
'1181' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLY' 'sip-files00032.txt'
81576b31157291127dbc664268728a3e
602d496a849f53b4a6f2784b5f3a2726f1f6ed08
'2011-12-05T17:59:41-05:00'
describe
'8051' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYLZ' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
216cea07b41a485c24fc75a27369feec
f5c479e26771e0c353d8e0aa13c5322507c06b95
'2011-12-05T18:02:17-05:00'
describe
'402824' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMA' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
9b18bc677e6a914fe7c1bb64a3735d8b
5c60bb13db37ca65c23b4663b759aa62555354bd
'2011-12-05T18:01:58-05:00'
describe
'94047' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMB' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
f5a3f55a8771051881c1645846353774
6ea8c76477afa2cb08576eb7a13dba8dc8a586b9
describe
'30735' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMC' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
b372c7317482b3f897f2c3b9780fcd5d
b28aac22a0b673903d9ac0eab8b0be3bf38b0fb4
'2011-12-05T17:59:17-05:00'
describe
'3244636' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMD' 'sip-files00033.tif'
bcf3f81394e5acbcd6852ca112193af6
75c6a52e5add443e6eec7458ff11fdb40ebc499b
describe
'1031' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYME' 'sip-files00033.txt'
2bbcfe248cb195793d293fa6229b755f
08e5971d25a5235aef2088c2da43afde85f52756
'2011-12-05T17:59:29-05:00'
describe
'8053' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMF' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
2ff0ce570af146c0895f4e980105adf0
3834df1b64220b822cb85c916db5eb293d2feaa4
describe
'402810' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMG' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
e7cd36228f3f6eb8d3128bdc71271c10
678551263573eb372f1df81e18fdebf678f8dac5
'2011-12-05T18:00:39-05:00'
describe
'77999' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMH' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
7afda201adcdc78a7d38eee5e579ee80
aea909eed0c67516d180f20c935b5fcc2abeaf27
describe
'25514' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMI' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
d1603ba9e7bc7c7a0ea1fc6d0d8158e0
f6ad3f05e560861c3414729d1826d080df65a65c
'2011-12-05T17:59:39-05:00'
describe
'3244028' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMJ' 'sip-files00034.tif'
a8e66f4b4ecff4eaf8d0c97547bc96ee
19e5bc569027148690e4d3398519488332072547
describe
'980' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMK' 'sip-files00034.txt'
c76da391abb41ef492331e07dbf359d2
0bd31677a69131c1e1eb483e8c117f054632e42b
describe
'7258' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYML' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
7e415a6af6ec26f702233b95835ed45d
98bc450f96b0b95c4f292f38438f8e9e856a3bd7
describe
'402881' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMM' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
90579251049ba6263675e1848b5f2261
55a9f95b8e27e6b12ff5a24eacaab0db719077dc
'2011-12-05T18:01:38-05:00'
describe
'96281' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMN' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
462f21d801889f5e35ff32d7a663f953
ae6f50efaa576463ec608b6cceb95a461fe6b827
describe
'31799' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMO' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
f57a20e5484133602cc2329d0b4e656c
e6e482b9436d43a23aa4ec173bbe864d13638ff9
describe
'3244844' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMP' 'sip-files00035.tif'
06a42bee387fd5a87a0c2d4d6214a0cb
94a00f38fe8cda182f9c0dcd23d2321e7670dd02
'2011-12-05T18:00:36-05:00'
describe
'1075' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMQ' 'sip-files00035.txt'
17353c85db1f698cf7ed52160b1a3dea
bfcf4210b22f020c2075c7d20fdb45e299467c5d
describe
'8322' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMR' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
7b634d860500009bb7623d1291f1c60e
c3809005ed06336cebb8dcfff7e38ee394f494a1
'2011-12-05T17:59:35-05:00'
describe
'402885' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMS' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
6f55cbc829e25907851fe5590bb484b1
6dc471cc89e9b37ead1a76feb1ce63650220fdc8
'2011-12-05T17:59:57-05:00'
describe
'89790' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMT' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
12a1e3080e7868a5f65340197e596d56
bf0ec251b2ed0e6f78863255b422a2935e6c86c1
'2011-12-05T18:01:19-05:00'
describe
'29766' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMU' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
9b7a7d96e9d6f5bfc6b8fa92e5588671
d675d8757f575d476aef2dd28ff173d83a6dea45
'2011-12-05T18:00:06-05:00'
describe
'3244760' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMV' 'sip-files00036.tif'
c0a94c601d8a39cc04d4c6c60b025507
d860339e3e1895a6bdd7f5e9004263842fd8bf47
describe
'1226' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMW' 'sip-files00036.txt'
e43e00ef7aa3589e6c972aa066af681e
513b93cd421148c6b7e35647f55d26d4163dfe24
describe
'8098' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMX' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
6bebefff76feb951e1e4eef2090d04e5
88cd7a34da27195d158ac5c8e63632218ed8bcde
describe
'402836' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMY' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
cf4c59111f1dad7f71a53caebd2e84aa
a39641ceeba86f728c4ec670d483ca813ca3862f
'2011-12-05T18:02:43-05:00'
describe
'83752' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYMZ' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
388a3371ecbdac5fa0d747377117cbe9
8e69d858370b645eb42a17058f855d1521934b43
describe
'26376' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNA' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
34e0f6c9d9687441bba3d7a4c4e93389
d2289959e17f27166f171d40e0c5efcaf67f4f21
'2011-12-05T18:01:04-05:00'
describe
'3244280' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNB' 'sip-files00037.tif'
8410c5008308ad26b98cf67d5f789070
430100b165366e042f86a70e879c072952448e18
describe
'676' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNC' 'sip-files00037.txt'
cc01d777a37cf9f5b9fa2d49e33147af
10f627a1a55fd84065359e13aa20ccb03d09b23d
describe
'7076' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYND' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
9b200ac671e9242bc6d3068a6815552b
7fb78aa707c9956dece0bb55431e6de872d188dc
describe
'402870' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNE' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
2df2761eb5f35f6227bb41dfe6b80fee
96a469000e123e9d47868378b5f575c35a5f1b35
describe
'87976' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNF' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
e241e21f1a427cf205758e278be92f07
03a5ec3796801e68fdd55aa74884eb5c880de5fb
describe
'29153' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNG' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
90ed25e39209799ad72a4261c34955f8
3ef1320194380fde945d47ec80a40c22cc8c6c42
'2011-12-05T18:01:25-05:00'
describe
'3244560' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNH' 'sip-files00038.tif'
c572e7cebbf6439fd59151ba3a142430
6eee234f44d1ad73ee8397b6b2f9dc8b9a1741cd
'2011-12-05T18:02:21-05:00'
describe
'1087' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNI' 'sip-files00038.txt'
05fd6528ec9bc6a5de0c67ecadb54e8c
fb88155caa26f65785b11c98725d92bea50e560a
describe
'7928' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNJ' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
ad5df65aa8cbbfc4e1e1bf88d5021ab1
92072e0ccf983aedfea586ef16a17aadb6314370
'2011-12-05T18:02:06-05:00'
describe
'402843' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNK' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
d085cd046e9d883619818c4d1419226f
580f27b40b11d37d7bd43d6bfbc85648b6624ae1
'2011-12-05T18:01:13-05:00'
describe
'84377' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNL' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
c4f05ee9907a64d66d98519a3e24d91d
a40902a180f9d61d31f88c2635e6fe7ed59de590
describe
'28222' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNM' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
ef6ba2495454b4edd6255c03df41faa7
8c6007fc585eb063eb70bc6d3d5e2332cbacfd46
'2011-12-05T18:02:41-05:00'
describe
'3244532' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNN' 'sip-files00039.tif'
cb8bdd40fe9d419473de4f5d5d9fe8a3
0dd97d1c89af74a5b43b00e5ee50c171edec354f
describe
'1024' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNO' 'sip-files00039.txt'
038f3fade07e2f3bc874f915b7e89909
3e34552c68e3db8aa29e5de667b51262ffce8780
'2011-12-05T17:59:32-05:00'
describe
'7531' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNP' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
5f798b4bb0dfa473d23c78e4cdeff827
efe1004aede1a52d0f28532d6882630ce4558ada
describe
'402816' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNQ' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
5fbfabb3963200992068ede70a353e3b
d2f135978cc30cfd8d4f9b748ff77fd3b5393a28
'2011-12-05T18:01:35-05:00'
describe
'86780' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNR' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
985c1ad145042a03b6dfd4609d148d4f
1c22e0904fb6b6dd39f7dd64c4ad5dd872df3c9e
'2011-12-05T18:00:02-05:00'
describe
'28977' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNS' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
943e7d77d5b4962c918ad140169a7322
5fcc5bb1a15de4a2b364e6800a6c4c8f8961c0da
describe
'3244624' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNT' 'sip-files00040.tif'
a439d69ae9e24ad82cf565f5919a263a
09d58954705a8c168858d05709b4ac7bd741aba9
'2011-12-05T18:01:56-05:00'
describe
'1078' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNU' 'sip-files00040.txt'
b4a11cc8c68e3f42424aca593fb40d0a
e73809658e2935c095d35d55175a08904eb434e9
'2011-12-05T18:00:37-05:00'
describe
'8117' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNV' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
d2c307a67eec3d34932a78f3e223609a
f48aaa512df9151077b901b6f9bd2ce739334618
'2011-12-05T18:01:36-05:00'
describe
'402838' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNW' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
95d51a43ecbd7236c9d33dc6f6f42881
0417b9d01c14ab1c89e2311d3f0e2ed047e543e9
'2011-12-05T18:01:23-05:00'
describe
'85594' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNX' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
c869bed615f46159f4323af16192cb1d
45340136de95346261d740c670530803b9637732
'2011-12-05T18:01:44-05:00'
describe
'28099' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNY' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
59dbbd1a942a0b933e2bfd05bad5a708
0b539b96afb27652476bd4d92a8a0165de344950
describe
'3244548' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYNZ' 'sip-files00041.tif'
c5a0a6cce13305f3016b90754d1832bb
928331a227f6d9a16f50e204d371c424ddbed213
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOA' 'sip-files00041.txt'
8e01636e5d76195aaee8fe63c7dddcb7
e0f319bfa22fb20ad1a92ea66e061ac6540dcec2
describe
'7513' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOB' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
9a46677cbd040416576815cf55af4a84
bf4eb99de48438b102fcdc8909b1cf152f0dc40d
describe
'402826' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOC' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
3d65364e9453164ae36a0ecfc6e2e2d8
c5f48771590e07bf80f48a6c93e1d88a4eaa164f
describe
'86436' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOD' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
3677070af75ec2cdda1703e95a10eca4
ce4ef3860287ff23b7e6330d4d0cd5c482d2ab66
describe
'27771' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOE' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
b3c65a8a1c3339b3ff198c4ca5a029b7
fac8682fe3007724fd0b90cd011b6bb669a66ef9
describe
'3244604' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOF' 'sip-files00042.tif'
5803174b610e262b6f92b0b10eeb70ea
917bae00d07a170ed3473526565fa21c558c3b86
describe
'1230' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOG' 'sip-files00042.txt'
6c22694120d7b7f289327d7a4ba60c40
9910fadf31930d259f43898451956f23a38b881f
describe
'7744' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOH' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
542cf959e7c35745f80a118520542359
f01bc29146018a62487e24afd7a3336b1349a9f4
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOI' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
6b2dcd508fb09f806be0d3e035152144
699872354a55228a98e9938fb55af75248c7a2e8
describe
'72995' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOJ' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
dfd256ce741c9284e36825204f7bbf5b
0c3c4a70d9d43dc2e167793e2c7f4c467e467d39
'2011-12-05T18:02:16-05:00'
describe
'24231' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOK' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
288fd4664a14ed167a48a1f8c0d4276d
692de417664617e0b298ffa5632cf2933c5141da
describe
'3244248' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOL' 'sip-files00043.tif'
f8f6cffbf8cbbecaf5f314392ef43546
d97ad916e68605eba5828292a2dd1f84c7b4a63c
describe
'818' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOM' 'sip-files00043.txt'
ce3e333a4e2fcd5b3b73964cd688226b
f2db1923bd8651cc148165d6b31f30c294679a93
describe
'6730' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYON' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
47dd42bf37857322479aa367239390ad
d4e69a46310aa80a2600e9ffcc168c4722fb5fe3
describe
'402879' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOO' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
d72fa56094db107d4ca80d949b0bd6bd
1be458a5ccc5b8c8cb839c3d7d67ed93ae975098
describe
'81667' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOP' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
c3bdb247fba35f6ad393da920fe2705b
345d3ff27b12bf33dfb426bfb10e8c9557df7456
describe
'27698' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOQ' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
b000d07f8a59a300ef9c0482c181e700
4047ee709cabd1444c1056f73b5437d073b57295
describe
'3244388' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOR' 'sip-files00044.tif'
0dc72dc1684adbbf31c73481595e005e
2724a94c911d9741ff0e66b858735c1573de2a5d
'2011-12-05T18:00:38-05:00'
describe
'1033' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOS' 'sip-files00044.txt'
ba57facacd16288400fdc22c61fa4328
12250c67143f0c04a48fd731fe040d470502d773
'2011-12-05T18:02:15-05:00'
describe
'7593' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOT' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
89384bd5863381fe8f8ba73f90fae195
adf67d9c05144bff2e081b424fd3269a8bfa4d21
'2011-12-05T18:01:01-05:00'
describe
'402845' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOU' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
89806e1b8ad123d9da1cb1b8107e8263
8a90e58d9e785dcbaf7c4aa182ff2a56f23ee546
describe
'98767' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOV' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
bcb1c16f0f64961f496cd12e7c1fc096
59d520be9a9d96876c1df8c1e629d4ce9714da46
describe
'32934' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOW' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
1fd13cc7117daeca38620291850ee76a
ff8a3fe1c1a13a21a059ede88148fdce80ed15bf
describe
'3244776' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOX' 'sip-files00045.tif'
dd1a32c6e26fac9a0975a9464c9845a1
9a94943466273b91afcfb6453ad563aad3d96f94
'2011-12-05T17:59:52-05:00'
describe
'1158' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOY' 'sip-files00045.txt'
ba5491240a50d53c493b05e8fb7787e4
a917efcae90f9761ea86f2aa888a3bcac8794e15
describe
'8760' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYOZ' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
98c6b03e545de6d5d8e14d5d616793e5
a1a3245490088e2ce5291a3507dda78a31fe7a90
describe
'402866' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPA' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
9a7c9d70d181bc8fd1394841ef94deba
9f58f99666d6b5961a0f072cf6a067978309c89d
describe
'89696' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPB' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
eb2141dde039786da870e84b070c327a
b4eb4ffb9665fdb999e5d0e7017251769972e00f
describe
'29984' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPC' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
71559c1efac8494e9bb97ce2e241c02e
bb14e208468cac78d9cbaa95cf2f598e3d8a8b99
'2011-12-05T18:01:50-05:00'
describe
'3244704' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPD' 'sip-files00046.tif'
480bf01291e68b3d4328d04e0b5a5688
15df2d28cd8f1790cf9a444308792b67293a3f97
describe
'1082' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPE' 'sip-files00046.txt'
8453cf7ba0cca058389d325347bafbbc
9b29d283528e1c33f19dcc0ee83b19e789ae6263
describe
'8143' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPF' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
2dc0b7a2c077d4d7be273bd818516f81
6509c5962fd4b2f22af1be132135520d028c547e
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPG' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
58476fcc3e9bea4e8ae4db037f68c650
6c4d64c90dbfef7ab3b37f4fec2ec57d717810f0
describe
'89520' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPH' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
70bd1a287a0e325f9bf0226ebb8eda43
cad6c58f43bb9b8004370292d78e441f8948fc1e
describe
'29183' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPI' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
605f1aed68e7c68de26370bde19f808e
a0e60352773f888ee9880102bf3674db63c60992
'2011-12-05T18:00:41-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPJ' 'sip-files00047.tif'
77142fb5b9156e294e9aa4fe69fa90b1
debfb1c74c5dfb4a4e59322d6c6c5069edcf1e84
describe
'974' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPK' 'sip-files00047.txt'
7999abf9fd1cba5bf28a406c0cc45748
d059f6b2a2629f804ac57870827c5e0f2bf2d3ee
'2011-12-05T17:59:24-05:00'
describe
'8024' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPL' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
a8f2979958465dff94cb4e484d3e900e
b3c0278b1160862736a290c23e16fcd2028e5c8f
'2011-12-05T17:59:14-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPM' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
3dd31e8976ee845107a5d276bf957bab
746911e09ef7a424ab306f030813afc457d12a6c
'2011-12-05T18:02:07-05:00'
describe
'84448' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPN' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
778d84eb3ef6b3dc1bfabc21d40c853e
2b8759b8fd7ad661ec7b6bf6ba0d3df70130c403
'2011-12-05T18:00:42-05:00'
describe
'28228' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPO' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
ecfe251213a4b5942e266d727dd1604f
4a2271e6c332050ba855d28f2b5ef5df931fb69a
describe
'3244276' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPP' 'sip-files00048.tif'
6bdd08ff76dd0fc400b7f69271cfaa0b
63f495746e8040333c53afe57c4e6aec260a325a
describe
'994' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPQ' 'sip-files00048.txt'
3b5e1b188ab732bb290b07097f8337d3
d759bd1fa503778757a726a96c4ff1038c2d77ab
describe
'7387' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPR' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
9adb2a67fe6e10fac5033f051f3ffeea
e921a853c3406d0bd7ffb12ec0f9c3236a53861f
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPS' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
9a25add44934ca51b213f07da978e800
0bf7079cd3315d2b1ce063040c9527ab04596964
describe
'84742' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPT' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
206997ace5977aa78d3e7efece0221ed
da3298b550a823ec3ed60661187e32b7bfcc94e2
'2011-12-05T18:00:08-05:00'
describe
'28661' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPU' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
879f998fc2412c9ba869ddf585425b70
18c8a5cc3fcda9c8baa597050e689e94311ca915
'2011-12-05T18:00:28-05:00'
describe
'3244552' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPV' 'sip-files00049.tif'
66279649b8933dcc7314092420078dfb
47ccd8a029454e720ab125092644ae28cea5bdd3
'2011-12-05T17:59:43-05:00'
describe
'1040' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPW' 'sip-files00049.txt'
e8d05f786482dc73fa12bcff1411e4aa
6aab37f1e68467c66cf277833270d925a06a822f
'2011-12-05T17:59:31-05:00'
describe
'7791' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPX' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
ac06ff0d61eb628d43e7fbead8c9bd6f
8966ec24cc5840aed1ff5147ee1ccd3081f80b1b
describe
'402827' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPY' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
ff9107e05b8e315b15a54c04ecf10e11
49821bb306f5dafc10aa9a4b73ba8d4fbe71e246
describe
'88604' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYPZ' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
c29c8a69902900c1f783121c14691c36
e84ee33ca55a606640b002da556e10f46e7e1ee1
describe
'30220' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQA' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
06afd611a37229e83595f86ce08de86e
2b169dfac685def8d6cf9dc937bb4f7a73ade9f1
describe
'3244864' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQB' 'sip-files00050.tif'
33b37798c2b7af630ed9168fbacdaf7a
c36eb2eb0264323f2d19b239db0d6aef2d714ccf
describe
'1312' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQC' 'sip-files00050.txt'
d316bc265a73f9102b58b82e1fcfeb9b
3bd6ac85cc229244352bafd20344dd5bbe56993f
describe
'7853' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQD' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
6d3b5df25ae25fd57ce73a076b9c1cb0
648b8e991aea0a3f8312efdf00b2fcc56cd74ba8
'2011-12-05T18:01:57-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQE' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
56e7d977cdb33ed19696daa3c6fa7323
a3cbf83c9f0589a06ee133c37bb179e09088da36
describe
'74280' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQF' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
5ff009b8ab1cf5bc8b241c0beea15084
7cef28b80ed7d183d2926b2698b70068f5670bbb
describe
'24857' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQG' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
9b98f4542ef2c4feae5e517f2485fe55
3ab015e4d226289411529b2a721426fdd385bc9e
'2011-12-05T18:01:54-05:00'
describe
'3244012' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQH' 'sip-files00051.tif'
b9d3fa3ddba7cc99df81c389d47ccd30
1b477113aa16ae6353636e11f074003726510717
'2011-12-05T18:01:08-05:00'
describe
'958' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQI' 'sip-files00051.txt'
dfe748794b5be1260a7df811f0c9b375
bde3361e6e320f00f855a9e76d80aa59a21dfaed
'2011-12-05T17:59:22-05:00'
describe
'6581' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQJ' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
f29242d4e220e69443ceb26e2b047eec
7fc4b10beade502d4138f60cce7e5f276c3bd71c
'2011-12-05T17:59:37-05:00'
describe
'402842' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQK' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
a3c02f1a2ebd06addbeba514d15c632c
ca9dde0df782461f49953a1e828923049addd972
describe
'86804' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQL' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
d56f9490a2f72cacf1aafc026752b2e7
a59f4b626e251e0d6c1efbdbf1d8b4128bf667fe
describe
'28940' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQM' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
955af32aa2ca45f2e30e75abce7911a3
70e1c5fa513363e0e5f6cbc7096a622807c9cdbb
describe
'3244408' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQN' 'sip-files00052.tif'
6e06b73490bb49cd12b63e8e9a690bd0
cdd7b4f9bc2a077095af815f0804b1595e82374f
describe
'1107' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQO' 'sip-files00052.txt'
69793801c1141d182846930b1e3a51e1
685b16b03b60afadbdf0dda2b110217cb92a7f62
describe
'7925' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQP' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
2ebeed0c5e26891fa4c304aa83eeb7d8
6073e44dc48a468845021eb0d6344fc355bd880a
describe
'405436' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQQ' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
90c01de9c0bf49985670a7c44f7e6e5a
55d3cf56b24db3466b4397d30be54551f553b9f5
describe
'74668' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQR' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
cfc65664902806458935ec65cef9dff6
3a513a39c52ad8e19f73fd0277e7996c1c0df005
describe
'24344' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQS' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
2fbd683283f6af4aa31ce96be26b8ab4
1aadf0c6e8a95554f3b27cc02edc83efc5a21926
'2011-12-05T17:59:26-05:00'
describe
'3265448' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQT' 'sip-files00053.tif'
a77aefca22300e1f388960ffd854d39d
8411e02169c3224cb605857915ad1b191ee47af7
describe
'791' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQU' 'sip-files00053.txt'
912afd38f0815cc47025c4e15fab13fa
e8a133737963e651e0b664c7d86ce5c4c9ab24e9
describe
'6888' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQV' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
993024e238e79ea3db42655b8c10c45c
f016b7173dd068b8617493db55bf0ebf8c9767ba
describe
'402825' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQW' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
a153b3169a841160e5b857c93de24a95
e3ca8ebbec3bb3730d02b19c6722c3ec9f8767af
describe
'80814' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQX' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
bdc68b436e05d43f7a0c0bdc771188e2
ff7a877544156b3ff7078ad92e2e984fc0624797
describe
'27625' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQY' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
1221751a22b872dfec57ae620ea9e28e
89924fc58748f71584e2b9d95da48f51d6501055
describe
'3244528' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYQZ' 'sip-files00054.tif'
8660f461eee3abb9b17dc5e1afa0282f
5b9f6cd0d086bc824ec7055131f0d9183c2f6302
describe
'983' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRA' 'sip-files00054.txt'
d062992fc2be80c866768ea394f2aa72
8121895d7e6c5d600ebca641231883110427a483
'2011-12-05T18:00:33-05:00'
describe
'7684' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRB' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
61de31844a738b0222c8261746e9d430
1914eb2275a2e2b508194838df318714a76ff90e
describe
'402873' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRC' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
0f52f4f16583022791174a2f91cae722
9d00aa27a68814aa1174cf43bebe5b2e524f2335
describe
'87389' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRD' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
d6448b4f531293bda0f53dab59afaf5f
43f3eb08f22f41a7cdb50ebee3c3e6123e9c9df7
'2011-12-05T18:00:56-05:00'
describe
'29210' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRE' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
a69284b3d73e983bb0fd348ee0986c37
193801ae6e0e75ca8c516178141ff9031979c1f0
describe
'3244728' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRF' 'sip-files00055.tif'
48b9d8bc7098a013e1e9dd26e7759f6b
54db168ef190e5caf952bd8124b06ef91e692b23
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRG' 'sip-files00055.txt'
4b4cb9013176b58b25cbc86852958fa9
5e7267486de5d88b50d19150ec249dc06cabfb80
'2011-12-05T18:02:13-05:00'
describe
'7920' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRH' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
16b6968b236a7d51711edb6ad93a635d
ac0381799e886788bdefa3b13c0418f199e9a12d
describe
'402861' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRI' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
9758b3348265a13d1dbf4330b436ca15
ac52597c81ca1f946b0b0f46cca7cc1edb4d721f
'2011-12-05T18:01:46-05:00'
describe
'99628' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRJ' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
bd8474504fd00466771fbd4112d2dd0c
b6c995723fa6cdf9ae69584f0d0aeb96b6bc89b5
describe
'33562' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRK' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
452ec62f9df9e070f3f8aea31dd228ac
d090e940f1f369016911ab9e4cb4e307ecd42e6b
describe
'3245188' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRL' 'sip-files00056.tif'
5c33027db9a8b785287a25e5a7d644fb
b5e5c49388750b8295d8661621610c269bfb70c0
describe
'1253' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRM' 'sip-files00056.txt'
9985ad2194325404303a32352680904b
22c7342d9b3a1fbff4d3c5e4cb845a158c115cf3
describe
'8485' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRN' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
6b46e83cad798a3fe54fadc7653582dc
b8c228860fa9ad763f07ea4a46fa9cfd7b12905c
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRO' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
a30bc4c2b40e3a80c771601db7db9b7a
2aaf990f8a3aba54ccdc1a35f4e2f0a20f359c2b
describe
'104159' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRP' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
a7a8d3dd64bb1c3824453c7a53fdfefa
22098ba8c704c8c314e4ef895c465d5b82a58fa6
'2011-12-05T18:00:46-05:00'
describe
'33186' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRQ' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
5ad134f13c098a523705b62a2e8b3f31
d4315b70d9d495358cc6d39d4577b16a5f8152df
'2011-12-05T18:00:49-05:00'
describe
'3245292' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRR' 'sip-files00057.tif'
29b81e6163f76d33ba0a78be53039e9c
c526938b752a783a1ac14b1f9cbb05101f624095
describe
'875' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRS' 'sip-files00057.txt'
2d8172fca7709fcbedfdae14ab8bd711
f210b76502ed7722bcb5a4ac3ea6ad17aff95b05
describe
'8818' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRT' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
3cf527806a4762fb6e6163386eb56fb0
415755390fb3705fd797463c3f566c235078515f
describe
'402856' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRU' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
d642ca8de44dd76f777f525d7dd440a6
1b9f30906d17f016512b931b40838fa8bbc0ef98
describe
'85715' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRV' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
d9b7cee6e0bc023e48ba945472bedde5
4c97bbfd69ebc166d13cb1324ed46a0e703de65d
'2011-12-05T18:00:35-05:00'
describe
'29452' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRW' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
4d628ef9df87f69d662e3583f0389ccd
e13e0d05a21aec3a562a7f169fcc5671ffc18efa
'2011-12-05T18:01:42-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRX' 'sip-files00058.tif'
2e6f5b33979e2eaa13e148b62ee2b32a
1b42050207bdc7f52a94fee874475df6ba1fa218
'2011-12-05T18:00:34-05:00'
describe
'1167' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRY' 'sip-files00058.txt'
390d84f94383b4f39ab453e56d56151d
fd1e49c98af78bd9beaa820cbc41bf8882148bb4
'2011-12-05T17:59:16-05:00'
describe
'7786' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYRZ' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
2798be536749c374d1145b73d1588c0d
6629a4e9e062c6ba540bb0b641db1481d8f3ec18
describe
'398048' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSA' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
12c008aae23f1e8955fa18cd34ee7f05
326ab66c84112a9a364555b16a552b1cb0ba92f1
describe
'96004' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSB' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
11ff14a40df4290b32f1e18dec3a5b30
a711252d329e9d622194bfa5c5ec1a266c47f6ae
describe
'32194' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSC' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
9618d1024274b3a9a9c65f0cafcb833d
4087dc345c30fe0825585878e011a006df594c3c
describe
'3206456' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSD' 'sip-files00059.tif'
d9bf3a26d8a216137d1c2678727d142e
2f7fa694b3f87dbbfb0d4fd57414cd4aabade7db
describe
'1035' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSE' 'sip-files00059.txt'
6960a7c05d51617d7ab2c4c34adb2926
d695f1749d6035b5a476497cb45cf6ca7ee7c0ec
'2011-12-05T18:01:10-05:00'
describe
'8292' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSF' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
74a55efb437bad9db96c0f544862aaa0
88938082b405415ac004c508951d3c7e88fb4aca
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSG' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
0e6201258881ec9be5320304c4605e0b
10a384593e4a3f26366bbcf73d487f01bf17597d
describe
'84754' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSH' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
8335d64c6a7f1ee484cf634acd7b1d7a
d5697da30e20d71b22e6803dc91cbd0ddcbc43ff
describe
'27321' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSI' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
693fdd1a47230c022bbf716354b18b77
9af058457a79110309c398a01446b02a81e9c4db
describe
'3244592' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSJ' 'sip-files00060.tif'
155bb9860ec31086b0bdff9ca505c366
4cc9d7c8870c5f58f5e55bc772c2fdf9d7f46384
'2011-12-05T17:59:44-05:00'
describe
'1045' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSK' 'sip-files00060.txt'
de8520328c8859a2e3256b2816802d88
90ecc3a7eab0e305eb660674d3ca6f538f9247de
describe
'7771' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSL' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
57787fab37e9c0c00fe93f37f6c4f5b7
ae8f3408739951dd200f746d306f17cc914283bc
'2011-12-05T18:00:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSM' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
5d44cadf270b0d060447038a667bb386
071b54a3593a5c17abd5c5461406de485fc62af8
describe
'81047' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSN' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
52e816a2f2080aa094eefd7d0ef5e304
d950ad6ed85a5540765e618d8997e9ce6bfe4a62
'2011-12-05T18:01:47-05:00'
describe
'26535' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSO' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
850625e4715d7ba4fe26ed21d954835e
3cb0394930a886c8d136134b93a1660efe01bd59
describe
'3244088' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSP' 'sip-files00061.tif'
312bc7d90b1e3ab13a0352eefc960181
b424adccb46b8e6149d2b9950c860f5f239a34f0
describe
'835' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSQ' 'sip-files00061.txt'
d37a3cd8f6f367a95c53f3790d86f705
938cafa8cf324ee3c61df033131a632e2c4eccba
'2011-12-05T18:00:29-05:00'
describe
'7455' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSR' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
fa7fca3e3848231134de478b6e951b7c
3d7d4a594d48f049d1cc634775b90a52c76c923b
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSS' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
d48e643a81c572a3d0055fe14dea0ec7
0d134a4f352c3f2fc01e9ef0a44abdd31407113d
describe
'91033' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYST' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
0218594229bc899006da84f03afa44e2
90e8d9f115a69218a795561d3e666d8c9bafd3cf
'2011-12-05T18:02:37-05:00'
describe
'29319' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSU' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
6d5a51d1066bf86d29c437893051bd0b
23d8c5a69708c634a0ae70a89a0c4bf5d48b9f54
describe
'3244880' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSV' 'sip-files00062.tif'
dc8e38912bea030751acff5de06e4e9f
96b470c7df20b4b861f2582ac534613cfe2d01b3
describe
'911' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSW' 'sip-files00062.txt'
76ca6a850b8d3fe4d53716cb1916d9c2
5aed6db769c804e996153ca34bc00ed0810a8531
describe
'8061' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSX' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
b729edc933e472f43aa9e2145cd8f516
12b6807756a0c00601456455a22415bd88a396d4
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSY' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
ae7d0de1fb70fbeabd5152f57f96b282
32fee762bd310b6354098df91c744beed0406d3c
describe
'97880' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYSZ' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
ff5d3d5e32de3b665725796eb494b056
c222f3dd44b667b1a49f3469e36758acaff530c6
describe
'31958' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTA' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
660d1632bdad3b0e1e8d84e7824ab4ee
78b8597d99c700328ac54fd04d392dd4ce83f418
describe
'3244772' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTB' 'sip-files00063.tif'
15bfb2ba2856e260e34a0690e29164e7
f83fe7252bfd7997601fead8ece9dada07efa427
describe
'1211' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTC' 'sip-files00063.txt'
5e41c0e8c56726ae32e0001470059921
944714508dc6b7e059b3bad7a6975b568a09a8a9
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTD' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
38c6fcbd1213b84665a60f55e77945a7
d97b58dbb7b2d61ece3e1d6c67e6b739af8bf586
describe
'402853' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTE' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
0acbfea4d57fc202296913f2063fcdaf
63663376a30e36e7d16409d218376cc65e6ed188
'2011-12-05T18:01:51-05:00'
describe
'91348' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTF' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
57e5ffa89c63b50d6cc0193c6934719b
7daad128f8b855d984adbf99bfd070f957208131
describe
'31158' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTG' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
f4364e2256ec1c6ee200cf1669b3719b
e04ba89d2b4804ec6e078282f96edc8367d83bc1
'2011-12-05T17:59:28-05:00'
describe
'3245048' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTH' 'sip-files00064.tif'
bcb69db1859c3aa5216329b40101d9b6
e9de1875774cd32a50c9f4911f6611a15e2d1ec8
describe
'1100' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTI' 'sip-files00064.txt'
6b155ba56ab6a0d22daa729945f4b986
f5c94011d417def60610320aa798188ec76d1ce9
describe
'8362' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTJ' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
9ea5f8eee26aee1285239a51d035ed16
eb84faf55692c8c49ec0ca389176518d1b19b0b3
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTK' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
1a9d54ace84a7c9536c8f3db396b28c0
f3b24dc5b39a6f5a65a8f6e92983333f002d27c6
describe
'79759' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTL' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
7dfec009631c600360bdc8dc7806cb49
a51cc89d32704b4dfd59325ab4a1e97efec7805c
describe
'26101' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTM' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
59a21b60a6a4f4b7c2d658a3cf4a7321
1a759e944a0fd1bf64c0fba4153c5f7c0903d831
describe
'3244316' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTN' 'sip-files00065.tif'
54e89ea0d218b6c1cdbfa0930311c255
8ef60317a65e6ef79f752f09c943d323a3175db6
describe
'1161' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTO' 'sip-files00065.txt'
13d50f300e8a37e1a00b261c2cdc0b60
a5c2699bfac191a06e88bfbb2fb89d6922169e4a
describe
'7492' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTP' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
5595caf0f721bb82f136313554daf226
e960ce356329488b35e584909a186a9ef96aa0d5
'2011-12-05T17:59:59-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTQ' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
440116b03036f31886789160de87c0e3
d3a0d08a1654aa08057c29d247ff22cc7f8a27b6
describe
'88212' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTR' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
3178e319bc59736a5e4dc00505ebe0b1
77b00cb47f3b3a5ac36952435ece71113f21f2b4
describe
'29548' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTS' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
d44b6e154612a33c3db410a83fc02b8b
e29696da082c864a8293bd477261c8b120a97217
describe
'3244688' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTT' 'sip-files00066.tif'
125e2a3747c97a2824e1590ee91a5211
8101efa9885fa5a54a088dccd95bba906ccdd39c
'2011-12-05T17:59:58-05:00'
describe
'1065' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTU' 'sip-files00066.txt'
50ae018793a2374baf5969100971f6fb
b5c556c3c6f00a4e56b94d3eab1735ef56bed9c7
describe
'7935' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTV' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
c224a66c8dffbfe02a78874c5ccc559d
549f9f1124e7f4539baeb94d1222f432d2822086
describe
'411110' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTW' 'sip-files00067.jp2'
22f3575061e6d7e828ead759ccca771a
274704ba030a01bdfd5ce7d279054f01171cd542
describe
'87348' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTX' 'sip-files00067.jpg'
26e884f7e77c55913fd5799099eb5f9c
eff23049621ca8f2f232f53a1ab099ca4951ae50
describe
'28921' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTY' 'sip-files00067.QC.jpg'
4d3937cc7c476a6c5d1ff6a3f603d3a9
6793553cad21f04c1544b852b5c4b67ea83e9c7a
describe
'3310624' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYTZ' 'sip-files00067.tif'
f764b47633e796e339de5a9d8cce9b19
9817f144559731f25b16a24595921518a048c554
'2011-12-05T18:01:28-05:00'
describe
'1093' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUA' 'sip-files00067.txt'
8c7d6bf56f476c6928c36b77b82a613c
c78b2ad72422e6d4a723c007fa855f7372e759bf
'2011-12-05T17:59:36-05:00'
describe
'7782' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUB' 'sip-files00067thm.jpg'
3408d87ea3972776f27d90188db5a3e9
152b8ab35aa158ff9d44eb8c827abcfcfc8c6922
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUC' 'sip-files00068.jp2'
4748cc8e1a911836a0161810b9fe875f
6ad5998de6c7747276d5bfa15551abe24d472608
describe
'93651' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUD' 'sip-files00068.jpg'
b2fbb4eded4b422e406a7a9a22328cb1
6d342530671d80439b6985036e85b21678f0f4c1
describe
'31222' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUE' 'sip-files00068.QC.jpg'
e441698def8eac8166c1686b3e60d8ef
120929ba7861f9f67592ba48d3ad773a95f17a16
describe
'3244868' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUF' 'sip-files00068.tif'
093538d5191d91d14602735282eedae3
5cf9a19de22a91df4b0c68af171f40a17bd3109c
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUG' 'sip-files00068.txt'
d11e6e078e6c7fdeb87881f5af65bcc5
769a4f0cb2fe56b43fdfa57e98ecb80926a8698f
describe
'8195' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUH' 'sip-files00068thm.jpg'
43382d7ec39cf2259b118b8e9f8ac6aa
250f4909ee70441b83e5bcfec4f6410680542892
'2011-12-05T18:00:05-05:00'
describe
'402876' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUI' 'sip-files00069.jp2'
a1c1f27063f24f87f3c7997531d2eb5d
da74a72b2576045e7ed8172f73890eb9389a673c
describe
'95420' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUJ' 'sip-files00069.jpg'
68e7cf74387657c73d46380fc109a0be
639a6d6b739ab2b9c96c67e67dadee1050b26f4a
describe
'30506' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUK' 'sip-files00069.QC.jpg'
6ac6ee265dc9467bf449775cdcfe6f4b
cd440fb3b926fe94aa98afb6673e58c160ad9129
'2011-12-05T18:00:30-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUL' 'sip-files00069.tif'
b95f60567f0ba17c67620beaad46a829
626c687bc8f6501997dc867f6dee113a6378ee76
describe
'1151' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUM' 'sip-files00069.txt'
703ca4c7a01b89111f8dad2f6a66e707
df8eb3a6bb86760941d9722b00723d51262118c2
describe
'8512' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUN' 'sip-files00069thm.jpg'
3d6ae795236216eb3232784e19b674d4
f110fa4a1c2463d71b513a9f21189e4f7a13b81f
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUO' 'sip-files00070.jp2'
495a69538e5947fb0f69a0602eb8bf4e
b20fba65a8dd38b064ab20f25707c958e8c7e4de
describe
'85137' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUP' 'sip-files00070.jpg'
04df8918212ba041301bb076f38ee33d
27d3bfcacf2533af09ec62e72fd52d639aab7b19
describe
'28390' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUQ' 'sip-files00070.QC.jpg'
da20e3feac471c59a99b749c7a72f355
8753337055caf61e003995ad88aacfd9751f496f
describe
'3244416' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUR' 'sip-files00070.tif'
a5bfc6aefc8ef735c1f6ee346d1da0fa
6d9f95a3bd8824779ee2b15bd0699c5190a0a563
describe
'1109' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUS' 'sip-files00070.txt'
25fea304228dd67e92ce8590868f50e4
575dc7a65d74c43f0a02373769cccb3ce60c694b
describe
'7785' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUT' 'sip-files00070thm.jpg'
f9c7f597e82a7d66e91345196b70257e
767410136f4aca24a76c1f4c5b4eaa4180d2f16f
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUU' 'sip-files00071.jp2'
a543a54a31656dcc13986c36a70e1521
6f59013f89cf63ab348a43075d4b6ea2af6443bd
describe
'104481' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUV' 'sip-files00071.jpg'
927912c6d7ce7546869cefd095d3641a
449ea237874ed2d255da1ed3178191e8f116cc7f
describe
'34512' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUW' 'sip-files00071.QC.jpg'
47abe243a4d3731a2d08f4de92a83bf0
039cae6fc024d9986007cc73f629dabb7ce56f47
describe
'3244860' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUX' 'sip-files00071.tif'
9c45282a7dae4b6de3cb2ed6cbab5b0e
113f818cfb7d002451fbd67e2486695c03242231
describe
'1308' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUY' 'sip-files00071.txt'
3681934c6b2eb722083bc1d24dbc1520
289f3f4e7b4be8a4e9d8e807093e8d0a4cc0917e
describe
'9141' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYUZ' 'sip-files00071thm.jpg'
3d4fa61a62e0eae00ccf5a91050383d3
43c5c6f0f1ffd2c45b74dd3e8c43f77c7d99be49
'2011-12-05T18:02:27-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVA' 'sip-files00072.jp2'
9272cf65a8b3dca21a4f62510579a699
65d25629f849a05c1d4a99d370d10160ecb2c2a1
describe
'99069' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVB' 'sip-files00072.jpg'
13ddade676830063e292ebd3cca1165e
d2a785f8c24ed16e2068056c66b78e23eb435c09
'2011-12-05T18:02:19-05:00'
describe
'32789' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVC' 'sip-files00072.QC.jpg'
9ccbdd0fd28ca0433269b58007332f90
14d9bde23567dff3396161f51cdf4e6894cf59cf
'2011-12-05T18:01:43-05:00'
describe
'3244956' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVD' 'sip-files00072.tif'
5982c3c1487211064af44dee2f165179
78cf42fabcd9407dbb2520dc1bcb3ba9cd2da37e
describe
'1213' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVE' 'sip-files00072.txt'
bed8731d962ada48b11912889d4b9ad3
e9db092911e24ed15c7a12dbf63dc82066e64518
describe
'8701' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVF' 'sip-files00072thm.jpg'
ebda3059788000955b739f9bf6ada935
ee3158ff9d9db3a183ff0c6c95121d91a0fad164
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVG' 'sip-files00073.jp2'
6c9982a603bff15684bd3269912dfa7f
95c4fd234933f307e63d320924a46a07a65f648d
describe
'96506' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVH' 'sip-files00073.jpg'
8891332c582e9858c7c1a57325d95cb9
4b2eeaf09003c7cea7cf77ac50a7e93e4729e91a
describe
'31877' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVI' 'sip-files00073.QC.jpg'
c1808ce9f90cb3bed44356dac9dfdffe
b4e64a064bf2118cef543a1b33c7722f7d4d2cc8
describe
'3244820' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVJ' 'sip-files00073.tif'
2b67a9cdd8433f515dac1d4a385ae358
359ee9f78de2f930216044ec0155923e2a132bdb
'2011-12-05T18:01:39-05:00'
describe
'1176' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVK' 'sip-files00073.txt'
ff2b381476a794dbbd73b2438cacbd99
48a767bf0e517bfe43c40808f252c45df84d0c8e
describe
'8428' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVL' 'sip-files00073thm.jpg'
acd6ad6bd01ba49c19d2e5265e5f6dec
7eebac72a019573b1ef9440f3da08db3f663ad48
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVM' 'sip-files00074.jp2'
7f47e9b914e6efffebc3871414c05718
a9f4fd74518ce629e9775369603a56db02d0b86f
describe
'99150' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVN' 'sip-files00074.jpg'
b01a0f44d9b0ad72732570d41adf91f1
19ed567a5d711bc7cfdc44e615e10393fd48e8d2
describe
'32678' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVO' 'sip-files00074.QC.jpg'
6f47080712d05e5de9c8e30696d468ee
f6aa6a15272214d2e5cd008361f191a83a62557a
describe
'3245008' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVP' 'sip-files00074.tif'
1bfbab750db7dca12c65fb610a56ba88
56c8b9e4f8fa5f7caf2247e6c9b699e5b2c2cffd
describe
'1220' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVQ' 'sip-files00074.txt'
b02cf0d0e2ca7dc86a648076bbb26662
44ebca00001d3cdf9d59579593b0f412f6ed80ba
describe
'8782' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVR' 'sip-files00074thm.jpg'
86261f83a4aba76685a227bab2a583ec
bc7d5dfedd8ee46c5e7507fb9c52d6b88aeb5b75
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVS' 'sip-files00075.jp2'
3a59e524c65857d79b9ca9444645d68b
bd74646abd29306757795dc5774d6978c494f373
'2011-12-05T17:59:34-05:00'
describe
'90210' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVT' 'sip-files00075.jpg'
13c96f2be320780aafae3ef0cec9413c
830582adce3fb560cce3f80890d14e092b5e523f
describe
'29838' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVU' 'sip-files00075.QC.jpg'
664ac309f586b9f1e9667323aa5822ac
cea6da7a519700c481520fb8755c05b815c32626
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVV' 'sip-files00075.tif'
b93e7c677bdfad903c25183760dff788
bb34c5593f138d07fe363ccad5331b6bf95bd711
describe
'1072' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVW' 'sip-files00075.txt'
489b2501806188b0ad8348b2c5fade71
6e144c30317be45330ed1c9b1c0e76ae510f5406
describe
'7993' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVX' 'sip-files00075thm.jpg'
f9580e48b037fdb8b7f77bdf11430b7c
f69c22c76bf3455a8c211c1c3bcdfb3c1b9acfb8
'2011-12-05T18:00:03-05:00'
describe
'402872' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVY' 'sip-files00076.jp2'
7dac00d982f63c760652863bf12ba2a2
a2cf5e9b23c5114a85fb5a2488fd947e617a3a4d
describe
'94132' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYVZ' 'sip-files00076.jpg'
b3bf5cb1652dfdd503630b9fac69a588
e8cde0b75e28e02399a570d9a5b7a96e3d60fe7d
describe
'29571' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWA' 'sip-files00076.QC.jpg'
ae9004ffeb8d94e62ec0dbebdf3c3a7a
07f84693178f2dec9ac5e185de202b67111ae0b1
describe
'3244572' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWB' 'sip-files00076.tif'
f60f4f7ff0439a89794d6ca8ccebe876
1e30c9cdf03b6cfffe9f6d0c706b4c757a7161ab
describe
'1237' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWC' 'sip-files00076.txt'
ee213c58e530473e7ea369a69973ad82
ab3abf7ddd99fda66697cbb3943a95d8fe31dce5
describe
'7991' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWD' 'sip-files00076thm.jpg'
0ad5a2186ccf35683c9791147482fe61
eec20460d9a07366d3d6a1a4915d60f353d1ac1c
describe
'402847' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWE' 'sip-files00077.jp2'
292965fa8c81e08e10f21a880baaff7f
d5bb105729f8ec0483bb20117a6fcd3a2bea56f2
describe
'92033' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWF' 'sip-files00077.jpg'
42c93f7edaef7ee28885db43e6b25d4f
f49b272cb7d2565b713366ecb5d6c6786fc236e3
describe
'29847' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWG' 'sip-files00077.QC.jpg'
8dfa77b7115b051aff8660e3d8e9d3e7
12a43a03029ab6ded3f9593c37c2e24f2b9b9501
describe
'3244612' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWH' 'sip-files00077.tif'
b22ed4083fb5ef32120871deaef34f60
ccd0c9506a2667d15786d9a8d4bbe6c49af0add5
describe
'1049' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWI' 'sip-files00077.txt'
a6c9cfb26f08584935fcbebbf48942fa
0883f83757c6fd4c7fb3513d18d4085566b6f0a7
describe
'7861' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWJ' 'sip-files00077thm.jpg'
e302521e4698e038c3143caaa05ad0f5
1c11183cbabbef87de586aa94dac1cc88b9de265
describe
'402835' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWK' 'sip-files00078.jp2'
c0a847c636d49738c89543ae1dea35e5
b8f6db3bc1e52f1d279123bc6b2ebf1c49d596d2
describe
'103299' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWL' 'sip-files00078.jpg'
5cc151a6eb52f9f49e24ca1bb2f96861
6f50162f5cfa0781a0a6f7dc77404c050af308e7
describe
'33324' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWM' 'sip-files00078.QC.jpg'
7d461b508798bb938d8a5594b9ad05db
39b38e8fba20d207b4d4aa8234537f44920f33a5
describe
'3245092' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWN' 'sip-files00078.tif'
f1f5d47f05af31add9976c500d56f962
e687c2e9b5e1f61ad0fed98b9c10cf500d7e48e2
describe
'1254' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWO' 'sip-files00078.txt'
f2396aa9e9f4c37c001aa656b72d066f
df4bd3e2b04a9e745a4736e5753febce13d139fa
describe
'8638' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWP' 'sip-files00078thm.jpg'
9bffac6b57821327df5c3e5937dc4d65
3160f514a6e92b731866ebd3c890e6074f21f09d
describe
'402828' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWQ' 'sip-files00079.jp2'
b6fd5036a986fd9019fe9ddbe7334789
4bf4845e3781aabefc0b8f13ad36dadaf8cbdc77
describe
'90075' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWR' 'sip-files00079.jpg'
f0fe8860e808f898a106343c9e69a556
84c3ae562332ee580f286bfeac698488a05a6dcc
describe
'29387' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWS' 'sip-files00079.QC.jpg'
a2996a7a76eec41fadd1d6f5e922fc92
c36fed379a39bbd0e90d7063e1f5c3eb7180dc8b
describe
'3244588' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWT' 'sip-files00079.tif'
314e84986aab071c4e50add16dac303d
72218a58c41ad718372011385e5689c3a19277db
'2011-12-05T18:01:52-05:00'
describe
'1042' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWU' 'sip-files00079.txt'
d837ddbab28d289e61c1eb9b4a33925d
6b300065b63c84076d04abd4ee4a1a5d9366a273
describe
Invalid character
'8045' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWV' 'sip-files00079thm.jpg'
0a437c3e8ddb6492332aa991f00080bc
4a48826f352dae59e9089c402defde493c438827
describe
'402871' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWW' 'sip-files00080.jp2'
6793fda84069ede1ee524983d82cf204
d7c174d9a29d508c2878b901f42f3622093e318e
describe
'102149' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWX' 'sip-files00080.jpg'
91e859315dccc6b4a3c33de205c769f9
10962c61b8d14194537edf82b59651aeab947894
describe
'34787' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWY' 'sip-files00080.QC.jpg'
22acdf1bc314130f7c795ad641115254
646eab71b416f82f2591a3d33adacca12f54dde9
describe
'3245152' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYWZ' 'sip-files00080.tif'
7f9a0d4a643876fad8d800cf247459df
d431888645d47fb01afe2f6f6f0819a87c2da48d
describe
'1292' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXA' 'sip-files00080.txt'
6c04d79ea364a8307c33aad3666731d5
41b3363b35ba88aa770b1fa4aa39a4a39760b061
describe
'8763' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXB' 'sip-files00080thm.jpg'
7bfacac44d4880c39830df9b0c277b4a
9546fcf3a375df336b1ba7d5b77cd6ef76cd23c0
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXC' 'sip-files00081.jp2'
048bf2f738ce3fa66f6cea68c89fa4fa
be29844e20aa8db2e401d7e38929435d50e251cd
'2011-12-05T18:00:09-05:00'
describe
'97409' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXD' 'sip-files00081.jpg'
785fd385f0d4456bdea46dc4073cbdbb
2b9bbb28799b7be669473a782cefffc056239de9
describe
'30311' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXE' 'sip-files00081.QC.jpg'
881eee7683bd2803bcc8baaf2e4678fc
862504d2b05f544a8319da541c2e7a82337b3c3d
describe
'3244904' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXF' 'sip-files00081.tif'
5c3629ecd1cc1009af2ee6cb9cd07cc5
75d1a1d642532abd27d84a245375bce216c9d087
describe
'826' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXG' 'sip-files00081.txt'
faa8b55c75cc451fca1a4d3a625d2490
0f9456b6683f60ad7501cb8233c446c65725c299
describe
'7688' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXH' 'sip-files00081thm.jpg'
028046145a8f0a82270b03b9b159265c
5dab779c3f6829d0ec702319424eb314264ef5e5
describe
'402782' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXI' 'sip-files00082.jp2'
ba3439eb128fbb09e2a84c2a2618dcce
c28aaadaf89071fe034bc16c3052c4dd2c3bcb1b
describe
'61753' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXJ' 'sip-files00082.jpg'
254e9f9df9a9f6242892d22e4b62708b
49dcbc2d79b950bd7b1f24405d722eb7420bec78
describe
'19816' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXK' 'sip-files00082.QC.jpg'
84fc669233f8ffb4aaf3d7215405acef
ff4e1ac9cffa83c190c87fd77cdd9f9e7bfe3822
describe
'3243188' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXL' 'sip-files00082.tif'
fc029bffe47b0d693c4518c075073e8d
3f509d6e22a333df674fd1fd952c4f44b5f05abc
describe
'1145' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXM' 'sip-files00082.txt'
adc45410a5672c7774b2c3ffeae019aa
c2b4098533d82ce5795a06268cd63ab4cf893bc8
describe
'5611' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXN' 'sip-files00082thm.jpg'
ab95be0f0ece2b1ab4a9ae5af4bfb169
8044b4c2336f43e3878e2392fb2d81e645b4aae1
describe
'402883' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXO' 'sip-files00083.jp2'
739df554d6cd8b368b2b744ce6803c40
54ab45f7256324c96981ac9b51a3f5a0b6b94012
describe
'96125' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXP' 'sip-files00083.jpg'
64ca37ada02c5e3684ee1769656b8abd
5465def529bfd7d2fa18c5f4876a471654a4f43a
describe
'31421' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXQ' 'sip-files00083.QC.jpg'
d93c752600bfd67bb78c1660aff26171
7ae50e94c67fd00db8882728b04feac2800234fe
describe
'3244976' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXR' 'sip-files00083.tif'
5bf61b4b7a5b8b1de3cfbe0037835a50
ed2dcb56da4f91cfb89d75bb8fbe22ca9ad351f4
describe
'1207' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXS' 'sip-files00083.txt'
a100b5ef27cd4f65f1fea17a645b3fa8
1de5b9122acfd30320104d641047db3f097ecd62
describe
'8331' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXT' 'sip-files00083thm.jpg'
707da102a947ee967d56075a7d86f87d
ce0e60884611800d527f36afa7d31f7d2946f515
'2011-12-05T18:02:47-05:00'
describe
'402834' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXU' 'sip-files00084.jp2'
e858f057fc5760a189168e2ccd7c8608
0492a643f64b57e7d4dd898036fc6bca821d7079
describe
'96485' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXV' 'sip-files00084.jpg'
47785c32f45c4048c8e4de111fd0afee
bfb51dbaec591722bc5a8b6ee023ad8b7ce93d79
describe
'32337' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXW' 'sip-files00084.QC.jpg'
c5be93ab0bb680d1930ff4ac13c9411e
f0ecb1889dccbb1d9d0e4fbaacab67d691b084c4
describe
'3244920' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXX' 'sip-files00084.tif'
e8fb13b96456eeaf253b19c89c3ccb5d
dbc0a128ac8755f3118c7ff160fce523fd8b216f
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXY' 'sip-files00084.txt'
4fef9d6e2a105efc1410c4c9f15ee8fd
03ec5f90f42faa6d145417f10617abbc5c213570
describe
Invalid character
'8391' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYXZ' 'sip-files00084thm.jpg'
65022d5ff3266ded9448f672a455f5cd
1dbcf91905fd5875939ab0a99ad00eaf8c631020
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYA' 'sip-files00085.jp2'
6844215c425ca7c74582ee2886562c4b
e47032c065bb7f5f7a2a7c50e7266cd08bf4b1d9
describe
'101021' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYB' 'sip-files00085.jpg'
7ed4009e637062c4642c95fb0f528811
b6aa19b5acc606895e88cb6775833bfd6ab4def5
describe
'33594' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYC' 'sip-files00085.QC.jpg'
8d43f20db5fedb8b0cc40cf009197611
bfbcc0b7a19a69ee5349793d1d9718d996df6dbc
'2011-12-05T18:02:50-05:00'
describe
'3245004' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYD' 'sip-files00085.tif'
72d0015b01ed4578f0e550863740786d
feeb1e3e9e93d53375f1946c899fd2367eb84435
describe
'1282' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYE' 'sip-files00085.txt'
af36a19f5e2d2bd1f8bb4891cb0a3992
28ffc4f056589237d0bce7337085c0cac14d32da
describe
'8481' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYF' 'sip-files00085thm.jpg'
2c16d9943229a06f27299f284d1c49fa
7360b8f6013d279cfb4050a85bc3c52dc8e9f995
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYG' 'sip-files00086.jp2'
14dfa313a57fec524b55939503380820
efcfa6083e09332aa40eb150f9cc15a5510aee87
describe
'91290' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYH' 'sip-files00086.jpg'
01b528c4822a220599008646ff293f08
7d6aaa2c25477f10320f4e702abc1bbb1f4bb39f
describe
'30744' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYI' 'sip-files00086.QC.jpg'
7462ff9e38706a64082aa8b85e23a505
7e70669b90b466ace25f571b2c2bb3abc9505986
describe
'3244800' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYJ' 'sip-files00086.tif'
12bc9a1704cbe1dd2356bcd044b14eb7
64250894bd3516504ed3a25f4c5d545845113d4c
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYK' 'sip-files00086.txt'
4f42f0af7a4ae76c5bbef1e2f5a9ef1f
8e027d7088a33dbdf3e6788bad63bd738d136b87
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYL' 'sip-files00086thm.jpg'
37b860b0272bdaedf82b1661a1564714
af2eb24c620ac4ddea0f9f7c96a37923f36681b7
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYM' 'sip-files00087.jp2'
12787fcf15676148607a8f583e295e16
2d6c305f115cab5789ccff04e6c29c4bad07a103
describe
'98842' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYN' 'sip-files00087.jpg'
bd66ec2224dabc3b96beb42988b05d70
5b8f277c505bbb0416a45b59a3938da331a8a5a4
describe
'32118' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYO' 'sip-files00087.QC.jpg'
f7d1ec1bcac4d03e22a4232123d481a4
e111131196594fa8826909f5c9c57095e13d2563
describe
'3244944' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYP' 'sip-files00087.tif'
3e38f349950763a0eed24d7f5194fe92
68562b8acc260f1250c0bbfa1724abd716a7792f
describe
'1264' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYQ' 'sip-files00087.txt'
757042cefdf5460d9143cc2b1731928e
cbf75e675436293591c18cdd930bb05ccc501897
describe
'8548' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYR' 'sip-files00087thm.jpg'
27166ecb753a69034d9da8a530943456
1c6cea4c6ec4b8a5cb70cb63c2a8e3c5c73dd10a
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYS' 'sip-files00088.jp2'
1c5c9439b9926d9140eb6ab5cbc16cb7
e80efd518292a8b0dbf9ac8056356a39320e9f6f
describe
'97442' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYT' 'sip-files00088.jpg'
8a056e1fb3558e21845cbaae0803f6e5
dd0d4e2d8aca6d740365545cebfc588e47c5d4cc
describe
'31489' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYU' 'sip-files00088.QC.jpg'
687a3e490045cebb76f1b36fb49a63f2
ea8e80639fe1ebee85aa5a133ac9a7329200986c
describe
'3244964' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYV' 'sip-files00088.tif'
d22260361ccf73fdc219301655a8f8be
baef74a8b283ab52e716079d6921ac2f80388c0e
describe
'1270' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYW' 'sip-files00088.txt'
412152212ecb082ee1dc9545b21651a5
ba44d75540597e21eea79e6a66cec912ee29bec5
describe
'8470' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYX' 'sip-files00088thm.jpg'
c0d72825e1bb0d90d9be5e980674eede
9b99861f73d55dc9f348675e9cad7da312ac611c
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYY' 'sip-files00089.jp2'
02769f253882bcc9bea6611d4287d4e2
7e285608936ff18416934de046f5f28cf2a5efe2
'2011-12-05T18:01:45-05:00'
describe
'74281' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYYZ' 'sip-files00089.jpg'
69e60905df240b7d584afa12edf9587a
c07c672789c701b2fefe7d6137ba18664eade38e
describe
'24041' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZA' 'sip-files00089.QC.jpg'
f979f66574309cf598791c63d34f031a
4e4214b61b796a3fc7f696931952db4cec9082f8
describe
'3243864' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZB' 'sip-files00089.tif'
21bd89713704ac5ae7b08a46050cdb7d
32e30c07be27f7e625dadfc301f784e5f02da836
'2011-12-05T18:00:40-05:00'
describe
'700' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZC' 'sip-files00089.txt'
18184ee8562cd64f6f3b5f69188093cf
912baf6d8cd16e0b09517782ac66f4f2a4e24941
describe
'6398' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZD' 'sip-files00089thm.jpg'
5b3e01eb1350f661197626bd563c5fc6
03982dc9c062ee78855ee1099fc8f7529fc83567
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZE' 'sip-files00090.jp2'
796e233649dba00aecb20068a9ffa4fb
2f07cca89ed7a344e8f523f4090a633d46866215
describe
'104100' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZF' 'sip-files00090.jpg'
c8ab7c9e0f99f0df076b5ecb4368de20
c1733817520dee7707b531f03f9adc5454b3ea4c
describe
'34836' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZG' 'sip-files00090.QC.jpg'
a2b1ca1afdf305d905dcfd2032b14044
846cac734b056ec684a38ea81a8caced3d86a384
describe
'3245052' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZH' 'sip-files00090.tif'
488310201935ac8931529544c7623b91
b13d93a352e5397f3d40dd3c25149ba8c92a17a9
describe
'1298' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZI' 'sip-files00090.txt'
8c5acee47060c031ab2e4d14506e3eb0
8fba547ecfbe39610125fdd28eab5a3e75617166
describe
'8923' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZJ' 'sip-files00090thm.jpg'
cf0ac0783f5ea85ccd884386d0d92ef8
9b5238db3f51e274b8520d135910b5cc683b5b33
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZK' 'sip-files00091.jp2'
45b2adf68781298be64f4237eafffdd5
9e3625611d4e8471d43d48fe5ba5a6b2e9556ad7
describe
'100553' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZL' 'sip-files00091.jpg'
dc7057ea8704a3e3217c6c95336c2704
078ffecb3a412128cbd742db76a0aa43a09d8246
describe
'32427' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZM' 'sip-files00091.QC.jpg'
413b15ca703fc7aa89860684870b946f
598b441e20341ccf7e6eb9a088ae8526b343b29b
describe
'3244832' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZN' 'sip-files00091.tif'
17766596394d55655cf307594416d28f
28546b895f18f3905b8cd1f2fd3ae6916f97acf8
describe
'1233' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZO' 'sip-files00091.txt'
c55feb5e743327bc948e9208b4c7834f
bba627857233972bc6985264abd1494644d90e4d
describe
'8554' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZP' 'sip-files00091thm.jpg'
97f973d43e7e6abf3e992d71c4cadce1
48208a565d78a00b1b630bd27a4b92108a0d89f0
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZQ' 'sip-files00092.jp2'
b9d2afe7cba2ae274aa39f59b690a447
d10b9b135d244c538d65009cd56570267031ff39
describe
'67547' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZR' 'sip-files00092.jpg'
d92fe23a176a7e2b170a524a49362819
75dc46bc45e01daab9e89f9a281f0339a35dab44
'2011-12-05T18:02:10-05:00'
describe
'21743' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZS' 'sip-files00092.QC.jpg'
6671a334599342f5472e30b1c5fe510a
177c136b27c6e3cc8f1418bc78764930317e5d48
describe
'3243508' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZT' 'sip-files00092.tif'
e5aaa565aa0899a2b5aee41c29d1a0e4
78006bd95ff726c67d493a9f4aed564bcd71ed8f
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZU' 'sip-files00092.txt'
f23dd943be3f7d6ca50d32bc0bfc3f71
0c3347b5d7ecfe9a29eaac4edf15ce83daeaaeb2
describe
'5847' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZV' 'sip-files00092thm.jpg'
d966002abac3cb8b4c60cb238207b22e
00958f812bc1bf4bce172b200d8710c185405585
'2011-12-05T17:59:48-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZW' 'sip-files00093.jp2'
0e67d17b50d90dce40cd934f8e65918d
036e868b9e72fb5a827612cb4abd62e19970ec54
describe
'80202' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZX' 'sip-files00093.jpg'
3ba645be9809d168748365e51d2bb385
e193dc9c749027a29476dbb47f8b8ef35a5f4ac5
describe
'25974' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZY' 'sip-files00093.QC.jpg'
c56f70d4a344409f78b0ed68cc31d6c1
978b9adb404489c7f8ca8e978d6c1a4cbe6ed22b
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAYZZ' 'sip-files00093.tif'
7626a1d2e3b7d91ae4dc750c45710af3
c5cb407444467e17fc2bbe7b00cddbf19d5b4e91
describe
'836' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAA' 'sip-files00093.txt'
3023ba57106098dd54034f58d5bf4579
4e63f08f5d6bb08efde4f60c9376fbb288007a52
describe
'7099' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAB' 'sip-files00093thm.jpg'
592d6e1733b8d6d2f20752492b0747af
c15f2f7b580dc17c61ff12984c7fd7e6c99570cb
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAC' 'sip-files00094.jp2'
5c7c06cf6e2551a7aa6c58ec40b9f5d1
410195409b21e1489fbf467de19bf7d66a0e8278
describe
'105249' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAD' 'sip-files00094.jpg'
b51546729b5bcc812a2b417d98c73540
985ee4f7f47c3e4e34fd97f894d21858d423d49a
describe
'35203' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAE' 'sip-files00094.QC.jpg'
15b27bf01d5764440f6b7a15b8db2551
7218bfc523d42fbb0254f4f60654f2d0d6c46df5
describe
'3245364' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAF' 'sip-files00094.tif'
7b2ca0c1dafee27c6fd6f7f963dc90d5
a2d4781c7de81ed9040c89bb00418b9fd0f9b0cb
describe
'1310' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAG' 'sip-files00094.txt'
98ada9908076501d49c141817d0c11ae
b6d0023d46fa7e0ec4000d74be7e0720a9decac2
describe
'9079' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAH' 'sip-files00094thm.jpg'
2d76976247344e9fcd7043518867d6d4
b5af1ecd92c2df3eb3d381d445a4d4e6a79b1bc0
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAI' 'sip-files00095.jp2'
cb980056113caf0cc89200fd52385b35
be36f1b3ad098d3cf679c4a576327ffccdd13642
describe
'92021' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAJ' 'sip-files00095.jpg'
d2e2e54bc9041d46258ec772c7e0ff6e
041decfcc60c2ed3aa5a698042d24eea5f928a57
describe
'30849' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAK' 'sip-files00095.QC.jpg'
df698a35f07f972bff9ddd9a20c6b5f0
41f86e3cbc4d5753c30d22ff72923b199b427985
describe
'3244816' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAL' 'sip-files00095.tif'
db71e933e70bd449184e6f015dc58a1a
821864572b558cf25fd8f8a1d2de0e47bea25f5d
'2011-12-05T18:01:26-05:00'
describe
'1025' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAM' 'sip-files00095.txt'
20e8ae5e25815484445418a75a44fcd9
3e1aad266713b0086077e94c1be54f1bbca36460
describe
'8378' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAN' 'sip-files00095thm.jpg'
306bdf0383e128b3688d1e839730c6de
302444e5ee9ff440d5a32cd5b7143d01e1c1530c
describe
'402865' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAO' 'sip-files00096.jp2'
f3b2b9d7405939d8dd1c218627bc45ad
494a2f207569f1e618e4e5614760b696228744bd
describe
'101290' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAP' 'sip-files00096.jpg'
0c10454d71f20b317fe299034db32c80
4fb21e1f332090b3c0b8fdea895f2c4cdf5f2ad9
describe
'34160' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAQ' 'sip-files00096.QC.jpg'
771a6d67a4e20c0cd695120af4dc982e
f2c5b2dad932e0118207f563514484edda676c6e
describe
'3245064' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAR' 'sip-files00096.tif'
b43cccc19b9e0557eefd242fcbbe3c40
beeab20e2e8a8b3084b91459006da7ca20aa866d
describe
'1322' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAS' 'sip-files00096.txt'
38c34279c392d1ae48e2129287af1484
4245168b9abcfbb33c66e715d765cae67d923943
describe
'8968' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAT' 'sip-files00096thm.jpg'
5df87a9c9713845ef1bd4ce04a7ea35c
3ebbd2f5e60ad2b1614e40833c5557e796219fb1
describe
'402880' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAU' 'sip-files00097.jp2'
b5aaf282e52e02761c5d1eb0d10d42eb
fafd9ccfec07ea7710e7b2326826d9bae8b9558e
describe
'88563' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAV' 'sip-files00097.jpg'
0993f66e254237d3dea668e12f89d91c
c09fb4775adcb1233826a5d6df693d52f8a6e6c0
describe
'29965' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAW' 'sip-files00097.QC.jpg'
65be539905327c06c762dd47426b5886
a462b0920d1bdbff98c82873c0339f9e4a9780c5
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAX' 'sip-files00097.tif'
6d77deaef6643faa076af46356bf4fc4
4de855d09b0d900782bb0421ed33bcc62560cc71
'2011-12-05T18:01:24-05:00'
describe
'1116' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAY' 'sip-files00097.txt'
ae3c0785cfe08d06f41a06c79309f274
c9f5d1ac168b0c6cf84c269a3ff927e4f9b0ce45
describe
'8110' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZAZ' 'sip-files00097thm.jpg'
236da0223cb68911fc9e6acf5d30c176
7c13747458b320e76b4168232bb6ed3013baf5f2
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBA' 'sip-files00098.jp2'
035ba31890d957bb2eb8a1e4e5a8f3b1
cf95ea3f0e12be6d7ea1354444fe8e98e0de80f9
'2011-12-05T18:01:31-05:00'
describe
'105512' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBB' 'sip-files00098.jpg'
47d1c2eb60a31bcdb03cc24941900577
d5fc876e2fc0cbb26867052b9e64b0071d627d09
describe
'35395' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBC' 'sip-files00098.QC.jpg'
db9892b7c0fdb7b85c80ce588ac159d7
640efc7f4f05ff82abd5becd8a61d821947efc39
describe
'3245268' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBD' 'sip-files00098.tif'
bc766f2a60ff35f93776d5078849b7c2
21e5f790f6ead1678c3a10cf30128ead8660c1c6
describe
'1325' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBE' 'sip-files00098.txt'
f796b2562678d80a6daccaa1b91a05b2
6dd837222c1013e31c3068a59d36c7ab6a627470
describe
'9204' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBF' 'sip-files00098thm.jpg'
de4e50acb110ca79e91ab45ee528be0b
fb95b026f2a0c7d8fc4c4ef6c9efbf38b3569e35
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBG' 'sip-files00099.jp2'
e49afc92fec7547a50c62848e6d1117c
c0ce7830ac44a1ae1ed46ec9a095ee4ff3a5c99d
describe
'114677' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBH' 'sip-files00099.jpg'
df9a06674237c5d29d9934774899256c
3c2692d60faf6dfd33dea244c3023fe4e7dfe5aa
describe
'30914' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBI' 'sip-files00099.QC.jpg'
f35e36017847a3628c01c75fcd60faf7
0f0c4cfe9fb70cd524a4afebaae7524d36d8df5d
describe
'3244888' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBJ' 'sip-files00099.tif'
052653e1067e7bd4d8ad414f100581f3
f4a120fd9b881c48aa2bd104227050fac85a7b94
describe
'481' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBK' 'sip-files00099.txt'
a94b46ad8c04122735c8f29efd06998c
239f9536ba8ed535851cccbdb2a81642c7d98492
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBL' 'sip-files00099thm.jpg'
b2e287c30b798b6711d6779003b565dc
e01edd2a90c5f168a3f04ca634a803226fbb0564
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBM' 'sip-files00100.jp2'
1032d0108c9ad4e64b9494ac051b009b
f14be8b6287c0cb4052c0a0af7a83277fae459ec
describe
'91862' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBN' 'sip-files00100.jpg'
5173a941d5ba974912e7d3099491474c
6bd6d6dc76d05978b06e7783fc0f2926c12a0617
describe
'29803' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBO' 'sip-files00100.QC.jpg'
6692b46e36d9f3bbc504093be181c2fd
13e77ac12fc37017963605882b4dccbcb2c69212
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBP' 'sip-files00100.tif'
4ff8715c3252c572fa95a7870b105737
47247cff09cc8d8a7de79fbf0b258bdffed2b635
describe
'1125' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBQ' 'sip-files00100.txt'
6b4796549d1dba5466768a8d8ed7ed58
240bf7beac8c920bcc84ea8febc4653b5704eb8f
describe
'8138' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBR' 'sip-files00100thm.jpg'
d408b27c19669eccf96c855283072f7a
a578b57c5998daf017d85c213422455d1bf4a8a6
describe
'402867' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBS' 'sip-files00101.jp2'
8e531c3f01e74a4fcb6a09d94923482a
2460abdc543c0b61e7d299bf9283553b72dd78ed
describe
'97685' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBT' 'sip-files00101.jpg'
0d2dc2fc56e568048721cd636cfdd690
5ef12b06f7ed08fadecaa5611483b7c14ace7220
describe
'32900' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBU' 'sip-files00101.QC.jpg'
6413c1d340678547bc4bed2320e153a6
c7e6080b22ec79e509e57d54bad76a0b78524fa0
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBV' 'sip-files00101.tif'
e3e68e476b06a02b30c31f60c2bc89c3
bf27605a57a49bf3e39f77ee6f6cd89a7ccf626e
describe
'1208' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBW' 'sip-files00101.txt'
d88d3415812cdb645f00ee2803a1e6f1
291860224660c1bdbfb8332e8cc1c224723ade74
describe
'8810' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBX' 'sip-files00101thm.jpg'
14de5aafe63bfa727b8926d00e759a88
66c99db2724b052285e035d458a25b09df7d74f0
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBY' 'sip-files00102.jp2'
1bd507c60e172168a2b615f716ecfcf1
9ad8cd48500d4161cfe5b1b348f3740bbd8e2a63
describe
'96255' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZBZ' 'sip-files00102.jpg'
366eb784b21ed387b0bbe198a17985a1
9f6294144ab52fadc085188af96bad4781de60d5
describe
'32020' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCA' 'sip-files00102.QC.jpg'
a72c6f5385159e68a60c87dc5f93484c
881733087895346fb108809a7e2da146ce071b59
describe
'3245368' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCB' 'sip-files00102.tif'
a6bd6d0cb07d7ad8a25bea4c96c3382a
f05aa8321b82fd0c67a956b2b170042f93f2a15d
describe
'1231' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCC' 'sip-files00102.txt'
516dc5aea371199d82a2a0244cccf2c2
7c45212bc5237ca2e47fe109fbbfb0beafe001ad
describe
'8872' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCD' 'sip-files00102thm.jpg'
3820254d624832055691a0b07e388b1c
fd81c876441d0351f03bcdef0e44a333b1044e0c
describe
'402786' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCE' 'sip-files00103.jp2'
809137ff7f184031503a27dc745c5512
6b9e12109fbae28df81618d64b3e737cb12ec2c6
describe
'104648' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCF' 'sip-files00103.jpg'
bf9b7e58085893aca33ce07f6001601f
72ff92cd989cfd1bc824a692481a05151cec6c23
describe
'34386' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCG' 'sip-files00103.QC.jpg'
3e078573ecd2e675a0bdffa6623f6853
36882510b229ff4580e1c2da702d38fe351a3110
describe
'3245236' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCH' 'sip-files00103.tif'
daea88198b1bf48cbfc8c1ef66ab0352
39dcb21c20c91d9f2ae063cf1cafffdd117c5cb8
describe
'1258' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCI' 'sip-files00103.txt'
a5fa47e3645c158e41a66deebe46a1a3
b7adaf34ec292cc907b39debd8f84da11df34518
describe
'8897' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCJ' 'sip-files00103thm.jpg'
484097b7daa3644b486f3678aa9cf95f
3cd0f0843b992c72a568cd93ce0db0cbbceea618
describe
'402832' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCK' 'sip-files00104.jp2'
97a36101a87140c57c5d3566d2fdc00e
e2004c669f801c5acc699e2620586d17cfe3f97f
describe
'111638' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCL' 'sip-files00104.jpg'
e059d7f7332858addda54398ad2611af
323633f433669421802ac6650e510556c82aeca0
describe
'35026' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCM' 'sip-files00104.QC.jpg'
4acc1f17e3056a77ccbce1aff27b539f
0ee3f32b5ebe1e40621a1044cf182947bcd17b4f
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCN' 'sip-files00104.tif'
66d883934866f41157728576cde64bea
d9481035491bc1b09aee89553c80a7578e61d534
describe
'1409' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCO' 'sip-files00104.txt'
b0fbc6c48950afc2371102c77ff260ce
ef61b12ad6e410fa408c786c19f7b0c1bbdf13c2
describe
'9239' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCP' 'sip-files00104thm.jpg'
64e34deeb965e75182c3fcfb7caab3b9
04e41e182b4cec814553a3a1ca9375aefab2fd6f
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCQ' 'sip-files00105.jp2'
eea35e526aa24381a31fa05250b6909c
57769d642676643f6121df0ca4f579378cb5c0ae
describe
'81458' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCR' 'sip-files00105.jpg'
a4b641a58d3ef89add31d9ffe4be0bf2
80b900ce8fdfc2037b399ccfaf8a6c3f153f8b69
describe
'26529' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCS' 'sip-files00105.QC.jpg'
8e321efa782293134ca68221ce81d622
265073ff4edc1f4081dc23ef0c8ae08ac3053a9c
describe
'3243820' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCT' 'sip-files00105.tif'
f09cb292e6b72d7db904fd7d998a915b
9a46def351635683b969ee60a80dd5407fedddbd
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCU' 'sip-files00105.txt'
2b6e9c45b5684997ed8566cde7f8d1d7
6dd145de9904461a13bc36441bd1f90613796f3d
describe
'6878' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCV' 'sip-files00105thm.jpg'
5a606749dde32087f5ebc56f4764afc8
63bdfc899dd9f823a27315c5f2e13a2a09e56cbf
describe
'402859' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCW' 'sip-files00106.jp2'
da8078e50e824a9dc7228565a7476fb6
ad452ca7e3b38e46c0b3ef9da24bf22ecbfc53db
describe
'98728' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCX' 'sip-files00106.jpg'
1194a59c5fa947e8e393f154096597dd
f8272f32045a83a1221ada21c31393544aabd7ed
describe
'31792' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCY' 'sip-files00106.QC.jpg'
98909418725d42bdac598c34a45ec3de
655c36c55e3a4e9ea0169312ba34ecd517349a3c
describe
'3244988' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZCZ' 'sip-files00106.tif'
ac39bf6b555bffba8bc681bb5e459dc3
ead57665c477805c5019f413630447b8a93ef00e
describe
'1249' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDA' 'sip-files00106.txt'
4b7086354b023160bb43133ae3957910
8a5768f19cb303b2234e141ca7e5c798a86514d5
describe
'8180' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDB' 'sip-files00106thm.jpg'
50fe06d4fa5b7ff1c3e27c48f4a28de1
f9221b2148781250fbe3ca5903ba62bb822a5708
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDC' 'sip-files00107.jp2'
9a7cc9b01d9e0439e5bbfc0f124a253d
4e1ee79929413965f05d4895266bf18e3a15d9c8
describe
'98130' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDD' 'sip-files00107.jpg'
c485b505132364d2187385987b7a0f5e
994261e25b6e9e7d0043abc3aa07eec859dcc0d4
describe
'32391' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDE' 'sip-files00107.QC.jpg'
f62068ab16cd4e0594fd23f33fe33a9d
89b13479dc43c31b4d792882e6df894153a89873
describe
'3245108' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDF' 'sip-files00107.tif'
bc2a77c75f04bc66efae14c44321ba01
69bdc56077ad1ef14ee5e55b3c74958ab2af1a6f
describe
'1076' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDG' 'sip-files00107.txt'
f8148ea8343e852b1eb608523f3de73d
127fcf2f1d8c3819dc0976052856ef5abdb1cd52
describe
'8450' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDH' 'sip-files00107thm.jpg'
98de7214c03a359bf80bc54d2913fa61
d2a3a2be4d4528e91708e2c1148db2b6b384fe6b
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDI' 'sip-files00108.jp2'
c79ff10b5e3279354628b31b2cf95d91
2c8267fe7fd2bba84e3cfbedba36535d7c09c9dd
describe
'98588' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDJ' 'sip-files00108.jpg'
1e0393e3a8a16a23426dc052fcd37df0
d7b277c5318c2cecbbd9d5ea8e5445a88a892281
describe
'31836' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDK' 'sip-files00108.QC.jpg'
80236c2da5cc7e5a2f963b1b44143529
00677a2c93283ed679a61797dd87825a9fb8fb55
describe
'3244948' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDL' 'sip-files00108.tif'
1e57c68e7558bd61bfa012ffef3724a0
2fb556bed1f80757648cd5e99c9e39ff5aba7100
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDM' 'sip-files00108.txt'
b1a07fa88370553255caf46e1d17e1c2
8debde27d33ffbfbec7e55cd05d30807f330de95
describe
'8750' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDN' 'sip-files00108thm.jpg'
5aaa68f9ad752c9c14d9e5dafe2423be
06404dbc098efee5c3d8d295ac9f756d5bdd42d6
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDO' 'sip-files00109.jp2'
8e92d91b769ac08faceecfb81095a93c
949741687b35fd51a9ffd4bff273d374f4ea59f2
describe
'64728' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDP' 'sip-files00109.jpg'
1fb36645c0459bfb7e0f085235c0d3a9
fbca8fe04b14b53a1179f830f8bf1f59378ece71
describe
'21481' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDQ' 'sip-files00109.QC.jpg'
acf8211316b3d8fcdd3419de611e5b3d
ea1917084cce180c1a18eddcc482c2fdbea809b7
'2011-12-05T18:02:51-05:00'
describe
'3243376' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDR' 'sip-files00109.tif'
023f488765c520421da326a0e012474e
2ef2683ab95d256da43a8dbb42f856c2177de979
describe
'1166' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDS' 'sip-files00109.txt'
f2f6575e015aaf9b744f84d728194a6a
b5aed5832730b83827b0b0ad644c05f3936065e9
describe
'5799' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDT' 'sip-files00109thm.jpg'
fef3d7d34227d8591af6ec85845aafba
2cc2728b1b2d3462bd43d597cb19062f4421b3aa
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDU' 'sip-files00110.jp2'
1f2032ede72549e1e38a27cb48697866
626f40fd03d299366db23fd7332a1f4122225ff2
describe
'106294' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDV' 'sip-files00110.jpg'
83e1c897c72ad2d336d475aa1d7283b0
103aaa125569a6a3f76b9883aeb65327650c7877
describe
'32222' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDW' 'sip-files00110.QC.jpg'
b885a6f0b99f9e0ef80e0bdb933cd1b4
3e393d4e5c4128a0c631d0a25f16394a9bc995d1
describe
'3245172' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDX' 'sip-files00110.tif'
6574479dab3951a54245895671029e5d
54293c59da19a1cd8931e0107a97c4c5adf00df6
describe
'1283' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDY' 'sip-files00110.txt'
efa28e0bfc2ee2974495033626fc6f4c
5ce977bb8838a5bf74055b445791a29c9bd8b21d
describe
'8459' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZDZ' 'sip-files00110thm.jpg'
7676735ee43efe3491d90886781835e4
24551d0f2b44092269fcc23a2fa8d09210dc6064
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEA' 'sip-files00111.jp2'
978f135b0b1e76c2051d8d5804069895
40b041cf0ef4e9489d59cafaeb72b57f5af0cc15
describe
'96192' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEB' 'sip-files00111.jpg'
ad5a64dc4248532d510d7adc74d8e522
a82c92f9c5edaa71feb4da68a89297e20e40f12f
describe
'32019' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEC' 'sip-files00111.QC.jpg'
23107108adaf63966ae01556ef38a34e
dc18dc49c20f4ed1694fcd4a8ab40add30b6be03
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZED' 'sip-files00111.tif'
6b1a4806ed76a68e2880c7ea8e4c3e33
ea0a97e6c40c6952c01ece2a7becc76fe4011e0d
describe
'1187' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEE' 'sip-files00111.txt'
3f8119ba8351633f7c9c2bf30bd951a8
88d8a195693f979ff4d1a6c817561839798dfd5e
describe
'8083' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEF' 'sip-files00111thm.jpg'
5ff78d5a3bd5fef402e916bf45dfe7c3
28fc1144dde2291870b075d4c8d5c548da38c9b0
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEG' 'sip-files00112.jp2'
f08618b682acc647914b0d6a99929357
a052a6473b761662278a1659f980aa6efe2aaa38
describe
'98869' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEH' 'sip-files00112.jpg'
78c776ec2c955aa33901aea8adfa957c
49ab340941df2c28309085c13a90eb6360fdea68
describe
'33201' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEI' 'sip-files00112.QC.jpg'
7721752186aface3a997ad22ffe48347
38fdd296a3b0b94af58a252f2391dda5468253fe
describe
'3244916' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEJ' 'sip-files00112.tif'
d5763d0e2e790c1704401a64be8b8732
5331bcbda9ac5a8adde16dc6d442ecf09759da77
describe
'1244' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEK' 'sip-files00112.txt'
dc4f8a8ac88338407b1a930a64bf127f
983ceb6e609df0c7d7248f64d72e730d8287b206
describe
'8627' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEL' 'sip-files00112thm.jpg'
7df0f26151864be1232fac0fc6b6da98
7a6eb6f32e38226f27ee4042b677b0bd705c20d8
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEM' 'sip-files00113.jp2'
9edc1f1d8835c6096f525cf5f7d7e65a
64cd06cf5ca97c993091966f029b0763f838778c
describe
'72657' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEN' 'sip-files00113.jpg'
15317907ea707bc923b405b9d896295f
5b8f8029d151f30fe38e577f00566e47e9ba59ee
describe
'23422' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEO' 'sip-files00113.QC.jpg'
676ea14647b84be98a562b7f53ffbc5a
e744081e2a8b3f97b6ad366fcb4ad1cf6a0538e5
'2011-12-05T18:02:01-05:00'
describe
'3243564' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEP' 'sip-files00113.tif'
bc3236e0988508984cf022095457212a
a277c8bbb9ffe7afd76d4882c3d94dcfb47d035a
describe
'1000' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEQ' 'sip-files00113.txt'
0326b1dd884669ba8475e8cf00b2dc07
5ce8bfbfe3198a8f39422bd9da62b3895f2ad9d0
describe
'6012' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZER' 'sip-files00113thm.jpg'
e4f46d2d1551604241b1b30cf07979a6
4618c7d64bafdb67f07dd60a8329f9c5dcc4430d
'2011-12-05T18:00:07-05:00'
describe
'381968' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZES' 'sip-files00114.jp2'
1967216adc5f5617d3fbc875761c270a
174ada8127adfdea6742f596f45a436dbaae58f9
describe
'102270' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZET' 'sip-files00114.jpg'
b806c02dcc0d6beb37a46fd07d3f8bf6
847caa7c8887fd377799e4806da7387256878d55
describe
'33266' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEU' 'sip-files00114.QC.jpg'
ac8cfa9da74a8bc8a7bc4a7baf520f75
9ca6a5ac89bbb6a560049bdd4f3cb8941b175da4
describe
'3077836' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEV' 'sip-files00114.tif'
daa28fa4b11c508ca67371000cc3a284
92232024aa540e6123e0ee4b94c2d6ac164123da
describe
'842' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEW' 'sip-files00114.txt'
4af2e01b98b259f89758c6678eb5210a
277bd2dcd31491ce32269c77061c990edefd64fd
describe
'8784' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEX' 'sip-files00114thm.jpg'
14ac7fd12539d31363091cc4fec7d147
c469d88dffed9deb7e90b002c5fdbb9f1938caa7
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEY' 'sip-files00115.jp2'
2fe1253cc129a00eb88a031aee78570f
b2390fd99f77687d0f032ab81c067b1fe1e05822
describe
'107509' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZEZ' 'sip-files00115.jpg'
d87acf02c9ae7885cb9235bc5811e705
2536870ea02113e89695707c0ff9e63cb9b73854
describe
'34752' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFA' 'sip-files00115.QC.jpg'
66e605ea16c32181dfc633e703b2c4cf
1a7f1479d37d4f7819783f9c8a8ca50a1310a69c
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFB' 'sip-files00115.tif'
414292475e07eefc7aee2573ac5618e5
a935f5aefd0b0bdd0e1017cfd95772d3968115fa
describe
'1205' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFC' 'sip-files00115.txt'
a2f081e4a48938199c96aee546bb9f05
a4cece9be650b293cfa24c966e8e1d49dcc2d552
describe
'9284' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFD' 'sip-files00115thm.jpg'
715afcdbe7529fd1d4ec29f1c8cca3b1
95e4ded551740021ffe3f2b54589e1b31db0b862
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFE' 'sip-files00116.jp2'
938a851c2900f9cf1207e1046b38d5d4
f28942850798a44dab0cc9ad224da40ad69bea0e
describe
'104767' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFF' 'sip-files00116.jpg'
aaba86b93f6788fd81930f7b65c26c9f
06c2517ab2684743fc8cadfb5e5f0f3382d206b6
describe
'33705' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFG' 'sip-files00116.QC.jpg'
80abbdb5de843170470a1f5b922d1a44
715235bc15c526f3204495773ad8352e3c78134e
describe
'3244980' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFH' 'sip-files00116.tif'
914985ece8dd30595ae2b96b89efe3de
099540eb426f7b253ef83b1c8f026dd0185f5743
describe
'1348' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFI' 'sip-files00116.txt'
501039946aa2fb33dd86d54869891879
4009c48134a7516bbd6fa303f06492c78f0831d4
describe
'9042' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFJ' 'sip-files00116thm.jpg'
c24e1d7ca37470543579b59775026f0f
1e8ca465b049a5c9794a2e64d9d2385cb7cf292b
describe
'300085' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFK' 'sip-files00117.jp2'
85e5f15ba9f4b3e4f2d0f018e165af05
cee85e7e9ef891171830c4564fbfaad731486f36
describe
'37269' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFL' 'sip-files00117.jpg'
2a9ad1115b15e2c2d5f68abc78478463
1e6cc3bf72a0a4ba4b2ab9e1f6dbed026627fe5a
describe
'11888' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFM' 'sip-files00117.QC.jpg'
80263c8dba2a50c0320f30b6b5bca596
af58157610bdbb4913b2a56473e54512480baf11
describe
'3241864' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFN' 'sip-files00117.tif'
03f2b1adea7c82cc60f55b73866cf8e9
d978f0f34a725031a87c13ccef1bf37a0e085159
describe
'571' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFO' 'sip-files00117.txt'
58aeb0179961fcc1037337cf307ba75a
cba5b73410632ec9366d08e56227c6e110994115
describe
'3234' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFP' 'sip-files00117thm.jpg'
6dadcf2c8fa8c4352bcbffb0ba325008
b51c692a28bb395d7b90c0fef6fd6c1a76121433
describe
'398597' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFQ' 'sip-files00119.jp2'
93de1386e795193ab3a8382fccc84792
bb9bf769ed9b0b6eeb31bf5209de00247007a6b7
describe
'57845' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFR' 'sip-files00119.jpg'
8cee3d3fc9f5bfef77452836a76d9673
293e5b15f7d7f3e82a87956a975af3d78a2f9fd0
describe
'18773' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFS' 'sip-files00119.QC.jpg'
22ba02d2f80fd956ba4235cfffca8c27
00a79655237c8adfc9ea3856bfe4bc125d7cd37d
describe
'3243420' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFT' 'sip-files00119.tif'
5188a04b40eed7e426951993a0c064f8
0c024ecf08933d86004acbd678bfd42a0a5c7f48
describe
'1001' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFU' 'sip-files00119.txt'
1683ab0e84877cdad15efc421296045f
1c0657d93030253449f2d5da2f2ed87eb8169c23
describe
'5482' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFV' 'sip-files00119thm.jpg'
cb4d07f7202281ca8e9a85c42ce5cf8e
0e8b359ad32f0dad9eaff9b2288ec073c2ff7cd0
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFW' 'sip-files00120.jp2'
6b791388a24baa1ba85e6d00a99865a4
06735fd0de155322a5c747de59b17c483c672411
describe
'91540' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFX' 'sip-files00120.jpg'
3388d75ba8b9e0d0826ae4bc9002cf81
30264976e8485f62d65fcfe8d618f43fc7c6a075
describe
'26890' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFY' 'sip-files00120.QC.jpg'
c5928d4b4c5adb89d3a7ef935d5b7b6d
000af195f789e46deb113ca815d7481d78ecb81b
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZFZ' 'sip-files00120.tif'
279af802fd7193f6206ea60f071735fb
cf81effadf3440bc8d7d26391f5f03923a71ad2d
describe
'1405' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGA' 'sip-files00120.txt'
2692e7f1652ab08f0c0b52a1875c527d
e4b971886d100d8f6a5ef7950d3bbb84da14961a
describe
'6899' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGB' 'sip-files00120thm.jpg'
248a74974bea4c9588d67dbae9c9871d
0e8126f86f15623432b7072ee3e1e54e483c34b9
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGC' 'sip-files00121.jp2'
f2edaf5bb1b2a10f0ecd3819e0aff4c6
71f2ac2f263e8701e2cdb12941924db581eaf5a6
describe
'120399' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGD' 'sip-files00121.jpg'
bae3ca9f83ccc963a9e6192396a399cf
d9964be093aba95a8486f7cf5db806fdbd7f7670
describe
'31371' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGE' 'sip-files00121.QC.jpg'
1452f9df4f8a7fa8e93dacc5876f1000
9d1ea3d985623da796a65e30097f640e31778947
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGF' 'sip-files00121.tif'
b76cdfc802936ad3d9d1062c769ea6ed
e182cdd2bbb88d8eb3ed6614a94055b6c10355bd
describe
'1677' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGG' 'sip-files00121.txt'
7689dd5b0284587a0bfd44a23aa5572f
6ccca26a3a97c88dc0921f14cfda83ee906bcc71
describe
'7774' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGH' 'sip-files00121thm.jpg'
9af3ab92ba8cb783550cb5ac07db093c
6b84cebbe9751ce4df74b7fd69e30a8a5ed28907
describe
'402837' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGI' 'sip-files00122.jp2'
6f711da030115b4199994778882800d9
3f5facf8075f2baad1e1643fc2c322d5ed274d70
describe
'99927' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGJ' 'sip-files00122.jpg'
c158eaac623689efd1abb60a766ec5fd
16824470a5c7d5e3a4d65bf26655c7995f6674b6
describe
'27539' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGK' 'sip-files00122.QC.jpg'
cb8e7995d4f23f8207122cb6ba777c2e
c4b013ae322e9d79f74ec4045091bff3f6e64872
describe
'3244692' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGL' 'sip-files00122.tif'
c2e3b3958884383c8907354109ee64b9
c9a80e73b843acfbda285ad084628d17866f0bf4
describe
'1540' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGM' 'sip-files00122.txt'
966ce91941d8ec4abb473a42f71f6bd5
e045c8c9a0591b1dcafdfb1bbe5d7126fde09203
describe
'7263' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGN' 'sip-files00122thm.jpg'
e39937ecfe895754a547e0d6b13f08ae
3fb2b7de39f628e90ae68c0b8bf05705cac83028
describe
'402762' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGO' 'sip-files00123.jp2'
866053c0d70015b7800f5062753f94fc
52f12d9accf9d8fd5e3b84e13495cf7cce0be423
describe
'135051' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGP' 'sip-files00123.jpg'
0b8e4da4c677bccc9c57ca3ec47d34ba
56ca1b55a74afb4920a07e0e05cfea5f9dfde77a
describe
'34875' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGQ' 'sip-files00123.QC.jpg'
5b5593ce5a7e44c5c016eb3590ef05c3
2747da767c48928983d4bdd8103b1cfb99c95b16
describe
'3245276' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGR' 'sip-files00123.tif'
c3e2b5cd0d67e3a04174c66cef967b5a
e0415a873650fc815bb31aeba9fe98072209173b
describe
'2063' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGS' 'sip-files00123.txt'
278879af1ac38367899a13bd219b97d2
ff1a54560c5bd6a72de3dbb622f8ff608e73c000
describe
'8473' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGT' 'sip-files00123thm.jpg'
c4ff19a81c5a03823a7eff5015631382
aa7dc26a346aadd735dc49b60250059a7ee15fde
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGU' 'sip-files00124.jp2'
a42f4fe8d4d3c69b743803974e67eaa8
be055d968f512f9e2fcdcd6f8ae08a0db2410bde
describe
'106094' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGV' 'sip-files00124.jpg'
29c84e6c6bf12ed7adb8fea586c93c10
d1154bb9e87528154ed1af26eeb6434f9818ade5
describe
'30033' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGW' 'sip-files00124.QC.jpg'
27184268368cf58463589853be538fea
929129e7d5763997d026129c047eea699fc8ff4f
describe
'3244468' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGX' 'sip-files00124.tif'
a74430ff9b93115287f8bf7f3fecef5f
71dbeb19c06f6dd7901f785728d11cd7109eb443
describe
'3000' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGY' 'sip-files00124.txt'
35bf6e06637c2a0d9365aca6f1cfc699
df2874476dfe51207704606beb615218d3219975
describe
'7901' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZGZ' 'sip-files00124thm.jpg'
837de74adb7ac8a0307adcee3415f2fc
c546a68705fcb29287fa92ca3b8749575654cab1
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHA' 'sip-files00125.jp2'
f7d1146696bad5d282b5f5787c4db48e
c1307565cccb319a41e4b56bc560bd2bdd3a8b10
describe
'130159' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHB' 'sip-files00125.jpg'
406c41f307330572539026b759e95f64
68a53507af7e14a81ddb36ad3f0d039d68dda2d2
describe
'35457' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHC' 'sip-files00125.QC.jpg'
2f51b4e3d93ea919fc5c5b18440b8116
91c6564ffd266bb6049959dd7e532a0bf0a68ab3
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHD' 'sip-files00125.tif'
6fbfd64047151c704515319d1381d17a
ecdda18a5340f7bdeac04c6cc38323771cdbb155
describe
'3293' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHE' 'sip-files00125.txt'
3fac9ffd41650320915c7142f66f2c98
acdc639ae8bc106d25958aa3646ec7f28390d2d0
describe
'8658' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHF' 'sip-files00125thm.jpg'
b04f32a49092001dacc118e0a61f8955
725d5c889dee03367cb24784cb710d3668387348
describe
'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHG' 'sip-files00126.jp2'
428181aa004b6eb6889024d0e59f8af0
e744cead707b373c1c5f611fdd5fa1d379d06b72
describe
'135685' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHH' 'sip-files00126.jpg'
e4626027604b4a8ec71a95ccb8f898e5
772b6fe120be7b7510b37820abf10439c2c6f855
describe
'35606' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHI' 'sip-files00126.QC.jpg'
10bb3ad9a36d5d26a15c00dc90febe59
232fcfc62dbe1b48092a675e7f454e30a5e87fe1
describe
'3245288' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHJ' 'sip-files00126.tif'
907cf5d454a849ed1222b4ac516a300d
c2b66b6af6c80a08bf75fbb4b5d1d221f3bb1b4a
describe
'3228' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHK' 'sip-files00126.txt'
dddf849dc334d8226412c1dc136563b7
2117bf9f7356bd56df872ffeab50baab2476c614
describe
'8433' 'info:fdaE20080429_AAABQCfileF20080430_AAAZHL' 'sip-files00126thm.jpg'
1780f900cdf3e8a5d624395f90330b37
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University
of
Florida

RnB

e
Ns
i
a
2


~ LEAVES AND FLOWERS

PLANT STUDIES FOR YOUNG READERS

BY

MARY A. SPEAR

Late PRINcIPAL oF MopEL ScHoor, Stare Norman ScHoo.,
West CHESTER, PENN.

BOSTON, U.S.A.
D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS
1892
CoprRrieHt, 1892,

By MARY -A. SPEAR.

TypocraPpHy sy J. S. Cusuinc & Co., Boston, U.S.A.
PREFACE.

f

sat 2 . +

ae

In primary schools, at the present day, considerable time °*

and attention are given to training the perceptive faculties,
and for this purpose elementary science is introduced. This
makes an increasing demand for reading matter which may
be used by pupils to supplement their observation lessons.
The purpose of this work is to furnish short and easy
sentences calculated_to stimulate thought and investigation.

The subjects presented ‘are not beyond the understanding of.

pupils who have been in school two or three years. They
have been tested in classes of little children, and many sen-
tences on these pages are thought expressions given by
pupils. .

Every lesson presents some fact in descriptive botany so
' obvious that it may be discovered by very young children if
they have specimens to examine. After they have made dis-
coveries, they are able to read and to understand the lan-
guage used to express them.

To illustrate these facts, common leaves and flowers have
been chosen. If specimens like those named in a lesson
cannot be obtained, there are many others which are similar,
and which may be used to illustrate the fact mentioned.

iit
iv PREFACE.

When reading about a leaf, twig, or flower, it is essential
that pupils see and handle specimens in order to receive and
retain the thoughts expressed in a lesson. Without this
examination of a plant or its parts, but little real knowledge
will be gained. ;

Botanical specimens are abundant and inexpensive. Pupils
should be encouraged to make collections for both school and
home study. Collections of pressed leaves are valuable in
winter.

Since many teachers have new classes and new pupils in
September, this book has been arranged to begin with mate-
rials which may be easily obtained at that time.

A pupil in Second Grade may begin the study of leaves at
the beginning of the school year, and continue the work
during the fall term, using from pressed collections late in
the season. In spring he is prepared to resume the study
and to watch the growth and unfolding of buds.

“ The study of Botany becomes more and more interesting the more
we learn of it, and affords a constant and unalloyed intellectual gratifica-
tion.” — Gray.

If the study of this book leads any little child to have a
love for the study of Botany, the writer is repaid for her
labors.
CONTENTS.

soe
A PrvIoLE . . 2 . . .
‘A BuapE. . : ; . .
An Oak Lear. . . : .
Many Leaves. ; . . .
CoLtor or BLADES . . . :
Sessine LEAvEs . . : : :
Sessine Leaves . . : . .
In tHe Woops . . . ° .
STIPULES : . . . : .
REvIEW . . . : : °
THe VEINS . : ; : . :
An Ivy Lear : . . . .
A Mippre VEIN . . ; ; .
VEINLETS

A PLANTAIN . . . . .
Tue Usr or VEINS. . . .
REVIEW ©

A Network or VEINS . . .
Nerverrnep Leaves . . . .
PARALLEL VEINS . . : :
PARALLEL-VEINED LEAVES . : :
REvIEWw : ‘ . . : °

PAGE

ww bv

Oo ON DM OFC oO W

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
16
17
18
19
20
vi CONTENTS.

Tue Base or A LEAF
Tue Apex or A LEAF
SHAPES oF LEAVES

In a Park ,
DirrERENT SHAPES

A Wipe Arex

THE CALLa .

. THE ARROW-HEAD

A Preacu Lear

Aw Apple Lear .
Many Forms
CorRDATE LEAVES

Tur CATALPA

REVIEW

MarcGins

CRENATE Marcrns .
SERRATE MARGINS
Dentate Marcins
Otuer Marerns .

Tur Hepatica

Lopes

REviEw

MULLEIN AND THISTLE
AUTUMN

Noprs AND InTERNODES
GATHERING TwiaGs
How Bups are Pruacep
Asout Bup Scaes
Warcuine Lear Bups
Tue Horse-cuHestnvt .

PAGE

21
22
23
24
25
26
28
29
30
32
33
385
35
oT
38
39
40
41
42
44
45
46
47
49
51
52
54
56
58

60
CONTENTS.

Tur Linac.

How Leaves ARE Foupep .
Parts or A FLOWER .
Tue CHERRY Biossom
Tue CALyx .

Tur CoRoLLa

Kinps or CoRoLia
Tue PrRIANTH

Linies .

STAMENS

More apout STAMENS
Tue Pistrin .

Frower TIME

Stems oF FLOWERS
Kinps oF CLUSTERS
SPRING

Witp FLowers

THE VIOLET

SuMMER FLOWERS
Tur BurrEercuP .
Later. FLOWERS .
SEPTEMBER .

vil
PAGE
61
63
65
68
68

72
76
78
78
81
83
85
86
88
91
92
95
96
99
100
103
“ Chide me not, laborious band,
For the idle flowers I brought;
Every aster in my hand
Goes home loaded with a thought.”

EMERSON.
LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

» A PETIOLE.

1} Haney and Frank are standing under a tree. It
is a maple tree.

Some green leaves are on
the ground. They are green
maple leaves.

They fell from the maple
tree, and are called maple
leaves.

Helen picks up a leaf and
gives it to Frank. She has
another leaf in her hand.

Each leaf has a long stem.
The stem of a leaf is called



its petiole.

The petiole of a maple leaf is green.

Can you find a maple leaf?

Frank runs away to some other trees. They are
oak trees.
2 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

He finds leaves on them. He takes some of the
leaves to his sister Helen.

‘They are not like maple leaves. The trees on
which they grew are not like maple trees.

095 0o-—__

A BLADE:

Here is an oak leaf with a short stem. Shall we
call the stem a petiole?

It is green like the petiole of a
maple leaf.

The stem of an oak leaf is not
so long as the stem of a maple leaf.

An oak leaf has a short, green
petiole.

What is the other part of a leaf
called ?

It is called the blade. The broad,
green part of a leaf is the blade.
The blade of an oak leaf is thicker than the blade

of a maple leaf.



Bring five leaves to the class to-morrow. Show
and name -their parts.

Bring some leaves with long petioles. Bring some
~ with short petioles.
Make a drawing of an oak leaf.
MANY LEAVES. 3

‘AN OAK LEAF.

Helen found a pretty oak leaf. She put it into
a book. She did this that she might keep it.

The blade of the oak leaf was dark green. It did
not look like a maple leaf. It was shining.

Helen’s oak leaf was small. The blade was just
three inches long.

The petiole was very short. It was only one-half
an inch long.

Some oak leaves are five inches long. Some oak
leaves are more than five inches long.

The petioles of oak leaves are not so long as the
petioles of maple leaves.

Can you find some oak leaves and some maple
leaves ? )

Tell how their petioles are unlike.

MANY LEAVES.

Here are some leaves. I took two from an oak
tree, and two from a maple tree. I took other leaves
from an elm tree.
4 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

“Hach leaf has a petiole and a blade.
The blade of each leaf is green. The blade of an

f
\' Riggers
\ \ y [X
- . ; oye to
| ye

: ao ee
\ ~
oo (AL ‘



elm leaf is not so long as that of an oak leaf. It is
not shining like an oak leaf.

The blade of an elm leaf is
not so wide as the blade of a
maple leaf.

The petiole of an elm leat
is not like the petiole of an
oak leaf. It is not like the
petiole of a maple leaf.

Can you make a drawing of
an elm leaf?

Try to find two leaves that
have long petioles, and two that have short petioles.


SESSILE LEAVES. 5

COLOR OF BLADES.

YX The broad part of a leaf is the blade. Most leaves
have green blades.
The blades of some leaves are light green. Some
kinds of leaves have dark green blades.
Sometimes the blades of leaves are red and yellow.
Other leaves have pretty brown blades.
- A leaf may have more than one color in its blade.
Some leaves have green blades marked with white lines.
Green leaf blades are sometimes marked with red
or brown lines.
When cold weather comes, green leaves change to
red, yellow, and brown.
Maple leaves change to red and yellow. Oak
leaves change from green to red and brown.
Does an elm leaf change to red, yellow, or brown?
What becomes of the leaves after they change

color?

—0.089¢ 00 —_

SESSILE LEAVES.

One day in the spring, Frank went out to the
woods.

He found some pretty purple flowers. He carried
these flowers and their leaves to his sister Helen.
6 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

She looked at the leaves but did not see any peti-
oles. She thought the petioles had forgotten to grow.
Perhaps they would grow when the leaves were older.

Frank and Helen took the leaves to their mamma.

Mamma said that some leaves never have petioles.
Such leaves grow close to a stalk. They look as if
they were sitting on a stalk.

Frank said that when he found leaves without
petioles, he would call them sitting leaves.

“That will be right,’ said mamma, “but sessile is
a better name for them.”

Sessile means sitting.

——-2-079,00-—$_.

SESSILE LEAVES.

Some leaves do not have
petioles. These are called
sessile leaves.

Sessile leaves grow close
to a stalk. They look as if
they were sitting on a stalk.

Frank and Helen tried to

find some sessile leaves.



They went to mamma’s flower garden. Here they
found a pretty pink flower. It grew on a low plant.
IN THE WOODS. 7

The leaves on this plant did not have petioles.
They were sessile leaves.

Mamma had two kinds of marigolds in her garden.
One kind had sessile leaves. One kind had leaves
with petioles. [|

Frank went to the fields to look for leaves. He
found some that had petioles. He found some that
were sessile.

He found the low cornel or bunchberry. A bunch
of scarlet berries was just above some leaves.

Frank thought the
leaves on this plant were
sessile. He pulled one
off and saw a very short
petiole. The leaf was
nearly sessile.



IN THE WOODS.

© One warm day in May, mamma, Helen, and Frank
went to walk. They went to the woods for wild
flowers.
They found Solomon’s-seal with its pretty white
flowers. The flowers looked like little bells.
Helen and Frank looked at its leaves. They weré

growing close to a stalk. They seemed to be sitting
8 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

on a green stalk. The leaves of Solomon’s-seal are
sessile.

Frank found some flowers near the trunk of a tree.
They were pale yellow bells. Mamma called them
wild oats, or bellwort.

The bellwort had light green leaves. All the
leaves were sessile.

Helen found a flower of a rich yellow color. It
was a marsh marigold. Sometimes it is called a
cowslip, but that is not its right name.

Where the marsh marigold grew, the ground was
wet. It was in a meadow and near a brook.

The dark green leaves of a marsh marigold are
thick and glossy. Those which grow nearest the
flowers are sessile. The lower leaves have petioles.

——00$@¢0-0-——__

STIPULES.

‘One morning Helen went to look for sessile leaves.
She went to some bushes that grew near her home.

Last spring, one of these bushes had pretty red
flowers. Helen called it a Japan quince. It had
another long name which she could not tell.

She took a leaf from this bush to see whether it
was sessile. The leaf had a petiole.
REVIEW. 9

When Helen looked at its petiole, she saw two
little bits of green on it. These bits of green looked
like a pair of leaves
growing from the
petiole.

They looked like
leaf blades, but were



very small. There
was one on each side of the petiole.

“They grew near the end of the petiole. They
were close to the place where it joined the stalk.

These small leaf-like bodies are stipules.

Can you find leaves with stipules?

02-0595 0.

REVIEW.

What part of a leaf is the blade?

Tell some leaves that have broad blades.

Tell some that have long blades.

Tell some that have round blades.

What leaves have dark green blades?

What kinds have light green blades?

Name some leaves which have shining blades.
Name two leaves which have long petioles.
Name two which have short petioles.
10 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Name two which have no petioles.
What are such leaves called ?

What does sessile mean ?

What vine has sessile leaves ?

What are stipules?

Name some leaves that have stipules.

0200

THE VEINS.

Look at this maple leaf. There are some hard
lines in its blade.

These lines are hard, like a stem or petiole. They
seem like branches coming from a petiole.

There are other smaller branches coming from
these.

The five large branches come from the petiole, and
look like the sticks of your fan. |

Of what use are the sticks in your fan?

They make it spread, out, and these little branches
in the blade make a leaf spread out.

The sticks in your fan are made of wood. Are the
branches in this leaf made of wood?

We will call them woody.

The five large branches in the blade of a maple
leaf are called veins.
AN IVY LEAF. 11

There is one vein running straight from the peti-
ole through the middle of the blade.

AN IVY LEAF.

Here is an ivy leaf. It did not grow on a tree, like
an elm leaf. It grew on a vine.

The vine on which it grew is.
as long as two sides of a room.

This ivy leaf has a petiole three
inches long. Some ivy leaves
have longer petioles. Some ivy
leaves have shorter petioles.

Is the ivy leaf sessile ?

The blade of this leaf is about
one-half as long as the petiole.



It has five points.

An ivy leaf like this is dark green on its upper side.
The color is not so dark on its under side.

There are five large, white veins in the blade. One
of these white veins is in the middle of the blade. It
is the middle vein of the leaf.

This ivy leaf has other white veins. They are
smaller than the five large veins.

The blade of an ivy leaf is smooth.
12 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

A MIDDLE VEIN.

In this maple leaf, there are five little branches.
They come out from the petiole, like the branches of
a tree.

These little branches
are called veins.

There is one vein run-
ning straight from the
petiole. It passes through
the middle of the blade.

Look at an oak leaf. -
Do you see any veins?

There is one large vein
in the middle of an oak



leaf.

Look at a beech leaf, an elm leaf, and a leaf from
a cherry tree. Each of these has a large vein in the
middle of its blade.

Look at lilac leaves and grape leaves to see whether
they have middle veins. :

A middle vein is called a midvein.

Frank has looked at a great many leaves. He has
looked at a great rhubarb leaf. It has a very large
vein in the middle of its blade. This is its mid-

vein.
-

VEINLETS. 13

Frank thinks the middle vein of a rhubarb leaf is
as large as one of his fingers.

Helen has found some small leaves. She sees a
midvein in each.

She cannot find a leaf without a midvein. Perhaps
she may find one to-morrow.

Helen and Frank look at a great many leaves.
They try to find one without a midvein.

VEINLETS.

A middle vein is called a midvein.

Look at an oak, an elm, or a beech leaf. Little
branches or veins come out from the
midvein. Other, smaller veins come
from these.

These smallest branches are called
veinlets. This word means little
veins.

All veinlets are not the same size.
Some are so small they are not
easily seen.

Some leaves have more veins



than others. A maple leaf has five
large veins. It has many small veins or veinlets.
14 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Some leaves on a Sassafras tree have three large
veins and many veinlets. You may see other sassa-
fras leaves having only one large vein.

Bring leaves to the class to show the veins and
veinlets in them.

Make drawings of the veins and veinlets in leaves.

2-00, OO ——

A PLANTAIN.

Frank found a pretty green plantain leaf. It was
growing close to the ground.

Plantains often grow\ near
a door-step. In the country,
they grow along the roadside.
Sometimes they are called rib-
worts. Z

A plantain leaf has grooves in
its petiole. Look at a plantain
leaf to see what grooves are.

Frank broke the petiole of a
plantain leaf. There were some
little strings init. These strings



ran far up into the blade.
They were in the veins of the leaf.

These little strings were very strong. Frank pulled
THE USE OF VEINS. 15

them, and this made the blade of the leaf curve.
Then it looked like the bowl of a spoon.

Frank’s leaf had seven large veins. It had many
veinlets. It had a midvein which was larger than
any other vein.

There is more than one kind of plantain. Some
kinds have wide leaves. Other kinds have leaves
that are long and not very wide.

0300

THE USE OF VEINS.

Veins and veinlets keep a leaf spread out. When
leaves spread out, they make shade for us,

When vines are broken, water or juice comes out
of them. This water or juice is called sap.

There are veins and veinlets in every part of a blade.
Sap goes to all parts of a blade through veins and vein-
lets.

Small veins have but little sap. If the veins are
large, there may be much sap in them.

Spaces between veins and veinlets are filled with the
soft green blade.

Where there are many veins and veinlets, there is
much sap and. a great deal of.the soft green blade.

Break some veins, and you can see the sap.

What color is it?
16 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

REVIEW.

What are the branches in leaves called?

Of what use are these branches?

How many midveins are in one leaf?

What is a midvein?

Tell some leaves that have large midveins.

Tell some. that have small midveins.

Have you ever seen a leaf without a midvein ?

Tell some leaves that have more than one large vein.

What are veinlets ?

What leaf have you seen having many veinlets?

What is in the veins of leaves?

What did Frank find in the veins of a plantain
leaf ?

A NETWORK OF VEINS.

Did you ever hold a leaf between your eyes and the
light ?

Helen held up a peach leaf to see its veins and vein-
lets. It looked like lace with a green cover over it.

In the leaf there were tiny veins that seemed to join
other little veins. These veinlets crossed one another
in every way. Helen thought of threads in a piece of

lace.
NET-VEINED LEAVES. 17

She held other leaves between her eyes and the light
Some had veinlets very close together. In others the
veinlets were farther apart.

Helen told her mamma that these leaves looked like
tiny fish-nets.

Mamma said, “ When veins and veinlets join one
another, like these, a leaf is called net-veined.”

—-0$94 00 ———

NET_VEINED LEAVES.

When veins and veinlets run into one another, they

make a net-veined leaf.

Helen and Frank think i iL
they will know net-veined We ape
leaves when they find SS x W) SEZ

7 J
them. If they want to 4 Een
know when a leaf is net- a ‘ Ie ae
veined, they will hold it = =f
between their eyes and 2A ay);
the light. UG

Mi



When veins and vein
lets seem to make a lace-
work all over the blade, the leaf is net-veined.

“ Perhaps all leaves are not net-veined,” said Helen.

“T never thought about that,” said Frank.
18 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Now Helen and Frank will look at different kinds of
leaves to see whether they are net-veined. -

If they can find some which are not net-veined, they
will want to know what those are called.

They will look at the leaves of a birch, a cherry, a
lily of the valley, and at some blades of grass.

09300

PARALLEL VEINS.

In the garden were some lilies of the valley.
Little white bells hung from the upper part of their
stems. These white bells were the
flowers. They were very fragrant.

Mamma gathered some of these
flowers and their leaves. She gave a
leaf to. Helen, and told her to look
at the veins.

The midvem and the other veins
seemed to run side by side.





Helen could not see any branching
veins. She could not see any network
of veins. It was not a net-veined leaf.



Mamma told her that when veins
run side by side, like these, they are called parallel
veins. Many kinds of leaves have parallel veins.
PARALLEL-VEINED LEAVES. 19

Helen will look for parallel-veined leaves. Some-
times she will find those in which the parallel veins
are nearly straight. They are curved but little.

At other times she will find veims with double
curves. If these veins run side by side, the leaf will
be parallel-veined.

PARALLEL-VEINED LEAVES.

Helen has been looking at many leaves. She has
looked at the veming, to see whether a leaf is net-
veined or parallel-veined.

In some leaves she finds paral-
lel veins. They are like those in
a lily of the valley.

She finds other leaves having
parallel veins, but the veins do
not run the same way as the mid-
vein. Helen looks at a calla leaf.
Its veins are side by side. They
branch out from the midvein and



run towards the edge of the leaf.

The veins on one side of the midvein all run the
same way, towards the edge of the leaf. They do
not branch out in different ways like a net-veined leaf.
20 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

When Helen tears a calla leaf, it tears parallel
to its ves. Then she knows it is a parallel-veined
leaf.

Helen has learned there are two kinds of parallel-
veined leaves. One kind has all its veins running the
same way as its midvein. Another kind has. veins
side by side from the midvein to the edge of the leaf.

Can you find a lily leaf that is parallel-veined ? Try
to find a lily leaf that is net-veined.

———0102¢,0-0-—_—

REVIEW.

How can you hold a leaf to see its veining?
How do you know that a leaf is net-veined ?
What makes the network ?
In a net-veined leaf, are the veins large or small?
How do you know that a leaf is parallel-veined ?
Are parallel veins straight or curved ?
What kind of veining do you find in a blade of
grass ?
Is an elm leaf net-veined or parallel-veined ?
Look at a leaf from Indian corn, then tell whether
it is net-veined or parallel-veined.
THE BASE OF A LEAF. 21

THE BASE OF A LEAF.

Look at these white birch leaves. There is one
large vein in each. This large vein is the midvein.

The veins next in size to the
midvein are near the petiole.
They branch out from the mid-
vein.

The blade of a white birch
leaf is wider near its petiole
than in any other part. This
is the broad part of the leaf.

That part of a blade nearest,



the petiole is called the base
of a leaf. A white birch leaf has a broad base.

A white birch leaf has its largest veins in its base.
Helen thinks there must be more sap in these veins
than in the others. Why does she think so?

Helen tries to find another leaf that has a broad base.

There is a sunflower in the garden. On its top,
there is a large blossom. This blossom has a brown
middle with a bright yellow circle around it.

The sunflower is so tall, Helen cannot reach its top.
She can reach some of its leaves. She looks at the
base of one. It has a broad base.

Can you name another leaf which has a broad base ?
22 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

THE APEX OF A LEAF.

Frank has found many leaves that have broad bases.
Leaves from a sycamore, a tulip tree, and a poplar tree
have wide bases. The blade of a linden leaf is wide
near its petiole.

Frank has looked at all these leaves. He has
found large veins
in the base of each.
These veins are
joined to the mid-
vein near the pet-



iole.
k \ A linden leaf has
oS “e the largest part of

its midvein in the

base. The smallest part of its midvein is in the apex
of the leaf.

That part of a blade next the petiole is called its
base, and the other end of the blade is its apex.

The apex of a white birch leaf is a very long point.
The apex of an elm leaf is pointed.

Frank found two kinds of oak trees. He looked at
a leaf from one of them. It had a pointed apex.
Leaves on the other tree were not like this. Each
had a rounded apex.
SHAPES OF LEAVES. 23

Frank will look at a great many leaves to see whether
their bases are alike. When he is learning about
the base of a leaf, he will learn about its apex, also.

Try to find a leaf which has a round apex. Find
one having a pointed apex.



10 £8.0-0- —_.

SHAPES OF LEAVES.

All leaves are not widest at the base. Some are wid-
est between the base and apex.
Look at a leaf from a plum
tree. You will see it does not
have a broad base like a white
birch leaf. Its widest place is



between the base and apex.
The shape of a plum leaf is oval. A pear leaf is

oval, also.
24 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

An eli leaf has a narrow base. There are short
veins and veinlets near the petiole. These veins are
not very large. The largest veins in the leaf are above
these. The widest part of an elm leaf is above its base.

A willow leaf is long and narrow. It has a rounded
base. The base is not wide.

A willow leaf is lance-shaped.

Different shapes of leaves have names. Those
shaped like a willow leaf are called lanceolate, or
lance-shaped. A peach leaf is lanceolate.

Those shaped like a leaf from a plum tree are called
ovate leaves. Ovate means oval with the lower end
largest. It has the outline of a hen’s egg, cut through
lengthwise.

Of what shape is a leaf of the milkweed?

Name a leaf that is ovate.

Name a leaf that is lance-shaped.

What other name has that shape?

0 0:8400-—

IN A PARK.

Helen and Frank went to walk in a park. They
knew the names of some trees which they saw there.
They knew the maple, with its spreading leaves; and
the oak, which had dark green, shining leaves.
DIFFERENT SHAPES. 25

They knew the pretty lindens and the elms. One
elm tree was shaped like a great vase. Another elm
tree looked like a great umbrella.

They saw the tall, dark pine trees, with leaves like
needles. _

When they came home, they told their mamma the
names of trees which they knew. They told her how
many of each they had seen.

There were five oaks and seven maples. How many
oak and maple trees were there?

They saw one-half as many elms as oaks and maples
together. How many elm trees did they see?

They counted one-half as many lindens as elins.
How many lindens did they count?

There were as many pine trees as elms, and two
more. How many pine trees were there?

-———00 £62,0-—_.

DIFFERENT SHAPES.

Frank has a great many leaves today. He took
some of them from trees, some from shrubs, and some
from little plants.

What a great number he has! How many different
shapes! Livery leaf is net-veined, yet they are not
alike.
26 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Each leaf has a midvein from base to apex, but
some of the leaves are wide at the base, and some
are narrow.

Each leaf has veins that branch out
from the midvein. Then there are other
veins and veinlets coming from these.

In all these leaves the longest veins
branch out from the base of the midvein.
But all do not have broad bases. _

There are some in which the long veins
branch out like a white birch leaf. These
have broad bases.

There are others having long veins which
start at the base. Instead of branching



out they turn and grow towards the apex.
Such leaves do not have a broad base. They are
wider near the middle of the blade.
Can you find a leaf of this kind?

A WIDE APEX.

One day Frank and Helen went to look for net-
veined leaves. They wanted to find one with a wide ~
apex. .

They wanted to find one having short veins in its
A WIDE APEX. oT

base, and longer veins in its apex. They thought a
leaf of this kind would have a wide apex.

In mamma's garden, Helen found some small plants.
All their leaves were growing near the ground.

Helen looked at one of
its leaves. She saw it was
wider at its apex than at its
base. -

Its longest veins were near
the apex. All the veins in
its base were short. The base



was very narrow. Helen
picked some of these leaves to show to her brother.
Frank, also, had been looking for a wide apex.
There were some fine shade trees growing near the
house. He picked a thick leaf from one of these trees.
The leaf was dark green on its upper side, and
brownish on its under side. Frank could easily see its
veins. Those in the base were short. Those in the
apex were long.
Frank and Helen will try to find other leaves shaped
‘like these.
28 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

THE CALLA.

Helen has three kinds of leaves, These are violet,
white birch, and lilac leaves. Each is widest at its
base, and is net-veined.

Frank wants to know whether
every leaf with a broad base is
net-veined. .

Helen does not know, so the
children go to ask mamma.

Mamma tells them that they
must use their eyes to find out.

Helen goes to the greenhouse,
and Frank takes a ride into
the country. — |

Helen sees a leaf with a
broad base. It is the leaf of a
calla. She knows this leaf is parallel-veined. Its



veins are side by side from the midvein towards the
edge of the blade.
When Helen holds a calla leaf to the light, she sees
tiny veinlets crossing from one vein to another. They
do not branch out as in a net-veined leaf. They are
nearly straight, and run side by side.
A calla leat has a broad base and is parallel-veined,
THE ARROW-HEAD. 29

A violet, a white birch, or a lilac leaf has a broad base
and is net-veined.

All leaves that have broad bases are not net-veined.

0058300

THE ARROW-HEAD.

Frank went to the country to look for parallel-
veined leaves. He wanted to find some with broad
bases.

He went near a small
pond. The land about this
place was low and wet. It
was sometimes called a
marsh and sometimes a
swamp.

Here Frank found some LP
snow-white flowers. They
were on a plant which grew
near the edge of the pond.

He saw an odd kind of
leaf on this plant. Its veins did not show very
plainly.

When he held it up between his eyes and the light,
he saw it was parallel-veined.

The veins were not large. They looked like threads.
30 _ LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Most of them started from the petiole and ran side by
side to the apex.

A few long veins started from the petiole, but did
not turn upward towards the apex. They did not
spread out to make a broad base. They turned down-
ward.

The plant that has this kind of leaves is an arrow-
head. Some people think its leaves look like the
points or heads of arrows.

Frank found other plants growing in the swamp.
Many of them had parallel-veined leaves, with broad
bases.

He took these leaves home to show to Helen. Now
Frank knows that every leaf which has a broad base
is not net-veined.

A leaf with a broad base may be net-veined or
parallel-veined.

A PEACH LEAF,

A peach leaf is long and narrow. Its midvein is
thick and round at the base. At the apex, it is small,
like a fine thread.

The longest veins in this leaf are about half way
between its base and apex. It is a lance-shaped or a
lanceolate leaf.
A PEACH LEAF. 31

A peach leaf is a net-veined, lanceolate leaf. Are
there other lanceolate leaves having net veins?

Yes, Frank knows where there are some wild asters.
The flowers are pale purple. These asters have net-
veined, lanceolate leaves.

Helen has found a weed. Mamma calls it “lady’s-
thumb.” Its leaves are green, and each
has a dark, heart-shaped spot near the
middle. The leaves are lanceolate.

Frank has some lily leaves. They are
lanceolate, but not net-veined.

Some lanceolate leaves are net-veined
and some are parallel-veined.

Mamma wants Helen and Frank to
know about the shapes of leaves. She
wants them to know about those which
grow on the trees, shrubs, or small plants



near their home.

If they are in a strange place, and see a leaf like
one of these, they will know its name. It will seem
like an old friend.

They can learn to know a tree or a plant by its leaves.
Then as soon as they see a leaf, they may know the
name of the tree, shrub, or plant on which it grew.

Helen has found some leaves having nearly the same
shapes, but their veining is not the same.
32 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

She thinks she will press different kinds of leaves in
a book. She can look at them when she does not have
fresh leaves.

Helen will have a great many pressed leaves. She
will see whether those of the same shapes have the
same kinds of veining.

She can see whether some net-veined leaves have
shapes like some parallel-veined leaves.

Where is the widest part of a poplar leaf?

Where are the largest veins in a willow leaf?

Make a drawing of a beech leaf.

AN APPLE LEAF.

Last week Helen and Frank went to visit their
cousins, Sara and Arthur.

They went out to play under an apple tree. Sara
and Arthur did not know much about leaves. They
asked Frank to tell them some things he had learned.

Frank showed them an apple leaf. Its blade was
two and one-half inches long. Its petiole was one inch
long. He told them which part of the leaf was the
base, and which was the apex.

Frank showed veins and veinlets in the blade. He
told Sara and Arthur about the midvein. He said,
MANY FORMS. 33

“Jt is the vein running from the petiole through the
middle of the blade.” —

Arthur held a leaf between his eyes and the light.
He could see it was a net-veined leaf, because the veins
crossed each other like network.

The leaf which Arthur held
was dark green on its upper side.
The color was not so dark on its
under side.

Sara found some light green
leaves growing on the ends of
twigs. There was something on
them which looked like wool.
When Sara rubbed the leaf, this
wool came off and the leaf was bright green and shining.



Frank said that an apple leaf is an ovate leaf.
Arthur knows another kind of tree that has ovate
leaves.

MANY FORMS.

Frank and Helen had a book in which they had
pressed a great many leaves. These leaves had differ-
ent forms.

One day they took these leaves out of their book.
Mamma told them that each form had a name.
34 ; LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Frank and Helen wanted to learn the names of all
the forms.

Mamma thought there were more than they could
remember. She told them it was best to put the
leaves into three groups. She helped them do this.

Into one group they put those leaves that were
widest between the base and the apex. They had
apple, plum, quince, willow, horsemint, orange, and
blueberry leaves.

Into another group they put the leaves which had
broad bases. These were catnip, liverwort, birch, vio-
let, and morning-glory leaves. ;

Into the last group they put those leaves which were
widest near the apex. All they had for this were some
large, leather-like oak leaves.

Frank thought that a leaf from the sheep-sorrel
would belong to the last group. He is going to the
fields to get one; then he will know.

Every day the children will try to add to their
groups of leaves. When they have a leaf, they will
put it into the group to which it belongs.
THE CATALPA. 35

CORDATE LEAVES.

Helen has some leaves, and each has a broad base.
She sees that the broad bases are not alike.

The base of a lilac leaf is wide, but it is not like the
base of a white birch leaf. A lilac leaf looks as if a
piece had been taken out of its base. It is a heart-
shaped blade.

Helen has leaves of a violet and a morning-glory.
These, too, are heart-shaped. A tall sunflower is grow-
ing near the house. She will look at its leaves to see
whether they belong to the heart-shaped class.

Frank knows where there is a linden. He will find
a great many heart-shaped leaves on that.

Another name for heart-shaped is cordate.

Helen and Frank will find many cordate leaves.
They will make drawings of them.

Can you find a cordate leaf and make a drawing
of it?

0203 00——_

THE CATALPA.

Early one morning, Helen and Frank went out to
find cordate leaves. It was autumn, and the days
were cool.

There were some trees growing near the house.
36 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Their leaves had changed from green to red and yel-
low. On some trees the leaves had changed to brown. —

Many of the red, yellow, and brown leaves had
fallen. They were lying on the green grass. This
made the lawn look like a
pretty carpet.

Looking down amongst
the brown leaves, Helen
saw one that was large and
green. It was a beautiful
heart-shaped leaf.

This leaf looked as if it
had been cut from a piece
of green silk. It had a
silky lustre.

Helen picked it up, and
then looked to see whence



it came.

She saw a large tree. The leaves on it were like
the one she held in her hand. Some of these leaves
were very large. They were larger than any oak leaf.

Helen did not know the name of this tree. She
took a leaf to mamma, and asked its name.

Mamma told her it was a catalpa tree. Some peo-
ple call it Indian bean.

The catalpa has heart-shaped or cordate leaves.
REVIEW. 37

REVIEW.

Name five leaves having broad bases.

Name five which are widest near the middle of
their blades.

What leaves are nearly round? ;

Did you ever see a leaf from a tulip tree? What
kind of an apex has it?

Name a leaf which has a wide apex and a narrow base.

Tell the name of some leaf which is very long and
has a narrow base.

Tell of some leaf which is ovate, or with an outline
that is egg-shaped.

Make a drawing of an ovate leaf.

Make a drawing of an elm leaf.

How do the veins appear on the under side of an
elm leaf?

How do they appear on its upper side?

Of what shape is a willow leaf?

What kind of veining has it?

Make a drawing of some lanceolate leaf.

Name two lanceolate leaves you have seen.

What is the shape of a peach leaf?

Name four cordate leaves.

In what part of their blades can you find the
largest veins ?
38 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Are the four cordate leaves which you have named .
net-veined or parallel-veined ?

Can. you find both net-veined and parallel-veined
leaves with heart-shaped bases ?

+17 —--OF OE O.0-—-—

MARGINS.

A violet, a morning-glory, and a lilac have cordate
or heart-shaped leaves.

The leaf of a violet is not like the leaf of a lilac. Its
edge looks as if little scallops had been cut all around it.

A lilac leaf has a whole edge. There are no cuts
in it. Leaves of a honeysuckle and a morning-glory
have whole edges like a lilac Jeat.

The edge of a leaf is its margin.

A catnip leaf is cordate. In its margin there are
pretty little curves, like those in a violet leaf, Its
color is not the same as a violet leaf.

Ground ivy is a common plant. It grows in gardens
and around houses. You may see it creeping along on
the ground or up on walls.

It has a pretty leaf with a heart-shaped base. The
apex is broad and round. Little scallops are cit
around its margin. They are like the scallops in the
edge of a violet leaf.
CRENATE MARGINS. 39

Write the names of five kinds of leaves having whole
margins.

Write the names of five kinds of leaves having cut
margins.

Find two parallel-veined leaves and tell what kind
of margins they have.

——0@Z0-0—-—_

CRENATE MARGINS.

Frank found a pretty leaf. It came from a plant in
grandma’s garden.

This leaf had an odor like lemons. Grandma told
Frank that it was called lemon
balm.

Margins like those of the vio-
let, catnip, and lemon balm are
crenate.

When the margin of a leaf
has broad, rounded notches, it is
crenate.



Look at geraniums. How many
kinds have leaves with crenate margins? You may
find crenate margins on horseradish leaves.

Do you know any other leaves which have crenate
margins ?
40 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Make a drawing of some leaf having a crenate
margin.

While looking for crenate margins, you may find
leaves having other kinds of margins.

The edges of some leaves are cut like the edge of a
saw, with its sharp teeth pointing forward towards the
apex.

Leaves of an elm and an apple tree have margins of
this kind. Perhaps you may find other leaves with
edges notched like a saw.

—30 F&0-0 ——

SERRATE MARGINS.

One day Helen went out to find leaves having cre-
nate margins.

She found five different kinds which had broad,
rounded notches in their margins.

She looked at each to see whether it was net-veined
or parallel-veined. Not one of her five leaves had
parallel veins.

When she was looking for crenate margins, she saw
leaves having other kinds of margins.

She took some leaves from an elm tree. These did
not have crenate margins.

The margin of an elm leaf is notched like the
DENTATE MARGINS. 4]

teeth of a saw, with the teeth pointing towards its
apex.

Helen took some leaves from a cherry tree, and
some from an apple tree. She
did not put these leaves with
those which had crenate margins.

Leaves from an elm, a cherry,
and an apple tree have serrate
margins.

When the margin of a leaf has
sharp teeth pointing towards the
apex, like the teeth of a saw, it is



saw-toothed or serrate.

—op900—_

DENTATE MARGINS.

When summer days are growing shorter, the wild
asters are in bloom.

We may find them growing in fields and by the
roadside. Some are white and some are purple. A
little spot of yellow is in the centre of each flower.

Helen likes to gather these pretty flowers. One
day she gathered a large bouquet for her mamma.

While she was picking flowers, she looked at some
aster leaves. She saw their margins were neither
crenate nor serrate. They were toothed or notched,
42 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Some margins had sharp teeth, which did not pomt
forwards. They did not point towards the apex, like
teeth in a serrate margin. They pointed outwards
from the middle of the leaf.
These margins were dentate.

When the margin of a
leaf has sharp teeth point--.
ing outwards, it is dentate.

The leaf of a dandelion
has a dentate margin. There



is another plant which has
yellow flowers, and its leaves have dentate margins.
The name of this plant is hawkweed. It grows in
dry and rocky fields.

If you use your eyes, you will find many other
leaves having dentate margins.

Look at the veining of leaves with dentate margins.
Are they net-veined or parallel-veined ?

2026300 ——

OTHER MARGINS.

The edges of leaves are not alike. Helen has
found some that are like aster leaves, with dentate
margins. She has seen others with whole or entire
margins, like a honeysuckle or a lilac leaf. She
knows some leaves that have crenate margins, and
some that have dentate margins. —
OTHER MARGINS. 43

Helen has learned about other margins. The long
leaves of a dock have wavy margins. Some leaves
have crisped or curled margins.

Sometimes leaves that grow on the same plant do not —
have the same kind
of margins. Helen
once found three
kinds of margins on
the leaves of one
plant. It was the




Iberis or candytuft.
Its leaves had en- eS 2
tire margins, wavy
margins, and ser-
rate margins.

She would often
find a single leaf
with two kinds of
notches on its mar-
gin. To give a
name to these margins, she would put together the
names of the different notches.

Leaves like these were on mamma’s geranium.
Helen looked at one, and saw a part of the margin
was crenate and a part of it was dentate. It was
a crenate-dentate margin.
44 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

THE HEPATICA.

Helen’s mamma has a garden which she calls her
wild garden. She gives it this name because all the
plants in it were brought from the woods and fields.

In this garden there is hepatica or liverwort.
Early in spring the hepatica has pretty blue flowers.

When the plant is in blos-

year’s leaves on it. Leaves
stay on the hepatica all win-
ter.

One day Helen took a leaf
from the hepatica. It seemed
to grow from the root of the
plant.



This leaf was thick and
tough, like leather. It was a net-veined leaf.

The base of the blade was broad, and on each side
of the petiole there were curves. The base of the
blade looked as if a piece had been cut out of it.

There were two other cuts in the leaf blade, one
on each side. Jf there were no cuts in the blade, it
would be shaped like a triangle.
LOBES. 45

LOBES.

Helen found other leaves which had deep cuts in
their margins. These cuts would reach about half-
way to the midvein.

These cuts were always between the large veins
of a leaf and never across them.

Is there a name for the parts of a leaf that are
between the cuts?

Helen’s mamma told her that the parts of a blade .
between the cuts are called lobes. Sometimes a leat
has both large lobes. and small lobes.

Frank gathered some oak leaves. He also had some
maple, sassafras, grape, currant, and hepatica leaves.
Some of these had large lobes, and some had small lobes.

All leaves do not have the
same number of lobes. A maple
leaf is five-lobed. The hepat-
ica is three-lobed.

Some leaves on a sassafras
tree have three lobes. The
blades of these leaves are shaped



like a wedge. Other leaves on
the same tree are ovate and have an entire margin.

Helen has seen leaves which have rounded lobes.
She has seen them with pointed lobes.
46 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

The space between two lobes is called a sinus.
Sinuses are not alike, because in some leaves the lobes
spread far apart, in others the lobes are close together.

If lobes spread far apart, a leaf has shallow sinuses.
If lobes do not spread far apart, a leaf has deep sinuses.

Look at some lobed leaf. Are the sinuses shallow or
deep ?

Tell the name of some tree which has lobed leaves.

Tell the name of a common shrub which has lobed
leaves.

209300

REVIEW.

What is the margin of a leaf?

What kind of a margin has a laurel leaf? A horse-
radish leaf? A willow leaf? A tulip leaf? An In-
dian corn leaf?

What is an entire margin? A serrate margin? A
crenate margin? A dentate margin?

Name some vine which has leaves with dentate
margins.

Name some tree whose leaves have serrate margins.

Name a garden plant whose leaves have curled mar-
gins.

What small plant in a greenhouse or a flower garden
has leaves with wavy margins?
MULLEIN AND THISTLE. 47

How many lobes has a sassafras leaf? A cucumber
leaf? A hop leaf?

What are the sinuses of a blade?

When does a blade have deep sinuses ?

When are the sinuses shallow?

Draw an oak leaf.

——0.03903,00—_

MULLEIN AND THISTLE.

One day Helen and. Frank were riding in the coun-

try. By the roadside they saw a?
ys’

a plant which had a tall stem.
The children knew the name Ope

i

of this common plant. It was
amullein. It had golden yel-
low flowers. These flowers
grew near the top of the stem
and close to it.

The leaves on this plant
were a very light green. They
looked as if they were cov-
ered with wool. When Helen
touched one of them, she \
thought of woollen cloth. They
were woolly on both sides.


48 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

The midvein of a leaf was large. The lower part
of it was growing on the tall stem. The bases of the
leaves grew downward on the stem or stalk. This
made the stalk look as if it had wings.

Helen called it a winged stalk. She has seen other
leaves grow to a stalk in
this way. Such leaves are
decurrent.

Frank saw another plant
which had decurrent leaves.
It grew by the roadside,



and had large, purple flowers. These flowers were
very pretty, but Frank did not touch them. There
were too many sharp spines on them.

The leaves of this plant were decurrent. Their
bases grew downward on the stalk. Along their mar
gins there were sharp spines. It was a thistle.
AUTUMN. 49

Both thistle and mullein have decurrent leaves.

In some gardens you may see a plant having pale
yellow flowers. Its leaves are decurrent. Can you tell
the name of this plant?

078300

AUTUMN.

A sultry summer had passed, and the cool days of
autumn had come. The morning sun often shone on
blades of grass glittering with white frost.

Leaves on the trees were changing from green to
red, yellow, and brown. They would fall and rustle
on the ground. Every day some of them came off.
Sometimes a gust of wind would send a great many
down at one time.

Near the home of Helen and Frank was a small
hickory tree. It was covered with pretty yellow leaves.
There was a strong wind one night, and the next day
all the yellow leaves were on the ground.

One day Helen and Frank went out to gather some
bright-colored leaves for mamma. They found the
yellow leaves of a birch and a poplar. They had a
large bunch of sumach leaves. These were red.

They brought home branches of red maple leaves.
They had yellow leaves from a hickory and a few
yellow leaves from a chestnut tree. Helen had a small
beech twig.
50 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Mamma thanked Helen and Frank for the leaves.
She said that her children had learned a great many
things about them, and now they must learn some-
thing about twigs or stems.

She gave a branch of maple to Frank and asked him
to take off a leaf.

How easily it came off! He scarcely touched it,
when it dropped away from the twig.

“What do you see at the place where the leaf came
off?” asked mamma.

“The petiole of the leaf covered a tiny knob or
lump.”

“That little knob is a leaf bud. Some time we will
learn about the buds on a twig.

“Look at the bark on a place that was covered by a
petiole. Is it the same color as the bark on other parts
of the twig?”

“No, mamma, the color is lighter, with a dark line
around it.”

“That light spot is called a scar. Every leaf that
falls leaves a scar to mark the spot where it grew on
the twig.

“ Look at some of these twigs which have no leaves.
Can you tell where leaves grew on them?”

“Yes,” said Frank. “T see scars, that mark the
spots where leaves fell off.” .
NODES AND INTERNODES. 51

Helen, who was looking at a beech twig, said, “The
leaves of a beech do not come off so aoe as maple
leaves.”

2030300

NODES AND INTERNODES.

The places on a stem from which leaves grow out
are called nodes.

When you know how many nodes are on a twig, you
know how many leaves have grown out from that twig.

Spaces on a twig between the
nodes are called internodes.

Helen measured the internodes of



a long twig. She found some spaces
nude..--.-..- =

vsiciida so were longer than others.
/ She measured around a_ twig.
She found the internodes were not
all the same size around.

Those at the base of a twig were
larger than those near its apex.

Helen and Frank measured the
internodes on maple and on chest-
nut twigs.

They found nodes and internodes
on the twigs of some trees that
were growing near their home.
52 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

On some of these twigs, they counted the nodes.
They measured the internodes and found they were
not alike.

Can you bring some twigs to the class to show nodes
and internodes ?

Measure the internodes. ©

Show some twigs on which the internodes are long.

When all the leaves had fallen from a tree, Helen
could tell where they had grown last summer.

On the twigs she could see spots where the petioles
came off. These spots were the scars. Just above
each scar she could see a very small leaf bud.

Before a leaf fell, its petiole covered a tiny leaf bud.
The leaf bud was covered so as to keep it from harm
while it was very tender. Next year it will grow to be
a twig.

When the warm spring days come, she may see a
leat bud growing larger and larger. Then it will open,
and she may watch a growing twig.

029300

GATHERING TWIGS.

One pleasant, sunny day in spring, mamma, Frank,
and Helen went to walk in a park.
There they saw trees which had been bare all winter.
GATHERING TWIGS. 53

A few dead leaves were clinging to some of the
branches.

“Mamma, when shall we see green leaves on these
trees?” asked Frank.

“On some of the trees, you may see leaves in a few
weeks. They will come from leaf buds.

“To-day, we will gather some twigs. They will
help you to learn more about leaf buds.

“Frank may take a twig from this tree near the
path. Do you know what kind of a tree it is?”

“T know,” said Helen, “for last October I found
some pretty red and yellow leaves under it. It is a
maple tree.”

“Here is an oak tree,” said Frank, “and here are
some acorns on the ground. I will get an oak twig.”

“This is a hickory tree,” said mamma; “ Frank may
gather some twigs from a hickory.”

Frank breaks off some twigs. He gives them to
Helen. Then he runs to an elm tree. He breaks
twigs from an elm and a horse-chestnut.

“T know where there is a willow tree. The twigs
grow down so near the ground that I can reach them.
There are a great many twigs lying on the ground
under the tree.”
54 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

HOW BUDS ARE PLACED.

Frank brings home a bundle of twigs. He has
taken them from maple trees and from horse-chestnut
trees. Some grew on oaks and some on elms. He
puts the twigs on a table.

Helen has gathered some twigs which she puts with
Frank’s. She has hickory, willow, and lilac twigs.

Mamma asks the children to look at all of these
twigs, then tell her something about them.

“T can see buds on all the twigs,” said Frank.
“On some they look like little knobs. They are not
the same size, some are larger than others.”

“ Almost every one is cone-shaped,” said Helen.
“They look like the bills of some birds. Sometimes
two buds are close together. Sometimes the
buds are alone.”

“You may see leaf buds growing in two
ways on a stem or twig. Sometimes they are
in pairs, and sometimes they grow singly.
Can you find a twig on which the buds are in
pairs ?” ,

“Yes, mamma, here is a lilac. The lilac



buds are in pairs.”
“Are buds on a maple twig single or in pairs?”
asks mamma.
HOW BUDS ARE PLACED. 55

Frank cannot find a maple twig, but Helen finds
one and says, “ Maple buds are in pairs.”

Helen and Frank look at other twigs on the
table. They find only one which has its buds
in pairs. This is a horse-chestnut.

Mamma tells them they may find many trees
and shrubs which have their buds in pairs.
When buds are in pairs, they are opposite.

Frank looks at the other twigs on the table.



All have single buds; they are not opposite on
the twigs.

When leaf buds are not opposite, they are alternate.
An elm has alternate leaf buds; so have
an oak and a hickory.

When buds are alternate, they seem to
follow after one another along the twig.
They begin at different distances on the
stem.

When buds are opposite, they stand base
to base on a stem. ,

There are buds at the ends of twigs.
Mamma says that these end buds are called



terminal buds.
Can you find a terminal bud on some twig?
Find a twig that has opposite buds, and one that has
alternate buds.
56 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

If buds on a twig are alternate, the leaves on that
twig will be alternate. If buds on a stem are opposite,
the leaves will be in pairs.

Are leaves on a maple tree alternate or opposite ?
How do they grow on an elm tree?

085, co —_

ABOUT BUD SCALES.

All winter the leaf buds gre carefully covered.
Jack Frost cannot harm them.

The cold snows and rains cannot get at
the little leaves within them. Each leaf bud
is closely covered with scales.

Look at the leaf bud of a hickory. See
those little scales folded so tightly over it.



There is no place where the rain can get in
to harm the tender leaves.



, The scales of a hickory bud look like
i
i a velvet coat. Little tender leaves are rolled

velvet. In winter a hickory leaf bud wears

up inside this velvet coat.

In spring, when days are long and bright, the little
leaves grow very fast. Then they push off their velvet
wraps. They do not need them when warm weather

comes.
ABOUT BUD SCALES. 57

The leaves grow away from their velvet coats or
scales. Very soon these scales wither and fall off.
When leaves have grown large and strong, we cannot
see the scales which covered them.

All leaf buds are not like those of a hickory. All
do not have velvet coats to keep their young leaves
warm in winter.

Some trees and plants grow where it is always,
warm. These have buds without scales.

Trees that grow in cold climates have leaf buds cov-
ered with scales. Scales protect the tender leaves
through the winter months. When warm weather
comes, they are no longer needed ; then they fall off.

The scales or coats of most leaf buds have soft lin-
ings. A soft lining is next to the tender young leaves.

Some linings are smooth, like satin. Scales of other
buds are lined with soft, fine hairs. Woolly linings
are in some scales. Do you know why scales have
such soft linings ?

A bud covers its young leaves closely with scales to
keep them from cold and wet. Many kinds of buds
have a covering outside their scales.

Some buds have coverings like wool. Others are
sticky, as if covered with a gum. Many kinds of buds
are covered with something that looks like wax. Snow
and rain cannot get through these coverings.
58 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

WATCHING LEAF BUDS.

Helen and Frank want to know how leaves come
out of a leaf bud. A bud may be very small, but the
leaves that grow from it will be large. How are large
leaves kept in small buds ?

There is a horse-chestnut tree near their home.
Mamma tells them to watch the buds on that.

She says: “The buds are growing larger and larger
every day. Very soon leaves will be on the tree. If
you watch them closely for a few weeks, you will learn
a great deal about them.

“Hvery day you must tell some new thing you have
seen. I will give each a little book. In it you can
write what you learn about buds and leaves.

“A horse-chestnut tree is large, and has many buds.
Do not try to watch them all. You will learn a great
deal more if you watch only a few.

“ Look first for two or three very large buds. When
you have found some of the largest on the tree, tie a
white thread around the twig near them.

“Next look for some very small leaf buds. Tie a
black thread around the twig near these. Do not tie
the threads tightly, for that will cut the bark and
harm the twig.

“‘These threads will help you to find the buds when
WATCHING LEAF BUDS. 59

you wish to look at them. You must watch these
buds to notice the changes from day to day.”

The children are pleased to have mamma help them.

They want to learn more about leaf buds and leaves.
They take some threads and go out to tie them around
twigs,
' On one twig they see four very large buds. They
put a white thread on this. Then they find one hav-
ing six small buds. “We will tie a black thread here,”
said Frank.

Helen can reach a twig which has a great many
buds on it. Some are large and some are small. She
ties both black and white threads around this. She
wants to see whether all these buds will open at the
same time.

The children tie threads on a lilac bush and on a
willow tree. They will watch the buds on these.

Mamma tells them they must not forget to look at
every part of a bud. Every day they must look at its
tip to see how it changes.

Mamina wants them to make a drawing of the same
bud each day for two weeks, to write the date on
each drawing, and to keep it till next summer. After
leaf buds are gone, and when leaves have come, they
will like to look at their drawings.
60 | LEAVES AND FLOWERS. :

THE HORSE-CHESTNUT.

Many times in a day Helen and Frank went out to
look at leaf buds on the horse-chestnut tree.

When Frank tied threads on the twigs, he found
something sticky covering the buds. The lilac and
willow buds were not sticky, like those on the horse:
chestnut.

Day by day the buds grew and the sticky matter on
them became softer. It was like a varnish.

One day Helen saw the scales on a bud had moved
a little. Now the bud would open and show her what
was inside.

First she saw something that looked like brown
wool. The scales spread farther apart, and this brown
wool came out more and more.

Then she saw it was a leaf peeping out,
but it was almost hidden in its woolly wrap-
per. It was closely covered with a woolly
wrapper, as if to keep out the cold.

When it had grown far out of the bud,



and had been warmed by the sun, it began to
open into parts. Then Helen saw a pretty green color.

The leaf was wrinkled. When it opened into parts,
there were seven wrinkled parts. These were to make
a great horse-chestnut leaf.
THE LILAC 61

Frank said they were wrinkled because they had
been folded-away so tightly all winter.

The warm sun made the little leaves grow larger
and larger each day. The spring winds soon began to
shake out their wrinkles.

When the leaves first unfolded, they were very ten-
der. One day there was a strong wind and many
leaves were torn by it.

As the days became warmer, the leaves grew larger
and their wrinkles came out. It was not long before
they were great, spreading leaves that would remain
all summer.

Their color became darker and darker every day.
They did not have the same bright green as when
they first unfolded.

The veins grew larger and became more woody ;
then the leaves were strong. These were the great
leaves that make a cooling shade in hot summer days.

0293 00 ——-

THE LILAC.

All the spring days, Helen and Frank were busy.
They were watching the twigs on trees and shrubs.
A bright sun and warm showers made the little leaf

buds grow. Lilac and willow buds grew fast.
62 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

One sunny day the scales on lilac buds
began to open, so as to let out the young
leaves. There were many little leaves
folded up in each bud.

When the scales on a bud had opened
far enough, Helen saw two little lilac
leaves. Their color was not like horse-
chestnut leaves. They came out without
any soft wool covering.

The first or outside leaves seemed to be
folded around others in the bud. The out-



side leaves must spread
Yh out to make room for
Na, others to unfold.
Warm winds and a
bright sun made the lilac
leaves unfold. Then they
grew very fast and their
wrinkles came out.
The leaves grew so



fast that soon they were
larger than their winter home. In a
few hours they were too large to be
crowded back into their small winter
home.

Frank said that this was the season
HOW LEAVES ARE FOLDED. 63

for a lilac bush to unfold its summer clothing and to
smooth out its wrinkles.

Only a few days after Helen had seen the first buds
open, the lilac bush was covered with leaves. Flower
buds, too, were growing on the lilac bush. They had
been wrapped up inside the leaf buds.

HOW LEAVES ARE FOLDED.

Frank and Helen like to watch leaves as they unfold.
They find that all leaves are not folded in the same
way. ach tree and shrub has its own way for folding
or rolling its young leaves.

There are many ways
for folding or rolling leaves
in a leaf bud.

In some buds the baby
leaves are rolled tightly,



and Helen can see only
one edge of the blade. Be-
fore the leaf unrolls it looks like a little horn.

Again, Helen finds some leaves rolled so that she can
‘see only the under surface of the blade. On another
tree or shrub she finds them rolled so that the upper
surface of the blade is on the outside.
64 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Some leaves are folded like fans. Others are folded
along the midvein, and one-half the blade is placed on
the other half.

Frank and Helen are very busy these
spring days. Every day they write in their
books. They write names of trees on which
new leaves are coming out. They write -
how these leaves are folded or rolled.



They write about the color of leaves, and how they
look when they first come out. They know how buds
open on a birch and a willow; how they open on a
cherry, a maple, and a tulip tree.

Frank and Helen watch some ferns unroll. When
the fern leaves come up out of the cold ground, they
are snugly wrapped in their blankets. Helen
says each leaf makes her think of the spirals
on a snail’s shell.

The children make drawings of buds and
leaves, and can tell a great deal about them.
Can you tell how a currant leaf unfolds ?

Watch a maple or a birch when the buds
are opening. See whether the leaves are
rolled or folded.

Look at the opening buds on an oak, to see



whether the leaves have been packed like those in the
buds of apple trees.
PARTS OF A FLOWER. 65

Did you ever watch a violet leaf to see how it un-
rolls? Are its margins rolled
inward or outward ?

Frank has learned that some
leaves unfold earlier than others.
Some young leaves can unroll



in less time than others.

——07@400-_

PARTS OF A FLOWER.

When spring days come, the sun is warm and bright,
but almost every day clouds will come to hide it.
Almost every day there is a gentle shower.

The rain does not last a long time. In a little while
the clouds break away, and the sun beams out as
brightly as before.

Spring sunshine and spring showers put new life
into all things. They make the little leaf buds swell
and open.

Bright sunshine and warm rains will open another
kind of buds. They will make the flower buds show
their pretty colors.

On pleasant spring days, Frank and Helen like to be
out of doors. They like to watch the buds as they
unfold. Every day they find something new.
66 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

A few days ago they saw the first leaves coming out
on a cherry tree. Then they saw just one little blos-
som. Now the cherry tree is white with flowers.

. Frank takes some of these flowers to his mamma.
He wants to learn about them. He knows many things
about leaves, now he wants to know about flowers.

Mamma tells him that flowers have different parts.
If he wants to know about them, he must carefully
study each part.

Frank looks at the part outside a cherry blossom,
and says, “Here are five little green
leaves outside some white ones. What
are they called, mamma ?”’

“These are the five sepals of the flower ;
all together they are called the calyx.
“The calyx of a flower is the outside
circle of leaves. The word calyx means cup.

“When you see a flower, look for its calyx.”

Frank finds a circle of white leaves next
inside the calyx, or circle of green leaves.

There are five of these white leaves.

They are called petals. All together
they look like a round white dish.

These white petals are not quite smooth. Each has
a wrinkle in it. The petals are not so thick as the

' sepals; they are thin and soft.
PARTS OF A FLOWER. 67

These white petals are the corolla of a cherry blos-
som. The corolla of a flower may be red, yellow, or
blue. The corolla of a cherry blossom is white.

The thin leaves which are within a calyx make the
corolla of a flower. .

Next to the corolla are many ‘little parts. These
look like short threads with yellow tops.

In a cherry flower there are a great WW
many of these short threads. They are called stamens.

Stamens are slender, thread-like parts next inside

the corolla.

In the middle of a cherry blossom is a larger
thread. It does not have a yellow top, like the
stamens. This is a pistil. |

The pistil is im the middle of a flower.

The parts of a flower are calyx, corolla, stamens,

and pistil.







68 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Tue CHEerry Buiossom.

Little cherry blossom
Lived up in a tree,

And a very pretty
Little thing was she;

Clad all through the winter
In a coat of brown,

Warm she was though living
In a northern town.

But one sunny morning,
Thinking it was May,

“Vl not wear,” said blossom,
“This brown dress to-day.”

So she let her brown dress
Drop and blow away,

Putting on a white one,

That fine sunny day.
ANONYMOUS.

———-04 00 —_

THE CALYX.

The outside circle of green leaves is the calyx of
a flower, or its flower cup. like a cup it holds the
tender flower when in bud.

The calyx of a cherry blossom has five leaf-like
parts. These are called sepals.

Look at many kinds of flowers to see whether their
sepals are like those of a cherry blossom.
THE CALYX. 69

When we want to know whether leaves are alike,
we look at their colors and shapes. We look at their
veinings and their bases. We see whether the apex of
one is like that of another.

We must look at sepals in the same way. We
must notice all these things, because sepals are very
much like true leaves.

‘ The apex of each sepal in a cherry blossom is a
sharp point. Sometimes these fine points are rolled
backward towards the stem of the flower. When the
white parts of the flower fall off, the sepals will turn
brown.

In some flowers the sepals are separate, as in a
cherry blossom. Then one can be pulled off without
disturbing another. In other flowers, like a
scarlet catchfly, the sepals grow together.

In the blossom of a pink you will see the
sepals grown together. Each sepal has a pomted
apex. Together these make five points or teeth
on the top of the flower cup. We call it a five-toothed
calyx.

Perhaps each sepal of a calyx has a rounded apex.
If. these grow together their entire length, the edge
of the calyx is crenate. You know what crenate
means.

The teeth or parts in the edge of a calyx show
70 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

how many sepals have grown together. Where five
sepals are joimed, the calyx is five-parted. If only
four sepals are joined, it is a four-parted calyx.

If sepals have grown together, a whole calyx may.
be taken off at one time. The whole calyx of a sage
blossom may be taken off at once. Try to find other

flowers whose calyx may be taken off like this.
The sepals of a flower are not always the
same length. They are not always the same
size. One may be larger or smaller than an-
other. Then we say the calyx is not regular.

Did you ever see a flower without a calyx? You
have seen the buds on a poppy. You did not see the
bright red petals because they were inside a green
calyx. When the bud opened into a flower, the green
sepals fell off; then the flower had no calyx. Do you
know another flower which loses its calyx as soon as it

opens ?

——-059200—__
THE COROLLA.
The flower of a cherry has a white corolla. Each

part is called a petal.
Take off one petal to see its shape. Petals (ype

have two parts, a limb and a claw. The aay,
limbs of most petals are not so thick as the claws.
THE COROLLA. 71

When we look at petals of different flowers we find
the limbs are not alike. Some limbs have entire mar-
gins, like the petals of a buttercup or a rose. Some-
times the limbs of petals have toothed margins, lke
those of a pink. Others are fringed like a ragged-
robin or fringed gentian.

Wavy margins, crenate margins, and lobed margins
are found on petals as well as leaves.

We have seen chickweed growing In our gardens, or
by the roadside, or spreading over waste ground. It
grows in almost any place. We have even seen it
between bricks on a sidewalk.

Its bright green leaves will tempt us to gather some.
Then we can see its pretty white blossom. Its petals
are cut or cleft. Do you think it has ten petals? It
has only five, but they are cut or cleft so deeply that
each petal looks like two.

There is another weed which has white, two-cleft
petals. It is the bladder-campion. This weed is
common in New England. There the children call it
“snappers,” because, when they strike the

calyx on their hands, it bursts with a sharp ‘imb
sound.
A. claw is the lower part of a petal. Ina -- elaw

rose or a buttercup the claws are short. In some
flowers the claws of petals are long. Look at a blos-
72 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

som from a wild mustard, a sweet rocket, or a pink.
The petals of these blossoms have long claws.

What kind of claws do you see in a nasturtium?
Are they short, or are they long?

Petals are almost always some other color than
green. harebell are blue. You can think of many flowers that
have pink, red, or purple petals.

Sometimes petals are as thick as the sepals of a
flower. Not many petals are as thick as the green
leaves of the plant on which they grow.

KINDS OF COROLLA.

A wild rose has five petals. These have broad limbs
and short claws. They spread out like the sepals.
They do not grow so as to cover the
sepals, but they cover the spaces be-

tween them.

Take a flower from an apple tree, a
peach tree, or a cherry tree. The petals
are placed like the petals of a rose.

The flowers of a strawberry, a blackberry, or a rasp-
berry have petals growing in the same way. There are
a great many flowers having corollas shaped like a. rose.
KINDS OF COROLLA. 1

Another kind of corolla is in the shape of a cross.

Look at a flower from a wild mustard
or from a sweet rocket. Each blossom <|
has four petals.

The petals of these flowers have long
claws and spreading limbs. They are
placed so as to form a cross. What other flower has
a corolla shaped like a cross?

Pinks have petals with long claws,
but they do not form a cross. A
double pink has a great many petals.
A single pink has only five petals.
These are set in a long calyx tube,
and are spreading at the top.

We often find a purple flower in
corn-fields. It is the corn cockle.



Farmers do not like it; they call it
a troublesome weed. Its corolla has
five petals, and they are placed like
those of a pink.
You can find other flowers whose
petals are placed like those of a pink.
The corolla of a sweet pea has
five petals. They are not alike in



shape or size.

These petals have names. The upper one is the
74 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

largest. It is called the standard or the banner. The
two side petals are the wings. You find the two
lower petals are partly joined; these are called the
keel. .
A corolla like this is not regular. Flowers of a
locust, a bean, a pea, or a Wistaria are called irregular.
You have seen flowers whose sepals had grown to-
gether. You can also find those having petals
grown together. Then a corolla is in one piece,
instead of being in parts. You
know how a bluebell looks with
its five-cleft or five-toothed
bell. Its corolla is in one piece.
The corolla of a morning-glory is
in one piece. It looks as if the claws
of the petals had grown together,



to make a tube. The limb or border
opens like a funnel. The corolla is funnel-form. What
other flower have you seen
that is shaped like this ?

At the top of a slender
tube, the limbs of petals may
bend to make a flat, spread-



ing border. A corolla of this
kind is salver-form. The

corolla of a phlox is salver-form.
KINDS OF COROLLA. 75

Spreading borders sometimes have deep cuts in
them. The corolla of a lilac is salver-form, with four
deep cuts in the border. It is a four-parted border.

You may think the corolla of a lilac has four petals,
but if you try to pull one out they will all come off
together. All the petals are united, making a slender
tube below the border.

Another flower which is -salver-form is the peri-

winkle. It grows on a trailing





plant that has evergreen leaves.
Its bright blue flowers open early
in the spring.



When a border does not spread out, or when the
limbs are short, the flower is tubular, or like a tube.
76 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

THE PERIANTH.

Sometimes we may want to speak of all the flower
leaves of a blossom. Then we say the perianth of a
flower. The sepals and petals together make a perianth.

A yellow buttercup or a blue harebell has a green
calyx. Do you think the calyx of a flower is always
green? Not always; a flower may have a calyx that
is colored like its corolla. When a calyx and a corolla
are nearly alike, the word perianth is used for both.

-A Japan lily in our garden, or a yellow lily in the
fields, has no green calyx. Have you ever seen a lily
bud just starting to grow? Perhaps it had a greenish
color at first, but before the flower opened the green
color was gone.

You have seen buds on a tiger lily. Their outside
leaves are a dull orange color. Watch them as they
unfold, and you will find other leaves within.

The three colored leaves on the outside make the
calyx. There are three colored leaves within to make
the corolla. These six colored leaves make a perianth.

A tiger lily has a six-parted perianth. Look at the
inside of the perianth. Both sepals and petals are
marked with black or dark brown spots. They roll
backward as if to show their beauty. The perianth
opens to the sunshine and light.
THE PERIANTH. 1

Summer is the season for lilies. A few will come in
the spring, but most of them blossom in summer.
They may be found on hills, in fields, and in meadows.
Some have bright-colored perianths, that can be seen a
great way off.

Frank found a pretty red lily. It was growing
among sweet-fern and blueberry bushes. Its orange-
red perianth was spotted at the base. It looked like a
bell standing on its handle.

Another pretty lily grows in meadows. Frank found
one where some men were cutting meadow grass. Its
pretty yellow flowers were shaped like bells. Inside
they were spotted with dark red. This plant did not
hold its bells up, like the red lily. They were hanging
from the top of a tall stem. One stem had five bells
hanging from its top.

Another hanging lily is white. You have seen it
growing in gardens. Its perianth is shaped more like
a trumpet than like a bell. Have you seen the ridges
on both sepals and petals? Are the sepals and petals
shaped alike? Look at other lilies to see the shape
of their perianths.

Some early spring flowers have pretty colored peri-
anths. Where you see a colored bud, you may expect
to see a colored perianth after it opens.
78 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Litrss.
In my garden there are lilies,
Lilies swinging to and fro,
Garden lilies, rosy lilies,
Lilies white as drifting snow.
"Here the blazing tiger lily,
There the evening lily pale;
And in the corners, dark and shady,
Little lilies of the vale.

in my garden there are lilies;
And the wild bees come and go,
Seeking honey from my lilies
Swinging slowly to and fro.
— Eruet Currrorp.

——.0teyoe—_

STAMENS.

Within the perianth of a flower you can find its
stamens. Their little threads are often white, but
sometimes they are colored.

In some flowers the threads of stamens are coarse.
In other flowers they are very fine; they are almost
as fine as hairs. .

You will find that all flowers do not have the same
number of stamens. In a lilac blossom there are two
stamens. Some flowers have four stamens. You will
find six stamens in a tulip. .
STAMENS. 79

When you look at the stamens in a wild rose or a
buttercup, you find a great many.

There seems to be a little head on the top of each
thread. If you look at these heads in different flowers,
you will find large heads, small heads, flat heads, long
heads, and round heads.

These heads are called: anthers. They are on the
tops of the thread-like parts. Some stamens have
yellow anthers. Others have brown, purple, red, or
white anthers.

You have seen a flower which has brown anthers.
These brown anthers are shaped like boats. Can you
think of a flower that has long anthers?



You know a flower that has yellow anthers, and
another flower which has white anthers. What are
the names of these flowers ?
80 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

After a flower has been opened a while there is a
kind of dust on its anthers. This dust is fine, like
flour. It is pollen.

If you touch the anthers of a flower that has been
opened a short time, the pollen comes off easily.
Pollen often falls on petals where it can be seen.
There it looks like a brown, white, or yellow dust.

After pollen falls from the anthers, a flower begins
to fade. Some time you will learn the use of pollen.

Stamens are not all alike. We find both long and
short stamens. Even in the same flower, some stamens
will be short and some will be long.

Did you ever see a flower in which there were both
long and short stamens? Take the petals from the
flower of a wild mustard. There you will see four
long stamens and two short ones. Look at the little
white alyssum that is found in gardens. What kind of
stamens do you find ?

Sometimes we find flowers having very long stamens.
They will reach out far beyond the border of the corolla.

In July the swamp pink or swamp honeysuckle
opens its fragrant flowers. Then we can see the long
stamens beyond its corolla.

Some tubular flowers have stamens reaching out
beyond the tube. Other tubular flowers have their
stamens hidden in the tube.
MORE-ABOUT STAMENS. gl

In some flowers, the stamens look as if they were
bent or broken. In others they are twisted. Some
flowers have flat stamens.

The Deutzia is a common shrub in our gardens. A
Deutzia has white flowers shaped like bells. If you
look at one of the stamens, you will see it is flattened.
On its top there are three points. A golden anther is
on the middle point.

MORE ABOUT STAMENS.

If you look at many flowers you may find three
things about stamens.

You may find them growing from a corolla. They
may be growing from a calyx. They may be free
from both corolla and calyx.

A phlox and a morning-glory
have stamens jomed to the tube
of a funnel, and growing from it.
When a corolla is taken from a
flower of this kind, stamens come



off with it. The stamens grow
from the corolla.

Again, stamens may join a calyx and grow from it.
Stamens of a rose are fastened to the calyx of a

flower. Look at a blossom from an apple tree, to see -
82 . LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

whether the stamens are fastened to its calyx or to
its corolla.

In many flowers the stamens do not grow to a calyx

or toa corolla. They are free from
these parts of the blossom. The sin-
gle red poppy loses its calyx when
the flower opens. Its corolla may
then be taken off, and the stamens
will remain. They are free from
both calyx and corolla. Stamens in
a wild mandrake or May-apple do



not grow to calyx or corolla.

You have found flowers having their sepals grown
together, and flowers whose petals grew together.
There are some flowers in which the stamens grow
together. Perhaps you may find all the stamens grow-
ing in one bundle, as they grow in a hollyhock.

Did you ever gather the young, green seeds of a
plant and call them “cheeses”? These seeds grow on
plants called mallows.

Look at a flower from a mallow to see how its sta-
mens grow. Break all the stamens from a flower and
look at the base. The stamens have grown together ©
to make a tube. In the tube is a pistil.

Have you seen the blossom of a cotton plant? Its
stamens are grown together like these.
THE PISTIL. 83

There are flowers which have their stamens im two
sets. The blossom of a sweet pea has ten stamens.
Nine of them grow in one bundle or set, and there is
one stamen alone.

Stamens grow in this way in the flowers of a locust,
or in the golden blossoms of a Jaburnum.

When you are looking at flowers, be sure to notice
their stamens, and tell what you know about them.

—-0 205 oo ——_

THE PISTIL.

In the middle of a flower you may find the pistil.
It is larger at the bottom and the top than it is in the
middle.

If you look at the pistil of a cherry blossom,
you can see three parts. The bottom, the top,
and the middle are the three parts of a pistil.

Look at the pistil in a peach blossom to find its
three parts. Perhaps you may not easily find
three parts of a pistil in every flower.

All pistils do not look alike. The pistil of a
spring-beauty is three-parted at the top.

The ovary is the bottom part of a pistil. The
stigma is the top part of a pistil. The style is the
middle part between the ovary and stigma.
84. LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

The style is like a stem of the stigma. Some stig-
mas have long styles and others have very short styles,
just as flowers have long or short stems.

When a stigma has no style, it must sit on the
ovary. Then we say the stigma is sessile.

Look at a tulip blossom. You can see a three-cor-
nered ovary. The stigma is three-parted. Where is
the style? Is the stigma in a tulip sessile ?

Pollen will fall from the anthers of a flower. It will
work its way down through the stigma and style into
the ovary. .

When the petals of a flower are old and withered,
they fall off. The ovary is left on the flower stalk,
and keeps on growing. Young seeds are in it.

The ovary must stay on a flower stalk until the seeds
are ripened.

Perhaps you may find two, or three, or more pistils
in the middle of some flowers. You will know the
pistils from the stamens, because they do not have
anthers and pollen.

In a cherry blossom there is one pistil. In a butter-
cup there are a great many pistils. They are very
small, and are packed closely together. ‘There is a
little ovary at the base of each pistil. You do not see
a style, because the stigma is sessile.

When you have studied many, many flowers, you
will learn other things about stamens and pistils. |


Frower Time.

The bluebell with its soft green leaves,
Looks out upon the sky;

The violet in her shady nook,
Opens her soft blue eye.

The daisy and the buttercup
Are blooming everywhere ;

A thousand pretty woodland flowers,
With fragrance fill the air.

The merry, happy children dance
Beneath the shady trees,
As happy as the little birds
And busy as the bees. — Anon.


86 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

STEMS OF FLOWERS.

Helen and Frank like to go out in the fields to look
for violets. They often find them growing in grassy
spots by the roadside.

Sometimes there will be a great many growing
close together. Each violet grows on a stem. The
stem of a flower is called its peduncle.

Peduncles are not the same length. One flower
may have a short peduncle. The stem or peduncle
of another flower may be very long.

Helen never finds more than one violet growing
on a stem. She may find many flowers which grow
alone on a peduncle.

All flowers do not grow this way. Some kinds
seem to ike company, and a great many will grow
on one peduncle. Then each blossom. may be on a
short stem that branches out from the peduncle.

A short stem that branches out from the peduncle
is called a pedicel. A pedicel is almost always smaller
than a peduncle.

Each little bell or flower on a lily of the valley
has a short stem. Each little bell grows on a pedi-
cel. The pedicels jom the peduncle.

Helen sees the flowers on mamma’s geranium. Each
STEMS OF FLOWERS. 87

is on a pedicel.. A great many pedicels grow from the
large peduncle.

Frank thinks the flowers that grow on locust trees,
or on a mountain ash, are on pedicels. What flowers
have you seen growing on pedicels?

You know what sessile leaves are. Sessile means
sitting. Flowers as well as leaves may be sessile.
They may seem to sit on a twig, or on the main
stalk of a plant.

If flowers have no stems, and grow to the main
stalk of a plant, they are sessile. A mullein has ses-
sile flowers.

On a hollyhock you may find sessile flowers. Now
and then, hollyhock flowers are on short stems; we
say these flowers are nearly sessile. Have you ever
seen a balsam growing in a garden? . Are its flowers
sessile, or are they nearly sessile ?

Flowers may grow on a plant in three ways. They
may be sessile, or growing to the main stalk of a
plant. They may grow on pedicels. There may be
a single flower on a peduncle.

When a peduncle has only one blossom, the flower
is solitary. A common red poppy is a solitary flower.
Only one blossom is on a peduncle.

If there are many flowers growing from one pedun-
cle, they are called a cluster. |
88 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

KINDS OF CLUSTERS.

Clusters are made of several flowers growing from
one peduncle. There are many kinds of clusters.

One kind of cluster is called a raceme. The raceme
has many little flowers. Each is on a pedicel that
joins a peduncle. All the pedicels are nearly the same
length.

One day in early spring Frank went to the woods. -
Here he saw a small tree covered with white blossoms.
The flowers were in racemes.

Last summer Frank came to this tree and found
some nice fruit on it. It was the
wild service-berry. This small tree
is also called June-berry and shad-
flower.

In the flower garden Helen found
some low plants. Some had blue
flowers growing on them, and some
had white flowers. Each little blos-
som had a yellow eye in its centre.

These flowers were growing in
short racemes. Helen called them



forget-me-nots.
Mamma picked the smallest green leaf from one of
these plants. She showed the fine, short hairs grow-
KINDS OF CLUSTERS. 89

ing on it. She said the tiny leaf was shaped like
the ear of a mouse.

Little flowers that do not have pedicels, but grow
close to a stem, form a spike. The flowers on
a spike are sessile.

Frank finds some pale purple flowers grow-
ing in spikes. He finds them in meadows
and in damp places in the woods. Their
corollas are fringed. They grow along a
stem and have no pedicel. They are the pur-
ple fringed orchis, growing in spikes.



You know flowers in a raceme grow on
pedicels. These pedicels grow out along a stem, and
are nearly the same length. Other flowers may grow on |
pedicels of the same length, and
yet the cluster is not a raceme.

Instead of growing along a
stem, all the pedicels may grow
from the same place. They may
start from the top of a peduncle,
and have nearly the same length.

Almost everybody has seen
scarlet geraniums. In warm



weather they grow out of doors.
When winter comes people have them in houses. Look >
at a cluster of their bright red flowers.
90 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

In a cluster from a geranium each single flower is
on a pedicel. The pedicels are nearly the same length.
‘All grow from the top of a peduncle.

Clusters of flowers growing like these are called um-
bels. When pedicels all start from about the same place,
and are nearly the same length, the cluster is an umbel.

Pedicels often grow along a stem as in a raceme,
yet they are not all the same length. This makes
another kind of cluster. :

There are some flowers whose pedicels grow along a
stem, and the lower pedicels are longer than the upper
ones. These flowers make clusters called corymbs.

Among mamma’s flowers Helen found a white candy-
tuft or Iberis. Each little flower had four white petals.
The petals were not alike; two were large and two
were small. The petals had long
claws and spreading limbs. They
were placed so as to form a cross.

Each flower of the candytuft grew.
on a pedicel. The pedicels grew
along a stem but were not the same



length. The cluster was a corymb.
A pretty evergreen shrub grows in the
woods. Its alternate leaves are very
smooth. Do you know the name of this



| evergreen shrub? It is a mountain laurel.
KINDS OF CLUSTERS. 91

It has beautiful corymbs of red, pink, or white flowers.
The corolla of each is in one piece. Inside a corolla
are ten little pits or hollows. When a flower first
opens, you may see an anther in each pit. Put a pin
under the thread of a stamen and lift it gently. This
seems to awaken the anther, for it jumps out of the pit.

Lambkill, or sheep-poison, has corollas like those of
a mountain laurel. Look at its blossoms. You may.
find many in which the stamens have come out of the
pits. When they jumped out they threw off some pollen.

We may find other kinds of flower clusters. The
different kinds have names. You may learn some of
the names now. You will learn more at another time.

SPRING.

In a green meadow

The brook ripples clear;
Soft, in the sunshine,

The daisies appear.

See how the dandelions
Brightly unfold ;

They hide, in the shining grass,
Yellow as gold.

Blow, gentle breeze,
On the hill and the plain;
Play in the sunshine,
And blow off the rain.
— Pictures and Rhymes.
92 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

WILD FLOWERS.

Frank likes to gather wild flowers. He knows a
place where he can find a great many. It is near a
little stream of water.

Not far away from this stream is a hill, where oak,
chestnut, and beech trees are growing. Wild grape-vines
and brambles are growing on the hill. Here and there
is a small pine tree.

In spring Frank comes to this place to look for.
hepaticas and bloodroot. Sometimes he finds a yellow
violet or a spring-beauty. There is a sunny spot where
pretty bluets are growing amongst the grass.

Between dried leaves, he sees anemones peeping up.
Their delicate white blossoms
look like stars. Frank calls
them wind-flowers. Some peo-
ple think this flower spreads its
petals more in windy weather
than at any other time. Frank
thinks anemones like to grow



where the wind will blow them
about. -

Near where the anemones grow, Frank finds some
pretty bluets. They grow on a sunny slope of the
hill. Many of these small blue flowers are growing
WILD FLOWERS. -93

close together. The hillside is almost as blue as the
sky above it.

The flowers are small, but they have more names
than any of their larger neighbors. A tiny flower has
the long name Houstonia. Fairy flax is another name
given to it. Surely, it looks delicate enough for a
fairy to handle.

It is also known as Venus’s-pride and innocence. If
you live near Philadelphia you have heard it called
Quaker bonnet and Quaker lady. It has been called a
blue treasure; but all Houstonias cannot have this
name, because some blossoms are
white.

Near the brook, a spring-beauty
is sometimes found. Its dainty,
pink corolla is half hidden in the
grass. Its petals of pale pink are
marked with fine red or purple
lines. - More than one flower grows
from a peduncle. Its long, narrow
_leaves are opposite.



Frank must go out in the fore-
noon if he wants to find a spring-beauty looking up
at him. Jn the afternoon these flowers are sleepy,
then they drop their heads.

In a piece of cool, damp woods, Frank finds a trillum
Y4 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

or wake-robin. It is shaded by the young leaves of
birch, of ash, and of maple trees.

This flower is called wake-robin, because people think
it blossoms when robins come in the spring. But some-
times we may see robins many days before we can
find a flower.

The blossom, with its three white petals, looks like
a large snowflake that has fallen on
a tall flower stem.

There are three green leaves grow-
ing near the top of the peduncle.
Each leaf has three veins and many
veinlets. It is a net-veined leaf.

Above these three leaves is the
flower. There is only one blossom
on a stem. It is a solitary flower.



The white petals have wavy mar-
gins. At the base of each petal are fine, purple lines.
This is a painted trillium.

There are other kinds of trilliums. They have dark
red, purple, pale pink, or cream-colored petals. These
flowers have many names. One kind is called bath
flower. There is a drooping trillium, and a nodding
trillium. One kind is called a Benjamin flower and
a squaw-flower.

Trilliums have all their parts in threes. There are
WILD FLOWERS. - 95

always three green leaves near the top of the peduncle
and just below the flower. There are three sepals and
three petals. Two threes or six stamens are within
the corolla, and a three-parted pistil is in the middle
of the flower.

When the hot days of summer come, we do not see
the pretty flowers of the trilliums. Instead of a flower,
there is a fruit. In September there will be a purple
or a red berry on the peduncle.

Tue VIOLET.

Dear little violet,
Don’t be afraid,
Lift your blue eyes
From the rock’s mossy shade.
All the birds call for you,
Out of the sky;
May is here waiting,
And here, too, am I.

Why do you shiver so,
Violet sweet ?
Soft is the meadow grass
Under my feet.
Wrapped in your hood of green,
Violet, why
Peep from your earth door
So silent and shy ?
— Lucy Larcom.
96 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

SUMMER FLOWERS.

Spring days pass and the early blossoms are gone.
Summer comes with its long, sunny days. This is the.



sm. time when opening buds are
wd, making beauty everywhere.

Flowers show their petals in
woods, in fields, and in gardens.
They are in shaded places and
in places where there is bright
;? sunshine.

Some flowers do not like to
grow in woods where there is
shade all the time. Neither do
they like to be in sunshine all
day. They will grow best in
some spot where the sun greets
them in the morning, where
they are shaded by trees or
buildings in the middle of the
day, where the sun smiles a
“good-night” on them as it
sets.

Others grow best in grassy
land. Their bright petals may be on tall peduncles
so as to be seen above the blades of grass. Or their
SUMMER FLOWERS. 97

stems may be so short that the flowers are half hidden
by the green blades.

A few plants will grow in sand or eravel. Blue-
curls, or self-heal, will grow on a sandy roadside or in
the gravel along a railroad track.

Do you know how blue-curls or self-heal looks? It
is a very common plant. Its ovate leaves are oppo-
site. Its stem is square instead of being round. Hach
tiny blue corolla is in one piece. The flowers seem
to be hiding in bits of green which look like little
leaves.

These bits of green and the tiny blue flowers are
crowded at the top of a square stem. Other names for
blue-curls are brunella and prunella. .

Buttercups are spring flowers and they are also’ sum-
mer flowers. This is because there are many kinds of
buttercups.

Some kinds will open their golden cups in early
spring. Others do not make haste to show their
buds. They will wait till the longest days in June;
then they open, and will show their flowers till Sep-
tember.

The petals of a buttercup look as if they were var-
nished. They are called burnished petals. They are
burnished on the inside but not on the outside of the

flower.
98 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

Did you ever see a little scale on the petal of a but-
tercup? Take off a petal and look at its base. The
claw is nearly covered with a scale.

There are many stamens in a buttercup. Their
anthers are nearly as long as the threads to which they
are fastened. Crowded together in the middle of a
flower are many pistils. They are yellow like the sta-
mens. They grow together so closely that they appear
like a little ball.

Summer is the season for roses. Garden roses and
wild roses fill the air with perfume.

Both wild roses and buttercups have spreading corol-
las. From any one of these blossoms we can take off
the petals and leave the rest of a flower. From a but-
tercup we can take off the sepals, also, and leave the
rest of a flower. We cannot do this with a rose.
When the sepals are taken off a rose, the stamens come
off with them. In a rose, sepals and stamens grow
together.

We shall see many geraniums in summer. Their

flowers grow in clusters. What kind of clusters do
they form ?
- When you have a cluster of geraniums, find the
_parts of a flower. See whether each stamen has an
anther. Sometimes you will find a thread without
an anther.
SUMMER FLOWERS.

99

Pansies will blossom in summer if they are in a cool

place. They like to grow where there
is shade part of the day. Are the pet-
als of a pansy alike in size and shape ?
Is the pansy a regular flower? Look
at its stamens to see how they grow
close by the pistil. Look at the stem
of a flower to see whether it is round.

Ture Burrercur.

Buttercup! Buttercup!

Hold your shining clusters up!
In each little house of gold,
What is it that I behold ?
Many soldiers straight and slim,
Golden-helmeted and prim;

All day long so still they stand,
Never turning head or hand.

No one guesses where they stray
In the moonlight nights of May.
When the fairies are abroad

These small men keep watch and ward.

Round the fairy ring they pace
All night long, to guard the place;
But when morning comes again,
Back are all the little men.

— St. Nicholas.


100



LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

LATER FLOWERS.

June is called the month of
flowers, but flowers are with us
after this month has passed.

After the long June days there
is a season for later flowers. A
few of these will last till chilly
autumn comes. Some flowers
which first show themselves in
the hot days of July and August
will last till the cold days of
autumn. Some flowers do not
unfold their beauties till Septem-
ber and October.

The beautiful gladiolus is seen
in August and September. Its
long, green leaves are shaped
like swords. It is often called
a sword-lily. Another name for
it is the corn-flag. Red, yellow,
pink, or white perianths grow
close to a tall stem. Its cluster
of flowers is a spike.

Another pretty blossom is the
cardinal-flower. In July, August,
LATER FLOWERS. 101

and September it is showing its pretty corolla. Even
in October it may be seen in some places. Its gay,
scarlet flowers grow along tall stems. The clusters
look like spikes; but they are racemes, because each
blossom has a short pedicel.

Cardinal-flowers like to grow in meadows or along
the edges of ponds and streams. They will grow close
down to the water, as if they liked to
have it wash their stems. Sometimes
there will be, in the pond or stream, a
small piece of earth with water all
around it. Two or three cardinals may
be found growing on this little island.

Another name for this pretty flower
is scarlet lobelia. We may find some
lobelias that are not scarlet. They
may be blue or white, and grow on



the edges of streams like the cardinal-
flower.

Toad-flax, or butter-and-eggs, is another pretty wild
flower. It may be found from June till late September.
It grows in pastures, by roadsides, and in waste places.
It likes the sunshine. We may often find a great many
growing close together in some sunny place.

Its bright orange and yellow corolla is in one piece.
Its shape is not regular. When the sides of a corolla
102 LEAVES AND FLOWERS.

are pressed, it opens like a mouth. Inside are stamens
and pistil.

Below the flowers and growing along the stem are
alternate leaves. These are narrow, and are between. -
one and two inches long. Their odor is not pleasant. —

The nasturtium is one of the summer flowers which
may be seen in autumn. Its showy red, orange, or yel-
low blossoms are as pretty in October
as they were in July. |

Look at the upper sepal of a nastur-
tium. It has a long spur growing back-
wards. There is a spur on the corolla
of a toad-flax. A larkspur and. a colum-

bine have spurs. Flowers having spurs



are not regular.

The smooth, roundish leaf of a nasturtium has a
long petiole. When this is broken, a thin, watery juice
comes out. The juice has a sharp taste, like mustard.
Sometimes the long petioles twine or wind about a stick .
orastring. They will also wind about each other.

Autumn brings asters, goldenrod, and chrysanthe-
mums. These flowers are rich in color and beautiful in
form. They are with us in the golden days of October.
They stay till Jack Frost touches them with his icy
fingers. They stay till the cold storms and north winds
tell them that winter is coming.
LATER FLOWERS.

SEPTEMBER.
The goldenrod is yellow;
The corn is turning brown;

The trees, in apple orchards,

With fruit are bending down.

The gentian’s bluest fringes
Ave curling in the sun;
In dusty pods the milkweed
Tts hidden silk has spun.

The sedges flaunt their harvest
In every meadow nook;

And asters by the brook-side
Make asters in the brook.

From déwy lanes at morning,
The grapes’ sweet odors rise;
At noon the roads all flutter
With yellow butterflies.
—H.

103

H.
NATURE READERS:

Sea-Side and Way-Side.

“Children are born Naturalists.”

AGASSIZ.

“There’s never a leaf or blade too mean
To be some happy creature’s palace.”

James Russet Lowe Lt.

HEY are the first readers ever modeled wholly on the plan of making
the thought primary, the word secondary. Every child is a born
naturalist — he loves nature with an ardent, spontaneous love. This
WoNDERFUL series directs and leads this spontaneity, and the
words and sentences are learned with asurprising ease. We have tried
the books in our primary schools, and can cordially recommend them
to all teachers of little ones. Col. Francis W. Parker, Cook Co. Normal
School, Normal Park, fi.

D. C. HEATH & CO., Publishers,

BOSTON, NEW YORK AND CHICAGO.
SEASIDE AND WAYSIDE.



BOOK L



Lesson.

I,
Il.
Ill.

Iv.

v.

Vi.
VII.

VIII.

Ix.

X.

XI.
XI.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
XVIL
XVIII.
XIX,
XX,



Illustration from No. 1. — Mr. anv Mrs. Cras.

CONTENTS.

Mr, and Mrs. Crab.

Mr. Crab and his House.

More about Mr. Crab.

Mr. and Mrs, Crab get New
Coats.

What the Crab does.

Mr. Crab and his Friends.

Some Other Crabs.

The Hermit Crab.

The Crab’s Enemies,

The Uses of Crabs.

Mrs, Wasp and her Home.

What Mrs. Wasp can do.

A Look at Mrs. Wasp.

Mrs, Wasp’s Year.

Mrs. Wasp at Home.

Review,

The Bee and the Man.

How the Bee is Ma"

The Bee at Home.

The Bee Babies.

Book I. gs pages. 32 illustrations.



Lesson.
XXI. The Bee War.

XXII. The Bee’s Work.
XXII. The Wise Bees.
XXIV. Earth Bees.
XXV. Other Bees.
XXVI. More about Bees,
XXVIII. The Spider and his Dress,
XXVIII, The Spider at Home.
XXIX. The Little Nest.
XXX. The Spider and his Food.
XXXI. Very Queer Spiders.
XXXII. Review.
XXXIII. Out of Harm’s Way.
XXXIV. Shell-Fish.
XXXV. The Story of Mr. Conch.
XXXVI. Sea-Babies.
XXXVII. More about Sea-Babies,
XXXVIII. About Mr. Drill.
XXXIX. The Story of a War.
XL. How Shell-Fish Feed.
XLI. Review.

Introduction price, 25 cts.


CONTENTS.
LEsson. Lesson.
I. A Look at an Ant, XXV.
Il. The Life of an Ant. AXVI.
ITI. The Ant’s Home. XXVIL.
1V. The Ants at Home. XXXVIII.
V. The Ants ona Trip. XXIX.
VI. The Farmer Ants. XXX.
VII. Ants and their Trades. XXXI.
VIII. The Slave Ants. XXXII.
IX. Wonder Ants. XXXII.
X. The Ways of Ants XXXIV.
XI. Mr. Worm and his Family. XXXV.
XII. The Earth-worm at Home.
XIII. Mr. Worm at Work. XXXVI.
XIV. Mr. Worm’s Cottage by the} XXXVII
Sea. XXXVIIL.
XV. Mr. Worm at Home. XXXIX,.
| XVI. A Look at a House-Fly XL.
XVII. How to Lookat a Fly.
“XVII. Mrs Fly and her Foes. XLI.
XIX. Of what Use are Flies. XLII.
_ XX. A Swarm of Flies. XLUI
XXI. Some Queer Flies. XLIV.
XXTI. In Armor Clad.
XXIII. When Mr. Beetle was XLV.
Young.
XXIV. How to Learn about Beetles.
Book II, 184 pages.

BOOK IL



Illustration from No 2.— THe ParasoL ANTS.



The Rose Beetle.

Princes and Giants.

The Little Sexton.

The Story of the Stag Beetle.

Mr. Beetle Seeks for a Home.

The Little Water-Men.

Whirligig Beetles.

What a Fisherman Told.

Mr. Barnacle and his Son.

A Fishing Party.

A Last Look at Mr.
nacle.

Flowers of the Sea.

The Life of a Jelly-Fish.

Sea-Stars.

A Sea-Change.

The Star-Fish with an Over-
coat.

The Flying Flowers.

Under the Water.

A Happy Change.

The Dragon-Fly and_ his
Cousins,

The Wings of the Dragon.

Review Lessons.

Bar-

39 illustrations. .35 cts.

3
BOOK



TIT.

ae

Nyy

}
Illustration from No, 3. —BEaks.



CONTENTS.
Lzsson- Lesson
I. The Great Mother. XXV. Joseph’s Coat.
Il. The Earth’s Eldest Child. XXVI. Cousin Moth.
III. A Look at a Plant. XXVIL.. The Child of the Night.
IV. A Year in a Plant’s Life. XXVILL. The Bird.
V. The Growth of Plants. XXIX. Beaks and Claws.
VI. The Food of Plants. XXX. Trees, Ground, and Wate
VII. Seeds and Leaves. Birds.
VIII. The Color of Plants. XXXI. On the Wing.
IX. The Motion of Plants. XXXII. Nest Building.
X. Plants and their Partners. XXXII. The Birdat Home.
XI. Air, Water, and Sand Plants.| XXXIV. Birds of Song.
XXII. Plants that eat Animals. XXXV. The Other Partner.
XIII. Weather Prophet Plants. XXXVI. A Brigade of Birds.
XIV. Plant Clocks. XXXVII. The Birds in the Woods.
XV. The School Cabinet. XXXVIII. The Birds in the House.
XVI. The Old Man of the Meadow.| XXXIX. The Lost Birds.
XVII. The Life of the Old Man. ‘XL. The Fin Family
XVIII. The Robber Cousin. XLI Outside and Inside.
XIX. The Merry Cousins. XLII. Where they live.
XX. Queer Cricket. XLIII. How they Behave.
XIX. Other Hoppers. XLIV. Fry and School.
XXII. A Real Live Fairy. XLV. Scales and Teeth.
XXIII. The Child of the Day. XLVI. Big and Little Brothers.
XXIV. Life Among Snowand Roses. :

Book Ill. 300 pages.

29 illustrations.
4

50 cts.
BOOK IV.







un “ns ce
Se Sates
eh ‘8 -
ry Ye

My

vag hes ey
ya is (ee
ot






Illustration from No. 4.—TuHE REIGN oF THE Pine.





CONTENTS.
I. Earth Building. XXVII. With a Duck’s Bill.
TI. The First Continent. XXVIII. In Australian Rivers.
III. The Ageof Crabs and Corals. XXIX. A Walk Among Wonder
IV. The Pines and the Reptiles. Trees,
V. The Palm and the Man. XXX. Still in the Wonder Grove.
VI. The Starry Heavens, XXXI. A Noisy Family.
VIL A Fragment of the Milky XXXL. The Frogs’ Cousin.
Way. XXXIIL. Salamanders.
- VIII. Plan and Progression. XXXIV. A Citizen of the Marsh
IX. The King of the Day. Lands.
X. The Queen of the Night. XXXV. A Stranger from Mexico.
XI. Vanished Fauna. XXXVI. Some Merry Little Friends.
XII. A Mountain of Fossils. XXXVII. The Ancient Monster.
XIII. Written in Rocks. | XXXVIII. El Lagarto.
XIV. Footprints in the Sand. XXXIX. Wiser than any Beast of the
XV. The Winter of the World. Field.
XVI. Fossil Crabs. XL. Our Common Enemy.
XVII. Stone-Fish and Stone-Lilies. XLI. With a House on His Back.
XVIII. Long-Buried Reptiles. XLII. A Real Live Mermaid.
XIX. Birds of other Ages. XLIJI. Great Whales Also.
XX. The Early Mammals. XLIV. A Seal-Skin Cloak.
XXI. Very Old Families. XLV. Flying Mammals.
XXII. The Marvel in Mail. XLVI. Order out of Confusion.
XXIII. The Wonderful Builder. XLVII. Nibblers.
XXIV. An Opossum Hunt. XLVI. Gnawers.
XXV. A New Fashion of Pappoose. XLIX. The Thick Skins.
XXVI. Low Down in the Scale. L. The Ruminants.

Book IV. 370 pages. 28 illustrations. 60 cents,
5
RICKS’ NATURAL HISTORY OBJECT
LESSONS.

PART I.— PLANTS AND ANIMALS,

CHAPTER.
I.

If.

Il.

IV.

Vv.

VI.
VIL.
VIII.
IX,
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
XVIL.

Lxsson.
I.
IL.
Ill.
Iv.
Vv.
VI

VII.

VII.
IX.

X.

XI.
XI.
XIII.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
XX.
XXIT.
XXII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVIL.
XXVIII.
XXIX.
XXX,
XXXI.
XXXII.

XXXIIL

Introduction.
A Typical Plant.

General Classification of Plants.

Minute Structure of Plants.
Roots and their Functions.
Stems and their Uses.

Leaves and Buds.

Flowers, their Parts and Uses.
Fruits and Seeds.

The Palm Trees.

Cereals, the Sugar-Cane, etc.
Starches.

Oils and Fats.

Gums, Resins, Gum-Resins, etc.

Cotton, Hemp, Flax, Jute.
Paper.
Bleaching and Dyeing.

CHAPTER.
XVIII. Tea, Coffee and Chocolate.
XIX. Spices.
XX. Opium, Quinine and Camphor.
XXI. Indigo, Oak-Galls, etc.
XXII. Classification of Animals.
XXII1. and XXIV. Classification cf
Vertebrata.
XXV. Classification of Invertebrata.
XXVi. Coverings of Vertebrate Ani-
mals,
XXVII. The Bony Skeleton and its
Modifications.
XXVIIL Teeth, — Varieties and Uses.
XXIX. Tongues.
XXX. Tails and their Uses.
XXXI. The Principal Internal Organs

of Animals.

PART II. —SPECIMEN LESSONS.

Paws and Claws.
Cocoa-Nut.
Cotton and Wool.
An Egg.
Acorn and Hazel-Nut.
Milk.
Onion, Turnip, Carrot.
Cat and Dog.
Down.
A Quill Feather.
Gutta Percha.
Leaves.
XIV. and XV. Starch.
The Horse.
The Cow and the Sheep.
Honey and Wax.
Ivory.
and XXI.
Olive Oil.
Liber.
Mammals and Birds.
Reptiles and Fishes.
Mammals.
Chewing the Cud.
Horns and their Uses.
Parts of a Flower.
Birds’ Nests.
The Hedgehog.
Whale Oil.
Leather.

Seeds and Seedlings.

Lesson.
XXXIV. The Mole.
XXXV. Cotton.
XXXVI. Vertebrata and Invertebrata.
XXXVI. The Cockroach.
XXXVIII. The Earthworm.
XXXIX. Spider's Threads.
XL. Bleaching.
XLI. The Rat and His Relatives.
XLII. Beaks of Birds.

XLIII. and XLIV. Snakes.
XLV. and XLVI. Fishes.

XLVII. Insects — Form and Structure.
XLVIII. Insects — Benefits and Injuries.
XLIX. Insects,— Metamorphosis.
L. Insects, Legs and Feet.
LI. Insect and Spider.

LIT.-LIV. Legs and Feet,—Mammais.
LV.-LVI. Legs and Feet, — Birds.

LVIL. Flour.
LVIII. The Frog.
LIX. ‘The Frog,— Life History.
LX. and LXI. Eggs.
LXII. Snails.
LXILI. Snails — Whelk and Periwinkle.
LXIV. Snails. 3
LXV. The Amoeba and Foraminifera.
LXVI. The Hydra.
LXVII. Sea Anemones and Corals.
LXVIII. Plant Factories.



352 pages. 121 illustrations and seven plates. Cloth, $1.50.

6
READING.
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Designed for schools and families. Intended to awaken in children a taste for scientific
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