Citation
First in-house review and planning workshop

Material Information

Title:
First in-house review and planning workshop
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP), University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1982
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
North Florida ( flgeo )
City of Live Oak ( flgeo )
Farmers ( jstor )
Peanuts ( jstor )
Crops ( jstor )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
190863791 ( oclc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

00006.txt

00026.txt

00047.txt

00080.txt

00058.txt

00003a.txt

00105.txt

00060.txt

00054.txt

00092.txt

00051.txt

00055.txt

00061.txt

00137.txt

00067.txt

00142.txt

00037.txt

00033.txt

00100.txt

00096.txt

00145.txt

00108.txt

00062.txt

00002.txt

00112.txt

00146.txt

00076.txt

00057.txt

00148.txt

00087.txt

00066.txt

00073.txt

00075.txt

00007.txt

00127.txt

00027.txt

00063.txt

00114.txt

00091.txt

00071.txt

00120.txt

00059.txt

00136.txt

00042.txt

00012.txt

00125.txt

00023.txt

00039.txt

00122.txt

00133.txt

00072.txt

00081.txt

00020.txt

00038.txt

00101.txt

00011.txt

00034.txt

00010.txt

00083.txt

00143.txt

00024.txt

00110.txt

00093.txt

00002a.txt

00117.txt

00022.txt

00119.txt

00111.txt

00019.txt

00126.txt

00135.txt

00070.txt

00032.txt

00138.txt

00068.txt

00107.txt

00128.txt

00140.txt

00064.txt

00008.txt

00035.txt

00095.txt

00090.txt

00016.txt

00116.txt

00118.txt

00005.txt

00103.txt

00017.txt

00139.txt

00097.txt

00050.txt

00121.txt

00085.txt

00018.txt

00098.txt

00113.txt

00052.txt

00144.txt

00084.txt

00069.txt

00134.txt

00004.txt

00088.txt

00029.txt

00074.txt

00132.txt

00077.txt

00041.txt

00053.txt

00104.txt

00115.txt

00078.txt

00149.txt

00141.txt

00131.txt

00021.txt

00028.txt

00031.txt

00009.txt

00046.txt

00147.txt

00044.txt

00013.txt

00001.txt

00109.txt

00099.txt

00102.txt

00040.txt

00129.txt

00094.txt

00014.txt

00086.txt

00130.txt

00049.txt

00079.txt

00048.txt

00123.txt

00065.txt

00106.txt

00015.txt

00056.txt

00045.txt

00030.txt

00089.txt

00082.txt

00036.txt

00124.txt

00043.txt

00025.txt

00003.txt

UF00081545_00001_xml.txt


Full Text










TABLE OF CONTENTS


Chapter I















Chapter II








Chapter III


OPENING COMMENTS

Origin and Nature of the FSR/E Program at UF
K. R. Tefertiller

The Role of the FSR/E Program in IFAS
J. T. Woeste

The Interest of IFAS in Small Farm Research
N. P. Thompson

Fitting FSR/E into the Departments of IFAS
C. E. Dean

Why FSR/E?
E. C. French

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SMALL FARMS IN SUWANNEE
AND COLUMBIA COUNTIES

Sondeo
Social and Economic Characteristics
Extension Implications
Women on the Farm
Biophysical Constraints
Management and Learning Curve

WINTER WHEAT AS AN ALTERNATIVE

Winter Wheat as an Alternative to Corn on North Florida
Family Farms

Florida 301 Wheat On-Farm Evaluation

Wheat Time of Planting Trial

Fertilizer Application on Wheat Planted Alone and
Planted Into Established Perennial Peanut Stands

Florida 301 Wheat Grazing Trial

Wheat Enterprise Records






1. C-4 ^^ I

Lo I
USDA
/P




II


u 1^- 1 I
I I


Ma / I







TABLE OF CONTENTS -2


Chapter IV

























Chapter V







Chapter VI






Chapter VII


PERENNIAL PEANUT AS AN ALTERNATIVE FORAGE CROP

Perennial Peanut Establishment

Herbicide Grass Control in an Established Perennial
Peanut Stand

Herbicide Evaluation in the Establishment of Perennial
Peanut

Nitrogen Cycling in Perennial Peanut

Method of Planting Wheat into Established Perennial
Peanut Stands

Rye and Ryegrass Overseeded into Established Perennial
Peanut Stands

Interplanting of Summer Crop (Corn, Sorghum, Millet)
Into Recently Established Perennial Peanut Stand

Perennial Peanut as a Living Mulch in Associated Corn

Herbicide Evaluation For Weed Control in Corn in
Recently Planted Perennial Peanut

Perennial Peanut as an Alternative Forage Crop

OTHER ALTERNATIVE FORAGES AND GRAINS

Millet-Pigeon Pea Intercrop as an Alternative Forage
System

Alyceclover On-Farn Trials

Grain Amaranth Screening

SOIL FERTILITY AND MOISTURE MANAGEMENT

Overlaid Trials on Corn

Fertilizer Recommendation and Use

P, K, and Mg Fertilizer Level Trials With Soybean

OTHER ACTIVITIES AND 1982/83 PROGRAMMING

Computer Application in Designing Field Experiments

National Activities and Professional Meetings of FSR/E
Personnel, 1981-82

International Activities, FSR/E Program, 1981-82

FSR/E Proposed Calendar of Projects, 1981-1983






Pages 3-5
Missing
From
Original









Chapter II


CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SMALL FARMS IN
SUWANNEE AND COLUMBIA COUNTIES

SONDEO


In order to identify small farmers, their systems and their problems,

the FSR/E team interviewed 66 farmers as well as feed store operators,

extension agents, local government officials and others.

Findings:

The first and most general division of farm systems was based pri-

marily on social and economic rather than production information (see

Fig. 1). "Old-line" farmers are those who have been on the land two or

more generations while "recently-established" farmers have been estab-

lished for less than one generation (Table 1).

There are some major differences between these two groups. One of

the most important differences is that "old-line" farmers have access to

long established kin and social networks which share information, labor,

equipment, influence, power and capital. "Old-line" farms are more numerous

in the area. "Old line" farms, while slightly smaller, are frequently in-

herited or purchased from family while "recently-established" farms are

purchased on the open market at current interest rates and with rigid

mortgage conditions. "Old-line" farmers generally have lower investments,

cash flow and indebtedness than "recently-established" farmers. Risk

avoidance strategies dominate "old-line" production enterprises. "Old-line"

farmers generally use older, depreciated equipment with low cash investment

while "recently-established" farmers usually must purchase new equipment,

leading to much higher capital outlay.




M ~igure". -- slsif ion'Si)ix ml ly Wis, 9nnnd bmbi unt2 Flora (r
Size from 12-700 Acres)


FARMER


Recently
Established


14
(21.2%)


WHITE


I
LO 0


I
C 3
(4.5%)


9
(13.6%)


BLACK


_________________________


M3
(4.5%)


L3
(4.5%)


I
C9
(13.6%)


Old-Line


21
(31.8%)


52
(78.8%)


31
WHITE (47%)

~1 (47%)


I i
S10 L2 C1
(15.1%) (3.1%) (1.5%)


I I
M 19 L I
(28.8%) (16.7,


OLD-LINE Two or more generations on land, established kin/social networks in area.

RECENTLY ESTABLISHED First generation on land, new to area, no established kin/social network.

L Livestock-centered enterprise
C Crop-centered enterprise
M Livestock/crop mixed enterprise


Average Acreage per Farm Classification


REBL 0
REBM 154
REBC 105

REB 134


REWL 221
REWM 367
REWC 104

REW 230


OLD-LINE 184


BLACK 141


RECENTLY ESTABLISHED 196

WHITE 221


5
(7.6%)


BLACK


C~2
(3,1%)


3
(4.5%)


OBL 200
OBM 161
OBC 110

OB 143


OWL 222
OWM 226
OWC 53

04 219


. J.




















Table 1. -- Selected Characteristics of the "Recently Established" and
"Old-Line" Farms

Farm Group
Characteristics
Old-Line Recently Established

Kin/Social Strong Weak
Networks

Land Slightly smaller (184 acres) Slightly larger (196 acres)
Frequently inherited or Purchased on open market
purchased from family

Labor and Custom Family labor Hired labor
Operations More assured availability Uncertain availability
Highly motivated Indifferent

Cash and Capital Low investment in land and High investment in land and
equipment equipment
Low cash flow High cash flow
Low indebtedness in land High indebtedness in land and
and equipment equipment
Informal loan arrangements Institutionalized loan arrange-
ments
Very risk averse Less risk averse
Share equipment Purchase or hire equipment

Frequency in Higher (79%) Lower (21%)
Sample








Family labor, used by "old line" farms is more readily available and is

more highly motivated than contract labor.

Major differences in production practices, enterprise mix and access

to resources were evident between black and white farmers (Table 2). The

smaller black farms are predominately crop-centered, with less access to

capital, but greater access to labor.

Black farms have a higher frequency of vegetable production and also

have less irrigation and specialized equipment than do white farms.

Three general farming systems are found in the area. We have called

them:

1. Crop Centered Systems

2. Livestock Centered Systems

3. Mixed Systems

Crop centered farming systems can include many crop components and

practices. Vegetable production for home use and for sale is common in

the area. Growing corn for grain, forage, feed, or sale is an important

enterpirse found on most farms in the area. Most crop centered systems

revolve around an important cash crop. Tobacco centered systems are common

in the entire area while peanut centered systems are mostly in the southern

portion. Soybean production is growing in spite of the higher management

and inputs being recommended.

Livestock centered systems include cattle, a low-management, low-

input system which utilizes pasture, crop residues and purchased or farm

grown winter feed. Swine production enterprises vary from high capital,

high input confinement facilities to traditional woods pig practices.

Poultry systems are also found in large numbers.

Mixed systems, producing both crops 'and animals in varying combinations

were the most common. Those farms with a mixed enterprise system:: almost










Table 2. -- Selected Characteristics of Black and White Farms


Black Farms


Predominantly crop centered

Small (141 acres)

Less capital availability

Greater labor availability (sharing)

High frequency of tobacco-centered
systems with small allotments

High frequency of vegetable pro-
duction

Less irrigation

Less specialized machinery

Skewed geographic distribution (none
in southern Suwannee county)

Low.- frequency in sample (40%)


White Farms


Predominantly livestock centered

Larger (221 acres)

More capital availability

Less. Labor

Larger tobacco acreage

High frequency of peanut-centered
systems

More irrigation

More specialized machinery

Generalized geographic distribution

High .,,frequency in sample (60%)


Table 3. -- Frequency of Selected Enterprises and Disposition of Product,
Small Farmers, Suwannee and Columbia Counties


Disposition

Enterprise Frequency On-Farm Use Sold Off-Farm

Hogs 58% 58% 47%

Corn 76% 55% 33%

Vegetables 76% 76% 36%

Based, in all cases on a sample of 66









invariably rely on a high value cash crop as a pivot for their farming

system. This cash crop provides a stable cash flow which can be relied

upon each year for fixed costs. These crops can include tobacco or

peanuts, production of which is federally controlled, or other higher risk

crops such as fresh vegetables or fruits.

Other resources, when available, are directed into other lower risk

and/or lower management enterprises. Animal production provides a means

of maintaining a continuous cash flow as needed.

The production of hogs, corn and vegetables is important on all small

farms visited (Table 3). Corn is important in all systems because of its

versatility. It can be sold, stored, fed to animals and grazed.








SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS


One year of additional fieldwork in the Sondeo area has broadened

and deepened our understanding of the farming systems there. Most impor-

tantly, we can now underscore a number of social, economic and biophysical

factors characteristic of these systems which were only tentatively re-

cognized in form and importance in our initial Sondeo. These expanded

comprehensions may serve as a basis for both helping to legitimate our

research and extension work in the region, and focusing exploratory, ex-

perimental and on-farm research possibilities in the future. In this

section, we review social and economic findings made since the initial

Sondeo. The following elements and conditions will be discussed: the

predominance of "old-line" farmers, the constraints of credit and debt

service, the importance of off-farm income, the "family life-cycle. com-

ponent, tensions between parents and children in farm management, the im-

portance of farming to the region's larger economy .ft is now clear that

an overwhelming majority of farmers in Suwanneeand Columbia Counties are of

the "old-line" tradition. For these farmers, farming is as much a pre-

ferred "way of life" as it is a business. Many "recently established"

farmers identify with farming in a similar manner, having come from farm

family backgrounds. However, "old-line" farmers additionally have a special

connection to the land itself. The land for them represents a relation-

ship with a place which their ancestors established generations ago.

Farmers intimately know the productive qualities of their fields, and are

usually familiar with the boundaries and uses of neighbors' fields. They

can provide valuable information on their fields (crop history, problem

areas, etc.) useful to interpreting on-farm trials placed upon them.








The relationship of families to place is sociologically evidenced in

other ways. Roads, sinks and other physical features commonly bear family

names. Local communities are identified by the families living in them;

they are social and historical landmarks. Owning a farm symbolizes main-

tenance of a family tradition, place in the community, pride and connotes

a valued sense and achievement of "independence". The socioecononiicsig-

nificance of these conditions was summed up by a local real estate broker.

She said, "Farm families here view their land as they do an only child-the

last thing they want to do is to give it up". According to real estate

brokers, the sale of farmland in these counties usually reflects,not a

farmers desire to get out of farming, but rather conditions which force

him or her to sell out: lack of heirs, inability to pay debt service,

illness or handicaps.

The continuity of land within families had meant that this resource has

not been limiting to "old-line" farmers. But few can presently afford to

expand holdings due to high land values, which average between $800-1000 per

acre. Such values are prohibitive to new-line farmers because a major source

of their farm debt involves a mortgage loan for farmland. As long as land

values remain high, farm expansions will be unlikely unless interest rates

decrease or farm returns increase. Some immigration into the county,

principally by south Floridians who commonly buy 5 or 10 acre "ranchettes",

are helping to keep land values high. Industrial development impacts, which

appear to be more likely for southern Columbia County due to its proximity

to the Alachua County 1-75 "urban corridor", also will help maintain the

high land values. This implies that research must be oriented towards farm

operations adapted to the present, and possibly even decreasing, acreages

now owned by small farmers in these counties. While land renting allows








flexibility in farm acreage, rental fees also are increasing, especially

for the better land needed for high-value cash crops.

Many farmers have become overextended with credit, having borrowed

money on the basis of inflated land values since the late 1970s. Given

present credit, market, and production cost conditions, farmer inability

to make loan payments is increasing. This places an added incentive to

selling off parcels of the farm. However, the pressure to hold onto the

land is great, and for many farmers, other alternatives to meeting cash

flow problems will be exhausted before making a decision to sell. These

other alternatives include reducing the size and capital expenditures of

the farm, attempting to increase farm capital through additional cash crops

(soybeans, watermelons, wheat, vegetables), obtaining additional off-farm

income, or combinations of these. Farmers are least likely to adjust

acreages and investments in their major cash crops-tobacco, peanuts, water-

melons1- and most likely to cut back in production of livestock and lesser

cash crops. Among the latter, management and production practices reducing

costs to the farmers will likely be beneficial and acceptable. The FSR/E

team has focused upon these latter areas.

Local creditors, newspapers and farmers themselves each have expressed

the desire which most farmers have to be full-time farmers. Yet most of

the smaller-scale ones we work with are not. In fact, it has become

apparent that for nearly every farmer we have contact with, and among many

larger-scale producers, some form of off-farm income is present. In part

due to increasing production costs, depressed markets, the recent inclement


These cash crops are often called "stability" crops, because they offer
a "guaranteed market" year in and year out. Watermelons are the riskiest
of these crops to plant. Tobacco and peanut production currently/,, re-
stricted by allotments. /








weather, and in frequent cases overextended credit, numerous farms are

operated as a means of "paying taxes and the mortgage" on the land, while

off-farm income has become the means of meeting the family's weekly needs.

The family itself becomes an important resource under these conditions.

Typically in "young" farm families (young adult parents plus teen-age or

younger offspring) the mother serves as bookkeeper, gardener, and perhaps

even marketer, the children as laborers, while the father oversees the

major, demanding farm operationsarlihas.anoff-farm job or income. In "old"

farm families, child labor may be lacking which thus constrains the op-

eration, limiting it to a single-production operations not dependent upon

labor. The dynamics of a family's membership as it changes in time is known

as the "family life-cycle", and a family's constituency has great significance

for a farm operation's managerial, labor and credit conditions.

Younger farmers, be they old or new-line, besides having possible

labor and income advantages due to the family structure, additionally tend

to share the following traits: they are more inclined to try new crops,

to be aware of breeding advantages for quality, to have experience with

farm records, and to desire extension information. Many have high school

and even college degrees and have held skilled positions in the urban

economy. In some cases where a father and adult sony farm together, tension

is notable between the two generations. The younger farmer is more inclined

to see the farm as something which definitely must turn a profit, and which

must support a standard of living substantially different from that of the

father's generation. It will be difficult for the FSR/E team to work with

such families where the management goals of the farm have yet to be deter-

mined between the generations.









While younger farm families present the most likely source of coopera-

tors with the FSR/E team, these considerations must be kept in mind: 1)

families with very young children who must be totally supported are probably

less likely to adopt innovations; 2) families where generational conflicts

are present should probably be avoided; 3) older farmers with secure farm

operations may be as interested in FSR/E research as younger farmers are.

It is suggested that, given present economic conditions, many farmers

we work with will have to remain part-time farmers or dependent on other

non-farm incomes. Technologies which are oriented toward crop, livestock

and management schemes which will reduce both inputs of time and capital, or

research focused on crops with greater guaranteed market potentials are de-

finitely directions to pursue. (Of course, these must fit into the bio-

physical constrains of the region, discussed in the next section.) Con-

tinued work with farmers in teaching them how to keep cash flow records is

to be encouraged. Selections of varieties and fertilizer rates more specific

to the region's conditions are needed. With regard to livestock, research

which will reduce feeding and upkeep costs likely will give farmers incentive

to improve their breeding stock and programs. At present, however, it

should be remembered that farmers consider livestock primarily as a source

of "cash on hand". Unless livestock is the primary operation, area farmers

tend to invest in livestock only when market prices improve, selling off

stock when prices decline and when they need ready income. Mixed-system

farmers emphasize, and we suspect will continue to emphasize, cash crops

where the monetary gains are highest and where mismanagement can be dis-

astrous.

The social and economic significance of farming in these counties must

be realized in a larger context. To put it bluntly, as a man associated

with the Land Bank stated, "without Oxy (Occidental Chemical) and farming,








Suwannee County's economy would be gone. There wouldn't be anything left".

According to labor statistics for the 1970s, farmers directly supported an

overwhelming majority of Suwannee County's manufacturing establishments.

Included were Goldkist Poultry (560 employees), McMullan Food Bank (200

employees), meat plants, fertilizer dealers, tractor dealers, credit associa-

tions, transport companies, and forestry operations. Indirectly, the farm

populace patronizes clothing, grocery, durable goods and other retail stores.

Seasonal activities like the watermelon harvest provide income for local

workers and migrants. Numerous independent craftspeople-welders, machinists,

and the like-are found scattered in the countryside, serving farmers. It

is not by any means an exaggeration to say that the economy of this area

would be in severe jeopardy should farming collapse there.

Furthermore, at this point in time, industrial development for the area

appears limited. Suwannee County is "dry", and so has not attracted major

businesses which depend on liquor sales such as Holiday Inn and certain

restaurants. Local residents do not want development which would bring in

outsiders. Expansion of existing industries, such as in timbering, is

restricted or unlikely to occur. Thus, purely from an economic standpoint,

research oriented towards the farming sector of this region is important

and has a potentially large economic impact beyond the farming community

itself.

The identification of this region with farming is strongly evidenced

beyond what has been discussed thus far. Local radio commercials and

programming, advertisements, newspaper editorials and features, the books

in the regional public library, and community events related to farming

are numerous and commonplace. The appreciation for an agrarian heritage

is deep there. But it is also undergoing modification as American farming









in general must meet the challenge of national and world market and political

conditions. We feel that FSR/E is a means by which the Institute of Food

and Agricultural Sciences reaffirms its linkage with farmers in meeting this

challenge.








EXTENSION IMPLICATIONS


There are two new findings which have implications for FSR/E extension

work. First, there is a class of old-time white farmers who remain, pri-

marily interested in subsistence farming. They may depend on a cash crop

like watermelons. Hunting and fishing are important elements to their

lifestyle. These farmers are highly conservative and probably will exhibit

little interest in FSR/E programs. They are concentrated in the lower end

of Suwannee County and adjacent counties.

Second, it is clear that the split between farmers in the northern

and southern halves of Suwannee County makes having FSR/E programs at Live

Oak unlikely to attract many farmers from the southern end. Extension work

may have to work with the northern farmers through the Live Oak agricultural

coliseum/research station, and the southern farmers through the Branford

social center/vocational training school. Fortunately, the facilities in

both locations are available to FSR/E.

Once the FSR/E program begins to publish extension bulletins, it

might be worthwhile to place these in locations where farmers frequently

obtain information. A list of these establishments includes the fertilizer

dealers, tractor dealers, credit offices, vocational agricultural training

centers, as well as the livestock and tobacco auction markets and extension

offices.









WOMEN ON THE FARM


Because the FSR/E team is concerned with the entire farming system,it

is important to understand the role of all family members on the farm.

Both women and children play important roles in maintaining the family farm.

On some farms, women participate directly in production. This role

tends to be more pronounced when the husband is incapacitated or must

spend much of his time on off-farm activities. Even when this is not the

case, women may be active in some or all of the farm enterprises. Perhaps

most common is their involvement in animal production. Fowl, in particular,

are apt to be the wife's responsibility. In some cases, swine and even

cattle are also tended by women. Involvement in crop enterprises occurs

less frequently.

The role of the farmwife in management is critical on many farms.

Women are often responsible for record-keeping, banking, procuring farm

supplies. The latter may include pricing, ordering, and delivering needed

items to the farm. In some areas, the management role includes a strong

input into decision making. Women are key decision-makers in gardening,

while in animal and commercial crop production, their input is usually more

limited.

The role of women as homemakers cannot be overstressed. In addition

to the multiplicity of responsibilities that this implies in almost all

American households, farmwives also play a critical role in food provisioning.

While they usually do not plant the garden, (normally 1 acre or more in size,

both spring and fall), they do tend and harvest the garden crops. A

typical farmwife may can and freeze hundreds of quarts of food. This

function is highly valued not only because it represents a reduced cash flow









to the family for purchased food, but also because of the higher quality of

the resulting product.

Although marketing opportunities in the area are somewhat limited,

summer visitors to local springs and attractions provideadii.ti.ona: outlets for

fresh produce. Several instances of entrepreneurial activity on the part of

local farm wives has been noted.

Tied to the role as homemaker is that of the farmwife in the community.

Many social institutions, such as churches or charities, rely heavily on

women. The benefits to the community that result from these activities are

numerous, but difficult to quantify.

The wife is increasingly a source of added income. Among young families,

it is not unusual for the wife to maintain a full or part-time off-farm job.

As educational levels among women rise, and as the opportunities for off-

farm employment grow, this factor becomes more important in maintaining

the economic integrity of the farm.

It should be emphasized that, while there is some sexual division of

labor according to the traditional rural values of the area, labor and

management inputs to the farming enterprise are generally determined by

the individual circumstances and abilities of the family. The families in-

volved are well aware of the inputs required to run their farm and try to

make the best use of their available resources.








BIOPHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE NORTH FLORIDA STUDY AREA


Historically the region encompassing the North Florida study area

has been regarded as a rich agricultural zone. Today, however, agri-

cultural production in much of the region is regarded by many as marginal.

Part of the explanation for this changing evaluation of the area's

agricultural potential lies in the increasing constraints that certain

physical and biological characteristics of the zone place on agricultural

productivity.

The physical and biological characteristics of the region have changed

very little through the years. Some, however, have become more constraining

to agricultural activity because of the high cost involved in overcoming

the barriers to production that they represent. In some cases, they can be

expected to become even more constraining in the future.

One problem is the low native fertility of most area soils. In the

past, when farm production went largely for home consumption, with limited

sale on the local market, maintaining soil fertility was not considered

a serious problem. Breaking "new land" or land that had been out of production

for several years to plant high value crops (still a common practice among

watermelon producers) was often possible. Further, low plant populations

and low yields were normal and acceptable.

Modern commercial production, however, requires high levels of fertiliza-

tion. Nitrogen and potassium almost always must be applied at high rates,

and micronutrient deficiencies are increasingly common. The need for high

fertilization levels increases production costs and puts area farmers at a

disadvantage since they must now compete in a marketing system whose prices

are determined nationally and even internationally. This problem will be-

come more severe as fertilizer costs, particularly for nitrogen, rise.








Soil fertility problems are exacerbated by the poor physical qualities

of the soils. Most are ultisols, although some spodosols are found in the

study area. The deep sands (ultisols) are easily leached and to not retain

sufficient moisture for good plant growth. Further, a tillage pan has

formed in many fields which prevents adequate root development and makes

unavailable to crops the nutrients and moisture that are present at greater

depths. This latter problem is a result of modern tillage practices and

has increased the severity of moisture and nutrient supply problems asso-

ciated with cultivation of these deep sand soils. While the spodosols do

retain nutrients and moisture better than the deep sands, they are poorly

drained and excessive soil moisture is a problem on these soils during

high rain fall periods.

Rainfall in the area is often scanty and unreliable. The physical

characteristics of the soil, especially where a tillage pan exists, make

this problem more severe. High evapotranspiration rates and low soil

moisture retention mean that even a few days without rain in midsummer may

produce water stress in crop plants. Further, a 4 to 6 week period of very

low rainfall in April and May is typical in many years. This low rainfall

period is one major obstacle to both forage and annual crop production.

Finally, pest control is also a serious problem. Unlike in more

northern areas, this can be a year-round problem in north Florida. Diseases

thrive and nematodes are prevalent in much of the study area. The cost of

controlling these factors has increased greatly for farmers. Furthermore,

continuous cropping, higher plant populations and associated water demand,

have all combined to make pest control more critical.

Some of the problems described above interact to place constraints on

productivity in the study area. Together they represent an interrelated









set of constraints, all of which must be taken into account when new

technological innovations are considered. Given the limited capital avail-

able to small farmers and the low return on investment,alternatives such as

installing large irrigation systems or buying expensive minimum tillage

equipment are not feasible. The FSR/E team, therefore, must look for low

risk, low investment solutions to these problems.








MANAGEMENT ON NORTH FLORIDA FARMS AND THE LEARNING CURVE


Management

Much of the work that has been done this year has been to characterize

the management practices of the north Florida farmers. The farm records

explain how the farmers are presently managing their operations. The on-

farm research proves that these farmers are not afraid to try innovative

management and production practices.

Unfortunately, many of the farmers do not have much time available to

manage their operations. Many of these farmers have full-time or part-time

"public work" jobs which take up much of their time. While these jobs in-

crease and stabilize family income, they also limit the time the farmer has

available to manage and work his farm. This results in a major management

constraint in north Florida. In a similar vein, the diversity of operations

on the smaller family farms causes the farmers' scarce management resources

to be spread thin over the management of several enterprises. The advantage

of having several farm enterprises is that it provides stability to the

farm income.

Importance of Management

When looking at farm production attention is usually concentrated on the

land, labor, capital and cash situations. No one would deny the importance of

management as a factor of farm production yet management ability is usually

only vaguely considered when we conceptualize new agricultural technologies.

The importance of management is undeniable. Management is the human factor

of production which combines the other factors of production: land, labor








and capital into a functioning production unit. Management is the driving

force behind the entire production system. A farmer's management ability

is just as important a resource to him as his land, labor or capital. The

reason why this important factor of production is so difficult to incorporate

into characterization of the farming system is because management is the

human factor of production. As such, management can not be objectively

measured like the available land, labor and capital. Therefore it is dif-

ficult to explicitly incorporate management ability into the design of new

agricultural technologies.

,Be that as it may, there are some attributes about how changes in manage-

ment ability occur which can be used advantageously when generating new

agricultural technologies. These attributes are explained by the learning

curve.


Learning Curve

The learning curve relates how the cost of each unit of output declines

as the total cumulative output increases. In other words, the more experience

someone has in producing a given product the cheaper he will be able to pro-

duce that product.

Learning how to produce an agricultural product is often expressed by

increasing yield. Figure 1 demonstrates, in a very simple manner, the effect

that learning how to manage a new agricultural technology has on yield.

This particular learning curve also demonstrates the cost of learning how

to manage a new agricultural technology. The cost of learning in this case

is caused by the difference between the low yields during the first years when

the farmer is learning how to use the new technology and the unchanging and

high cost of production during these same first years.









A more complex technology would have a learning curve to the right

of the curve shown. This has the effect of increasing the cost of learning

and, all other things being equal, it would decrease the value of the tech-

nology to the farmer. Similarly, a more simple technology would have a

learning curve to the left of the curve shown. This technology has a

decreased cost of learning and therefore is of greater value to the farmer.

The cost of learning how to manage a new technology is implicit in all

new agricultural technologies. This concept explains whey otherwise

economically sound technologies are not accepted by farmers: the losses

incurred while learning to manage the new technology make the technology

uneconomic.





YIELD

Potential
new
technology --- ---- --------- ----



Break-even -- -








Present .
technology


Figure 1.









This management constraint should be kept in mind when generating

technologies for north Florida. It is for this reason that studying

how the farmers of north Florida learn to manage new technologies is

important.

Learning Curve Study


The north Florida study is investigating how quickly farmers learn

to manage new agricultural technologies and what particular traits of

technologies affect how fast the technologies are learned. The objective

is to determine the cost of learning to use particular technologies in

north Florida.

Another valuable product of this study will be specific examples of

the types of technologies that these farmers have had trouble with in the

past. The FSR/E team will be able to avoid incorporating these same

trouble spots in the generation of technology.

The study will be concentrated on how north Florida farmers have

learned to manage soybeans. Soybeans are a new crop to north Florida which

has been grown in significant acreage only for five years in Suwannee and

Columbia Counties. How farmers learn to manage a complicated technology

like soybeans will be compared to how farmers learn to manage a relatively

simple technological change such as a new crop variety.

The data will be gathered through in-depth interviews with farmers

concerning their past soybean production practices and the changes they have

made in their production systems. Changes in their systems that are likely

to be seen include: land preparation, variety planting date, planting

method, row spacing, method of seed innoculation, fertilizers and application,

herbicides and application, cultivation practices, post-harvest handling,









marketing, equipment adjustment and the various changes that soybeans

will have on other crops in the rotation.

The process of how the farmer learns to put all of these aspects of

production together into a production system is the purpose of this study.

The learning process and the specific examples of learning will be

derived by using the data from the interviews and by taking full advantage

of the experience of the two county extension agents.









Chapter III


WINTER WHEAT AS AN ALTERNATIVE


WINTER WHEAT AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CORN ON NORTH FLORIDA FAMILY FARMS

Introduction:

The North Florida Farming Systems Research and Extension project

initiated its main thrust of defining farm production systems, delineating

the associated farm problems and developing technology specific to these

problems in June of 1981. The rapid survey Sondeo conducted in Suwannee

and Columbia Counties of north Florida was oriented specifically towards

smaller family farms. The Sondeo activity and subsequent analysis identified

several major problems that were characteristic of small farms in the area.

The Sondeo revealed the importance of corn production. Of 66 farmers

contacted, 76% grew corn. Of these 66% used at least some of the corn on

the farm as animal feed and 40% sold at least part of the crop. Corn is

grown because the technology for its production is relatively simple and

well understood and because it provides alternatives to the farmer; it

can be fed to livestock or sold and it is easily stored.

Problem statement:

A diverse mixture of crops and livestock characterize the production

processes on most small farms, and interactions between farm enterprises

are important in maintaining the economic stability of the farm. Corn

has been identified as a critical component that provides products important

to the economic viability of the traditional north Florida family farm.

It can be produced and sold as a cash crop, or kept on the farm and used

as a feed and/or forgage source for livestock and poultry. This type of









versatility has allowed corn to become a highly integrated part of tradi-

tional family farms. The welfare of the farm has thus become contingent

upon favorable environmental and economical climates for corn.

In recent years however, traditional family farms have been hard-

pressed to continue this system of production. Severe drought combined

with depressed market prices for grain and livestock, and the continued

upward shift in input costs have rendered traditional production systems

uneconomical to a great extent. The reality of "hard times" is now fully

appreciated by farmers in north Florida. Expansion and increased profit-

ability as farm goals have been modified or replaced by goals that stress

the reduction of risk. Farmers are unable or unwilling to commit scarce

resources to crops (such as corn) that have not contributed to the stability

and welfare of the farm in recent years.

In an effort to provide alternative solutions to these problems the

north Florida FSR/E program is examining a number of alternatives to corn.

Winter wheat is one such possibility (see Fig. 1). Studies indicate that

winter wheat is biologically feasible in north Florida, and that it contains

qualities that approach the versatility inherent in corn.

However, little is known about the economic feasibility of wheat within

the context of the traditional north Florida family farm. The potential

of this crop to provide stability, reduce risk or to increase the economic

welfare of family farms is at the present time unclear. Answers to these

questions are important to the farmers as well as those involved in research

and extension.






































Figure 1. Wheat Research Scheme '81-82.


M M M M









Hypothesis:

1. If wheat is able to provide those uses that make corn important

within the farm system, then it may also become important in sustaining the

economic viability of the family farm.

2. If it can be produced economically,it-canreduce a farmer's dependence

on a risky, single crop source of livestock feed such as corn.

Objectives:

1. Collect and organize primary economic and physical data on wheat

and corn crops from family farms in north Florida. This includes information

such as dates of farm activities, quantities of inputs used, input costs,

machinery used, rainfall, yields, usage and valuation of crop products and

farmer perceptions of wheat and corn.

2. Construct farm system models for representative farms to identify

and delineate the flow of farm products within the farm and the flow between

the farm and outside markets. These models will also be important in de-

termining the exact role that corn plays in traditional family farms, so

that possible alternatives to corn meet the requirements of the system.

3. Determine the relative profitability of wheat and corn as they are

produced and utilized by farmers in Suwannee and Columbia counties.

The Future of Wheat in North Florida:

Preliminary analysis indicates that winter wheat does have potential

in north Florida. Despite low yields and poor returns on investment in the

1981-82 crop, some farmers feel optimistic about wheat in the future. Three

reasons for this optimism are hypothesized.









1. Corn and wheat have similar uses on farms.

2. Labor requirement periods for wheat coincide with those of corn.

3. Farmers can reduce risk by planting less corn and more wheat.

Figure 2a. shows systematically how corn can be utilized by farmers in

north Florida. Once produced, it can be sold as a cash crop (grain) to

the market, or kept on the farm to be utilized by livestock as forage and/

or feed. It is versatile and allows farmers to change production emphasis

under various climatic and economic environments.

Figure 2b. is a schematic diagram of uses of wheat on traditional north

Florida farms. Like corn, it has versatility as a cash crop and/or livestock

feed and forage.

This similarity may be an important reason why many farmers grew wheat

this year after experiencing four poor years of corn production.

The second hypothesis explaining the popularity of wheat this past year

relates to the fact that labor requirements for wheat are similar to those

of corn. Figure 3. illustrates this point. Periods of labor use for corn

in north Florida are shown on the top, and those for wheat are shown on the

bottom of the calender line. In general, we see that labor use periods

coincide, although management operations differ during the year. These

similarities may indicate that wheat as an alternative to corn does not

present special labor conflicts with other crops grown on the farm.

A third hypothesis supporting the potential of wheat comes from farmers

themselves. Farmers who grow corn primarily as a feed source for hogs feel

that large acreages of irrigated or unirrigated corn have become extremely

risky because of drought and low market prices. If they can reduce their

corn acreage by growing and feeding wheat, then the risk is reduced and

stability is added to the farm.







MARKET


Grain


Corn

EE <


Forage "


Feed /


Figure Za.


MARKET


Foraqe


Feed


Fami ly


. Livestock


Figure 2b.


-i s Family







Livestock


Grain


1-1 ___~















LABOR REQUIREMENTS FOR CORN


Planting
Cult.


Cult.
Fert.


Harvest


J F M A J A N
1 1 1 1


Harv.


Field Prep.


Planting


Figure 3. LABOR REQUIREMENTS FOR WHEAT


Field
Prep.


Fertilize


I








FLORIDA 301 WHEAT ON-FARM EVALUATION


Introduction:




























Wheat could provide an alternative or complimentary crop to corn.

A new variety, Florida 301, has been developed that is suitable for pro-

duction in north Florida and is resistant to several major wheat diseases.

Although it is not resistant to Septoria, this disease can be controlled

by spraying.

Like corn, wheat offers flexibility to the farmer. It can be stored,

used as animal feed, or sold off-farm. Prior to elongation of the meri-

stem it can be grazed. Further, it is a winter crop in the field during








the second rainfall peak, which is generally more reliable than the

summer peak. Its early maturity (May) permits the farmer to follow

wheat with a second crop such as soybeans or pigeon pea.


Problem Statement:


Although wheat was a fairly common crop in the area 25 to 30 years

ago, most farmers today have little or no experience in its production.

Many area farmers will employ the same management practices they use with

oats or rye. University researchers and extension personnel also lack

practical, on-farm experience in wheat production. Almost all Fla. 301

wheat has been grown under experiment station conditions. Further, while

wheat can be grown in the study area, the more fertile, higher clay

content soils of the area west of the Suwannee River are the recommended

ones for its production. The first objective, therefore, of the Fla. 301

on-farm evaluation is to augment the pool of knowledge among farmers,

researchers, and extensionists regarding the performance of the new variety

under farm conditions and under farmer management. These conditions and

management practices will be much more variable than those of the research

station.

Because wheat is essentially a new crop in the area, the next few years

will be a period of learning and decision-making for farmers. Producers

will be deciding if it is worthwhile to raise wheat, learning to manage

the crop successfully and integrating its production and use into their

overall farming system. A second objective of the 301 on-farm evaluation

is to understand how the farmer incorporates new individual and group

experiences into his management practices and why he reaches the conclusions








that he does regarding the crop's production. Farmers may decide that

wheat is not a suitable component for their farming system. If so, it

is important that university and extension personnel understand why farmers

reached that conclusion in order to provide more effective research in the

future.


Methodology:


Six on-farm evaluations of Fla. 301 wheat were planned (a total of

approximately 150 acres). The wheat was planted at the farmer's expense

and managed by the farmer, although soil test results and fertilizer re-

commendations were provided by the University of Florida and soil com-

paction was measured prior to planting. Production guidelines were dis-

tributed to cooperating farmers and, in some cases, limited quantities of

Fla. 301 seed were given to the farmer as well.

Each cooperating farmer kept a record book in which labor, equipment

used, purchased inputs (such as fertilizer, seed, fuel, oil, and lime),

and other miscellaneous information was recorded by date and by task. These

records will be used to determine production costs and to compare manage-

ment practices from farm to farm. As the records are maintained over

several growing seasons they will provide a history of each collaborator's

changes in management practices and, overall, they add to the pooled body

of knowledge regarding wheat production in the area. A team member visited

each farm bi-weekly to help maintain the records.

Each field was sampled periodically. Plant height, stage of develop-

ment, tillering, and general observations on the condition of the field

were recorded. At harvest, the yield was recorded and a sample of the

harvested grain taken to determine bulk density. Pictures of the fields








and a photograph of several plants from each field and from all fields

together were also taken. The samples and photos provide a record of

the performance of the wheat in each field and permit a comparison of the

fields. In addition, the familiarity of a team member with each field

provides insights into the practical problems the farmer encounters and

facilitates on-going discussion with the farmer regarding his management

practices.

After harvest of both the on-farm trials and several wheat experiments

described elsewhere, carried out by the FSR/E team and other university

collaborators, a general meeting was held. The experiences of all those

involved, farmers, extension personnel, researchers, and FSR/E team members,

,are discussed. The meeting permitted both farmers and university personnel

to evaluate the overall success of the trials and experiments. It provided

a forum to discuss future research priorities and to facilitate exchange

of information among producers.

Each of the farmers collaborating will be contacted again next year

to determine how many plant wheat again, and how much acreage each plants.

This provides a measure of the acceptability of the crop to the collab-

orating group of farmers.


Results and Discussion:


Overall wheat yields were low among collaborating farmers. This is,no

doubt,partly a result of their lack of experience raising the crop. Only

two of the collaborating farmers had planted wheat before. In general,

however, small grain yields were low in both Suwannee and Columbia Counties

for the 1981-82 growing season, although county yield averages appear to

have been higher in Columbia than in Suwannee County. On the one hand,








it can be argued that wheat did not get a "fair trial" because it was a

poor year for small grain production. On the other hand, this year's re-

sults did reveal how wheat can be expected to perform under poor growing

conditions. This latter point is an important one. The farmers with whom

the FSR/E team works have clearly been identified as a risk-adverse group.

If, as this year's experience tends to show, there is considerable risk

involved in planting wheat, the crop may not be acceptable to them even

though it does perform well under optimal growing conditions.

Management practices varied widely among collaborators. Although none

sprayed for disease control,, one farmer did graze his crop. Planting dates

varied from late October to mid-Janauary. Nitrogen fertilization rates

varied from as little as 20 Ibs./acre to 140 Ibs./acre. The wide variation

in management practices makes it a difficult to determine the effect that

any single practice may have had on yield. It does show that no "general"

practices for growing wheat have yet developed among these farmers. They

are still learning and experimenting.

While some of this variation may be expected to lessen as growers gain

more experience with wheat, the crop will seldom be grown by limited re-

source farmers following full university recommendations. Management time

and, in some cases, ability is limited for farmers, especially part-time

farmers. They must devote much of that time to higher valued crops. Wheat

appears to be more management intensive than crops such as corn or rye, and

this may represent an obstacle to its acceptance among small farmers.

Two further points that the enterprise records reveal are of special

interest. First, Fla. 301 wheat showed a better response to nitrogen

fertilization than other varieties (see Figure 1). This may not be a




- m m


M M m m M


Nitrogen and Varietal
Farmer Managed Wheat,


Response
N. Fla.


from
1981 -82


301 Wheat


non-301 Wheat


20


40


60


80


100 120 140 160


NITROGEN (Ibs/ac)


35


30


25-


20 -


0
w
1-


Lii


15[


01
O0


I I I I I I I


)









response characteristic of the varieties per se. Varieties other than

Fla. 301 and Coker 797 are susceptible to many wheat diseases, such as

rust. Their yields, therefore, may be limited by factors other than

nitrogen fertilizer rates. Second, the highest yields obtained with Fla.

301 this year resulted from nitrogen applications of 60-80 Ibs./acre.

Higher rates failed to increase yields and, in fact were associated with

reduced yields. It should be stressed to farmers that university re-

commendations of 70 Ibs./acre nitrogen are fully adequate and that, unless

the wheat is grazed, higher rates may be detrimental.

In addition to the enterprise records and other data that were collected

during the on-farm evaluations of Florida 301 wheat, some general observa-

tions regarding problems encountered by area farmers who grew wheat are of

value. These observations are a result of on-going consultation with area

farmers and regular observation of numerous wheat fields in the Suwannee

and Columbia County area. While these observations are of a qualitative

nature, they indicate some of the problems faced by farmers who are in-

terested in growing wheat.

Experience this year shows that many farmers did not fully under-

stand the importance of selecting a variety appropriate for local growing

conditions and for their own management programs. Area farmers generally

understand the importance of selecting good ,varieties, of tobacco, soybeans,

and other crops. For rye and oats, however, variety is not a critical

factor and, based on their experience with these small grains, farmers

tended to underrate the importance of planting a recommended variety

of wheat. Not only was the perception of farmers at fault, but University

literature did not stress the importance of this factor sufficiently.








Even well informed cooperators who read the literature did not gain a clear

understanding of the importance of planting an appropriate variety.

The problem was further exacerbated by seed companies and dealers

in the area. They sold many varieties that clearly are not appropriate

for north Florida. Either they did not know or they did not inform farmers

that many of these varieties are not appropriate for the area.

Disease resistance is probably the single most important factor in

setectingan appropriate wheat variety in the study area. Some fields

developed severe rust infections and yield reductions were high in these

fields. Two university publication, Agronomy Facts No. 115 ("Wheat Pro-

duction in 1981-82") and Plant Protection Pointers No. 27 ("Control of

Foliar Diseases of Wheat Using Fungicides Applied by Aircraft"), discuss

wheat diseases. The former publication does discuss the disease resistance

of several wheat varieties. However, it fails to describe the major wheat

diseases and the damage that they can cause. The latter publication ex-

plains how to control several diseases, but does not discuss resistance.

Small farmers may not be able to afford airborne fungicide application

and, in many cases, their fields are too small. Varietal resistance may

therefore be particularly important to this group. In general, however,

for all farmers, university literature should include a clear discussion

of wheat diseases and varietal resistance in production guidelines.

In other cases the varieties that were planted matured late. Farmers

have been forcedto.wai.tunttl harvest wheat and are, therefore, finding it

difficult to follow the wheat crop with a soybean crop. Further, this

year rainfall has been frequent enough to prevent harvest of late-maturing

wheat. This was compounded by late planting in some cases. Again,

university production guides should state clearly the maturity dates of








the wide range of varieties available in the area and should stress the

importance of timely planting for double cropping.

Referring again to disease resistance, infection with Septoria

nodorum or glume blotch was a major problem. Varieties resistant to

Septoria are not available. Neither the IFAS Circular S-273, "Florida 301:

A New Wheat for Multiple Cropping in North Florida," nor the 1981-82

wheat production guide discuss this disease in detail, although the former

does mention that Florida 301 is not resistant to glume blotch. A descrip-

tion of the disease is available in Plant Protection Pointers No. 27, but

that document does not explain that varieties such as Florida 301 and Coker

797 are susceptible. In other words, the farmer has no information avail-

able to him that states clearly that glume blotch is a major problem,

describes the disease, and explains that he will have to spray to control

it. As a result, collaborators were generally unaware of the problem until

extension or FSR/E personnel brought it to their attention.

Extension personnel, FSR/E team members, and farmers all have questions

regarding the viability of spraying to control Septoria. While there is

little doubt that timely and adequate spraying helps prevent yield losses,

it is unclear that the practice is economically viable, especially if

three sprayings are required and if wheat prices are low. Further experimen-

tal data, including cost/benefit analyses, need to be accumulated.

Farmers tended to rely heavily on their past experience in raising

rye and, to a lesser degree, oats as a guide to raising wheat. The year's

trials have shown that wheat is a more difficult crop to manage than either

rye or oats. Farmers have reached this conclusion themselves. They now

understand that timely planting, a good fertilization program, careful









management of grazing, and a disease control program are much more critical

to producing wheat than to producing rye or oats. They will not, by and

large, repeat the same mistakes next year.

Serious mistakes could have been avoided, however, had this comparison

been made in the literature. Publications available did not point out

that wheat is more difficult to manage than other small grains common to the

area. The small grain production guide, in particular, failed to make this

comparison.

Part of the problem may have been that university personnel are unaware

of local management practices. With rye, for example, farmers plant over

a wide range of dates (October to January), apply relatively little fer-

tilizer (and that often late), and practice no disease control. When

grazing rye, farmers have found that grazing pressure can be very high and

the plant will still produce an acceptable grain yield. Rye survives such

treatment. Wheat does not. University publications should make clear the

differences as well as the similarities between the small grains.

One characteristic of Florida 301 wheat, and possibly other varieties

as well, that may contribute to the need for better management with wheat

is its shallow root system. Apparent micronutrient deficiency symptoms

appeared in some wheat fields. These symptoms did not appear on rye and

oats planted in the same fields. Data are not yet available to show

whether microelement deficiency was the problem. If it was, the shallow

root system of Fla. 301 wheat may be a contributing factor, and selection

of varieties with more extensive root systems could be an important re-

search goal.









Finally, procuring good quality seed was a limitation in wheat pro-

duction. Florida 301 was not available in sufficient quantity. Availt-

ability of seed of new varieties is often a prole;, and will be resolved

as production increases. More important, several farmers received impure

seed. Both rye and oats were contaminants. In some cases this occurred

when farmers bought certified seed. In other cases farmers delivered pure

wheat to be cleaned and bagged last year, and found it was contaminated

when returned from the mill. In these cases the farmer cannot save seed

for next year and he is docked when he sells his grain. Better control is

needed.

It is important to take these practical problems into account in

discussing the Florida 301 wheat on-farm evaluations. The experience

gained this year can better prepare the FSR/E team for future trials.

Further, insights gained into these problems will permit university personnel

to improve the 1982-83 wheat program. Perhaps most critical is the need

for a production guide that discusses wheat diseases and varietal resis-

tance, and that makes clear to the farmer how wheat differs from other

small grains.








WHEAT TIME OF PLANTING TRIAL


Introduction:

The recommended time of planting for Florida 301 wheat in north Florida

is December 1 to Dec. 15. Many farmers, however, are unable or find it

difficult to plant during this period. Part-time farmers, in particular,

who comprise a large portion of the small, family farmers, may not be

able to plant during the recommended period. Some want to prepare land

and plant wheat, rye, and oats as one operation, while others wish to plant

earlier than the recommended date in order to provide early winter forage

for livestock.


Problem Statement:


Because many farmers in the target population will not be able to

plant during the period Dec. 1 to Dec. 15, data are needed which will show

the range of Viable planting dates in the study area. These may vary some-

what from the currently recommended dates since climatic conditions vary

considerably over small areas in north Florida.

Further, data are needed which will permit the farmer to assess the

risks and disadvantages associated with planting outside the recommended

period. This is particularly important during the next few years when

farmers are gaining initial experience with wheat, which is a new crop for

most. Many will base their management decisions on their experiences

with rye, which can be planted over a wide range of dates. University

literature available through the extension service does not, at this time,

indicate the degree to which wheat must be managed differently from other

small grains.









Methodology


The time of planting trial was conducted at the Live Oak Agricultural

Research Center. Florida 301 wheat was planted every two weeks from Oct.

15, 1981 to Dec. 31, 1981, using a standard grain drill and a seeding rate

of 1.5 bu./A. A randomized complete block design with six replications

was employed. The plots were sampled periodically during the growing

season. Stage of development, leaf height, apex height, and tillering

were recorded, and yield was determined at harvest.


Results and Discussion


Analysis of variance shows that time of planting had a significant

effect (alpha= 0.05) on grain yield (Table 1). Ducan's multiple range test

(alpha= 0.05) shows that the Oct. 30 planting date produced yields that,

were significantly better than those obtained on any other date except

Nov. 15. Although yields obtained from the Nov. 15 planting data did not

differ significantly from those from those from the Oct. 30 planting date,

they also failed to differ significantly from those obtained on other

planting dates.

Table 1. Grain Yield, Time of Planting Trial, 1981-82.

Time of Planting Mean Grain Yield (bu./A.)
Oct. 30, 1981 22.6T
Nov. 15, 1981 19.1
Oct. 15, 1981 16.6
Dec. 15, 1981 16.1
Nov. 30, 1981 15.2
Dec. 30, 1981 13.8









These data represent only one year of trials and cannot be regarded

as conclusive. For the 1981-82 growing season, at least, planting earlier

than the recommended date did not result in lowered yields. Many farmers

in the study area have stated their preference for an earlier planting

date, and this one year's data lends support to their viewpoint. Winter

temperatures vary greatly from year to year in the study area, however, and

no firm conclusions can be drawn. In 1982, spring temperatures were higher

than normal, and this could be one important factor here.









FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON WHEAT PLANTED ALONE AND
PLANTED INTO ESTABLISHED PERENNIAL PEANUT STANDS

Introduction:


The introduction of perennial peanut, a forage legume, is underway

in the study area and the crop may become a component in farming systems

in the area in the relatively near future. Since the peanut is dormant

during the winter months, it is feasible to plant a winter crop such as

wheat into the peanut sod during the winter growing season. Doing so

permits the farmer to double crop the acreage planted in perennial peanut

and, if the straw is harvested with the first hay cut from the peanut, the

farmer can also increase his overall hay yield per unit area.

Interplanting a winter crop into perennial peanut represents a new

technology for area farmers. Managing the perennial peanut itself is new

to them, and most have little or no experience in planting a crop into a

sod, although some have experimented with planting rye or oats into bahia

sod. On the other hand, virtually all have experience in managing winter

crops such as rye or oats.

When farmers adopt a new technology they bring their own experience

and expertise to bear making modification where they see fit to mold the

new technology to their conditions. The expertise of the farmer, is many

times not taken into account by researchers and other change agents who hope

to bring new ideas to the farm community. It is important that research

and extension personnel understand the reasoning behind local practices.

Undue resistance to change and mistrust on the farmers part are created

when change agents argue for practices that are not necessary for adoption

of new technology when in fact the farmer's ideas may be superior under local









conditions, than the prescribed recommendations. If commonly held beliefs

are invalid, the change agent needs evidence to convince farmers that his

recommendation is superior.

Problem Statement:

University recommendations are that one half of the total nitrogen (N)

requirement for the winter crop and needed phosphorus (P) and potassium (K)

be applied at planting, with a second nitrogen (N) at boot stage. Many area

farmers, however, disagree with the recommended fertilization program. They

may use less than recommended amounts of nitrogen. Many prefer to make the

first nitrogen application after the crop has established a good root system.

They argue that this practice prevent loss of nitrogen from leaching if heavy

rainfall occurs prior to stand establishment. Still other prefer to make

three nitrogen applications. Again, they argue that doing so minimizes losses

by leaching. This experiment was designed to include a test of farmer re-

commendations. The first objective ot this experiment, is to compare university

recommendations for nitrogen fertilization of winter small grains with

several programs commonly used in the study area.
One half of the plots in this experiment are of wheat seeded into

perennial peanut sod. Decomposition of legume sod litter may alter the quantity

of applied nitrogen required. The experiment must, therefore, compare the

several fertilization programs on both conventionally grown wheat and on

wheat planted in perennial peanut sod. In addition to the wheat yield results,

the practice of growing wheat in the peanut sod may affect hay yield from

the perennial peanut in the succeeding summer growing season.









Methodology:

The experiment will be conducted at the Live Oak Agricultural Research

Center. Florida 301 wheat, was planted into conventional tilled plots using

a standard grain drill. A standard grain drill was also used to plant the

perennial peanut sod with wheat. However, the planting was preceded by a

superficial discing of the peanut sod. Control plots of perennial peanut

alone was included.

Three nitrogen fertilization rates, 0 Ibs./A., 60 Ibs./A. and 80 Ibs./A.

were applied. The 60 Ibs./A.nitrogen rate was applied in the following

manner: (1) 30 Ibs./A. nitrogen in a pre-plant application and 30 Ibs./A.

nitrogen in a late post-emergence application; (2) 15 Ibs./A. nitrogen in a

pre-plant application and 45 Ibs./A. nitrogen in a late post-emergence

application; (3) 30 Igs./A. nitrogen in an early post-emergence application

and 30 Ibs./A. nitrogen in a late post-emergence application; and (4) 15 Ibs./A.

nitrogen in an early post emergence application and 45 Ibs./A. nitrogen in a

late post-emergence application. The 80 Ibs./A.nitrogen rate was applied

in the following manner: (1) 40 Ibs./A.nitrogen in a pre-plant application

and 40 Ibs./A. nitrogen in a late post-emergence application; (2) 20 Igs./A.

nitrogen in a pre-plant application and 60 Ibs./A.nitrogen in a late post-

emergence application: (3) 40 Ibs./A. nitrogen an early post-emergence

application and 40 Ibs./A.nitrogen in a late post-emergence application; and

(4) 20 Ibs./A.nitrogen in an early post-emergence application and 60 Ibs./A.
nitrogen in a late post-emergence application. Controls included wheat planted

alone and into peanut sod, both with 0 Ibs./A. nitrogen. All treatments were

imposed on wheat alone and wheat planted into peanut sod.









Plots of perennial peanut sod without wheat were fertilized at the

same three rates, as 1) a preplant, late post-emergence and 2) early post-

emergence, late post-emergnece application split equally for both the 80 and

60 Ib./A. rates.

A complete randomized block design was used, with four replications,

and standard statistical procedures to analyze results. Phosphorous and

potassium rate were held constant applied at planting at a rate of 300 Ib./A.


Results and Discussion:

Following completion of sample and data analysis further results will

be forthcoming.

Preliminary data indicate that wheat planted into the perennial peanut

sod yielded significally less at both the 60 and 80 lb./A. nitrogen fertilizer

levels than the conventionally tilled plots (Fig. 1). This infers that

any potential nitrogen contribution from the legume sod was not detected in

wheat yield as being additive to the applied nitrogen. However, the zero

nitrogen treatment yield approximately 3 bu./A. more in sod than the con-

ventionally tilled plots. In this case the legume sod provided some beneficial

factors. Averaging across treatments there was no significant difference in

grain yield between the 60 Ib./A. and 80 Ib./A. nitrogen treatments (Fig. 2).

For both nitrogen levels no significance was detected between the pre and

post plant application in sod and conventional till at the various split

levels (Fig. 3 and 4).

Non significance for grain yield between any nitrogen level in the sod

treatments indicates the possibility that some factor is more limiting than

nitrogen.. Obervations indicated a poor plant stand particularly in the sod

plots. It was apparent that the conventional single disc opener grain drill









did not adequately place the seed into the soil where sod was present.

It was further noted that the wheat in those plots which contained a high

percentage of bermuda grass was sparser and performed poorer than the

cleaner peanut stands.

Conclusions:


1. Wheat grown in perennial peanut sod produced significantly less grain
than wheat grown under a conventional till system.

2. Zero nitrogen produced significantly less grain than the 60 and 80 Ib./A.
nitorgen under the conventionally tilled system.

3. No significance in grain yield was detected between the 0, 60 and 80 Ibs./A.
nitrogen in the perennial peanut sod.

4. Grain yields were not significantly affected by applying nitrogen pre
plant or post plant at any nitrogen rate in sod or conventional till.

5. Non-significance between the variables tested could be a result of a
poor plant standdue to planting technique and bermuda grass. Conclusions
drawn from this experiment should be considered very tentative. Prior
to continuation of this experiment an improved technique for seeding
into perennial peanut sod must be established. The effect of grass
perennial peanut mix on overseeded wheat must be examined.




m m m m m m m m mm m m m m m


Figure 1.


1981-82 WHEAT YIELD


(planted Dec. 14- Live Oak A.R.C.)


20-


15-


Grain
Yield
(Bu/Ac) 10-





5-




0-


(D


cr
Ct
0
U


O/Ac


-0
0
o
en


ea




o
0
4-

0,


_____________ _____ I ______________ n


60*/Ac


-o
0
C>
JC


a)
P-


0

o
.-D

I_


Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate


80"/Ac


]







Figure 2. 1981-82 WHEAT YIELD-Conventionally Tilled
(planted Dec. 14 Live Oak A.R.C.)

20-


15-

Grain
Yield
(Bu/Ac) I0-



5-



0-


O"/Ac 60"/Ac


Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate


80"/Ac




Smmm m m m m m -m m m m m


Figure 3. 1981-82 WHEAT YIELD
planted into perennial peanut sod
(planted Dec. 14- Live Oak A.R.C.)

10

Grain
Yield .
(Bu/Ac) 5II a -
a/ 80 /Ac


60 /Ac 80*/Ac


Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate




- mmmmmmmimm mmmm m m m


Figure 4.


1981-82 WHEAT YIELD-Conventionally Tilled
(planted Dec. 14- Live Oak A.R.C.)
20-


Grain
Yield
15-
(Bu/Ac)



10-




5-




0-


4-
a,


60"/Ac


-r

a.

a-


0



c

a
0.

a)
4-
-


80Ac


Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate












FLORIDA 301 WHEAT GRAZING TRIAL


Introduction:

Livestock are component in most farming systems in the FSR/E

Suwannee and Columbia County study area. Mixed livestock/cropping

systems were found on 53% of the farms visited during the 1981 Sondeo

and livestock centered systems on another 24% of the farms. The FSR/E

project focuses its attention at this time on the old-line farmers,

those whose families have two or more generations on the land. Livestock

are particularly important to this group.

Wheat can be grazed prior to elongation of the meristem and grazing

could be an important factor in determining the suitability of wheat as

an element in the farming systems utilized by area farmers. Wheat could

provide a source of forage during a period (December to February) when

forage for livestock is in short supply. Further, by grazing the immature

wheat, the farmer can offset part of the costof production of the grain

crop.

While some information is available that discusses the general question

of grazing wheat, no data that are specific to Florida 301 wheat and to

the study area are available. Florida 301 was not developed as either a

grazing or a dual purpose variety and cannot be expected to perform as

such. Further, climatic conditions vary considerably over small distances

in north Florida. Site specific, variety specific data are therefore

needed, and it is preferable to use animals rather than clipping in order

to obtain a more accurate evaluation of the effects of grazing.









Problem Statement:


Farmers in the area have traditionally planted rye, and to a lesser

degree oats, for grazing by both hogs and cattle. They have not, however,

tried to manage the grazing on these crops to simultaneously achieve a

high grain yield. Reaping sufficient grain to replant the following year

has been considered adequate, and many do not attempt to harvest a grain

crop after grazing. In the case of wheat which is a more valuable grain,

managing the grazing to achieve an acceptable grain yield is important.

Grazing wheat therefore raises new questions for the farmer and represents

a new practice that he must learn. An overall objective of the grazing

trials is to develop a set of guidelines that the farmer can use to achieve

adequate grain yields while providing a needed winter forage.

In order to do this, several specific questions must be answered.

First, the farmer needs to know when to plant wheat locally in order to

maximize the grazing period without endangering the grain crop. Second,

the farmer must know when to begin grazing and when to terminate grazing.

Finally, the farmer must know the effects of grazing on grain yield and

on the occurrence of disease.

Methodology:

Two grazing trials were conducted, one on-farm and one at the

University of Florida's Beef Research Unit. While similar data was taken

at the two sites, some differences between the two trials existed.

The wheat in the on-farm trial was planted at the farmer's expense,

except for seed, and managed by the farmer. Soil test results and fertilizer

recommendations were provided by the University of Florida and penetrometer









readings for determining soil compaction, were taken before planting.

Team members consulted with the farmer to help determine when to terminate

grazing, which was done when the meristem began to elongate in order that

the farmer could harvest grain crop.

At the BRU the grazing trial was conducted in cooperation with Dr.

Bill Ocumpaugh. Two planting dates, Oct. 30 and Dec. 4 were included in

the trial. In order to determine the full range of effects of grazing

was continued beyond the recommended stage of development of the wheat

plant, for as long as the forage supply remained.

Grazing was controlled in the same way at both sites. Exclosures

were constructed every two weeks, with four replications, to prevent the

animals from grazing portions of the field. At harvest, then, the exclosed

areas represented 0,2,4,6, etc. weeks of grazing. Standard statistical

analyses were used to determine results.

At each of the sites, several types of data were collected every two

weeks when new exclosures were constructed. These included stage of devel-

opment, apex height, leaf height, tillering, meristem length, number of

internodes, and flowering date. These data provided a measure of the effect

of lenght of grazing on the overall development of the plant.

At harvest, additional data was collected.for each plot. These included

yield, number of grain heads, number of seed per grain head, and weight of

seed per 100 seeds. These data provided a measure of the effect of lenght

of grazing on yield and associated characteristics.

At the BRU only, Dr. Herbert Luke also evaluated the effects of grazing

on the occurrence of disease. Florida 301 is resistant to several diseases,









but not to Septoria, and infection by this disease could be affected by

grazing. Dr. Luke rated the degree of infection of randomly selected

subplots.

At the on-farm site only, records of labor, purchased inputs,

equipment used, and other information were maintained. These records

provided production costs and serve to chronical changing management

practices. For a more complete description of their use see the "Wheat

Enterprise Records" project summary.









Results and Discussion


Analysis of variance shows that grazing had a significant effect

(alpha = 0.05) on grain yield in both trials planted at the Beef Research

Unit. For the first planting date, Oct. 30, 1981, Duncan's multiple

range test shows that yields were not adversely affected with up to 4

weeks of grazing (Table 1, Fig. 1). With longer periods of grazing,

6, 8, and 10 weeks, however, grain yields were significantly lower.

With the later planting date, Dec. 4, 1981, grain yields were adversely

affected with even limited grazing (Table 2, Fig. 1). Although Duncan's

multiple range test shows that there was no statistical significance

between yields obtained on ungrazed plots (35.1 bu./ac.) and plots

grazed for two weeks (25.2 bu./ac.), the difference in yield was almost

10 bu./ac. From an economic point of view, losing 10 bu./ac. grain yield

by grazing for two weeks is probably significant to most farmers.


Table 1. Grain Yield, Beef Research Unit Grazing Trial, First Planting Date

Weks Gad Mean Grain Yield
Weeks Grazed (bu./ac.)

0 41.9
2 35.5
4 34.2
6 23.3
8 16.8
10 7.1

Table 2. Grain Yield, Beef Research Unit Grazing Trial, Second Planting Date

Mean Grain Yield
Weeks Grazed (bu./ac.)

0 35.1
2 25.2 J
4 17.7
6 12.8 1








1981-82 WHEAT GRAZING


(planted Oct. 30- Beef Research Unit, Gainesville)


0 2 4 6 8 10 12


Weeks Grazed


mmmm mm mm-m-mmm mmmmm


40-


Grain
Yield
(Bu/Ac)


30-



20-


10-


FIG.1








In the on-farm grazing trial somewhat different results were obtained.

Analysis of variance (alpha= 0.05) showed that up to six week's of grazing

did not significantly lower grain yields (Table 3). The on-farm trial, like

the first BRU grazing trial, was planted early, Oct. 28, 1981, Fig. 2.


Table 3. Grain Yield, On-Farm Grazing Trial

Weeks Grazed Mean Grain Yield
-(bu./ac.)
2 29.9
4 27.8
0 26.8
6 24.2


Although only one year's data are available and no firm conclusions can

be drawn, these results do raise some interesting points. Perhaps most

clear is the need to plant early if wheat is to be grazed. Other management

differences were involved in these trials, however.

Grazing pressure was not the same in all cases. In the on-farm trial

immature animals (300 to 400 lb. calves) grazed the wheat, whereas full-

grown animals were grazing the BRU plantings. Calculating an equivalency

of three calves per adult animal,the grazing pressure in the on-farm trial

was 1.2 animal units per acre. In the BRU trials grazing pressure on the

Oct. 30 planting was 1.5 animal units per acre and on the Dec. 4 planting

1.1 animal units per acre. Further, the method of grazing differed as well.

At the BRU the wheat was heavily grazed for short periods and then the animals

were withdrawn until the 'wheat recovered. In the on-farm trial grazing

was continual but the wheat was never severely grazed. These differences,

then, as well as time of planting and fertilization time and rate may explain

the results obtained.




M m m m m m m Mu m m


Figure 1.


40-



30-


Grain
Yield
(Bu/Ac)


20-


10-



0-


1981-82 WHEAT GRAZING
(Beef Research Unit, Gainesville)
(1.5 animal units/acre) ClI PLANTED OCT. 30
I 1 (1.1 animal units/acre) Ei PLANTED DEC. 4


0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Weeks Grazed



BRU grazing began on Dec. 29 for 1st planting and
Jan. 27 for the 2nd planting.







Figure 2.

Figure 2.


1981-82 WHEAT GRAZING
(planted Oct. 28- on-farm trial, Columbia County)


Grain
Yield
(Bu/Ac)


30-


20-


10-



0-


0 2 4 6
Weeks Grazed
(1.2 Animal Units per Acre)


Farm grazing began on Dec.21.









The second planting at the BRU was also rated for Septoria infection

after 6 weeks of grazing. As Table 4 and Figure 3 show, the occurrence

of this disease was affected by grazing. Plots grazed even two weeks

showed a significantly higher (alpha = 0.05) Septoria infection than un-

grazed plots. The causes of this effect are unclear, byt one factor may

be the delayed development of the wheat that results from grazing since

longer development time could permit a higher buildup of the fungal

population. More frequent ratings are needed to fully understand this

phenomenon.


Table 4. Septoria nodorum Infection in Wheat as Affected by Grazing



Weeks Grazed Level of Infection

0 7.1 I
6 16.8
4 22.1
2 22.9 I




m m m m m m m m m m m m m- mmmmm


1981-82 WHEAT GRAZING
(planted Dec. 4 Beef Research Unit, Gainesville)


25-


20-


Septoria
Infection


15-



I0-



5-



0-


2 4
Weeks Grazed


Figure 3.









WHEAT ENTERPRISE RECORDS


Introduction:


Detailed enterprise records were kept of eight farms in Suwannee and

Columbia counties during the 1981-82 cropping season. Farmers were en-

couraged to keep track of the activities they performed on their wheat

crops, and periodic visits by team members aided in keeping the records

accurate and up-to-date.

All information pertaining to the wheat crop was recorded in individual

record books kept by each farmer. This information included dates of

activities, who performed the work and how long each activity took. All

inputs and quantities used such as fertilizer, fuel, seed and machinery

were recorded. Many cooperators offered pecuniary information as well.

Otherwise, cost of inputs were obtained from local retail outlets.

After the wheat crop was harvested, the records were collected and the

information organized. Enterprise budgets were then developed for each farm,

with consideration at this point in time given to variable costs only.


Methodology:


Table 1 shows the variable costs of producing one acre of wheat on the

eight north Florida farms. Notice the budgets have been separated by field

on those farms that grew more than one variety of wheat, or carried out

different practices on separate fields. Each operation such as land pre-

paration or planting contains all costs involved in that operation. For

example fertilization contains the cost of the fertilizer, fuel used in the

process, machinery rent, etc. Lubricants are figured at 15% of the total

fuel cost.




-------------------



Table 1. ENTERPRISE BUDGET FOR HEATT 1981-82

Variable Costs Of Producing One Acre On Eight Farms


Farm Number-Field 23-1
Average 15


Operation

Land Prep.

Seed

Planting

Fertilization

Combine

Lubricants

Total Variable
Costs

Yields-Bu/Acre

Variable Cost
Per Bushel


.65

4.05

.72

9.14

.88

.35


15.79

18


.88


23-2 35
10 3.5


.65

16.35

.72

9.14i

.88

.35


28.10

11


2.55


3.21

17.85

3.19

92.25



.61


117.11

0


39-1
3



.60i

14.00

1.73

87.81

1.58

.39


06.11

26


4.08


39-2
10.5



.60

10.00

1.73

67.81

1.58

.39


82.11

8.7


9.44


41
4.75



2.13

20.63

1.43

59.58

18.00

.38


102.15

26.3


3.88


31-1
50



1.19

5,46

.71

18.11

1.54

.58


27.59

12


2.30


31-2
37


1.19

5.46

.71


49
2.4


3.03

31.25

1.34


4.95 53.90

1.10 20.00

.45 .92


13.86 110.44

5 25.4


2.77 4.35


270-1
10



1.48

21.00

.43

15.00

20.00

.28


58.19

20


2.91


270-2
90



1.48

14.40

.43

15.00

20.00

.28


51.59

10


5.16


264-1
28



1.19

13.20

1,02

50.03

1.36

.53


67.33

19 '


3.54


I264-
20


1.69

11.25

1.02

51.29

1.36

.60


67.21

20 '


3.36


2 264-3 264-4
18 12


1.72

13.20

1.02

51.29



.41


67.64'

0


2.33

12.50

1.02

51.29

1.36

.72


69.27

15


4.62


_ I___L i;- _ I-----1--~-------^-


^I_----I~


_1


I









In order to obtain equitable comparisons between farms with respect

to yield and total variable costs per acre, a variable cost per bushel

figure was calculated. This calculation indicated the price per bushel

of wheat a farmer would require to completely cover his variable costs.


Results:


The results from the enterprise budgets are summarized Table 2.

The total area of wheat planted by the eight farmers amounted to 314.2 acres.

Of this, 21.5 acres were not harvested due to crop failure. Yields per

acre of wheat planted ranged from 26.3 bushels to zero yield. The average

yield for all planted acres was 11.9 bushels while the average yield for

harvested acres was 12.8 bushels.

Variable costs per acre of wheat fluctuated widely. The highest was

$117.11 while the lowest was $13.86. This large variation can be explained

by various fertilization levels, custom work vs. owner operated and pur-

chased seed vs. seed saved from the previous year's crop. The wide range

in variable cost per bushel of wheat harvested from $9.44 to $.88 also re-

flects these differences in farmer management.








Summary of Wheat Budget 1981-82


Number of Farms 8
Total Acreage Planted 314.2
Total Acreage Harvested 292.7

Percent of Planted Area Harvested 93.0%

Yields:

Bushels Wheat Per Planted Acre 11.9
Bushels Wheat Per Harvested Acre 12.8
Highest Yield 26.3
Lowest Yield 0

Total Variable Costs For Producing Wheat On Eight Farms:

Highest Cost Per Acre $117.11
Lowest Cost Per Acre $ 13.86

Variable Cost Per Bushel Wheat Harvested:

Highest Cost Per Bushel $ 9.44
Lowest Cost Per Bushel $ .88


Table 2.








Chapter IV


PERENNIAL PEANUT AS AN ALTERNATIVE FORAGE CROP


PERENNIAL PEANUT ESTABLISHMENT


Introduction:


Livestock are an important component of most farms in the FSR/E

study area. On 53% of the 66 farms visited during the 1981 Sondeo,

mixed livestock/cropping systems were found, and on 24%, livestock

centered systems were found. Livestock were more important on old-line

than on recently established farms and on white-owned than on black-owned

farms.

In recent years, farmers have found it difficult to make a profit

raising either hogs or 'cattle. Market prices for both pork and beef

are low, and the cost of producing feed for the animals has increased.

Corn, the most common hog feed and also a cattle feed, has failed

consistently due to drought. In pasture and hay production, drought has

also been a problem, especially in 1981. In addition, the rising cost

of fertilizer applied to pasture has been a critical element in the

declining profitability of cattle operations and this factor can only

become more limiting in the future. Initially, area farmers commonly

apply as much.as 200-300 Ibs./acre of a mix such as 15-15-15 to bahia

and coastal bermuda, with a subsequent application of an equal amount of

ammoninum nitrate.

Problem Statement:

Because of the low native fertility of the soils of Suwannee and

Columbia Counties and the high cost of fertilizer, farmers need a legume

forage source. Ideally, it should also be resistant to pests and disease









and tolerant of dry conditions. For the FSR/E target group, a further

constraint is the limited time available to the farmers for management,

especially for part-time farmers, or, in some cases, the limited man-

agement ability they possess. A legume forage crop that requires high

management is therefore inappropriate.

Perennial peanut (Arachis glabbrata Benth.), a legume forage crop,

may overcome most or all of these contraints (see Figure 1). One

objective of the FSR/E project is to establish perennial peanut stands

(2 ac.) on small farms in the study area. In addition to providing hay

and forage for the cooperating farmers, these stands will later be used

to provide rhizome material. for additional stand establishment by both

the Universtity of Florida and the collaborators.

Three plantings have been completed at the Live Oak Agricultural

Research Center. Two are of the "Florigraze" cultivar, planted at the

Swine Research Unit. In addition to providing more rhizome material,

they will be used in sow maintenance grazing trials. The third planting

is an "Arbrook" cultivar. This cultivarhas not been planted in the

area previously. If it establishes successfully and yields adequately,

further introductions will be made.

Largely because of the difficulties involved in hand planting

perennialpeanut rhizomes prior to the availability of a bermuda sprig

digger and planter, relatively few on-farm introductions have been made.

Much more variability is expected under farm conditions than under

experiment station conditions. One of the purposes of the current trial

is to determine how well the plant establishes and yields under farm

conditions and farmer management.

Perhaps most important is the problem of weed control. Perennial

peanut is slow to establish, requiring two years, and maintaining adequate




m m Oma mm m m -mmm m m






Figure 1. PERENNIAL PEANUT RESEARCH SCHEME 81-82
I PERENNIAL PEANUT SYSTEMS I









weed control during establishment remains a problem. Some experience

has been gained at experiment stations and on farms, but no overall

weed control program has been developed, especially one adequate for the

wide variety of weed problems that are met when stands are planted on

several farms. One objective therefore is to work with collaborators

to develop adequate weed control programs specific to each farm and also

more generally applicable to the range of problems encountered in the

study area.


Methodology:


Approximately two acres of 'Floriagraze' perennial peanut was planted/

on each ofseven farms in the winter of 1981-82. The University of Florida

provided rhizome material and will dig and plant the rhizomes for further

propagation. Additional material (herbicides) and, in some cases,

university spray equipment has been provided to maintain weed control.

Each cooperator will permit the FSR/E team to dig rhizome material from

1/4 of the area planted on his farm after two years of establishment and

will participate in experimental work on a portion of the area planted

as well (see project summaries for "Interplanting of Summer Crop Into

Recently Established Perennial Peanut Stands" and "Interplanting of

Summer Crop into Recently Established Prennial Peanut Stands" and

"Interplanting of Winter Crop Into Recently Established Perennial Peanut

Stands").

The most direct measure of the success in establishing perennial

peanut stands on area farms will be the hay yield or forage utilization

achieved once the fields are fully established. The maintenance of

production and management records is critical. These will provide the

FSR/E team with a way of comparing the success and cost of the different










management programs followed on each farm, especially in the area of

weed control. The farmer's evaluation of the potential of the crop

is equally important, a factor that can be judged best by whether or

not he decides to increase his peanut acreage.


Results and Discussion:


Experience gained through attempted on farm establishment by

cooperating farmers and farming systems personnel has led to the conclusion

that additional technologies must be developed prior to or in conjuction

with any further efforts in this area. To date, the most serious impediment

to on-farm Florigraze perennial peanut establishment is weeds.

Several options are available to control weeds. The major categories

into which these options might fall include: (1) mechanical, (2) chemical,

and (3) cultural.

Within: the first category, control methods are restricted. The narrow

row spacing and prostrate, spreading growth habit of the plant preclude

tillage as a means of weed control after planting. Thus, mechanical methods

of weed control are restricted either to pre-plant tillage operations or to

mowing after planting has occurred.

During the farmer-managed establishment trials, several different

combinations and sequences of tillage operations were performed, with

varying results (See Table 1). Is appears that land preparation by turn

plowing in the fall, followed by discing or harrowing prior to planting

in the following spring, is the best mechanical means of reducing weed

infestation subsequent to that planting. Additional observations of

some trials indicate that the post-emergence weed control obtained by

mowing is at least as effective as that control obtained through use of

chemical sprays.







Table 1. Summary of Cultural Practices for Establishment of Perennial Peanut.


Farm = Tillage
Operations


31 Plow
03/01/82
Harrow
03/01/82


Florigraze
40 Bu/Acre
03/04/82


Treflan
1 1/2 ts/Acre
Disc-lx
03/01/82

Lasso
3 lb./Acre
+
Tackle
3/8 lb./Acre
04/14/82


Mowed
06/16/82


34 Plow Florigraze Treflan Poor Severe
I 03/03/82 40 Bu/Acre 2 pts/Acre
Harrow-2x 03/03/82 Disc-2x
03/03/82
I --------------
I Round up
1 pt/Acre
03/30/82


39 2/3 Plow Florigraze Treflan Irrigated: 2/3 Exc. Moderate
02/01/82 60 Bu/Acre 2pts/Acre 6 weeks
1/3 plow 02/18/82 Disc-lx 9 weeks
02/17/82 Cultipaked 02/18/82 1/3 good
I --------------
SKleen Krop
03/--/82
04/--/82

I Mowed
06/23/82


41 Plow Florigraze Treflan Poor Moderate
Harrow 40 Bu/Acre 1 1/2 pts/Acre
02/16/82 Disc-lx
02/16/82
Lasso
S3 lbs/Acre
03/31/82


Planning


Weed
Control


Other


Peanut
Stand


Weed
Problems


Fair


Severe










Table 1. Summary of Cultural Practices for Establishment of Perennial Peanut.(Cont)


Farm = Tillage
Operations


49 Harrow
01/27/82
1/2 plow(s)
02/05/82

Harrow-2x
01/27/82
1/2 plow(s)


Florigraze
40 Bu/Acre
02/04/82(N)
02/05/82(S)

Florigraze
40 Bu/Acre
02/04/82(N)


02/05/82 02/05/82(S)


Treflan
1 1/2 pts/Acre
Disc-lx
02/04/82


Round up
2 Ibs/Acre
03/31/82
-----------
Lasso
3 Ibs/Acre
04/26/82


1/2N-poor
(not plowed)
1/2S-Good
(plowed)

1/2N-poor
(not plowed)
1/2S-Good
(plowed)


1/2 N-Severe

1/2S-Moderate


1/2 N-Severe

1/2S-Moderate


I 67 Plow Florigraze Treflan Poor Severe
40 Bu/Acre 1 1/2 pts/Acre (Very wet)
Harrow 02/26/82 Disc-lx
02/16/82


267 Harrow-2x Florigraze Treflan None Very
I 40 Bu/Acre 1 1/4 pts/Acre (After 2nd Severe:
02/25/82 Disc-lx herbicide
02/24/82 application)
~--------------
Lasso
2 Ibs/Acre
+
I Blazer
1 qt/Acre
04/15/82
_I


272 Harrow


Florigraze
80 Bu/Acre
02/01/82


Treflan
1 1/2 pts/Acre
Disc-lx

Round up
2 Ibs/Acre
03/26/82

2,4-DB
1/2 lb/Acre
05/05/82
(1/2 East)


Mowed
05/05/82
(1/2 West)


Planning


Weed
Control


Other


Peanut
Stand


Weed
Problems


Poor


Very
Severe


--










Table 1. Summary of Cultural Practices for


Farm = Tillage
Operations


Florigraze
40 Bu/Acre


02/11/82


Arbrook
40 Bu/Acre
02/17/82


Treflan
1 1/2 pts/Acre

-------------

Lasso
3 Ibs/Acre
+
Blazer
1/2 Ib/Acre
04/21/82

Mowed
06/--/82


Treflan
1 1/2pts/Acre
--------------
Lasso
3 Ibs/Acre
+
Blazer
1/2 Ib/Acre
04/21/82

Mowed
06/--/82


Planting


Weed
Control


Plow
Harrow


Other


Peanut
Stand


Weed
Problems


LOARC
#1
(Swine
Unit)


LOARC
#2


Fair


Good


Plow


Severe


Moderate


Qu"u .1 y"Ll
Establishment nf Parp41 D + r


~I _


M-


F~tahlizhmant nf Poronni~~ D~~niir Irn,+\









The chemical control of weed populations is an alternative option

to, or may be used in conjunction; with, mechanical control methods.

Within this category, several options exist. Herbicides may be applied

either pre-plant, post-emergent, or both. Currently, no herbicides are

specifically registered for use with this crop although several have

demorstratedpotential in observational trials and were therefore utilized

in the on-farm trials.

Again, numerous chemicals and methods of application were tried, with

varying degrees of success. Indications are that the pre-plant application

of Treflan provided poor weed control and may, in fact, have damaged the

perennial peanut plants, resulting in a reduction in stand. Further

research needs to be conducted before any recommendations for herbicide

use can be made to farmers.

The use of chemicals to control weeds, however,, presents a problem

in that several of the cooperating farmers do not own spray equipment

adequate for herbicide application. Others do not possess the expertise

needed for the use of such chemicals while still others simply do not

wish to "poison the land".

The final category of weed control options involves cultural techniques

Factors included within this category are variety selection, row spacing,

planting rate, fertilization, irrigation, etc. All of the farm trials

were basically the same in regards to these factors. However, the

possibility of increased weed control through manipulation of these

elements exists, and since these generally involve less capital investment

than those in the other categories, they may offer the best alternatives

for the low resource farmer. For example, early indications are that the

Arbrook cultivar which was planted on the Live Oak Agricultural Research

Center is far superior to the Florigraze variety. A Change to this









cultivar may help to overcome the establishment problems observed

in the first year of on-farm trials.









HERBICIDE GRASS CONTROL IN AN ESTABLISHED PERENNIAL.PEANUT STAND


Introduction:


One of the goals of the on-farm perennial peanut trials is to

provide rhizome materials for propagation on additional acreages. This

requires that the propagation materials be free from contamination by

any foreign plant materials. Infestation of perennial peanut by bermuda

grass presently is a serious barrier to obtaining the clean material needed.

Two studies have been initiated at the Live Oak Agricultural Research

Center to determine the herbicide treatments necessary to attain this end.


Methodology:


Both experiments were conducted using a randomized complete block

design with four replications. At the time of the fall applications, the

bermuda/perennial peanut mixture was approximately 50/50, with the

bermuda showing a slight brewing of the tips. The plants were in an active

stage of growth. Prior to the spring applications and while both the

bermuda grass and peanuts were dormant, the fields were burned off.


Treatments:


(1) Day vs. night application of glyphosate and dalapon on
perennial peanuts (applied in fall only).

a. Downpon-M broadcast sprayed at 2.5, and 10.0 lbs;. a.i.
per acre, applied either at night or daytime.
b. Roundup broadcast at 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Ibs. a.i. per
acre, applied either at night or daytime.

(2) Fall vs. spring application for bermuda grass control in
perennial peanut.

a. Poast and Fusilade sprayed at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 Ibs.
a.i. per acre, applied either in fall or spring, or
in both seasons.
b. Dowpon-M broadcast sprayed at 1.0 and 2.0 Ibs. a.i.
per acre, applied either in fall or spring, or in
both seasons.








c. Roundup broadcast sprayed at 1.0 and 2.0 Ibs. a.i.
per acre,, applied either in fall or spring, or in
both seasons.


Data Gathered:

Visual ratings of effectiveness of treatments upon control

of bermuda grasswere made after each time of treatment as

well as later in thesummer following the spring application.

Damage to perennial peanut in response to treatments also

was assessed by visual ratings at the same times.


Results:


Data from the first study indicate that little or no control of

perennial bermuda grass may be obtained without serious injury to the

perennial peanut with either of the chemicals tested. Neither time of

applications (day vs. night) nor rate of application provided suitable

control when applied in the late fall.

The second study clearly shows that with the materials tested, the

best time of application for control of well-established bermuda grass

in perennial peanut sod is the spring (Table 1). The same data also

indicate that application of herbicides in the spring, while resulting

in less peanut injury than did the fall/spring combination, did not

cause significantly more damage than did the fall application. Thus it

appears that a spring application would be the best recommendation as to

season for the most complete control of bermuda grass with the least

damage to the perennial peanut.

Dowpon-M (dalapon) at both the 2.5.and 5.0 Ibs/acre rates provided

significantly better bermuda grass control than any of the other compounds

tested in the spring-applied trials (Table 2). In addition, the 2.5 lb









rate of Dowpon-M was in that grouping of chemicals which caused the

least damage to the perennial peanut (Table 3) and thus appears to be

the best overall treatment.

Further Research Areas:

Observations from on-farm trials and research station tests indicate

the need for the development of additional weed control technologies if

perennial peanut is to have a place in the farming systems of north

Florida. Suggested areas of further investigation include:

(1) Fall application of a broad spectrum herbicide prior to the

fall tillage operations. This should be done both with and

without turn-plowing as one of the tillage treatments, to

investigate the possibility of reducing energy inputs while

increasing weed control. The use of a broad spectrum herbicide

such as Roundup, should prove especially effective when the

major problem is perennial, weeds such as bermuda grass, commonly

found in forage situations.

(2) The simultaneous planting of a winter small grain such as rye

or wheat at the same time the perennial peanut is planted. This

practice would allow the production and sale of a secondary crop

(small grain) during a period in which the primary corp is being

established, thus doubling the land utilization. Additionally,

the small grain would provide early season weed control by shading

the weeds and reducing competition.* Such a practice should also

* ( a thesis study currently is in progress on shade effect on rate/extent
of perennial peanut establishment.)










result in increased soil moisture at a time when the newly

establishedperennial peanut plant would normally be suffering

from a water deficit.

(3) The use of a wick-type applicator with a broad spectrum herbicide

for weed control in the late spring following planting of

rhizomes. At this time a growth differential exists between

the weeds and the postrate perennial peanut plants which would

allow the selective application of a herbicide to the weeds

without affecting the peanuts. Such a technique would require

neither high capital outlays for spray equipment and chemicals

nor technical expertise in herbicide application.

(4) Additional studies, which may be overlayed onto on-farm establishment

trials, to accertain the effects of Treflan and other pre-plant

herbicides upon newly established perennial peanut. Post-emergence

materials should also be examined, again with overlaid,, on-farm

trials.

(5) Continuations of the initial herbicide screening trial conducted

during this past season to remove perennial grasses from established

perennial peanut for propagation material. The trial should be

focused upon the materials which showed greatest promise in the

1981-82 trials.

















Table 1.


INFLUENCE OF TIME OF APPLICATION UPON CONTROL OF BERMUDA GRASS IN PERENNIAL PEANUT.


Season % Bermuda Control % Peanut Damage


Fall 8.8 az 17.4 ab

Fall/Spring 41.6 b 26.4 a

Spring 46.6 b 21.0 b



z. Means followed by different letters significantly different by
Duncan's MRT (a = 0.05)










Table 2


CONTROL OF ESTABLISHED BERMUDA GRASS IN PERENNIAL PEANUT SOD WITH SPRING-APPLIED

HERBICIDES


Herbicide Rate % Bermuda Control


Dowpon-M 5.0# 95.0 az

2.5# 82.5 a

Round Up 2.0# 62.5 b

Poast 1.0# 50.0 b c

0.5# 37.5 c d

Fusilade 1.0# 37.5 c d

0.25# 35.0 c d

Round Up 1.0# 32.5 c d

Fusilade 0.5# 27.5 d

Poast 0.25# 27.5 d


z Means followed by different
Duncan's MRT (a = 0.05)


letters significantly different by














Table 3


PERENNIAL PEANUT


Herbicide

Fusilade
II

Poast



Fusilade

Poast

Dowpon-M

Round Up

Dowpon-M

Round Up


INJURY FROM SPRING-APPLIED HERBICIDES


Rate

0.25#

1.0#

1.0#

0.5#

0.5#

0.25#

2.5#

1.0#

5.0#

2.0#


% Peanut Damage

2.5 az

5.0 a b

10.0 a b

12.5 a b

12.5 a b

17.5 a b c

20.0 a b c

27.5 b c

40.0 c

72.5 d


z = Means followed by different( letters
different by Duncan's MRT (a=0.25).


significantly


~-











NITROGEN CYCLING IN PERENNIAL PEANUT


Introduction:


The rise in costs of agricultural inputs and energy use today,

represents a major constraint in crop production throughout the world.

The areas most affected by this phenomenon are those with low fertility

soils and high occurrence of pest problems. In these areas, heavy use

of fertilizers, and pesticides, in addition to large quantities of fuel

to apply these products, is required to obtain good yields. Florida

is an example of this; in fact, this state has some of the most energy-

intensive agricultural systems, not only in the U.S. but in the world.

Under these conditions, crop management based on the energy-saving

concept is a "must" in order to make crop production profitable and meet

successfully any upcoming energy crisis. In addressing only the ferti-

lizer issue and restricting it to nitrogen fertilization alone, green

manure incorporation has been an excellent management practice to restore

soil fertility and provide significant amounts of nitrogen to the

following crop. Still, this has not been the case in Florida where

this N-contribution is not substantial. Experimental data shows that

although a green manure crop with 250 Ibs. of N per acre was incorporated,

the turnover rate of this nutrient in the follow-up crop did not go over

40 Ibs. per acre (Prine, 1981. Personal communication) and the yield

achieved was low. Although this pehonomenom has been observed repeatedly,

there is no quantitative explanation that accounts for the loss of most of

the nitrogen in the green manure.











Besides green manure, minimum tillage in the form of a "living

mulch" may be a good alternative for reducing production costs and

energy use. An intercrop system of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata,

Benth.) as a living mulch associated with other crops is an alternative

with some possibilities of success over the constraints mentioned

before. Farmers would get the benefits of a mulch plus a forage crop,

in addition to their normal field crop. A living mulch has the potential

advantages of improving soil fertility and structure, control weed growth,

prevent soil erosion, and reduce leaching. A high protein, leguminous

forage crop such as perennial peanut could provide substantial amounts of

nitrogen to the associated field crop through the descomposition of its

roots and leaves.


The Project and Its Objectives.

An experiment was established in the Agronomy farm (University of

Florida main campus) during the winter season 1981 to study nitrogen

cycling in three cropping-management systems: wheat intercropped with

perennial peanut, wheat in green manure (p. peanut clippings) incorporated

plots, and conventionally-tilled wheat. Fertilizer with 15N, a heavier

N isotope, had been applied to a perennial peanut sod before the experiment

was established, making possible the tracing of nitrogen in the first and

second systems throughout space (soil, leachate, and plants) and time (3

to 5 years). The objectives of this study are the following:

1. Quantify over time the differences in the amount of nitrogen found

in soil, leachate and plant samples taken in plots receiving three

different management systems










2. Generate an annual N-cycle budget for each of the three management

systems

3. Determine approximate time for N-fertilizer applications of

winter and summer crops grown under the different systems

4. Quantify the N-contribution of perennial peanut made to a cropping

system by N-fixation.


Methodology:

Fiberglass cylinders were pressed into the ground where a six-year-old

perennial peanut cultivar (Florigraze) was already established. In this

confined area a 15N laneled fertilizer was applied in early November at

the rate of 50 kg/ha. Eight weeks later the vegetative parts were clipped

in these confined areas and were incorporated (simulating a green manure

crop) in other cylinders. At the same time the p. peanut sod that was

clipped was transplanted into other cylinders with non-contaminated soils

("living mulch" system). Both of these systems (green manure and "living

mulch') were planted with wheat, and so was a third group of cylinders that

was conventionally tilled.

Samples have been taken since the beginning of the experiment for soil,

clippings of pernnial peanut, leachate, and wheat plants. Subsequent crops

will be grown in those cylinders (millet in summer, wheat or rye in the

winter) and samplingwill continue. The ikea is monitor the labeled 15N

through the agricultural cycles, tracing it as it moves from the decomposing

peanut material into the soil,through the soil solution and moves into the

plants. All the samples will be analyzed for total nitrogen content, with

the green manure and "living mulch" systems also being analyzed for 14N:15N

ratio by means of the mass spectrometer.









The experiment consists basically of three systems:

1. Green manure 2. living mulch 3. conventionally tilled; with

management rates: no nitrogen and the recommended rate for the crop

in turn. So that makes a total of six treatments replicated five

times each in a randomized block design. No results are available

yet since the analyses for all the samples are still to be made.








METHOD OF PLANTING WHEAT INTO ESTABLISHED
PERENNIAL PEANUT STANDS


Introduction:


Perennial peanut, is a perennial forage legume that may become a

component in farming systems in the area in the near future. Perennial

peanut survives in a semi-dormant state in the winter months(from the first

killing frost till March). Based on previous exploratory work it appears

feasible to plant a winter crop into the peanut sod in the late fall.after

its vegetative growth has stopped. A farmer could make use of the area

planted in perennial peanut during its dormant period, there by producing

winter wheat in addition to the normal summer peanut hay crop. The po-

tential advantages to this system are many, including lower land preparation

cost, soil and moisture conservation and an almost continuous production

throughout the year on the same land using a relatively low management system.

Perennial peanut characteristically developed a 5-7 cm thick rhizome mat

5-7 cm beneath the soil surface. A deep root system extends down from these

rhizomes. Because of the depth of the rhizomes and the continuous deep

roots, the top 5-7 cm of soil can be scarified to facilitate the incorporation

of an overseeded winter crop.

Most farmers have at their disposal a disc harrow which could be adjusted

to achieve the required superficial seed incorporation. Many farmers now

plant their winter small grains with a standard single disc opener grain

drill which could also be used in the sod once the surface was scarified.

A no-till grain drill could also be used to plant the winter small grain into

the sod, however the cost of this equipment is beyond the level that many

farmers are willing to pay.








At present the disc harrow, the single disc opener grain drill and the

no-till planter are the available alternatives for seeding into a perennial

peanut sod. The effect of any one of these seeding methods on subsequent

peanut hay yield and other questions such as weed encroachment are unanswered.


Problem Statement:


In order to make this practice feasible for area farmers, a practical

method of planting the winter crop into the perennial peanut sod must be

found. The method should utilize equipment that is readily available to

most farmers. One objective of this trial therefore is to determine how

successfully a winter crop can be established in perennial peanut sod using

commonly available farm machinery.

A second objective of the trial is to determine the effect of the winter

crop on perennial peanut hay yield and quality during the following summer

growing season.

Winter wheat grain yield and the effect of the winter wheat on succeeding

peanut hay yield both may be affected by wheat stand density. The most

effective seeding rate may also vary with the method of planting. A third

objective of this experiment, therefore, is to examine the effect of seeding

rate on the other parameters. under consideration.

Methodology:

Florida 301 wheat was planted into an established perennial peanut sod

on Nov. 24, 1981 at the University of Florida's research unit at Green Acres.

The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block. The main treat-

ments consisted of 3 methods of planting which include, 1.) no-till drill

(Pasture Pleasertm). 2.) a standard single disc opener grain drill and

3.) an orchard disc harrow. Except for the no-till seeded treatment a








preplant discing was made one time across the plots to scarify the soil

surface and incorporate 300 Ibs./A. of 0-10-20 with micro-elements mixed

with 30/1bs./A. of ammonium nitrate. The broadcast-disc treatment received

an addition single pass discing at a right angle to the first offer the

seed was hand distributed over the plots. The standard grain drill was

run at a right angle to the first discing. The no-till drill achieved

seed incorporation by cutting the sod with a colter, opening this cut

for seed placement with a double disc opener and pressing slit closed with

a press wheel.

The subtreatment consisted of three wheat seeding rates, 1.5 2.0 and

2.5 bu./A. All treatments were replicated four times.

Wheat data collection was taken at harvest which occurred on 5/17/82.

The effect of the overseeded crop on perennial peanut hay production will

be measured during the summer growing season.


Results and Discussion


Further results are forth coming as plant samples and subsequent data

are analyzed. Averaging across seeding rates it becomes clear that the no-

till system of planting has resulted in significantly higher yields (Figure 1)

followed by broadcast than the standard grain drill. A closer examination

(Table 1) indicated that grain yield obtained from the broadcast low seeding

rate treatment was not significantly different from yields obtained with

the no-till system of planting. Within the broadcast planting method it

is not clear why higher yields were obtained with the lower seeding rate.

The important point to note is that a simple planting system such as broad-

cast and disc which requires lower capital investment in terms of tractor

size and seeder,yielded close to that of a higher capital requiring no-till

system.





m - - --- -


Figure i.


1981-82 WHEAT YIELD


(planted Dec. 25- Green Acres Research Unit, Gainesville)


25-





20-


Grain

Yield

(Bu/Ac)


15-


10-





5-





0-


S"I







.-~. ** *
i''
;*,


;. :




^':I!








No-Till
Planter


Broadcast


Standard
Grain Drill


Method of Planting into Perennial Peanut Sod


.e
,


I
ir ~
''


'





~I
;Ir~, Z
'

k-
-; -i-
;








The lower yields obtained from the standard grain drill seeded treatment

are primarily a result of poor plant stand establishment. The single disc

opener seeder did not place the seed deep enough nor did it cover the seed

sufficiently in the sod seed bed to achieve good seed to soil contact.

This resulted in poor germination.


Table 1. Florida 301 weat grain yeilds for methods of planting into
perennial peanut sod, 1981-82.

Broadcast Standard grain No-till
disc drill drill

Seeding rate (Bu./A.)
1.5. 2 2.5 1.5 2 2.5 1.5 2 2.5

21.4a 20.4ab 17.8abc 11.4c 12.6abc 11.1 24.0a 24.6a 22.0a

Means followed by different letters are significantly different by
Duncan's MRT (a= 0.05).


Conclusions:

Preliminary results from this years trial indicate that modification in

planting technique for both the standard grain drill and broadcast systems

of planting could potentially raise the yield levels to approximate that of

no-till drill. However at this time we can recommend a broadcast and disc

system of planting wheat into established perennial peanut as an acceptable

low cost method.

It still remains to be determined the long run consequences to perennial

peanut hay production by overseeding winter wheat.




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
!-- First in house review and planning workshop ( Book ) --
METS:mets OBJID UF00081545_00001
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:sobekcm http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm
xmlns:lom http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm_lom
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-4.xsd
http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcmsobekcm.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2020-08-03T12:38:28Z ID LASTMODDATE 2020-08-03T09:13:29Z RECORDSTATUS COMPLETE
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR TYPE ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF,University of Florida
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC - FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
UFAD\renner
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:accessCondition The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
mods:identifier type oclc 190863791
mods:language
mods:languageTerm text English
code authority iso639-2b eng
mods:location
mods:physicalLocation University of Florida
UF
mods:url access object context http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081545/00001
mods:originInfo
mods:publisher Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP), University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
mods:dateIssued 1982
mods:copyrightDate 1982
mods:recordInfo
mods:recordIdentifier source sobekcm UF00081545_00001
mods:recordOrigin MARC Importer GUI:1.1.5:SMATHERSLIB\NELDAS
mods:recordContentSource University of Florida
mods:titleInfo
mods:title First in-house review and planning workshop
mods:typeOfResource text
DMD2
OTHERMDTYPE SOBEKCM SobekCM Custom
sobekcm:procParam
sobekcm:Aggregation ALL
SCIENCES
FAO1
UFIR
IFSA
IUF
sobekcm:MainThumbnail 00001thm.jpg
sobekcm:Wordmark UF
FLAG
sobekcm:bibDesc
sobekcm:BibID UF00081545
sobekcm:VID 00001
sobekcm:Publisher
sobekcm:Name Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP), University of Florida
sobekcm:PlaceTerm Gainesville, Fla.
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Gainesville, Fla.
sobekcm:Source
sobekcm:statement UF University of Florida
sobekcm:SortDate 723545
METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD DIGIPROV1
DAITSS Archiving Information
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT PROJECT UFDC
METS:techMD TECH1
File Technical Details
sobekcm:FileInfo
sobekcm:File fileid JP21 width 2486 height 3270
JPEG1 630 829
JPEG2 848
JP22 2414 3250
JPEG3
JP23 2443 3213
JPEG4 852
JP24 2402
JPEG5
JP25
JPEG6 850
JP26 2408
JPEG7 471
JP27 3284 2453
JPEG8
JP28
JPEG9
JP29
JPEG10
JP210
JPEG11
JP211
JPEG12
JP212
JPEG13
JP213
JPEG14
JP214
JPEG15
JP215
JPEG16
JP216
JPEG17
JP217
JPEG18 846
JP218 2420
JPEG19
JP219
JPEG20 855
JP220 2396
JPEG21
JP221
JPEG22
JP222
JPEG23
JP223
JPEG24
JP224
JPEG25
JP225
JPEG26
JP226
JPEG27
JP227
JPEG28
JP228
JPEG29
JP229
JPEG30
JP230
JPEG31
JP231
JPEG32 473
JP232 3229 2423
JPEG33
JP233
JPEG34
JP234
JPEG35 834
JP235 2456
JPEG36 474
JP236 3223
JPEG37
JP237
JPEG38
JP238
JPEG39
JP239
JPEG40
JP240
JPEG41
JP241
JPEG42 476
JP242 2435
JPEG43
JP243
JPEG44
JP244
JPEG45
JP245
JPEG46
JP246
JPEG47
JP247
JPEG48
JP248
JPEG49
JP249
JPEG50 828
JP250 2512 3300
JPEG51
JP251 2510 3302
JPEG52 825
JP252 2518 3298
JPEG53 824
JP253 2526
JPEG54 823
JP254 2528 3304
JPEG55
JP255 2522
JPEG56 481
JP256 3306
JPEG57 480
JP257 3205 2440
JPEG58 479
JP258 3217 2446
JPEG59 472
JP259 2411
JPEG60
JP260
JPEG61
JP261
JPEG62
JP262
JPEG63
JP263
JPEG64
JP264
JPEG65 482
JP265 3212 2458
JPEG66 844
JP266 2426
JPEG67
JP267 3276 2506
JPEG68 477
JP268 2441
JPEG69
JP269
JPEG70
JP270 3199
JPEG71
JP271
JPEG72
JP272 3228
JPEG73 842
JP273 2432
JPEG74
JP274
JPEG75
JP275
JPEG76
JP276
JPEG77
JP277 3230
JPEG78
JP278
JPEG79
JP279
JPEG80
JP280
JPEG81
JP281
JPEG82
JP282
JPEG83
JP283
JPEG84
JP284
JPEG85
JP285
JPEG86
JP286
JPEG87
JP287
JPEG88
JP288
JPEG89
JP289
JPEG90
JP290
JPEG91
JP291
JPEG92
JP292
JPEG93
JP293
JPEG94
JP294
JPEG95
JP295
JPEG96
JP296
JPEG97
JP297
JPEG98
JP298
JPEG99 467
JP299 2429
JPEG100
JP2100
JPEG101
JP2101
JPEG102
JP2102
JPEG103
JP2103
JPEG104
JP2104
JPEG105
JP2105
JPEG106
JP2106
JPEG107 478
JP2107 3224 2447
JPEG108
JP2108
JPEG109
JP2109
JPEG110
JP2110
JPEG111
JP2111
JPEG112
JP2112
JPEG113
JP2113
JPEG114
JP2114
JPEG115
JP2115
JPEG116
JP2116
JPEG117
JP2117
JPEG118
JP2118
JPEG119
JP2119
JPEG120
JP2120
JPEG121
JP2121
JPEG122
JP2122
JPEG123
JP2123
JPEG124
JP2124
JPEG125
JP2125
JPEG126
JP2126
JPEG127
JP2127
JPEG128
JP2128
JPEG129
JP2129
JPEG130
JP2130
JPEG131 831
JP2131 3240
JPEG132
JP2132
JPEG133
JP2133
JPEG134
JP2134
JPEG135
JP2135
JPEG136
JP2136 3251
JPEG137
JP2137
JPEG138
JP2138
JPEG139
JP2139
JPEG140 475
JP2140 3218 2428
JPEG141
JP2141
JPEG142
JP2142
JPEG143
JP2143 2416
JPEG144
JP2144
JPEG145
JP2145
JPEG146
JP2146
JPEG147
JP2147
JPEG148
JP2148
JPEG149
JP2149
JPEG150
JP2150
JP2151
JPEG151
METS:fileSec
METS:fileGrp USE archive
METS:file GROUPID G1 TIF1 imagetiff CHECKSUM 70caaa802cc0a4de234db6b41fcbf080 CHECKSUMTYPE MD5 SIZE 8149216
METS:FLocat LOCTYPE OTHERLOCTYPE SYSTEM xlink:href 00001.tif
G2 TIF2 4c7e6fc255fcd771d59f305aa2830bdc 7866792
00002.tif
G3 TIF3 3216d32ca8c86fbf8df17f00d975baaa 7869672
00002a.tif
G4 TIF4 cc571216f1c4e82225251a4b103e563b 7828812
00003.tif
G5 TIF5 ac74eb164d09de504540e62ded83df2e 7867400
00003a.tif
G6 TIF6 4676e7cb1368e40efe6ddf275b11ab4a 7849140
00004.tif
G7 TIF7 ef0788bcbdf80249b0345824c0271cb1 8077916
00005.tif
G8 TIF8 21e66a1bd41a8fd510eba39220683dfe 7847488
00006.tif
G9 TIF9 c1488e995e4e326670793f6b9e3815a4 7849548
00007.tif
G10 TIF10 9216e02df46c79cd0e6c93ebb9fcdc96 7867744
00008.tif
G11 TIF11 9eeba2a26e5a211eab985dadf9072800 7847200
00009.tif
G12 TIF12 b1e74bf941f27d08319d89f0a7227b3a
00010.tif
G13 TIF13 fe1341bc469f9d20a87553a72ccc65e8 7830308
00011.tif
G14 TIF14 329bebd9e7393b9a8ba1f993ae93f5b6 7869416
00012.tif
G15 TIF15 47a7b2216d79a08463fab9e9578d0450 7849772
00013.tif
G16 TIF16 e3914db5668f0bcf9e2157b4826fc682 7849992
00014.tif
G17 TIF17 ba037e4bddccd059a5b5292364cb8653 7869308
00015.tif
G18 TIF18 22d4c28f21127cfcaf277467cc10aa95 7884916
00016.tif
G19 TIF19 7946fd778e7f6d5f48d75d04b1899964 7828940
00017.tif
G20 TIF20 430a48f5d6311803db5cb12105130aa2 7810632
00018.tif
G21 TIF21 3a4120d35394738207ef1112c987bfe4 7887532
00019.tif
G22 TIF22 37edea95e17ccb4501de53797274a608 7830232
00020.tif
G23 TIF23 1bd7f2e8951b1f5a6499773434762613 7849748
00021.tif
G24 TIF24 a1eedd688d837a61de6b45f970467a48 7885380
00022.tif
G25 TIF25 cdd94d2b855c762829b9dbabbc5a02fa 7829748
00023.tif
G26 TIF26 07e33144eccd4edc2a2affea9babf40c 7869112
00024.tif
G27 TIF27 33396b0d567fd7386d54c046ea415867 7828840
00025.tif
G28 TIF28 96ca543f44939813e0d3982a67a9846c 7868880
00026.tif
G29 TIF29 b14e4924e161671541b5f0d67632d160 7826924
00027.tif
G30 TIF30 25ac4f6589567022007815964515608f 7868780
00028.tif
G31 TIF31 0899011ec6fa69e135cb1fbc46e58a3f 7888212
00029.tif
G32 TIF32 ee99c6837c9273e08eefd294b001c119 7844516
00030.tif
G33 TIF33 6f69bba10be1beb2978bd0ecf3cb1378 7848996
00031.tif
G34 TIF34 c360b163416c69be19a7def9a5469e8a 7810704
00032.tif
G35 TIF35 940c775b1663206b182e819c4dd021a1 8003080
00033.tif
G36 TIF36 b12a89f59beae4784e97d140f910728b 7829956
00034.tif
G37 TIF37 a2804021cebc0ca6513a718b0fc3cd2d 8002664
00035.tif
G38 TIF38 503da03343104336d591e5b4d15f5a82 8005396
00036.tif
G39 TIF39 374db4fa43107262fcf3f8580744f0e9 8005356
00037.tif
G40 TIF40 16496cdad7da7ae08eae04e6818b8a0d 8005300
00038.tif
G41 TIF41 ce3276d84994dc30cc3dc405a4539ecf 8005648
00039.tif
G42 TIF42 5943d810a97990a4718ac512903f1af0 7870084
00040.tif
G43 TIF43 b0e8d814e0f809463203f1661296a53a 8005572
00041.tif
G44 TIF44 cd006d7504d46ebb9e75b5897c7b8056 8005656
00042.tif
G45 TIF45 6c4833b559eaec4a7fd52ca4d6649210 8005588
00043.tif
G46 TIF46 520a522e50e223c21d0f2265b3c26be6 8005352
00044.tif
G47 TIF47 eac8b33361482260697afb4825ea5efd 8003936
00045.tif
G48 TIF48 bdab3168e0126a80194c2b7f0d5acc69 8004980
00046.tif
G49 TIF49 d0f9f2c0427bacbc42834acb2324f944 8004448
00047.tif
G50 TIF50 ac7d10274930252b09c27b7825bbe671 8310376
00048.tif
G51 TIF51 30d6a6348cd5eb6b321dce9c15ea32a3 8311508
00049.tif
G52 TIF52 d2560c64ceaec873271a1a51534f42ed 8327548
00050.tif
G53 TIF53 296ab520f07f7afced534cc6580c6feb 8364244
00051.tif
G54 TIF54 727ea9ec3b04b78793b179a2657c99c4 8376096
00052.tif
G55 TIF55 62adf5feeb3a52d4ae191a981e67bef7 8339224
00053.tif
G56 TIF56 49969251b8432b17a30d4d777359ac1e 8373116
00054.tif
G57 TIF57 9b3a23cb29ad70da94879988e42e713b 7841380
00055.tif
G58 TIF58 0d6b5af407aae6cf0ed8f3dfb34a4ea3 7889844
00056.tif
G59 TIF59 4c2cd3e4cb5d0da193896a6896d758d7 7777512
00057.tif
G60 TIF60 77a09273324359a16d84d15e0f597fb8 8004852
00058.tif
G61 TIF61 2d7578df0676a7d0ff2bb99609351356 8005112
00059.tif
G62 TIF62 e2b25253201f078541f203730bc22158 8005184
00060.tif
G63 TIF63 15312f2fe1af9ce5e7d42c877e318ecb 8002432
00061.tif
G64 TIF64 a2f89684bf9afaa8b6c4a3cd55e783a7 8004784
00062.tif
G65 TIF65 30eccc2027f1a9b59de637dae0f55f29 7916096
00063.tif
G66 TIF66 60229e41afda243a95f298cd487bddc9 7907324
00064.tif
G67 TIF67 b9b344a2817f03d66beef41589089308 8231744
00065.tif
G68 TIF68 b05e4fc974f184db8f4baa00d261ef51 7888556
00066.tif
G69 TIF69 a28bb252d0e2a7f08e13689327c41922 8003372
00067.tif
G70 TIF70 ca09638b4f7b9bd28a02d9cfc6757f90 7830092
00068.tif
G71 TIF71 9a2358b24aa44a84b6fb99cce34949c7 8004796
00069.tif
G72 TIF72 a6cd8371d8adea01726d53ccd6ed7782 7805832
00070.tif
G73 TIF73 95aa6330190748b82022bdae014c74a4 7926024
00071.tif
G74 TIF74 8571d599d42757020ee1f9dd6973ce54 8002496
00072.tif
G75 TIF75 1038c4defee8796c8ccded57c6b3a4d2 7907296
00073.tif
G76 TIF76 05151571b15d3716cbc0920167206154 8005408
00074.tif
G77 TIF77 4472a09efb065e428fb45b1dad43f088 7905376
00075.tif
G78 TIF78 52efa7e1c673f937e6692312af4e0496 8005148
00076.tif
G79 TIF79 bef678617a86503dbd646aa3ff9b5333 7927284
00077.tif
G80 TIF80 215fa261889db27d74860b33a84513f0 7906208
00078.tif
G81 TIF81 98bdbd3f895e7ab37209c78f0b56fab7 7926076
00079.tif
G82 TIF82 f2582e228cc4e18ea78d375f5d092666 7924720
00080.tif
G83 TIF83 be285099309cb3f0507051d6a72c93ef 7908208
00081.tif
G84 TIF84 ee6f6f6c76c8e8421cff3c87d2783bad 8001524
00082.tif
G85 TIF85 5b612b36ef8e6f4dcfad5955a6978651 8005168
00083.tif
G86 TIF86 90f00b3b0d903afea3495ef1127fe899 8005008
00084.tif
G87 TIF87 c92ed46ce83ce896dca29039c9df7119 8004720
00085.tif
G88 TIF88 f80a17d6b1f32e1ae956ef585ac709a3 8004032
00086.tif
G89 TIF89 7231a1d4b35991db9e37a9900f98baa7 8002500
00087.tif
G90 TIF90 2841e66e808f4cdf2d3779458aeee966 8003088
00088.tif
G91 TIF91 e350407398d79e1d38c50d93cbde3a9d 8002932
00089.tif
G92 TIF92 3ac5ea841dd8cf55ff53255f65bb0a40 8004752
00090.tif
G93 TIF93 f6a38d716adb484dccc95b4def391fe8 8005064
00091.tif
G94 TIF94 384c75b2d98c2547ddfe3a9ee9d90170 8005192
00092.tif
G95 TIF95 d70832f6f586f85379d3f61f38ecee78 8002136
00093.tif
G96 TIF96 2a63eb5811a99a163aac9fe606e9e9fe 8005432
00094.tif
G97 TIF97 7ddf9f2b2bf377bf85aa8487879619da 8005468
00095.tif
G98 TIF98 ffe6b62976a666c561e981d0c982d738 8005472
00096.tif
G99 TIF99 2704238d69eb332cbdf069237523ca80 7979056
00097.tif
G100 TIF100 3b9e81d1877efdd7e9f4eaaa61543480 8004500
00098.tif
G101 TIF101 87755dd9a6bf52a2daca06d26518ed8d 8005048
00099.tif
G102 TIF102 278a4864ab11acfba104c431c751f279 8005088
00100.tif
G103 TIF103 0c2f471d73e92ad0f8e3b5bf15358a77 8005056
00101.tif
G104 TIF104 e07389cf68ea735895f8bbd097108010 8002736
00102.tif
G105 TIF105 7c71accd9cb13e4228cceaf5da9b96b2 8005188
00103.tif
G106 TIF106 136bd010ee3895d35d7b7ec926cf3fff 8002208
00104.tif
G107 TIF107 bbb2438d45298774f28cce8630106cc4 7910152
00105.tif
G108 TIF108 d227a34bae8878bc7ecb303f5fee92dc 8004480
00106.tif
G109 TIF109 003eecf28d99ec9aa0375a6c881197f9 8005484
00107.tif
G110 TIF110 eb9ebdbcc6fbe2d5a222af2014b3815c 8002012
00108.tif
G111 TIF111 e4b1e5fb516af43f0974d9347be1df4e 8005012
00109.tif
G112 TIF112 fb9882d2583c4afc45cd76bd9879cf59 8003632
00110.tif
G113 TIF113 6b8f4633a94b59d794be7f709f8c9a55 8001636
00111.tif
G114 TIF114 2afa1da7070672395940afef75f837d2 8002952
00112.tif
G115 TIF115 57cc30ec6dc7408fdda0c417c6c48729 8003720
00113.tif
G116 TIF116 6653ee4ede6186c709ce860b65dee6f1 8005508
00114.tif
G117 TIF117 9cb98169e30eb9f07c8f4880b48e996a 8002580
00115.tif
G118 TIF118 29e7ee658c81a43cb06385e0d96205df
00116.tif
G119 TIF119 e84d0121306cb44d3faf49dfc9d36e74 8004760
00117.tif
G120 TIF120 399fcaf25888355d4fcc54ebb648c2c8
00118.tif
G121 TIF121 e32af1822cef4155de23b9664fc8e739 8003812
00119.tif
G122 TIF122 1968359873b73ff2a8895d928956ad9e 8004076
00120.tif
G123 TIF123 1ffdb89a23d03556c275a5d158ac4dbf 8004240
00121.tif
G124 TIF124 a305f060980016c8127b38157ad7edd2 8002436
00122.tif
G125 TIF125 35dc991569003a5f909780d3e1e65b2b 8004924
00123.tif
G126 TIF126 4dedaeb7998d0536d2479972d55e5a83 8005296
00124.tif
G127 TIF127 374234ebefb9d4395887df95a24ad661 8005272
00125.tif
G128 TIF128 9d60de31d6dabf3a2441d49ab6773ca3 8004716
00126.tif
G129 TIF129 91fae1d3eb3b26c37fbf9d00ef628cfb 8005152
00127.tif
G130 TIF130 ac61ac81b92afa0634611a51c9385cff 8002220
00128.tif
G131 TIF131 624b7219bbccc35d0c2272c5428b961c 7981192
00129.tif
G132 TIF132 82222fb45a6560e8b06c6dd452faf5cd 8006216
00130.tif
G133 TIF133 21bb5a1acda28157265ec10d467ca248 8003540
00131.tif
G134 TIF134 e9914b79794de571d6c870f511ac7cfa 8004840
00132.tif
G135 TIF135 437a6a20e8c2835094e6ad88cf18eea3 8004064
00133.tif
G136 TIF136 5948594bf769ced75fd33be35bc100ed 8007832
00134.tif
G137 TIF137 046ea92e68790335e902d9fe33c25599 8005612
00135.tif
G138 TIF138 f8e7c4aba845b7ef5deb53431b8053dd 8003288
00136.tif
G139 TIF139 3bebe9cbb900302df6369f650ea1d59c 8005256
00137.tif
G140 TIF140 1a52ca44a807c57d93c512c74a7a4089 7834084
00138.tif
G141 TIF141 776a45eb516ea2a8ef4e5a7b04b9ae45 8001936
00139.tif
G142 TIF142 30a7e975421673981b9661ed124c78c0 8005284
00140.tif
G143 TIF143 a5ea7dd9a754bbecafae4beca2bd5fa2 7808052
00141.tif
G144 TIF144 0d581fb81e9bc34c984813d2f137e1f8 8005220
00142.tif
G145 TIF145 94ed0af34f522d99504839d496e5ff96 7888248
00143.tif
G146 TIF146 aa93ae128d8899aa1e63764411d4acb8 7827264
00144.tif
G147 TIF147 04e1dcc01d8283a1554ad255cc8ce527 7926888
00145.tif
G148 TIF148 9e0c93d54a26bf0c7a8197c5a9b82cbb 8004696
00146.tif
G149 TIF149 a89c5c244e904aa239414d3cfde12ac2 8003960
00147.tif
G150 TIF150 354bc8336cce1b2b621fc3fe2e37d8fc 8004000
00148.tif
G151 TIF151 3c04491897870d3506bc00c186964397 8003444
00149.tif
reference
imagejp2 442bfc641ad5b54949b778bddf5e6f7f 1016150
00001.jp2
11f10e2c27428229974c788f3ecc25f2 946358
00002.jp2
b74d04ceacd832888450aa9f2728e285 220263
00002a.jp2
33d251a1bbed4590c0cb55b638a45080 975863
00003.jp2
5e82a4c9b86fb45e20f5d3d963398629 281465
00003a.jp2
ef5aa443e4acc266bc994d12e89644c8 978360
00004.jp2
d3adae62077f0693cb4ff34876e083f6 1007067
00005.jp2
ac6382396f8bc63611dd04d0c00334ff 978322
00006.jp2
fc28a42459c5feb45a6f746a62d249e6 978344
00007.jp2
68aa6fd200943e3f52aed40e86e7c893 980758
00008.jp2
2444b469d1e80ece410374f8734272b4 757410
00009.jp2
ce8ccaabfa5859ec4e62680749bbed56
00010.jp2
fcd316b5b994e2e469de81516218e404 975890
00011.jp2
2f2c034b65f69f82128721862ebcd65b 980774
00012.jp2
aab91e81b4ed5ff9578ee7379b9ce73d 978346
00013.jp2
0b898968c395cc5321a6936dfafe534e 978305
00014.jp2
3fe3f7e6ce7834c436a8cf825b630ca3 980798
00015.jp2
b2f616e9b4021976d007b6d809e8c0a8 329307
00016.jp2
feb2897c36d93faee66f5768d82258e8 975887
00017.jp2
2325d868696e9106973e193ef5a0cea6 973466
00018.jp2
a6821eed119c221bfd45eedf834ec4b3 983236
00019.jp2
23812b9b086001ef898c8dd3dc69e3db 975911
00020.jp2
96fe27c65d96bf94343f7d1a8815ff40 978349
00021.jp2
27ed4f0c1cbb3bcaf02998e6aeb451ef 461124
00022.jp2
d864e03a293f84972d0e2c6d1b8ce54b 975919
00023.jp2
3d12255390be5a928c53079f2790fae8 980797
00024.jp2
8cd088424eb38f164d937319ddda1682 894797
00025.jp2
b946b10d9cd9697b41d4f8a2ba09f495 980794
00026.jp2
93421b505543a8a79ac91cced61c7dbc 462944
00027.jp2
79f7e133d7adc1c88ecedd5c16620996 980793
00028.jp2
86c9514249e8ef1dbfe8d520caac0bf3 983234
00029.jp2
4505f889d6353eaf83f0b63c3de6e149 614428
00030.jp2
880be4b1ecbd93da71746d6af577ec0c 978359
00031.jp2
e5e820905449e6de2dacde6328c33e3b 973475
00032.jp2
eb6b1899da29b681e4622fef214a6913 603653
00033.jp2
d8fcc4688e4a99bff4a855f50786a458 485817
00034.jp2
47d63a81993d80b614977a0907d2bde4 572504
00035.jp2
0b95bd22e0bfcea27a81d7246c568ebe 997858
00036.jp2
6e25edd4bc538e49ae25fcd17139f35a 997828
00037.jp2
6cdbc83ee17e48a232d7fb74ed027ec6 997837
00038.jp2
1d6694c97bc7191aae652a1483ca28ca 997861
00039.jp2
a538a186159a74bb7f15d6cde745fd6c 617571
00040.jp2
1f036ceec0262587399f06fc33c9e04a 997860
00041.jp2
bb238a4a190af62f61d7e94cac8ed558 997859
00042.jp2
ac944dd905750048cf696f90c8d925e3 997834
00043.jp2
f740082215e5d36a1f78213179e9edcb 997813
00044.jp2
6a26ae345eb6678b197e2c31eed4d5d4 947585
00045.jp2
7c176f69924c5893cc827a2ef2c411d5
00046.jp2
f224e26e40349b905dd99ae0d58a3d25 997840
00047.jp2
4477bc83da5bd2fe379ff4e90209f074 697933
00048.jp2
6381831f7439f5899dc190b81d06f4f7 1036100
00049.jp2
f0eec975c0833e19b09d7c742247655e 1038135
00050.jp2
55c499e5d3ce24f0bfec7651cdaefac2 1042627
00051.jp2
2758ed6513ecf2706b0594265b184127 1044129
00052.jp2
0de81a199057a9de9a720fa3fbc32bb4 963931
00053.jp2
93971e6874dd80e9f34ef76ce647c398 826148
00054.jp2
e8ae9ce3cdb7a12e56bfcd20884f8f73 654469
00055.jp2
8681b11a2371eba72285af7bfa968542 620891
00056.jp2
63762d417af44874d37ab207034298c2 678819
00057.jp2
0e40f46804b9b3dd0a5a2cbb91579afd 997788
00058.jp2
e9f84247f130b89fdb37325d0e268da9
00059.jp2
1b51236afd3f64efcc89e8b22b8a4e38
00060.jp2
7bcb8b23449d557b12755147733913b9 571477
00061.jp2
90ba4ea1d13f4a65db5d790373dce907
00062.jp2
caf9b2209c9356507df3ff85f5559983 629004
00063.jp2
1a101929bb73736b9fcc7db903194865 985672
00064.jp2
0a12e0e4bfb80b4a15170c1f323c2e53 997532
00065.jp2
1cc61ca5650250b05d52c7eb0b64a20c 671230
00066.jp2
4531b266e74f5f2a8202b9c962e53b82 769586
00067.jp2
dfc97df563197019ac8e65804e3be941 696794
00068.jp2
2d8c3bbe2e98cb1caee2184c34d4ef8b 997849
00069.jp2
5cbd6f0cfb75a4e014d1dc7953dbfab5 972949
00070.jp2
e62bf539f3b01f923760eaf674bac7bf 937245
00071.jp2
aa37218ecfcd5db62c2b1230fb9be0fa 553149
00072.jp2
a892ff2d5510eb8061dc40d3b6f76652 985669
00073.jp2
a285651ab27bb521669635d5ff26cc29 997857
00074.jp2
b00f2678ce1846c0f96c4083b3ec9139 633146
00075.jp2
c785595269428e7914cc4ece0ffc8aa0 997817
00076.jp2
47d2d3411ec88cc359ee518e5a5d0829 988104
00077.jp2
7b988801f716e2aec8b6642862bbf92d 950838
00078.jp2
2dd620f69e2812a764f3c13c69d03114 988081
00079.jp2
bed61e4c65e8c4147dd8547698edbfc5 632032
00080.jp2
ef8a3b9aff5bf2d8f9965ff8d922a891 985673
00081.jp2
b2ad19888f3a1c78feafa91694a001bc 296173
00082.jp2
1e622c943351b3d3882e8919e92beeb0 997737
00083.jp2
16a2dfaed7b2334fa170562e89cd1196 997846
00084.jp2
ec5fca823be933b843689dc1e623bd2d 997853
00085.jp2
5828972180a70b35cf1002b1d3ac4508 983851
00086.jp2
7e6b2b0a4ea8939344c9ef076a25e762 460399
00087.jp2
fefd71633fa34bbd3972482ba4d4bdaf 590605
00088.jp2
0db69bb12dfab68076af4e9c1a3d7d88 546252
00089.jp2
87efcaf253f48c85a238993a73d610d3 997825
00090.jp2
ca8b718565954ca881fa7816d7d32321 997848
00091.jp2
bc2dc0f91e16c52649c5abdc93d2fd4a
00092.jp2
892757b9883ee5800be0674517708524 423869
00093.jp2
465a2d9b15a3ce4b6f9f75369251e699 997822
00094.jp2
b13aad66d412a69c36901e418a99b4aa 997815
00095.jp2
9bc1f68d651f9180ccd2784901cb430c 997842
00096.jp2
21fc81a1452168dd3ecda61db2cd6c58 937650
00097.jp2
92e7d63dd012aa893d5bfaa39751ff92 997791
00098.jp2
e52fb8519b694a65fb50ef134d46b135
00099.jp2
999b310dfa8091fcea2e0303515ed6b0
00100.jp2
0a3227c214674735644020c837ece881 997844
00101.jp2
2038c3a441e93e86a9f35cce7a1f108c 609397
00102.jp2
29d64b793aa8df2aed5c79e7e384313e
00103.jp2
bec75e2136ca5b1e78602e56358bc8af 500540
00104.jp2
f5c37bce9eec08a8e83a32811249174d 789997
00105.jp2
b645bdcc18aa8b91decff2a6b2dbbf10
00106.jp2
b3b80265e3674f83769c3dcc9dd57403 997852
00107.jp2
55f2524c44c2b226ebf0c445aeff381f 442549
00108.jp2
d1c4d074d3861ce757c2b73703edd5c5
00109.jp2
c37efd6f84004b005db9024dff8757a8 856853
00110.jp2
8e0c526078dbe1774fea9b418511454c 305480
00111.jp2
473f7d0954d3a8cf1f038884ab4e68a5 503454
00112.jp2
7c0b49529b451e751d2430cb471a8be9 886163
00113.jp2
760bd8cc0a4c0f4e453c1d4f91cc4ea5 997854
00114.jp2
ccd912572120c4af058c8f8a81b89a5c 574879
00115.jp2
082d96d03e0f2815b4c4e21b2364bc78 997794
00116.jp2
c4c55b2d486928cfa66fe7cc0d5309a6 997856
00117.jp2
b73a4867f57d9bcd254165a2531527b2 997843
00118.jp2
a4b6eaeee71c2d7ca09d245d95d856e1 900241
00119.jp2
d95fdb525176b6f02880dde06f23c1e4 935661
00120.jp2
e14fca5784b6d5ae129a769fb2715008
00121.jp2
7e0127e053871f85ef023a22e1fb0bf5 504503
00122.jp2
31d6677bc4204bd438bada7f23fee5e6
00123.jp2
9a3e6b44f2406623fca009461531f765
00124.jp2
46590ddf6fdf305d9451a40ba3c46d12
00125.jp2
864c3b068d76d0a49fa3f12fe68413b1 997814
00126.jp2
0cfd8e31b13beb8060474ed3fb1bce8e
00127.jp2
abf2b24104d8b64a55cecddc7894cfff 438355
00128.jp2
f1b1558fbb090b430fe1eb50fbc4621d 994780
00129.jp2
906facb9da696be10a547d231f8e6816 997855
00130.jp2
5a863645bf468be4a12c9fef01880ba3 888781
00131.jp2
f638c1181106ffe4a228bb1ae5816aaf
00132.jp2
1ad358c9517901a9d6c7c6f86dba7272 944045
00133.jp2
c484b42b8c8f6682a12d4c426e8b4555 998160
00134.jp2
438c225968f78e15b58720dd75a80b0e
00135.jp2
576d4564249579bcd4deac9841cde6a1 617137
00136.jp2
1f72035b31dd1d3f32703a7e4e5bbcc9
00137.jp2
4a85cc17d7176eefe62857768bf69552 617184
00138.jp2
d3c606755b4dc42f2d65d820e164d87c 362684
00139.jp2
89eae0d6d072349782c8ae865cca86b6
00140.jp2
0f5407e7a942447c6029eccd037e8829 710750
00141.jp2
6a5dd277c935c93bda6d0bebfb961a68
00142.jp2
6834e8c8a5027299eab72120cd1360cd 983223
00143.jp2
91a09a914e50c340877eb4f3f4e8feac 510754
00144.jp2
1d8e4947680100bd62cc72f004ad8ae3 988092
00145.jp2
73e78b19aa0d914afcd25d870b2471d3
00146.jp2
d631209950a49afa73f03fcb61d8877d 885875
00147.jp2
0e3613dc09460cab60d4ab82cc6c0bf5 849228
00148.jp2
aeef4530860389db47f139ea56f426bb 705265
00149.jp2
imagejpeg 6e1009623922f417aea58fd0f2c70da1 89348
00001.jpg
JPEG1.2 e52b83c6862b64940bf987788655bc91 38580
00001.QC.jpg
75304fe1a286a3326d310e1208de0a68 112467
00002.jpg
JPEG2.2 33dda1b8a6300e5a31df1ca776114e97 46172
00002.QC.jpg
ecd1f272bbf71b569b7df4e7ecdb8157 45258
00002a.jpg
JPEG3.2 c5c8332edf653eb61ba7362237494033 28986
00002a.QC.jpg
c88a46ac01f53c3038260d80b0e721b7 136596
00003.jpg
JPEG4.2 1a1a7aa331148d3528cf62354b7c9f87 57913
00003.QC.jpg
a6122e0f3a4e3e1d2bd8fb7d2c37045a 58669
00003a.jpg
JPEG5.2 a5252e2d9fa639538257332ec6f667f4 36088
00003a.QC.jpg
ae204fa1c27d1d50b0e743db55407f52 156885
00004.jpg
JPEG6.2 d000878e9dbc28ca9bca14d0c136b548 65069
00004.QC.jpg
36fbaa53276b2619dec6b12c6c29f999 87686
00005.jpg
JPEG7.2 35bc75a2418040f5f8c170e374b0ff89 41194
00005.QC.jpg
25067c8e8bfcfc46b5e338dcab795df7 115771
00006.jpg
JPEG8.2 a594f616c3dcd20926c01a35ab3a26d3 47768
00006.QC.jpg
eb556e6c3a55793e532e349fe9e22cb5 159365
00007.jpg
JPEG9.2 2f9a9d752d0449dec0c4a0f9cb7d4522 69156
00007.QC.jpg
0791426b8a1f3037eef9b27b638c6441 140372
00008.jpg
JPEG10.2 ff4dfaee9aaf2115626d8ea756d091ce 58168
00008.QC.jpg
589c21157b07d8b529951b44fd9e6091 97535
00009.jpg
JPEG11.2 9697cba7d2cca2a6dc38532c971dd18b 44558
00009.QC.jpg
eda1b3719bf0d385607c5a746032ec23 172520
00010.jpg
JPEG12.2 dea3b8a3ef8efaf1bdb843c2b8bf472f 71854
00010.QC.jpg
8a8634c2c4387b683d2a12dadff91b24 173371
00011.jpg
JPEG13.2 4dea603b3f5a97e46a5c4748cb99d3ec 74317
00011.QC.jpg
e9f407ffb1cf1a04d4fe1b82744d1358 177822
00012.jpg
JPEG14.2 df8b8e668133ceb36ded53db355dc40a 73597
00012.QC.jpg
42e63774c7191766343762d6961373b5 168172
00013.jpg
JPEG15.2 56e7abc4dbd279c553731f2c661518cd 72233
00013.QC.jpg
ec29b61bdb367f8ade63f9672ebd6b1b 181010
00014.jpg
JPEG16.2 85eda07b7902521c88c511ee65d9231d 76220
00014.QC.jpg
8d923a1d2fceebaa6d2c9ede4876ec8a 170367
00015.jpg
JPEG17.2 b77109806e6c4fcc5b2c83f1392c5e25 72801
00015.QC.jpg
84e149ad006b77ca237042986e58e81d 53419
00016.jpg
JPEG18.2 ff72f1595df2230afa2eaeb15da40333 29964
00016.QC.jpg
b330d4ee611332964948e7f4ea58faa8 131960
00017.jpg
JPEG19.2 132af66831b3a1e6c0287a63a792d97b 59287
00017.QC.jpg
7a1a30ef8a6dbbd0fb11a42d87eee5da 159858
00018.jpg
JPEG20.2 507b3ac40fdf957d0c8768385df07521 68677
00018.QC.jpg
5b7b921a6168ce46f3f9425d517d23f2 133765
00019.jpg
JPEG21.2 9f6345d17d14b912c3e732d6ec492927 59666
00019.QC.jpg
ed23ab8e8e8cf4c7d11edb2216d9d962 172984
00020.jpg
JPEG22.2 5ae425e5a764b370ab729ccb0909cc69 73208
00020.QC.jpg
c3ac7e800d203b29ed08eabe22e2b16c 167719
00021.jpg
JPEG23.2 437e4fa1b0fe55f328f861a0beb8510e 72374
00021.QC.jpg
1a32788b84375b5bba66a6def91c9428 66931
00022.jpg
JPEG24.2 fe82d2db89e0f21c4c73265fe05e94b6 34564
00022.QC.jpg
bc513cfff6cb453544f9b55a10a3e7a3 150706
00023.jpg
JPEG25.2 cb55d24f2a74d43d6d8cdf03ea1c0887 65696
00023.QC.jpg
85c285927473e9e1f9f3a531f5d14f6f 157423
00024.jpg
JPEG26.2 37b76091c3cce91e4b7673ce8572cfae 67781
00024.QC.jpg
f0aa8ed2c8229be938d29b20a6fcc726 116037
00025.jpg
JPEG27.2 0db92829e7bc80050ef788652c0d0724 53399
00025.QC.jpg
c8ab08308021ce002a92e6f283572914 153056
00026.jpg
JPEG28.2 5a8224615b7da6eeee99a7bf7808d096 67305
00026.QC.jpg
d0041458b1023047c4c2927c00b2e15e 68185
00027.jpg
JPEG29.2 5582b69af0d5942529d3e1cb9975a82b 36568
00027.QC.jpg
aea4a117b8b04bf3f8789fb48ca4b8af 150299
00028.jpg
JPEG30.2 3eae538eff9104b7e83681f8962b1ada 65715
00028.QC.jpg
5c9ab971ad95633be6f929c76b122563 150632
00029.jpg
JPEG31.2 a80801cb97c305c81117926545c655bd 67025
00029.QC.jpg
22657050d6c4e346c216586eec46f045 56251
00030.jpg
JPEG32.2 cc68a7dba0a6c267a147a750f1c60903 30737
00030.QC.jpg
2fc90bc6ba606474e7e9f087f795ad3e 141089
00031.jpg
JPEG33.2 63870943e6dcf63c1170ed8158a15598 62923
00031.QC.jpg
a001da540ca0b6128fb03a06f5d708ce 164592
00032.jpg
JPEG34.2 417e15ef07a3e69f912ebd15372a4ccb 71088
00032.QC.jpg
373f8eb56e5a14cc6674f86406297c84 77401
00033.jpg
JPEG35.2 e69b057cf3765da464b61025d56ff91a 39332
00033.QC.jpg
99b9fd3d9030c9a6993bc8c307cabd85 48784
00034.jpg
JPEG36.2 5cb2b18df95c30eefad02716a821f451 28904
00034.QC.jpg
daf954e76575315856423059c806adc0 79275
00035.jpg
JPEG37.2 011d0d3106d5de5343351a9f25cb573c 39763
00035.QC.jpg
56908c57cb379ce3d7ea51efa784a6ae 154945
00036.jpg
JPEG38.2 0d090e9c075bc628f32310a73a8aa2cc 68076
00036.QC.jpg
05fdd2d4ba735a15b64be4b2a17aebb0 154871
00037.jpg
JPEG39.2 010663a0d82a194d8f97c62befd02d70 68239
00037.QC.jpg
2f09b34d098e43c6ca56e5ab4ab0ec8f 152705
00038.jpg
JPEG40.2 5ad09012f1538cc64f239602bdc889ef 68347
00038.QC.jpg
6f9d57aa629c70a76b1680b213ebca86 162320
00039.jpg
JPEG41.2 f25e8d1e356e7a705f6c8a47b2ab5c3b 70873
00039.QC.jpg
60bc7b7f2bb46c3d3847ae6df71c6bd5 63509
00040.jpg
JPEG42.2 2b3b3c1899281cebe5735fce20c9fdfb 35918
00040.QC.jpg
68b5423d2d52e7d45511c2104322de91 161993
00041.jpg
JPEG43.2 2b3b7236b1aa0ebfbe59a46f717909cf 70988
00041.QC.jpg
58e25ba3c2d323dae897f53b5af2cc58 173028
00042.jpg
JPEG44.2 bdec78e8f0e954a224597f8f66c7b9bd 74279
00042.QC.jpg
811340e80556201fb956cd9767d47439 165227
00043.jpg
JPEG45.2 59973f385d7ff571a3f0a7c53f72604f 72370
00043.QC.jpg
54153ad14fda2df167530f472283e437 153887
00044.jpg
JPEG46.2 e4993021f68a17efb30686a2598f5049 67858
00044.QC.jpg
01bf6bdde107dc8be36787bdd08dacc0 118283
00045.jpg
JPEG47.2 56edf6fc29a1aa82a69898a6eb2046e6 55508
00045.QC.jpg
bd7d8bb861251aa1226a36c784ddcbf8 141653
00046.jpg
JPEG48.2 95207fc79fc2fb49c79a46a78f8a399d 62774
00046.QC.jpg
d1b1c125c9e7060fbf505e51c10ce4f5 130249
00047.jpg
JPEG49.2 4abd1be22bb610da17f24dfd7522088a 57628
00047.QC.jpg
38bdc43df59f1d10e31ca3aea1b10074 85119
00048.jpg
JPEG50.2 4579960a4355f0b9a6c521cbc67aec66 40094
00048.QC.jpg
d784951bbd5a273926883166fad67176 156993
00049.jpg
JPEG51.2 66404fc9897f831f8849e11510f9a867 67404
00049.QC.jpg
ad64130a76d528b24a33728ee191aef8 154063
00050.jpg
JPEG52.2 ed4cf5462937501a0cda60ffcd885a29 66553
00050.QC.jpg
be29a6e43df30555dd48496bbf7356eb 157470
00051.jpg
JPEG53.2 7c8b7412d03e6ef7c8a85cfb6fa178a6 68568
00051.QC.jpg
d46cd8e4d685e264d6df2f2e5fe142ae 155828
00052.jpg
JPEG54.2 6c1924f52403436fe851dcacecd0346f 68063
00052.QC.jpg
d871e699081f9bf6d22b5e968de07a7e 115880
00053.jpg
JPEG55.2 210aa23a57f4bb0349270a2303f814f8 49329
00053.QC.jpg
8c47e92c1dbccc6b7b84a3bf4c28ca48 67052
00054.jpg
JPEG56.2 23aa8a58b17ad1877a5a605d64a53d1c 36318
00054.QC.jpg
6bcea212eca9cce57c5a92b4b66935c7 55423
00055.jpg
JPEG57.2 840cd3f9365e7120af8e1574852aafc7 31551
00055.QC.jpg
e3383f5e0ff9563b123e317eecc021cc 55677
00056.jpg
JPEG58.2 4c86d75418dc025170d14cd6e4536f98 31382
00056.QC.jpg
4d92d418641d9d01fee26a0362595c3f 58534
00057.jpg
JPEG59.2 488f40dc11ee136574ee97ed3a53a7f6 32663
00057.QC.jpg
ca0c438d858726a99287ccc26d1b7102 147302
00058.jpg
JPEG60.2 c1f2a4d88c0994dd3d9a00e999e8bb5b 63741
00058.QC.jpg
358419d79af7f30a1a216bc86f76faa5 158532
00059.jpg
JPEG61.2 63e60a35948d345438c7571ed2f9921c 66363
00059.QC.jpg
5024a40072f7e1ede84679a35a979801 157486
00060.jpg
JPEG62.2 723f4dbbf1f45b93e7173e16eb17d7cf 67763
00060.QC.jpg
c28e648bf79d361851c452bae9e6a26b 76430
00061.jpg
JPEG63.2 8d413225fc697f141fe71cf625c0ca7b 38046
00061.QC.jpg
28ce951c545e482007c9e631a14c13c4 140121
00062.jpg
JPEG64.2 32caa228dfa546f8d53e3544a531674d 60411
00062.QC.jpg
ced81e1e68fcf250bbd101349b772df1 60276
00063.jpg
JPEG65.2 95cd7da72289cdca81d6545eb4e91a4d 31935
00063.QC.jpg
3c1ee9a7805c0139e4cb45d09aefe0eb 152009
00064.jpg
JPEG66.2 89b956c355bf4b360951c63f551f51ea 64413
00064.QC.jpg
46fe27a412258b8582da9c63193cb9f6 72437
00065.jpg
JPEG67.2 3eb554295b687531d759c2d2d3edb00d 37081
00065.QC.jpg
476752dfc47f88c6a65d58ce06b9e9d1 58331
00066.jpg
JPEG68.2 306bfb85c62899da49f254a05cf47831 33026
00066.QC.jpg
925ab7eee383728ef1bd19b429c84a17 97341
00067.jpg
JPEG69.2 eb71b8b81bad16a22462f5bc2cf3757a 45787
00067.QC.jpg
65c52095861378e7c97e5d7c0a79efb8 56829
00068.jpg
JPEG70.2 84f3312a5e1d789128a9b3ccb593b8ac 31889
00068.QC.jpg
fa05eecd3f49e3656fb8c13250630695 141419
00069.jpg
JPEG71.2 50d55e68248622923677b807e3605e3e 63418
00069.QC.jpg
d936757eb1c383ac80c0339922abbde4 111161
00070.jpg
JPEG72.2 76c25ce29ae9092e156ecfbfdc0ae2e4 47853
00070.QC.jpg
cab27e94e3135b05052987f3d1114649 118019
00071.jpg
JPEG73.2 daaef0e9116a7d29fbaf5eee28d7363d 54485
00071.QC.jpg
b47f805175b199e9d59f9c62ab9777be 74872
00072.jpg
JPEG74.2 e95ac7d6337d782e67d3cc8a06e24c42 37189
00072.QC.jpg
8b8d316bbcc09af173a751db102fbb7d 143152
00073.jpg
JPEG75.2 07fcd72ba3e8b958fbd6323aa4b567ad 62065
00073.QC.jpg
ef6a6b9def92a795967e061f97951be1 162600
00074.jpg
JPEG76.2 4f30318d508d2650c5ecd7bb71240be6 70155
00074.QC.jpg
6211a4b3183a917667dcb73b3c2d3a61 58386
00075.jpg
JPEG77.2 d815cd56ea6867254b98c1f299aa52ae 31697
00075.QC.jpg
2b68611ed6b26807cee9e2043238da2c 156329
00076.jpg
JPEG78.2 6a267294b27dfa45520dde23b06b9857 68114
00076.QC.jpg
90399a39442d7695b9c54c300d102b41 156254
00077.jpg
JPEG79.2 069f831d5de776aa7f9ce05e8a92d88d 67882
00077.QC.jpg
24004ee3520976442ce008aba83a6425 113138
00078.jpg
JPEG80.2 adab7ffa5ba86fe0ad3af184a37abdd2 48880
00078.QC.jpg
6c1e851c83c699ae54059d6057c33227 125019
00079.jpg
JPEG81.2 0a518602fca79f395a77e4f07b6b618b 53602
00079.QC.jpg
6d4813f9205383edc4ade07fb208f9ca 81728
00080.jpg
JPEG82.2 43d5f4151e625ef92f78655b2961e41c 39787
00080.QC.jpg
950d3fe5fefec7499ba8bb3a4d36f79e 169185
00081.jpg
JPEG83.2 caef41454e77043fed7c0991ce6e6ffa 72482
00081.QC.jpg
a13cc96d257bfa89103e71fe871d1afe 48013
00082.jpg
JPEG84.2 89dd620d8e087ca60c0ed65a1bd69e98 28112
00082.QC.jpg
6a113a2778479b1dffdea83fdacaa8f3 151780
00083.jpg
JPEG85.2 15a7e7d6ec0ccce97212574637704396 65416
00083.QC.jpg
c998b68c8011be4e66f98c262a7de235 143877
00084.jpg
JPEG86.2 0b4816df6d15037b07a5b141a8bb1957 63831
00084.QC.jpg
4a4f9b24c7e71cf60a54993d1a3b27e0 141924
00085.jpg
JPEG87.2 d7e1229003e395568a09feabf7edf138 63004
00085.QC.jpg
3c20ccd28c197f6a648a933ca70550d6 122326
00086.jpg
JPEG88.2 72062571a2b8a8f3a36bb8c06be36891 56025
00086.QC.jpg
db0bdd822d85c01be960a58fff808def 66607
00087.jpg
JPEG89.2 4c3ced0736b473674951f572e1b1d1af 36951
00087.QC.jpg
f79e4deaa97fa54aa76c8eaa4af89d93 81382
00088.jpg
JPEG90.2 7dd2441f3be830e3654ceec953ece46d 40304
00088.QC.jpg
abdbc8f40ac53586fe8524f437d9d184 74875
00089.jpg
JPEG91.2 2ba93d654f518bdcaf3b2d3d65280e56 38744
00089.QC.jpg
6fb4bb3fb81b0103bfc8a1a0e21c1ef3 145264
00090.jpg
JPEG92.2 86f776823517011e91d3f921f0bb756e 64212
00090.QC.jpg
6278b97276cc24160c6df88256e2140e 150741
00091.jpg
JPEG93.2 a25b3585216ce8f55d880ca102383ca7 66868
00091.QC.jpg
f85fddf646d068191a152c6a95ed004f 149397
00092.jpg
JPEG94.2 15f15bb479cb27872f130cef5b65dc8c 67249
00092.QC.jpg
aed3b10a6e498383f33bd5bf62565529 63047
00093.jpg
JPEG95.2 5a6d3c14b6c89aca75e7e3a5670e90ba 34801
00093.QC.jpg
aafb9db403cd590662a5681d591feebb 154987
00094.jpg
JPEG96.2 3b8b3aa305e5cb16de35b0183ebdbb8f 68337
00094.QC.jpg
d55bfdc9d46a2ad91c607aeabb623f39 157029
00095.jpg
JPEG97.2 7b2d34283bbbd3632be5ca4024ac627f 69230
00095.QC.jpg
9f8e78ba6edd2105b3377b8c9e9a627b 159164
00096.jpg
JPEG98.2 7c467228980be647b84b810cce840ef0 69334
00096.QC.jpg
9b9e8a658f04aae01a134479bcc92a27 64714
00097.jpg
JPEG99.2 68a3f0c02450a3c9070494880911d383 34718
00097.QC.jpg
4787e0b62c2879f3e5bd1f2dbc24cac1 131897
00098.jpg
JPEG100.2 7811f8c4bfe8f9be5ed7f4bffb8803b2 59443
00098.QC.jpg
8127806380f546696e76aaa14b58b755 150412
00099.jpg
JPEG101.2 562afc0518551da7ee8eff2e596365e5 66543
00099.QC.jpg
272440bcc2d3acd340a1f6fed87c84f9 150118
00100.jpg
JPEG102.2 d9369dc8c7bf6496cc0fea67dfe0f234 66021
00100.QC.jpg
10ec9bf629787460ef8c0b2bd4ed0534 148469
00101.jpg
JPEG103.2 8a90c8871e68508b0adffb77543d3b9f 65225
00101.QC.jpg
b25012d7ec638605f29e6a36e6d93983 78268
00102.jpg
JPEG104.2 6ab0013dc0550d1ee94a80efdc43644b 39845
00102.QC.jpg
7dc2f8c66cab76bb835236bd330fda24 156284
00103.jpg
JPEG105.2 e1f0245750dd43c6e7c31ec1f3ce5f1a 67170
00103.QC.jpg
dee1a8a9cb8736bfdf84572bf212f905 69459
00104.jpg
JPEG106.2 c99ff80af86bc525fb2c4e91bc94f01b 34433
00104.QC.jpg
2e8934540f165ff7d6f95fb3eb45d06b 62709
00105.jpg
JPEG107.2 8783b5fab348a9031c47787e0fde471c 33152
00105.QC.jpg
cb003b3ba3db12b0a8c72b723b976b9c 131354
00106.jpg
JPEG108.2 bff11efb9729ff617261cbe7469ecfc1 58730
00106.QC.jpg
7a166f56b1075e58b64c06094a87748b 157287
00107.jpg
JPEG109.2 7c1cfd9ed9c862524df90a5fe04c91ce 67923
00107.QC.jpg
0567b60c79fb1ab91865556c9cc16b48 64598
00108.jpg
JPEG110.2 698ae74801675bfc6ae1cc402f66b362 33937
00108.QC.jpg
7759c068584a884ff67fbe82ac8726c7 142938
00109.jpg
JPEG111.2 c245781a7897f4b1856f9533acf454f0 62408
00109.QC.jpg
05df8638169aed5fc93c68d97fdc12df 106421
00110.jpg
JPEG112.2 13cb47dea5bd7c7886bc82b5afdf2042 47979
00110.QC.jpg
d238b9632ce58b91c3434bf50a639573 48826
00111.jpg
JPEG113.2 aedc7468c57ede5fd551432215c8fe6b 27609
00111.QC.jpg
4d955d96150869002d9e1ea120bdd3bb 72971
00112.jpg
JPEG114.2 1f8e3dbe44d2fd9533be1ba3adbff792 36869
00112.QC.jpg
d9dd7b7220a2572d3a6476dd79033fd3 108986
00113.jpg
JPEG115.2 4f8861f5b97d44d8b6f0b43b46a34163 47286
00113.QC.jpg
2e5c5a8d75c35b1cd2e0bff2b4fc3be3 166341
00114.jpg
JPEG116.2 0ca6e88d08552f850ec0ed53c3509a8d 69642
00114.QC.jpg
9ac9f4732dd7a36793e9dad6832574cf 78158
00115.jpg
JPEG117.2 78ed9524c03e0df266d6e67d42bc86db 37582
00115.QC.jpg
bf90d1bf40f5947259649851b29ab74d 148305
00116.jpg
JPEG118.2 289b2140ffe0dfdcf18c158de7b78f3e 62657
00116.QC.jpg
c8f07fb2a4302452088ae138e692d769 136817
00117.jpg
JPEG119.2 33a6f7959675f58ae4c21251100e0e4e 59644
00117.QC.jpg
33ab9dc703299313d61cc26ca23d0d38 144615
00118.jpg
JPEG120.2 c27e4ae65a11ad79526bf0ecafbb664f 62411
00118.QC.jpg
0249638a5a261ce5c5839836014f9a70 113716
00119.jpg
JPEG121.2 8fcaafde1434cfd32cf7ba14874f78c5 51389
00119.QC.jpg
e6f8f1767271527e6e8df9d0b33c0442 114633
00120.jpg
JPEG122.2 2fb4eb550a28d6a68e9bd6c330f0fac9 52470
00120.QC.jpg
03ce75b3270506fdc96e58c3beb9390d 124767
00121.jpg
JPEG123.2 99e0091c340949dcae9d0960f9e5ce2d 56263
00121.QC.jpg
46bcdbdbc6e3ce336b993f22e0f3a9a3 72365
00122.jpg
JPEG124.2 c8a5311f70aa0cfa4ab9ce919767b0da 36230
00122.QC.jpg
4edda1a002236d0b197ec26a2872b06d 139464
00123.jpg
JPEG125.2 1738daec3d3b4ac917962c5104cb45c5 59824
00123.QC.jpg
85284926f5454f1dc01edf72975bec5f 149357
00124.jpg
JPEG126.2 6e6f8d6d66755afcd8f367258e8225f8 64743
00124.QC.jpg
e66fffe29c6774ed1f315f8cd937003b 145984
00125.jpg
JPEG127.2 835629e891675a8c9512a53bd2e097d5 63249
00125.QC.jpg
626ccb68f4c90ae3cc70d7f397447f0d 135995
00126.jpg
JPEG128.2 bb27144a83e7ca0a99f5cec2f39f224f 59683
00126.QC.jpg
1670b77d23c8dbfbc70cd1c7df8b32fa
00127.jpg
JPEG129.2 bc7184cabec12c477dfca95aca579c97 66528
00127.QC.jpg
0b39f99f5e44c941affb12dfd5acdb6d 64959
00128.jpg
JPEG130.2 b3eda07052ca1f91d5e9a23ddce98f98 33922
00128.QC.jpg
ca653e709b2eaacc9cf9e812dd7fcd90 164331
00129.jpg
JPEG131.2 52b1e689bfa4f737c5faf432f21c8aa5 70200
00129.QC.jpg
bd2f951463746ef63c865e37de5f1405 184203
00130.jpg
JPEG132.2 c1143a0e7d363a767354b0774706be4a 76092
00130.QC.jpg
968c53c638bd1837d5b61dda301f95dc 112188
00131.jpg
JPEG133.2 3b65667deaef11f2b38dd7c660649c5c 51452
00131.QC.jpg
d88ce68d03f5639ccb793f2febebc3b1 138127
00132.jpg
JPEG134.2 0e6bd4796d5f869471f3730b3409ce44 60657
00132.QC.jpg
122b596a73aa9a0de83d94f4be36dc0d 117207
00133.jpg
JPEG135.2 5c28b6d45a88cc3fd047208132995d5a 52919
00133.QC.jpg
f4ba0a03dc85be0d052732534db8d169 160855
00134.jpg
JPEG136.2 21cf8f8bc013df895f8faeb729c07659 69016
00134.QC.jpg
a851e3de0375b0ed9923bdc74e9fd5f2 166705
00135.jpg
JPEG137.2 e84e6101d7cbe0761ebbcdf4942c1195 73565
00135.QC.jpg
e74414a50d25df10025b025d6cd2c9d9 86013
00136.jpg
JPEG138.2 c94d028847b0fbc70b03be225b0a2b0a 41964
00136.QC.jpg
49426ea67e63de58b42597a59358a646 155336
00137.jpg
JPEG139.2 77f2d501c07315014bb9e8f71f1df3f0 68007
00137.QC.jpg
1646995cc855cdeafdf467b6c396079b 59624
00138.jpg
JPEG140.2 abdf1d4e0765bc627d0c048a33ac3b33 31622
00138.QC.jpg
5ef3ae8b50c3ef21f0ef02851a68694e 56021
00139.jpg
JPEG141.2 a8c7d31a89538ba3b234230c0632f009 30308
00139.QC.jpg
6a0ef5c43cccd138c28e67403e3d10f2 155108
00140.jpg
JPEG142.2 69ff56dbc423c367b7f87d4993f94d71 67351
00140.QC.jpg
19dd6b2fbd72af5e740f5168242f4bdb 66524
00141.jpg
JPEG143.2 b643e27a5c27030d12f5e56c8a89f404
00141.QC.jpg
dbcbeb7d0c140eef6655cb0f0b91880a 152655
00142.jpg
JPEG144.2 6ef323b7463aec4003c8ba5f2f56c5a5 66241
00142.QC.jpg
d39f8836edb60b9ab7e1eacd544bb462 153193
00143.jpg
JPEG145.2 b594bd5784df2942e40f1e6eacc2ad68 67166
00143.QC.jpg
16394b4be8229bc3142ca8fcdf259f26 75553
00144.jpg
JPEG146.2 30b515bf54680385acfaad8f4aba0866 38800
00144.QC.jpg
b947ed4321db2676c35a8dba39d3da12 145164
00145.jpg
JPEG147.2 ac32d62c3b9fc23bb2500cbbb1487298 62819
00145.QC.jpg
cac7de5bc2c43a7451a31549f170f1cc 145593
00146.jpg
JPEG148.2 012bd58fb324e28e733c91fc6b741b1c 59220
00146.QC.jpg
85956d291515063675bd3e711072c62b 107183
00147.jpg
JPEG149.2 a267403243897d18d68549d6823e2bbe 48583
00147.QC.jpg
a8028c2819d29641323400f80ee140df 108219
00148.jpg
JPEG150.2 c66da5b123636b3c30bc9508f510b7a0 48568
00148.QC.jpg
e635b3253dddf3a77c5a98896fc24783 92942
00149.jpg
JPEG151.2 bb4baa6708686e5e8be407449c1ff889 43121
00149.QC.jpg
THUMB1 imagejpeg-thumbnails 5554fb1c86377a8854470e12d2400ff8 24173
00001thm.jpg
THUMB2 944cbd3ba0bf7dcbb40350425808d20c 27382
00002thm.jpg
THUMB3 3eb4abefaa5e12ee8948bc5a9b363008 23054
00002athm.jpg
THUMB4 0ff7a7a816cde2ddf46ffbdb5a3746ca 31430
00003thm.jpg
THUMB5 d9d8907e8d85720ec33d0522e39846c6 26745
00003athm.jpg
THUMB6 2d6d115edf6abb0d63e7ae8f253f0561 33331
00004thm.jpg
THUMB7 1dc0749c9758f9118398683ff3709b75 27304
00005thm.jpg
THUMB8 9fa7d8b96ed396669cb369508eb6f794 28257
00006thm.jpg
THUMB9 63cafa59e122ddd5136b6410f6d6113c 34472
00007thm.jpg
THUMB10 2e4111529d231b8510ecb58a1039e111 31465
00008thm.jpg
THUMB11 d704082085c661151ea2edb79e5e92c1 26598
00009thm.jpg
THUMB12 ccd9c7c0730245541040e51ddd3f8d3a 34755
00010thm.jpg
THUMB13 3bf85ab685ea9d7226b3add5f6db31ed 35455
00011thm.jpg
THUMB14 69e0ed92ace325f3ba86dd10cbedc987 35509
00012thm.jpg
THUMB15 0c3c65e5439ad15e126918e5b610b33e 34903
00013thm.jpg
THUMB16 7c69d1014264593497f943bb842e687e 36089
00014thm.jpg
THUMB17 0bf9218c01ebbc4355cc38bd5e26e8f6 35402
00015thm.jpg
THUMB18 ad5aad68306c60a3d7066091a142cf73 22549
00016thm.jpg
THUMB19 1dc906d550df4e060549488fcc12306a 31083
00017thm.jpg
THUMB20 32a63ea4d4191aae850ad8ac271cb04e 34609
00018thm.jpg
THUMB21 050f4ab46911443a7b44d1b79c387aed 31455
00019thm.jpg
THUMB22 9516e69a3d6f762f41024cbc2e893e78 35478
00020thm.jpg
THUMB23 86ab33cb04971ed49a4462e7c908de42 35176
00021thm.jpg
THUMB24 b12d53084b43f11a15fe797aeb37fe5c 23913
00022thm.jpg
THUMB25 881dad781b509fe33be850d858ba0ef3 33344
00023thm.jpg
THUMB26 909d0c71b2d33f66076507fca1b7db30 34095
00024thm.jpg
THUMB27 ae0465d858054a3fccaf440dfc99ea4d 30272
00025thm.jpg
THUMB28 c2e7345ca3159f2332c1769f34a961f3
00026thm.jpg
THUMB29 2487799a8a84512dd33f60bab449978d 24296
00027thm.jpg
THUMB30 a6279818d459e3430459b3a21b7fefe0 33475
00028thm.jpg
THUMB31 c591aff97f65e2f3f0b2c5cbdb828cdb 33238
00029thm.jpg
THUMB32 96210fa084ad0084f7ef370410dc09c5 23495
00030thm.jpg
THUMB33 22473ce07de609c55853065b445fccfe 33143
00031thm.jpg
THUMB34 2b7cae2363c032f0745c25a45524d9b9 35139
00032thm.jpg
THUMB35 ab41c988a38343fd9be7961b1443f6c8 26381
00033thm.jpg
THUMB36 99037c171315efafe842ef8e0311444c 23300
00034thm.jpg
THUMB37 f2fa2dd19c8c322de1244440f935c34d 24961
00035thm.jpg
THUMB38 11c9c0cbe910d245f7eba7d5517db82b 33826
00036thm.jpg
THUMB39 e62286e17568ba5c94f278b587f8aa61 34056
00037thm.jpg
THUMB40 68c3254466bdf4ddc07f451385eea8b2 34112
00038thm.jpg
THUMB41 631817670b87ba0051f743fbc41bdf1c 34515
00039thm.jpg
THUMB42 d38f08c1db8326a76354996fcf0b664b 26446
00040thm.jpg
THUMB43 83a423014d1f07a098f6179e88554eea 34179
00041thm.jpg
THUMB44 a18856becca6ced49b16c7e09152a28f 35124
00042thm.jpg
THUMB45 bcf7e9d465bd1e303324fcce69b3fd8a 34594
00043thm.jpg
THUMB46 c3a1e2863fc7302b29272afc930593cd 33553
00044thm.jpg
THUMB47 9e32c9892565dacd40dff8e2037ec006 29360
00045thm.jpg
THUMB48 0eb79321c659e76408200083506e7ebf 32501
00046thm.jpg
THUMB49 3df3db0878fb0cca77b29c88b3d4511e 31026
00047thm.jpg
THUMB50 787ccf5d4dd7e75f9d4de9925cd88b23 25220
00048thm.jpg
THUMB51 4a7ccc1c598768be43f68aa6a19fc14b 34177
00049thm.jpg
THUMB52 f24108d0948f93ebfb8d14850e028f43 33579
00050thm.jpg
THUMB53 742c1b5f5190f265c51a2309bf79e72e 34194
00051thm.jpg
THUMB54 c77c23e85b89ad19554914a62f38091b 34710
00052thm.jpg
THUMB55 9bcd0a5d67827e974e2522d4fa232538 28822
00053thm.jpg
THUMB56 628ccc1c25ff0f107b916a7731283afd 26267
00054thm.jpg
THUMB57 66e90cf41d8534ced60fdbd839492142 24303
00055thm.jpg
THUMB58 f4c7911bf1429b23377c67f647b27c18 23778
00056thm.jpg
THUMB59 7d6cb8ef73dfc2012fa3031884c97739 24532
00057thm.jpg
THUMB60 f02457c5e51469f7ede77d3ed8db90f8 31966
00058thm.jpg
THUMB61 dc32553d2a8aa178a39f95c377e3bb3f 33564
00059thm.jpg
THUMB62 d2a3203969a2e8fea5f93d091a95a4d6 33759
00060thm.jpg
THUMB63 3451ed5ebc442fcd9f2140bbfb79ece3 24674
00061thm.jpg
THUMB64 75a1bac86575d9854829a4161a984846 32127
00062thm.jpg
THUMB65 8a7fb77dc4243fd601479dde41930fc4 24279
00063thm.jpg
THUMB66 8f33346e6e4168e8f983b744640809c9 32477
00064thm.jpg
THUMB67 3fa2d2a65fd739840e37a5aa1bef72ad 26592
00065thm.jpg
THUMB68 a651d6a282a597e39e8b903161af8289 24606
00066thm.jpg
THUMB69 3cf17e2a593418184464d10e76cf04e2 27184
00067thm.jpg
THUMB70 03e11e79ffd822afdb6848e2b0119793 24591
00068thm.jpg
THUMB71 a5b7002ca05d8edbd5b9472852498a65 32485
00069thm.jpg
THUMB72 bfd3d24f6c1c10bb02553b512c24b1e3 29201
00070thm.jpg
THUMB73 922d0ed1864f4fc17f8077ee2d052507 29448
00071thm.jpg
THUMB74 533a43bcb3f43a7dea7810976f4ad882 25035
00072thm.jpg
THUMB75 99e563d04f0825158578ce820d26243b 32632
00073thm.jpg
THUMB76 3d112eaa18b7c8fbf25451330f57e12a 34741
00074thm.jpg
THUMB77 b2cf0a4584cc7e2cdc4f4026cb268681 24070
00075thm.jpg
THUMB78 3919c12893f973f8e5ecc9317f1474fc 33763
00076thm.jpg
THUMB79 44316ff2c876e8d7cec8449980a0992b 34011
00077thm.jpg
THUMB80 48743cd1ecc7cee727750cfef3da3e48 28669
00078thm.jpg
THUMB81 ca927b8cfde01b14483b7a3e56f212f3 30080
00079thm.jpg
THUMB82 1b19b6ea3729c5ab516700c02dd6faef 25477
00080thm.jpg
THUMB83 3e02d65fbddcb48b0d8f9d16cfb850f3 35160
00081thm.jpg
THUMB84 6200d6822d0d0700e77d149fb81ec1dd 21332
00082thm.jpg
THUMB85 aa066b396b486e7cf84663451feeeb0b 32844
00083thm.jpg
THUMB86 4591ab7f9d6d5a6f92e3579a3bed93fb 32101
00084thm.jpg
THUMB87 c3cd72e8347b9fa83ad6594e45e78e94 31580
00085thm.jpg
THUMB88 9bb3e7365dec6568119e389bafd50f23 29575
00086thm.jpg
THUMB89 fe5dabe4a2015707e1c6b00d418faf7d 24338
00087thm.jpg
THUMB90 a641526483b5cd89f2dcd39d0c7a53bc 26673
00088thm.jpg
THUMB91 b1e9387761497025dbabe422630d2c23 25733
00089thm.jpg
THUMB92 84fb9686aa27aa4390a2d02c941decb2 32122
00090thm.jpg
THUMB93 2518cddbf3847aded2cc14330682493b 32952
00091thm.jpg
THUMB94 b8ea27b535036baba71e56982715dff7 33676
00092thm.jpg
THUMB95 ecd318f4bd663da72081f9b0b80a66a1 23408
00093thm.jpg
THUMB96 410a44bf7ca8cfcf54a31122342b9012 33758
00094thm.jpg
THUMB97 41007c2c505fc3b8a6af88cd6c6de200 34551
00095thm.jpg
THUMB98 34a7090211213623bb90afc9c615d9f9
00096thm.jpg
THUMB99 33a05b75464cf26cb300ab3c80aa896d 25430
00097thm.jpg
THUMB100 6986450c25ed4c88d73e8938c1fd0994 31313
00098thm.jpg
THUMB101 774c63bf4afde7c96bca6842637a61aa 33288
00099thm.jpg
THUMB102 06592c9bd1136e49b5e9c8111432fca5 33267
00100thm.jpg
THUMB103 c6589d6471987c231e80941d0a24d39f 33031
00101thm.jpg
THUMB104 54cc4d81c5e098fb3478cc1c7369e88f 25459
00102thm.jpg
THUMB105 871f11875142d669367c82f220af9b0f 33318
00103thm.jpg
THUMB106 5f49f51d7b8d8e75f0f716ee8d88abfb 23363
00104thm.jpg
THUMB107 a27cc5adc0f31be6b40fa86b344ffbd5 23855
00105thm.jpg
THUMB108 d1b7ca0d9bd2407d74aca7701548bda4 31545
00106thm.jpg
THUMB109 efb8dc7e24ed59e210ca20bfe6d0e90d 34399
00107thm.jpg
THUMB110 b3d95608503a3d2a449487eb6279ab61 23406
00108thm.jpg
THUMB111 dce2b89815c1fac61e69a25d7f98496a 32742
00109thm.jpg
THUMB112 d7fcc7a7a017cf152be27bbb62a603ba 28162
00110thm.jpg
THUMB113 573593630ab7b49636f7e0bd3a444cbe 21760
00111thm.jpg
THUMB114 5cbc0e252ffa742249e821556ad24181 25601
00112thm.jpg
THUMB115 2cd0c3d611fbda0a4dcc1bae04ea6136 28689
00113thm.jpg
THUMB116 2667bf3e9e5fe69904501b20954abd75 34592
00114thm.jpg
THUMB117 89157903ad5d91cbbf9f4502282de2d0 24920
00115thm.jpg
THUMB118 39d1e0a85e80907aa89ef1c27e11cc19 32892
00116thm.jpg
THUMB119 312bcdb836c841cc4ea285901af6d9c6 32447
00117thm.jpg
THUMB120 36460c607f49bbbecfd80f2616fcf885 33261
00118thm.jpg
THUMB121 f35f5864de84b8a937f8da957e8233ad 29041
00119thm.jpg
THUMB122 55519f6423e58d08196535e39215ab01 29822
00120thm.jpg
THUMB123 48cc9399aea60f9bd2dd052f7d661e94 30113
00121thm.jpg
THUMB124 46375f518249998e787bc546e5c239f0 24423
00122thm.jpg
THUMB125 7140c7a5581687afe095f17b3d2929d5 31946
00123thm.jpg
THUMB126 08c09447178412c1517371a8f8dc8f26 33263
00124thm.jpg
THUMB127 50d85f9afda5a9cdf78806a6fc842826 33293
00125thm.jpg
THUMB128 48b9800a96d3c01433e58073d070a1d0 31936
00126thm.jpg
THUMB129 4c8ecde6977d0bcfaf000b0e01061c11 33488
00127thm.jpg
THUMB130 882976031c8953c167c2fcf85041ed93 23489
00128thm.jpg
THUMB131 05817b002ea7d92d71e7f5c0a0c33980 35334
00129thm.jpg
THUMB132 25f52ea28882b39bc0d9ed966f7a3394 36523
00130thm.jpg
THUMB133 8348541c515080770a61669cda114a83 29187
00131thm.jpg
THUMB134 c5d3827fbad082792637d89974ba3eab 32437
00132thm.jpg
THUMB135 a21833862f0fdc867c152b8406effb6c 29472
00133thm.jpg
THUMB136 89d08e590b169b0ab5b0e5df4cf477c9 33768
00134thm.jpg
THUMB137 81b6dd951d46f8d3087e5ae670d2bae3 35170
00135thm.jpg
THUMB138 ba6dc67904a0793612f755b8c227f6d6 26923
00136thm.jpg
THUMB139 ed89406e248e03024805c218573bee49 33659
00137thm.jpg
THUMB140 467dd25a7f8b33695764e8be0894779b 23735
00138thm.jpg
THUMB141 da7012b482500c902b572ccac481dda5 22845
00139thm.jpg
THUMB142 cd7bab8db7521f90c72f0a3a75f6e901 33517
00140thm.jpg
THUMB143 9e3c8a7bc2830ab57c75f31ee4134920 25298
00141thm.jpg
THUMB144 43cbcf13444a687fadb0ba82dea51871 33786
00142thm.jpg
THUMB145 d53662e4e3f55925ebadf91e6cd47184 33948
00143thm.jpg
THUMB146 5291c05ecb90db67fa921749ac49f304 25163
00144thm.jpg
THUMB147 2bb8b639a9be2965df97b1ce34060f90
00145thm.jpg
THUMB148 cb8c067ade72210d17dbd4165103975b 31652
00146thm.jpg
THUMB149 abb386260e5c18c7ebf701a50d7be6b9 28830
00147thm.jpg
THUMB150 132f8fc389aebad09c55b88ea0cbfd7f 29071
00148thm.jpg
THUMB151 fd82724052e63eb22fc74e8d09d26b8e 27362
00149thm.jpg
TXT1 textplain
00006.txt
TXT2
00026.txt
TXT3
00047.txt
TXT4
00080.txt
TXT5
00058.txt
TXT6
00003a.txt
TXT7
00105.txt
TXT8
00060.txt
TXT9
00054.txt
TXT10
00092.txt
TXT11
00051.txt
TXT12
00055.txt
TXT13
00061.txt
TXT14
00137.txt
TXT15
00067.txt
TXT16
00142.txt
TXT17
00037.txt
TXT18
00033.txt
TXT19
00100.txt
TXT20
00096.txt
TXT21
00145.txt
TXT22
00108.txt
TXT23
00062.txt
TXT24
00002.txt
TXT25
00112.txt
TXT26
00146.txt
TXT27
00076.txt
TXT28
00057.txt
TXT29
00148.txt
TXT30
00087.txt
TXT31
00066.txt
TXT32
00073.txt
TXT33
00075.txt
TXT34
00007.txt
TXT35
00127.txt
TXT36
00027.txt
TXT37
00063.txt
TXT38
00114.txt
TXT39
00091.txt
TXT40
00071.txt
TXT41
00120.txt
TXT42
00059.txt
TXT43
00136.txt
TXT44
00042.txt
TXT45
00012.txt
TXT46
00125.txt
TXT47
00023.txt
TXT48
00039.txt
TXT49
00122.txt
TXT50
00133.txt
TXT51
00072.txt
TXT52
00081.txt
TXT53
00020.txt
TXT54
00038.txt
TXT55
00101.txt
TXT56
00011.txt
TXT57
00034.txt
TXT58
00010.txt
TXT59
00083.txt
TXT60
00143.txt
TXT61
00024.txt
TXT62
00110.txt
TXT63
00093.txt
TXT64
00002a.txt
TXT65
00117.txt
TXT66
00022.txt
TXT67
00119.txt
TXT68
00111.txt
TXT69
00019.txt
TXT70
00126.txt
TXT71
00135.txt
TXT72
00070.txt
TXT73
00032.txt
TXT74
00138.txt
TXT75
00068.txt
TXT76
00107.txt
TXT77
00128.txt
TXT78
00140.txt
TXT79
00064.txt
TXT80
00008.txt
TXT81
00035.txt
TXT82
00095.txt
TXT83
00090.txt
TXT84
00016.txt
TXT85
00116.txt
TXT86
00118.txt
TXT87
00005.txt
TXT88
00103.txt
TXT89
00017.txt
TXT90
00139.txt
TXT91
00097.txt
TXT92
00050.txt
TXT93
00121.txt
TXT94
00085.txt
TXT95
00018.txt
TXT96
00098.txt
TXT97
00113.txt
TXT98
00052.txt
TXT99
00144.txt
TXT100
00084.txt
TXT101
00069.txt
TXT102
00134.txt
TXT103
00004.txt
TXT104
00088.txt
TXT105
00029.txt
TXT106
00074.txt
TXT107
00132.txt
TXT108
00077.txt
TXT109
00041.txt
TXT110
00053.txt
TXT111
00104.txt
TXT112
00115.txt
TXT113
00078.txt
TXT114
00149.txt
TXT115
00141.txt
TXT116
00131.txt
TXT117
00021.txt
TXT118
00028.txt
TXT119
00031.txt
TXT120
00009.txt
TXT121
00046.txt
TXT122
00147.txt
TXT123
00044.txt
TXT124
00013.txt
TXT125
00001.txt
TXT126
00109.txt
TXT127
00099.txt
TXT128
00102.txt
TXT129
00040.txt
TXT130
00129.txt
TXT131
00094.txt
TXT132
00014.txt
TXT133
00086.txt
TXT134
00130.txt
TXT135
00049.txt
TXT136
00079.txt
TXT137
00048.txt
TXT138
00123.txt
TXT139
00065.txt
TXT140
00106.txt
TXT141
00015.txt
TXT142
00056.txt
TXT143
00045.txt
TXT144
00030.txt
TXT145
00089.txt
TXT146
00082.txt
TXT147
00036.txt
TXT148
00124.txt
TXT149
00043.txt
TXT150
00025.txt
TXT151
00003.txt
G152 METS152 unknownx-mets 4bb90c3c6ce8d017009d8a7b1dd7cf1a 186575
UF00081545_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID in-house ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 1 Front Cover
PAGE1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
PDIV2 2 Table of Contents
PAGE2
PAGE3 1a
PAGE4 3
PAGE5 Pages 3-5 4
PDIV3 Characterization the small farms Suwannee Columbia counties Chapter
PAGE6 6
PAGE7 7
PAGE8 8
PAGE9 9
PAGE10 10 5
PAGE11 11
PAGE12 12
PAGE13 13
PAGE14 14
PAGE15 15
PAGE16 16
PAGE17 17
PAGE18 18
PAGE19 19
PAGE20 20
PAGE21 21
PAGE22 22
PAGE23 23
PAGE24 24
PAGE25 25
PAGE26 26
PAGE27 27
PAGE28 28
PAGE29 29
PDIV4 Winter wheat as an alternative
PAGE30 30
PAGE31 31
PAGE32 32
PAGE33 33
PAGE34 34
PAGE35 35
PAGE36 36
PAGE37 37
PAGE38 38
PAGE39 39
PAGE40 40
PAGE41 41
PAGE42 42
PAGE43 43
PAGE44 44
PAGE45 45
PAGE46 46
PAGE47 47
PAGE48 48
PAGE49 49
PAGE50 50
PAGE51 51
PAGE52 52
PAGE53 53
PAGE54 54
PAGE55 55
PAGE56 56
PAGE57 57
PAGE58 58
PAGE59 59
PAGE60 60
PAGE61 61
PAGE62 62
PAGE63 63
PAGE64 64
PAGE65 65
PAGE66 66
PAGE67 67
PAGE68 68
PAGE69 69
PAGE70 70
PAGE71 71
PAGE72 72
PAGE73 73
PAGE74 74
PDIV5 Perennial peanut forage crop
PAGE75 75
PAGE76 76
PAGE77 77
PAGE78 78
PAGE79 79
PAGE80 80
PAGE81 81
PAGE82 82
PAGE83 83
PAGE84 84
PAGE85 85
PAGE86 86
PAGE87 87
PAGE88 88
PAGE89 89
PAGE90 90
PAGE91 91
PAGE92 92
PAGE93 93
PAGE94 94
PAGE95 95
PAGE96 96
PAGE97 97
PAGE98 98
PAGE99 99
PAGE100 100
PAGE101 101
PAGE102 102
PAGE103 103
PAGE104 104
PAGE105 105
PAGE106 106
PAGE107 107
PAGE108 108
PAGE109 109
PAGE110 110
PAGE111 111
PAGE112 112
PAGE113 113
PAGE114 114
PAGE115 115
PAGE116 116
PAGE117 117
PAGE118 118
PAGE119 119
PAGE120 120
PAGE121 121
PAGE122 122
PAGE123 123
PAGE124 124
PDIV6 Other forages grains
PAGE125 125
PAGE126 126
PAGE127 127
PAGE128 128
PAGE129 129
PAGE130 130
PAGE131 131
PAGE132 132
PAGE133 133
PDIV7 Soil fertility moisture management
PAGE134 134
PAGE135 135
PAGE136 136
PAGE137 137
PAGE138 138
PAGE139 139
PAGE140 140
PAGE141 141
PAGE142 142
PAGE143 143
PAGE144 144
PAGE145 145
PAGE146 146
PDIV8 activities 198283 programming
PAGE147 147
PAGE148 148
PAGE149 149
PAGE150 150
PAGE151 151
STRUCT2 other
ODIV1 Main
FILES1
FILES2
FILES3
FILES4
FILES5
FILES6
FILES7
FILES8
FILES9
FILES10
FILES11
FILES12
FILES13
FILES14
FILES15
FILES16
FILES17
FILES18
FILES19
FILES20
FILES21
FILES22
FILES23
FILES24
FILES25
FILES26
FILES27
FILES28
FILES29
FILES30
FILES31
FILES32
FILES33
FILES34
FILES35
FILES36
FILES37
FILES38
FILES39
FILES40
FILES41
FILES42
FILES43
FILES44
FILES45
FILES46
FILES47
FILES48
FILES49
FILES50
FILES51
FILES52
FILES53
FILES54
FILES55
FILES56
FILES57
FILES58
FILES59
FILES60
FILES61
FILES62
FILES63
FILES64
FILES65
FILES66
FILES67
FILES68
FILES69
FILES70
FILES71
FILES72
FILES73
FILES74
FILES75
FILES76
FILES77
FILES78
FILES79
FILES80
FILES81
FILES82
FILES83
FILES84
FILES85
FILES86
FILES87
FILES88
FILES89
FILES90
FILES91
FILES92
FILES93
FILES94
FILES95
FILES96
FILES97
FILES98
FILES99
FILES100
FILES101
FILES102
FILES103
FILES104
FILES105
FILES106
FILES107
FILES108
FILES109
FILES110
FILES111
FILES112
FILES113
FILES114
FILES115
FILES116
FILES117
FILES118
FILES119
FILES120
FILES121
FILES122
FILES123
FILES124
FILES125
FILES126
FILES127
FILES128
FILES129
FILES130
FILES131
FILES132
FILES133
FILES134
FILES135
FILES136
FILES137
FILES138
FILES139
FILES140
FILES141
FILES142
FILES143
FILES144
FILES145
FILES146
FILES147
FILES148
FILES149
FILES150
FILES151
FILES152 152