Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 List of Tables
 Haiti's background
 School administration
 Teacher training
 Elementary education
 Secondary education
 Vocational education
 Adult education
 Higher education
 Special education
 Technical assistance in educat...
 Appendix A: Programs of study
 Appendix B: Some decrees, laws,...

Group Title: Office of Education bulletin
Title: Education in the Republic of Haiti
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081494/00001
 Material Information
Title: Education in the Republic of Haiti
Alternate Title: Bulletin - United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare ; 20
Physical Description: 180 p. : ill., map, tables ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dale, George Allan, 1900-
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education
Place of Publication: Washington, D. C.
Publication Date: 1959
Copyright Date: 1959
Subject: Education -- Haiti   ( lcsh )
Éducation -- Haïti   ( rvm )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Haiti
Statement of Responsibility: by George A. Dale.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081494
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AAD2882
oclc - 00236484
alephbibnum - 000029068
lccn - hew59000094

Table of Contents
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page ii-a
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    List of Figures
        Page v
    List of Tables
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Haiti's background
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    School administration
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Teacher training
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Elementary education
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Secondary education
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Vocational education
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Adult education
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Higher education
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Special education
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Technical assistance in education
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Appendix A: Programs of study
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Appendix B: Some decrees, laws, and regulations
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
Full Text


Only a few hours flying time from New York; less, from
Miami; and the Republic of Haiti has become a stopover
point for many planes en route to South American cities.
Some 87.4 percent of the Haitian people obtain their living
from agriculture.
An estimated 600,000 children of elementary school age are
out of school largely because schools are not available to
It seems evident that Haiti's major educational problem is
to provide school facilities for her population in the age
groups 5 to 14 years.
Secondary education in Haiti is exclusively urban education.
The subjects in the literacy program are reading, writing,
arithmetic, hygiene, civics, history and geography of Haiti,
taught in the Creole vernacular.
The present vocational schools train a limited number of
young people to enter a few skilled occupations.
During the period since official incorporation as a university
in 1944, the University of Haiti has made important growth
in becoming a unified and increasingly recognized factor in
the life of the Republic.
The people of a community have no direct financial responsi-
bility for the support of their local schools.
UNESCO has provided extensive technical assistance in
education to Haiti for over a decade.





by GEORGE A. DALE, Community Education Advisor
U. S. Operations Mission to Haiti

BULLETIN 1959, No. 20

ARTHUR S. FLEMMnC, Secretary
Office of Education--LAWENCE G. DErTHIK, Commissioner



For sale by the Superintendent of Doeuments. U. S. Government Printing Olfee
Washington 25, D. C. Price 70 cents


Compulsory Education . .
Rural Schools . . . .
Enrollments . . .
Types of Schools . . .
Program of Studies . .
Teaching Methods . .
Building and Facilities . .
Church and Private Schools .

Urban . . . . . .
Public Schools . . . .
Church and Private Schools . .
Buildings and Facilities . . .
The National Lycges . . . .
Government-Subsidized Private Schools
Private Nonsubsidized Schools . .
The Need for Vocational Education . .
Vocational School Enrollment and Staff .
Salaries and Budgets . . . .

Admission Requirements and Program of Studies .
Buildings and Equipment . . . . .
Licensing Commercial Schools . . . .
Other Programs . . . . . .
Chapter VII. ADULT EDUCATION . . . .
Aims and Objectives . . . . . .
Complex Factors . . . . . .
Adult Education Centers . . . . .
Organization and Administration of the University
Departments of the University of Haiti . .
Polytechnical School of Haiti . . .
School of Surveying . . . . .
Superior Normal School . . . .
College of Law . . . . . .
College of Medicine . . . . .
School of Pharmacy . . . . .

S 91
S 92
S 94
S 95
S 96
S 96
S 98
. 105
. 111

. 45
. 45
. 47
. 49
. 52
. 54
. 57
. 57
. 60
. 61
. 61
. 64
. 65
. 67
. 69
. 74
. 78
. 82
. 82
. 84
. 87


College of Dentistry . . . . 111
School of Nursing . . . . 112
National School of Agriculture . . 113
Theological Seminary . . . . .. 115
Institute of Ethnology . . . ... .116
Scholarships for Study Abroad . . . .. 117
Chapter IX. SPECIAL EDUCATION . . . .. 120
Institutions That Meet the Needs of Special Groups 120
Union School ............ 121
College Seminaire Adventiste . . .. 123
Holy Trinity School . . . . .. 124
Haitian American Institute . . . .. 124
Institute Franvais . . . . ... 126
Institute of Folkloric and Classic Dancing 128
Centre d'Art ............. .129
National Library . . . . . .. 129
Agricultural Education . . . . .. 133
Teaching of English . . . . . .. 135
Cooperative Educational Program . . .. 135
UNESCO Assistance . . . . . .. 137
APPENDIX ................. 141
A. Programs of Study . . . . .. 141
B. Some Decrees, Laws, and Regulations . . 159

1. Percentage of rural and urban population in 20 West-
ern Hemisphere countries . . . . 3
2. Percentage of illiteracy of population of 16 Latin
American countries . . . . . .. 4
3. Percentage of illiteracy in Haiti by age groups .. 6
4. Distribution of teachers in public elementary schools by
sex and age .............. 22
5. Education of teachers in elementary schools . . 24
6. Enrollment in all public schools; 1941-42 to 1954-55;
and population 5 to 14 years, according to 1950
census ................ 46
7. Percentage comparison of rural elementary schools,
according to size and enrollment, 1937-38 to 1953-54 51


1. Instructional establishments in Haiti, number and ap-
proximate size of staff, 1955-56 . . .. 14
2. Budget of expenses of Haitian Government for the first
3 months, fiscal year 1956-57 . . . .. 18
3. Expenditure, by type of school, 1951-55 . .. 19
4. Number of teachers in elementary schools in Haiti, by
type of school, 1950-55 . . . . .. 25
5. Number and percentage distribution of urban and
rural elementary school teachers according to profes-
sional training . . . . . .. 25
6. Distribution by salary levels between urban and rural
elementary schools . . . . . .. 27
7. Average monthly salaries for various classes of public
secondary school employees, 1957 . . .. 29
8. Rural schools, enrollment and average daily attend-
ance, 1951-56 ............. 49
9. Rural elementary schools, average enrollment per
teacher, 1951-56 . . . . . .. 50
10. Number of pupils enrolled, by grades, by number of
teachers and rooms, as reported in 15 rural schools 52
11. Urban elementary schools, enrollment and average daily
attendance, 1951-56 . . . . .. 62
12. Urban elementary schools, average enrollment per
teacher, 1951-56 . . . . . . 63
13. Organization and personnel operating enseignement
primaire congriganiste . . . . .. 64
14. Public and private secondary schools, number of schools
and staff, reported enrollment and average daily
attendance, 1951-52 through 1955-56 . .. 68
15. National lycees, number of boys and girls enrolled,
1956-57 ............... 70
16. Staff positions and average salaries in public lycees,
1956-57 ................ . 70
17. Government-subsidized private secondary schools in
Haiti, enrollment and annual subsidy, 1956-57 . 75
18. Nonsubsidized private secondary schools in Haiti,
1956-57 .............. 79
19. Number of students admitted and passing baccalaurate
examinations, 1951-52 to 1955-56 . . .. 80
20. Vocational schools, enrollment and average daily at-
tendance, 1951-52 to 1955-56 . . . .. 84


21. Vocational schools, name and location, enrollment in
1955-56 ................ 85
22. Staff positions in vocational schools . . .. 86
23. Average salaries of vocational school employees,
1956-57 ..... ..... .......... 88
24. Budget for vocational schools, fiscal year, 1956-57 . 88
25. Number of diplomas awarded in each vocational spe-
cialty, school year 1955-56 . . . .. 91
26. Enrollment and number of teachers in licensed com-
mercial schools, 1957-58 . . . . .. 93
27. Adult education centers, number of centers and in-
structors, 1951-56 . . . . . .. 99
28. Enrollment and average daily attendance at adult edu-
cation centers, 1951-56 . . . .. 99
29. Number of professors and average annual enrollment,
University of Haiti, academic year 1955-56 . .104
30. Scholarships granted for study abroad by the Govern-
ment of Haiti, by subject and country of study,
1950-56 ................ 118
31 Books used in reading rooms of National Library, by
classification and by Haitian and foreign authors,
1955 ................. 130


Office of Education is the publication of bulletins de-
scribing education in other countries. Such bulletins are a
vital part of a program to increase American understand-
ing of education around the world. They include a grow-
ing series of studies on education in the Latin American
Republics. They are designed to meet the interests and
needs of educators, students, schools, colleges, univer-
sities, nongovernmental and governmental agencies, gov-
ernment officials, and others.
Education in the Republic of Haiti brings up to date
a 1948 Office of Education bulletin of similar nature
written by Mercer Cook, Professor of Romance Lan-
guages, Howard University, and formerly supervisor, Eng-
lish-Teaching Project in Haiti.
The present edition is based on data gathered by the
author in Haiti while there as a member of a technical
assistance team in rural education under auspices of the
U.S. International Cooperation Administration.
For assistance to the Office of Education and to the
author, the Office takes this opportunity to express appre-
ciation for the cooperation received from the Govern-
ment of Haiti, and from its Embassy in Washington.
The Office is indebted to Le Departement de I'Education
National, Institut Haitien de Statistique, Universitg
d'Haiti, Institut Frangais, Institut Haitiano-Am6ricain,
the clergy and to many other institutions and individuals
in Haiti who assisted in providing data for this study.
It is also indebted to the Pan American Union and to
UNESCO for additional data, and to the U. S. Operations
Mission to Haiti, for photographs used in this bulletin.
Assistant Commissioner for
International Education
International Educational Relations

SSt Niwaod

S CI I MILto t
a to 1 o o


Chapter I

Haiti's Background

HAITI'S LOCATION-as an Inter-American and Caribbean
crossroads-brings her into cultural, linguistic, and trade as-
sociation not only with her Central and South American and
Caribbean neighbors but with the United States as well. But a
few hours flying time from New York; less, from Miami; and the
Republic of Haiti has become a stopover point for many planes
en route to South American cities. It is a center for airlines
connecting with Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Panama, the Virgin
Islands, and other ports. This little country occupies the western
third of the Island of Hispaniola; its Spanish-speaking neighbor,
the Dominican Republic, occupies the other two-thirds.
The area of Haiti is approximately 10,700 square miles, about
that of the State of Maryland. Horseshoe shaped, its prongs ex-
tend westward toward Cuba forming two large mountainous
peninsulas. Some 8,000 square miles of Haiti's land are moun-
tains, highlands, and deep valleys. Four large plains together
with numerous small ones make up the remainder of the country.
The Central Plain borders the Dominican Republic. The Arti-
bonite and Cul de Sac Plains spread eastward from the Gulf of
Gonave. Because of their relatively greater agricultural produc-
tivity, these plains support a large part of the population.

Something About Its People

The 1950 census reporting a total of 3,097,220 is probably the
most accurate population count that has been made in Haiti.1
This figure represents a growth of roughly 597,000 over the 1928
1 Institt Haitien de Statistique. Denombrment de la Populatio de la Rpublique d'Haiti.
Nouvelle Edition, Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Avril 1956. (Mimeographed edition 31 pages).


estimated population of 2,500,000, and 97,000 over an estimated
3,000,000 in 1940.2 A United Nation's report has the following
to say about Haiti's population growth:
Since births and deaths are very incompletely registered, no great reli-
ance can be attached to indications of population growth derived from such
data for Haiti. However, inferences might be drawn from the population
statistics of comparable countries. In British Caribbean territories with
essentially the same population stock as Haiti, but, on the whole, with
better developed sanitation and health care, the rate of natural growth
ranges between 1.3 and 2.0 percent per annum. Judged on that basis an
annual growth of rather less than 1.5 percent would seem likely in Haiti.
At the first session (in 1948) of the Economic Commission for Latin
America (ECLA), the representative of Haiti stated that there were two
and a half births to one death in Haiti. As a rough indication this ratio,
equivalent to a rate of natural increase of 1.5 percent per annum, may
not be very far off the mark.3

Population Distribution

The population divided by the area of the country gives a rough
index of density of population exceeding 290 per square mile. The
relatively low population density in the unproductive mountain
areas and the high density in the more productive valleys create
a population density in specific areas equal to that of densely
populated countries, such as India.
Haiti has, by more than 10 percent, the most predominantly
rural population of 20 major Western Hemisphere countries. This
is graphically shown in figure 1.
As to urban-rural distribution of the population, the United
Nations Mission to Haiti made the following report:
The urban agglomerations are relatively few, however, and are believed
to account for only about a sixth of the total population. As many if not
most of these agglomerations are rather to be described as villages of a
distinctly rural character, about nine-tenths of the population may be
properly classified as rural.4
Racially the people include descendents of the indigenous popu-
lation of the island, French settlers, those originally brought in
as slaves, and other strains.
The racial intermingling which produced the present day stocks
had its major beginnings in the period of European colonization
in the Caribbean as well as elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere.
2 United Nations, Mission to Haiti. Report of the United Nations Mission of Technical Assist-
ance to the Republic of Haiti. Lake Success, N. Y., July 1949, p. 27.
3 Ibid.. p. 29.
4 Ibid, p. 31.


Figure 1.- Percentage of rural and urban population in 20 Western
Hemisphere countries.'

Rural Population
100% 75% 50% 25%

E^^^^ ^^^^^^^

5^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^

Urban Population
0 25% 50% 75% 100%

'6.2 D
71.5 -


68.4 G A
66.5 C I

66.4 M.-A










61.3 CLM



vEnEEuLA ]53.8

CUvBA 54.6

CHLu 159.9

AOuTINA 162.5

1Used by permission of the Pan American Union from Erradicaci6n del Analfabetismo (Or-
ganization of American States, Second Inter-American Meeting of Ministers of Education, Lima,
Peru, 1956), Grfica 2 A, p. 49.


m I


Figure 2. Percentage of Illiteracy of population of 16 Latin American countries.
(Base: Population of 15 years old or older)1








20.7 20.6

1950 1945 1950 1950 1940 1950 1950 1950 1950 1938 1950 1950 1950 1943 1952 1950
Haiti I El Peru | Brasil | Colombia | Mexico | Costa
Honduras Salvador Dominican Venezuela Paraguay Cuba Rica
Nicaragua Republic Ecuador Panama Chile

44.3 44.1


Culturally, the people are predominantly French. Traditionally,
sons and daughters of Haitian leaders have gone to France for
higher education. Many of the professional people are graduates
of French Universities. Many of the bishops and priests are
A cultural center in Port-au-Prince, the Institut Francais, is
under the management of a French director. French publications
predominate in bookstores. Vacations and travel in France are
eagerly sought, and French culture is respected and looked upon
as something to be attained or imitated.
Coexisting with this admiration of and aspiration for French
culture is a heritage of African influence. Food, housing, lan-
guage, music, folklore, and many customs retain much of the
African culture imported with slavery in earlier periods. An
official who had spent many years in Africa was prompted to
remark during a trip through rural Haiti: "This is more African
than Africa."
With French as the official language of the country, a linguistic
barrier exists between Haiti and the Spanish and English-speak-
ing countries of the Western Hemisphere with which it is more
closely identified geographically and economically than with
France or other French-speaking areas. Internally, most people
speak and understand Creole; many are not competent in French.
The result has been extensive discussion as to which language
should be the language of instruction in the schools.
French is however the official language of instruction. There-
fore, many children commence their education in a foreign lan-
guage rather than in their mother tongue. In the field of adult
education those beyond school age are instructed in reading
Creole. At the same time published material in Creole is very
limited. Thus, Haiti is faced with a situation in which French
is the official language, reading materials in the Creole mother
tongue of the people are scarce, and the country is in a geographi-
cal area which is predominantly Spanish-English speaking.

The Problem of Illiteracy

In Haiti 89.5 percent of the population is illiterate, the highest
percentage of 16 Latin American countries. (See fig. 2.) Of
particular significance to educators is the percentage of illiteracy


Figure 3.--Percentage of illiteracy in Haiti by age groups.1

100 1

15-19 20-24 25-44 45-64 65 and
Age Groups over

SUsed by permission of the Pan American Union from Erradicaci6n del Analfabetismo (Or-
ganization of American States, Second Inter-American Meeting of Ministers of Education. Lima,
Peru. 1956). Grifica 4 A, p. 58.


by age groups as shown in figure 3. The 86.4 percent illiterates
in the 15-19 and 20-24 year age groups implies that literacy is
not being adequately achieved by young citizens during the years
they should be in school. The 90.2 percent illiteracy in age group
25-44 indicates a large group beyond school age who could profit
by an adult literacy program.

Its History and Economics

In prehistoric times the island of Hispaniola was called Aiti
(mountainous country) Bohio (house) and Quisqueya (mainland).
Its total population has been variously estimated from 100,000 to
6,000,000. The Indians were considered peaceful, intelligent, and
quite emotional.5 These Arawak Indians were the people found
by Columbus in 1492 when he discovered Aiti, which he named
La Isla Espa iola-the Spanish Island.
On his second voyage Columbus subdued the Indians in the
whole central part of the island of Hispaniola, imposing on each
chief a tribute of gold to be collected every 3 months. In 1502
Ovando, the Spanish governor, ordered the Indians of the island
brought under the system of repartimientos, whereby each chief
contributed a certain number of Indians to work in the Spanish
gold mines.
Indians on the island who were distributed among the Spanish
colonists were said to be overworked and many reportedly starved
to death. Hurricanes and smallpox destroyed most of the popu-
lation. By 1535 only 500 natives were supposedly left on the
island. The colonists were importing Negroes and Indians from
other parts of the Caribbean to take their place. Sir Francis
Drake visiting Hispaniola in 1585 reported not a single Indian
was left alive.6
Spanish control of Hispaniola was challenged by French bucca-
neers who established themselves on Tortuga Island about 1625,
as a vantage point from which to make raids against Spanish
shipping. The French established themselves at Port-de-Paix in
1664. In 1697, by the Treaty of Ryswick, France gained control
of an area roughly comparable to modern Haiti.
5 Source of information: Handbook of South American Indieas, Smithsonian Institution, Bu-
reau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Offee, 1948.
6 Ibid., bulletin 143.


Renamed Saint Domingue, it became France's most important
overseas possession, its prosperity due in great measure to slave
labor brought from Africa.

Independence Proclaimed

France enjoyed the undisputed benefits of her colony for more
than 100 years. In 1789 ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity,
born of the French Revolution, were brought to Haiti by two
Haitian freedmen, Julien Raymond and Vincent Oge. In 1790
France decreed political and civil rights for free tax payers in
her colonies. The white population in Saint Domingue refused to
recognize this decree, fearing such an action would be a threat
to their position. The freedmen and slaves estimated at 40,000
and 600,000 respectively, revolted. In 1801 the colony adopted a
constitution and elected a Governor. Napoleon, then First Consul
of France, considered this action to be secession and sent a mili-
tary expedition to regain control of Saint Domingue. The expedi-
tion failed and in 1803 the French signed an armistice providing
for evacuation of French troops. On January 1, 1804, the inde-
pendence of Saint Domingue was proclaimed, and the original
name, Haiti, was adopted.
For more than a century after proclaiming its independence,
Haiti continued to suffer serious disturbances. Increasingly condi-
tions worsened until following a severe series of political and
economic difficulties, the United States occupied Haiti, and during
the period (1915-34), marked development was reported particu-
larly in the fields of agriculture, public health, education, and
public works.
In 1950, the Haitian people for the first time in their history,
elected a president by direct vote. In 1956 however, through a
bloodless revolution characterized by a general strike, the Presi-
dent was forced out; and from that time until late in 1957, there
were six provisional presidents. Then, following a short-lived
military junta, again a president was elected by popular vote.
Throughout the years, Haiti has had various forms of govern-
ment. It now has a republican form with legislative, executive,
and judicial branches. The legislative body is the National Assem-
bly, consisting of a Senate of 21 members and a Chamber of
Deputies of 37 members. Executive power is vested in the
President who is assisted by a Cabinet of Secretaries and Under
Secretaries. The Cabinet includes a Secretary of State (Minister)


for Education. The judicial branch consists of a Court of Cassa-
tion, four courts of appeals, civil courts, justice of the peace
courts, and military courts.
For administrative purposes Haiti is divided into five depart-
ments, roughly corresponding to States in the United States.
These are in turn subdivided into 27 arrondissements,7 corre-
sponding in a limited way to counties. The arrondissements are
divided into 115 communes, small administrative districts. The
smallest political subdivision is the rural section of which there
are 554, each presided over by a mayor, or chef de section. There
are no local school districts.
A new constitution which became effective in 1950 granted
freedom of the press, worship and thought, and stipulated that
the State would offer free public education through the secondary

Occupational Pattern

As for the occupational pattern of the population of Haiti, the
United Nations report, Mission to Haiti, states that-
The occupational structure of the Haitian population shows a striking
predominance of persons working for their individual account as pro-
prietors, lessees or tenant-owners, usually with the assistance of the
members of their families. Thus the proportion of persons employed for
wages and salaries is very small * *
Practically the whole of the rural population derives its subsistence
from agriculture, including, for a small part, fisheries, charcoal making,
lime burning, and rudimentary village handicraft. The townspeople gain
their livelihood mainly from commerce and connected distributive trades
and handicrafts, from Government employment (including employment
with the National Bank), domestic service, to a relatively minor extent
from industry, transport and communication services and, so far as the
educated class is concerned, from liberal professions.8
The small group of Haitians who are employed in industry
find work in such places as the cement manufacturing plant or
the large sugar company located at Port-au-Prince, or at the
nearby flour mill which grinds imported wheat. A small sugar
mill is under construction at Cap-Haitien; a larger one has been

7 Institut Haitien de Statistique. Dnombrement de la Population, op. cit.
s MiUion to Haiti, op. cit., p. 31.


in operation near Cayes for several years; some small coffee-
processing plants and sisal mills are in the Republic.
In general, Haitians live in an economy almost exclusively agri-
cultural. And it is one of the world's paradoxes--as pointed out
in the Preliminary Report on the World Social Situation with
Special Reference to Standards of Living-that agriculture,
which occupies the majority of the people in less economically
developed areas, is worst off where the largest numbers depend
on it for their income.9 Thus, some 87.4 percent of the popula-
tion in Haiti obtain their living from agriculture where much of
the cultivation is done with hoes.
The average annual per capital income has been estimated at
about $67, with a few having a high income, the many having
less than this amount, and some having practically no cash

Education Not Available

Against its background of terrain, economy, history, political
life, racial strains and linguistic problems, the educational task
in Haiti is colossal. An estimated 600,000 children of elementary
school age are out of school largely because schools are not avail-
able to them.
Of the children who do attend elementary school only a few
reach secondary school. These secondary schools (lycees), with
but one exception, are located in the cities. A graduate of the rural
elementary school usually must find a place to live in the city
before he can enter secondary school. He competes for space in
a lycee with urban children. Once enrolled, he spends his time
largely on a classical program which has relatively little applica-
tion to the rural life from which he comes.
One of the early problems, pointed out by the United Nations
Mission to Haiti, was the serious shortage of textbooks. Of this
problem, which still exists, the Mission report states:
Textbooks from France or Canada are used in some of the schools. A
few history or geography books have been written by Haitians, and the
Christian Brothers of Canada have published some readers with Haitian
background. The Haitian Government does not provide free school books,
and most parents are too poor to buy them for their children. Education
9 United Nations. Department of Social Affairs. New York, the United Nations. September
8, 1952. P. 180 (Document No. 1952, IV, 11) p. 3. 37, 52.
Io Economic Developent Ansstnae, A Long-Term Policy for Assisting Economic Growth
and Encouraging Independence in the Underdevdoped Nations of the Free World. Committee
for Economic Development. New York, April 1957, p. 8.


without school books and supplementary reading materials can only
perpetuate Haiti's nonliterary culture. To become a useful instrument
for the forging of Haitian nationality, education must teach children and
adults to use and love books as keys to the experience of the human race.
Such books should be written by Haitians for Haitian children. They
should describe the life and problems of Haiti, and should be practical in
pointing to a better way of life through understanding, self-help, and
organized community life. They should encourage and direct activities
which satisfy the emotional and social as well as the intellectual needs of
children. Without books to learn from and to read with pleasure and
profit, children and adults will soon forget their knowledge and lose the
reading skill.
The Haitian people are in a critical situation as far as survival is
concerned. The right kind of school books dealing with food production
and soil conservation, protection against malaria, hookworm, yaws, or
tuberculosis, the making of household equipment and agricultural tools,
the proper care and use of animals, the making of charcoal and lime
without wasting scarce firewood, could turn books into weapons for
survival. Such books or series of books, pamphlets, almanacs, or peri-
odicals, have been prepared for children and adults of other countries.
Haiti could profit from their experience * *
A graded series of readers for the 6 years of the elementary school
course is a necessity in Haiti. Equally important are arithmetic and
elementary science work-books. The preparation of such a series of books
would be a major undertaking for which technical assistance should be
sought outside of Haiti. The Government's investment in a free distribu-
tion of school books would be amply repaid in greater effectiveness of its
educational efforts. It is of little use to build schools without equipment
or teaching materials; it is even more futile to try to teach and learn
without books.
If serious efforts are made to reduce illiteracy in Haiti, the preparation
and publication of reading matter in Creole and French for the newly
literate is vital * *
As means of achieving the desired improvement in literacy, the Mission
recommends that the Government undertake forthwith the preparation,
publication and distribution of:-
(a) A basic series, in Creole and French, of elementary textbooks and
supplementary materials for the school children;
.(b) Appropriate basic readers and almanacs, as well as a weekly
periodical in Creole;
(c) A special service for carrying out this task should be organized in
the Publications and Textbooks Section of the Ministry of National
Although some achievements are being made toward increased
literacy, such recommendations often take years for adequate

11 Mission to Haiti, op. cit, p. 48.


Expansion and improvement in the presently limited vocational
and trade schools carries the possibility of introducing rural and
urban children to an education for improved living. Additional
schools for adults will help adults who have learned their trades
in existing schools or through apprenticeship, to add to their
The present capacity of the institutions of higher education
within Haiti does not permit Haiti to train at home the number of
doctors, lawyers, teachers, engineers, public administrators, and
others needed.
To achieve the minimum of literacy necessary to permit mass
communication, some 2 million, or roughly two-thirds of the popu-
lation, need to be taught to read. Since these persons--mostly
adults-form the bulk of the population, they play an important
role in the economy and political affairs of the country. They
represent one of the nation's rich potential resources for the
economic development of the country which can be useful once
educational opportunity is available to them. This task is in addi-
tion to teacher training, school facilities, supervision, curriculum
and instruction at all educational levels.
The estimated cost of this program is more than the total
national budget of Haiti. Since education tends to be a sur-
charge on an expanding economy, Haiti's plans will indeed take
Haiti's mountainous land, few roads, and dense population sug-
gest to educational leaders that her rural school needs may be
met by many small schools spaced so that they are available to
rural children; that opportunity for secondary and vocational
education provided in rural areas would extend such service to
thousands of rural children; that teacher-training institutions
outside cities would help keep students oriented to rural life so
they could more adequately teach in rural schools.

Chapter II

School Administration

THE HAITIAN school system is centralized under the Depart-
ment (commonly called Ministry) of National Education. The
State Secretary of National Education (Minister) is directly re-
sponsible to the President of the Republic. There is an overlap
in administrative responsibility between the Haitian Government
and the Catholic Church and between the Government and certain
private schools. The Government finances certain parochial and
private schools in whole or in part, while the operation of these
schools is largely the responsibility of the church or the private
organization concerned. There is also a division of responsibility
in the adult education program between the Ministry of Education
and the Ministry of Labor, the latter assuming responsibility for
worker's schools for illiterate adults.
The divisions of the education system, the number of units of
each type, and the approximate number of staff members during
1955-56 are shown in table 1.

Regulations and Laws

Some important qualifications required for appointment and
duties of chief officers of the Ministry of Education in Haiti,
according to the General Regulations and Organic Law1 published
by the Director General of National Education, are given below.

Director General of Education

Qualifcations-To be appointed as Director General of National Edu-
cation, one must have at least a diploma from enseignement supdrieur
STranslated from Direction GCndrale de 1'Education Nationale. Riglemenft Gedrazs et Loi
Organiue. Imprimerie de 1'Etat, Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 1950.


with specialization in teaching. He must have demonstrated competence
in important educational and administrative positions.

Duties-The Director General, under the supervision of the Minister of
Education controls all the educational and administrative activities of the
National Department of Education within the frame of existing general
regulations. Helped by the Directors of Services, the Director General

Table 1.-Instructional establishments in Haiti, number and
approximate size of staff, 1955-561

Type Number Personnel

Elementary schools
Public nonparochial (Laic) .....................
Public parochial (Congrdganiste) ..................
Private (Prive)................................
Parochial (Presbytiral) ........................
Secondary schools
Public ............................................
Private (Priv) ..................................
Normal schools
Urban ............................................

Vocational schools (Professionnel)
Public .........................................
Adult education centers
For adult workers (Centres Departement du Travail-
Education ouvriire)....................... .......
For adults-general (Centres D6partement Education
national) .....................................
School of Agriculture (Ecole d'Agriculture)............
School of Surveying (Ecole d'Arpentage) ...............
Polytechnic School (Ecole Polytechnique)...............
School of Pharmacy (Ecole de Pharmacie).............
School of Medicine (Facult, de Mdecine) .............
School of Dentistry (Facultd d'Art Dentaire) ..........
Grand Sdminaire Notre-Dame ......................
School of Law (Facul16 de Droit-Section social et
administrative) .......... .........................
School of Law (Facult de Droit-Section Juridique).....
School of Law, (Ecoles de Droit de Cap-Haitien, Cayes,
Gonaives.) Jernmie, (Privees subventiones)..........
Institute of Ethnology (Prive subventionn4) ...........
Superior Normal School (Ecole Normale Supdrieure).....






1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Buleatin Trimestriel de Statistique. No. 28, DMeembre 1956
Port-au-Prince. Haiti. Adapted from table 91-1, p. 155.
NomT: in the numbers related to establishments and the staff of laic urban primary education
are included 82 evening courses and 2 half-time classes considered here as distinct establishments
with a staff of 75 Haitians.


serves as technical advisor of the Department of National Education. At
the request of the Minister of Education, he examines or asks his assistant
to examine all the questions concerning National Education including
contracts and agreement. He prepares the laws, plans and projects related
to National Education for submission to the Minister of Education.
The Director General is under the direct supervision of the Minister of
Education. He is the only employee who may have official correspondence
with the Minister. He prepares, periodically or at the request of the
Minister, reports relating the different services of the Department of
National Education. The Director General assisted by the Directors of
the Services, assumes the responsibility for the control and execution of
the administrative and technical details of the National Department of
With the approval of the Minister of Education, he establishes the
programs of the staff, in case these have not been determined by law,
regulation, or existing instructions.
When the Director General is absent on leave or on official business, he
designates with the approval of the Minister, a Director of Services to
serve in his place.

Directors of Services

Each director of services serves as an assistant Director General.
Qualifications-To be a Director of Services, one must have a diploma
of superior education, have worked not less than 5 years in education or
have served as Chief of Section or Director of a Secondary school or
similar position.
Duties-The Directors of Services assure the execution of the rules
fixed by the Director General in accordance with the Minister of Educa-
tion. They are responsible directly to the Director General for the
activities of the services under their supervision. They receive their
instructions directly from the Director General. They submit to him a
monthly report of all the activities they supervise.
The Directors of Services submit to the Director General recommenda-
tions for nominations in their respective services and help him prepare
the budget for their respective services and request funds for the operation
of their services; subject to the approval of the Director General.

Director of Administrative Services

Qualifications-To be Director of Administrative Services, one must:
(1) Be an accountant graduated from a recognized institution: (2) have
at least 5 years of administrative experience.
Duties-The Director of the Administrative Services is in charge of
the general administration of the offices, accounting department, depots,
records, transportation, purchasing and shipment of furniture, inven-
tories, the personnel register and all the administrative activities of the


service. With the approval of the Director General and the other directors
of service, he takes all the necessary steps for the welfare of the service.

Chiefs of Section

Qualifications-To be Chief of Urban or Rural Education section, one
must have a normal school diploma of a grade higher than the section in
which employed, or a diploma of superior technical education. A candi-
date must have worked at least 3 years in education or an equal time as
inspector or director of a school within the Department of Education equal
to the section to be controlled.
To be Chief of Section in the Administrative service, one must have an
accounting diploma from a school recognized by the Government or 3
years of experience in administration.
Duties-The Chiefs of Section are under the direct supervision of the
Directors of Services. They are the general inspectors for the school in
their respective sections. With the collaboration of inspectors under their
supervision, they control the operation of the establishments. They are
responsible for executing the instructions of the Director of Services under
whose supervision they work.
They are responsible within their respective sections for the execution
of existing regulations and programs. They make inspections and control
trips, they submit their reports to the Director of Services with their
observations concerning the regularity and the efficiency of the directors,
professors, teachers of the schools visited, and recommendations for
promotion, transfers, retirement and replacement. They organize and
supervise official examination of their respective section under the super-
vision of the Director General of National Education.

Other Personnel

The qualifications of employees below the level of chief of section are
summarized as follows:-
1. Inspector of secondary, vocational elementary (rural or urban)
(a) Five years experience in the type of school they will inspect.
(b) Service as a director (principal) of a school.
(c) Good moral standards.
2. Professor of secondary school.
The title of professor in the educational system applies to a
teacher in a secondary school (Lycees or vocational schools).
To be appointed a professor of secondary education, a candidate
must be graduated from a superior normal school or a college which
prepares for teaching in the secondary schools.
For candidates who do not possess the above mentioned qualifica-
tions, appointment may be made on the basis of competitive examina-


tion. Only those possessing their Certificat d'Etudes Secondaires
Classiques (first and second part) in "Sciences," or "Letters" will
be admitted to the competitive examination.
3. Professor in a vocational school.
To be professor in a vocational school, one must have a diploma or
a certificate from a special school for the preparation of teaching in
the vocational schools or possess the following qualifications:-
(a) Fulfill the academic studies equivalent at least to the second
grade of a lycde or college.
(b) Be a technician or a competent worker at the profession (trade)
which they will be teaching.
(c) Spend at least 6 months in teacher training at a special normal
school or attend the special courses organized by the Department
of National Education.
4. Teacher and director of rural and urban elementary schools.
Candidates for the position of primary, elementary or superior
school teacher, urban or rural, who do not have a diploma from a
recognized normal school will be appointed by competitive exam-
For admission to this examination, a candidate must have at least
the equivalent of brevet simple for the primary and elementary
urban and rural, and brevet supirieur for teaching in the superior
To be director of rural or urban primary school, a candidate must
have a diploma from the Normal School and five years experience
as a teacher.
The regulations provide the following concerning the promotion and
pay of teachers:-
Advancement takes place according to (1) Capacity, (2) professional
qualifications, and (3) length of service.
Recommendations for promotion, increase in salary or change in assign-
ment must have the approval of the Minister of Education, based on a
report presented by the Director General of Education. The recommenda-
tion is to be accompanied by a statement enumerating for each employee
who has been recommended, the name, the class and the amount proposed
for raise, the date and the amount of the last raise, present salaries, the
article of the budget under which the employee has been classified and
precise reason for which the raise is being proposed. Such information
will be presented on appropriate forms signed by the Chief of Section
Increase in salary can only be given as a reward for satisfactory work
and because of change in assignment.
Preference will be given to qualified employees of the Department of
National Education in filling vacancies.
According to the Law of August 8, 1957, the Directors of
Services, Chiefs of Section, Inspectors, Professors and Directors
of Schools, and teachers as well as the budgetary employees of
the Department of National Education are appointed by the


President of the Republic upon recommendation by the State
Secretary of National Education (Minister of Education) based
on a report by the Director General.
No provision for a standard salary schedule and promotion plan
related to qualifications and experience is given in the General
Regulations, nor any certification system establishing a roster of
teachers and candidates for teaching positions or provision for
appointment in accordance with prescribed qualifications.

Centralized Authority

Centralization of authority is reflected in the fact that the
general regulations and laws relating to the administration of
national education make no reference to local school boards or
establishment of local school districts. The people of a community

Table 2.-Budget of expenses of Haitian Government for the
first 3 months, fiscal year 1956-571
[Al values in U.S. dollars at official rate of 5 Haitian gourdes per U.S. dollar]

Expenses Amounts available
Classification 1956-57 budgetary credits

Total........................... $ 27,852,209,15 $ 13,235,511.62

Public debts.......................... 3,631,587.20 3,631,587.20
International institutes ................. 3,261,862.20 3,261,862.20
Tools and economical development....... 1,469,829.71 1,469,829.71

Total group I.................... 8,363,279,11 8,363,279,11

Foreign department.................... 1,071,841.74 267,960.44
Finances. ............................ 1,209,583.49 302,395.87
National economy ..................... 284,238.40 71,059.60
Commerce ............................ 490,230.78 122,557.70
Presidency............................ 267,888.00 66,972.00
Interior ............................. 6,596,369.03 1,649,092.26
Public health ......................... 3,027,715.37 756,928.85
Labor................................ 174,280.00 54,370.00
Public works........................... 1,426,495.40 356,623.85
Court ................................ 772,014.00 193,003.50
Agriculture............................ 606,560.00 151,640.00
National education ..................... 3,330,791.00 832,697.75
Religious ............................. 230,922.83 57,730.69

Total group H................... 19,488,930.04 4,872,232.51

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statistique, No. 24, Mars 1957. Port-
au-Prince, Haiti. Adapted from table 51-1, p. 136.


may petition the Director General for various purposes and they
frequently do. Generally speaking, however, there is no local level
of citizen responsibility for their schools. The lack of local dis-
trict organization, and the lack of district boundaries greatly af-
fects the administration of individual schools because principals
(directors) of individual schools have no definite area of jurisdic-
tion. Parents may decide to send their children to any school of
appropriate level, even though their choice may be more remote
from their home. The people of a community have no direct
financial responsibility for the support of their local school. Re-
sponsibility for its welfare, attendance of children, or the service
of the school to the community are central rather than local
The relative position of the national budget for education with
reference to other items of the total national budget may be
estimated from table 2.
The trend of expenditures between rural and urban elementary
schools for the 5-year period 1951 to 1955 inclusive is shown in
table 3.

Table 3.-Expenditure, by type of school, 1951-551
[All values in U.S. dollars at official rate of 5 Haitian gourdes per U.S. dollar]

Presbyterial Urban Rural

Year Total Per- Per- Per-
Amount cent Amount cent Amount cent

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1951......... $1,384,869 $35,558 2 $ 771,416 57 $579,895 41
1952.......... 1,696,570 34,764 2 959,643 57 702,163 41
1953......... 1,893,486 40,800 2 1,112,566 59 740,120 39
1954......... 2,078,618 36,000 2 1,226,374 59 816,244 39
1955......... 2,078,618 36,000 2 1,226,374 59 816,244 39

1 Adapted from table 13 of an unpublished mimeographed document loaned the author by the
Institute Haitien de Statistique.

A Proposed Philosophy

The Ministry of Education has the responsibility for formulat-
ing or adapting a philosophy and plan of action. This basic


course of action necessarily is related to the economic, demo-
graphic, and political realities of the country. Such a proposed
philosophy and the need for it are summarized in the 1949 United
Nations report Mission to Haiti.

Education can play a major part in freeing the people of Haiti from
want and fear. The importance of orienting education so that it may
further the desired material progress of the nation has not been fully
realized in the past, even in cultured circles in Haiti. The lack of a basic
education code with its underlying political and educational philosophy
makes it difficult to orient the teachers and to evaluate changes in the
programmes ...
There is no evidence of a critical review or survey in the last 25 years
of the purposes, programmes and results of public education in Haiti.
While there are certain advantages in a centralized school system, one of
the most serious disadvantages is the tendency in the central offices to
lose contact with the realities of the local problems in the rural areas,
and to turn the supervisory personnel into controllers, rather than
advisers and guides of local teachers and school boards ...
The Government's task is to make the masses of the population more
effective participating and producing members of society. This is a world-
wide trend. For its advancement Haiti-no less than any other country
in a comparable situation-needs the continuous stimulation of cultural
impulses from the outside. It cannot afford not to utilize to the fullest
extent any competent educators from among its nationals who have been
trained abroad with Haitian or foreign scholarships. Whatever is good
in other lands should be examined objectively for its value to the improve-
ment of the organization of Haitian education and its efficient operation in
urban and rural areas alike.2

2 United Nations, Mission to Haiti. Report of the United Nations Mission of Technical Assist-
ance to the Republic of Haiti. Lake Success, N.Y. July 1949, pp. 43, 59.

Chapter III

Teacher Training

AS OF 1954-55 there were in Haiti's elementary schools, both
public and private, urban and rural, 4,182 teachers plus 574
teachers in Protestant mission schools. The distribution according
to types of schools and the increase in number since 1950 are
shown in table 4.

Some of the Facts

As shown in this table, there has been a trend toward the
increasing employment of women teachers in the public schools.
From 1951 to 1955 the number of men teachers increased by
210; the women teachers by 418. Women teachers thus accounted
for 66 percent of the gain of 418 in the total number of teachers
for this period.
This increase in women teachers is also evident in the percent-
age of women in the elementary public schools: 47.7 percent in
1942-43, 55.9 in 1952-53, and 58.3 in 1954-55.1
The following shows the division of the personnel between lay
and clergy in the religious schools in 1954-55:
Men Women
Clergy .--____ -----.......-- --... ........ 322 101 221
Lay -------------..- ___ _- 320 133 187
Total 642 234 408
The teachers from the clergy are, in general, French or Canadian;
the lay teachers are Haitian.

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statistique. No. 22, Septembre 1956.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Translated from p. 23.


Figure 4.--Distribution of teachers in public elementary schools
by sex and age.1

Number of Teachers
400 --

350 --


16- 20- 25- 30- 35-
19 24 29 34 39


40- 45- 50- 55- 60-
44 49 54 59 64
Age Groups

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statistique. No. 22, Septembre, 1956.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Adapted from Graphique III, p. 24.



As to age, Haitian teachers are in general a relatively young
group as shown in figure 4. Considered as a whole, the largest
group of men teachers fall in the age bracket 30 to 34 years;
the women 25 to 29 years.2 The average age of men teachers in
urban schools is 35, in rural schools 36; the average age of women
teachers for both urban and rural schools is 33.
An overview of the general education of Haitian teachers is pro-
vided by figure 5. This graph indicates that most Haitian teachers
have not progressed in their basic general education beyond
Brevet Simple, Quatrieme, or approximately 8 years of elementary
school. Those who have completed Brevet Supdrieur, Seconde
have 2 years beyond the 8-year elementary program. Those hold-
ing certificates Rh6torique and Philosophie have 6 and 7 years
respectively of secondary school, roughly the equivalent of high
school graduation in the United States, with emphasis on classi-
cal subjects and languages.
In 1954-55 there was a total of 2,576 teachers in urban and
rural elementary schools. Of this number 767, nearly 30 per-
cent, had received some professional training. That much of this
professional training was for less than the maximum available is
shown in the following tabulation3:

Level of professional training Number of teachers
No training _. _______ 1,809
Normal school-
3 year 199
2 year 91
1 year ...---------..-.. .--------....- ---..-- 57
National School of Agriculture-Normal Training--- 44
Ecole Elie Dubois-Normal School ----.----........- 332
Summer school -__ -- --__ --- 39
Certificate of teaching aptitude .-__--....- .. _____ 5

Total 2,576
Thus, only 3 out of every 10 elementary teachers have had any
professional training, and most of these less than 3 years of train-
ing. The training, as shown by examining courses of study of
normal training institutions, is largely classical, with the excep-
tion of that still offered at Elie Dubois and formerly offered by
the Normal School of the National School of Agriculture.
2 Ibid., No. 22, September 1956, p. 23.
3 Ibid., No. 22. September 1956, p. 33.


Figure 5.- Education of teachers in elementary schools.1

Number of Teachers






1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Certificat ddtudes primaires 4. Troimsie, brevet suprieur second
S. SiUibme, cinquiime, Chatard (Ecole primaire 5. Rhttorique
superidure d'Agriculture) 6. Philosophie
S. Brevet simple, quatriime

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statitique, No. 22, Septembre, 1956.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Adapted from Graphique IV, p. 27.


Table 4.-Number of teachers in elementary schools in Haiti,
by type of school, 1950-551

Public Schools
Private and
Year Total parochial
Total Men Women schools

1950-51 ............. .......... 2,270 998 1,272 ....
1951-52....................... 2,335 1,048 1,287 ........
1952-53............. 3,478 2,638 1,162 1,476 840
1953-54 ............ 4,112 2,784 .................... 1,328
1954-55. ............ 2 4,182 2,898 1,208 1,690 21,284

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimetridl de Statieique, No. 22, Septembre 1956.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Adapted from table III-C, p. 30.
2 This number does not include 574 teachers in Protestant mission schools.

Table 5.-Number and percentage distribution of urban and rural
elementary school teachers according to professional training1

Urban Rural
Level of training Total
Number Percent Number Percent

1 2 3 4 5 6

Ecole Normale-
3 year ...................... 199 178 89 21 11
2 year ....................... 91 91 100 ................
1 year...................... 57 54 95 3 5

National School of Agriculture-
Normal Training .............. 44 21 48 23 52
Ecole Elie Dubois-
4 year ....................... 146 116 79 30 21
3 year ....................... 147 138 94 9 6
2year....................... 24 22 92 2 8
1 year...................... 15 12 80 3 20

Summer School ................... 39 39 100 ...............
Certificate of aptitude ............. 5 5 100 ................

Total...................... 767 676 88 91 12

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimetriel de Stistique, No. 22, Septembre 1956.
Port-au-prince, Haiti. Adapted from table VI, p. 33.


Available statistics do not show how many of those who at-
tended summer school had also received other training. Certain
individuals may have been counted more than once in the above
numbers and the actual number of teachers with any degree of
professional training may be smaller than the 767 total indicated.
Many of these teachers had received less than the full professional
course of the teacher-training institutions in which they had
Roughly 90 percent of the trained teachers were in the urban
schools leaving 10 percent of the "professionally" trained teachers
to serve the children of the 90 percent rural population. (See
table 5.)
That teaching does not become a career for many of the people
who enter the profession is shown by the fact that the average
length of service is about 8 years. This is explained in detail in
the following translation:

It can be concluded from a consideration of the age of teachers and
from the number of years of service that teaching is not a career. They
quit teaching while they are still young and at a time when they have
acquired a certain amount of experience * *
For urban teaching, the average years of service are: Men: 8 years,
women: 7 years, combined average: 8 years.
For lay teachers of parochial schools: Men: 7 years.
For rural teaching: Men: 9 years, women: 7 years, combined average:
8 years.
The above results confirm the conclusions of a survey undertaken by
the Service of Hygiene Teaching in 1950-51. They had then found that
the average years of service of teachers in rural teaching was 8 years and
8 months, and the rural teachers (women), 8 years.
The years of service varies with training ranging from 9 years for
those holding diplomas for urban and rural teaching and 10 years for
graduates of normal schools and Elie Dubois.
It is evident that conditions should be improved for graduates from
Normal Schools and good teachers in general, in order to keep them in
teaching careers and obtain better results.
The salaries of teachers are extremely low." The average monthly
salaries [based on 5 Haitian gourdes per U.S. dollar] according to types
of public elementary schools are-

4 Ibid.. No..22, September 1956, p. 34-35.
5 Ibid., No. 22, September 1956. p. 35.


Men Woume Both
Urban public schools $52.80 $50.40 $51.20
Teachers in church schools 47.60 47.60 47.60
Rural public schools___ 50.40 47.00 48.80
All teachers _______ 50.80 49.00 49.80
Differences between urban and rural schools extend into the
area of pay as well as in the qualifications for teachers. With
56 percent of all elementary teachers in the urban schools, only
36 percent are in the lowest salary bracket of $40 per month,
the legal minimum. (See table 6.) Conversely 64 percent of the
lowest paid teachers are found among the 44 percent of all teach-
ers who work in the rural schools. In the $45 and $65 wage
brackets the distribution between urban and rural is identical,
56 percent urban and 44 percent rural. In the $60 wage bracket
the ratio is in favor of the rural teachers. In all the others,
except in the isolated $100 bracket, the distribution favors the
urban teachers. It seems unlikely that this discrepancy in dis-
tribution of salaries is related to any difference in local economy
of the urban and rural regions, since there are no local taxes
levied for direct support of schools. All allotments are made by
the central authority, the Ministry of Education.

Table 6.-Distribution by salary levels between urban and rural
elementary schools1

Urban Rural
Salary Total
Number Percent Number Percent

1 2 3 4 5 6

Total............ 2,464 1,387 56 1,077 44
$ 40.................. 474 171 36 303 64
45.................. 257 144 56 113 44
50.................. 1,191 760 64 431 36
55 ................. 168 119 70 49 30
60 ................. 260 119 45 141 55
65.................. 46 26 56 20 44
70.................. 47 30 64 17 36
75.................. 17 15 88 2 12
80..... .............. 1 1 100 ....................
85................... 1 1 100 ....................
90................... 1 1 100 ..................
100................... 1 .......... 1 100

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique, Bulletin Trimestriel de Statitique. No. 22, September 1956.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti Adapted from table VIII, p. 36.
2 All values at official rate of 5 gourde per U.S. dollar.


Improvement is reported in teachers' salaries during the past
10 years, but the increase has been in part offset by the decrease
in the purchasing power of the gourde.
That there is some increment in salary according to the num-
ber of years of service6 is shown by the average monthly salaries
of elementary teachers, urban and rural:-
Years of service Urban school Rural schools
Less than 5_ $45.60 $41.80
5 to 9 51.40 50.40
10 to 14 53.40 53.80
15 to 19_____- ___ 56.80 55.00
20 to 24 ..........---------- ...... ..... 57.40 57.20
25 to 29 _.....------ ......--.....- .....- .... -.. 63.00 60.00
30 to 34 -_ 62.60
Over 35 ___
Unknown 54.40 49.60

There is a nominal increase in salary according to training.
Although available data do not afford significant statistics, the
following tabulation does indicate a trend :7
Average monthly
Training of women teachers salary
In all types of public schools --_. --- $49.00
With 3-year training at Elie Dubois-----... --------.. ...... .. 49.40
With 4-year training at Elie Dubois --_ --........--- - 52.80
With a diploma from Ecole Normale 54.20

During the school year 1955-56, 520 private and 357 public
secondary school teachers were reported.s Statistics for this
group are generally meager, since no special study has been made
of secondary teachers comparable to studies of elementary teach-
ers made by the Haitien Institut de Statistique. Obviously, there
is no division of secondary teachers according to urban and rural,
since secondary schools are located only in cities. Secondary
school teachers are usually men. No data were available concern-
ing the age classifications of the group.
The qualifications required for employment as a secondary
school teacher have already been described in chapter 2.
The preference of many Haitian parents for the private sec-
ondary schools rather than the public secondary schools suggests

6 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statiatique. No. 22. Septembre 1956.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Adapted from tabulation p. 87.
7 Ibid., p. 2.
s Ibid., No. 23, December 1956, from table 91-1, p. 155.


that many private schools may be staffed with better qualified
teachers than are the public schools. Moreover, many teachers in
the public schools also teach part time in the private schools.
Salaries for secondary school teachers are substantially higher
than salaries of elementary teachers. The average annual salary
of 327 professors was found to be $70.40 with a range of salary
from $55 to $77. This is $19.20 per month more than the average
salary of urban elementary teachers. The lowest salary reported
for a secondary school professor exceeds the average for urban
elementary teachers. Secondary school salaries reported in 1957
are given in table 7.

Table 7.-Average monthly salaries for various classes of
public secondary school employees, 19571

Range in Number of Average
Class of employee salary 2 positions salary

Director ............................ $45to 90....... 14 $62.85
Proctor (Censeur).................... 40 to70....... 12 46.66
General superintendent................ 50 to 80....... 9 60.00
Superintendent........................ 50 to 65....... 3 58.60
Professors........................... 55 to 77....... 327 70.40
Assistant professors.................... 41 to 60....... 44 52.30
Professors of religious instruction........ 40 to 60. ...... 2 55.00
Stenographers ...................... 40to50....... 7 44.30
Clerk ...... ........................ None......... 1 45.00
Nurse................ ........... 45 to 55....... 2 50.00
Janitors-domestics. ................... None.......... 28 21.00

1 Compiled from unpublished list furnished by Assistant Director General of Secondary Schools,
August 14, 1957.
2 To the nearest U.S. dollar, all values at official rate of 5 gourdes per U.S. dollar.

There is no special provision for higher salaries for better
trained staff members, no provision for automatic pay increases
according to years of service.
This tabulation based on what is paid is not an accurate
representation of the total earned. Many professors in the public
secondary schools hold additional teaching positions in the private
secondary schools or do other part-time work. Earnings from
supplementary positions are in a few instances relatively sub-
stantial. Since many education positions do not pay living wages,
it is often necessary for teachers to supplement their income by
such part-time employment.
At age 55 and upon completion of 25 years of service a teacher
may retire at a retirement pay equal to the salary of the last


position he held before retirement, but not exceeding $80 per
month. The maximum is $100 per month for inspectors.
It is recognized that Haiti is not at present equipped to train
additional teachers needed for her thousands of children who are
out of school, and for the illiterate adults. It is also recognized
that she is equally unequipped to improve adequately the quali-
fications of the existing corps of teachers.
In addition to the teacher-training institutions, the Catholic
education program in Haiti includes teacher-training facilities
for training brothers and nuns as teachers. Prior to 1940 all
the teachers in the Catholic schools who were members of
Catholic religious orders were trained abroad, mostly in France,
Canada, and Belgium. Since World War II most of the sisters
are trained in Haiti in their respective congregations. Among
these are the Sisters of Saint Joseph de Cluny, 1'Ecole de Notre
Dame du Perpetuel Secours at Bel Air, and the Filles de la Sagesse
at Pensionnat Notre Dame du Sacre Coeur, and at the Novitiate
of St. Louis du Nord.
Teaching brothers are trained by the Freres de l'Instruction
Chretienne de Ploermel, an impressive institution near Petion-
ville; and a second institution for training brothers, the Juvenat
Notre Dame de Perpetuel Secours is operated by the Freres du
Sacre Coeur near Carrefour, a suburb of Port-au-Prince.
The primary concern of these institutions is teacher training.
However, they do train nuns and brothers in other fields. On
the other hand, many other Catholic schools train some teachers,
even though teacher training is not their major objective.
Protestant churches and mission organizations are also training
teachers as rapidly as possible to staff their schools.

Teacher Training Institutions

The major teacher training institutions are located in Port-au-
Prince, except the Rural Normal School (Ecole Normale Rurale),
which is located on the campus of the National School of Agri-
culture at Damien, a suburb about 7 miles from Port-au-Prince.

Superior Normal School

The Cours Normal Superieur which opened officially in 1944
may have been an outgrowth of the English-teaching program


operated by the United States Office of Education at the request
of the Haitian Government between 1943 and 1945.9 The estab-
lishment of the Cours Normal Sup6rieur (which later became
the present Ecole Normale Sup6rieure) realized recommendations
made as early as 1848 and repeated in 1860 by Haitian legislators;
and by the United States Commission in 1931.
The beginning and purpose of the Ecole Normale Superieure
as described by its Director are stated as follows:-

Created by a Decree Law of May 4, 1939, the Superior Normal School
did not immediately open because World War II made it impossible to get
teachers from France. It became so urgent for Haitian teachers of
secondary schools to secure special training that during the school year
1943-1944, courses were instituted for candidates for secondary teaching
at the Superior Normal School. These courses were to last an academic
year and would be open to students who had their certificate for Fin
d'Etudes Secondaires Classiques (Part 2). Early in 1946 students reg-
istered in the Superior Normal Course, received teaching from professors
of the French Institute in accordance with a cultural agreement of
September 24, 1945, between France and Haiti *10

This Superior Normal Course, by a Law of July 28, 1947,
became the Superior Normal School within the framework of the
University of Haiti created for the purpose of "training and
recruitment of professors for secondary and superior teaching of
letters and sciences."
Admission requirements, scholarships and agreement to teach
in public secondary schools following training are described as

The students are recruited by a competitive examination for young
people of both sexes who possess a Certificate de fin d'Etudes Secondaires
Classiques (Part 2) and are not more than 30 years old. The examination
usually takes place in October. A limited number of scholarships are
granted to the winners of this competitive examination who agree to
teach for 5 years in Haitian Public Schools after completing their studies.
The course at the Superior Normal School is for three years. The first
year is preparatory. It serves as transition between secondary and
superior school. The second year prepares for various certificates of
superior studies, and the third year for certificates for aptitude in sec-
ondary teaching. This last year provides a required practice teaching in
one of the Port-au-Prince lycees, under the supervision of a professor.

9 Cook, Mercer. Education in Haiti. U.S. Office of Education Bulletin 1948, No. 1. Washing-
ton, D.C., p. 46.
10 University d'Haiti; Bulletin No. 1, Imprimerie de I'Etat, Port-au-Prince. Haiti. Vol. 1, June
1950, p. 115.


In the legislator's mind the purpose of the Normal Superior School
was not limited to the professional training of future teachers for secondary
schools. As a cultural center it was open to all young people anxious and
willing to augment their knowledge. The school also fulfils the role of a
Letters' College. At this level, it receives students who, without applying
for a certificate of aptitude in secondary teaching, want to continue their
studies in one of the subject matters taught. A certificate of Superior
Studies (in French, literature, Spanish, history, etc.) is delivered to any
one who follows the course during 2 years and succeeds at the different
examinations. The diploma of the Normal Superior School can be
delivered to young people who do not want to get into secondary teaching,
as long as they satisfy the interior regulations of the school and succeed
at the tests and courses."
The director holds the degree of a Licientiate in Law from the
University of Haiti and a Licentiate of Letters (Classical Lan-
guages) of the Faculte des Lettres de Paris.
The professional staff includes 26 members. The minimum
academic requirement for employment as a member of the staff
is to hold a licence in science and letters from the University of
In addition to Haitian staff members, the Institut Francais
assigns three of its staff members to the Ecole Normale Su-
p6rieure. The Haitian American Institute assigns a highly quali-
fied linguist to this staff part time.
The program of the school is primarily classical and scientific
in nature with a minimum of emphasis on pedagogy. (See ap-
pendix A for program of studies.) This is doubtless in accord
with the purpose of the school of preparing teachers for the
public lycges, since the courses in the latter institutions emphasize
the classical and scientific. During their last year at the school,
students train in a practice situation in one of the lycees of
Port-au-Prince under the direction of the professors in charge.
The school has a library of 2,000 volumes which operates as a
lending library since the students are permitted to take books to
their dormitory. The students also have access to the National
Library and to the library of the Institut Francais.
The school operates as a boarding school. The budget of the
university provides 30 scholarships at $20 per month for 10
months each year. Holders of these scholarships reside at the
school which provides dormitory and refectory services.

11 Ibid., p. 116, 116, 117.


The school is housed in an old but well-maintained three-story
residence located on Rue Christophe. This building affords facili-
ties for three class rooms, office, and a library. Equipment con-
sists for the most part of tables, armchairs and teachers' desks.
There is a small supply of maps and charts but no adequate
provision for visual or other modern aids to teaching.
This institution is financed entirely by the University of Haiti.
The budget for the fiscal year 1956-57 totaled $41,676.12
The teacher-training institution operated by the Haitian Gov-
ernment through the General Administration of National Edu-
cation but not as a part of the University is under a supervisor
who is directly responsible to the General Administration. This
supervisor had basic training in l'Ecole Normale d'Institutrices
in Port-au-Prince, followed by additional study in France.

Urban Normal School for Men

The Ecole Normale Urban for Men has a history of interruptions
in its service. It was authorized by law in 1913, but did not
actually "come into being" until 1932. It was closed for a brief
period but reopened in 1935 and continued in operation until
1941. Then it was again closed-not to be reopened until 1947.
Since then it has been in operation without interruption. The
single purpose of this institution is to train young men to teach
in urban elementary schools.
The Director is administratively responsible to the Supervisor
of Normal and Urban Schools. The Supervisor in turn is respon-
sible to the Assistant Director General for Elementary and Urban
Normal Education; the Assistant Director reports directly to the
Director General of National Education.
The present director has served a total of 7 years with a leave
of absence for 2 years during which he obtained his master's
degree in education from a university in the United States. All
of the regular-staff members are graduates of normal schools in
Haiti. The majority of the staff have studied at various univer-
sities in the United States, France, England, Switzerland, or
Mexico.' A physician teaches first aid and school hygiene. A
priest teaches courses in religion and moral philosophy. Unlike
the Superior Normal School of the University, this school receives
12 Imprimerie de 'Etat, Le Monitur, Journal Officiel de la Republique d'Haitl. Numbro extra-
ordinaire. Budget Gen6ral pour l'annde flacale 1956-57. Port-au-Prince, 1957.


no teaching service from the Institut Francais or the Haitian
American Institute. Most of the staff members have been in
their present positions for 5 years or more.
The average salary for teaching staff is approximately $61 per
month for 6 to 8 hours service per week. Many of the teachers
hold additional part-time positions, some receiving combined sal-
aries of as much as $210 per month.
The school is operated as a boarding school with an enrollment
of around 40. The Government of Haiti provides a subsidy of
$28 per month per student for food and lodging. Housekeeping
service is provided so the students take no responsibility for
maintenance of their quarters, food preparation, or other in-
stitutional details.
For admission an applicant must have the troisieme secondaire
roughly equivalent of tenth grade in an American high school.
Joint entrance examinations are held with the Urban Normal
School for Women each September. Admission is by rank order
of grades in this examination. The number of admissions is based
on the number of vacancies in the school resulting from gradua-
tion, failure, or dropout. The school graduates from 12 to 15
students per year.
The program of studies extends over a 3-year period. The
school year is 10 months long from October to July inclusive.
The classroom instruction is supplemented by practice teaching,
principally during the third year. The students teach classes
under the joint direction of their teachers and the teacher in
the practice school. Ten hours in practice teaching are required
in each subject matter field, e.g., mathematics, social studies, or
Practice teaching opportunities are provided by a practice
school enrolling 250 boys. It is operated as a part of the normal
school. However, the practice school teachers are employed sep-
arately from the normal school staff; the entire practice school
budget is separate from the normal school budget.
Graduation upon completion of the course and satisfactorily
passing the examinations, leads to a Dipl6me de Fin d'Etudes
Normales issued by the Ministry of Education. This diploma
constitutes a license to teach in any elementary school in Haiti.
Some of the graduates find teaching positions in towns in the
Provinces. Most of them are employed in urban elementary
schools throughout the Republic. There is some unemployment
of graduates because many teaching positions are filled by ap-


pointment of untrained people; there is no guarantee of employ-
ment preference for graduates of the normal schools.
There is a library of approximately 600 titles, mostly French,
but with a few English and Spanish titles dealing for the most
part with educational subjects. A student serves as librarian.
Books may be loaned for use on the school premises. Because of
the location of the school, access to the National library is difficult,
as is access to other libraries.
The school is housed in an old French home located in a
residential area of Port-au-Prince. Three classrooms, one for each
year, are provided. The second floor serves as a dormitory, the
large porches as a refectory. Offices, library, and quarters for a
dormitory supervisor are also provided, as well as servants' quar-
ters. Sheds located in the rather spacious yard house the seven
class rooms of the practice school. The buildings belong to the
Government of Haiti.

Urban Normal School for Women

This school, like the Normal School for Men, has a history of
many changes of administrations, of repeatedly being closed and
reopened since its founding in 1914. From its opening until 1943
it was under the direction of a French woman. Reorganized in
1944, it was briefly in charge of a committee from the Rural and
Urban Division of the General Administration of National Educa-
tion, then in charge of an American directress until 1945 when
a Haitian directress was appointed.
The administrative relationship of the directress to the Super-
visor of Normal and Urban schools, to the National Department
of Education and the Ministry are the same as those for the
Director of the Normal School for Men. This school has the
single purpose of training young women to teach in the urban
elementary schools.
The directress was graduated from this school the first year of
its existence. Later, she studied in France at Centre International
d'Etudes P6dagogiques de Secres, and observed in a number of
French normal schools.
Of the 19 present staff members, at least 8 have studied abroad
in one or more schools. Universities and other higher institutions
where they have studied include a superior normal school in Chile,
University of Puerto Rico; University of Geneva, Switzerland;
University of Paris, the Sorbonne, France; University of Notting-


ham, England; Pennsylvania State College and West Virginia-
State College in the United States. One staff member holds a
doctorate in psychology from the University of Montreal.
The average salary of the professional staff, like that of the
Normal School for Men, is $61 per month. It appears that the
practice of holding two or more jobs is less common among the
staff members of the women's normal school than among the staff
members of the men's normal school.
This school operates as a combined boarding and day school
with an enrollment of 26 boarding and 33 day students. The
Government of Haiti allows $20 per month per student for sub-
sistence of boarding students. All salaries of instruction and
other personnel are paid by the National Department of Educa-
tion. The school term is for 10 months, boarding students return-
ing to their homes during August and September.
Admission requirements are the same as for the Normal School
for Men. As many as 100 applicants often take the admission
examinations, but admissions are limited to the number of va-
cancies resulting from graduation and dropout. The average age
of students is 18.
The program of studies extends over 3 years and is essentially
the same as for the men's Normal School. The program includes
folk dancing taught by the directress of the Haitian Institute of
Folkloric and Classic Dancing.
Class instruction in the Normal School for Women is not as
well supplemented by practice teaching as the Normal School for
Men. There is no practice school on the premises. Instead, the
girls receive a limited amount of practice teaching in one of the
public elementary schools in Port-au-Prince during their third
year of training. The teachers who supervise this practice teach-
ing are not members of the normal school staff, and supervision
of the practice teaching is limited.
Satisfactory completion of course work and passing the final
examination leads to the same type of certificate awarded in the
Normal School for Men. About 15 women are graduated each
year. They find employment almost exclusively in the elementary
schools of the cities.
The physical plant, an 18th century mansion characterized by
elaborate ceiling decorations and wood paneled walls, provides
three classrooms, one for each class, a library office and a dormi-
tory, refectory, and kitchen. There are approximately 1,000
volumes in the library. Quarters for a resident matron and serv-
ants quarters are also provided. The students have little if any


responsibility for the maintenance of their own quarters. The
building is rented by the Department of Education.

Elie Dubois, Vocational School

Although technically a vocational school, the contribution of
1'Ecole Elie Dubois to teacher education and the number of its
graduates who are teaching justifies its consideration with the
normal schools. Founded in 1913, the school was named after
Elie Dubois, a former minister of education who was distinguished
for his interest in vocational education. L'Ecole Elie Dubois has
been devoted to better education for women in Haiti.
Since its beginning the school has been operated by sisters of
the Order of Fille de Marie de Paridaens of Belgium. At present,
eight Belgian sisters of this order, together with several Haitian
sisters, constitute the staff of the school. One of the Belgian
sisters is a nurse. All of the Belgian sisters have special training
equal to that required in Belgium for teaching in their respective
fields. Some have special diplomas in such specialized fields as pat-
ternmaking and nutrition. The Haitian sisters have received their
basic training at 1'Ecole Elie Dubois, although two of them have
gone to Belgium for special training in pedagogy and methodology
of teaching.
The school provides complete training for girls in the field of
home economics and for those who take the 3- and 4-year course
as additional training for teachers. The school operates as a
combined day and boarding school with a total enrollment of 150.
Thirty resident girls are supported by subsidies of $20 per month
from the Government of Haiti, as are the students at the normal
schools and other institutions. The nonboarding students live in
their homes in Port-au-Prince.
A distinguishing feature of the school is that the resident girls
perform a large part of the work of maintaining their dormi-
tories, work in the refectory, care for their own clothing, and
perform related services, thus securing practical experience as
well as receiving theoretical training and in part defraying the
cost of their living. This is in contrast to the two normal schools
where servants are employed to perform these duties.
For admission, a girl must have either brevet simple or a brevet
supgrieur, representing respectively 9 and 11 years of schooling.
The program of the school includes cooking and sewing, home
management, child care (with practical work at the nearby Gen-

~Y[FEIE -1 ` I




i'- D t at E Rua Norm So i

NOTE.-Photogrophs through courtesy U.S. Operations Mission to Haiti.

At community demonstration school in Laborde, home
economics technician (center) participating in inservice train-
ing activities for rural teachers.

o B~Bl scol tPrta-rne
'r -. r


~BF, mP~a

uate of the University of Haiti College of Pharmacy
k in a Port-au-Prince pharmacy. I


eral Hospital), baking, clothing care and maintenance, pattern-
making, and tailoring. Many girls become proficient in making
elaborate and beautiful needlework.
Those who desire to become home economics teachers receive
professional training in pedagogy and methodology of teaching,
with practice teaching at an elementary school specializing in
elementary home economics. Stenography and typing are also
taught. Religious instruction is an integral part of the program.
Many of the graduates who have finished only 3 years of the
4-year course find employment in dressmaking shops or establish
their own shops. Most of the graduates find employment as home
economics teachers in the public schools, or in the home economics
centers for adults operated under the adult education program.
At the end of 3 years graduates receive a general diploma, at the
end of 4 years a teacher's diploma.
The school is supported in general by the National Department
of Education. Teachers' salaries are paid by this Department
which also buys supplies and equipment. Money from the sale of
needlework done at the school is spent for the benefit of the school.
The main building, constructed in 1930, provides six academic
classrooms, a chapel, home economics laboratories for foods and
clothing, laundry, office, refectory, and a kitchen. The second
floor is a dormitory. There is also a residence for the sisters,
quarters for nonprofessional staff, and an infirmary. The entire
school plant, located in downtown Port-au-Prince, is surrounded
by a high wall forming a compound with flower bordered walks
and shaded by old trees. The school has a library of about 1,000
These buildings belong to the National Department of Educa-
tion, and the Department is responsible for their maintenance.
The equipment is old and worn, but seemingly well cared for.
The establishment reflects industry, frugality, and seriousness of
purpose, all of which are much needed ingredients in the program
of education.

Rural Normal School

The urban schools of Haiti have much more provision for train-
ing teachers than the rural schools. Although the Superior Normal
School trains teachers for the lycees which are located only in
the cities and the two normal schools train teachers for urban
elementary schools, little or no continuous and effective effort


seems to have been made to train teachers for the rural elemen-
tary schools. This is noteworthy in view of the fact that 90
percent of Haiti's people live outside the cities.
Of the various rural teacher-training attempts made between
1913 and 1946 probably the most effective was the Section
Normale de 1'Ecole Pratique d'Agriculture. But this school was
closed in 1946. No training, specifically for rural elementary
teachers was provided until 1954 when Ecole Normale Rurale
was opened as a technical assistance project under provision of
the technical assistance agreement between United States and
Haiti negotiated in 1951.
Established by Haitian law September 24, 1954 to train teachers
for rural elementary schools, it began to function at the beginning
of the 1954-55 school year. It is a joint operation of the Govern-
ment of Haiti and the International Cooperative Administration
of the United States, represented in Haiti by the United States
Operations Mission to Haiti.
The subsidiary organization of this Mission specifically con-
cerned with education is the Service Coopgratif Haitiano Amiri-
cain d'Education Rurale, known as SCHAER.
This school is operated under the joint direction of an American
technician, a specialist in teacher training and administration,
and his Haitian counterpart officer. The latter, in addition to
extensive teacher training in Haiti, has had a full academic year
of intensive training in education in an American university, as
a beneficiary of an American training grant.
The staff of the school consists of 12 full-time and 8 part-time
teachers. Of this group five have had training only in Haiti.
Those training outside of Haiti include three who have had not
less than 1 year each at the Pan American Normal School in
Rubio, Venezuela; one at UNESCO Fundamental Education
Center at Patzcuaro, Mexico; four in United States. Two others
have had training abroad. Several of the staff members have
received training at the Section Normale de l'Ecole Pratique be-
fore it was closed in 1946. A physician is employed part time to
teach hygiene and sanitation.
The staff are employees of SCHAER, but their salaries are
paid from joint funds contributed equally by the Government of
Haiti and the United States. The average salary for a full-time
instructor is $161 per month. This is adjusted according to time
spent for part-time staff members.
Admission requirements at the opening of the school were quite
flexible to permit enrollment and immediate training of a selected


group of teachers who were already employed as rural teachers.
In 1957 at the end of the first 3-year cycle of operation of the
school the admission requirements were established to include:
1. Certificate of brevet dlemintaire (for girls) and at least quatriime or
troisieme (for boys).
2. For students recruited directly from rural areas at least certificate
d'itudes primaires.
All applicants are required to take an admission-examination;
admission is based on rank order of grades received in this exani-
nation. The average age of the students is approximately 20
years. Unlike most other Haitian teacher-training institutions, the
Rural Normal School is coeducational.
The current total enrollment is 91; 18 girls and 73 boys. The
school is operated as a boarding school with the $20 per month
per student subsistence allowance being paid by the National De-
partment of Education directly to the director of the school, who
in turn operates the necessary dormitories, refectory, and kitchens
for the students. All students enrolled live at the school. Like
the students in the Normal School for Men and the Normal
School for Women, the students at the Rural Normal School have
no responsibility for the maintenance and care of their personal
quarters. An effort is being made to get students to assume some
degree of responsibility.
The program of studies was developed cooperatively by a com-
mittee of Haitian educators working with American technicians
and with the collaboration of an education expert representing
UNESCO. The program requires 4 years for completion of the
course work, followed by a 3-year probationary teaching period
in Haitian rural schools. During the probationary teaching period
the teacher is required to attend not less than three summer school
sessions for teachers.
Beginning in the third year, 5 hours of practice teaching are
required per week. This teaching is done under the supervision
of the professors of methodology and pedagogy and the teacher
of the practice school. An elementary school, enrolling both boys
and girls, is operated on the campus of the school where student
teachers carry on their practice teaching work. This practice
school, unlike many Haitian rural schools, is operated as a coedu-
cational community school, to encourage the concept of coeduca-
tion by giving prospective teachers experience with mixed groups
of boys and girls.
Upon satisfactory completion of the course work, the proba-


tionary period and the summer schools, a diploma of normal
training is granted.
Since its beginning in 1954, 75 students have been graduated
from the Rural Normal School; including 41 men who were al-
ready teachers and not required to take the entire course; 11
women who were also previously teachers and 23 young men who
were admitted by examination. The Division of Rural Education
of the National Department of Education has employed all but
a very few of the graduates; including all of the girls. The appoint-
ments have been to rural schools. Graduates are given preference
for appointment to rural school vacancies. As many as possible
have been employed in the community demonstration schools op-
erated by SCHAER as a part of its technical assistance program
in rural education. (See chapter X).
The physical plant of the school provides two classrooms for
students, three classrooms for practice teaching, an industrial
arts training center, two dormitories, a cafeteria, and a residence
for the director. The buildings are modest, having been built in
part by volunteer labor offered by parents of the children attend-
ing the practice school. With the exception of one dormitory, the
buildings have been built under SCHAER direction, jointly fi-
nanced by Haitian and American Governments.
Equipment in the Rural Normal School and the practice school
is superior to equipment in many normal schools, particularly
instructional material and supplies. Normal school students and
children in the practice school have text books, reference works,
maps, globes, charts, magazines, and other material. There is a
library of about 1,200 volumes, including many French titles deal-
ing with methodology and pedagogy. The staff also have the use
of a small professional library maintained by SCHAER. The
industrial arts teaching-training center has an assortment of
handtools, a forge, and ceramic kiln.
The Rural Normal School, operating on a demonstration basis,
is expected to make a significant contribution to teacher education
in Haiti. The task remains of improving general conditions in
the rural schools to a point where improved teaching methods
can be applied.
The urgent need for rural teacher training in Haiti has
prompted the Government of Haiti and the United States techni-
cal assistance field party in rural education, working through
SCHAER, to develop a program of summer schools for the in-
service training of teachers and supervision. Summer sessions of
6 weeks were made available to all rural teachers and district

inspectors during the summer of 1955. Combined attendance ex-
ceeded 1,000. The sessions were held at easily accessible points,
one in each Department of the Republic. Because of low salaries
and dependence of teachers on summer employment, it was neces-
sary to provide travel and subsistence for those attending. The
program included lectures, discussions, demonstrations, and field
trips related to improved school management and teaching meth-
ods, to the development of simple "homemade" teaching materials
to supplement the supplies furnished by the Department of Na-
tional Education. The Haitian Department of Public Health in
cooperation with a United States technical assistance team pro-
vided free physical examinations and X-rays and the services of
a mobile clinic for each of these summer sessions.

Chapter IV

Elementary Education

H OW TO PROVIDE educational facilities for the 5- to 14-year
age group is probably the major educational problem in
Haiti. Although the number of children in school more than
doubled between 1941 and 1955, there are still approximately
600,000 children reportedly out of school. Figure 6 shows the
total enrollment in all public schools.
This large number of children out of school is far from being
in accord with the wishes and intent of the Republic. The Con-
stitution of 1950 established certain general principles relative to
education in Haiti as follows:
Article 22.-The freedom of teaching is provided according to Law
under control and supervision of the State which has to be interested in
the moral and civic formation of the youth.
Public education is a responsibility of the State and the communes.
Elementary education is free to all levels.
Technical and professional teaching must be generalized
Access to superior studies must be open equally to everyone in accord-
ance to their abilities.
These same principles had been asserted in earlier constitutions.

Compulsory Education

Haiti's story of compulsory education is told briefly in the
following excerpt from an unpublished document made available
to the author by the Director General of National Education:
The period of compulsory education for children from 7 to 14 years
extends only over the time of elementary education. Secondary education
is free but not compulsory.
The principal legal dispositions concerning compulsory education go
back to the years 1842, 1853, 1912, 1923, 1938.


Figure 6.- Enrollment in all public schools, 1941-42 to 1954-55;
and population 5 to 14 years, according to 1950 census.'



S, ,,- . ., .... ... .'- .'". ,, .. ; .--.. 1
': "- '+ ',": '.f, ,. '.' ;"..- i';- :r;-.'" :P t' "
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-. . --, , .,' ..,. ,. .- ... ." ..
,. -. 'F, -, & .: . . ..
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., - ] ." . ." -

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~ . .
i:.ii ..
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m m I m m "/ l l .m I' I
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,_'. ., '. .. . -- : : .. ,. ..-. .r
~ ~ ~ ~ .. .- . ,.' -.. ..,.
; .. .= .',' ., ,.+ . ,,. : ,
"F ..-' -',:L'. ,.' ., Ll ".,-., .- c .% ", ". _

__~___ _____

I Institute Haitien de Statistique. Buletin Trimestriel de Statistique, No. 23. Deembre 1956.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Adapted from Graphique I, p. 15.

"- l l M 1 .


~ 7~7-
.. ".3
; "`~'
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r. i:

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5-14 Years
1950 Census


Among the measures taken to apply laws of compulsory education the
following can be named:
Free Education at all levels.
Control of attendance in cities by School Inspectors, in rural areas
by the Chief of Section or by a citizen charged with responsibility
of sending a report to the Inspector of District.
The principals of the schools are obliged to keep a record of attend-
ance and send a copy to the Bureau of Statistiques of the Department
of National Education.
In the control of attendance by school inspectors, the following sanc-
tions can be taken:
Against the parent; reprimand, fine and imprisonment in case
of recidivism.
Against the children; sent to court, in case of recidivism sent as
boarders to a house of reeducation.
Against the directors; reprimands, suppression of salary for 3
months, revocation in case of recidivism.
Against the inspectors; censure by the department in charge in
the official newspaper, revocation in case of recidivism.
No article of the Law mentions the cases where the children can be
exempted from school. Certain causes regarded as legitimate are some-
times taken into consideration or invoked in favor of the guilty. These
are: sickness of the child or of a member of the family, lack of shoes,
clothing, accidents incurred by difficulty of communications, poverty
recognized and verified of the parents.
In localities where the people in charge maintained the application of
the law it has been stated that the percentage of children out of school
has decreased.
It must also be stated that during these past 5 years, the utility of
education has become so obvious that there are no longer enough schools.
Our economic situation is an obstacle for carrying out compulsory
In spite of the great number of schools built, the State has not yet
dotted the country with enough schools, especially in far rural places in
the mountains. In 5 years the population has increased 29 percent. The
economic evolution not being proportional to the demographic evolution,
in spite of the many schools built, we face, during these past 6 years a
lack of schools for all the children of our cities, as well as of our rural

Rural Schools

Even though rural and urban elementary schools have in com-
mon the same constitutional and legal principles, they differ
widely in various respects.
The rural schools are administered by an Assistant Director
General of Rural Education. He is responsible to the Director


& -~

T *-j," Oft

A Haitia rural lementar school

Outdoor classroom in rural school near Donclon. In Haiti's climate it is possible for
I outdoor classrooms to relieve congestion in inadequate buildings. I


General of Education who in turn is responsible to the Minister
of Education. As a staff for the Assistant Director General of
Rural Education the Budget for 1956-57 provided for the follow-
ing positions: Inspector General, Inspector of School Materials,
Inspector of Agriculture, Inspector of Social Work, Inspector of
Manual Education, and Inspector of Home Economics.
In addition there are 34 regional inspectors. Qualifications and
duties of these officers are given in detail in chapter II.


Rural school enrollments increased sharply during the 6-year
period from 1951 to 1956 inclusive as shown in table 8.

Table 8.-Rural schools, enrollment and average daily attendance,

Average daily attendance
Year Enrollment
Percent of
Total enrollment

1951........................... 61,565 44,788 73
1952 .......................... 76,190 57,358 75
1953 .......................... 93,219 71,184 76
1954 .......................... 97,190 74,751 77
1955 ................... ...... 91,961 68,885 75
1956........................... 96,262 73,369 76

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statistique. Data compiled from
various issues.

Although complete data were not available on the relative
enrollment of boys and girls, the available data indicate that more
than twice as many boys as girls enrolled in rural schools.
The average 'attendance figures in table 8 indicate that only
about 3 out of 4 rural children enrolled are in daily attendance.
Observation in rural areas reveals that the existing schools often
seem poorly located with reference to the population they serve.
There are no local school districts, few parents' organizations; and
enforcement of compulsory education laws is difficult. Such con-
ditions favor nonattendance. Review of local attendance records
show that many children continue in enrollment and at the same


time do not attend a sufficient number of days during the school
year to make appreciable progress.
If it could be assumed that all children enrolled in rural schools
were divided equally among the available teachers, no teacher
would have less than the number enrolled at any time during the
period reported. (See table 9.) It is evident that many teachers
for the lower grades have over 100 children enrolled, while teach-
ers in upper grades, where dropouts are large, may have as few
as 20.

Table 9.-Rural elementary schools, average enrollment
per teacher, 1951-56

Number of Enrollment
Year Enrollment teachers per teacher

1951 ........................... 61,565 964 63
1952............................ 76,190 1,078 70
1953............................ 93,219 1,517 61
1954 ........................... 97,190 1,535 63
1955 ........................... 91,961 1,504 61
1956.................... ....... 96,262 1,541 62

z Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statistique. Data compiled from
various issues.

The discrepancies in teacher load are further revealed by the
reports of a group of rural teachers who in 1956 were enrolled
in a summer workshop representing 15 schools. These reports
are summarized in table 10.
Figure 7 indicates a definite trend toward larger rural schools.
Approximately 38 percent of schools in 1937-38 had enrolled un-
der 50, whereas only 5 percent had similar enrollment in 1953-54.
Likewise in the same interval schools with an enrollment in excess
of 200 have increased from about 0.5 percent to nearly 34 percent.
This trend will undoubtedly receive consideration in current and
future planning as it may be related to population shifts and could
be greatly effected by road building programs or other action
affecting population movement.
The continuation of a largely noncoeducational school system
seems assured. Between 1943 and 1955 there was only 2 percent
change in number of rural schools for boys (41 percent in 1955).
In the same period schools for girls decreased from 49 percent
of the total to 41 percent.


Figure 7. -Percentage comparison of rural elementary schools,
according to size and enrollment, 1937-38 to 1953-54.1


10 Ki Enrol

.. E ment

80 -

60 -

40 -

20 --

1937-38 1939-40 1940-41 1941-42 1943-44 1953-54
School Years

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statistique. No. 22, Septembre, 1956.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Adapted from Graphique II, p. 21.


Table 10.-Number of pupils enrolled, by grades, by number of
teachers and rooms, as reported in 15 rural schools1

Number enrolled in-

School Total Beginners Intermediate Advanced g
Number enrolled Pre- __ __
school |
I II I II I II z z

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

1.......... 251 24 163 25 17 8 3 11 4 2
2.......... 186 30 98 27 23 ...... 4 ..... 3 1
3.......... 264 15 109 56 32 25 15 12 6 5
4.......... 234 5 163 32 14 16 4 ..... 2 2
5.......... 186 15 81 63 21 6 ........... 2 2
6.......... 170 5 143 13 6 3 .......... 2 1
7.......... 150 59 49 20 18 4 ..... ..... 2 1
8.......... 217 10 140 36 27 3 1 ..... 4 1
9.......... 174 10 100 50 5 7 2 ..... 2 1
10.......... 465 12 218 178 27 23 5 2 7 2
11.......... 320 10 193 42 36 29 5 5 4 2
12.......... 261 10 194 33 15 5 2 2 3 1
13 .......... 259 5 226 24 4 ...... ..... ... 2 1
14.......... 278 18 145 76 20 11 6 2 4 1
15.......... 185 15 70 40 20 40 ........... 2 2

1 Compiled from class reports of rural teachers enrolled in summer school provided by the
Department of Rural Education and Service Coopvratif Haitiano Amnricain Education Rurale,

Types of Schools

As of 1955-56 there were 794 rural schools, 429 public and
365 presbyterial. The public schools are operated exclusively by
the government; presbyterial schools for the most part by the
Catholic Church. Both types of schools are financially supported
by the Haitian Government.
Prior to 1951, Haitian rural schools were divided into: Rural
schools, presbyterial schools, farm schools, village schools, and
communal schools. For statistical purposes, the five types were
reduced to "public" and presbyteriall" in 1951. However, each
type still retains certain distinguishing characteristics.
As the name indicates, the rural school is a country school,
entirely supported by the government and under the supervision
of a district inspector. The presbyterial school is similar in most
respects, but is usually under the jurisdiction and supervision of
a local priest. The prebyterial school may be located in a strictly
rural area or in a village.


The farm schools, about 74 in number, are often better equipped
than the rural schools. Instead of the mud-walled thatched peas-
ant houses that often house other types of rural schools, the
farm school may have a 2- or 3-room frame or masonry building
with a corrugated iron roof. Frequently, one or two small adjoining
buildings are used as a shop and home economics center. The
premises are usually attractively landscaped. Each farm school,
as its name implies, is located in a small cultivated plot where
the children receive limited practical instruction in gardening.
The farm schools were originally staffed by teachers trained at
the College of Agriculture and designed to teach rural boys and
girls the rudiments of agriculture and of home management and
improvement, in addition to basic academic subjects. However,
this program has largely disappeared since the separation of the
Department of Rural Education from the Department of Agri-
culture in 1946.
The village schools are located in the larger villages of the
communes. They are frequently housed in rented buildings not
always suitable for school purposes.
The communal schools, few in number, are usually in the
largest village of the commune. They frequently have a larger
enrollment than the village schools but suffer similar handicaps
of inadequate housing and equipment, and of limited programs
and excessive crowding.
The budget for rural schools for 1956-57 was $801,385, a slight
decrease from previous years.1 This figure includes budget items
for the office of the Assistant Director General of Rural Educa-
tion and the regional inspectors, allowances for 28 school can-
teens, and for the operation of Ecole de Chatard, an upper ele-
mentary-level boarding school. For general operation of the rural
schools this budget provided among other items the following
monthly allowances: Rent for rural schools, $1,360; rent for
village schools, $485; rent for inspectors offices, $320; subsidy
for presbyterial schools, $3,000.
It is recognized that rural teachers are not usually as well
trained as urban teachers; they receive less money and their
positions are in many respects unenviable. They must deal with
greatly over-crowded classes, particularly in the lower grades.
More than 100 children per teacher is not uncommon.
1 Le Moniteur, Journal Offidel de la Rdpublique d'Haiti. Num6ro extraordinaire. Budget
Genfral pour Iannde fiscal 1956-57, p. 171. Imprimerie de l'Etat, Port-au-Prine.


Teachers often work in small mud-walled, clay-floored thatched
houses built for peasant homes but forced into service as schools.
Their insufficient school room furniture consists of homemade
benches and desks. They have practically no school supplies,
never enough books, and rarely such teaching aids as charts and
They are subject to routine inspections but get only limited
supervision. Their housing is what they can find in the village,
or a cot moved into a corner of the schoolroom each night.
Teachers assigned to farm schools often have better working
conditions. Those in village and communal schools are still more
fortunate as living conditions in the village may be more com-
fortable than in the isolated rural areas.
The school calendar is the same for both rural and urban
schools. For 1957 it provides for a total of 171 days of instruction
between October 1, the traditional opening date, and July 5. The
prolonged vacations and numerous holidays are indicated by the
number of school days per month as listed below:
Month Number of Number of
elass days Month class days
October ...____--.... --... 21 March. -.... ... 19
November -- -__. 20 April --._-. __-__._... 15
December -----_ ----...___. 13 May -_ 21
January _.. ___ ... .. .. 19 June ----------. 19
February ---....---.-----... 20 July -..-----... 5
Half day sessions are customary during the months of June and
July because of afternoon heat.
The school day is customarily scheduled from 9:00 to 11:30 a.m.
and 1:00 to 4:00 p.m. with part of the afternoon devoted to
gardening and recreation. Much time is spent in marching and
singing. Many children, particularly in the country, walk long
distances to school. Tardiness and irregular attendance are com-
mon and are a serious handicap to school progress.

Program of Studies

The present official curriculum of the rural elementary schools
was originally written in 1938 in the Ministry of Education as
the official program of studies for urban schools. Subsequent to
1938 when the rural schools were brought under the jurisdiction
of the Ministry, this program was adopted as the official program
of the rural schools. There have been no officially adopted changes


or revisions of this program, although several attempts have
been made to secure revisions. It is now being studied by a
United States technical assistance mission in education.
Certain adaptations have been made in the rural schools in an
attempt to make the program more applicable to rural conditions.
The objective of this program of studies for rural schools is de-
scribed in the following translation-

Since the purpose of primary teaching is to reduce the high percentage
of illiteracy, it is necessary to know the importance of this teaching and
how it operates.
By primary teaching, we mean the program of studies which lead to
the level of Certifiwt d'Etudes Primaires. One who obtains this certifi-
cate has the basic background in arithmetic, language, and elementary
sciences which will permit him either to continue developing his intellec-
tual resources or to resolve every day problems. This course ordinarily
extends over a period of 6 or 7 years and a student of average intelligence
who begin his studies at 6 will finish them at the age of 12.
The program of rural education in general outline is the same as the
urban primary education as far as basic knowledge is concerned, except
that it is much more practical. As a rule, the students at the rural
schools learn by doing. Handicrafts, practical course in agriculture
illustrate and strengthen the knowledge acquired in class.
From the end of the second or the beginning of the third grade, the
normal child attending a good school is no longer illiterate for he knows
how to read and he understands to some extent what he reads. But
research in the different countries where education tends to become a
science shows that at least 4 years in school are necessary to stabilize the
knowledge acquired in class and to eliminate the risks of having them fall
back into illiteracy.2

The United Nations report Mission to Haiti summarizes the
existing situation with reference to curriculum and instructional
materials as follows:

The curricula of all the schools--primary, secondary, prevocational,
vocational, and special-need revision to bring them in closer relation
with the life and economic realities of Haiti. Without books and other
printed materials no modern nation's schools and teachers can produce
any worthwhile learning. Progress in civic consciousness, public health,
and economic endeavour depend upon the efficient service of public

2Institut Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trihestriel de Statistques, Bulletin No. 22, Sep-
tembre 1956, p. 7.
s United Nations, Mission to Haiti. Report of the United Nations Mission of Technical Assist-
ance to the Republic of Haiti; Lake Success, New York, July 1949, p. 59.


The progress of children through the Haitian school system is
regulated to a large extent by the examination system. This
system is described in the following translation-

Examinations.-The examinations organized at the end of the school
year, determine the promotion of pupils from one class to the next higher
one. They are left to the judgment of directors who generally choose the
subjects for such examinations * *
The written examination.-The most important-are added to the oral
for obtaining the average for promotion.
In principle, the averages for the two first trimesters are added to the
third and constitute the decisive note for promotion.
At the end of elementary cycle, the pupils are sent to an official exami-
nation organized by the general Administration of National Education for
obtaining their Certificat d'Etudes Primaires. Superior primary studies
which last 3 years after the Certificat d'Etudes Primaires are confirmed
by Brevet Elementaire.
These examinations cover the subjects prescribed by the official pro-
gram. The subjects for written examinations are: Orthography, arith-
metic, French composition, Haiti's history and geography, general
information, natural and social sciences, and oral reading. Marks 0 and 1
are eliminatory for each subject. The average of marks obtained (30
over 50) gives the right to Certificat d'Etudes Primaires and Brevet
To be admitted to SixiBme or first year of secondary studies, one must
in principle have their Certificat d'Etudes Primaires and participate
in a selective examination because of so many applications for admission.
Personal report cards * (for urban and rural schools) are given
to each student. They give information concerning the student's work,
his parent's address and occupation.
The pupil's memorandum book is a link between the school and the
family. It keeps them informed of the work and behaviour of their
children. Parent's meetings are sometimes called for the same purpose.4

According to the official program of studies, the following
courses are established as indicated in this translation5-
The following is the designation of courses (which last 2 years each)
and the normal age in these different courses-
Beginners' section ..._--_.... .... --- .......... ..---.--- 4 and 5
Preparatory section ---..-...------ ..._-__.----. 6 apd 7
Elementary courses ---.......----.-------------------- 8 and 9
Intermediate courses -......--...........-_. ----. 10 and 11
Superior courses _-... --__ .... ...-___ __.. - 12 and 13

4 From an unpublished manuscript furnished the author by the Director General of National
Education, November 1957.
5 Translation from a mimeographed copy of the 1938 course of study prepared by Service
Coopdratif Haitiano Amnricain de VEducation Rurale.


The courses constituting this official elementary program of
studies, together with hours per week are given in detail in
appendix A.

Teaching Methods

The teaching method used is primarily memorization and recita-
tion. Since there are usually too many pupils with too few books,
the teachers resort to lecturing with help of material written on
the single small blackboard. Drill exercises in reading and arith-
metic are written on the blackboard to be copied by the children
in their notebooks. Lacking notebooks in many cases, there is no
alternative but to memorize from the blackboard or from the
teacher's reading. This is often done aloud in unison in a sing-
song fashion. Time permitting, individual pupils may be called
to the blackboard to recite the syllables of a reading lesson or
the drill material of an arithmetic lesson.
Such methods are considered the inevitable result of too many
pupils for inadequately trained teacher, meager equipment and
lack of books, papers, pencils, and other supplies. Without libra-
ries of supplementary textbooks, individual pupil research and
exploration as a learning technique are greatly handicapped.
It is doubtful whether the most skillful practitioners of modern
teaching methods could use a pupil activity program, create effec-
tive centers of interest or put into operation the principle of
"learning to do by doing" in the situation in which the many
Haitian teachers work. Training Haitian teachers in modern
methods should proceed, but trained teachers will be greatly
handicapped until teacher loads are reduced, adequate teaching
material and supplies provided, and improvements made in school
organization, pupil grouping, and many other conditions. Such
are prerequisite to an elementary school program expected to
produce a literate nation whose citizens possess at least minimum
skills to function in a democratic society.

Buildings and Facilities

The Haitian Government, recognizing the extreme need for the
construction of rural schools, enacted a law on September 15, 1951
establishing a 5-year program of improvement in education, public


health, agriculture, and public works. This program provided for
the construction of 25 three-room rural schools of an average
value of $6,000 per unit. Each school was to consist of three
classrooms approximately 20 x 30 feet, two sleeping rooms, a
toilet, and a rural-type kitchen. The buildings were to be located
on a minimum of 6 acres of land in order to provide for play-
ground, school garden, and landscaping.
Provisions of this law, however, have not yet been carried out
extensively. As the situation exists, the typical rural school con-
sists of two or three small classrooms in a thatched shed. The
walls are of wattles or wattle daubed with clay, the floor of clay
or paved with flat rocks. The inadequate classroom space is often
supplemented by shady areas under nearby trees where the usual
schoolroom benches are grouped. Fortunately, Haiti's climate
makes the simple construction and the outdoor classes quite
These schools are often built by the people of the community
with donated material and labor, on sites donated by local land-
owners or purchased by popular subscription. The sites are usu-
ally small. The local concept of a school is often limited to class-
room activity only. The need for space for playgrounds, gardens,
and teachers' residence as a part of a functional rural school
plant, is not yet generally recognized.
There is rarely any special provision for a water supply. A
bucket of drinking water from the same usually polluted source
used by the community may be provided for the pupils. Often
only a common drinking cup is provided. Sometimes an effort
is made to have pupils provide their own individual drinking cup.
Ordinarily no provision is made for a residence for the teachers.
Often they rent a dwelling in the community and establish their
own homes. Often, the teacher simply boards with a local family,
sharing whatever facilities are available.
In a few instances pit toilets are provided for the schools.
Quite often these are inadequate to serve the enrollment.
In the farm schools the situation may be somewhat better.
There is usually a one-room classroom building of masonry con-
struction with a corrugated iron roof. One room may be provided
for teachers quarters. A small building often serves as a workshop,
home economics center, or is pressed into service as a general
classroom. As in the other rural schools, the space provided is
usually inadequate to meet the enrollment needs and is supple-
mented by classes held out of doors. The school canteen, or lunch-
room, if one is operated, frequently consists of a coconut palmleaf


shade under which food is cooked in large iron pots each sup-
ported on three stones over small open fires.
Like the rural schools, the farm schools often lack any provision
for water supply. Unlike the more typical rural school, they do
have adequate school sites, often attractively landscaped, with
provision for gardens and play space.
Insofar as congestion and crowding and unsuitability of facili-
ties are concerned, the elementary village and communal schools
often fare worse than the schools in the strictly rural areas and
the farm schools. Only infrequently are buildings constructed
specifically for the use of these schools. Typically, they are simple
one-room store buildings or medium-sized residences rented for the
school, not designed for school use, cannot be well adapted, and
afford little more than minimum shelter. They are often in con-
gested parts of the village and do not afford the light and ventila-
tion available in the simple thatched sheds of the country schools.
Play space for children other than the village street is lacking.
Gardens are out of the question. Water supply and toilet facili-
ties are usually lacking. Teachers in the villages may be more
fortunate than their country colleagues in finding living quarters.
Furniture and equipment are in keeping with the buildings. A
combination desk and bench, designed to seat four, but often oc-
cupied by six, is the basic seating unit. This furniture, con-
structed of rough local hand-sawed lumber, is often in a rickety
condition. When the number present exceeds the available seats,
the children stand around the edge of the room or sit on the
floor. The desks do not provide storage space for books and sup-
plies. Rarely there is a small locked cabinet in which teachers
keep a few books, a box of chalk, and a meager supply of note-
books. A few schools have simple first aid cabinets. Many have
a limited number of large heavy hoes, a few rakes and shovels,
and machetes used for gardening activities. A small square of
rough boards painted black serves as a blackboard. A small bulle-
tin board exhibits several years collection of mimeographed bulle-
tin from the Department of Education. For decoration there are
a few health posters furnished by Canadian Red Cross, children'
drawings in wax crayon, and one or two religious pictures. Coco-
nut shells and bamboo sections serve as flower pots.
One book frequently serves many children. It is usually printed
in small type with a scattering of simple black and white illus-
trations, or poorly reproduced photographs. Many of the books
are old editions which give little or no recognition to accepted
standards of printing, illustrating, and writing of books for


children. For writing materials, a child may have a small note-
book and pencil. Many children use slates. There is an almost
complete lack of picture files, maps, charts, globes, reference en-
cyclopedias, and similar aids to learning.

Church and Private Schools

A description of elementary education would be incomplete
without recognizing the contribution made by the nonsubsidized
church schools. The church schools that are supported in full or
in part by the Haitian Government are a major factor in providing
educational facilities for Haitian children, but the church schools
which receive no support from the Haitian Government also make
an important contribution toward meeting the educational needs
of the country. The Catholic Church, in addition to operating a
number of elementary schools with government help, leads in the
number of schools operated without help. The following, summar-
ized from replies to a questionnaire sent to the clergy in March,
1957, gives the approximate number and enrollment of Catholic
and Protestant nonsubsidized schools:

Number of
Name of mission or church Schools Enrollment
Catholic___ 225 11,675
American Baptist, Home Mission Society ....-- 48 1,995
Episcopal Church .... ---- .... 37 1,660
Seventh-Day Adventist .... ------ 21 324
Church of the Nazarene -----_-__ -- 7
Church of Christ -_- --- -------_.-- 7
Mission Baptiste Biblique___ ______ 5 200
Haiti Inland Mission__ _5_.-- 5
Eglise St. PauL-....---...--.---- 5 284
All others --......-....... ------....-........-.... ......... 27 410

Private elementary schools are few in rural Haiti. Occasionally,
a group of peasants will pool their meager resources to employ a
teacher, often poorly qualified, rent a house, and try to provide a
school for their children. Frequently, these efforts are -short
lived, and serve more to demonstrate the desire and need for
schools than to provide educational facilities.
In a few instances, small tuition-supported elementary schools
accommodate a limited number of children in the larger villages.
In general, private elementary schools are limited to the cities.


Urban Schools

The urban schools fare better than the rural schools in many
respects. This may reflect a cultural pattern which tends in many
ways to favor the city. However, comparisons between the two
are difficult because of lack of data.
The urban elementary public schools are administered by an
Assistant Director General of Urban Education. He is in turn
responsible to a Director General of Urban Education who is
responsible to the Director General of National Education. The
Assistant Director General has an immediate professional staff
consisting of seven general inspectors, one inspector of manual
arts and home economics, and one inspector of lunch rooms. In
regional offices his staff consists of 22 inspectors.
The following shows the number and types of urban elementary
schools in 1955-56 as reported by the Government of Haiti in
their quarterly report of December 1956 (Bulletin Trimestriel de
Statistique) :
Number of Number of
Types of school schools teachers
Public -...-.- .........- ------------ ..225 1,296
Public congriganiste --- ....--- -..----- 80 696
Private -__.___ -.. __. -..- ....... 275 910
Total ------.....-- ---------- 580 2,902

Public Schools

The public schools, as the name implies, are schools operated
by the Haitian Government through the Ministry of Education
and the Department of Urban Education. The public congreganiste
are government supported, but church operated. The teachers
may be laymen, or members of the clergy. The private schools,
operated as private enterprises, may or may not enjoy small gov-
ernment subsidies. Many of them depend entirely upon tuition
for their support.
That the distribution of the urban public schools is not limited
to the five largest cities but extends widely over the Republic
is shown in the following list:6

6 Le Moniteur. Numero Extraordinaire. Budget G&neral, de I'Exereise, 1956-57, p. 148-167.


Number of
schools in
Name of district district
Port-au-Prince -.......-- 32
Petion-Ville 2
Croix des Bouquets .-_----- 3
Hinche ---------___-.... 5
Petit Goive 6
Anse a Veau_ _---- 7
Jacmel ---...-...--- ----------. 10
Cayes -__ ---- ----- 6
Coteaux 6__ 6
Aquin _. 5
J4r6mie ---. .. -----.--- 11
Anse d'Hainault -.....- 5

Number of
schools in
Name of district district
Saint Marc -- ------ 7
Petite Riviere de 1'Artibonite-- 5
Gonaives ..----... ..- 11
Plaisance ------__ 3
Limbe ........ ....------ 5
Grande Riviere du Nord.-....----- 7
Fort Liberte -- --..... ----......- ----. 5
Trou du Nord -- ------- 6
Cap Haitien ----- 10
Jean Rabel _- ---_____ 6
Port-de-Paix 9

In general the urban public elementary schools are small
shown in the following tabulation7 giving the distribution
teachers by schools:-

Number of Number of
teachers schools
1 to 5 ------ 105
6 to 10. --- -_ -_ 43
11 to 15 --. 17

Number of Number of
teachers schools
16 to 20- ..---.- ___ 4
21 to 25 .-____ 2
26 to 30 --.__ ___ 2

Table 11.- Urban elementary schools, enrollment and average
daily attendance, 1951-561

Average daily attendance

Year Enrollment
Total Percent of

1951 ........ ................ . 52,532 49,650 86
1952............................ 67,576 59,200 88
1953........................... 79,378 68,811 86
1954. .......................... 89,068 78,953 88
1955........................... 103,272 90,816 88
1956 ........................... 83,000 73,755 88

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statistique. Data compiled from
various issues.

Enrollment and average daily attendance in all urban schools
shows a marked increase during the period 1951 to 1956. (See
table 11.) It is obvious from this table, as compared with table

7 Ibid., p. 148-167.


8 that urban children have a somewhat better average daily at-
tendance than rural children.
Although the 25,468 increase in enrollment between 1951 and
1956, or 44 percent, is in itself a real achievement, this figure is
less optimistic in relation to the entire educational problem. If
adequate data were available so that refinement of these figures
were possible in terms of population growth by age group and
population shift from country to city, this apparent gain would
probably diminish.
Urban children appear to fare better than rural children in
the number of children per teacher, as shown in table 12.

Table 12.-Urban elementary schools, average enrollment per
teacher, 1951-561

Number of Enrollment
Year Enrollment teachers per teacher

1951........................... 57,532 1,627 35
1952........................... 67,576 1,415 47
1953 ........................... 79,378 1,961 40
1954........................... 89,068 2,577 34
1955.......................... 103,272 2,678 38
1956 .......................... 83,000 2,902 28

SInstitut Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestride de Statitique, No. 23, Decembre 1956.

This relatively low teacher load in terms of an average dis-
tribution is more apparent than real. Enrollments tend to be
excessively high in the lower grades. Many pupils leave school
long before completing the 6-year elementary school course. As
a result, teacher loads are often excessive in the lower grades,
and less than average in the upper grades.
The general characteristics of the elementary teaching staff,
already described in chapter III, indicate that urban teachers
have minor advantages as to pay, tenure of service, and in general
are somewhat better trained than rural teachers.
Officially the curriculum and examination system for urban
schools is the same as already described for rural schools. The
school calendar is the same for both rural and urban elementary
schools. For urban schools the school day is from 8 to 11 o'clock
in the morning and 2 to 4 o'clock in the afternoon.


Church and Private Schools

It appears from the General Budget for 1956-57,8 that the
urban congreganiste schools are operated under the auspices of
several Catholic organizations each of which takes responsibility
for a group of schools. The total budget for these schools for
the fiscal year 1956-57 was $30,861.
The organizations subsidized and the number of positions pro-
vided for each group are summarized in table 13.

Table 13.-Organization and personnel operating
enseignement primaire congr6ganiste

School and Religious Religious Lay
superiors directors teachers teachers

Ecole Congreganiste de Garcons..... 2 18 57 105
Soeurs St. Joseph de Cluny......... 1 10 28 42
Filles de la Sagesse ................ 1 12 37 44
Filles de Marie................... ... ....... 6 28 27
Congregation des Fr&res du
Sacr6-Coeur.................... 1 6 34 .. ..
Ecoles Congr6ganistes des Filles
Missionaries de l'Immaculde
Conception de Montral .......... .......... 19 72 40
Ecoles des Soeurs Salesiennes....... .................... 3 ...........

1 Le Moniteur, Budget Gin~ral. 1956-57, p. 172 ff.

Parochial schools follow the same program of studies as the
public schools plus more extensive study in religion. Their pupils
take the same examinations for promotion.
Many of the 275 urban elementary private schools, are subsi-
dized in part by the Government of Haiti. The National Budget
for 1956-57 lists 101 schools and educational organizations as
recipients of subsidies. Many of these are secondary schools,
many are combined elementary and secondary, and still others
are orphanages. It is therefore impossible to state exactly how
many of the private schools are subsidized. The subsidies for
all schools range from $10 per month to $250 per month with an
average of $79. As nearly as can be determined from the data,
the higher subsidies go to secondary schools. It is reasonable to

8 Ibid., p. 172.


assume that the average subsidy for elementary private schools
is substantially less than the $79 average per month.
There are many nonsubsidized private schools ranging from a
situation in which one teacher tutors a few children in his home
to fairly elaborate kindergartens and elementary schools. Since
there are no licensing requirements for these schools, it is not
necessary that they meet any standards of professional training
of teachers, physical facilities, or instructional materials. Some
of them do not equal the public and parochial schools in general
quality; some exceed the standards of the subsidized schools.
The fact that the private schools outnumber both the public and
parochial schools indicates the esteem in which they are held by
Haitian parents, as well as the fact that there is not enough
space in schools to accommodate all those who wish to attend.

Buildings and Facilities

The newer urban elementary schools are often attractive
masonry structures of 8 to 10 rooms, surrounded by high masonry
walls and frequently embellished with wood paneling, ornamen-
tal stair cases, and ornamental ironwork. Yet the buildings are
simple in design, often two-story, having single tiers of rooms
with windows on both sides to take maximum advantage of the
breeze. Porches to protect the rooms from the sun may be on
one or both sides of the building. The buildings seem reasonably
adequate for simple classroom activities. There is a noticeable
lack of libraries, shops, or other kinds of special activities rooms.
In common with rural schools the urban schools often lack ade-
quate recreational areas.
Catholic schools supported by the Government are often rather
large establishments, providing classroom space for several hun-
dred children. They are usually located close to a church and
form an integi-al part of the church community. Many of these
structures are old, but in good repair and provide adequate
housing for the academic type of elementary program offered.
Urban public and parochial schools, like the rural schools, make
frequent use of.out-of-door space to supplement inadequate class-
room space.
The better school buildings just described house only a small
proportion of the children. Many attend school in old houses
that are pressed into service as school buildings. The rooms are
small, stairways narrow and dangerous, lighting poor. In some


instances, buildings originally built as small store buildings are
used as schools. The water supply and toilet facilities are usually
inadequate, and play space almost lacking.
In keeping with the more elaborate buildings of the newer
urban schools, individual seats and desks are provided in a few.
In the older urban schools the equipment pattern varies little
from the village schools.
In the matter of instructional materials as in many other
ways the urban child seems to fare somewhat better than the
rural child. His parents may have a somewhat better income
than the country peasant. This enables them to buy books and
writing material for their children. The urban schools and
parochial schools may have a few maps and similar materials, but
in general instructional materials in all schools are limited.
Haiti's elementary school system at its present development
level reaches such a small proportion of all the children that it is
unable yet to produce the desired improvement in the national
level of literacy. To educate the mass of citizens to the point
where they can adequately take part as citizens of a democracy
requires a vastly expanded school system with corresponding im-
provement in teacher qualification, pedagogical methods, and
materials of instruction. Haiti is not alone in these educational

Chapter V

Secondary Education

SECONDARY EDUCATION in Haiti is exclusively urban edu-
cation. During 1955-56 there were 53 secondary schools with
a total enrollment of 11,671 students to serve a population of
over 3 million. Conceivably this meagerness of opportunity for
secondary education reflects a traditional attitude that education
above the elementary level should be restricted to a privileged few.
It may also reflect the fact that few children continue the ele-
mentary school program long enough to gain sufficient skill in
reading and writing to undertake the academic rigors of the
classical secondary program.
Secondary schools fall into three categories:
1. The public schools supported and operated by the Government of Haiti.
2. The subsidized schools supported by subsidies from the Haitian Gov-
ernment, plus tuition, plus in some cases, additional support from
institutions, usually churches, and operated by church groups or
private individuals.
3. The private schools receiving no support from the Haitian Govern-
ment and operated by individuals or organizations, usually churches.
There is an apparent trend toward increased secondary school
enrollment as shown by table 14.
The greatly increased enrollment in 1955-56 may not represent
an actual increase, but an improvement in statistical reporting.
Because figures from 1951-52 through 1955-56 reflect improve-
ments in the reporting procedure of the private schools, it is
necessary to interpret apparent increases in enrollment. How-
ever, there was an increase of 2,164 students (54 percent) in pub-
lic schools where reporting practices presumably remained con-
stant. It seems reasonable to assume that enrollments increased
in all secondary schools during this period and that limitations
of enrollment were due largely to lack of facilities rather than to
lack of enrollees.


Table 14.-Public and private secondary schools, number of schools and
staff, reported enrollment and average daily attendance,
1951-52 through 1955-561

Total Public Private

0 C) o

c!l Z3 W Z a ) 5 j
Year Z m Zz Z W ;

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

1951-52... 13 275 4,004 3,536 13 2754,004 3,536....................
1952-53... 27 471 6,847 6,153 14 3214,684 4,123 213 150 2,163 2,030
1953-54... 36 560 7,794 7,363 14 3385,404 4,948 22 2221 2,3901 2,415
1954-55... 39 579 7,208 6,540 14 3575,343 4,770 25 222 1,865 1,770
1955-56... 453 877111,671 49,621 14 3576,168 4,712 439 520 5,503 4,909

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Budletin Trimestriel de Statistique. Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
Statistics for 1951-52, 1952-53, and 1953-54 are from Bulletin No. 15, December 1954, p. 121.
123; for 1954-55 from Bulletin No. 19, December 1955; and for 1955-56 from Bulletin No. 23,
December 1956, p. 155-56.
2 Existing private schools began reporting.
3 As reported.
4 Nonsubsidized private schools began reporting.

Judging from the percent of enrollment in attendance (based on
1955-56 figures), the attendance at the private school is much
better than at the public schools. During that year the private
schools had approximately 89 percent of their enrollment in at-
tendance; the public schools, approximately 76 percent.
A comparison of a rough index of teacher load (enrollment
divided by the number of staff), for the year 1955-56, seems
in favor of the private schools. For this period the public school
reported 17 pupils per staff member; the private schools 10.
Observation in public lycees indicates that distribution of pupils
to teachers is seldom in accord with this possible average, classes
of 60 and 70 being common, as well as classes of as low as 10.
As in the elementary schools, it is recognized that improvement
is needed in school organization methods which will produce a
more equable distribution of pupils among teachers, the same as
in secondary schools.
Following the French tradition, the secondary schools of Haiti
are in general noncoeducational. There is a scattering of girls
enrolled in some of the public lyckes. A very few public lyc6es,
for example, the Lyc6e des Jeunes Filles at Port-au-Prince, enroll


girls exclusively. This school enrolled 664 girls in 1956-57. The
Catholic secondary schools are strictly noncoeducational.
For the trimester April to June 1956, 31 percent of the total
public secondary enrollment was girls.' The combined enroll-
ments of the private secondary schools for the same period show
50 percent girls enrolled.

The National Lyc6es

The 15 public lycVes of the Republic, their location and en-
rollment for 1956-57 are shown in table 15. The staff positions
of these lyces with their average salaries per month are given
in table 16.
Because of the low salaries, many teachers in the national
secondary schools hold additional part-time teaching positions in
the private secondary schools. This is not too difficult since the
law requires only 15 hours per week for a teacher to earn his
full salary.
As already pointed out in chapter II, Haitian law requires that
a candidate for appointment as professor in a national secondary
school must be graduated from a superior normal school or col-
lege which prepares for teaching in the secondary schools; or
that candidates holding certificate d'etudes secondaires classiques
(first and second part) in science or letters will be admitted to
competitive examinations for positions as teachers in the secondary
schools. In general, the secondary school staff meet these minimum
qualifications. There are a few who have additional training,
usually abroad. For example, on the staff of the Lyce Toussaint
l'Ouverture there is an English teacher who studied for 1 year
at the University of Michigan. The Spanish teacher has traveled
widely in Europe; the physics and social science teachers have
both studied in the United States. The supervisor of science in
the Department of Urban Education in the Department of Na-
tional Education studied for 2 years at Ecole Superieure de
Chimie in Paris and for 1 year at the Pasteur Institut.
The national lycees are financed entirely by the Government.
For the fiscal year 1956-57 there was a budget of $24,590 for
salaries of all personnel in the schools, and an additional item
of $16,380 for rent of building, costs of conducting examinations,
1Institut Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestrid de Statistiqu. Bulletin No. 22, Sep-
tembre 1956, p. 154.


salaries of chauffers and workmen, and other supplies. Scholar-
ships for boarding expenses of 20 students for 10 months at Lyc~e
de Jeunes Filles were provided in the amount of $3,300; other
expenses, $9,902. For the same year, $9,312 were budgeted for
salaries and expenses of the administrative office for secondary

Table 15.-National lyc6es, number of boys and girls enrolled, 1956-571

Name and location of school

Lycde A. P4tion (Port-au-Prince).....................
Lycee Toussaint L'Ouverture (Port-au-Prince) ..........
Lycee Antenor Firmin (Port-au-Prince) ...............
Lycde de Jeunes Filles (Port-au-Prince)..............
Lyc6e du Cap-Haitien (Cap-Haftien) .................
Lycee de Fort Libert6 (Fort Liberte).................
Lyc6e de Port de Paix (Port de Paix).................
Lycbe des Gonaives (Gonafves).......................
Lyc6e de Saint Marc (Saint Marc)...................
Lyc6e de Hinche (Hinche).. .....................
Lycee de Petit Goave (Petit Goave) .................
Lyc4e de Jacmel (Jacmel)... ................ ..
Lyc6e des Cayes) ..................... .......
Lycee de J&rmie (J&rmie) ........................
Lycee de Jeunes Filles Celie Lamour (Jacmel).........

1 Le Moniteur. Journal Official de la Rspubliqqe d'Haiti, de 1956-1957.
Septembre 1956. P. 180 ff.

Total Boys Girls





Port-au-Prince, Haiti,

Table 16.-Staff positions and average salaries in public Iyc6es,

Number of Average Range of
Title positions salary salaries2

Directors........................... 14 363 $45 to 390
Proctors........................... 12 47 40 to 70
General inspectors ................... 9 60 50 to 80
Inspectors ......................... 3 59 50 to 65
Teachers.......................... 327 70 55to 77
Assistant teachers ................... 44 52 41 to 60
Typist ............................ 7 44 40 to 50
Nurses........................... 2 50 45to 55
Teachers of Religion................. 2 50 40 to 60
Janitors, cooks, etc.................. 28 21 .............

1 Supplied by the Assistant Director General of Secondary IEducation, August, 1957.
2 To the nearest U.S. dollar, all values at official rate of 5 Haitian gourdes per U.S. dollar.



The course of study for public and private secondary schools
was established by Decree-Law of September 30, 1935. Con-
sideration has frequently been given to updating this program
of studies but little progress has been reported. The law pre-
scribes the course of study, admission requirements for students,
age limits for each grade, general content and method of the
examinations, and the marks and conditions necessary to progress
from grade to grade and qualify for the various diplomas. (The
general provisions of this law are translated in appendix B.)
Since there have been no substantial changes in Haiti's pro-
gram of studies since it was adopted in 1935, the following
description (for detail, see appendix A) made in 1948 is still

The course of study for secondary schools covers 7 years. Pupils are
admitted to the Sizxime (sixth grade) after having obtained the certifi-
cate of primary studies and after passing an entrance examination. As in
France, successive classes are numbered in counter-clockwise fashion.
For example, the second year is called Cinquinme (fifth grade); the third
year, Quatriame (fourth); the fourth year, Trosieme (third); the fifth
year, Seconde (second) ; the sixth, Premiere or Rhutorique; and the final
year is known as Philosophie. The three beginning classes, S ,ciime,
Cinquibme, and Quatribme, constitute the Grammar Division, while the
last 4 years are referred to as the Humanities Division ...
Secondary school students have a choice between three programs or
sections: Section A (Latin-Greek), section B (Latin-science), and section
C (science-modern languages). Section B, however, is offered only in a
few private schools. Lycie students may thus select either section A or
section C, but "after the grammar division, the student who has shown no
disposition for Latin and Greek will be compelled to change to section C,
after his parents or guardian have been notified, provided the lyce that
he is attending offers the latter course. A student in section C may be
admitted to section A, after the grammar classes, on condition that he
pass a special examination in Greek and Latin. After the Troisieme
no pupil may change from one section to another." The same regulations
stipulate that the maximum number of students in any class is fixed at 35.
Unfortunately, this rule cannot always be applied ... The maximum age
limit for students of the national secondary schools is set as follows:
Siziime, 14 years; Cinquibme, 15; Quatriame, 16; Troisiime, 17; Seconde,
18; Rhitorique, 19; and Philosophie, 20.2

It seems evident from examining this plan of studies that the
major objective of the secondary schools of Haiti is to provide a
classical secondary education, with emphasis on languages, as a
means of qualifying for admission to a university.

zCook, Mere. Edueti n Haiti. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Offie. (Offe
of Education Bulletin 1948. No. 1), p. 52-48.


Relatively few students, however, actually graduate. For exam-
ple, only 15 to 20 students per year out of a student body of
over 600 qualify for the degree of Philosophie in the Lycde du
Cap-Haitien. It is difficult for a graduate of a lycee to enter
a university even when qualified to do so. The French Govern-
ment provides six scholarships per year for all of Haiti for the
support of Haitian students in French universities. Private fi-
nancing is usually difficult.
This leaves a graduate of the lycee facing the reality of learning
the required skills for whatever vocation he elects or is forced
into, after he has finished his secondary school training. His
classical training has little vocational value except in the pro-
fession of teaching. In spite of the limited vocational applica-
bility of the training received in the lycee, graduation is highly
regarded by the upper social classes.
Students who complete the 7-year program and gain admission
to a university usually do creditable work at the university level
in France, Haiti, or other countries. They may, facility in Eng-
lish permitting, be classified as college sophomores upon admis-
sion to a college or university in the United States. On the other
hand, the limitations of the secondary school program are re-
flected in the preparatory year required at the University of Haiti
College of Engineering, and College of Medicine; this preparatory
year being designed to complete the entering student's prepara-
tion in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology to enable
him to qualify for admission to classes at the university level.
Eligibility for graduation from a lycle is determined by passing
two official examinations, the first at the end of Rhetorique and
the second at the end of Philosophie. Successfully passing these
examinations entitles the graduate to a Certificate of Completion
of Secondary Studies, sometimes known as the baccalaureat. The
following further describes these examinations:
The first part of this examination is given at the end of Rhitorique;
the second part after Philosophie. Questions are prepared and mimeo-
graphed by the Direction Gindrale; each paper is corrected by at least
two examiners, and if there is too great disparity between the two grades,
a third examiner corrects the copy. The examiners are teachers or former
teachers of national and private schools. After the written test is graded,
candidates who have not been eliminated, take the oral. Only students
who have completed Rh6torique or Philosophie with an average of 50
percent or more in the quarterly examinations given at their respective
schools are eligible for these official examinations for the certificate.3

3 Ibid.. p. 53.


The methods of teaching and learning in public lyees are
restricted primarily to lecture and recitation, supplemented by
reading from textbooks (if books are available), keeping elabo-
rate notebooks, preparing written exercises, and taking examina-
tions. Emphasis is put on rote memory. With meager libraries,
and with few schools having laboratories, there is little oppor-
tunity for learning methods involving demonstration, research,
and original problem solving by the student under the guidance of
the teacher.
As to physical plant and equipment, the national lycees have
a wide range. The newer and better buildings and better equip-
ment are generally found in the larger cities. However, even in
the capital city, lycees housed in modern buildings or cramped
into old dilapidated residential buildings are found within a few
city blocks of each other. The Lycee de Jeunes Filles in Port-au-
Prince, opened in 1954, is an example of the few modern, well-
equipped buildings. This spacious building with an excep-
tionally large foyer and elaborate stairways provides the following
for its enrollment of almost 675 girls: 16 classrooms, a library
of 1,000 volumes, an auditorium with a small stage, 2 laboratories
each with limited but excellent equipment, an office, refeetory,
apartment for the directress, and a dormitory for the 40 resident
girls. This school is fortunate in receiving from the cultural
attache of the French Embassy several large boxes of instruc-
tional material and equipment including books, motion pictures,
recordings, filmstrips, and a tape recorder. Seating equipment is
for the most part tablet armchairs.
Lycee P6tion, founded in 1818, is operated on the same site
with an elementary school. The physician who teaches hygiene
is a graduate of Lyc6e P6tion and of the College of Medicine of
the University of Paris. The lycee is housed in a building built
about 1900 which provides nine classrooms, an office, and a resi-
dence for the director. There is also a dormitory and refectory
for 40 boarding students from the Provinces. There is no central
library but a small collection of books in each class room. These
books are available on a limited basis to students. A Jamaican
businessman, a longtime resident of Port-au-Prince, has given
the school a 2-story 4-room laboratory building. There are about
30 student stations in each of three laboratories. The physics
laboratory, however, serves primarily as a class room. Its equip-
ment supplied by the Haitian Government is sufficient for demon-
stration purposes. Individual student participation in laboratory
work is at a minimum.


The Lyc6e Toussaint L'Ouverture occupies a building con-
structed as a vocational school. This extremely crowded school
now enrolls more than 1,000 secondary students and 550 elemen-
tary students. For the secondary students there are 62 professors.
There is no central library. Laboratory facilities are similar to
those in Lyc4e P4tion, but not as extensive. This school operates
a night school for secondary students. Hours are from 5 to 9 p.m.,
and the enrollment is about 250. Twenty teachers serve this group.
Among the more fortunate secondary schools, as to their physi-
cal equipment, may be mentioned the Lycde of Cayes and the
Lyc~e of Cap-Haitien. The first is housed in a spacious new
building, but classes are crowded and facilities are limited to the
simplest requirements of an academic program. The Lycee of
Cap-Haitien is housed in a very old 8-room structure surrounding
a tiny patio. The 27 teachers and 613 students are crowded
together with as many as 75 in the same classroom. On rainy
days certain classes do not meet because there is no dry space
where students can work. Library and laboratory facilities are
The limitations of the less fortunate schools need not be de-
scribed to be appreciated. Crowded classes in the rooms of old
dwellings totally unsuited to school use, insufficient uncomfortable
seating, poor lighting, few books-conditions which make gradua-
tions from a lycee difficult to achieve.

Government-Subsidized Private Schools

Some of the outstanding schools in Haiti are to be found in
the government-subsidized private secondary schools. These are
generally more fortunate than the public secondary schools as
to budget, qualifications of teaching staff, and physical plant and
equipment. Such schools are enumerated in table 17. All are
licensed by the Department of Education, as are the nonsubsidized
private schools.
These schools usually receive tuition from their enrollees in addi-
tion to their subsidies from the government. Many of the church-
operated schools also receive substantial support from church
funds, missionary contributions, and other sources.
The staff qualifications of the church-operated subsidized
schools in general exceed those of the public secondary schools.
Staffed largely by priests and brothers, they are able to offer the


services of many teachers who hold graduate degrees from Euro-
pean, Canadian, and American Universities. Lay teachers in these
institutions meet and often exceed the minimum requirements
established for teachers in secondary schools.

Table 17.-Government-subsidized private secondary schools
in Haiti, enrollment and annual subsidy, 1956-571

Location subsidy2
Total Boys Girls

Petit S6minaire Collbge Saint Martial.. $ 9,536 1,066 1,066 .......
College de Port-au-Prince (Henri
Odeide) ......................... 1,800 171 171 ........
College Frank Devieux .............. 720 115 92 23
Cours Max Pennette ................. 600 120 85 35
Centre d'Etudes Secondaires .......... 480 213 ........ .......
College Ernest Alcindor .............. 480 241 104 137
Ecole Secondaire du C-Haitien........ 3,000 245 245 ........
Lycee de Jeunes Filles (Sanit6 Bellaire). 1,020 240 ........ 240
Noviciate de Beraud ................ 1,440 ........................

1 From data supplied by the Assistant Director General of Education.
2 Le Moniteur. Journal Official de la Republique d'Haiti. Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Septembre
1956. Shown in United States dollars at official rate of 5 Haitian gourdes per U.S. dollar.

Priests and brothers serving as teachers in these schools regard
their teaching duties as full-time career obligations, and hence,
they do not divide their time between two or more jobs in order
to secure enough income to meet their needs. This is in contrast
with the situation existing for many teachers who staff the public
secondary schools who often hold additional jobs as teachers in
the private schools or elsewhere.
The program of these schools, as required by Haitian law, is
the same as for the public secondary schools. It is supplemented
by additional instruction in religion. The same system of exami-
nations applies.
Following, as examples, is a brief description of two of the well-
known schools in this category.
Petit Siminaire Collge Saint Martial-This school, is one of
the most distinguished educational institutions in Haiti, is operated
by the Congregation of the Fathers of the Holy Ghost. This


religious order, founded in France in 1703, suffered severely dur-
ing the French Revolution and in 1848 was combined with
another order, the Congregation du Coeur Immaculee de Marie
which had been founded in 1842.
The Petite Seminaire College Saint Martial was founded in 1865
in accordance with a provision of the Concordat negotiated be-
tween the Government of Haiti and the Holy See in 1861, which
provided for the training of local clergy. The founder of the
school was Monseigneur Martial du Cosquer the first bishop of
Port-au-Prince, whose name the school now bears. In 1871 at the
request of the bishop of Port-au-Prince the direction of the school
passed to the Fathers of the Holy Ghost.
The purpose of this school is threefold: First, to train semi-
narians to qualify them to enter training for the priesthood; sec-
ond, to prepare students for admission to universities, and to give
them intellectual, moral, and religious education to enable them to
become outstanding men, citizens and Christians; third, to aid in
the recruitment of priests for the Order of the Holy Ghost and other
Orders, such as Peres de Marie, and les Salesiens.
The enrollment of the school is around 1,060. Of these, about 50
of the Petits Seminaristes, are full-time boarding students; 350
additional receive their midday meal at the school. All others are
day students.
Students are enrolled at the age of 6 and up. The first 6 years
or the elementary section is followed by a secondary 6 years-the
college-leading to the Philosophie, roughly the equivalent of high
school graduation in the United States. The French system is fol-
lowed, with certain modifications to adapt the program to Haitian
needs. The school is licensed by the National Department of Edu-
cation and in general follows the course of study prescribed by the
government for the secondary schools of Haiti.
The school holds a record, by comparison with other Haitian
schools, in keeping down the number of pupils per teacher. In the
first 6 grades the classes do not exceed 40 children per teacher, in
the upper grades the average number per teacher is 25 to 30.
The total number of professors is around 45. Of this number 22
are priests. All of the professors in the secondary school are
priests; most of the teachers in the elementary section are lay
teachers, working under the direction of two priests. With few
exceptions, the teachers hold the diploma of bachelor of letters
and philosophy, the brevet elgmentaire and supgrieur or the cer-
ficat d'aptitude pidagogique, earned in the universities of their
native countries. There are in addition a number of special-


ists who hold graduate degrees from various outstanding univer-
sities in other countries. In general, the qualifications of the staff
far exceed the requirements for teachers as established by
Haitian law.
Financially, the school is dependent on tuition except for the
assistance given by the Government of Haiti. Tuition rates are
$5 per month per student (October through July) for the elemen-
tary section; $6 in the secondary section. There is a reduction in
tuition where more than one boy from the same family is enrolled.
Many children whose parents find it difficult to meet the tuition
are helped, a few receive their education without cost.
The buildings and equipment of this institution are outstanding.
Flanking a spacious court yard are two large school buildings,
each four stories high, one for the elementary section; one for the
secondary. An imposing chapel, a residence for the priests, a resi-
dence for the sisters, an infirmary, office and library, and various
service buildings are provided. The school buildings provide ap-
proximately 50 classrooms, rest rooms, offices, a dormitory, and a
small chapel. Ornamental ironwork for both school buildings has
been fabricated by the students of the Centre de R44ducation,
a vocational school for boys operated in Port-au-Prince by the
National Department of Education and directed by a priest of the
Order of the Holy Ghost.
In addition to the classrooms there is a well-equipped combina-
tion physics and chemistry laboratory, a separate laboratory for
biology and anatomy, a meteorological observatory, and a seis-
mograph. The library, the largest in Haiti, contains 20,000 vol-
umes for the staff; 90 percent in French, 8 percent in English,
and 2 percent in Spanish. Classroom libraries for students pro-
vide text and reference books appropriate to the various classes.
The significance of the contribution of this institution to edu-
cation in Haiti is indicated by the activities of the graduates.
Many occupy important administrative positions in business and
in the professions. On an average of 25 young men complete the
degree Philosophie at Saint Martial each year. Although the ma-
jority of them enter the University of Haiti, significant numbers
also enter universities in United States, Mexico, France, and other
College Notre Dam du Perp6tuel Secours, Cap-Haitien.-This
school enrolls about 210 elementary and 245 secondary level stu-
dents. All are day students, each paying a modest tuition. Among
the teaching staff are 7 priests, specialists in such fields as phi-
losophy, literature, science, English, music, and religion. Among


this group are graduates of universities in Rome, Paris, Quebec,
and Montreal. There are in addition 8 lay teachers, all of whom
have the baccalaureat degree from a Haitian secondary school
and have pursued a course of law in a Haitian school of law.
Three teachers of religion have diplomas from a Haitian normal
This school receives substantial support from Canadian sources
in addition to its subsidy from the Haitian Government and its
income from tuition. It occupies excellent buildings which pro-
vide not only classrooms but a laboratory for elementary physics,
chemistry and biology, a recreation field, and a chapel.
There is great variation in the subsidized private schools that
are operated by private individuals. The subsidies do not provide
sufficient money to run the schools, tuition payments by students
may be irregular and uncertain. As a result payrolls are not al-
ways promptly met, losses are not uncommon. Buildings and
equipment are often meager. In spite of difficulties, many of these
private schools enjoy a real prestige and make an important con-
tribution toward meeting the need for secondary education.

Private Nonsubsidized Schools

Irregularities in reporting and the transitory nature of some
of the schools in this category make it difficult to secure accurate
and complete data. Table 18 is compiled from such data as were
available in the office of the Assistant Director General of Sec-
ondary Education and from a small group of Haitian educators
who had first-hand information concerning the various schools.
Many of these schools offer educational service for a modest
monthly tuition from preschool through the 12th year. Conse-
quently it is sometimes difficult to identify secondary schools as
such. All of those appearing in the list are licensed by the De-
partment General of Education, several are known to exist which
are not licensed.
Institution St. Louis de Gonzaque-This school shares with Petit
Seminaire College St. Martial the distinction of being among the
most important educational institutions in Haiti.
The purpose of this institution is to provide a center of re-
ligious, moral, social, intellectual, artistic, and physical develop-
ment for boys. It was founded by the Freres de l'Instruction
Chretienne and opened September 8, 1890 with an enrollment of


132. The number has grown gradually to the present enroll-
ment of 515 in the primary and 368 in the secondary school.
Among its instructors are holders of the following degrees:
B.A.; B.S.; B.A. in religious education, M.A., and licientiates in
law and science.
These degrees have been earned in University of Paris, Univer-
sity of Rennes, France; St. Michael's College, Rennes, France;
University of Montreal, Catholic University of Washington, D.C.,
and others. Of the 30 brothers who teach in this school 19 are
French, 8 Canadian, and 3 Haitian.

Table 18.-Nonsubsidized private secondary schools in Haiti, 1956-571

Location and name of school
Total Boys Girls

Institution du Sacr6 Coeur .................... 199 (2) 199
Institution St. Louis de Gonzague ............... 368 368 ........
Pensionnat St. Joseph de Cluny................. () ................
College Jean-Jacques Dessalines................. 108 108 ........
College Femina............................... 59 ........ 59
College Ste. Marie Tardieu...................... () ................
College Simon Bolivar.......................... 421 421 ........
Cours Mixtes Secondaires de Mme. Gaetjens...... (3) ........ ........
College Jose Marti .......................... 172 ................
College Abraham Lincoln..................... ........ .....
Col lge St. Vincent de Paul.................... 118 114 4
College Duvivier Hall ........................ () ... ........
Institute d'Etudes Classiques..................... ( ........ ........
Institute Georges Marc ......................... ( ........ ........
College St. Jean Bosco......................... ( ........ ........
College St. Cyr ............................... (3) ................
College Jean-Jacques Accaau................... (a) ................
College ReneBellance......................... (3) ................
College Fernand Prosper....................... () ........ ........
Cours Amedee Brun............................. () ................
Course Prives Roger Anglade .................... () ................
College Oswald Durand ...................... 217 ................
College Sanite Bellaire ........................ 168 3 165
College Lyssius Salomon................... ..... 283 198 85
College Jean-Jacques Deesalines................. () ........ ........

1 From information furished by Ansitant Director General of Secondary Education.
2 Secondary enrollment, this school enrolls in addition 515 boys at elementary level.
3 Enrollment firgres not available at time of study.


Financially this Institution is independent of any subsidies,
depending entirely on its tuition income for operating funds. Tui-
tion rates are $5 per month for the primary section, $6 for the
The library, one of the best in Haiti, exceeds even the National
Library in total numbers of volumes. The number of volumes re-
ported are: French, 10,000, English, 1,000, Spanish, 700, and
Special Haitian library, 8,000. There are many original docu-
ments. The library, in charge of a brother who serves as full-
time librarian, is available primarily to the brothers of the school.
It is supplemented by small collections of books in certain class-
rooms which are available to the students.
The excellence of the school is reflected in the number of its
graduates who are admitted to various Universities. During the
5-year period 1951-56, these admissions were as follows:

French Universities .......-- ... 11 England ._---.-- 2
Mexico and Venezuela -_.._---- 11 Belgium 1
Italy 4 United States __--- 26
Canada .---.---. 2 University of Haiti 103

Being dependent solely on tuition, some of the private secondary
schools are frequently in financial difficulty and unable to meet
payrolls. Money for equipment is always at a minimum. These
schools are often run as a side line by teachers who have other
employment. They are frequently housed in the same buildings
that serve as the owner's home.
They follow in general the same program of studies prescribed
by law for the public schools; their teachers meet the minimum
requirements. They are often the same teachers who work in
public lycees and hold an extra job in a private lycee. To earn a
Certificat de Fin d'Etudes Secondaires, students of these schools
must pass the same examination required of all other students.
Characteristic of Haitian secondary education is its small num-
ber of graduates. The number of candidates presenting them-
selves and successfully passing the examination leading to the
baccalaureate degree is summarized in table 19.
It is indicated that this number includes the graduates from all
lycges, public, private subsidized schools, and private nonsubsi-
dized schools, since the law require that all students follow the
same program and that students submit to the same examinations
under state direction.


Table 19.- Number of students admitted and passing baccalaureate
examinations, 1951-52 to 1955-561

Baccalaureat (first part) Baccalaureat (second part)
Admitted Passed Admitted Passed

1951-52 ................. 760 359 322 282
1952-53 ................. 790 405 345 265
1953-54.................. 918 257 490 293
1954-55 ................. 1,082 454 392 274
1955-56.................. 1,058 301 453 269

1 Institut Haitlen de StatUtique. Buletm Trimestuid de Statatstqw. Bulletin No. 15. Decembre
1954, p. 125; and Bulletin No. 28, Decembre 1956, p. 157.

Less than 300 high school graduates per year in a population
of over 3,000,000 people suggests that a severe shortage exists of
students qualified to enter training for the professions necessary
to serve the population.

Chapter VI

Vocational Education

HISTORICALLY, vocational education has received little at-
tention in Haiti. Perhaps this condition has not been more
clearly indicated than in a report made in 1942, as follows:
Until 1925 there were only three vocational schools, one of which, for
girls, was operated by Belgian Sisters. This number was ridiculously
small, especially since innumerable rhetorical statements about training
skilled workers and developing a middle class had been made. Between
1925 and 1931 only one vocational school for boys was established, but
the standards and efficiency of almost all the others were lowered. In the
10 schools now operating (1942), 2 of which are for girls, there are 1,368
Reports in 1945 showed that enrollments had dropped to 758.2
The 5-year trend from school year 1951-52 through 1955-56
shows an encouraging increase of six vocational training institu-
tions and an increase of 176 vocational teachers. This is exclu-
sive of seven commercial schools with a total staff of 37 teachers
reported in 1953-54.
A further trend toward increased vocational educational service
is shown in table 20. This shows an increase of 67 percent in
attendance at vocational schools between 1951 and 1956.

The Need for Vocational Training

This increase in vocational school attendance is timely in view
of the need for vocational training in Haiti as reported by

1 Dartigue, Maurice, Educational Yearbook. Port-au-Prince, Imprimerie de 1'Etat, 1942, p. 234.
2 Cook, Mercer. Education in Haiti. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, (Office
of Education, Bulletin 1948, No. 1), p. 46-47.


The use of automotive and electric power is increasing rapidly in Haiti.
Construction activities in housing and public improvements are especially
noticeable in or near the capital. Sugar mills and oil extracting plants
are working at full capacity, and at a newly established modern plant for
cotton spinning and weaving the training of workers is in full swing.
The banana and sisal industries, land reclamation and irrigation works
in the Artibonite and elsewhere, and various sanitation projects call for
an increased number of workers. Only a minor proportion of these
workers are now being prepared through vocational education and train-
ing. The student body of the only real vocational school, that of the
Salesian Brothers in the capital of Haiti, consists of 80 students, 20 of
whom are graduated each year. Four trades are being taught in that
institution: carpentry, tailoring, shoemaking, and mechanics. The tailors
and cobblers learn their trade on an individual artisan basis, with no
modern tools and machinery. The work in mechanics consists primarily
of rebuilding motors and machine shop equipment, including simple
foundry work.
The two apprenticeship and prevocational schools in the capital are
inadequately planned, staffed and equipped. Their curriculum follows
the antiquated patterns of some four basic trades-tailor, cobbler, car-
penter, and tinsmith-with classes so large that no individual teaching or
supervision is possible. The Maison Centrale is a combination of orphan-
age, reformatory, children's home, and elementary trade school. It lacks
tools, shop equipment, and supplies. Even good teachers, if they were
available, could not cope with the heterogeneous mass of youngsters sent
to the institution. The Apprenticeship School is housed in fairly modern
buildings just outside of town. It has possibilities for practical training
and outdoor activities, but lacks a proper curriculum, staff and super-
vision. Several of the provincial towns still have remnants of the
vocational training programmes established during the time of the
American occupation of Haiti. Again, lacking trained teachers, supplies,
and guidance from specially prepared supervisors, these schools can do
little to increase the appreciation of a practical education in Haiti. That
the need for trained workers is great, is shown by the fact that 12 of the
graduates of the vocational courses in Cap-Haitien last year found
immediate employment in local plants.8

The present vocational schools train a limited number of young
people to enter a few skilled occupations. The degree of this train-
ing ranges from skilled cabinetmakers graduated from a leading
vocational school to cobblers with the minimum training in
the simplest of hand processes, who have spent a few years in a
school which serves the dual purpose of prevocational training and
No vocational or prevocational training is provided in many
occupational fields which are becoming increasingly important in

3 United Nations. Mission to Haiti. Report of the United Nations Mission of Technical Assist-
ance to the Republic of Haiti. Lake Success, N.Y., July 1949, p. 50.


Haiti's economy as the Caribbean area is more fully utilized as a
tourist resource and as its potential for industrialization is real-
ized. Most workers now learn their trades on a haphazard or at
the best on a casual apprenticeship basis.
Since there is no organized apprenticeship program in Haiti,
there is no formal relationship between the current vocational
training program and apprenticeship in the various trades.

Table 20.-Vocational schools, enrollment and average daily
attendance, 1951-52 to 1955-561

Average daily attendance
School year Enrollment
Percent of
Number enrollment

1951-52........................ 1,665 1,507 90
1952-53....................... 2,042 1,859 91
1953-54....................... 2,272 2,098 90
1954-55....................... 2,287 2,141 93
1955-56....................... 2,561 2,422 94

1 Institute Haitien de Statistique. Bulletin Trimestriel de Statistique, Bulletins Nos. 7, 11,
15, 19, 23, December 1951 to December 1956 inclusive.

Vocational School Enrollment and Staff

The vocational schools, their location, and enrollment in 1955-
56, are given in table 21.
It is evident from this list that vocational education, at all
levels, like secondary education, is strictly an urban affair. This
restriction of vocational schools to the cities is significant in that
it limits availability of this training to the 10 percent of the
population who live in cities. Many of the trades taught, are
equally important in the rural areas, such as shoemaking, or
tailoring. There is no provision at any level for instruction in
agriculture above the very elementary level offered in the rural
elementary schools. In view of the predominantly rural popula-
tion and dependence of the country on agriculture the need of
vocational agriculture courses in rural areas seems obvious. Such
courses would reach the upper grade students in the rural ele-
mentary schools and provide an important preparation and sup-
plement to the agricultural extension training programs now
offered on a limited basis to farmers.


Table 21.-Vocational schools, name and location, enrollment
in 1955-561

School Location Enrollment

Ecole Eli Dubois 2, 3........................... Port-au-Prince.... 141
Ecole J. B. Damier ..... do.... . . .... 159
Ecole Nationale des Arts et M4tiers 2, '......... do............ 82
Maison Centrale des Arts et M4tiers 2.......... do............ 358
Centre de'Apprentissage St. Martin 2........... do............ 226
Maison Populaire d'Education de Camfort 2. ... Cap-Haitien ...... 171
Ecole Professionnelle du Cap-Haitien ........... do............ 95
Ecole Professionnelle des Gonaives............. Gonaives ........ 94
Ecole Professionnelle de Jacmel ................ Jacmel ........... .59
Ecole Professionnelle des Cayes ............... Cayes............ 37
Ecole Professionnelle de Jeremie ............... Jeremie.......... 104
Ecole Pr&-Vocationnelle de Mayotte........... Port-au-Prince.... 369
Ecole Mdnagore de Martissant 2................ do............ 282
Centre de Cdramique ........................ do ............ 24
Centre de Re6ducation 2, 3 .................... do ............ 270
Ecole Arts M6nagers, Mme. Paul Magloire ..... do............ 48

Total ............ ....... ...... .. .................. 2,519

1 From records furnished by Assistant Director General of Vocational Education, January 1958.
2 Boarding schools.
3 Supported by National Department of Education but operated by priests or nuns.

The summary of staff positions for the 16 vocational schools
shown in table 22 reveals that the boarding schools with excep-
tion of Ecole Elie Dubois, in general require more service per-
sonnel than professional personnel. This is obviously to provide
care and supervision of boarding children. Ecole Elie Dubois, as
described in chapter III, follows a plan whereby students provide
their own dormitory and refectory services. Obviously this
would not be possible in such institutions as Maison Centrale des
Arts et Metiers which enrolls a large number of relatively young
The vocational education staff can justly claim many well-
trained teachers who for the most part are employed in strate-
gic positions where they can use the benefits of their training for
training others. As examples, the position and qualifications
of a few of the better qualified staff members are detailed below.
The Assistant Director General of Vocational Education is a
graduate of a Haitian lycee and law school, and has 2 years of
training in the Industrial Section of the Ecole Centrale d'Agri-
culture, after which he secured a master of arts degree from
Columbia University. He later represented Haiti on an Interna-
tional Labour Organisation (ILO) sponsored mission to Brazil.


The director of l'Ecole J. B. Damier studied for 8 months at
Hampton Institute, Va., followed by several months directed ob-
servations of vocational training institutions in Chicago, Detroit,
and New York, followed in turn by a similar program of observa-
tion in Switzerland, Belgium, and France. His specialty is draft-
ing and vocational administration. The assistant director spent
7 years in a technical school in Belgium, plus 2 years at Hampton
Institute. His specialties are electricity and mechanics.
The teacher of cabinetmaking at this school studied 9 months
at a special vocational teacher-training institution in Paris, and
later at a teacher-training institution in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Table 22.-Staff positions in vocational schools1


School Administrative Professional Service Total

Ecole Eli Dubois 2, 3................ 2 13 1 16
Ecole J. B. Damier ................. 2 14 9 25
Ecole Nationale des Arts et M6tiers 2 3. 1 10 10 21
Maison Centrale des Arts et M6tiers 2 2 16 35 53
Centre d'Apprentissage St. Martin 2.. 1 14 27 42
Maison Populaire d'Education
de Camfort 2 .................... 1 9 22 32
Ecole Professionnelle du Cap-Haitien.. 1 7 1 9
Ecole Professionnelle des Gonaives.... 1 4 1 6
Ecole Professionnelle de Jacmel...... 1 6 1 8
Ecole Professionnelle des Cayes...... 1 7 1 9
Ecole Professionnelle de Jnr4mie...... 1 6 1 8
Ecole Pre-Vocationnelle de Mayotte. 2 20 3 25
Ecole MWnagbre de Martissant 2..... 1 8 16 25
Centre de Ceramique ............... 1 4 6 1 8
Centre de Rlducation 2 3........... 1 12 22 35
Ecole Arts M6nagers, Mme. Paul
M agloire 2 ................... ... 1 8 1 10

1 From records furnished by Assistant Director General of Vocational Education, January 1958.
2 Boarding schools.
3 Supported by National Department of Education but operated by priests or nuns.
4 Ceramists.

The training of other teachers in the J. B. Damier school is
comparable to those described. In addition, the staff of this school
is receiving valuable on-the-job assistance and training from
seven United Nations experts working under the auspices of
ILO. These experts, French with the exception of an Italian
mason, spend full time in the shops of their respective specialties


instructing teachers and students. Under the guidance of these
experts, job analysis sheets have been prepared for electrical work,
machine shop, and other trades, which represent an important
development in teaching technique.
The qualifications of the sisters of the.order of Fille de Marie
de Paridaens of Belgium who staff l'Ecole Elie Dubois have al-
ready been summarized in chapter III.
The Salesian fathers and brothers who staff the Ecole Na-
tionale des Arts et Metiers are qualified through training in
Salesian vocational teacher-training institutions in United States,
Canada, and Europe.
In general the vocational teachers who staff the remaining
schools are graduates of Ecole J. B. Damier, Ecole Elie Dubois,
and Ecole Nationale des Arts et Metiers. The teachers of aca-
demic subjects taught in the vocational schools are in general
graduates of the normal training schools of Port-au-Prince. Many
teachers of both categories have supplemented their basic train-
ing received in Haiti by study abroad in Europe, United States,
Canada, or in Latin America.

Salaries and Budgets

The salaries of vocational school professional employees gen-
erally fall above the salaries of elementary school employees, but
somewhat below the secondary school employees in several cate-
gories. Vocational school directors in general receive more than
secondary school directors; vocational school professors less than
secondary school professors. Specific comparison is impossible
because the categories of employment are not comparable. The
average salaries for various categories of positions in the voca-
tional schools are given in table 23.
All support for vocational education comes from the Govern-
ment of Haiti. There are no contributions from industry, no
tuition from students. A summary of the annual budget for 1956-
57 is shown in table 24.
Haiti spends 29'percent of its total budget for vocational edu-
cation on the support of boarding students in the eight schools
which operate as boarding schools. Many of these students are
admitted to the schools on the basis of economic need of their
families, for example, at Maison Centrale, rather than on the
basis of their eligibility for vocational training.


Table 23.-Average salaries of vocational school employees, 1956-571
[AU values in U.S. dollars at official rate of 5 gourdes per U.S. dollar]

Position Number of monthly Range of
positions salary Salary

Directors ........................... 15 $101 $60 to 130
Assistant directors .................. 3 80 60 to 100
Superintendent (General) ............. 4 54 40 to 60
Superintendent ...................... 16 45 40 to 50
Professors .......................... 57 50 40 to 55
Vocational professors ................ 38 58 45 to 110
Teachers (Men) ..................... 9 43 40to 45
Teachers (Women) .................. 29 50 45 to 55
Vocational helpers ................... 14 45 21 to 115
Shop foremen ....................... 12 55 50 to 65
Foremen ............... ...... .. 8 61 40 to 75
Nurses ............................. 5 51 50 to 55
Stenographers ....................... 3 47 45 to 50
Service personnel ................... 45 24 21 to 50
Ceramists .......................... 6 43 30 to 55
Others ............................. 12 32 21to 50

1 Le Moniteur, Journal Officiel de la Rpublique d'Haiti. Budget GCn2ral de 1'Exercice, 1956-57.
Translated and adapted.

Table 24.-Budget for vocational schools, fiscal year, 1956-571
[AU values in U.S. dollars at official rate of 5 gourdes per U.S. dollar]

Support for
Schools boarding All other Total
students expenses

Ecole Elie Dubois ........................ $6,000 $11,892 $17,892
Ecole J. B. Damier................................... 12,480 12,480
Ecole Nationale des Arts et M4tiers.......... 7,000 15,308 22,308
Maison Centrale des Arts et M6tiers ......... 35,422 36,596 72,018
Centre d'Apprentissage St. Martin............. 13,110 18,738 31,848
Maison Populaire d'Education de Camfort.... ........... 25,680 25,680
Ecole Professionnelle du Cap-Haitien..................... 7,392 7,392
Ecole Professionnelle des Gonaives........... ........... 5,472 5,472
Ecole Professionnelle de Jacmel.......................... 5,352 5,352
Ecole Professionnelle des Cayes.............. ............ 6,692 6,692
Ecole Professionnelle de Jdrdmie .......... .............. 6,012 6,012
Ecole Pr6-Vocationnelle de Mayotte ..................... 16,944 16,944
Ecole M6nagbre de Martissant .............. 8,000 18,928 26,928
Centre de Cdramique................................. 7,200 7,200
Centre de R46ducation ..................... 28,716 24,084 52,800
Ecole Arts M6nagers, Mme. Magloire ........ 4,400 8,400 12,800
Central Office............................ ............ 27,600 27,600

Total .............................. 102,648 254,770 357,418

1 Le Monitetr, Journal Officiel de la Republique d'Haiti. Budget General de PExereice 1956-57.
Translated and adapted.


Admission Requirements and Program of Studies

The program in the different schools varies so much that it is
impossible to establish or describe general admission require-
ments. For example, pupils at Maison Centrale are admitted at
age 10, on a "first come first admitted basis." They are primarily
boys from needy families who are seeking institutional place-
ment for their children. These boys remain at the school 10
months per year for 10 years. The school provides food, lodging,
and medical care; the parents provide clothing insofar as pos-
sible. During their 10 years stay the boys are expected to complete
elementary school and secure prevocational training in carpentry,
shoemaking, tailoring, and general shop. The training objective
is to prepare them for vocational training proper or to work as
semiskilled carpenters, cobblers, tailors, and for other trades,
largely self-employed, in the rural areas. These boys do a large
part of their own dormitory and dining room work.
At Ecole Nationale des Arts et M6tiers( Salesiens) the admis-
sion requirements are:
Article 71.-To be admitted to the Ecole Nationale des Arts et Metiers
(Salesians Fathers), the candidate must not be older than 15 or younger
than 14, he shall take an entry examination based upon the program of
Certifcat d'Etudes Primaires.
Article 72.-The following documentation are required:
1. Copy of the applicant's birth certificate.
2. A health certificate delivered by the National Service of Hygiene.4
Candidates also take a competitive admission examination
which eliminates about 85 percent of the applicants.
The admission requirements and program for Ecole Profes-
sionnelle Elie Dubois have already been described in chapter III.
The program in all vocational schools provides for academic and
religious study in addition to the vocational subjects. A schedule
of courses for l'Ecole Professionnelle J. B. Damier, indicating
hours per week of various subjects is shown in appendix A.
The following vocational courses are also taught: Machine
shop practice, sheet metal, general mechanics, auto mechanics,
plumbing, elementary electricity, masonry, tailoring, cabinetmak-
ing. Drafting is emphasized and students are taught to work
from blueprints.
4 Departement de I'Instruction Publique, B&glements Intdrieurs. Translation from page 20.


In contrast is Ecole Professionnelle J. B. Damier and the pro-
fessional schools in Cap-Haitian, Gonaives, Cayes and Jacmel
where the admission requirements are:

Article 68.-To be admitted to the courses of cutting (tailoring),
cabinetmaking, forge and masonry of the vocational schools of J. B.
Damier and the provinces, one must not be less than 14 years old and have
a Certificat d'Etudes Primaires.
Only the students who have their Brevet Eldmentaire or a certificate
stating that they have done at least their Cinquieme will be admitted to
the shops of automobile-mechanic, general mechanic, radio and electricity.
Article 69.-The examinations for admission take place during the
second part of September at the school.
Article 70.-The applications for admission must be sent to the school's
administration and shall have the following documents:
1. Copy of the applicant's birth certificate.
2. A Certificat d'Etudes Primaires or CinquiBme or Brevet El6men-
taire, according to the case.
3. A health certificate delivered by the National Service of Hygiene.
4. A certificate of good behaviour from the director of the last
attended establishment.'

The method of instruction emphasizes hand processes and
benchwork during the first year, with machine work of gradu-
ally increasing difficulty during the second and third years. Em-
phasis is placed on gaining perfection in isolated skills and the
production of models, (such as model wood joints, perfectly
squared blocks), as a means of gaining skills with tools and experi-
ence with materials. However, in the course in machine shop
practice each student had produced a "master piece" as evidence
of his proficiency. In several instances this was a small machine
for cutting metal. This project had involved many processes, such
as cutting, shaping, grinding, boring, and hardening.
The programs in other schools are similar in content to J. B.
Damier for boys, Elie Dubois for girls, but they vary widely in
the quality of training produced. An overall view of the types of
training and the number of people completing the various
courses can be secured from table 25.
Upon satisfactory completion of the courses students are given
certificate de fin d'etudes professionnelles. This certificate speci-
fies the course followed and reports general average grades earned
in academic and vocational courses.
Graduates in electricity, machine shop practice, and auto

5 Ibd. p. 20.

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