Citation
Translation of the Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico

Material Information

Title:
Translation of the Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico
Uniform Title:
Ley de enjuiciamiento criminal (1888)
Added title page title:
Law of criminal procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico
Creator:
Cuba
Joannini, Frank L.
Spain
United States -- Bureau of Insular Affairs
Spain -- Tribunal Supremo
Cuba -- Military governor
Puerto Rico
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.,
Govt. Print. Off.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1901
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iii, iv-vii, iv-vii, 358, 358, 359-393 p. : ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Criminal procedure -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Criminal procedure -- Puerto Rico ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Cuba
Puerto Rico
Spain
United States of America

Notes

General Note:
Paged in duplicate; English and Spanish on opposite pages.
General Note:
"A large number of decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as footnotes."--Translator's note, signed: Frank L. Joannini.
General Note:
Appendices: I. Orders of the Cuban military government.--II. Articles of the Penal code referred to in the Law of criminal procedure.--III. Articles of the Law of civil procedure referred to in the Law of criminal procedure.
Statement of Responsibility:
(with Spanish text), with annotations, explanatory notes, and amendments made since the American occupation. War Department, Division of Insular Affairs, October, 1901.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
ADB8447 ( LTUF )
03195455 ( OCLC )
000589659 ( AlephBibNum )
03013358 ( LCCN )

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Full Text



TRANSLATION



OF THE




LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE


FOR



CUBA AND PORTO. RICO

(WITH I'AXVISH TEXT),


WITH .,



ANNOTATIONS, EXPLANATORY NOTES, AND AMENDMENTS
MADE SINCE THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION.


WA4l .dFA1KtMENT,
DrVISION Oi~~, 5dSuLAR AL Fa4~aS
6'Ocdober,!Vol.'





WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING "CE.
19,091.


.., -i













INTRODUCTORY NOTE.


The translator of the Code of Criminal Procedure in force in Cuba
and Porto Rico begs to call attention to the fact that a large number of
decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as foot-
notes, which serve to elucidate the language of the text. These deci-
sions are authoritative interpretations and in the Spanish courts have
practically the force of law.
The references, also inserted as footnotes, calling attention to other
laws in force, to royal decrees and military orders which modify the
procedure prescribed by the code, it is thought will also aid in making
the work of practical use, both for those who desire to inform them-
selves as to the methods of Spanish procedure and those called upon to
practice before the courts in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico.
At the suggestion of a number of attorneys, the Spanish text, taken
from official editions of the law, has also been inserted for purposes of
convenience.
, The Cuban civil orders contained in the first appendix have been
inserted as published by the respective authorities, and in many cases
the English equivalents of the Spanish terms will be found to differ
from those used by the translator in the text of the law.
An effort has been made to secure as correct a translation as possi-
ble, and in some cases the translator may be accused of sacrificing what
may be called good English for fidelity to the original text. He has
been constantly on his guard against making an interpretation of law
instead of a translation.
FRANK L. JOANNNI.
I certify that the following is a copy of the translation of the Law
of Criminal Procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico on file in the Insular
Division of the War Department, made under its direction.
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Chief of Diisimon.
III
7 735c9


















INDICE GENERAL.



LEY DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL.
PAgina.
Exposici6n ............--------------................------------...................... 1
Real Decreto..-.......--------....---.... .....-.......... ..........-...... 15

LIBRO PRIMERO.
Disposicion'es generals.
TiTULo I.-Preliminares..-------... --------------............................. 17
Capitulo I. Reglas generals ........-....-...-............. 17
II. Cuestiones prejudiciales ........................ 18
II.-De la colmpetencia de los jueces y tribunales en lo criminal....... 19
Capitulo I. De las reglas por donde se determine la compe-
tencia --..-----...-....----.......--......... 19
II. De las cuestiones de competencia entire los jueces
y Tribunales ordinarios...................... 22
III. De las competencias negatives y de las que se pro-
mueven con jueces 6 tribunales especiales, y de
los recursos de queja contra las autoridades ad-
ministrativas...............-----....---............ 28
III.-De las recusaciones y excuses de los magistrados, jueces, asesores y
auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales, y de la abstenci6n del
ministerio fiscal----.........-....--......-................... 30
Capitulo 1. Disposiciones generals ..---..--.........-...--. 30
II. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces
de instrucci6n y de los magistrados .....-...... 31
III. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces
municipales ----....-----------......-- ........ 33
IV. De la recusaci6n de los auxiliares de los juzgados y
tribunales .--. .......... .... ................. 35
V. De las excuses y recusaciones de los asesores...... 36
VI. De la abstenci6n del ministerio fiscal-...----..... 36
IV.-De las personas A quienes corresponde el ejercieio de las acciones
que nacen de los delitos y faltas -.........-................... 38
V.-Del derecho de defense y del beneficio de pobreza en los juicios
criminals .....----......................................... 43
VI.-De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias, y del modo
de dirimir las discordias.....-----..--......------.....----..--.. 49
Capitulo I. De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sen-
tencias ...................................... 49
II. Del modo de dirimir las discordias ...----......... 54
VI.-De las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos.-.............. 55
VIII.-De los suplicatorios, exhortos y mandamientos -................. 58
IV



















CONTENTS.



LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.
Pisa
Address .....---------.... ..-------.. --. ---- ...........................
Royal decree..................------------ .. ............ . .......... i

BOOK FIRST.

General provisions.
TITrL I.-Preliminaries .... ............................................. 17
Chapter I. General rules ........---.......--- .....-.... .... 17
II. Preliminary questions------.......--....---......-----.....
II.-Jurisdiction of judges and courts in criminal matters --..----...... 19
Chapter I. Rules fr determining jurisdiction.--.....--....... 19

II. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary judges
and courts-------............................. 22
III. Questions of negative jurisdiction and those raised
by special judges or courts and complaints against
administrative authorities .-................... 28

III.-Challenges and excuses of justices, judges, assessors, and assistants
of superior and inferior courts and the abstention of the prose
cutingofficials .--..---............-------... .......... ...... 30
Chapter I. General provisions ...--------------.. ....-...... 30
II. Hearing and decision of challenges of judges of ex-
amination and justices -......-................. 31
III. Hearing and decision of challenges of municipal
judges ..--...........-.......... ............. 33
IV. Challenges of assistants of inferior and superior
courts .......................----- ........... 35
V. Excuses and challenges of assessors..-....---- ..... 36
VI. Abstention of prosecuting officials ............... 36
IV.-Persons who may exercise rights of action arising from crimes and
misdemeanors .....................----------..... .......... .. S
V.-The right of defense and the benefit of poverty in criminal causes.. 43

VI.-Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall be made, and
manner of adjusting disagreements -.---------......-- ....- .... 49
Chapter I. Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall
be made .....- ............................._. 49
II. Manner of adjusting disagreements --............. 54
VII.-Notifications, citations, and .suniuones ------..-..--.......-..------ 55
VIII.-Letters requisitorial, mandate-, and letters rugatory -....-..--..... 58
IV










PAgina.
TiTII.o X.-De los trminos judiciales .-................--.........-..... 61
X.-De los recursos contra las resoluciones de los tribunales y jueces
de instruccin ..---------.....................----------........------.. 6
XI.-De las costas procesales .................----...............----..... 67
XII.-De las obligaciones de los jueces y tribunales, relatives d la esta-
dfstica judicial .-----------------...............--............--....--. 69
XIII.-De las correcciones disciplinarian ..---........--............ .. 71

LIBRO SEGUN)O.
Del .amtrio.
TfITLO I.-De la denuncia.............................................. 72
II.-De la querella.....-...............---....................... 74
III.-De la policia judicial .-..-.........--.....-................. 77
IV.-De la instruccin ............................................ 81
Capitulo I. Del sumario y de las autoridades competentes
para instruirlo ------............................ 81
II. De la formaci6n del sumario ................. 83
V.-De la comprobaci6n del delito y averiguaci6n del delincuente .. 88
Capitulo I. De la inspecci6n ocular....................... 88
II. Del cuerpo del delito.--....................... 89
III. De la identidad del delincuente y de sus cir-
cunstancias personales...................... 96
IV. De las declaraciones de los procesados-.....--. 99
V. De las declaraciones de los testigos-..........- 102
VI. Del careo de los testigos y procesados ........ 110

VII. Del informed pericial-.......................... 111
VI.-De la citaci6n, de la detenci6n y de la prisi6n provisional....... 116
Capitulo I. De la citaci(n ............................... 116
II. De la detenci6n ............................. 116
III. De la prisi6n provisional ..................... 119
IV. Del tratamiento de los detenidos 6 presos...... 122
VII.-De la libertad provisional del procesado .......-.............. 124
VIII.-De la entrada y registro en lugar cerrado, del de libros y papeles
y de la detenci6n y apertura de la correspondencia escrita y
telegrifica ............................................... 127
IX.-De la fianza y embargos -..................................... 134
X.-De la responsabilidad civil de terceras personas................ 139
XI.-De la conclusion del sumario y del sobreseimiento ............. 141
Capitulo I. De la conclusion del sumario.................. 141
II. Del sobreseimiento ........................... 149
XII.-Disposiciones generals referentes a los anteriores titulos ....... 155

LIBRO TEaCERO.

Del juicio oral.
TiTULO I.-De la calificaci6n del delito..---.....-........--- ...... ....... 157
II.-De los articulos de previo pronunciamiento .................... 165
III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral .............................. 168
Capitulo I. De la publicidad de los debates ............... 168
II. De las facultades del president del tribunal.... 168










Page.
TITLE IX.-Judicial periods. ...........................-................ 61
X. -Remedies against decisions of courts and judges of examination.. 64

XI.-Costs in actions ..-................-.................------- .. 67
XII.-Obligations of judges and courts with regard to judicial statistics 69

XIII.-Disciplinary corrections .--..............----------......-------.. 71

BOOK SECOND.

Thie swmario.
TITLE I.-The denunciation ............................................ 72
II.-The complaint or information ..---.....-.....--- .-----..------ 74
III.-The judicial police --....--..- .....-.....---.----.------------- 77
IV.-The investigation ............................................ 81
Chapter I. The sionario and the authorities to take cogni-
zance thereof..................-------------..-- 81
II. Formation of the sumario ........-............ 83
V.-Proof of the crime and verification of the delinquent............ 88
Chapter I. The ocular inspection ..........--.......-....- 88
II. The corpus deliciti..-........----..... ..--.-- ..-- 89
III. The identity of the delinquent and his personal
circumstances .........-..--......- .....---. 99
IV. Declaration of the accused......---....... ------ 99
V. Depositions of witnesses --.....---.....---......-----102
VI. Confrontation between the witnesses and the
accused ..--.......---- ..-..-...-- ....------ 110
VII. Expert evidence.........--------------.....---..--.......------ '111
VI.-The citation, the detention, and the provisional imprisonment... 116
Chapter I. The citation................................... 116
II. The detention......-..-.....---.-- ....-- ...... 116
III. Provisional imprisonment.....--...--.---..... ...---- 119
IV. Treatment of persons detained or imprisoned.... 122
VII.-Provisional liberty of the accused.........-................--.. 124
VIII.-Entry and search of closed places, of books and papers, and the de-
tention and opening of written and telegraphic correspondence. 127

IX.-Bonds and attachments ........-..--.--..--.......---..-----..--- 134
X.-Civil liability of third persons -....--....----....----------..-..--..--....-- 139
XI.-Conclusion of the sumario and dismissal of proceedings .......... 141
Chapter I. Conclusion of the sumario...................... 141
II. Dismissal of the proceedings -......--.......-- 149
XII.-General provisions relating to the foregoing titles ............... 155

BOOK THIRD.

The oral trial.

TITLE I.-Classification of the crime....................................-- 157
II.-Preliminary exceptions ........-----..--....--......-----...-------165
III.-Holding of the oral trial....--......................-----------------..--..-- 168
Chapter I. Publicity of the arguments.-.................... 168
II. Powers of the presiding judge of the court.--..... 168










TITULo III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral-Continda. Pagina.
Capftulo III. Del modo de practicar las pruebas durante el juicio
oral .......-...........-- ..-- ..-..---....--- 169
Secci6n 1., De la confesi6n de los procesados y
personascivilmente responsables. 169
2." Del examen de los testigos ..--..... 172
3." Del informe pericial ............. 177
4.1 De la prueba documental y de la
imspecci6n ocular.............. 178
5.a Disposiciones comunes A las cuatro
secciones anteriores ............. 178
IV. De la acusaci6n, de la defense y de la sentencia -. 180
V. Ie la suspension del juicio oral..------..-..---... 183

LIBRO CIARTO.
De los procedimientos especiales.
TiTULO I.-Del modo de proceder cuando fuere procesado un Senador 6
Diputado i Cortes..--..--......-- ....--..-..... ......-...-- .. 187
II.-Del antejuicio necesario para exigir la responsabilidad criminal it
los jueces y magistrados .....................-................ 189
III.-Del procedimiento en los casos de flagrante delito........ ..------- 193
Capftulo I. Casos en que tiene lugar este procedimiento... 193
II. Reglas i que debe ajustarse este procedimiento.. 195
IV.-Del procedimiento por delitos de injuria y calumnia contra par-
ticulares ..-.......---.......-......---..............-----.. .199
V.-Del procedimiento por delitos cometidos por medio de la imprenta,
el grabado i otro medio mecinico de publicacin .....-......--. 201
SVI.-Del procedimiento para la extradici6n..----...........-...-..-- 203
VII.-Del procedimiento contra reos ausentes ----......................... 205

LIBRO QUINTO.
De los recursos de casaci6n y de revi.i(n.

TITuLo I.-De los recursos de casaci6n ..................................... 207
Capitulo I. De los recursos de casaci6n por infraccion de ley. 207

Seccion 1. De la procedencia del recurso-..... 207
2." De la preparaci6n del recurso -... 213
3." Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n
del testimonio pedido para inter-
poner el de casaci6n..-......... 215

4.1 De la interposici6n del recurso..... 217
5." De la sustanciaci6n del recurso..... 220
6." 1)e la decision del recurso..--....--- 223
II. De los recursos de casaci6n por quebrantamiento
de forma..---...---..--..--............... 225
Secci6n 1. De la procedencia del recurso...... 225
2.1 De la interposici6n del recurso..... 231
3." Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n
de admisi6n del de (casaci6n por
quebrantamiento de forma ..-.. 232
4.' De la sustanciaci6n del recurso..... 233
5.'! De la decision del recurso...---------.. 234







VI

TITLE III.-Holding of the oral trial-Continued. Page.
Chapter III. Manner of taking evidence at the oral trial.--..... 169

Section 1. Confession of the persons accused
and persons civilly liable........ 169
2. Examination of witnesses--..--..... 172
3. Expert examinations ..-........- 177
4. Documentary evidence and ocular
inspection .-------------....... 178
5. Provisions common to the four pre-
ceding sections........-..-....-- 178
IV. The accusation, the defense, and the sentence-.... 1.0
V. Suspension of the oral trial ................---..--. 183

BOOK FOURTH.
Special proceedings.
TITLE I.-Manner of proceeding in the trial of a senator or deputy to the
Cortes ...................----.................------.....---....... 187
II.-Preliminary action necessary for the purpose of enforcing the crimi-
nal liability of judges and justices .............----............... 189
III.-Proceedings in cases of flagrant crimes .---..............--------...----------- 193
Chapter I. Cases where these proceedings lie..........--....--- 193
II. Rules to which these proceedings must conformn-- 195
IV.-Proceedings upon crimes of contumely and calumny against private
individuals .------.......---......-----------...------ ..--- 199
V.-Proceedings on crimes committed through the press, engravings, or
other mechanical means of publication ..---..--.....--- ..------ 201
VI.-Prbceedings for extradition.....---............................-- 203
VII.-Proceedings against absent criminals.........------------....--....----..--205

BooK FIFTn.
Appealsfor annulment of .pildneit anid for re-iew.
TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment ................--- ....--..... 207
Chapter I. Appeals for annulment of judgment for violation
Sof la ...--....---...............--- ....... 207
Section 1. When the appeal lies---......--------.. 207
2. Preparation of the appeal.............. 213
3. Remedy of complaint on account of a
refusal of a transcript requested for the
interposition of an appeal for annul-
ment of judgment.---...........----------- 215
4. Interposition of the appeal ---..---.---.. 217-
5. Hearing of the appeal .----............---- 220
6. Decision of the appeal..-------.. --.. -- 223
II. Appeals for annulment of judgment for breach of
form ..-..-..------.-- ..-------------------- 225
Section 1. When the appeal lies..-.....-...--.... 225
2. Interpositon of the appeal....-----------....-- 231
3. Remedy of complaint on account of the
denial of an appeal for annulment of
judgment for breach of form ........ 232
4. Hearing of the appeal --.............----- 233
5. Decision of the appeal ..............---- 234







VII

TiTULO I.-De los recursos de casaci6n-Continua. PAgina.
Capitulo III. De la interposici6n, sustanciaci6n y resoluci6n
del recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley
y por quebrantamiento de forma........--. 234
IV. Del recurso de casaci6n en las causes de muerte 236

II.-Del recurso de revision ......--....-... ..---- ...........-------- 238

LIBRO SEXTO.
Del procedimiento para el juicio sobre faltas.
TiTULO I.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en primera instancia..................... 240
II.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en segunda instancia ......... ......... 243

LIBRO StPT=IO.
De la ejecuci6n de las sentencias........................................... 245
Disposici6n final.........-..--.--------..---.-----. -..----..-.........--.. 248

APEtDICE I.

Deereft del Gobierno Militar de Cuba.
No. 41.-14 de Abril de 1899..-----........ --.-.----- ...--- ....-----.---- 249
No. 63.-25 de Mayo de 1899..-...-.......... ..---------.-...----- --..... 259
No. 92.-26 de Junio de 1899....---....-......--.----------.......-..---- 259
No. 109.-13 de Julio de 1899 --.....------ .-.---------...------ ..-------. 281
No. 135.-11 de Agosto de 1899...------.-- .....- ...--------.........------ 287
No. 157.-5 de Septiembre de 1899-.............-..--..... ......--------... 288
No. 176.-21 de Septiembre de 1899-....-.........--------------. ...-- ..-- 288
No. 58.-9 de Febrero de 1900...-...-.......--..-- ..-..- .......-----....- 289
No. 152.-10 de Abril de 1900..... ...-------------.................------. 289
No. 166.-23 de Abril de 1900 ................---------------......-------.........- 290
No. 181.-30 de Abril de 1900 .... --..........-..- .---- ..--- .........---- 293
No. 192.-9 de Mayo de 1900........----.......... ..........----------- 296
No. 213.-25 de Mayo de 1900-......- ......-----------.-- ......----....---- 298
No. 228.-3 de Junio de 1900...-......----- .. ~.---- -- ....---- .........-.. 312
No. 269.-3 de Julio de 1900 ...-...---- ..-- ......--..---- .. .-....--...... 312
No. 311.-8 de Agosto de 1900.........----........--------------..------.........- 313
No. 362.-17 de Septiembre de 100--------........--.---------....------........----....- 317
No. 427.-15 de Octubre de 1900.......-------.......-----.....--.......... --------322
No. 465.-14 de Soviembre d, 1900....... ....-----....--- ....- ........--- 331
No. 468.-15 de Noviembre de 1900.........---- ------------..... ------...... 332
No. 500.-10 de Diciembre de 1900 ---..------........----.---- ......------- 332
No. 513.-19 de Diciembre de 1900 ...--......---....-- ......--..----- ---- 334
No. 3.-1. de Enero de 101..........-- ----.......---- .......----.......- 334
No. 45.-4 de Febrero de 1901..............---- ------------------------- 335
No. 84.-25 de MBarzo de 1901 ....................----------...--.......--------- 337
No. 95.-10 de Abril de 1901--..-..---.. ...-- ......................-....-- 338
No. 520.-21 de Diciembre de 1900 -..-......-- ....---.-- ...------- ..- -...- 342

APiNDICE II.
Articulos del C6digo Penal ii que hace referencia la Ley de Enjuiciamiento
Criminal... ...---------..........-- ...........---- ....----- ----------.--- 344

APENDICE III.
Articulos de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil A que hace referencia la de Enjui-
ciamiento Criminal..--.....----...... -..----.. ----------------..... 348






VII

TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment-Continued. Page.
Chapter III. Interposition, hearing, and decision of an appeal
for annulment of judgment for violation of law
and for breach of form...-......---..-....... 234
IV. Appeals for annulment of judgment in causes in-
volving the death penalty .................... 236
II.-The appeal for review............-.....--... ..........-...... 238

BooK SIXTH.
Proceedings in actions upon misdemeanors.
TITLE I.-Actions upon misdemeanors at first instance ...................... 240
II.-Actions upon misdemeanors at second instance ................... 243

BooK SEVENTH.
Execution of sentences.........-------.........--------...............-------......---------- 245
Final provision ..................- .....-..-.............................. 248

APPENDIX I.

Orders of the 'Cuban Military Government.
No. 41.-April 14, 1899---.........---...........---------..--.............--..--- 249
No. 63.-May 25, 1899 .................................... .............. 259
No. 92.-June 26, 1899...--------------...- --..-- ..-..---.........--- -. 259
No. 109.-July 13, 1899 ................................................... 281
No. 135.-August 11, 1899............-................................... 287
No. 157.-September 5, 1899 ...--..................--...........--------------- 288
No. 176.-September 21, 1899............................................. 28?
No. 58.-February 9, 1900......................................---...--. 289
No. 152.-April 10, 1900 ................................................ 259
No. 166.-April 23, 1900 ...-.................- ..............-........ 290
No. 181.-April 30, 1900 ..........................-.-...-..-.......-.. 293
No. 192.-May 9. 1900 ................. ................................. 296
No. 213.-:May 25, 1900 ..........................-----.-------..----.--- 298
No. 22S.-June 3, 190U..... ....... ................ ............. ... 312
No. 269.-July 3, 1900 ......._........................-.... .......-. 312
No. 311.-August 8, 1900................ ..........-...............- 318
No. 362.-September 17, 1900 ................ ............ ........... 317
No. 427.-October 15, 1900...... ........ ................................ 322
No. 465.-November 14, 1900........................... ................... 331
No. 468.-November 15, 1900...---.........-...........-........ ......... 332
No. 500.-December 10, 1900............................................. 332
No. 513.-December 19, 1900. ........... ............................... 334
No. 3.-January 1, 1901........... .....-..--..........-- .--- ..---. 334
No. 45.-February 4, 1901................................................. 335
No. 84.-March 25, 1901 ..............-....-----..-.----..--.------------ 337
No. 95.-April 10, 1901 ............................................... 338
No. 520.-December 21, 1900....................-............-- ..-....... 342

APPENDIX II.
Articles of the Penal Code referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure ..... 344


APPENDIX III.
Articles of the Law of Civil Procedure referred to in the Law of Criminal Pro-
cedure......................................... 348

















LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.













EXPOSITION


QUE PRECEDE AL REAL DECRETO DE 14 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1882,
POR EL QUE SE APROBO EL PROYECTO DE CODIGO DE ENJUICIA-
MIENTO CRIMINAL.

SEFoR:-La ejecuci6n de las dos leyes promulgadas en virtud de
Reales decretos de 22 de Junio de este afio presupone un nuevo C6digo
de Enjuiciamiento penal, una modificaci6n profunda en la ley organica
del Poder judicial de 15 de Septiembre de 1870, la determinaci6n del
nfimero y residencia de los Tribunales colegiados que han de conocer
en unica instancia y en juicio oral y pfiblico de los delitos que se come-
tan dentro do su respective territorio, y, por fltimo, la formaci6n de los
cuadros de personal de esos mismos Tribunales cuyos presidents deben
estar adornados de condiciones especiales de capacidad para la direcci6n
y resume de los debates.
Basta la mera enumeraci6n de estos trabajos preparatorios para
comprender que, ni por su indole y naturaleza, ni por su extension y
exceptional importancia, podian terminarse en breve plazo. Cibele,
sin embargo, al infrascrito la satisfacci6n de anunciar hoy A V. M. que
todos ellos pueden darse por ultimados, gracias al patri6tico concurso
que han prestado al Gobierno hombres eminentes no s61o en la ciencia
del Derecho, sino tanbi6n en el conocimiento especial de la topograffa,
censo de poblaci6n, veas de comunicaci6n y estadistica criminal del
territorio de la Peninsula 6 islas adyacentes.

El Gobierno de V. M. no se propone publicar todos estos trabajos
6 la vez; antes al contrario, cree convenient anticipar la promulgaci6n
del C6digo de Enjuiciamiento para que, mientras se instalan las
Audiencias de lo criminal, puedan estudiarle y conocerle los magistrados,
jueces, fiscales, letrados y demis personas que por modo mfs 6 menos
director y eficaz han de concurrir a su planteamiento y aplicaci6n.

No serA su ec'udio muy dificil ni prolijo, porque al cabo el proyecto
que el Ministro que suscribe somete boy a la aprobaci6n de V. M.
esti basado en la Compilaci6n general de 16 de Octubre de 1879, de
conformidad con lo preceptuado en la autorizaci6n votada por las
Cortes; pero asi y todo, son tan radicals las reforms en 41 introduci-
das, que bien podia pasar por un C6digo completamente nuevo y de














ADDRESS


PRECEDING THE ROYAL DECREE OF SEPTEMBER 14, 1882, APPROVING
THE PROPOSED CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.


SIRE: The execution of the two laws promulgated by virtue of
royal decrees of June 22 of this year presupposes a new code of penal
procedure, a radical change in the organic law of the judicial power
of September 15, 1870, the determination of the number and seats
of the collegiate tribunals which are to take cognizance in first and
last instance, and in oral and public trials of the crimes which may be
committed within their respective territories, and, finally, the selection
of the personnel of the said tribunals, the presiding judges of which
must possess special qualifications for the direction and summing up
of the cases.
A mere statement of these preparatory works is sufficient to show
that neither by their character or nature, nor by their extent and
exceptional importance, could they be concluded in a short time. The
undersigned, nevertheless, has the pleasure of to-day informing Your
Majesty that all of them can be considered as concluded, thanks to the
patriotic assistance furnished to the Government by men eminent in
the science of law and perfectly conversant with the topography of
the country, census of the population, means of communication, and
the criminal statistics of the territory of the Peninsula and adjacent
islands.
The Government of Your Majesty does not propose to publish all
these works at the same time, but, on the contrary, it deems it advisa-
ble first to promulgate the Code of Procedure in order that, until the
criminal audiencias are established, it may be studied and known by the
justices, judges, fiscales, attorneys, and other persons who are to con-
tribute in a more or less direct and efficient manner to its establish-
ment and application.
Its study will not be very difficult or require a long time, because,
after all, the draft which the undersigned Minister herewith submits
for the approval of Your Majesty is based upon the general compila-
tion of October 16, 1879, in pursuance with the authority vested in
the Government by the Cortes; but, nevertheless, the amendments
introduced therein are so radical that it might be said with reason








caricter tan liberal y progresivo como el mis adelantado de los C6digos
de procedimiento criminal del continent europeo.
Entre esas reforms son sin duda las menos importantes aquellas
que, sugeridas por la experiencia, tienen por objeto, ya aclarar various
preceptos mas 6 menos oscuros y dudosos de la Compilaci6n vigente, ya
uniformar la jurisprudencia, 6 ya, en fin, facilitar la sustanciaci6n de
algunos recursos y muy especialmente el de casaci6n, acerca del cual
ha hecho observaciones muy oportunas y discretas el Tribunal Supremo,
que naturalmente han sido acogidas con el respeto que merece una Cor-
poraci6n que esti i la cabeza de la Magistratura espaiola, y que es
por la ley int6rprete y guardian de la doctrine juridica.

Las de verdadera importancia y transcendencia son aquellas otras
que se encaminan A suplir, como en las cuestiones prejudiciales, algin
vacio sustancial por donde era frecuente el arbitrio un tanto desmedido,
y mis que desmedido contradictorio, de la jurisprudencia, i corregir
los vicios cr6nicos de nuestro sistema de enjuiciar traditional y A rodear
al ciudadano de las garantias necesarias para que en ningfn caso sean
sacrificados los derechos individuals al interns mal entendido del
Estado.
Sin desconocer que la Constituci6n de 1812, el reglamento provisional
para la administraci6n de justicia de 1835 y otras disposiciones pos-
teriores mejoraron considerablemente el procedimiento criminal, seria
temerario negar que aun bajo la legislaci6n vigente no es raro que un
sumario dure ocho 6 mAs afos, y es frecuente que no dure menos de
dos, prolongandose en ocasiones por todo este tiempo la prisi6n pre-
ventiva de los acusados, y aun podria aniadirse, para completar el cua-
dro, que tan escandalosos process solian no hi much terminar por
una absolucidn de la instancia, sin que nadie indemnizara en este caso
a los procesados de las vejaciones sufridas en tan dilatado period, y
lo que es mas, dejAndoles por todo el resto de su vida en situaci6n
inc6moda y deshonrosa, bajo la amenaza perenne de abrir de nuevo el
procedimiento el dia que por malquerencia se prestaba & declarer con-
tra ellos cualquier vecino rencoroso y vengativo. Esta prActica
abusive y atentoria a los derechos del individuo pugna todavia por
mantenerse con este 6 el otro disfraz en nuestras costumbresjudiciales;
y es menester que cese para siempre, porque el ciudadano de un pueblo
libre no debe expiar faltas que no son suyas, ni ser victim de la impo-
tencia 6 del egoismo del Estado.


Con ser estos dos vicios tan capitals, no son, sin embargo, los unicos
ni acaso los mis grandes de nuestro procedimiento. Lo peor de todo es
que en 61 no se da intervenci6n alguna al inculpado en el sumario; que






2

that it is an entirely new one as liberal and progressive as the most
advanced code of criminal procedure on the European Continent.
Among these changes the less important are no doubt those sug-
gested by experience, whose object is either to explain various more
or less obscure and doubtful precepts of the compilation in force, to
make the jurisprudence uniform, or, finally, to facilitate the use of
some remedies and most especially the appeal for annulment of judg-
ment, upon which the Supreme Court has made some very opportune
and well-chosen remarks, which have naturally been received with the
respect which that body deserves which is at the head of the Span-
ish judiciary, and which is by law the interpreter and guardian of the
juridical doctrine.
The amendments of real and transcendent importance are those
whose purpose it is to supply, as in preliminary questions, some sub-
stantial lack owing to which it has frequently occurred that the discre-
tionary powers granted were so great, and more than that, even
contradictory to jurisprudence; to correct the chronic vices of our
traditional system of procedure, and to surround the citizen with the
necessary guaranties, in order that in no case should individual rights
be sacrificed to the poorly understood interests of the State.
Without ignoring the fact that the Constitution of 1812, the pro-
visional regulations for the administration of justice of 1835, and other
subsequent provisions greatly improved the criminal procedure, it
would be unreasonable to deny that even under the legislation in force
it is not unusual that the preliminary proceedings last eight or more
years, and it frequently happens that they do not last less than two,
the temporary imprisonment of the accused continuing in some cases
this entire period; and it may further be added, in order to complete
the picture, that these scandalous processes not so very long ago would
sometimes be closed on account of lack of evidence, without anyone,
in such case, indemnifying the accused persons for the inconveniences
suffered for so long a period, and, what is more, the imprisonment
would leave them for the rest of their life in an unpleasant and dis-
graceful condition, under the permanent menace of the proceedings
being reopened any day that, through malice, any rancorous or venge-
ful neighbor should inform against them. This evil practice, which
attacks the rights of individuals, is still kept under some disguise
or other in our judicial customs; and it is necessary that it should
be abolished forever, because a citizen of a free nation must not expi-
ate faults of which he is not guilty, nor be the victim of the impotence
or of the egoism of the State.
Although these are two capital vices, they are not, however, the
only ones, nor even the most serious faults in our procedure. The
worst of all is that the accused is not allowed to take part in the








el juez que instruye 6ste es el mismo que pronuncia la sentencia con
todas las preocupaciones y prejuicios que ha hecho nacer en su animo la
instrucci6n; que confundido lo civil con lo criminal y abrumados los
juices de primer instancia por el cimulo'de sus multiples y variadas
atencioncs, delegan frecuentemente la prctica de muchas diligencias
en el escribano, quien, A solas con el procesado y los testigos, no siempre
interpreta bien el pensamiento, ni retrata con perfect fidelidad las
impresiones de cada uno, por grande que sea su celo y recta su volun-
tad; que por la naturaleza misma de las cosas y la 16gica del sistema,
nuestros juices y magistrados han adquirido el habito de dar escasa
importancia a las pruebas del plenario, formando su juicio por el
resultado de las diligencias sumariales, y no parando mientes en la rati-
ficaci6n de los testigos, convertida en vana formalidad; que en ausencia
del inculpado y su defensor, los funcionarios que intervienen en la
instrucci6n del sumario, animados de un espiritu receloso y hostile que
se engendra en su mismo patri6tico celo por la causa de la sociedad que
representan, recogen con preferencia los datos adversos al procesado,
descuidando A las veces consignar los que pueden favorecerle; y que,
en fin, de este conjunto de errors anejos A nuestro sistema de enjuiciar,
y no imputable, por tanto, a los funcionarios del orden judicial y fiscal,
resultan dos cosas A cual mis funestas al ciudadano: una, que al compis
que adelanta el sumario se va fabricando inadvertidamente una verdad
de artificio, que mis tarde se convierte en verdad legal, pero que es
contraria A la realidad de los hechos y subleva la conciencia del proce-
sado; y otra, que cuando este, llegado el plenario, quiere defenders,
no bace mis que forcejear initilmente porque entra en el palenque ya
vencido, 6 por lo menos desarmado. Hay, pues, que restablecer la
igualdad de condiciones en esta contienda juridica hasta donde lo con-
sientan los fines esenciales de la sociedad humana.



Quizas se tache de exagerada 4 injusta esta critical de la organizaci6n
de nuestra justicia criminal. jOjala que lo fuera! Pero el Ministro
que suscribe no manda en su raz6n, y estA obligado A decir a V. M.
la verdad tal como la siente; que las llagas sociales no se curan
ocultAndolas, sino al rev4s, midiendo su extension y profundidad, y
estudiando su origen y naturaleza para aplicar el oportuno remedio.
En sentir del que suscribe, s61o por la costumbre se puede explicar
que el pueblo espaffol, tan civilizado y culto y que tantos progress ha
echo en lo que va de siglo en la ciencia, en el arte, en la industrial y
en su educaci6n political, se resigned A un sistema semejante, mostran-
dose indiferente 6 desconociendo sus vicios y peligros, como no los
aprecia ni mide, el que habituado a respirar en atm6sfera mal sana,
llega hasta la asfixia sin sentirla. El extranjero que estudia la organi-








preliminary proceedings; that the judge who sits thereon is the same
as the one who pronounces the sentence, with all the ideas and preju-
dices to which the investigation has given rise; that, civil and criminal
matters being confounded, and the judges of first instance being
overwhelmed by the accumulation of their multiple and various duties,
frequently delegate the performance of many steps to the court clerk,
who, alone with the accused and the witnesses, does not always cor-
rectly interpret the thought nor does he portray with perfect fidelity
the testimony of each, no matter how zealous or how good-may be
his will; that, by the character itself of the things and the logic
of the system, our judges and justices have acquired the habit of
attributing little importance to the evidence introduced at the trial,
forming their judgment upon the result of the preliminary proceed-
ings, and do not pay particular attention to the ratification of the wit-
nesses, which has become a mere formality; that in the absence of
the accused and his counsel, the officials taking part in the preliminary
proceedings, animated with a suspicious and hostile spirit, which is
engendered by their patriotic zeal in the interests of the society they
represent, give preference to the data against the accused, forgetting
at the same time to record those which might favor him; and that,
finally, from this number of errors in our system of procedure, and
which can not be imputed, therefore, to the officials of the judiciary or
to the public prosecutors, there result two things very unfavorable to
the citizen: One, that in proportion as the preliminary proceedings
advance, a network is being inadvertently woven which is later con-
verted into a legal truth, but which is contrary to the facts, and causes
the conscience of the accused to rebel, and the other, that when the
latter wishes to defend himself at the trial he does nothing but use-
lessly contradict, because he enters the arena already defeated, or at
least disarmed. It is necessary, therefore, to establish an equality of
conditions in this juridical contest in so far as the essential ends of
human society will permit.
Perhaps this criticism of the organization of our criminal justice
may be considered exaggerated and unjust. Would that it were so.
But the undersigned Minister is not master of his judgment, and is
obliged to tell Your Majesty the truth as he feels it. Social evils are
not cured by concealing them, but, on the contrary, by measuring their
extent and depth and by studying their origin and nature, in order
that the proper remedy may be applied. In the opinion of the under-
signed, custom only can explain how the Spanish people, so civilized
and cultured, and which has made such progress during the present
century in the sciences, arts, and industries, and in political education,
should resign itself to such a system, showing indifference or ignoring
its vices and dangers, like those who breathe an unhealthy atmosphere
and reach a point of asphyxiation without knowing it. A foreigner








zaci6n de nuestra justicia criminal al vernos apegados a un sistema ya
caduco, y desacreditado en Europa y en America, tiene por necesidad
que former una idea injusta y falsa de la civilizaci6n y cultural
espafiolas.
, Lo que hay que examiner, por tanto, es si el adjunto proyecto de
C6digo remedia, si no todos, al menos los mis capitals defects de que
adolece la vigente organizaci6n de la justicia criminal. Es preciso en
primer termino sustituir la marcha'perezosa y lenta del actual proce-
dimiento poi un sistema que, dando amplitud A la defense y garantias
de acierto al fallo, asegure, sin embargo, la celeridad del juicio para la
realizaci6n de dos fines a cual mas importantes: uno, que la suerte del
ciudadano no est6 indefinidamente en lo incierto ni se le causen mis
vejaciones que las absolutamente indispensables para la averiguaci6n
del delito y el descubrimiento del verdadero delincuente; y otro, que
la pena siga de cerca a la culpa para su debida eficacia y ejemplaridad.


Pues bien, Sefior; he aquf el conjunto de medios que el nuevo sistema
ofrece para el logro de resultado tan transcendental: la sustituci6n de
los dos grades de jurisdicci6n por la instancia 6nica, la oralidad del
juicio, la separaci6n de lo civil y lo criminal en cuanto al Tribunal
sentenciador, igual separaci6n en cuanto A los jueces instructors en
ciertas ciudades populosas en donde hay mis de un juez de primer
instancia y es much la criminalidad, un alivio considerable de trabajo
en cuanto A los demis jueces, a quienes se descarga del plenario y del
pronunciamiento y motivaci6n de la sentencia, ya que razones indecli-
nables de economic no permiten extender a ellos dicha separaci6n, multi-
tud de reglas de detalle esparcidas aqui y alli en el adjunto C6digo, y
singularmente en sus dos primeros libros, para que los jueces instructo-
res en el examen de los testigos y en la prictica de los demis medios
de investigaci6n se citian A solo lo que sea ftil y pertinente y, por
uiltimo, la intervenci6n del procesado en todas las diligencias del
sumario tan pronto como el juez estime que la publicidad de las actua-
ciones no compromete la causa pdblica ni estorba el descubrimiento
de la verdad. Por regla general nadie tiene mis interns que el pro-
cesado en activar el procedimiento y si alguna vez su prop6sito fuera
prolongarlo, se lo impediria el juez, y sobre todo el fiscal, a quien se
da el derecho de pedir la terminaci6n del sumario y la apertura del
juicio oral ante el Tribunal colegiado. Concurrira tambi6n al propio
fin la inspecci6n continue y sistemAticamente organizada en la ley, de
la Audiencia de lo criminal y del Ministerio piblico sobre la march
de los process en el period de la instrucci6n y la conduct de los
jueces instructors. No es, finalmente, para echado en olvido, cuando
de la brevedad del juicio se trata, el libro 4, donde se establecen pro-








studying the organization of our criminal justice, in seeing us attached
to a system out of date and which is discredited in Europe and in
America, must necessarily form an unjust and false idea of Spanish
civilization and culture.
What is to be examined, therefore, is whether the attached project
for a code remedies, if not all, at least the most notable defects con-
tained in the organization of criminal justice at present in force. It
is necessary, in the first place, to substitute for the slow and lazy prog-
ress of the present procedure a system which, in giving full scope to
the defense, and guarantees of certainty to the judgment, shall never-
theless assure a speedy trial, for the consummation of two ends of the
greatest importance: One, that the fate of the citizen be not indefi-
nitely held in suspense, and that not more inconveniences be caused
him than are absolutely necessary for the investigation of the crime
and the discovery of the guilty party, and the other that the punish-
ment follow soon after the fault, for the purpose of its proper efficacy
and example.
Consequently, Sir, I state herewith the measures which the new sys-
tem affords for the attainment of such important results: The substi-
tution for the two degrees of jurisdiction by the only instance, the oral
character of the trial, separation of civil and criminal matters with
regard to the sentencing tribunal; a similar separation with regard to
the examining judges in certain largely populated towns where there is
more than one judge of first instance and much crime; a considerable
reduction in work with regard to the other judges, who are not
required to take part in the trial, nor to pronounce sentence and give the
reasons therefore, as unsurmountable reasons of economy do not permit
the extension to them of said separation; a large number of rules of
detail scattered here and there in the attached code, and especially in
the first two books, in order that the examining judges in the exami-
nation of the witnesses and in the execution of the other steps in the
investigation confine themselves ex-lusively to what may be useful and
pertinent; and, finally, the intervention of the accused in all the steps of
the preliminary proceedings as soon as the judge considers that the pub-
licity of the proceedings will not compromise the public cause nor
hinder the discovery of the truth. As a general rule no one has more
interest than the accused in hastening the proceedings; and if his pur-
pose were at any time to prolong the same the judge will prevent it, and
especially theJfical, to whom the right is given to demand the conclu-
sion of the preliminary proceedings and the beginning of the oral trial
before the collegiate tribunal. The continuous and systematic inspec-
tion provided for by this law, of the criminal audiencia and of the public
department, as to the progress of the proceedings during the period of
the investigation and of the conduct of the examining judges will








cedimientos especiales y sumarios para los delitos infraganti, para los
de injuria y calumnia y para los cometidos por medio de la imprenta.



Podri ser que ni la Comisi6n de C6digos ni el Gobierno hayan acer-
tado en la elecci6n de los medios en este punto tan interesante de la
ciencia procesal; pero la verdad es que no han encontrado otros, ni se
los ha sugerido el examen de los C6digos modernos atentamente estu-
diados con tal fin.
La ley de 11 Febrero, en la base referente a la prisi6n preventive,
permit, por la flexibilidad de sus t6rminos, mejorar considerablemente
esta rarte de nuestra legislaci6n sin necesidad de pedir su reform 6
las Cortes. El texto legal bien analizado result tan elistico, que lo
mismo se presta al desenvolvimiento de la base en un sentido tirante y
restrictive, que en otro mas amplio, expansive y liberal.
Ocioso parece afiadir que el Gobierno de V. M. se ha decidido por lo
6ltimo, today vez que podia hacerlo sin cometer una transgresi6n de la
ley; como en la material de fianzas, tan intimamente ligada con todo
lo referente A la prisi6n preventive, ha procurado armonizar los fines
de la justicia con los derechos del procesado, poniendo coto i la possible
arbitrariedad judicial y estableciendo reglas equitativas y prudentes
que permitan mayor amplitud que hasta ahora, asi en los medios y
formas de las fianzas como en la entidad de ellas.

Es igualmente indtil decir que la absoluci6n de la instancia, esta
corruptela que hacia del ciudadano A quien el Estado no habia podido
convencer de culpable, una especie de liberto de por vida, verdadero
siervo de la curia marcado con el estigma del deshonor, esta proscrita y
expresamente prohibida por el nuevo C6digo, como habia sido antes
condenada por la ciencia, por la ley de 1872 y por la Compilaci6n vigente.
De esperar es que las disposiciones de la nueva ley sean bastante eficaces
para impedir que semejante prictica vuelva de nuevo a ingerirse en
forma mas 6 menos disimulada en nuestras costumbres judiciales.
Los demis vicios del Enjuiciamiento vigente quedarin sin duda cor-
regidos con el planteamiento del juicio oral y pfblico y la introduc-
ci6n del sistema acusatorio en la ley procesal.
El reglamento provisional de 26 de Septiembre de 1835 y las dispo-
siciones posteriores publicadas durante el reinado de la augusta madre
de V. M., introdujeron, como ya se ha dicho, evidentes mejoras en el
procedimiento criminal; pero no alteraron su indole esencialmente
inquisitiva. Las leyes de 15 de Septiembre de 1870 y 22 de Diciem-
bre de 1872, inspirindose en las ideas de libertad proclamadas por la
revoluci6n de 1868, realizaron una reform radical en nuestro sistema
de enjuiciar, con el establecimiento del juicio oral y pdblico; pero






5
also contribute to the same end. Finally, Book IV must not be for-
gotten in treating of the brevity of the proceedings, which establishes
special and summary proceedings for flagrant crimes as well as for
the crime of outrage and calumny and for those committed through
the press.
It may be that neither the commission on codes nor the Govern-
ment, in their selection of means, have covered so interesting a point
in the science of procedure; but the truth is that it has not been pos-
sible to find any other measures nor have any been suggested from an
examination of modern codes carefully studied for this purpose.
The law of February 11, in the basis relating to provisional impris-
onment, permits, by the flexibility of its terms, a considerable
improvement in this part of our legislation without requiring the
Cortes to amend the same. The legal text if well analyzed appears
so elastic that it serves for the development of the basis in a strict and
restrictive sense, as well as in one more ample, expansive, and liberal.
It appears unnecessary to add that the Government of Your Majesty
has decided finally whenever it could do so without committing a
transgression of law; as in the matter of bail, so intimately con-
nected with all that relates to provisional imprisonment, it has
attempted to harmonize the ends of justice with the rights of the
accused, putting an end to the possible judicial arbitrariness and estab-
lishing equitable and prudent rules which permit a greater scope than
allowed heretofore in the character and form of bonds as well as their
amount.
It is likewise useless to state that a dismissal of the case for lack of
evidence, this abuse which made of the citizen whom the State could
not convict a kind of paroled prisoner for the rest of his life, a true
serf of the parish marked with the stigma of dishonor, is proscribed
and expressly prohibited by the new code, as it had previously been
condemned by science, by the law of 1872, and by the compilation in
force. It is to be hoped that the provisions of the new law will be
sufficiently efficacious to prevent a similar practice from again being
grafted in a more or less disguised form into our judicial customs.
The other vices contained in the procedure in force will no doubt
be corrected by the establishment of oral and public trials and the
introduction of the accusatory system in the law of procedure.
The provisional regulations of September 26, 1835, and the sunse-
quent provisions published during the reign of Your Majesty's August
Mother, introduced, as has been said, evident improvements in the
criminal procedure, but they did not alter its essentially inquisitive
character. The laws of September 15, 1870, and December 22, 1872,
inspired by the ideas of liberty proclaimed by the revolution of 1868,
established a radical reform in our system of procedure by the estab-
lishment of oral and public trials, but they continued the inquisitive






6

mantuvieron el principio inquisitivo y el caricter secret del pro-
cedimiento en el period de instrucci6n, siguiendo el ejemplo de
Francia, Bl4gica y otras naciones del continent europeo.
El Ministro que suscribe, de acuerdo con sus colegas, no ha vacilado
en aconsejar A V. M. que de un paso mAs en el camino del progress,
llevando en cierta media el sistema acusatorio al sumario mismo, que
es, despu4s de todo, la piedra angular del juicio y la sentencia. En
adelante el juez instructor por su propia iniciativa y de oficio podra,
6 mejor dicho, deberA acordar que se comuniquen los autos al procesado
desde el moment en que la publicidad y la contradicci6n no sean un
peligro para la sociedad interesada en el descubrimiento de los delitos
y en el castigo de los culpables. Si no se hace espontAneamente en el
plazo de dos meses, contados desde que se inco6 la causa, la ley da al
acusado el derecho de solicitarlo, ya par preparar los elements de su
defense, ya tambi6n para impedir con su vigilante intervenci6n y el
empleo de los recursos legales la prolongaci6n indefinida del sumario.
En todo caso, antes y despu6s de los dos meses, el que tenga la inmensa
desgracia de verse sometido A un procedimiento criminal, gozara en
absolute de dos derechos preciosos, que no pueden menos de ser
grandemente estimados donde quiera que se rinda culto a la personali-
dad humana: uno, el de nombrar defensor que le asista con sus con-
sejos y su inteligente direcei6n desde el instant en que se dicte el
auto de procesamiento; y otro el de concurrir por si 6 debidamente
representado A todo reconocimiento judicial, A toda inspecci6n ocular,
A las autopsies, A los anAlisis quimicos, y en suma, A la prActica de
todas las diligencias periciales que se decreten y puedan influir asi
sobre la determinaci6n de la indole y gravedad del delito, como sobre
los indicios de su presunta culpabilidad.
Subsiste, pues, el secret del sumario; pero s6lo en cuanto es nece-
sario para impedir que desaparezcan las huellas del delito, para recoger
4 inventariar los datos que basten A comprobar su existencia y reunir
los elements que mas tarde han de utilizarse y depurarse en el crisol
de la contradicci6n, durante los solemnes debates del juicio oral y
pdblico. Y A tal punto Ileva la nueva ley su espiritu favorable a los
fueros sagrados de la defense, que proscribe y condena una preocupa-
ci6n hasta ahora muy extendida, que si pudo ser excusable cuando el
procedimiento inquisitivo estaba en su auge, implicaria hoy el descono-
cimiento de la indole y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio, con el cual
es incompatible. Alude el infrascrito A la costumbre, tan arraigada
en nuestros jueces y Tribunales, de dar escaso 6 ningfn valor a las
pruebas del plenario, buscando principal 6 casi exclusivamente la
verdad en las diligencias sumariales practicadas A espaldas del acusado.
No: de hoy mas las investigaciones del juez instructor no seran sino
una simple preparaci6n del juicio. El juicio verdadero no comienza
sino con la calificaci6n provisional y la apertura de los debates delante








principle and the secret character of the procedure during the examin-
ing stage, following the example of France, Belgium, and other
nations of the European Continent.
The undersigned Minister, in concurrence with his colleagues, has
not hesitated to advise Your Majesty to take one more step upon the
road of progress by extending, to a certain degree, the system of accu-
sation to the preliminary proceedings themselves, which are, after all,
the corner stone of the trial and sentence. Hereafter the investigating
judge, on his own initiative and motion, may, or rather must, order
that the record be made known to the accused from the moment when
publicity and contradiction are not a danger to society, which is inter-
ested in the discovery of the crimes and in the punishment of the guilty
parties. Should this not be done voluntarily within the period of two
months from the date of the institution of the cause, the law gives
the accused the right to request it, either to prepare his defense or
to prevent by his vigilant intervention and the employment of legal
remedies the indefinite extension of the preliminary proceedings. In
any case, before and after the two months, he who is so unfortunate
as to be subjected to a criminal proceeding will fully enjoy two pre-
cious rights, which can not but be greatly appreciated wherever per-
sonal rights are honored and revered: the first, the right to designate
counsel to assist him with his advice and intelligent direction from the
moment the indictment is found; and the second, the right to be pres-
ent in person or through a representative at any judicial investigation,
ocular inspection, autopsy, or chemical analysis-in fact, to be present
at any expert measures which may be ordered, and which may affect
the determination of the character and gravity of the crime or the
clues of his presumed guilt.
The secret character of the preliminary proceedings, however, still
continues; but only in so far as is necessary to prevent the disappear-
ance of the traces of the crime, to collect and inventory the data which
may be sufficient to prove its commission, and gather the elements
which are later to be utilized and their truth ascertained in the crucible
of contradiction during the formal arguments at the oral and public
trial. And to such a point does the new law carry a spirit favorable
to the sacred privileges of the defense, that it proscribes and condemns
a preoccupation which, until the present time, has been very extensive,
and which, although it might have been pardonable when the inquisitive
procedure was at its height, would at the present time imply an ignor-
ance of the character and nature of the system of accusation with
which it is incompatible. The undersigned refers to that custom, so
deeply rooted in our judges and courts, of giving little or no value to
the evidence introduced during the trial, seeking the truth principally
or almost exclusively in the most summary proceedings had behind
the back of the accused. No; hereafter the investigations of the








del Tribunal que, extralio a la instrucci6n, va & juzgar imparcialmente
y a dar el triunfo a aquel de los contendientes que tenga la raz6n y la
justicia de su parte. La calificaci6n juridica provisional del hecho
justiciable y de la persona del delincuente, hecha por el acusador y el
acusado una vez concluso el sumario, es en el procedimiento criminal
lo que en el civil la demand y su contestaci6n, la acci6n y sus excep-
ciones. Al formularlas empieza realmente la contienda juridica, y ya
entonces seria indisculpable que la ley no estableciera la perfect igual-
dad de condiciones entire el acusador y el acusado. Estin enfrente
uno de otro, el ciudadano y el Estado. Sagrada es sin duda la causa
de la sociedad pero no lo son menos los derechos individuals. En los
pueblos verdaderamente libres, el ciudadano debe tener en su mano
medios eficaces de defender y conservar su vida, su libertad, su fortune,
su dignidad, su honor; y si el interns de los habitantes del territorio
es ayudar al Estado para que ejerza libdrrimamente una de sus fun-
ciones mas esenciales, cual es la de castigar la infracci6n de la ley
penal para restablecer, alli donde se turbe, la armonia del derecho, no
por esto deben sacrificarse jamIs los fueros de la inocencia, porque, al
cabo, el orden social bien entendido no es mns que el mantenimiento
de la libertad de todos y el respeto reciproco de los derechos indi-
viduales.



Mirando las cosas por esta prisma y aceptada la idea fundamental de
que en el juicio oral y p6blico es donde ha de desarrollarse con ampli-
tud la prueba, donde las parties deben hacer valer en igualdad de con-
diciones los elements de cargo y descargo, y donde los magistrados
han de former su convicci6n para pronunciar su veredicto con abstrac-
ci6n de la parte del sumario susceptible de ser reproducida en el juicio,
surgia natural y 16gicamente una cuesti6n por todo extreme grave y
delicada; es a saber: la de si la eontradicci6n de un testigo entire su
declaraci6n en el juicio oral y las dadas ante el jpez instructor en el
sumario, seria por si sola fundamento suficiente para someterle a un
procedimiento criminal por el delito de falso testimonio. El Gobierno,
despuss de madura deliberaci6n, ha optado por la negative. Al adoptar
esta soluci6n ha cedido en primer t6rmino a las exigencias de la 16gica,
que no permit atribuir a los datos recogidos en el sumario para la
preparaci6n del juicio una validez y eficacia incompatible con la indole
y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio. No es estociertamenteautorizar,
ni menos santificar el engafo y la mentira en el period de la instruc-
ci6n; esa misma contradicci6n en las declaraciones testificales podri
ser libremente apreciada por los jueces y penetrar en el santuario de
su conciencia como un element de convicci6n, si lega el caso de juz-
gar el perjurio del testigo; lo que inicamente quiere la ley es que 6ste







examining judge shall be nothing but a simple preparation for the
trial. The true trial does not commence until the provisional classifi-
cation and the beginning of the arguments before the tribunal which,
apart from the examination, is going to judge impartially and decide
in favor of the party having right and justice on his side. The pro-
visional juridical classification of the fact to be judged and of the
person of the delinquent, made by the accuser and by the accused
upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, is in criminal
procedure what the complaint and answer, the action and the excep-
tions, are in the civil procedure. The juridical contention really
begins at the time of their formulation, and it would be unpardon-
able if the law did not then establish a perfect equality of conditions
between the accuser and the accused. The citizen and the State con-
front each other. The cause of society is sacred, no doubt, but indi-
vidual rights are no less so. Among a truly free people a citizen must
have in his hand efficient means to defend and preserve his life, his
liberty, his fortune, his dignity, his honor; and, if it be to the interest
of the inhabitants of a territory to assist the State in unrestrictedly
exercising one of its most essential functions, which is that of punish-
ing the violation of a penal law for the purpose of reestablishing the
harmony of the law where it has been disturbed, the privileges of the
innocent should never thereby be sacrificed, because, on the whole,
social order, strictly speaking, is nothing more than the maintenance
of the liberty of all and a reciprocal respect of individual rights.
Looking at things from this point of view, and accepting the funda-
mental idea that it is in the oral and public trial where the evidence is
to be thoroughly sifted, where the parties must under an equality of
conditions, state their charges and denials and where the justices are to
form their convictions in order to pronounce their verdict, abstracting
that part of the preliminary proceedings which can be reproduced in
the trial, naturally and logically a question arose which is extremely
serious and delicate; the question is, Whether the contradiction of a
witness between his testimony given in the oral trial and that before
the examining judge in the preliminary proceedings would in itself be
a sufficient reason to subject him to a criminal action for the crime of
giving false testimony? The Government, after mature deliberation,
has decided in the negative. In adopting this solution it has, in the
first place, given way to the requirements of logic, which does not
permit that there be attributed to the data collected in the preliminary
proceedings for the preparation of the trial a validity and efficiency
incompatible with the character and nature of the accusatory system.
This is by no means an authorization, and still less a sanction, of fraud
and falsehood during the preliminary stage; such contradiction in the
testimony of witnesses may be freely weighed by the judges and pene-
trate in the sanctuary of their conscience, in case it should become








no sea procesado como autor de falso testimonio por la sola raz6n de
aparecer en contradicci6n con sus declaraciones sumariales, debiendo
serlo no mis cuando haya motives para presumir que falt6 g la verdad
en el acto del juicio; porque siendo 6ste el arsenal donde el acusador y
el acusado deben tomar sus armas de combat y de defense y el Tribunal
los fundamentos de su veredicto, claro es que en definitive s61o en este
trimite puede el testigo favorecer 6 perjudicar injustamente al pro-
cesado y ser leal 6 traidor 6 la sociedad y g sus deberes de ciudadano.
A esta raz6n, puramente 16gica, agr4gase otra de mayor transcendencia,
cual es la de facilitar la investigaci6n de la verdad y asegurar el acierto
de los fallos.

Inftil seria rendir culto g los progress de la ciencia rompiendo con
el procedimiento escrito, inquisitive y secret, para sustituirle con los
principios tutelares de la libertad, contradicci6n, igualdad de condi-
ciones entire las parties contendientes, publicidad y oralidad, si el
testigo, cuyas primeras impresiones ha recogido calladamente el juez
instructor trasladindolas A los autos con mas 6 menos fidelidad, se
presentara en el acto del juicio delante del Tribunal sentenciador y del
pfiblico que asiste g los debates, cohibido y maniatado por el recuerdo
6 la lecture de sus declaraciones sumariales. Medroso de la responsa-
bilidad criminal que podria exigfrsele la menor contradicci6n, en vez
de contestar con soltura y perfect tranquilidad i las preguntas del
president, del Ministerio pfblico y de los defensores, limitariase i
ratificar pura y simplemente sus declaraciones, convirti4ndose entonces
su examen en el acto solemne del juicio en vana formalidad. Si no
han faltado escritores distinguidos y jurisconsultos eminentes que al
analizar las condiciones del procedimiento inquisitive han censurado
acerbamente que se obligara a los testigos del sumario g ratificarse en
el plenario, con la seguridad de ser castigados como perjuros en caso
de apartarse en la diligencia de ratificaci6n de lo que antes habian
declarado; si esta fundadisima critical iba dirigida a un sistema en el
que el sumario era el alma de todo el organismo procesal, por no decir
el process entero, tratAndose en la hora present de un m4todo de
enjuiciar en el cual el sumario es una mera preparaci6n del juicio,
siendo en 4ste donde deben esclarecerse todos los hechos y discutirse
todas las cuestiones que jueguen en la causa, no es possible sostener
aquella antigua legislaci6n tan inflexible y rigorosa que, sobre anular
la libertad y espontaneidad de los testigos, expuestos a una persecuci6n
originada en una traducci6n infield de su pensamiento, pugnaria hoy
abiertamente con la indole del sistema acusatorio y con la esencia y
los altos fines del juicio pfblico y oral.







necessary to pass upon the perjury of the witness; the only thing which
the law desires is that the latter be not tried as guilty of false testi-
mony only because he appears to contradict his statements at the pre-
liminary proceedings, and only so tried when there are reasons to
presume that he did not tell the truth at the trial; because as the lat-
ter is the arsenal where the accuser and the accused must receive their
arms for the attack and the defense, and the tribunal the bases for its
verdict, it is evident that definitely only in this stage can the witness
favor or unjustly prejudice the accused and be loyal or a traitor to
society and to his duties as a citizen. To this purely logical reason is
added one of greater importance, which is that of facilitating the inves-
tigation of the truth and insuring the correctness of the decisions.
It would be useless to attempt to further the progress of science by
abolishing the written, inquisitive, and secret procedure in order to
substitute therefore the protective principles of liberty, contradiction,
equality of conditions between the contending parties, publicity, and
oral trials, if the witness, whose first impressions the judge has heard
in silence, transferring them to the record with more or less fidelity,
should appear at the trial before the sentencing tribunal and the public
present at the discussions restrained and with tied hands by the recol-
lection or the reading of his depositions in the preliminary proceed-
ings. Fearing the criminal liability which he might incur upon the
slightest contradiction, instead of answering offhand and with perfect
ease the questions of the presiding judge, the representative of the
department of public prosecution, and of the counsel, he would confine
himself purely and simply to ratifying his statements, his examination
in this formal act of the trial being converted into a mere formality.
There has been a large number of distinguished writers and eminent
jurists who in analyzing the conditions of the inquisitive procedure
have strongly criticised the system of forcing the witnesses at the pre-
liminary proceedings to ratify their depositions at the trial, with the
assurance of being punished as perjurers if during the ratification
they should waver from their previous statements. If this well-
founded criticism were directed against a system in which the prelimi-
nary proceedings were the soul of the entire organism of the procedure,
not to say the entire process, as the method in question at the present
time is one of procedure in which the preliminary proceedings are a
mere preparation for the trial, it being in the latter where the facts
are to be arrived at and where all the questions involved in the cause
are to be discussed, it is not possible to continue the former laws so
inflexible and strict that, in curtailing the liberty and spontaneity of
the witnesses, exposed to a prosecution originating in an unfaithful
translation of their thought, they would at the present time openly
conflict with the character of the accusatory system and with the
essence and high ends of public and oral trials.
18473--01--2








Todas estas concesiones al principio de libertad que A una parte de
nuestros jueces y magistrados parecerin sin duda exorbitantes, no con-
tentaran adn probablemente A ciertas escuelas radicales que intentan
extender al sumario, desde el moment mismo en que se inicia, las
reglas de publicidad, contradicci6n 4 igualdad que el proyecto de C6digo
establece desde que se abre el juicio hasta que se dicta la sentencia
firme. No niega el infrascrito que insignes escritores mantienen esta
tesis con ardor y con fe; pero hasta ahora no puede considerArsela
mis que como un ideal de la ciencia, al cual tiende a acercarse progre-
sivamente la legislaci6n positive de los pueblos modernos. ? Se reali-
zara algdn dia por complete? El Ministro que suscribe lo duda much.
Es dificil establecer la igualdad absolute de condiciones juridicas entire
el individuo y el Estado en el comienzo mismo del procedimiento, por
la desigualdad real que en moment tan critic existed entire uno y otro:
desigualdad calculadamente introducida por el criminal y de que 4ste
s6lo es responsible. Desde que surge en su mente la idea del delito,
6 por lo menos desde que pervertida su conciencia, forma el prop6sito
deliberado de cometerle, estudia cauteloso un conjunto de precauciones
para sustraerse A la acci6n de la justicia, y coloca al Poder pfblico en
una posici6n.analoga A la de la victim, la cual sufre el golpe por sor-
presa, indefensa y desprevenida. Para restablecer, pues, la igualdad
en las condiciones de la lucha, ya que se pretend por los aludidos
escritores que el procedimiento criminal no debe ser mAs que un duelo,
noblemente sostenido por ambos contendientes, menester es que el
Estado tenga alguna ventaja en los primeros moments, siquiera para
recoger los vestigios del crime y los indicios de la culpabilidad de su
autor. Pero sea de esto lo que quiera, la verdad es que s6lo el por-
venir puede resolver el problema de si llegara 6 no A realizarse aquel
ideal. Entre tanto los que tienen la honra de dirigir los destinos de un
pueblo estin obligados A ser prudentes y a no dar carta de naturaleza
en los C6digos A ideas que estan todavia en el period de propaganda,
que no ban madurado en la opinion ni menos encarnado en las costum-
bres, ni se han probado en la piedra de toque de la experiencia.

El Gobierno de V. M. cree ser consecuente con el espiritu liberal
que inform su political, introduciendo dentro de ciertos limits racio-
nales el sistema acusatorio en el sumario, lo cual constitute un gran
progress sobre la ley de 22 de Diciembre de 1872. No hay tampoco
una sola naci6n en el continent europeo que vaya en esto mas
alli que el adjunto proyecto de C6digo, ni siquiera la Alemania, en
cuyas leyes procesales qued6 impreso como en roca de granito el sell
caracteristico del individualism germanico, sin que hayan alcanzado
A borrarle ni la autoridad prepotente de sus Monarcas, ni sus gran-
des glorias militares, ni su reciente y portentoso engrandecimiento
territorial.







All these concessions to the principles of liberty, which to some of
our judges and justices will appear no doubt exorbitant, will prob-
ably not satisfy certain radical schools which desire to extend to the
preliminary proceedings from the instant they are instituted the rules
of publicity, contradiction, and equality which the proposed code estab-
lishes from the time the trial is opened until the final sentence is
pronounced. The undersigned does not deny that well-known writers
support this opinion with ardor and with faith, but it can not be con-
sidered at present as more than an ideal of science which the positive
legislation of modern countries is progressively approaching. Will it
some day be fully realized? The undersigned Minister doubts it very
much. It is difficult to establish an absolute equality of juridical condi-
tions between an individual and the State at the very beginning of the
proceedings, on account of the real inequality which at so critical a mo-
ment exists between one and the other-an inequality purposely intro-
duced by the criminal and for which he only is responsible. From the
moment that the idea of the crime is born in his mind, or at least
from the moment that his conscience is perverted and he forms the delib-
erate intention of committing it, he carefully studies a number of pre-
cautions to escape the action of justice, and he places the public power
in a position similar to that of the victim who receives the blow by sur-
prise-defenceless and unprepared. Thus, in order to reestablish an
equality of conditions for the contest, as it is claimed by the aforemen-
tioned writers that the criminal procedure must not be more than a
duel nobly maintained by both combatants, it is necessary that the State
have some advantages during the first moments, if it be only for the
purpose of collecting the traces of the crime and clues to the guilt of
its author. But, be this as it may, the truth is that the future only
can decide whether this ideal will or will not be realized. In the mean-
time those who have the honor of directing the destinies of a people
are obliged to be prudent and not countenance in the codes ideas which
are still speculative, which have not matured in public opinion, and,
still less, have not rooted themselves in the customs of the people, and
have not stood the test of experience.
The Government of Your Majesty believes it to be in accordance
with the liberal spirit of its policy to introduce, within certain rea-
sonable limits, the accusatory system in the preliminary proceedings,
which constitutes a great advance over the law of December 22. 1872.
There is not a single nation upon the European continent which, on
this point, goes further than the attached proposed code, not even
Germany, on whose laws of procedure is stamped, as on tables of
granite, the characteristic seal of Germanic individualism, without
being wiped out either by the powerful authority of their monarchs,
her glorious military victories, or her recent and portentous territorial
aggrandizement.







Con id4ntico criterio resuelve el nuevo C6digo las demIs cuestiones
fundamentals del Enjuiciamiento. En material penal hay siempre dos
intereses rivals y contrapuestos: el de la sociedad, que tiene el derecho
de castigar, y el del acusado, que tiene el derecho de defenders. El
carActer individualist del derecho, se ostenta en el sistema acusatorio,
en el cual se encarna el respeto a la personalidad del hombre y A la
libertad de la conciencia, mientras que el procedimiento de oficio 6
inquisitive representael principio social y se encamina preferentemente
a la restauraci6n del orden juridico perturbado por el delito, apaci-
guando al propio tiempo la alarm popular. Por lo tanto, el problema
de la organizaci6n de la justicia criminal no se resuelve bien sino defi-
niendo claramente los derechos de la acusaci6n y de la defense, sin
sacrificar ninguno de los dos ni subordinar el uno al otro, antes bien,
armonizAndolos en una sintesis superior.
Formado de oficio 6 6 instancia de parte el sumario por un funcio-
nario independiente del Tribunal que ha de sentenciar; obligado por la
ley este instructor a recoger, asi los datos adversos como los favorables
al procesado, bajo la inspecci6n inmediata del fiscal, del acusador par-
ticular, y, hasta donde es possible, del acusado 6 su letrado defensor;
otorgada una acci6n pfblica y popular para acusar, en vez de limitarla
al ofendido y sus herederos; reconocida y sancionada la existencia del
Ministerio fiscal, A quien se encomienda la misi6n de promover la ave-
riguaci6n de los delitos y el castigo de los culpables, sin dejar por esto
de defender A la vez al inculpado inocente, result que puede, sin peligro
de los intereses p6blicos y particulares, cefiirse el Tribunal al ejercicio
de una sola atribuci6n: la de fallar como juez imparcial del campo
sin sujetarse a una prueba tasada de antemano por la ley; antes bien,
siguiendo libremente las inspiraciones de su conciencia, exento de
las pasiones que enciende siempre la lucha en el animo de los conten-
dientes y sin el aguij6n del amor propio excitado en el juez instructor
por las estratagemas que en ocasiones emplean el acusado y el acusador
privado para burlar sus investigaciones, y aun sin esto, por las mismas
dificultades inherentes de ordinario a la instrucci6n.




Para mantener al Tribunal en esta serena y elevada esfera, y no
desvirtuar el principio acusatorio que inform el nuevo c6digo, ha
credo el que suscribe que fnicamente al Ministerio fiscal 6 al acusador
particular, si le hubiere, correspond formular el acta de acusaci6n
comprensiva de los puntos sobre que en adelante deben girar los
debates, siguiendo en esto al C6digo de instrucci6n criminal austriaco,
que es acaso, de los actualmente vigentes en la Europa continental, el
que ha desarrollado con mas l6gica y extension el sistema acusatorio.








The new code decides the other fundamental questions of the pro-
cedure upon the same basis. In penal matters there are always two
rival and opposed interests; those of society, which has the right to
punish, and those of the accused, who has the right to defend himself.
The individualistic character of law is evident in the accusatory
system, which includes both respect for the personality of man and
liberty of conscience, while the ex officio and inquisitive proceeding
represents the social principle, whose special object is the restoration
of the judicial order which has been disturbed by the crime, quieting
at the same time the popular alarm. Therefore, the problem of the
organization of criminal justice is not correctly solved except by clearly
defining the rights of the accusation and of the defense, without sacri-
ficing either of the two or subordinating one to the other, but, on the
contrary, by harmonizing them in one superior combination.
The preliminary proceedings being instituted ex offcio or at the
instance of a party by an official independent of the tribunal which is
to pronounce the sentence; the examining judge being required by law
to collect all information, favorable as well as unfavorable, to the
accused, under the immediate supervision of the fiscal, of the private
accuser, and, in so far as possible, of the accused or his counsel; a
popular and public trial of the accusation being provided for, instead
of confining it to the injured persons and his heirs; the existence
of the department of public prosecution being recognized and sanc-
tioned and to which is entrusted the mission of taking the steps for
the ascertainment of the crimes and the punishment of those guilty
thereof; without, however, at the same time ignoring the defense of
an innocent accused person, the result is that without danger to public
or private interests, the duties of the tribunal may be restricted to the
exercise of one attribute only-that of deciding as an impartial judge
of the matter without being subject to evidence previously regulated
by law; in fact, unrestrictedly following the dictates of his conscience
exempt from the passions which are always raised by the struggle in
the minds of the contestants and without the wounding of the amour
propre which is engendered in the examining judge by the stratagems
which the accused and the private accuser employ to frustrate his
investigations, or even without this, by the ordinary difficulties which
attend the investigation.
In order to sustain the tribunal in this serene and elevated sphere
and not defeat the object of the accusatory principle which the new
code provides, the undersigned is of the opinion that only the repre-
sentative of the department of public prosecution or the private .ccuser,
if there be any, should prepare the information, including therein the
points which are to be argued thereafter, following herein the Austrian
code of criminal procedure, which is perhaps of those actually in force
in Continental Europe the one which has developed the accusatory








Asi es como se logra que la cuesti6n criminal que en el process se
agita 6 discute vaya intact al Tribunal a quien corresponde decidirla;
asi es.como las parties pueden preparar con perfect conocimiento de
causa los respectivos elements de cargo y descargo y hacer sus acusa-
ciones 6 defenses con fe y libertad complete, sin la coacci6n, siquiera
sea moral, que no puede menos de existir cuando el que ha de fallar
prejuzga en cierto modo el fallo formulando de oficio el acta de acu-
saci6n, lo cual Ileva naturalmente el desaliento al inimo de aquel de
los contendientes A quien perjudica la calificaci6n juridica hecha pre-
maturamente, aunque con caracter provisorio por el Tribunal. Ni son
estos los fnicos inconvenientes que acarrea la admisi6n del acta de
acusaci6n de oficio, pues una vez formulada esta, 6 se obliga al Minis-
terio fiscal sostenerla contra sus convicciones poniendo en torture su
conciencia, 6 se le deja en libertad para combatirla, en cuyo caso ya
no son las parties quienes contienden entire si, sino que se discute 6ni-
camente el pensamiento, la opini6n, el juicio formulado por el Tribu-
nal, que de este modo desciende a la arena del combat para convertirse
en acusador, con el riesgo inminente de que la excitaci6n del amor pro-
pio de los jueces ofusque 6 perturbe su inteligencia. No; los magistra-
dos deben permanecer durante la discusi6n pasivos, retraidos, neutrales,
a semejanza de los jueces de los antiguos torneos, limitAndose A dirigir
con inimo sereno los debates. Por esto, entire las obligaciones impues-
tas al Ministerio fiscal en Francia y Alemania de formular un acta de
acusaci6n cuando ast lo ha acordado el respective Tribunal, y la libertad
que a dicho Ministerio otorgala ley austriaca, ha optado el que suscribe
por la ultima soluci6n que respeta mas los fueros de la conciencia, los
derechos individuals, y esta mis en consonancia con el principio fun-
damental en que descansa el sistema acusatorio.

Este principio, aplicado en absolute, adolece, sin embargo, de un
vicio, que han puesto en relieve insignes magistrados encanecidos en la
Administraci6n de justicia. Proscrita para siempre la absoluci6n de la
instancia, y rigiendo sin excepci6n la maxima non bis in idem, evidence
es que el error del fiscal en la calificaci6n juridica del hecho justiciable
produce la impunidad del delincuente. Esta bien que en los process
civiles el Tribunal tenga la obligaci6n de absolver 6 condenar, asl como
tambien la de ajustar estrictamente su fallo A los tgrminos en que las
parties hayan planteado el problema litigioso, 6 sea la acci6n ejercitada
por el demandante y a las excepciones formuladas por el demandado;
porque las cuestiones que en esos process se ventilan son de mero
interns privado, y porque ademis no es raro que pueda subsanarse total
6 parcialmente en un nuevo process el error padecido al entablar la
acci6n, para lo cual suelen hacerse reserves de derecho en la sentencia
en favor del condenado; pero en los process criminals, que pueden
incoarse de oficio, estAn siempre en litigio el interns social y la paz






11

system most extensively and logically. Thus it becomes possible to
secure that the criminal question raised or argued in the proceedings
shall go intact to the court which is to decide it. Thus the parties can
prepare with a perfect knowledge of cause the respective elements of
accusation and denials and make their accusation or defense with con-
fidence and complete liberty, without the coercion, even though moral,
which can not but exist when the person who is to pass judgment, to
a certain extent prejudges the matter by himself drawing up the in-
dictment, which naturally discourages the contestant who is prejudiced
by a juridical classification which has been made prematurely, although
only temporarily, by the tribunal. Nor are these the only objections
to the admission of the indictment prepared ex officio, because after its
preparation the public prosecutor is obliged to defend it against his
convictions torturing his conscience, or he is left at liberty to combat
it, in which case it does not become a contest between the parties, but
only a discussion of the thought, the opinion, and the judgment of the
tribunal, which, in this manner, enters the arena and becomes converted
into an accuser at the imminent risk of the amour propre of the judges,
confusing or disturbing their intellectual faculties. No; the judges
must remain during the arguments'passive, silent, and neutral, as did
the judges of the ancient tournaments, confining themselves to the
direction of the arguments with a serene deportment. Therefore,
between the obligations imposed upon the public prosecutors in France
and Germany, to draw up an indictment when this has been ordered
by the respective tribunal, and the liberty which is granted said prose-
cutors by the Austrian law, the undersigned has selected the latter
solution as the one offering the greater respect to the dictates of con-
science, individual rights, and as being more in consonance with the
fundamental principle upon which the accusatory system is based.
This principle, applied in full, nevertheless still contains one defect
to which various judges who have grown gray in the administration
of justice have called attention. The dismissal of the proceedings for
lack of evidence being proscribed forever and the maxim non his in
idem ruling without exception, it is evident that an error committed
by the prosecutor in the juridical classification of the punishable act
secures the immunity of the delinquent. It is advisable that in civil
proceedings the tribunal shall have the obligation to acquit or con-
demn as well as to strictly adjust its decision to the terms in which
the parties may have submitted the question in litigation; that is to
say, to the complaint of the plaintiff and the exceptions pleaded by the
defendant, because the questions which arise in these proceedings are
of mere private interest, and because, furthermore, it frequently occurs
that the error committed upon the institution of the action can be
corrected totally or partially in a new proceeding, for which reason it
is customary to make reservations of rights in the decision in favor of







p6blica, y teniendo el Tribunal la obligaci6n de condenar 6 absolver
libremente sin reserve alguna y sin que le sea licito abrir un nuevo
procedimiento sobre el mismo hecho ya juzgado, es violent torturar la
conciencia de los magistrados que le forman hasta el punto de colo-
caries en la dura alternative de condenar al acusado a sabiendas de que
faltan a la ley 6 cometen una nulidad, 6 absolverle con la convicci6n de
que es criminal, dejando que -insulte con su presencia y aire de triunfo
A la victim y su familiar, tan s61o porque el Ministerio publico no ha
sabido 6 no ha querido calificar el delito con arreglo a su naturaleza y
a las prescripciones del C6digo penal. De todas suertes es innegable
que llevados A tal exageraci6n el sistema acusatorio y la pasividad de los
Tribunales, 6stos abdican en el fiscal, en cuyas manos queda toda enter
la justicia. De su buena 6 mala fe, que no s61o de su pericia, depende-
ria exclusivamente en lo future la suerte de los acusados.




Y suponiendo que alg6n dia el legislator, echindose en brazos de la
16gica, Ilegase hasta este fltimo limited del sistema acusatorio, el
Gobierno de V. M. ha credo que la transici6n era demasiado brusca
para este pais en que los jueces han sido hasta ahora omnipotentes,
persiguiendo los delitos por sa propia y espontfnea iniciativa, instru-
yendo las causes los mismos que habian'de fallarlas, ejerciendo la
facultad omnimoda de separarse de los dictAmenes fiscales, asi durante
la sustanciaci6n como en la sentencia definitive, calificando segun su
propio juicio el delito y designando la pena sin consideraci6n i las
conclusions de la acusaci6n y la defense, y empleando por ultimo la
formula de la absoluci6n de la instancia, 6 lo que es lo mismo, dejando
indefinidamente abierto el procedimiento cuando, faltos de pruebas
para condenar, infundian en su mente las diligencias sumariales livianas
sospechas contra el acusado. La sociedad debe marchar como la natu-
raleza, gradualmente y no a saltos: los progress juridicos deben irse
eslabonando, si han de encarnar en las costumbres del pais. Por esto,
el Gobierno propone A V. M. la soluci6n contenida en el articulo 733
que no altera en rigor la virtualidad del principio acusatorio. Seg6n
la estructura de la adjunta ley, concluso el sumario, las parties hacen la
calificaci6n provisional del hecho justiciable. Sobre sus conclusions
versan las pruebas que se practican durante todo el juicio, y al t6rmino
de oste, cuando ya no faltan mis que los informs del fiscal y del
defensor del acusado, autorizase a uno y otro para confirmar, rectificar
6 variar, en vista de las pruebas, su primer calificaci6n. Al llegar &
este trimite todo en rigor esti acabado: los jueces han oido al reo y
los testigos; han examinado las demis piezas de convicci6n y estAn en
condiciones de apreciar con amplitud y acierto la naturaleza del hecho






12
the condemned; but in criminal actions which may be instituted at the
instance of the Government, social interests and public peace are
always in litigation, and as the tribunal has the obligation to convict or
acquit freely without any reservation whatsoever, and without it being
legal to institute a new proceeding upon the same question, it is
unnatural to torture the conscience of the justices composing the
tribunal to the point of placing them in the hard alternative of con-
demning the accused with the knowledge that they do not comply with
the law, destroy its force, or acquit him with the conviction that he is
a criminal, leaving him to insult with his presence and air of triumph
the victim and his family, only because the public prosecutor did not
know how or did not wish to qualify the crime in accordance with its
character and the provisions of the Penal Code. At any rate it can
not be denied that if the accusatory system and the passiveness of the
tribunals goes to such an exaggerated extent, the latter abdicate in
favor of the prosecutor, in whose hanas justice remains intact. The
fate of the accused depends not only on his skill, but also on his good
or bad faith.
And supposing that some day the legislator, appealing to logic, should
arrive to this furthermost limit of the accusatory system, the Govern-
ment of Your Majesty has believed that the transition would be too sud-
den for this country in which the judges have been all powerful, prose-
cuting crimes on their own and voluntary initiative, investigating as
well as passing upon the cases, exercising the power to ignore the
reports of the prosecutors during the hearing as well as in the final sen-
tence, classifying the crime according to their own judgment, and fixing
the punishment without considering the conclusions of the accusation
and defense, and finally dismissing the proceedings for lack of evi-
dence, or, what is the same thing, leaving the proceedings indefinitely
open when there being insufficient evidence to convict, the preliminary
proceedings raised slight suspicions in their mind against the accused.
Society must progress like nature-gradually, and not by leaps; juridi-
cal progress must develop step by step if it is to become grafted in the
customs of the country. Therefore the Government recommends to
Your Majesty the solution contained in article 733, which does not
materially alter the potential character of the accusatory principle.
According to the structure of the annexed law, upon the conclusion of
the preliminary proceedings, the parties make a provisional classifica-
tion of the questions which are the subject-matter of the action. The
evidence taken during the entire action rests upon their conclusions,
and upon the termination thereof, when nothing is left but the final
arguments of the prosecutor and the counsel of the accused, they are
both authorized to confirm, correct, or vary their first classification in
view of the evidence. Upon reaching this stage everything is strictly
terminated; the judges have heard the criminal and the witnesses; they








que es material del juicio. Si en tal moment les asalta una duda
grave sobre su verdadera calificaci6n juridica, que dificultad puede
haber en que hipot6ticamente, sin prejuzgar el fallo definitive y s6lo
por via do ilustraci6n, invite el president del Tribunal al Ministerio
pfblico y defensor del procesado para que en sus informes discutan
una tesis mnis? El principio acusatorio quedaria quebrantado si esta
no hubicra de discutirse y resolverse con arreglo i las pruebas ya
practicadas, dando lugar a que se abriese de nuevo 6 se prorrogase el
juicio; pero comno 6ste esta ya terminado y no es permitido volver
sobre 61, todo lo que puede suceder es que el fiscal 6 el letrado nece-
siten veinticuatro horas para razonar sobre la hip6tesis del Tribunal
con la convenient preparaci6n.
Con ser tan modest y estar tan cenfida esta facultad, declare sin
embargo la ley que no se extiende a los delitos privados 6 que s6lo
pueden perseguirse ii instancia de parte, ni i la calificaci6n de las cir-
cumnstancias atenuantes 6 agravantes, ni A la de la participaci6n
respective de los procesados en la ejecuci6n del crime, quedando
reducida Ai la satisfacci6n de una necesidad apremiante originada en un
interns pilblico y de orden social. Aun encerrada en tan estrechos
limits, el Ministro que suscribe hubiera renunciado A ella, y mante-
nidose en el rigorismo del principio acusatorio, si los C6digos mAs pro-
gresivos y liberals de la Europa continental le hubioran alentado con
su ejemplo; pero no hay ninguno que no d6 mayor amplitud i la inter-
venci6n del Tribunal en el juicio. En Francia y Alemania ya se ha visto
que el Ministerio fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de formular el acta de acu-
saci6n cuando asi lo acuerda el Tribunal respective, y ademis la misma
ley alemana y la austriaca dejan ii ste en libertad de apreciar el hecho
justiciable sin sujetarse A la calificaci6n que de 1l hubieren hecho las
parties, y sin tomar la precauci6n de someter A 4stas la nueva faz de la
cuesti6n, A fin de que la discutan ampliamente antes de que recaiga el
veredicto. Precediendo este solemn debate, no amplihndose ni refor-
mindose en ningfn caso las piezas de convicci6n, no puede en rigor
acusarse de incongruencia al fallo, puesto que la ley en suma se limit
& establecer un medio de suplir la omisi6n del fiscal, cuyo deber es
hacerse cargo de todas las calificaciones probables que autorice la
prueba practicada y que pueda aceptar el Tribunal, redactando al
efecto cuando fuere necesario la pretensi6n alternative de que habla
el art. 732. El Tribunal propone, hipoteticamente y sobre la base
de una prueba inalterable, un tema de discusi6n moments antes de
pronunciar su veredicto, cuando cada magistrado tiene ya formado su
juicio definitive sobre el voto que se va dar. Mejor es, por tanto, que
le emita despues de un debate que puede iluminar su mente y rectificar
su juicio, que no autorizarle para que en el fallo se separe de las con-
diciones debatidas por las parties y siga sus propias inspiraciones no
contrastadas en el crisol de la contradicci6n como le autorizan los








have examined the other evidence, and are in a condition to weigh the
character of the act which is the subject-matter of the trial fully and
with a correct understanding. If at this moment they should enter-
tain some serious doubt as to its true juridical classification, why
should not the presiding judge of the court, hypothetically and only
by way of illustration, invite the public prosecutor and the attorney
for the accused, without prejudging the definite decision, to discuss an
additional thesis in their briefs? The accusatory principle would be
violated if this additional thesis were not argued and decided in accord-
ance with the evidence already taken, causing a postponement or
reopening of the trial. But as the trial is already closed and it is not
possible to review it, all that can take place is that the public prose-
cutor or the attorney be granted twenty-four hours for the purpose of
arguing upon the hypothesis of the tribunal with sufficient preparation.
Although this power is so modest and restricted, the law neverthe-
less declares that it does not extend to private crimes or to those crimes
which can be prosecuted only at the instance of a party, or to the
classification of extenuating or aggravating circumstances, or to that
of the respective participation of the persons accused in the commis-
Ssion of the crime, being thus reduced to meeting an urgent necessity
originating in a public and social interest. Although confined to so
narrow limits, the undersigned Minister would have renounced it and
remained within the excessively severe accusatory principle if the
most progressive and liberal codes of continental Europe had encour-
aged him with their example; but there is none which gives greater
power to the intervention of the court in the trial. It has already been
seen that in France and Germany the public prosecutor is obliged to
prepare the indictment when ordered to do so by the proper court,
and, furthermore, the said German law, as well as the Austrian law,
leave him at liberty to weigh the act without subjecting himself to
the classification thereof made by the parties, and without taking the
precaution of submitting to said parties the new phase of the ques-
tion in order that they may discuss it fully before the verdict is ren-
dered. Before this formal argument, without the evidence in any case
being amended or extended, the sentence could not be said properly to be
incongruent, because the law in substance confines itself to establishing
a means to supply the omission of the public prosecutor, whose duty it
is to take charge of all the probable classifications which the evidence
taken may authorize and which the tribunal may accept, preparing for
this purpose the alternative claim referred to in article 732, whenever
necessary. The tribunal proposes, hypothetically and upon the basis
of an unalterable proof, a theme for discussion a few moments before
pronouncing its verdict, when each justice has already formed his defi-
nite opinion upon the vote which is to be cast. It is better, therefore,
that he should cast his vote after an argument which may enlighten








C6digos austriaco y alem'n, a pesar de ser los mis adelantados de la
Europa continental.



Tales son, Sefior, prescindiendo de otras muchas reforms de menor
importancia, aunque sustanciales, y de evidentes mejoras de detalle en
el m4todo y la redacci6n, las novedades de mis bulto que el proyecto
adjunto introduce en nuestro procedimiento criminal.
No desconoce el Ministro que suscribe que la aplicaci6n y cumpli-
miento de la nueva ley, singularmente en los primeros afios, tropezara
con graves dificultades, siendo la mayor de todas ellas la falta de cos-
tumbres adecuadas al sistema acusatorio y al juicio oral y p6blico.
Educados los espafioles durante siglos en el procedimiento escrito,
secret 6 inquisitorial, lejos de haber adquirido confianza en la Justicia
y de coadyuvar activamente A su recta administraci6n, haciendo, como
el ciudadano ingles, initial la instituci6n del Ministerio pfblico para el
descubrimiento y castigo de los delitos, han formado ideas falsas sobre
la policia judicial y se han desviado cada vez m6s de los Tribunales
mirando con lamentable recelo a magistrados, jueces, escribanos y
alguaciles, y repugnando figurar como testigos en los process. Pero
este mal sera mayor cuanto mis tiempo pase; y como lo actual no
puede seguir sin desdoro de la Naci6n y de los poderes que la gobiernan,
lo mejor es decidirse, que alguna vez se ha de empezar, si la Espafia no
ha de ser una excepci6n entire los pueblos cultos de Europa y America.


El Gobierno de V. M. tiene tal confianza en la aptitud especial y las
condiciones privilegiadas de nuestra raza, que espera seri breve el
apredizaje, no tan s6lo en la aplicaci6n de esta ley, sino en la obra aun
mls delicada de compartir con los jueces la misi6n augusta de adminis-
trar justicia como Jurado; y que muy pronto el ciudadano espafiol
demostrari que es digno de gozar de las mismas ventajas que poseen
los extranjeros.
Al logro de fin tan important y transcendental coadyuvarAn, sin
duda, el celo e ilustraci6n de la Magistratura y del Ministerio pdblico;
que no es possible, Sefior, montar una miquina delicada y hacerla fun-
cionar con 6xito, sino contando con el asent-niento, el entusiasmo, la
fe y el patriotism de los que han de manejarla.

En vista de las razones expuestas, el Ministro que suscribe tiene la
honra de someter a la aprobaci6n de V. M. el adjunto proyecto de
decreto.
Sen Ildefonso, 14 de Septiembre de 1882.
Sefior, A L. R. P. de V. M.,
MANUEL ALONSO MARTINEZ.






14

his mind and correct his judgment than not to authorize him to depart
from the conditions argued by the parties and follow his own inspira-
tions, which have not been brought together in the crucible of contra-
diction as authorized by the Austrian and German codes, notwithstand-
ing the fact that they are the most advanced on the European Continent.
Such are, Sir, without speaking of many other amendments of lesser
importance, although substantial, and evidently improvements in the
method and preparation, the most weighty innovations introduced by
the attached bill in our criminal procedure.
The undersigned Minister is not unaware of the fact that in the
application and fulfillment of the new law, especially during the first
years, serious difficulties will be encountered, the greatest of all being
the absence of customs applicable to the accusatory system and to an
oral and public trial. Spaniards having been educated for centuries
in the written, secret, and inquisitive procedure, far from having gained
confidence in justice and actively assisting in a proper administration
thereof, and, as the British citizen, rendering useless the institution
of the department of public prosecution for the discovery and punish-
ment of crimes, have formed erroneous ideas as to the judicial policy,
and have every day drifted further from the tribunals, looking upon
the justices, judges, court clerks, and bailiffs with lamentable distrust,
and disliking to appear in the proceedings as witnesses. But this
evil will increase as time passes. And as the present state of affairs
can not continue without discredit to the nation and the powers which
govern it, the best thing to do is to decide, as it must be begun some
time, whether Spain is to be an exception among the cultured peoples
of Europe and America.
The Government of Your Majesty has such confidence in the special
aptitude and the privileged conditions of our race that it believes that
the apprenticeship will be short, not only in the application of this
law, but even in the more delicate task of sharing with the judges the
august mission of administering justice as a Jury, and that very soon
the Spanish subject will demonstrate that he is worthy of enjoying the
same advantages as those enjoyed by foreigners.
In the attainment of so important and transcendental an end, the zeal
and high character of our judiciary and of the department of public
prosecution will no doubt contribute. It is not possible, Sir, to mount
a delicate machine and successfully operate it unless the assent, the
enthusiasm, the confidence, and the patriotism of those who are to
manage it are to be trusted.
In view of the aforestated reasons, the undersigned Minister has the
honor to submit for the approval of Your Majesty the attached bill.

San Ildefonso, September 14, 1882.
Sire, at the Royal Feet of Your Majesty,
MANUEL ALONSO MARTINEZ.















MINISTERIO DE ULTRAMAR.


REAL DECRETO.

Llevadas A cabo por la Comisi6n de C6digos del Ministerio de Ul-
tramar las modificaciones necesarias para que pueda aplicarse en Cuba
y Puerto Rico la ley vigente en la Peninsula sobre procedimiento cri-
minal de acuerdo con aquella Corporaci6n, a propuesta del Ministro
de Ultramar, y en virtud de la autorizaci6n que concede A mi Gobierno
el art. 89 de la Constituci6n de la Monarquia, en nombre de mi Augusto
Hijo el Rey D. Alfonso XIII, y como Reina Regente del Reino,

Vengo en decretar lo siguiente:
ARTfCULO 1. Se aprueba para la isla de Cuba y Puerto Rico la ley
de Enjuiciamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, en virtud del Real
decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882, con las modificaciones propues-
tas por la Comisi6n de C6digos de Ultramar.
ART. 2. La nueva ley comenzarg A regir en Cuba y Puerto Rico el
dia 1 de Enero de 1889, en que empezarin a funcionar las Audiencias
de lo criminal.
ART. 30. Las causes por delitos cometidos con anterioridad al 1 de
Enero pr6ximo, continuarin sustanciAndose con arreglo i las disposi-
ciones del procedimiento vigente en la actualidad.'
Si las causes a que se refiere el parrafo anterior no hubieren llegado
al period de clasificaci6n, podrin sustanciarse con arreglo a las dispo-

'La jurisprudencia del Tribunal Supremo, sobre lo preceptuado en el mismo arti-
culo del Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882 aprobando la ley de Enjuicia-
miento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, que en nada difiere de la disposici6n que
anotamos, es contradictoria, pues mientras en sentencias de 3 de Septiembre, 24 de
Octubre de 1884 y 26 de Diciembre de 1885, declare que los Tribunales existentes
antes de constituirse las nuevas Audiencias de lo criminal, son los competentes para
conocer de los delitos cometidos hasta el 15 de Octubre de 1882, aunque haya comen-
zado procederse por su comisi6n con posterioridad 6 esa fecha, siempre que los pro-
cesados no se hayan acogido al nuevo procedimiento, en otra sentenciade 4 de Agosto
de 1887, consign6: Que es precepto claro y terminante, consignado en la regla que
anotamos, que las causes por delitos cometidos con posterioridad al 15 de Octubre del
afio citado, debfan continuar sustancidndose con arreglo d las disposiciones del pro-
cedimiento vigente entonces, apareciendo, por tanto, indiscutible, que se refiere a las
causes incoadas antes de la indicada fecha, y de ningdn modo A las posteriores, por
mis que la comisi6n de los delitos fuera anterior.















COLONIAL DEPARTMENT.


ROYAL DECREE.

The Codification Commission of the Colonial Department having
completed the modifications necessary in order that it may be possible
to apply in Cuba and Porto Rico the law in force in the Peninsula on
criminal procedure, in concurrence with said corporation, upon the
recommendation of the Colonial Minister, and in pursuance of the
authority vested in my Government by article 89 of the Constitution of
the Monarchy, in the name of my August Son the King, Don Alfonso
XIII, and as Queen Regent of the Kingdom,
I hereby decree the following:
ARTICLE. 1. The Law of Criminal Procedure in force in the Penin-
sula, by virtue of a Royal Decreee of September 14, 1882, is approved
for the Islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, with the modifications recom-
mended by the Codification Commission for the Colonies.
ART. 2. The new law shall go into effect in Cuba and Porto Rico on
the first day of January, 1889, when the Criminal Audiencias will
begin to act.
ART. 3. The causes for crimes committed prior to January first
next, shall continue to be heard and determined in accordance with
the provisions of the procedure in force at the present time.'
If the causes referred to in the foregoing article should not have
reached the classification stage, they may be heard and determined in

'The Jurisprudence of the Supreme Court with regard to the provisions of the same
article of the Royal Decree of September 14, 1882, approving the law of criminal
procedure in force in the Peninsula, which does not differ in any manner from the
provision annotated, is contradictory, because while in decisions of September 3,
October 24, 1884, and December 26, 1885, it declared that the courts existing before
the organization of the new criminal audiencias are of competent jurisdiction in crimes
committed up to October 15, 1882, even though the action should have been instituted
subsequently to said date, provided that the accused should not have selected the new
procedure; in another decision of August 4, 1887, it declared: "That it is a clear and
final precept, contained in the rule which we annotate, that the causes for crimes
committed subsequently to the 15th of October of the year mentioned must continue
to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in
force at that time; and it appears, therefore, undisputable that it relates to the
causes instituted before the said date, and in no manner to subsequent causes, even
though the crimes should have been committed prior thereto."








siciones de la nueva ley, si todos los procesados en cada una de ellas
optan por el nuevo procedimiento.'
Para ello, el Juez que estuviere conociendo del sumario en 1 de
Enero pr6ximo hard comparecer i su presencia A todos los procesados,
acompafiados de sus defensores.
Si aun no los tuvieran, se les nombrarI de oficio para la compare-
cencia.
Esta sc hara constar en la causa por medio de acta.
ART. 4". Los Jueces de primer instancia se considerar~ n desde luego
como Jueces instructors en las causes que se ajusten al nuevo procedi-
miento.
ART. 5". Desde que cesen en sus cargo los actuales Promotores,
desempefiarin las funciones del Ministerio piblico durante la primer
instancia en las causes que se sigan sustanciando, con arreglo al pro-
cedimiento vigente en la actualidad, los Fiscales municipals que sean
Letrados, y A falta de 6stos, los que designed los Fiscales de las
respectivas Audiencias.
ART. 60. Las Salas de Gobierno de las Audiencias y los nuevos Tri-
bunales consultardn directamente con el Ministerio de Ultramar para
su resoluci6n las dudas que puedan originarse en la aplicaci6n de este
Real decreto.
Dado en Palacio a 19 de Octubre de 1888.
MARIA CRISTINA.
El Ministro de Ultramar,
TRINITARIO Riz CAPDEP6N.

SEs bastante que todos los procesados presents opten por el nuevo procedimiento
para que (ste se siga conform A Ia regla que anotamos. Asf lo declare la Fiscalia del
Tribunal Supremo en la instrucci6n ndm. 3 de las que acompatian A la Memoria de
15 de Septiembre de 1883, resolviendo una consult hecha A la misma sobre aplica-
ci6n de un precepto andlogo del Real decreto aprobando la ley de la Penfnsula, y lo
confirm el mismo Tribunal en sus sentencias, entire otras varias, de 30 de Junio de
1883 y 23 de Diciembre del mismo aio, segdn las cuales inicamente A los procesa-
dos presents en el juicio puede afectar la forma del procedimiento y el fallo que lo
termine; y, por tanto, la ausencia y rebeldfa de otros respect de los cuales se man-
tiene en suspense, no puede redundar en perjuicio de los que, sumisos y obedientes
1 la ley, se ven en la apremiante necesidad de defenders, y si 6stos optan por el
nuevo procedimiento, compete conocer de la causa A la Audiencia de lo criminal
respective y no A la territorial. En otra de 12 de Agosto de 1884, se consign6 que,
seguida una causa con arreglo al procedimiento antiguo, dictada sentencia en primer
instancia, consultada con la superioridad y repuestas las actuaciones al estado de
sumario por disposici6n de la misma, si los procesados optan por el nuevo procedi-
miento, es competent la Audiencia de lo criminal A quien correspond, y no los Tri-
bunales anteriores a la creaci6n de dichas Audiencias.








accordance with the provisions of the new law, if every one of the
accused in each cause should choose the new procedure.'
For this purpose the judge who may be taking cognizance of the
preliminary proceedings on the first day of January next shall order
all the accused to appear before him, together with their counsel.
Should they not have counsel as yet, they shall be assigned to them
at the motion of the court for the appearance.
This appearance shall be duly entered upon the record of the cause.
ART. 4. Judges of First Instance shall at once be considered as
examining judges in the causes which are prosecuted in accordance
with the new procedure.
ART. 5. As soon as the actualpromotores cease in the discharge of
their duties, the functions of the Department of public prosecution in
causes which are being heard in accordance with the procedure in force
at the present time shall be discharged by the municipal fiscales who
may be attorneys, and, in their absence, by those whom thefiscales of
the respective audiencias may designate.
ART. 6. The Administration Chambers of the Audiencias and the
new Tribunals shall submit directly to the Colonial Department for its
decision any doubts which may arise in the application of this Royal
Decree.
Given in the Palace on October 19, 1888.
MARIA CRISTINA.
TRINITARIO RmIZ CAPDEP6N,
Colonial Minister.

It is sufficient that all the accused present select the new procedure for it to be
adopted in accordance with the rule we annotate. This was declared by the office of
the Fiscal of the Supreme Court in instruction number 3, of those attached to the
Memorial of September 15, 1883, deciding a question submitted to the same as to the
application of a similar precept of the Royal Decree approving the law of the Penin-
sula, and the said Court confirmed it in its decisions, among which may be men-
tioned those of June 30 and December 23, 1883, according to which "only the accused
present at the trial can be affected by the form of the procedure and the sentence
closing it; and, therefore, the absence and default of the others with regard to whom
it is suspended can not redound to the prejudice of those who, submissive and obe-
dient to the law, find themselves in urgent necessity of defending themselves, and if
the latter choose the new procedure the proper criminal audiencia is of competent
jurisdiction, and not the territorial audiencia." In another decision, of August 12,
1884, it was stated that a cause having been prosecuted in accordance with the former
procedure, a sentence rendered in first instance, a consultation being had with the
higher court and the proceedings having been returned to the court of primary juris-
diction by order of the same, if the accused then choose the new procedure, the
proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not the Tribunals which
existed prior to the creation of said audiencias.
18473--01--















LEY DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL.



LIBRO PRIMERO.

DISPOSICIONES GENERALS.

TITULO PRIMERO.

PELIMINARES.
CAPITULO PRIMERO.

REGLAS GENERALS.

ARTfCULO 10. No se impondri pena alguna por consecuencia de
actos punibles cuya reprensi6n incumba A la jurisdicci6n ordinaria,
sino de conformidad con las disposiciones de la present ley 6 de otras
especiales, y en virtud de sentencia dictada por juez competente1

ART. 20. Todas las autoridades y funcionarios que intervengan en
el procedimiento penal cuidaran, dentro de los limits de su respective
competencia, de consignar y apreciar las circunstancias asi adversas
como favorables al presunto reo, y estarin obligados, 4i falta de dispo-
sici6n expresa, A instruir A 4ste de sus derechos y de los recursos que
pueda ejercitar mientras no se hallare asistido de defensor.

1Extraido de Portugal el espafiol Joaqufn Cupido y condenado i la pena de muerte,
interpuso recurso de casaci6n por suponer infringido el art. 1 del convenio de extra-
dici6n celebrado entire Espafia y Portugal en 6 de Diciembre de 1875, segdn el cual
los criminals A quienes correspond la pena de muerte, s6lo serAn entregados A con-
dici6n de que se les conmute dicho castigo. El T. S. declare no haber lugar al
recurso:
"Considerando que A los Tribunales no correspond conmutar las penas, porque la
conmutaci6n supone la imposici6n previa de aquella que se ha de conmutar, y la
facultad de elegir libremente la que se ha de imponer en cambio, propia y exclusive
de la prerrogativa regia, siendo por tanto s6lo competencia de la administraci6n de
justicia aplicar la ley penal, sin que infrinja, aplicAndola A reos extrafdos de Portugal
por delito que senale el C6digo la pena de muerte, el art. 1 del tratado de extra-
dici6n vigente con el Gobierno portuguds, precepto cuya observancia procederd,
conform al pacto international, despubs de impuesta en fall definitive la referida
pena."-Sala Sa., Sent. 15 Abril, 1884. Gac. 8 Septiembre, p. 168.















LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.



BOOK FIRST.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

TITLE FIRST.

PRELIMINARIES.
CHAPTER FIRST.

GENERAL RULES.

ARTICLE 1. No penalty whatsoever shall be inflicted as a consequence
of punishable acts the punishment of which pertains to the ordinary
jurisdiction, except in accordance with the provisions of this and other
special laws, and by virtue of a sentence pronounced by a judge of
competent jurisdiction.1
ART. 2. All authorities and officials taking part in a criminal pro-
ceeding shall seek, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions,
to record and consider all circumstances for and against the presumed
criminal, and shall be obliged, in the absence of an express provision,
to inform the latter of his rights and of the remedies he may employ,
while without the services of counsel.

'A Spaniard by the name of Joaquin Cupido having been extradited from Portugal
and sentenced to death, interposed an appeal for annulment of judgment on the ground
of the violation of article 1 of the extradition convention celebrated between Spain
and Portugal on December 6,1875, according to which criminals subject to the penalty
of death shall be turned over only on condition that said punishment be commuted.
The supreme court declares that the appeal does not lie:
"'Considering that it does not lie within the power of courts to commute sentences,
because a commutation supposes the previous imposition of the sentence to be com-
muted, and the power to freely select that which is to be imposed in lieu thereof,
which is properly and exclusively a royal prerogative, it beingwithin the jurisdiction
of the administration of justice only to apply the penal law, without violating, in
applying the same to criminals extradited from Portugal for a crime to which the code
affixes the penalty of death, article 1 of the extradition treaty in force with the Portu-
guese Government, a precept, the observance of which will be proper, in accordance
with the international agreement, after the said punishment has been imposed by a
definite sentence."-Second Chamber. Decision ofApril 15,1884. Gaceta of September
S8, page 168.








CAPITULO II.

CUESTIONES PREJUDICIALES.
ART. 30. Por regla general, la competencia de los Tribunales encar-
gados de la justicia penal se extiende A resolver, para s61o el efecto de
la represi6n, las cuestiones civiles y administrativas prejudiciales pro-
puestas con motivo de los hechos perseguidos, cuando tales cuestiones
aparezcan tan intimamente ligadas al hecho punible que sea racional-
mente impossible su separaci6n.
ART. 4. Sin embargo, si la cuesti6n prejudicial fuese determinant
de la culpabilidad 6 de la inocencia, el Tribunal de lo criminal sus-
pendera el procedimiento hasta la resoluci6n de aquUlla por quien co-
responda; pero puede fijar un plazo, que no exceda de dos meses, para
que las parties acudan al juez 6 Tribunal civil 6 contencioso-adminis-
trativo competente'
Pasado el plazo sin que el interesado acredite haberlo utilizado, el
Tribunal de lo criminal alzarA la suspension y continuara el procedi-
miento.
En estos juicios sera parte el Ministerio fiscal.
ART. 5. No obstante lo dispuesto en los dos articulos anteriores, las
cuestiones civiles prejudiciales referentes a la validez de un matri-
monio 6 a la supresi6n de estado civil, se deferirAn siempre al juez 6
Tribunal que deba entender de las mismas, y su decision servira de
base A la del Tribunal de lo criminal.

ART. 6. Si la cuesti6n civil prejudicial se refiere al derecho de pro-
piedad sobre un inmnieble 6 a otro derecho real, el Tribunal de lo
criminal podri resolver acerca de ella cuando tales derechos aparezcan
fundados en un titulo autintico 6 en actos indubitados de posesi6n.2
ART. 7o. El Tribunal de lo criminal se atemperarA respectivamente
A las reglas del Derecho civil 6 administrative en las cuestiones preju-
diciales que, con arreglo a los articulos anteriores, deba resolver.


1 No son susceptible de recurso de casaci6n:
(a) El auto que suspended temporalmente el procedimiento contra un acusado (4
Diciembre, 1879).
(b) Los autos sobre procedencia de las cuestiones prejudiciales A que se refiere el
art. 4o de la ley, por no estar comprendidos en el 850 (16 Abril y 5 Junio, 1888).

(c) El auto de sobreseimiento provisional (9 Abril de 1887).
2Los arts. 4, 50, y 6, son excepci6n de los 111 y 114, que por regla general pro-
hiben el ejercicio aislado de toda acci6n civil, derivado del delito, mientras no se
resuelva la penal i que el hecho reputado punible haya dado origen.








CHAPTER II.

PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS.
ART. 3. As a general rule, the jurisdiction of courts charged with
penal justice extends to the decision, for the purposes of reprehension
only, of the preliminary civil and administrative questions arising in
connection with the acts prosecuted, when such questions appear to be
so intimately connected with the punishable act that their separation is
practically impossible.
ART. 4. Nevertheless, if the preliminary question be one involving
a determination of guilt or innocence, the criminal court shall suspend
the proceedings until the decision thereof by the proper person; but
it may fix a period not to exceed two months, within which the parties
may apply to the civil or administrative judge or court of competent
jurisdiction.'
If said period shall expire without the person interested proving
that he has availed himself thereof, the criminal court shall raise the
suspension and continue the proceedings.
The prosecuting official shall be a party to these proceedings.
ART. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the two pre-
ceding articles, civil preliminary questions relating to the validity of
a marriage or to the suppression of the civil status shall always be
transmitted to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the
same, and his decision shall serve as a basis for that of the criminal
court.
ART. 6. If the civil preliminary question shall relate to the right
of ownership of real property or of another property right, the
criminal court may decide thereon when such rights appear to be
based on an authentic title or indubitable acts of possession.2
ART. 7. The criminal court shall conform to the rules of civil or
administrative law, respectively, in the preliminary questions which
it may be required to decide, in accordance with the preceding
articles.

'The following can not be appealed from for annulmentof judgment:
(a) The decree temporarily suspending the proceedings against an accused person.
(December 4, 1879.)
(b) Rulings as to the legality of the preliminary questions referred to in article 4
of the law, on account of not being included in article 850. (April 16 and June 5,
1888.)
(c) A decree temporarily suspending the proceedings. (April 9, 1887.)
'Articles 4, 5, and 6 are exceptions to articles 111 and 114, which, as a general
rule, prohibit the separate institution of any civil action derived from the crime until
the penal action has been decided which arose from the alleged punishable act.

















TfTULO II.


DE LA COMPETENCIA DE LOS JUICES Y TRIBUNALES EN LO CRIMINAL.
CAPITULO PRIMERO.

DE LAS REGLAS POR DONDE SE DETERMINE LA COMPETENCIA.

ART. 8. La jurisdicci6n criminal es siempre improrrogable.1
ART. 9. Los jueces y tribunales que tengan competencia para cono-
cer de una causa determinada, la tendrin tambi4n para todas sus inci-
dencias, para llevar a efecto las providencias de tramitaci6n y para la
ejecuci6n de las sentencias.2
ART. 10. Correspondera a la jurisdicci6n ordinaria el conocimiento
de las causes y juicios criminals, con excepci6n de los casos reservados
por las leyes al Senado, A los Tribunales de Guerra y Marina y A las
autoridades administrativas 6 de policia.3
ART. 11. El conocimiento de las causes por delitos en que aparezcan
a la vez culpables personas sujetas A la jurisdicci6n ordinaria y otras
aforadas correspondera & la ordinaria, salvo las excepciones consignadas
expresamente en las leyes respect a la competencia de otra juris-
dicci6n.'
ART. 12. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, la
jurisdicci6n ordinaria sera siempre competent para prevenir las causes
por delitos que cometan los aforados.

'Llmase prorrogada la jurisdicci6n que siendo incompetent se hace competent
por voluntad de los litigantes, seg-in la ley 32, tit. 2., Partida 31., y la 7"., tit. 29,
libro 11 de la Novisima Recopilaci6n.
En lo criminal estA prohibida la prorrogaci6n de la jurisdicci6n, de donde result
que s6lo el juez competent con arreglo & las prescripciones de esta ley puede enten-
der en la persecuci6n de los delitos y faltas que se cometan.
'Segfn declar6 el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 24 de noviembre de 1863, en
la ejecuci6n de sentencias se comprende la exacci6n de costas impuestas en la causa,
que son una pena accesoria de la principal.
SCorresponde al Senado hacer efectiva la responsabilidad de los Ministros, los
cuales seran acusados por el Congreso, segdn dispone el art. 45 de la Constituci6n
vigente.
Sobre competencia dela jurisdicci6nde guerra, veanse los articulos 10 & 17 de la ley
de Enjuiciamiento military de 29 de septiembre de 1886.
Los arts. 21 y 22 de la misma ley enumeran los casos en que los militares quedan
sujetos A la jurisdicci6n ordinaria.
'*Vanse los arts. 15 y 16 de la citada ley de Enjuiciamiento military.















TITLE II.
JURISDICTION OF JUDGES AND COURTS IN CRIMINAL MATTERS.
CHAPTER FIRST.

RULES FOR DETERMINING JURISDICTION.

ART. 8. Criminal jurisdiction is never susceptible of prorogation.1
ART. 9. Judges and courts having jurisdiction of a specific cause
shall also have jurisdiction of all its issues, to carry out decrees and
enforce the execution of sentences.2
ART. 10. The cognizance of criminal trials and actions pertains to
the ordinary jurisdiction, excepting such cases as are reserved by law
to the Senate, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative
or police authorities.3
ART. 11. The ordinary jurisdiction shall take cognizance of crimi-
nal causes in which persons subject to the ordinary as well as to other
special jurisdictions appear guilty, with the exceptions expressly men-
tioned in the laws with regard to the competency of another jurisdic-
tion.'
ART. 12. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article,
the ordinary jurisdiction shall always be competent to take the pre-
liminary steps in causes involving crimes committed by persons sub-
ject to special laws.
1Prorogation of jurisdiction is that jurisdiction which is by the consent of the
parties conferred on a judge otherwise incompetent, according to law 32, title 2,
partida 3, and law 7, title 29, book 11 of the Novisima Recopilaci6n. (Bell's Die.,
7th ed., p. 868.)
Prorogation of jurisdiction is prohibited in criminal matters, so that only the judge
competent in accordance with the provisions of this law may take cognizance of
crimes and misdemeanors which may be committed.
2As the supreme court declared in a decision of November 24, 1863, the execution
of a sentence includes the exaction of the costs taxed in a cause, which are a penalty
accessory to the principal one.
3 The Senate has jurisdiction to enforce the liability of members of the cabinet
who shall be accused by the Congress, in pursuance of the provisions of article 45 of
the Constitution in force.
With regard to the competency of the army jurisdiction, see articles 10 to 17 of the
law of military procedure of September 29, 1886.
Articles 21 and 22 of the said law mention the cases in which soldiers are subject
to the ordinary jurisdiction.
SSee articles 15 and 16 of the aforementioned law of military procedure.







Esta competencia se limitarg A instruir las primeras diligencias, con-
cluidas las cuales, la jurisdiccci6n ordinaria remitird las actuaciones al
juez 6 tribunal que deba conocer de la causa con arreglo i las leyes, y
pondr6 6 su disposici6n a los detenidos y los efectos ocupados.

La jurisdicci6n ordinaria cesarg en las primeras diligencias tan luego
como conste que la especial competent instruye causa sobre el mismo
delito.
Los autos de inhibici6n de esta clase que pronuncien los jueces
instructors de ia jurisdicci6n ordinaria son apelables ante la respective
audiencia.
Entre tanto que se sustancie y decide el recurso de apelaci6n, se cum-
plira lo dispuesto en el art. 22, pirrafo segundo, A cuyo efecto y para
la sustanciaci6n del recurso se remitira el correspondiente testimonio.1

ART. 13. Consideranse como primeras diligencias: las de dar pro-
tecci6n a los perjudicados, consignar las pruebas del delito que puedan
desaparecer, recoger y poner en custodia cuanto conduzca a su com-
probaci6n y a la identificaci6n del delincuente, y detener en su caso 6
los reos presuntos.
ART. 14. Fuera de los casos reservados al Senado, y de aquellos que
expresa y limitativamente atribuye la ley al Tribunal Supremo, 6 las
audiencias territoriales, 6 las jurisdicciones de Guerra y Marina y A
las autoridades administrativas 6 de policia, serin competentes por
regla general:
1. Para los juicios de faltas, los jueces municipales del t6rmino en
que se hayan cometido.
2. Para la instrucci6n de las causes, los jueces instructors del par-
tido en que el delito se haya cometido.
3. Para conocer de la causa y del juicio respective, la audiencia de
lo criminal de la circunscripci6n en donde el delito se haya cometido.2
SSobre apelaci6n por el fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n, vase la nota al art. 25.
El Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado, en sentencia de 11 de febrero de 1880, que
el hecho de haber comenzado un Juez 6 conocer de una causa y reclamado su juris-
dicci6n, no es bastante para atribuir competencia; y en otra de 5 de agosto de 1886,
que la jurisdicci6n ordinaria es competent para instruir diligencias sobre suicidio de
de un soldado.
'De las causes contra jueces municipales y jueces de instrucci6n 6 de primer
instancia y de las promovidas contra consejales de ayuntamiento y autoridades
administrativas de poblaciones donde no hubiera audiencia 6 no sean capitals de
provincia, Ldeberdn conocer las audiencias de lo criminal 6 las salas respectivas de
las territoriales?
La fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo resuelve la duda en favor de las audiencias de
lo criminal de la circunscripci6n en que se haya cometido el delito, primero en la
69 de las instrucciones que acompafiaron A la Memoria de 15 de septiembre de 1883,
y despues en la circular de 18 de Agosto de 1884.
De conformidad con la opinion de la fiscalia, el Tribunal Supremo ha establecido








This jurisdiction shall be confined to the first steps, upon the con-
clusion of which the ordinary jurisdiction shall transmit the proceed-
ings to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the cause in
accordance to law, and shall place the persons detained and the effects
seized at the disposal of the same.
The ordinary jurisdiction shall discontinue the first steps as soon as
it becomes evident that the proper special jurisdiction has instituted
proceedings on the same crime.
Decrees of inhibition of this character issuing from examining
judges of the ordinary jurisdiction may be appealed from to the
proper audiencia.
Until the appeal is heard and decided the provisions of the second
paragraph of article 22 shall apply, for which purpose, as well as for
the hearing and determination of the appeal, the proper transcript
shall be forwarded.1
ART. 13. The following are considered first steps: Those taken to
protect the injured parties, record the evidence of the crime which
may disappear, collect and place under custody all that may conduce
to the proof thereof and to the identification of the delinquent, and,
in a proper case, arrest the presumed criminals.
ART. 14. With the exception of the cases reserved to the Senate,
and of those which are expressly and specially assigned by law to the
supreme court, to the territorial audiencias, to the army and navy
tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities, the following
shall have jurisdiction as a general rule:
1. Of actions for misdemeanors, the municipal judges of the district
in which committed.
2. To investigate the causes, the examining judges of the judicial
district in which the crime was committed.
3. To take cognizance of the cause and the respective trial, the
criminal audiencia of the circuit where the crime was committed.'
With regard to appeals by the prosecuting official from decrees of inhibition, see
note to article 25.
The supreme court declared in a decision of February 11, 1880, that the fact of a
judge having begun to act in a cause and claimed jurisdiction thereof is not sufficient
to grant jurisdiction; and in another, of August 5, 1886, that the ordinary jurisdiction
is competent to institute proceedings relating to the suicide of a soldier.
2Do criminal audiencias or the respective chambers of the territorial audiencias
have jurisdiction of causes instituted against municipal, examining, or judges of
first instance, as well as against members of Ayuntamientos and administrative
authorities of towns where there is no audiencia, or which are not the capital of a
province?
The Fiscalia of the supreme court decides the doubt in favor of the criminal au-
diencias of the circuit where the crime was committed, first in the 69th instruction
which accompanies the memorial of September 15, 1883, and subsequently in the
circular of August 18, 1884.
In accordance with the opinion of the Fiscalia, the supreme court ruled in its






21

ART. 15. Cuando no conste el lugar en que se haya cometido una
falta 6 delito, serin jueces y tribunales competentes en su caso para
conocer de la causa 6 juicio:
10. El del t6rmino municipal, partido 6 circunscripci6n en que se
hayan descubierto pruebas materials del delito.
20. El del tirmino municipal, partido 6 circunscripci6n en que el
presunto reo haya sido aprehendido.
3. El de la residencia del reo presunto.
4. Cualquiera que hubiese tenido noticia del delito.
Si se suscitase competencia entire estos jueces 6 tribunales, se
decidir! dando la preferencia por el orden con que estin expresados
en los nfimeros que preceden.
Tan luego como conste el lugar en que se hubiese cometido el delito,
se remitirAn las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal a cuya demarcaci6n
correspond, poniendo A su disposici6n ~ los detenidos y efectos
ocupados.
ART. 16. La jurisdicci6n ordinaria seri la competent para juzgar i
los reos de delitos conexos, siempre que alguno este sujeto a ella, aun
cuando los demis sean afolados.
Lo dispuesto en el pirrafo anterior se entiende sin perjuicio de las
excepciones expresamente consignadas en este C6digo 6 en leyes espe-
ciales, y singularmente en las leyes penales de Guerra y Marina
respect & determinados delitos.
ART. 17. Considgranse delitos conexos:
1. Los cometidossimultAneamente por dos 6 mis personas reunidas,
siempre que 4stas vengan sujetas A diversos jueces 6 tribunales ordi-
narios 6 especiales, 6 que puedan estarlo por la indole del delito.
2. Los cometidos por dos 6 mis personas en distintos lugares 6
tiempos si hubiese precedido concerto para ello.
3. Los cometidos como medio para perpetrar otros, 6 facilitar su
ejecuci6n.
4. Los cometidos para procurar la impunidad de otros delitos.
5. Los diversos delitos que se imputen 6 un procesado al incoarse
contra el mismo causa por cualquiera de ellos, si tuvieren analogia 6
en sentencia del 10 de marzo de 1885, que la salas de las audiencias territoriales, en
cuanto d los delitos de los jueces de instrucci6n se refiere, s61o son competentes para
conocer de los cometidos dentro del territorio 6 demarcaci6n que les est6 asignado,
siendole exclusivamente las nuevas audiencias para perseguir y castigar los que hayan
tenido lugar dentro de las suyas respectivas (sentencia de 23 de febrero de 1885), y
que segun el Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado en reiteradas decisions, de una
manera explicita y terminante, es de la exclusive competencia de las audiencias de
lo criminal el conocimento de los delitos cometidos por los jueces de instrucci6n de
su circunscripci6n respective.
Los mismos tribunales son los competentes para conocer de las causes contra
jueces y fiscales municipals.








ART. 15. When the place where a misdemeanor or crime has been
committed is not known, the following judges and courts shall have
jurisdiction, in a proper case, of the cause or trial:
1. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit where mate-
rial proofs of the crime have been found.
2. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit in which the
presumed criminal may have been apprehended.
3. That of the place of residence of the presumed criminal.
4. Any judge or court receiving notice of the crime.
If a question of jurisdiction shall arise between these judges or
courts the decision rendered shall give the preference in the order
mentioned in the preceding numbers.
As soon as the place where the crime was committed is known, the
proceedings shall be forwarded to the judge or court within whose
district such place is situated, the persons arrested as well as the effects
seized being held subject to orders of the same.
AnT. 16. The ordinary jurisdiction shall be competent to judge per-
sons guilty of connected crimes, provided that one of 'them is subject
thereto, even if the others should be subject to special jurisdictions.
The provisions contained in the foregoing paragraph shall be under-
stood without prejudice to the exceptions expressly mentioned in this
code or in special laws, and particularly in the war and navy criminal
laws with regard to specific crimes.
ART. 17. The following are considered connected crimes:
1. Those committed simultaneously by two or more persons together,
provided that they are subject to the jurisdiction of different ordinary
or special judges or courts, or who might be so on account of the
nature of the crime.
2. Those committed by two or more persons at different places or
times, if there shall have been a previous agreement between them.
3. Those committed as a means to perpetrate others or to facilitate
their execution.
4. Those committed to secure immunity from other crimes.
5. The different crimes charged against an accused person upon the
institution against him of an action for any of them, should there be

decision of March 19, 1885, that the chambers of the territorial audiencias, in so far
as crimes committed by examining judges are concerned, have jurisdiction only of
those committed within the district assigned them, and that the new audiencias are
exclusively competent to prosecute and punish those which may have taken place
within their respective district (decision of February 23, 1885), and that, as the
supreme court has repeatedly declared in an explicit and final manner, the jurisdic-
tion of crimes committed by examining judges of their respective circuits pertains to
criminal audiencias exclusively.

The said courts have jurisdiction of causes against municipal judges and prosecut-
ing officials.








relaci6n entire si a juicio del tribunal y no hubiesen sido hasta entonces
objeto de procedimiento.
ART. 18. Son jueces y tribunales competentes, por su orden, para
conocer de las causes por delitos conexos:
10. El del territorio en que se haya cometido el delito a que est6
sefialada pena mayor.
2. El que primero comenzare la causa en el caso de que a los delitos
est6 sefialada igual pena.
3. El que la audiencia de lo criminal 6 el Tribunal Supremo en sus
respectivos casos designed, cuando las causes hubieren empezado al
mismo tiempo, 6 no conste cuil comenz6 primero.

CAPITULO II.

DE LAS CUESTIONES DE COMPETENCIA ENTIRE LOS JUECES Y TRIBUNALES
ORDINARIOS.1

ART. 19. Podrin promover y sostener competencia:
1. Los jueces municipales en cualquier estado del juicio, y las
parties desde la citaci6n hasta el acto de la comparecencia.
2. Los jueces de instrucci6n durante el sumario.
3. Las audiencias de lo criminal durante la sustanciaci6n del juicio.
40. El ministerio fiscal en cualquier estado de la causa.2
5. El acusador particular antes de formular su primer petici6n
despu&s de personado en la causa.
6. El procesado y la parte civil, ya figure como actor, y aparezca
como responsible, dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que se les
comunique la causa para calificaci6n.
ART. 20. Son superiores jergrquicos para resolver sobre las cues-
tiones de competencia, en la forma que determinaran los articulos
siguientes:
10. De los jueces municipales del mismo partido, el de instrucci6n.
2. De los jueces de instrucci6n de una misma circunscripci6n, la
audiencia de lo criminal.
30. De las audiencias de lo criminal del mismo territorio, la audien-
cia territorial en pleno.
40. De las audiencias territoriales, 6 cuando la competencia sea entire
una audiencia de lo criminal y la sala de lo criminal de una territorial,
el Tribunal Supremo.
Las reglas que se fijan en este capftulo para sustanciar competencias, no se aplican
cuando los conflicts se suscitan en causes seguidas contra reos de flagrante delito; en
esos casos se abrevia la contienda tramitandose y decididndose por el procedimiento
especial del art. 782.
'Derecho del ministerio fiscal para promoter la competencia en cualquier estado de la
causa. Este derecho entrafia la facultad de ejercitar la inhibitoria 6 la declinatoria
sin limitaci6n alguna; y si entabla la primer despu6s de terminado el sumario y de
abierto el juicio oral, no puede tener aplicaci6n el procedimiento marcado en el art. 23
(6 de diciembre de 1885. Gac. de 9 de mayo 1886).






22

analogy or relation between them, in the judgment of the court, and
should they not have been the subject of proceedings to that time.
ART. 18. The following, in their order, are judges and courts which
have jurisdiction of causes involving connected crimes:
1. That of the territory where the crime was committed to which
a higher penalty is affixed.
2. The one first beginning proceedings, if equal penalties are affixed
to the crime.
3. The one designated by the criminal audiencia or by the supreme
court in their respective cases, when the causes were begun at the
same time, or when it does not appear which was begun first.

CHAPTER II.
QUESTIONS OF JURISDICTION BETWEEN ORDINARY JUDGES AND COURTS.'

ART. 19. Questions of jurisdiction may be raised and sustained by-
1. Municipal judges at any stage of the action, and by the parties
between the citation and the hearing.
2. Judges of examination, during the sumario.
3. Criminal audiencias during the hearing of the trial.
4. The public prosecutor at any stage of the cause."
5. The private accuser, before filing his first plea, after having
entered an appearance in the cause.
6. The accused and the civil party, whether appearing as plaintiff
or defendant, within three days after the cause has been transmitted
to them for classification.
ART. 20. The following are hierarchical superiors for the decision of
questions of jurisdiction, in the manner prescribed by the following
articles:
1. Of municipal judges of the same judicial district, the judge of
examination.
2. Of judges of examination of the same circuit, the criminal
audiencia.
3. Of criminal audiencias of the same territory, the territorial audi-
encia in bane.
4. Of territorial audiencias, or when the question of jurisdiction is
between a criminal audiencia and the criminal chamber of a territorial
audiencia, the supreme court.
The rules prescribed in this chapter for the hearing and determination of ques-
tions of jurisdiction, are not applicable when raised in causes against those guilty of
flagrant crimes; in such cases the contest is curtailed, being heard and determined
in accordance with the special procedure of article 782.
SRight of the public prosecutor to raise a question of jurisdiction at any stage of the
cause.-This right includes the power to interpose an inhibitory or declinatory plea
without any limitation whatsoever; and if he interposes the former plea between the
conclusion of the sumario and the beginning of the oral trial, the procedure men-
tioned in article 23 can not apply. December 26, 1885. (Gaceta of May 9, 1886.)









Cuando cualquiera de los jueces 6 tribunales mencionados en los
ndmeros 1, 2" y 3, no tengan superior inmediato comin, decidira la
competencia el que lo sea en el orden jerirquico, y a falta de este el
Tribunal Supremo.'
ART. 21. El Tribunal Supremo no podra former ni promover com-
petencias y ning6n juez, tribunal 6 parte podri promoverlas contra 41.

Cuando algfn juez' 6 tribunal viniere entendiendo en asunto cuyo
conocimiento estuviere reservado al Tribunal Supremo, ordenari este
a aqu6l de oficio, i excitaci6n del ministerio fiscal 6 a solicitud de
parte, que se abstenga de todo procedimiento y remita los antecedentes,
en el t6rmino de segundo dia, para en su vista resolver.
El Tribunal Supremo podrA sin embargo autorizar, en la misma
orden y entire tanto que resuelve la competencia, la continuaci6n de
aquellas diligencias cuya urgencia 6 necesidad fueren manifiestas.
Contra la decision del Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso alguno.
ART. 22. Cuando dos 6 mas jueces de instrucci6n se reputen compe-
tentes para actuar en un asunto, si a la primer comunicaci6n no se
pusieren de acuerdo sobre la competencia, darn cuenta con remisi6n
de testimonio al superior competente' y 4ste en su vista decidira de
plano y sin ulterior recurso cual de los jueces instructors debe actuar.

Mientras no recaiga decision, cada uno de los jueces instructors
seguira practicando las diligencias necesarias para comprobar el delito,
y aquellas otras que consider de reconocida urgencia.'
Dirimido el conflict por el superior a quien compete, el juez de
instrucci6n que deje de actuar remitira las diligencias practicadas y los
objetos recogidos al declarado competent dentro de segundo dia, A
contar desde el en que reciba la orden superior para que deje de
conocer.

'Corresponde al Tribunal Supremo la decision de la competencia suscitada entire
dos juzgados enclavados en distrito de la misma audiencia territorial, pero pertene-
ciente uno de ellos A circunscripci6n de audiencia de lo criminal. Fdndase esta doc-
trina en que "formando parte del pleno de la audiencia territorial la sala de lo crim-
inal, vendria A ser juez y parte" si dicha audiencia territorial decidiese el conflict.
(Sala 3, sent. de junior 28 de 1888. Gac. 30 id.)
2 Este precepto, aplicable A las competencias negatives por virtud del Art. 46, no
permit que se remitan al superior las diligencias originales, pues entonces no pueden
seguir practicandose las necesarias para comprobar el delito y sus circunstancias.
(Sentencia de sepliembre 20 de 1886.) Pero si, esto no obstante, remiten las actuaciones
originales, tal irregularidad no debe producer la declaraci6n de estar mal formada la
competencia. (Julio 17 de 1884).

SDesde que un juzgado tiene conocimiento de que otro ha prevenido causa sobre
el mismo hecho de que aqu6l conoce, debe abstenerse de dictar resoluci6n definitive
antes de promover la inhibitoria, y de no hacerlo asf la que recaiga no puede ser
obsticulo para decidir la competencia. (Sala 3, seenncia de 29 de Abril de 1878.)








When any of the judges or courts mentioned in numbers 1, 2, and
3 shall have no immediate common superior, the question of jurisdic-
tion shall be decided by the hierarchical superior, and in the absence
of the latter, by the supreme court.'
ART. 21. The supreme court can not institute or raise a question of
jurisdiction, nor can any judge, court, or party question its jurisdic-
tion.
If any judge or court shall take cognizance of a question, jurisdic-
tion of which is reserved to the supreme court, the latter shall order
the former, ex oqficio, on motion of the public prosecutor or of a party,
that it discontinue further proceedings and forward the same, on or
before the second day, for the proper decision.
The supreme court may nevertheless authorize in the same order,
until the question of jurisdiction is settled, the continuation of such
proceedings the urgency or necessity of which is apparent.
There shall be no remedy against the decision of the supreme court.
ART. 22. When two or more examining judges consider themselves
as having jurisdiction of a matter, if upon the first communication they
should not agree as to the jurisdiction, they shall make a report to the
proper superior, forwarding a transcript,2 and the latter shall decide
eo instant, in view thereof and without further remedy, which of the
examining judges shall have jurisdiction.
Until a decision is rendered, each of the examining judges shall con-
tinue the proceedings necessary to prove the crime and any other
proceedings which he may consider of recognized urgency.'
After the conflict has been decided by the proper superior, the judge
of examination who discontinued proceedings shall forward the pro-
ceedings had, and the objects gathered, to the judge declared competent,
within two days after receiving the superior order to cease taking
cognizance thereof.
I The decision of a question of jurisdiction between two courts situated within the
district of the same territorial audiencia, but one of them belonging to the circuit of
a criminal audiencia, pertains to the supreme court. The basis for this doctrine is
that "as the criminal chamber of a territorial audiencia forms part of the audiencia
in bane, it would become a judge and party" if said territorial audiencia should decide
the conflict. (Third Chamber, decision of June 28, 1888. Gaceta of the 30th.)
2 This precept, applicable to negative questions of jurisdiction by virtue of article
46, does not permit the transmission to the superior of the original proceedings,
because in such case it would be impossible to continue the necessary proceedings to
prove the crime and its circumstances. (Decision of September 20,1886.) But if, not-
withstanding this, they forward the original proceedings, such irregularity does not
permit of a declaration that the question of jurisdiction is not well taken. (July 17,
1884.)
From the moment that a court has knowledge that another court has begun a
cause involving the same matter of which it is taking cognizance, it must not render
a definite decision before requesting an inhibition; otherwise the decision rendered
will not be an obstacle to the decision of the question of jurisdiction. (Third
chamber, decision of April 29, 1878.)







24

Art. 23. Si durante el sumario el ministerio fiscal 6 el acusador
particular entendiesen que el juez instructor no tiene competencia
para actuar en la causa, podran reclamar ante el tribunal superior i
quien corresponda, el cual, previous los informed que estime necesarios,
resolverg de piano y sin ulterior recurso.'
En todo caso se cumplirg lo dispuesto en el prrafo segundo del
articulo anterior.
ART. 24. Terminado el sumario, toda cuesti6n de competencia que se
promueva suspenders los procedimientos hasta la decision de ella.2
ART. 25. El juez 6 tribunal que se consider competent deberi
promover la competencia.
Tambi4n acordari la inhibici6n a favor del juez 6 tribunal com-
petente cuando consider que el conocimiento de la causa no le
corresponde, aunque sobre ello no haya precedido reclamaci6n de los
interesados ni del ministerio fiscal.
Los autos que los jueces municipales 6 de instrucci6n dicten, inhibi6n-
dose A favor de otro juez 6 jurisdicci6n, seran apelables observindose en
este caso lo dispuesto en el 6ltimo parrafo del art. 12. Contra los de
las audiencias podri interponerse el recurso de casaci6n.3

'No es admisible, por lo tanto, el de casaci6n. Sntencias de junior 27 y 3 y 81 de
diciembre, 1884.
2 No es procedente suscitar competencia sobre conocimiento de una causa fallada ya
definitivamente. (Sentenia dejulio 8 de 1878.)
SCuando debera apelar el ministerio fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n & que se
refiere este articulo y el 12?
"Si el ministerio fiscal ha sido ofdo antes de dictarse los indicados autos, y su
opini6n se hubiere aceptado por el juez 6 audiencia respective, no debe interponerse
recurso alguno.
"Si el ministerio fiscal no ha tenido intervenci6n, 6 hubiera opinado en contra de
la procedencia de dicho auto, entonces debe apelar del mismo, si ha sido dictado por
un juez municipal 6 de instrucci6n.
"Respecto A los falls dictados por el Tribunal colegiado, deberd interponerse el
recurso de casaci6n, si hubiere motivo legal para ello." (Ni mero 5 de la Memoria
de la fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de septiembre de 1883, y 10 de la de 15 de sep-
tiembre 1886.)
En sentencia de 14 de noviembre de 1883 declar6 el Tribunal Supremo que contra
el auto de un juez inhibi6ndose del conocimiento de una causa en favor de la juris-
dicci6n de guerra, no es admisible el recurso de casaci6n, pues contra tal provefdo
procede el recurso ordinario de apelaci6n, segdn el art. 25 dela ley de enjuiciamiento
criminal, A lo cual no obsta la disposici6n del articulo 50, porque esta disposici6n se
refiere al caso de que exist 6 amenaze trabarse una verdadera cuesti6n de compe-
tencia, y no cuando un juez de instrucci6n espontineamente 6 al primer requeri-
miento 6 petici6n que se le dirige se juzga incompetent y acuerda inhibirse, sin que
por lo tanto medie todavia semejante cuesti6n ni haya que tramitarla, A no ser que,
acogi6ndose los interesados al recurso que la ley en su citado art. 32 les facility, acuden
en apelaci6n al superior inmediato, y iste determine que sostenga su jurisdicci6n y
se sustancie y resuelva el asunto de la manera y por quien en el expresado titulo esta
prescrito.








ART. 23. If during the sumario the public prosecutor or the private
accuser shall consider that the examining judge has no jurisdiction to
proceed in the cause, they may object before the proper superior
court, which, after the investigation it considers necessary, shall
decide eo instant without further remedy.'
In any case the provisions of the second paragraph of the foregoing
article shall be complied with.
ART. 24. Upon the conclusion of the sumario, any question of juris-
diction raised shall stay the proceedings until it is decided.2
ART. 25. The judge or court considering itself competent must raise
the question.
It shall also grant the inhibition in favor of the competent judge or
court when it considers that it has not jurisdiction of the cause even
though the persons interested or the public prosecutor have not pre-
viously pleaded thereto.
The decrees of municipal or examining judges inhibiting themselves
in favor of another judge or jurisdiction may be appealed from, in
which case the provisions of the last paragraph of article 12 shall be
observed. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from decrees of
audiencias.8

'An appeal for annulment of judgment is therefore inadmissible. (Decisions of
June 27 and December 3 and 31, 1884.)
2 A question of jurisdiction can not be raised as to the cognizance of a cause which
has already been definitely decided. (Decision of July 8, 1878.)
3When must the public prosecutor appeal from the decrees of inhibition referred
to in this article and in article 12?
"If the public prosecutor has been heard before the issue of said decrees, and his
opinion should have been accepted by the respective judge or audiencia, no appeal
can be taken.
"If the public prosecutor should not have had any intervention, or should have
opposed the issue of said decree, he must then appeal therefrom, if it issued from a
municipal or examining judge.
"With regard to the decisions of a collegiate tribunal, an appeal for annulment of
judgment must be taken if there is a legal cause therefore (No. 5 of the memorial of
the staff of the public prosecutor of the supreme court of September 15, 1883, and 10 of that
of September 15, 1886.)
In a decision of November 14, 1883, the supreme court declared that an appeal for
annulment of judgment does not lie from a decree of a judge declining the jurisdic-
tion of a cause in favor of the war jurisdiction, because an ordinary appeal lies there-
from according to article 25 of the law of criminal procedure, which is not affected
by article 50, because the latter provision relates to a case where a true question of
jurisdiction exists or is liable to arise, and not when a judge voluntarily or upon the
first demand or request addressed to him deems himself incompetent and consents to
his inhibition, without such a question arising and having to be decided, unless the
persons interested seek the remedy of law granted them by the said article 32 and
appeal to the immediate superior, and the latter determines that he shall sustain his
jurisdiction, and that the matter be heard and deterra;ned in ',h ra'nner and by the
persons prescribed in the said title.
18473-01---4






25

ART. 26. El ministerio fiscal y las parties promoverin las compe-
tencias por inhibitoria 6 por declinatoria.
El uso de uno de estos medios excluye absolumente el del otro, asi
durante la sustanciaci6n de la competencia, como una vez que 4sta se
halle terminada.
La inhibitoria se propondri ante el juez 6 tribunal que se renute
competent.


ART. 27. El juez municipal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria,
oyendo al fiscal cuando este no la hubiere propuesto, resolved en tir-
mino de segundo dia si procede 6 no el requerimiento de inhibicion.

El auto denegatorio de requerimiento es apelable en ambos efectos
para ante el juez de instrucci6n respective.'
ART. 28. Si el juez municipal estimare que procede el requerimiento
de inhibici6n, lo mandarin practical por medio de oficio, en el cual
consignarg los fundamentos de su auto.
El oficio se remitird dentro de veinticuatro boras precisamente.
ART. 29. El juez municipal requerido de inhibici6n, oyendo al fiscal,
resolved en termino de segundo dia si desiste de conocer 6 mantiene
su competencia.

En el primer caso remitird dentro de las veinticuatro horas
siguientes las diligencias practicadas al juez requirente.
Si mantiene su competencia se lo comunicard dentro del mismo
plazo, exponiendo los fundamentos de su resoluci6n.
ART. 30. Recibidos los autos por el juez requirente, declarard sin
mis trimites y dentro de veinticuatro horas, si insisted en la competen-
cia 6 se aparta de ella.
En el primer caso lo participara en el mismo plazo al juez requerido
para que remita las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal que deba resolver la
competencia, i tenor de lo dispuesto en el articulo 20, haciendo l4 la
remisi6n de las suyas dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes.


En el segundo caso, lo participarl en el mismo dia al juez requerido
para que este pueda continuar conociendo.
'1Es necesaria la firma de letrado en el escrito proponiendo la inhibitoria ante los
juzgados municipales? Los arts. 27 6 32 que se ocupan de las cuestiones de compe-
tencia entire tales juzgados, no exigen ese requisite, que en cambio impone como
necesario el art. 33 para proponer la inhibici6n ante los tribunales de lo criminal, en
cuya frase no sabernos si estaran comprendidos, para el caso, los juzgados munici-
pales. Con'arreglo d:la".lgi'ali(i, anterior, el Tribunal Supremo tenia resuelta la
duda en el seutido e' que er" indispk'efible la finna de letrado en el escrito de inhibi-
Loria, por exigirlo, sin distinci6n daecAp's, plab rt. 365 de la ley orgdnica judicial. (Sen-
encmas de septiembre 24 y marzo 5 de 1877.'








ART. 26. The public prosecutor and the parties shall raise the ques-
tion of jurisdiction by an inhibitory or declinatory plea.
The employment of one of these remedies absolutely excludes the
employment of the other, both during the hearing of the question as
well as after its decision.
The inhibitory plea shall be interposed before the judge or court
considered competent.
The declinatory plea before the judge or court which considers
itself as not having jurisdiction.
ART. 27. The municipal judge before whom the inhibitory plea is
interposed, after hearing the public prosecutor, if interposed by
another party, shall decide before the second day whether the writ of
inhibition shall issue.
A decision overruling the plea may be appealed from for review
and for a stay of proceedings to the proper examining judge.'
ART. 28. If the municipal judge should be of opinion that the
inhibition is well taken, he shall issue a writ in which he shall state
the reasons for his decree.
The writ must be transmitted within twenty-four hours.
ART. 29. The municipal judge sought to be inhibited, after receiving
the opinion of the public prosecutor, shall decide before the second
day whether he abstains from proceeding in the cause or whether he
defends his competency.
In the former case he shall forward the proceedings had to the in-
hibiting judge within the next twenty-four hours.
If he maintains his jurisdiction, he shall communicate it to him
within the same period, stating the reasons for his decision.
ART. 30. After the record has been received by the inhibiting judge
he shall declare without further proceeding and within twenty-four
hours whether he insists upon his jurisdiction or abandons it.
In the former case he shall so communicate within a similar period
to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may forward the
proceedings to the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction,
in accordance with the provisions of article 20, and the judge request-
ing the inhibition shall forward his within the following twenty-four
hours.
In the latter case he shall communicate it the same day to the judge
sought to be inhibited in order that he may continue the proceedings.
'Is the signature of an attorney necessary to the inhibitory plea presented to
municipal courts? Arts. 27 to 32, which relate to questions of jurisdiction between
said courts, do not demand this requisite, which, on the other hand, is imposed as
necessary by article 33 to interpose an inhibition before criminal courts, in which
sentence we do not know whether municipal courts should be included. With
regard to the prior laws the supreme court has decided the doubt to the effect that
the signature of an attorney was indispensable to the inhibitory plea as it is required,
without any distinction of cases, by art. 365 of the judicial organic law. (Decisions
of September 24 and March 5, 1877.)






26

Los autos que los jueces requeridos dicten, accediendo 4 la inhibici6n,
serin apelables para ante el respective juez de instrucci6n. Tambign
lo seran los que dicten los requirentes desistiendo de la inhibici6n.
/
ART. 31. Recibidas las diligencias en el juzgado 6 tribunal Ilamado
a resolver la competencia y oldo el fiscal por el t6rmino de segundo
dia, la decidiri dentro de los tres siguientes al en que el ministerio
fiscal evacue el traslado.

Contra lo resuelto por el juzgado 6 audiencia procederi el recurso
de easaci6n.
Contra la resoluci6n del Supremo no se da recurso alguno.

ART. 32. Cuando se proponga declinatoria ante un juez municipal,
resolverg 4ste en termino de segundo dia, oyendo previamente al fiscal,
sobre si procede 6 no acordar la inhibici6n.

El auto en que se deniegue la inhibici6n es apelable en ambos efectos
para ante el juzgado 4 quien correspond resolver la competencia, el
cual sustanciari el recurso en la forma prevenida en el pirrafo primero
del articulo anterior.

Contra la resoluci6n del juzgado procederi el recurso de casaci6n.

ART. 33. La inhibici6n ante los tribunales de lo criminal se pro-
pondr6 en escrito con firma de letrado.
En el escrito expresar6 el que la proponga que no ha empleado la
declinatoria. Si resultase lo contrario, seri condenado en costas
aunque se decide en su favor la competencia, 6 aunque la abandon en
lo sucesivo.
ART. 34. El tribunal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria oiri por
termino de uno 4 dos dias, segin el volume de la causa, al ministerio
fiscal, cuando 6ste no la haya propuesto, asi como 4 las dem6s parties
que figure en la causa de que pudiera g la vez estar conociendo el tri-
bunal 4 quien se haya instado para que haga el requerimiento, y en su
vista, mandarA dentro de los dos dias siguientes library oficio inhibito-
rio, 6 declarar no haber lugar A ello.
ART. 35. Contra el auto en que se deniegue el requerimiento de
inhibici6n s61o habri lugar al recurso de casaci6n.1
ART. 36. Con el oficio de inhibici6n se acompafiarA testimonio: del
escrito en que se haya pedido, de lo expuesto por el ministerio fiscal

'Este articulo se refiere ~ los autos en que se deniegue el requerimiento de inhibi-
ci6n por los tribunales de lo criminal y no A los que los jueces de primera instancia
pueden dictar en asuntos de su competencia. (Sentencia de Abril 28 de 1883.)
Contra la sentencia dinegatoria del recurso de casaci6n no cabe ningiin otro. (Sen-
tencia de febrero 10, 1880, sala 31.)







The decisions of the judges sought to be inhibited consenting to the
inhibition may be appealed from to the respective examining judge.
Those of the judges requesting the inhibition desisting therefrom may
also be appealed from in the same manner.
ART. 31. After the proceedings have been received by the judge or
court which is to decide the jurisdiction and after the opinion of the
public prosecutor has been received within the two days following, a
decision shall be rendered within three days after the prosecuting
officials submit their report.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the
court or audiencia.
There is no remedy whatever against the decision of the Supreme
Court.
ART. 32. When a declinatory plea is interposed before a municipal
judge he shall render a decision thereon before the expiration of two
days, after hearing the public prosecutor as to whether the plea is or
is not well taken.
A decree overruling the inhibition may be appealed from for
review and for a stay of proceedings to the judge to whom the decision
of the jurisdiction pertains, who shall hear and determine the appeal
in the manner prescribed in the first paragraph of the foregoing
article.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the
court.
ART. 3M. Inhibitory pleas before criminal courts shall be in writing
and signed by an attorney.
The person interposing said plea shall state that he has not inter-
posed a declinatory plea. Should the contrary appear the costs shall
be taxed against him, even though the question of jurisdiction be
decided in his favor or he should subsequently abandon it.
ART. 34 The court before which the inhibitory plea is interposed
shall hear for a period of one to two days, according to the volume
of the cause, the prosecuting officials, if the latter should not have
interposed it, as well as the other parties appearing in the cause
which the court is hearing before which the plea for inhibition has
been interposed and in view thereof, it shall issue, within the next
two days, a writ of inhibition, or shall overrule the plea.
ART. 35. An appeal for annulment of judgment only lies against a
decree denying a writ of inhibition.'
ART. 36. Attested copies shall be attached to the writ of inhibition,
of the petition requesting it, of the statements of the prosecuting
officials, and of the parties, in a proper case; of the decision rendered,
IThis article refers to decrees denying a writ of inhibition by criminal courts and
not to those issued by judges of first instance in matters of their jurisdiction. (Deci-
sion of April 28, 1885.) No appeal lies from the decision which denies an appeal.
(Decision of February 10, 1880, Third Chamber.)








y por las parties en su caso, del auto que se haya dictado y do lo demas
que el tribunal estime conducente para fundar su competencia.
El testimonio se extender y remitiri en el plazo improrrogable de
uno a tres dias, segin el volume de la causa.

ART. 37. El tribunal requerido acusara inmediatamente recibo, y
oyendo al ministerio fiscal, al acusador particular, si le hubiere, al
procesado 6 procesados y a los que figure como parte civil, por un
plazo que no podri exceder de veinticuatro horas a cada uno, dictara
auto inhibi6ndose 6 declarando que no ha lugar A hacerlo.

Contra el auto en que el tribunal se inhibiere no se darg otro recur-
so que el de casaci6n.
ART. 38. Consentida 6 ejecutoriada la sentencia en que el tribunal se
hubiese inhibido, se remitirf la causa, dentro del plazo de tres dias,
al tribunal que hubiera propuesto la inhibitoria, con emplazamiento
de las parties y poniendo A disposici6n de aquil los procesados, las prue-
bas materials del delito y los bienes embargados.

ART. 39. Si se denegare la inhibici6n, se comunicara el auto al tri-
bunal requirente, con testimonio de lo expuesto por el ministerio
fiscal y por las parties y de todo lo demas que se crea conducente.

El testimonio se expedir6 y remitira dentro de tres dias.
En el oficio de remisi6n se exigira que el tribunal requirente con-
teste inmediatamente para continuar actuando si no insisted en la inhibi-
ci6n, 6 que en otro caso remita la causa a quien corresponda para que
decide la competencia.

ART. 40. Recibido el oficio que express el articulo anterior, el tri-
bunal que hubiere propuesto la inhibitoria dictara, sin mis tramites,
auto en termino de segundo dia.

Contra el auto desistiendo de la inhibici6n s6lo procederi el recurso
de casaci6n.
ART. 41. Consentido 6 ejecutoriado el auto en que el tribunal desista
de la inhibitoria, lo comunicara en el t6rmino de veinticuatro horns al
requerido de inhibici6n, remitidndole al propio tiempo todo lo actuado
para su uni6n A la causa.

ART. 42. Si el tribunal requirente mantiene su competencia, lo comu-
nicara en el termino de veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibici6n
para que remita la causa al tribunal A quien correspond la resoluci6n,
haci6ndolo 41 de lo actuado ante el mismo.








and of anything else which the court may consider proper upon which
to base its jurisdiction.
The attested copy shall be prepared and forwarded within the unex-
tendible period of one to three days, according to the volume of the
cause.
ART. 37. The court sought to be inhibited shall at once acknowledge
receipt, and after hearing the prosecuting officials, the private accuser,
should there be any, the person or persons undergoing trial, and those
who appear as civil parties, for a period which shall not exceed twenty-
four hours for each one, shall issue a decree inhibiting himself or
declaring that there is no reason for so doing.
There shall be no remedy but an appeal for annulment of judgment
from decrees of a court inhibiting itself.
ART. 38. After the decision by which a court has inhibited itself
has been consented to or executed, the cause shall be forwarded, within
a period of three days, to the court which proposed the inhibition,
with a summons of the parties and holding the accused at the disposal
of the former as well as the material evidences of the crime and the
goods seized.
ART. 39. If the inhibition should be refused, the decree shall be
communicated to the court demanding the inhibition, with transcript
of the statements of the prosecuting officials and of the parties, and of
anything else which may be deemed proper.
The transcript shall be issued and transmitted within three days.
In the communication of transmittal it shall be required that the
court demanding the inhibition answer immediately, in order to con-
tinue the proceedings if the inhibition be not insisted upon, or that
otherwise the cause be transmitted to the proper person for a decision
as to the jurisdiction.
ART. 40. After the communication mentioned in the foregoing
article has been received, the court that proposed the inhibition shall
render a decision before the expiration of two days, without further
proceedings.
From a decree abandoning an inhibition an appeal for annulment of
judgment only lies.
ART. 41. After the ruling by which the court desists from the inhi-
bition has been consented to or executed, it shall be communicated
within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhib-
ited, transmitting at the same time all proceedings had for attachment
to the cause.
ART. 42. If the court demanding the inhibition defends its com-
petency, it shall communicate the same within a period of twenty-four
hours to the court sought to be inhibited, in order that it may transmit
the record to the court which is to decide the question; and it shall do
the same with its own record.






28

ART. 43. Las competencias se decidirAn por el tribunal dentro de los
tres dias siguientes al en que el ministerio fiscal hubiese emitido dic-
tamen, que evacuari en el t4rmino de segundo dia.

Contra estos autos, cuando procedan de las audiencias territoriales,
habrt lugar al recurso de casaci6n.
Contra los pronunciados por el Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso
alguno.
ART. 44. El tribunal que resuelva la competencia podri condenar
al pago de las costas causadas en la inhibitoria A las parties que la
hubieren sostenido 6 impugnado con notoria temeridad, determinando
en su caso la proporci6n en que deban pagarlas.
Cuando no hiciere especial condenaci6n de costas, se entenderin de
oficio las causadas en la competencia.
En el caso de que un tribunal sin causa legitima debidamente justi-
ficada, se hubiese extralimitado en los t4rminos establecidos en el pre-
sente titulo para la sustanciaci6n y decision de las competencias, seri
corregido prudencial y disciplinariamente, segf n la gravedad del caso.
ART. 45. Las declinatorias se sustanciaran como articulos de previo
pronunciamiento.'

CAPITULO III.
DE LAS COMPETENCIAS NEGATIVES Y DE LAS QUE SE PROMUEVEN CON
JUECES 6 TRIBUNALES ESPECIALES, Y DE LOS RECURSOS DE QUEJA
CONTRA LAS AUTORIDADES ADMINISTRATIVAS.

ART. 46. Cuando la cuesti6n de competencia empefiada entire dos 6
mis jueces 6 tribunales fuere negative por rehusar todos entender en
la causa, la decidird el juez 6 tribunal superior y en su caso el Supremo,
siguiendo para ello los mismos trimites prescritos para las demis
competencias.
ART. 47. En el caso de competencia negative entire la jurisdicci6n
ordinaria y otra privilegiada, la ordinaria empezar5 6 continuarg la
causa.
ART. 48. Las cuestiones de jurisdicci6n promovidas por tribunales
seculares contra jueces 6 tribunales eclesiasticos se sustanciaran y
decidirin por los tramites y de la manera que se establece en el titulo
III del libro 1 de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.2
ART. 49. Cuando los jueces 6 tribunales eclesi6sticos estimaren que
les corresponde el conocimiento de una causa en que entienda un juez
6 tribunal secular, podran requerirle de inhibici6n; y si no accediese

'Fijan el procedimiento para la sustanciaci6n y decision de los artfculos de previo
pronunciamiento, los articulos 666 A 679.
'Trata de los recursos de fuerza en conocer. (Arts. 125 a 152 de la ley de enjui-
ciamiento civil vigente en las Islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico.)








ART. 43. Questions of jurisdiction shall be decided by the court
within the three days following that on which the public prosecutor
may have given his opinion, which he shall do within a period of two
days.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from these decrees when
issuing from territorial audiencias.
Against those of the supreme court there is no remedy whatsoever.

ART. 44. The court deciding the question of jurisdiction may tax
the payment of the costs occasioned by the plea of inhibition against
the parties who have defended or opposed the same with marked per-
sistence, deciding, in a proper case, the proportion each shall pay.
If there be no special condemnation of costs made, those occasioned
in deciding questions of jurisdiction shall be understood to be ex oicio.
If a court without legal cause properly proved, shall go beyond the
limits prescribed in this title for the hearing and determination of
questions of jurisdiction, it shall be corrected and disciplined accord-
ing to the gravity of the case.
ART. 45. Declinatory pleas shall be heard and determined in the
same manner as interlocutory issues.'

CHAPTER II.
QUESTIONS OF NEGATIVE JURISDICTION AND THOSE RAISED BY SPE-
CIAL JUDGES OR COURTS AND COMPLAINTS AGAINST ADMINISTRATIVE
AUTHORITIES.

ART. 46. If the question of jurisdiction raised between two or more
judges or courts be negative by all refusing to take cognizance of the
cause, the superior judge or court, or, in a proper case, the supreme
court shall decide it, observing therein the procedure prescribed for
other questions of jurisdiction.
ART. 47. In case of negative jurisdiction between the ordinary and a
special jurisdiction, the ordinary jurisdiction shall begin or continue the
cause.
ART. 48. Questions of jurisdiction raised by secular courts against
ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall be heard and decided according
to the procedure and in the manner established in Title III of Book I
of the Law of Civil Procedure.2
ART. 49. When ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall consider that
they have jurisdiction of a cause of which a secular judge or court is
taking cognizance, they may interpose an inhibitory plea, and if it
should be overruled they may complain to the proper court, which,
1The procedure for the hearing and determination of ihterlocutory issues is fixed
by articles 666 to 679.
'This title treats of civil remedies against actions of ecclesiastical courts (Arts. 125
to 152 of the Law of Civil Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico).







29

a ella, recurring en queja al superior respective, que, oyendo al fiscal,
resolveri, sin ulterior recurso, lo que crea procedente.
ART. 50. Las cuestioffes de competencia que se promuevan entire
tribunales ordinarios y otros cualesquiera especiales, que no sean
eclesiasticos, se sustanciarin y decidiran con arreglo g lo dispuesto en
el present titulo, correspondiendo en todo caso su resoluci6n al Tri-
bunal Supremo de Justicia.
ART. 51. Respecto de las competencias que la administraci6n suscite
contra los jueces 6 tribunales de la jurisdicci6n ordinaria, y de los
recursos de queja que 4stos pueden promover contra las autoridades y
administrativas, se estara lo que dispone la secci6n 4P, titulo II, libro
I de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.'
1 Articulos 116 & 124 de la ley que se cita.






29
after hearing the public prosecutor, shall decide without further remedy
what it may deem proper.
ART. 50. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary and any special
courts, not ecclesiastical, shall be heard and determined according to
the provisions of this title in all cases by the supreme court.


ART. 51. Questions of jurisdiction raised by the administration
against judges or courts of the ordinary jurisdiction, and the com-
plaints which the latter may make against the administrative authori-
ties, shall conform to the provisions of section 4, Title II, Book I, of
the Law of Civil Procedure.1
SArticles 116 to 124 of the lai cited.













TITULO III.

DE LAS RECUSACIONES Y EXCUSES DE LOS MAGISTRADOS, JUECES, ASESORES 7
AUXILIARES DE LOS JUZGADOS Y TIBOUNALES, Y DE LA ABSTENCIND DEL
MIISTEBIO FISCAL.
CAPITULO I.

DISPOSICIONES GENERALS.

ART. 52. Los magistrados, jueces y asesores, cualesquiera que sean
su grado 6 jeraqufa, s61o podran ser recusados por causa legitima.
ART. 53. Podran 1inicamente recusar en los negocios criminals:

El representante del ministerio fiscal.
El acusador particular 6 los que legalmente represented sus acciones
y derechos.
Los procesados.
Los responsables civilmente por delito 6 falta.
ART. 54. Son causes legitimas de recusaci6n:
1. El parentesco de consanguinidad 6 afinidad dentro del cuarto
grado civil con cualquiera de los expresados en el articulo anterior.
2. El mismo parentesco dentro del segundo grado con el letrado de
alguna de las parties que intervengan en la causa.
3. Estar 6 haber sido denunciado 6 acusado por alguna de estas
como autor, c6mplice 6 encubridor de un delito, 6 como autor de una
falta.'
4. Haber sido defensor de alguna de las parties, emitido dictamen
sobre el process 6 alguna de sus incidencias como letrado, 6 interve-
nido en aqu4l 6 en 6stas como fiscal, perito 6 testigo.
5. Ser 6 haber sido denunciador 6 acusador privado del que recusa.

6. Ser 6 haber sido tutor 6 curador de alguno que sea parte en la
causa.
7. Haber estado en tutela 6 guardaduria de alguno de los expresados
en el nimero anterior.
8. Tener pleito pendiente con el recusante.
9. Tener interns director 6 indirecto en la causa.'

SPara que exista el motivo de recusaci6n de este ndmero, es precise que la denun-
cia reuna los requisitos y surta los efectos necesarios para proceder, en su virtud, i la
averiguaci6n de los hechos que comprende, segtn declare el Tribunal Supremo en
sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886.
'Para poder ser estimada la causa de recusaci6n comprendida en este ndmero, es
necesario que el juez tenga interns personal y director en la causa de que este inci-
dente proceda. (Sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886.)
30













TITLE III.


CHALLENGES AND EXCUSES OF JUSTICES, JUDGES, ASSESSORS, AND ASSISTANTS
OF SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR COURTS, AND THE ABSTENTION OF THE PROSE-
CUTING OFFICIALS.
CHAPTER I.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

ART. 52. Justices, judges, and assessors, whatever be their grade or
rank, may be challenged only for a legitimate cause.
ART. 53. In criminal matters only the following persons are per-
mitted to challenge:
The prosecuting officials.
The private accuser or his legal representatives.

The accused.
Those civilly liable for a crime or misdemeanor.
ART. 54. Legitimate causes of challenge are:
1. Relationship by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil
degree to any of the persons mentioned in the foregoing article.
2. The same relationship within the second degree to the attorney of
any of the parties to the cause.
3. To be or have been denounced or accused by any of said parties
as the principal, accomplice, or accessory to a crime or as a principal
in a misdemeanor.'
4. Having been counsel for any of the parties, given a professional
opinion on the case or any of its incidental issues, or having appeared
in either as prosecutor, expert, or witness.
5. To be or have been the private denouncer or accuser of the chal-
lenging party.
6. To be or have been the tutor or curator of any of the parties to
the cause.
7. To have been under the tutorship or guardianship of the parties
mentioned in the foregoing number.
8. To have an action pending against the challenging party.
9. To have a direct or indirect interest in the cause.2
SIn order that there may exist a motive for the challenge in this case, it is neces-
sary that the denunciation shall have all the requisites and produce all the effects
necessary to proceed, by virtue thereof, with the proof of the acts included therein,
according to a decision of the Supreme Court of April 12, 1886.
'In order that the cause for challenge under this number may be considered, it is
necessary that the judge have a personal and direct interest in the cause from which
this incident arises. (Decision of April 1~, 1886.)
30








10. La amistad intima.
11. La enemistad manifiesta.
12. Haber sido instructor de la causa.
ART. 55. Los magistrados y jueces comprendidos en cualquiera de
los casos que expresa el articulo anterior, se inhibirin del conocimiento
del asunto sin esperar A que se les recuse. Contra esta inhibici6n no
habra recurso alguno.
De igual manera se inhibirin, sin recurso alguno, cuando al ser
recusados en cualquier forma estimasen procedente la causa alegada
En uno y otro caso mandarin pasar las diligencias A quien deba
reemplazarles.
ART. 56. La recusaci6n podra proponerse en cualquier estado de la
causa, pero nunca despues de comenzado el juicio oral, A no ser que el
motive de la recusaci6n sobreviniere con posterioridad.

CAPITULO II.

DE LA SUSTANCIACI6N DE LAS RECUSACIONES DE LOS JUECES DE INSTRUC-
CI6N Y DE LOS MAGISTRADOS.

ART. 57. La recusaci6n se harA en escrito firmado por letrado, por
procurador y por el recusante si supiere firmar y estuviere en el lugar
de la causa. El iltimo deberi ratificarse ante el juez 6 tribunal.

Cuando el recusante no estuviese present, firmarin s6lo el letrado
y el produrador. En todo caso se expresara en el escrito concrete y
claramente la causa de la recusaci6n.
ART. 58. No obstante lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, podr~ el
procesado, si estuviere en incomunicaci6n, proponer verbalmente la
recusaci6n en el acto de recibirsele declaraci6n, 6 podri llamar al juez
por conduct del alcalde de la cArcel para recusarle.
En este caso debera el juez de instrucci6n presentarse acompafiado
del secretario, que hara constar por diligencia la petici6n de recusaci6n
y la causa en que se funde.
Cuando fuese denegada la recusaci6n, se le advertira que podri
reproducirla una vez alzada la incomunicaci6n.
ART. 59. El auto admitiendo 6 denegando la recusaci6n serA fundado
y bastara notificarlo al procurador del recusante, aunque este se halle
en el pueblo en que se siga la causa y haya firmado el escrito de
recusaci6n.

ART. 60. Cuando el recusado no se inibiere por no considerarse
comprendido en la causa alegada para la recusaci6n, se mandara former
'pieza separada.
Esta contender el escrito original de recusaci6n y el auto denega-








10. Intimate friendship.
11. Manifest enmity.
12. Having conducted the preliminary investigation.
ART. 55. The justices and judges included in any of the cases men-
tioned in the foregoing article shall abstain from taking cognizance of
the cause without waiting to be challenged. No remedy lies against
this resolution.
In like manner they shall decline jurisdiction without remedy what-
soever when, on being challenged in any manner, they shall consider
the alleged cause to be well founded. In either case they shall order
the record to be transmitted to whosoever should substitute them.
ART. 56. The challenge may be interposed at any stage of the pro-
ceedings, but not after the oral trial has commenced, unless the cause
of challenge shall have arisen thereafter.

CHAPTER II.

HEARING AND DECISION OF CHALLENGES OF JUDGES OF EXAMINATION
AND JUSTICES.

ART. 57. The challenge shall be in writing and signed by an attor-
ney, by a solicitor, and by the challenging party, if he knows how to
sign, and should be at the place where the cause is pending. The
petition must be ratified by the latter before the judge or court.
If the challenging party be not present, only the attorney and solic-
itor shall sign. In every case the cause of challenge shall be stated
clearly and explicitly.
ART. 58. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the
accused may, should he be incomunicado, interpose the challenge
orally when his declaration is received, or he may call the judge through
the warden of the prison in order to challenge him.
In such case the judge of examination must present himself, accom-
panied by the secretary, who shall make a record of the written chal-
lenge and the cause therefore.
If the challenge be overruled, he shall be advised that he can renew
the same when the incomunicacidn is raised.
ART. 59. A decree sustaining or overruling a challenge shall state the
reasons therefore, and it shall be sufficient to notify the solicitor of the
challenging party thereof, even though the latter be in the town in
which the cause is being prosecuted and had signed the written chal-
lenge.
ART. 60. If the person challenged does not inhibit himself, not con-
sidering that he is included in the causes alleged for the challenge, he
shall order a separate record to be prepared.
Said record shall contain the original written challenge and the ruling








torio de la inhibici6n, quedando nota expresiva de uno y otro en el
process.
ART. 61. Durante la sustanciaci6n de la pieza separada no podra
intervenir el recusado en la causa ni en el incident de recusaci6n, y
sera sustituido por aquel a quien corresponda con arreglo a la ley.

Si el recusado fuese un juez de instrucci6n, deber4 6ste, no obstante,
bajo su responsabilidad, practicar aquellas diligencias urgentes que no
puedan dilatarse mientras su sucesor se encargue de continuar la
instrucci6n.
ART. 62. La recusaci6n no detendri el curso de la causa. Excep-
tfiase el caso en que el incident de recusaci6n no se hubiese decidido
cuando sean citadas las parties para la vista de alguna cuesti6n 6 inci-
dente 6 para la celebraci6n del juicio oral.
ART. 63. Instruirin la pieza separada de recusaci6n:
Cuando ef recusado sea el president 6 un president de sala de
audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el president de sala
mas antiguo; y si el recusado fuere el mis antiguo, el que le siga en
antigiiedad.
Cuando el recusado fuere el president de una audiencia de lo cri-
minal, el magistrado mis antiguo de la sala de lo criminal de la audi-
encia territorial.
Cuando el recusado sea un magistrado de la audiencia de lo crimi-
nal 6 territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el magistrado mas antiguo
de la respective sala 6 tribunal; y si aqu6l fuere el mas antiguo, el
que le siga en antigiiedad.
Si por consecuencia de la recusaci6n de alguno 6 algunos magistrados
de audiencias de lo criminal no quedase en estos tribunales nfmero
suficiente para former tribunal, corresponderg la instrucci6n de la pieza
separada de recusaci6n al magistrado mis modern de la sala de ]o
criminal de la audiencia territorial respective.
Cuando fuese juez de instrucci6n el recusado, instruira la pieza de
recusaci6n el magistrado mas modern de la respective audiencia.
ART. 64. Formada la pieza separada, se oirA A ]a otra 6 otras parties
que hubiese en la causa, por termino de tres dias A cada una, que s6lo
podra prorrogarse por otros dos cuando A juicio del tribunal hubiese
just causa para ello.
ART. 65. Transcurrido el t4rmino sefialado en el articulo anterior,
con la pr6rroga en su caso, y recogida la causa sin necesidad de peti-
ci6n por parte del recusante, se recibira A prueba el incident de recu-
saci6n, cuando ]a cuesti6n fuese de hecho, por ocho dias, durante los
cuales se practicard la que hubiere sido solicitada por las parties y
admitida como pertinente.
ART. 66. Contra el auto en que las audiencias 6 el Tribunal Supremo
admitieren 6 denegaren la prueba, no se dara ulterior recurso.








denying the inhibition, an entry being made of all this in the original
record.
ART. 61. While the separate record is being heard and determined
the person challenged can not act in the cause nor in the issue of the
challenge, and shall be substituted by the proper person in accordance
to law.
If the person challenged be a judge of examination, he must, never-
theless, under his own liability, take such urgent measures as can
not be delayed until his successor takes charge of continuing the
examination.
ART. 62. The challenge shall not delay the course of the cause unless
the issue of the challenge shall not have been decided when the parties
are cited for the hearing of some question or interlocutory issue or for
the oral trial.
ART. 63. The separate record of challenge shall be prepared-
By the senior presiding justice of chamber if the person challenged
be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a terri-
torial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if the judge challenged
be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority.
By the senior justice of the criminal chamber of the territorial
audiencia if the person challenged be the presiding judge of a criminal
audiencia.
By the senior justice of the respective chamber or court if the person
challenged be a justice of a criminal or territorial audiencia or of the
supreme court; and if he be the senior, by the one next below him in
seniority.
If, as a result of the challenge of one or more justices of the criminal
audiencias, these courts should not have members sufficient to form a
quorum, the preparation of the separate record shall pertain to the
junior justice of the criminal chamber of the respective territorial
audiencia.
The junior justice of the respective audiencia shall prepare the
record of challenge when the judge of examination is challenged.
ART. 64. After the separate record has been prepared, the other
party or parties to the cause shall be heard for a period of three days
for each one, which period can only be extended for two days more
when in the opinion of the court there be just cause therefore.
ART. 65. When the period fixed in the foregoing article has elapsed,
as well as the extension in a proper case, and the cause is taken up
again without the necessity of a petition by the challenging party,
evidence on the issue of the challenge shall be admitted for eight days
if the question be a question of fact, during which time the evidence
submitted by the parties and admitted as pertinent shall be received.
ART. 66. There shall be no remedy against rulings of audiencias or
of the supreme court admitting or rejecting evidence.
18473-01--5









ART. 67. Cuando por ser la cuesti6n de derecho, no se hubiere reci-
bido a prueba el incident de recusaci6n, 6 hubiese transcurrido el
t6rmino concedido en el art. 65, se mandarg citar A las parties, sefia-
lando dia para la vista.
ART. 68. Decidirin los incidents de recusaci6n:
Cuando el recusado fuese el president 6 un president de sala de
audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el tribunal en pleno.
De igual manera se procederi cuando los recusados fueren dos 6 mis
magistrados de una misma sala 6 secci6n de estos tribunales.

En los demAs casos decidirin estos incidents los tribunales 6 salas
a que pertenezcan los magistrados instructors de las piezas separadas.
ART. 69. Los autos en que se declare haber 6 no lugar a la recusa-
ci6n, serAn siempre fundados.
Contra el auto que dictaren las audiencias s6lo procedera els recurso
de casaci6n.
Contra el que dictare el Tribunal Supremo, no habri recurso alguno.

ART. 70. En los autos en que se deniegue la recusaci6n, se conde-
narg en las costas al que la hubiere promovido.
Ademis se impondri al recusante una multa de 125 a 250 pesetas
cuando el recusado fuese juez de instrucci6n, y de 250 g 500 cuando
fuese magistrado de audiencia.

Se exceptia de la imposici6n de las costas y la multa al ministerio
fiscal.
ART. 71. Cuando no se hicieren efectivas las multas respectiva-
mente seialadas en el articulo anterior, el multado quedard sujeto g la
responsabilidad personal subsidiaria correspondiente, por via de sus-
tituci6n y apremio, en los t6rminos que para las causes por delitos
establece el c6digo penal.
CAPITULO III.
DE LA SUSTANCIACI6N DE LAS RECUSACIONES DE LOS JUECES
MUNICIPALES.

ART. 72. En los juicios de faltas se propondri la recusaci6n en el
mismo acto de la comparecencia.
ART. 73. En vista de la recusaci6n, si la causa alegada fuese de las
expresadas en el articulo 54 y cierta, el juez municipal se darg por
recusado, pasando el conocimiento de la falta a su suplente.

ART. 74. Cuando el recusado no considerare legitima la recusaci6n,
pasar, el conocimiento del incident su suplente, haci6ndole constar
en el acta.








ART. 67. If, on account of the question being one of law, evidence
on the challenge is overruling, or when the period granted in article
65 has elapsed, the parties shall be cited, a day being fixed for the
argument.
ART. 68. The challenge shall be decided-
By the court in banc, if the person challenged be the presiding judge
or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the
supreme court. Like procedure shall be observed if the persons chal-
lenged be two or more justices of the same chamber or section of said
courts.
In other cases these issues shall be decided by the courts or cham-
bers to which the examining justices of the separate record belong.
ART. 69. The decision sustaining or overruling the challenge shall
always state the reasons therefore.
An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from a decision rendered
by an audiencia.
There shall be no remedy whatsoever against a decision rendered by
the supreme court.
ART. 70. Decisions overruling a challenge shall contain the taxation
of the costs of the same against the person interposing it.
There shall also be imposed on the challenging party a fine of not
less than 125 pesetas nor more than 250 pesetas if the authority chal-
lenged be a judge of examination, and not less than 250 nor more than
500 pesetas if a justice of the audiencia.
The prosecuting officials shall be exempt from the payment of cbsts
or the fine.
ART. 71. If the fines respectively mentioned in the foregoing article
are not paid, the party fined shall be subject to such proper compul-
sion in substitution thereof as provided for crimes in the penal code.


CHAPTER III.
HEARING AND DECISION OF CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL JUDGES.


ART. 72. In trials for misdemeanors the challenge shall be inter-
posed at the time of the appearance.
ART. 73. In view of the challenge, should the cause alleged be of
those mentioned in article 54, and be true, the municipal judge shall
consider himself challenged, transferring the cognizance of the misde-
meanor to his substitute.
ART. 74. If the challenged party should not consider the challenge
to be legitimate, he shall transfer the cognizance of the issue to his sub-
stitute, making note thereof in the record.








Ni en este caso ni en el del articulo anterior se da recurso alguno
contra lo resuelto por el juez municipal.
ART. 75. El juez municipal recusado no podra intervenir en la sus-
tanciaci6n de la pieza de recusaci6n, y se suspenders la celebraci6n del
juicio de faltas hasta que aqudlla se decide.

ART. 76. El juez suplente encargado de la sustanciaci6n be la pieza
de recusaci6n hara comparecer A las parties a su presencia, y en el
mismo acto recibirA las pruebas que ofrezcan y conceptde pertinentes
cuando la cuesti6n verse sobre algin hecho.
Contra el auto denegatorio de la prueba podra pedirse reposici6n en
el acto de hacerse saber a las parties.
ART. 77. Recibida la prueba, 6 cuando por tratarse de cuesti6n de
derecho no fuera necesaria, el juez municipal suplente resolveri si ha
6 no lugar a la recusaci6n en auto fundado, y en el mismo acto si es
possible. En. ning6n caso dejar6 de hacerlo dentro de segundo dia.
De lo actuado y del auto se hard menci6n en el acta que se extienda.


ART. 78. Contra el auto del juez suplente declarando haber lugar a
la recusaci6n, no se dari recurso alguno.
Contra el auto en que la denegare, habri apelaci6n para ante el juez
de instrucci6n.
ART. 79. La apelaci6n se interpondri verbalmente en el acto de la
comparecencia ante el mismo juez municipal suplente, si este resol-
viese en el moment.
Si para resolver utilizare el termino de segundo dia, se interpondri
la apelaci6n en el acto mismo de la notificaci6n siempre que sea per-
sonal, y si no dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes g ella. La
apelaci6n en este caso se interpondra tambien verbalmente ante el
secretario del juzgado y se hard constar por diligencia.
ART. 80. Cuando no se apelase dentro de los terminos sefialados en
el articulo anterior, el auto del juez suplente sera firme.

Interpuesta apelaci6n en tiempo, se remitirin los antecedentes al
juez de instrucci6n respective con citaci6n de las parties y i expenses
del apelante.
ART. 81. En el juzgado de instrucci6n se dard cuenta inmediata-
mente por el secretario, sin admitir escritos, y se citart i las parties a
una comparecencia dentro del termino de segundo dia.
Los interesados 6 sus apoderados podrAn hacer en ella verbalmente
las observaciones que estimen, previa la venia del juez de instrucci6n.

Este pronunciard auto en el mismo dia 6 en el siguiente, y contra lo
que decide no habri ulterior recurso.








Neither in this case nor in that of the foregoing article shall there
be any remedy against the decision of the municipal judge.
ART. 75. The municipal judge challenged cannot take part in the
hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge, and shall sus-
pend the trial for the misdemeanors until the question of the challenge
is decided.
ART. 76. The substitute judge charged with the hearing and deter-
mination of the issue of the challenge shall order the parties to appear
before him, and shall at once hear the evidence they may offer and
which he may consider pertinent, if the question be one of fact.
If a decision ruling out the evidence is made, a rehearing may be
requested as soon as the parties are notified thereof.
ART. 77. The evidence having been taken, or when a question of law
being involved it is not necessary, the substitute municipal judge shall
decide at once, if possible, whether the challenge is or is not well taken
in a ruling stating the reasons for his decision. In no case shall he fail
to render a decision within two days.
The proceedings had and the ruling shall be entered upon the record
made.
ART. 78. There shall be no remedy against a ruling of a substitute
judge sustaining a challenge.
From a decree overruling a challenge an appeal lies to the judge of
examination.
ART. 79. The appeal shall be interposed orally at the appearance for
decision before the substitute judge, should he render a decision at
once.
If, in order to render a decision, he should take the period of two
days, the appeal shall be filed at the time of the notification, provided
it be personal; otherwise within the twenty-four hours following the
notification. The appeal in such case shall also be interposed orally
before the clerk of the court, and it shall be made a matter of record.
ART. 80. If an appeal be not taken within the periods prescribed in
the foregoing article, the ruling of the substitute judge shall become
final.
If the appeal be taken in due time, the proceedings shall be forwarded
to the proper judge of examination, with a citation of the parties, at
the expense of the appellant.
ART. 81. In the court of examination the clerk shall immediately
make a report without admitting any documentary evidence, and the
parties shall be cited to appear within a period of two days.
With the permission of the judge of examination the parties in inter-
est or their attorneys may make orally at that time whatever remarks
they may consider proper.
The judge of examination shall render his decision the same day or
the day following, and against his decision there shall be no further
remedy.








Si el jues instructor entendiese que el municipal suplente debi6 repo-
ner el auto denegatorio de la prueba A que se refiere el pArrafo segundo
del art. 76, lo declararg asi, absteni4ndose de pronunciar sobre el fondo,
y mandarg devolver las diligencias al juzgado municipal de que pro-
cedan, para que se practique la prueba propuesta y se dicte nuevo
auto.

Seran aplicables a este las disposiciones de los arts. 78 al 81.
ART. 82. Cuando el auto sea confirmatorio. se condenara en costas
al apelante.
ART. 83. Declarada procedente la recusaci6n por auto firm, enten-
deri el suplente en el juicio.
Declarado improcedente, el juez recusado volveri A entender en el
conocimiento de la falta.
CAPfTULO IV.

DE LA RECUSACI6N DE LOS AUXILIARIES DE LOS JUZGADOS Y TRIBU-
NALES.

ART. 84. Los secretaries de los juzgados municipales, de los de
instrucci6n, de las audiencias y del Tribunal Supremo, serin recusa-
bles.
Lo serin tambien los oficiales de sala.
ART. 85. Son aplicables a los secretaries y oficiales de sala las pre-
scripciones de este titulo, con las modificaciones que establecen los
articulos siguientes.
ART. 86. Cuando los recusados fueren auxiliares de los juzgados de
instrucci6n, de las audiencias 6 del Tribunal Supremo, la pieza de recu-
saci6n se instruir6 por el juez instructor respective 6 magistrado mis
modern, y se fallarf por el mismo juez 6 por el tribunal correspon
diente.
El juez 6 magistrado instructor podr6 delegar la practice de las dili-
gencias que no pudiere ejecutar por si mismo en el juez municipal 6 en
uno de los jueces de instrucci6n de la respective circunscripci6n.

ART. 87. Los auxiliares recusados no podran actuar en la causa en
que lo fueren ni en la pieza de recusaci6n, reemplazandoles aquellos a
quienes corresponderia si la recusaci6n fuese admitida.
ART. 88. En las recusaciones de secretaries de juzgados municipales
instruir' y fallara la pieza de recusaci6n el juez municipal. donde s61o
hubiere uno.
Si hubiere dos, el del juzgado A que no Dertenezca el recusado; y si
tres 6 mas, el de mayor edad.
ART. 89. Cuando se desestimare la recusaci6n, se condenara en costas
al recusante.







If the judge of examination should hold that the substitute munici-
pal judge should reverse his ruling denying the admission of evidence,
referred to in the second paragraph of article 76, he shall so declare,
refraining from deciding the main question, and order the proceed-
ings to be returned to the municipal court from which they were for-
warded, in order that the evidence offered be taken and a new ruling
made.
The provisions of articles 78 to 81 shall apply to this ruling.
ART. 82. If the ruling be affirmative, the appellant shall be taxed the
costs thereof.
ART. 83. If the challenge be sustained by a final ruling, the sub-
stitute judge shall take cognizance of the case.
If overruled, the challenged judge shall again take cognizance of
the offence.
CHAPTER IV.
CHALLENGES OF ASSISTANTS OF INFERIOR AND SUPERIOR COURTS.


ART. 84. The clerks of municipal courts, courts of examination, of
audiencias, and those of the supreme court may be challenged.

The officers of chambers may also be challenged.
ART. 85. The provisions of this title are applicable to the clerks and
officers of chambers with the modifications prescribed in the following
articles.
ART. 86. If the challenged parties be the assistants of courts of
examination, of audiencias or of the supreme court, the issue of the
challenge shall be prepared by the proper judge of examination or the
junior associate justice, and shall be decided by the same judge or by
by the corresponding court.
The judge or associate justice of examination may delegate the per-
formance of the proceedings which he cannot personally conduct to
the municipal judge, or to one of the judges of examination of the
respective circuit.
ART. 87. The assistants challenged cannot take part in the cause nor
in the issue of the challenge, being substituted by the proper'persons
if the challenge be sustained.
ART. 88. In challenges of clerks of municipal courts the municipal
judge shall prepare and determine the issue of the challenge where
there is but one judge.
Should there be two, the judge of the court to which the challenged
party does not belong; and if there be three or more, by the eldest.
ART. 89. If the challenge be overruled, the challenging party shall
be taxed the costs.







ART. 90. Cuando sea firme el auto en que se admit la recusaci6n,
quedari el recusado separado de toda intervenci6n en la causa, continuan-
do en su reemplazo el que le haya sustituido durante la sustanciaci6n
del incident; y si fuere secretario de juzgado municipal 6 de instrucci6n,
no percibir6 derechos de ninguna clase desde que se hubiese solicitado
la recusaci6n, 6 desde que, si6ndole conocido el motivo alegado, no se
separ6 del conocimiento del asunto.

ART. 91. Cuando se desestimase la recusaci6n por auto fire, vol-
veri el auxiliar recusado A ejercer sus funciones; y si fuese 6ste secre-
tario de juzgado municipal 6 de instrucci6n, le abonari el recusante
los derechos correspondientes a las actuaciones practicadas en la causa,
haciendo igual abono al que haya sustituido al recusado.
ART. 92. No podran los auxiliares ser recusados despuns de citadas
las parties para sentencia, ni durante la practica de alguna diligencia de
que estuvieren encargados, ni despu6s de comenzada la celebraci6n del
juicio oral.
ART. 93. Es aplicable & los actuales relatores y escribanos de cimara:
primero, lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores respect i las recusa-
clones de los secretaries de sala; y segundo, lo prevenido en los arts.
90 y 91 reference al abono de derechos.
CAPITULO V.
DE LAS EXCUSAS Y RECUSACIONES DE LOS ASESORES.
ART. 94. Los asesores de los jueces municipales, cuando 6stos desem-
pefien accidentalmente funciones de jueces de instrucci6n, se excusaran
si concurrieren en ellos algunas de las causes enumeradas en el articulo
54 de esta ley.
El mismo juez municipal apreciari la excuse para admitirla 6
desestimarla. Si la desestimase, podra el asesor recurrir en queja 6 la
respective audiencia, y 6sta, pidiendo informes y antecedentes, resol-
vera de piano sin ulterior recurso lo que crea procedente.

ART. 95. Los que sean parte en una causa podrAn recusar al asesor
por cualquiera de los motives sefialados en el art. 54.
La recusaci6n se har~ por medio de escrito dirigido al juez municipal.
Contra las decisions del juzgado municipal desestimando la recusa-
sion, procederi igualmente el recurso de queja ante la audiencia
respective.
CAPITULO VI.
DE LA ABSTENCI6N DEL MINISTERIO FISCAL.
ART. 96. Los representantes del ministerio fiscal no podr&n ser
recusados; pero se abstendran de intervenir en los actos judiciales
cuando concurra en ellos alguna de las causes sefialadas en el art. 54
de esta ley.








ART. 90. When a ruling sustaining a challenge becomes final, the
party challenged can take no part in the cause whatever, the person
who was substituted for him during the hearing and determination
of the issue continuing to take his place; and if he be the clerk of
a municipal court or court of examination he shall receive no fees
of any kind from the time that the challenge was interposed, or when
the alleged cause being known to him he did not abstain from taking
cognizance of the subject.
ART. 91. If the challenge be overruled by a final decision the
assistant challenged shall again perform his duties; and should he be
the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination the challeng-
ing party shall pay to him the fees corresponding to the proceedings
had in the cause, and a similar payment shall be made to his substitute.
ART. 92. The assistants can not be challenged after the parties have
been cited to appear for judgment, nor while engaged in some pro-
ceeding intrusted to them, nor after the oral trial has begun.

ART. 93. To relators and copyists of chambers are applicable: First,
the provisions of the foregoing articles with regard to challenges of
clerks in chambers; and, second, the provisions of articles 90 and 91
with reference to the payment of fees.
CHAPTER V.
EXCUSES AND CHALLENGES OF ASSESSORS.
ART. 94. The assessors to municipal judges, when the latter acci-
dentally discharge the duties of judges of examination, shall excuse
themselves if they be embraced in any of the causes mentioned in
article 54' of this law.
The municipal judge himself shall weigh the excuse in order to admit
or reject it. Should he reject it, the assessor may appeal in complaint
to the proper audiencia, and the latter, after calling for reports and
data, shall decide eo instant without further remedy, what it may deem
proper.
ART. 95. The parties to a cause may challenge the assessor for any
of the causes mentioned in article 54.
The challenge shall be in writing, addressed to the municipal judge.
From the decision of the municipal court overruling a challenge, an
appeal in complaint lies also to the proper audiencia.

CHAPTER VI.
ABSTENTION OF PROSECUTING OFFICIALS.
ART. 96. Prosecuting officials can not be challenged; but they shall
abstain from intervening in judicial acts when they are included in
any of the causes mentioned in article 54 of this law.








ART. 97. Si concurriere en el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo 6 en los
fiscales de las audiencias alguna de las causes por raz6n de las cuales
deban abstenerse, de conformidad con lo dispuesto en el articulo
anterior, designarin para que los reemplacen al teniente fiscal, y en su
defecto, A los abogados fiscales, por el orden de categoria y antigiiedad.

Lo dispuesto en el pirrafo anterior es aplicable A los tenientes 6
abogados fiscales cuando ejerzan las funciones de su jefe respective.

ART. 98. Los tenientes y abogados fiscales del Tribunal Supremo y
de las audiencias harin present su excusa al superior respective, quien
les relevar6 de intervenir en los actos judiciales, y elegirA para susti-
tuirles al que tenga por convenient entire sus subordinados.

ART. 99. Cuando los representantes del ministerio fiscal no se excu-
saren, 6 pesar de comprenderles alguna de las causes expresadas en el
articulo 54, podrin los que se considered agraviados acudir en queja
al superior inmediato.
Este oiri al subordinado que hubiese sido objeto de la queja, y
encontrAndola fundada, decidiri su sustituci6n. Si no la encontrare
fundada, podrA acordar que intervenga en el process. Contra esta
determinaci6n no se da recurso alguno.
Los fiscales de las audiencias territoriales decidirfn las quejas que se
les dirijan contra los fiscales de las audiencias de lo criminal.

Si fuere el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo el que diera motivo A la
queja, debera vista dirigirse al Ministro de Gracia y Justicia por con-
ducto del president del mismo tribunal. El Ministro de Gracia, y
Justicia, oida la sala de gobierno del Tribunal Supremo, si lo consider
oportuno, resolved lo que estime procedente.







ART. 97..If the public prosecutor of the supreme court or the
public prosecutors of audiencias be included in any of the causes by
reason of which they should abstain, according to the provisions of
the foregoing article, they shall appoint as their substitutes the deputy
public prosecutor, and in his absence the assistant deputy public prose-
cutors, in the order of their rank and term of service.
The provisions of the foregoing paragraph are applicable to the
deputy or assistant deputy public prosecutors when they discharge
the duties of their respective chief.
ART. 98. The deputy and assistant deputy public prosecutors of the
supreme court and of the audiencias shall submit their excuses to the
proper superior, who shall relieve them from taking part in the judi-
cial proceedings, and shall select as a substitute the person he may
deem proper from among their subordinates.
ART. 99. When the prosecuting officials do not excuse themselves,
notwithstanding their being included in any of the causes mentioned
in article 54, those who consider themselves injured may appeal in
complaint to the immediate superior.
The latter shall hear the subordinate who may have been the object
of the complaint, and if he shall find it proper shall order his sub-
stitution. If he shall not find it proper he may order him to appear
in the case. There shall be no remedy against this decision.
The public prosecutors of the territorial audiencias shall decide the
complaints addressed to them against the public prosecutors of the
criminal audiencias.
If the public prosecutor of the supreme court be the subject of the
complaint, it must be addressed to the Minister of Grace and Justice
through the chief justice of the said court. The Minister of Grace
and Justice after hearing the chamber of administration of the
supreme court, should he consider it necessary, shall decide what he
may deem proper.

















TITULO IV.


DE LAS PERSONAS A QUIENES CORRESPOND EL ElERCICIO DE LAB ACCIONEB
QUE NACEN DE LOS DELITOS Y FALTAS.

ART. 100. De todo delito 6 falta nace acci6n penal para el castigo del
culpable, y puede nacer tambien acci6n civil para la restituci6n de la
cosa, la reparaci6n del dailo y la indemnizaci6n de perjuicios causados
por el hecho punible.1
ART. 101. La acci6n penal es pfiblica.
Todos los ciudadanos espafoles podrAn ejercitarla con arreglo A las
prescripciones de la ley.
ART. 102. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, no
podran ejercitar la acci6n penal-
10. El que no goce de la plenitud de los derechos civiles.2

Las acciones penales, por su naturaleza, y con arreglo d los principios del dere-
cho, nunca deben ampliarse, sino por el contrario, entenderse y aplicarse siempre de
un modo restrictive." (Sntencia de Junio 3, 1874.)
'Sin la pretension de conseguir una enumeraci6n complete, las personas que no
pueden comparecer en juicio ni, por consiguiente, dar poder 4 otro para que compa-
rezcan en su nombre, a no ser con la intervenci6n de sus representantes legftimos,
son las siguientes:
Los hulrfanos menores.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor (c6digo civil,
articulo 262), el cual en ciertos casos necesita el consentimiento del consejo de familiar
(id., 269, nrmeros 12 y 18). Si los intereses del tutor son opuestos A los del hu6rfano,
por ejemplo, en el supuesto del ndmero 9", artfculo 237, la representaci6n en juicio
correspond al protutor (23S, apartado r).
Los hijos no emancipados, por los que comparecen sus padres (c6digo civil, articulo
155), y cuando estos tengan interns incompatible con el de los hijos, el defensor A que
alude el articulo 165, que equivale al antiguo curador para pleitos, de que hablan los
articulos 1852 A 1860 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Si los padres estan privados
de la patria potestad, 6 tienen suspendido su ejercicio (c6digo civil, articulos 70,
p&rrafo S, 78, pdrrafo 2 del ndmero S0, y 168 d 171), representarA A los hijos el tutor
nombrado.
Los menores de edad emancipados por concesidn del padre 6 de la madre, son represen-
tados en juicio por sus padres, y en su defect por un tutor. (Articulos 314, ndmero
8, y 317 del c6digo civil.)
Los menores que obtienen el benefiio de la mayor edad por concesi6n del consejo de
familiar, son representados por un tutor. (Cddigo civil, articulos 22 & S34 y 317 A que
se refiere el dltimo.)
Los casados mayores de 18 arlos, pueden comparecer por sf en juicio en nombre
propio y en el de su mujer, segdn los articulos 59 y 315 del c6digo civil, que deben
asi entenderse, pues la emancipaci6n de que habla el artfculo 317 se refiere A la del
nfimero 3 del 314.
38
















TITLE IV.


PERSONS WHO MAY EXERCISE RIGHTS OF ACTION ARISING OUT OF CRIMES AND
MISDEMEANORS.

ART. 100. A criminal action arises from every crime or misdemeanor
for the punishment of the culprit, and a civil action may also arise
for the restitution of the thing, the repair of the damage, and the
indemnity of the losses caused by the punishable act.'
ART. 101. A criminal action is public.
All Spanish citizens may bring a criminal action according to the
provisions of law.
ART. 102. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article a
criminal action can not be brought by:
1. A person not in the full enjoyment of civil rights.2

SCriminal actions, by reason of their character and in accordance with the princi-
I les of law, can never be extended, but, on the contrary, must be understood and
applied always in a restricted manner. (Supreme Court. decision of June 3, 1894.)
SWithout attempting a full enumeration, the persons who can not appear in an
etion, and consequently who can not grant powers of attorney to others to appear
in their behalf, unless it be with the intervention of their legal representatives, are
the following:
Minors who are orphans are legally represented by their guardians (Civil Code, art.
V62), who in certain cases require the consent of the family council. (Ibid., 269,
Nos. 1 and 18.) If the interests of the tutor are opposed to those of the orphan,
as, for example, in the case of number 9 of article 237 of the Civil Code, the repre-
sentation of the minor in court pertains to the protutor. (Ibid., 236, second par.)
Children not emancipated are represented by their parents (Civil Code, art. 155),
and when said parents have an interest which is incompatible with that of their
children the latter shall be represented by the next friend referred to in article 165,
which is equivalent to the former curator ad litem referred to in articles 1852 to 1860
of the Law of Civil Procedure. If the parents are deprived of the parental author-
ity, or if it be suspended (Civil Code, articles 70, paragraph 8; 78, par. 2 of number 2,
and 168 to 171), the tutor appointed shall represent the children.
Minors emancipated by the concession of the father or mother are represented in court
by their parents, or, in their absence, by one tutor. (Articles 314, number 3, and 317
of the Civil Code.)
Minors who obtain the benefit of majority by concession of the family council are repre-
'sented by one tutor. (Civil Code, articles 322 to 324 and 817, referred to.)

Married persons over 18 years of age may appear in person in court in their own
* name and in that of their wives, according to articles 59 and 315 of the Civil Code,
which must be understood in this manner, because the emancipation referred to in
article 317 relates to that of number 3 of article 314.
38








2. El que hubiera sido condenado dos veces por sentencia firme
como reo del delito de denuncia 6 querella calumniosas.
30. El juez 6 magistrado.
Los comprendidos en los n6meros anteriores podrin, sin embargo,
ejercitar la acci6n penal por delito 6 falta cometidos contra sus perso-
nas 6 bienes, 6 contra las personas 6 bienes de sus c6nyuges, ascen-
dientes, descendientes, hermanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines.

Los comprendidos en los nimeros 2 y 3 podran ejercitar tambien la
acci6n penal por el delito 6 falta cometidos contra las personas 6 bienes
de los que estuviesen bajo su guard legal.
Art. 103. Tampoco podrIn ejercitar acciones penales entire si-

10. Los c6nyuges, A no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por el uno
contra la persona del otro 6 la de sus hijos' y por los delitos de adulte-
rio, amancebamiento y bigamia.

Los condenados 6 interdicos. (VWanse los articulos 228, 229, 262, 269, nimeros 12
y 13, y 274 del c6digo civil, y los 26, 43, 54 y 57 del penal.)
Los locos, dementes y sordomudos.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor 6 en
su caso al defensor que nombren los tribunales 6 al ministerio pdblico. (C6digo civil,
articulos 215, apartado S8, 262, 269, nfmeros 12 y 13, y 274.)
En los pleitos sobre prodigalidad, cuando el demandado no comparezca, tendra su
representaci6n el fiscal 6 en su caso el defensor nombrado por el juez. (C6digo civil,
articulo 223.
'La mujer casada.-Los casos en que necesita licencia de su marido para compare-
cer por sf en juicio y los en que no necesita, se determinan en los articulos 60 y 1387
del c6digo civil.
Consursados.-Una vez hecha la declaraci6n de concurso, quedan incapacitados
para la administraci6n de sus bienes todos (1161 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil y
1914 del c6ddigo civil), y consiguientemente privados del pleno ejercicio de sus derechos
civiles. La representaci6n legal del concurso corresponde al depositario administra-
dor (ley, articulo 1181) hasta el nombramiento de sindicos. Verificado dste, lossindi-
cos representan al concurso en juicio defendiendo sus derechos y ejercitando las
acciones y excepciones que le competan. (Id, artculo 1181, regla 1.)
Personas juridicas (corporaciones, sociedades y demds entidades juridicas).-Los
pueblos y ayuntamientos son representados en juicio por los procuradores sfndicos y
en los pueblos agregados d otros para former ayuntamiento, los presidents de sus
juntas administrativas representan tambidn 6 sus respectivos pueblos, cuando se trate
de acciones 6 derechos que correspondent exclusivamente A sus mismos pueblos.
(Articulos 56 y 90 & 96 de la ley de 1877, y R. O. S0 Enero 1875.)
Las provincias eran representadas por el diputado provincial nombrado al efecto con
arreglo al articulo 37 de la ley de 25 de Septiembre de 1863; luego lo fueron por el
gobernador, conform A los articulos 9 y 70 de la ley de 2 de Octubre de 1877, y hoy lo
son por el vice president de la comisi6n provincial, conforme al articulo 98, ndmero
6 de la ley de 29 de Agosto de 1882.
La hacienda pdblica ha venido siendo representada por el ministerio fiscal en la
forma prescrita por el decreto de 9 de Julio de 1869 y por la orden de la misma fecha;
pero desde el decreto de 16 Marzo 1886 correspond su representaci6n A los abogados
del estado.
'Las palabras de este articulo no significant que el delito objeto de la querella haya
de ser precisamente de los que el c6digo penal denomina contra las personas en el









2. A person who has been twice condemned by a final sentence as
guilty of the crime of calumnious denunciations or complaints.
3. The judge or justice.
Those included in the foregoing numbers may, however, bring a
criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor committed against their
persons or property, or against the persons or property of their
spouses, ascendants, descendants, uterine brothers or sisters, or rela-
tives by consanguinity or affinity.
The persons included in numbers 2 and 3 may also bring a criminal
action for a misdemeanor or crime committed against the persons or
property of those who may be under their legal care.
Art. 103. Nor can the following persons bring criminal actions
against each other:
1. Spouses, except for a crime or misdemeanor committed by one
against the person of the other or that of his or her children,' and for
the crimes of adultery, concubinage, and bigamy.

Persons suffering interdiction or undergoing a sentence. (See articles 228, 229, 262,
269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274 of the Civil Code, and the proper articles of the
Penal Code.)
The deaf and dumb and the insane are legally represented by their guardian or, in
a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court or by the public prosecu-
tor. (Civil Code, articles 215, paragraph 3; 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274.)
In actions relating to prodigals, when the defendant does not appear, he shall be
represented by the public prosecutor or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed
by the court. (Civil Code, article 223.)
Married woman.-The cases in which she does and does not require the permission
of her husband to appear in an action are mentioned in articles 60 and 1387 of the
Civil Code.
Bankrupts.-After a declaration in bankruptcy the bankrupts are disqualified from
administering any of their property (1161 of the law of Civil Procedure and 1914 of the
Civil Code), and consequently are deprived of the full exercise of their civil rights.
The depositary-administrator is the legal representative of the estate of the bankrupt
(law, art. 1181) until trustees are appointed. After this has been done the trustees
represent the bankrupt in court, defending his rights and taking the actions and
exceptions incumbent upon them. (Ibid., article 1181, rule 1.)
Judicial persons (corporations, associations, and other judicial entities).-Towns and
municipalities are represented by the procuradores sindicos, and in towns annexed to
others in order to constitute a municipality, the presidents of their administrative
boards also represent the respective towns, when actions or rights are involved which
pertain exclusively to the said towns. (Articles 56 and 90 of the law of 1877, and Royal
order of January 30, 1875.)
Provinces were represented by the provincial deputy, appointed for the purpose in
accordance with article 37 of the law of September 25, 1863; afterwards they were
represented by the governor, in accordance with articles 9 and 70 of the law of Octo-
ber 2, 1877, and now they are represented by the vice-president of the provincial
commission, in accordance with article 98, number 6, of the law of August 29, 1882.
The public treasury has been represented by the department of public prosecution
in the manner prescribed by the decree of July 9, 1869, and by the order of the same
date; but since the decree of March 16, 1886, it is represented by the state attorneys.
'The words of this article do not signify that the crime which is the subject of the
complaint must be of those which the Penal Code denominates crimes against the









2. Los ascendientes, descendientes y hermanos consanguineos 6 ute-
rinos y afines, 6 no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por los unos contra
las personas de los otros.
ART. 104. Las acciones penales que nacen de los delitos de estupro,
calumnia 6 injuria tampoco podrin ser ejercitadas por otras personas ni
en manera distinta qne las prescritas en los respectivos articulos del
c6digo penal.
Las faltas consistentes en el anuncio por medio de la imprenta de
hechos falsos 6 relatives a la vida privada con el que se perjudique 6
ofenda a particulares, en malos tratamientos inferidos por los maridos
6 sus mujeres, en desobediencia 6 malos tratos de 4stas para con
aqu6llos, en faltas de respeto y sumisi6n de los hijos respect de sus
padres, 6 de los pupilos respect de sus tutores, y en injuries leves,
s6lo podrin ser perseguidas por los ofendidos 6 por sus legitimos
representantes.
ART. 105. Los funcionarios del ministerio fiscal tendran la obliga-
cion de ejercitar, con arreglo A las disposiciones de la ley, todas las
acciones penales que considered procedentes, haya 6 no acusador
particular en las causes, menos aqu6llas que el c6digo penal reserve
exclusivamente A la querella privada. Tambi4n deberin ejercitarlas
en las causes por los delitos contra la honestidad, que con arreglo 6 las
prescrpciones del c6digo penal deben denunciarse previamente por
los interesados, 6 cuando el ministerio fiscal deba 6 su vez denunciarlos
por recaer dichos delitos sobre personas desvalidas 6 faltas de perso-
nalidad.1
ART. 106. La acci6n penal por delito 6 falta que d6 lugar al pro-
cedimiento de oficio no se extingue por la renuncia de la persona ofen-
dida.
Pero se extinguen por esta causa las que nacen del delito 6 falta que
no puedan ser perseguidos sino 6 instancia de parte, y las civiles,
cualesquiera que sea el delito 6 falta de que procedan.
ART. 107. La renuncia de la acci6n civil 6 de la penal renunciable
no perjudicari mfs que al renunciante; pudiendo continuar el ejercicio
de la penal en el estado en que se halle la causa, 6 ejercitarla nueva-
mente los demrs A quienes tambi6n correspondiere.

tftulo viii, libro ii (parricidio, asesinato, homicidio, infanticidio, aborto, lesiones y
duelo), sino que la ley alude A la condici6n de que el hecho ofenda C persona empa-
rentada con el culpable, que puede ser perseguido A instancia de la agraviada, aunque
el delito sea de injuria. (Marzo 2 de 1885.-Gaceta, Octubre 4.)

'En cumplimiento del artfculo 467 del c6digo penal vigente en las islas de Cuba
y Puerto Rico, el ministerio fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de ejercitar la acci6n penal en
los delitos de rapto y adulterio A que el mismo se refiere.






40

2. The ascendants, descendants, the uterine brothers or sisters, or
relatives those by consanguinity or affinity, unless for a crime or mis-
demeanor by either against the persons of the others.
ART. 104. Nor can penal actions which arise from the crimes of
seduction, calumny, and contumely be instituted by other persons or
in a different manner than those prescribed in the respective articles
of the Penal Code.
Misdemeanors consisting in a notice in the press of false facts or
which relate to the private life, by which individuals are prejudiced
or offended, in the ill-treatment of wives by their husbands, the dis-
obedience of or the ill treatment by wives of their husbands, lack of
respect and submission of children to their parents, or of pupils to
their tutors, and in slight acts of contumely, can only be prosecuted
by the persons offended or by their legitimate representatives.

ART. 105. The public prosecutors are obliged to institute, accord-
ing to the provisions of law, all criminal actions which they may
consider proper, whether there be a private accuser or not in the
causes, except in those which the Penal Code reserves exclusively to
private complaints. They shall also institute them in causes for crimes
against chastity, which, according to the provisions of the Penal Code,
must first be denounced by the persons interested, or when the public
prosecutor should himself denounce them, because said crimes are com-
mitted against helpless persons or those lacking personality.'

ART. 106. A criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor which
gives rise to proceedings ex oficio is not extinguished by the withdrawal
of the complaint by the person offended.
Actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor which can only be
prosecuted at the instance of a party, and civil actions, whatever be the
crime or misdemeanor involved, are extinguished for this cause.
ART. 107. The abandonment of the civil action or of a criminal
action which can be abandoned shall only prejudice the person who
abandons it; the other persons interested in the cause being permitted
to continue the criminal action in the state it was, or institute a new
one.
person in Title VIII, Book II (parricide, assassination, homicide, infanticide, abor-
tion, injuries inflicted with violence, and dueling), but the law refers to a state when
the act offends a person related to the guilty person, which may be prosecuted at
the instance of the person injured, even though the crime be an outrage. (March R,
1885-Gaceta of October 4.)
1In compliance with the provisions of article 467 of the Penal Code in force in the
islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, the prosecuting officials are obliged to bring a crimi-
nal action in the crimes of abduction and adultery referred to there.
18473-01--6






41

ART. 108. La acci6n civil ha de entablarse juntamente con la penal
por el ministerio fiscal, haya 6 no en el process acusador particular;
pero si el ofendido renunciare expresamente su derecho de restituci6n,
reparaci6n 6 indemnizaci6n, el ministerio fiscal se limitar- a pedir el
castigo de los culpables.
ART. 109. En el acto de recibirse declaraci6n al ofendido que
tuviese la capacidad legal necesaria, se le instruird del derecho que le
asiste para mostrarse parte en el process y renunciar 6 no a la restitu-
ci6n de la cosa, reparaci6n del dafo 6 indemnizaci6n del perjuicio
causado por el hecho punible.1
Si no tuviese capacidad legal, se practicar' igual diligencia con su
representante.
Fuera de los casos previstos en los dos pZrrafos anteriores, no se
hark A los interesados en las acciones civiles 6 penales notificaci6n
alguna que prolongue 6 detenga el curso de la causa, lo cual no obsta
para que el juez procure instruir de aquel derecho al ofendido
ausente.
ART. 110. Los perjudicados por un delito 6 falta que no hubieren
renunciado su derecho podrin mostrarse parte en la causa, si lo hicie-
ren antes del tramite de calificaci6n del delito, y ejercitar las acciones
civiles y penales que procedan, 6 solamente unas 6 otras, seg6n les con-
viniere, sin que por ello se retroceda en el curso de las actuaciones.

Aun cuando los perjudicados no se muestren part en la causa, no
por esto se entiende que renuncian al derecho de restituci6n, repara-
ci6n 6 indemnizaci6n que a su favor pueda acordarse en sentencia
fire; siendo menester que la renuncia de este derecho se haga en su
caso de una manera express y terminante.
ART. 111. Las acciones que nacen de un delito 6 falta podran ejer-
citarse junta 6 separadamente; pero mientras estuviese pendiente la
acci6n penal, no se ejercitari la civil con separaci6n hasta que aqu6lla
haya sido resuelta en sentencia fire, salvo siempre lo dispuesto en los
articulos 4, 5 y 6 de este c6digo.
ART. 112. Ejercitada s6lo la acci6n penal, se entendera utilizada
tambi6n la civil, A no ser que dafiado 6 perjudicado la renunciase 6 la
reservase expresamente para ejercitarla despu6s de terminado el juicio
criminal si a ello hubiere lugar.
Si se ejercitase s6lo la civil que nace de un delito de los que no pue-
den perseguirse sino en virtud de querella particular, se considerar6
extinguida desde luego la acci6n penal.
ART. 113. Podrin ejercitarse expresamente las dos acciones por
una misma persona 6 por varias; pero siempre que sean dos 6 mas las
SLa obligaci6n de instruir de su derecho i los interesados en la causa, no s6lo se
establece a favor de los perjudicados por el delito, sino en beneficio de los presuntos
culpables, conforme al artfculo 2.








ART. 108. The civil action must be brought jointly with the crimi-
nal action by the prosecuting official, whether there be a private accuser
or not in the cause; but if the person offended shall expressly renounce
his right to restitution, repair, or indemnity, the prosecuting official
shall confine himself to requesting the punishment of the guilty parties.
ART. 109. As soon as the declaration of an offended party having
the necessary legal capacity has been received, he shall be informed
of his rights to become a party to the action and to renounce or not
the restitution of the thing, repair of the damage, and indemnity for
the loss caused by the punishable act.'
Should he not have the legal capacity, the same information shall be
communicated to his representative.
Aside from the cases provided for in the two foregoing paragraphs,
no notice shall be served upon the parties interested in civil or crim-
inal actions which shall prolong or delay the course of the cause,
which, however, is not an obstacle to the judge informing the absent
person offended of his rights.
ART. 110. Those prejudiced by a crime or misdemeanor who shall
not have renounced their rights may enter an appearance in the cause,
should they do so before the classification of the crime, and exercise
the proper civil and criminal actions, or either, as they may desire,
without, however, causing any retrogression in the course of the
proceedings.
Even if the persons prejudiced do not enter an appearance in the
cause, it shall not be understood that they thereby renounce the right to
restitution, repair, or indemnity which may be granted them by final
sentence, it being necessary that the renunciation of this right be made
in a proper case in an express and positive manner.
ART. 111. The actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor
may be instituted jointly or separately; but during the pendency of
the criminal action the civil action can not be brought separately
until the former has been decided by a final sentence, excepting
always the provisions of articles 4, 5, and 6 of this code.
ART. 112. If the criminal action only is instituted, it shall be under-
stood that a civil action may also be brought, unless the person injured
or prejudiced renounces the same or expressly reserves the right to
institute it after the conclusion of the criminal action, if necessary.
If only the civil action arising from a crime which can be prosecuted
only on a private complaint is instituted, the criminal action shall
thereby be considered as extinguished.
ART. 113. The two actions may be expressly instituted by the same
or by different persons; but should the actions derived from a crime or
'The obligation of informing the parties to a cause of their right is established
not only with regard to those injured by the crime but also in favor of the presumed
criminals, according to article 2.








personas por quienes se utilicen las acciones derivadas de un delito 6
falta, lo verificarIn en un solo process, y si fuere possible bajo una
misma direcci6n y representaci6n A juicio del tribunal.
ART. 114. Promovido juicio criminal en averiguaci6n de un delito 6
falta, no podra seguirse pleito sobre el mismo hecho; suspendidndole,
si le hubiese, en el estado en que se hallare, hasta que recaiga senten-
cia fire en la causa criminal.
No serd necesario para el ejercicio de la acci6n penal que haya pre-
cedido el de la civil originada del mismo delito 6 falta.

Lo dispuesto en este articulo se entiende sin perjuicio de lo estable-
cido en el capitulo II, titulo I de este libro respect a las cuestiones
prejudiciales.
ART. 115. La acci6n penal se extingue por la muerte del culpable;
pero en este caso subsiste la civil contra sus herederos y causahabientes,
que s6lo podra ejercitarse ante la jurisdicci6n y por la via de lo civil.1

ART. 116. La extinci6n de la acci6n penal no leva consigo la de la
civil, a no ser que la extinci6n procede de haberse declarado por sen-
tencia fire que no existi6 el hecho de que la civil hubiese podido
nacer.
En los demis casos, la persona g quien correspond la acci6n civil
podra ejercitarla ante la jurisdicci6n y por la via de lo civil que pro-
ceda contra quien estuviere obligado a la restituci6n de la cosa, repara-
ci6n del dafio 6 indemnizaci6n del perjuicio sufrido.
ART. 117. La extinci6n de la acci6n civil tampoco lleva consigo la
de la penal que nazca del mismo delito 6 falta.
La sentencia firme absolutoria dictada en el pleito promovido por el
ejercicio de la acci6n civil no sert obstAculo para el ejercicio de la
acci6n penal correspondiente.
Lo dispuesto en este articulo se entiende sin perjuicio de lo que
establece el capitulo II del titulo I de este libro, y los articulos 106,
107, 110 y parrafo segundo del 112.
SEste articulo es sustancial repetici6n de los 125 y 132, n6m. 1 del c6digo penal.








misdemeanor be instituted by two or more persons, they shall do so in
one proceeding, and if possible with the same counsel, in the discretion
of the court.
ART. 114. If a criminal action is brought to investigate a crime or
misdemeanor, a suit can not be prosecuted in the same; the proceeding
being suspended, should any be pending, in the state in which it may
be, until final sentence has been pronounced in the criminal cause.
It shall not be necessary for the institution of the criminal action that
it shall have been preceded by the civil action arising from the same
crime or misdemeanor.
The provisions of this article shall be understood without prejudice
to those of Chapter II, Title I, of this book, with reference to pre-
liminary questions.
ART. 115. A criminal action is extinguished by the death of the
culprit; but in such case a civil action still lies against his heirs and
successors in right, which can only be brought in a civil court and
through civil channels.'
ART. 116. The extinction of the criminal action does not carry with
it the extinction of the civil action, unless the extinction be caused
by a final sentence declaring that the act on which a civil action might
be based did not exist.
In other cases the person having a right of civil action may insti-
tute before the civil jurisdiction, and through the proper civil channels,
an action against the person who may be obliged to restore the thing,
to repair the damage, or indemnify the losses suffered.
ART. 117. Nor does the extinction of the civil action extinguish the
criminal action resulting from the same crime or misdemeanor.
A final judgment absolving from liability rendered in the suit
brought by the exercise of the right of civil action, shall not bar the
exercise of the proper right of criminal action.
The provisions of this article are to be understood without preju-
dice to the provisions of Chapter II, Title I, of this book, and of
articles 106, 107, 110, and the second paragraph of article 112.

'This article is substantially a repetition of articles 125 and 132, subd. 1, of the
Penal Code.















TfTULO V.


DEL DERECHO DE DEFENSE Y DEL BENEFICIO DE POBBEZA EN LOS JUICIOS
CRIMINALES.

ART. 118. Los procesados deberin ser representados por procurador
y defendidos por letrado, que pueden nombrar desde que se les notifi-
que el auto de procesamiento. Si no los nombraren por si mismos 6
no tuvieren aptitud legal para verificarlo, se les designari de oficio
cuando lo solicitaren. Si el procesado no hubiese designado procu-
rador 6 letrado, se le requerirA para que lo verifique, 6 se le nombrair
de oficio, si requerido no los nombrase, cuando la causa llegue a estado
en que necesite el consejo de aqu6llos 6 haya de intentar algfn recurso
que hiciere indispensable su intervenci6n.'
ART. 119. Los perjudicados por el hecho punible 6 sus herederos que
fueren parte en el juicio, si estuviesen habilitados para defenders como
pobres, tendrin tambidn derecho A que se les nombre de oficio procu-
rador y abogado, para su representaci6n y defense.

SART. 120. Los abogados A quienes correspond la defense de pobres
no podrin excusarse de ella sin un motive personal y just, que califi-
carAn segin su prudent arbitrio los decanos de los colegios donde los
hubiese, y en su defecto el juez 6 tribunal en que hubieren de hacerse
las defenses.
ART. 121. Todos los que sean parte en una causa, si no estuviesen
declarados pobres, tendran obligaci6n de satisfacer los derechos de
los procuradores que les represented, los honorarios de los abogados
que les defiendan, los de los peritos que informed A su instancia y las
indemnizaciones de los testigos que presentaren, cuando los peritos y
testigos al declarar hubiesen formulado su reclamaci6n y el juez 6
tribunal la estimaren.
Ni durante la causa ni despues de terminada tendran obligaci6n de
satisfacer las demAs costas procesales, a no ser que A ello fueren con-
denados.

'Los abogados estAn obligados A defender A los pobres. Impuesta & un abogado la
correcci6n disciplinaria para que estln autorizados los juzgados y tribunales, resisti-n-
dose todavia aquil A aceptar la defense que por turno le correspondi6 de un litigante
pobre, fuW procesado y penado como reo de desobediencia grave, con arreglo al art.
265 del c6digo penal, y habiendo interpuesto recurso de casaci6n, se declar6 no haber
lugar & 61 por no haberse infringido dicho articulo. (entencia de Marzo 7 de 1877.)














TITLE V.
THE BIGHT OF DEFENSE AND THE BENEFIT OF POVERTY IN CRIMINAL
CAUSE.

ART. 118. The persons accused must be represented by a solicitor and
defended by an attorney, whom they may appoint as soon as they are
notified of the indictment. If they do not designate them themselves or
should they not have the legal power to do so, they shall be appointed
ex oficio, upon their request. If the accused should not have desig-
nated a solicitor or attorney, he shall be required to do so or they shall
be appointed ex offcio, if they should not have been appointed by him
when the cause reaches a stage where he needs their counsel or some
step should be taken wherein their intervention is necessary.1
ART. 119. The persons injured by the punishable act, or their heirs,
who may be parties to the action, if they have been declared as enti-
tled to defense in fw~rma pauperis, shall also have the right to have
a solicitor and attorney appointed ex officio to represent and defend
them.
ART. 120. The attorneys whose duty it is to defend the poor can not
excuse themselves therefrom, except for a personal and just cause,
which shall be passed upon according to the prudent judgment by the
deans of the college, where there is such, and in their absence by the
judge or court before which the defense is to be made.
ART. 121. All parties to a cause, if not declared poor persons, shall
be obliged to pay the fees of the solicitors who represent them, of the
attorneys who defend them, of the experts testifying in their behalf,
and of the witnesses which they present, if the experts and witnesses at
the time of testifying shall have filed their claim and the judge or court
shall have allowed it.

Neither during the cause nor after its termination shall they be
obliged to pay the other costs of the proceedings, unless adjudged to
pay them.
'Attorneys are obliged to defend poor persons. A disciplinary penalty having
been imposed upon an attorney, for which superior and inferior courts have author-
ity, as he still refused to accept the defense of a poor person when it was his turn to
do so, he was tried and convicted as guilty of grave disobedience, in accordance with
the provisions of article 265 of the Penal Code, and upon taking an appeal for annul-
ment of judgment it was disallowed, it being held that said article had not been vio-
lated. (Decisio of March 7, 1887.)








El procurador que nombrado por los que fueren part en una causa,
haya aceptado su representaci6n, tendri obligaci6n de pagar los honora-
rios A los letrados de que se valiesen los clients para su defense.
Los que hubiesen sido declarados pobres podrin valerse de abogado
de su elecci6n; pero en este caso estarin obligados a abonarles sus
honorarios, como se dispone respect de los que no est4n declarados
pobres.
ART. 122. Se usara papel de oficio en los judicios sobre faltas y en
las causes criminals, sin perjuicio del correspondiente reintegro si
hubiere condenaci6n de costas.
ART. 123. S61o podrAn ser habilitados como pobres:

10. Los que vivan de un journal 6 salario eventual.
20. Los que vivan s6lo de un salario permanent, 6 de un sueldo,
cualquiera que sea su procedencia, que no exceda del double journal de
un bracero en la localidad donde tengan su residencia habitual.
3. Los que vivan s6lo de rentas, cultivo de tierras 6 crfa de gana-
dos, cuyos products esten graduados en una suma que no exceda de
la equivalent al journal de dos braceros en el lugar de su residencia
habitual.
4. Los que vivan s6lo del ejercicio de una industrial 6 de los pro-
ductos de cualquier comercio por los cuales paguen de contribuci6n
una suma inferior a la fijada en la siguiente escala:
En la ciudad de la Habana, 150 pesetas.
En las capitals de las otras provincias de la isla de Cuba, 100
pesetas.
En la capital de la isla de Puerto Rico, 100 pesetas.
En las capitals de los partidos judiciales de las islas de Cuba y
Puerto Rico, 50 pesetas.
En las demis poblaciones de ambas islas, 25 pesetas.
50. Los que tengan embargados todos sus bienes, 6 los hayan cedido
j udicialmente A sus acreedores, y no ejerzan industrial, oficio 6 profesi6n.

En estos casos, si quedasen bienes despuds de pagar A los acreedores,
se aplicaran al pago de las costas que deba satisfacer el defendido como
pobre.1
'Este artfculo debe entenderse subordinado al 125, y, por lo tanto, procede denegar
el beneficio si la sala deduce de los signs visible de riqueza que el que le pretend
tiene medios superiores al double journal de un bracero.-Sentenias del TribunalSupremo
18 Febrero 1870; 81 Diciembre 1877; 22 Septiembre, 18 y 21 Noviembre 1879; 10 Enero,
29 Marzo y 24 Junio 1880; 11 Febrero 1881; 15 Diciembre 1883 y otras.

(b) Contra la sentencia que concede A un litigante el beneficio de pobreza no pro-
cede el recurso de casaci6n.--ntencia de 10 Mayo 1881.
(c) Tambien debe declararse pobre A la persona que vive exclusivamente con una




Full Text

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4~. TRANSLATION OF THE LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE FOR CUBA AND PORTO. RICO ( WITH PXJ6IN TEXT), Y-I WITH ANNOTATIONS, EXPLANATORY NOTES, AND AMENDMENTS MADE SINCE THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION. WAI, (EfZAkTMENT, S $ DIVIsIoN Cvjr, 0: suvrAn October, 1ol 1' I I .I;1 a *. a AA1 t3, ys, WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING TCE. 1991.

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9K .co9229 C9 qtr t .2# *.** S St' .,Jr ., S 5 .5 It'.' SI S. * -. : . ; . 3 4 3

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INTRODUCTORY NOTE. The translator of the Code of Criminal Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico begs to call attention to the fact that a large number of decisions of the Supreme Court of Madrid have been inserted as footnotes, which serve to elucidate the language of the text. These decisions are authoritative interpretations and in the Spanish courts have practically the force of law. The references, also inserted as footnotes, calling attention to other laws in force, to royal decrees and military orders which modify the procedure prescribed by the code, it is thought will also aid in making the work of practical use, both for those who desire to inform themselves as to the methods of Spanish procedure and those called upon to practice before the courts in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico. At the suggestion of a number of attorneys, the Spanish text, taken from official editions of the law, has also been inserted for purposes of convenience. The Cuban civil orders contained in the first appendix have been inserted as published by the respective authorities, and in many cases the English equivalents of the Spanish terms will be found to differ from those used by the translator in the text of the law. An effort has been made to secure as correct a translation as possible, and in some cases the translator may be accused of sacrificing what may be called good English for fidelity to the original text. He has been constantly on his guard against making an interpretation of law instead of a translation. FRANK L. JOANNINL I certify that the following is a copy of the translation of the Law of Criminal Procedure for Cuba and Porto Rico on file in the Insular Division of the War Department, made under its direction. CLARENCE 1. EDWARDS. (C/ief of Division. III

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INDICE GENERAL. LEY DE ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL. Pagina. Exposici6n -----------------------------------------------------1 Real Decreto-.--.-.--------------------------------------------------15 LInRo PRIMER. Disposiciones gen2erale8. TiTrLo I.-Preliminares-------------------------------------------17 Capitulo T. Reglas generates ---------------------------17 II. Cuestiones prejudiciales ---------------------18 II.-De la competencia de los jueces y tribunales en 1o criminal------19 Capftulo I. De las reglas por donde se determine la competencia ---------------------------------19 II. De las cuestiones de competencia entre los jueces y Tribunales ordinarios--------------------22 III. De las competencias negativas y de las que se promueven con jueces 6 tribunales especiales, y de los recursos de queja contra las autoridades administrativas ----------------------------28 III.-De las recusaciones y excusas de los magistrados, jueces, asesores y auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales, y de la abstenci6n del ministerio fiscal --------------------------------------30 Capftulo 1. Disposiciones generales----------------------30 II. De la sustanciaci6n de Ias recusaciones de los jueces de instrucci6n y de los magistrados -----------31 III. De la sustanciaci6n de las recusaciones de los jueces municipales -----------------------------33 IV. De la recusaci6n de los auxiliares de los juzgados y tribunales ------------------------------35 V. De las excusas y recusaciones de los asesores-----36 VI. De la abstenci6n del ministerio fiscal ..36 IV.-De las personas 21 quienes corresponde el ejercicio de las acciones que nacen de los delitos y faltas --------------------------38 V.-Del derecho de defensa y del beneficio de pobreza en los juicios criminals -------------------------------------------43 VL-De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias, y del modo de dirimir las discordias-------------------------------49 Capftulo I. De la forma de dictar providencias, autos y sentencias ---------------------------------49 II. Del modo de dirimir las discordias -----. 54 VII.-De las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos --------------55 VIII.-De los suplicatorios, exhortos y mandamientos ----------------58 IV

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CONTENTS. LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. Address -----------------------------------------------------1 Royal decree ------------------------------------------------------is BOOK FIRsT. General provisions. TITLE I.-Preliminaries --------------------------------------------17 Chapter I. General rules--------------------------------17 II. Preliminary questions --------------------------1s II.-Jurisdiction of judges and courts in criminal matters --. -----------19 Chapter 1. Rules for determining jurisdiction.-------------19 I. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary judges and courts----------------------------------III. Questions of negative jurisdiction and those raised by special judges or courts and complaints against administrative authorities--------------------38 III.-Challenges and excuses of justices, judges, assessors, and assistants of superior and inferior courts and the abstention of the prose outing officials ------------------------------------30 Chapter I. General provisions ------------------.---.-----30 II. Hearing and decision of challenges of judges of examination and justices---------------------31 III. Hearing and decision of challenges of municipal judges ------------------------------------IV. Challenges of assistants of inferior and superior courts-------------------------------------35 V. Excuses and challenges of assessors ---------------36 VI. Abstention of prosecuting officials -.-----------36 IV.-Persons who may exercise rights of action arising from crimes and misdemeanors--------------------------------------------38 V.-The right of defense and the benefit of poverty in criminal causes. 43 VL-Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall be made, and manner of adjusting disagreements ---------------------------49 Chapter I. Form in which orders, rulings, and decisions shall be made-----------------------------------49 II. Manner of adjusting disagreements------------.-54 VII.-Notifications, citations, and suimones.---------------------------00 VIII.-Letters requisitorial, mandates, and letters rugatory -------------58 IV

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V PAgina. TiTrLno I X.-De los terminos judiciales 61 X.-De los recursos contra las resoluciones de los tribunales y jueces
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V rage. TITLE IX.-Judicial periods------------------------------------------61 X.-Remedies against decisions of courts and judges of examination _ 64 XI.-Costs in actions ------------------------------------------67 XII.-Obligations of judges and courts with regard to judicial statistics -69 XII.-Disciplinary corrections ------------------------------------71 BOOK SECOND. The sunario. TITLE I.-The denunciation-----------------------------------------72 II.-The complaint or information ----------------------------74 III.-The judicial police ------------------------------------.----77 IV.-The investigation -----------------------------------------81 Chapter I. The sonaario and the authorities to take cognizance thereof----------------------------81 II. Formation of the sunario --------------------83 V.-Proof of the crime and verification of the delinquent -----------88 Chapter I. The ocular inspection ------------------------88 II. The corpus deliciti----------------------------89 III. The identity of the delinquent and his personal circumstances --------------------99 IV. Declaration of the accused-------------------99 V. Depositions of witnesses ----------------------102 VI. Confrontation between the witnesses and the accused -------------------------------110 VII. Expert evidence ----------------------------'111 VI.-The citation, the detention, and the provisional imprisonment. 116 Chapter 1. The citation--------------------------------116 II. The detention -------------------------------116 III. Provisional imprisonment--------------------119 IV. Treatment of persons detained or imprisoned.--122 VII.-Provisional liberty of the accused ----------------------------124 VIII.-Entry and search of closed places, of books and papers, and the detention and opening of written and telegraphic correspondence127 IX.-Bonds and attachments -----------------------------------134 X.-Civil liability of third persons .------------------------------139 XI.-Conclusion of the sumario and dismissal of proceedings --------141 Chapter I. Conclusion of the sumario .-----------------. 141 II. Dismissal of the proceedings .149 XII.-General provisions relating to the foregoing titles -------------155 BooK TnIRD. The oral trial. TITLE I.-Classification of the crime-.----.-.----------------157 II.-Preliminary exceptions .-----------------------------------165 III.-Holding of the oral trial -----------------------------------168 Chapter I. Publicity of the arguments-------------------168 II. Powers of the presiding judge of the court.----.168

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VI TtrvLo III.-De la celebraci6n del juicio oral-Contimia. PAgina. Capitulo III. Del modo de practicar las pruebas durante el juicio oral -------------------------------------169 Secei6n 1.a De la confesi6n de los procesados v personas civilnenteresponsables. 169 2.a Del examen de los testigos ------172 3.a Del informe pericial .177 4.a De la prueba documental y de la .imspecei6n ocular-------------178 5.a Disposiciones comunes i las cuatro secciones anteriores-.---.--.--178 IV. De la acusaci6n, de la defensa v de la sentencia.-10 V. De la suspensi6n del juicio oral-----------------183 LIRo CUARTO. De los procedimiento especiales. TiTUO I.-Del modo de proceder cuando fuere procesado un Senador 6 Diputado a Cortes ---------------------------------------187 II.-Del antejuicio necesario pars exigir la responsabilidad criminal d los jueces y magistrados ----------------------------------189 III.-Del procedimiento en los casos de flagrante delito-.-.------193 Capitulo I. Casos en que tiene lugar este procedimiento-.-193 II. Realas A que debe ajustarse este procedimiento. -195 IV.-Del procedimiento por delitos de injuria y calumnia contra particulares -----------------------------------------------199 V.-Del procedimiento por delitos cometidos por medio de la imprenta, el grabado 11 otro medio mecanico de publicaci6n --------------201 VI.-Del procedimiento pars la extradici6n------------------------203 VII-Del procedimiento contra reos ausentes. -----------------------205 LIERO QUINTO. De los recursos de casaci6n y de revisi6n. TITuTo I.-De los recursos de casaci6n.------------------------------.207 Capitulo I. De los recursos de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley207 Seccion 1. De la procedencia del recurso. 207 2.a De Ia preparaci6n del recurso -----213 3.a Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n del testimonio pedido para interponer el de casaci6n.------. 215 4.a De la interposici6n del recurso-----217 5.a De la sustanciaci6n del recurso-----220 6.a I)e la decisi6n del recurso--------223 II. De los recursos de casaci6n por quebrantaniento de forma-------------------------------25 Secci6n 1.De la procedencia del recurso-----225 2.a De la interposici6n del recurso---. _231 3.a Del recurso de queja por denegaci6n de admisi6n del de ;casaci6n por quebrantamiento de formal ----232 4. 1)e la sustanciaci6n del recurso----233 5." De lit decision del recurso------234

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VI TITLE III.-Holding of the oral trial-Continued. Page. Chapter III. Manner of taking evidence at the oral trial. 169 Section 1. Confession of the persons accused and persons civilly liable-------169 2. Examination of witnesses. --------172 3. Expert examinations-----------177 4. Documentary evidence and ocular inspection --------------------178 5. Provisions common to the four preceding sections------------.--.178 IV. The accusation, the defense, and the sentence----180 V. Suspension of the oral trial -------------------183 BooK FoURTH. Special proceedings. TITLE I.-Manner of proceeding in the trial of a senator or deputy to the Cortes-------------------------------------------------187 II.-Preliminary action necessary for the purpose of enforcing the criminal liability of judges and justices_--------------------------189 IIL.-Proceedings in cases of flagrant crimes -..--------------------193 Chapter I. Cases where these proceedings lie--------------193 II. Rules to which these proceedings must conform--195 IV.-Proceedings upon crimes of contumely and calumny against private individuals ---------------------------------------------199 V.-Proceedings on crimes committed through the press, engravings, or other mechanical means of publication -----------------------201 VI.-Proceedings for extradition-------------------------------.--203 VII.-Proceedings against absent criminals --------------------------205 Book Firrir. Appeals for annulment of pulpnint
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VII TiTULO I.-De los recursos de casaci6n-Continua. Capftulo III. De la interposici6n, sustanciaci6n y resoluciAn del recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley y por quebrantamiento de forma.IV. Del recurso de casaci6n en las causas de muerte. II.-Del recurso de revisi6n-.--.-LIBRO SExTO. Del procediniento para el juicio sobre faltas. TirrLo I.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en primera instancia. II.-Del juicio sobre faltas, en segunda instancia. LIBRO StPTM0. De la ejecuci6n de las sentencias. Disposici6n final. APtNDICE I. No. 41.-14 de Abril No. 63.-25 de Mayo Daeretow del Gobierno 31ilitar de Cuba. de 1899. de 1899. ---No: 92.-26 de Junio de 1899. .-.No. 109.-13 de Julio de 1899-.-. No. 135.-11 de Agosto de 1899.No. 157.-5 de Septiembre de 1899. -. No. 176.-21 de Septiembre de 1899. No. 58.-9 de Febrero de 1900--. No. 152.-10 de Abril de 1900 .-No. 166.-23 de Abril de 1900 .. No. 181.-30 de Abril de 1900. No. 192.-9 de MIavo de 1900. No. 213.-25 de Mayo de 1900. No. 228.-3 ie Junio de 1900.-----. No. 269.-3 de Julio de 1900 .. No. 311.-S de Agoto de 1900. No. 362.-17 de Septiembre de 1900. No. 427.-15 de Octuire de 1900. No. 465.-14 de Noviembre de 1900. No. 468.-15 de Novieibre de 1900.-No. 500.-10 de Diciembre de 1900 .No. 513.-19 de Diciembre de 1900 No. 3.-1.0 de Enero de 1901. No. 45.-4 de Febrero de 1901.No. 84.-25 de Marzo de 1901 No. 95.-10 de Abril de 1901 No. 520.-21 de Diciembre de 1900 APENDICE 11. Artfculos del Cudigo Penal 4 que hace referencia la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal. ... AI snIcE III. Artfculos de la Le de Enjuiciamiento Civil Ii que hace referencia la de Enjuiciamiento Criminal-.-. rgina. 234 236 238 240 243 245 248 249 -259 ------259 281 287 288 288 289 289 290 293 296 298 312 312 313 317 322 331 332 332 334 334 335 337 338 342 344 348 --------------------------------------------------------.-.--.----------.---.-.----------------------------------------------------------.-.--.--.---.---.-.-.----.-.-.-------.---.------------------------.-------.----.---.---------------------------------.-.------------------------. --------------------.-----.-.---.------.------.--. -. ----------------------------...---------------------------.---------------------------------------------------------------------------..-----------------------------------------------....-

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VII TITLE I.-Appeals for annulment of judgment-Continued. Page. Chapter III. Interposition, hearing, and decision of an appeal for annulment of judgment for violation of law and for breach of form---------------------234 IV. Appeals for annulment of judgment in causes involving the death penalty .236 II.-The appeal for review .--------2:38 BooK SIXTH. Proceedings in actions upon misdemeanors. TITLE I.-Actions upon misdemeanors at first instance. .240 II.-Actions upon misdemeanors at second instance ------------------243 BooK SEVENTH. Execution of sentences ----------------------------------------------245 Final provision---------------------------------------------------248 APPENDIX I. Orders of the Cuban Military Government. No. 41.-April 14, 1899 ---------------------------------------249 No. 63.-May 25, 1899------------------------------------------------259 No. 92.-June 26, 1899.-. 259 No. 109.-July 13, 1899.----------------------------------------------281 No. 135.-August 11, 1899--------------------------------------------287 No. 157.-September 5, 1899 -...----------------------------288 No. 176.-September 21, 1899.-----------------------------------------288 No. 58.-February 9, 1900.--------289 No. 152.-April 10, 1900 .-.-. ...289 No. 166.-April 23, 1900 ...290 No. 181.-April 30, 1900 ----------------------------. -----------293 No. 192.-M1ar 9. 1900 .-.296 No. 213.-May 25. 1900 ----------------------------------------------298 No. 22.-June 3. 1900-----------------------------------------312 No. 269.-July 3, 1900---. 312 No. 311.-August 8, 1900 ..-----------------------------------------.-.--318 No. 362.-September 17, 1900 ..317 No. 427.-October 15. 1900.--. 322 No. 465.-November 14, 1900--. 331 No. 468.-November 15, 1900----. 332 No. 500.-December 10, 1900 ----. 332 No. 513.-December 19, 1900.-.--. 334 No. 3.-January 1, 1901-. .-------------------------------------------334 No. 45.-February 4, 1901. --. 335 No. 84.-March 25, 1901 .--------------------------------------------337 No. 95.-April 10, 1901 -.---------------------------------------------338 No. 520.-December 21, 1900--. 342 APPENDIX II. Articles of the Penal Code referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure .344 APPENDIX III. Articles of the Law of Civil Procedure referred to in the Law of Criminal Procedure. ..348

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e

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LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.

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EXPOSICION QUE PRECEDE AL REAL DECRETO DE 14 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1882. POR EL QUE SE APROBO EL PROYECTO DE CODIGO DE ENJUICIAMIlENTO CRIMINAL. SETOR:-La ejecuci6n de las dos eyes promulgadas en virtud de Reales decretos de 22 de Junio de este afio presupone un nuevo C6digo de Enjuiciamiento penal, una modificaci6n profunda en la ley organica del Poder judicial de 15 de Septiembre de 1870, la determinaci6n del numero v residencia de los Tribunales colegiados que han de conocer en unica instancia y en juicio oral y pfblico de los delitos que se cometan dentro do su respectivo territorio, y, por lltimo, la formaci6n de los cuadros de personal de esos mismos Tribunales cuyos presidentes deben estar adornados de condiciones especiales de capacidad para la direcci6n y resumen de los debates. Basta la mera enumeraci6n de estos trabajos preparatorios para comprender que, ni por su indole y naturaleza, ni por su extension y exceptional importancia, podian terminarse en breve plazo. CAbele, sin embargo, al infrascrito la satisfacci6n de anunciar hoy a V. M. que todos ellos pueden darse por ultimados, gracias al patri6tico concurso que han prestado al Gobierno hombres eminentes no s6lo en la ciencia del Derecho, sino tambien en el conocimiento especial de la topograffa, censo de poblaci6n, yeas de comunicaci6n y estadistica criminal del territorio de la Peninsula 4 islas adyacentes. El Gobierno de V. M. no se propone publicar todos estos trabajos a la vez; antes al contrario, cree conveniente anticipar la promulgaci6n del C6digo de Enjuiciamiento para que, mientras se instalan las Audiencias de lo criminal, puedan estudiarle y conocerle los magistrados, jueces, fiscales, letrados y demas personas que por modo mas 6 menos directo y eficaz han de concurrir a su planteamiento y aplicaci6n. No serA su es'udio muy dificil ni prolijo, porque al cabo el proyecto que el Ministro que suscribe somete hoy A la aprobaci6n de V. M. estA basado en la Compilaci6n general de 16 de Octubre de 1879, de conformidad con 1o preceptuado en la autorizaci6n votada por las Cortes; pero asi y todo, son tan radicales las reformas en 41 introducidas, que bien podia pasar por un C6digo completamente nuevo y de 1

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ADDRESS PRECEDING THE ROYAL DECREE OF SEPTEMBER 14, 1882, APPROVING THE PROPOSED CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. SIRE: The execution of the two laws promulgated by virtue of royal decrees of June 22 of this year presupposes a new code of penal procedure, a radical change in the organic law of the judicial power of September 15, 1870, the determination of the number and seats of the collegiate tribunals which are to take cognizance in first and last instance, and in oral and public trials of the crimes which may be committed within their respective territories, and, finally, the selection of the personnel of the said tribunals, the presiding judges of which must possess special qualifications for the direction and summing up of the cases. A mere statement of these preparatory works is sufficient to show that neither by their character or nature, nor by their extent and exceptional importance, could they be concluded in a short time. The undersigned, nevertheless, has the pleasure of to-day informing Your Majesty that all of them can be considered as concluded, thanks to the patriotic assistance furnished to the Government by men eminent in the science of law and perfectly conversant with the topography of the country, census of the population, means of communication, and the criminal statistics of the territory of the Peninsula and adjacent islands. The Government of Your Majesty does not propose to publish all these works at the same time, but, on the contrary, it deems it advisable first to promulgate the Code of Procedure in order that, until the criminal audiencias are established, it may be studied and known by the justices, judges, fiscales, attorneys, and other persons who are to contribute in a more or less direct and efficient manner to its establishment and application. Its study will not be very difficult or require a long time, because, after all, the draft which the undersigned Minister herewith submits for the approval of Your Majesty is based upon the general compilation of October 16, 1879, in pursuance with the authority vested in the Government by the Cortes; but, nevertheless, the amendments introduced therein are so radical that it might be said with reason 1

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2 caracter tan liberal y progresivo como el mas adelantado de los C6digos de procedimiento criminal del continente europeo. Entre esas reformas son sin duda las menos importantes aquellas que, sugeridas por la experiencia, tienen por objeto, ya aclarar varios preceptos mas 6 menos oscuros y dudosos de la Compilaci6n vigente, ya uniformar la jurisprudencia, 6 ya, en fin, facilitar la sustanciaci6n de algunos recursos y muy especialmente el de casaci6n, acerea del cual ha hecho observaciones muy oportunas y discretas el Tribunal Supremo, que naturalmente han sido acogidas con el respeto que merece una Corporaci6n que esta a la cabeza de la Magistratura espaola, y que es por la ley interprete y guardian de la doctrina juridica. Las de verdadera importancia y transcendencia son aquellas otras que se encaminan a suplir, como en las cuestiones prejudiciales, algin vacio sustancial por donde era frecuente el arbitrio un tanto desmedido, y mAs que desmedido contradictorio, de la jurisprudencia, A corregir los vicios cr6nicos de nuestro sistema de enjuiciar traditional y a rodear al ciudadano de ]as garantias necesarias para que en ningun caso sean sacrificados los derechos individuales al interns mal entendido del Estado. Sin desconocer que la Constituci6n de 1812, el reglamento provisional para la administration de justicia de 1835 y otras disposiciones posteriores mejoraron considerablemente el procedimiento criminal, serial temerario negar que aun bajo la legislaci6n vigente no es raro que un sumario dure ocho 6 mas afos, y es frecuente que no dure menos de dos, prolongandose en ocasiones por todo este tiempo la prisi6n preventiva de los acusados, y aun podria anadirse, para completar el cuadro, que tan escandalosos process solian no ha mucho terminar por una absolucidn de la instancia, sin que nadie indemnizara en este caso a los procesados de las vejaciones sufridas en tan dilatado periodo, y to que es mas, dejAndoles por todo el resto de su vida en situaci6n inc6moda y deshonrosa, bajo la amenaza perenne de abrir de nuevo el procedimiento el dia que por malquerencia se prestaba a declarar contra ellos cualquier vecino rencoroso y vengativo. Esta practice abusiva y atentoria a los derechos del individuo pugna todavia por mantenerse con este 6 el otro disfraz en nuestras costumbres judiciales; y es menester que cese para siempre, porque el ciudadano de un pueblo libre no debe expiar faltas que no son suyas, ni ser victim de la impotencia 6 del egoismo del Estado. Con ser estos dos vicios tan capitals, no son, sin embargo, los finicos ni acaso los mas grandes de nuestro procedimiento. Lo peor de todo es que en 61 no se da intervenci6n alguna al inculpado en el sumario; que

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2 that it is an entirely new one as liberal and progressive as the most advanced code of criminal procedure on the European Continent. Among these changes the less important are no doubt those suggested by experience, whose object is either to explain various more or less obscure and doubtful precepts of the compilation in force, to make the jurisprudence uniform, or, finally, to facilitate the use of some remedies and most especially the appeal for annulment of judgment, upon which the Supreme Court has made some very opportune and well-chosen remarks, which have naturally been received with the respect which that body deserves which is at the head of the Spanish judiciary, and which is by law the interpreter and guardian of the juridical doctrine. The amendments of real and transcendent importance are those whose purpose it is to supply, as in preliminary questions, some substantial lack owing to which it has frequently occurred that the discretionary powers granted were so great, and more than that, even contradictory to jurisprudence; to correct the chronic vices of our traditional system of procedure, and to surround the citizen with the necessary guaranties, in order that in no case should individual rights be sacrificed to the poorly understood interests of the State. Without ignoring the fact that the Constiiution of 1812, the provisional regulations for the administration of justice of 1835, and other subsequent provisions greatly improved the criminal procedure, it would be unreasonable to deny that even under the legislation in force it is not unusual that the preliminary proceedings last eight or more years, and it frequently happens that they do not last less than two, the temporary imprisonment of the accused continuing in some cases this entire period; and it may further be added, in order to complete the picture, that these scandalous processes not so very long ago would sometimes be closed on account of lack of evidence, without anyone, in such case, indemnifying the accused persons for the inconveniences suffered for so long a period, and, what is more, the imprisonment would leave them for the rest of their life in an unpleasant and disgraceful condition, under the permanent menace of the proceedings being reopened any day that, through malice, any rancorous or vengeful neighbor should inform against them. This evil practice, which attacks the rights of individuals, is still kept under some disguise or other in our judicial customs; and it is necessary that it should be abolished forever, because a citizen of a free nation must not expiate faults of which he is not guilty, nor be the victim of the impotence or of the egoism of the State. Although these are two capital vices, they are not, however, the only ones, nor even the most serious faults in our procedure. The worst of all is that the accused is not allowed to take part in the

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3 el juez que instruye 6ste es el mismo que pronuncia la sentencia con todas las preocupaciones y prejuicios que ha hecho nacer en su ainimo la instrucci6n; que confundido 1o civil con lo criminal y abrumados los jueces de primera instancia por el clmulo-de sus multiples y variadas atenciones, delegan frecuentemente la praictica de muchas diligencias en el escribano, quien, a solas con el procesado y los testigos, no siempre interpret bien el pensamiento, ni retrata con perfect fidelidad las impresiones de cada uno, por grande que sea su celo y recta su voluntad; quo por la naturaleza misma de las cosas y la l6gica del sistema, nuestros jueces y magistrados han adquirido el hibito de dar escasa importancia a las pruebas del plenario, formando su juicio por el resultado de las diligencias sumariales, y no parando mientes en la ratificaci6n de los testigos, convertida en vana formalidad; que en ausencia del inculpado y su defensor, los funcionarios que intervienen en la instrucci6n del sumario, animados de un espiritu receloso y bostil que se engendra en su mismo patri6tico celo por la causa de la sociedad que representan, recogen con preferencia los datos adversos al procesado, descuidando a' las veces consignar los que pueden favorecerle; y que, en fin, de este conjunto de errors anejos a nuestro sistema de enjuiciar, y no imputable, por tanto, a los funcionarios del orden judicial y fiscal, resultan dos cosas a cual mis funestas al ciudadano: una, que al comps que adelanta el sumario se va fabricando inadvertidamente una verdad de artificio, que mis tarde se convierte en verdad legal, pero que es contraria a la realidad de los hechos y subleva la conciencia del procesado; y otra, que cuando este, legado el plenario, quiere defenderse, no bace mas que forcojear inftilmente porque entra en el palenque ya vencido, 6 por lo menos desarmado. Hay, pues, que restablecer la igualdad de condiciones en esta contienda juridica hasta donde 1o consientan los fines esenciales de la sociedad humana. Quizais se tache de exagerada a injusta esta critica de la organizaci6n de nuestra justicia criminal. [Ojald que lo fuera! Pero el Ministro que suscribe no manda en su raz6n, y esti obligado a decir a V. M. la verdad tal como la siente; que las Ilagas sociales no se curan ocultandolas, sino al revs, midiendo su extension y profundidad, y estudiando su origen y naturaleza para aplicar el oportuno remedio. En sentir del que suscribe, s6lo por la costumbre se puede explicar que el pueblo espailol, tan civilizado y culto y que tantos progresos ba echo en lo que va de siglo en la ciencia, en el arte, en la industria y en su educaci6n politica, se resigne a un sistema semejante, mostrandose indiferente 6 desconociendo sus vicios y peligros, como no los aprecia ni mide, el que habituado a respirar en atm6sfera mal sana, Ilega hasta la asfixia sin sentirla. El extranjero que estudia la organi-

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3 preliminary proceedings; that the judge who sits thereon is the same as the one who pronounces the sentence, with all the ideas and prejudices to which the investigation has given rise; that, civil and criminal matters being confounded, and the judges of first instance being overwhelmed by the accumulation of their multiple and various duties, frequently delegate the performance of many steps to the court clerk, who, alone with the accused and the witnesses, does not always correctly interpret the thought nor does he portray with perfect fidelity the testimony of each, no matter how zealous or how good-may be his will; that, by the character itself of the things and the logic of the system, our judges and justices have acquired the habit of attributing little importance to the evidence introduced at the trial, forming their judgment upon the result of the preliminary proceedings, and do not pay particular attention to the ratification of the witnesses, which has become a mere formality; that in the absence of the accused and his counsel, the officials taking part in the preliminary proceedings, animated with a suspicious and hostile spirit, which is engendered by their patriotic zeal in the interests of the society they represent, give preference to the data against the accused, forgetting at the same time to record those which might favor him; and that, finally, from this number of errors in our system of procedure, and which can not be imputed, therefore, to the officials of the judiciary or to the public prosecutors, there result two things very unfavorable to the citizen: One, that in proportion as the preliminary proceedings advance, a network is being inadvertently woven which is later converted into a legal truth, but which is contrary to the facts, and causes the conscience of the accused to rebel, and the other, that when the latter wishes to defend himself at the trial he does nothing but uselessly contradict, because he enters the arena already defeated, or at least disarmed. It is necessary, therefore, to establish an equality of conditions in this juridical contest in so far as the essential ends of human society will permit. Perhaps this criticism of the organization of our criminal justice may be considered exaggerated and unjust. Would that it were so. But the undersigned Minister is not master of his judgment, and is obliged to tell Your Majesty the truth as he feels it. Social evils are not cured by concealing them, but, on the contrary, by measuring their extent and depth and by studying their origin and nature, in order that the proper remedy may be applied. In the opinion of the undersigned, custom only can explain how the Spanish people, so civilized and cultured, and which has made such progress during the present century in the sciences, arts, and industries, and in political education, should resign itself to such a system, showing indifference or ignoring its vices and dangers, like those who breathe an unhealthy atmosphere and reach a point of asphyxiation without knowing it. A foreigner

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4 zaci6n de nuestra justicia criminal at vernos apegados a un sistema ye caduco, y desacreditado en Europa y en America, tiene por necesidad que formar una idea injusta y falsa de la civilizaci6n y cultura espatiolas. Lo que hay que examinar, por tanto, es si el adjunto proyecto de C6digo remedia, si no todos, al menos los mas capitales defector de que adolece la vigente organizaci6n de la justicia criminal. Es preciso en primer trmino sustituir la march 'perezosa y lenta del actual procedimiento poi un sistema que, dando amplitud a' la defense y garantias de acierto al fallo, asegure, sin embargo, la celeridad del juicio para la realizaci6n de dos fines a cual mas importantes: uno, que la suerte del ciudadano no est6 indefinidamente en 1o incierto ni se le causen mas vejaciones que las absolutamente indispensables para la averiguaci6n del delito v el descubrimiento del verdadero delincuente; y otro, que la pena siga de cerca a la culpa para su debida eficacia y ejemplaridad. Pues bien, Senlor; he aqui el conjunto de medios que el nuevo sistema ofrece para el logro de resultado tan transcendental: la sustituci6n de los dos grados de jurisdicci6n por la instancia 6nica, la oralidad del juicio, la separaci6n de lo civil y 10 criminal en cuanto al Tribunal sentenciador, igual separaci6n en cuanto a los juices instructores en ciertas ciudades populosas en donde hay mas de un juez de primer instancia y es mucha la criminalidad, un alivio considerable de trabajo en cuanto A los demas juices, a quienes se descarga del plenario y del pronunciamiento y motivaci6n de la sentencia, ya que razones indeclinables de economic no permiten extender a ellos dicha separaci6n, multitud de reglas de detalle esparcidas aqui y ally en el adjunto C6digo, y singularmente en sus dos primeros libros, pars que los juices instructores en el examen de los testigos y en la prActica de los demas medios de investigation se cifian A solo lo que sea ftil y pertinent y, por ultimo, la intervenci6n del procesado en todas las diligencias del sumario tan pronto como el juez estime que la publicidad de las actuaciones no compromete la causa pdblica ni estorba el descubrimiento de la verdad. Por regla general nadie tiene mas interds que el procesado en activar el procedimiento y si alguna vez su prop6sito fuera prolongarlo, se 1o impediria el juez, y sobre todo el fiscal, a quien se da el derecho de pedir la terminaci6n del sumario y la aperture del juicio oral ante el Tribunal colegiado. Concurrira tambien al propio fin la inspecci6n continua y sistematicamente organizada en la ley, de la Audiencia de Jo criminal y del Ministerio pfblico sobre la march de los process en el periodo de la instrucci6n y la conduct de los jueces instructores. No es, finalmente, para echado en olvido, cuando de la brevedad del juicio se trata, el libro 40, donde se establecen pro-

PAGE 21

4 studying the organization of our criminal justice, in seeing us attached to a system out of date and which is discredited in Europe and in America, must necessarily form an unjust and false idea of Spanish civilization and culture. What is to be examined, therefore, is whether the attached project for a code remedies, if not all, at least the most notable defects contained in the organization of criminal justice at present in force. It is necessary, in the first place, to substitute for the slow and lazy progress of the present procedure a system which, in giving full scope to the defense, and guarantees of certainty to the judgment, shall nevertheless assure a speedy trial, for the consummation of two ends of the greatest importance: One, that the fate of the citizen be not indefinitely held in suspense, and that not more inconveniences be caused him than are absolutely necessary for the investigation of the crime and the discovery of the guilty party, and the other that the punishment follow soon after the fault, for the purpose of its proper efficacy and example. Consequently, Sir, I state herewith the measures which the new system affords for the attainment of such important results: The substitution for the two degrees of jurisdiction by the only instance, the oral character of the trial, separation of civil and criminal matters with regard to the sentencing tribunal; a similar separation with regard to the examining judges in certain largely populated towns where there is more than one judge of first instance and much crime; a considerable reduction in work with regard to the other judges, who are not required to take part in the trial, nor to pronounce sentence and give the reasons therefor, as unsurmountable reasons of economy do not permit the extension to them of said separation; a large number of rules of detail scattered here and there in the attached code, and especially in the first two books, in order that the examining judges in the examination of the witnesses and in the execution of the other steps in the investigation confine themselves exclusively to what may be useful and pertinent; and, finally, the intervention of the accused in all the steps of the preliminary proceedings as soon as the judge considers that the publicity of the proceedings will not compromise the public cause nor binder the discovery of the truth. As a general rule no one has more interest than the accused in hastening the proceedings; and if his purpose were at any time to prolong the same the judge will prevent it, and especially the fiscal, to whom the right is given to demand the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings and the beginning of the oral trial before the collegiate tribunal. The continuous and systematic inspeceion provided for by this law, of the criminal audiencia and of the public department, as to the progress of the proceedings during the period of the investigation and of the conduct of the examining judges will

PAGE 22

5 cedimientos especiales y sumarios para los delitos infraganti, para los de injuria y calumnia y para los cometidos por medio de la imprenta. Podra ser que ni la Comisi6n de C6digos ni el Gobierno hayan acertado en la eleeci6n de los medios en este punto tan interesante de la ciencia procesal; pero la verdad es que no han encontrado otros, ni se los ha sugerido el examen de los C6digos modernos atentamente estudiados con tal fin. La ley de 11 Febrero, en la base referente A la prisi6n preventiva, permit, por la flexibilidad de sus terminos, mejorar considerablemente esta rarte de nuestra legislaci6n sin necesidad de pedir su reform a las Cortes. El texto legal bien analizado result tan eldstico, que lo mismo se presta al desenvolvimiento de la base en un sentido tirante y restrictivo, que en otro mas amplio, expansivo y liberal. Ocioso parece anadir que el Gobierno de V. M. se ha decidido por lo iltimo, toda vez que podia hacerlo sin cometer una transgresi6n de la ley; como en la materia de fianzas, tan intimamente ligada con todo lo referente A la prisi6n preventive, ha procurado armonizar los fines de la justicia con los derechos del procesado, poniendo coto a la possible arbitrariedad judicial y estableciendo reglas equitativas y prudentes que permitan mayor amplitud que hasta ahora, asi en los medios'y formas de las fianzas como en la entidad de ellas. Es igualmente in6til decir que la absoluci6n de la instancia, esta corruptela que hacia del ciudadano A quien el Estado no habia podido convencer de culpable, una especie de liberto de por vida, verdadero siervo de la curia marcado con el estigma del deshonor, estA proscrita y expresamente prohibida por el nuevo C6digo, como habia sido antes condenada por la ciencia, por la ley de 1872 y por la Compilaci6n vigente. De esperar es que las disposiciones de la nueva ley sean bastante eficaces para impedir que semejante prActica vuelva de nuevo a ingerirse en forma mas 6 menos disimulada en nuestras costumbres judiciales. Los demas vicios del Enjuiciamiento vigente quedarn sin duda corregidos con el planteamiento del juicio oral y publico y la introducci6n del sistema acusatorio en la ley procesal. El reglamento provisional de 26 de Septiembre de 1835 y las disposiciones posteriores publicadas durante el reinado de la augusta madre de V. M., introdujeron, como ya se ha dicho, evidentes mejoras en el procedimiento criminal; pero no alteraron su indole esencialmente inquisitiva. Las eyes de 15 de Septiembre de 1870 y 22 de Diciembre de 1872, inspirindose en las ideas de libertad proclamadas por la revoluci6n de 1868, realizaron una reform radical en nuestro sistema de enjuiciar, con el establecimiento del juicio oral y piblico; pero

PAGE 23

5 also contribute to the same end. Finally, Book IV must not be forgotten in treating of the brevity of the proceedings, which establishes special and summary proceedings for flagrant crimes as well as for the crime of outrage and calumny and for those committed through the press. It may be that neither the commission on codes nor the Government, in their selection of means, have covered so interesting a point in the science of procedure; but the truth is that it has not been possible to find any other measures nor have any been suggested from an examination of modern codes carefully studied for this purpose. The law of February 11, in the basis relating to provisional imprisonment, permits, by the flexibility of its terms, a considerable improvement in this part of our legislation without requiring the Cortes to amend the same. The legal text if well analyzed appears so elastic that it serves for the development of the basis in a strict and restrictive sense, as well as in one more ample, expansive, and liberal. It appears unnecessary to add that the Government of Your Majesty has decided finally whenever it could do so without committing a transgression of law; as in the matter of bail, so intimately connected with all that relates to provisional imprisonment, it has attempted to harmonize the ends of justice with the rights of the accused, putting an end to the possible judicial arbitrariness and establishing equitable and prudent rules which permit a greater scope than allowed heretofore in the character and form of bonds as well as their amount. It is likewise useless to state that a dismissal of the case for lack of evidence, this abuse which made of the citizen whom the State could not convict a kind of paroled prisoner for the rest of his life, a true serf of the parish marked with the stigma of dishonor, is proscribed and expressly prohibited by the new code, as it had previously been condemned by science, by the law of 1872, and by the compilation in force. It is to be hoped that the provisions of the new law will be sufficiently efficacious to prevent a similar practice from again being grafted in a more or less disguised form into our judicial customs. The other vices contained in the procedure in force will no doubt be corrected by the establishment of oral and public trials and the introduction of the accusatory system in the law of procedure. The provisional regulations of September 26, 1835, and the suosequent provisions published during the reign of Your Majesty's August Mother, introduced, as has been said, evident improvements in the criminal procedure, but they did not alter its essentially inquisitive character. The laws of September 15, 1870, and December 22, 1872, inspired by the ideas of liberty proclaimed by the revolution of 1868, established a radical reform in our system of procedure by the establishment of oral and public trials, but they continued the inquisitive

PAGE 24

6 mantuvieron el principio inquisitivo y el caracter secret del procedimiento en el periodo de instrucci6n, siguiendo el ejemplo de Francia, B4lgica y otras naciones del continente europeo. El Ministro que suscribe, de acuerdo con sus colegas, no ha vacilado en aconsejar 4 V. M. que de un paso mis en el camino del progreso, Ilevando en cierta medida el sistema acusatorio al sumario mismo, que es, despues de todo, la piedra angular del juicio y la sentencia. En adelante el juez instructor por su propia iniciativa y de oficio podrs, 6 mejor dicho, debera acordar que se comuniquen los autos al procesado desde el momento en que la publicidad y la contradicci6n no sean un peligro para la sociedad interesada en el descubrimiento de los delitos y en el castigo de los culpables. Si no se hace espontineamente en el plazo de dos meses, contados desde que se inco6 la causa, la ley da al acusado el derecho de solicitarlo, ya para preparar los elementos de su defensa, ya tambien para impedir con su vigilante intervenci6n y el empleo de los recursos legales la prolongaci6n indefinida del sumario. En todo caso, antes y despues de los dos meses, el que tenga la inmensa desgracia de verse sometido A un procedimiento criminal, gozara en absoluto de dos derechos preciosos, que no pueden menos de ser grandemente estimados donde quiera que se rinda culto a la personalidad humana: uno, el de nombrar defensor que le asista con sus consejos y su inteligente direcci6n desde el instante en que se dicte el auto de procesamiento; y otro el de concurrir por si 6 debidamente representado a todo reconocimiento judicial, 4 toda inspecei6n ocular, a las autopsies, a los analisis quimicos, y en suma, a la practice de todas las diligencias periciales que se decreten y puedan influir asi sobre la determinaci6n de la indole y gravedad del delito, como sobre los indicios de su presunta culpabilidad. Subsiste, pues, el secreto del sumario; pero s6lo en cuanto es necesario para impedir que desaparezcan las huellas del delito, para recoger e inventariar los datos que fasten A comprobar su existencia y reunir los elementos que mas tarde han de utilizarse y depurarse en el crisol de la contradicci6n, durante los solemnes debates del juicio oral y pilblico. Y a tal punto Ileva la nueva ley su espiritu favorable A los fueros sagrados de la defensa, que proscribe y condena una preocupaci6n hasta ahora muy extendida, que si pudo ser excusable cuando el procedimiento inquisitivo estaba en su auge, implicaria hoy el desconocimiento de la indole y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio, con el cual es incompatible. Alude el infrascrito A la costumbre, tan arraigada en nuestros jueces y Tribunales, de dar escaso 6 ningdn valor A las pruebas del plenario, buscando principal 6 casi exclusivamente la verdad en las diligencias sumariales practicadas a espaldas del acusado. No: de hoy mas las investigaciones del juez instructor no seran sino una simple preparaci6n del juicio. El juicio verdadero no comienza sino con la calificaci6n provisional y Ja apertura de los debates delante

PAGE 25

6 principle and the secret character of the procedure during the examining stage, following the example of France, Belgium, and other nations of the European Continent. The undersigned Minister, in concurrence with his colleagues, has not hesitated to advise Your Majesty to take one more step upon the road of progress by extending, to a certain degree, the system of accusation to the preliminary proceedings themselves, which are, after all, the corner stone of the trial and sentence. Hereafter the investigating judge, on his own initiative and motion, may, or rather must, order that the record be made known to the accused from the moment when publicity and contradiction are not a danger to society, which is interested in the discovery of the crimes and in the punishment of the guilty parties. Should this not be done voluntarily within the period of two months from the date of the institution of the cause, the law gives the accused the right to request it, either to prepare his defense or to prevent by his vigilant intervention and the employment of legal remedies the indefinite extension of the preliminary proceedings. In any case, before and after the two months, he who is so unfortunate as to be subjected to a criminal proceeding will fully enjoy two precious rights, which can not but be greatly appreciated wherever personal rights are honored and revered: the first, the right to designate counsel to assist him with his advice and intelligent direction from the moment the indictment is found; and the second, the right to be present in person or through a representative at any judicial investigation, ocular inspection, autopsy, or chemical analysis-in fact, to be present at any expert measures which may be ordered, and which may affect the determination of the character and gravity of the crime or the clues of his presumed guilt. The secret character of the preliminary proceedings, however, still continues; but only in so far as is necessary to prevent the disappearance of the traces of the crime, to collect and inventory the data which may be sufficient to prove its commission, and gather the elements which are later to be utilized and their truth ascertained in the crucible of contradiction during the formal arguments at the oral and public trial. And to such a point does the new law carry a spirit favorable to the sacred privileges of the defense, that it proscribes and condemns a preoccupation which, until the present time, has been very extensive, and which, although it might have been pardonable when the inquisitive procedure was at its height, would at the present time imply an ignorance of the character and nature of the system of accusation with which it is incompatible. The undersigned refers to that custom, so deeply rooted in our judges and courts, of giving little or no value to the evidence introduced during the trial, seeking the truth principally or almost exclusively in the most summary proceedings had behind the back of the accused. No; hereafter the investigations of the

PAGE 26

7 del Tribunal que, extrailo a la instrucci6n, va ai juzgar imparcialmente y a dar el triunfo a aquel de los contendientes que tenga la raz6n y la justicia de su parte. La calificaci6n juridica provisional del hecho justiciable y de la persona del delincuente, hecha por el acusador y el acusado una vez concluso el sumario, es en el procedimiento criminal lo que en el civil la demands y su contestaci6n, la acci6n y sus excepciones. Al formularlas empieza realmente la contienda juridica, y ya entonces seria indisculpable que la ley no estableciera la perfecta igualdad de condiciones entre el acusador y el acusado. Estin enfrente uno de otro, el ciudadano y el Estado. Sagrada es sin duda la causa de la sociedad pero no lo son menos los derechos individuales. En los pueblos verdaderamente libres, el ciudadano debe tener en su mano medios eficaces de defender y conservar su vida, su libertad, su fortuna, su dignidad, su honor; y si el interns de los habitantes del territorio es ayudar al Estado para que ejerza liberrimamente una de sus funciones mss esenciales, cual es Ia de castigar Ia infracci6n de la ley penal para restablecer, alli donde se turbe, la armonia del derecho, no por esto deben sacrificarse jams los fueros de ia inocencia, porque, al cabo, el orden social bien entendido no es mas que el mantenimiento de la libertad de todos y el respeto reciproco de los derechos individuales. Mirando las cosas por esta prisma y aceptada la idea fundamental de que en el juicio oral y pfiblico es donde ha de desarrollarse con amplitud la prueba, donde las partes deben hacer valer en igualdad de condiciones los elementos de cargo y descargo, y donde los magistrados han de formar su convicci6n para pronunciar su veredicto con abstracci6n de la parte del sumario susceptible de ser reproducida en el juicio, surgia natural y l6gicamente una cuesti6n por todo extremo grave y delicada; es 6 saber: la de si la eontradicci6n de un testigo entre su declaraci6n en el juicio oral y las dadas ante el juez instructor en el sumario, seria por si sola fundamento suficiente para someterle a un procedimiento criminal por el delito de falso testimonio. El Gobierno, despues de madura deliberaci6n, ha optado por la negativa. Al adoptar esta soluci6n ha cedido en primer tdrmino a las exigencias de la l6gica, que no permite atribuir a los datos recogidos en el sumario para la preparaci6n del juicio una validez y eficacia incompatibles con la indole y naturaleza del sistema acusatorio. No es esto ciertamente autorizar, ni menos santificar el engalo y la mentira en el periodo de la instrucci6n; esa misma contradicci6n en las declaraciones testificales podrs ser libremente apreciada por los jueces y penetrar en el santuario de su conciencia como un elemento de convicci6n, si lega el caso de juzgar el perjurio del testigo; lo que 6nicamente quiere la ley es que Cste

PAGE 27

7T examining judge shall be nothing but a simple preparation for the trial. The true trial does not commence until the provisional classification and the beginning of the arguments before the tribunal which, apart from the examination, is going to judge impartially and decide in favor of the party having right and justice on his side. The provisional juridical classification of the fact to be judged and of the person of the delinquent, made by the accuser and by the accused upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, is in criminal procedure what the complaint and answer, the action and the exceptions, are in the civil procedure. The juridical contention really begins at the time of their formulation, and it would be unpardonable if the law did not then establish a perfect equality of conditions between the accuser and the accused. The citizen and the State confront each other. The cause of society is sacred, no doubt, but individual rights are no less so. Among a truly free people a citizen must have in his band efficient means to defend and preserve his life, his liberty, his fortune, his dignity, his honor; and, if it be to the interest of the inhabitants of a territory to assist the State in unrestrictedly exercising one of its most essential functions, which is that of punishing the violation of a penal law for the purpose of reestablishing the harmony of the law where it has been disturbed, the privileges of the innocent should never thereby be sacrificed, because, on the whole, social order, strictly speaking, is nothing more than the maintenance of the liberty of all and a reciprocal respect of individual rights. Looking at things from this point of view, and accepting the fundamental idea that it is in the oral and public trial where the evidence is to be thoroughly sifted, where the parties must under an equality of conditions, state their charges and denials and where the justices are to form their convictions in order to pronounce their verdict, abstracting that part of the preliminary proceedings which can be reproduced in the trial, naturally and logically a question arose which is extremely serious and delicate; the question is, Whether the contradiction of a witness between his testimony given in the oral trial and that before the examining judge in the preliminary proceedings would in itself be a sufficient reason to subject him to a criminal action for the crime of giving false testimony? The Government, after mature deliberation, has decided in the negative. In adopting this solution it has, in the first place, given way to the requirements of logic, which does not permit that there be attributed to the data collected in the preliminary proceedings for the preparation of the trial a validity and efficiency incompatible with the character and nature of the accusatory system. This is by no means an authorization, and still less a sanction, of fraud and falsehood during the preliminary stage; such contradiction in the testimony of witnesses may be freely weighed by the judges and penetrate in the sanctuary of their conscience, in case it should become

PAGE 28

8 no sea procesado como autor de falso testimonio por la sola raz6n de aparecer en contradicci6n con sus declaraciones sumariales, debiendo serlo no mas cuando haya motivos para presumir que falt6 a la verdad en el acto del juicio; porque siendo 4ste el arsenal donde el acusador y el acusado deben tomar sus armas de combate y de defensa y el Tribunal los fundamentos de su veredicto, claro es que en definitive s6lo en este tramire puede el testigo favorecer 6 perjudicar injustamente al procesado y ser leal 6 traidor a la sociedad y a sus deberes de ciudadano. A esta raz6n, puramente I6gica, agrigase otra de mayor transcendencia, cual es la de facilitar la investigaci6n de la verdad y asegurar el acierto de los fallos. Inditil serial rendir culto a los progresos de la ciencia rompiendo con el procedimiento escrito, inquisitivo y secreto, para sustituirle con los principios tutelares de la libertad, contradicci6n, igualdad de condiciones entre las partes contendientes, publicidad y oralidad, si el testigo, cuyas primeras impresiones ha recogido calladamente el juez instructor trasladAndolas a los autos con mas 6 menos fidelidad, se presentara en el acto del juicio delante del Tribunal sentenciador y del phblico que asiste a los debates, cohibido y maniatado por el recuerdo 6 la lectura de sus declaraciones sumariales. Medroso de la responsabilidad criminal que podria exigirsele A la menor contradicci6n, en vez de contestar con soltura y perfect tranquilidad a las preguntas del presidente, del Ministerio publico y de los defensores, limitariase a ratificar pura y simplemente sus declaraciones, convirtiendose entonces su examen en el acto solemne del juicio en vana formalidad. Si no ban faltado escritores distinguidos y jurisconsultos eminentes que al analizar las condiciones del procedimiento inquisitivo han censurado acerbamente que so obligara a los testigos del sumario a ratificarse en el plenario, con la seguridad de ser castigados como perjuros en caso de apartarse en la diligencia de ratificaci6n de lo que antes habian declarado; si esta fundadisima critica iba dirigida a un sistema en el que el sumario era el alma de todo el organismo procesal, por no decir el process entero, tratandose en la hora presente de un mdtodo de enjuiciar en el cual el sumario es una mera preparaci6n del juicio, siendo en 4ste donde deben esclarecerse todos los bechos y discutirse todas las cuestiones que jueguen en la causa, no es posible sostener aquella antigua legislaci6n tan inflexible y rigorosa que, sobre anular la libertad y espontaneidad de los testigos, expuestos a una persecuci6n originada en una traducci6n infiel de su pensamiento, pugnaria boy abiertamente con la indole del sistema acusatorio y con la esencia y los altos fines del juicio pdblico y oral.

PAGE 29

8 necessary to pass upon the perjury of the witness; the only thing which the law desires is that the latter be not tried as guilty of false testimony only because he appears to contradict his statements at the preliminary proceedings, and only so tried when there are reasons to presume that he did not tell the truth at the trial; because as the latter is the arsenal where the accuser and the accused must receive their arms for the attack and the defense, and the tribunal the bases for its verdict, it is evident that definitely only in this stage can the witness favor or unjustly prejudice the accused and be loyal or a traitor to society and to his duties as a citizen. To this purely logical reason is added one of greater importance, which is that of facilitating the investigation of the truth and insuring the correctness of the decisions. It would be useless to attempt to further the progress of science by abolishing the written, inquisitive, and secret procedure in order to substitute therefor the protective principles of liberty, contradiction, equality of conditions between the contending parties, publicity, and oral trials, if the witness, whose first impressions the judge has heard in silence, transferring them to the record with more or less fidelity, should appear at the trial before the sentencing tribunal and the public present at the discussions restrained and with tied hands by the recollection or the reading of his depositions in the preliminary proceedings. Fearing the criminal liability which he might incur upon the slightest contradiction, instead of answering offhand and with perfect ease the questions of the presiding judge, the representative of the department of public prosecution, and of the counsel, he would confine himself purely and simply to ratifying his statements, his examination in this formal act of the trial being converted into a mere formality. There has been a large number of distinguished writers and eminent jurists who in analyzing the conditions of the inquisitive procedure have strongly criticised the system of forcing the witnesses at the preliminary proceedings to ratify their depositions at the trial, with the assurance of being punished as perjurers if during the ratification they should waver from their previous statements. If this wellfounded criticism were directed against a system in which the preliminary proceedings were the soul of the entire organism of the procedure, not to say the entire process, as the method in question at the present time is one of procedure in which the preliminary proceedings are a mere preparation for the trial, it being in the latter where the facts are to be arrived at and where all the questions involved in the cause are to be discussed, it is not possible to continue the former laws so inflexible and strict that, in curtailing the liberty and spontaneity of the witnesses, exposed to a prosecution originating in an unfaithful translation of their thought, they would at the present time openly conflict with the character of the accusatory system and with the essence and high ends of public and oral trials. 18473-012

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9 Todas estas concesiones al principio de libertad que a una parte de nuestros jueces y magistrados parecerAn sin duda exorbitantes, no contentaran adn probablemente a ciertas escuelas radicals que intentan extender al sumario, desde el momento mismo en que se inicia, las reglas de publicidad, contradicci6n a igualdad que el proyecto de C6digo establece desde que se abre el juicio hasta que se dicta la sentencia firme. No niega el infrascrito que insignes escritores mantienen esta tesis con ardor y con fe; pero hasta ahora no puede considerarsela mas que como un ideal de la ciencia, al cual tiende a acercarse progresivamente la legislaci6n positiva de los pueblos modernos. ? Se realizara algdn dia por complete? El Ministro que suscribe lo duda mucho. Es dificil establecer la igualdad absoluta de condiciones juridicas entree el individuo y el Estado en el comienzo mismo del procedimiento, por la desigualdad real que en momento tan critico existe entre uno y otro: desigualdad calculadamente introducida por el criminal y de que 6ste s6o es responsible. Desde que surge en su mente la idea del delito, 6 por lo menos desde que pervertida su conciencia, forma el prop6sito deliberado de cometerle, estudia cauteloso un conjunto de precauciones para sustraerse a la acci6n de la justicia, y coloca al Poder pdblico en una posici6n.andloga a la de la victima, la cual sure el golpe por sorpresa, indefensa y desprevenida. Para restablecer, pues, la igualdad en las condiciones de la lucha, ya que se pretende por los aludidos escritores que el procedimiento criminal no debe ser mAs que un duelo. noblemente sostenido por ambos contendientes, menester es que el Estado tenga alguna ventaja en los primeros moments, siquiera para recoger los vestigios del crimen y los indicios de la culpabilidad de su autor. Pero sea de esto lb que quiera, la verdad es que s6lo el porvenir puede resolver el problema de si Ilegara 6 no a realizarse aquel ideal. Entre tanto los que tienen la honra de dirigir los destinos de un pueblo estin obligados A ser prudentes y a no dar carta de naturaleza en los C6digos a ideas que estdn todavia en el period de propaganda, que no han madurado en la opinion ni menos encarnado en las costumbres, ni se ban probado en la piedra de toque de la experiencia. El Gobierno de V. M. cree ser consecuente con el espiritu liberal que informal su political, introduciendo dentro de ciertos limites racionales el sistema acusatorio en el sumario, lo cual constituye un gran progreso sobre la ley de 22 de Diciembre de 1872. No hay tampoco una sola naci6n en el continent europeo que vaya en esto mis ali que el adjunto proyecto de C6digo, ni siquiera la Alemania, en cuyas eyes procesales qued6 impreso como en roca de granito el sello caracteristico del individualismo germdnico, sin que hayan alcanzado A borrarle ni la autoridad prepotente de sus Monarcas, ni sus grandes glorias militaries, ni su reciente y portentoso engrandecimiento territorial.

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9 All these concessions to the principles of liberty, which to some of our judges and justices will appear no doubt exorbitant, will probably not satisfy certain radical schools which desire to extend to the preliminary proceedings from the instant they are instituted the rules of publicity, contradiction, and equality which the proposed code establishes from the time the trial is opened until the final sentence is pronounced. The undersigned does not deny that well-known writers support this opinion with ardor and with faith, but it can not be considered at present as more than an ideal of science which the positive legislation of modern countries is progressively approaching. Will it some day be fully realized? The undersigned Minister doubts it very much. It is difficult to establish an absolute equality of juridical conditions between an individual and the State at the very beginning of the proceedings, on account of the real inequality which at so critical a moment exists between one and the other-an inequality purposely introduced by the criminal and for which he only is responsible. From the moment that the idea of the crime is born in his mind, or at least from the moment that his conscience is perverted and he forms the deliberate intention of committing it, he carefully studies a number of precautions to escape the action of justice, and he places the public power in a position similar to that of the victim who receives the blow by surprise-defenceless and unprepared. Thus, in order to reestablish an equality of conditions for the contest, as it is claimed by the aforementioned writers that the criminal procedure must not be more than a duel nobly maintained by both combatants, it is necessary that the State have some advantages during the first moments, if it be only for the purpose of collecting the traces of the crime and clues to the guilt of its author. But, be this as it may, the truth is that the future only can decide whether this ideal will or will not be realized. In the meantime those who have the honor of directing the destinies of a people are obliged to be prudent and not countenance in the codes ideas which are still speculative, which have not matured in public opinion, and, still less, have not rooted themselves in the customs of the people, and have not stood the test of experience. The Government of Your Majesty believes it to be in accordance with the liberal spirit of its policy to introduce, within certain reasonable limits, the accusatory system in the preliminary proceedings, which constitutes a great advance over the law of December 22, 1872. There is not a single nation upon the European continent which, on this point, goes further than the attached proposed code, not even Germany, on whose laws of procedure is stamped, as on tables of granite, the characteristic seal of Germanic individualism, without being wiped out either by the powerful authority of their monarchs, her glorious military victories, or her recent and portentous territorial aggrandizement.

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10 Con identico criterio resuelve el nuevo C6digo las demis cuestiones fundamentales del Enjuiciamiento. En materia penal hay siempre dos intereses rivales y contrapuestos: el de la sociedad, que tiene el derecho de castigar, y el del acusado, que tiene el derecho de defenderse. El carijcter individualist del derecho, se ostenta en el sistema acusatorio, en el cual se encarna el respeto a la personalidad del hombre y a la libertad de la conciencia, mientras que el procedimiento de oficio e inquisitive representael principio social y se encamina preferentemente a la restauraci6n del orden juridico perturbado por el delito, apaciguando al propio tiempo la alarm popular. Por 1o tanto, el problema de la organizaci6n de la justicia criminal no se resuelve bien sino definiendo claramente los derechos de la acusaci6n y de la defense, sin sacrificar ninguno de los dos ni subordinar el uno al otro, antes bien, armonizandolos en una sintesis superior. Formado de oficio 6 a instancia de parte el sumario por un funcionario independiente del Tribunal que ha de sentenciar; obligado por la ley este instructor a recoger, asi los datos adversos como los favorable al procesado, bajo la inspecei6n inmediata del fiscal, del acusador particular, y, hasta donde es posible, del acusado 6 su letrado defensor; otorgada una acci6n pdblica y popular para acusar, en vez de limitarla al ofendido y sus herederos; reconocida y sancionada la existencia del Ministerio fiscal, a quien se encomienda la misi6n de promover la averiguaci6n de los delitos y el castigo de los culpables, sin dejar por esto de defender 4 la vez al inculpado inocente, result que puede, sin peligro de los intereses pdblicos y particulares, ceflirse el Tribunal al ejercicio de una sola atribuci6n: la de fallar como juez impartial del campo sin sujetarse A una prueba tasada de antemano por la ley; antes bien, siguiendo libremente las inspiraciones de su conciencia, exento de las pasiones que enciende siempre la lucha en el Animo de los contendientes y sin el aguij6n del amor propio excitado en el juez instructor por las estratagemas que en ocasiones emplean el acusado y el acusador privado para burlar sus investigaciones, y aun sin esto, por las mismas dificultades inherentes de ordinario a la instrucci6n. Para mantener al Tribunal en esta serena y elevada esfera, y no desvirtuar el principio acusatorio que informal el nuevo c6digo, ha creido el que suscribe que 6nicamente al Ministerio fiscal 6 al acusador particular, si le hubiere, corresponde formular el acta de acusaci6n comprensiva de los puntos sobre que en adelante deben girar los debates, siguiendo en esto al C6digo de instrucci6n criminal austriaco, que es acaso, de los actualmente vigentes en la Europa continental, el que ha desarrollado con mis l6gica y extension el sistema acusatorio,

PAGE 33

10 The new code decides the other fundamental questions of the procedure upon the same basis. In penal matters there are always two rival and opposed interests; those of society, which has the right to punish, and those of the accused, who has the right to defend himself. The individualistic character of law is evident in the accusatory system, which includes both respect for the personality of man and liberty of conscience, while the ex officio and inquisitive proceeding represents the social principle, whose special object is the restoration of the judicial order which has been disturbed by the crime, quieting at the same time the popular alarm. Therefore, the problem of the organization of criminal justice is not correctly solved except by clearly defining the rights of the accusation and of the defense, without sacrificing either of the two or subordinating one to the other, but, on the contrary, by harmonizing them in one superior combination. The preliminary proceedings being instituted ex oficio or at the instance of a party by an official independent of the tribunal which is to pronounce the sentence; the examining judge being required by law to collect all information, favorable as well as unfavorable, to the accused, under the immediate supervision of the fiscal, of the private accuser, and, in so far as possible, of the accused or his counsel; a popular and public trial of the accusation being provided for, instead of confining it to the injured persons and his heirs; the existence of the department of public prosecution being recognized and sanctioned and to which is entrusted the mission of taking the steps for the ascertainment of the crimes and the punishment of those guilty thereof; without, however, at the same time ignoring the defense of an innocent accused person, the result is that without danger to public or private interests, the duties of the tribunal may be restricted to the exercise of one attribute only-that of deciding as an impartial judge of the matter without being subject to evidence previously regulated by law; in fact, unrestrictedly following the dictates of his conscience exempt from the passions which are always raised by the struggle in the minds of the contestants and without the wounding of the amour propre which is engendered in the examining judge by the stratagems which the accused and the private accuser employ to frustrate his investigations, or even without this, by the ordinary difficulties which attend the investigation. In order to sustain the tribunal in this serene and. elevated sphere and not defeat the object of the accusatory principle which the new code provides, the undersigned is of the opinion that only the representative of the department of public prosecution or the private .ccuser, if there be any, should prepare the information, including therein the points which are to be argued thereafter, following herein the Austrian code of criminal procedure, which is perhaps of those actually in force in Continental Europe the one which has developed the accusatory

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11 Asi es como se logra que la cuestidn criminal que en el proceso se agita 6 dispute vaya intacta al Tribunal a quien corresponde decidirla; asi es. como las partes pueden preparar con perfecto conocimiento de causa los respectivos elementos de cargo y descargo y hacer sus acusaciones 6 defensas con fe y libertad complete, sin la coacci6n, siquiera sea moral, que no puede menos de existir cuando el que ha de fallar prejuzga en cierto modo el fallo formulando de oficio el acta de acusaci6n, 1o cual 1eva naturalmente el desaliento al inimo de aquel de los contendientes a quien perjudica la calificaci6n juridica hecha prematuramente, aunque con caracter provisorio por el Tribunal. Ni son estos los 4nicos inconvenientes que acarrea la admisi6n del acta de acusaci6n de oficio, pues una vez formulada 6sta, 6 se obliga al Ministerio fiscal A sostenerla contra sus convicciones poniendo en tortura su conciencia, 6 se le deja en libertad para combatirla, en cuyo caso ya no son las partes quienes contienden entree si, sino que se discute unicamente el pensamiento, la opinion, el juicio formulado por el Tribunal, que de este modo desciende A la arena del combate para convertirse en acusador, con el riesgo inminente de que la excitaci6n del amor propio de los jueces ofusque 6 perturbed su inteligencia. No; los magistrados deben permanecer durante la discusi6n pasivos, retraidos, neutrales, A semejanza de los jueces de los antiguos torneos, limitindose a dirigir con Animo serene los debates. Por esto, entre las obligaciones impuestas al Ministerio fiscal en Francia y Alemania de formular un acta de acusaci6n cuando asi 1o ha acordado el respective Tribunal, y la libertad que A dicho Ministerio otorgala ley austriaca, ha optado el que suscribe por la fltima soluci6n que respeta mks los fueros de la conciencia, los derechos individuales, y esti mas en consonancia con el principio fundamental en que descansa el sistema acusatorio. Este principio, aplicado en absoluto, adolece, sin embargo, de un vicio, que han puesto en relieve insignes magistrados encanecidos en la Administraci6n de justicia. Proscrita para siempre la absoluci6n de la instancia, y rigiendo sin excepci6n la maxima non bis in idem, evidente es que el error del fiscal en la calificaci6n juridica del hecho justiciable produce la impunidad del delincuente. EstA bien que en los process civiles el Tribunal tenga la obligaci6n de absolver 6 condenar, asi como tambien la de ajustar estrictamente su fallo a los terminos en que las partes hayan planteado el problema litigioso, 6 sea a la acci6n ejercitada por el demandante y a las excepeiones formuladas por el demandado; porque las cuestiones que en esos procesos se ventilan son de mero interns privado, y porque ademas no es raro que pueda subsanarse total 6 parcialmente en un nuevo proceso el error padecido al entablar la acci6n, para 1o cual suelen hacerse reservas de derecho en la sentencia en favor del condenado; pero en los procesos criminales, que pueden incoarse de oficio, estAn siempre en litigio el interns social y la paz

PAGE 35

11 system most extensively and logically. Thus it becomes possible to secure that the criminal question raised or argued in the proceedings shall go intact to the court which is to decide it. Thus the parties can prepare with a perfect knowledge of cause the respective elements of accusation and denials and make their accusation or defense with confidence and complete liberty, without the coercion, even though moral, which can not but exist when the person who is to pass judgment, to a certain extent prejudges the matter by himself drawing up the indictment, which naturally discourages the contestant who is prejudiced by a juridical classification which has been made prematurely, although only temporarily, by the tribunal. Nor are these the only objections to the admission of the indictment prepared ex offcio, because after its preparation the public prosecutor is obliged to defend it against his convictions torturing his conscience, or he is left at liberty to combat it, in which case it does not become a contest between the parties, but only a discussion of the thought, the opinion, and the judgment of the tribunal, which, in this manner, enters the arena and becomes converted into an accuser at the imminent risk of the amour jpropre of the judges, confusing or disturbing their intellectual faculties. No; the judges must remain during the arguments'passive, silent, and neutral, as did the judges of the ancient tournaments, confining themselves to the direction of the arguments with a serene deportment. Therefore, between the obligations imposed upon the public prosecutors in France and Germany, to draw up an indictment when this has been ordered by the respective tribunal, and the liberty which is granted said prosecutors by the Austrian law, the undersigned has selected the latter solution as the one offering the greater respect to the dictates of conscience, individual rights, and as being more in consonance with the fundamental principle upon which the accusatory system is based. This principle, applied in full, nevertheless still contains one defect to which various judges who have grown gray in the administration of justice have called attention. The dismissal of the proceedings for lack of evidence being proscribed forever and the maxim non bis in idem ruling without exception, it is evident that an error committed by the prosecutor in the juridical classification of the punishable act secures the immunity of the delinquent. It is advisable that in civil proceedings the tribunal shall have the obligation to acquit or condemn as well as to strictly adjust its decision to the terms in which the parties may have submitted the question in litigation; that is to say, to the complaint of the plaintiff and the exceptions pleaded by the defendant, because the questions which arise in these proceedings are of mere private interest, and because, furthermore, it frequently occurs that the error committed upon the institution of the action can be corrected totally or partially in a new proceeding, for which reason it is customary to make reservations of rights in the decision in favor of

PAGE 36

12 pdblica, y teniendo el Tribunal Ia obligaci6n de condenar 6 absolver libremente sin reserve alguna y sin que le sea Mfcito abrir un nuevo procedimiento sobre el mismo hecho ya juzgado, es violento torturar la conciencia de los magistrados que le forman hasta el punto de colocarles en la dura alternativa de condenar al acusado A sabiendas de que faltan a Ia ley 6 cometen una nulidad, 6 absolverle con Ia convicci6n de que es criminal, dejando que insulted con su presencia y aire de triunfo A la victim y su familia, tan s6lo porque el Ministerio pdblico no ha sabido 6 no ha querido calificar el delito con arreglo a su naturaleza y A las prescripciones del C6digo penal. De todas suertes es innegable que levados A tal exageraci6n el sistema acusatorio y Ia pasividad de los Tribunals, estos abdican en el fiscal, en cuyas manos queda toda enter la justicia. De su buena 6 mala fe, que no s6lo de su pericia, dependeria exclusivamente en lo futuro ia suerte de los acusados. Y suponiendo que algdn dia el legislador, echandose en brazos de Is l6gica, legase hasta este fltimo limite del sistema acusatorio, el Gobierno de V. M. ha credo que la transici6n era demasiado brusca para este pals en que los jueces han sido hasta ahora omnipotentes, persiguiendo los delitos por su propia y espontAnea iniciativa, instruyendo las causas los mismos que habian' de fallarlas, ejerciendo is facultad omnimoda de separarse de los dictAmenes fiscales, ast durante la sustanciaci6n como en is sentencia definitiva, calificando segfn su propio juicio el delito y designando la pens sin consideraci6n a las conclusiones de la acusaci6n y la defense, y empleando por Altimo la formula de Ia absoluci6n de la instancia, 6 lo que es 1o mismo, dejando indefinidamente abierto el procedimiento cuando, faltos de pruebas pars condenar, infundian en su mente las diligencias sumariales livianas sospechas contra el acusado. La sociedad debe marchar como la naturaleza, gradualmente y no A saltos: los progresos juridicos deben irse eslabonando, si han de encarnar en las costumbres del pais. Por esto, el Gobierno propone A V. M. la soluci6n contenida en el articulo 733 que no alters en rigor la virtualidad del principio acusatorio. Segn Ia estructura de is adjunta ley, concluso el sumario, las partes hacen Ia calificaci6n provisional del hecho justiciable. Sobre sus conclusions versan las pruebas que se practican durante todo el juicio, y al termino de dste, cuando ya no faltan mias que los informed del fiscal y del defensor del acusado, autorizase A uno y otro pars confirmar, rectificar 6 variar, en vista de las pruebas, su primers calificaci6n. Al 1legar 6 este trAmite todo en rigor estA acabado: los jueces han oido al reo y los testigos; han examinado las demas piezas de convicci6n y estan en condiciones de apreciar con amplitud y acierto Ia naturaleza del hecho

PAGE 37

12 the condemned; but in criminal actions which may be instituted at the instance of the Government, social interests and public peace are always in litigation, and as the tribunal has the obligation to convict or acquit freely without any reservation whatsoever, and without it being legal to institute a new proceeding upon the same question, it is unnatural to torture the conscience of the justices composing the tribunal to the point of placing them in the hard alternative of condemning the accused with the knowledge that they do not comply with the law, destroy its force, or acquit him with the conviction that he is a criminal, leaving him to insult with his presence and air of triumph the victim and his family, only because the public prosecutor did not know how or did not wish to qualify the crime in accordance with its character and the provisions of the Penal Code. At any rate it can not be denied that if the accusatory system and the passiveness of the tribunals goes to such an exaggerated extent, the latter abdicate in favor of the prosecutor, in whose hands justice remains intact. The fate of the accused depends not only on his skill, but also on his good or bad faith. And supposing that some day the legislator, appealing to logic, should arrive to this furthermost limit of the accusatory system, the Government of Your Majesty has believed that the transition would be too sudden for this country in which the judges have been all powerful, prosecuting crimes on their own and voluntary initiative, investigating as well as passing upon the cases, exercising the power to ignore the reports of the prosecutors during the hearing as well as in the final sentence, classifying the crime according to their own judgment, and fixing the punishment without considering the conclusions of the accusation and defense, and finally dismissing the proceedings for lack of evidence, or, what is the same thing, leaving the proceedings indefinitely open when there being insufficient evidence to convict, the preliminary proceedings raised slight suspicions in their mind against the accused. Society must progress like nature-gradually, and not by leaps; juridical progress must develop step by step if it is to become grafted in the customs of the country. Therefore the Government recommends to Your Majesty the solution contained in article 733, which does not materially alter the potential character of the accusatory principle. According to the structure of the annexed law, upon the conclusion of the preliminary proceedings, the parties make a provisional classification of the questions which are the subject-matter of the action. The evidence taken during the entire action rests upon their conclusions, and upon the termination thereof, when nothing is left but the final arguments of the prosecutor and the counsel of the accused, they are both authorized to confirm, correct, or vary their first classification in view of the evidence. Upon reaching this stage everything is strictly terminated; the judges have heard the criminal and the witnesses; they

PAGE 38

13 que es materia del juicio. Si en tal momento les asalta una duda grave sobre su verdadera calificaci6n juridica, 2 que dificultad puede haber en que hipoteticamente, sin prejuzgar el fallo definitivo y s6lo por via do ilustraci6n, invite el president del Tribunal al Ministerio pilblico y defensor del procesado para que en sus informes discutan una thesis mtis? El principio acusatorio quedaria quebrantado si &sta no hubiera do discutirse y resolverse con arreglo a las pruebas ya practicadas, dando lugar 4 que se abriese de nuevo 6 se prorrogase el juicio; pero como este est4 ya terminado y no es permitido volver sobre 6l, todo lo que puede suceder es que el fiscal 6 el letrado necesiten veinticuatro horas para razonar sobre la hip6tesis del Tribunal con la convenient preparation. Con ser tan modesta y estar tan ceilida esta facultad, declara sin embargo la ly que no se extiende a los delitos privados 6 que s6lo pueden perseguirse a instancia de part, ni I la calificaci6n de las circumstancias atenuantes o agravantes, ni a la de la participaci6n respective de los procesados en la ejecuci6n del crimen, quedando reducida a la satisfacci6n de una necesidad apremiante originada en un interns publico y de orden social. Ann encerrada en tan estrechos limites, el Ministro que suscribe bubiera renunciado 4 ella, y mantenidose en el rigorismo del principio acusatorio, si los C6digos mis progresivos y liberales de la Europa continental le hubieran alentado con sit ejemplo; pero no hay ninguno que no de mayor amplitud 4 la intervenci6n del Tribunal en el juicio. En Francia y Alemania ya se ha visto que el Ministerio fiscal tiene la obligaci6n de formular el acta de acusaci6n cuando asi 1o acuerda el Tribunal respectivo, y ademis la misma ley alemana y la austriaca dejan a5 6ste en libertad de apreciar el hecho justiciable sin sujetarse A la calificaci6n que de 61 hubieren hecho las partes, y sin tomar la precauci6n de someter A 6stas la nueva faz de la cuesti6n, 4 fin de que la discutan ampliamente antes de que recaiga el veredicto. Precediendo este solemn debate, no ampliandose ni reformindose on ningtin caso las piezas de convicci6n, no puede en rigor acusarse de incongruencia al fallo, puesto que la ley en suma se limit a establecor un medio de suplir la omisi6n del fiscal, cuyo deber es hacerse cargo de todas las calificaciones probables que autorice la prueba practicada y que pueda aceptar el Tribunal, redactando al efecto cuando fuere necesario la pretension alternative de que habla el art. 732. El Tribunal propone, hipoteticamente y sobre la base de una prueba inalterable, un tema de discusi6n momentos antes de pronunciar su veredicto, cuando cada magistrado tiene ya formado su juicio definitivo sobre el voto que se va a dar. Mejor es, por tanto, que le emita despues de un debate que puede iluminar su mente y rectificar su juicio, que no autorizarle para que en el fallo se separe de las condiciones debatidas por las parts y siga sus propias inspiraciones no contrastadas en el crisol de la contradicci6n como le autorizan los

PAGE 39

13 have examined the other evidence, and are in a condition to weigh the character of the act which is the subject-matter of the trial fully and with a correct understanding. If at this moment they should entertain some serious doubt as to its true juridical classification, why should not the presiding judge of the court, hypothetically and only by way of illustration, invite the public prosecutor and the attorney for the accused, without prejudging the definite decision, to discuss an additional thesis in their briefs? The accusatory principle would be violated if this additional thesis were not argued and decided in accordance with the evidence already taken, causing a postponement or reopening of the trial. But as the trial is already closed and it is not possible to review it, all that can take place is that the public prosecutor or the attorney be granted twenty-four hours for the purpose of arguing upon the hypothesis of the tribunal with sufficient preparation. Although this power is so modest and restricted, the law nevertheless declares that it does not extend to private crimes or to those crimes which can be prosecuted only at the instance of a party, or to the classification of extenuating or aggravating circumstances, or to that of the respective participation of the persons accused in the commission of the crime, being thus reduced to meeting an urgent necessity originating in a public and social interest. Although confined to so narrow limits, the undersigned Minister would have renounced it and remained within the excessively severe accusatory principle if the most progressive and liberal codes of continental Europe had encouraged him with their example; but there is none which gives greater power to the intervention of the court in the trial. It has already been seen that in France and Germany the public prosecutor is obliged to prepare the indictment when ordered to do so by the proper court, and, furthermore, the said German law, as well as the Austrian law, leave him at liberty to weigh the act without subjecting himself to the classification thereof made by the parties, and without taking the precaution of submitting to said parties the new phase of the question in order that they may discuss it fully before the verdict is rendered. Before this formal argument, without the evidence in any case being amended or extended, the sentence could not be said properly to be incongruent, because the law in substance confines itself to establishing a means to supply the omission of the public prosecutor, whose duty it is to take charge of all the probable classifications which the evidence taken may authorize and which the tribunal may accept, preparing for this purpose the alternative claim referred to in article 732, whenever necessary. The tribunal proposes, hypothetically and upon the basis of an unalterable proof, a theme for discussion a few moments before pronouncing its verdict, when each justice has already formed his definite opinion upon the vote which is to be cast. It is better, therefore, that he should cast his vote after an argument which may enlighten

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14 C6digos austriaco y aleman, a pesar de ser los mas adelantados de la Europa continental. Tales son, Senor, prescindiendo de otras muchas reformas de menor importancia, aunque sustanciales, y de evidentes mejoras de detalle en el mtodo y la redacci6n, las novedades de mas bulto que el proyecto adjunto introduce en nuestro procedimiento criminal. No desconoce el Ministro que suscribe que la aplicaci6n y cumplimiento de la nueva ley, singularmente en los primeros aflos, tropezara con graves dificultades, siendo la mayor de todas ellas la falta de costumbres adecuadas al sistema acusatorio y al juicio oral y publico. Educados los espafioles durante siglos en el procedimiento escrito, secreto e inquisitorial, lejos de haber adquirido contianza en la Justicia y de coadyuvar activamente A su recta administration, haciendo, como el ciudadano ingles, infitil la instituci6n del Ministerio publico para el descubrimiento y castigo de los delitos, han formado ideas falsas sobre la policia judicial y se ban desviado cada vez mas de los Tribunales mirando con lamentable recelo a magistrados, jueces, escribanos y alguaciles, y repugnando figurar como testigos en los procesos. Pero este mal ser mayor cuanto mas tiempo pase; y como lo actual no puede seguir sin desdoro de la Naci6n y de los poderes que la gobiernan, 1o mejor es decidirse, que alguna vez se ha de empezar, si la Espafia no ha de ser una excepci6n entre los pueblos cultos de Europa y America. El Gobierno de V. M. tiene tal confianza en la aptitud especial y las condiciones privilegiadas de nuestra raza, que espera sera breve el apredizaje, no tan s6lo en la aplicaci6n de esta ley, sino en la obra aun mds delicada de compartir con los jueces la misi6n augusta de administrar justicia como Jurado; y que muy pronto el ciudadano espaflol demostrara que es digno de gozar de las mismas ventajas que poseen los extranjeros. Al logro de fin tan important y transcendental coadyuvarin, sin duda, el celo a ilustraci6n de la Magistratura y del Ministerio piblico; que no es posible, Sefior, montar una maquina delicada y hacerla funcionar con 6xito, sino contando con el asent;-iento, el entusiasmo, la fe y el patriotismo de los que han de manejarla. En vista de las razones expuestas, el Ministro que suscribe tiene la honra de someter a la aprobaci6n de V. M. el adjunto proyecto de decreto. San Ildefonso, 14 de Septiembre de 1882. Senor, A L. R. P. de V. M., MANUEL ALONSO MARTfNEZ.

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14 his mind and correct his judgment than not to authorize him to depart from the conditions argued by the parties and follow his own inspirations, which have not been brought together in the crucible of contradiction as authorized by the Austrian and German codes, notwithstanding the fact that they are the most advanced on the European Continent. Such are, Sir, without speaking of many other amendments of lesser importance, although substantial, and evidently improvements in the method and preparation, the most weighty innovations introduced by the attached bill in our criminal procedure. The undersigned Minister is not unaware of the fact that in the application and fulfillment of the new law, especially during the first years, serious difficulties will be encountered, the greatest of all being the absence of customs applicable to the accusatory system and to an oral and public trial. Spaniards having been educated for centuries in the written, secret, and inquisitive procedure, far from having gained confidence in justice and actively assisting in a proper administration thereof, and, as the British citizen, rendering useless the institution of the department of public prosecution for the discovery and punishsment of crimes, have formed erroneous ideas as to the judicial policy, and have every day drifted further from the tribunals, looking upon the justices, judges, court clerks, and bailiffs with lamentable distrust, and disliking to appear in the proceedings as witnesses. But this evil will increase as time passes. And as the present state of affairs can not continue without discredit to the nation and the powers which govern it, the best thing to do is to decide, as it must be begun some time, whether Spain is to be an exception among the cultured peoples of Europe and America. The Government of Your Majesty has such confidence in the special aptitude and the privileged conditions of our race that it believes that the apprenticeship will be short, not only in the application of this law, but even in the more delicate task of sharing with the judges the august mission of administering justice as a jury, and that very soon the Spanish subject will demonstrate that he is worthy of enjoying the same advantages as those enjoyed by foreigners. In the attainment of so important and transcendental an end, the zeal and high character of our judiciary and of the department of public prosecution will no doubt contribute. It is not possible, Sir, to mount a delicate machine and successfully operate it unless the assent, the enthusiasm, the confidence, and the patriotism of those who are to manage it are to be trusted. In view of the aforestated reasons, the undersigned Minister has the honor to submit for the approval of Your Majesty the attached bill. San R1defonso, September 14, 1882. Sire, at the Royal Feet of Your Majesty, MANUEL ALONSO MARTINEZ,

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MINISTERIO DE ULTRAMAR. REAL DECRETO. Llevadas a cabo por la Comisi6n de Codigos del Ministerio de Ultramar las modificaciones necesarias para que pueda aplicarse en Cuba y Puerto Rico la ley vigente en la Peninsula sobre procedimiento criminal de acuerdo con aquella Corporaci6n, a propuesta del Ministro de Ultramar, y en virtud de la autorizaci6n que concede a mi Gobierno el art. 89 de la Constituci6n de la Monarqufa, en nombre de mi Augusto Hijo el Rey D. Alfonso XIII, y como Reina Regente del Reino, Vengo en decretar lo siguiente: ARTfcutO 1. Se aprueba para la isla de Cuba y Puerto Rico la ley de Enjuiciamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, en virtud del Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882, con las modificaciones propuestas por la Comisi6n de C6digos de Ultramar. ART. 20. La nueva ley comenzar, a regir en Cuba y Puerto Rico el dia 1 de Enero de 1889, en que empezaran a funcionar las Audiencias de lo criminal. ART. 3o. Las causas por delitos cometidos con anterioridad al 1 de Enero pr6ximo, continuaran sustanciandose con arreglo a las disposiciones del procedimiento vigente en la actualidad.' Si las causas a que se refiere el parrafo anterior no hubieren legado al periodo de clasificaci6n, podran sustanciarse con arreglo a las dispo1La jurisprudencia del Tribunal Supremo, sobre 1o preceptuado en el mismo articulo del Real decreto de 14 de Septiembre de 1882 aprobando la ley de Enjuiciamiento criminal vigente en la Peninsula, que en nada difiere de la disposici6n que anotamos, es contradictoria, pues mientras en sentencias de 3 de Septiembre, 24 de Octubre de 1884 y 26 de Diciembre de 1885, declare que los Tribunales existentes antes de constituirse las nuevas Audiencias de lo criminal, son los competentes para conocer de los delitos cometidos hasts el 15 de Octubre de 1882, aunque haya comenzado A procederse por su comisi6n con posterioridad A esa fecha, siempre que los procesados no se hayan acogido al nuevo procedimiento, en otra sentencia de 4 de Agosto de 1887, consign: Que es precepto claro y terminante, consignado en la regla que anotamos, que las causas por delitos cometidos con posterioridad al 15 de Octubre del afio citado, debfan continuar sustanciandose con arreglo 6 las disposiciones del procedimiento vigente entonces, apareciendo, por tanto, indiscutible, que se refiere las causas incoadas antes de la indicada fecha, y de ningun modo 6 las posteriores, por mis que la comisi6n de los delitos fuera anterior. 15

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COLONIAL DEPARTMENT. ROYAL DECREE. The Codification Commission of the Colonial Department having completed the modifications necessary in order that it may be possible to apply in Cuba and Porto Rico the law in force in the Peninsula on criminal procedure, in concurrence with said corporation, upon the recommendation of the Colonial Minister, and in pursuance of the authority vested in my Government by article 89 of the Constitution of the Monarchy, in the name of my August Son the King, Don Alfonso XIII, and as Queen Regent of the Kingdom, I hereby decree the following: ARTIcLE. 1. The Law of Criminal Procedure in force in the Peninsula, by virtue of a Royal Decreee of September 14, 1882, is approved for the Islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, with the modifications recommended by the Codification Commission for the Colonies. ART. 2. The new law shall go into effect in Cuba and Porto Rico on the first day of January, 1889, when the Criminal Audiencias will begin to act. ART. 3. The causes for crimes committed prior to January first next, shall continue to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in force at the present time.' If the causes referred to in the foregoing article should not have reached the classification stage, they may be heard and determined in 'The Jurisprudence of the Supreme Court with regard to the provisions of the same article of the Royal Decree of September 14, 1882, approving the law of criminal procedure in force in the Peninsula, which does not differ in any manner from the provision annotated, is contradictory, because while in decisions of September 3, October 24, 1884, and December 26, 1885, it declared that the courts existing before the organization of the new criminal audiencias are of competent jurisdiction in crimes committed up to October 15, 1882, even though the action should have been instituted subsequently to said date, provided that the accused should not have selected the new procedure; in another decision of August 4, 1887, it declared: "That it is a clear and final precept, contained in the rule which we annotate, that the causes for crimes committed subsequently to the 15th of October of the year mentioned must continue to be heard and determined in accordance with the provisions of the procedure in force at that time; and it appears, therefore, undisputable that it relates to the causes instituted before the said date, and in no manner to subsequent causes, even though the crimes should have been committed prior thereto." 15

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16 siciones de la nueva ley, si todos los procesados en cada una de ellas optan por el nuevo procedimiento.' Para ello, el Juez que estuviere conociendo del sumario en 1 de Enero pr6ximo hara comparecer A su presencia A todos los procesados, acompafiados de sus defensores. Si aun no los tuvieran, se les nombrarA de oficio para la comparecencia. Esta so hart constar en la causa por medio de acta. ART. 4". Los Jueces de primer instancia se consideraran desde luego colo Jueces instructores en las causas que se ajusten al nuevo procedimiento. ART. 5o. Desde que cesen en sus cargos los actuales Promotores, desempefiaran las funciones del Ministerio piblico durante la primera instancia en las causas que se sigan sustanciando, con arreglo al procedimiento vigente en la actualidad, los Fiscales municipales que sean Letrados, y a falta de estos, los que designen los Fiscales de las respectivas Audiencias. ART. Go. Las Salas de Gobierno de las Audiencias y los nuevos Tribunales consultarAn directamente con el Ministerio de Ultramar para su resoluci6n las dudas quo puedan originarse en la aplicaci6n de este Real decreto. Dado en Palacio 4 19 de Octubre de 1888. MAPfA CRIsTrA. El Ministro de Ultramar, TRINITARIO Ruiz CAPDEP6N. Es bastante que todos los procesados presentes opten por el nuevo procedimiento para que (ste se siga conforme 5 Ia regla que anotamos. Asf lo declare la Fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo en la instrucci6n nm. 3 de las que acompafian a la Memoria de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, resolviendo una consulta hecha a la misma sobre aplicaci6n de un precepto andlogo del Real decreto aprobando la ley de la Peninsula, y 1o confirm6 el mismo Tribunal en sus sentencias, entre otras varias, de 30 de Junio de 1883 y 23 de Diciembre del mismo ano, segdn las cuales "iinicamente S los procesados presented en el juicio puede afectar la forms del procedimiento y el fallo que lo termine; y, por tanto, ]a ausencia y rebeldfa de otros respecto de los cuales se mantiene en suspenso, no puede redundar en perjuicio de los que, sumisos y obedientes a Ia ley, se ven en la apremiante necesidad de defenderse, y si 6stos optan por el nuevo procedimiento, compete conocer de la causa 6 la Audiencia de 1o criminal respective y no a la territorial. En otra de 12 de Agosto de 1884, se consign que, seguida una causa con arreglo al procedimiento antiguo, dictada sentencia en primera instancia, consultada con la superioridad y repuestas las actuaciones al estado de sumario por disposition de Ia misma, si los procesados optan por el nuevo procedimiento, es competente Ia Audiencia de lo criminal A quien correspond, y no los Tribunales anteriores S la creation de dichas Audiencias.

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1i accordance with the provisions of the new law, if every one of the accused in each cause should choose the new procedure.' For this purpose the judge who may be taking cognizance of the preliminary proceedings on the first day of January next shall order all the accused to appear before him, together with their counsel. Should they not have counsel as yet, they shall be assigned to them at the motion of the court for the appearance. This appearance shall be duly entered upon the record of the cause. ART. 4. Judges of First Instance shall at once be considered as examining judges in the causes which are prosecuted in accordance with the new procedure. ART. 5. As soon as the actual promotores cease in the discharge of their duties, the functions of the Department of public prosecution in causes which are being heard in accordance with the procedure in force at the present time shall be discharged by the municipal fscales who may be attorneys, and, in their absence, by those whom the fscales of the respective audiencias may designate. ART. 6. The Administration Chambers of the Audiencias and the new Tribunals shall submit directly to the Colonial Department for its decision any doubts which may arise in the application of this Royal Decree. Given in the Palace on October 19, 1888. MARIA CRISTINA. TRINITARIO Ruiz CAPDEFPN, Colonial lfinister. 'It is sufficient that all the accused present select the new procedure for it to be adopted in accordance with the rule we annotate. This was declared by the office of the Fiscal of the Supreme Court in instruction number 3, of those attached to the Memorial of September 15, 1883, deciding a question submitted to the same as to the application of a similar precept of the Royal Decree approving the law of the Peninsula, and the said Court confirmed it in its decisions, among which may be mentioned those of June 30 and December 23, 1883, according to which "only the accused present at the trial can be affected by the form of the procedure and the sentence closing it; and, therefore, the absence and default of the others with regard to whom it is suspended can not redound to the prejudice of those who, submissive and obedient to the law, find themselves in urgent necessity of defending themselves, and if the latter choose the new procedure the proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not the territorial audiencia." In another decision, of August 12, 1884, it was stated that a cause having been prosecuted in accordance with the former procedure, a sentence rendered in first instance, a consultation being had with the higher court and the proceedings having been returned to the court of primary jurisdiction by order of the same, if the accused then choose the new procedure, the proper criminal audiencia is of competent jurisdiction, and not the Tribunals which existed prior to the creation of said audiencias. 18473-01-3

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LEY )E ENJUICIAMIENTO CRIMINAL. LIBRO PRIMER. DISPOSICIONES GENERATES. TITULO PRIMERO. PREIMINABES. CAPITULO PRIMERO. REGLAS GENERALS. ARTIcuLo 1. No se impondra pena alguna por consecuencia de actos punibles cuya reprensi6n incumba I la jurisdicci6n ordinaria, sino de conformidad con las disposiciones de la presente ley 6 de otras especiales, y en virtud de sentencia dictada por juez competente.' ART. 2o. Todas las autoridades y funcionarios que intervengan en el procedimiento penal cuidaran, dentro de los limites de su respectiva competencia, de consignar y apreciar las circunstancias asi adversas como favorables al presunto reo, y estaran obligados, A falta de disposici6n express, A instruir a 6ste de sus derechos y de los recursos que pueda ejercitar mientras no se hallare asistido de defensor. I Extrafdo de Portugal el espafiol Joaquin Cupido y condenado d la pena de muerte, interpuso recurso de casaei6n por suponer infringido el art. TV del convenio de extradici6n celebrado entre Espana y Portugal en 6 de Diciembre de 1875, segan el cual los criminales S quienes corresponda la pena de muerte, s6lo serdn entregados u condici6n de que se les conmute dicho castigo. El T. S. declara no haber lugar al recurso: "Considerando que A los Tribunales no corresponde conmutar las penas, porque la conmutaci6n supone la imposici6n previa de aquella que se ha de conmutar, y ]a facultad de elegir libremente la que se ha de imponer en cambio, propia y exclusiva de la prerrogativa regia, siendo por tanto s6lo competencia de la administraci6n de justicia aplicar la ley penal, sin que infrinja, aplicdandola a reos extrafdos de Portugal por delito A que senale el C6digo la pena de muerte, el art. 1 del tratado de extradici6n vigente con el Gobierno portuguds, precepto cuya observancia proceder, conforme al pacto international, despu6s de impuesta en fal1o definitivo la referida pena."-Sala Sa., Sent. 15 Abril, 1884. Gac. 28 Septiembre, p. 158. 17

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LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. BOOK FIRST. GENERAL PROVISIONS. TITLE FIRST. PRELIMINARIES. CHAPTER FIRST. GENERAL RULES. ARTICLE 1. No penalty whatsoever shall be inflicted as a consequence of punishable acts the punishment of which pertains to the ordinary jurisdiction, except in accordance with the provisions of this and other special laws, and by virtue of a sentence pronounced by a judge of competent jurisdiction.' ART. 2. All authorities and officials taking part in a criminal proceeding shall seek, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions, to record and consider all circumstances for and against the presumed criminal, and shall be obliged, in the absence of an express provision, to inform the latter of his rights and of the remedies he may employ, while without the services of counsel. 'A Spaniard by the name of Joaquin Cupido having been extradited from Portugal and sentenced to death, interposed an appeal for annulment of judgment on the ground of the violation of article 1 of the extradition convention celebrated between Spain and Portugal on December 6, 1875, according to which criminals subject to the penalty of death shall be turned over only on condition that said punishment be commuted. The supreme court declares that the appeal does not lie: "Considering that it does not lie within the power of courts to commute sentences, because a commutation supposes the previous imposition of the sentence to be commuted, and the power to freely select that which is to be imposed in lieu thereof, which is properly and exclusively a royal prerogative, it being within the jurisdiction of the administration of justice only to apply the penal law, without violating; in applying the same to criminals extradited from Portugal for a crime to which the code affixes the penalty of death, article 1 of the extradition treaty in force with the Portuguese Government, a precept, the observance of which will be proper, in accordance with the international agreement, after the said punishment has been imposed by a definite sentence."-Second Chamber. Decision of April 15, 1884. Gaceta of September 28, page 158. 17

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18 CAPITULO II. CUESTIONES PREJUDICIALES. ART. 30. Por regla general, la competencia de los Tribunales encargados de la justicia penal se extiende a resolver, para s6lo el efecto de la represi6n, las cuestiones civiles y administrativas prejudiciales propuestas con motivo de los hechos perseguidos, cuando tales cuestiones aparezcan tan intimamente ligadas al hecho punible que sea racionalmente imposible su separaci6n. ART. 4. Sin embargo, si la cuesti6n prejudicial fuese determinante de la culpabilidad 6 de la inocencia, el Tribunal de 1o criminal suspendera el procedimiento hasta la resoluci6n de aquilla por quien coresponda; pero puede fijar un plazo, que no exceda de dos meses, para que las partes acudan al juez 6 Tribunal civil 6 contencioso-administrativo competente.' Pasado el plazo sin que el interesado acredite haberlo utilizado, el Tribunal de 1o criminal alzara la suspension y continuara el procedimiento. En estos juicios seri parte el Ministerio fiscal. ART. 50. No obstante 1o dispuesto en los dos articulos anteriores, las cuestiones civiles prejudiciales referentes A la validez de un matrimonio 6 a la supresi6n de estado civil, se deferiran siempre al juez 6 Tribunal que deba entender de las mismas, y su decision servira de base a la del Tribunal de 1o criminal. ART. 6o. Si la cuesti6n civil prejudicial se refiere al derecho de propiedad sobre un inm ieble 6 a otro derecho real, el Tribunal de 1o criminal podri resolver acerca de ella cuando tales derechos aparezcan fundados en un titulo autintico 6 en actos indubitados de posesi6n." ART. 70. El Tribunal de 1o criminal se atemperara respectivamente a las reglas del Derecho civil 6 administrativo en las cuestiones prejudiciales que, con arreglo a los articulos anteriores, deba resolver. No son susceptibles de recurso de casaci6n: (a) El auto que suspende temporalmente el procedimiento contra un acusado (4 Diciembre, 1879). (b) Los autos sobre procedencia de las cuestiones prejudiciales d que se refiere el art. 40 de la ley, por no estar comprendidos en el 850 (16 Abril y 5 Junio, 1888). (c) El auto de sobreseimiento provisional (9 Abril de 1887). 2Los arts. 4o, 50, y 60, son excepei6n de los 111 y 114, que por regla general prohiben el ejercicio aislado de toda acci6n civil, derivado del delito, mientras no se resuelva la penal a que el hecho reputado punible haya dado origen.

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18 CHAPTER 11. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS. ART. 3. As a general rule, the jurisdiction of courts charged with penal justice extends to the decision, for the purposes of reprehension only, of the preliminary civil and administrative questions arising in connection with the acts prosecuted, when such questions appear to be so intimately connected with the punishable act that their separation is practically impossible. ART. 4. Nevertheless, if the preliminary question be one involving a determination of guilt or innocence, the criminal court shall suspend the proceedings until the decision thereof by the proper person; but it may fix a period not to exceed two months, within which the parties may apply to the civil or administrative judge or court of competent jurisdiction.' If said period shall expire without the person interested proving that he has availed himself thereof, the criminal court shall raise the suspension and continue the proceedings. The prosecuting official shall be a party to these proceedings. ART. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the two preceding articles, civil preliminary questions relating to the validity of a marriage or to the suppression of the civil status shall always be transmitted to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the same, tnd his decision shall serve as a basis for that of the criminal court. ART. 6. If the civil preliminary question shall relate to the right of ownership of real property or of another property right, the criminal court may decide thereon when such rights appear to be based on an authentic title or indubitable acts of possession. ART. T. The criminal court shall conform to the rules of civil or administrative law, respectively, in the preliminary questions which it may be required to decide, in accordance with the preceding articles. 'The following can not be appealed from for annulmentof judgment: (a) The decree temporarily suspending the proceedings against an accused person. (December 4, 1879.) (b) Rulings as to the legality of the preliminary questions referred to in article 4 of the law, on account of not being included in article 850. (April 16 and June 5, 1888.) (c) A decree temporarily suspending the proceedings. (April 9, 1887.) 'Articles 4, 5, and 6 are exceptions to articles 111 and 114, which, as a general rule, prohibit the separate institution of any civil action derived from the crime until the penal action has been decided which arose from the alleged punishable act.

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TITULO II. DE LA COMPETENCIA DE LOS JUECES Y TRIBUNALES EN LO CRIMINAL. CAPITULO PRIMERO. DE LAS REGLAS POR DONDE SE DETERMINA LA COMPETENCIA. ART. 8. La jurisdicci6n criminal es siempre improrrogable.' ART. 9. Los jueces y tribunales que tengan competencia para conocer de una causa determinada, la tendran tambien para todas sus incidencias, para levar a efecto las providencias de tramitaci6n y para la ejecuci6n de las sentencias.2 ART. 10. Correspondera a Ia jurisdicci6n ordinaria el conocimiento de las causas y juicios criminales, con excepci6n de los casos reservados por las eyes al Senado, a los Tribunales de Guerra y Marina y a las autoridades administrativas 6 de policia.3 ART. 11. El conocimiento de las causas por delitos en que aparezcan 4 la vez culpables personas sujetas a Ia jurisdicci6n ordinaria y otras aforadas correspondera a la ordinaria, salvo las excepciones consignadas expresamente en las eyes respecto 4 la competencia de otra jurisdicci6n.' ART. 12. Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, la jurisdiccion ordinaria sera siempre competente para prevenir las causas por delitos que cometan los aforados. 1 Lmase prorrogada la jurisdicci6n que siendo incompetente se hace competente por voluntad de los litigantes, segdn la ley 32, tit. 20., Partida 3a., y la 7g., tit. 29, libro 11 de la Novisima Recopilaci6n. En 1o criminal estA prohibida la prorrogaci6n de la jurisdicci6n, de donde resulta que s6lo el juez competente con arreglo las prescripciones de esta ley puede entender en la persecuci6n de los delitos y faltas que se cometan. 2Segdin declar6 el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 24 de noviembre de 1863, en la ejecuci6n de sentencias se comprende la exacci6n de costas impuestas en la causa, que son una pena accesoria de la principal. a Corresponde al Senado hacer efectiva la responsabilidad de los Ministros, los cuales serin acusados por el Congreso, segdn dispone el art. 45 de la Constituci6n vigente. Sobre competencia de la jurisdicci6nde guerra, v~anse los articulos 10 6 17 de la ley de Enjuiciamiento militar de 29 de septiembre de 1896. Los arts. 21 y 22 de la misma ley enumeran los casos en que los militares quedan sujetos 6 la jurisdicci6n ordinaria. 'Vanse los arts. 15 y 16 de la citada ley de Enjuiciamiento military. 19

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TITLE II. JURISDICTION OF JUDGES AND COURTS IN CRIMINAL MATTERS. CHAPTER FIRST. RULES FOR DETERMINING JURISDICTION. ART. 8. Criminal jurisdiction is never susceptible of prorogation.' ART. 9. Judges and courts having jurisdiction of a specific cause shall also have jurisdiction of all its issues, to carry out decrees and enforce the execution of sentences.2 ART. 10. The cognizance of criminal trials and actions pertains to the ordinary jurisdiction, excepting such cases as are reserved by law to the Senate, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities.3 ART. 11. The ordinary jurisdiction shall take cognizance of criminal causes in which persons subject to the ordinary as well as to other special jurisdictions appear guilty, with the exceptions expressly mentioned in the laws with regard to the competency of another jurisdiction.' ART. 12. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the ordinary jurisdiction shall always be competent to take the preliminary steps in causes involving crimes committed by persons subject to special laws. Prorogation of jurisdiction is that jurisdiction which is by the consent of the parties conferred on a judge otherwise incompetent, according to law 32, title 2, partida 3, and law 7, title 29, book 11 of the Novfsima Recopilaci6n. (Bell's Dic., 7th ed., p. 868.) Prorogation of jurisdiction is prohibited in criminal matters, so that only the judge competent in accordance with the provisions of this law may take cognizance of crimes and misdemeanors which may be committed. 2 As the supreme court declared in a decision of November 24, 1863, the execution of a sentence includes the exaction of the costs taxed in a cause, which are a penalty accessory to the principal one. a The Senate has jurisdiction to enforce the liability of members of the cabinet who shall be accused by the Congress, in pursuance of the provisions of article 45 of the Constitution in force. With regard to the competency of the army jurisdiction, see articles 10 to 17 of the law of military procedure of September 29, 1886. Articles 21 and 22 of the said law mention the cases in which soldiers are subject to the ordinary jurisdiction. See articles 15 and 16 of the aforementioned law of military procedure. 19

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20 Esta competencia se limitara a instruir las primeras diligencias, concluidas las cuales, la jurisdiccci6n ordinaria remitira las actuaciones al juez 6 tribunal que deba conocer de la causa con arreglo A las eyes, y pondra 4 su disposici6n a los detenidos y los efectos ocupados. La jurisdicci6n ordinaria cesara en Ias primeras diligencias tan luego como conste que la especial competente instruye causa sobre el mismo delito. Los autos de inhibici6n de esta clase que pronuncien los jueces instructores de la jurisdicci6n ordinaria son apelables ante la respectiva audiencia. Entre tanto que se sustancie y decide el recurso de apelaci6n, se cumplira 1o dispuesto en el art. 22, parrafo segundo, a cuyo efecto y para la sustanciaci6n del recurso se remitira el correspondiente testimonio.' ART. 13. Consideranse como primeras diligencias: las de dar protecci6n a los perjudicados, consignar las pruebas del delito que puedan desaparecer, recoger y poner en custodia cuanto conduzca a su comprobaci6n y 4 Ia identificaci6n del delincuente, y detener en su caso a los reos presuntos. ART. 14. Fuera de los casos reservados al Senado, y de aquellos que expresa y limitativamente atribuye la ley al Tribunal Supremo, A las audiencias territoriales, A las jurisdicciones de Guerra y Marina y a las autoridades administrativas 6 de policia, seran competentes por regla general: 1. Para los juicios de faltas, los jueces municipales del termino en que se hayan cometido. 20. Para la instrucci6n de las causas, los jueces instructores del partido en que el delito se haya cometido. 3o. Para conocer de la causa y del juicio respectivo, la audiencia de lo criminal de la circunscripci6n en donde el delito se haya cometido.' Sobre apelaci6n por el fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n, vase la nota al art. 25. El Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado, en sentencia de 11 de febrero de 1880, que el hecho de haber comenzado un Juez a conocer de una causa y reclamado su jurisdicci6n, no es bastante para atribuir competencia; y en otra de 5 de agosto de 1886, que la jurisdicci6n ordinaria es competente para instruir diligencias sobre suicidio de de un soldado. 'De las causas contra juices municipales y jueces de instrucci6n 6 de primer instancia y de las promovidas contra consejales de ayuntamiento y autoridades administrativas de poblaciones donde no hubiera audiencia 6 no sean capitales de provincia, Ldeberdn conocer las audiencias de lo criminal 6 las salas respectivas de las territoriales? La fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo resuelve la duda en favor de las audiencias de 1o criminal de la circunscripci6n en que se haya cometido el delito, primero en la 69 de las instrucciones que acompatiaron d la Memoria de 15 de septiembre de 1883, y despubs en la circular de 18 de Agosto de 1884. De conformidad con la opinion de la fiscalfa, el Tribunal Supremo ha establecido

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20 This jurisdiction shall be confined to the first steps, upon the conclusion of which the ordinary jurisdiction shall transmit the proceedings to the judge or court which is to take cognizance of the cause in accordance to law, and shall place the persons detained and the effects seized at the disposal of the same. The ordinary jurisdiction shall discontinue the first steps as soon as it becomes evident that the proper special jurisdiction has instituted proceedings on the same crime. Decrees of inhibition of this character issuing from examining judges of the ordinary jurisdiction may be appealed from to the proper audiencia. Until the appeal is heard and decided the provisions of the second paragraph of article 22 shall apply, for which purpose, as well as for the hearing and determination of the appeal, the proper transcript shall be forwarded.' ART. 13. The following are considered first steps: Those taken to protect the injured parties, record the evidence of the crime which may disappear, collect and place under custody all that may conduce to the proof thereof and to the identification of the delinquent, and, in a proper case, arrest the presumed criminals. ART. 14. With the exception of the cases reserved to the Senate, and of those which are expressly and specially assigned by law to the supreme court, to the territorial audiencias, to the army and navy tribunals, and to the administrative or police authorities, the following shall have jurisdiction as a general rule: 1. Of actions for misdemeanors, the municipal judges of the district in which committed. 2. To investigate the causes, the examining judges of the judicial district in which the crime was committed. 3. To take cognizance of the cause and the respective trial, the criminal audiencia of the circuit where the crime was committed.' With regard to appeals by the prosecuting official from decrees of inhibition, see note to article 25. The supreme court declared in a decision of February 11, 1880, that the fact of a judge having begun to act in a cause and claimed jurisdiction thereof is not sufficient to grant jurisdiction; and in another, of August 5, 1886, that the ordinary jurisdiction is competent to institute proceedings relating to the suicide of a soldier. 2Do criminal audiencias or the respective chambers of the territorial audiencias have jurisdiction of causes instituted against municipal, examining, or judges of first instance, as well as against members of Ayuntamientos and administrative authorities of towns where there is no audiencia, or which are not the capital of a province? The Fscalia of the supreme court decides the doubt in favor of the criminal audiencias of the circuit where the crime was committed, first in the 69th instruction which accompanies the memorial of September 15, 1883, and subsequently in the circular of August 18, 1884. In accordance with the opinion of the Fiscalia, the supreme court ruled in its

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21 ART. 15. Cuando no conste el lugar en quo se haya cometido una falta 6 delito, seran jueces y tribunales competentes en su caso para conocer de la causa 6 juicio: 10. El del termino municipal, partido 6 circunscripci6n en que se hayan descubierto pruebas materiales del delito. 20. El del termino municipal, partido 6 circunscripci6n en que el presunto reo haya sido aprehendido. 3o. El de la residencia del reo presunto. 40. Cualquiera que hubiese tenido noticia del delito. Si se suscitase competencia entre estos jueces 6 tribunales, se decidira dando la preferencia por el orden con que estin expresados en los ndmeros que preceden. Tan luego como conste el lugar en que se hubiese cometido el delito, se remitiran las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal cuya demarcaci6n corresponda, poniendo a su disposici6n a los detenidos y efectos ocupados. ART. 16. La jurisdicci6n ordinaria sera la competente para juzgar a los reos de delitos conexos, siempre que alguno est6 sujeto a ella, aun cuando los demis sean afotados. Lo dispuesto en el pirrafo anterior se entiende sin perjuicio de las excepciones expresamente consignadas en este C6digo 6 en leyes especiales, y singularmente en las leyes penales de Guerra y Marina respecto a determinados delitos. ART. 17. Consideranse delitos conexos: 10. Los cometidossimultineamentepor dos 6 m6is personas reunidas, siempre que 6stas vengan sujetas 4 diversos jueces 6 tribunales ordinarios 6 especiales, 6 que puedan estarlo por la indole del delito. 20. Los cometidos por dos 6 mas personas en distintos lugares 6 tiempos si hubiese precedido concierto para ello. 3o. Los cometidos como medio para perpetrar otros, 6 facilitar su ejecucion. 40. Los cometidos para procurar la impunidad de otros delitos. 5. Los diversos delitos que se imputen a un procesado al incoarse contra el mismo causa por cualquiera de ellos, si tuvieren analogia 6 en sentencia del 10 de marzo de 1885, que la salas de las audiencias territoriales, en cuanto 6 los delitos de los jueces de instrucci6n se refiere, solo son competentes para conocer de los cometidos dentro del territorio 6 demarcacion que les est4 asignado, siendole exclusivamente las nuevas audiencias para perseguir y castigar los que hayan tenido lugar dentro de las suyas respectivas (sentencia de 23 de febrero de 1885), y que segdn el Tribunal Supremo tiene declarado en reiteradas decisions, de una manera explfcita y terminante, es de la exclusive competencia de las audiencias de lo criminal el conocimento de los delitos cometidos por los jueces de instruction de su circunscripci6n respectiva. Los mismos tribunales son los competentes para conocer de las causas contra jueces y fiscales municipales.

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21 ART. 15. When the place where a misdemeanor or crime has been committed is not known, the following judges and courts shall have jurisdiction, in a proper case, of the cause or trial: 1. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit where material proofs of the crime have been found. 2. That of the municipal or judicial district or circuit in which the presumed criminal may have been apprehended. 3. That of the place of residence of the presumed criminal. 4. Any judge or court receiving notice of the crime. If a question of jurisdiction shall arise between these judges or courts the decision rendered shall give the preference in the order mentioned in the preceding numbers. As soon as the place where the crime was committed is known, the proceedings shall be forwarded to the judge or court within whose district such place is situated, the persons arrested as well as the effects seized being held subject to orders of the same. ART. 16. The ordinary jurisdiction shall be competent to judge persons guilty of connected crimes, provided that one of them is subject thereto, even if the others should be subject to special jurisdictions. The provisions contained in the foregoing paragraph shall be understood without prejudice to the exceptions expressly mentioned in this code or in special laws, and particularly in the war and navy criminal laws with regard to specific crimes. ART. 17. The following are considered connected crimes: 1. Those committed simultaneously by two or more persons together, provided that they are subject to the jurisdiction of different ordinary or special judges or courts, or who might be so on account of the nature of the crime. 2. Those committed by two or more persons at different places or times, if there shall have been a previous agreement between them. 3. Those committed as a means to perpetrate others or to facilitate their execution. 4. Those committed to secure immunity from other crimes. 5. The different crimes charged against an accused person upon the institution against him of an action for any of them, should there be decision of March 19, 1885, that the chambers of the territorial audiencias, in so far as crimes committed by examining judges are concerned, have jurisdiction only of those committed within the district assigned them, and that the new audiencias are exclusively competent to prosecute and punish those which may have taken place within their respective district (decision of February 23, 1885), and that, as the supreme court has repeatedly declared in an explicit and final manner, the jurisdiction of crimes committed by examining judges of their respective circuits pertains to criminal audiencias exclusively. The said courts have jurisdiction of causes against municipal judges and prosecuting officials.

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22 relaci6n entre si a juicio del tribunal y no hubiesen sido hasta entonces objeto de procedimiento. ART. 18. Son jueces y tribunales competentes, por su orden, para conocer de las causas por delitos conexos: 10. El del territorio en que so haya cometido el delito 6 que est6 sefialada pena mayor. 20. El que primero comenzare la causa en el caso de que a los delitos est6 sefialada igual pena. 30. El que la audiencia de lo criminal 6 el Tribunal Supremo en sus respectivos casos designen, cuando las causas hubieren empezado al mismo tiempo, 6 no conste cual comenz6 primero. CAPITULO II. DE LAS CUESTIONES DE COMPETENCIA ENTRE LOS JUICES Y TRIBUNALS ORDINARIOS.' ART. 19. Podran promover y sostener competencia: 10. Los juices municipales en cualquier estado del juicio, y las partes desde la citaci6n hasta el acto de la comparecencia. 2o. Los juices de instrucci6n durante el sumario. 3o. Las audiencias de 1o criminal durante la sustanciaci6n del juicio. 4. El ministerio fiscal en cualquier estado de la causa.2 5o. El acusador particular antes de formular su primera petici6n despues de personado en la causa. 60. El procesado y la parte civil, ya figure como actora, y aparezca como responsible, dentro de los trees dias siguientes al en que se les comunique la causa para calificaci6n. ART. 20. Son superiores jerarquicos pars resolver sobre las cuestiones de competencia, en la formal que determinarAn los articulos siguientes: 10. De los juices municipals del mismo partido, el de instrucci6n. 20. De los juices de instrucci6n de una misma circunscripei6n, la audiencia de 1o criminal. 3o. De las audiencias de 1o criminal del mismo territorio, la audiencia territorial en pleno. 4o. De las audiencias territoriales, 6 cuando la competencia sea entree una audiencia de lo criminal y la sala de lo criminal de una territorial, el Tribunal Supremo. 'Las reglas que se fijan en este capftulo para sustanciar competencias, no se aplican cuando los conflictos se suscitan en causas seguidas contra reos de flagrante delito; en esos casos se abrevia la contienda tramitindose y decididndose por el procedimiento especial del art. 782. 2 Derecho del ministerio fiscal para promover la competencia en cualquier estado de la causa. Este derecho entrafia la facultad de ejercitar la inhibitoria 6 la declinatoria sin limitaci6n alguna; y si entabla la primer despu6s de terminado el sumario y de abierto el juicio oral, no puede tender aplicaci6n el procedimiento marcado en el art. 23 (26 de diciembre de 1885. Gac. de 9 de mayo 1886).

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22 analogy or relation between them, in the judgment of the court, and should they not have been the subject of proceedings to that time. ART. 18. The following, in their order, are judges and courts which have jurisdiction of causes involving connected crimes: 1. That of the territory where the crime was committed to which a higher penalty is affixed. 2. The one first beginning proceedings, if equal penalties are affixed to the crime. 3. The one designated by the criminal audiencia or by the supreme court in their respective cases, when the causes were begun at the same time, or when it does not appear which was begun first. CHAPTER IL QUESTIONS OF JURISDICTION BETWEEN ORDINARY JUDGES AND COURTS.' Aur. 19. Questions of jurisdiction may be raised and sustained by1. Municipal judges at any stage of the action, and by the parties between the citation and the hearing. 2. Judges of examination, during the sumario. 3. Criminal audiencias during the hearing of the trial. 4. The public prosecutor at any stage of the cause.' 5. The private accuser, before filing his first plea, after having entered an appearance in the cause. 6. The accused and the civil party, whether appearing as plaintiff or defendant, within three days after the cause has been transmitted to them for classification. ART. 20. The following are hierarchical superiors for the decision of questions of jurisdiction, in the manner prescribed by the following articles: 1. Of municipal judges of the same judicial district, the judge of examination. 2. Of judges of examination of the same circuit, the criminal audiencia. 3. Of criminal audiencias of the same territory, the territorial audiencia in bane. 4. Of territorial audiencias, or when the question of jurisdiction is between a criminal audiencia and the criminal chamber of a territorial audiencia, the supreme court. The rules prescribed in this chapter for the hearing and determination of questions of jurisdiction, are not applicable when raised in causes against those guilty of flagrant crimes; in such cases the contest is curtailed, being heard and determined in accordance with the special procedure of article 782. 2 Right of the public prosecutor to raise a question of jurisdiction at any stage of the cause.-This right includes the power to interpose an inhibitory or declinatory plea without any limitation whatsoever; and if he interposes the former plea between the conclusion of the sumario and the beginning of the oral trial, the procedure mentioned in article 23 can not apply. December 26, 1885. ( Gaceta of May 9, 1886.)

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23 Cuando cualquiera de los juices 6 tribunales mencionados en los ndmeros 10, 2o y 30, no tengan superior inmediato comuin, decidira la competencia el que lo sea en el orden jerarquico, y a falta de 6ste el Tribunal Supremo.' ART. 21. El Tribunal Supremo no podra formar ni promover competencias y ningdn juez, tribunal 6 parte podra promoverlas contra 6l. Cuando algfn juez' 6 tribunal viniere entendiendo en asunto cuyo conocimiento estuviere reservado al Tribunal Supremo, ordenar4 6ste 4 aquil de oficio, a excitaci6n del ministerio fiscal 6 a solicitud de parte, que se abstenga de todo procedimiento y remita los antecedentes, en el termino de segundo dia, para en su vista resolver. El Tribunal Supremo podra sin embargo autorizar, en la misma orden y entre tanto que resuelve la competencia, la continuaci6n de aquellas diligencias cuya urgencia 6 necesidad fueren manifiestas. Contra la decision del Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso alguno. ART. 22. Cuando dos 6 mas jueces de instrucci6n se reputen competentes para actuar en un asunto, si 4 la primer comunicaci6n no se pusieren de acuerdo sobre la competencia, darin cuenta con remisi6n de testimonio al superior competente,' y 6ste en su vista decidira de plano y sin ulterior recurso cuil de los jueces instructores debe actuar. Mientras no recaiga decision, cada uno de los jueces instructores seguira practicando las diligencias necesarias para comprobar el delito, y aquellas otras que considere de reconocida urgencia.' Dirimido el conflicto por el superior a quien compete, el juez de instrucci6n quo deje de actuar remitira las diligencias practicadas y los objetos recogidos al declarado competente dentro de segundo dia, a contar desde el en que reciba la orden superior para que deje de conocer. Corresponde al Tribunal Supremo la decision de la competencia suscitada entre dos juzgados enclavados en distrito de la misma audiencia territorial, pero perteneciente uno de ellos A circunscripci6n de audiencia de lo criminal. Fdndase esta doctrina en que "formando parte del pleno de la audiencia territorial la sala de 1o criminal, vendria a ser juez y parte" si dicha audiencia territorial decidiese el conflicto. (Sala 3, sent. de junior 28 de 1888. Gac. 30 id.) 2 Este precepto, aplicable J las competencias negativas por virtud del Art. 46, no permite que se remitan al superior las diligencias originales, pues entonces no pueden seguir practicindose las necesarias para comprobar el delito y sus circunstancias. (Sentencia de septiembre 20 de 1886.) Pero si, esto no obstante, remiten las actuaciones originales, tal irregularidad no debe producir la declaraci6n de estar Mal formada la competencia. (Julio 17 de 1884). SIDesde que un juzgado tiene conocimiento de que otro ha prevenido causa sobre el mismo echo de que aqu6l conoce, debe abstenerse de dictar resoluci6n definitiva antes de promover la inhibitoria, y de no hacerlo asf la que recaiga no puede ser obstdculo para decidir la competencia. (Sala 3, sentencia de 29 de Abril de 1878.)

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23 When any of the judges or courts mentioned in numbers 1, 2, and 3 shall have no immediate common superior, the question of jurisdiction shall be decided by the hierarchical superior, and in the absence of the latter, by the supreme court.' ART. 21. The supreme court can not institute or raise a question of jurisdiction, nor can any judge, court, or party question its jurisdiction. If any judge or court shall take cognizance of a question, jurisdiction of which is reserved to the supreme court, the latter shall order the former, ex oficio, on motion of the public prosecutor or of a party, that it discontinue further proceedings and forward the same, on or before the second day, for the proper decision. The supreme court may nevertheless authorize in the same order, until the question of jurisdiction is settled, the continuation of such proceedings the urgency or necessity of which is apparent. There shall be no remedy against the decision of the supreme court. ART. 22. When two or more examining judges consider themselves as having jurisdiction of a matter, if upon the first communication they should not agree as to the jurisdiction, they shall make a report to the proper superior, forwarding a transcript,2 and the latter shall decide eo instanti, in view thereof and without further remedy, which of the examining judges shall have jurisdiction. Until a decision is rendered, each of the examining judges shall continue the proceedings necessary to prove the crime and any other proceedings which he may consider of recognized urgency.3 After the conflict has been decided by the proper superior, the judge of examination who discontinued proceedings shall forward the proceedings had, and the objects gathered, to the judge declared competent, within two days after receiving the superior order to cease taking cognizance thereof. The decision of a question of jurisdiction between two courts situated within the district of the same territorial audiencia, but one of them belonging to the circuit of a criminal audiencia, pertains to the supreme court. The basis for this doctrine is that "as the criminal chamber of a territorial audiencia forms part of the audiencia in banc, it would become a judge and party if said territorial audiencia should decide the conflict. (Third Chamber, decision of June 28, 1888. Guceta of the 30th.) 2 This precept, applicable to negative questions of jurisdiction by virtue of article 46, does not permit the transmission to the superior of the original proceedings, because in such case it would be impossible to continue the necessary proceedings to prove the crime and its circumstances. (Decision of September 20, 1886.) But if, notwithstanding this, they forward the original proceedings, such irregularity does not permit of a declaration that the question of jurisdiction is not well taken. (July 17, 1884.) 3 From the moment that a court has knowledge that another court has begun a cause involving the same matter of which it is taking cognizance, it must not render a definite decision before requesting an inhibition; otherwise the decision rendered will not be an obstacle to the decision of the question of jurisdiction. (Third chamber, decision of April 29, 1878.)

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24 Art. 23. Si durante el sumario el ministerio fiscal 6 el acusador particular entendiesen que el juez instructor no tiene competencia para actuar en la causa, podran reclamar ante el tribunal superior a quien corresponda, el cual, previos los informes que estime necesarios, resolvers de plano y sin ulterior recurso.' En todo caso se cumplira 1o dispuesto en el parrafo segundo del articulo anterior. ART. 24. Terminado el sumario, toda cuesti6n de competencia que se promueva suspenders los procedimientos hasta la decision de ella.2 ART. 25. El juez 6 tribunal que se consider competente debera promover la competencia. Tambien acordara la inhibici6n A favor del juez 6 tribunal competente cuando consider que el conocimiento de la causa no le corresponde, aunque sobre ello no haya precedido reclamaci6n de los interesados ni del ministerio fiscal. Los autos que los jueces municipals 6 de instrucci6n dicten, inhibiendose a favor de otro juez 6 jurisdicci6n, seran apelables observandose en este caso lo dispuesto en el ultimo parrafo del art. 12. Contra los de las audiencias podrs interponerse el recurso de casaci6n.3 'No es admisible, por 10 tanto, el de casaci6n. Sentencias de junio 97 y S y 31 de diciembre, 1884. 2 No es procedente suscitar competencia sobre conocimiento de una causa fallada ya definitivamente. (Sentencia de julio 8 de 1878.) 3 ACuando deber4 apelar el ministerio fiscal de los autos de inhibici6n 4 que se refiere este articulo y el 12? "Si el ministerio fiscal ha sido ofdo antes de dictarse los indicados autos, y su opinion se hubiere aceptado por el juez 6 audiencia respective, no debe interponerse recurso alguno. "Si el ministerio fiscal no ha tenido intervenci6n, 6 hubiera opinado en contra de la procedencia de dicho auto, entonces debe apelar del mismo, si ha sido dictado por un juez municipal 6 de instrucci6n. "Respecto a los fallos dictados por el Tribunal colegiado, debera interponerse el recurso de casaci6n, si hubiere motivo legal para ello." (Ntimero 50 de la Memoria de la fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de septiembre de 1888, y 10 de la de 15 de septiembre 1886.) En sentencia de 14 de noviembre de 1883 declare el Tribunal Supremo que contra el auto de un juez inhibiendose del conocimiento de una causa en favor de la jurisdicci6n de guerra, no es admisible el recurso de casaci6n, pues contra tat provefdo procede el recurso ordinario de apelaci6n, segti el art. 25 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, a lo cual no obsta la disposici6n del articulo 50, porque esta disposici6n se refiere al caso de que exista 6 amenaze trabarse una verdadera cuestion de competencia, y no cuando un juez de instrucci6n espontaneamente 6 al primer requerimiento 6 petici6n qhe se le dirige se juzga incompetente y acuerda inhibirse, sin que por lo tanto medie todavia semejante cuesti6n ni haya que tramitarla, 6 no ser que, acogiendose los interesados al recurso que la ley en su citado art. 32 les facilita, acuden en apelaci6n al superior inmediato, y 6ste determine que sostenga su jurisdicci6n y se sustancie y resuelva el asunto de la manera y por quien en el expresado tftulo estS prescrito.

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24 ART. 23. If during the sumario the public prosecutor or the private accuser shall consider that the examining judge has no jurisdiction to proceed in the cause, they may object before the proper superior court, which, after the investigation it considers necessary, shall decide eo instanti without further remedy.' In any case the provisions of the second paragraph of the foregoing article shall be complied with. ART. 24. Upon the conclusion of the sumario, any question of jurisdiction raised shall stay the proceedings until it is decided.2 ART. 25. The judge or court considering itself competent must raise the question. It shall also grant the inhibition in favor of the competent judge or court when it considers that it has not jurisdiction of the cause even though the persons interested or the public prosecutor have not previously pleaded thereto. The decrees of municipal or examining judges inhibiting themselves in favor of another judge or jurisdiction may be appealed from, in which case the provisions of the last paragraph of article 12 shall be observed. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from decrees of audiencias.' 1 An appeal for annulment of judgment is therefore inadmissible. (Decisions of June 27 and December 3 and 31, 1884.) 2 A question of jurisdiction can not be raised as to the cognizance of a cause which has already been definitely decided. (Decision of July 8, 1878.) 3 when must the public prosecutor appeal from the decrees of inhibition referred to in this article and in article 12? "If the public prosecutor has been heard before the issue of said decrees, and his opinion should have been accepted by the respective judge or audiencia, no appeal can be taken. "If the public prosecutor should not have had any intervention, or should have opposed the issue of said decree, he must then appeal therefrom, if it issued from a municipal or examining judge. "With regard to the decisions of a collegiate tribunal, an appeal for annulment of judgment must be taken if there is a legal cause therefor." (No. 5 of the memorial of the staff of the public prosecutor of the supreme court of September 15, 1883, and 10 of that of September 15, 1886.) In a decision of November 14, 1883, the supreme court declared that an appeal for annulment of judgment does not lie from a decree of a judge declining the jurisdiction of a cause in favor of the war jurisdiction, because an ordinary appeal lies therefrom according to article 25 of the law of criminal procedure, which is not affected by article 50, because the latter provision relates to a case where a true question of jurisdiction exists or is liable to arise, and not when a judge voluntarily or upon the first demand or request addressed to him deems himself incompetent and consents to his inhibition, without such a question arising and having to be decided, unless the persons interested seek the remedy of law granted them by the said article 32 and appeal to the immediate superior, and the latter determines that he shall sustain his jurisdiction, and that the matter be heard and deterra ned in ii mianner and by the persons prescribed in the said title. -18473-01-4'

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25 ART. 26. El ministerio fiscal y las partes promoversn las competencias por inhibitoria 6 por declinatoria. El uso de uno de estos medios excluye absolumente el del otro, asi durante la sustanciaci6n de la competencia, como una vez que 6sta se halle terminada. La inhibitoria se propondra ante el juez 6 tribunal que se renute competence. ART. 27. El juez municipal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria, oyendo al fiscal cuando 6ste no la hubiere propuesto, resolvers en termino de segundo dia si procede 6 no el requerimiento de inhibition. El auto denegatorio de requerimiento es apelable en ambos efectos para ante el juez de instrucci6n respectivo.' ART. 28. Si el juez municipal estimare que procede el requerimiento de inhibici6n, lo mandara practicar por medio de oficio, en el cual consignara los fundamentos de su auto. El oficio se remitira dentro de veinticuatro horas precisamente. ART. 29. El juez municipal requerido de inhibici6n, oyendo al fiscal, resolvers en tirmino de segundo dia si desiste de conocer 6 mantiene su competencia. En el primer caso remitira dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes las diligencias practicadas al juez requirente. Si mantiene su competencia se 1o comunicar dentro del mismo plazo, exponiendo los fundamentos de su resoluci6n. ART. 30. Recibidos los autos por el juez requirente, declarara sin mis trimites y dentro de veinticuatro horas, si insisted en la competencia 6 se aparta de ella. En el primer caso lo participara en et mismo plazo al juez requerido para que remita las diligencias al juez 6 tribunal que deba resolver la competencia, *a tenor de 1o dispuesto en el articulo 20, haciendo 61 la remisi6n de las suyas dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes. En el segundo caso, 1o participara en el mismo dia at juez requerido para que este pueda continuar conociendo. 'LEs necesaria la firma de letrado en el escrito proponiendo la inhibitoria ante los juzgados municipales? Los arts. 27 a 32 que se ocupan de las cuestiones de competencia entre tales juzgados, no exigen ese requisito, que en cambio impone como necesario el art. 33 para proponer la inhibici6n ante los tribunales de to criminal, en cuya frase no sabernos si estardn comprendidos, para el caso, los juzgados municipales. Con'arrel1Q 4:1algisl'atign anterior, el Tribunal Supremo tenfa resuelta la duda en el sentido it que erd ijdispentable la firma de letrado en el escrito de inhibitoria, ,por exigirlo, sin distinci6n db caps,l art. 365 de la ley orgAnica judicial. (Senencwas de septiembre 24 y marzo 5 de 1877.

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25 ART. 26. The public prosecutor and the parties shall raise the question of jurisdiction by an inhibitory or declinatory plea. The employment of one of these remedies absolutely excludes the employment of the other, both during the bearing of the question as well as after its decision. The inhibitory plea shall be interposed before the judge or court considered competent. The declinatory plea before the judge or court which considers itself as not having jurisdiction. ART. 27. The municipal judge before whom the inhibitory plea is interposed, after hearing the public prosecutor, if interposed by another party, shall decide before the second day whether the writ of inhibition shall issue. A decision overruling the plea may be appealed from for review and for a stay of proceedings to the proper examining judge.' ART. 28. If the municipal judge should be of opinion that the inhibition is well taken, he shall issue a writ in which he shall state the reasons for his decree. The writ must be transmitted within twenty-four hours. ART. 29. The municipal judge sought to be inhibited, after receiving the opinion of the public prosecutor, shall decide before the second day whether he abstains from proceeding in the cause or whether he defends his competency. In the former case he shall forward the proceedings had to the inhibiting judge within the next twenty-four hours. If he maintains his jurisdiction, he shall communicate it to him within the same period, stating the reasons for his decision. ART. 30. After the record has been received by the inhibiting judge he shall declare without further proceeding and within twenty-four hours whether he insists upon his jurisdiction or abandons it. In the former case he shall so communicate within a similar period to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may forward the proceedings to the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction, in accordance with the provisions of article 20, and the judge requesting the inhibition shall forward his within the following twenty-four hours. In the latter case he shall communicate it the same day to the judge sought to be inhibited in order that he may continue the proceedings. 1Is the signature of an attorney necessary to the inhibitory plea presented to municipal courts? Arts. 27 to 32, which relate to questions of jurisdiction between said courts, do not demand this requisite, which, on the other hand, is imposed as necessary by article 33 to interpose an inhibition before criminal courts, in which sentence we do not know whether municipal courts should be included. With regard to the prior laws the supreme court has decided the doubt to the effect that the signature of an attorney was indispensable to the inhibitory plea as it is required, without any distinction of cases, by art. 365 of the judicial organic law. (Decisions of September 24 and March 5, 1877.)

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26 Los autos que los jueces requeridos dicten, accediendo a la inhibici6n, seran apelables para ante el respectivo juez de instrucci6n. Tambien 1o serin los que dicten los requirentes desistiendo de la inhibici6n. ART. 31. Recibidas las diligencias en el juzgado 6 tribunal 1lamado a resolver la competencia y oldo el fiscal por el termino de segundo dia, la decidir4 dentro de los tres siguientes al en que el ministerio fiscal evacue el traslado. Contra lo resuelto por el juzgado 6 audiencia procedera el recurso de easaci6n. Contra la resoluci6n del Supremo no se da recurso alguno. ART. 32. Cuando se proponga declinatoria ante un juez municipal, resolvers 6ste en termino de segundo dia, oyendo previamente al fiscal, sobre si procede 6 no acordar la inhibici6n. El auto en que se deniegue la inhibici6n es apelable en ambos efectos para ante el juzgado a quien correspond resolver la competencia, el cual sustanciara el recurso en la forma prevenida en el psrrafo primero del articulo anterior. Contra la resoluci6n del juzgado procedera el recurso de casaci6n. ART. 33. La inhibici6n ante los tribunales de 1o criminal se propondra en escrito con firma de letrado. En el escrito expresars el que la proponga que no ha empleado la declinatoria. Si resultase lo contrario, seri condenado en costas aunque se decida en su favor la competencia, 6 aunque la abandone en lo sucesivo. ART. 34. El tribunal ante quien se proponga la inhibitoria oirs por termino de uno a dos dias, segin el volumen de la causa, a] ministerio fiscal, cuando 6ste no la haya propuesto, asi como a las demds partes que figuren en la causa de que pudiera a la vez estar conociendo el tribunal a quien se haya instado para que hags el requerimiento, y en su vista, mandars dentro de los dos dias siguientes librar oficio inhibitorio, 6 declarar6 no haber lugar s ello. ART. 35. Contra el auto en que se deniegue el requerimiento de inhibici6n s6lo habri lugar al recurso de casaci6n.' ART. 36. Con el oficio de inhibici6n se acompafiar4 testimonio: del escrito en que se haya pedido, de 1o expuesto por el ministerio fiscal 1Este artfculo se refiere 4 los autos en que se deniegue el requerimiento de inhibici6n por los tribunales de lo criminal y no 4 los que los jueces de primer instancia pueden dictar en asuntos de su competencia. (Sentencia de Abril 28 de 1888.) Contra la sentencia denegatoria del recurso de casaci6n no cabe ning6n otro. (Senteneia de febrerm 10, 1880, sala 3.)

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26 The decisions of the judges sought to be inhibited consenting to the inhibition may be appealed from to the respective examining judge. Those of the judges requesting the inhibition desisting therefrom may also be appealed from in the same manner. ART. 31. After the proceedings have been received by the judge or court which is to decide the jurisdiction and after the opinion of the public prosecutor has been received within the two days following, a decision shall be rendered within three days after the prosecuting officials submit their report. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the court or audiencia. There is no remedy whatever against the decision of the Supreme Court. ART. 32. When a declinatory plea is interposed before a municipal judge he shall render a decision thereon before the expiration of two days, after hearing the public prosecutor as to whether the plea is or is not well taken. A decree overruling the inhibition may be appealed from for review and for a stay of proceedings to the judge to whom the decision of the jurisdiction pertains, who shall hear and determine the appeal in the manner prescribed in the first paragraph of the foregoing article. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from the decision of the court. ART. .Inhibitory pleas before criminal courts shall be in writing and signed by an attorney. .The person interposing said plea shall state that he has not interposed a declinatory plea. Should the contrary appear the costs shall be taxed against him, even though the question of jurisdiction be decided in his favor or he should subsequently abandon it. ART. 34 The court before which the inhibitory plea is interposed shall hear for a period of one to two days, according to the volume of the cause, the prosecuting officials, if the latter should not have interposed it, as well as the other parties appearing in the cause which the court is hearing before which the plea for inhibition has been interposed and in view thereof, it shall issue, within the next two days, a writ of inhibition, or shall overrule the plea. ART. 35. An appeal for annulment of judgment only lies against a decree denying a writ of inhibition.1 ART. 36. Attested copies shall be attached to the writ of inhibition, of the petition requesting it, of the statements of the prosecuting officials, and of the parties, in a proper case; of the decision rendered, 'This article refers to decrees denying a writ of inhibition by criminal courts and not to those issued by judges of first instance in matters of their jurisdiction. (Decision of April 98, 1883.) No appeal lies from the decision which denies an appeal. (Decision of February 10, 1880, Third Chamber.)

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27 y por las partes en su caso, del auto que se haya dictado y do lo demis que el tribunal estime conducente para fundar su competencia. El testimonio se extenders y remitira en el plazo improrrogable de uno a trees dias, segdn el volumen de la causa. ART. 37. El tribunal requerido acusar4 inmediatamente recibo, y oyendo al ministerio fiscal, al acusador particular, si le hubiere, al procesado 6 procesados y a los que figuren como parte civil, por un plazo que no podrs exceder de veinticuatro horas a cads uno, dictara auto inhibiendose 6 declarando que no ha lugar a hacerlo. Contra el auto en que el tribunal se inhibiere no se dara otro recurso que el de casaci6n. ART. 38. Consentida 6 ejecutoriada la sentencia en que el tribunal se hubiese inhibido, se remitira la causa, dentro del plazo de tres dias, al tribunal que hubiera propuesto la inhibitoria, con emplazamiento de las partes y poniendo a disposici6n de aquel los procesados, las pruebas materiales del delito y los bienes embargados. ART. 39. Si se denegare la inhibici6n, se comunicara el auto al tribunal requirente, con testimonio de 1o expuesto por el ministerio fiscal y por las partes y de todo 1o demas que se crea conducente. El testimonio se expedira y remitird dentro de tres dias. En el oficio de remisi6n se exigira que el tribunal requirente conteste inmediatamente para continuar actuando si no insiste en la inhibici6n, 6 que en otro caso remita la causa a quien correspond para que decida la competencia. ART. 40. Recibido el oficio que express el articulo anterior, el tribunal que hubiere propuesto la inhibitoria dictara, sin ma.s tramites, auto en tirmino de segundo dia. Contra el auto desistiendo de la inhibici6n s6lo procedera el recurso de casacion. ART. 41. Consentido 6 ejecutoriado el auto en que el tribunal desist de la inhibitoria, lo comunicara en el termino de veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibici6n, remitiindole al propio tiempo todo lo actuado para su uni6n A la causa. ART. 42. Si el tribunal requirente mantiene su competencia, 1o comunicara en el tirmino de veinticuatro horas al requerido de inhibici6n para que remita la causa al tribunal 4 quien correspond la resoluci6n, haciondolo 41 de 1o actuado ante el mismo.

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27 and of anything else which the court may consider proper upon which to base its jurisdiction. The attested copy shall be prepared and forwarded within the unextendible period of one to three days, according to the volume of the cause. ART. 37. The court sought to be inhibited shall at once acknowledge receipt, and after hearing the prosecuting officials, the private accuser, should there be any, the person or persons undergoing trial, and those who appear as civil parties, for a period which shall not exceed twentyfour hours for each one, shall issue a decree inhibiting himself or declaring that there is no reason for so doing. There shall be no remedy but an appeal for annulment of judgment from decrees of a court inhibiting itself. ART. 38. After the decision by which a court has inhibited itself has been consented to or executed, the cause shall be forwarded, within a period of three days, to the court which proposed the inhibition, with a summons of the parties and holding the accused at the disposal of the former as well as the material evidences of the crime and the goods seized. ART. 39. If the inhibition should be refused, the decree shall be communicated to the court demanding the inhibition, with transcript of the statements of the prosecuting officials and of the parties, and of anything else which may be deemed proper. The transcript shall be issued and transmitted within three days. In the communication of transmittal it shall be required that the court demanding the inhibition answer immediately, in order to continue the proceedings if the inhibition be not insisted upon, or that otherwise the cause be transmitted to the proper person for a decision as to the jurisdiction. ART. 40. After the communication mentioned in the foregoing article has been received, the court that proposed the inhibition shall render a decision before the expiration of two days, without further proceedings. From a decree abandoning an inhibition an appeal for annulment of judgment only lies. ART. 41. After the ruling by which the court desists from the inhibition has been consented to or executed, it shall be communicated within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhibited, transmitting at the same time all proceedings had for attachment to the cause. ART. 42. If the court demanding the inhibition defends its competency, it shall communicate the same within a period of twenty-four hours to the court sought to be inhibited, in order that it may transmit the record to the court which is to decide the question; and it shall do the same with its own record.

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28 ART. 43. Las competencias se decidiran por el tribunal dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que el ministerio fiscal hubiese emitido dictamen, que evacuara en el termino de segundo dia. Contra estos autos, cuando procedan de las audiencias territoriales, habr4 lugar at recurso de casaci6n. Contra los pronunciados por el Tribunal Supremo no se da recurso alguno. ART. 44. El tribunal que resuelva la competencia podra condenar al pago de las costas causadas en la inhibitoria a las partes que la hubieren sostenido 6 impugnado con notoria temeridad, determinando en su caso la proporci6n en que deban pagarlas. Cuando no hiciere especial condenaci6n de costas, se entenderan de oficio las causadas en la competencia. En el caso de que un tribunal sin causa legitima debidamente justificada, se hubiese extralimitado en los t4rminos establecidos en el presente titulo para la sustanciaci6n y decision de las competencias, sera corregido prudential y disciplinariamente, segfm la gravedad del caso. ART. 45. Las declinatorias se sustanciaran como articulos de previo pronunciamiento.' CAPITULO III. DE LAS COMPETENCIAS NEGATIVAS Y DE LAS QUE SE PROMUEVEN CON JUECES 6 TRIBUNALES ESPECIALES, Y DE LOS RECURSOS DE QUEJA CONTRA LAS AUTORIDADES ADMINISTRATIVAS. ART. 46. Cuando la cuesti6n de competencia empeffada entre dos 6 mas jueces 6 tribunales fuere negativa por rehusar todos entender en la causa, la decidira el juez 6 tribunal superior y en su caso el Supremo, siguiendo para ello los mismos tramites prescritos para las demis competencias. ART. 47. En ei caso de competencia negativa entre la jurisdicci6n ordinaria y otra privilegiada, la ordinaria empezara 6 continuara la causa. ART. 48. Las cuestiones de jurisdicci6n promovidas por tribunales seculares contra jueces 6 tribunales eclesiasticos se sustanciaran y decidiran por los tramites y de la manera que se establece en el titulo III del libro 1 de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.2 ART. 49. Cuando los jueces 6 tribunales eclesiasticos estimaren que les correspond el conocimiento de una causa en que entienda un juez 6 tribunal secular, podrAn requerirle de inhibici6n; y si no accediese Fijan el procedimiento para la sustanciaci6n y decision de los articulos de previo pronunciamiento, los articulos 666 a 679. 2 Trata de los recursos de fuerza en conocer. (Arts. 125 a 152 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil vigente en las Islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico.)

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28 ART. 43. Questions of jurisdiction shall be decided by the court within the three days following that on which the public prosecutor may have given his opinion, which he shall do within a period of two days. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from these decrees when issuing from territorial audiencias. Against those of. the supreme court there is no remedy whatsoever. ART. 44. The court deciding the question of jurisdiction may tax the payment of the costs occasioned by the plea of inhibition against the parties who have defended or opposed the same with marked persistence, deciding, in a proper case, the proportion each shall pay. If there be no special condemnation of costs made, those occasioned in deciding questions of jurisdiction shall be understood to be ex oficio. If a court without legal cause properly proved, shall go beyond the limits prescribed in this title for the hearing and determination of questions of jurisdiction, it shall be corrected and disciplined according to the gravity of the case. ART. 45. Declinatory pleas shall be heard and determined in the same manner as interlocutory issues.' CHAPTER III. QUESTIONS OF NEGATIVE JURISDICTION AND THOSE RAISED BY SPECIAL JUDGES OR COURTS AND COMPLAINTS AGAINST ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITIES. ART. 46. If the question of jurisdiction raised between two or more judges or courts be negative by all refusing to take cognizance of the cause, the superior judge or court, or, in a proper case, the supreme court shall decide it, observing therein the procedure prescribed for other questions of jurisdiction. ART. 47. In case of negative jurisdiction between the ordinary and a specal jurisdiction, the ordinary jurisdiction shall begin or continue the cause. ART. 48. Questions of jurisdiction raised by secular courts against ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall be heard and decided according to the procedure and in the manner established in Title III of Book I of the Law of Civil Procedure.2 ART. 49. When ecclesiastical judges or tribunals shall consider that they have jurisdiction of a cause of which a secular judge or court is taking cognizance, they may interpose an inhibitory plea, and if it should be overruled they may complain to the proper court, which, 'The procedure for the hearing and determination of iiterlocutory issues is fixed by articles 666 to 679. 2This title treats of civil remedies against actions of ecclesiastical courts (Arts. 125 to 152 of the Law of Civil Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico).

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29 6 ella, recurririn en queja al superior respectivo, que, oyendo al fiscal, resolvers, sin ulterior recurso, lo que crea procedente. ART. 50. Las cuestiorres de competencia que se promuevan entre tribunales ordinarios y otros cualesquiera especiales, que no sean eclesiasticos, se sustanciaran y decidirAn con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el presente titulo, correspondiendo en todo caso su resoluci6n al Tribanal Supremo de Justicia. ART. 51. Respecto de las competencias que la administraci6n suscite contra los jueces 6 tribunales de la jurisdicci6n ordinaria, y de los recursos de queja que 6stos pueden promover contra las autoridades y administrativas, se estarA a lo que dispone la secei6n 4a, titulo II, libro I de la ley de enjuiciamento civil.' 1 Articulos 116 A 124 de la ley que se cita.

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29 after hearing the public prosecutor, shall decide without further remedy what it may deem proper. ART. 50. Questions of jurisdiction between ordinary and any special courts, not ecclesiastical, shall be heard and determined according to the provisions of this title in all cases by the supreme court. ART. 51. Questions of jurisdiction raised by the administration against judges or courts of the ordinary jurisdiction, and the complaints which the latter may make against the administrative authorities, shall conform to the provisions of section 4, Title 11, Book I, of the Law of Civil Procedure.1 1 Articles 116 to 124 of the laW cited.

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TITULO III. DE LAS BECUSACIONES Y EXCUSAS DE LOS XAGISTRADOS, JUECES, ASESORES Y AUXILIARES DE LOS JUZGADOS Y TRIBUNALES, Y DE LA ABSTENCI6N DEL MINISTERIO FISCAL. CAPITULO I. DISPOSICIONES GENERALES. ART. 52. Los magistrados, jueces y asesores, cualesquiera que sean su grado 6 jeraquia, s6lo podran ser recusados por causa legitima. ART. 53. Podran dnicamente recusar en los negocios criminales: El representante del ministerio fiscal. El acusador particular 6 los que legalmente representen sus acciones y derechos. Los procesados. Los responsables civilmente por delito 6 falta. ART. 54. Son causas legitimas de recusaci6n: 10. El parentesco de consanguinidad 6 afinidad dentro del cuarto grado civil con cualquiera de los expresados en el articulo anterior. 2o. El mismo parentesco dentro del segundo grado con el letrado de alguna de las partes que intervengan en la causa. 3o. Estar 6 haber sido denunciado 6 acusado por alguna de 6stas como autor, c6mplice 6 encubridor de un delito, 6 como autor de una falta.' 4o. Haber sido defensor de alguna de las partes, emitido dictamen sobre el proceso 6 alguna de sus incidencias como letrado, 6 intervenido en aquil 6 en 6stas como fiscal, perito 6 testigo. 50. Ser o haber sido denunciador 6 acusador privado del que recusa. 6o. Ser 6 haber sido tutor 6 curador de alguno que sea parte en la causa. 70. Haber estado en tutela 6 guardaduria de alguno de los expresados en el numero anterior. 8o. Tener pleito pendiente con el recusante. 9o. Tener interest directo 6 indirecto en la causa. 'Para que exista el motivo de recusaci6n de este ndmero, es preciso que la denuncia reuna los requisitos y surta los efectos necesarios para proceder, en su virtud, 6 la averiguaci6n de los hechos que comprende, segn declare el Tribunal Supremo en sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886. 2Para poder ser estimada la causa de recusaci6n comprendida en este nimero, es necesario que el juez tenga interns personal y directo en la casa de que este incidente proceda. (Sentencia de 12 de abril de 1886.) 30

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TITLE III. CHALLENGES AND EXCUSES OF JUSTICES, JUDGES, ASSESSORS, AND ASSISTANTS OF SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR COURTS, AND THE ABSTENTION OF THE PROSECUTING OFFICIALS. CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS. ART. 52. Justices, judges, and assessors, whatever be their grade or rank, may be challenged only for a legitimate cause. ART. 53. In criminal matters only the following persons are permitted to challenge: The prosecuting officials. The private accuser or his legal representatives. The accused. Those civilly liable for a crime or misdemeanor. ART. 54. Legitimate causes of challenge are: 1. Relationship by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree to any of the persons mentioned in the foregoing article. 2. The same relationship within the second degree to the attorney of any of the parties to the cause. 3. To be or have been denounced or accused by any of said parties as the principal, accomplice, or accessory to a crime or as a principal in a misdemeanor.' 4. Having been counsel for any of the parties, given a professional opinion on the case or any of its incidental issues, or having appeared in either as prosecutor, expert, or witness. 5. To be or have been the private denouncer or accuser of the challenging party. 6. To be or have been the tutor or curator of any of the parties to the cause. 7. To have been under the tutorship or guardianship of the parties mentioned in the foregoing number. 8. To have an action pending against the challenging party. 9. To have a direct or indirect interest in the cause.2 'In order that there may exist a motive for the challenge in this case, it is necessary that the denunciation shall have all the requisites and produce all the effects necessary to proceed, by virtue thereof, with the proof of the acts included therein, according to a decision of the Supreme Court of April 12, 1886. 'In order that the cause for challenge under this number may be considered, it is necessary that the judge have a personal and direct interest in the cause from which this incident arises. (Decision of April 12, 1886.) 30

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31 10. La amistad intima. 11. La enemistad manifiesta. 12. Haber sido instructor de la causa. ART. 55. Los magistrados y jueces comprendidos en cualquiera de los casos que express el articulo anterior, se inhibiran del conocimiento del asunto sin esperar :a que se les recuse. Contra esta inhibici6n no habra recurso alguno. De igual manera se inhibiran, sin recurso alguno, cuando al ser recusados en cualquier formal estimasen procedente la causa alegada En uno y otro caso mandarin pasar las diligencias A quien deba reemplazarles. ART. 56. La recusaci6n podrs proponerse en cualquier estado de la causa, pero nunca despues de comenzado el juicio oral, a no ser que el motive de la recusaci6n sobreviniere con posterioridad. CAPITULO II. DE LA SUSTANCIACI6N DE LAS RECUSACIONES DE LOS JUECES DE INSTRUC.cI6N Y DE LOS MAGISTRADOS. ART. 57. La recusaci6n se hara en escrito firmado por letrado, por procurador y por el recusante si supiere firmar y estuviere en el lugar de la causa. El iltimo debera ratificarse ante el juez 6 tribunal. Cuando el recusante no estuviese presente, firmaran s6o el letrado y el produrador. En todo caso se expresar4 en el escrito concreta y claramente la causa de la recusaci6n. ART. 58. No obstante 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior, podrs el procesado, si estuviere en incomunicaci6n, proponer verbalmente la recusaci6n en el acto de recibirsele declaraci6n, 6 podrs liamar al juez por conducto del alcalde de la carcel para recusarle. En este caso debera el juez de instrucci6n presentarse acompaiiado del secretario, que hard constar por diligencia la petici6n de recusaci6n y la causa en que se funded. Cuando fuese denegada la recusaci6n, se le advertira que podrs reproducirla una vez alzada la incomunicaci6n. ART. 59. El auto admitiendo 6 denegando la recusaci6n sera fundado y bastard notificarlo al procurador del recusante, aunque 6ste se halle en el pueblo en que se siga la causa y haya firmado el escrito de recusacion. ART. 60. Cuando el recusado no se inibiere por no considerarse comprendido en la causa alegada par la recusaci6n, se mandar6 formar 'pieza separada. Esta contender el escrito original de recusaci6n y cl auto denega-

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31 10. Intimate friendship. 11. Manifest enmity. 12. Having conducted the preliminary investigation. ART. 55. The justices and judges included in any of the cases mentioned in the foregoing article shall abstain from taking cognizance of the cause without waiting to be challenged. No remedy lies against this resolution. In like manner they shall decline jurisdiction without remedy whatsoever when, on being challenged in any manner, they shall consider the alleged cause to be well founded. In either case they shall order the record to be transmitted to whosoever should substitute them. ART. 56. The challenge may be interposed at any stage of the proceedings, but not after the oral trial has commenced, unless the cause of challenge shall have arisen thereafter. CHAPTER II. HEARING AND DECISION OF CHALLENGES OF JUDGES OF EXAMINATION AND JUSTICES. ART. 57. The challenge shall be in writing and signed by an attorney, by a solicitor, and by the challenging party, if he knows how to sign, and should be at the place where the cause is pending. The petition must be ratified by the latter before the judge or court. If the challenging party be not present, only the attorney and solicitor shall sign. In every case the cause of challenge shall be stated clearly and explicitly. ART. 58. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the accused may, should he be incomunicado, interpose the challenge orally when his declaration is received, or he may call the judge through the warden of the prison in order to challenge him. In such case the judge of examination must present himself, accompanied by the secretary, who shall make a record of the written challenge and the cause therefor. If the challenge be overruled, he shall be advised that he can renew the same when the incomunicacidn is raised. ART. 59. A decree sustaining or overruling a challenge shall state the reasons therefor, and it shall be sufficient to notify the solicitor of the challenging party thereof, even though the latter be in the town in which the cause is being prosecuted and had signed the written challenge. ART. 60. If the person challenged does not inhibit himself, not considering that he is included in the causes alleged for the challenge, he shall order a separate record to be prepared. Said record shall contain the original written challenge and the ruling

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32 torio de la inhibici6n, quedando nota expresiva de uno y otro en el proceso. ART. 61. Durante la sustanciaci6n de la pieza separada no podra intervenir el recusado en la causa ni en el incidente de recusaci6n, y sera sustituido por aquel a quien corresponda con arreglo a la ley. Si el recusado fuese un juez de instrucci6n, deberti 6ste, no obstante, bajo su responsabilidad, practicar aquellas diligencias urgentes que no puedan dilatarse mientras su sucesor se encargue de continuar la instrucci6n. ART. 62. La recusaci6n no detendra el curso de la. causa. Exceptflase el caso en que el incidente de recusacion no se hubiese decidido cuando sean citadas las parts para la vista de alguna cuesti6n 6 incidente 6 para la celebraci6n del juicio oral. ART. 63. Instruirin la pieza separada de recusacion: Cuando e recusado sea el presidente 6 un president de sala de audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el president de sala mas antiguo; y si el recusado fuere el ms antiguo, el que le siga en antigiedad. Cuando el recusado fuere el presidente de una audiencia de lo criminal, el magistrado mas antigno de la sala de 1o criminal de la audiencia territorial. Cuando el recusado sea un magistrado de la audiencia de lo criminal 6 territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el magistrado ms antiguo de la respective sala 6 tribunal; y si aquil fuere el mas antiguo, el que le siga en antigiledad. Si por consecuencia de la recusaci6n de alguno 6 algunos magistrados de audiencias de 1o criminal no quedase en estos tribunals nfmero suficiente para formar tribunal, correspondent la instrucci6n de la pieza separada de recusaci6n al magistrado mas moderno de la sala de ]o criminal de la audiencia territorial respectiva. Cuando fuese juez de instrucci6n el recusado, instruira la pieza de recusaci6n el magistrado mas moderno de la respectiva audiencia. ART. 64. Formada la pieza separada, se oira a la otra u otras partes que hubiese en la causa, por tirmino de tres dias 4 cada una, que s6lo podra prorrogarse por otros dos cuando a juicio del tribunal hubiese justa causa para ello. ART. 65. Transcurrido el termino senalado en el articulo anterior, con la pr6rroga en su caso, y recogida la causa sin necesidad de petici6n por part del recusante, se recibira a prueba el incidente de recusaci6n, cuando la cuesti6n fuese de hecho, por ocho dias, durante los cuales se practicar4 la que hubiere sido solicitada por las partes y admitida como pertinente. ART. 66. Contra el auto en que las audiencias 6 el Tribunal Supremo admitieren 6 denegaren la prueba, no se dare ulterior recurso.

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32 denying the inhibition, an entry being made of all this in the original record. ART. 61. While the separate record is being heard and determined the person challenged can not act in the cause nor in the issue of the challenge, and shall be substituted by the proper person in accordance to law. If the person challenged be a judge of examination, he must, nevertheless, under his own liability, take such urgent measures as can not be delayed until his successor takes charge of continuing the examination. ART. 62. The challenge shall not delay the course of the cause unless the issue of the challenge shall not have been decided when the parties are cited for the hearing of some question or interlocutory issue or for the oral trial. ART. 63. The separate record of challenge shall be preparedBy the senior presiding justice of chamber if the person challenged be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if the judge challenged be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority. By the senior justice of the criminal chamber of the territorial audiencia if the person challenged be the presiding judge of a criminal audiencia. By the senior justice of the respective chamber or court if the person challenged be a justice of a criminal or territorial audiencia or of the supreme court; and if he be the senior, by the one next below him in seniority. If, as a result of the challenge of one or more justices of the criminal audiencias, these courts should not have members sufficient to form a quorum, the preparation of the separate record shall pertain to the junior justice of the criminal chamber of the respective territorial audiencia. The junior justice of the respective audiencia shall prepare the record of challenge when the judge of examination is challenged. ART. 64. After the separate record has been prepared, the other party or parties to the cause shall be heard for a period of three days for each one, which period can only be extended for two days more when in the opinion of the court there be just cause therefor. ART. 65. When the period fixed in the foregoing article has elapsed, as well as the extension in a proper case, and the cause is taken up again without the necessity of a petition by the challenging party, evidence on the issue of the challenge shall be admitted for eight days if the question be a question of fact, during which time the evidence submitted by the parties and admitted as pertinent shall be received. ART. 66. There shall be no remedy against rulings of audiencias or of the supreme court admitting or rejecting evidence. 18473-015

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33 ART. 67. Cuando por ser la cuesti6n de derecho, no se hubiere recibido a prueba el incidente de recusaci6n, 6 hubiese transcurrido el tormino concedido en el art. 65, se mandar citar a las parts, seflalando dia para la vista. ART. 68. Decidiran los incidentes de recusaci6n: Cuando el recusado fuese el presidente 6 un president de sala de audiencia territorial 6 del Tribunal Supremo, el tribunal en pleno. De igual manera se procedera cuando los recusados fueren dos 6 mas magistrados de una misma sala 6 secci6n de estos tribunals. En los demos casos decidiran estos incidentes los tribunals 6 salas a que pertenezcan los magistrados instructors de las piezas separadas. ART. 69. Los autos en que se declare haber 6 no lugar a la recusaci6n, seran siempre fundados. Contra el auto que dictaren las audiencias s6lo procedera sh. recurso do casacion. Contra el que dictare el Tribunal Supremo, no habr4 recurso alguno. ART. 70. En los autos en que se deniegue la recusaci6n, se condenara en las costas al que la hubiere promovido. Ademis se impondra al recusante una multa de 125 a 250 pesetas cuando el recusado fuese juez de instrucci6n, y de 250 a 500 cuando fuese magistrado de audiencia. Se exceptda de la imposici6n de las costas y la multa al niinisterio fiscal. ART. 71. Cuando no se hicieren efectivas las multas respectivamente senfaladas en el articulo anterior, el multado quedara sujeto a la responsabilidad personal subsidiaria correspondiente, por via de sustituci6n y apremio, en los tkrminos que para las causas por delitos establece el c6digo penal. CAPITULO III. DE LA SUSTANCIACI6N DE LAS RECUSACIONES DE LOS JUECES MUNICIPALES. ART. 72. En los juicios de faltas se propondra la recusaci6n en el mismo acto de la comparecencia. ART. 73. En vista de la recusaci6n, si la causa alegada fuese de las expresadas en el articulo 54 y cierta, el juez municipal se dar por recusado, pasando el conocimiento de la falta a su suplente. ART. 74. Cuando el recusado no considerare legitima la recusaci6n, pasara el conocimiento del incidente a su suplente, haciendole constar en el acts.

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33 ART. 67. If, on account of the question being one of law, evidence on the challenge is overruling, or when the period granted in article 65 has elapsed, the parties shall be cited, a day being fixed for the argument. ART. 68. The challenge shall be decidedBy the court in bane, if the person challenged be the presiding judge or a presiding judge of a chamber of a territorial audiencia or of the supreme court. Like procedure shall be observed if the persons challenged be two or more justices of the same chamber or section of said courts. In other cases these issues shall be decided by the courts or chambers to which the examining justices of the separate record belong. ART. 69. The decision sustaining or overruling the challenge shall always state the reasons therefor. An appeal for annulment of judgment lies from a decision rendered by an audiencia. There shall be no remedy whatsoever against a decision rendered by the supreme court. ART. 70. Decisions overruling a challenge shall contain the taxation of the costs of the same against the person interposing it. There shall also be imposed on the challenging party a fine of not less than 125 pesetas nor more than 250 pesetas if the authority challenged be a judge of examination, and not less than 250 nor more than 500 pesetas if a justice of the audiencia. The prosecuting officials shall be exempt from the payment of costs or the fine. ART. 1. If the fines respectively mentioned in the foregoing article are not paid, the party fined shall be subject to such proper compulsion in substitution thereof as provided for crimes in the penal code. CHAPTER III. HEARING AND DECISION OF CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL JUDGES. ART. 72. In trials for misdemeanors the challenge shall be interposed at the time of the appearance. ART. 73. In view of the challenge, should the cause alleged be of those mentioned in article 54, and be true, the municipal judge shall consider himself challenged, transferring the cognizance of the misdemeanor to his substitute. ART. 74. If the challenged party should not consider the challenge to be legitimate, he shall transfer the cognizance of the issue to his substitute, making note thereof in the record.

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34 Ni en este caso ni en el del articulo anterior se da recurso alguno contra lo resuelto por el juez municipal. ART. 75. El juez municipal recusado no podri intervenir en la sustanciaci6n de la pieza de recusaci6n, y se suspenders la celebraci6n del juicio de faltas hasta que aquilla se decida. ART. 76. El juez suplente encargado de la sustanciaci6n be la pieza de recusaci6n hara comparecer a las partes a su presencia, y en eA mismo acto recibira las pruebas que ofrezcan y conceptde pertinentes cuando la cuesti6n verse sobre algin hecho. Contra el auto denegatorio de la prueba podra pedirse reposici6n en el acto de bacerse saber a las partes. ART. 77. Recibida la prueba, 6 cuando por tratarse de cuesti6n de derecho no fuera necesaria, el juez municipal suplente resolvers si ha 6 no lugar a la recusaci6n en auto fundado, y en el mismo acto si es possible. En. ningdn caso dejara de hacerlo dentro de segundo dia. De lo actuado y del auto se hard menci6n en el acta que se extienda. ART. 78. Contra el auto del juez suplente declarando haber lugar a la recusaci6n, no se darn recurso alguno. Contra el auto en que la denegare, habra apelaci6n para ante el juez de instrucci6n. ART. 79. La apelaci6n se interpondra verbalmente en el acto de la comparecencia ante el mismo juez municipal suplente, si ste resolviese en el momento. Si para resolver utilizare el termino de segundo dia, se interpondra la apelaci6n en el acto mismo de la notificaci6n siempre que sea personal, y si no dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes a ella. La apelaci6n en este caso se interpondra tambien verbalmente ante el secretario del juzgado y se hara constar por diligencia. ART. 80. Cuando no se apelase dentro de los terminos sefialados en el articulo anterior, el auto del juez suplente sera firm. Interpuesta apelaci6n en tiempo, se remitiran los antecedentes al juez de instrucci6n respectivo con citaci6n de las parts y a expensas del apelante. ART. 81. En el juzgado de instrucci6n se dare cuenta inmediatamente por el secretario, sin admitir escritos, y se citara a las partes a una comparecencia dentro del termino de segundo dia. Los interesados 6 sus apoderados podran hacer en ella verbalmente las observaciones que estimen, previa la venia del juez de instrucci6n. Este pronunciara auto en el mismo dia 6 en el siguiente, y contra lo que decida no habra ulterior recurso.

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34 Neither in this case nor in that of the foregoing article shall there be any remedy against the decision of the municipal judge. ART. 75. The municipal judge challenged cannot take part in the hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge, and shall suspend the trial for the misdemeanors until the question of the challenge is decided. ART. 76. The substitute judge charged with the hearing and determination of the issue of the challenge shall order the parties to appear before him, and shall at once hear the evidence they may offer and which he may consider pertinent, if the question be one of fact. If a decision ruling out the evidence is made, a rehearing may be requested as soon as the parties are notified thereof. ART. 77. The evidence having been taken, or when a question of law being involved it is not necessary, the substitute municipal judge shall decide at once, if possible, whether the challenge is or is not well taken in a ruling stating the reasons for his decision. In no case shall be fail to render a decision within two days. The proceedings had and the ruling shall be entered upon the record made. ART. 78. There shall be no remedy against a ruling of a substitute judge sustaining a challenge. From a decree overruling a challenge an appeal lies to the judge of examination. ART. 79. The appeal shall be interposed orally at the appearance for decision before the substitute judge, should he render a decision at once. If, in order to render a decision, he should take the period of two days, the appeal shall be filed at the time of the notification, provided it be personal; otherwise within the twenty-four hours following the notification. The appeal in such case shall also be interposed orally before the clerk of the court, and it shall be made a matter of record. ART. 80. If an appeal be not taken within the periods prescribed in the foregoing article, the ruling of the substitute judge shall become final. If the appeal be taken in due time, the proceedings shall be forwarded to the proper judge of examination, with a citation of the parties, at the expense of the appellant. ART. 81. In the court of examination the clerk shall immediately make a report without admitting any documentary evidence, and the parties shall be cited to appear within a period of two days. With the permission of the judge of examination the parties in interest or their attorneys may make orally at that time whatever remarks they may consider proper. The judge of examination shall render his decision the same day or the day following, and against his decision there shall be no further remedy.

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35 Si el jues instructor entendiese que el municipal suplente debi6 reponer el auto denegatorio de la prueba A que se refiere el parrafo segundo del art. 76, 1o declarari asi, absteniendose de pronunciar sobre el fondo, y mandarti devolver las diligencias al juzgado municipal de que procedan, para que se practique la prueba propuesta y se dicte nuevo auto. Seran aplicables A 6ste las disposiciones de los arts. 78 al 81. ART. 82. Cuando el auto sea confirmatorio, se condenara en costas al apelante. ART. 83. Declarada procedente la recusaci6n por auto firme,.entendera el suplente en el juicio. Declarado improcedente, el juez recusado volvera a entender en el conocimiento de la falta. CAPITULO IV. DE LA RECUSACI6N DE LOS AUXILIARES DE LOS JUZGADOS Y TRIBUNALES. ART. 84. Los secretaries de los juzgados municipales, de los de instrucci6n, de las audiencias y del Tribunal Supremo, seran recusables. Lo seran tambien los oficiales de sala. ART. 85. Son aplicables a los secretarios y oficiales de sala las prescripciones de este titulo, con las modificaciones que establecen los articulos siguientes. ART. 86. Cuando los recusados fueren auxiliaries de los juzgados de instrucci6n, de las audiencias 6 del Tribunal Supremo, la pieza de recusaci6n se instruira por el juez instructor respectivo 6.magistrado mas moderno, y se fallara por el mismo juez 6 por el tribunal correspon diente. El juez 6 magistrado instructor podra delegar la practice de las diligencias que no pudiere ejecutar por si mismo en el juez municipal 6 en uno de los jueces de instrucci6n de la respectiva circunscripci6n. ART. 87. Los auxiliaries recusados no podrAn actuar en la causa en que lo fueren ni en la pieza de recusaci6n, reemplazandoles aquellos a quienes corresponderia si la recusaci6n fuese admitida. ART. 88. En las recusaciones de secretarios de juzgados municipals instruira y fallarA la pieza de recusaci6n el juez municipal. donde s6lo hubiere uno. Si hubiere dos, el del juzgado A que no Dertenezca el recusado; y si tries 6 mas, el de mayor edad. ART. 89. Cuando se desestimare la recusaci6n, se condenara en costas al recusante.

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35 If the judge of examination should hold that the substitute municipal judge should reverse his ruling denying the admission of evidence, referred to in the second paragraph of article 76, he shall so declare, refraining from deciding the main question, and order the proceedings to be returned to the municipal court from which they were forwarded, in order that the evidence offered be taken and a new ruling made. The provisions of articles 78 to 81 shall apply to this ruling. ART. 82. If the ruling be affirmative, the appellant shall be taxed the costs thereof. ART. 83. If the challenge be sustained by a final ruling, the substitute judge shall take cognizance of the case. If overruled, the challenged judge shall again take cognizance of the offence. CHAPTER IV. CHALLENGES OF ASSISTANTS OF INFERIOR AND SUPERIOR COURTS. ART. 84. The clerks of municipal courts, courts of examination, of audiencias, and those of the supreme court may be challenged. The officers of chambers may also be challenged. ART. 85. The provisions of this title are applicable to the clerks and officers of chambers with the modifications prescribed in the following articles. ART. 86. If the challenged parties be the assistants of courts of examination, of audiencias or of the supreme court, the issue of the challenge shall be prepared by the proper judge of examination or the junior associate justice, and shall be decided by the same judge or by by the corresponding court. The judge or associate justice of examination may delegate the performance of the proceedings which he cannot personally conduct to the municipal judge, or to one of the judges of examination of the respective circuit. ART. 87. The assistants challenged cannot take part in the cause nor in the issue of the challenge, being substituted by the proper-persons if the challenge be sustained. ART. 88. In challenges of clerks of municipal courts the municipal judge shall prepare and determine the issue of the challenge where there is but one judge. Should there be two, the judge of the court to which the challenged party does not belong; and if there be three or more, by the eldest. ART. 89. If the challenge be overruled, the challenging party shall be taxed the costs.

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36 ART. 90. Cuando sea firme el auto en que se admita la recusaci6n, quedara el recusado separado de toda intervenci6n en la causa, continuando en su reemplazo el que le haya sustituido durante la sustanciaci6n del incident; y si fuere secretario de juzgado municipal 6 de instrucci6n, no percibir4 derechos de ninguna clase desde que se hubiese solicitado la recusaci6n, 6 desde que, siendole conocido el motivo alegado, no se separ6 del conocimiento del asunto. ART. 91. Cuando se desestimase la recusacidn por auto firme, volver el auxiliar recusado a ejercer sus funciones; y si fuese 6ste secretario de juzgado municipal 6 de instrucci6n, le abonara el recusante los derechos correspondientes a las actuaciones practicadas en la causa, haciendo igual abono al que hays sustituido al recusado. ART. 92. No podran los auxiliares ser recusados despuds de citadas las partes para sentencia, ni durante la practica de alguna diligencia de que estuvieren encargados, ni despu6s de comenzada la celebraci6n del juicio oral. ART. 93. Es aplicable a los actuales relatores y escribanos de cimara: primero, 1o dispuesto en los articulos anteriores respecto a las recusaclones de los secretarios de sala; y segundo, 1o prevenido en los arts. 90 y 91 referente al abono de derechos. CAPITULO V. DE LAS EXCUSAS Y RECUSACIONES DE LOS ASESORES. ART. 94. Los asesores de los jueces municipales, cuando stos desempefien accidentalmente funciones de jueces de instrucci6n, se excusaran si concurrieren en ellos algunas de las causas enumeradas en el articulo 54 de esta ley. El mismo juez municipal apreciar la excusa pars admitirla 6 desestimarla. Si la desestimase, podrs el asesor recurrir en queja a la respective audiencia, y 6sta, pidiendo informes y antecedentes, resolvers de piano sin ulterior recurso 1o que cream procedente. ART. 95. Los que sean parte en una causa podrAn recusar al asesor por cualquiera de los motivos sefialados en el art. 54. La recusaci6n se hard por medio de escrito dirigido al juez municipal. Contra las decisiones del juzgado municipal desestimando la recusasion, procedera igualmente el recurso de queja ante la audiencia respectiva. CAPITULO VI. DE LA ABSTENCI6N DEL MINISTERIO FISCAL. ART. 96. Los representantes del ministerio fiscal no podrAn ser recusados; pero se abstendran de intervenir en los actos judiciales cuando concurra en ellos alguna de las causas senaladas en el art. 54 de esta ley.

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36 ART. 90. When a ruling sustaining a challenge becomes final, the party challenged can take no part in the cause whatever, the person who was substituted for him during the hearing and determination of the issue continuing to take his place; and if he be the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination he shall receive no fees of any kind from the time that the challenge was interposed, or when the alleged cause being known to him he did not abstain from taking cognizance of the subject. ART. 91. If the challenge be overruled by a final decision the assistant challenged shall again perform his duties; and should he be the clerk of a municipal court or court of examination the challenging party shall pay to him the fees corresponding to the proceedings had in the cause, and a similar payment shall be made to his substitute. ART. 92. The assistants can not be challenged after the parties have been cited to appear for judgment, nor while engaged in some proceeding intrusted to them, nor after the oral trial has begun. ART. 93. To relators and copyists of chambers are applicable: First, the provisions of the foregoing articles with regard to challenges of clerks in chambers; and, second, the provisions of articles 90 and 91 with reference to the payment of fees. CHAPTER V. EXCUSES AND CHALLENGES OF ASSESSORS. ART. 94. The assessors to municipal judges, when the latter accidentally discharge the duties of judges of examination, shall excuse themselves if they be embraced in any of the causes mentioned in article 54 of this law. The municipal judge himself shall weigh the excuse in order to admit or reject it. Should he reject it, the assessor may appeal in complaint to the proper audiencia, and the latter, after calling for reports and data, shall decide eo instanti without further remedy, what it may deem proper. ART. 95. The parties to a cause may challenge the assessor for any of the causes mentioned in article 54. The challenge shall be in writing, addressed to the municipal judge. From the decision of the municipal court overruling a challenge, an appeal in complaint lies also to the proper audiencia. CHAPTER VI. ABSTENTION OF PROSECUTING OFFICIALS. ART. 96. Prosecuting officials can not be challenged; but they shall abstain from intervening in judicial acts when they are included in any of the causes mentioned in article 54 of this law.

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37 ART. 97. Si concurriere en el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo 6 en los fiscales de las audiencias alguna de las causas por raz6n de las cuales deban abstenerse, de conformidad con lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, designarin para que los reemplacen al teniente fiscal, y en su defecto, a los abogados fiscales, por el orden de categoria y antigiledad. Lo dispuesto en el parrafo anterior es aplicable a los tenientes 6 abogados fiscales cuando ejerzan las funciones de su jefe respectivo. ART. 98. Los tenientes y abogados fiscales del Tribunal Supremo y de las audiencias hardn present su excusa al superior respectivo, quien les relevar de intervenir en los actos judiciales, y elegira para sustituirles al que tenga por conveniente entre sus subordinados. ART. 99. Cuando los representantes del ministerio fiscal no se excusaren, a pesar de comprenderles alguna de las causas expresadas en el articulo 54, podrin los que se consideren agraviados acudir en queja al superior inmediato. Este oira al subordinado que hubiese sido objeto de la queja, y encontrindola fundada, decidira su sustituci6n. Si no la encontrare fundada, podra acordar que intervenga en el proceso. Contra esta determinaci6n no se da recurso alguno. Los fiscales de las audiencias territoriales decidirin las quejas que se les dirijan contra los fiscales de las audiencias de 1o criminal. Si fuere el fiscal del Tribunal Supremo el que diera motive A la queja, debera 6sta dirigirse al Ministro de Gracia y Justicia por conducto del presidente del mismo tribunal. El Ministro de Gracia, y Justicia, oida la sala de gobierno del Tribunal Supremo, si lo consider oportuno, resolvers lo que estime procedente.

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37 ART. 97. .If the public prosecutor of the supreme court or the public prosecutors of audiencias be included in any of the causes by reason of which they should abstain, according to the provisions of the foregoing article, they shall appoint as their substitutes the deputy public prosecutor, and in his absence the assistant deputy public prosecutors, in the order of their rank and term of service. The provisions of the foregoing paragraph are applicable to the deputy or assistant deputy public prosecutors when they discharge the duties of their respective chief. ART. 98. The deputy and assistant deputy public prosecutors of the supreme court and of the audiencias shall submit their excuses to the proper superior, who shall relieve them from taking part in the judicial proceedings, and shall select as a substitute the person he may deem proper from among their subordinates. ART. 99. When the prosecuting officials do not excuse themselves, notwithstanding their being included in any of the causes mentioned in article 54, those who consider themselves injured may appeal in complaint to the immediate superior. The latter shall hear the subordinate who may have been the object of the complaint, and if he shall find it proper shall order his substitution. If he shall not find it proper he may order him to appear in the case. There shall be no remedy against this decision. The public prosecutors of the territorial audiencias shall decide the complaints addressed to them against the public prosecutors of the criminal audiencias. If the public prosecutor of the supreme court be the subject of the complaint, it must be addressed to the Minister of Grace and Justice through the chief justice of the said court. The Minister of Grace and Justice after hearing the chamber of administration of the supreme court, should he consider it necessary, shall decide what he may deem proper.

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TITULO IV DE LAS PERSONAS k QUIENES CORRESPONDE EL EJERCICIO DE LAS ACCIONES QUE NACEN DE LOS DELITOS Y FALTAS. ART. 100. De todo delito 6 falta nace acci6n penal para el castigo del culpable, y puede nacer tambien acci6n civil para la restituci6n de la cosa, la reparaci6n del daiio y la indenizaci6n de perjuicios causados por el echo punible.' ART. 101. La acci6n penal es piblica. Todos los ciudadanos espafioles podrAn ejercitarla con arreglo 6 las prescripciones de la ley. ART. 102. Sin embargo de 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior, no podran ejercitar Ia acci6n penal10. El que no goce de la plenitud de los derechos civiles.? 2" Las acciones penales, por su naturaleza, y con arreglo 4 los principios del derecho, nunca deben ampliarse, sino por el contrario, entenderse y aplicarse siempre de un modo restrictivo." (Sentencia de Junio 3, 1874.) 2Sin la pretensi6n de conseguir una enumeraci6n completa, las personas que no pueden comparecer en juicio ni, por consiguiente, dar poder i otro para que comparezean en su nombre, A no ser con la intervenci6n de sus representantes legftimos, son las siguientes: Los hubrfanos menores.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor (c6digo civil, articulo 262), el cual en ciertos casos necesita el consentimiento del consejo de familia (id., 269, nmeros 12 y 13). Si los intereses del tutor son opuestos d los del hu6rfano, por ejemplo, en el supuesto del ndmero 90, artfculo 237, la representaci6n en juicio corresponde al protutor (286, apartado 2). Los hijos no emancipados, por los que comparecen sus padres (cddigo civil, articulo 155), y cuando 6stos tengan inter6s incompatible con el de los hijos, el defensor d que alude el artfculo 165, que equivale al antigno curador para pleitos, de que hablan los artfculos 1852 A 1860 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Si los padres estdn privados de la patria potestad, 6 tienen suspendido su ejercicio (c6digo civil, articulos 70, pdrrafo 30, 73, pdrrafo 2 del ndmero 2, y 168 6 171), representarA A los hijos el tutor nombrado. Los menores de edad emancipados por concesidn del padre 6 de la madre, son representados en juicio por sus padres, y en su defecto por un tutor. (Articulos 314, nimero 3, y 317 del c6digo civil.) Los menores que obtienen el benefcio de la mayor edad por concesi6rn del consejo de familiar, son representados por un tutor. (Cdigo civil, artictdos 322 324 y 317 4 que se refiere el u1timo.) Los easados mayores de 18 anos, pueden comparecer por sf en juicio en nombre propio y en el de su mujer, segdn los artfculos 59 y 315 del c6digo civil, que deben asf entenderse, pues la emancipaci6n de que habla el artfculo 317 se refiere A la del ndmero 3 del 314. 38

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TITLE IV. PERSONS WHO MAY EXERCISE RIGHTS OF ACTION ARISING OUT OF CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS. ART. 100. A criminal action arises from every crime or misdemeanor for the punishment of the culprit, and a civil action may also arise for the restitution of the thing, the repair of the damage, and the indemnity of the losses caused by the punishable act.' ART. 101. A criminal action is public. All Spanish citizens may bring a criminal action according to the provisions of law. ART. 102. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article a criminal action can not be brought by: 1. A person not in the full enjoyment of civil rights.2 Criminal actions, by reason of their character and in accordance with the princi1 les of law, can never be extended, but, on the contrary, must be understood and applied always in a restricted manner. (Supreme Court. decision of June 3, 1894.) 2 Without attempting a full enumeration, the persons who can not appear in an etion, and consequently who can not grant powers of attorney to others to appear in their behalf, unless it be with the intervention of their legal representatives, are the following: Minors who are orphans are legally represented by their guardians (Civil Code, art. e62), who in certain cases require the consent of the family council. (Ibid., 269, Nos. 12 and 13.) If the interests of the tutor are opposed to those of the orphan, as, for example, in the case of number 9 of article 237 of the Civil Code, the representation of the minor in court pertains to the protutor. (Ibid., 236, second par.) Children not emancipated are represented by their parents (Civil Code, art. 155), and when said parents have an interest which is incompatible with that of their children the latter shall be represented by the next friend referred to in article 165, which is equivalent to the former curator ad litem referred to in articles 1852 to 1860 of the Law of Civil Procedure. If the parents are deprived of the parental authority, or if it be suspended (Civil Code, articles 70, paragraph 3; 78, par. 2 of number 2, and 168 to 171), the tutor appointed shall represent the children. Minors emancipated by the concession of the father or mother are represented in court by their parents, or, in their absence, by one tutor. (Articles 314, number 3, and 317 of the Civil Code.) Minors who obtain the benefit of majority by concession of the family council are represented by one tutor. (Civil Code, articles 322 to 324 and 817, referred to.) Married persons over 18 years of age may appear in person in court in their own name and in that of their wives, according to articles 59 and 315 of the Civil Code, which must be understood in this manner, because the emancipation referred to in article 317 relates to that of number 3 of article 314. 38

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39 20. El que hubiera sido condenado dos veces por sentencia firme como reo del delito de denuncia 6 querella calumniosas. 3o. El juez 6 magistrado. Los comprendidos en los nflmeros anteriores podran, sin embargo, ejercitar la acci6n penal por delito 6 falta cometidos contra sus personas 6 bienes, 6 contra las personas 6 bienes de sus c6nyuges, ascendientes, descendientes, hermanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines. Los comprendidos en los nilmeros 2 y 3 podrAn ejercitar tambien la acci6n penal por el delito 6 falta cometidos contra las personas 6 bienes de los que estuviesen bajo su guard legal. Art. 103. Tampoco podrin ejercitar acciones penales entre si10. Los c6nyuges, a no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por el uno contra la persona del otro 6 la de sus hijos y por los delitos de adulterio, amancebamiento y bigamia. Los condenados 6 interdictos. (V4anse los articulos 228, 229, 262, 269, nimeros 12 y 13, y 274 del c6digo civil, y los 26, 43, 54 y 57 del penal.) Los locos, dementes y sordomudos.-Su representaci6n legal corresponde al tutor 6 en su caso al defensor que nombren los tribunals 6 al ministerio pdblico. (C6digo civil, articulos 215, apartado 3o, 262, 269, ntmeros 12y 13, y 274.) En los pleitos sobre prodigalidad, cuando el demandado no comparezca, tendra sn representaci6n el fiscal 6 en su caso el defensor nombrado por el juez. (Cddigo civil, articulo 228. "La mujer casada.-Los casos en que necesita licencia de su marido para comparecer por sf en juicio y los en que no necesita, se determinan en los artfculos 60 y 1387 del c6digo civil. Consursados.-Una vez hecha la declaraci6n de concurso, quedan incapacitados para la administration de sus bienes todos (1161 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil y 1914 del cddigo civil), y consiguientemente privados del pleno ejercicio de sus derechos civiles. La representaci6n legal del concurso corresponde al depositario administrador (ley, artfculo 1181) hasta el nombramiento de sfndicos. Verificado dste, los afndicos representan al concurso en juicio defendiendo sus derechos y ejercitando las acciones y excepciones que le competan. (Id, articulo 1181, regla a.) Personas juridicas (corporaciones, sociedades y demds entidades juridicas).-Los pueblos y ayuntamientos son representados en juicio por los procuradores sfndicos y en los pueblos agregados S otros para formar ayuntamiento, los presidentes de sus juntas administrativas representan tambidn 4. sus respectivos pueblos, cuando se trate de acciones 6 derechos que corresponden exclusivamente 6 sus mismos pueblos. (Articulos 56 y 90 4 96 de la ley de 1877, y R. O. 30 Enero 1875.) Las provincial eran representadas por el diputado provincial nombrado al efecto con arreglo al artfculo 37 de la ley de 25 de Septiembre de 1863; luego lo fueron por el gobernador, conforme 6 los articulos 90 y 70 de la ley de 2 de Octubre de 1877, y boy lo son por el vice presidente de la comisi6n provincial, conforme al artfculo 98, ndmero 60 de la ley de 29 de Agosto de 1882. La hacienda pzblica ha venido siendo representada por el ministerio fiscal en la forma prescrita por el decreto de 9 de Julio de 1869 y por la orden de la misma fecha; pero desde el decreto de 16 Marzo 1886 corresponde su representaci6n A los abogados del estado. Las palabras de este articulo no significan que el delito objeto de la querella hays de ser precisamente de los que el c6digo penal denomina contra las personas en el

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39 2. A person who has been twice condemned by a final sentence as guilty of the crime of calumnious denunciations or complaints. 3. The judge or justice. Those included in the foregoing numbers may, however, bring a criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor committed against their persons or property, or against the persons or property of their spouses, ascendants, descendants, uterine brothers or sisters, or relatives by consanguinity or affinity. The persons included in numbers 2 and 3 may also bring a criminal action for a misdemeanor or crime committed against the persons or property of those who may be under their legal care. Art. 103. Nor can the following persons bring criminal actions against each other: 1. Spouses, except for a crime or misdemeanor committed by one against the person of the other or that of his or her children,' and for the crimes of adultery, concubinage, and bigamy. Persons suffering interdiction or undergoing a sentence. (See articles 228, 229, 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274 of the Civil Code, and the proper articles of the Penal Code.) The deaf and dumb and the insane are legally represented by their guardian or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court or by the public prosecutor. (Civil Code, articles 215, paragraph 3; 262, 269, numbers 12 and 13, and 274.) In actions relating to prodigals, when the defendant does not appear, he shall be represented by the public prosecutor or, in a proper case, by the next friend appointed by the court. ( Civil Code, article 228.) Married woman.-The cases in which she does and does not require the permission of her husband to appear in an action are mentioned in articles 60 and 1387 of the Civil Code. Bankrupts.-After a declaration in bankruptcy the bankrupts are disqualified from administering any of their property (1161 of the law of Civil Procedure and 1914 of the Civil Code), and consequently are deprived of the full exercise of their civil rights. The depositary-administrator is the legal representative of the estate of the bankrupt (law, art. 1181) until trustees are appointed. After this has been done the trustees represent the bankrupt in court, defending his rights and taking the actions and exceptions incumbent upon them. (Ibid., article 1181, rule 1.) Judicial persons (corporations, associations, and other judicial entities) .-Towns and municipalities are represented by the procuradores sindicos, and in towns annexed to others in order to constitute a municipality, the presidents of their administrative boards also represent the respective towns, when actions or rights are involved which pertain exclusively to the said towns. (Articles 56 and 90 of the law of 1877, and Royal order of January 30, 1875.) Provinces were represented by the provincial deputy, appointed for the purpose in accordance with article 37 of the law of September 25, 1863; afterwards they were represented by the governor, in accordance with articles 9 and 70 of the law of October 2, 1877, and now they are represented by the vice-president of the provincial commission, in accordance with article 98, number 6, of the law of August 29, 1882. The public treasury has been represented by the department of public prosecution in the manner prescribed by the decree of July 9, 1869, and by the order of the same date; but since the decree of March 16, 1886, it is represented by the state attorneys. 'The words of this article do not signify that the crime which is the subject of the complaint must be of those which the Penal Code denominates crimes against the

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40 2. Los ascendientes, descendientes y hermanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines, a no ser por delito 6 falta cometidos por los unos contra las personas de los otros. ART. 104. Las acciones penales que nacen de los delitos de estupro, calumnia 4 injuria tampoco podran ser ejercitadas por otras personas ni en manera distinta qne las prescritas en los respectivos articulos del c6digo penal. Las faltas consistentes en el anuncio por medio de la imprenta de hechos falsos 6 relativos 4 la vida privada con el quo se perjudique u ofenda a particulares, en malos tratamientos inferidos por los maridos a sus mujeres, en desobediencia 6 malos tratos de 6stas para con aquillos, en faltas de respeto y sumisi6n de los hijos respecto do sus padres, 6 de los pupilos respecto de sus tutores, y en injurias leves, s6lo podran ser perseguidas por los ofendidos 6 por sus legitimos representantes. ART. 105. Los funcionarios del ministerio fiscal tendran la obligaci6n de ejercitar, con arreglo a las disposiciones de la ley, todas las acciones penales quo consideren procedentes, haya 6 no acusador particular en las causas, menos aquillas que el c6digo penal reserva exclusivamente a la querella privada. Tambien deberin ejercitarlas en las causas por los delitos contra la honestidad, que con arreglo & las prescripciones del c6digo penal deben denunciarse previamente por los interesados, 6 cuando el ministerio fiscal deba 6 su vez denunciarlos por recaer dichos delitos sobre personas desvalidas 6 faltas de personalidad.1 ART. 106. La acci6n penal por delito 6 falta quo de lugar al procedimiento de oficio no se extingue por la renuncia de la persona ofendida. Pero se extinguen por esta causa las quo nacen del delito 6 falta quo no puedan ser perseguidos sino a instancia de parte, y las civiles, cualesquiera que sea el delito 6 falta de que procedan. ART. 107. La renuncia de la acci6n civil 6 de la penal renunciable no perjudicara mis que al renunciante; pudiendo continuar el ejercicio de la penal en el estado en que se halle la causa, 6 ejercitarla nuevamente los demis a quienes tambi4n correspondiere. titulo viii, libro ii (parricidio, asesinato, homicidio, infanticidio, aborto, lesions y duelo), sino que la ley alude 4 la condici6n de que el echo ofenda d persona emparentada con el culpable, que puede ser perseguido 4 instancia de la agraviada, annque el delito sea de injuria. (Marzo 2 de 1885.-Gaceta, Octubre 4.) 1 En cumplimiento del artfculo 467 del c6digo penal vigente en las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico, el ministerio fiscal tiene la obligation de ejercitar la acci6n penal en los delitos de rapto y adulterio 4 que el mismo se refiere.

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40 2. The ascendants, descendants, the uterine brothers or sisters, or relatives those by consanguinity or affinity, unless for a crime or misdemeanor by either against the persons of the others. ART. 104. Nor can penal actions which arise from the crimes of seduction, calumny, and contumely be instituted by other persons or in a different manner than those prescribed in the respective articles of the Penal Code. Misdemeanors consisting in a notice in the press of false facts or which relate to the private life, by which individuals are prejudiced or offended, in the ill-treatment of wives by their husbands, the disobedience of or the ill treatment by wives of their husbands, lack of respect and submission of children to their parents, or of pupils to their tutors, and in slight acts of contumely, can only be prosecuted by the persons offended or by their legitimate representatives. ART. 105. The public prosecutors are obliged to institute, according to the provisions of law, all criminal actions which they may consider proper, whether there be a private accuser or not in the causes, except in those which the Penal Code reserves exclusively to private complaints. They shall also institute them in causes for crimes against chastity, which, according to the provisions of the Penal Code, must first be denounced by the persons interested, or when the public prosecutor should himself denounce them, because said crimes are committed against helpless persons or those lacking personality.' ART. 106. A criminal action for a crime or misdemeanor which gives rise to proceedings ex officio is not extinguished by the withdrawal of the complaint by the person offended. Actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor which can only be prosecuted at the instance of a party, and civil actions, whatever be the crime or misdemeanor involved, are extinguished for this cause. ART. 107. The abandonment of the civil action or of a criminal action which can be abandoned shall only prejudice the person who abandons it; the other persons interested in the cause being permitted to continue the criminal action in the state it was, or institute a new one. person in Title VIII, Book II (parricide, assassination, homicide, infanticide, abortion, injuries inflicted with violence, and dueling), but the law refers to a state when the act offends a person related to the guilty person, which may be prosecuted at the instance of the person injured, even though the crime be an outrage. (March 9, 1885-Gaceta of October 4.) In compliance with the provisions of article 467 of the Penal Code in force in the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, the prosecuting officials are obliged to bring a criminal action in the crimes of abduction and adultery referred to therein. 18473-01-6

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41 ART. 108. La acci6n civil ha de entablarse juntamente con la penal por el ministerio fiscal, haya 6 no en el proceso acusador particular; pero si el ofendido renunciare expresamente su derecho de restituci6n, reparaci6n 6 indemnizaci6n, e1 ministerio fiscal se limitara A pedir el castigo de los culpables. ART. 109. En el acto de recibirse declaraci6n al ofendido que tuviese la capacidad legal necesaria, so le instruira del derecho que le asiste para mostrarse parte en el proceso y renunciar 6 no A la restituci6n de la cosa, reparaci6n del dailo a indemnizaci6n del perjuicio causado por el hecho punible.' Si no tuviese capacidad legal, se practicara igual diligencia con su representante. Fuera de los' casos previstos en los dos parrafos anteriores, no se bara a los interesados en las acciones civiles 6 penales notificaci6n alguna que prolongue 6 detenga el curso de la causa, 1o cual no obsta para que el juez procure instruir de aquel derecho al ofendido ausente. ART. 110. Los perjudicados por un delito 6 falta que no hubieren renunciado su derecho podran mostrarse part en la causa, si lo hicieren antes del tramite de calificaci6n del delito, y ejercitar las acciones civiles y penales que procedan, 6 solamente unas u otras, segfln les conviniere, sin que por ello se retroceda en el curso de las actuaciones. Aun cuando los perjudicados no se muestren parte en la causa, no por esto se entiende que renuncian al derecho de restituci6n, reparaci6n 6 indemnizaci6n que a su favor pueda acordarse en sentencia firme; siendo menester que la renuncia de este derecho se haga en su caso de una manera express y terminante. ART. 111. Las acciones que nacen de un delito 6 falta podran ejercitarse junta 6 separadamente; pero mientras estuviese pendiente la acci6n penal, no se ejercitara la civil con separaci6n hasta que aquilla baya sido resuelta en sentencia firm, salvo siempre 1o dispuesto en los articulos 4o, 5o y 6o de este c6digo. ART. 112. Ejercitada s6lo la acci6n penal, se entenderA utilizada tambien ]a civil, A no ser que daflado 6 perjudicado la renunciase 6 la reservase expresamente para ejercitarla despues do terminado el juicio criminal si a ello hubiere lugar. Si se ejercitase s6o la civil que nace de un delito de los que no pueden perseguirse sino en virtud de querella particular, se considerara extinguida desde luego la acci6n penal. ART. 113. PodrAn ejercitarse expresamente las dos acciones por una misma persona o por varias; pero siempre que sean dos o mas las La obligaci6n de instruir de su derecho 1 los interesados en la causa, no s6lo se establece -6 favor de los perjudicados por el delito, sino en beneficio de los presuntos culpables, conforme al artfculo 20.

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41 ART. 108. The civil action must be brought jointly with the criminal action by the prosecuting official, whether there be a private accuser or not in the cause; but if the person offended shall expressly renounce his right to restitution, repair, or indemnity, the prosecuting official shall confine himself to requesting the punishment of the guilty parties. ART. 109. As soon as the declaration of an offended party having the necessary legal capacity has been received, he shall be informed of his rights to become a party to the action and to renounce or not the restitution of the thing, repair of the damage, and indemnity for the loss caused by the punishable act.' Should he not have the legal capacity, the same information shall be communicated to his representative. Aside from the cases provided for in the two foregoing paragraphs, no notice shall be served upon the parties interested in civil or criminal actions which shall prolong or delay the course of the cause, which, however, is not an obstacle to the judge informing the absent person offended of his rights. ART. 110. Those prejudiced by a crime or misdemeanor who shall not have renounced their rights may enter an appearance in the cause, should they do so before the classification of the crime, and exercise the proper civil and criminal actions, or either, as they may desire, without, however, causing any retrogression in the course of the proceedings. Even if the persons prejudiced do not enter an appearance in the cause, it shall not be understood that they thereby renounce the right to restitution, repair, or indemnity which may be granted them by final sentence, it being necessary that the renunciation of this right be made in a proper case in an express and positive manner. ART. 111. The actions which arise from a crime or misdemeanor may be instituted jointly or separately; but during the pendency of the criminal action the civil action can not be brought separately until the former has been decided by a final sentence, excepting always the provisions of articles 4, 5, and 6 of this code. ART. 112. If the criminal action only is instituted, it shall be understood that a civil action may also be brought, unless the person injured or prejudiced renounces the same or expressly reserves the right to institute it after the conclusion of the criminal action, if necessary. If only the civil action arising from a crime which can be prosecuted only on a private complaint is instituted, the criminal action shall thereby be considered as extinguished. ART. 113. The two actions may be expressly instituted by the same or by different persons; but should the actions derived from a crime or tThe obligation of informing the parties to a cause of their right is established not only with regard to those injured by the crime but also in favor of the presumed criminals, according to article 2.

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42 personas por quienes se utilicen las acciones derivadas de un delito 6 falta, 1o verificaran en un solo proceso, y si fuere posible bajo una misma direcci6n y representaci6n a juicio del tribunal. ART. 114. Promovido juicio criminal en averiguaci6n de un delito 6 falta, no podra seguirse pleito sobre el mismo hecho; suspendidndole, si le bubiese, en el estado en que se hallare, hasta que recaiga sentencia firm en la causa criminal. No sera necesario para el ejercicio de la acci6n penal quo haya precedido el de la civil originada del mismo delito 6 falta. Lo dispuesto en este articulo se entiende sin perjuicio de 1o establecido en el capitulo II, titulo I de este libro respecto a las cuestiones prejudiciales. ART. 115. La acci6n penal se extingue por la muerte del culpable; pero en este caso subsiste la civil contra sus herederos y causahabientes, que s6lo podra ejercitarse ante la jurisdicci6n y por la via de lo civil.1 ART. 116. La extinci6n de la acci6n penal no lieva tonsigo la de la civil, a no ser que la extinci6n procede de haberse declarado por sentencia firm que no existi6 el hecho de que la civil hubiese podido nacer. En los demis casos, la persona a quien correspond la acci6n civil podra ejercitarla ante la jurisdicci6n y por la via de lo civil que proceda contra quien estuviere obligado a la restituci6n de la cosa, reparaci6n del daiio 6 indemnizaci6n del perjuicio sufrido. ART. 117. La extinci6n de la acci6n civil tampoco lleva consigo Ia de la penal que nazca del mismo delito 6 falta. La sentencia firm absolutoria dictada en el pleito promovido por el ejercicio de la acci6n civil no sera obstaculo para el ejercicio de la acci6n penal correspondiente. Lo dispuesto en este articulo se entiende sin perjuicio de 1o que establece el capitulo II del titulo I de este libro, y los articulos 106, 107, 110 y parrafo segundo del 112. 1 Este artfculo es sustancial repetici6n de los 125 y 132, ndm. 1 del c6digo penal.

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42 misdemeanor be instituted by two or more persons, they shall do so in one proceeding, and if possible with the same counsel, in the discretion of the court. ART. 114. If a criminal action is brought to investigate a crime or misdemeanor, a suit can not be prosecuted in the same; the proceeding being suspended, should any be pending, in the state in which it may be, until final sentence has been pronounced in the criminal cause. It shall not be necessary for the institution of the criminal action that it shall have been preceded by the civil action arising from the same crime or misdemeanor. The provisions of this article shall be understood without prejudice to those of Chapter II, Title I, of this book, with reference to preliminary questions. ART. 115. A criminal action is extinguished by the death of the culprit; but in such case a civil action still lies against his heirs and successors in right, which can only be brought in a civil court and through civil channels.' ART. 116. The extinction of the criminal action does not carry with it the extinction of the civil action, unless the extinction be caused by a final sentence declaring that the act on which a civil action might be based did not exist. In other cases the person having a right of civil action may institute before the civil jurisdiction, and through the proper civil channels, an action against the person who may be obliged to restore the thing, to repair the damage, or indemnify the losses suffered. ART. 117. Nor does the extinction of the civil action extinguish the criminal action resulting from the same crime or misdemeanor. A final judgment absolving from liability rendered in the suit brought by the exercise of the right of civil action, shall not bar the exercise of the proper right of criminal action. The provisions of this article are to be understood without prejudice to the provisions of Chapter II, Title I, of this book, and of articles 106, 107, 110, and the second paragraph of article 112. 'This article is substantially a repetition of articles 125 and 132, subd. 1, of the Penal Code.

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TITULO V. DEL DERECHO DE DEFENSE Y DEL BENEFICIO DE POBBEZA EN LOS JTHICIOS CRIIwALES. ART. 118. Los procesados deberin ser representados por procurador y defendidos por letrado, que pueden nombrar desde que se les notifique el auto de procesamiento. Si no los nombraren por si mismos 6 no tuvieren aptitud legal para verificarlo, se les designar4 de oficio cuando 1o solicitaren. Si el procesado no hubiese designado procurador 6 letrado, se le requerira para que lo verifique, 6 se le nombrara de oficio, si requerido no los nombrase, cuando la causa liegue a estado en que necesite el consejo de aquillos 6 haya de intentar algin recurso que hiciere indispensable su intervenci6n.' ART. 119. Los perjudicados por el echo punible 6 sus herederos que fueren parte en el juicio, si estuviesen habilitados para defenderse como pobres, tendran tambien derecho a que se les nombre de oficio procurador y abogado, para su representaci6n y defensa. ART. 120. Los abogados a quienes correspond la defensa de pobres no podrn excusarse de ella sin un motivo personal y justo, que calificaran segun su prudente arbitrio los decanos de los colegios donde los hubiese, y en su defecto el juez 6 tribunal en que hubieren de bacerse las defensas. ART. 121. Todos los que sean parte en una causa, si no estuviesen declarados pobres, tendran obligaci6n de satisfacer los derechos de los procuradores que les representen, los honorarios de los abogados que les defiendan, los de los peritos que informen a su instancia y las indemnizaciones de los testigos que presentaren, cuando los peritos y testigos al declarar hubiesen formulado su reclamaci6n y el juez 6 tribunal la estimaren. Ni durante la causa ni despues de terminada tendran obligaci6n de satisfacer las demis costas procesales, a no ser que a ello fueren condenados. 1 Los abogados estdn obligados .t defender 6 los pobres. Impuesta un abogado la correcci6n disciplinaria para que estin autorizados los juzgados y tribunales, resisti6ndose todavia aquil A aceptar la defensa que por turno le correspondi6 de un litigante pobre, fu6 procesado y penado como reo de desobediencia grave, con arreglo al art. 265 del c6digo penal, y habiendo interpuesto recurso de casaci6n, se declare no haber lugar d 6l por no haberse infringido dicho artfculo. (Sentencia de Marzo 7 de 1877.) 43

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TITLE V. THE RIGHT OF DEFENSE AND THE BENEFIT OF POVERTY IN CRIMINAL CAUSES. AnT. 118. The persons accused must be represented by a solicitor and defended by an attorney, whom they may appoint as soon as they are notified of the indictment. If they do not designate them themselves or should they not have the legal power to do so, they shall be appointed ex oficio, upon their request. If the accused should not have designated a solicitor or attorney, he shall be required to do so or they shall be appointed ex officio, if they should not have been appointed by him when the cause reaches a stage where he needs their counsel or some step should be taken wherein their intervention is necessary.' ART. 119. The persons injured by the punishable act, or their heirs, who may be parties to the action, if they have been declared as entitied to defense in fonna pauperis, shall also have the right to have a solicitor and attorney appointed ex officio to represent and defend them. ART. 120. The attorneys whose duty it is to defend the poor can not excuse themselves therefrom, except for a personal and just cause, which shall be passed upon according to the prudent judgment by the deans of the college, where there is such, and in their absence by the judge or court before which the defense is to be made. ART. 121. All parties to a cause, if not declared poor persons, shall be obliged to pay the fees of the solicitors who represent them, of the attorneys who defend them, of the experts testifying in their behalf, and of the witnesses which they present, if the experts and witnesses at the time of testifying shall have filed their claim and the judge or court shall have allowed it. Neither during the cause nor after its termination shall they be obliged to pay the other costs of the proceedings, unless adjudged to pay them. 'Attorneys are obliged to defend poor persons. A disciplinary penalty having been imposed upon an attorney, for which superior and inferior courts have authority, as he still refused to accept the defense of a poor person when it was his turn to do so, he was tried and convicted as guilty of grave disobedience, in accordance with the provisions of article 265 of the Penal Code, and upon taking an appeal for annulment of judgment it was disallowed, it being held that said article had not been violated. (Decision of March 7, 1887.) 43

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44 El procurador que nombrado por los que fueren parte en una causa, haya aceptado su representaci6n, tendrs obligaci6n de pagar los honorarios a los letrados de que se valiesen los clientes para su defensa. Los que hubiesen sido declarados pobres podrin valerse de abogado de su elecci6n; pero en este caso estarin obligados a abonarles sus honorarios, como se dispone respecto de los que no est4n declarados pobres. ART. 122. Se usari papel de oficio en los judicios sobre faltas y en las causas criminales, sin perjuicio del correspondiente reintegro si hubiere condenaci6n de costas. ART. 123. S6lo podran ser habilitados como pobres: 10. Los que vivan de un jornal 6 salario eventual. 26. Los que vivan s6lo de un salario permanent, 6 de un sueldo, cualquiera que sea su procedencia, que no exceda del doble jornal de un bracero en la localidad donde tengan su residencia habitual. 3o. Los que vivan s6lo de rentas, cultivo de tierras 6 cria de ganados, cuyos products estin graduados en una suma que no exceda de la equivalent al jornal de dos braceros en el lugar de su residencia habitual. 4o. Los que vivan s6lo del ejercicio de una industria 6 de los productos de cualquier comercio por los cuales paguen de contribuci6n una suma inferior a ]a fijada en la siguiente escala: En la ciudad de la Habana, 150 pesetas. En las capitales de las otras provincial de la isla de Cuba, 100 pesetas. En la capital de la isla de Puerto Rico, 100 pesetas. En las capitales de los partidos judiciales de las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico, 50 pesetas. En las demas poblaciones de ambas islas, 25 pesetas. 51. Los que tengan embargados todos sus bienes, 6 los hayan cedido judicialmente 4 sus acreedores, y no ejerzan industria, oficio 6 profesi6n. En estos casos, si quedasen bienes despuds de pagar a los acreedores, se aplicarin al pago de las costas que deba satisfacer el defendido como pobre.' 'Este articulo debe entenderse subordinado al 125, y, por 1o tanto, procede denegar el beneficio si la sala deduce de los signs visibles de riqueza que el que le pretende tiene medios superiores al doble journal de un bracero.-Sentencias del Tribunal Supremo 18 Febrero 1870; s1 Diciembre 1877; 22 Sepliembre, 18 y 21 Noviembre 1879; 10 Enero, 29 Marzo y 24 Junio 1880; 11 Febrero 1881; 15 Diciembre 1888 y otras. (b) Contra Ia sentencia que concede 5 un litigante el beneficio de pobreza no procede el recurso de casaci6n.-Senteneia de 10 Mayo 1881. (c) Tambidn debe declararse pobre 4 la persona que vive exclusivamente con una

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44 A solicitor who, being appointed by those who are parties to a cause, agrees to represent them, shall be obliged to pay the fees of the attorneys of whose services their clients avail themselves for their defense. Those who have been declared poor persons may select their own attorney, but in such case they shall be obliged to pay his fees, as is provided with regard to those who are not declared poor persons. ART. 122. Official stamped paper shall be employed in trials for misdemeanors and in criminal causes, without prejudice to the proper payment therefor, should there be an adjudgment upon costs. ART. 123. Only the following can be permitted to prosecute and defend as poor persons: 1. Those who depend for a living upon an uncertain wage or salary. 2. Those who depend for a living upon a permanent salary or wage, from whatsoever source derived, which does not exceed double that received by a laborer in the locality of his habitual residence. 3. Those who depend for a living solely upon rents, farming, or stock raising, the proceeds of which do not exceed the wages of two laborers in the place of their habitual residence. 4. Those who gain their livelihood solely through the exercise of an industry or from the product of any commerce on which they pay a tax lower than that fixed in the following scale: In the city of Havana, 150 pesetas. In the capitals of the other provinces of the island of Cuba, 100 pesetas. In the capital of the island of Porto Rico, 100 pesetas. In the seats of the judicial districts of the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico, 50 pesetas. In the other towns of both islands, 25 pesetas. 5. Such persons whose entire property has been. attached, or who have made a judicial assignment thereof to their creditors, and who are not engaged in any industry, trade, or profession. In such cases, if any property shall remain after the creditors have been paid, it shall be applied to the payment of the costs incurred at the instance of the debtor defended as a poor person.' (a) This article must be understood as subordinated to article 125, and therefore it is proper to refuse the benefit if the court shall deduce from visible signs of wealth that the applicant has means which exceed double the wages of a laborer.-Decisions of the Supreme Court of February 18, 1870; September 22, November 18 and 21, 1879; January 10, March 29, and June 24, 1880; February 11, 1881; December 15, 1883, and others. (b) An appeal for annulment of judgment does not lie from a decision granting permission to prosecute or defend as a poor person.-Decision of May 10, 1881. (c) A person who lives solely on a pension of 20 reales uer day, left him by will

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45 ART. 124. Cuando alguno reuniere dos 6 nis medios de vivir de los designados en el articulo anterior, el tribunal apreciarA los rendimientos de todos ellos, y no otorgara la defense por pobre si reunidos excedieren de los tipos sefialados en el articulo precedente. ART. 125. No se otorgara la defense por pobre A los comprendidos en cualquiera de los casos expresados en el art. 123, cuando a juicio del tribunal se infiera del n6mero de criados que tengan a su servicio, del alquiler de la casa que habiten 6 de otros cualesquiera signos exteriores que tienen medios superiores al jornal doble de un bracero en cada localidad. ART. 126. Tampoco se otorgara la defensa por pobre al litigants que disfrute una renta que unida a Ia de su consorte 6 al producto de los bienes de sus bijos cuyo usufructo le correspond, constituyan acumupensi6n de 20 reales diarios, que se la dej6 en testamento para ella y sus tres hijos.Sentencia 25 Octubre 1880. (d) Para determinar si el que solicita el beneficio de pobreza, que viene litigando 6 nombre propio, es 6 no acreedor d 61, no puede tomarse en cuenta la contribuci6n que satisfaga como gerente de una sociedad.-Sentencia 9 Febrero 1882. (e) No puede fundarse ]a denegaciun del beneficio, en que el interesado, aunque no paga contribuci6n alguna, deberfa satisfacer como cuota industrial 40 pesetas al aflo; pues los tribunales deben limitarse d apreciar el hecho de si se paga 6 no contribuci6n, sin poder declarar si debe 6 no debe pagarse, materia de la exclusive competencia de la administraci6n.-Sentencia 31 Octubre 1884. (f) La residencia habitual & que se refiere el articulo 15 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil, para los efectos de la defensa por pobre, debe ser la que tenga el interesado al tiempo de solicitar dicho beneficio, y no la del lugar en que hubiere residido por mis tiempo en 4pocas anteriores.-Sentencia 30 Mayo 1883. (g) Todo litigants se consider rico mientras no pruebe 10 contrario.-Sentencia 12 Noviembre 1883. (h) El litigate es quien debe probar 6 cuanto asciende el doble jornal de un bracero en su localidad.-Sentencia 3 .Junio 1887. (i) Los hijos nacidos de primer matrimonio de una mujer cuyo segundo marido es rico tienen derecho al beneficio de pobreza, porque los bienes gananciales del segundo enlace no corresponden 6. los litigios que se sigan en interns de los hijos del primer matrimonio.-Sentencia 18 Abril 1893. (j) El beneficio de pobreza es individual y no se extiende $ ninguna colectividad, ni por 1o tanto .las sociedades industriales y mercantiles, si todos y cada uno de sus individuos no acrediten ser pobres.-Sentencias 15 Abril 1879, 3 Junio 1880 y 9 .Julio 1881. (k) El que por virtud de embargo judicial se ve privado de sus bienes, queddndole libres los frutos y rents de los mismos, no puede decir que tiene embargados todos sus bienes, segun exige el numero 50 del artfculo 15 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil, para pretender los beneficios de los artfculos 13 y 14 de la misma.-Sentencia 14 Octubre 1886. Lo propio secede cuando se encuentran hipotecados 6 dados en garantfa.Sentencia 18 Septienbre 1865.

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45 ART. 124. If a person has two or more of the means of livelihood mentioned in the foregoing article, the court shall include all of them in the computation of the income, and permission to prosecute and defend as a poor person shall not be granted him if the total thereof exceeds the amounts fixed in the foregoing article. ART. 125. Permission to prosecute and defend as a poor person shall not be granted to a person in any of the cases mentioned in article 123 when in the judgment of the court it is inferred from the number of domestics in his service, the rent of his residence, or from any other visible signs that his means exceed an amount equal to twice the wages of a laborer in his respective locality. ART. 126. Neither shall permission to prosecute and defend in forma pauperis be granted to a litigant who enjoys an income which, added to that of his spouse, or to the proceeds from the property of his children, for himself and his three children, must be granted this right.-Decision of October 25, 1880. (d) In order to decide whether the person requesting permission to prosecute or defend as a poor person who has acted in his own name is entitled thereto or not, the tax which he pays as the manager of an association can not be taken into consideration.-Decision of September 9, 1882. (e) The refusal to grant the benefit can not be based on the fact that the person interested should pay an industrial tax of 40 pesetas per annum, although he does not do so, the courts being obliged to consider only whether the tax is or is not paid without being allowed to declare that it should or should not be paid. which is a matter of the exclusive jurisdiction of the administration.-Decision of October 31, 1884. (f) The habitual residence referred to in article 15 of the Law of Civil Procedure, for the purposes of the benefit of poverty, must be that which the person interested has at the time he requests said benefit, and not the place where he may have resided for a longer period in former times.-Decision of May 30, 1883. (g) All litigants shall be considered wealthy until they prove the contrary.Decision of November 12, 1883. (h) It is incumbent rpon the litigant to prove the amount of the wages of a laborer in his locality.-Decision of June 3, 1887. (i) The children born of a first marriage of a woman whose husband is wealthy are entitled to the benefit of poverty, because the conjugal property of the second marriage is not liable for the litigation instituted in the interest of the issue of the first marriage.-Decision of April 18, 1893. (j) The benefit of poverty is individual and does not extend, therefore, to any collectivity, such as industrial and commercial associations, unless each and every one of their members prove that they are poor.-Decisions of April 15, 1879; June 3, 1880, and July 9, 1881. (k) A person who is deprived of his property by virtue of a judicial attachment, and retains the products and rent thereof, can not allege that all his property is attached, as required by number 5 of article 15 of thelaw of Civil Procedure, for the purpose of securing the benefits of article 13 and 14 thereof.-Decision of October 14, 1886. The same is the case when the property is mortgaged or given as security.Decision of September 18, 1865.

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46 ladas una suma equivalent al jornal de tres braceros en el lugar donde tenga la familia su residencia habitual.' ART. 127. Cuando litigaren unidos varios que individualmente tengan derecho a ser defendidos por pobres, se les habilitara como tales aun cuando los productos reunidos de los modos de vivir de todos ellos excedieren de los tipos que quedan senfalados. ART. 128. La declaraci6n de pobreza se solicitara ante el juez 6 tribunal que estuviere conociendo de la causa. Los autos de los jueces de instrucci6n resolviendo estos incidentes son apelables ante el respectivo superior jerarquico. ART. 129. La sustanciaci6n de la solicitud de pobreza se har6 en pieza separada, acomodindose a los tramites establecidos para los incidentes de esta clase por la ley de enjuiciamiento civil, sin que por raz6n de su tramitaci6n pueda dejar de principiarse 6 de continuarse la causa. ART. 130. No obstante lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, podr obtener habilitaci6n de pobreza, sin necesidad de previa justificaci6n, el que estuviere de notoriedad comprendido en alguno de los casos mencionados en el articulo 123, si 6 ello no se opusieren el ministerio fiscal 6 el que deba ser parte en el incident, a cuyo efecto se les notificara el auto en que la habilitaci6n se hubiese concedido. (a) No debe otorgarse el beneficio de litigar por pobre A la mujer casada, cuyo marido es rico, pues d 6ste afectan los deberes inherentes al matrimonio.-Sentencia S junior 1865; id., 29 abril 1880. (b) Tampoco s la mujer que disfruta de una renta, que unida 6 la de su marido, constituyen una mayor que la equivalente al jornal de dos braceros (hoy de tres) de la localidad en que viven.-Sentencias 17 junio 1865, 18 septiembre id., 26 enero 1869 y 16 noviembre 1861. (c) En contiendas judiciales de un c6nyuge con otro desaparece la unidad de persona y de litigante, y por consecuencia necesaria no pueden acumularse los ingresos ni apreciarse en comdn los signos exteriores para obtener en conjunto una suma 6 demostraci6n de riqueza que no existen por separado; pero en tales casos la mujer pobre tiene derecho, cuando el marido es rico, 6 que dste le bone litis expenses para que pueda defender en juicio sus derechos, ya que el litigar con su marido, si bien hace desaparecer la unidad personal, no extingue el derecho de la esposa d disfrutar de las rents comunes que conserva el marido.-Sala 1P, Sentencia 14 junio 1887. (d) Cuando el padre es rico no puede concederse al hijo pobre que estS bajo su potestad el beneficio de pobreza para litigar con un tercero, porque si bien el derecho de ser defendido como pobre es personal, Este principio no excluye la necesidad de tener en cuenta las circunstancias que concurren en casos especiales, como, cuando se trata de personas cuyos derechos son inseperables de los de otras, como, por ejemplo, las mujeres casadas y las personas que estdn en potestad paterna 6 materna y otras.Sentenia 16 febrero 1876. En sentencia de 21 de septiembre de 1888, vuelve A reiterarse Ia doctrina de que no puede concederse el beneficio al padre rico, en sentido legal, para litigar 6, nombre de ens hijos pobres porque es inherente d la patria potestad el deber de defender en juicio los bienes de los hijos.

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46 the usufruct of which he enjoys, amounts altogether to a sum equivalent to the wages of three laborers at the place of habitual residence of the family.' ART. 127. When several persons individually entitled to defence in forma paupers unite in an action, they shall be authorized to litigate as such, even though the united means of livelihood of all of them exceed the amounts prescribed. ART. 128. The declaration of poverty shall be requested of the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. The decisions of these issues by examining judges may be appealed from to their respective hierarchical superiors. ART. 129. The hearing and determination of a petition for defence in forma pauperis shall be conducted in a separate record, observing the procedure prescribed for issues of this character in the law of civil procedure, without, however, its prosecution interfering with the initiation or continuation of the cause. ART. 130. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, the person who is known to be included in any of the cases mentioned in article 123, may obtain permission to prosecute or defend as a poor person without proving his right thereto, should the prosecuting official or the party to the issue not object, for which purpose the decree granting the privilege shall be communicated to them. (a) The privilege to prosecute or defend as a poor person shall not be granted to a woman who has a wealthy husband, because the duties inherent to the marriage affect the latter.-Decision of June 8, 1865. (b) Neither shall it be granted to the woman who receives an income which, together with that of her husband, is equivalent to the wages of two laborers (now of three) in the locality where they reside.-Decisions of June 17, 1865; September 18 1865; January 26, 1869, and November 16, 1881. (c) In legal proceedings between spouses, the unity of person and litigant disappears, and, as a necessary consequence, the income of each can not be added together, nor can the external signs be considered in common for the purpose of obtaining a sum of money, nor signs of wealth which do not exist separately; but in such cases the poor woman having a wealthy husband has a right to require the husband to make her an allowance for the purpose of paying the costs of her action, and even though the litigation with her husband extinguishes the personal unity, it does not extinguish the right of the wife to enjoy the common income which the husband retains.-Decision of June 14, 1887. (d) When the father is wealthy, the son who is under his power can not be granted permission to litigate as a poor person with a third party, because, although the right to defend as a poor person is personal, this principle does not exclude the necessity of taking into consideration the attendant circumstances in special cases, as is the case with persons whose rights are inseparable from those of others, such as married women and persons under the paternal or maternal power, and others.Decision of February 16, 1876. A decision of September 21, 1888, repeats the doctrine that the benefit can not be granted to a wealthy father, in a legal sense, to appear in an action in the name of his poor children, because the duty to defend the property of the children in court is inherent to the parental authority.

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47 Tambien se habilitara al que hubiese obtenido declaraci6n de insolvencia, sin perjuicio de la oposicion que el ministerio fiscal y la otra parte puedan deducir. Formalizada oposici6n, se sustanciara en pieza separada el incidente con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior. ART. 131. El que entablare la pretension de pobreza tendrs derecho a que desde luego se le otorguen los beneficios legales de la misma sin perjuicio de lo que definitivamente se resuelva. ART. 132. Cuando fuere el acusador particular quien promueva la pretension, se sustanciara el incident con citaci6n y audiencia del procesado, si ya le hubiese y no estuviera en rebeldia. ART. 133. La pretension de pobreza entablada por el procesado se sustanciara con citaci6n y audiencia del querellante particular y actor civil, si los hubiese. ART. 134. El ministerio fiscal sera parte en todos los incidentes de pobreza. ART. 135. El procesado a quien no se hays citado ni oido en el incidente de pobreza del querellante podi impugnar en cualquier estado de la causa la habilitaci6n que a favor de 6ste se hubiese decretado. ART. 136. El que no hubiese sido declarado pobre durante el sumario, hAyalo 6 no solicitado, podi serlo durante el juicio oral si justificare que con posterioridad ha quedado comprendido en alguno de los casos del art. 123. Lo dispuesto en el parrafo anterior sera aplicable al que para seguir el recurso de casaci6n pretendiere ante el Tribunal Supremo la declaraci6n de pobreza que le hubiese sido negado durante el curso de la causa, 6 al que hasta entonces no hubiese presentado la solicitud. Siempre que se deniegue la declaraci6n de pobreza, se condenard en costas al que la hubiese solicitado. ART. 137. Contra la sentencia definitive del tribunal de 1o criminal que resuelva negativamente el incidente de pobreza procedera s6lo el recurso de casacion. ART. 138. El declarado pobre no estara obligado a pagar sus respectivos honorarios y derechos al abogado y procurador que le hubiesen defendido y representado de oficio, ni tampoco los honorarios a indemnizaciones correspondientes a los peritos y testigos citados 6 su instancia. ART. 139. La declaraci6n de pobreza no eximira a quien la obtenga de la obligaci6n de pagar las costas en que fuere condenado si se la encontraren bienes con que hacerlas efectivas. ART. 140. El declarado pobre deber4 pagar los honorarios, derechos 6 indemnizaciones 6 que se refiere el art. 138: 10. Siempre que se justifique por los que tengan derecho 6 ellos que

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47 The person who may have obtained a declaration of insolvency may also be granted such privilege, without prejudice to the objection which the public prosecutor or the other party may make. If objection be made, the issue shall be heard and determined in a separate record according to the provisions of the foregoing article. ART. 131. A person filing a petition in formal paupers shall have the right to have granted to him the legal benefits thereof immediately, without prejudice to what may be definitely decided. ART. 132. If the private accuser files the petition, the issue shall be heard and determined with a citation and hearing of the accused, if he be undergoing trial and is not in default. ART. 133. A petition in forma pauperis filed by the accused shall be heard and determined with the citation and a hearing of the private complainant and the civil plaintiff, if there be any. ART. 134. The public prosecutor shall be a party to all proceedings in forma paupers. ART. 135. The accused, who has reither been cited nor heard in the issue of the poverty of the complainant, may at any stage of the proceedings object to the privilege granted him. ART. 136. A person who has not been declared poor during the sumario, whether he requested it or not, may be so declared during the oral trial, if he shall prove that subsequently he was included in any of the cases mentioned in article 123. The provisions of the foregoing paragraph shall be applicable to a person who, in order to appeal for annulment of judgment, should file a petition in forma pauperis before the Supreme Court, which had been denied him during the course of the cause, as well as to the person who until then may not have filed such petition. Whenever the petition be denied, the petitioner shall be taxed the costs thereof. ART. 137. From a final decision of a criminal court denying a petition in forma pauperis, only an appeal lies for annulment of judgment. ART. 138. A person declared poor is not obliged to pay the respective salaries and fees of the attorney and solicitor who may have defended and represented him ex offcio, nor the fees and indemnities of the experts and witnesses cited at his instance. ART. 189. The declaration of poverty shall not exempt the person securing the same from the obligation of paying the costs taxed against him, if property be found on which to levy therefor. ART. 140. A person declared poor must pay the fees, charges, and indemnities referred to in article 138: 1. Whenever it be proven by those entitled thereto that during the

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48 durante la causa se encontraba el declarado pobre en alguno de los casos en que no deben otorgarse los beneficios de la defensa en este concepto. 20. Siempre que por el resultado de la causa percibiere alguna cantidad. En este caso sera destinada proporcionalmente la tercera parte de lo percibido al pago de las expresadas atenciones. 80. Si dentro de tries afios despues de fenecida la causa viniere a mejor fortuna el que legare a alguna de las situaciones a que se refieren los nfims. 10 y 2o del articulo 39 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil.

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48 ction the person declared poor was included in any of the cases in which the benefits of proceedings in forma pauperi should not be granted. 2. Whenever as a result of the cause be should receive a sum of money. In such case, one-third of the sum received shall be destined proportionately to the payment of said sums. 3. If within three years after the conclusion of the cause his fortune should improve. It shall be understood that his fortune has improved if he should reach any of the conditions mentioned in numbers 1 and 2 of article 39 of the law of civil procedure. 18473-017

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TITULO VI. DE LA FORM DE DICTAR PROVIDENCIAS, AUTOS Y SENTENCIAS, Y DEL MODO DE DIRIMIE LAS DISCORDIAS. CAPITULO PRIMERO. DE LA FORMA DE DICTAR PROVIDENCIAS, AUTOS Y SENTENCIAS. ART. 141. Las resoluciones de caracter judicial que dicten los juzgados y tribunales se denominarinProvidencias, cuando sean de mera tramitaci6n. Autos, cuando decidan incidentes 6 puntos esenciales que afectan de una manera directa a los procesados, acusadores particulares 6 actores civiles; cuando decidan la competencia del juzgado 6 tribunal, la procedencia 6 improcedencia de la recusaci6n, la reposici6n de alguna providencia, la denegaci6n de la reposici6n, la prisi6n y soltura, la admisi6n 6 denegaci6n de prueba 6 del beneficio de pobreza, y finalmente los demas que segin las leyes deben fundarse. Sentencias, cuando decidan definitivamente la cuesti6n criminal. Sentenciasfirmes, cuando no quepa contra ellos recurso alguno ordinario ni extraordinario, salvo los de revision y rehabilitaci6n. Llimase ejecutoria el documento pfblico y solemne en que se consigna una sentencia firme. La formula de las provideneias se limitary ai la resoluci6n del juez 6 tribunal, sin mas adiciones que la fecha en que se acuerde, la ridbrica del juez 6 del presidente del tribunal y la firma del secretario. Los autos se redactaran fundandolos en Resultandos y Considerandos, concretos y limitados unos y otros a la cuesti6n que se decida.' ART. 142. Las sentencias se redactarin con sujeci6n a las reglas siguientes: la. Se principiary expresando el lugar y la fecha en que se dictaren, los hechos que hubieren dado lugar a la formaci6n de Ia causa, los nombres y apellidos de los actores particulares, si los hubiere, y de los procesados, los sobrenombres 6 apodos con que sean conocidos, su edad, estado, naturaleza, domicilio, oficio 6 profesi6n, y en su defecto todas las demas circunstancias con que hubieron figurado en la causa, y ademas el nombre y apellido del magistrado ponente. 'La omisi6n de esta formula no motiva la casaci6n por infracci6n de ley.-Sentencia 12 Abril, 1880. 49

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TITLE VI. FORM IN WHICH ORDERS, RULINGS, AND DECISIONS SHALL BE MADE, AND MANNER OF ADJUSTING DISAGREEMENTS. CHAPTER FIRST. FORM IN WHICH ORDERS, RULINGS, AND DECISIONS SHALL BE MADE. ART. 141. The resolutions of superior and inferior courts in matters of a judicial character shall be called: Providencias, when they are of mere practice. Autos (rulings), when deciding incidental issues or essential points which affect in a direct manner the accused, the private complainants, or parties to the civil actions; when they decide the jurisdiction of the superior or inferior court, the sustaining or overruling of challenges, the reversal of some order, the refusal to reverse an order, imprisonment or liberation, the admission or rejection of evidence, or of the benefits of poverty, and, finally, all others which according to law must set forth the reasons therefor. Sentencias (decisions), when they definitely decide the criminal question. Sentencias frmes (final decisions), if there be no ordinary or extraordinary remedy against the same, except review and discharge. Ejecutoria, the public and formal instrument in which a final decision is entered for enforcement. The form for providencias shall be limited to the resolution of the judge or court without additions other than the date thereof, the rubric of the judge or presiding justice of the court, and the signature of the secretary. The autos shall be based upon Resultandos and Considerandos, both concrete and confined to the question decided.1 ART. 142. Decisions shall be prepared subject to the following rules: 1. They shall begin by stating the place at and date on which rendered; the facts which gave rise to the formation of the cause; the names and surnames of the private complainants, should there be any, and of the accused; the titles and nicknames by which they are known; their age, conjugal condition, nativity, domicile, trade or profession, and, in the absence thereof, all the other matters by which they may have figured in the cause, and also the name and surname of the justice ponente. 'The omission of this formula can not serve as a basis for annulment on account of a breach of law. (Decision of April 12, 1880.1 49

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50 2a. So consignaran en Resultandos numerados los hechos que estuvieren enlazados con las cuestiones que hayan de resolverse en el fallo, haciendo declaraci6n express y terminante de los que se estimen probados.' 3. So consignaran las conclusiones definitivas de la acusaci6n y de la defensa y la que en su caso hubiese propuesto el tribunal, en virtud de 1o dispuesto en el articulo 733. 4. Se consignaran tambien en pirrafos numerados, que empezaran con la palabra Considerando-Primero. Los fundamentos doctrinales y legales de la calificacj6n de los hechos que se hubiesen estimado probados. Segundo. Los fundamentos doctrinales y legales determinantes de la participaci6n que en los referidos hechos hubiese tenido cada uno de los procesados. 'Explicaci6u de los resultandos por los considerandos.-Si la relaci6n de los hechos probados es defectuosa, procede aceptar la explicaci6n que de los mismos se haga en los considerandos, para no sacrificar la realidad 4 una falta de pura formal. (Sentencia 28 Abril, 1884, y 17 Noviembre, 1886.) Pero este criterio de tolerancia no es aplicable a las sentencias en que se impone la pena de muerte y que deben ser casadas por quebrantamiento de form, conforme al artfculo 912, numero 1, cuando no contienen en los resultandos los hechos constitutivos del delito y la precisa declaraci6n de hallarse probados.-Sentencias de 25 Junio, 1885, 2 Abril, 1886, 20 Junio y 5 Julio, 1888. Contradicci6n centre los hechos segzin la eposicidn de los resultandos y considerandos.Debe resolverse ateni6ndose k$ los resultandos.-entencia 21 Febrero, 1887. Afirmaci6n de haberse cometido el delito sin exponer los hechos que le constituyen.-No basta afirmar en una sentencia quo se ha cometido algun delito 6 falta si antes no so determine en qu6 consisti6 la acci6n ti omisi6n voluntaria que ha sido materia del juicio, porque no siendo el recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley otra cosa que la discusion que las partes puedan sostener en esta sala acerca de los agravios que en su sentir se les hayan inferido en la sentencia recurrida por err6nea calificaci6n juridica de los hechos probados y poco acertada aplicaci6n de la ley penal, se hace legalmente imposible toda contienda y resoluci6n acertada de la calificaci6n legal de hechos omitidos que debieron consignarse en la sentencia como inalterable premisa, de Ia que ha de derivarse el elemento jurfdico de aqudlla, 6 sean los considerandos y la aplicaci6n pr~ctica de la ley que contenga el fallo.-Sentencia 18 Febrero de 1889. La frase hecho probado, con que termina un resultando, no puede entenderse que se refiere exclusivamente al ltimo particular relacionado en el mismo ni 6 ninguno de los otros, sino al conjunto sustancial de todos ellos que con notorio enlace centre sf se consignan en el resultando.-Sentencia de 5 de Abril de 1884. No es motivo de casaci6n el no declarar probados los hechos en los resultandos, cuando tal afirmaci6n se conbiene en los considerandos.-Sentencia de 17 de Noviembre de 1887. La declaracion de hechos probados en la sentencia, segdn In dispuesto en este pdrrafo, no es de todos los que las parts entiendan que merecen dicha apreciaci6n, sino solo de aquellos que a juicio de la sala sentenciadora sean constitutivos de delito y estin enlazados con las cuestiones que hayan de resolverse en el fallo.Sentencia de 26 de Mlarzo de 1886.

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50 2. In numbered Resultandos shall be stated the facts which may be related to the questions which are to be decided, making a clear and positive statement of those considered proved.' 3. The definite findings both of the accusation and of the defense shall be stated, as also, in a proper case, any proposal made by the court, in pursuance of the provisions of article 733. 4. Also in numbered paragraphs, which shall begin with the word Considerando, shall be stated: First. The points of law and legal principles relating to the classification of the acts which are considered proved. Second. The points of law and legal principles relating to the participation in said acts of each of the accused. 'Explanation of the resultandos by the considerandos.-If the statement of the true facts is defective the explanation of the same made in the considerandos should be accepted in order not to sacrifice truth to a breach of mere form. (Decisions of April 28, 1884, and November 17, 1886.) But this broad interpretation does not apply to sentences imposing the penalty of death and which must be annulled for breach of form in accordance with subdivision 1 of article 912, when they do not contain in the resultandos the acts which constitute the crime and a specific statement of their being proved. (Decisions of June 25, 1885, April 2, 1886, Tune 20 and .Tuly 5, 1888.) Contradiction between the facts according to the statements in the resultandos and considerandos.-This must be decided in favor of the resultandos. (Decision of February 1, 1887.) Affirmation of the crime having been committed without stating the acts constituting it.It is not sufficient to affirm in a decision that a crime or misdemeanor has been committed if it be not previously determined in what the voluntary action or omission consisted which has been the subject-matter of the action, because an appeal for annulment of judgment for a breach of law being nothing but the arguments which the parties may present in this chamber with regard to the injuries which, in their opinion, they have suffered in the decision appealed from, on account of an erroneous juridical classification of the proved facts and an incorrect application of the penal law, any contest and proper decision of the legal classification of facts omitted which should have been included in the sentence as an unalterable premise is rendered legally impossible, from which the juridical element of the former must be derived, that is to say the conriderandos and the practical application of the law contained in the decision. (Decision of February 18, 1889.) The phrase "Hecho probado," with which a resultando closes can not be understood as referring exclusively to the last item stated in the same, nor to any of the others, but to the substantial aggregation of all which are stated in the resultando, and known to have reference to each other. (Decision of April 5, 1884.) An annulment of judgment does not lie when there is no declaration of the acts being proved in the resultandos, when such statement is contained in the considerandos. (Decision of December 7, 1887.) The declaration of proved acts in a sentence, according to the provisions of this paragraph, is not of all those which the parties believe should require such statement, but only of those which, in the judgment of the sentencing chamber, constitute the crime and are connected with the questions to be decided in the Sentence. (Decision (f March 6, 1886.)

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51 Tercero. Los fundamentos doctrinales y legales de la calificaci6n de las circunstancias atenuantes, agravantes 6 eximentes de responsabilidad criminal en caso de haber concurrido. Cuarto. Los fundamentos doctrinales y legales de la calificaci6n de los hechos que se hubiesen estimado probados con relaci6n a la responsabilidad civil en que hubiesen incurrido los procesados 6 las personas sujetas I ella a quienes se hubiere oido en la causa, y los correspondientes A las resoluciones que hubieren de dictarse sobre costas, y en su caso A la declaraci6n de querella calumniosa. Quinto. La cita de las disposiciones legales que se consideren aplicables, pronunciandose por ultimo el fallo, en el que se condenara.6 absolvers, no solo por el delito principal y sus conexos, sino tambidn por las faltas incidentales de que se hubiere conocido en la causa, reputandose faltas incidentales las que los procesados hubiesen cometido antes, al tiempo, 6 despues del delito como medio de perpetrarlo 6 encubrirlo.' Tambien se resolverin en la sentencia todas las cuestiones referentes A la responsabilidad civil que hubieren sido objeto del juicio, y se declarara calumniosa la querella cuando procediere. ART. 143. Las ejecutorias se encabezaran en nombre del Rey. ART. 144. La absoluci6n se entendera libre en todos los casos. ART. 145. Para dictar autos 6 sentencias en los asuntos cuvo conocimiento corresponde A las audiencias de 1o criminal 6 A las salas respectivas de las audiencias territoriales, seran necesarios tres magistrados, y cinco para dictar sentencia en las causas en que se hubiere pedido pena de muerte, cadena 6 reclusi6n perpetuas. Al efecto, si en la sala 6 secci6n del tribunal no hubiere ndmero suficiente de magistrados, se completara en las audiencias territoriales con los necesarios de las demas secciones de la sala de 1o criminal; y donde no los hubiere, con los de salas de lo civil designados respectivamente por el president de la sala de 1o criminal 6 por el de la audiencia; en las audiencias de Jo criminal con los de las demas secciones a designaci6n de su presidente, y donde la planta fuese menor de cinco magistrados, con los magistrados suplentes, y a falta de estos con los magistrados de la audiencia de 1o criminal mas pr6xima que por turn designe el presidente de la del territorio A que ambas pertenezcan, de quien habra de solicitarlo con la anticipaci6n debida el de la de 1o criminal donde ocu'Las faltas incidentales com&tidas por los procesados han de ser penadas en la sentencia que la sala dicte como t6rmino del juicio oral de que conozca; pero en cuanto las faltas cometidas por persona distinta del procesado, como la ley nada previene, se debe pasar el tanto de culpa al juez intructor 6 al municipal, segin los casos, para los efectos que correspondan.-Circular de 4 de Septiembre de 1884.

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51 Third. The points of law and legal principles for the classification of extenuating or aggravating circumstances or exemption from criminal liability, if such be attendant. Fourth. The points of law and legal principles for the classification of the acts which may have been considered as proved with regard to the civil liability incurred by the persons accused or the persons subject thereto heard in the cause, and those pertaining to decisions upon costs, and, in a proper case, to a declaration of a calumnious complaint. Fifth. The citation of the legal provisions which are considered applicable, finally rendering the decision in which the accused shall be condemned or acquitted, not only as to the principal crime and those connected therewith, but also as to the incidental misdemeanors which may have been considered in the cause, such being considered those which the accused may have committed before, at the time of, or after the crime, as a means of perpetrating or concealing it.' The decision shall also pass upon all questions relating to civil liability which may have been the subject of the action, and when proper the complaint shall be declared calumnious. ART. 143. The ejecutorias shall be headed in the name of the King. ART. 144. An acquittal shall be understood to be without reservations in every case. ART. 145. In order to make rulings or render decisions in matters the cognizance of which pertains to criminal audiencias or to the respective chambers of territorial audiencias, three justices shall be required, and five to pass sentence in a cause in which a penalty of dealth, cadena perpetual or recusidn perpetua has been requested. For this purpose, should there not be a sufficient number of justices in the chamber or section of the court, the necessary number shall be made up in the territorial audiencias with those of the other sections of the criminal chamber; and if there be none, with those of the civil chambers, respectively, appointed by the presiding judge of the criminal chamber or of the audiencia, in criminal audiencias with those of the other sections, by appointment of the presiding judge, and where the court is composed of less than five justices, with the substitute justices, and in the absence of the latter, with the justices of the nearest criminal audiencia which may in turn be designated by the presiding judge of the territorial audiencia to which both belong, of whom a request shall be made in due time by the presiding judge of the criminal audien1Incidental misdemeanors committed by the accused must be penalized in the decision which the chamber must render concluding the oral trial of which it is taking cognizance; but with regard to misdemeanors committed by a person other than the person undergoing trial, as the law provides nothing therefor, cognizance of the matter must be given to the examining judge or the municipal judge, as the case may be, for the proper purposes. (Circular of September 4, 1884.)

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52 rriere el caso. Para dictar providencias en unos y otros tribunales bastaran dos magistrados si estuvieren conformes. ART. 146. En cada causa babrd un magistrado ponente. Turnaran en este cargo los magistrados del tribunal, a excepei6n del que le presida. Cuando los tribunales 6 salas se compongan s6lo de un presidente con dos magistrados, turnara tambien el primero en las ponencias, correspondidndole una de cinco. ART. 147. Correspondera a los ponentes: 1. Informar al tribunal sobre las solicitudes de las partes. 2o. Examinar todo lo referente a las pruebas que se propongan, e informar al tribunal acerca de su procedencia 6 improcedencia. 30. Recibir las declaraciones de los testigos y practicar cualesquiera diligencias de prueba, cuando, seg6n la ley, no deban 6 puedan practicarse ante el tribunal que las ordena, 6 se hagan fuera del pueblo en que este se halle constituido y no se d6 comisi6n A los jueces de instrucci6n 6 municipales para que las practiquen. 40. Proponer los autos 6 sentencias que hayan de someterse A discusi6n del tribunal, y redactarlos definitivamente en los terminos que se acuerden. Cuando el ponente no se conformase con el voto de la mayoria, se encargard otro magistrado de la redacci6n de la sentencia; pero en este caso estara aquel obligado a formular voto particular.' 5. Leer en audiencia pdblica la sentencia. ART. 148. Si por cualquier circunstancia no pudiere fallarse alguna causa en el dia correspondiente, esto no sera obsticulo a que se decidan 6 sentencien otras que hayan sido vistas con posterioridad, sin que por ello se altere el orden mAs que en 1o absolutamente indispensable. ART. 149. Inmediatamente despues de celebrado el juicio oral, 6 en el siguiente dia antes de las horas de despacho, el tribunal discutird y votary todas las cuestiones de hecho y de derecho que hayan sido objeto del juicio. La sentencia que resulted aprobada se redactara y firmara dentro del termino senfalado en el articulo 203. ART. 150. La discusi6n y votaci6n de las sentencias se verificara en todos los tribunales a puerta cerrada, y antes 6 despuds de las horas seialadas para el despacho ordinario. ART. 151. Discutida la sentencia propuesta por el ponente, votary este primero, y despues de 1 los demas magistrados por orden inverso de su antigitedad. ART. 152. Cuando la importancia de la discusi6n 1o exija, debera el que presida hacer un breve resumen de ella antes de la votaci6n. ART. 153. Las providencias, los autos y las sentencias se dictaran por Wase en el Ap6ndice I, la Orden No. 63, de Mayo 25 de 1899.

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52 cia where the case occurs. For orders of mere practice in any of these courts, two justices shall be sufficient, if they agree. AR. 146. In every cause there shall be one justice ponente. The associate justices of the court, excepting the presiding justice, shall take turns in this duty. When the courts or chambers are composed of but one chief justice and two associate justices, the former shall also take his turn as ponenic every fifth time. ART. 147. It shall be the duty of the ponente: 1. To advise the court of the petitions of the parties. 2. To examine everything relative to the evidence offered and advise the court whether it is pertinent or not. 3. To take the depositions of the witnesses and any other evidence when, according to law, the same can not or should not be taken before the court ordering the same, or if taken without the town where the court issitting, and when judges of examination or municipal judges are not commissioned to take them. 4. To propose the rulings and decisions, which are to be submitted for discussion by the court, and to finally draft them in the terms agreed upon. If the ponente does not agree with the vote of the majority, another justice shall be charged with the preparation of the decision; but in such case the ponente must prepare a dissenting opinion.' 5. To read the decision in open court. ART. 148. If for any reason it is impossible to decide a case on the proper day, this fact shall not be an obstacle to other cases being decided which may have been heard subsequently, without, however, altering the order more than is absolutely necessary. ART. 149. Immediately after the conclusion of the oral trial or on the following day before the hour for public business, the court shall discuss and vote upon all questions of fact and law, which may have been the subject matter of the trial. The decision approved shall be prepared and signed within the period fixed in article 203. ART. 150. The discussion and voting for decisions shall be held in all courts behind closed doors, before or after the hours designated for the ordinary dispatch of business. ART. 151. After the decision proposed by the ponente has been discussed, he shall vote first, and afterwards the other justices in the inverse order of their seniority. ART. 152. When the importance of the decision so requires, the presiding justice shall make a brief resume of the same before the vote is taken. ART. 153. The orders, rulings, and decisions shall be made by an 1See in Appendix 1, Order No. 683, May 25, 1899.

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53 mayoria absoluta de votos, excepto en los casos en que la ley exigiere expresamente mayor nhmero. ART. 154. Si despus de la vista y antes de la votaci6n alg6n magistrado se imposibilitare y no pudiere asistir al acto, dara su voto fundado y firmado y lo remitir4 directamente al presidente. Si no pudiere escribir ni firmar, se valdra del secretario. El voto asi emitido se conservara rubricado por el que presida en el libro de sentencias. Cuando el magistrado no pudiere votar ni aun de este modo, se votard la causa por los no impedidos que hubiesen asistido a la vista, y si hubiere los necesarios para formar mayoria, 6stos dictaran sentencia. Cuando no resulte mayoria, se estarA a lo que la ley ordena respecto de las discordias. ART. 155. Cuando fuere trasladado, jubilado, separado 6 suspenso algdn magistrado, votar las causes a cuya vista hubiere asistido y que aun no se hubiesen fallado. ART. 156. Comenzada la votaci6n de una sentencia, no podrd interrumpirse sino por algfn impedimento insuperable. Todo el que tome part en la votaci6n de una providencia, auto 6 sentencia, firmarA 1o acordado aunque hubiese disentido de la mayoria; pero podra en este caso salvar su voto, que se insertara con su firma al pie en el libro de votos reservados dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes.' ART. 157. En las certificacionos 6 testimonios de sentencias que expidieren los tribunales no se insertaran los votos reservados; pero se remitiran al Tribunal Supremo, y se harin pdblicos cuando se interponga y admit el recurso de casaci6n. ART. 158. Las sentencias se firmaran por todos los magistrados no impedidos. ART. 159. En cada tribunal, sala 6 secci6n de 1o criminal se llevarA un registro de sentencias, en el cual se extenderan y firmaran todas las definitivas. El registro expresado estara bajo la custodia de los respectivos presidentes. ART. 160. Las sentencias definitivas se leeran y notificarAn a las parts y 4 sus procuradores en todo juicio oral el mismo dia en que se firmen, 6 a lo mas enf el siguiente. Si por cualquier circunstancia 6 accident no se encontrare A las partes al ir y hacerles la notificaci6n, se hara constar por diligencia, y bastara en tal caso con la notificaci6n hecha a sus procuradores. Los autos que resuelvan incidentes se notificarAn inicamente A los procuradores. 'Vase en el Apendice I, la Orden No. 63, de 25 Mayo de 1899.

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53 absolute majority of votes, except in such cases in which the law expressly requires a greater number. ART. 154. If after the hearing and before the vote is taken, some justice shall become disabled and not be able to attend the voting, he shall give his signed vote with the reasons therefor, and shall forward it directly to the presiding justice. Should he be unable either to write or sign, he shall employ the clerk. The vote thus cast shall be preserved in the book of decisions by the presiding justice and rubricated by him. If a justice should be unable to vote even in this manner, the voting in the cause shall be done by those who are not disabled and who may have attended the hearing, and should there be sufficient number to form a majority, they shall render the decision. If there be no majority the provisions of the law with regard to disagreements shall be observed. ART. 155. When any justice shall be transferred, retired, removed, or suspended, he shall vote upon the causes the hearing of which he may have attended and which have not as yet been decided. ART. 156. After the voting for a decision has commenced it can not be interrupted except by some insuperable cause. Everyone who takes part in the voting upon an order, ruling, or decision shall subscribe to what has been agreed to, even though be may have dissented from the majority; but in this case he may reserve his vote, which shall be inserted, with his signature at the foot thereof, in the book of reserved votes within the next twenty-four hours.' ART. 157. The certificates or transcripts of decisions issued by the courts shall not contain the reserved votes; but they shall be transmitted to the supreme court, and shall be made public when an appeal for annulment of judgment is interposed and allowed. ART. 158. Decisions shall be signed by all justices not disabled. ART. 159. In every criminal court, chamber, or section shall be kept a register of decisions, in which shall be entered and signed all final decisions. The said register shall be under the custody of the respective presiding justices. ART. 160. Final decision shall be read and served upon the parties and upon their solicitors in all oral trials the same day on which they are signed or not later than the following day. If for any reason or by any accident the parties can not be found when sought for service this fact shall be made a matter of record, and in such case the notice served upon their solicitors shall be sufficient. Decisions upon incidental issues shall be served upon the solicitors only. See in Appendix I, order No. 63, May 25, 1899.

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54 ART. 161. Los tribunales no podran variar, despues de firmadas, las sentencias que pronuncien; pero si aclarar alg6n concepto oscuro, suplir cualquiera omisi6n que contengan, 6 rectificar alguna equivocaci6n importante dentro del dia habil siguiente al de la notificaci6n. Estas aclaraciones podran bacerse de oficio 6 a instancia de las partes 6 del ministerio fiscal. ART. 162. Los tribunales conservaran met6dicamente coleccionadas las minutas de los autos que resuelvan incidentes y sentencias que dictaren, baciendo referencia en cada una en el asiento correspondiente de los libros de autos y sentencias del tribunal. Las hojas de los libros de autos y de sentencias de los tribunales estaran numeradas y selladas, rubricandolas el presidente respectivo. CAPITULO II. DEL MODO DE DIRIMIR LAS DISCORDIAS. ART. 163. Cuando en la votaci6n de una sentencia definitiva, auto 6 providencia no resultase mayoria de votos sobre cualquiera de los pronunciamientos de hecho 6 de derecho que deban hacerse 6 sobre la decision que haya de dictarse, volveran a discutirse y a votarse los puntos en que hayan disentido los votantes. ART. 164. Si en la siguiente votaci6n insistieren los discordantes en sus respectivos pareceres, se someteran a nueva deliberaci6n tan s6o los dos votos mas favorables al procesado y entre 6stos optaran precisamente todos los votantes de modo que resulte aprobado cualquiera de ambos. En este caso pondrAn en lugar oportuno de la sentencia las siguientes palabras: Vsto el resultado de la votacidn, la ley decide. La determinaci6n de cuAles sean los dos pareceres mas favorables al procesado se hara A pluralidad de votos. Lo dispuesto en este articulo y en el anterior no es aplicable al caso a que se refiere el parrafo segundo del articulo. 153. ART. 165. En las sentencias que pronuncie el Tribunal Supremo en los recursos de casaci6n 6 en los de revision, no habrA discordia, quedando al efecto desechados los resultandos y considerandos que no re6nan mayoria absoluta de votos. 'Constituida la sala con trees magistrados, votada por uno la absoluci6n del reo por falta de prueba, por otro la comdenaci6n como autor de delito frustrado, y por otro la condenaci6n tambi6n como autor de delito consumado, si 5ste opta por el primero de los mencionados votos, y la discordia desaparece, la sentencia absolutoria no puede impugnarse en casaci6n, bajo el concepto de que no estime probados hechos que 1o estAn.-Sentencia de 2 de Mayo de 1885.

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54 ART. 161. Courts can not amend their decisions after the same have been signed, but on the first legal day after the notice is served they may elucidate some obscure point, supply any omission, or correct any important mistake therein. These elucidations may be made ex officio or at the instance of the parties or of the public prosecutors. ART. 162. The courts shall preserve in methodical collections the drafts of rulings upon incidental issues and of decisions rendered, making reference in each one in the proper entry to the book of rulings and decisions of the court. The leaves of the book of rulings and decisions of courts shall be numbered and sealed and rubricated by the respective presiding justice. CHAPTER II. MANNER OF ADJUSTING DISAGREEMENTS. ART. 163. If in voting upon a final decision, ruling, or order of mere practice there should not be a majority of votes upon any findings of fact or conclusions of law, or upon the decision to be rendered, the discussion and voting upon the points not agreed upon shall be repeated. ART. 164. If at the second voting those who disagree insist upon their opinion, only the two votes most favorable to the accused shall be subjected to another discussion, and one of these must be selected by all the voters so that one or the other be approved. In such case there shall be inserted in the decision at the proper place the following words: In view of the result of the voting, the law decides: ...1 The determination of what are the two opinions most favorable to the accused shall be made by a majority of votes. The provisions of this and of the foregoing articles do not apply to the case referred to in the second paragraph of article 153. ART. 165. In decisions rendered by the Supreme Court upon appeals for annulment of judgment or upon those for review there shall be no disagreement, the resultandos and considerandos which do not receive an absolute majority of votes being therefore rejected. If a chamber be constituted of three justices, and one should vote for the acquittal of the prisoner for lack of proof, another for his conviction as an author of a frustrated crime, and the other for his conviction also as the author of a consummated crime, if the latter should choose the first of these votes and the disagreement disappears, the decision of acquittal can not be appealed from for annulment upon the claim of its not considering acts proved which are such. (Decision of May 2, 1885.)

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TITULO VII. DE LAS NOTIFICACIONES, CITACIONES Y EMPLAZAMIENTOS. ART. 166. Las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos que se practiquen fuera de los estrados del juzgado 6 tribunal, se haran respectivamente por un alguacil 6 por un oficial de sala. Los que tuvieren lugar en los estrados se practicarin leyendo integramente la resoluci6n a la persona a quien notifiquen, dandole en el acto copia de ella, aunque no la pidiere, y haciendo merito de uno y otro en la diligencia que se extienda, que suscribira el secretario 6 oficial de salad respectivamente.' ART. 167. Para la prictica de las notificaciones, el secretario que interviniere en la causa extenders una cedula, que contendra10. La expresi6n del objeto de dicha causa y los nombres y apellidos de los que en ella fueren parte. 20. La copia de la resoluci6n que hubiere de notificarse. 3o. El nombre y apellido de la persona 6 personas que han de ser notificadas. 4. La fecha en que la cedula se expidiere. 5. La firma del secretario. ART. 168. Se harAn constar en los autos, por nota sucinta, la expedici6n de la cedula y el oficial de salad 6 alguacil a quien se encargare su complimiento. ART. 169. El que recibiere la c4dula sacara y autorizara con su firma tantas copias cuantas sean las personas a quienes hubiere de notificar. ART. 170. La notificaci6n consistira en la lecture integra de la resoluci6n que deba ser notificada, entregando la copia de la cedula 4 quien se notifique y haciendo constar la entrega por diligencia sucinta al pie de la cedula original. ART. 171. En la diligencia se anotara el dia y hora de la entrega, y sera firmada por la persona a quien 6sta se hiciere y por el funcionario que practique la notificaci6n. Si la persona a quien se haga la entrega no supiere firmar, lo har otra a su ruego; y si no quisiere, firmaran dos testigos buscados al efecto. Estos testigos no podran negarse a serlo, bajo la multa de 12.50 a 62.50 pesetas. Los articulos 207 y 209 determinan el trmino dentro del cual deben practicarse estas diligencias, y tratan de la notificaci6n de los autos de prisi6n y soltura los 501 y 517. 55

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TITLE VII. NOTIFICATIONS, CITATIONS, AND SUMMONSES. ART. 166. Notifications, citations, and summonses which are served beyond the limits of the court room or chamber, shall be respectively served by a bailiff or an officer of the chamber. Those within the court room shall be served by reading the entire order to the person in interest, giving him at the same time a copy thereof, even though he should not request it, and making an entry of both acts upon the record, which shall be subscribed, respectively, by the secretary or officer of the chamber.' ART. 167. For the service of notices the secretary acting in the cause shall prepare a writ which shall contain: 1. A statement of the object of said cause and the names and surnames of the parties thereto. 2. A copy of the resolution which is to be served. 3. The name and surname of the person or persons upon whom notice is to be served. 4. The date on which the writ is issued. 5. The signature of the clerk. ART. 168. A brief note shall be made upon the record of the issue of the writ and the officer of chambers or bailiff charged with the service thereof. ART. 169. The person receiving the writ shall make and authenticate with his signature as many copies thereof as there are persons to be notified. ART. 170. Service shall consist of the reading of the entire order to be served, delivering the copy of the writ to the person notified, and making a brief entry of service at the foot of the original writ. ART. 171. The entry shall state the day and hour of service, and shall be signed by the person receiving the writ and by the official who executed the service. If the person receiving the writ does not know how to sign, another shall do so at his request; and if he does not wish to do so, two witnesses secured for the purpose shall sign. These witnesses can not refuse to sign under a fine of not less than 12.50 nor more than 62.50 pesetas. 'Articles 207 and 209 fix a period in which these proceedings must be had, and articles 501 and 517 relate to the notice of warrants of imprisonment and release. 55

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56 Aur. 172. Cuando a la primera diligencia en busca no fuere hallado en su habitaci6n el que haya de ser notifieado, cualquiera que fuere la causa y el tiempo de su ausencia, se entregara la cedula al pariente, familiar 6 criado, mayor de catorce afios, que se halle en dicha habitacion. Si no hubiere nadie, se hara la entrega A uno de los vecinos mais proximos. ART. 173. En la diligencia de entrega se hara constar la obligaci6n del que recibiere la copia de la cedula de entregarla al que deba ser notificado inmediatamente que regrese A su domicilio, bajo la multa de de 12.50 a 125 pesetas si deja de entregarla. ART. 174. Cuando no se pueda practicer una notificaci6n por haber cambiado de habitaci6n el que deba ser notificado y no ser posible averiguar la nueva, 6 por cualquiera otra causa, se hara constar en la cedula original. ART. 175. Las citaciones y emplazamientos se practicaran en la forma establecida para las notificaciones, con las siguientes diferencias: La cedula de citaci6n contendralo. Expresi6n del juez 6 tribunal que hubiere dictado la resoluci6n, de la fecha de 6sta y de la causa en que haya recaido. 20. Los nombres y apellidos de los que debieren ser citados y las sefias de sus habitaciones; y si 4stas fuesen ignoradas, cualesquiera otras circunstancias por las que pueda descubrirse el lugar en que se hallaran. 30. El objeto de la citaci6n. 40. El lugar, dia y hora en que haya de concurrir el citado. 50. La obligaci6n, si la hubiere, de concurrir al primer lamamiento bajo la multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas; 6 si fuese ya el segundo el que se hiciere, la de concurrir bajo apercibimiento de ser procesado como reo del delito de denegaci6n de auxilio, previsto por el c6digo penal respecto de jurados, peritos y testigos. La cedula del emplazamiento contendra los requistos 10, 20 y 30 anteriormente mencionados para la de la citation, y ademis los siguientes: 10. El t4rmino dentro del cual ha de comparecer el emplazado. 20. El lugar en que haya de comparecer y el juez 6 tribunal ante quien deba hacerlo. 30. La prevenci6n de que, si no compareciere, le pararan los perjuicios a que hubiere lugar en derecho. ART. 176. Cuando el citado no comparezca en el lugar, dia y bora que se le hubiesen sefialado, el que haya practicado la citaci6n volvera a constituirse en el domicilio de quien hubiese recibido la copia de la

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56 ART. 172. If the person to be notified should not be found at his dwelling on the first effort to do so, whatever be the cause or time of his absence, the writ shall be delivered to a relative, a member of his household, or a servant over 14 years of age who may be found at said dwelling. Should there be no one at the dwelling, the writ shall be delivered to one of the nearest neighbors. ART. 173. In the entry of service shall be stated the obligation of the person who receives a copy of the writ to deliver the same to the person to be notified upon his return to his dwelling, under a fine of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas should he fail to deliver it. ART. 174. If it be impossible to serve a notice, owing to a change of residence of the person to be notified, and it be impossible to discover his new residence, or for any other reason, it shall be stated in the original writ. ART. 175. Service of citations and summonses shall be made in the manner prescribed for notifications, with the following differences: The writ of citation shall contain: 1. The name of the judge or court issuing the order, the date of the latter, and the matter on which it is based. 2. The names and surnames of the parties to be cited, the address of their dwellings; and, should they be unknown, any other data by which their whereabouts may be ascertained. 3. The purpose of the citation. 4. The place where and the day and hour when the person cited is to appear. 5. The obligation, should there be any, of appearing upon the first call under a fine of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas; or, if it be the second call, the obligation of attending with the admonition of being proceeded against as guilty of the crime of refusing aid, as provided for in the penal code with regard to jurors, experts, and witnesses. The writ of summons shall contain requisites 1, 2, and 3 above mentioned for writs of citation, and also the following: 1. The period within which the person summoned must appear. 2. The place where he must appear and the judge or court before whom he must do so. 3. The warning that, should he fail to appear, he shall suffer the prejudices which may be proper according to law. ART. 176. If the person cited shall not appear at the place, day, and hour set, the person who served the citation shall return to the dwelling of the person who received the copy of the writ, entering upon 18473-018

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57 cedula, baciendo constar por diligencia en la original la causa de no haberse efectuado la comparecencia. Si esta causa no fuere legitima, se procedera inmediatamente por el juez 6 tribunal que hubiere acordado la citaci6n a llevar 4 efecto la prevenci6n que correspond entre las establecidas en el n6mero 5o del articulo anterior. ART. 177. Cuando las notifications, citaciones 6 emplazamientos hubieren de practicarse en territorio de otra autoridad judicial espafiola, se expedir4 suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento, segin corressponda, insertando en ellos los requisitos que deba contener la cedula. Si hubiere de practicarse en el extranjero, se observaran para ello los tramites prescriptos en los tratados, si los hubiese, y en su defecto se estar. al principio de reciprocidad. ART. 178. Si el que haya de ser notificado, citado 6 emplazado no tuviere domicilio conocido, se darmn las 6rdenes convenientes a los agentes de policia judicial por el juez 6 tribunal que hubiese acordado la prActica de la diligencia para que se le busque en el breve termino que al efecto se seiale. Si no fuere habido, se mandara insertar la codula en el peri6dico oficial de la provincia de su ultima residencia y en la Gaceta de la capital si se considerare necesario. ART. 179. Practicada la notificaci6n, citaci6n 6 emplazamiento, 6 hecho constar el motivo que lo hubiese impedido, se unir4 A los autos la cedula original, 6 el suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento expedidos. ART. 180. Seran nulas las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos que no se practicaren con arreglo 4 lo dispuesto en este capitulo. Sin embargo, cuando la persona notificada, citada 6 emplazada se hubiere dado por enterada en el juicio, surtira desde entonces la diligencia todos sus efectos, como si se hubiese hecho con arreglo a las disposiciones de la ley; no por esto quedara relevado el auxiliar 6 subalterno de la correcei6n disciplinaria establecida en el articulo siguiente. ART. 181. El auxiliar 6 subalterno que incurriere en morosidad en el desempefio de las funciones que por este capitulo le correspondan, 6 faltare a alguna de las formalidades en el mismo establecidas, sera corregido disciplinariamente por el juez 6 tribunal de quien depends con multa de 62.50 4 250 pesetas. ART. 182. Las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos podran hacerse a los procuradores de las partes. Se exceptfan10. Las citaciones que por disposici6n express de la ley deban hacerse a los mismos interesados en persona. 20. Las citaciones que tengan por objeto la comparecencia obligatoria de 6stos.

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57 the original writ the cause of the failure to appear. If this cause be not legitimate, the judge or court issuing the citation shall immediately enforce the penalty which may be proper of those established in number 5 of the foregoing article. ART. 177. When the notifications, citations, or summonses are to be served within the jurisdiction of another Spanish judicial authority, letters rogatory, letters requisitorial, or mandates shall be issued, as the case may be, inserting therein the requisites which a writ should contain. If they are to be served abroad, the proceedings prescribed therefor by treaty, if any, shall be observed, and otherwise the principles of reciprocity. ART. 178. If the person to be notified, cited, or summoned should have no known domicile, the proper orders shall be issued to the agents of the judicial police by the judge or court ordering the proceeding, that search be made for him within a brief period which he may set for the purpose. If he be not found, the writ shall be ordered inserted in the official newspaper of the province of his last residence and in the Gaceta of the capital, if considered necessary. ART. 179. After the notification, citation, or summons has been served, or a statement of the causes preventing such service has been made, the original writ or the letters requisitorial, letters rogatory or mandate, shall be attached to the record. ART. 180. Notifications, citations, or summonses not served according to the provisions of this chapter shall be null. Nevertheless, if the person notified, cited, or summoned should acknowledge service at the trial, the proceeding shall produce all its effects from that time as though service had been made according to law; but this shall not exempt the assistant or subordinate official from the disciplinary correction prescribed in the following article. ART. 181. The assistant or subordinate official who shall be tardy in the discharge of the duties imposed upon him by this chapter, or who shall fail to comply with any of the formalities herein prescribed, shall be disciplinarily corrected by the judge or court to which he belongs by the imposition of a fine of not less than 62.50 or more than 250 pesetas. AnT. 182. Notifications, citations, and summonses may be served on the solicitors of the parties. The following are excepted: 1. Citations which by express provision of law must be served in person on the interested parties. 2. Citations, the purpose of which is to secure the obligatory appearance of the said parties.

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TITULO VIII. DE LOS SUPLICATORIOS, MANDAMIENTOS Y EXHORTOS. ART. 183. Los jueces y tribunales se auxiliaran mutuamente para la prActica de todas las diligencias que fueren necesarias en la sustanciaci6n de las causas criminales. ART. 184. Cuando una diligencia judicial hubiere de ser ejecutada por un juez 6 tribunal distinto del que la haya ordenado, 6ste encomendara su cumplimiento por medio de suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento. Empleara la forma de suplicatorio cuando se dirija a un juez 6 tribunal superior en grado; la de exhorto cuando se dirija a uno de igual grado, y la de mandamiento 6 carta orden cuando se dirija a un subordinado suyo. ART. 185. El juez 6 tribunal que haya ordenado la practice de una diligencia judicial no podrs dirigirse a juices 6 tribunales de categories 6 grado inferior que no le estuviesen subordinados, debiendo entenderse directamente con el superior de 4stos que ejerza la jurisdicci6n en el mismo grado que l. Se exceptdan los casos en quo expresamente se disponga otra cosa en la ley. ART. 186. Para ordenar el libramiento de certificaci6n 6 testimonio y la prActica de cualquiera diligencia judicial cuya ejecuci6n corresponda a registradores de la propriedad, notarios, auxiliares 6 subalternos de juzgados 6 tribunales y funcionarios de policia judicial que estin a las 6rdenes de los mismos, se empleara la forma de mandamiento. ART. 187. Cuando los jueces 6 tribunales tengan que dirigirse a autoridades 6 funcionarios de otro orden, usarAn la forma de oficios 6 exposiciones, segun el caso requiera. ART. 188. Los suplicatorios, exhortos o mandamientos en causas en que se persigan delitos que no sean de los que s6lo por querella privada pueden ser perseguidos, se expedirAn de oficio y se cursaran directamente para su cumplimiento por el juez 6 tribunal que los hubiere librado. Los que procedan de causas por delitos que s6lo pueden ser perseguidos en virtud de querella particular, podrAn entregarse bajo recibo al interesado 6 a su representante, a cuya instancia se libraren, fijAndole t4rmino para presentarlos a quien deba cumplirlos. 58

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TITLE VIII. LETTERS REQUISITORIAL, MANDATES, AND LETTERS ROGATORY. ART. 183. Judges and courts shall mutually aid each other in the execution of all proceedings necessary for the hearing and decision of criminal causes. ART. 184. When a judicial order is to be executed by a judge or court other than the one issuing the order, the latter shall commit the execution thereof by means of letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or mandates. Letters requisitorial shall be used when he applies to a judge or court higher in degree; letters rogatory when said execution is directed to one of equal degree, and letters mandatory or mandates when directed to a subordinate court or judge. ART. 185. The judge or court which shall have ordered the execution of a judicial proceeding can not address judges or courts of a category or degree lower, who are not his subordinates, but he must deal directly with such of their superiors as exercise a degree of jurisdiction equal to his own. Cases for which the law expressly provides otherwise are excepted. ART. 186. A mandate shall be employed for the purpose of ordering the issue of certificates or transcripts or the fulfillment of any judicial proceeding, the execution of which is imposed upon registrars of property, notaries, assistants, or subordinate officials of inferior or superior courts, and members of the judicial police who are under the orders of the same. ART. 187. When judges or courts are obliged to direct requests to authorities or officials of another department, they shall do so by official communications or statements, as the case may require. ART. 188. Letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or mandates in causes involving crimes which are not of those which can be prosecuted only on a private complaint, shall be issued ex ofoco, and shall be transmitted directly for execution by the judge or court issuing them. Those issuing in causes for crimes which can be prosecuted only on a private complaint may be delivered to the interested party upon the giving of a receipt therefor, or to his representative, at whose instance they were issued, a period being fixed for presenting them to the person who is to execute the same. 58

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459 Se exceptflan los casos en que expresamente se disponga otra cosa en la ley. ART. 189. La persona que reciba los documentos los presentara, en el tirmino que se le hubiere fijado, al juez 6 tribunal a quien se haya encomendado el cumplimiento, dando aviso acto continue de haberlo hecho asi al juez 6 tribunal de quien procedan. Al verificar la presentaci6n, el funcionario correspondiente extenders la diligencia A continuaci6n del suplicatorio, exhorto 6 carta orden, expresando la fecha de su entrega y la persona que lo hubiese presentado, a la que dara recibo, firmando ambos la diligencia. Dicho funcionario dara ademis cuenta al juez 6 tribunal en el mismo dia, y si no fuere posible, en el siguiente. ART. 190. Cuando hubiesen sido remitidos de oficio, el juez 6 tribunal que los reciba acusarA inmediatamente recibo al remitente. AnR. 191. El juez 6 tribunal que reciba, 6 A quien sea presentado un suplicatorio, exhorto 6 carta-orden, acordara su cumplimiento, sin perjuicio de reclamar la competencia que estimare corresponderle, disponiendo 1o conducente para que se practiquen las diligencias dentro del plazo, si se hubiere fijado en el exhorto, 6 1o mis pronto possible en otro caso. Una vez cumplimentado, lo devolves sin demora en la misma formal en que lo hubiese recibido 6 en que se le hubiese presentado. ART. 192. Cuando se demorare el cumplimiento de un suplicatorio mis tiempo del absolutamente necesario para ello, atendidas la distancia y la indole de la diligencia que haya de practicarse, el juez 6 tribunal que 1o hubiese expedido remitirA de oficio, 6 a instancia de parte, segun los casos, un recuerdo al juez 6 tribunal suplicado. Si la demora en el cumplimiento se refiriese a un exhorto, en vez de recuerdo dirigiri suplicatorio al superior inmediato dei exhortado dAndole conocimiento de la demora, y el superior apremiari al moroso con correcci6n disciplinaria, sin prejuicio de la mayor responsabilidad en que pueda incurrir. Del mismo apremio se valdra el que haya expedido una carta-orden para obligar A su inferior moroso A que la devuelva cumplimentada. ART. 193. Los exhortos a tribunales extranjeros se dirigiran por la via diplomAtica en la forma establecida en los tratados, y a falta de 6stos, en la que determine las disposiciones generals del gobierno. En cualquier otro caso se estard al principio de reciprocidad.

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59 Cases for which the law specially provides otherwise are excepted. ART. 189. The person receiving the documents shall present them, within the time set, to the judge or court to whom their execution may have been intrusted, giving notice at once of their delivery to the court or judge issuing the same. Upon their presentation, the proper official shall at once make a memorandum at the foot of the letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or letters mandatory, of the date of delivery and the person presenting the same, to whom a receipt shall be given, both signing the entry. Said official shall furthermore make a report to the judge or court the same day, and if this be impossible, on the day following. ART. 190. If they shall have been transmitted ex officio, the judge or court receiving them shall immediately acknowledge the receipt thereof. ART. 191. The judge or court who shall receive, or to whom are presented letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or letters mandatory, without prejudice to demanding jurisdiction which he may consider as pertaining to him, shall order what may be proper for the execution of the request made therein within the period fixed in the letters themselves, or otherwise, as soon as possible. After the commission has been fulfilled, the letters shall be returned without delay through the same channels by which they were received or presented. ART. 192. If the execution of letters requisitorial be delayed longer than is absolutely necessary therefor, taking into account the distance and the character of the proceedings to be had, the judge or court issuing the same shall transmit ex officio, or at the instance of a party, as the case may be, a reminder to the judge or court upon whom the request was made. If the delay in the fulfillment should relate to letters rogatory, instead of a reminder, letters requistorial shall be directed to the immediate superior of the judge upon whom the request was made, advising him of the delay, and the superior shall punish the negligent official with a disciplinary correction, without prejudice to the greater liability he may incur. The official issuing letters mandatory shall also avail himself of similar compulsion to oblige a tardy subordinate to return the same duly executed. ART. 193. Letters rogatory directed to foreign courts shall be sent through diplomatic channels in the manner prescribed by treaty, and in the absence thereof, as prescribed by the general regulations of the government. In all other cases principles of reciprocity shall govern.

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60 ART. 194. Las mismas reglas establecidas en el articulo anterior se observarin para dar cumplimiento en Espana a los exhortos de tribunales extranjeros, por los que se requiera la prActica de alguna diligencia judicial. ART. 195. Con las autoridades, funcionarios, agentes y jefes de fuerza armada que no estuvieren a las 6rdenes inmediatas de los juices y tribunales, se comunicarin 6stos por medio de atentos oficios, a no ser que la urgencia del caso exija verificarlo verbalmente, hacigndolo constar en la causa. ART. 196. Los jueces y tribunales se dirigirin en forma de exposici6n, por conducto del Ministerio de Ultramar, a los Cuerpos Colegisladores y a los Ministros de la Corona, tanto para que auxilien 4 la administration de justicia en sus propias funciones, como para que obliguen a las autoridades, sus subordinadas, 4 que suministren los datos 6 presten los servicios que se les hubiere pedido.

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60 ART. 194. The rules prescribed in the foregoing article shall be observed in executing in Spain letters rogatory from foreign courts, requiring the performance of some judicial proceeding. ART. 195. Judges and courts shall communicate with authorities, officials, agents, and commanders of armed forces who are not under their immediate orders by polite notes, unless the urgency of the case shall require that it be done orally, this being made a matter of record in the cause. ART. 196. Judges and courts shall address the colegislative bodies and the ministers of the Crown by means of statements forwarded through the colonial department, both in order to secure their aid in the administration of justice within the limits of their proper powers, as well as to compel the authorities which are their subordinates to furnish the data or render the services requested of them.

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TITULO IX. DE LOS TtBINOS JUDICIALES. ART. 197. Las resoluciones y diligencias judiciales se dictaran y practicaran dentro de los tirminos seialados para cada una de ellas. ART. 198. Cuando no se fije t6rmino, se entendera que han de dictarse y practicarse sin dilaci6n. La infracci6n de 1o dispuesto en este articulo y en el anterior seri corregida disciplinariamente, segun la gravedad del caso, sin perjuicio del derecho de la parte agraviada para reclamar la indemnizaci6n de dafios y perjuicios y demis responsabilidades que procedan. ART. 199. Los jueces y tribunales impondran en su caso dicha correcci6n disciplinaria a sus auxiliares y subalternos sin necesidad de petici6n de parte; y si no 1o hicieren, incurriran 4 su vez en responsabilidad. ART. 200. Los que se consideren perjudicados por dilaciones injustificadas de los t6rminos judiciales podran deducir queja ante el Ministerio de Ultramar, que, si la estima fundada, la remitir4 al fiscal a quien correspond para que entable de oficio el recurso de responsabilidad que proceda con arreglo a la ley, 6 promueva la correcci6n disciplinaria a que hubiere lugar. ART. 201. Los dias en que los juzgados y tribunales vacaren con sujeci6n a la ley, seran, sin embargo, habiles para las actuaciones del sumario.1 ART. 202. Seran improrrogables los terminos judiciales cuando la ley no disponga expresamente lo contrario. Pero podran suspenderse 6 abrirse de nuevo si fuere posible sin retroceder el juicio del estado en que se halle, cuando hubiere causa justa y probado. Se reputar4 causa justa la que hubiere hecho imposible dictar la resoluci6n 6 practicar la diligencia judicial, independientemente de la voluntad de quienes hubiesen debido hacerlo. ART. 203. Las sentencias se dictaran y firmaran dentro de los tres dias siguientes al en que se hubiese celebrado la vista del incidente 6 se hubiere terminado el juicio. 1A los efectos de 1o dispuesto en este articulo, se entienden actuaciones del sumario las comprendidas desdeel articulo 622 al 633.-Exposid6n del fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, nimero is. 61

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TITLE IX. JUDICIAL PERIODS. ART. 197. Judicial decisions and proceedings shall be rendered and held within the periods fixed for each. ART. 198. If no period be fixed it shall be understood that they must be rendered or held without delay. Any violation of the provisions of this and the foregoing articles shall be disciplinarily corrected, according to the gravity of the case, without prejudice to the right of the party injured to demand any proper indemnity for damages or other liabilities. AR. 199. Judges and courts shall, in a proper case, impose said disciplinary correction upon their assistants and subalterns, without the necessity of said correction being requested by a party, and should they not do so they shall in their turn incur liability. AnT. 200. Persons who consider themselves prejudiced by unjustifiable extensions of judicial periods may forward a complaint to the Colonial Department, which, if it considers the same to be well founded, shall transmit it to the proper prosecuting official, in order that he may bring proceedings ew oficio to enforce the liability which may be proper according to law, or request the imposition of the proper disciplinary correction. ART. 201. Days upon which superior and inferior courts are not sitting according to law, shall nevertheless be legal for the proceedings of the sumario.' ART. 202. Judicial periods can not be extended when the law does not expressly provide otherwise. They may, however, be suspended or opened anew, if it be possible without retrogressing in the trial from the state in which it may be, if there be a just and proved cause therefor. A just cause shall be considered one which makes it impossible to render a decision or perform a judicial proceeding independently of the will of those who should have done so. ART. 203. Decisions shall be rendered and signed within the three days following that on which the hearing of the incidental issue was held, or that on which the action closed. 'For the purposes of the provisions of this article the provisions of articles 622 to 633 are considered proceedings of the sumario. (Address of the fiscal of the supreme court of September 15, 1883, No. 13.) 61

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62 Se exceptian las sentencias en los juicios sobre faltas, las cuaies habrAn de dictarse en el mismo dia 6 al siguiente. ART. 204. Los autos se dictarin y firmaran en el dia siguiente al en que se hubiesen entablado las pretensions que por ellos se hayan de resolver, 6 hubieren legado las actuaciones .estado de que aquillos sean dictados. Las providencias se dictarin y firmaran inmediatamente que resulte de las actuaciones la necesidad de dictarlas, 6 en el mismo dia 6 en el siguiente al en que se haya presentado las pretensiones sobre que recaigan.' ART. 205. Se exceptfian de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior los autos y providencias que deban dictarse en mis corto t6rmino para no interrumpir el curso del juicio pflblico, 6 para no infringir con el retraso alguna disposici6n legal. ART. 206. El secretario dar6 cuenta al juez 6 tribunal de todas las pretensiones escritas en el mismo dia en que le fueren entregadas, si esto sucediese antes de las horas de audiencia 6 durante ella, y al dia siguiente si se le entregaren despuds. En todo caso, pondra al pie de la pretension, en el acto de recibirla y a presencia de quien se la entregase, una breve nota consignando el dia y hora de la entrega, y facilitara al interesado que 1o pidiere documento bastante para acreditarlo. ART. 207. Las notificaciones, citaciones y emplazamientos que hubieren de hacerse en la capital del juzgado 6 tribunal se practicarAn 1o mas tarde al siguiente dia de dictada la resoluci6n que deba ser notificada 6 en virtud de la cual se haya de hacer la citaci6n 6 emplazamiento. ART. 208. Si las mencionadas diligencias hubieren de practicarse fuera de la capital, el secretario entregar6 al oficial de sala 6 subalterno la cedula, 6 remitira de oficio 6 entregarA A la parte, segfin corresponda, el suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento, al siguiente dia de dictada la resoluci6n. ART. 209. Las diligencias de que habla el articulo anterior se practicaran en un tirmino que no exceda de un dia por cada 20 kil6metros de distancia entre la capital y el punto en que deban tener lugar. ART. 210. Las demis diligencias judiciales se practicaran en los tirminos que se fijen para ello al dictar la resoluci6n en que se ordenen. ART. 211. Los recursos de reform 6 de sflplica se interpondran en el t6rmino de los tries dias siguientes al en que se hubiere practicado la filtima notificaci6n a los que sean parte en el juicio. ART. 212. El recurso de apelaci6n se entablara dentro de cinco dias, a contar desde el siguiente al de la illtima notificaci6n de la resoluci6n judicial que fuere su objeto, hecha a los que express el articulo anterior. 'Definen las providencias, los autos y las sentencias firmes y ejecutorias, y determinan las solemnidades de sus formulas respectivas los artfculos 141 y 142 de esta ley.

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62 Decisions in trials for misdemeanors are excepted, which shall be rendered on the same or the following day. ART. 204. Rulings or decrees shall be issued and signed on the day following that on which the petitions involved were made, or when the proceedings have reached a stage where they may be issued. Orders of mere practice shall be made and signed immediately when the necessity therefor appears in the proceedings, or on the same or the day following that on which the petitions therein were presented.' ART. 205. Rulings and orders are excepted from the provisions of the foregoing article which should be issued in a shorter period in order not to interrupt the course of the public trial, or not violate some legal provision by the delay. ART. 206. The clerk shall communicate to the judge or court all written petitions on the day they are filed, if this be done before or during the hours for public hearings, and on the following day, if filed after such time. In any case he shall place at the foot of the petition, upon receiving it, and in the presence of the person delivering the same, a brief note of the day and hour of the delivery and shall furnish to the interested party a receipt therefor upon his request. ART. 207. Notifications, citations, and summonses which are to be served in the place where the court is sitting, shall be served not later than the day after the decision has been rendered which is to be notified, or by virtue of which a citation or summons is to be made. ART. 208. If said service is to be made beyond the judicial seat, the clerk shall deliver the writ to the officer of the chamber or to a subaltern, or shall transmit it ex officio or deliver to the party, as may be proper, the letters requisitorial, letters rogatory or mandate on the day following that on which the decision was rendered. ART. 209. The processes referred to in the foregoing article shall be served within a period not to exceed one day for every 20 kilometers between the seat of the court and the point where they are to be executed. ART. 210. Other judicial proceedings shall be had within the periods fixed therefor at the time the decree ordering the same is issued. ART. 211. Petitions to amend, or appeals for modification or revocation, shall be interposed within a period of three days following that on which the last notice was served upon the parties to the action. ART. 212. An appeal shall be filed within five days following that on which the last notice of the judicial decision which is the object thereof was served upon the persons mentioned in the foregoing article. 'Orders, rulings, final decisions, and ejecutorias are defined by articles 141 and 142 of this law, as well as the formalities of their respective formulas.

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63 El recurso de easaci6n por quebrantamiento de forma se interpondra dentro de igual plazo, a contar desde el dia siguiente al de la iltima notificacion hecha a los designados en el articulo anterior de la sentencia que pusiere termino al juicio. La preparaci6n del recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley se hares tambien dentro de los cinco dias siguientes al de la iltima notificaci6n de la sentencia 6 auto contra que se intent entablarlo. Se exceptflan el recurso de apelaci6n y la preparaci6n del de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley contra la sentencia dictada en juicio sobre faltas. Para estos recursos el termino sera el primer dia siguiente al en que se hubiere practicado la filtima notificaci6n. ART. 213. El recurso de queja para cuya interposici6n no senale tirmino la ley podra interponerse en cualquier tiempo, mientras estuviese pendiente la causa. ART. 214. Los secretarios tendrAn obligaci6n de poner, sin la menor demora y bajo su responsabilidad, en conocimiento del juez 6 tribunal el vencimiento de los terminos judiciales consignandolo asi por medio de diligencia. ART. 215. Transcurrido el termino sefialado por la ley 6 por el juez 6 tribunal, segcn los casos, se continuara de oficio el curso de los procedimientos en el estado en que se hallaren. Si el proceso estuviere en poder de alguna persona, se recogera sin necesidad de providencia, bajo la responsabilidad del secretario, con imposici6n de multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas a quien diere lugar A la recogida, si no le entregare en el acto 6 le entregare sin despachar cuando estuviere obligado a formular algin dictamen 6 pretension. En este segundo supuesto se le senalara por el juez 6 tribunal un segundo termino prudential, y si transcurrido tampoco devolviese el proceso despachado la persona a que se refiere este articulo, sera procesada como culpable de desobediencia. Tambien sera procesado en este concepto el que ni aun despues de apremiado con la multa devolviere el expediente.' El artfculo 376 del c6digo penal castiga este delito con las penas de inhabilitaci6n temporal especial en su grado mdximo A inhabilitaci6n perpetua especial y multa de 375 d 3,750 pesetas.

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63 An appeal for annulment of judgment for breach of form shall be interposed within a like period, counted from the day following that of the last notice served upon the persons mentioned in the foregoing article of the decision which closed the action. The preparation of an appeal for annulment of judgment for a violation of law shall also be made within the five days following that on which the last notice of the decision or ruling from which it is proposed to appeal. Appeals and the preparation of an appeal for annulment of judgment for violation of law from decisions rendered in an action on a misdemeanor are excepted. For these remedies the period shall be the day following that on which the last notice was served. ART. 213. The remedy of complaint for the interposition of which the law does not fix any period may be interposed at any time during the pendency of the cause. ART. 214. The clerks of courts shall be obliged to inform the judge or court of the expiration of judicial periods, without the slightest delay and under their liability, making an entry upon the record of this fact. ART. 215. Upon the expiration of the period fixed by law or by the judge or court, as the case may be, the course of the proceedings shall be continued ex oficio from where left off. If the record should be in the possession of some person, it shall be recovered without the necessity of an order, under the liability of the clerk, with the imposition of a fine of not less than 12.50 and not more than 125 pesetas upon the person retaining the same should he not deliver it at once, or should he do so without making his report or answer, if required to do so. In the latter case a second reasonable period shall be allowed him by the judge or court, and if not even upon the expiration thereof the person referred to in this article should return the process duly executed, he shall be tried as guilty of disobedience. Any person, who not even after having a fine imposed upon him, should fail to return the record shall also be likewise tried.' 'Article 376 of the Penal Code punishes this crime with the penalties of temporary special disqualification in its maximum degree to perpetual special disqualification and a fine of not less than 375 and not more than 3,750 pesetas.

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TfTULO X. DE LOS RECURSOS CONTRA LAS RESOLUCIONES DE LOS TRIBUNALES Y JUECES DE INSTRUCCION. ART. 216. Contra las resoluciones del juez de instrucci6n podran ejercitarse los recursos de reforma, apelaci6n y queja. ART. 217. El recurso de reforma podra interponerse contra todos los autos del juez de instrucci6n. El de apelaci6n podri interponerse unicamente en los casos determinados en la ley, y se admitira en ambos efectos tan s6lo cuando la misma lo disponga expresamente. ART. 218. El recurso de queja podri interponerse contra todos los autos no apelables del juez y contra las resoluciones en que se denegare la admisi6n de un recurso de apelaci6n. ART. 219. Los recursos de reforma y apelaci6n se interpondran ante el mismo juez que hubiere dictado el auto. El de queja se producira ante el tribunal superior competente. ART. 220. Seri juez competente para conocer del recurso de reforma el mismo ante quien se hubiese interpuesto, con arreglo al articulo anterior. Sera tribunal competente para conocer del recurso de apelacion aquel a quien correspondiese el conocimiento de la causa en j uicio oral. Este mismo sera el competente para conocer de la apelaci6n contra el auto de no admisi6n de una querella. Sera juez 6 tribunal competente para conocer del recurso de queja el mismo ante quien se hubiere interpuesto, con arreglo al pfrrafo segundo del articulo 219. ART. 221. Los recursos de reform, apelaci6n y queja se interpondrdn siempre en escrito autorizado con firma de letrado. ART. 222. El recurso de apelaci6n no podra interponerse sino despuds de haberse ejercitado el de reforma; pero podran interponerse ambos en un mismo escrito, en cuyo caso el de apelaci6n se propondra subsidiariamente por si fuere desestimado el de reform. El que interpusiere el recurso de reforma presentara con el escrito tantas copias del mismo cuantas sean las demas partes, a las cuales habran de ser entregadas dichas copias. El juez resolvers el recurso al segundo dia de entregadas las copias, hubiesen 6 no presentado escrito las demas partes. 64

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TITLE X. REMEDIES AGAINST DECISIONS OF COURTS AND JUDGES OF EXAMINATION. ART. 216. Petitions for amendment, appeals, and complaints lie from decisions of judges of examination. ART. 217. Petitions for amendment lie from all rulings of a judge of examination. An appeal may be interposed only in the cases determined by law, and shall be allowed both for review and a stay of proceedings only when the law expressly so provides. ART. 218. A complaint lies from all rulings of a judge which can not be appealed from and from decisions disallowing an appeal. ART. 219. Petitions for amendment and appeals shall be interposed before the same judge who made the ruling. A complaint shall be interposed before the competent superior court. ART. 220. The judge competent to take cognizance of a petition for amendment shall be the one before whom it is interposed, in accordance with the foregoing article. The court competent to take cognizance of the cause in the oral action shall have jurisdiction of the appeal. The latter shall also be competent to take cognizance of an appeal from a decree rejecting a complaint. The judge or court before whom a complaint shall have been interposed, in accordance with the second paragraph of article 212, shall be competent to take cognizance thereof. ART. 221. Petitions for amendment, appeals, and complaints shall always be interposed in writing and authenticated by the signature of an attorney. ART. 222. An appeal can not be interposed until a petition for amendment has been filed; but both may be interposed in the same instrument, in which case the appeal shall be proposed subsidiarily in case of the rejection of the petition for amendment. A person presenting a petition for amendment shall submit therewith as many copies of the same as there are other parties, to whom said copies must be delivered. The judge shall decide the appeal on or before the second day after the delivery of the copies, whether or not the other parties have filed petitions. 64 18473-01-9

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65 ART. 223. Interpuesto el recurso de apelaci6n, el juez 1o admitira en uno 6 en ambos efectos, segfn sea procedente. ART. 224. Si se admitiere el recurso en ambos efectos, se mandar4 remitir los autos originates 4 la audiencia cuando hubiere 4sta de conocer de la apelaci6n, y emplazar I las partes para que se presenten ante ella dentro del termino de diez dias. Si hubiere de conocer de la apelaci6n el Tribunal Supremo, el emplazamiento sera por t4rmino de sesenta dias y se remitir6 testimonio de los particulares do la causa que sean suficientes para la resoluci6n del recurso. ART. 225. Si el recurso no fuere admisible mas que en un solo efecto, se mandardi sacar testimonio del auto apelado, de los demis particulares que el apelante pidiere y fueren de dar, teniendo presente, en su caso, el character reservado del sumario, y de los que el juez acordare de oficio. Este testimonio se expedir4 por el secretario en el plazo mis corto posible, que se fijara en la resoluci6n en que se ordene su expedici6n. ART. 226. Para el sefialamiento de los particulares que hayan de testimoniarse no podra darse vista at apelante de los autos que para 41 tuvieren caracter de reservados. ART. 227. Puesto el testimonio, se emplazara a las partes para que, dentro del termino fijado en el articulo 224, se personen en el tribunal que hubiere de conocer del recurso. ART. 228. Recibidos los autos en el tribunal superior, si en el t4rmino del emplazamiento no se hubiere personado el apelante, se declarara de oficio desierto el recurso, comunicandolo inmediatamente por certificaci6n al juez, y devolviendo los autos originates si el recurso se hubiese admitido en ambos efectos. ART. 229. Si el apelante se hubiese personado, se le dara vista de los autos por t4rmino de tres dias para instrucci6n. Despues de 41 seguira la vista, por igual termino, 4 las demos partes personadas, y por ditimo al fiscal, si la causa fuese por delito de los que dan lugar 4 procedimiento de oficio, 6 de aquellos que pueden perseguirse previa denuncia de los interesados. Sin embargo de 1o dispuesto en los parrafos anteriores, no se dara vista a las partes de 1o que fuese pars ellas de caracter reservado. AnT. 230. Devueltos los autos por el fiscal, 6 si iste no fuere parte en la causa, por la dltima de las personas a quien se hubiesen entregado,

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65 ART. 223. If an appeal be interposed, the judge shall admit it for a review of the proceedings only, or both for review and stay of the proceedings, as may be proper. ART. 224. If the appeal be admitted both for review and stay of proceedings, the original record shall be ordered transmitted to the audiencia, if the latter is to take cognizance of the appeal, and the parties shall be summoned for appearance before the same within a period of ten days. If the Supreme Court is to take cognizance of the appeal, the summons shall be for appearance within a period of sixty days, and a certified transcript of such parts of the cause as may be sufficient for a decision upon the appeal shall be transmitted. ART. 225. If the appeal be admissible for a review of the proceedings only, a certified copy of the decision appealed from shall be ordered made, as well as of the other matters which the appellant may request and which can be given him, taking into consideration, in a proper case, the secret character of the sumario, and such other matters as the judge may order ex ofcio. This transcript shall be issued by the clerk within the shortest period possible, which shall be fixed in the order requiring the issue thereof. ART. 226. Proceedings which, in so far as the appellant is concerned, are of a secret character, can not be shown him for the purpose of indicating the matters to be transcribed. ART. 227. After the transcript has been made, the parties shall be summoned to enter an appearance before the court which is to take cognizance of the appeal within the period fixed in article 224. ART. 228. After the appellate court has received the record, if within the period fixed in the summons the appellant shall not have entered an appearance, the appeal shall be declared abandoned ex offcio, this fact being communicated in writing at once to the judge, the original record being returned to him, if the appeal shall have been admitted both for a stay and a review of the proceedings. ART. 229. If the appellant shall have entered an appearance, the record shall be referred to him for examination for a period of three days. Thereupon it shall be referred for a similar period to the other parties who have entered an appearance and finally to the prosecuting official, if the cause should involve a crime which gives rise to proceedings ex officio or a crime which may be prosecuted upon a denunciation by the parties interested. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs, such matters as are of a secret character for the parties shall not be referred to them. ART. 230. After the record has been returned by the prosecuting official, or if the latter be not a party to the cause, by the last person

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66 se senalara dia para la vista, en la que el fiscal, si fuere parte, y los defensores de las demis podran informar 1o que tuvieren por conveniente a su derecho. ART. 231. Las partes podrin presentar, antes del dia de la vista, los documentos que tuvieren por conveniente en justificaci6n de sus pretensiones. No sera admisible otro medio de prueba. ART. "232. Cuando fuere firme el auto dictado se comunicar al juez para su cumplimiento, devolviendole el proceso si la apelaci6n hubiese sido en ambos efectos. ART. 233. Cuando se interpusiere el recurso de queja, el tribunal ordenar4 al juez que informe en el corto termino que al efecto le seflale. ART. 234. Recibido dicho informe, se pasara al fiscal, si la causa fuere por delito en que tengs Que intervenir, para que emita dictamen por escrito en el termino de tres dias. ART. 235. Con vista de este dictamen, si le hubiere, y del informe del juez, el tribunal resolvers lo que estime justo. El auto que se dicte no podrs afectar al estado que tuviere la causa cuando el recurso se haya interpuesto fuera del termino ordinario de las apelaciones, sin perjuicio de lo que el tribunal acuerde en su dia cuando league a conocer de aquilla. ART. 236. Contra los autos de los tribunales de 1o criminal podrs interponerse el recurso de suplica ante el mismo que los hubiese dictado. ART. 237. Se exceptfian aquellos contra los cuales se otorgue expresamente otro recurso en la ley. ART. 238. El recurso de suplica contra un auto de cualquier tribunal, se sustanciari por el procedimiento sefialado para el recurso de reform lue se entable contra cualquiera resoluci6n de un juez de instruction.

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66 to whom it was delivered, a day shall be set for the hearing, at which the prosecuting official, if a party, and the counsel of the other parties may make such statements as they may deem pertinent. ART. 231. The parties may present before the day for the hearing, the documents which they may deem advisable in support of their contentions. No other means of proof shall be admissible. ART. 232. After the decision rendered becomes final, it shall be communicated to the judge for execution, the process being returned to him if the appeal shall have been both for a review and a stay of proceedings. ART. 233. If a complaint be made, the court shall order the judge to render a report within the brief period fixed for the purpose. ART. 234. Upon the receipt of such report, it shall be referred to the prosecuting official, if the cause involves a crime in which he must take part, for a written opinion thereon within a period of three days. ART. 235. In view of this opinion, if there be any, and the report of the judge, the court shall decide what it may deem just. The decision rendered can not affect the status of the cause if the remedy shall have been interposed outside of the ordinary period for appeals, without prejudice to what the court may decide at the proper time when it takes cognizance of the former. ART. 236. An appeal for a revocation or reversal of judgment may be interposed against decisions of criminal courts before the one rendering the same. ART. 237. Such decisions are excepted, with regard to which the law expressly grants another remedy. ART. 238. An appeal for revocation or reversal of judgment from a decision of any court shall be heard and determined according to the procedure prescribed for petitions for amendment against any decision of a judge of examination.

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TITULO XI. DE LAS COSTAS PROCESALES.' ART. 239. En los autos 6 sentencias que pongan termino a la causa 6 a cualquiera de los incidentes, debera resolverse sobre el pago de las costas procesales.' ART. 240. Esta resoluci6n podra consistir10. En declarar las costas de oficio. 2o. En condenar a su pago a los procesados, senalando la parte proporcional de que cada uno de ellos deba responder, si fuesen varios. No se impondran nunca las costas a los procesados que fueren absueltos. 3o. En condenar a su pago al querellante particular 6 actor civil. Seran 6stos condenados al pago de las costas cuando resultare de las actuaciones que ban obrado con temeridad 6 mala fe.3 ART. 241. Las costas consistiran10. En el reintegro del papel sellado empleado en la causa. 20. En el pago de los derechos de arancel. 3o. En el de los honorarios devengados por los abogados y peritos. 40. En el de las indemnizaciones correspondientes a los testigos que las hubiesen reclamado, si fueren de abono, y en los demas gastos que se hubiesen ocasionado en la instrucci6n de la casa. ART. 242. Cuando se declaren de oficio las costas no habr4 lugar al pago de las cantidades a que se refieren los nimeros 1.0 2.0 del articulo anterior: Los procuradores y abogados que hubiesen representado y defendido 4 cualquiera de las partes, y los peritos y testigos que hubiesen declarado a su instancia, podran exigir de aquilla, si no hubiere 1 Este tftulo se limita A establecer reglas generales sobre imposici6n de costas y medios de hacerlas efectivas; pero los especiales relativos d las cuestiones de competencia, recusaci6n, defensa por pobre, antejuicio necesario para exigir responsabilidad criminal d jueces y magistrados, etc., determinan quienes deben pagarlas en sus respectivos casos. Los pronunciamientos sobre costas no son susceptibles de casaci6n.-Sentendas de 10 de enero de 1890 y de 18 enero de 1887. 2 El precepto de este articulo se hall confirmado por varias sentencias del Tribunal Supremo, entre otras, una de 12 de febrero de 1879. S Costas al denunciador.-No teniendo el denunciador los caracteres expresados de querellante particular 6 actor civil, relevdndole la ley de la obligaci6n de probar los bechos denunciados, y no contrayendo otra responsabilidad que la correspondiente 6 los delitos que hubiere cometido por medio de la denuncia 6 con su ocasi6n, no se le pueden imponer las costas.-Sala 2 Sentencia de 12 de febrero de 1879. 67

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TITLE XI. COSTS IN ACTIONS. ART. 239. A ruling or decision which terminates a cause or any of the issues therein must contain a decision as to the payment of costs in the proceedings.2 ART. 240. This resolution may consist of: 1. A declaration of costs ex officio. 2. The imposition of their payment upon the accused, fixing the proportion which each of them is to pay, if there be several. Costs shall never be taxed against accused persons who are acquitted. 3. The adjudgment of the same against the private complainant or civil plaintiff. The latter shall be adjudged to pay the costs when it shall appear from the proceedings that they have acted maliciously or in bad faith.3 ART. 241. The costs shall consist of: 1. The cost of the stamped paper used in the cause. 2. The payment of the court fees according to schedule. 3. The payment of the fees of attorneys and experts. 4. The payment of the indemnities pertaining to the witnesses who may have demanded them, and the other expenses which may have arisen in connection with the hearing of the cause. ART. 242. When the costs are declared to be ex offico, the amounts referred to in numbers 1 and 2 of the foregoing article will not be paid. The solicitors and attorneys who may have represented and defended any of the parties, and the experts and witnesses who shall have testifled at their request, may require said party, if the proceedings are This title confines itself to establishing general rules for the taxation of costs and the manner of recovering the same; but the special titles relating to questions of jurisdiction, challenges, proceedings in forma pauperis, preliminary action necessary to enforce the criminal liability of judges and justices, etc., determine who are to pay the same in each respective case. Decrees upon costs can not be annulled. (Decisions of January 10, 1890, and January 18, 1887.) 2 The precept of this article has been confirmed by various decisions of the Supreme Court, notably by that of February 12, 1879. s Taxation against the denouncer.-Should the denouncer not appear as the private complainant or civil plaintiff, as the law relieves him of the obligation of proving the acts denounced, and as he contracts no other liability but that pertaining to the crimes he may have committed by means of the denunciation or on the occasion thereof, costs can not be taxed against him. (Second Chamber, decision of February 12, 1879.) 67

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68 obtenido el beneficio de pobreza, el abono de los derechos, honorarios e indemnizaciones que les correspondieren, reclamindolos del juez 6 tribunal que conociese de la causa. Se procedera 4 su exacci6n por la via de apremio si, presentadas las respectivas reclamaciones y hechas saber 4 las partes, no pagasen 6stas en el termino prudential que el juzgado 6 tribunal seilale, ni tachasen aquillas de ilegitimas 6, excesivas. En este Altimo caso, se procedera previamente como dispone el parrafo segundo del articulo 244. El secretario del tribunal 6 juzgado que interviniere en la ejecuci6n de la sentencia hara la tasaci6n de las costas de que hablan los numeros 1.0 y 2.o del articulo anterior. Los honorarios de los abogados y peritos se acreditaran por minutas firmadas por los que los hubiesen devengado. Las indemnizaciones de los testigos se computarin por la cantidad que oportunamente se hubiese fijado en la causa. Los demis gastos seran regulados por el tribunal 6 juzgado, con vista de los justificantes.' ART. 243. Hechas la tasaci6n y regulaci6n de costas, se dara vista al ministerio fiscal y a la parte condenada al pago, para que manifiesten 1o que tengan por conveniente en el termino de tres dias.1 ART. 244. En vista de 1o que el ministerio fiscal y dicho interesado manifestaren, el juez 6 tribunal aprobara 6 reformara la tasaci6n 6 regulation. Si se tachare do ilegitima 6 excesiva alguna partida de honorarios, el juez 6 tribunal, antes de resolver, podra pedir informe a dos individuos de la misma profesi6n del que hubiese presentado la minuta tachada de ilegitima 6 excesiva, 6 a la junta de gobierno del colegio si los que ejerciesen dicha profesi6n estuviesen colegiados en el punt de residencia del juez 6 tribunal. ART. 245. Aprobadas 6 reformadas la tasaci6n y regulaci6n, se procedera a hacer efectivas las costas por la via de apremio, establecida en la ley de enjuiciamiento civil,2 con los bienes de los que hubiesen sido condenados a su page. ART. 246. Si los bienes del penado no fuesen bastantes para cubrir todas las responsabilidades pecuniarias, se procedera para el orden y preferencia de pago, con arreglo a lo establecido en los articulos respectivos del c6digo penal.3 Vase en el Ap6ndice I las Ordenes Nims. 166 y 181 de 1900. 2Se ocupan del procedimiento de apremio los artfculos 1479 y siguientes de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil vigente en las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico. 8 Los articulos del Codigo Penal que determinan el orden de preferencia, son los 48 al 51. (Vbase el Apendice II.)

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68 not in forma pauperi, to pay the fees, charges, and indemnities due them, submitting their claim through the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. Compulsory process shall be employed for their recovery if, upon the presentation of the respective claims and their presentation to the parties they should not pay the same within a reasonable time fixed by the judge or court, or charge that they are illegal or excessive. In the latter case, the provisions of the second paragraph of article 244 shall first be observed. The clerk of the court or tribunal intervening in the execution of the sentence shall make the taxation of costs referred to in numbers 1 and 2 of the foregoing article. The fees of the attorneys and experts shall be vouched for by memoranda signed by the persons charging the same. The indemnities of the witnesses shall be computed according to the amount duly fixed in the cause. The other costs shall be fixed by the superior or inferior court, in view of the vouchers. ART. 243. After the taxation and appraisement of the costs, the prosecuting official and the party against whom the costs were adjudged shall be heard in order that they may state what they deem proper.' ART. 244. In view of the statements of the prosecuting official and the said party, the judge or court shall approve or modify the taxation. If any item of the fees should be objected to as illegal or excessive, the judge or court before deciding may call for the opinion of two persons of the same profession as the one presenting the item objected to as illegal or excessive, or the opinion of the board of administration of the college, if the persons engaged in such profession should belong to an association located at the seat of the judge or court.' ART. 245. After the taxation or appraisement has been approved or amended, compulsory process, established by the Law of Civil Procedure, shall be instituted for the purpose of enforcing the payment thereof upon the property of those sentenced thereto. ART. 246. If the person sentenced should not possess sufficient property to meet all pecuniary liabilities, the provisions of the respective articles of the Penal Code shall be observed for the order and preference of payment.' 1See in Appendix I, Orders Nos. 166 and 181 of 1900. 'Articles 1479 et seq. of the Law of Civil Procedure in force in Cuba and Porto Rico relate to compulsory process. 'The articles of the Penal Code which determine the order of preference are articles 48 to 51. (See Appendix II.)

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TITULO XII. DE LAS OBLIGACIONES DE LOS TUECES Y TEIBUNALES BEELATIVAS i LA ESTADISTICA JUDICIAL. ART. 247. Los jueces municipales tendrin obligaci6n de remitir cada mes al presidente de la audiencia territorial respectiva un estado de los juicios sobre faltas que durante el mes anterior se hubiesen celebrado. ART. 248. Los jueces de instrucci6n remhitiran mensualmente al president de la respectiva sala 6 audiencia de lo criminal un estado de los sumarios principiados, pendientes y conclusos durante el mes anterior. ART. 249. Los presidentes de las expresadas salas 6 audiencias remitiran al presidente de la audiencia territorial cada trimestre un estado resumen de los que hubieren recibido mensualmente de los jueces de instrucci6n, y otro de las causas pendientes y terminadas ante su tribunal durante el trimestre. Los trimestres se formaran contando desde el comienzo del aflo judicial. ART. 250. Los presidentes de las audiencias territoriales remitiran al Ministerio de Ultramar, en el primer mes de cada trimestre, estados en resumen de los que hubieren recibido de los jueces municipales y de los tribunales de 1o criminal. ART. 251. Las salas segunda y tercera del Tribunal Supremo remitirin al Ministerio de Ultramar un estado de los recursos de casaci6n ante ellas pendientes y por ellas fallados durante el trimestre. Cuando la sala de 1o criminal de cualquier audiencia territorial 6 la tercera del Tribunal Supremo, 6 este constituido en pleno, principiaren 6 fallaren alguna causa criminal que especialmente les estuviese encomendada, 1o pondran inmediatamente en conocimiento del Ministro de Ultramar, remitiendo en su caso testimonio de la sentencia. ART. 252. Los tribunals remitiran directamente al registro central de los procesados y penados, establecido en el Ministerio de Ultramar, notas autorizadas de las sentencias firms en las que se imponga alguna pena por delito, y de los autos en que se declare la rebeldia de los procesados, con arreglo a los modelos que se les envien al efecto. ART. 253. El tribunal que dicte sentencia firm condenatoria en cualquier causa criminal remitira testimonio de la parte dispositiva de IS misma al juez de instrucci6n del lugar en que se hubiere formado el sumario. 69

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TITLE XII. OBLIGATIONS OF JUDGES AND COURTS WITH REGARD TO JUDICIAL STATISTICS. ART. 247. Municipal judges shall be obliged to transmit every month to the presiding justice of the respective territorial audiencia a statement of the actions for misdemeanors which may have been beard during the month. ART. 248. Judges of examination shall forward monthly to the presiding justice of the respective criminal chamber or audiencia a statement of the sumarios begun, pending, or concluded during the previous month. ART. 249. The presiding judges of the said chambers or audiencias shall transmit every quarter to the presiding judge of the territorial audiencia a brief report of the statements received monthly from the judges of examination, and another statement of the causes pending and concluded before their court during the quarter. The quarters shall be formed counting from the beginning of the judicial year. ART. 250. The presiding judges of the territorial audiencias shall transmit to the Colonial department, during the first month of each quarter, brief reports of the statements received from the municipal judges and the criminal courts. ART. 251. The second and third chambers of the Supreme Court shall forward to the Colonial department a statement of the appeals for annulment of judgment pending before the same and decided by them during the quarter. When the criminal chamber of any territorial audiencia or the third chamber of the supreme court, or the latter sitting in bane, shall begin or decide some criminal cause especially entrusted to them, they shall immediately inform the colonial minister, transmitting a transcript of the sentence in a proper case. ART. 252. The courts shall transmit directly to the "Registro central de los procesados y penados," established in the colonial department, authenticated memoranda of the final sentences imposing some penalty for a crime, and of the decrees declaring the persons accused in default, in accordance with the forms sent them for the purpose. ART. 253. A court rendering a final decision sentencing a person accused in any criminal cause shall transmit a certified copy of the adjudging portion of said sentence to the judge of examination of the place where the sumario was conducted. 69

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70 ART. 254. Cada juez de instrucci6n levar6 un libro que se titular Registro de penados. Las hojas de este libro serin numeradas, selladas y rubricadas por el juez de instrucci6n y su secretario de gobierno. En dicho libro se extractarin las certificaciones expresadas en el articulo anterior. ART. 255. Llevar4 tambien cada juez de instrucci6n otro libro titulado Registro de procesados en rebeldia, con las formalidades prescritas para el de penados. En este libro se anotarin todas las causas cuyos procesados hayan sido declarados rebeldes, y se harsh en el asiento de cada uno la anotaci6n correspondiente cuando el rebelde fuere habido. ART. 256. Las audiencias 6 salas de lo criminal levarin un libro igual al expresado en el articulo anterior para anotar los procesados declarados rebeldes despues de la conclusion del sumario. ART. 257. Sin perjuicio de 1o dispuesto en este titulo, el Ministro de Ultramar establecers, por medio de los correspondientes reglamentos, el servicio de la estadistica criminal que debe organizarse en dicho centro y las reglas que en consonancia con e1 han de observar los jueces y tribunales.

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70 ART. 254. Every judge of examination shall keep a book which shall be called "Register of convictions." The leaves of this book shall be numbered, sealed, and rubricated by the judge of examination and his secretary of administration. Briefs of the certified copies mentioned in the foregoing article shall be entered in this book. ART. 255. Every judge of examination shall also keep another book entitled "Register of persons accused in default," with the formalities prescribed for that of convictions. In the latter book shall be entered all causes in which the persons accused have been declared in default, and the proper entry shall be made upon the record of each cause when the person in default is found. ART. 256. Criminal audiencias or chambers shall keep a book similar to that mentioned in the foregoing article in which to record persons accused who are declared in default after the conclusion of the sunano. ART. 257. Without prejudice to the provisions of this title, the colonial minister shall establish, by means of the proper regulations, the service of criminal statistics to be organized in said department and the rules to be observed in connection therewith by judges and courts.

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TITULO XIII. DE LAS COBBECCIONES DISCIPLINARIAS. ART. 258. Sin perjuicio de las correcciones especiales que establece esta ley para casos determinados, son tambidn aplicables las disposiciones contenidas en el titulo XIII del libro primero de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil i cuantas personas, sean 6 no funcionarios, asistan 6 de cualquier modo intervengan en los juicios criminales, siendo los jueces municipales, los jueces de instrucci6n, los tribunales de lo criminal y el Supremo, quienes, respectivamente en su caso, podrin imponer las correcciones disciplinarias correspondientes. El tftulo que se cita de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil autoriza A los jueces y tribunales par corregir disciplinariamente, tanto 6 los particulares que asistan A los juicios, como t los funcionarios que intervienen en ellos, por las faltas que unos y otros cometan. 71

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TITLE XIII. DISCIPLINARY CORRECTIONS. ART. 258. Without prejudice to the special corrections which this law establishes for specific cases, the provisions of Title XIII of the first book of the law of civil procedure are also applicable to any persons, whether officials or not, who are present at or intervene in any manner whatsoever in criminal proceedings, the proper disciplinary corrections being imposed by municipal judges, judges of examination, criminal courts, or the Supreme Court.' 1 The title cited of the law of civil procedure authorizes judges and courts to disciplinarily correct private individuals present at judicial proceedings, as well as officials taking part therein, for offences committed by either. 71

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LIBRO SEGUNDO. DEL SUMARIO. TITULO PRIMERO. DE LA DENUNCIA. ART. 259. El que presenciare la perpetraci6n de cualquier delito p6blico estara obligado a ponerlo inmediatamente en conocimiento del juez de instruccion, municipal 6 funcionario mas pr6ximos al sitio en que se hallare, bajo la multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas. ART. 260. La obligaci6n establecida en el articulo anterior no comprende a los imphberes ni 4 los que no gozaren del pleno uso de su razon. ART. 261. Tampoco estarin obligados a denunciar: 10. El c6nyuge del delincuente. 20. Los ascendientes y descendientes consanguineos 6 afines del delincuente y sus colaterales consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines hasta el segundo grado inclusive. 3o. Los hijos naturales respecto de la madre en todo caso, y respecto del padre cuando estuvieren reconocidos, asi como la madre y el padre en iguales casos. ART. 262. Los que por raz6n de sus cargos, profesiones u oficios tuvieren noticia de alguin delito piblico, estaran obligados a denunciarlo inmediatamente at ministerio fiscal, al tribunal competente, al juez de instrucci6n, y en su defecto, al municipal 6 al funcionario de policia mas pr6ximo al sitio si se tratare de un delito flagrante. Los que no cumpliesen esta obligaci6n incurriran en la multa senalada en el articulo 259, que se impondra disciplinariamente. Si la omisi6n en dar parte fuese de un profesor de medicina, cirugia 6 farmacia y el delito de los comprendidos en el titulo del c6digo penal que trata de los cometidos contra las personas, 6 por suposici6n de parto, 6 por muerte de un niio abandonado, la multa no podrA bajar de 62.50 pesetas. Si el que hubiese incurrido en la omisi6n fuere empleado p'blico, se pondrs ademas en conocimiento de su superior inmediato para los efectos 4 que hubiere lugar en el orden administrativo. 72

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BOOK SECOND. THE SUMARIO. TITLE FIRST. THE DENUNCIATION. ART. 259. He who shall be present at the commission of any public crime shall be obliged to inform immediately the nearest judge of examination, municipal judge, or official, under a penalty of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas. ART. 260. The obligation established in the foregoing article does not include infants nor those who are not in the full enjoyment of their reason. ART. 261. Nor shall the following be obliged to make a denunciation: 1. The spouse of the delinquent. 2. The ascendants and descendants by consanguinity or affinity of the delinquent and his collateral relatives by consanguinity or uterine, and by affinity up to and including the second degree. 3. The natural children with regard to the mother in every case, and with regard to the father when acknowledged, as well as the mother and the father in similar cases. ART. 262. Those who, by reason of their position, profession, or trade, should have information of some public crime, shall be obliged immediately to denounce the same to the public prosecutor, the court of competent jurisdiction, the judge of examination, and, in his absence, the municipal judge or the police officer nearest to the place, if a flagrant crime be involved. Those who shall fail to comply with this obligation shall incur the fine prescribed in article 259, which shall be imposed as a matter of discipline. If the failure to give such information should be incurred by a professor of medicine, surgery, or pharmacy, and the crime of those included in that title of the Penal Code which treats of crimes against the person, or on account of a fictitious birth, or the death of an abandoned infant, the fine shall not be less than 62.50 pesetas. If the person failing to give the information be a public employee, his immediate superior shall also be informed for the proper administrative purposes. 72 18473-01---10

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73 Lo dispuesto en este articulo se entiende cuando la omisi6n no produjere responsabilidad con arreglo 4 las leves. ART. 263. La obligaci6n impuesta en el parrafo primero del articulo anterior no comprendera a los abogados ni a los procuradores respect de las instrucciones 6 explicaciones que recibieren de sus clients. Tampoco comprenderi a los eclesiasticos y ministros de cultos disidentes respect de las noticias que se les hubieren revelado en el ejereicio de las funciones de su ministerio. ART. 264. El que por cualquier medio diferente de los mencionados tuviere conocimiento de la perpetraci6n de algun delito de los que deben perseguirse de oficio, debera denunciarlo al ministerio fiscal, al tribunal competente 6 al juez de instrucci6n 6 municipal, 6 funcionario de policia, sin que se entienda obligado por esto a probar los hechos denunciados ni a formalizar querella. El denunciador no contraera en ningfin caso otra responsabilidad que la correspondiente 4 los delitos que hubiese cometido por medio de la denuncia 6 con su ocasi6n. ART. 265. Las denuncias podran bacerse por escrito 6 de palabra, personalmente 6 por medio de mandatario con poder especial. ART. 266. La denuncia que se hiciere por escrito debera estar firmada por el denunciador; y si no pudiere hacerlo, por otra persona a su ruego. La autoridad 6 funcionario que la recibiere rubricara y sellara todas las hojas a presencia del que la presentare, quien podr4 tambien rubricarla por si 6 por medio de otra persona a su ruego. ART. 267. Cuando la denuncia sea verbal, se extenders un acta por la autoridad 6 funcionario que la recibiere, en la que, en formal de declaraci6n, se expresaran cuantas noticias tenga el denunciante relativas al hecho denunciado v a sus circunstancias, firmandola ambos 4 continuaci6n. Si el denunciante no pudiere firmar, lo hara otra persona a su ruego. ART. 268. El juez, tribunal, autoridad 6 funcionario que recibieren una denuncia verbal 6 escrita haran constar por la cedula personal, 6 por otros medios que reputen suficientes, la identidad de la persona del denunciador. Si 6ste lo exigiere, le darn un resguardo de haber formalizado la denuncia. ART. 269. Formalizada que sea la denuncia, se procedera 6 mandara proceder inmediatamente por el juez 6 funcionario a quien se hiciese a la comprobaci6n del hecho denunciado, salvo que iste no revistiere caracter de delito, 6 que la denuncia fuere manifiestamente falsa. En cualquiera de estos dos casos el tribunal 6 funcionario se abstendran de todo procedimiento, sin perjuicio de la responsabilidad en quo incurran si desestimasen aquilla indebidamente.

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73 The provisions of this article are understood to apply when the omission does not produce any liability in accordance with law. ART. 263. The obligation imposed by the first paragraph of the foregoing article does not include attorneys or solicitors with regard to the instructions or explanations they may receive from their clients. Neither shall it include ecclesiastics or ministers of dissenting cults with regard to information revealed to them in the exercise of the duties of their ministry. ART. 264. He who, by any means different from those mentioned, should have information of the commission of any crime of those which are prosecuted at the instance of the Government, must denounce it to the public prosecutor, the court of competent jurisdiction, or to the municipal or examining judge, or police official, without being considered bound thereby to prove the acts denounced or to make a formal complaint. The denouncer shall in no case incur any other liability than that pertaining to the offenses he may have committed by means of the denunciation or on the occasion thereof. ART. 265. The denunciation may be made in writing or orally, in person or through an agent with a special power therefor. ART. 266. A written denunciation must be signed by the denouncer; and if he be unable to do so, by some other person at his request. The authority or official receiving the same shall rubricate and stamp every sheet thereof in the presence of the person presenting it, who may also rubricate it in person or through another person at his request. ART. 267. If the denunciation be verbal, a memorandum shall be made by the authority or official receiving the same, in which, in the form of a declaration, shall be stated all the information which the denouncer may have as to the act denounced and its circumstances, both subscribing the same. If the denouncer be not able to sign, another person shall do so at his request. ART. 268. The judge, court, authority, or official who shall receive a written or verbal denunciation shall require proof of the identity of the person of the denouncer by his personal cedula or by other means which they may consider sufficient. If the denouncer so require, they shall give him an acknowledgment of his having formally made the denunciation. ART. 269. After the denunciation has been formally made, the judge or official to whom it is made shall immediately proceed to verify the act complained of or order that this be done unless said act be not a crime or the denunciation be manifestly false. In either case the court or official shall abstain from taking any proceedings, without prejudice to the liability they may incur if they improperly ignore said denunciation.

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TITULO II. DE LA QUERELLA. ART. 270. Todos los ciudadanos espafioles, hayan sido 6 no ofendidos por el delito, pueden querellarse, ejercitando la acci6n popular establecida en el articulo 101 de esta ley. Tambien pueden querellarse los extranjeros por los delitos cometidos contra sus personas 6 bienes, 6 las personas 6 bienes de sus representados, previo cumplimiento de lo dispuesto en el articulo 280, si no estuvieren comprendidos en el iltimo pirrafo del 281. ART. 271. Los funcionarios del ministerio fiscal ejercitarin tambi4n, en formal de querella, las acciones penales en los casos en que estuvieren obligados con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el articulo 105. ART. 272. La querella se interpondra ante el juez de instrucci6n competente. Si el querellado estuviese sometido por disposici6n especial de la ley a determinado tribunal, ante 6ste se interpondra la querella. Lo mismo se har4 cuando fueren varios los querellados por un mismo delito 6 por dos 6 mas conexos, y alguno de aquillos estuviese sometido excepcionalmente a un tribunal que no fuere el 1lamado 4 conocer por regla general del delito. ART. 273. En los casos del articulo anterior, cuando se trata de un delito infraganti 6 los que no dejan senfales permanentes de su perpetraci6n, 6 en que fuere de temer fundadamente la ocultaci6n 6 fuga del presunto culpable, el particular que intentare querellarse del delito podra acudir desde luego al juez de instrucci6n 6 municipal que estuviere mias proximo, o a cualquier funcionario de policia, a fin de que se practiquen las primeras diligencias necesarias para hacer constar la verdad de los hechos y para detener al delincuente. ART. 274. El particular querellante, cualquiera que sea su fuero, quedara sometido para todos los efectos del juicio por el promovido al juez de instrucci6n 6 tribunal competente para conocer del delito objeto de la querella. Pero podra apartarse de la querella en cualquier tiempo, quedando, sin embargo, sujeto a las responsabilidades que pudieran resultarle por sus actos anteriores. 74

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TITLE I. THE COMPLAINT OR INFORMATION. ART. 270. Any Spanish citizen, whether injured or not by the crime, may make a complaint, exercising the popular right of action established by article 101 of this law. Foreigners may also make complaints for crimes committed against their persons or property, or the persons or property of their principals, after complying with the provisions of article 280, if they be not included in the provisions of the last paragraph of article 281. ART. 271. Public prosecutors shall also exercise, in the form of informations, penal actions in cases in which they should be obliged to do so in accordance with the provisions of article 105. ART. 272. The complaint shall be made before the judge of examination of competent jurisdiction. If the person charged in the complaint be subject by a special provision of the law to a specific tribunal, the complaint shall be made before the latter. The same shall be done if there be several persons charged with the same crime, or with two or more connected crimes, and one of them be subject exclusively to one tribunal, and said tribunal be not that called upon to take cognizance of the crime as a general rule. ART. 273. In the cases of the foregoing article, if a flagrant crime be involved or some crime which does not leave any permanent marks of its commission, or in which there is good reason to fear the concealment or flight of the presumed criminal, the private individual desiring to file a complaint charging the crime may at once apply to the nearest judge of examination or municipal judge, or to any police official, for the purpose of having the first steps taken which may be necessary to ascertain the truth of the facts and for the detention of the delinquent. ART. 274. The private complainant, whatever jurisdiction he be subject to, shall be subject for all the purposes of the action instituted by him to the judge of examination or court having jurisdiction of the crime which is the subject-matter of the complaint. But he may abandon the complaint at any time, but shall nevertheless be subject to the liabilities which he might have incurred by reason of his previous acts. 74

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75 ART. 275. Si la querella fuese por delito que no pneda ser perseguido sino a instancia de parte, se entendera abandonada por el que la hubiere interpuesto cuando dejare de instar el procedimiento dentro de los diez dias siguientes a la notificaci6n del auto en que el juez 6 el tribunal asi 1o hubiese acordado. Al efecto, a los diez dias de haberse practicado las illtimas diligencias pedidas por el querellante, 6 de estar paralizada la causa por falta de instancia del mismo, mandara de oficio el juez 6 tribunal que conociere de los autos que aquil pida lo que eonvenga a derecho en el termino fijado en el pirrafo anterior. ART. 276. Se tendra tambien por abandonada la querella, cuando por muerte, 6 por haberse incapacitado el querellante para continuar la acci6n, no compareciere ninguno de sus herederos 6 representantes legales a sostenerla dentro de los treinta dias siguientes a la citaci6n que al efecto se les hares dandoles conocimiento de la querella. ART. 277. La querella se presentara siempre por medio de procurador con poder bastante y suscrita por letrado. Se extenders en papel de oticio, y en ella se expresara: 10. El juez 6 tribunal ante quien se presente. 20. El nombre, apellidos y vecindad del querellante. 3o. El nombre, apellidos y vecindad del querellado. En el caso de ignorarse estas circunstancias, se debera hacer la designaci6n del querellado por las seffas que mejor pudieran darle a conocer. 4o. La relaci6n circunstaciada del echo, con expresi6n del lugar, afio, moes, dia y hora en que se ejecut6, si se supieren. 5o. Expresi6n de las diligencias que se deberan practicer para la comprobaci6n del hecho. 6o. La petici6n de que se admit la querella, se practiquen las diligencias indicadas en el nfmero anterior, se proceda a la detenci6n y prisi6n del presunto culpable, 6 a exigirle la flanza de libertad provisional, y se acuerde el embargo de sus bienes en la cantidad necesaria en los easos en que as1 proceda. 70. La firma del querellante 6 la de otra persona a su ruego, si no supiere 6 no pudiere firmar, cuando el procurador no tuviese poder especial para formular la querella. ART. 278. Si la querella tuviere por objeto algin delito de los que solamente pueden perseguirse a instancia de parte, excepto el de violaci6n 6 rapto, acompaiarA tambidn la certificaci6n que acredite haberse celebrado 6 intentado el acto de conciliaci6n entre querellante y querellado. Podrn, sin embargo, practicarse sin este requisite las diligencias de carActer urgente para la comprobaci6n de los hechos 6 par la detenci6n

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75 ART. 275. If the complaint should charge a crime which can be prosecuted only at the instance of a party, it shall be understood that said complaint is abandoned by the person who made it, should be not institute proceedings within ten days next following the notice of the decree of the judge or court to that effect. For this purpose, after ten days have elapsed since the taking of the final steps requested by the complainant, or when the cause is at a standstill on account of his inaction, the judge or court taking cognizance of the proceedings shall order ex ofcio that the former demand what may be proper according to law within the period fixed in the foregoing paragraph. ART. 276. The complaint shall also be considered as abandoned if, on account of the death or incapacity of the complainant to continue the action, none of his heirs or legal representatives should appear to prosecute the same within thirty days next after their citation for this purpose, giving them notice of the complaint. ART. 277. The complaint shall always be submitted through a solicitor having a sufficient power subscribed by an attorney. It shall be drafted on official paper, and shall state: 1. The judge or court before whom it is made. 2. The name, surname, and residence of the complainant. 3. The name, surname, and residence of the person charged. If these details be unknown, the description of the person charged must state such distinctive marks as may best tend to his identification. 4. A detailed statement of the act, with a statement of the place, year, month, day, and hour it was committed, if known. 5. A statement of the steps to be taken for the verification of the act. 6. A petition that the complaint be admitted; that the steps indicated in the foregoing number be taken; that the detention and imprisonment of the presumed criminal take place or that he be required to give bond for his temporary liberty, and that sufficient of his property be attached in cases in which this is proper. 7. The signature of the complainant, or that of another person at his request if he should not know how or not be able to sign, when the solicitor has no special power of attorney to make a formal complaint. ART. 278. If the complaint should charge some crime which can be prosecuted at the instance of a party only, excepting rape or abduction, a certificate shall also be attached showing that proceedings to effect a conciliation have been held or attempted between the complainant and the defendant. Nevertheless, proceedings of an urgent character for the verification of the acts or for the detention of the delinquent may be had

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76 del delincuente, suspendiendo despues el curso de los autos hasta que se acredite el cumplimiento de lo dispuesto en el parrafo anterior.' ART. 279. En los delitos de calumnia 6 injuria causadas en juicio se presentara ademas la licencia del juez 6 tribunal que hubiese conocido de aquel, con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el c6digo penal.2 ART. 280. El particular querellante prestara fianza de la clase y en la cuantia que fijare el juez 6 tribunal para responder de las resultas del juicio. ART. 281. Quedan exentos de cumplir 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior: 10. El ofendido y sus herederos 6 representantes legales. 20. En los delitos de asesinato 6 de bomicidio, el viudo 6 viuda, los ascendientes y descendientes consanguineos 6 afines, los colaterales consanguineos 6 uterinos y afines hasta el segundo grado, los herederos de la victima, y los padres, madres e hijos naturales a quienes se refiere el nflmero 3.o del articulo 261. La exenci6n de fianza no es aplicable a los extranjeros si no les correspondiese en virtud de tratados internacionales 6 por el principio de reciprocidad. 'Segn el artfculo 467 del c6digo penal, pars perseguir los delitos de violaci6n y rapto, no es necesaria querella de parte agraviada, bastando la mera denuncia de is misma, aunque no se formalice instancia. El acto de conciliaci6n que la ley quiere que se intente antes de promoverse querell por delito privado, no tiene otro objeto que el de evitar, a ser posible, el juicio criminal por medio de la avenencia de las respectivas partes, debiendo obstar en absolute la avenencia resultante a la interposici6n de aqu6lla, por versar sobre cuesti6n legalmente terminada. La indole especial de esta clase de avenencias no permite atribuirles distinto efecto, y esto supuesto cuando la querella criminal se refiere A un asunto asf concluido en el trdmite esencial de la conciliaci6n, es como si se tratara de cosa juzgada por juez competente, pues la avenencia consignada en la respectiva acts equivale, en realidad, d una sentencia definitiva, tanto mis respetable cuanto que consiste en el acuerdo de los interesados.-Sentencia de 12 de Febrero de 1886. 2 Wase el artfculo 486 del c6digo penal en el Apindice II.

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76 without this requisite, the proceedings being afterwards suspended until it appears that the provisions of the foregoing paragraph have been complied with.' ART. 279. In crimes of calumny or contumely committed at a judicial proceeding, there shall also be filed the permission of the judge or court having taken cognizance of such proceedings, in accordance with the provision of the Penal Code.2 ART. 280. The private complainant shall give security of the character and amount which the judge or court may fix, to answer for the results of the action. ART. 281. The following shall be excused from complying with the provisions of the foregoing article: 1. The aggrieved person and his heirs and legal representatives. 2. In crimes of assassination or homicide, the widower or widow, the ascendants or descendants by consanguinity or affinity, the collateral relatives by consanguinity or uterine and by affinity up to the second degree, the heirs of the victim, and the fathers, mothers, and natural children referred to in subdivision 3 of article 261. The exemption from giving bond does not apply to foreigners unless entitled thereto by virtue of international treaties or the principles of reciprocity. 'According to article 467 of the Penal Code, in order to prosecute crimes for rape or abduction, a complaint on the part of the person injured is not necessary, a simple denunciation being sufficient, even though not made in writing. Proceedings to effect a conciliation which the law requires to be held before a complaint is made for a private crime has no other object than to prevent, if possible, a criminal action by means of the consent of the respective parties, such a consent absolutely precluding the institution of such action, as it then involves a question legally closed. The special character of such agreements does not permit of another effect being attributed to them, for the reason that a criminal complaint relates to a question which has been closed by the essential proceedings of the conciliation, and is therefore a matter decided by the competent judge, because the conciliation included in the respective instrument is really equivalent to a final decision, deserving greater respect, as it consists of the agreement of the persons interested. Decision of February 12, 1886. 2See article 486 of the Penal Code in Appendix II.

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TfTIULO III. DE LA POLICfA JUDICIAL. ART. 282. La policia judicial tiene por objeto, y sera obligaci6n de todos los que la componen, averiguar los delitos pdblicos que se cometieren en su territorio o demarcacion; practicar, segun sus atribuciones, las diligencias necesarias para comprobarlos y descubrir 4 los delincuentes, y recoger todos los efectos, instruments 6 pruebas del delito de cuya desaparici6n hubiere peligro, poniendolos a disposici6n de la autoridad judicial. Si el delito fuera de los que s6lo pueden perseguirse a instancia de parte legitima, tendran la misma obligaci6n expresada en el parrafo anterior, si se les requiriere al efecto. ART. 283. Constituiran la policia judicial y seran auxiliares del ministerio fiscal, de los jueces de instrucci6n y de los municipales en su caso: 10. Las autoridades administrativas encargadas de la seguridad piblica y de la persecuci6n de todos los delitos 6 de algunos especiales. 20. Los empleados 6 subalternos de policia de seguridad, cualquiera que sea su denominaci6n. 3o. Los alcaldes, tenientes de alcaldes y alcaldes de barrio. 4o. Los jefes, oficiales e individuos de la guardia civil 6 de cualquiera otra fuerza destinada la persecuci6n de malhechores. 50. Los serenos, celadores y cualesquiera otros agents municipales de policia urbana 6 rural. 60. Los guardas particulars de montes, campos y sembrados, jurados 6 confirmados por la administration. To. Los jefes de los establecimientos penales, los alcaldes de las carceles y sus subalternos. 80. Los alguaciles y dependientes de los tribunales y juzgados. ART. 284. Inmediatamente que los funcionarios de policia judicial tuvieren conocimiento de un delito pdblico, 6 fueren requeridos para prevenir la instrucci6n de diligencias por raz6n de algun delito privado, To participaran A la autoridad judicial 6 al representante del ministerio fiscal, si pudieren hacerlo sin cesar en la practice de las diligencias de prevenci6n. En otro caso 1o haran ast que las hubieren terminado. 77

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TITLE III. THE JUDICIAL POLICE. AnT. 282. The object of the judicial police, as well as the obligation of all individuals composing the same, is to ascertain the public crimes committed within its territory or district; to take, according to their powers, the steps necessary to verify said crimes and discover the delinquents and collect all the effects, instruments, or proof of the crime which may be in danger of disappearing, and to place the same at the disposal of the judicial authority. If the crime should be one which can be prosecuted at the instance of a legitimate party only, they shall be under the obligation mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, if called upon. ART. 283. The following shall constitute the judicial police and shall be assistants to the prosecuting officials, judges of examination, and municipal judges, in a proper case: 1. The administrative authorities entrusted with the public security and the prosecution of all or of some special crimes. 2. The employees or subordinates of the police of security, whatever be their denomination. 3. The mayors, deputy mayors, and ward mayors. 4. The chiefs, officials, and members of the civil guard or of any other body devoted to the prosecution of wrongdoers. 5. Watchmen, and any other municipal agents of the urban or rural police. 6. The special watchmen of forests, plantations, and farms, sworn or confirmed by the administration. 7. The heads of penal establishments, the wardens of prisons, and their assistants. 8. Sheriffs and the employees of superior and inferior courts. ART. 284. As soon as the officials of the judicial police shall receive information of the commission of a public crime, or should be called upon to order any preliminary measures to be taken by reason of the commission of a private crime, they shall inform the judicial authority or the public prosecutor, should they be able to do so without discontinuing the preliminary proceedings. Otherwise they shall do so upon the conclusion thereof. 77

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'78 ART. 285. Si concurriere algfn funcionario de policia judicial de categoria superior A la del que estuviese actuando, deberA iste darle conocimiento de cuanto hubiese practicado, ponidndose desde luego a su disposition. ART. 286. Cuando el juez de instrucci6n 6 el municipal se presentaren A formar el sumario, cesaran las diligencias de prevenci6n que estuviere practicando cualquie'a autoridad 6 agente de policia, debiendo 6stos entregarlas en el acto A dicho juez, asi como los efectos relativos al delito que se hubiesen recogido, y poniendo a su disposici6n a los detenidos, si los hubiese. ART. 287. Los funcionarios que constituyen la policia judicial practicaran sin dilaci6n, segin sus atribuciones respectivas, las diligencias que los funcionarios del ministerio fiscal les encomienden para la comprobaci6n del delito y averiguaci6n de los delincuentes y todas las demas que durante el curso de la causa les encargaren los jueces de instruccion y municipales. ART. 288. El ministerio fiscal, los jueces de instrucci6n y los municipales podrAn entenderse directamente con los funcionarios de policia judicial, cualquiera que sea su categoria, para todos los efectos de este titulo; pero si el servicio que de ellos exigiesen admitiese espera, deberAn acudir al superior respectivo del funcionario de policia judicial, mientras no necesitasen del inmediato auxilio de 4ste. ART. 289. El funcionario de policia judicial que por cualquier causa no pueda cumplir el requerimiento 6 la orden que hubiese recibido del ministerio fiscal, del juez de instrucci6n, del juez municipal, 6 de la autoridad 6 agente que hubiese prevenido las primeras diligencias, lo pondrs inmediatamente en conocimiento del que haya hecho el requerimiento 6 dado la orden para que prove de otro modo a su ejecuci6n. ART. 290. Si la causa no fuere legitima, el que hubiese dado la orden 6 hecho el requerimiento lo pondrs en conocimiento del superior jerarquico del que se excuse para que le corrija disciplinariamente, a no ser que hubiere incurrido en mayor responsabilidad con arreglo a las leves. El superior jerarquico comunicara a la autoridad 6 funcionario que le hubiere dado la queja la resoluci6n que adopte respecto de su subordinado. AnT. 291. El jefe de cualquiera fuerza pdblica que no pudiere prestar el auxilio que por los jueces de instrucci6n 6 municipals 6 por un funcionario de policia judicial le fuere pedido, se atendra tambien A lo dispuesto en el articulo 289. El que hubiera hecho el requerimiento 1o pondrs en conocimiento del jefe superior inmediato del que se excusare en la formal y para el objeto expresado en los parrafos del articulo anterior.

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78 ART. 285. Should any official of the judicial police of a higher rank than that of the official conducting the proceedings be present, the latter must inform him of all steps taken and immediately place himself at his orders. ART. 286. When the judge of examination or municipal judge appear to conduct the sumario, the police authority or agent shall discontinue the preliminary steps in which he may be engaged and at once deliver any proceedings had to the aforementioned judge, as well as the effects connected with the crime which may have been collected, and shall hold the persons detained, if there are any, subject to his orders. ART. 287. The officials constituting the judicial police shall, without delay, according to their respective powers, take such steps as may be entrusted to them by the prosecuting officials for the verification of the crime and the capture of the delinquents and any other steps entrusted to them during the course of the action by judges of examination and municipal judges. ART. 288. The public prosecutors, judges of examination, and municipal judges may communicate directly with the officials of the judicial police, whatever be their rank, for all the purposes of this title; but if the service required of them should admit of delay, they must apply to the immediate superior of the official of the judicial police, provided they do not require the immediate assistance of the latter. ART. 289. An official of the judicial police who for any reason whasotever should not be able to comply with the demand or order received from the public prosecutor, judge of examination, municipal judge, or the authority or agent who took the first steps, shall immediately inform the person who made the demand or gave the order, so that he may provide for the execution thereof by other means. ART. 290. If the cause should not be a legitimate one, the person who shall have given the order or made the demand shall inform the hierarchical superior of the person excusing himself in order that he may be disciplined, unless he shall have incurred some greater liability in accordance to law. The hierarchical superior shall communicate to the authority or official who made the complaint the action taken by him with regard to his subordinate. ART. 291. The commander of any public force who should not be able to render the aid requested of him by judges of examination or municipal judges or by an official of the judicial police, shall also observe the provisions of article 289. The person making the demand shall so inform the immediate superior of the person excusing himself, for the purposes and in the manner mentioned in the paragraphs of the foregoing article.

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79 ART. 292. Los funcionarios de policia judicial extenderdn, bien en papel sellado, bien en papel com6n, an atestado de las diligencias que practiquen, en el cual especificaran con la mayor exactitud los hechos por ellos averiguados, insertando las declaraciones 4 informed recibidos y anotando todas las circunstancias que hubiesen observado y pudiesen ser prueba 6 indicio del delito. ART. 293. El atestado sera firmado por el que 1o haya extendido, y si usare sello, lo estampar4 con su rfbrica en todas las hojas. Las personas presentes, peritos y testigos que hubieren intervenido en las diligencias relacionadas en el atestado serin invitadas a firmarlo en la parte 4 ellos referente. Si no 1o hicieren, se expresara la raz6n. ART. 294. Si no pudiere redactar el atestado el funcionario a quien correspondiese hacerlo, se sustituir por una relaci6n verbal circunstanciada, que reducira a escrito de un modo fehaciente el funcionario del ministerio fiscal, el juez de instrucci6n 6 el municipal 4 quien deba presentarse el atestado, manifestindose el motive de no haberse redactado en la formal ordinaria. ART. 295. En ning6n caso, salvo el de la fuerza mayor, los funcionarios de policia judicial podran dejar transcurrir mas de veinticuatro horas sin dar conocimiento a la autoridad judicial 6 al ministerio fiscal de las diligencias que hubieren practicado. Los que infrinjan esta disposition seran corregidos disciplinariamente con multa de 62.50 4 250 pesetas, si la omisi6n no mereciere la calificaci6n de delito. Los que, sin exceder el tiempo de las veinticuatro horas, dilataren mas de lo necesario el dar conocimiento, seran corregidos disciplinariamente con multa de 25 a 125 pesetas. ART. 296. Cuando hubieren practicado diligencias por orden 6 requerimiento de la autoridad judicial 6 del ministerio fiscal, comunicaran el resultado obtenido en los plazos que en la orden 6 en el requerimiento se hubiesen fijado. ART. 297. Los atestados que redactaren y las manifestaciones que hicieren los funcionarios de policia judicial a consecuencia de las averiguaciones que hubiesen practicado, se consideraran denuncias para los efectos legales. Las demis declaraciones que prestaren deberan ser firmadas y tendrAn el valor de declaraciones testificales en cuanto se refieran a hechos de conocimiento propio. En todo caso, los funcionarios de policia judicial estin obligados a observar estrictamente las formalidades legales en cuantas diligencias practiquen, y se abstendran, bajo su responsabilidad, de usar medios de averiguaci6n que la ley no autorice.

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79 ART. 292. The officials of the judicial police shall make, either on stamped or ordinary paper, an attested statement of the proceedings had by them, in which they shall specify, with the greatest minuteness, the facts ascertained by them, inserting the depositions and reports received and making a note of all the circumstances which they may have observed and which may be proof or evidence of the crime. ART. 293. This attested statement shall be signed by the person who prepared it, and if he uses a seal he shall affix the same with his rubric upon every sheet. The persons present, experts and witnesses, who shall have taken part in the proceedings set forth in the attested statement, shall be requested to sign that portion thereof which relates to them. Should they fail to do so the reason for their refusal shall be stated. ART. 294. If it should be impossible for this statement to be prepared by the official whose duty it is to do so, it shall be substituted by a verbal detailed statement, which shall be reduced to writing in an authentic manner by the public prosecutor, judge of examination, or municipal judge to whom the attested statement is to be presented, the reason that it was not drafted in the usual manner being stated. ART. 295. In no case, excepting force majeure, shall the officials of the judicial police allow more than twenty-four hours to elapse without informing the judicial authorities or the public prosecutor of the steps which they may have taken. Those violating this provision shall be disciplined by the imposition of a fine of not less than 62.50 or more than 250 pesetas, if the failure does not deserve to be classified as a crime. Those who, without exceeding the time of twenty-four hours, should delay giving this information longer than necessary, shall be dis
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80 ART. 298. Los jueces de instrucci6n y los fiscales calificarin en un registro reservado el comportamiento de los funcionarios que bajo su inspecci6n presten servicios de policia judicial, y cada semestre, con referencia a dicho registro, comunicarin a los superiorer de cada uno de aqullos, para los efectos a que hubiere lugar, la calificaci6n razonada de su comportamiento. Cuando los funcionarios de policia judicial que hubieren de ser corregidos disciplinariamente con arreglo a esta ley fuesen de categoria superior a la de la autoridad judicial 6 fiscal que entendiesen en las diligencias en que se hubiere cometido la falta, se abstendran estos de imponer por si mismos la correccion, limitandose a poner 1o ocurrido en conocimiento del jefe inmediato del que debiere ser corregido.

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80 ART. 298. Judges of examination and prosecuting officials shall classify, in a secret register, the conduct of the officials who shall render services of judicial police under their inspection, and every six months, with reference to the said register, they shall conununicate to the superiors of each of them the detailed classification of their conduct for the proper purposes. When the officials of the judicial police who should be disciplined in accordance with this law are of a rank superior to that of the judicial or prosecuting authority acting in the proceedings in which the offense was committed, the latter shall abstain from personally imposing the punishment, confining themselves to communicating the occurrence to the immediate chief of the person to be disciplined. 18473-01--11

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TITULO IV. DE LA INSTRUCCIGN. CAPITULA PRIMERO. DEL SUMARIO Y DE LAS AUTORIDADES COMPETENTES PARA INSTRUIRLO. ART. 299. Constituyen el sumario las actuaciones encaminadas a preparar el juicio y practicadas para averiguar y hater constar la perpetraci6n de los delitos con todas las circunstancias que puedan influir en su calificacion, y la culpabilidad de los delincuentes, asegu-. rando sus personas y las responsabilidades pecuniarias de los mismos.' Awr. 300. Cada delito de que conozesa la autoridad judicial sera objeto de un sumario. Los delitos conexos se comprenderin, sin embargo, en un solo proceso. ART. 301. Las diligencias del sumario seran secretas hasta que se abra el juicio oral, con las excepciones determinadas en la presente ley: El abogado 6 procurador de cualquiera de las partes que revelare indebidamente el secreto del sumario, sera corregido con multa de 125 a 1,250 pesetas. En la tisma multa incurrird cualquiera otra persona que no siendo funcionario publico cometa la misma falta. El funcionario p6blico, en el caso de los parrafos anteriores, incurrir en la responsabilidad que el c6digo penal sefiale en su lugar respectivo. ART. 302. El juez instructor podi autorizar al procesado 6 procesados para que tomen conocimiento de las actuaciones y diligencias sumarias cuando se relacionen con cualquier derecho que intenten ejercitar, siempre que dicha autorizaci6n no perjudique a los fines del sumario. Segin sentencia de 20 de Septiembre de 1886 las omisiones cometidas en este period procesal no pueden constituir notivo para la casaci6u de una sentencia definitive, tanto porque pueden ser subsanadas de oficio con reposicion de la casa, couo porque pueden suplirse A instancia de las partes versantes en ella. En la regla 3 de la circular de la fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo de 31 de Diciembre de 1882, insert en la memoria de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, se consign que "los fiscales de las audiencias fijardn su atenci6n en la naturaleza especial de los sumarios, segin la nueva ley 4 fin de que se concreten 4 los puntos verdaderamente esenciales de los mismos, procurando su mds pronta terminaci6n possible 81

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TITLE IV. THE INVESTIGATION. CHAPTER FIRST. THE SUMARIO AND THE AUTHORITIES COMPETENT TO TAKE COGNIZANCE THEREOF. ART. 299. The sunario consists of the proceedings had to prepare the trial and foi the purpose of verifying and evidencing the commission of crimes with all the circumstances which may have a bearing upon their classification and the guilt of the delinquents, securing their persons and the pecuniary liabilities of the same.' ART. 300. Every crime of which a judicial authority takes cognizance shall be the subject of a sunario. Connected crimes, nevertheless, shall be included in one and the same proceeding. ART. 301. The proceedings of the gumario shall be secret until the oral trial is begun, with the exceptions specified in this law. The attorney or solicitor of any of the parties who shall improperly reveal the secret of the sumario, shall be punished by the imposition of a fine of not less than 125 or more than 1,250 pesetas. The same penalty shall be incurred by any other person who, not being a public official, shall commit the same offense. A public official, in the case of the foregoing paragraphs, shall incur the liability which the penal code may fix in the respective place. ART. 302. The judge of examination may authorize the person or persons accused to take cognizance of the proceedings and steps of the sumario when they relate to any right which they may wish to exercise, provided that said authorization shall not prejudice the ends of the sumario. 'According to a decision of September 20, 1886, the omissions incurred at this stage of the proceedings can not serve as a basis for the annulment of a final sentence, because they can be cured by the court and the cause reheard, and they may also be supplied at the instance of the parties thereto. In the third rule of the circular of the office of the Fiscal of the Supreme Court of December 31, 1882, including in the report of September 15, 1883, it was stated that "the fiscales of audiencias shall devote their attention to the special character of the sunarios, according to the new law, in order that they may be limited to the truly essential points of the same, securing the speediest conclusion possible." 81

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82 Si iste se prolongase mas de dos meses, A contar desde el auto on que se declare el procesamiento de determinada 6 determinadas personas, podrin 6stas pretender del juez instructor que se les d4 vista do lo actuado A fin de instar su mas pronta terminaci6n, a lo que deber5 acceder la mencionada autoridad judicial en cuanto no 1o considere peligroso para el 6xito de las investigaciones sumariales. Contra el auto denegatorio en uno y otro caso, s6lo procedera el recurso de queja ante el tribunal superior competente. ART. 303. La formaci6n del sumario, ya empiece de oficio, ya a instancia de parte, correspondera a los jueces de instrucci6n por los delitos que se cometan dentro de su partido 6 demarcaci6n respective, y en su defecto A los demas de la misma ciudad 6 poblaci6n, cuando en ella bubiere mas de uno, y a prevenci6n con ellos 6 por su delegaci6n, A los jueces municipales. Esta disposici6n no es aplicable A las causas enconendadas especialmente por la ley organic determinados tribunales, pues para ellas podrAn 4stos nombrar un juez instructor especial, 6 autorizar al ordinario para el seguimiento del sumario. El nombramiento de juez instructor finicamente podrA recaer en un magistrado del mismo tribunal, 6 en un funcionario del orden judicial en activo servicio de los existentes dentro del territorio de dicho tribunal. Una vez designado, obrara con jurisdicci6n propia a independiente.' Cuando el instructor fuese un magistrado, podra delegar sus funciones, en caso de imprescindible necesidad, en el juez de instrucci6n del punto donde hayan de practicarse las diligencias. En las causas para cuyo conocimiento sea competente una sala de 1o criminal por la calidad de las personas contra quien se dirija el procedimiento, 1,puede aquilla dictar providencia mandando los procesos al fiscal para que pida lo que cream procedente respecto A la investigation? Concluida la instrucci6n de las diligencias del sumario en dichas causas, cuando por delegaci6n las instruya un juez, 4A quidn corresponded dictar el auto de terminaci6n del sumario? En cuanto A la primera parte, es indudable que la sala puede hacer 1o que indica la consulta. No hay motivo para que se abstenga el fiscal de pedir la prdctica de las diligencias que juzgue pertinentes, puesto que en la instruccion de estos sumarios, como en la de todos, ejerce el ministerio pdblico su inspecei6n con arreglo a la ley. "Por lo que hace A la segunda, la facultad de declarar concluso el snmario en las causas :1 que la consult se refiere, pertenece, como en todos los procesos, al juez instructor, el cual, aunque haya recibido delegaci6n de la audiencia para instruir el sumnario, ejerce durante la instrucci6n funciones propias a independientes con arreglo al pArrafo 30 del artfculo 303 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal."-Consulta utrmero 17 de la Memoria de la Fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 1887.

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82 If the latter should extend over a period exceeding two months, dating from the writ indicting one or more specific persons, the latter may demand of the examining judge that they be allowed to examine the proceedings had for the purpose of hastening the termination thereof, to which the said judicial authority must consent in so far as he does not consider it dangerous to the success of the preliminary investigations. An appeal in complaint to the superior court of competent jurisdiction is the only remedy against a refusal in either case. ART. 303. The formation of the sumario, whether begun ex offcio or at the instance of a party, shall pertain to the judges of examination with regard to crimes committed within their judicial district or respective circuit, and in their absence to the others of the same city or town, if there be more than one therein, and upon their request or by their delegation, to the municipal judges. This provision does not apply to causes specially intrusted by the organic law to specific tribunals, as for such causes the latter may appoint a special judge of examination or authorize the ordinary judge to conduct the sumario. As examining judge can be appointed only a justice of the said tribunal or an official of the judicial service in active service on duty within the territory of said tribunal. After being appointed he shall act upon his own and independent jurisdiction.' If the examining judge be an associate justice, he may delegate his functions, in case of unavoidable necessity, to the judge of examination of the place where the proceedings are to be held. 'In causes for the cognizance of which a criminal chamber may be competent by reason of the class of persons against whom the proceedings are directed, can said chamber issue an order transmitting the records to the prosecuting official for him to make such requests concerning the investigation which he may deem proper? Upon the conclusion of the proceedings of the sumario in such causes, when a judge conducts them by delegation, who shall decree the termination of the sumariot With regard to the first question, there is no doubt that the chamber may take the steps indicated." "There is no reason why the prosecuting official should not request that such steps be taken which he may deem pertinent, because in the conduction of these sunarios, as well as of other sumarios, the prosecuting official exercises a supervision in accordance to law." "With regard to the second, the power to declare the sumario terminated in the causes to which the question refers, is vested, as in all processes, in the examining judge, who, even though he shall have been delegated by the audiencia to conduct the sumario, exercises during the same individual and independent functions in accordance with the third paragraph of article 303 of the law of criminal procedure." (Question No. 17 of the report of the office of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of 1887.)

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83 Cnando cl delito fuese por su naturaleza de aquellos que solamente pueden cometerse por autoridades 6 funcionarios sujetos a un fuero superior, los jueces de instrucci6n ordinarios, en casos urgentes, podran acordar las medidas de precauci6n necesarias para evitar su ocultaci6n; pero reuitirin las diligencias en el t4rmino mais breve possible, que en ningin caso podra exceder de tres dias, al tribunal competent, el cual resolvers la incoaci6n del sumario, y, en su dia, sobre si ha 6 no lugar al procesamiento de la autoridad 6 funcionarios inculpados. ART. 304. Las salas de gobierno de las audiencias territoriales podran nombrar tambien un juez instructor especial cuando las causas versen sobre delitos cuyas extraordinarias circunstancias, 6 las de lugar y tiempo de su ejecuci6n, 6 de las personas que en ellos hubiesen intervenido como ofensores 4 ofendidos, motivaren fundadamente el nombramiento de aquil para la mas acertada investigaci6n 6 para la ms segura comprobaci6n de los hechos. Las facultades de las salas de gobierno seran extensivas s las causas procedentes de las audiencias comprendidas dentro de su demarcaci6n, y los nombramientos deberan recaer en los mismos funcionarios expresados en el articulo anterior de entree los existentes en el territorio, prefiriendo, A ser posible, uno de los magistrados de la misma, cuando no fuere autorizado el juez instructor ordinario para el seguimiento del sumiario. Lo mismo las salas de gobierno que los tribunals, cuando hagan uso de la facultad expresada en este y en el precedente articulo, darAn cuenta motivada al Ministerio de Ultramar. ART. 305. El nombramiento de jueces especiales de instrucci6n que se haga conforme A los articulos anteriores, sera y habrA de entenderse s6lo para la instrucci6n del sumario con todas sus incidencias. Terminado 6ste, se remitira por el juez especial al tribunal a quien segin las disposiciones vigentes correspond el conocimiento de la causa, para que la prosiga y fallen con arreglo A derecho. CAPITULO II. DE LA FORMACl6N DEL SUMARIO. ART. 306. Conform A lo dispuesto en el capitulo anterior, los jiueces de instrucci6n formaran los sumarios de los delitos piblicos bajo la inspecci6n directs del fiscal del tribunal competente. La inspecci6n sera ejercida, bien constituy4ndose el fiscal por si 6 por medio de sus auxiliares al lado del juez instructor, bien por medio

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83 If the crime from its nature be of those which can he committed only by authorities or officials subject to a superior jurisdiction, the ordinary judges of examination may, in urgent cases, order such measures of precaution to be taken which may be necessary to prevent their concealment; but they shall forward the proceedings within the shortest possible period, which in no case shall exceed three days, to the court of competent jurisdiction, which shall pass upon the institution of the .umario, and at the proper time shall decide whether the authority or official accused should or should not be indicted. ART. 304. The chambers of administration of the territorial audiencias may also appoint a special examining judge when the causes involve crimes the extraordinary circumstances of which, or the conditions of the time or place of their execution, or of the per. -ons involved therein either as aggrieved or authors, should furnish sufficient cause for the appointment of said judge in order to secure a better examination or a more certain verification of the facts. The powers of the chambers of administration shall extend to causes proceeding from the audiencias situated within their circuits, and the appointments must be of the same officials mentioned in the foregoing article from among those on service within the circuit, preference being given, if possible, to one of the associate justices of the same, if the ordinary examining judge should not be authorized to conduct. the sumaro. Chambers of administration as well as courts, when they avail themselves of the power mentioned in this and in the foregoing article, shall render a detailed report to the colonial department. ART. 305. The appointment of special judges of examination which may be made in accordance with the foregoing articles shall and must be understood only for the conduction of the sumario with all its incidents. Upon the conclusion thereof the proceedings had therein shall be forwarded by the special judge to the court to which according to the provisions in force the cognizance of the cause pertains, in order that it may continue and decide the same according to law. CHAPTER II. FORMATION OF THE SUMARIO. ART. 306. In accordance with the provisions of the foregoing chapter, judges of examination shall conduct the sumario of public crimes under the direct supervision of the public prosecutor of the court of competent jurisdiction. The supervision shall be exercised. either by the public prosecutor establishing himself in person or through one of his assistants at the

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84 do testimonios en relaci6n, suficientemente expresivos, que le remitira ef juez instructor peri6dicamente y cuantas veces se los reclame, pudiendo en este caso el fiscal hacer presentes sus observacionos en atenta comunicaci6n y formular sus pretensions por requerimientos igualmente atentos. Tambi6n podra delegar sus funciones en los fiscales municipals. ART. 307. En el caso de que el juez municipal comenzare a instruir Ias primeras diligencias del sumario, practicadas que sean las mas urgentes y todas las que el juez de instrucci6n le hubiere prevenido, le remitira la causa, que nunca podra retener mas de tres dias. ART. 308. Inmediatamente que los jueces de instrucci6n 6 los municipales, en su caso, tuvieren noticia de la perpetraci6n de un delito, lo pondrAn en conocimiento del fiscal de la respective audiencia, y los jueces de instrucci6n darn ademas part at president de 4sta de la formaci6n del sumario en relaci6n sucinta suficientemente expresiva del hecho, de sus circunstancias y de su autor, dentro de los dos dias siguientes al en que hubieren principiado a instruirle. Los juices municipales darin cuenta inmediata de la prevenci6n de las diligencias al de instrucci6n a quien corresponda. ART. 309. Si la persona contra quien resultaren cargos fuere alguna de las sometidas en virtud de disposici6n especial de la ley organica a un tribunal exceptional, practicadas las primeras diligencias, y antes de dirigir el procedimiento contra aqudlla, esperara las 6rdenes del tribunal competente a los efectos de 1o prevenido en el parrafo segundo y ultima parte del quinto del art. 303 de esta ley. Si el delito fuere de los que dan motivo a la prisi6n preventive con arreglo A lo dispuesto en esta ley, y el presunto culpable hubiese sido sorprendido infraganti, podra ser desde luego detenido y preso, si fuere necesario, sin perjuicio de lo dispuesto en el parrafo precedente. ART. 310. Los jueces de instrucci6n podran delegar en los municipales la practice de todos los actors y diligencias que esta ley no reserve exclusivamente A los primeros, cuando alguna causa justificada les impida practicarlos por s. Pero procuraran hacer uso moderado de esta facultad, y el tribunal inmediato superior cuidara de impedir y corregir la frecuencia injustificada de estas delegaciones. ART. 311. El juez que instruya el sumario practicara las diligencias que le propusieren el ministerio fiscal 6 el particular querellante, si no las considera indtiles 6 perjudiciales.

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84 side of the examining judge, or by means of detailed certified statements, sufficiently explicit, which shall be transmitted to him by the examining judge at periodical intervals, and as often as requested, the public prosecutor being permitted in the latter case to submit his remarks in a respectful communication, and his petitions by requisitions equally respectful. He may also delegate his functions to the municipal prosecuting officials. ART. 307. In case that the municipal judge should begin the institution of the preliminary proceedings of the sumario, as soon as the more urgent steps have been taken, as well as all those which the judge of examination may have ordered, he shall forward the cause to him, and shall never retain it for more than three days. ART. 308. As soon as judges of examination, or municipal judges in a proper case, shall have information of the commission of a crime, they shall inform the prosecuting official of the proper audiencia, and judges of examination shall in addition inform the presiding judge of the latter of the formation of the sumario in a succinct statement sufficiently specific as to the act, its circumstances, and the author thereof within two days after the institution of the same. Municipal judges shall make a report at once of the proceedings had to the proper judge of examination. ART. 309. If the person against whom charges are made be of those subject by virtue of a special provision of the organic law to an exceptional tribunal, after the first proceedings have been had and before instituting proceedings against said person, orders shall be awaited from the competent court for the purposes of the provisions contained in the second paragraph and the last part of the fifth paragraph of article 303 of this law. If the crime be of those which give rise to provisional imprisonment in accordance of the provisions of this law,.and the presumed criminal should have been surprised in fraganti, he may be detained at once and placed under arrest, if necessary, without prejudice to the provisions of the foregoing paragraph. ART. 310. Judges of examination may delegate to the municipal judges the holding of all proceedings and taking of all steps which this law does not reserve exclusively to the former, when any just cause prevents them doing so in person. But they shall seek to make a moderate use of this power and the immediate superior court shall take care to prevent and correct an unjustified frequency of these delegations. ART. 311. The judge conducting the sumario shall take all the steps which may be suggested to him by the prosecuting officials or by the private complainant, if he does not consider them useless or prejudicial.

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85 Contra el auto denegatorio de las diligencias pedidas podra interponerse el recurso de apelaci6n, que sera admitido en un solo efecto para ante la respective audiencia 6 tribunal competente. Cuando el fiscal no estuviere en la misma localidad que el juez de instrucci6n, en vez de apelar, recurrira en queja al tribunal competente, acompaflando al efecto testimonio de las "diligencias sumariales que conceptue necesarias, cuyo testimonio debera facilitarle el juez de instrucci6n, y previo informe del mismo, acordara el tribunal lo que estime procedente. ART. 312. Cuando se presentase querella, el juez de instrucci6n, despues de admitirla si fuere procedente, mandara practicar las diligencias que en ella se propusieren, salvo las que considered contrarian A las leyes, 6 innecesarias 6 perjudiciales para el objeto de la querella, las cuales denegara en resoluci6n motivada. ART. 313. Desestimar en la misma form la querella cuando los hechos en que se funded no constituyan delito, 6 cuando no se consider competent para instruir el sumario objeto de la misma. Contra el auto a que se refiere este articulo procedera el recurso de apelaci6n, que sera admisible en ambos efectos. ART. 314. Las diligencias pedidas y denegadas en el sumario podran ser propuestas de nuevo en el juicio oral. ART. 315. El juez hard constar cuantas diligencias se practicaren a instancia de parte. De las ordenadas de oficio solamente constarAn en el sumario aquellas cuyo resultado fuere conducente al objeto del mismo. ART. 316. El querellante podra intervenir en todas las diligencias del sumario. Si el delito fuere piblico, podri el juez de instrucci6n, sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el parrafo anterior, declarar, a propuesta del fiscal 6 de oficio, secreto el sumario para el querellante. ART. 317. El juez municipal tendra las mismas facultades que el de instrucci6n par no comunicar al querellante particular las actuaciones que practicare. ART. 318. Sin embargo del deber impuesto a los juices municipals de instruir en su caso las primeras diligencias de los sumarios, cuando el juez de instrucci6n tuviere noticia de algfln delito que revista caracter de gravedad, 6 cuya comprobaci6n fuere dificil por circunstancias especiales, 6 que hubiese causado alarma, se trasladara inmediatamente al lugar del delito y procedera A formar el sumario, haciendose cargo de las actuaciones que hubiese practiedao el juez municipal y recibiendo las averiguaciones y datos que le suministren los funcionarios de la policia judicial. Permanecera en dicho lugar el tiempo necesario

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85 An appeal may be taken from all decisions refusing to take the steps requested, which appeal shall be allowed for review only before the proper audiencia or court of competent jurisdiction. If the public prosecutor be not in the same locality as.the judge of examination, instead of appealing, he shall enter a complaint before the proper tribunal, attaching for the purpose an abstract of the proceedings which he may consider necessary, which abstract must be furnished him by the judge of examination; and after a report from the latter the court shall decide what it may deem proper. ART. 312. If a complaint be made, the judge of examination, after admitting the same, if proper, shall order such steps to be taken as are suggested therein, excepting those which he may consider contrary to law or unnecessary or prejudicial to the object of the complaint, which he shall refuse in a decision setting forth his reasons. ART. 313. He shall reject the complaint in the same manner when the acts upon which it is based do not constitute a crime or when he does not consider that he has jurisdiction to conduct the sumario which is the object thereof. An appeal for a review and stay of proceedings shall lie from the decision referred to in this article. ART. 314. The proceedings requested and refused in the sumario may again be moved in the oral trial. ART. 315. The judge shall cause a record to be made of all proceedings had at the instance of a party. Of those ordered ex ofcio only such shall appear in the sum ario the result of which shall be conducive to the object thereof. ART. 316. The complainant may take part in all the proceedings of the sumario. If the crime be a public one, the judge of examination may, notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing paragraph, declare, on motion of the prosecuting official or ex ofFcio, that the sunario is secret from the complainant. ART. 317. The municipal judge shall have the same powers as the judge of examination not to communicate the proceedings held to the private complainant. ART. 318. Notwithstanding the duty imposed upon municipal judges to take, in a proper case, the first steps in a mario, when the judge of examination shall have information of the commission of some crime of a serious character, or the verification of which might be difficult by reason of special conditions, or which may have caused alarm, he shall immediately betake himself to the place where the crime was committed and shall proceed to conduct the sumario, taking charge of the proceedings which may have been had by the municipal judge and receiving the verifications and data furnished him by the officials of

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86 para practical todas las diligencias, cuya dilaci6n pudiera ofrecer inconvenient. ART. 319. Cuando el Fiscal de la respectiva Audiencia tuviere conocimiento de la perpetraci6n de alguno de los delitos expresados en el articulo anterior, debera trasladarse personalmente, 6 acordar que se traslade al lugar del suceso alguno de sus subordinados para contribuir, con el juez do instruccion, al mejor y mas pronto esclarecimiento de los hechos, si otras ocupaciones tanto 6 mas graves no lo impidieren, sin perjuicio de proceder de igual manera en cualquier otro caso en que 1o conceptuare conveniente. ART. 320. La intervenci6n del actor civil en el sumario se limitara a procurar la prdctica de aquellas diligencias que puedan conducir al mejor exito de su acci6n, apreciadas discrecionalmente por el juez instructor. ART. 321. Los jueces de instrucci6n formarian el sumario ante sus secretarios. En casos urgentes y extraordinarios, faltando stos, podrin proceder con ia intervenci6n de un notario 6 de dos hombres Buenos mayores de edad, que sepan leer y escribir, los cuales juraran guardar fidelidad y secreto. ART. 322. Las diligencias del sunario que hayan de practicarse fuera de ia circunscripci6n del juez do instrucci6n 6 del tirmino del juez municipal que las ordenaren, tendran lugar en la forma que determina el tit. VIII del libro 1, y seran reservadas para todos los que no deban intervenir en ellas. ART. 323. Sin embargo de 10 dispuesto en el articulo anterior, cuando el lugar en que se hubiere de practicar alguna diligencia del sumario estuviere fuera de la jurisdicci6n del juez instructor, pero en lugar pr6ximo al punto en que 6ste se hallare, y hubiese peligro en demorar aqulla, podrs ejecutarla por si mismo, dando inmediato aviso al juez competence. ART. 324. Cuando al mes de haberse incoado un sumario no se hubiere terminado, el juez darn parte cads semana a los mismos A quienes lo haya dado al principiarse aquel de las causas que hubiesen impedido su conclusion. Con vista de cada uno de estos partes, los presidentes A quienes se hubiesen remitido y el Tribunal competente acordarAn, segfln sus respectivas atribuciones, lo que consideren oportuno pare la mas pronta terminaci6n del sumario. Sin perjuicio de 1o dispuesto en este articulo, los jueces de instrucci6n estan obligados A dar a los Fiscales de las Audiencias cuantas noti-

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86 the judicial police. He shall remain in said place as long as may be necessary to hold all the proceedings in which delay might cause inconvenience. ART. 319. When the public prosecutor of the respective audiencia shall have information of the commission of any of the crimes mentioned in the foregoing article, he must proceed in person, or order that one of his subordinates proceed to the place of the occurrence, together with the judge of examination, in order to secure a better and more speedy elucidation of the facts, should he not be prevented from so doing by other occupations of as great or greater importance, without prejudice to proceeding in a similar manner in any other case in which he may consider it advisable. ART. 320. The intervention of the civil plaintiff in the sunario shall be confined to securing the taking of such steps as may contribute to the success of his action, which steps shall be passed upon by the examining judge in his discretion. ART. 321. Judges of examination shall conduct the sumario in the presence of their secretaries. In urgent and extraordinary cases, in the absence of the latter, they may proceed with the intervention of one notary or of two hombres buenos of legal age, able to read and write, and who shall take an oath to observe faith and secrecy. ART. 322. The proceedings of the sumario which may have to be held without the jurisdiction of the judge of examination or the district of the municipal judge ordering the same, shall be had in the manner prescribed in Title VIII of the first book, and shall be secret as to persons not connected therewith. ART. 323. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the foregoing article, when the place in which some proceeding of the sumtario is to be held is without the jurisdiction of the examining judge, but at a place near the point where the latter may be, and there should be danger in delaying such proceeding, he may execute it in person, immediately advising the judge of competent jurisdiction. ART. 324. If one month after the beginning of a smartio it should not have been concluded, the judge shall every week inform such persons as he informed at the beginning of said sunario of the causes which may have prevented the conclusion thereof. In view of each of these communications, the presiding judges to whom they may have been transmitted and the court of competent jurisdiction shall order, according to their respective powers, what they may consider proper for a more speedy termination of the sum aro. Without prejudice to the provisions of this article, judges of examination are obliged to give to the prosecuting officials of audiencias any

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87 cias les pidieren, fuera de estos terminos, sobre el estado y adelanto de los sumarios. ART. 325. De las faltas de celo y actividad en la formaci6n de los sumarios serin responsables disciplinariamente los jueces de instrucci6n, y los municipales en su caso, a no ser que lo fueran criminalmente con arreglo a las leyes.

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87 other information they may request as to the status and progress of sumariws. ART. 325. Judges of examination and municipal judges in a proper case shall be disciplinarily liable for any lack of zeal or activity in the conduction of sumarios, provided they are not criminal liable in accordance to law.

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TITULO V. DE LA COMPROBACIN DEL DELITO Y AVERIGUACIN DEL DELINCUENTE. CAPITULO PRIMERO. f)E LA INSPECCI6N OCULAR. Awr. 326. Cuando el delito que se persiga haya dejado vestigios 6 pruebas materials de su perpetraci6n, el juez instructor 6 el quo haga sus veces los recogerA para el juicio oral si fuere posible, procediendo al efecto 4 Ia inspecei6n de todo aquello que pueda tender relaci6n con la existencia y naturaleza del hecho. A este fin hard consignar en los autos la descripci6n del lugar del delito, el sitio y estado en que se hallen los objetos quo en 61 se encuentren, los accidentes del terreno 6 situaci6n de las habitaciones y todos los demas detalles quo puedan utilizarse tanto para la acusaci6n como para la defense. ART. 327. Cuando fuere conveniente para mayor claridad 6 comprobaci6n de los hechos, se levantara el piano del lugar suficientemente detallado, 6 se hard el retrato de las personas que hubiesen sido objeto del delito, 6 la copia 6 disefio de los efectos 6 instruments del mismo que se hubiesen hallado. ART. 328. Si se tratare de un robo 6 de cualquier otro delito cometido con fracture, escalamiento 6 violencia, el juez instructor debera describir los vestigios que haya dejado, y consultara el parecer de peritos sobre la manera, instrumentos, medios 6 tiempo de la ejecuci6n del delito. ART. 329. Para llevar a efecto lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores, podra ordenar el juez instructor quo no se ausenten durante la diligencia de descripci6n las personas quo hubieren sido halladas en el lugar del delito, y que comparezean adeuas inmediatamente las que se encontraren en cualquier otro sitio pr6ximo, recibiendo A todas separadamente la oportuna declaraci6n. ART. 330. Cuando no hayan quedaho huellas 6 vestigios del delito quo hubiese dado ocasi6n al sumario, el juez instructor averiguara y hard constar, siendo possible, si la desaparici6n de las pruebas materiales ha ocurrido natural, casual 6 intencionalmente, y las causas de la 88

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TITLE V. PROOF OF THE CRIME AND VERIFICATION OF THE DELINQUENT. CHAPTER I. THE OCULAR INSPECTION. ART. 326. If the crime prosecuted shall have left traces or material evidence of its commission, the examining judge or person acting in his stead shall collect and keep them for the oral trial, if possible, proceeding for this purpose to make an' ocular inspection and a description of all that which might have any connection with the existence and nature of the act. For this purpose he shall include in the record of the proceeding a description of the place of the commission of the crime, the location and condition of the objects found there, the topography or location of the dwellings, and any other details which might be utilized for the accusation or for the defence. ART. 327. If advisable for a better elucidation or verification of the facts, a sufficiently detailed plan shall be made of the place, or photographs of the persons who may have been the subjects of the crime, or a copy or drawing of the effects or instruments of the same which may have been found. ART. 328. If a robbery be involved or any other crime committed by breaking, wrongful entry, or violence, the examining judge must describe the traces which may have been left, and he shall hear the of opinion of experts as to the manner, instruments, means, or time the commission of the crime. ART. 329. In order to carry out the provisions contained in the foregoing articles, the examining judge may order that such persons as may have been found at the place of the commission of the crime shall not absent themselves during these proceedings, and, furthermore, that such other persons as may be found in any other nearby locality present themselves immediately, taking the depositions of each separately. ART. 330. If no traces or evidence of the crime which is the subjectmatter of the .'unario shall have been left, the examining judge shall ascertain and establish, if possible, whether the disappearance of the material proof of the crime was natural, casual, or intentional, and the 85 18473-01----12

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89 misma 6 los medios que parn ello se hubieren empleado, procediendo seguidamente a recoger y consignar en el sumario las pruebas de cualquiera clase que se puedan adquirir acerca de la perpetraci6n del delito. ART. 331. Cuando el delito fuere de los que no dejan huellas de su perpetraci6n. el juez instructor procure hacer constar, por declaraciones de testigos y por los demis medios de comprobaci6n, la ejecuci6n del delito y sus circunstancias, asi como la preexistencia de la cosa cuando el delito hubiese tenido por objeto la sustracci6n de la misIma. ART. 332. Todas las diligencias comprendidas en este capitulo se extenderan por escrito en el acto mismo de la inspecci6n ocular, y seran firmadas por el juez instructor, el fiscal si asistiere al acto, el secretario y las personas que se hallaren presentes. ART. 333. Cuando al practicarse las diligencias enumeradas en los articulos anteriores hubiere alguna persona declarada procesada como presunta autora del hecho punible, podra presenciarlas, ya sola, ya asistida del defensor que eligiere 6 le fuere nombrado de oficio, si asi lo solicitare, y uno y otro podran hacer en el acto las observaciones que estimen pertinentes, las cuales se consignaran por diligencia si no fueren aceptadas. Al efecto se pondra en conocimiento del procesado el acuerdo relativo a la prActica de la diligencia con la anticipaci6n que permita su indole, y no se suspender por la falta de comparecencia del procesado 6 de su defensor. CAPITULO II. DEL CUERPO DEL DELITO. ART. 334. El juez instructor procurara recoger en los primeros momentos las armas, instruments 6 efectos de cualquier clase quo puedan toner relaci6n con el delito y se hallen en el lugar en que 4ste se coometi6 6 en sus inmediaciones, 6 en poder del reo, 6 en otra parte conocida, extendiendo diligencia expresiva del lugar, tiempo y ocasi6n en que se encontraren, describidndolos minuciosamente para que se pueda formar idea cabal de los mismos y de las circunstancias de su hallazgo. La diligencia sera firmada por la persona en cuyo poder fueren hallados, notificAndose a la misma el auto en que se mande recogerlos. ART. 336. Siendo habida la persona 6 cosa objeto del delito, el juez instructor describira detalladamente su estado y circunstancias, y especialmente todas las que tuviesen relaci6n con el hecho punible. Si por tratarse de delito de falsificaci6n cometida en documentos 6 efectos existentes en dependencias del Estado hubiere imprescindible

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89 causes for said disappearance or the means employed for the purpose, proceeding thereupon to collect and include in the sum ario evidence of any kind which it may be possible to secure with regard to the commission of the crime. ART. 331. If the crime be of those which do not leave any evidence of their commission, the judge of examination shall seek to establish, by evidence of witnesses and by all other means of verification, the commission of the crime and the circumstances thereof, as well as the previous existence of the thing, if the object of the crime shall have been the removal thereof. ART. 332. All the proceedings mentioned in this chapter shall be reduced to writing at the time of the ocular inspection, and shall be signed by the examining judge, prosecuting official, if present thereat, the secretary, and the other persons present. ART. 333. If at the time of the proceedings mentioned in the preceding articles there should be some person indicted as the presumed author of the punishable act, he may be present thereat either alone or with the counsel be may select or that assigned him by the court, if he should so request, and either one may at this time make such observations as he may consider pertinent, a record thereof being made if not accepted. For this purpose the order for the holding of this proceeding shall oe communicated to the accused such time in advance as the character thereof will admit, and the proceeding shall not be suspended on account of the nonappearance of the accused or his counsel. CHAPTER II. THE CORPUS DELICTI. ART. 334. The examining judge shall seek to collect during the first moments the arms, instruments, or effects of whatsoever class which may bear upon the crime and which may be at or in the vicinity of the place where the latter was committed, or in the possession of the criminal, or in any other known place, making a record of the place, time, and occasion upon which found, describing the same minutely in order that a clear idea thereof and of the circumstances under which they were found may be formed. The record shall be signed by the person in whose possession they may be found, who shall be notified of the order to collect them. ART. 335. Upon the finding of the person or thing the object of the crime, the examining judge shall describe in detail his or its state and circumstances, and especially all those which bear upon the punishable act. If in view of the fact that a crime of falsification committed in documents or effects existing in dependencies of the State is in ques-

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90 necesidad de tenerlos a la vista para su reconocimiento pericial y examen por parte del juez 6 tribunal, se reclamaran 4 las correspondientes autoridades, sin perjuicio de devolverlos a los respectivos centros oficiales despues de terminada la causa. ART. 336. En los casos de los dos articulos anteriores, ordenara tambin el juez el reconocimiento por peritos, siempre que este indicado para apreciar mejor la relaci6n con el delito, de los lugares, armas, instrumentos y efectos a que dichos articulos se refieren, haciendose constar por diligencia el reconocimiento y el informe pericial. A esta diligencia podran asistir tambien el procesado y su defensor en los terminos expresados en el art. 333. ART. 387. Cuando en el acto de describir la persona 6 cosa objeto del delito, y los lugares, armas, instruments 6 efectos relacionados con el mismo, estuvieren presentes 6 fueren conocidas personas que puedan declarar acerca del modo y form con que aquil hubiese sido cometido, y de las causas de las alteraciones que se observaren en dichos lugares, armas, instrumentos 6 efectos, 6 acerca de su estado anterior, seran examinadas inmediatamente despues de la descripci6n, y sus declaraciones se consideraran como complemento de esta. ART. 338. Los instruments, armas y efectos a que se refiere el art. 334 se sellarin, si fuere possible, acordando su retenci6n y conservaci6n. Las diligencias a que esto diere lugar se firmaran por la persona en cuyo poder se hubiesen hallado, y en su defecto, por dos testigos. Si los objetos no pudieren por su naturaleza conservarse en su forma primitiva, el juez resolved lo que estime mas convenient para conservarlos del mejor modo possible. Si entre los objetos recogidos se encontraren cosas 6 vasos sagrados, el juez instructor mandarin que sean separados de los demas y guardados aparte, evitando toda profanaci6n. ART. 339. Si fuere conveniente recibir algin informed pericial sobre los medios empleados para la desaparici6n del cuerpo del delito 6 sobre las pruebas de cualquiera clase que en su defecto se hubiesen recogido, el juez ordenara inmediatamente del modo prevenido en el capitulo VII de este mismo titulo. ART. 340. Si la instrucci6n tuviere lugar por casa de muerte violent 6 sospechosa de criminalidad, antes de proceder al enterramiento del cadAver 6 inmediatamente despuds de su exhumaci6n, hecha la descripci6n ordenada en el art. 335, se identificar por medio de testigos que, a la vista del mismo, den raz6n satisfactoria de su conocimiento. ART. 341. No habiendo testigos de conocimiento, si el estado del cadaver lo permitiere, se expondri al pflblico antes de practicarse la autopsia, por tiempo A lo menos de veinticuatro horas, expresando en

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90 tion, and therefore there should be unavoidable necessity to have the same at hand for their examination by experts and by the judge or court, they shall be demanded of the proper authorities, without prejudice to their being returned to the respective official bureaus upon the conclusion of the cause. ART. 336. In the cases of the two foregoing articles, the judge shall also order the examination by experts, whenever such examination appears advisable in order to better weigh their connection with the crime, of the places, arms, instruments, and effects to which said articles refer, a record being made of the expert examination and report. The accused and his counsel may also attend this proceeding, in accordance with the provisions of article 333. ART. 337. If at the time of describing the person or thing the subject of the crime, and the places, arms, instruments, or effects connected therewith, persons should be present or known who can testify as to the manner and form of the commission of said crime and the causes for the alterations observed in said places, arms, instruments, or effects, or with regard to their previous condition, they shall be examined immediately after the description and their depositions shall be considered supplementary thereto. ART. 3.38. The instruments, arms, and effects referred to in article 334 shall be sealed, if possible, and their retention and preservation shall be ordered. The proceedings to which this may give rise shall be signed by the person in whose possession they may have been found or, in his absence, by two witnesses. If by reason of their character the objects can not be preserved in their original condition, the judge shall decide what he may deem advisable for their preservation in the best manner possible. If among the objects collected there be any sacred vessels or things, the examining judge shall order that they be separated from the rest and kept apart, avoiding any profanation. ART. 339. Should it be advisable to receive any expert opinion as to the means employed for the removal of the corpus delicti, or as to the evidence of any kind which, in the absence thereof, may have been collected, the judge shall make an order at once in the manner prescribed in Chapter VII of this title. ART. 340. If the examination shall take place by reason of a death by violence or under suspicious circumstances, before proceeding to bury the body or immediately after its disinterment, after the descrip tion ordered by article 335 has been made, it shall be identified by witnesses, who upon viewing the same shall give satisfactory reasons for their identification. ART. 341. Should there not be any witnesses of identification, if the condition of the body shall permit, it shall be exhibited to the public for twenty-four hours at least before the holding of the autopsy,

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91 tin cartel, que se fijara a la puerta del dep6sito de cadaveres, el sitio, hora y dia en que aquil se hubiese hallado, y cl juez que estuviese instruyendo el sumario, a fin de que quien tenga algun dato que pueda contribuir al reconocimiento del cadaver 6 al esclarecimiento del delito y de sus circunstancias 1o comunique al juez instructor. ART. 342. Cuando a pesar de tales prevenciones no fuere el cadAver reconocido, recogera el juez todas las prendas del traje con que se le hubiese encontrado, a fin de que puedan servir oportunamente para hacer la identificaci6n. ART. 343. En los sumarios A que se refiere el art. 340, ann cuando por la inspecci6n exterior pueda presumirse la causa de la muerte, se procederi a la autopsia del cadAver por los medicos forenses, 6 en su caso por los que el juez designe, los cuales, despues de describir exactamente dicha operaci6n, informaran sobre el origen del fallecimiento v sus circunstancias. Para practicer la autopsia se observard lo dispuesto en el art. 353. ART. 344. Con el nombre de medico forense habra en cada juzgado de instrucci6n un facultativo encargado de auxiliar a la administraci6n de justicia en todos los casos y actuaciones en que sea necesaria 6 convenient la intervenci6n y servicios de su profesi6n en cualquier punto de la demarcaci6n judicial. ART. 345. El medico forense residirA en la capital del juzgado para que haya sido nombrado, y no podra ausentarse de ella sin licencia del juez, del presidente de la audiencia de 1o criminal 6 del Ministro de Ultramar, segfn que sea por ocho dias a lo mas en el primer caso, veinte en el segundo, y por el tiempo que el Ministro estime conveniente en el tercero. ART. 346. En las ausencias, enfermedades y vacantes, sustituira al medico forense otro profesor que desempefie igual cargo en la misma poblaci6n; y si no le hubiese, el que el juez designe, dando cuenta de ello al Presidente de la Audiencia de 1o criminal. Lo mismo sucedera cuando por cualquier otro motive no pudiese valerse el juez instructor del medico forense. Los que se negaren al cumplimiento de este deber 6 le eludieren, incurriran en multa de 62.50 a 250 pesetas; y si insistieren en su negativa, seran procesados como reos de desobediencia grave. ART. 347. El medico forense estA obligado a practicar todo actor 6 diligencia propios de su profesi6n a instituto con el celo, esmero y prontitud que la naturaleza del caso exija y la administraci6n de justicio requiera.

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91 there being stated on a poster, which shall be affixed at the door of the morgue, the place where and hour and day when found, and the judge conducting the samario, in order that any person having any information which might contribute to the identification of the body or the clearing up of the crime and of its circumstances may communicate the same to the examining judge. ART. 342. If, notwithstanding all these measures, the body should not be identified, the judge shall collect everything found upon the body in order that it may serve for the identification at the proper time. ART. 343. In the surnarios referred to in article 340, even in case the cause of death may be presumed by a superficial examination, the autopsy on the body shall be proceeded with by the official physicians or in a proper case by such persons as the judge may designate, who, after describing said operation exactly, shall make a report upon the cause of death and the circumstances thereof. In making the autopsy the provisions of article 333 shall be observed. ART. 344. Under the name of official physician there shall be in every court of examination one physician charged with assisting the administration of justice in all cases and proceedings in which the intervention and services of his profession may be necessary or advisable at any point of the judicial district. ART. 345. The official physician shall reside at the seat of the court to which he may have been assigned, and may not absent himself therefrom without the permission of the judge, of the presiding judge of the criminal audiencia, or of the Colonial Minister, depending upon whether the absence is not to exceed eight days in the first case, twenty in the second, and the time which the Minister may deem advisable in the third. ART. 346. In cases of absence, sickness, and vacancies, the official physician shall be substituted by another professor performing similar duties in the same town; and should there be none, by the one the judge may designate, a report being made to the presiding judge of the criminal audiencia. The same shall be done when for any other reason whatsoever the examining judge can not avail himself of the services of the official physician. Those who shall refuse to fulfill this duty or shall evade it shall incur a fine of not less than 62.50 or more than 250 pesetas, and if they shall insist in their refusal they shall be tried as guilty of serious disobedience. ART. 347. The official physician is obliged to take all measures and perform all duties pertaining to his profession and office with the zeal, care, and speed which the nature of the case and by the administration of justice require.

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92 AUT. 348. Cuando en alghn caso, ademis de la intervenci6n del medico forense, el juez estimate necesaria la cooperaci6ndo uno 6 ma's facultativos, hara2 el oportuno nombramiento. Lo establecido en el parrafo anterior tender tambien lugar cuando, por la gravedad del caso, el medico forense cream necesaria la cooperaci6n de uno 6 mas comprofesores, y el juez lo estimare asi. ART. 349. Siempre que sea compatible con is buena administration de justicia, el juez podra2 conceder prudencialmente un termino al medico forense para que preste sus declaraciones, evacue los informes y consultas y redacte otros documentos que sean necesarios, permitiendole asimismo designar las horas que tenga por mas oportunas para practicar las autopsias y exhumaciones de los cadiveres. ART. 350. En los casos de envenenamiento, heridas 6 otras lesiones cualesquiera, quedara el medico forense encargado de la asistencia facultativa del paciente, a no ser que este 6 su familia prefieran la de uno 6 mas profesores de su election, en cuyo caso conservara aquil la inspecei6n y vigilancia que le incumbe para lienar el correspondiente servicio medico-forense. El procesado tend derecho a' designar un profesor que, con los nombrados por el juez instructor 6 el designado por la parte acusadora, intervenga en la asistencia del paciente. ART. 351. Cuando el medico forense, 6 en su defecto el designado 6 designados por el juez instructor no estuviesen conformes con el tratamiento 6 plan curativo empleado por los facultativos que el paciente 6 su familia hubiesen nombrado, darmn parte a dicho juez instructor 6 los efectos que en justicia procedan. Lo mismo podrs hacer en su caso el facultativo designado por el procesado. El juez instructor, cuando tal discordia resultare, designarA mayor ndmero de profesores para que manifiesten su parecer, y, consignados todos los datos necesarios, se tendran presentes para cuando en su dia haya de fallarse la causa. ART. 352. Lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores es aplicable enando el paciente ingrese en la carcel, hospital 6 otro establecimiento y sea asistido por los facultativos de los mismos. ART. 353. Las autopsias se barn en un local p'blico que en cado pueblo 6 partido tendrs destinado la administration para el objeto y para dep6sito de cadiveres. Podra, sin embargo, el juez de instrucci6n disponer, cuando 1o considere conveniente, que la operaci6n se practique en otro lugar 6 en el domicilio del difunto, si su familia lo pidiere y esto no perjudicare al 6xito del sumario. Si el juez de instrucci6n no pudiere asistir A la operaci6n anat6mica, delegara2 en un funcionario de policia judicial, dando fe de su asistencia, agi como de 1o que en aquilla ocurriere, el secretario de la causa.

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92 ART. 348. If in some case, in addition to the attendance of the official physician, the judge shall consider the cooperation of one or more physicians to be necessary, he shall make the proper appointment. The provisions of the foregoing paragraph shall also apply when, on account of the gravity of the case, the official physician shall consider the cooperation of one or more physicians to be necessary and the judge concurs in said belief. ART. 349. Whenever compatible with the proper administration of justice, the judge may grant in his discretion a period to the official physician within which to give his evidence, prepare the reports, and answer inquiries and prepare any other documents which may be necessary, permitting him likewise to designate such hours as he may consider best adapted for the autopsies and the disinterment of bodies. ART. 350. In cases of poisoning, wounds, and any other bodily injuries, the official physician shall be charged with the professional attendance upon the patient, unless the latter or his family prefer that of one or more professors they may select, in which case the former shall exercise the surveillance and supervision incumbent upon him in order to comply with the duties of the official medical service. The accused shall have the right to designate one professor who, together with those appointed by the examining judge or the one designated by the complainant, shall take part in the attendance upon the patient. ART. 351. When the official physician, or, in his absence, the physician or physicians appointed by the examining judge, shall not agree as to the curative treatment or plan employed by the professors which the patient or his family may have appointed, they shall inform the examining judge for the purposes which may be proper according to justice. The same may be done in a proper case by the professor appointed by the accused. The examining judge, when such disagreement occurs, shall appoint a larger number of professors to give an opinion, and after all the data necessary has been recorded, the same shall be filed for use when the cause is to be decided. ART. 352. The provisions of the foregoing article apply when the patient enters the prison, hospital. or other institution and is attended by the physicians of the same. ART. 353. The autopsies shall be held in the public place which shall be set aside by the administration in every town or judicial district for this purpose and as a morgue. Nevertheless, the examining judge may order, when he considers it advisable, that the operation take place elsewhere, or at the residence of the deceased, if his family shall request it, and if it will not prejudice the success of the sumario. If the examining judge be not able to attend the anatomical operation, he shall delegate an official of the judicial police, the secretary in the cause certifying to his attendance as well as to the occurrences thereat.

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93 ART. 354. Cuando la muerte sobreviniere por consecuencia de alg6n accident ocurrido en las vias firreas yendo un tren en marcha, hnicamente se detendra iste el tiempo preciso para separar el cadaver 6 cadaveres de la via, hacidndose constar previamente su situaci6n y estado, bien por la autoridad 6 funcionario de policia judicial que inmediatamente se presente en el lugar del siniestro, bien por los que accidentalmente se hallen en el mismo tren, bien, en defecto de estas personas, por el empleado de mayor categoria a cuyo cargo vaya, debiendo ser preferidos para el caso los empleados 6 agentes del Gobierno. Se dispondra asimismo lo conveniente para que, sin perjuicio de seguir el tren su marcha, sea avisada la autoridad que deba instruir las primeras diligencias y acordar el levantamiento de los cadaveres; y las personas antedichas recogeran en el acto con prontitud los datos y antecedentes precisos, que comunicaran A la mayor brevedad A la autoridad competente para la instrucci6n de las primeras diligencias, con el fin de que pueda esclarecerse el motivo del siniestro.' ART. 355. Si el hecho criminal que motivare la formaci6n de una causa cualquiera consistiese en lesiones, los medicos que asistieren al herido estaran obligados a dar parte de su estado y adelantos en los periodos que se les sefialen, a inmediatamente que ocurra cualquier novedad que merezca ser puesta en conocimiento del juez instructor. ART. 356. Las operaciones de analisis quimico que exija la sustanciaci6n de los procesos criminales se practicarAn por doctores en medicine, en farmacia, en ciencias fisico-quimicas, o por ingenieros que se hayan dedicado a la especialidad quimica. Si no hubiere doctores en aquellas ciencias, podrAn ser nombrados licenciados que tengan los conocimientos y practicas saticientes para hacer dichas operaciones. Los jueces de instrucci6n designaran, entre los comprendidos en el parrafo anterior, los peritos que han de hacer el analisis de las sustancias que en cada caso exija la administration de justicia. Cuando en el partido judicial donde se instruya el proceso no haya ninguno de los peritos a quienes so refiere el parrafo primero, 6 esten imposibilitados legal o fisicamente de practicar el analisis los que en aquil residieren, el juez instructor Jo pondra en conocimiento del presidente de la sala 6 audiencia de 1o criminal, y este nombrara el perito 6 peritos que hayan de practicar dicho servicio entre las per' HabrA que 1lenar las formalidades que exige este artfculo, no s6lo en el caso que haya sobrevenido la muerte por consecuencia de algiin accidente ocurrido en las vias f6rreas, sino tambi6n cuando aparezca un cadaver sobre una via f6rrea, ignorAndose la causa de la muerte. (Exposicibn del fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de eptiembre de 1888, nimn. 16.)

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93 ART. 354. If death shall occur as a consequence of some accident on a railroad during the progress of a train, said train shall be detained only the time necessary to remove the body or bodies from the road, a record being previously made of their situation and condition, either by the authority or official of the judicial police who may appear at once at the place of the accident, or by those who may accidentally be on the same train, or, in the absence of such persons, by the employee of the highest rank in whose charge the train may be, but preference must be given in such case to the employee or agents of the government. The proper steps shall likewise be taken in order that, without prejudice to the train continuing its course, the authority which is to conduct the first proceedings may be advised and may order the removal of the bodies, and the persons above named shall at once collect the data and information necessary, which they shall communicate as soon as possible to the authority competent to conduct the first proceedings, in order that the cause of the disaster may be ascertained.' ART. 355. If the criminal act giving rise to the institution of any cause whatsoever should consist in bodily injuries, the physicians attending the injured person shall be obliged to make a report of his condition and improvement at such periods as may be fixed, and immediately upon any change taking place which should be brought to the attention of the examining judge. ART. 356. The work of chemical analysis necessary during the hearing of criminal proceedings shall be performed by doctors of medicine, of pharmacy, of the physical chemical sciences, or by engineers who may have devoted themselves to chemical specialties. Should there be no doctors in said sciences, licentiates may be appointed having sufficient knowledge and practice to perform said work. Judges of examination shall appoint, from among those included in the foregoing paragraph, the experts who are to make an analysis of the substances which in each case the administration of justice may require. If in the judicial district where the proceedings are being held there should be none of the experts referred to in the foregoing paragraph, or those residing therein should be legally or physically unable to make the analysis, the judge of examination shall so inform the presiding judge of the criminal chamber or audiencia, and the latter shall appoint the expert or experts who are to perform the service from among the 1It will be necessary to fulfill the formalities required by this article, not only in case the death shall have occured on account of some railroad accident, but also when a body is found upon a railroad and the cause of death unknown. (Staiement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1888, No. 16.)

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94 SOnis que designa el parrafo primero domiciliadas en el territorio. Al mismo tiempo comunicar4 el nombramiento de peritos al juez instructor para que ponga a su disposici6n, con las debidas precauciones y formalidades, las sustancias que hayan de ser analizadas. El procesado 6 procesados tendran derecho a nombrar un perito que concurra con los designados por el juez. ART. 357. Los indicados profesores prestarin este servicio en el concepto de peritos titulares, y no podran negarse a efectuarlo sin justa causa, siendoles aplicable en otro caso lo dispuesto en el parrafo segundo del art. 346. ART. 358. Cada uno de los citados profesores que informe como perito en virtud de orden judicial, percibira por sus honorarios e indemnizaci6n de los gastos que el desempeflo de este servicio le ocasione, la cantidad que se fije en los reglamentos, no estando obligado a trabajar mas de tres horas por dia, excepto en casos urgentes 6 extraordinarios, 1o que se hard constar en los autos. ART. 359. Concluido el analisis y firmada la declaraci6n correspondiente, los profesores pasaran al juez instructor, 6 al presidente de la sala 6 audiencia de 1o criminal en su caso, una nota firmada de los objetos 6 sustancias analizados y de los honorarios que les correspondan 4 tenor de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior. El juzgado dirigira esta nota, con las observaciones que crea justas, al presidente de la audiencia de lo criminal, quien la cursara elevandola al Ministerio de Ultramar, a no encontrar excesivo nflmero de horas que se supongan empleadas en cualquier analisis, en cuvo caso acordara que informen tres comprofesores del que lo haya verificado; y en vista de su dictamen, confirmara 6 rebajara los honorarios reclamados 4 lo que fuere justo, remitiendo todo con su informe al expresado Ministerio. Otro tanto hard el presidente de la audiencia cuando el analisis se hubiere practicado durante el juicio oral. ART. 360. El Ministro de Ultramar, si conceptuare excesivos los honorarios, podra tambidn, antes de decretar su pago, pedir informe, y en su caso nueva tasaci6n de los mismos, a la Academia de ciencias exactas, fisicas y naturales, y en vista de lo que esta corporaci6n expusiere, 6 de la nueva tasaci6n que practicare, se confirmaran los honorarios 6 se reduciran a lo que resultare justo, decretindose su pago. ART. 361. Para verificar 6ste se incluir4 por el Ministro de Ultramar en los presupuestos de cada aflo la cantidad que se conceptile necesaria. ART. 362. Los profesores mencionados no podrin reclamar otros honorarios que los anteriormente fijados por virtud de este servicio, ni

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94 persons designated in the first paragraph residing in the territory. At the same time he shall communicate the appointment of experts to the examining judge in order that he may place the substances which are to be analyzed at his disposal, with the proper precautions and formalities. The person or persons accused shall have the right to appoint an expert to be present with those appointed by the judge. ART. 357. The said professors shall render this service in the capacity of titular experts, and can not refuse to do so without just cause, the provisions contained in the second paragraph of article 346 being otherwise applicable to them. ART. 358. Each of the said professors who makes a report as an expert by virtue of a judicial order shall receive the sum fixed in the regulations as his fee and in compensation of the expenses which he may incur in the performance of this service, and he shall not be obliged to work more than three hours per day, except in urgent or extraordinary cases, which fact shall be entered upon the record. ART. 359. Upon the conclusion of the analysis and after the signing of the proper declaration, the professors shall forward to the examining judge, or to the presiding judge of the criminal audiencia or chamber, in a proper case, a signed report of the objects or substances analyzed and of their fees, in accordance with the provisions of the foregoing article. The court shall address this report, with the remarks it may consider proper, to the presiding judge of the criminal audiencia, who shall transmit the same to the Colonial Department, unless he shall find that an excessive number of hours appear to have been employed in any analysis, in which case he shall order that three coprofessors of the one who made it shall make a report, and in view thereof he shall confirm or reduce the fees claimed to the just amount, transmitting all with his own report to the said department. The same shall be done by the presiding judge of the audiencia when the analysis is made during the oral trial. ART. 360. The Colonial Minister, if he considers the fees excessive, may also, before ordering their payment, call for a report, and, in a proper case, a new taxation of the same by the academy of exact physical and natural sciences, and in view of the statement this corporation may furnish, or the new taxation ,made, the fees shall be confirmed, or they shall be reduced to what may be just, and their payment ordered. ART. 361. In order to make this payment the Colonial Minister shall include in the budgets for each year the amount which may be considered necessary. ART. 362. The professors mentioned can not demand other fees than those previously fixed for this service, nor require that the judge or

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95 exigir que el juez 6 tribunal les facilite los medios materiales de laboratorio 6 reactivos, ni tampoco auxiliares subalternos para lenar su cometido. Cuando por falta de peritos, laboratorio 6 reactivos no sea posible practicer el analisis en la circunscripci6n de la audiencia de 1o criminal, se practicara en la capital de la provincia, y en Altimo extremo, en la de la isla. ART. 363. Los juzgados y tribunales ordenaran la prActica de los anilisis quimicos unicamente en los casos en que se consideren absolutamente indispensables para la necesaria investigation judicial y la recta administration de justicia.' ART. 364. En los delitos de robo, hurto, estafa y en cualquiera otro en que deba -hacerse constar la preexistencia de las cosas robadas, hurtadas 6 estafadas, si no hubiere testigos presenciales del hecho, se recibira informaci6n sobre los antecedentes del que se presentare como agraviado, y sobre todas las circunstancias que ofrecieren indicios de hallarse 6ste poseyendo aqu6llas al tiempo en que resulte cometido el delito. ART. 365. Cuando para la calificaci6n del delito 6 de sus circunstancias fuere necesario estimar el valor de la cosa que hubiese sido su objeto 6 el importe del perjuicio causado 6 que hubiera podido causarse, el juez oira sobre ello al dueio 6 perjudicado, y acordara despues el reconocimiento pericial en la forma determinada en el capitulo VII de este mismo titulo. El juez facilitara a los peritos nombrados las cosas y elementos director de apreciaci6n sobre que hubiere de recaer el informe, y si no estuvieren A su disposici6n, les suministrara los datos oportunos que se pudieren reunir, previniendoles, en tal caso, que hagan la tasaci6n y regulaci6n de perjuicios de un modo prudente, con arreglo A los datos suministrados. ART. 366. Las diligencias prevenidas en este capitulo y en el anterior se practicaran con preferencia A las demas del sumario, no suspendidndose su ejecuci6n sino para asegurar la persona del presunto culpable 6 para dar el auxilio necesario A los agraviados por el delito. ART. 367. En ningin caso se admitirAn durante el sumario reclamaciones ni tercerias que tengan por objeto la devoluci6n de los efectos que constituyen el cuerpo del delito, cualquiera que sea su clase y la persona que los reclame. 1 Los tribunales no pueden rechazar la prdctica de una prueba que consista en algrn andlisis qufmico, siempre que entrane verdadera pertinencia, y aunque en el sumario se haya verificado dicho andlisis, sin que sea preciso que la citada prueba se considere absolutamente indispensable, como exige el art. 363, sino s6lo que ofrezca probables resultados de importancia. (Exposicidn del Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de septiembre de 1883, ntm. 17.)

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95 court furnish them laboratory appliances or reactive agents, nor subordinate assistants to fulfill their duties. If, on account of the lack of experts, of a laboratory, or reactive agents, it should not be possible to perform the analysis within the jurisdiction of the criminal audiencia, it shall take place in the capital of the province, or, as a last resort, in that of the island. ART. 363. The superior and inferior courts shall order chemical analyses to be made only in cases in which they are considered absolutely indispensable for the necessary judicial investigation and the proper administration of justice.1 ART. 364. In the crimes of robbery, theft, fraud, or in any other crime in which the previous existence of the things the subject of the robbery, theft, or fraud must appear, should there not be any eyewitnesses to the act, an investigation shall be made as to the antecedents of the person appearing as the injured party, and as to all the circumstances which may offer proof that the latter was in the possession thereof at the time of the commission of the crime. ART. 365. If, for the classification of the crime or of its circumstances, it should be necessary to estimate the value of the thing which may have been the object thereof or the amount of the damage caused or which might have been caused, the judge shall hear the owner or person prejudiced thereon, and shall thereupon order the expert investigation in the manner determined in chapter VII of this title. The judge shall furnish to the experts appointed the things and direct elements to be considered in the report, and should they not be under his control he shall furnish them the proper data which can be collected, admonishing them in such case to make the taxation and appraisal of the losses and damages in a prudent manner, in accordance with the data furnished. ART. 366. The proceedings provided for in this and the preceding chapter shall be had before the others of the sumario, their execution not being stayed except to secure the person of the presumed criminal or to give the assistance necessary to those injured by the crime. ART. 367. In no case shall claims or interventions be admitted during the sumario whose object is the return of the effects which constitute the corpus delicti, whatever be their character or the person demanding the same. Courts can not reject evidence which consists in a chemical analysis, provided it really is pertinent, even though said analysis shall have been made during the sumario, without it being necessary that said evidence be considered absolutely indispensable, as required by article 363, but only that there exist probable important results. (Statement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of &ptember 15, 1883, No. 17.)

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96 CAPITULO III. DE LA IDENTIDAD DEL DELINCUENTE Y DE SUS' CIRCUNSTANCIAS PERSONALES. ART. 368. Cuantos dirijan cargo A determinada persona deberan reconocerla judicialmente, si el juez instructor, los acusadores 6 el mismo inculpado conceptfan fundadamente precisa la diligencia para la identificaci6n de este 6ltimo con relaci6n A los designantes, A fin de que no ofrezca duda quin es la persona A que aquillos se refieren. ART. 369. La diligencia de reconocimiento so practicara poniendo A la vista del que hubiere de verificarlo la persona que haya de ser reconocida, hacidndola comparecer en uni6n con otras circunstancias exteriores semejantes. A presencia de todas ellas, 6 desde un punto en que no pudiere ser visto, segun al juez pareciere mas conveniente, el que deba practicar el reconocimiento manifestara si se encuentra en la rueda 6 grupo la persona a quien hubiese hecho referencia en sus declaraciones, designindola, en caso afirmativo, clara y determinamente. En la diligencia que se extienda se harAn constar todas las circunstancias del acto, as1 como los nombres de todos los que hubiesen formado la rueda 6 grupo. ART. 370. Cuando fueren varios los que hubieren de reconocer a una persona, la diligencia expresada en el articulo anterior deberA practicarse separadamente con cada uno de ellos, sin que puedan comunicarse entre si hasta que se haya efectuado el fltimo reconocimiento. Cuando fueren varios los que hubieren de ser reconocidos por una misma persona, podra hacerse el reconocimiento de todos en un s6lo acto. ART. 371. El que detuviere 6 prendiere a algun presunto culpable tomarA las precauciones necesarias para que el detenido 6 preso no haga en su persona 6 traje alteraci6n alguna que pueda dificultar su reconocimiento por quien corresponda. ART. 372. Analogas precauciones deberan tomar los alcaldes de las carceles y los jefes de los dep6sitos de detenidos; y si en los establecimientos de su cargo hubiere traje reglamentario, conservarAn cuidadosamente el que eleven los presos 6 detenidos al ingresar en el establecimiento, A fin de que puedan vestirlo cuantas veces fuere conveniente para diligencias de reconocimiento. ART. 373. Si se originare alguna duda sobre la identidad del procesado, se procurara acreditar 6sta por cuantos medios fueren conducentes al objeto. ART. 374. El juez hard constar, con la minuciosidad posible, las senias personales del procesado, a fin de que la diligencia pueda servir de prueba de su identidad.

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96 CHAPTER III. THE IDENTITY OF THE DELINQUENT AND HIS PERSONAL CIRCUMSTANCES. ART. 368. Whoever shall make a charge against a specific person must identify the same judicially if the examining judge, the complainants, or the accused himself have reason to consider this proceeding necessary for the identification of the latter with regard to those making the charges, in order that there may be no doubt as to what person the former refer. ART. 369. The identification shall take place by placing before the person who is to make it the person to be identified, producing said person in union with other similar external circumstances. In the presence of all of them or from a point where he can not be seen, as the judge may consider more advisable, the person to make the identification shall state if the person to whom he may have referred in his declarations is in the group, and in an affirmative case he shall designate him in a clear and specific manner. In the record made all the circumstances of the act shall be stated, as well as the names of all who may have composed the group. ART. 370. If there be more than one person to identify another person, the proceeding mentioned in the foregoing article must be held separately as to each of them, without their being allowed to communicate with each other until the last identification has been made. If there be several to be identified by one and the same person, their identification may take place at one proceeding. ART. 371. He who shall detain or arrest a presumed criminal shall take the precautions necessary in order that the person detained or arrested shall not make any changes in his person or dress, which may render his identification difficult by the proper person. ART. 372. Similar precautions must be taken by the wardens of prisons and the heads of detention establishments; and if any regulation dress be used in the institutions under their charge, they shall carefully preserve the clothing worn by the persons arrested or detained upon entering the establishment, in order that they may clothe them as often as may be necessary for purposes of identification. ART. 373. If any doubt should arise as to the identity of the accused, said identity shall be sought to be established by all means which may be conducive to this object. ART. 374. The judge shall make a record, with the greatest minuteness possible, of the personal description of the accused, in order that the record may serve as proof of his identity. 18473-01-13

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97 AR. 375. Para acreditar la edad del procesado y comprobar la identidad de su persona, se traera al sumario certificaci6n de su inscripci6n de nacimiento en el registro civil 6 de su partida de bautismo, si no estuviere inscrito en el registro. En todo caso, cuando no fuere posible averiguar el registro civil 6 parroquia en que deba constar el nacimiento 6 el bautismo del procesado, 6 no existiesen su inscripci6n y partida; y cuando por manifestar el procesado haber nacido en punto lejano hubiere necesidad de emplear mucho tiempo en traer a la causa la certificaci6n oportuna, no se detendr4 el sumario y se suplira el documento del articulo anterior por informe que acerca de la edad del procesado, y previo su examen fisico, dieren los medicos forenses 6 los nombrados por el juez. ART. 376. Cuando no ofreciere duda la identidad del procesado, y conocidamente tuviese la edad que el c6digo penal requiere para poderle exigir la responsabilidad criminal en toda su extension, podrs prescindirse de la justificaci6n expresada en el articulo anterior, si su prdctica ofreciese alguna dificultad u ocasionase dilaciones extraordinarlas. En las actuaciones sucesivas, y durante el juicio, el procesado sera designado con el nombre con que fuere conocido, 6 con el que 6l mismo dijere tender. ART. 377. Si el juez instructor 1o conceptuase conveniente, podrs pedir informes sobre la moralidad del procesado a los alcaldes de barrio 6 a los correspondientes funcionarios de policia del pueblo 6 pueblos en que hubiese residido. Estos informes seran fundados, y si no fuere posible fundarlos, se manifestari la causa que 1o impidiere. Los que los dieren no contraeran responsabilidad alguna, sino en caso de malicia probada. ART. 378. Podra ademis el juez recibir declaraci6n acerca de la conduct del procesado 6 todas las personas que por el conocimiento que tuvieren de 6ste puedan ilustrarle sobre ello. ART. 379. Se traerin a la causa los antecedents penales del procesado, pididndolos a los juzgados donde se presuma que pueden constar; y respecto de los procesados que hayan residido en la Peninsula 6 islas adyacentes con posterioridad 6 Ia creaci6n del registro central de de penados de 2 de Octubre de 1878, se pedirin tambidn al Ministerio de Gracia y Justicia por conducto del de Ultramar. El jefe del registro en el Ministerio estA obligado a dar los antecedentes que se le reclamen 6 certificaci6n negativa en su caso en el improrrogable termino de tres dias, 6 contar desde aquel en que se reciba la petici6n, justificando, si asi no 1o hiciere, la causa legitima que 1o hubiese impedido.

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97 ART. 375. In order to show the age of the accused and prove the identity of his person, a certified copy of his birth record in the civil registry or of his baptismal certificate, should he not be inscribed in the registry, shall be produced at the sumario. In every cas2, if it be not possible to ascertain the civil registry or parish in which the birth or the baptism of the accused should appear, or his record of birth or baptism should not exist, and when by reason the accused stating that he was born at a point at some distance, it should be necessary to employ much time in order to produce the proper certificate at the cause, the sumario shall not be stayed, and the document mentioned in the foregoing article shall be supplied by a report of the official physicians or of those appointed by the judge as to his age and after his physical examination. ART. 376. If there be no doubt as to the identity of the accused, and he is known to have attained the age which the penal code requires in order that he may be held criminally liable to the fullest extent, the proof mentioned in the foregoing article may be dispensed with, if the production thereof should offer any difficulty or occasion any extraordinary delay. In the subsequent proceedings and during the trial the accused shall be designated by the name by which he is known or by that which he claims. ART. 377. If the examining judge should consider it advisable, he may call for reports as to the moral character of the accused, of the ward mayors or of the proper police officials of the town or towns in which he may have resided. These reports shall set forth the reasons therefor, and should it not be possible to state reasons, the cause for not doing so shall be stated. Those who shall give these reports shall not incur any liability whatsoever except in case of malice duly proven. ART. 378. The judge may furthermore take testimony as to the conduct of the accused of all persons who, in view of their acquaintance with him, can give information thereon. ART. 379. The criminal antecedents of the accused shall be produced in the cause, being requested of the courts where it is presumed they may be of record; and with regard to persons accused who may have resided in the Peninsula and adjacent islands after the establishment of the central register of criminals of October 2, 1878, they shall also be requested of the Department of Grace and Justice through the Colonial Department. The chief of the register in the department is obliged to furnish the antecedents requested of him, or a negative certificate in a proper case, within a period of three days, not subject to extension, from the date of the receipt of the request, stating, should he not do so, the legitimate cause which prevented him from furnishing the same.

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98 En los juzgados se atenderi tambidn preferentemente al cumplimiento de este servicio, debiendo ser corregidos disciplinariamente los funcionarios que lo posterguen. ART. 380. Si el procesado fuere mayor de nueve afios y menor de quince, el juez recibira informaci6n acerca del criterio del mismo, y especialmente, de su aptitud para apreciar la criminalidad del hecho que hubiese dado motivo a la causa. En esta informaci6n sern oidas las personas que puedan deponer con acierto por sus circunstancias personales y por las relaciones que hayan tenido con el procesado antes y despues de haberse ejecutado el hecho. En su defecto se nombrarin dos profesores de instrucci6n primaria para que en uni6n del medico forense, 6 del que haga sus veces, examinen al procesado y emitan su dictamen. ART. 381. Si el juez advirtiere en el procesado indicios de enajenaci6n mental, le sometera inmediatamente a la observaci6n de los medicos forenses en el establecimiento en que estuviese preso, 6 en otro piblico, si fuere mas a prop6sito 6 estuviese en libertad. Los medicos darn en tal caso su informe del modo expresado en el capitulo VII de este titulo. ART. 382. Sin perjuicio de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, el juez recibira informaci6n acerca de la enajenaci6n mental del procesado en la formal prevenida en el articulo 380. ART. 383. Si la demencia sobreviniera despues de cometido el delito, concluso que sea el sumario, se mandara archivar la causa por el tribunal competente hasta que el procesado recobre la salud, disponiendose ademis respect de 6ste 1o que el c6digo penal prescribe para los que ejecutan el hecho en estado de demencia. Si hubiese algin otro procesado por raz6n del mismo delito que no se encontrase en el caso del anterior, continuara la causa solamente en cuanto al mismo. ART. 384. Desde que resultare del sumario algun indicio rational de criminalidad contra determinada persona, se dictara auto declarindola procesada y mandando que se entiendan con ella las diligencias en la formal y del modo dispuesto en este titulo y en los demis de esta ley. El procesada podr, desde el momento de serlo, aconsejarse de letrado, mientras no estuviere incomunicado, y valerse de 61, bien para instar la pronta terminaci6n del sumario bien para solicitar la practice de diligencias que le interesen, y para formular pretensiones que afectan a su situaci6n. En el primer caso podri recurrir en queja a la audiencia, y en los otros dos apelar para ante la misma, si el juez instructor no accediese a sus deseos.

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98 Courts shall also take special care to fulfill this service at once, and such officials as postpone the same shall be disciplined. ART. 380. If the accused be more than nine years and under fifteen years of age, the judge shall hear evidence as to his judgment and especially as to his ability to distinguish the criminal character of the act which may have given rise to the cause. At this hearing shall be heard such persons as are able to give positive evidence on account of their personal circumstances and the relations they may have had with the accused before and after the commission of the act. In their absence two professors of primary education shall be appointed, who, together with the official physician or the person acting in his stead, shall examine the accused and give their opinion. ART. 381. If the judge shall notice in the accused signs of mental aberration, he shall immediately subject him to the observation of the official physicians in the institution in which he may be under arrest, or in another public institution if better adapted to the purpose or if the accused be at liberty. The physicians shall in such case make their report in the manner prescribed in Chapter VII of this title. ART. 382. Without prejudice to the provisions of the foregoing article, the judge shall take testimony on the mental aberration of the accused in the manner prescribed in art. 380. ART. 383. If the insanity should occur after the commission of the crime, upon the termination of the sumario the cause shall be ordered filed by the court of competent jurisdiction until the accused shall recover his health, such other measures being taken with regard to the latter as are prescribed by the penal code for those committing the act while insane. Should there be another person accused of the same crime who is not in the same condition as the former, the cause shall continue only with regard to said person. ART. 384. As soon as it shall appear from the sumario that there is reasonable indication of the criminality of a specific person, a writ of indictment shall issue and an order that proceedings be had in the manner and form prescribed in this and the other titles of this law. The accused may, from the moment he is indicted, secure the counsel of an attorney, while not inconunicado, and avail himself of his services either to secure a speedy termination of the sumario, or to request the taking of such steps as may be of interest to him and make demands affecting his condition. In the first case he may complain to the audiencia, and in the other two cases take an appeal to the same, if the judge of examination should not accede to his wishes.

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99 Estas apelaciones no seran admisibles mas que en un solo efecto. Para cumplir 1o determinado en este articulo, el juez instructor dispondra que el procesado menor de edad sea habilitado de procurador y abogado, a no ser que e1 mismo 6 su representante legal designen personas que merezcan su confianza para dicha representaci6n y defensa. CAPITULO IV. DE LAS DECLARACIONES DE LOS PROCESADOS. ART. 385. El juez, de oficio 6 a instancia del ministerio fiscal 6 del querellante particular, hara que los procesados presten cuantas declaraciones considere convenientes para la averiguaci6n de los hechos, sin que ni el acusador privado ni el actor civil puedan estar presentes al interrogatorio, cuando ast lo disponga el juez instructor. ART. 386. Si el procesado estuviere detenido, se le recibira la primera declaraci6n dentro del termino de veinticuatro horas. El plazo podra prorrogarse por otras cuarenta y ocho si mediare causa grave, la cual se expresara en la providencia en que se acordase la pr6rroga. ART. 387. No se exigira juramento A los procesados, exhortandoles solamente a decir verdad, y advirtiendoles el juez de instrucci6n que deben responder, de una mantra precisa, clara y conforme A la verdad, a las preguntas que les fueren hechas. ART. 388. En la primera declaraci6n sera preguntado el procesado por su nombre, apellidos paterno y materno, apodo, silo tuviere, edad, naturaleza, vecindad, estado, profesi6n, arte, oficio 6 modo de vivir, si tiene hijos, si fue procesado anteriormente, por que delito, ante que juez 6 tribunal, que pena se le impuso, si la cumpli6, si sabe leer y escribir, y si conoce el motivo por que se le ha procesado. ART. 389. Las preguntas que se le hagan en todas las declaraciones que hubiere de prestar se dirigiran 4 la averiguaci6n de los hechos y a la participaci6n en ellos del procesado y de las demas personas que hubieren contribuido a ejecutarlos 6 encubrirlos. Las preguntas seran directas, sin que por ningfin concept puedan hacersele de un modo capcioso 6 sugestivo. Tampoco se podra emplear con el procesado genero alguno de coaccion o amenaza. ART. 390. Las relaciones que hagan los procesados 6 respuestas que den seran orales. Sin embargo, el juez de instrucci6n, teniendo siempre en cuenta las circunstancias de aquillos y la naturaleza de Ia causa,

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99 These appeals shall be admissible for a review of the proceedings only. In order to comply with the provisions of this article, the judge of examination shall order that an indicted person under legal age be assigned a solicitor and attorney, unless he himself or his legal representative designate persons who enjoy their confidence to act in his behalf and defense. CHAPTER IV. DECLARATIONS OF THE ACCUSED. ART. 385. The judge, at his own instance or on motion of the public prosecutor or of the private complainant, shall have the accused make as many declarations as he may consider advisable for the verification of the facts, and neither the private accuser nor the civil plaintiff can be present at the interrogatory when it is thus ordered by the examining judge. ART. 386. If the accused should be under arrest, his first declaration shall be taken within a period of twenty-four hours. This period may be extended forty-eight hours more, should there be serious cause therefor, which cause shall be stated in the order of extension. ART. 387. No oath shall be administered to accused persons, who shall only be admonished to tell the truth, and the judge of examination shall advise them that they must answer in a clear, precise, and truthful manner such questions as may be put to them. ART. 388. In the first declaration the accused shall be asked his name, paternal and maternal surnames, nickname (should he have any), age, nativity, residence, conjugal condition, profession, art, trade, or means of livelihood, if he has any children, if he has been previously criminally prosecuted, for what crime, before what judge or court, what punishment was imposed upon him, whether he served his sentence, whether he is able to read and write, and if he knows the reason for his indictment. ART. 389. The questions put to him in all declarations which he may be obliged to make shall be directed to the verification of the acts and the participation of the accused therein and of the other persons who may have been accessories before or after the fact. The questions shall be direct, and it shall not be permissible to propound them in a captious or suggestive manner. Nor shall any coercion or threats whatsoever be employed against the accused. ART. 390. The statements made by the persons accused or answers which they give shall be oral. Nevertheless, the judge of examination, always taking into consideration their circumstances and the

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100 podrs permitirles que redacten a su presencia una contestaci6n escrita sobre puntos dificiles de explicar, 6 que tambien consulten a su presencia apuntes 6 notas. ART. 391. Se pondrAn de manifesto al procesado todos los objetos que constituyan el cuerpo del delito 6 los que el juez considere conveniente, a fin de que los reconozea. Se le interrogara sobre la procedencia de dichos objetos, su destino y la raz6n de haberlos encontrado en su poder; y en general sera siempre interrogado sobre cualquiera otra circunstancia que conduzca al esclarecimiento de la verdad. El juez podrs ordenar al procesado, pero sin emplear ningtn genero de coacci6n, que escriba A su presencia algunas palabras 6 frases cuando esta medida la considere Atil para desvanecer las dudas que surjan sobre la legitimidad de un escrito que se le atribuya. ART. 392. Cuando el procesado rehuse contestar 6 se finja loco, sordo 6 mudo, el juez instructor le advertira que no obstante su silencio y su simulada enfermedad, se continuara la instrucci6n del proceso. De estas circunstancias se tomarA raz6n por el secretario, y el juez instructor procedera a investigar la verdad de la enfermedad que aparente el procesado, observando a este efecto 1o dispuesto en los respectivos articulos de los capitulos II y VII de este mismo titulo. ART. 393. Cuando el examen del procesado se prolongue mucho tiempo, 6 el nfmero de preguntas que se le hayan hecho sea tan considerable que hubiese perdido la serenidad de juicio necesaria para contestar A lo demas que deba preguntirsele, se suspenders el examen, concediendo al procesado el tiempo necesario para descansar y recuperar la calma. Siempre se hara constar en la declaraci6n misma el tiempo que se haya invertido en el interrogatorio. ART. 394. El juez que infringiere 1o dispuesto en el articulo anterior y en el 389 sera corregido disciplinariamente, A no ser que incurriere en mayor responsabilidad. ART. 395. El procesado no podrs, A pretexto de incompetencia del juez, excusarse de contestar A las preguntas que se le dirijan, si bien podrs protestar la incompetencia, consignandose asi en los autos. ART. 396. Se permitira al procesado manifestar cuanto tenga por conveniente para su exculpaci6n 6 para la explicaci6n de los hechos, evacuandose con urgencia las citas que hiciere y las demas diligencias que propusiere, si el juez las estima conducentes para la comprobaci6n de sus manifestaciones. En ningfn caso podrAn hacerse al procesado cargos ni reconvencienes, ni se leers part alguna del sumario mas que sus declaraciones anteriores si lo pidiere, A no ser que el juez hubiese autorizado la publicidad de aquel en todo 6 en parte.

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100 character of the cause, may permit them to prepare in his presence a written answer upon points difficult to explain, or also that they consult notes or memoranda in his presence. ART. 391. All the objects which constitute the corpus delicti or those which the judge may consider advisable shall be exhibited to the accused for his identification. He shall be questioned upon the origin of said objects, their purpose, and the reason they were found in his possession; and in general he shall be questioned on any other circumstance which may tend to establish the truth. The judge may order the accused, but without employing any coercion whatsoever, to write in his presence some words or sentences, if be considers this measure useful to dissipate the doubts which may arise as to the legitimacy of some writing attributed to him. ART. 392. If the accused shall refuse to answer or shall feign insanity, deafness, or muteness, the judge of examination shall admonish him that, notwithstanding his silence and simulated illness, the proceedings shall continue. The secretary shall make a record of these circumstances and the examining judge shall proceed to investigate the reality of the illness which the accused feigns, observing for this purpose the provisions contained in the respective articles of Chapters II and VII of this title. ART. 393. If the examination of the accused is extended over a lengthy period, or the number of questions put to him is so great that he should have lost the serenity of mind necessary to answer the other questions to be asked him, the examination shall be suspended, the accused being allowed the time necessary to rest and recover his calmness. The duration of the interrogatory shall always be recorded in the declaration itself. ART. 394. A judge violating the provisions of the foregoing article and of article 389 shall be disciplined, unless he incurs greater liability. ART. 395. The accused can not, under the pretext of the want of jurisdiction of the judge, excuse himself from answering the questions put to him, although he may plead to the jurisdiction, such plea being entered upon the record. ART. 396. The accused shall be permitted to state what he may consider proper as to his exculpation or for the explanation of the acts, such citations as he may make and other proceedings suggested by him being promptly executed if the judge should consider them conducive to the verification of his statements. In no case can charges or reconventions be made against the accused, nor shall any part whatsoever of the sumario be read to him, excepting his previous depositions, should he so request, unless the judge shall have authorized the publicity of the sumatio in whole or in part.

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101 ART. 397. El procesado podra dictar por si mismo las declaraciones. Si no lo hiciere, 1o hare el juez, procurando, en cuanto fuere posible, consignar las mismas palabras de que aqul se hubiese valido. ART. 398. Si el procesado no supiere el idioma espaflol 6 fuere sordomudo, se observara 1o dispuesto en los articulos 440, 441 y 442. ART. 399. Cuando el juez considere conveniente el examen del procesado en el lugar de los hechos acerca de los cuales deba ser examinado, 6 ante las personas 6 cosas con ellos relacionadas, se observara lo dispuesto en el articulo 438. ART. 400. El procesado podra declarar cuantas veces quisiere, y el juez le recibira inmediatamente la declaraci6n, si tuviere relaci6n con la causa. ART. 401. En la declaraci6n se consignarin integramente las preguntas y las contestaciones. ART. 402. El procesado podra leer la declaraci6n, y el juez le enterara de que le asiste este derecho. Si no usare de el, la leers el secretario en su presencia. ART. 403. Se observara lo dispuesto en el articulo 450 respecto A tachaduras 6 enmiendas. ART. 404. La diligencia se firmara por todos los que hubiesen intervenido en el acto, y se autorizarA por el secretario. ART. 405. Si en las declaraciones posteriores se pusiere el procesado en contradicci6n con sus declaraciones primeras 6 retractare sus confesiones anteriores, deber4 ser interrogado sobre el m6vil de sus contradicciones y sobre las causas de su retractaci6n. ART. 406. La confesi6n del procesado no dispensary al juez de instrucci6n de practicer todas las diligencias necesarias y fin de adquirir el convencimiento de la verdad de la confesi6n y de la existencia del delito. Con este objeto, el juez instructor interrogarda al procesado confeso pars que explique todas las circunstancias del delito y cuanto pueda contribuir A comprobar su confesi6n, si fu6 autor 6 c6mplice y si conoce a algunas personas que fueren testigos 6 tuvieren conocimiento del hecho.' ART. 407. Respecto a la incomunicaci6n 2 de los procesados, se observarN 1o dispuesto en los articulos 506 al 511. 'Esto se entiende mientras la causa estA en sumario; pues si al abrirse el juicio oral el procesado confiesa su delito y su defensor se conform con la confesi6n, siendo correctional la pena aplicable, se dicta sentencia sin necesidad de mds trAmites, seglin los articulos 688 y 694. La confesi6n no basta para condenar por delitos cometidos por medio de la imprenta, con arreglo al artfculo 820. 2 Vase en el Apindice I, la Orden ntim. 109, de Julio 13 de 1899.

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101 ART. 397. The accused may himself dictate the depositions. Should he not do so, the judge shall do so, seeking, in so far as possible, to record the very words which the former may have used. ART. 398. Should the accused not know the Spanish language or be a deaf-mute, the provisions of articles 440, 441, and 442 shall be observed. ART. 399. When the judge considers it advisable to examine the accused at the place of the acts upon which he is to be examined, or in the presence of the persons or things related thereto, the provisions of article 438 shall be observed. AnT. 400. The accused may declare as often as he wishes, and the judge shall immediately take his deposition, if it bears any relation to the cause. ART. 401. The questions and answers shall be literally embodied in the deposition. ART. 402. The accused may read the deposition and the judge shall inform him of such right. Should he not avail himself of this right, the secretary shall read it in his presence. ART. 403. The provisions of article 450 shall be observed with regard to erasures or changes. ART. 404. The proceeding shall be signed by all who may have taken part therein and shall be authenticated by the secretary. ART. 405. If in subsequent depositions the accused should contradict his first statements or should retract his previous confessions, he must be interrogated as to the reasons for his contradictions and the causes for his retraction. ART. 406. The confession of the accused shall not excuse the judge from taking all the steps necessary in order to be convinced of the truth of the confession and the existence of the crime. With this end in view the examining judge shall interrogate the confessed criminal in order that he may explain all the circumstances of the crime and all that may contribute to verify his confession, if he was the principal or an accomplice, and if he knows any persons who were witnesses or may have knowledge of the acts.1 AnT. 407. With regard to the incommunication' of the accused the provisions of articles 506 to 511 shall be observed. This is understood while the cause is at the stage of the sumario, because if at the opening of the oral trial the accused confesses to the crime and his counsel consents to the confession, the penalty applicable being a correctional one, sentence shall be passed without the necessity of further proceedings, in accordance with articles 688 and 694. A confession is not sufficient for a conviction for crimes committed by means of the press, in accordance with article 820. 2 See in Appendix I, order No. 10,. of July.13, 1899.

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102 ART. 408. No se leerin al procesado los fundamentos del auto de incomunicaci6n cuando le fuere notificado, ni se le dara copia de ellos. ART. 409. Para recibir declaraci6n al procesado menor de edad, no habra necesidad de nombrarle curador. CAPITULO V. DE LAS DECLARACIONES DE LOS TESTIGOS.1 ART. 410. Todos los que residan en el territorio espafiol, nacionales 6 extranjeros, que no esten impedidos, tendran obligaci6n de concurrir al lamamiento judicial para declarar cuanto supieren sobre lo que les fuere preguntado, si para ello se les cita con las formalidades prescritas en la ley.' ART. 411. Se exceptian de lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, el Rey, su consorted, el Principe heredero y el Regente del Reino. ART. 412. Estarin exentos tambien de concurrir al 1lamamiento del juez, pero no de declarar: 1.0 Las demis personas Reales. 2.0 Los Ministros de la Corona. 3.0 Los presidentes del Senado y del Congreso de los Diputados. 4.0 El president del Consejo de Estado. 5.0 Las autoridades judiciales de categora superior a la del que recibiere la declaraci6n. 6.0 El gobernador general de la isla, el gobernador civil y jefe de hacienda de la provincia, el capitin general del distrito y el gobernador militar en cuyo territorio se hubiere de recibir la declaraci6n. 'Este capitulo determina las solemnidades y requisites de las declaraciones testificales, durante el sumario, ante el juez de instrucci6n. Comennado el juicio, el examen de los testigos se verifica segdn los artfculos 701 1 722. 2Teniendo en cuenta lo dispuesto en los artfculos 410 y 420 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, se ha ofrecido la duda de si todos los testigos que no comparezcan i declarar, incurren en la sanci6n establecida en el iltimo de dichos artfculos. Esta duda s6o nace de haberse expresado en el articulo 410 la obligaci6n de los testigos de concurrir al llamamiento judicial, para declarar cuanto supieren sobre lo que les fuere preguntado, afiadiendo las siguientes palabras: "Si para ello se les cita con las formalidades previstas en la ley." Y como hay casos en que, segtn el articulo 430 de dicha ley, puede citarse verbalmente 4 un testigo, ha habido quien crea que entonces no son aplicables las correcciones 6 responsabilidades del citado articulo 420. Con s6lo fijarse en que este texto legal impone dichas correcciones 6 responsabilidades al testigo que no concurra al llamamiento judicial 6 se resist 4 declarar en t6rminos absolutes, 6 sea sin hacer distinci6n alguna respecto A la forma que se emple6 para su citacion, se comprende que es indiferente para que se le pueda aplicar dicho articulo, que hubiere sido citado verbalmente 6 con las formalidades prescritas en la ley.-Mernoria de la Fiscalia. del Wriburnal.;9upremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1888, stimero 18.

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102 ART. 408. The reasons for the order of incommunication shall not be read to the accused when notified thereof, nor shall a copy of the same be given him. ART. 409. In order to take the deposition of an accused person under age the appointment of a curator shall be unnecessary. CHAPTER V. DEPOSITIONS OF WITNESSES.' ART. 410. All persons residing within Spanish territory, whether natives or foreigners, who are not prevented therefrom, shall be obliged to appear upon a judicial citation to declare all they may know in the matter upon which they may be questioned, provided they be cited with the formalities prescribed by law.2 ART. 411. The King, his consort, the crown prince, and the regents of the Kingdom are excepted from the provisions of the foregoing article. ART. 412. The following shall also be exempted from answering the citation of the judge, but not from testifying: 1. The other royal personages. 2. The Ministers of the Crown. 3. The president of the Senate and of the Congress of Deputies. 4. The president of the Council of State. 5. The judicial authorities of a rank higher than that of the judge receiving the deposition. 6. The governor-general of the island, the civil governor, the chief of finance of the province, the captain-general of the district, and the military governor within whose jurisdiction the testimony is to be taken. 'This chapter prescribes the formalities and requisites of depositions of witnesses during the sumario before the judge of examination. After the trial has commenced, the examination of the witnesses takes place in accordance with articles 701 to 722. 'Taking into consideration the provisions of articles 410 and 420 of the law of criminal procedure, the doubt has arisen as to whether all witnesses who do not appear to testify incur the penalty prescribed in the latter article. This doubt arises only from the fact that article 410 states the obligation of witnesses to appear upon a judicial call to testify to all they may know upon the matters on which they are questioned, the following words being added: "If they are cited therefor with the formalities prescribed by law," and as there are cases in which, according to article 430 of said law, a witness can be cited verbally, some believe that then the corrections or liabilities of the said article 420 do not apply. In simply observing that this legal text imposes said corrections or liabilities upon a witness who does not appear upon a judicial call, or refuses to testify in absolute terms, that is to say, without making any distinction whatsoever with regard to the form employed for his citation, it will be understood that it makes no difference in the application of said article to him that he shall have been cited verbally or with the formalities prescribed by law. (Report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1888, No. 18.)

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103 7.o Los embajadores y demis representantes diplomaticos acreditados cerca del Gobierno espaiol. 8.0 Los capitanes generales del ejercito y armada. 9.0 Los arzobispos y obispos. ART. 413. Cuando fuere necesaria 6 conveniente la declaraci6n de alguna de las personas designadas en el articulo anterior, el juez pasara a su domicilio 6 residencia oficial, previo aviso, sefialandole dia v hora. ART. 414. La resistencia de cualquiera de las personas mencionadas en el articulo 412 4 recibir en su domicilio 6 residencia oficial al juez, 6 a declarar cuanto supieren sobre lo que les fuere preguntado respecto a los hechos del sumario, se pondrs en conocimiento del Tribunal Supremo para los efectos que procedan. So exceptuan de lo dispuesto en el parrafo anterior las personas mencionadas en el n6mero 70 de dicho articulo. Si incurrieren estas en la resistencia expresada, el juez lo comunicara inmediatamente al Ministro de Ultramar remitiendo testimonio instructivo, y se abstendra de todo procedimiento respecto de ellas hasta que el Ministro le comunique la real orden que sobre el caso se dictare. ART. 415. Las personas comprendidas en los n6meros 2.0, 3 4 0, 5.0, 6.0, 8.6, and 9.o del articulo 412, podrdn informar por escrito sobre los hechos de que tengan conocimiento por raz6n de sus cargos. De la misma manera podran informar los funcionarios del orden judicial 6 ministerio fiscal que se encuentren en este caso. Seran invitadas a prestar su declaraci6n por escrito las personas comprendidas en el numero 7.o, remitiendose al efecto al Ministerio de Ultramar con atenta comunicaci6n para el de Estado, un interrogatorio que comprenda todos los extremos a que deban contestar, a fin de que puedan hacerlo por la via diplomatica. ART. 416. Estin dispensados de la obligaci6n de declarar: 10. Los parientes del procesado en linea directa, ascendente 6 descendente; su c6nyuge, sus hermanos consanguineos 6 uterinos y los laterales consanguineos hasta el segundo grado civil, asi como los parientes naturals a que se refiere el numero 3.0 del articulo 261. El juez instructor advertira al testigo que se balla comprendido en el parrafo anterior que no tiene obligaci6n de declarar en contra del procesado; pero puede hacer las manifestaciones que consider oportunas, consignindose la contestaci6n que diere a esta advertencia.' 'Aunque los parientes del procesado y dems personas que, con arreglo A este articulo y los dos siguientes, no pueden ser obligados declarar, hubieran declarado en el sumario, no estAn por ello en el deber de declarar en el juicio oral.-Exposicidn del Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1888, numero 19. Ann cuando al recibirse declaraci6n por el juez instructor al herinano de un pro-

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103 7. Ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives accredited to the Spanish Government. 8. The captains-general of the army and navy. 9. Archbishops and bishops. ART. 413. When the testimony of any of the persons mentioned in the foregoing article should be necessary or advisable, the judge shall go to their domicile or official residence, after notifying them in advance, fixing a day and hour. ART. 414. The refusal of any of the persons mentioned in article 412 to receive the judge at their domicile or official residence, or to declare all they may know as to what may be asked them with regard to the facts of the .sumario, shall be communicated to the Supreme Court for the proper purposes. The persons mentioned in subdivision 7 of said article are excepted from the provisions of the foregoing paragraph. If said 'persons should thus object, the judge shall immediately communicate it to the colonial minister, transmitting a certified copy of the interrogatory, and he shall abstain from taking any proceeding with regard to them until the minister communicates to him the royal order which may issue in the case. ART. 415. The persons included in subdivisions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 of article 412 may testify in writing as to the facts of which they have information by reason of their offices. The officials of the judiciary or of the prosecuting department included in this case may testify in the same manner. The persons mentioned in subdivision 7 shall be requested to, give their testimony in writing, there being forwarded for this purpose to the colonial department, with a respectful communication for the State Department, an interrogatory which shall embrace all questions which they must answer, in order that they may do so through diplomatic channels. ART. 416. The following are excused from the obligation of testifying: 1. The relatives of the accused in a direct ascending or descending line, his spouse, his uterine brothers or sisters, and his lateral blood relatives up to and including the second civil degree, as well as the natural parents referred to in subdivision 3 of article 261. Theexamining judge shall inform the witness included in the foregoing paragraph that he is not obliged to testify against the accused, but that he may make the statements which he may deem proper, the answer which he may give to this notice being recorded. 'Even though the parents of the accused and other persons, who, in accordance with this and the two following articles, can not be forced to testify, shall have testified at the sumario, they are not thereby obliged to testify at the oral trial. (Satement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1888, No. 19.) Even though at the time an examining judge takes the testimony of a brother of

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104 2.0 El abogado del procesado respecto a los hechos que 6ste le hubiere confiado en su calidad de defensor. Si alguno de los testigos se encontrase en las relaciones indicadas en los parrafos precedentes con uno 6 varios de los procesados, estar4 obligado a declarar respecto a los demds, a no ser que su declaraci6n pudiera comprometer I su pariente 6 defendido. ART. 417. No podrAn ser obligados a declarar como testigos: 1.o Los eclesiasticos y ministros de los cultos disidentes sobre los hechos que les fueren revelados en el ejercicio de las funciones de su ministerio. 2.0 Los funcionarios pdblicos, tanto civiles como militaries, de cualquiera clase que sean, cuando no pudieran declarar sin violar el secreto que por raz6n de sus cargos estuviesen obligados a guardar, 6 cuando, procediendo en virtud de obediencia debida, no fueren autorizados por su superior jerarquico para prestar la declaraci6n que se les pida. 3.o Los incapacitados fisica 6 moralmente. ART. 418. Ningdn testigo podra ser obligado a declarar acerca de una pregunta cuya contestaci6n pueda perjudicar material 6 moralmente y de una manera direct e importante, ya a la persona, ya a la fortuna de alguno de los parientes a que se refiere el articulo 416. Se exceptua el caso en que el delito revista suma gravedad por atentar 4 la seguridad del Estado, a la tranquilidad pfblica 6 a la sagrada persona del Rey 6 de su sucesor. ART. 419. Si el testigo estuviere fisicamente impedido de acudir al lamamiento judicial, el juez instructor que hubiere de recibirle la declaraci6n se constituir4 en su domicilio, siempre que el interrogatorio no haya de poner en peligro la vida del enfermo. ART. 420. El que sin estar impedido no concurriere al primer llamamiento judicial, excepto las personas mencionadas en el articulo 412, 6 se resistiere a declarar lo que supiese acerca de los hechos sobre que fuere preguntado, a no estar comprendido en las exenciones de los articulos anteriores, incurrir4 en la multa de 12.50 4 125 pesetas; y si persistiere en su resistencia, sera conducido, en el primer caso, a la cesado durante el sumario no se consignara, coma exige el articulo 416 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, la contestaci6n de este testigo d la advertencia que le fud dirigida sobre la facultad que le asistfa de no declarar contra su hermano; y aunque no hubiera debido acordarse, como so acord6 en el acto del juicio oral d instancia del fiscal que se diese lectura d la declaraci6n que habfa prestado, por haberse negado i declarar en aquel acto, estas faltas de procedimiento de ninguna manera estdn comprendidas entre las que dicha ley de enjuiciamiento en su articulo 911 y en los demds que se refieren al recurso de casaci6n par quebrantamiento de formal menciona como suficientes pars que se estime el mismo precedente.-Sentencia de 7 de Diciembre de 1883. La exenci6n de la obligaci6n de declarar otorgada par este articulo, no puede estimarse subordinada t la facultad que concede d. las partes el 730.-Sentencia de 13 de Noviembre de 1885.

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104 2. The attorney of the accused, with regard to the facts which the latter may have confided to him as his counsel. If any of the witnesses should bear the relations indicated in the foregoing paragraph to one or more of the accused, he shall be obliged to testify with regard to the others, unless his evidence might compromise his relative or client. ART. 417. The following can not be obliged to testify as witnesses: 1. Ecclesiastics and ministers of the dissenting cults, as to the facts revealed to them in the exercise of the functions of their ministry. 2. Public officials, civil as well as military, of whatsoever class, when they can not testify without violating secrets which by reason of their office they may be obliged to preserve, or when, acting by virtue of obedience due, they should not be authorized by their hierarchical superior to give the testimony requested of them. 3. Those physically or morally incapacitated. ART. 418. No witnesses can be forced to testify upon a question an answer to which might materially or morally and in a direct and important manner prejudice either the person or the fortune of any of the relatives referred to in article 416. The case is excepted where the crime is of great gravity by reason of its being an attempt against the security of the State, the public peace, or the sacred person of the King or of his successors. ART. 419. If the witness should be physically unable to answer the judicial call, the examining judge who may have to take his deposition shall go to his residence, provided that the interrogatory will not endanger the life of the sick person. ART. 420. He who not being unable to do so, should not attend at the first judicial call, excepting the persons mentioned in article 412, or should refuse to testify as to what he may know with regard to the facts upon which he may be interrogated, if not included in the exceptions of the foregoing articles, shall incur a fine of from 12.50 to 125 pesetas; and should he persist in his refusal, he shall be conducted, in an accused person during the sumario there should not be recorded, as required by article 416 of the law of criminal procedure, the answer of this witness to the notice given him as to his privilege of not testifying against his brother; and even though it should not have been ordered, as was ordered at the oral trial on motion of the prosecutor, that his previous deposition be read on account of his refusal to testify at the trial, these breaches of procedure are in no wise included among those which said law of procedure in its article 911, and in the others which relate to appeals for annulment for breach of form, mentions as sufficient for the allowance of such appeal. (Decision of December 7, 1883.) The exemption from the obligation to testify granted by this article can not be considered as subordinated to the privilege granted the parties by art. 730. (Decision of November 13, 1885.) 18473-01-14

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105 presencia del juez instructor por los dependientes de la autoridad y procesado por el delito de denegaci6n de auxilio que respecto de los testigos y peritos define el c6digo penal, y en el segundo caso sera tambidn procesado por el de desobediencia grave a la autoridad. La multa sera impuesta en el acto de notarse 6 cometerse la falta. ART. 421. El juez de instrucci6n, 6 municipal en su caso, hare concurrir A su presencia y examinara A los testigos citados en la denuncia 6 en la querella, 6 en cualesquiera otras declaraciones 6 diligencias, y A todos los demas que supieren hechos 6 circunstancias 6 poseyeren datos convenientes para la comprobaci6n 6 averiguaci6n del delito y del delincuente. Se procurara, no obstante, omitir la evacuaci6n de citas impertinentes 6 inatiles.2 ART. 422. Si el testigo residiere fuera del partido 6 termino municipal del juez que instruyese el sumario, 6ste se abstendr de mandarle comparecer A su presencia, A no ser que lo considered absolutamente necesario para la comprobaci6n del delito 6 par el reconocimiento de la persona del delincuente, ordenAndolo en este caso por auto motivado. Tambi4n debera evitar la comparecencia: de los empleados de vigilancia ptiblica que tengan su residencia en punto distinto de la capital del juzgado, de los jefes de establecimientos ptiblicos 6 privados cuyas funciones sean de servicio permanente, de los jefes de estaci6n, maquinistas, fogoneros, conductores, telegrafistas, factores, recaudadores, guardaagujas u otros agentes que desempefien funciones andlogas, A los cuales citara por conducto de sus jefes inmediatos cuando absolutamente sea indispensable su comparecencia. Habiendo surgido la duda de si 4 un testigo insolvente que deja de comparecer en el juicio oral, puede declardrsele sujeto 4 la prisi6n subsidiaria por la multa que se le hubiere impuesto, cuando por su carencia de bienes no puede satisfacerla, la Fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo, 6 quien se elev6 consults sobre el particular, contest6: En manera alguna la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal no autoriza semejante procedimiento. El artfculo 420 declara lo que debe hacerse en el caso que el testigo multado, por su no comparecencia en el juicio, persistiere en ells; esto es, que sea conducido ante el tribunal por los agentes de la autoridad, 6 procesado por el delito de denegaci6n de auxilio. La ley no dice en parte alguna que los multados sufran la prisi6n subsidiaria, caso de insolvencia, y por lo tanto, se aplicard d los mismos lo dispuesto en el artfculo referido. "-Consulta 6a de la memoria de la Fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1887. Es indiferente para que pueda aplicarse este artfculo que el testigo hubiera sido citado verbalmente 6 con las formalidades prescritas en la ley.-Exposicidn del 1Rscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de &ptiembre de 1888, ntimero 18. A A tenor del articulo 790, en las causas por flagrante delito, cuando deponen varios testigos, s61o deben consignarse las declaraciones de los mds importantes.

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105 the first case, into the presence of the examining judge by the employes of the authorities and tried for the crime of refusing assistance which the penal code defines with regard to witnesses and experts, and in the latter case he shall also be tried for the crime of serious disobedience to the authorities. The fine shall be imposed at the time the offense is noticed or committed.' ART. 421. The judge of examination, or the municipal judge in a proper case, shall cause to appear before him and shall examine the witnesses cited in the denunciation or complaint, or in any other declarations or proceedings, and all others who shall have knowledge of facts or circumstances or shall possess information of use in the proof or verification of the crime and of the delinquent. Nevertheless, the service of impertinent or useless citations shall be sought to be avoided.2 ART. 422. If the witness resides without the judicial district or the municipal district of the judge conducting the sunario, the latter shall abstain from ordering him to appear before him, unless he shall consider it absolutely necessary for the verification of the crime or for the identification of the person of the delinquent, ordering him in such case to appear by a writ setting forth his reasons. He must also avoid the appearance: Of the employes of the public surveillance who may reside at a point, other than the seat of the court, of the heads of public or private institutions whose duties constitute a permanent service, of station chiefs, engineers, firemen, conductors, telegraphers, factors, collectors, switchmen, or other agents discharging similar duties, whom he shall cite through their immediate chiefs when their appearance is absolutely necessary. The doubt having arisen as to whether an insolvent witness who shall fail to appear at the oral trial can be declared subject to imprisonment in lieu of the fine which may have been imposed upon him, when he can not pay it on account of not having property with which to do so, the fiscal of the Supreme Court, to whom this question was submitted, replied: "Not at all; the law of criminal procedure does not authorize such a practice. Article 420 specifies what should be done in case a witness who has been fined for nonappearance at the trial shall continue in default; that is to say, that he be brought before the court by the agents of the authorities for the crime of refusing assistance. The law does not say anywhere that persons fined shall suffer imprisonment in lieu thereof in case of insolvency, and therefore the provisions of the aforesaid article shall apply to them." (Sixth question of the report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1887.) It makes no difference in the application of this article whether the witness has been cited verbally or with the formalities prescribed by law. (Statement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, No. 18.) 21n accordance with article 790, in causes for flagrant crimes when several witnesses testify, only the depositions of the most important shall be recorded.

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106 ART. 423. En el caso de la regla general comprendida en el pArrafo primero del articulo anterior, asi como en el del segundo, cuando la urgencia de la declaraci6n fuese tal que no permitiera la dilaci6n consiguiente a la citaci6n del testigo por conducto de sus jefes inmediatos y el empleado de que se trate no pudiera abandonar el servicio que presta sin grave peligro 6 estorsi6n para el pdblico, el juez instructor de la causa comisionar para recibir la declaraci6n al que lo fuera del termino municipal 6 del partido en que se hallare el testigo. ART. 424. Si el testigo residiere en el extranjero, se dirigira suplicatorio por la via diplomatica y por conducto del Ministerio de Ultramar al juez extranjero competente para recibir la declaraci6n. El suplicatorio debe contener los antecedentes necesarios a indicar las preguntas que se han de hacer al testigo, sin perjuicio de que dicho juez las amplie seglin le sugieran su discreci6n y prudencia. Si la comparecencia del testigo ante el juez instructor 6 tribunal fuere indispensable y no se presentase voluntariamente, se pondra en conocimiento del Ministerio de Ultramar para que adopte la resoluci6n que estime oportuna. ART. 425. Si la persona llamada a declarar ejerciere funciones 6 cargo pfblico, se dare aviso, al mismo tiempo que se practique la citaci6n, a su superior inmediato, para que le nombre sustituto durante su ausencia, si lo exigiere asi el interns 6 la seguridad pdblica. ART. 426. Los testigos serin citados en la form establecida en el tit. VII del libro primero de esta ley. ART. 427. Cuando el testigo no hubiere de comparecer ante el juez instructor para prestar la declaraci6n, se harin constar en el suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento que se expida, las circunstancias precisas para la designaci6n del testigo y las preguntas a que deba contester, sin perjuicio de las que el juez 6 tribunal que le recibiere la declaraci6n considere convenient hacerle para el mayor esclarecimiento de los bechos. ART. 428. El secretario del juez comisionado que haya de autorizar Ia declaraci6n expedira la cedula prevenida en el art. 175 con todas las circunstancias expresadas en el mismo, y la de habeise de recibir la declaraci6n en virtud de suplicatorio, exhorto 6 mandamiento. ART. 429. Los testigos que dependan de la jurisdicci6n militar, podrin, segin el juez de instrucci6n lo estime oportuno, ser examinados por e1 mismo como los demis testigos, 6 por el juez militar competente. En el primer caso, el juez de instrucci6n debera mandar que la citaci6n hecha al testigo se ponga en conocimiento del jefe del cuerpo a que perteneciere. En el segundo caso se observara 1o dispuesto en los dos articulos anteriores.

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106 ART. 423. In the case of the general rule included in the first paragraph of the foregoing article as well as in that of the second, when the urgency of the declaration should be such as not to admit of the delay consequent to the citation of the witness through his immediate chiefs, and the employe in question should not be able to abandon the service which he renders without serious danger or inconvenience to the public, the examining judge in the cause shall commission the judge of the municipal district or of the judicial district within whose jurisdiction the witness may be to take the deposition. ART. 424. If the witness should reside abroad, letters requisitorial shall be directed through diplomatic channels and the colonial department to the foreign judge competent to take the deposition. The letters requisitorial must contain the information necessary and indicate the questions which are to be put to the witness, without prejudice to said judge amplifying said questions prudently and in his discretion. If the appearance of the witness before the examining judge or court be indispensable and he should not voluntarily appear, his conduct shall be communicated to the colonial department in order that it may take the action which it may consider proper. ART 425. If the person called upon to testify should discharge public duties or fill a public office, notice shall be given to his immediate superior at the time the citation is served in order that a substitute may be appointed during his absence if the public interest or security so requires. ART. 426. Witnesses shall be cited in the manner prescribed in Title VII of the first book of this law. ART. 427. If the witness is not to appear before the examining judge to testify, the details necessary for the designation of the witness and the questions he is to answer shall be embodied in the letters rogatory, letters requisitorial, or mandate issued, without prejudice to the questions which the judge or court receiving his deposition may consider advisable to put to him in order better to ascertain the facts. ART. 428. The secretary of the judge commissioned who is to authenticate the deposition, shall issue the certificate prescribed in article 175 with all the details mentioned therein, and with a statement to the effect that the deposition must be taken by virtue of letters requisitorial, letters rogatory, or a mandate. ART. 429. Witnesses under military jurisdiction may, in the discretion of the judge of examination, be examined by him as other witnesses, or by the military judge of competent jurisdiction. In the former case the judge of examination must order that the citation of the witness be brought to the notice of the commander of the corps to which he may belong. In the latter case the provisions of the two foregoing articles shall be observed.

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107 Si algun testigo dependiente de la jurisdicci6n militar rehusare comparecer ante el juez de instrucci6n, 6 se negare a prestar juramento 6 a contestar al interrogatorio que se le hiciere, el juez de instrucci6n se dirigir4 al superior del testigo desobediente, cuyo superior, ademis de corregir al testigo, de 1o cual dare inmediato conocimiento al juez instructor, le hard comparecer ante 6ste para declarar. ART. 430. Los testigos podr5n ser citados personalmente donde fueren habidos. Cuando sea urgent el examen de un testigo, podra citarsele verbalmente para que comparezca en el acto, sin esperar a la expedici6n de la cedula prescrita en el art. 175, haciendo constar, sin embargo, en los autos el motivo de la urgencia. Tambien podra en igual caso constituirse el juez instructor en el domicilio de un testigo 6 en el lugar en que se encuentre, para recibirle declaraci6n. ART. 431. El juez instructor podra habilitar 4 los agentes de policia para practicer las diligencias de citaci6n verbal 6 escrita, si lo considera conveniente. ART. 432. Si el testigo no tuviere domicilio conocido 6 se ignorare su paradero, el juez instructor ordenar 1o conveniente a los funcionarios de policia, 6 oficiara a la autoridad administrativa a quien corresponda para que averigilen y le den parte del resultado dentro del plazo que les hubiere fijado. Transcurrido este plazo sin haber averiguado el paradero del testigo, se publicara la cedula de citaci6n en el peri6dico oficial del pueblo de la residencia del j uez, y en su defecto, en cualquier otro que alli se publique. Se insertara tambien la cedula, si el juez 1o estima convenient, en los peri6dicos oficiales 6 particulars de la capital de la provincia y del lugar donde se presuma hallarse el testigo, y en ]a Gaceta de la capital de la isla. En estos casos se unira a los autos un ejemplar de cada peri6dico en que se hubiere publicado la citaci6n. ART. 433. Al presentarse a declarar los testigos entregaran al secretario la copia de la cedula de citaci6n. Los testigos piberes prestaran juramento de decir todo lo que supieren respecto a lo que les fuere preguntado. El juez instructor, antes de exigir al testigo pdber el juramento y de interrogar al impdber, les instruir4 de la obligaci6n que tienen de ser veraces, y de las penas con que el c6digo castiga el delito de falso testimonio en causa criminal.

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107 If any witness under military jurisdiction should refuse to appear before the judge of examination, or should refuse to take the oath or answer the interrogatories put to him, the judge of examination shall address himself to the superior of the disobedient witness, which superior in addition to disciplining the witness, of which he shall give immediate notice to the examining judge, shall compel him to appear before the latter and testify. ART. 430. Witnesses may be cited in person when found. If the examination of a witness be urgent, he may be cited orally to appear at once, without awaiting the issue of the writ prescribed in article 175, but the reason for the urgency must appear upon the record. Also, in a similar case, the examining judge may betake himself to the domicile of a witness or to the place where he may be, in order to receive his deposition. ART. 431. The examining judge may deputize police agents to serve oral or written citations if he considers it advisable. ART. 432. If the witness should not have a known residence or his whereabouts is unknown, the judge of examination shall issue the proper orders to the police officials, or shall communicate with the proper administrative authority, in order that they may ascertain it and inform him of the result within the period which he may have fixed. Upon the expiration of such period without the whereabouts of the witness having been ascertained, the writ of citation shall be published in the official newspaper of the town of the residence of the judge, and in the absence thereof, in any other newspaper published there. The writ shall also be inserted, if the judge shall deem it advisable, in the official or private newspapers of the capital of the province and of the place where it is presumed the witness may be, and in the Gazette of the capital of the island. In such cases a copy of each newspaper in which the citation may have been published shall be attached to the proceedings. ART. 433. Upon appearing to testify, the witnesses shall deliver to the secretary the copy of the writ of citation. Witnesses who have reached the age of puberty shall take an oath to state all they may know upon what may be asked them. The examining judge, before administering an oath to a witness who has reached the age of puberty, and before questioning one who has not, shall inform them of their obligation to be truthful and of the penalties with which the code punishes the crime of false testimony in a criminal cause.

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108 ART. 434. El juramento se prestara en nombre de Dios. Los testigos prestarin el juramento con arreglo a su religion. ART. 435. Los testigos declararan separada y secretamente 4 presencia del juez instructor y del secretario. Si lo hicieren en otra formal, salvo los casos especiales sefialados en esta ley, sera corregido disciplinariamente el juez instructor, a no ser que incurra en responsabilidad criminal por la falta. ART. 436. El testigo manifestara primeramente su nombre, apellidos paterno y materno, edad, estado y profesi6n, si conoce 6 no al procesado y a las demis partes, y si tiene con ellos parentesco, amistad 6 relaciones de cualquiera otra clase, si ha estado procesado y la pena que se le impuso. El juez dejara al testigo narrar sin interrupci6n los hechos sobre los cuales declare, y solamente le exigira las explicaciones complementarias que scan conducentes a desvanecer los conceptos oscuros 6 contradictorios. Despues le dirigir4 las preguntas que estime oportunas para el esclarecimiento de los bechos. ART. 437. Los testigos declararan de viva voz, sin que les sea permitido leer declaraci6n ni respuesta alguna que eleven escrita. Podran, sin embargo, consultar algfin apunte 6 memoria que contenga datos dificiles de recordar. El testigo podr dictar las contestaciones por si mismo. ART. 438. El juez instructor podrs mandar que se conduzca al testigo al lugar en que hubieren ocurrido los hechos, y examinarle alli 6 poner a su presencia los objetos sobre que hubiere de versar la declaraci6n. En este ultimo caso podr el juez instructor poner A presencia del testigo dichos objetos, solos 6 mezclados con otros semejantes, adoptando ademas todas las medidas que su prudencia le sugiera para la mayor exactitud de la declaraci6n. ART. 439. No se harin al testigo preguntas capciosas ni sugestivas, ni se empleara coacci6n, engano, promesa ni artificio alguno para obligarle 6 inducirle a declarar en determinado sentido. ART. 440. Si el testigo no entendiere 6 no hablare el idioma espafol, se nombrara un interprete, que prestara a su presencia juramento de conducirse bien y fielmente en el desemperio de su cargo. Por este medio se haran al testigo las preguntas y se recibiran sus contestaciones, que 6ste podi dictar por su conducto. En este caso, la declaraci6n debera consignarse en el proceso en el idioma empleado por el testigo y traducido a continuaci6n al espaa-ol. ART. 441. El intirprete sera elegido entre los que tengan titulo de tales, si los hubiere en el pueblo. En su defecto, sera nombrado un maestro del correspondiente idioma; y si tampoco le hubiere, cualquiera persona que lo sepa.

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108 ART. 434. The oath shall be taken in the name of God. The witnesses shall take the oath in accordance with their religion. ART. 435. The witnesses shall testify separately and secretly in the presence of the examining judge and of the secretary. Should they do so in any other manner, excepting the special cases mentioned in this law, the examining judge shall be disciplined, unless he incurs criminal liability by reason of the offense. ART. 436. The witness shall first state his name, paternal and maternal surnames, age, conjugal condition, and profession; whether he is or is not acquainted with the accused and other parties; if he is related to them or bears friendship or any other relations to them; if he has been criminally prosecuted and the penalty imposed upon him. The judge shall permit the witness to narrate without interruption the facts upon which he testifies, and shall only require of him such supplementary explanations as may tend to dissipate obscure or contradictory statements. Thereupon be shall put such questions to him as he may deem proper to elucidate the facts. ART. 437. Witnesses shall testify viva voce, without being permitted to read any written deposition or answer which they may have. Nevertheless they may consult any note or memorandum containing data difficult to remember. The witness may dictate his answers in person. ART. 438. The examining judge may order that the witness be conducted to the place where the acts were committed and be there examined, or that the objects upon which his testimony is to be taken be brought before him. In the latter case, the examining judge may place before the witness said objects alone or mixed with other similar objects, taking in addition any other measures in his discretion to secure as exact a declaration as possible. ART. 439. No captious or suggestive questions shall be put to the witness, nor shall coercion, deceit, promises, or artifices of any kind be employed to force or induce him to testify in a specific sense. ART. 440. If the witness should not understand or speak the Spanish language, an interpreter shall be appointed, who shall take an oath in his presence to conduct himself well and faithfully in the discharge of his duties. By this means the questions shall be put to the witness and his answers received, which he may dictate through the interpreter. In such case the deposition must be entered upon the record in the language employed by the witness and translated immediately thereafter into Spanish. ART. 441. The interpreter shall be selected from among persons having a certificate as such, if there be any in the town. In their absence a teacher of the respective language shall be appointed; and if there be no teacher, any other person acquainted therewith.

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109 Si ni aun de esta manera pudiera obtenerse la traducci6n, y las revelaciones que se esperasen del testigo fueren importantes, se redactara el pliego de preguntas que hayan de dirigirsele, y se remitira A la oficina de interpretaci6n de lenguas del Ministerio de Estado para que, con preferencia a todo otro trabajo, sean traducidas al idioma que able el testigo. El interrogatorio ya traducido se entregara al testigo para que A presencia del juez se entered de su contenido y redacte por escrito en su idioma las oportunas contestaciones, las cuales se remitiran del mismo modo que las preguntas a la interpretaci6n de lenguas. Estas diligencias las practicaran los jueces con la mayor actividad. ART. 442. Si el testigo fuere sordomudo y supiere leer, se le haran por escrito las preguntas. Si supiere escribir, contestarA por escrito. Y si no supiere lo uno ni lo otro, se nombrara un intrprete, por cuyo conducto se le haran las preguntas y se recibiran sus contestaciones. Sera nombrado interprete un maestro titular de sordomudos si lo hubiere en el pueblo, y en su defecto cualquiera que supiere comunicarse con el testigo. El nombrado prestara juramento A presencia del sordomudo antes de comenzar A desempefiar el cargo. ART. 443. El testigo podra leer por si mismo la diligencia de su declaraci6n; si no pudiere, por hallarse en alguno de los casos comprendidos en los articulos 440 y 442, se la leers el interprete, y en los demos casos el secretario. El juez advertira siempre a los interesados el derecho que tienen de leer por si mismos sus declaraciones. ART. 444. Estas seran firmadas por el juez y por todos los que en ellas hubiesen intervenido, si supieren y pudieren hacerlo, autorizandolas el secretario. ART. 445. No se consignaran en los autos las declaraciones de los testigos que, seg6n el juez, fuesen manifiestamente inconducentes para la comprobaci6n de los hechos objeto del sumario. Tampoco se consignaran en cads declaraci6n las manifestaciones del testigo que se hallen en el mismo caso, pero se consignara siempre todo lo que pueda servir asi de cargo como descargo. En el primer caso se hara expresi6n, por medio de diligencia, de la comparecencia del testigo y del motivo de no escribirse su declaraci6n. ART. 446. Terminada la declaraci6n, el juez instructor harA saber al testigo la obligaci6n de comparecer para declarar de nuevo ante el tribunal competent cuando se le cite para ello, asi como la de poner en conocimiento de dicho juez instructor los cambios que hiciere hasta ser citado para el juicio oral, bajo apercibimiento, si no lo cumple, de

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109 If the translation can not be obtained even in this manner and the revelations expected of the witness should be important, the list of questions to be put to him shall be prepared and forwarded to the office of interpretation of languages of the Department of State in order that they may be translated before any other work into the language spoken by the witness. The interrogatory thus translated shall be delivered to the witness in order that in the presence of the judge he may acquaint himself with the contents thereof and prepare the proper answers in writing in his own language, which shall be forwarded in the same manner as the questions to the interpretation of languages. These steps shall be taken by the judges as promptly as possible. ART. 442. If the witness be a deaf mute and able to read, the questions shall be put to him in writing. If he is able to write he shall answer in writing. And if he is unable either to read or write, an interpreter shall be appointed through whom the questions shall be put to him and his answers received. A titular teacher of deaf mutes shall be appointed interpreter if there be any in the town, and in the absence of such anyone able to communicate with the witness. The person appointed shall take an oath in the presence of the deaf mute before entering upon the discharge of his duties. ART. 443. The witness may read the record of his deposition in person; should he not be able to do so on account of being included in any of the cases mentioned in articles 440 and 442, the interpreter shall read it to him or the secretary in other cases. The judge shall always inform the persons interested of their right to read their depositions themselves. ART. 444. Such depositions shall be signed by the judge and by all those who may have taken part therein, should they be able to do so, being authenticated by the secretary. ART. 445. The depositions of witnesses who, in the opinion of the judge, should be manifestly irrelevant to establish the acts which are the subject-matter of the sumario, shall not be made a matter of record. Nor shall similar statements of a witness be embodied in each deposition, but all that may serve for the prosecution or for the defense must always be included. In the first case an entry shall be made upon the record of the appearance of the witness and of the reason for not writing his deposition. ART. 446. Upon the conclusion of the testimony of the witness, the judge of examination shall inform him of his obligation to appear to testify again before the court of competent jurisdiction when cited therefor, as well as of his duty to inform said examining judge of the change of residence he may make until he is cited for the oral trial,

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110 ser castigado con una multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas, 6 no ser que incurriere en responsabilidad criminal por la falta. Estas prevenciones se harin constar al final de la misma diligencia de la declaraci6n. ART. 447. El juez de instrucci6n, al remitir el sumario al tribunal competente, pondrs en su conocimiento los cambios de domicilio que los testigos le hubiesen participado. Lo mismo har respect de los que se 1o participen despues que hubiese remitido el sumario, hasta la terminaci6n de la causa. ART. 448. Si el testigo manifestare, al hacerle la prevenci6n referida en el art. 446, la imposibilidad de concurrir por haber de ausentarse de la isla y tambien en el caso en que hubiere motivo racionalmente bastante para temer su muerte 6 incapacidad fisica 6 intellectual antes de la apertura del juicio oral, el juez instructor hara saber al reo que nombre abogado en el termino de veinticuatro horas, si aun no le tuviere, 6 de 1o contrario que se le nombrara de oficio, pars que le aconseje en el acto de recibir la declaraci6n del testigo. Transcurrido dicho termino, el juez recibira. juramento y volvera a examinar a 6ste a presencia del procesado y de su abogado defensor, y 6 presencia asimismo del fiscal y del querellante, si quisieren asistir al acto, permitiendo a 4stos hacerlecuantas preguntas tengan por convenient, excepto las que el juez desestime como manifiestamente impertinentes. En la diligencia se consignaran las contestaciones a estas preguntas, y sea firmada por todos los asistentes. ART. 449. En caso de inminente peligro de muerte del testigo, se procedera. con toda urgencia a recibirle declaraci6n en la forma expresada en el articulo anterior, aunque el procesado no pudiese ser asistido de letrado. ART. 450. No se harn tachaduras, enmiendas ni entrerrenglonaduras en las diligencias del sumario. A su final se consignaran las equivocaciones que se hubieren cometido. CAPITULO VI. DEL CAREO DE LOS TESTIGOS Y PROCESADOS. ART. 451. Cuando los testigos 6 los procesados entre si 6 aqu6llos con estos discordaren acerca de alghn hecho 6 de alguna circunstancia que interese en el sumario, podrs el juez celebrar careo entre los que estuvieren discordes, sin que esta diligencia deba tender lugar, por regla general, mias que centre dos personas a la vez.

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110 with the admonition that his failure to do so will be punished with a fine of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas, unless he should incur criminal liability by reason thereof. These admonitions shall be entered at the foot of the record of the deposition. ART. 447. The judge of examination, in transmitting the sumaIio to the court of competent jurisdiction, shall inform the same of the changes of domicile which the witnesses may have communicated. The same shall be done with regard to those who inform him of such changes after the transmission of the sumario until the cause is terminated. ART. 448. If the witness should state, when given the admonition referred to in article 446, that it will be impossible for him to appear on account of being obliged to absent himself from the island and also in case there should be a cause reasonably sufficient to fear his death or physical or intellectual disability before the beginning of the oral trial, the examining judge shall instruct the accused to appoint an attorney within the period of twenty-four hours, should he not yet have one, and that otherwise one will be assigned to him ex officio to counsel him at once to have the testimony of the witness taken. Upon the expiration of this term the judge shall administer the oath and shall again examine the latter in the presence of the accused and his counsel, and also in that of the public prosecutor and of the complainant, should they desire to attend the proceeding, the latter being permitted to ask as many questions as they may deem advisable, excepting such as the judge may reject as manifestly impertinent. The answers to these questions shall be entered upon the record, which shall be signed by all present. ART. 449. In case of the imminent danger of the death of the witness, his deposition shall be taken as speedily as possible, in the manner mentioned in the foregoing article, even though the accused should not have the assistance of an attorney. ART. 450. No erasures, corrections, or interlineations shall be made in the proceedings of the sumario. At the end thereof the errors which may have been committed shall be recorded. CHAPTER VI. CONFRONTATION BETWEEN THE WITNESSES AND THE ACCUSED. ART. 451. When the witnesses or the accused disagree among themselves, or the former with the latter, as to some fact or some circumstance of moment in the sumario, the judge may cause those disagreeing to confront each other; but this proceeding, as a general rule, must take place only between two persons at the same time.

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111 ART. 452. El careo se verificara ante el juez, leyendo el secretario a los procesados 6 testigos entre quienes tenga lugar el acto las declaraciones que hubiesen prestado, y preguntando el primero a los testigos, despues de recordarles su juramento y las penas del falso testimonio, si se ratifican en ellas 6 tienen alguna variaci6n que hacer. El juez manifestara en seguida las contradicciones que resulten en dichas declaraciones, 6 invitara a los careados para que se pongan de acuerdo entre si. ART. 453. El secretario dara fe de todo lo que ocurriere en el acto del careo y de las preguntas, contestaciones y reconvenciones que mutuamente se hicieren los careados, asi como de lo que se observare en su actitud durante el acto, y firmara la diligencia con todos los concurrentes, expresando, si alguno no lo biciere, la raz6n que parn ello alegue. ART. 454. El juez no permitira que los careados se insultan 6 amenacen. AnT. 455. No se practicaran careos sino cuando no fuere conocido otro modo de comprobar la existencia del delito 6 la culpabilidad de alguno de los procesados.' CAPITULO VII. DEL INFORME PERICIAL. ART. 456. El juez acordara el informe pericial cuando para conocer 6 apreciar algin hecho 6 circunstancia importante en el sumario fuesen necesarios 6 convenientes conocimientos cientificos 6 artisticos. ART. 457. Los peritos pueden ser 6 no titulares. Son peritos titulares los que tienen titulo oficial de una ciencia 6 arte cuyo ejercicio est6 reglamentado por la administration. Son peritos no titulares los que, careciendo de titulo official, tienen, sin embargo, conocimientos 6 prdctica especiales en alguna ciencia 6 arte. ART. 458. El juez se valdra de peritos titulares con preferencia a los que no tuviesen titulo. ART. 459. Todo reconocimiento pericial se hard por dos peritos. Se exceptfla el caso en que no hubiese mas de uno en el lugar, y no fuere posible esperar la llegada de otro sin graves inconvenientes para el curso del sumario. ART. 460. El nombramiento se hard saber a los peritos por medio de oficio, que les sera entregado por alguacil 6 portero del juzgado Existiendo datos suficientes A juicio del tribunal sentenciador y por lo que realmente de la causa aparece, para comprobar la delincuencia del procesado, no ha incurrido dicho tribunal en el quebrantamiento de formal del ndm. 1.0, art. 911, al denegar la prdctica del care. (Sentencia de Febrero 16 de 1884.)

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111 ART. 452. The confrontation shall take place before the judge, the secretary reading to the accused or witnesses between whom the proceeding is to be held the depositions they may have made, and asking the witnesses, after reminding them of their oath and the penalties for false testimony, whether they ratify the same or desire to make some change. The judge shall thereupon state the contradictions which appear from said depositions, and shall request those confronting each other to come to an agreement. ART. 453. The secretary shall certify to all that takes place at the confrontation and to the questions, answers, and ieconventions which the persons confronting each other may make, as well as to what he may observe in their conduct during the proceeding, and shall sign said certification together with all those present, stating, if any should not sign, the reason alleged therefor. ART. 454. The judge shall not permit the persons confronting each other to insult or threaten each other. ART. 455. No confrontation shall take place unless no other means to verify the existence of the crime or the guilt of any of the accused is known.1 CHAPTER VII. EXPERT EVIDENCE. ART. 456. The judge shall call for an expert opinion if, to ascertain or weigh some important fact or circumstance in the sumario, scientific or artistic knowledge should be necessary or advisable. ART. 457. The experts may or may not be titular. Titular experts are those who have an official diploma in some science or art the exercise of which is governed by the administration. Nontitular experts are those who, not possessing an official diploma, have nevertheless some special knowledge or practice in some science or art. ART. 458. The judge shall avail himself of the services of titular experts in preference to those who are not such. ART. 459. Every expert investigation shall be made by two experts. The case is excepted where there is only one expert in the place and it should not be possible to await the arrival of another one without serious damage to the progress of the sumario. ART. 460. The appointment shall be communicated to the experts officially in writing, which document shall be delivered to them by a If there be data sufficient, in the opinion of the sentencing court and from what really appears from the cause, to prove the guilt of the accused, the court in refusing to hold the confrontation, has not incurred the breach of form mentioned in No. 1 of article 911. (Decision of February 16, 1884.)

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112 con las formalidades prevenidas para la citaci6n de los testigos, reemplazindose la cedula original para los efectos del art. 175, por un atestado oue extenders el alguacil 6 portero encargado de la entrega. ART. 461. Si la urgencia del caso 1o exige, podrs hacerse el llamamiento verbalmente de orden del juez, haci4ndolo constar asi en los autos, pero extendiendo siempre el atestado prevenido en el articulo anterior el encargado del cumplimiento de la orden de liamamiento. ART. 462. Nadie podri negarse a acudir al lamamiento de juez para desempefiar un servicio pericial, si no estuviere legitimamente impedido. En este caso deber4 ponerlo en conocimiento del juez en el acto de recibir el nombramiento, para que se provea a lo que haya lugar. ART. 463. El perito que, sin alegar excusa fundada, deje de acudir al 1lamamiento del juez 6 se niegue a prestar el informe, incurrira en las responsabilidades sefaladas para los testigos en el art. 420. ART. 464. No podran prestar informe pericial acerca del delito, cualquiera que sea la persona ofendida, los que segin el art. 416 no estin obligados 6 declarar como testigos. El perito que, hallandose comprendido en alguno de los casos de dicho articulo, presto el informe sin poner antes esta circunstancia en conocimiento del juez que le hubiese nombrado, incurrira en la multa de 12.50 a 125 pesetas, a no ser que el hecho diere lugar a responsabilidad criminal. ART. 465. Los que presten informe como peritos en virtud de orden judicial, tendran derecho a reclamar los honorarios 6 indemnizaciones que sean justas, si no tuvieren en concepto de tales peritos retribuci6n fija satisfecha por el Estado, por la provincia 6 por el municipio. ART. 466. Hecho el nombramiento de peritos, se notificara inmediatamente, asi al actor particular, si lo hubiere, como al procesado, si estuviere a disposici6n del juez 6 se encontrare en el mismo lugar de la instrucci6n, 6 a su representante, si le tuviere. AnT. 467. Si el reconomiento 4 informe periciales pudieren toner lugar de nuevo en el juicio oral, los peritos nombrados no podran ser recusados por las partes. Si no pudiere reproducirse en el juicio oral, habr6 lugar a la recusaci6n. ART. 468. Son causa de recusaci6n de los peritos: 1.a El parentesco de consanguinidad 6 afinidad dentro del cuarto grado con el querellante 6 con el reo. 2.a El interns directo 6 indirecto en la causa 6 en otra semejante. 3.a La amistad intima 6 enemistad manifiesta.

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112 bailiff or porter of the court with the formalities prescribed for the citation of witnesses, the original writ for the purposes of article 175 being substituted by an attested statement which the bailiff or porter entrusted with the service shall draft. ART. 461. If the urgency of the case shall so require, the call may be made verbally by order of the judge, such fact appearing in the proceedings, but the attested statement prescribed by the foregoing article must always be made by the person entrusted with the service of the summons. ART. 462. No one can refuse to answer the call of a judge to fulfill an expert service, unless legitimately prevented from so doing. In such case he must inform the judge thereof upon receiving his appointment, in order that the proper action may be taken. ART. 463. An expert who, without giving a good excuse, shall fail to answer the call of the judge or refuse to give his opinion, shall incur the liabilities prescribed for witnesses by article 420. ART. 464. No expert opinion as to the crime, whosoever be the person injured, can be given by those who, according to article 416, are not obliged to testify as witnesses. An expert who, being included in any of the cases of said article, should express an opinion without previously informing the judge who may have appointed him of this circumstance, shall incur a fine of not less than 12.50 or more than 125 pesetas, unless the act should give rise to criminal liability. ART. 465. Persons who shall make a report as experts by virtue of a judicial order shall be entitled to claim the fees or indemnity which may be just, provided they do not receive as such experts a fixed compensation paid by the State, the province, or the municipality. ART. 466. After the appointment of experts has been made, the private plaintiff, should there be any, as well as the accused, if he should be under the control of the judge or at the place where the investigation is being held, or his representative, should he have any, shall be notified of such appointment. ART. 467. If the expert examination and opinion could take place again during the oral action, the experts appointed' can not be challenged by the parties. If it can not take place again during the oral action, a challenge may be interposed. ART. 468. The following are causes for challenge of experts: 1. Relationship by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth degree with the complainant or the accused. 2. A direct or indirect interest in the cause or in another similar one. 3. Intimate friendship or manifest enmity. 18473-0115

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113 ART. 469. El actor 6 procesado que intente recusar al perito 6 peritos nombrados por el juez, debert hacerlo por escrito antes de empezar la diligencia pericial, expresando la causa de la recusaci6n y la prueba testifical que ofrezea, y acompaniando la documental 6 designando el lugar en que 6sta se halle si no la tuviere a su disposici6n. Para la presentaci6n de este escrito no estari obligado a valerse de procurador. ART. 470. El juez sin levantar mano, examinara los documentos que produzca el recusante y oira a los testigos que presente en el acto, resolviendo 1o que estime justo respeeto de la recusaci6n. Si hubiere lugar a ella, suspenders el acto pericial por el tiempo estrictamente necesario para nombrar el perito que haya de sustituir al recusado, hacerselo saber y constituirse el nombrado en el lugar correspondiente. Si no la admitiere, se procedera como si no se hubiese usado de la facultad de recusar. Cuando el recusante no produjese los documentos, pero designate el archivo 6 lugar en que se encuentren, el juez instructor los reclamar y examinari una vez recibidos sin detener por esto el curso de las actuaciones; y si de ellos resultase justificada la causa de la recusaci6n, anulara el informe pericial que se hubiese dado, mandando que se practique de nuevo esta diligencia. ART. 471. En el caso del parrafo segundo del art. 467, el querellante tendrs derecho a nombrar a su costa un perito que intervenga en el acto pericial. El mismo derecho tendri el procesado. Si los querellantes 6 los procesados fuesen varios, se pondran respectivamente de acuerdo entre si para hacer el nombramiento. Estos peritos deberin ser titulares, a no ser que no los bubiere de esta clase en el partido 6 demarcaci6n, en cuyo caso podran ser nombrados sin tftulo. Si la practice de la diligencia pericial no admitiere espera, se procederi como las circunstancias lo permitan para que el actor y el procesado puedan intervenir en ella. ART. 472. Si las partes hicieren uso de la facultad que se les concede en el articulo anterior, manifestarin al juez el nombre del perito, y ofrecerin, al hacer esta manifestaci6n, los comprobantes de tener la cualidad de tal perito la persona designada. En ningdn caso podran hacer uso de dicha facultad despu&s de empezada la operaci6n de reconocimiento.

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113 ART. 469. The plaintiff or accused who should desire to challenge the expert or experts appointed by the judge, must interpose it in writing before the beginning of the expert investigation, stating the cause of challenge and the evidence of witnesses which he offers and accompanying the documentary evidence or stating the place where the latter may be found if not at his disposal. He shall not be required to avail himself of the services of a solicitor to interpose such challenge. ART. 470. The judge, without taking any action, shall examine the documents which the challenging party may produce, and shall hear the witnesses he may present at once, deciding thereupon what he may consider just with regard to the challenge. If the challenge be sustained, he shall suspend the expert investigation such time as may be strictly necessary to appoint an expert to take the place of the one challenged, to inform him thereof, and to establish the person appointed in the proper place. Should he overrule the challenge the proceedings shall be continued as if no challenge bad been interposed. If the challenging party should not produce the documents, but should designate the archives or place where they may be found, the judge of examination shall call for them and shall examine them as soon as received, without thereby staying the course of the proceedings, and if the cause of challenge should appear justified therefrom, he shall annul the expert opinion which may have been rendered, ordering that this proceeding take place de novo. ART. 471. In the case of the second paragraph of article 467, the complainant shall have the right to appoint an expert at his own cost to make the expert examination. The accused shall have the same right. Should there be more than one complainant or person accused, they shall come to an agreement among themselves, respectively, in making the appointment. These experts must be titular, unless there should be none of this class in the judicial district or circuit, in which case experts without a certificate may be appointed. If the holding of the expert examination should not admit of delay, the proceedings shall be had as the conditions may permit in order that the plaintiff and the accused may take part therein. ART. 472. If the parties should avail themselves of the privilege granted them by the foregoing article, they shall indicate to the judge the name of the expert, and shall submit, upon making this designation, evidence of the person appointed being such expert. In no case shall they be permitted to avail themselves of this privilege after the investigation has begun.

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114 ART. 473. El juez resolveri sore la admisi6n de dichos peritos en la forma determinada en el art. 470 para las recusaciones. ART. 474. Antes de darse principio al acto pericial, todos los peritos, asi los nombrados por el juez como los que 1o hubiesen sido por las partes, prestarin juramento, conforme al art. 434, de proceder bien y fielmente en sus operaciones y de no proponerse otro fin mas que el de descubrir v declarar la verdad. ART. 475. El juez manifestara clara y determinadamente ai los peritos el objeto de su informe. ART. 476. Al acto pericial podran concurrir, en el caso del pirrafo segundo del articulo 467, el querellante, si lo hubiere, con representaci6n, y el procesado con la suya aun cuando estuviere preso, en cuyo caso adoptara las precauciones oportunas. ART. 477. El acto pericial sera presidido por el juez instructor 6, en virtud de su delegaci6n, por el juez municipal. Podr tambien delegar en el caso del art. 353 en un funcionario de policia judicial. Asistira siempre el secretario que actfe en la causa. ART. 478. El informe pericial comprendera, si fuere posible: 1.0 Descripci6n de la persona 6 cosa que sea objeto del mismo en el estado 6 del modo en que se halle. El secretario extenders esta descripci6n, dictandola los peritos y subscribiendola todos los concurrentes. 2.0 Relaci6n detallada de todas las operaciones practicadas por los peritos y de su resultado, extendida y autorizada en la misma formal que la anterior. 3.o Las conclusiones que en vista de tales datos formulen los peritos, conforme A los principios y reglas da su ciencia 6 arte. ART. 479. Si los peritos tuvieren necesidad de destruir 6 alterar los objetos que analicen, deberi conservarse, A ser posible, parte de ellos en poder del juez para que, en caso necesario, pueda hacerse nuevo anAlisis. ART. 480. Las partes que asistieren A'las operaciones 6 reconocimientos podran someter a los peritos las observaciones que estimen convenientes, haci4ndose constar todas en la diligencia. ART. 481. Hecho el reconocimiento, podran los peritos, si lo pidieren, retirarse por el tiempo absolutamente preciso al sitio que el juez les sefiale para deliberar y redactar las conclusiones. ART. 482. Si los peritos necesitaren descanso, el juez 6 el funcionario que le represente podra concederles para ello el tiempo necesario. Tambidn podra suspender la diligencia hasta otra hora 6 otro dia, cuando lo exigiere su naturaleza. En este caso, el juez 6 quien le represente adoptarA las precauciones convenientes para evitar cualquiera alteraci6n en la materia de la diligencia pericial.

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114 ART. 473. The judge shall pass upon the admission of said experts in the manner prescribed in article 470 for challenges. ART. 474. Before beginning the expert proceedings, all the experts, those appointed by the judge as well as those appointed by the parties, shall take an oath in accordance with article 434 to well and faithfully perform their duty and for no other purpose than to establish and declare the truth. ART. 475. The judge shall, in a clear and specific manner, indicate to the experts the subject of their report. ART. 476. In the case of the second paragraph of article 467, the complainant, if there be any, together with his counsel, and the accused with his counsel, even though imprisoned, in which case the proper precautions shall be taken, may attend the expert examination. AR. 477. The expert proceedings shall be presided over by the examining judge or, by virtue of his delegation, by the municipal judge. He may also delegate his duties to an official of the judicial police in the case of article 353. The secretary acting in the cause must always be present. ART. 478. The expert report shall include, if possible1. A description of the person or thing the subject-matter thereof in the state or manner in which it may be found. The secretary shall write this description, which shall be dictated by the experts and signed by all persons present. 2. A detailed statement of all the steps taken by the experts, and of the result thereof, made and authenticated in the same manner as the former. 3. The findings of the experts, in view of such data, in accordance with the principles and rules of their science or art. ART. 479. If the experts should find it necessary to destroy or alter the objects which they may analyze, a portion thereof must be retained in the possession of the judge if possible, in order that a new analysis may be made if necessary. ART. 480. The parties attending the operations or examinations may make such remarks to the experts as they may deem advisable, all of them being recorded in the proceedings. ART. 481. After the examination, the experts may, should they request it, retire as long as necessary to the place which the judge may fix for deliberation and the preparation of their findings. ART. 482. If the experts should require a rest, the judge or the official representing him may grant therefor the time necessary. He may also postpone the proceedings to another hour or day when the nature thereof so requires. In such case, the judge or person representing him shall take the precautions advisable in order to prevent any alteration in the matter of the expert examination.

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115 ART. 483. El juez podra, por su propia iniciativa 6 por reclamaci6n de las partes presentes 6 de sus defensores, hacer a los peritos, cuando produzean sus conclusiones, las preguntas que estime pertinentes y pedirles las aclaraciones necesarias. Las contestaciones de los peritos se consideraryn como parte de su informe. ART. 484. Si los peritos estuvieren discordes y su n6mero fuere par, nombrar4 otro el juez. Con intervenci6n del nuevamente nombrado, se repetiran, si fuere posible, las operaciones quo hubiesen practicado aquellos y se ejecutaran las deniis que parecieren oportunas. Si no fuere posible la repetici6n de las operaciones ni la practica de otras nuevas, la intervenci6n del perito Altimamente nombrado se limitary I deliberar con los demas, con vista de ]as diligencias de reconocimiento practicadas, y a formular luego con quien estuviere conforme, 6 separadamente si no lo estuviere con ninguno, sus conclusiones motivadas. ART. 485. El juez facilitara a los peritos los medios materiales necesarios para practicar la diligencia que les encomiende, reclamindolos de la administration pfblica 6 dirigiendo a Ia autoridad correspondiente un aviso previo si existieren preparados para tal objeto, salvo 1o dispuesto especialmente en el art. 362.

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115 ART. 483. The judge may, on his own initiative, or at the request of the parties present, or of their counsel, put such questions to the experts, when they submit their findings, as he may consider pertinent, and demand the necessary explanations. The answers of the experts shall be considered as a portion of their report. ART. 484. If the experts should not agree and their number be even, the judge shall appoint another expert. With the assistance of the last expert appointed, the work done by the first experts shall be repeated, if possible, and such other work shall be performed which may appear proper. If the repetition of the work or new operations should not be possible, the intervention of the expert last appointed shall be limited to deliberating with the rest, in view of the investigation made, and afterwards preparing his findings with the reasons therefor together with whomsoever agrees with him, or separately, should he not agree with any of them. ART. 485. The judge shall furnish the experts the material means necessary to make the examination entrusted to them, demanding the same of the public administration or addressing to the proper authorities a notice in advance should they already be prepared for such purpose, reserving the special provisions of article 362.

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TfTULO VI. DE LA CITACION, DE LA DETENCI6N Y DE LA PRISON PROVISIONAL. CAPITULO PRIMERO. DE LA CITACI6N. ART. 486. La persona a quien se impute un acto punible deberi ser citada s6lo para ser oida, a no ser que la ley disponga lo contrario, 6 que desde luego proceda su detenci6n.' ART. 487. Si el citado, con arreglo a 1o prevenido en el articulo anterior, no compareciere ni justificare causa legitima que se 1o impida, la orden de comparecencia podra convertirse en orden de detenci6n. ART. 488. Durante la instrucci6n de la causa, el juez instructor podri mandar comparecer a cuantas personas convenga oir por resultar contra ellas algunas indicaciones fundadas de culpabilidad. CAPITULO II. DE LA DETENC6N. ART. 489. Ningfn espaffol ni extranjero podri ser detenido sino en los casos y en la forma que Ias leyes prescriban.2 ART. 490. Cualquiera persona puede detener: 1.0 Al que intentare cometer un delito en el moment de ir a cometerlo. 2.0 Al delincuente infraganti. Las personas 6 quien se cita y oye con arreglo A este articulo, no es necesario que presten juramento; basta que declaren bajo promesa de decir verdad, puesto que no son examinadas como testigos, y sf como posibles partfcipes del hecho criminal. (Exposicidn del Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, num. 20.) 2 Reproduce el precepto del art. 40 de la Constituci6n vigente. Segin el mismo articulo, todo detenido ser puesto en libertad 6 entregado a la autoridad judicial, dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes al acto de la detenci6n, y toda detenci6n se dejard sin efecto 6 elevar4 6 prisi6n dentro de las setenta y dos horas de haber sido entregado el detenido al juez competente, debiendo la providencia que se dicte notificarse al interesado dentro del mismo plazo. La cita de la infracci6n de los arts. 489, 282, y 297 como de mera formal 6 procedimiento, es ineficaz al efecto del recurso de casaci6n por infracci6n de ley. (Sentencia de 29 de marzo de 1887.) 116

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TITLE VI. THE CITATION, THE DETENTION, AND THE PROVISIONAL IMPRISONMENT. CHAPTER FIRST. THE CITATION. ART. 486. A person charged with a punishable act must be cited only for the purpose of being heard, unless the law shall provide otherwise or unless his immediate detention should be proper.' ART. 487. If the person cited in accordance with the provisions of the foregoing article should not appear nor give any good cause which prevents him from so doing, the order of appearance may be changed into an order of arrest. ART. 488. During the progress of the cause the examining judge may order the appearance of as many persons as it may be advisable to hear on account of there being some apparent indications of guilt against them. CHAPTER H. THE DETENTION. ART. 489. No Spaniard or foreigner can be arrested, excepting in the manner and in the cases prescribed by law.' ART. 490. Any person may place under arrest1. He who shall attempt to commit a crime, at the moment he is about to commit it. 2. A delinquent captured in fragranti. 'Persons who are cited and heard in accordance with this article are not required to take an oath; it is sufficient that they testify under a promise to tell the truth, as they are not examined as witnesses, but as possible participants in the criminal act. (Statement of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, No. 20.) 2 This repeats the precept of article 4 of the Constitution in force. According to the said article every person detained shall be set at liberty or turned over to the judicial authorities within twenty-four hours after the detention, and every detention shall be annulled or changed to imprisonment within seventy-two hours after the person detained has been turned over to the judge of competent jurisdiction, the warrant which may issue being communicated to the person interested within the same period. A citation of the violation of articles 489, 282, and 287 as of mere form or procedure is inefficacious for an appeal for annulment of judgment for violation of law. (Decision of March 29, 1887.) 116

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117 3.o Al que se fugare del establecimiento penal en que se halle extinguiendo condena. 4.o Al que se fugare de la carcel en que estuviere esperando su traslaci6n al establecimiento penal 6 lugar en que deba cumplir la condena que se le hubiese impuesto por sentencia firme. 5.o Al que se fugare al ser conducido al establecimiente 6 lugar mencionados en el numero anterior. 6.o Al que se fugare estando detenido 6 preso por causa pendiente. 7.o Al procesado 6 condenado que estuviere en rebeldia. ART. 491. El particular que detuviere a otro justificar4, si 6ste lo exigiere, haber obrado en virtud de motivos racionalmente suficientes para creer que el detenido se hallaba comprendido en alguno de los casos del articulo anterior. ART. 492. La autoridad 6 agente de policia judicial tendri obligaci6n de detener: 1.0 A cualquiera que se halle en alguno de los casos del art. 490. 2.0 Al que estuviere procesado por delito que tenga senalada en el C6digo pena superior a la de prisi6n correctional.1 3.0 Al procesado por delito a que est4 sefialada pena inferior, si sus antecedentes 6 las circunstancias del hecho hicieren presumir que no comparecera cuando fuere lamado por la autoridad judicial. Se exceptda de 1o dispuesto en el pirrafo anterior al procesado que preste en el acto fianza bastante, 4 juicio de la autoridad 6 agente que intente detenerlo, para presumir racionalmente que comparecer4 cuando le Ilame el juez 6 tribunal competente. 4.o Al que estuviere en el caso del numero anterior, aunque todavia no se hallase procesado, con tal que concurran las dos circunstancias siguientes: 1.a Que la autoridad 6 agente tenga motivos racionalmente bastantes para creer en la existencia de un hecho que presente los caracteres de delito. 2.a Que los tenga tambidn bastantes para creer que la persona a quien intente detener tuvo participaci6n en 41. ART. 493. La autoridad 6 agente de policia judicial tomar nota del nombre, apellido, domicilio y demis circunstancias bastantes para la averiguaci6n 4 identificaci6n de la persona del procesado 6 del delincuente 4 quienes no detuviere por no estar comprendidos en ninguno de los casos del articulo anterior. Esta nota sera oportunamente entregada al juez 6 tribunal que conozca 6 deba conocer de la causa. 'Este inciso ha sido modificado para Cuba de este modo: "Al que estuviere procesado por delito que segun el C6digo penal mereciere de denomination de delito grave." (Vlase en el Apbndice 1, la Orden Ko. 109, de Julio 13 de 1899.)

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117 3. He who shall escape from a penal institution in which he may be serving a sentence. 4. He who shall escape from a prison in which he may be awaiting his transfer to a penal institution or place in which he is to serve the sentence which may have been imposed upon him by a final sentence. 5. He who shall escape while being conducted to the institution or place mentioned in the foregoing number. 6. He who shall escape while under arrest or detention awaiting trial. 7. A person accused or convicted who may be in default. ART. 491. A private individual detaining another person shall state, if the latter so requires, that he has acted by virtue of reasons reasonably sufficient to believe that the person detained was included in any of the cases mentioned in the foregoing article. ART. 492. An authority or agent of the judicial police shall be obliged to place under arrest1. Any person included in any of the cases of article 490. 2. Any person accused of a crime to which the code affixes a penalty higher than that of prisid correctional.' 3. A person accused of a crime to which a lower penalty is affixed, if his antecedents or the circumstances of the act should raise a presumption that be will not appear when called upon by the judicial authorities. From the provisions of the foregoing paragraph is excepted the accused who at once furnishes bail sufficient, in the judgment of the authority or agent who desires to place him under arrest, to allow a reasonable presumption that he will appear when called upon by the judge or court of competent jurisdiction. 4. A person included in the provisions of the foregoing subdivision, although not yet undergoing trial, provided that the two conditions following are attendant: 1. That the authority or agent should have reasonable cause to believe the existence of an act presenting the characteristics of a crime. 2. That he shall also have sufficient cause to believe that the person he desires to arrest participated therein. ART. 493. The authority or agent of the judicial police shall record the name, surname, domicile, and other circumstances which may be sufficient for the verification and identification of the person of the accused or of the delinquent not detained on account of not being included in any of the cases of the foregoing article. This record shall be delivered at the proper time to the judge or court taking cognizance or which is to take cognizance of the cause. 'This paragraph has been amended for Cuba as follow: "Persons who may be undergoing trial for a grave offense, as defined by the penal code." (See order No. 109, July 13, 1899, in Appendix I)

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118 ART. 494. Dicho juez 6 tribunal acordar4 tambidn la detenci6n de los comprendidos en el art. 492, a prevenci6n con las autoridades y agentes de policia judicial. ART. 495. No se podra detener por simples faltas, A no ser que el presunto reo no tuviese domicilio conocido ni diese fianza hastante A juicio de la autoridad 6 agente que intente detenerle. ART. 496. El particular, autoridad 6 agente de policia judicial que detuviere A una persona en virtud de 1o dispuesto en los precedentes articulos, debera ponerla en libertad 6 entregarla al juez mis pr6ximo al lugar en que hubiere hecho la detenci6n, dentro de las veinticuatro horas siguientes al acto de la misma. Si demorare la entrega, incurrira en la responsabilidad que establece el C6digo penal, si la dilaci6n hubiere excedido de veinticuatro horas.' ART. 497. Si el juez 6 tribunal a quien se hiciese la entrega fuere el propio de la causa, y la detenci6n se hubiese hecho segin 1o dispuesto en los numeros 1.0, 2.0, y 6.o, y caso referente al procesado del 7.o, del art. 490 y 2.0, 3.0, y 4.0, del art. 492, elevari la detenci6n a prisi6n 6 la dejar sin efecto en el tirmino de setenta y dos horas, A contar desde que el detenido le hubiese sido entregado. Lo propio y en identico plazo har el juez 6 tribunal respect de la persona cuya detenci6n hubiere e1 mismo acordado. ART. 498. Si el detenido en virtud de 1o dispuesto en el num. 6.o y primer caso del 7.o del art. 490, y 2.0 y 3.o del art. 492, hubiese sido entregado A un juez distinto del juez 6 tribunal que conozca de la causa, extenders el primero una diligencia expresiva de la persona que hubiere hecho la detenci6n, de su domicilio v demas circunstancias bastantes para buscarla a identificarla, de los motivos que 4sta manifestase haber tenido para la detenci6n, y del nombre, apellido y circunstancias del detenido. Esta diligencia sera firmada por el juez, el secretario, la persona que hubiese ejecutado la detenci6n y demas concurrentes. Por el que no 1o hiciere firmaran dos testigos. Inmediatamente despues seran remitidas estas diligencias y la persona del detenido a disposici6n del juez 6 tribunal que conociese de la causa. .ART. 499. Si el detenido lo fuese por estar comprendido en los numeros 1.0 y 2.o del articulo 490 y en el 4.o del 492, el juez de instrucci6n A quien se entregue practicard las primeras diligencias y elevara 'El funcionario piblico que detuviere A una persona y no la entregare 1 la autoridad judicial dentro de veinticuatro horas, incurre en la responsabilidad del artfculo 200 del Codigo penal. El 502 determine la pena aplicable al que fuera de los casos permitidos en Ia ley, aprehendiere A una persona para presentarla S la autoridad. ( Vase el Apidiee II.)

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118 ART. 494. Said judge or court shall also order the arrest of those included in the provisions of article 492, upon the suggestion of the authorities and agents of the judicial police. ART. 495. No person can be detained by reason of simple misdemeanors unless the presumed criminal should not have a known domicile or not give sufficient bond in the judgment of the authority or agent intending to detain him. ART. 496. A private individual, authority or agent of the judicial police who shall detain a person by virtue of the provisions of the foregoing articles must set him at liberty or deliver him to the judge nearest to the place where the arrest was made within 24 hours thereafter. Should he delay the delivery, he shall incur the liability established by the penal code, if the delay shall have exceeded 24 hours.' ART. i97. If the judge or court to whom the delivery is made should be the judge who is competent to take cognizance of the cause, and the arrest shall have been made according to the provisions of Nos. 1, 2, and 6, and the case relating to the accused of number 7 of article 490, and 2, 3, and 4 of article 492, he shall raise the detention to imprisonment or shall annul the same within 72 hours from the date of the delivery of the person detained. The same shall be done within a similar period by the judge or court with regard to the person whose detention he himself may have ordered. ART. 498. If the person detained by virtue of the provisions of number 6, and the first case of 7 of article 490, and 2 and 3 of article 492, shall have been delivered to a judge other than the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause, the former shall prepare a memorandum of the person making the detention, of his domicile, and other circumstances sufficient to seek and identify the same, of the reasons the latter may have alleged for making the dentention, and of the name, surname, and circumstances of the person detained. This memorandum shall be signed by the judge, the secretary, the person making the detention, and the other persons present. Two witnesses shall sign in the place of any one not doing so. Immediately thereupon these memoranda and the person detained shall be placed at the disposal of the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. ART. 499. If the person detained should be so by reason of being included in the provisions of numbers 1 and 2 of article 490 and number 4 of article 492, the judge of examination to whom he may be 'A public official who shall detain a person and shall not turn him over to the judicial authorities within twenty-four hours incurs the liability prescribed in article 200 of the penal code. Article 502 specifies the punishment applicable to a person who shall arrest a person in order to turn him over to the authorities outside of the cases permitted by law. (See Appendix II.)

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119 la detenci6n 4 prisi6n, 6 decretara la libertad del detenido, segun proceda, en el termino seilalado en el articulo 497. Hecho esto, cuando 1 no fuese juez competente, remitira 4 quien 1o sea las diligencias y la persona del preso, si lo bubiere. ART. 500. Cuando el detenido lo sea por virtud de las causas 3.a, 4 a 5.a y caso referente al condenado de la 7. del art. 490, el juez a quien se entregue 6 que haya acordado la detenci6n, dispondra que inmediatamente sea remitido al establecimiento 6 lugar donde debiere cumplir su condena. ART. 501. El auto elevando la detenci6n 4 prisi6n 6 dejandole sin efecto se pondr4 en conocimiento del ministerio fiscal, y se notificard al querellante particular, si lo hubiere, y al procesado, al cual se le barn saber asimismo el derecho que le asiste para pedir de palabra 6 por escrito la reposici6n del auto, consignindose en la notificaci6n las manifestaciones que hiciere. CAPITULO III. DE LA PRISI6N PROVISIONAL. ART. 502. Mientras que la causa se halle en estado de sumario, s6o podrs decretar la prisi6n provisional el juez de instrucci6n 6 el que forme las primeras diligencias, 6 el que, en virtud de comisi6n 6 interinamente, ejerza las funciones de aquil. ART. 503. Para decretar la prisi6n provisional seran necesarias las circunstancias siguientes: 1.a Que conste en la causa la existencia de un hecho que presente los caracteres de delito. 2.a Que este tengs sefialada pena superior A la de prisi6n correccional, segun la escala general comprendida en el C6digo Penal, 6 bien que, aun cuando tenga sealada pena inferior, consider el juez necesaria la prisi6n provisional, atendidas las circunstancias del hecho y los antecedentes del procesado, hasta que presto la fianza que le seiale.' 3.a Que aparezean en la causa motivos bastantes para creer responsable criminalmente del delito a la persona contra quien se baya de dictar el auto de prisi6n. Este ptirrafo ha sido modificado para Cuba como sigue: "Que este delito sea de los lamados por el Codigo Penal delitos graves 6 bien que, aun cuando sea de los delitos menos graves considere el juez necesaria la prisi6n correecional, atendidas las circunstancias del hecho y los antecedentes del procesado, hasta que presto la fianza que le seflale." ( Vase en el Apendice I, la Orden nim. 109 de Julio 13 de 1899.)

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119 delivered shall' take the first steps and shall raise the detention to imprisonment, or shall decree that the person detained be set at liberty, as may be proper, within the period fixed in article 497. Hereupon, if said judge should not have jurisdiction, be shall forward to the competent judge the memoranda and the person of the prisoner, if there be any. ART. 500. When the person detained is so by virtue of the third, fourth, and fifth causes, and the case relating to the condemned of the seventh cause of article 490, the judge to whom he may be delivered, or who shall have decreed the detention, shall order that he be transferred immediately to the institution or place where he is to serve his sentence. ART. 501. The public prosecutor, the private complainant, if there be any, and the accused shall be informed of the writ raising the detention to imprisonment or annulling the same, the latter being furthermore informed of his right to request a rehearing, orally or in writing, the statements he may make being embodied in the notice. CHAPTER III. PROVISIONAL IMPRISONMENT. ART. 502. While the cause is at the stage of the sunario, provisional imprisonment can be decreed only by the judge of examination or the one conducting the first steps, or the person who by virtue of a commission or temporarily exercises the functions of the former. ART. 503. In order to decree the provisional imprisonment, the following circumstances shall be necessary: 1. That the existence of an act presenting the characteristics of a crime is established in the cause. 2. That a penalty higher than nisid correccional be affixed thereto according to the general scale embraced in the penal code, or that even though a lower penalty be affixed thereto the judge shall consider provisional imprisonment necessary, in view of the circumstances of the act and the antecedents of the accused, until he shall give the bond which he may require.1 3. That there shall appear in the case motives sufficient to believe that the person against whom the writ of imprisonment is to issue is criminally liable for the crime. 'This paragraph has been amended for Cuba as follows: "That this offense le included in those termed grave in the Penal Code, or when, even though it be a minor offense, the judge, considering the circumstances of the case and the antecedents of the accused, may consider his provisional confinement necessary until he shall give the bail required." (See in Appendix I, order 109, of July 13, 1899.)

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120 ART. 504. Proceder4 tambien la prisi6n provisional cuando coneurran la primer y tercera circunstancias del articulo anterior, y el procesado no hubiese comparecido sin motivo legitimo al primer llamamiento del juez 6 tribunal que conociere de la causa. No obstante lo dispuesto en el articulo anterior, aunque el delito tenga sefialada pena superior a la de prisi6n correctional, cuando el procesado tenga buenos antecedentes 6 se pueda creer fundadamente que no tratara de sustraerse a la acci6n de la justicia, y cuando ademas el delito no haya producido alarm ni sea de los que se cometan con frecuencia en el territorio de la respectiva provincia, podra el juez 6 tribunal acordar, mediante fianza, la libertad del inculpado.' ART. 505. Para llevar a efecto el auto de prisi6n se expedirin dos mandamientos: uno cometido al alguacil del juzgado 6 portero del tribunal 6 al funcionario de policia judicial que haya de ejecutarlo, y otro al alcaide de la carcel que deba recibir al preso. En el mandamiento se consignara 4 la letra el auto de prisi6n, el nombre, apellido, naturaleza, edad, estado y domicilio del procesado, si constaren; el delito que de lugar al procedimiento; si se procede de oficio 6 a instancia de parte, y si la prisi6n ha de ser con comunicaci6n 6 sin ella. Los alcaides de las carceles no recibiran A ninguna persona en clase de preso sin que se les entregue mandamiento de prisi6n. ART. 506. La incomunicaci6n de los detenidos 6 presos s6lo podra durar el tiempo absolutamente preciso para evacuar las citas hechas en las indagatorias relatives al delito que haya dado lugar al procedimiento, sin que, por regla general, deba durar mas de cinco dias. El incomunicado podra asistir con las precauciones debidas a las diligencias periciales en que le de intervenci6n esta ley cuando su presencia no pueda desvirtuar el objeto de incomunicaci6n. ART. 507. Si las citas hubieren de evacuarse fuera del territorio de la isla 6 a larga distancia, la incomunicaci6n podra durar el tiempo prudencialmente preciso para evitar la confabulaci6n. ART. 508. El juez 6 tribunal que conozca de la causa, podra, bajo su responsabilidad, mandar que vuelva a quedar incomunicado el preso aun despubs de haber sido puesto en comunicaci6n, si la causa ofreciere Este prrafo ha sido modificado para Cuba como sigue: "No obstante lo dispuesto en el artfculo anterior, aunque el hecho que motiva la causa aparezca como constitutivo de delito grave, cuando el procesado tenga buenos antecedentes 6 se pueda creer fundadamente que no tratard de sustraerse A la acci6n de la justicia, y cuando ademds el delito no haya producido alarm ni sea de los que se cometan con frecuencia en el territorio de la respectiva provincia, podrd el juez 6 tribunal acordar, mediante fianza, la libertad del inculpado." ( Vase en el Apindice I, la Orden num. 109 de Julio 13 de 1899.)

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120 ART. 504. Provisional imprisonment shall also be proper when the first and third circumstances of the foregoing article are attendant and the accused shall not have appeared without legitimate cause at the first call of the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. Notwithstanding the provisions of the foregoing article, even though a penalty higher than prisidn correctional be affixed to the crime, when the accused shall have good antecedents or there shall be good reasons to believe that he will not attempt to evade justice, and when furthermore the crime shall not have produced alarm nor be of those which are frequently committed within the territory of the respective province, the judge or court may order that the accused be released on bail.' ART. 505. To carry out the order of imprisonment two mandates shall be issued, one addressed to the bailiff of the court or porter of the tribunal or to the official of the judicial police who is to execute the same, and another to the warden of the prison which is to receive the prisoner. The mandate shall contain the order of imprisonment in full; the name, surname, birthplace, age, conjugal condition, and domicile of the accused, if known; the crime which gave rise to the proceeding; if the proceedings are ex officio or at the instance of a party, and if the imprisonment is to be ordinary or incomunicado. The wardens of the prisons shall receive no person as a prisoner unless an order of imprisonment be delivered to them. ART. 506. The incommunication of the persons detained or imprisoned can last only the period absolutely necessary to serve the citations made in the investigations of the crime which may have given rise to the proceedings, and must, as a general rule, not exceed five days. The incommunicado person may, with the proper precautions, attend the expert proceedings, which this law allows him to attend, when his presence shall not defeat the object of the incommunication. ART. 507. If the citations shall have to be served outside of the territory of the island or at a great distance, the incommunication may continue the period reasonably necessary to prevent confabulation. ART. 508. The judge or court taking cognizance of the cause may order, under his liability, that a prisoner be again placed incomunicado, even after it has been raised, if good reasons should appear in the 1 This paragraph has been amended for Cuba as follows: Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding article, although the act giving rise to the case appears to constitute a grave offense, when the defendant shall have good antecedents, or it may for good reason be believed that he will not attempt to evade justice, or when the crime may not have produced alarm, or where it is not one frequently committed in the territory of the province, the judge or court may release the accused on bail." (See in Appendix I, order 109, of July 18, 1899.) 18473-01-16

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121 meritos para ello; pero la segunda incomunicaci6n no exceder4 nunca de tres dias, salvo 1o dispuesto en el articulo precedent. Se instruira al procesado de la parte dispositiva del auto motivado en que se decrete la nueva incomunicacion. ART. 509. Se permitiran al preso incomunicado los libros y efectos que el se proporcione, si no ofrecieren inconveniente a juicio del Juez instructor. ART. 510. Tambien podra el Juez instructor permitir que se facility al incomunicado, silo pidiere, recado de escribir, cuando, a su juicio, no ofrezca inconveniente este permiso; pero en la providencia en que lo conceda adoptara las medidas oportunas para evitar que se frustren los efectos de la incomunicaci6n. ART. 511. El preso incomunicado no podra entregar ni recibir carta ni papel alguno sino por conducto y con licencia del juez instructor, el cual se enterara de su contenido para darles 6 negarles curso. ART. 512. Si el presunto reo no fuere habido en su domicilio y se ignorase su paradero, se expedira requisitoria a los jueces de instrucci6n en cuyo territorio hubiese motivos para sospechar que aqul .se halle; y en todo caso se publicara aquilla en la Gaceta de la capital de la isla y en un peri6dico de la localidad 6 de la capital de la provincia respectiva, fijandose tambien copias autorizadas, en forma de edicto, en el local del juzgado 6 tribunal que conociere de la causa y en el de los jueces de instrucci6n a quienes se hubiese requerido.' ART. 513. En la requisitoria se expresaran el nombre y apellido, cargo, profesi6n u oficio, si constaren, del procesado rebelde, y las sefias en virtud de las que pueda ser identificado, el delito por que se le procesa, el territorio donde sea de presumir que se encuentra, y la circel a donde deba ser conducido. ART. 514. La requisitoria original y un ejemplar de cada peri6dico en que se hubiese publicado se unirin a la causa. ART. 515. El juez 6 tribunal quo hubiese acordado la prisi6n del procesado rebelde y los jueces de instrucci6n a quienes se enviaren las requisitorias, pondran en conocimiento de las autoridades y agentes de policia judicial de sus respectivos territorios las circunstancias mencionadas en el articulo 513. ART. 516. El auto se ratificar4 en todo caso 6 se repondr4, oldo el presunto reo, dentro de las setenta y dos horas siguientes at acto de la prison. ART. 517. El auto ratificando el de prisi6n y el de soltura del preso se notific.rin A las mismas personas que el de prisi6n. 1 Vase en el Ap~ndice I, la orden ndm. 181 de Abril 30 de 1900.

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121 cause; but the second incommunication can never exceed three days, reserving the provisions of the foregoing article. The accused shall be informed of the reasons stated in the writ which orders the second incommunication. ART. 509. An incomunicado prisoner shall be allowed the books and effects which he may procure himself, should there be no objection in the judgment of the examining judge. ART. 510. The examining judge may also permit that the incomunicado prisoner, should he request it, be furnished writing material, if in his judgment this permission shall not offer objection; but in the order granting such permission he shall take the proper measures to prevent that the effects of the incommunication be defeated. ART. 511. An inconunicado prisoner can not deliver nor receive any letter'or paper whatsoever, except through and with the permission of the examining judge, who shall examine the contents thereof in order to allow or refuse its delivery. ART. 512. If the presumed criminal be not found at his residence and his whereabouts be unknown, a requisition shall be directed to the judges of examination within whose jurisdiction there is reason to suspect that he may be found; and in any case said requisition shall be published in the Gazette of the capital of the island and in a newspaper of the locality or of the capital of the proper province, authenticated copies being also affixed, in the form of edicts, in the court or tribunal taking cognizance of the cause and in that of the judges of examination to whom the requisition may have been directed.1 ART. 513. In the requisition shall be stated the name and surname, office, profession or trade, if known, of the accused person in default, and the marks by which he can be identified, the crime for which he is prosecuted, the territory where it is presumed that he may be found, and the prison to which he is to be taken. ART. 514. The original requisition and a copy of each newspaper in which it may have been published shall be attached to the cause. ART. 515. The judge or court ordering the imprisonment of an accused person in default, and the judges of examination to whom the requisitions may be sent, shall inform the authorities and agents of the judicial police of their respective territories of the circumstances mentioned in article 513. ART. 516. The decree shall be ratified in every case and shall be returned, after the presumed criminal has been heard, within seventytwo hours after the arrest. ART. 517. Notice of the order ratifying the decree of imprisonment and that ordering the release of the imprisoned person shall be served upon the same persons as those upon whom notice of the decree of imprisonment was served. 'See in Appendix I, Order No. 181 of April 30, 1900.

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122 Contra ellos podrs interponerse recurso de apelaci6n. Inmediataniente despues de dictados, y dentro de las mismas setenta y dos horas, se expedira al alcaide de la carcel en que se hallare el preso el correspondiente mandamiento en la forma expresada en el art. 505. ART. 518. Los autos en que se decrete 6 deniegue la prisi6n 6 excarcelaci6n seran apelables s6lo en el efecto devolutivo. La tramitaci6n se ajustar4 a lo dispuesto en el tit. X del libro primero de esta ley. ART. 519. Todas las diligencias de prisi6n provisional se sustan ciaran en pieza separada. CAPITULO IV. DEL TRATAMIENTO DE LOS DETENIDOS 6 PRESOS. ART. 520. La detenci6n, 1o mismo que la prisi6n provisional, deben efectuarse de la manera y en la forma que perjudiquen 1o menos posible a la persona y a la reputaci6n del inculpado. Su libertad no debe restringirse sino en los limites absolutamente indispensables para asegurar su persona a impedir las comunicaciones que puedan perjudicar la instrucci6n de la causa. ART. 521. Los detenidos estarAn, a ser posible, separados los unos de los otros. Si la separaci6n no fuese posible, el juez instructor 6 tribunal cuidara de que no se reunan personas de diferente sexo ni los co-reos en una misma prisi6n, y de que los j6venes y los no reincidentes se hallen separados de los de edad madura y de los reincidentes. Para esta separaci6n se tendran en cuenta el grado de educaci6n del detenido, su edad y la naturaleza del delito que se le impute. ART. 522. Todo detenido 6 preso puede procurarse a sus expensas las comodidades y ocupaciones compatibles con el objeto de su detenci6n y con el regimen de la carcel, siempre que no comprometan su seguridad 6 la reserva del sumario. ART. 523. Cuando el detenido 6 preso deseare ser visitado por un ministro de su religion, por un medico, por sus parientes 6 personas con quienes est6 en relaci6n de intereses, 6 por las que puedan darle sus consejos, debera permitirsele con las condiciones prescritas en el reglamento de carceles, si no afectasen al secreto y 6xito del sumario. La relaci6n con el abogado defensor no podrs impedirsele mientras estuviere en comunicaci6n.

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122 An appeal lies from such decrees. Immediately after being issued, and within the same period of seventy-two hours, the proper mandate shall be issued to the warden of the prison in which the prisoner may be, in the manner prescribed in article 505. ART. 518. Decisions decreeing or refusing to order the imprisonment or release may be appealed from for a review of the proceedings only. The proceedings shall be adjusted to the provisions of Title X of the first book of this law. ART. 519. All proceedings relating to provisional imprisonment shall be conducted in a separate record. CHAPTER IV. TREATMENT OF PERSONS DETAINED OR IMPRISONED. ART. 520. The detention, as well as the provisional imprisonment, must be effected in the manner and form which shall least injure the person and reputation of the person accused. His liberty must not be restricted except within the limits absolutely indispensable to secure his person and prevent communications which may be of prejudice to the cause. ART. 521. Persons detained shall, in so far as possible, be kept separated from each other. If such separation should not be possible, the judge of examination or court shall seek to prevent that persons of different sexes or cocriminals be placed in the same prison, and that young persons and those who are not recidivists be kept separated from those of more mature age and recidivists. In making this separation the degree of education of the person detained, his age, and the character of the crime charged against him shall be taken into consideration. ART. 522. Every person detained or imprisoned may at his own expense procure the commodities and occupations compatible with the object of his detention and with the prison regulations, provided that they do not affect his security or the secrecy of the sumario. ART. 523. When the person detained or imprisoned should desire to be visited by a minister of his religion, by a physician, by his relatives or persons with whom he has joint interests, or by persons who may give him advice, he must be allowed to receive such visits under the conditions prescribed by the prison regulations, should they not affect the secrecy and success of the sumario. Consultations with his coun sel can not be forbidden him while he is not incomaunicado.

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123 ART. 524. El juez instructor autorizard, en cuanto no se perjudique el 6xito de la instrucci6n, los medios de correspondencia y comunicaci6n de que pueda bacer uso el detenido 6 preso. Pero en ningin caso debe impedirse a los detenidos 6 presos la libertad de escribir i los funcionarios superiores del orden judicial. ART. 525. No se adoptar4 contra el detenido 6 preso ninguna medida extraordinaria de seguridad sino en caso de desobediencia, de violencia 6 de rebeli6n, 6 cuando hays intentado 6 echo preparativos para fugarse. Esta medida deber ser temporal, y s6lo subsistiri el tiempo estrictamente necesario. ART. 526. El juez instructor visitara una vez por semana, sin previo aviso ni dia determinado, las prisiones de la localidad, acompafiado de un individuo del ministerio fiscal, que podi ser el fiscal municipal delegado al efecto por el fiscal de la respective audiencia; y donde exist este tribunal, haran la visit el presidente del mismo 6 el de la sala de 1o criminal y un magistrado, con un individuo del ministerio fiscal y con asistencia del juez instructor. En la visit se enterarian de todo 10 concerniente a la situaci6n de los presos 6 detenidos, y adoptarin las medidas que quepan dentro de sus atribuciones para corregir los abusos que notaren. ART. 527. Los detenidos 6 presos, mientras se hallen incomunicados, no podrAn disfrutar de los beneficios expresados en el presente capitulo, y regirian, respecto de los mismos, las disposiciones del capitulo anterior.

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123 ART. 524. The examining judge shall authorize, in so far as not prejudicial to the success of the investigation, the means of correspondence and communication of which the person detained or prisoner may avail himself. But in no case can persons detained or imprisoned be prevented from writing to the superior officials of the judiciary. Aur. 525. No extraordinary measures of safety shall be taken against the person detained or imprisoned, except in case of disobedience, violence, or mutiny, or when he shall have attempted or made preparations to escape. Such measures must be temporary, and shall only continue such time as may be strictly necessary. ART. 526. The examining judge shall visit the prisons of the locality once a week without previous notice nor on a determined day, accompanied by a member of the department of public prosecution, who may be the municipal fiscal delegated for such purpose by the fiscal of the respective audiencia; and where such tribunal is established, the visit shall be made by the presiding judge of the same or of the criminal chamber and one associate justice, with one member of the department of public prosecution and with the attendance of the examining judge. During their visit they shall take cognizance of all that concerns the condition of the prisoners or persons detained, and shall take the measures within their power to correct any abuses they may notice. ART. 527. Detained or imprisoned persons, while incamunicado, can not enjoy the privileges mentioned in this chapter, and shall be governed by the provisions contained in the foregoing chapter.

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TITULO VII. DE LA LIBERTAD PROVISIONAL DEL PROCESADO. ART. 528. La prisi6n provisional s6lo durara lo que subsistan los motivos que la hayan ocasionado. El detenido 6 preso ser puesto en libertad en cualquier estado de la causa en que resulte su inocencia. Todas las autoridades que intervengan en un proceso estardn obligadas a dilatar 1o menos possible la detenci6n y la prisi6n provisional de los inculpados 6 procesados. ART. 529. Cuando el procesado 1o fuere por delito que estuviese sefialada pena inferior 4 la prisi6n correctional, segin la escala general del c6digo penal, y no estuviere por otra parte comprendido en el numero 3.o del articulo 492 6 en el parrafo primero del articulo 504 de esta ley, el juez 6 tribunal que conociere de la causa decretare si el procesado ha de dar 6 no fianza para continuar en libertad provisional. En el mismo auto, si el juez decretare la fianza, fijar4 la calidad y cantidad de la que se hubiere de prestar.' Este auto se pondre en conocimiento del ministerio fiscal, y se notificare al querellante particular y al procesado, y ser apelable en un s6lo efecto. ART. 530. El procesado que hubiere de star en libertad provisional, con 6 sin fianza, constituir4 apud acta obligaci6n de comparecer en los dias que le fueren sefialados en el auto respectivo, y ademis cuantas veces fuere 1lamado ante el juez 6 tribunal que conozca de la causa. ART. 531. Para determinar la calidad y cantidad de la fianza se tomarin en cuenta la naturaleza del delito, el estado social y antece1Los dos primeros pdrrafos del articulo 529 de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, se entenderin en 1o sucesivo redactados de este modo para Cuba: "El procesado tendri derecho al beneficio de la libertad bajo fianza, siempre que lo fuere por delito que pueda ser comprendido en la definici6n que el artfculo 6.0 del c6digo penal da de los delitos menos graves. Si el procesado por uno de estos delitos no hubiere comparecido, sin motive legftimo, al primer lamamiento de la autoridad judicial, estari en las facultades discrecionales del juez instructor el admitirle 6 no el beneficio de la libertad bajo fianza. "En el auto en que el juez decretare la fianza, fijardt la calidad y cantidad de la que se hubiere de prestar." ( Vase en el Apndice 1, la orden nAm. 109 de Julio 13 de 1899.) 124

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TITLE VII. TEMPORARY LIBERTY OF THE ACCUSED. ART. 528. Provisional imprisonment shall continue only such time as the causes which gave rise thereto may subsist. The person detained or imprisoned shall be set at liberty at any stage of the cause when his innocence is established. All the authorities taking part in a proceeding shall be obliged to make the detention or provisional imprisonment of accused persons as short as possible. ART. 529. If the accused be charged with a crime to which is affixed a penalty lower than prisidn correctional, according to the general scale of the penal code, and on the other hand should not be included in the provisions of subdivision 3 of article 492 or in the first paragraph of article 504 of this law, the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause shall decree whether the accused is or is not to be granted the benefit of bail. In the same decree fixing the bail, the judge shall determine the amount as well as the character thereof.' This decree shall be communicated to the public prosecutor and notice shall be served upon the private complainant and the accused, and it may be appealed for a review of the proceedings only. ART. 530. A person accused who is to enjoy temporary liberty, with or without bail, shall constitute apud acta an obligation to appear on the day which may be set in the respective decree and furthermore as often as he might be called before the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. ART. 531. In order to determine the amount and character of the bail, the nature of the crime, the social status and the antecedents of the 1The first two paragraphs of article 529 of the Law of Criminal Procedure are amended for Cuba to read as follows: The defendant shall have the right to the benefit of bail, provided he is charged with an offense included under the definition of minor offenses, given in article 6 of the Penal Code. If a person indicted for one of these offenses should, without good reason, fail to appear at the first call of the judicial authority, the examining judge shall have discretionary power to grant or to refuse him the benefit of bail. In the decree by which the judge orders the bail, its character and amount shall be stated." (See in Appendix 1, order 109, of July 13, 1899.) 124

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125 dentes del procesado y las demas circunstancias que pudieren influir en el mayor 6 menor interns de 6ste para ponerse fuera del alcance de la autoridad judicial. ART. 532. La fianza se destinara A responder de la comparecencia del procesado cuando fuere liamado por el juez 6 tribunal que conozca de la causa. Su importe servirA para satisfacer las costas causadas en el ramo separado formado para su constituci6n, y el resto se adjudicara al Estado. ART. 533. Es aplicable a las fianzas que se ofrezcan para obtener la libertad provisional de un procesado todo cuanto a su naturaleza, manera de constituirse, de ser admitidas y calificadas y de sustituirse, se determina en los articulos 591 y siguientes, hasta el 596 inclusive del titulo IX de este libro. ART. 534. Si al primer lamamiento judicial no compareciere el acusado 6 no justificare la imposibilidad de hacerlo, se seflalara al flador personal 6 al duenio de los bienes de cualquiera clase dados en fianza, el tirmino de diez dias para que present al rebelde. ART. 535. Si el fiador personal 6 dueflo de los bienes de la fianza no presentare al rebelde en el termino fijado, se procedera a bacer 6sta efectiva, declarandose adjudicada al Estado y haciendo entrega de ella A la administration mAs pr6xima de rentas, con deducci6n de las costas indicadas al final del articulo 532. ART. 536. Para realizar toda fianza se procedera por la via de apremio. Si se tratare de una fianza personal, se procedera tambien por la via de apremio contra los bienes del fiador hasta hacer efectiva la cantidad que se haya fijado al admitir la referida flanza. Los efectos pdblicos, acciones y obligacionos de ferrocarriles y obras piblicas y demas valores mercantiles 6 industriales se enajenaran por agente de bolsa 6 corridor en su defecto. Si no le hubiere en el lugar de la causa, se remitiran para su enajenaci6n al juez 6 tribunal de la plaza mis pr6xima en que lo haya. Los demas muebles dados en prenda, asi comb los inmuebles hipotecados, se venderan en pdblica subasta, previa tasaci6n. ART. 537. Cuando los bienes de la fianza fueren del domino del procesado, se realizara y adjudicara ista al estado inmediatamente que aquil dejare de comparecer al lamamiento judical 6 de justificar la imposibilidad de hacerlo. ART. 538. En todas las diligencias de enajenaci6n de bienes de las fianzas y de la entrega de su importe en las administraciones de hacienda p6blica intervendra el ministerio fiscal.

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125 accused shall be taken into consideration, as well as all other circumstances which may bear upon the greater or lesser interest of the latter to place himself beyond the jurisdiction of the judicial authority. ART. 532. The purpose of the bail shall be to answer for the appearance of the accused when called by the judge or court taking cognizance of the cause. The amount thereof shall serve to satisfy the costs incurred in the separate record required thereby, and the balance shall be adjudicated to the State. ART. 533. The provisions of articles 591 to 596, inclusive, of Title IX of this book, relating to the character, manner of constituting, admitting, and classifying, as well as substituting bonds, is applicable to bonds offered to obtain the temporary liberty of an accused person. ART. 534. If the accused should not appear at the first judicial call or should not give a good reason preventing him from so doing, a period of ten days shall be allowed the personal bondsman, or the owner of the property of whatsoever kind given in bond, within which to produce the person in default. ART. 535. If the personal bondsman or the owner of the property constituting the bond should not produce the person in default within the period fixed, the bail shall be forfeited and it shall be adjudicated to the State and turned over to the nearest revenue collector, deducting the costs mentioned at the end of article 532. ART. 536. In order to recover upon any bond compulsory process shall be employed. If a personal bond should be involved, judicial proceedings shall also be brought against the property of the bondsman to the extent necessary to recover the amount which may have been fixed upon the admission of the said bond. Public securities, stock, and obligations of railroads and public works and other similar commercial or industrial securities shall be disposed of through an exchange broker or an agent in his absence. Should there be none in the place of the cause, they shall be forwarded for disposal to the judge or court of the nearest place where there may be one. Other personal property given in pledge, as well as mortgaged real property, shall be sold at public sale after being appraised. ART. 537. If the property constituting the bond should belong to the accused, it shall be sold and the proceeds adjudicated to the State if the person accused fails to appear upon the judicial call or does not justify his inability to do so. AnT. 538. In all proceedings involving the alienation of property constituting bonds and of the delivery of the proceeds into the administrations of the public treasury, the department of public prosecution shall intervene.

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126 El fiscal de la audiencia podri delegar su intervenci6n en el fiscal municipal donde se encuentre el juez de instrucci6n, 6 bien reclamar que se le remita el expediente cuando tenga estado, procurando, a ser posible, deducir sus pretensiones en un solo dictamen. ART. 539. Los autos de prisi6n y libertad provisionales y de fianza seran reformables de oficio 6 a instancia de parte d urante todo el curso de la causa. En su consecuencia, el procesado podri ser preso y puesto en libertad cuantas veces sea procedente, y la fianza podra ser aumentada 6 disminuida en cuanto resulte necesario para asegurar las consecuencias del juicio. ART. 540. Si el procesado no presenta 6 amplia la fianza en el termino que se le seilale, sera reducido a prisi6n. ART. 541. Se cancelara la fianza: 1.0 Cuando el fiador lo pidiere, presentando a la vez al procesado. 2.0 Cuando 6ste fuere reducido a prisi6n. 3.0 Cuando se dictare auto firme de sobreseimiento 6 sentencia firme absolutoria, 6 cuando, siendo condenatoria, se presentare el reo para cumplir la condena. 4o. Por muerte del procesado, estando pendiente la causa. ART. 542. Si se hubiere dictado sentencia firme condenatoria, y el procesado no compareciere al primer Inamamiento 6 no justificare la imposibilidad de hacerlo, se adjudicara la fianza al Estado en los terminos establecidos en el articulo 535. ART. 543. Una vez adjudicada la fianza, no tendri acci6n el fiador para pedir la devoluci6n, quedandole a salvo su derecho para reclamar la indemnizaci6n contra el procesado 6 sus causas habientes. ART. 544. Las diligencias de prisi6n y libertad provisionales y fianza se sustanciaran en pieza separada.

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126 The fiscal of' the audiencia may delegate his intervention to the municipal fical at the place where the judge of examination may be, or demand that the record of the proceedings be forwarded to him when concluded, seeking in so far as possible to embody his desires in one and the same order. ART. 539. Decrees of imprisonment and temporary liberty and bonds may be changed at the instance of the court or of a party at any stage of the cause. Consequently the accused may be imprisoned and placed at liberty as often as required, and his bail may be increased or reduced in so far as may be necessary to assure the consequences of the action. ART. 540. If the person accused does not present or increase the bond within the period allowed him, he shall be committed to prison. ART. 541. The bond shall be canceled1. Upon the request of the bondsman upon the surrender of the accused. 2. When the latter is committed to prison. 3. When a final decree of dismissal or a final sentence of acquittal is rendered, or in case of conviction, if the criminal should appear to serve his sentence. 4. By the death of the accused during the pendency of the cause. ART. 542. If a final condemnatory sentence should have issued, and the accused should not appear at the first call or should not establish his inability to do so, the bond shall be forfeited to the State in the manner prescribed in article 535. ART. 543. After the bond has been forfeited, the bondsman shall have no right of action for the return thereof, but he shall reserve his right of action for indemnity against the person accused or his successors in right. ART. 544. Proceedings upon imprisonment and temporary liberty and bond shall be had in a separate record.

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TITULO VIII. DE LA ENTRADA Y REOISTRO EN LUGAR CERUADO, DEL DE LIBROS Y PAPELES Y DE LA DETENCIdN Y APERTURA DE LA CORBESPONDENCIA ESCRITA Y TELEGRAFICA. ART. 545. Nadie podrs entrar en el domicilio de un espatiol 6 extranjero residente en Espana sin su consentimiento, excepto en los casos y en la forma expresamente previstos en las leyes. ART. 546. El juez 6 el tribunal que conociere de la causa podrs decretar la entrada y registro, de dia 6 de noche, en todos los edificios y lugares pdblicos, sea cualquiera el territorio en que radiquen, euando hubiere indicios de encontrarse alli el procesado 6 efectos 6 instrumentos del delito, 6 libros, papeles u otros objetos que puedan servir para su descubrimiento y comprobaci6n. ART. 547. Se reputarin edificios 6 lugares publicos para la observancia de lo dispuesto en este capitulo: 1.0 Los que estuvieren destinados a cualquier servicio oficial, militar 6 civil del Estado, de la provincia 6 del municipio, aunque habiten alli los encargados de dicho servicio, 6 los de la conservaci6n y custodia del edificio 6 lugar. 2.o Los que estuvieren destinados a cualquier estableciihiento de reunion 6 recreo, fueren 6 no licitos. 3.0 Cualesquiera otros edificios 6 lugares cerrados que no constituyeren domicilio de un particular con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el articulo 554. 4.0 Los buques del Estado. ART. 548. El juez necesitara pars la entrada y registro en el palacro de cualquiera de los cuerpos colegisladores la autorizaci6n del presidente respectivo. ART. 549. Para la entrada y registro en los templos y demis lugares religiosos bastara pasar recado de atenci6n a las personas a cuyo cargo estuvieren. ART. 550. Podra asimismo el juez instructor ordenar en los casos indicados en el articulo 546 la entrada v registro, de dia 6 de noche, si la urgencia lo hiciere necesario, en cualquier edificio 6 lugar cerrado 6 parte de el que constituya domicilio de cualquier espaflol 6 extranjero residents en Espafia; pero precediendo siempre el consentimiente del interesado, conforme se previene en el articulo 6.0 de la Constituci6n, 64 falta de consentimiento, en virtud de auto motivado que se notificar4 127

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TITLE VIII. ENTRY AND SEARCH OF CLOSED PLACES, OF BOOKS AND PAPERS, AND THE DETENTION AND OPENING OF WRITTEN AND TELEGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE, ART. 545. No one can enter the domicile of a Spaniard or foreigner residing in Spain without his consent, excepting in the cases and in the manner expressly provided for by law. ART. 546. The judge or court taking cognizance of the cause may order an entry and search, by day or night, of any public buildings and places, whatever be the district in which situated, if there are indications that the accused or the effects or instruments of the crime, or books, papers, or other objects which may serve in the discovery and verification thereof are to be found there. ART. 547. The following shall be considered public buildings or places for the observance of the provisions of this chapter: 1. Those destined to any official, military, or civil service of the State, province, or municipality, even though the persons entrusted with said service or the persons in charge of the care and custody of the building or place reside in the same. 2. Those destined to any establishment for meetings or recreation, licit or otherwise. 3. Any other closed buildings or places which do not constitute the residence of a private individual in accordance with the provisions of article 554. 4. The vessels of the State. ART. 548. The judge shall require for the entry and search of the palace of any of the Colegislative Bodies the authority of the respective president. ART. 549. For the purpose of entering and searching temples and other religious places, a respectful communication to the persons in charge thereof shall be sufficient. ART. 550. The examining judge may also, in the cases indicated in article 546, order the entry and search, by day or night, if the urgency of the case should so require, of any building or closed place or part thereof which may constitute the residence of any Spaniard or foreigner residing in Spain; but always after the consent of the person interested has been obtained as provided by article 6 of the Constitution, or in the absence of consent by virtue of an order setting forth 127

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128 a la persona interesada inmediatamente, 6 lo mis tarde, dentro de las veinticuatro horas do haberse dictado.' ART. 551. So entendera que presta su consentimiento aquel que, requerido por quien hubiere de efectuar la entrada y registro para que los permita, ejecuta por su parte los actos necesarios que de 61 dependan para que puedan tender efecto, sin invocar la inviolabilidad que reconoce al domicilio el articulo 6.o de la Constituci6n del Estado. ART. 559. Al practicer los registros deberin evitarse las inspecciones infitiles, procurando no perjudicar ni importunar al interesado mas de lo necesario, y so adoptaran todo genero de precauciones para no comprometer su reputaci6n, respetando sus secretos Si no interesaren a la instrucci6n. ART. 553. Los agentes de policia podran asimismo proceder de propia autoridad al registro de un lugar habitado cuando haya mandamiento de prisi6n contra una persona y traten de llevar a efecto su captura, cuando un individuo sea sorprendido en flagrante delito 6 cuando un delincuente, inmediatamente perseguido por los agents de la autoridad, se oculte 6 refugie en alguna casa. ART. 554. Se reputan domicilio para los efectos de los articulos anteriores: 1.0 Los Palacios Reales, estin 6 no habitados por el Monarca al tiempo de la entrada 6 registro. 2.0 El edificio 6 lugar cerrado 6 la part de e1 destinada principalmente a la habitaci6n de cualquier espafiol 6 extranjero residente en Espania y de su familia. 3.o Los buques nacionales mercantes. ART. 555. Para registrar en el Palacio en que se halle residiendo el Monarca solicitar6 el juez real licencia por conducto del mayordomo mayor de S. M. ART. 556. En los sitios reales en que no se hallare el Monarca al tiempo del registro sera necesaria la licencia del jefe 6 empleado del servicio de S. M. que tuviere a su cargo la custodia del edificio, 6 la del que haga sus veces cuando se solicitare, si estuviere ausente. ART. 557. Las tabernas, casas de comidas, posadas y fondas no se reputaran como domicilio de los que se encuentren 6 residan en ellas accidental 6 temporalmente; y 1o seran tan s6lo de los taberneros, hosteleros, posaderos y fondistas que se hallen a su frente y habiten alli con sus familias en la parte del edificio 6 este servicio destinada. ART. 558. El auto de entrada y registro en el domicilio de un particular sera siempre fundado, y el juez expresara en 61 concretamente 'Para la recta inteligencia y aplicaci6n de este articulo, hay que tener presente l) que disponen los articulos 566, 567 y 568.

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128 the reasons for the action, which shall be served upon the person interested at once or not later than 24 hours after its issue.' ART. 551. It shall be understood that a person gives his consent who, upon being requested by the person who is to make the entry and search to allow the same, performs on his part the acts necessary depending upon him for such entry and search to take place, without invoking the inviolability which article 6 of the Constitution of the State recognizes in a domicile. ART. 552. Useless inspections shall be avoided in making the searches, it being sought not to prejudice nor importune the person interested more than necessary, and all precautions possible shall be taken not to compromise his reputation, his secrets being respected, should they not interest the investigation. ART. 553. Police agents may also proceed upon their own responsibility in making the search of some inhabited place when a warrant of arrest has been issued against a person and they are attempting to capture him, when an individual is surprised at a flagrant crime, or when a delinquent being immediately pursued by the authorities shall conceal himself or take refuge in some house. ART. 554. For the purposes of the foregoing article the following are considered domiciles: 1. The royal palaces, whether or not inhabited by the Monarch at the time of the entry or search. 2. A building or closed place, or that portion thereof destined principally to the dwelling of any Spaniard or foreigner residing in Spain and of his family. 3. National merchant vessels. ART. 555. In order to search the palace in which the Monarch is residing the royal judge shall request permission through the chief major domo of His Majesty. ART. 556. In reservations where the Monarch may not be at the time of the search the permission of the chief or employee of the service of His Majesty in charge of the custody of the building or the person acting in his stead, if the former be absent, shall be necessary. ART. 557. Taverns, eating houses, restaurants, and saloons shall not be considered the domicile of those who may be there or reside in the same accidentally or temporarily, but shall be considered the domicile only of the tavern, restaurant, or saloon keepers in charge thereof and who dwell there with their families with regard to that part of the building set aside for such purpose. ART. 558. The warrant for the entry and search of the domicile of a private party shall always set forth the reasons therefor, and the 'The provisions of articles 566, 567, and 568 must be borne in mind in order to properly understand and apply this article. 18473-0117

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129 el edificio 6 lugar cerrado en que haya de verificarse, si tendra lugar tan s6lo do dia v la autoridad 6 funcionario que los haya de practicar. ART. 559. Para la entrada y registro en los edificios destinados a la habitaci6n u oficina de los representantes de naciones extranjeras acreditadas cerca del Gobierno de Espaila, les pedira su venia el juez por medio de atento oficio, en el que les rogarA que contesten en el t4rmino de doce horas. ART. 560. Si transcurriere este termino sin haberlo hecho, 6 si el representante extranjero denegare la venia, el juez lo comunicara inmediatamente al Ministro de Ultramar, empleando para ello el tel4grafo, si 1o bubiere. Entre tanto que el Ministro no le comunique su resoluci6n, se abstendr4 de entrar y registrar en el edificio; pero adoptara las medidas de vigilancia a que se refiere el articulo 567. ART. 561. Tampoco podra entrar y registrar en los buques mercantes extranjeros sin la autorizaci6n del capitin, 6 si iste la denegare, sin la del c6nsul de su naci6n. En los buques extranjeros de guerra, la falta de autorizaci6n del comandante se suplira por la del embajador 6 ministro de la naci6n a que pertenezcan. ART. 562. Se podra entrar en las habitaciones de los c6nsules extranjeros y en sus oficinas, pasindoles previamente recado de atenci6n v observando las formalidades prescritas en la Constituci6n del Estado y en las eyes. ART. 563. Si el edificio 6 lugar cerrado estuviere en el territorio propio del juez instructor, podri encomendar la entrada y registro al juez municipal del territorio en que el edificio 6 lugar cerrado radiquen, 6 4 cualquiera autoridad 6 agente de policia judicial. Si el que lo hubiese ordenado fuere el juez municipal, podra encomendarlo tambien a dichas autoridades 6 agents de policia judicial. Cuando el edificio 6 lugar cerrado estuviere fuera del territorio del juez, encomendara iste ia practice de las operaciones at juez de su propia categoria del territorio en que aqudllos radiquen, el cual 4 su vez podra encomendarlas a las autoridades 6 agents de policia judicial. ART. 564. Si se tratare de un edificio 6 lugar p6blico comprendido en los nuneros 1.o y 3.0del articulo 547, el juez oficiara 4 la autoridad 6 jefe de que aquillos dependan en la misma poblaci6n. Si 6ste no contestare en el termino que se le fije en el oficio, se notificari el auto en que se disponga la entrada y registro al encargado de la conservaci6n 6 custodia del edificio 6 lugar en que se hubiere de entrar y registrar. Si se tratare de buques del Estado, las comunicaciones se dirigirin a los comandantes respectivos.

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129 judge shall state therein concisely the building or closed space to be entered and searched, whether it is to take place in the daytime only, and the authority or official to perform the service. ART. 559. For the entry and search of buildings used for the residence or office of the representatives of foreign nations accredited to the Government of Spain, the judge shall ask their consent in a respectful communication, in which he shall request them to reply within the period of twelve hours. AnT. 560. If such period should expire without any answer being made, or if the foreign representative should refuse his consent, the judge shall at once communicate such refusal to the Colonial Minister by telegraph, if there be any. Until the Minister communicates his decision, he shall abstain from entering and searching the building, but he shall take the measures of surveillance referred to in article 567. ART. 561. Nor canhe enter and search foreign merchant vessels without the authority of the captain, or, if the latter should refuse it, without that of the consul of his nation. In the case of foreign men-of-war, the lack of authorization of the commander shall be supplied by that of the ambassador or minister of the nation to which they may belong. ART. 562. The dwellings and offices of foreign consuls may be entered, a respectful communication being first sent them, and the formalities prescribed by the constitution of the State and by the laws being observed. ART. 563. If the building or closed place should be situated within the district of the examining judge, he may entrust the entry and search to the municipal judge of the territory in which the building or closed place may be situated, or to any authority or agent of the judicial police. If a municipal judge ordered it, he may also entrust said entry and search to said authorities or agents of the judicial police. If the building or closed place be situated outside the jurisdiction of the judge, the latter shall entrust the commission to the judge of the same category in the territory in which it may be situate, who in his turn may entrust the proceedings to the authorities or agents of the judicial police. Aur. 564. If a building or public place included in numbers 1 and 3 of article 547 should be in question, the judge shall communicate in writing with the authority or chief in charge thereof in the same town. If the latter should not reply within the period fixed in the communication, the decree ordering the entry and search shall be communicated to the person entrusted with the care or custody of the building or place to be entered and searched. If vessels of the State should be in question, the communications shall be addressed to the proper commanders.

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130 ART. 565. Cuando el edificio 6 lugar fueren de los comprendidos en el ndmero 2.0 del articulo 547, la notificaci6n se hara a la persona que se halle al frente del establecimiento de reunion o recreo, 6 a quien haga sus veces si aquel estuviere ausente. ART. 566. Si la entrada y registro se hubieren de hacer en el domicilio de un particular, se notificar4 el auto 4 ste; y si no fuere habido a la primera diligencia en busca, a su encargado. Si no fuere tampoco habido el encargado, se hara la notificaci6n a cualquiera otra persona mayor de edad que se hallare en el domicilio, prefiriendo para esto a los individuos de la familia del interesado. Si no se halla a nadie, se hara constar por diligencia, que se extenders con asistencia de dos vecinos, los cuales deberan firmarla. ART. 567. Desde el momento en que el juez acuerde la entrada y registro en cualquier edificio 6 lugar cerrado, adoptara las medidas de vigilancia convenientes para evitar la fuga del procesado 6 la sustracci6n de los instrumentos, efectos del delito, libros, papeles 6 cualesquiera otras cosas que hayan de ser objeto del registro. ART. 568. Practicadas las diligencias que se establecen en los articulos anteriores, se procedera a la entrada y registro, empleando para ello, si fuere necesario, el auxilio de la fuerza. ART. 569. El registro se hara a presencia del interesado 6 de la persona que legitimamente le represented. Si aquil no fuere habido 6 no quisiere concurrir ni nombrar representante, se practicara a presencia de un individuo de su familia mayor de edad. Si no lo bubiere, se hara 4 presencia de dos testigos, vecinos del mismo pueblo. El registro se practicara siempre 4 presencia del secretario y dos testigos, sin contar los de que habla el parrafo anterior, extendidndose acta, que firmaran todos los concurrentes. La existencia del interesado, de su representante, de los individuos de su familia y de los testigos 4 presenciar el registro, producira la responsabilidad declarada en el c6digo penal a los reos del delito de desobediencia grave a la autoridad, sin perjuicio de que la diligencia se practique. Si no se encontrasen las personas u objetos que se busquen ni apareciesen indicios sospechosos, se expidira una certificaci6n del acta 4 la parte interesada, si la reclamare. ART. 570. Cuando el registro se practique en el domicilio de un particular y empire el dia sin haberse terminado, el que 1o haga requerira al interesado 6 a su representante, si estuviere presente, para que per-

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130 ART. 565. If the building or place be of those included in number 2 of article 547, the notice shall be served upon the person at the head of the meeting or recreation establishment, or to the person acting in his place, should the former be absent. ART. 566. If the entry and search should have to be made in the residence of a private person, the order shall be communicated to the latter; and should he not be found at the first call, it shall be delivered to his representative. If his representative should not be found, the notice shall be served upon any other person of legal age who may be found at the residence, preference being given to the members of the family of the person interested. If no one be found, a record of this fact shall be made, which shall be prepared in the presence of two neighbors, who must affix their signatures thereto. ART. 567. As soon as a judge orders the entry and search of any building or closed place he shall take such measures of surveillance as may be necessary to prevent the flight of the accused or the removal of the instruments, effects of the crime, or books, papers, or any other things which are to be the subject of the search. ART. 568. After the steps established in the foregoing articles have been taken, the entry and search shall be proceeded with, recourse being had to force if necessary. ART. 569. The search shall be made in the presence of the person interested or of the person legally representing him. If the former be not found or should not desire to be present or appoint a representative, the search shall be conducted in the presence of a member of his family of legal age. Should there be no such member it shall be conducted in the presence of two witnesses, residents of the same town. The search shall always be made in the presence of the secretary and of two witnesses, without counting those referred to in the foregoing paragraph, a record being made which shall be signed by all persons present. The attendance at the search of the person interested, of his representative, of the members of his family, and of the witnesses shall produce the liability declared in the penal code upon those guilty of serious disobedience to the authorities, without prejudice to the proceedings being held. If the persons or objects sought for can not be found, and no suspicious indications shall appear, a certified transcript of the record shall be issued to the party interested, upon his request. ART. 570. If a search be made of the domicile of a private individual and the day shall close without its being concluded, the person conducting the same shall request the person interested or his representative,

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131 mita la continuaci6n durante la noche. Si se opusiere, se suspenders Ia diligencia, salvo lo dispuesto en los articulos 546 y 550, cerrando y sellando el local 6 los muebles en que hubiere de continuarse, en cuanto esta precauci6n se considere necesaria pars evitar la fuga de la persona 6 la sustracci6n de las cosas que se buscaren. Prevendra asimismo el que practique el registro a los que se hallen en el edificio 6 lugar de Ia diligencia, que no levanten los sellos, ni violenten las cerraduras, ni permitan que lo hagan otras personas, bajo lI responsabilidad establecida en el c6digo penal. ART. 571. El registro no se suspenders sino por el tiempo en que no fuere posible continuarle, y se adoptaran, durante la suspension, las medidas de vigilancia a que se refiere el articulo 567. ART. 572. En Ia diligencia de entrada y registro en lugar cerrado se expresaran los nombres del juez, 6 de su delegado, que la practique, y de las demis personas que intervengan, los incidentes ocurridos, Ia horn en que se hubiese principiado y concluido la diligencia, y lI relaci6n del registro por el orden con que se haga, asi como los resultados obtenidos. ART. 573. No se ordenara el registro de los libros y papeles de contabilidad del procesado 6 de otra persona, sino cuando hubiere indicios graves de que de esta diligencia resultara el descubrimiento 6 la comprobaci6n de algin hecho 6 circunstancia importante en Ia causa. ART. 574. El juez recoger6 los instrumentos y efectos del delito y podr6 recoger tambi6n los libros, papeles 6 cualesquiera otras cosas que se hubiesen encontrado, si esto fuere necesario para el resultado del sumario. Los libros y papeles que se recojan serin foliados, sellados y rubricados en todas sus hojas por el juez, por el secretario, por el interesado 6 los que hagan sus veces, y por las demas personas que hayan asistido al registro. ART. 575. Todos estin obligados a exhibir los objetos y papeles que se sospeche puedan tener relaci6n con Ia causa. Si el que los retenga se negare a su exhibici6n, ser6 corregido con multa de 62.50 a 250 pesetas, y cuando insistiera en su negativa, si el objeto 6 papel fueren de importancia y el delito grave, sera procesado como autor del de desobediencia 6 la autoridad, salvo si mereciera Ia calificaci6n legal de encubridor. ART. 576. Ser6 aplicable al registro de papeles y efectos lo establecido en los articulos 552 y 569. ART. 577. Si pars determinar sobre la necesidad de recoger las cosas que se hubiesen encontrado en el registro fuere necesario algfn reconocimiento pericial, se acordar6 en el acto pot el juez en la forma establecida en el capitulo VII del titulo V.

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131 if present, to permit the continuation thereof during the night. Should he object the proceedings shall be suspended, reserving the provisions of articles 546 and 550, closing and sealing the room or furniture where it is to be continued, whenever this precaution is considered necessary to prevent the flight of the person or the removal of the things sought for. The person making the search shall also warn the persons in the building or place where the search is being made not to remove the seals or break the locks, nor permit other persons to do so, under the liability established in the penal code. ART. 571. The search shall be suspended only the time during which it may not be possible to continue the same, and during the suspension the measures of surveillance referred to in article 567 shall be taken. ART. 572. In the record of the entry and search of a closed place shall be stated the names of the judge, or of his delegates, conducting the same, and of the other persons taking part therein, the incidents which may have occurred, the hour the search was begun and concluded, and a detailed statement of the search in the order in which it was made, as well as of the results obtained. ART. 573. The search of books and papers of accounts of the accused or of any other person shall not be ordered, except when there are serious indications that such search would result in the discovery or verification of some fact or circumstance of importance in the cause. ART. 574. The judge shall collect the instruments and effects of the crime, and may also take the books, papers, or any other things which may have been found, if this should be necessary for the purposes of the sumario. The books and papers taken shall be foliod, stamped, and rubricated upon every sheet by the judge, by the secretary, by the person interested or the party acting in his stead, and by the other persons who may have attended the search. ART. 575. All are obliged to exhibit the objects and papers which it is suspected may bear upon the cause. If the person retaining the same should refuse to exhibit them he shall be corrected by the imposition of a fine of from 62.50 to 250 pesetas, and if he shall insist in his refusal, if the object or papers should be of importance and the crime a grave one, he shall be tried for the crime of disobedience to the authority, unless he should deserve the legal classification of an accomplice. ART. 576. The provisions of articles 552 and 569 are applicable to the search of papers and effects. ART. 577. If in order to determine as to the necessity of collecting the things which may have been found during the search an expert examination should be necessary, it shall be ordered at once by the judge in the manner prescribed by Chapter VII of Title V.

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132 ART. 578. Si el libro que haya de ser objeto del registro fuere el protocolo de un notario, se procederi con arreglo a lo dispuesto en la ley del notariado. Si se tratare de un libro del registro de la propiedad, se estara A lo ordenado en la ley hipotecaria. Si se tratare de un libro del registro civil 6 mercantil, se estara a lo que se disponga en la ley y reglamentos relativos a estos servicios. ART. 579. Podri el juez acordar la detenci6n de la correspondencia privada, postal y telegrafica que el procesado remitiere 6 recibiere, y su apertura y examen, si hubiere indicios de obtener por estos medios el descubrimiento 6 la comprobaci6n de algfln hecho 6 circunstancia importante de la causa. ART. 580. Es aplicable a la detenci6n de la correspondencia lo dispuesto en los articulos 563 y 564. Podra tambien encomendarse la prActica de esta operaci6n al administrador de correos y telegrafos 6 jefe de la oficina en que la correspondencia deba hallarse. ART. 581. El empleado que haga la detenci6n remitira inmediatamente la correspondencia detenida al juez instructor de la causa. ART. 582. Podra asimismo el juez ordenar que por cualquiera administraci6n de telegrafos se le faciliten copies de los telegramas por ella transmitidos, si pudieran contribuir al esclarecimiento de los hechos de la causa ART. 583. El auto motivado acordando la detenci6n y registro de la correspondencia 6 la entrega de copias de telegramas transmitidos, determinara la correspondencia que haya de ser detenida 6 registrada, 6 los telegramas cuyas copies hayan de ser entregadas, por medio de la 1 Por real orden comunicada nor el Ministerio de Gracia y Justicia A los presidentes de las audiencias el 12 de Diciembre de 1883, se resolvi6: 1.o Que las administraciones de tel6grafos deben facilitar las copias de los telegramas, tanto del servicio interior como del international, por ellos transmitidos, d los jueces y tribunales competentes, cuando se los reclaman en virtud de 1o dispuesto en los articulos 579 y siguientes de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal y con las solemnidades en los mismos consignadas. 2.0 Que asimismo estin obligadas dichas administraciones 6 exhibir A los jueces y tribunales los originales de los telegramas para su inspecci6n, descripci6n 6 reconocimiento por peritos, y en general, para cumplimentar cualquiera providencia relativa al juicio criminal, siempre que se solicite por escrito y auto motivado con arreglo 6 la citada ley. Y 3.o Que igualmente deben las administraciones de tel~grafos entregar al juez instructor 6 tribunal competente los originales de los telegramas expedidos, tanto del servicio interior como del international, cuando en auto motivado y por escrito manifiesten la necesidad imprescindible de tenerlos 6 la vista para su reconocimiento pericial 6 examen ocular para que figuren en el juicio como cuerpos del delito 6 piezas de convicci6n, debiendo en este caso quedarse la administraci6n con copia legalizada de dichos originales y exigir del juez 6 tribunal que los devuelva despu6s de terminada la causa.

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-182 ART. 578. If the book which is to oe the subject-matter of the search should be the protocol of a notary, the provisions contained in the notarial law shall be observed. If a book of the registry of property should be in question, the provisions of the mortgage law shall be observed. If a book of the civil or commercial registry should be involved, the provisions of the law and regulations relating to these services shall be observed. ART. 579. The judge may order the detention of private postal and telegraphic correspondence which the accused may transmit or receive and the opening and examination thereof, if there should be indications of arriving by these means at the discovery or verification of some fact or circumstance of importance in the cause. ART. 580. The provisions contained in articles 563 and 564 are also applicable to the detention of correspondence. The performance of this duty may also be entrusted to the administrator of posts and telegraphs or to the chief of the office in which the correspondence should be. ART. 581. The employee detaining the correspondence shall immediately forward the same to the examining judge of the cause. ART. 582. The judge may likewise order that any telegraph administration furnish copies of telegrams transmitted by it if they might contribute to the elucidation of the facts in the cause.' ART. 583. The decree setting forth the reasons ordering the detention and search of correspondence, or the delivery of telegrams transmitted, shall specify the correspondence to be detained or examined, or the telegrams, copies of which are to be delivered, by means 'By a royal order transmitted by the Department of Grace and Justice to the presiding judges of audiencias on December 12, 1883, it was decided: 1. That the administrations of telegraphs must furnish the copies of telegrams of the domestic as well as of the international service, transmitted by them, to competent judges and courts when called upon to do so by virtue of the provisions of articles 579 et seq., of the Law of Criminal Procedure, and with the formalities prescribed therein. 2. That said administrations are also obliged to show to judges and courts the originals of the telegrams for their inspection, description, or examination by experts, and in general for compliance with any judicial order relating to the criminal action, provided the request be made in writing and the reasons for the request set forth in accordance with the said law. And 3. That the administrations of telegraphs must likewise deliver to the competent examining judge or court the originals of the telegrams transmitted of the domestic as well as of the international service when they shall state the absolute necessity of having the same at hand for an expert investigation or ocular examination, in order that they may figure in the action as corpi delicti or exhibits, but in such case the administration must retain a certified copy of said originals and require the judge or court to return the same upon the conclusion of the cause.

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133 designaci6n de las personas a cuyo nombre se hubieren expedido, 6 por otras circunstancias igualmente concretas. ART. 584. Para la apertura y registro de la correspondencia postal sera citado el interesado. tste, 6 la persona que designe, podra presenciar la operaci6n. ART. 585. Si el procesado estuviere en rebeldia, 6 si citado pars la apertura no quisiese presenciarla ni nombrar persona para que 1o haga en su nombre, el juez instructor procederA, sin embargo, A la apertura de dicha correspondencia. ART. 586. La operaci6n se practicara abriendo el juez por si mismo la correspondencia, y despues de leerla para si, apartara la que baga referencia a los hechos de la causa y cuyn conservaci6n considere necesaria. Los sobres y hojas de esta correspondencia, despues de haber tomado el mismo juez las notas necesarias para la practice de otras diligencias de investigation 6 que la correspondencia diere motivo, se rubricardn por todos los asistentes y se sellaran con el sello del juzgado, encerrAndolo todo despues en otro sobre, al que se pondra el r6tulo necesario, conservandolo el juez en su poder durante el sumario, bajo su responsabilidad. Este pliego podra abrirse cuantas veces el juez lo consider preciso, citando previamente al interesado. ART. 587. La correspondencia que no se relacione con la causa sera entregada en el acto al procesado 6 a su representante. Si aquil estuviere en rebeldia, se entregara cerrada A un individuo de su familia, mayor de edad. Si no fuere conocido ningun pariente del procesado, se conservara dicho pliego, cerrado, en poder del juez hasta que haya persona A quien entregarlo, segun 1o dispuesto en este articulo. ART. 588. La aperture de la correspondencia se hard constar por diligencia, en la que se referira cuanto en aquella hubiese ocurrido. Esta diligencia serA firmada por el juez instructor, el secretario y demis asistentes.

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133 of the designation of the persons to whom addressed, or by other equally specific circumstances. ART. 584. The person interested shall be cited for the opening and examination of correspondence. The latter, or the person he may designate, may be present thereat. ART. 585. If the person accused should be in default,.or if upon being cited to attend the opening he should not desire to be present, nor appoint any other person to attend in his name, the examining judge shall nevertheless proceed to open said correspondence. ART. 586. The work shall be conducted by the judge himself opening the correspondence, and after reading it to himself he shall lay aside that which refers to the acts, the subject of the cause, and the preservation of which be may consider necessary. The envelopes and sheets of this correspondence, after the said judge has made the notes necessary for the performance of other work of investigation to which the correspondence may give rise, shall be rubricated by all those present, and shall be sealed with the seal of the court, all being afterwards enclosed in another package, upon which the proper endorsement shall be placed, and the judge shall retain the same in his possession during the sumario, under his liability. This package may be opened as often as the judge may consider it necessary, the person interested being previously cited. ART. 587. Correspondence which does not relate to the cause shall be delivered to the accused or to his representative at once. If the former should be in default, it shall be delivered sealed to a member of his family of legal age. If no relative of the accused be known, said package shall be kept sealed in the possession of the judge until there is a person to whom delivery can be made according to the provisions of this article. ART. 588. A record shall be made of the opening of the correspondence, in which shall be stated all that may have occurred thereat. This record shall be signed by the examining judge, the secretary, and other persons present.

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TfTULO IX. DE LAS FIANZAS Y EMEARGOS. ART. 589. Cuando del sumario resulten indicios de criminalidad contra una persona, se mandara por el juez que presto fianza bastante para asegurar las responsabilidades pecuniariis que en definitiva puedan declararse procedentes, decretandose en el mismo auto el embargo de bienes suficientes para cubrir dichas responsabilidades, si no prestare la fianza. La cantidad de esta se fijarai en el mismo auto y no podr4 bajar de la tercera parte mas de todo el importe probable de las responsabilidades pecuniarias. ART. 590. Todas las diligencias sobre fianzas y embargos se instruiran en pieza separada. ART. 591. La fianza podr4 ser personal, pignoraticia 6 hipotecaria. Podra constituirse en metilico 6 en efectos pflblicos al precio de cotizaci6n, bien fueren del procesado, bien de otra persona, depositAndose en el establecimiento destinado al efecto. Seran tambien admisibles, a juicio del juez 6 tribunal, las acciones y obligaciones de ferrocarriles y obras pdblicas y demas valores mercantiles a industriales cuya cotizaci6n en bolsa haya sido debidamente autorizada, los cuales se depositaran como los anteriores. Las fianzas sobre prendas que consistan en cualesquiera otros bienes muebles seran igualmente admisibles a juicio del juez 6 tribunal, previa tasaci6n, y se depositaran, segin su clase, de la manera prescrita en los articulos 600 v 601.' ART. 592. Podri ser fiador personal todo espafiol de buena conducts y avecindado dentro del territorio del tribunal, que est6 en el pleno goce de los derechos civiles y politicos y venga pagando con tres aflios de anterioridad una contribuci6n direct, al menos de 100 pesetas anuales, procedente de bienes inmuebles de su propiedad personal; 6 de 200 por raz6n de subsidio con establecimiento abierto. No se admitird como fiador al que 1o sea 6 hubiese sido de otro hasta que est4 cancelada la primera fianza, a no ser que tenga, a juicio del juez 6 tribunal, responsabilidad notoria para ambas. 1 Segln el artfculo 533, las disposiciones de este artfculo y signientes, hasta el 596, son aplicables A las fianzas que se ofrezean para obtener la libertad provisional de un procesado. 134

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TITLE IX. BONDS AND ATTACHMENTS. ART. 589. If the sumario should show indications of criminality against any person, the judge shall order that he give a bond sufficient to secure the pecuniary liabilities which may finally be declared to lie, the same decree ordering the attachment of sufficient properties to meet such liabilities should he not give bond. The amount of the latter shall be fixed in the same decree and can not be less than one-third more than the entire probable amount of the pecuniary liabilities. ART. 590. All proceedings upon bonds and attachments shall be conducted upon a separate record. ART. 591. The bond may be personal, pignorative or mortgage. It may be constituted in coin or in public securities at the market price, whether the property of the accused or of another person, and shall be deposited in the institution set aside for the purpose. The stock and obligations of railroads and public works, as well as other commercial and industrial securities whose quotation upon the exchange may have been duly authorized, shall also be admissible in the discretion of the judge or court, and shall be deposited in the same manner as the former. Bonds on pledges which consist of any other personal property shall also be admissible in the discretion of the judge or court, after their appraisal, and shall be deposited, according to their class, in the manner prescribed in articles 600 and 601.' ART. 592. Any Spaniard of good conduct residing within the territory of the jurisdiction of the court in the full enjoyment of his civil and political rights, and who has paid for three years prior thereto a direct tax of 100 pesetas at least per annum on real estate of his own ownership, or of 200 pesetas by way of subsidy on his business, may be a personal bondsman. No person shall be admitted as a bondsman who is or has been that of another until the first bond has been cancelled, unless he is, in the opinion of the judge or court, well known to be responsible for both. 1 According to article 533 the provisions of this and of the following articles up to article 596 apply to bonds offered to obtain the temporary liberty of an accused person. 134

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135 Cuando se declare bastante la fianza personal, se fijara tambi6n la cantidad de que el fiador ha de responder. ART. 593. La fianza hipotecaria podra sustituirse por otra en metalico, efectos publicos 6 valores y demas muebles de los enumerados en el articulo 591, en la siguiente proporci6n: el valor de los bienes de la hipoteca sera doble que el del mettlico sefialado para la fianza, una cuarta part mas que 6ste el de los efectos 6 valores al precio de cotizaci6n. Si la sustituci6n si hiciere por cualesquiera otros muebles dados en prenda, debera ser el valor de 4stos doble que el de la fianza constituida en metalico. Aur. 594. Los bienes de las fianzas hipotecaria y pignoraticia seran tasados por dos peritos nombrados por el juez instructor 6 tribunal quo conozca de la causa, y los titulos de propiedad relatives A las fincas ofrecidas en hipoteca se examinaran por el ministerio fiscal, debiendo declararse suficientes por el mismo juez 6 tribunal cuando asi proceda. ART. 595. La fianza hipotecaria podra otorgarse por escritura piblica 6 apwd acta, libriindose en este iltimo caso el correspondiente mandamiento para su inscripci6n en el registro de la propiedad. Devuelto el mandamiento por el registrador, se unira a la causa. Tambidn se unira a ella el resguardo quo acredite el dep6sito del metAlico, asi como el de los efectos publicos y demas valores en los casos en que se constituya de esta manera la fianza. ART. 596. Contra los autos que el juez dicte calificando la suficiencia de las fianzas procedera el recurso de apelaci6n. ART. 597. Si en el dia siguiente al de la notificaci6n del auto dictado con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el articulo 589 no se prestase la fianza, so procedera al embargo de bienes del procesado, requiriendole para que sefiale los suficientes a cubrir la cantidad que se hubiese fijado para las responsabilidades pecuniarias. ART. 598. Cuando el procesado no fuere habido, se har el requerimiento a su mujer, hijos, apoderado, criados 6 personas que se encuentren en su domicilio. Si no so encontrare ninguna, 6 si las quo se encontraren, 6 el procesado 6 apoderado en su caso, no quisieren sealar bienes, se procedera a embargar los que se reputen de la pertenencia del procesado, guardandose el orden establecido en el articulo 1445 de la ley de 6njuiciamiento civil, y bajo la prohibici6n contenida en los articulos 1446 y 1447 de la misma.' ART. 599. Cuando sefialaren bienes y el alguacil encargado de hacer el embargo creyere que los sefialados no son suficientes, embargarA ademis los que considere necesarios, sujetAndose a 1o prescrito en el articulo anterior. Vtanse en el Apindice III, los articulos de referencia.

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135 When a personal bond is declared sufficient, the amount for which the bondsman is to answer shall also be fixed. ART. 593. The mortgage bond may be substituted by another one in cash, public securities or bonds, and other movables of those enumerated in article 591 in the following proportion: The value of the property of the mortgage shall be double that in cash fixed for the bond, that of bonds or securities one-fourth more than the latter at the market price. If the substitution should be made by any other movables given in pledge, the value of the latter must be double that of the cash bond. ART. 594. The property constituting the mortgage and pignorative bonds shall be appraised by two experts appointed by the examining judge or court taking cognizance of the cause, and the titles of property relating to the estates offered in mortgage shall be examined by the public prosecutor and must be declared to be sufficient by the said judge or court when proper. ART. 595. The mortgage bond may be executed by means of a public instrument or apud acta, there being issued in the latter case the proper mandate for its inscription in the registry of property. After the mandate has been returned by the register it shall be attached to the cause. The receipt showing the deposit of the cash shall also be attached thereto, as well as that for the public securities and other obligations in the cases in which the bond is thus constituted. ART. 596. An appeal lies from the decision of the judge classifying the sufficiency of the bonds. ART. 597. If upon the day following the notification of the decision rendered in accordance with the provisions of article 589 no bond should be furnished, the attachment of property of the accused shall be proceededwith, he being requested to indicate property sufficient to cover the amount which may have been fixed for the pecuniary liabilities. ART. 598. If the accused should not be found, the request shall be made of his wife, children, agent, servants or persons found in his residence. If no one should be found therein, or if the accused or agent, in a proper case, should not desire to designate property, such property as is believed to belong to the accused shall be attached, the order established in article 1445 of the law of civil procedure being observed under the prohibition contained in articles 1446 and 1447 of the same.1 ART. 599. When they indicate property and the sheriff charged with levying the attachment should not consider it sufficient, he shall attach furthermore such property as he may consider necessary, subject to the provisions of the foregoing article. 'See in Appendix III the articles referred to.

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136 ART. 600. Si los bienes embargados consistieran en metilico, efectos pfblicos, valores mercantiles 6 industriales cotizables, alhajas de oro, plata 6 pedreria, se depositaran en el establecimiento p6blico destinado al efecto; los demis bienes muebles se entregarin en dep6sito, bajo inventario por el encargado de hacer el embargo, al vecino con casa abierta que nombre. El depositario firmara la diligencia del recibo, obligandose a conservar los hienes a disposici6n del juez 6 tribunal que conozca de la causa, 6 en otro caso, a pagar la cantidad para cuyo afianzamiento se haya hecho el embargo, sin perjuicio de la responsabilidad criminal en que pudiere incurrir. El depositario podra recoger y conservar en su poder los bienes embargados, 6 dejarlos bajo su responsabilidad, en el domicilio del procesado. ART. 601. Si los bienes embargados fueren semovientes, se requerira al procesado para que manifieste si opta por que se enajenen 6 por que se conserven en dep6sito y administration. Si obtare por la enajenaci6n, se procedery *a la venta en pdblica subasta, previa tasaci6n, basta cubrir la cantidad senalada, que se depositary en el establecimiento publico destinado al efecto. Si obtare por el dep6sito y administration, se nombrara por el juez un depositario administrador, que recibira los bienes bajo inventario y se obligara a rendir al juzgado cuenta justificada de sus gastos y productos cuando se le mande. ART. 602. El depositario administrador cuidara de que los semovientes den los productos propios de su clase con arreglo a las circunstancias del pals, y procurara su conservaci6n y aunmento. Si creyere conveniente enajenar todos 6 algunos semovientes, pedira al juzgado la correspondiente autorizaci6n. Se enajenaran, aun contra la voluntad del procesado y la opinion del depositario administrador, sienpre que los gastos de administration y conservaci6n excedan de los productos que dieren, 4 menos que el pago de dichos gastos se asegure por el procesado u otra persona a su nombre. ART. 603. Cuando se embarguen bienes inmuebles, el juez determinarA si el embargo ha de ser 6 no extensivo a sus frutos y rentas. ART. 604. Cuando se decrete el embargo de bienes inmuebles se expedira mandamiento para que se haga la anotaci6n prevenida en la ley hipotecaria. ART. 605. Si se embargaren sementeras, pueblas, plantios, frutos, rentas y otros bienes semejantes, podra el juez decretar, si atendidas

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136 ART. 600. If the property attached should consist of cash, public securities, commercial or industrial securities which are quoted, gold or silver jewelry, or precious stones, they shall be deposited in the public establishment set aside for the purpose; other personal property shall be deposited in accordance with an inventory by the person entrusted with the attachment, with the resident having an office he may designate. The depositary shall sign a receipt, binding himself to preserve all the property subject to the orders of the judge or court having cognizance of the cause, or otherwise to pay the amount for the security of which the attachment may have been made, without prejudice to the criminal liability he may incur. The depositary may collect and preserve in his possession the property attached or leave it under his liability in the residence of the accused. ART. 601. If the property attached should consist of live stock, the accused shall be required to state whether he wishes the same sold or kept in deposit and administration. Should he wish its sale, the sale thereof shall be proceeded with at public auction after its appraisal, to the extent necessary to cover the amount fixed, which shall be deposited in the public establishment set aside for the purpose. Should he choose the deposit and administration thereof, the judge shall appoint a depositary-administrator, who shall receive the property under inventory and shall bind himself to render to the court a properly vouched account of his expenses and profits upon demand. ART. 602. The depositary-administrator shall see that the live stock give the profits pertaining to their class in accordance with the conditions of the country, and shall endeavor to preserve and increase the same. Should he deem it advisable to sell all or some stock, he shall request the proper authorization of the court. They shall be sold, even against the will of the accused and the opinion of the depositary-administrator, whenever the cost of administration and preservation exceeds the profits they give, unless the payment of said expenses be assured by the accused or by another person on his behalf. ART. 603. When real property is attached, the judge shall decide whether or not the attachment is to extend to its fruits and rents. ART. 604. When the attachment of real property is decreed, a mandate shall be issued ordering that the notice be entered which the mortgage law requires. ART. 605. If plantings, fruits, rents, or other similar property should be attached, the judge may decree, if he should deem it advisable in 18473-0118

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137 las circunstancias lo creyere conveniente, que continmie administrandolos el procesado por si 6 por medio de la persona que design, en cuvo caso nombrari un interventor. En el caso de que el procesado manifestare no querer administrar por si, 6 de que el juez no estimare convenient confiarle la administraci6n, se nombrara persona que se encargue de ella, pudiendo en este caso designar el procesado un interventor de su confianza. ART. 606. El juez determinard, bajo su responsabilidad, si el administrador ha de afianzar el buen cumplimiento del cargo y el importe de la fianza en su caso. ART. 607. El administrador tendra derecho a una retribuci6n1.0 Del 1 por ciento sobre el producto liquido de la venta de frutos. 2.0 Del 5 por ciento sobre los productos liquidos de la administration quo no procedan de la causa expresada en el pirrafo anterior. Si no se enajenaren bienes, 6 no hubiere productos liquidos, el juez senalara el premio que haya de percibir el administrador, seg6n la costumbre del pueblo en que la administration se ejerza. ART. 608. El administrador pondri en conocimiento del interventor los actos administrativos que se proponga ejecutar, y si 6ste no los creyere convenientes, le hara las observaciones oportunas. Pero si el administrador insistiere en lievar a efecto los actos administrativos 6 que se hubeise opuesto el interventor, dara iste cuenta al juez, quien resolvers lo mas conveniente. ART. 609. Cuando el administrador no hubiese dado fianza, el interventor tendra una de las 11aves del local 6 area en quo se custodien los frutos 6 se deposit el precio de su venta, 6 adoptari cl juez las medidas quo creyere convenientes para evitar todo perjuicio. ART. 610. Si el embargo consistiera en pensiones 6 sueldos, se pasar4 oficio i quien hubiere de satisfacerlos para que detenga la part que determina el articulo 1449 de la ley de enjuiciamiento civil.1 So alzara la retenci6n luego que quede cubierta la cantidad mandada afianzar. ART. 611. Si durante el curso del juicio sobrevinieren motivos bastantes para creer que las responsabilidades pecuniarias que en definitiva puedan exigirse excederan dela cantidad prefijada para asegurarlas, se mandara por auto ampliar la fianza 6 embargo. ART. 612. Tambien se dictars auto mandando reducir la fianza v el embargo a menor cantidad que la prefijada, si resultasen motivos bastantes para creer que la cantidad mandada afianzar es superior a las V6ase en el Apendice III el artfculo de referencia.

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137 view of the circumstances, that the accused continue administering the same in person or through the person he may designate, in which case an intervenor will be appointed. Should the accused express a desire not to administer it himself, or if the judge should not deem it advisable to entrust the administration to him, a person to take charge thereof shall be appointed, in which case the accused may appoint an intervenor in whom he has confidence. ART. 606. The judge shall determine, under his liability, whether the administrator is to give bond for the faithful discharge of his duties and the amount thereof in a proper case. ART. 607. The administrator shall be entitled to a compensation: 1. Of one per cent of the net proceeds of the sale of products. 2. Of five per cent of the net proceeds of the administration not arising from the cause mentioned of the foregoing paragraph. If no property should be sold or there should be no net proceeds, the judge shall fix the sum which the administrator is to receive, according to the customs of the town in which the administration is conducted. ART. 608. The administrator shall inform the intervenor of the administrative acts which he proposes to take, and if the latter should not consider them advisable he shall make the proper remarks. If the administrator should insist in carrying out the administrative acts to which the intervenor may have objected, the latter shall report to the judge, who shall decide what may be advisable. ART. 609. If the administrator should not have given bond, the intervenor shall keep one of the keys of the place or storehouse in which the products are kept or in which the proceeds of their sale are deposited, or the judge shall take the measures he may deem advisable to prevent any loss. ART. 610. If the attachment should be of pensions or salaries, a communication shall be addressed to the person who is to pay the same in order that he may retain such portion thereof as is prescribed by article 1449 of the law of civil procedure. The detention shall be raised as soon as the amount ordered secured has been covered. ART. 611. If during the course of the action sufficient causes should arise to lead to a presumption that the pecuniary liabilities which may definitely be required will exceed the amount previously fixed to secure the same, the bond or attachment shall be ordered increased by a decree of the court. ART. 612. An order shall also issue requiring the reduction of the bond and the attachment to a lesser amount than that fixed, should there be sufficient cause to believe that the amount of the same is higher 'See in Appendix III the article referred to.

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138 responsabilidades pecuniarias que en definitiva pudieren imponerse al procesado. ART. 613. Cuando legue el caso de tender que hacer efectivas las responsabilidades pecuniarias a que se refiere este titulo, se procedera de la manera prescrita en el articulo 536. ART. 614. En todo Jo que no est6 previsto en este titulo, los jueces y tribunales aplicaran 1o dispuesto en la legislaci6n civil sobre fianzas y embargos.

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188 than the pecuniary liabilities which may definitely be imposed on the accused. ART. 613. If it shall become necessary to enforce the pecuniary liabilities referred to in this title, the provisions prescribed by article 536 shall be observed. ART. 614. Judges and courts shall apply the provisions of the civil laws on bonds and attachments in all that is not provided for in this title.

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TITULO X. DE LA RESPONSABILIDAD CIVIL DE TERCERAS PERSONAS.' ART. 615. Cuando en la instrucci6n del sumario aparezca indicada la existencia de la responsabilidad civil de un tercero con arreglo A los articulos respectivos del c6digo penal, 6 por haber participado alguno por titulo lucrativo de los efectos del delito, el juez, a instancia del. actor civil, exigira fianza a la persona contra quien resulte la responsabilidad, 6 en su defecto embargars, con arreglo a lo dispuesto en el titulo IX de este libro, los bienes que sean necesarios. ART. 616. La persona a quien se exigiere la fianza 6 cuyos bienes fueren embargados, podra durante el sunario manifestar por escrito las razones que tenga para que no se la considere civilmente responsable, y las pruebas que pueda ofrecer para el mismo objeto. ART. 617. El juez darn vista del escrito a la parte a quien inteiese, y esta lo evacuar en el termino de tres dias, proponiendo tambien las pruebas que deban practicarse en apoyo de su pretension. ART. 618. Seguidamente el juez decretard la prtctica de las pruebas propuestas y resolvers sobre las pretensiones formuladas, siempre que pudiere hacerlo sin retraso, ni perjuicio del objeto principal de la instruccion. ART. 619. Para todo lo relativo a la responsabilidad civil de un tercero y a los incidentes A que diere lugar la ocupaci6n y en su dia la restituci6n de cosas que se hallaren en su poder, se formara pieza sepai ada, pero sin que por ningun motivo se entorpezca ni suspenda el curso de la instrucci6n. ART. 620. Lo dispuesto en los articulos anteriores se observara tambien respecto a cualquiera pretension que tuviere por objeto la restituci6n a su duefno de alguno de los efectos a instrumentos del delito que se hallaren en poder de un tercero. 'En el c6digo penal determinan los articulos 17 4 19, qud personas son subsidiariamente responsables de la devoluci6n de la cosa objeto del delito, reparaci6n del dafio causado 6 indemnizaci6n de perjuicios; y el 126 del mismo, sanciona en todo caso la obligation de restituir los efectos de un hecho punible adquiridos 4 tftulo lucrativo. ( Tase el Apindice II.) 139

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TITLE X. CIVIL LIABILITY OF THIRD PERSONS.1 ART. 615. If during the course of the sumario the existence of civil liability of a third person is indicated in accordance with the respective articles of the penal code, or on account of any person having acquired profit from the effects of the crime without consideration, the judge, at the instance of the civil plaintiff, shall require a bond of the person against whom the liability appears, or in his absence he shall attach, in accordance with the provisions of title IX of this book, such property as may be necessary. ART. 616. The person of whom a bond is required or whose property is attached may, during the course of the sum ario, state in writing his reasons for not being considered civilly liable, and the evidence he can offer to the same end. ART. 617. The judge shall refer the document to the party interested, and the latter shall return the same within the period of three days, also.suggesting the evidence to be taken in support of his contention. ART. 618. Thereupon the judge shall decree the taking of the evidence proposed and shall pass upon the claims made, provided that he can do so without retrogression or prejudice to the principal object of the examination. ART. 619. A separate record shall be made of all that relates to the civil liability of a third person and to the incidents which the occupation may occasion, and at the proper time the restitution of the things which may be in his possession, but without in any manner hindering or suspending the course of the examination. ART. 620. The provisions of the foregoing articles shall also be observed with regard to any claim for the restitution to their owner of any of the effects and instruments of the crime in the possession of a third person. I Articles 17 to 19 of the Penal Code specify what persons are subsidiarily liable for the return of the thing, the object of the crime, the repair of the damage caused or indemnity for losses; and article 126 of the same sanctions in every case the obligation of restoring the effects of a punishable act acquired without a good consideration. (See Appendix I.) 139

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140 La restituci6n a su dueno de los instruments y objetos del delito no podr verificarse en ningdn caso hasta despues que se haya celebrado el juicio oral, excepto en el previsto en el articulo 844 de esta ley. ART. 621. Los autos dictados en estos incidentes se Ilevarin at efecto, sin perjuicio de que las partes 4 quienes perjudiquen puedan reproducir sus pretenciones en.el juicio oral, 6 de la acci6n civil correspondiente, que podrin entahlar en otro caso.

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140 The restitution to their owner of the instruments and objects of the crime can never take place until after the oral trial has been held, excepting in the case mentioned in article 844 of this law. ART. 621. The orders made in these incidents shall be executed without prejudice to the parties injured thereby renewing their claims at the oral trial, or to the proper civil action, which they may otherwise bring.

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TITULO XI. DE LA CONCLUSIdN DEL SUXARIO Y DEL SOBRESEIMIENTO. CAPITULO PRIMERO. DE LA CONCLUSION DEL SUMARIO. ART. 622. Practicadas las diligencias decretadas de oficio 6 a instancia de parte por el juez instructor, si ste considerase terminado el sumario, 1o declarara asi, mandando remitir los autos y las piezas de convicci6n al tribunal competente para conocer del delito. Cuando no haya acusador privado y el ministerio fiscal considere que en el sumario se han reunido los suficientes elementos para hacer la calificaci6n de los hechos y poder entrar en el tramite del juicio oral, lo hard presente al juez de instrucci6n para que sin mas dilaciones se remita lo actuado al tribunal competente.' Vase en el Apindice I, la Orden No. 181 de 30 de Abril de 1900. Con 10 dispuesto en el present capftulo, guardan alguna relaci6n las dos siguientes consults hechas en 1887 A la fiscalfa del Tribunal Supremo: En las causas para cuyo conocimiento sea competente una sala de 1o criminal por la calidad de 1as personas contra quienes se dirija el procedimiento, zpuede aquilla dictar providencias mandando pasar los procesos al fiscal para que pida lo que crea procedente respect de la investigaci6n? Conclufda la instrucci6n de las diligencias del sumario en dichas causes, cuando por delegaci6n las instruya un juez de instrucci6n, z,4 quidn corresponded dictar el auto de terminaci6n del sumario? La contestaci6n (Instrucci6n 17 de la MAemoria de 1887) fu6 como sigue: En cuanto A la primer parte es indudable que la sala puede hacer 1o que indica la consulta. No hay motivo alguno para que se abstenga el fiscal de pedir la prictica de las diligencias que juzgue pertinentes, puesto que en la instrucci6n de estos sumarios, como en la de todos, ejerce el ministerio piiblico su inspecci6n con arreglo A la ley. Por 1o que hace A la segunda, la facultad de declarar concluso el sumario en las causes A que la consulta se refiere, pertenece como en todos los procesos al juez instructor, el cual, aunque haya recibido delegaci6n de la audiencia para instruir el sumario, ejerce durante la instrucci6n funciones propias 6 independientes con arreglo al pdrrafo tercero del artfculo 303 de la ley de enjuicismiento criminal. Ann cuando aparezsa que un procesado se halls exento de responsabilidad, el juez instructor no puede abstenerse de practicer todas las diligencias esenciales del sumario. (Exposici6n del Fiscal del Tribunal Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1888, nimr. 19) Para las actuaciones del sumario establecidas desde el articulo que anotamos al 633, 141

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TITLE XI. CONCLUSION OF THE SUMARIO AND DISMISSAL OF PROCEEDINGS. CHAPTER FIRST. CONCLUSION OF THE SUMARIO. ART. 622. After the proceedings decreed at the instance of the court or of a party have been held by the examining judge, if the latter should consider the swnario concluded he shall so state, transmitting the records of the proceedings and exhibits to the court competent to take cognizance of the crime. If there be no private accuser and the public prosecutor shall consider that sufficient elements have been collected in the surario to make the classification of the acts and to begin the proceedings of the oral trial, he shall so inform the judge of examination in order that the proceedings had may be forwarded to the court of competent jurisdiction without delay.' 'See in Appendix I, Order No. 181, of April 30, 1900. The two following questions, submitted to the office of the fiscal of the Supreme Court in 1887, bear some relation to the provisions of this chapter: "In causes in which a criminal chamber is competent, by reason of the character of the persons against whom the proceedings are brought, can said chamber make orders transmitting the records to the fiscal, for him to request what he may deem proper as to the investigation? "Upon the conclusion of the proceedings of the sumario in such cases, when they are conducted by a judge of examination by delegation, who is competent to decree the termination of the sumario f The answer (Instruction 17 of the report of 1887) was as follows: "With regard to the first, there is no doubt as to the power of the chamber to do so. "There is no reason whatsoever for the fiscal to abstain from demanding the taking of such steps as he may deem pertinent, because in the conduction of these sumtarios, as well as in that of all of them, the public prosecutor exercises his supervision in accordance with law. "With regard to the second, the power to declare the termination of a sumario in the causes referred to in the question is vested, as in all processes, in the examining judge, who, even though he shall have been delegated by the audiencia to conduct the sumario, exercises during the proceedings proper and independent functions in accordance with the third paragraph of article 303 of the law of criminal procedure." Even though it shall appear that an accused person is exempt from liability, the examining judge can not abstain from holding all the essential proceedings of the sumario. (Report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, number 12.) Days upon which courts and tribunals are not sitting in accordance with law art 141

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142 ART. 623. Tanto en uno como en otro caso se notificarit el auto do conclusion del sumario al querellante particular, si le hubiese, aun son hibiles los dfas en que los juzgados y tribunales vacaren con sujeci6n a la ley. (Ezposici6n del Fiscal del Tribuwl Supremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1888, mimero 13.) A varies fiscales de audiencias ha ocurrido la duda de si, dado el espfritu de la ley de enjuiciamiento criminal, y la letra de sus artfculos 622 y 630, pueden el juez de instrucci6n y la audiencia, en sus respectivos casos, declarar que no esti terminado un sumario, y acordar la practice de diligencias en contra de la opinion del ministerio fiscal. La cuesti6n que se propone es una de las mds importantes y de mayor dificultad que ofrece la aplicaci6n del nuevo sistema de procedimientos criminales. Para resolverla, hay que tener muy en cuenta el principio a que obedece la reform del enjuiciamiento en 1o criminal, y las solemnes declaraciones que se consignan en el notable preimbulo de la ley vigente. El principio acusatorio, que informal el nuevo sistema, conduce l6gicamente hacia la resolution en determinado sentido. Cierto es que ese principio no se ha desarroIlado por complete, pero cierto es tambi6n que 6 sus efectos serAn casi ilusorios, 6 han de afectar 4 una cuestion de tanta gravedad 6 importancia. Separadas las funciones de la instrucci6n sumarial, de las que competen al tribunal sentenciador; encargadas aqudllas a un juez hajo la inspecci6n del ministerio fiscal, reservado a 6ste el ejercicio de la acci6n penal, en cuanto significa la representaci6n del interns social, se tienen los puntos de vista, cuyo deseuvolvimiento y consecuencias produce la resoluci6n que se pretende. La letra del segundo parrafo del artfculo 622 de la ley de enjuicimiento criminal contribuye a facilitar dicha resolucin. El lenguaje que emplea la ley estA demonstrando que, respecto al particular de que se trata, el ministerio fiscal no se encuentra en Ia misma situaci6n que ordinariamente ocupa en los asuntos en que interviene. No hace una propuesta en dicho caso, que el juez 6 tribunal ante quien se present es libre pars estimar 6 denegar, segdn entienda procedente. No; el ministerio fiscal, si cree terminado el sumario, 1o manifiesta, to hace presente al juez do instruction, y 6ste no puede desatender esa manifestaci6n, y esta, por tanto, en la necesidad de remitir sin mds dilaciones lo actuado al tribunal competente. He aquf una novedad importantfsima, que viene A descubrir uno de los efectos mes sensibles de la reform del sistema procesal. El juez instructor puede, conforme al primer pdrrafo del citado art. 622, declarar terminado el sumario. Luego el ministerio fiscal examinarn ante la audiencia la resoluci6n judicial, y dira si est3 6 no conforme con ella. Pero ese derecho que en cierto modo, esto es, sujeto a la apreciaci6n que despuds haga el ministerio fiscal, asiste al juez instructor, 1o tiene tambidn, y en tirminos absolutes, el expresado ministerio. Cuando el fiscal, por los medios de inspecci6n que la ley reconoce en la formaci6n de los sumarios entienda que se han Ilenado los fines que pars esas actuaciones exige el articulo 299 de la ley de enjuicismiento criminal, y considere que en el sumario se han reunido los suficientes elementos para hacer la calificaci6n de los hechos y poder entrar en el tramite del juicio oral, tiene expedite el derecho de manifestarlo asf para que se d6 por terminado dicho sumario. En este punto, lo mismo que en todo cuanto constituye la esencia, puede decirse ast, de las funciones encomendadas al ministerio fiscal, no puede ser juez de su conducts ni el de instrucci6n, ni el tribunal que luego ha de sentenciar. Atento el fiscal A las disposiciones legales, dentro de su conciencia, con absoluta independencia de jueces y tribunales, examina, medita y resuelva lo que entiende pro-

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142 ART. 623. In either case notice of the termination of the sunario shall be served upon the private complainant, if there be any, even legal for the proceedings of the sumario provided for in this article up to article 633. (Report of the fiscal of the Supreme Court of September 15, 1883, number 13.) Various fscales of audiencias have been in doubt as to whether, in view of the spirit of the law of criminal procedure and of the letter of articles 622 and 630, the judge of examination or the audiencia, in their respective cases, can declare that a sumario is not terminated and order the taking of steps against the opinion of the prosecuting officials. The question proposed is one of the most important and of the greatest difficulty which the application of the new system of criminal proceedings offers. In order to decide it, it is absolutely necessary to consider the principle which is the basis for the reform in the criminal procedure and the formal declarations which are embodied in the preamble of the law in force. The accusatory principle, which the new system embodies, logically leads to a decision in a specific sense. It is true that this principle has not been fully developed, but it is also true that the effects thereof must be almost illusory, or that they must affect a question of such gravity and importance. By separating the functions of the preliminary investigation from those pertaining to the sentencing court; by intrusting the former to a judge under the supervision of the prosecuting department, reserving to the latter the exercise of the penal action, on behalf of the social interests, the points of view are obtained the development and consequences of which produce the resolution desired. The letter of the second paragraph of article 622 of the Law of Criminal Procedure contributes to facilitate said decision. The language employed in the law shows that, with regard to the point in question, the prosecuting department is not in the same situation which it ordinarily occupies in matters in which it takes part. It does not make a recommendation in such case, which the judge or court to whom it is made is free to accept or reject, as he may deem proper. No; the prosecuting department, if it believes that the sumario is terminated, states this fact, brings it to the attention of the judge of examination, and the latter can not ignore this statement, and is therefore obliged to transmit the proceedings had to the court of competent jurisdiction without further delay. Here we find a most important change, which shows one of the most notable effects of the reform of the system of procedure. The examining judge may, in accordance with the first paragraph of the said article 622, declare the sumario terminated. Thereupon the prosecuting department shall examine the judicial decision before the audiencia, and shall state whether or not he agrees thereto. But this right of the examining judge, subject afterwards to the decision of the prosecuting department, is also vested in absolute terms in the said department. When the fiscal, by the means of the supervision which the law grants him in the conduction of sumarios, is of the opinion that the ends have been attained which article 299 of the law of criminal procedure requires for these proceedings, and shall consider that sufficient elements have been collected in the sumario to make the classification of the acts aid enter upon the proceedings of the oral trial, he has the right to state this fact in order that the sumario may be declared terminated. In this point, as well as in all which constitutes the essence, so to say, of the functions intrusted to the prosecuting department, neither the judge of examination nor the court which is afterwards to pronounce sentence can pass upon his conduct. The fiscal conscientiously observing the legal provisions, absolutely independent of judges and courts, examines, considers, and decides what he may consider proper

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143 cuando s61o tenga el caricter de actor civil, al procesado y a las demis personas contra quienes resulte responsabilidad civil, emplazandoles cedente en un asunto; y asf como no puede recibir una imposici6n que altere su criteria respecto a la calificaci6n que hace de los hechos justiciables, as! tampoco puede, can mayorfa de raz6n, sujetar su opini6n y ajustar so conduct al juicio 6 resoluci6n de quien por iespetables funciones que desemperie no tiene la delicada y alta misi6n de ejercitar la acci6n ptblica en representaci6n de los intereses sociales, cuya defense en primer trmino se le halla confiada. L Significa lo anterior que los tribunales hayan de seguir indefectiblemente siempre la opini6n fiscal? De ning6n modo, porque hay que distinguir aquellos puntos en que el ministerio pdiblico resuelve con la manifestaci6n de so opini6n, de los otros en que, exponiendo su criteria, el tribunal cuenta con la plenitud de facultades que requieren la buena administraci6n de justicia. La dificultad podrA presentarse al distinguir unos de otros asuntos, pero se conseguird veneer con s6lo tener en cuenta la misi6n especial que estd lamado d cumplir el ministerio piblico, que no se confunde ni se puede confundir con la que tienen los tribunales. Cuando se trate de determiner si la acci6n penal estA suficientemente preparada y si se ha de ejercitar 6 no, abriendo el correspondiente juicio, entonces, en ambos casaos, el ministerio fiscal, independientemente, pero bajo s propia responsabilidad, obra como estima acertado, y no se limit a proponer, sino a resolver, salvo cuando haya un acusador privado que opine de distinto modo, en cuyo caso el tribunal puede y debe decidir y fallar con plenitud de facultades. Consecuencia 16gica 6 indeclinable de cuanto se ha expuesto es que el juez de instrucci6n tiene necesidad de seguir el criteria fiscal respecto a declarar terminado el sumario. Rests la segunda parte de la cuesti6n, es decir, la relativa al art. 630 de la citada ley de enjuiciamiento criminal. Para resolverla puede aplicarse todo lo dicho respect al principio acusatorio y esp!ritu de la reform del procedimiento, asf como lo relativo a las especiales funciones del ministerio fiscal como representante de la acci6n piblica. De todo ello result que tambi6n las audiencias 6 salas de 10 criminal se hallan en el mismo deber que los jueces de instrucci6n de declarar terminado un sumario, si el ministerio fiscal as! 10 pide, y no hay acusador privado que lo contradiga. Al Ilegar a esta parte de la consult, hay que tener en cuenta dos circunstancias especiales que pueden afectarla. Consiste la primer en que, as! como tratdndose del juez instructor, puede Eate, conforme al parrafo primero del articulo 622, declarar de oficio terminado el sumario, refiriendose al tribunal sentenciador, no le da la ley esta facultad. Result la segunda del diferente lenguaje que usa dicha ley en el segundo pArrafo del artfculo 622 del que emplea en el 630. Segin la letra de squ61, y aun sin fijarse en otras consideraciones, el juez se hall en la necesidad de resolver conforme el fiscal le hace presente 6 manifiesta. Pero segin la del artfculo 630, no se sujeta al tribunal de una manera express y terminante a la opini6n fiscal. Si la primer circunstancia merece fijar la atenci6n, an influencia se significard en favor de la resoluci6n indicada, puesto que si puede el juez de instrucci6n acordar de oficio la terminaci6n de un sumario, y ello no obstante, ha de sujetarse al criteria del fiscal, con mayorfa de raz6n ha de seguir este criteria el tribunal que de oficio no alcanza ess facultad. La segunda circunstancia no parece al infrascrito que puede merecer tanta importancia, que descubra en la ley una inconsecuencia con el espfritu a que obedece. Ciertamente, el artfculo 630 no dice mas que el tribunal dictard auto confirmado 6

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143 though he should only have the character of a civil plaintiff, upon the accused and upon the other persons who may have incurred civil liain a matter; and as he can not be affected by anything altering his judgment with regard to the classification which he makes of the punishable acts, neither can he, with better reason, subject his opinion and adjust his conduct to the judgment or decision of a person who, whatever high functions he may discharge, does not have the delicate and high mission of exercising the public action on behalf of the social interests, the defense of which is primarily intrusted to him. Does the foregoing signify that courts must invariably follow the opinion of the fiscal? Not at all, because it is necessary to distinguish between those points where the prosecuting department decides with a statement of his opinion, and those in which manifesting his opinion, the court is vested with the full power required for a proper administration of justice. Difficulty may be encountered in distinguishing between these two points, but it can be surmounted by considering the special mission of the prosecuting department, which is not and can not be confounded with that of the courts. When the question is to determine whether the penal action is sufficiently prepared and whether or not it is to be exercised, and a proper action instituted, then, in either case, the prosecuting department shall independently, but under its own liability, act as it may deem proper, and does not limit itself to proposing, but to deciding, unless there shall be a private accuser of a different opinion, in which case the court may and must decide with full powers. A logical and unavoidable consequence of the foregoing is that the judge of examination must follow the judgment of the fiscal with regard to declaring the termination of the sumario. The second part of the question remains, that is to say, that relating to article 630 of the aforesaid law of criminal procedure. In order to decide it, it is necessary to apply all that has been said with regard to the accusatory principle and the spirit of the reform of the procedure, as well as all that relates to the special functions of the prosecuting department as the representative of the public action. It appears hereupon that audiencias or criminal chambers are under the obligation, like judges of examination, to declare a sunario terminated, if the prosecuting department so requests, and there is no private accuser opposing it. In arriving at this point of the question it is necessary to consider two special circumstances which may affect it. The first consists in that the law does not give him this power, as in speaking of the judge of examination the latter may, in accordance with the first paragraph of article 622, declare the sumario terminated, and transmit it to the sentencing court. The second results from the different language used by said law in the second paragraph of article 622 and that of 630. According to the letter of the former, and even without other considerations, the judge is obliged to decide in accordance with what the f1cal reports or states. But according to article 630 the court is not subjected in an express and final manner to the opinion of the fiscal. If the first circumstance deserves attention it must be considered in favor of the decision indicated, because if the judge of examination can order the termination of a sumario at his own instance, and this, notwithstanding, must subject himself to the opinion of the fiscal, there is greater reason for the. court, which can not exercise this power at his own instance, to follow his judgment. The second circumstance the undersigned believes can not deserve so much importance as to discover in the law an inconsistency in its spirit. It is true that article 630 says only that the court shall render a decision affirming

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144 para que comparezean ante la respective audiencia en el termino de diez dias, 6 en el de sesenta si el emplazamiento fuese ante el Supremo. A la vez se pondri en conocimiento del ministerio fiscal cuando la causa verse sobre delito en que tenga intervenci6n por raz6n de su cargo. revocando el del juez de instrucci6n relativo d la terminaci6n del sumario. Pero esto no significa que el tribunal, contra las razones expuestas, tenga facultad para separarse del criterio fiscal. Habra pedido el ministerio fiscal la confirmation 6 revocaci6n del auto expresado, y por eso el tribunal, segun la letra del artfculo 630 podrd confirmar 6 revocar. (Exposisi6n del fiscal del Tribunal fSupremo de 15 de Septiembre de 1883, nmero 25.) Menos decisiva que la expuesta y adn contradictoria es la opinion de la propia fiscalfa, manifestada en la memoria de 15 de Septiembre de 1884, segdn la que la determinaci6n de hallarse concluso el sumario corresponded al juez, "bajo la ms completa libertad de juicio," dice, "dentro de la ley, por una raz6n que excusa la alegaci6n de toda otra; por la de ser el juez inico responsable del acuerdo;" y anade: "la atribuci6n del ministerio fiscal se limit y exigir esa misma responsabilidad, en sn dfa y en su caso, si creyese haber lugar 3 ella." Al tribunal corresponded resolver si precede el sobreseimiento 6 la apertura del juicio oral en el caso en que el ministerio fiscal y el acusado privado opinen de distinta manera. (Circular de la fiscalia del Tribunal Supremo de 19 de Nociembre de 1883.) En la instrucci6n 7. de las que acompafian 6 la memoria de 1886, se recomienda que los fiscales estin d la instruction 25 arriba citada, y afiade: "cuidando de protestar siempre que contra su dictamen se revocare un auto de esta clase." Remitido un sumario 4 la audiencia, deberin notificar