Citation
Indian fairy tales

Material Information

Title:
Indian fairy tales
Creator:
Jacobs, Joseph, 1854-1916 ( Editor )
Batten, John Dickson, 1860-1932 ( Illustrator )
Nutt, David ( Publisher )
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co ( Printer )
J. C. Drummond & Co ( Engraver )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
David Nutt
Manufacturer:
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiv, [1], 255, [2] p., [9] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 22 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Folklore -- Juvenile fiction -- India ( lcsh )
Fairy tales -- Juvenile fiction -- India ( lcsh )
Magic -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Children's stories ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1892 ( lcsh )
Fantasy literature -- 1892 ( rbgenr )
Folk tales -- 1892 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1892 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1892
Genre:
Children's stories
Fantasy literature ( rbgenr )
Folk tales ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
novel ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Title page and title vignette printed in red and black.
General Note:
Illustrations engraved by J.C. Drummond & Co.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisements follow text.
Statement of Responsibility:
selected and edited by Joseph Jacobs ; illustrated by John D. Batten.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026824658 ( ALEPH )
ALH2501 ( NOTIS )
08073658 ( OCLC )

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PRINCESS LABAM



INDIAN
FAIRY TALES







| INDIAN
“Fairy | ALES

SELECTED AND EDITED BY

(Omer tie PA CO BS

EDITOR OF ‘‘FOLK-LORE'

ILLUSTRATED BY

JOEENG De ByAvnay EN



LONDON
ID AN WIEID) ANP WEP a gr SMIPIR AA INT 1D)
1892



[Rights of translation and reproduction reserved |



TO

MY DEAR LITTLE PHIL



Preface

ROM the extreme West of the Indo-



European world, we go this year to the
extreme East. From the soft rain and
green turf of Gaeldom, we seek the
garish sun and arid soil of the Hindoo.
In the Land of Ire, the belief in
fairies, gnomes, ogres and monsters is all but dead; in
the Land of Ind it still flourishes in all the vigour of
animism.

Soils and national characters differ ; but fairy tales are
the same in plot and incidents, if not in treatment. The
majority of the tales in this volume have been known in the
West in some form or other, and the problem arises how
to account for their simultaneous existence in farthest West
and East. Some—as Benfey in Germany, M. Cosquin in
France, and Mr. Clouston in England—have declared that
India is the Home of the Fairy Tale, and that all European

fairy tales have been brought from thence by Crusaders, by



Vill Preface

Mongol missionaries, by Gipsies, by Jews, by traders, by
travellers. The question is still before the courts, and one
can only deal with it as an advocate. So far as my instruc-
tions go, I should be prepared, within certain ‘limits, to hold
a brief for India. So far as the children of Europe have
their fairy stories in common, these—and they form more

are derived from India. In



than a third of the whole
particular, the majority of the Drolls or comic tales and
jingles can be traced, without much difficulty, back to the
Indian peninsula. |

Certainly there is abundant evidence of the early trans-
mission by literary means of a considerable number of drolls
and folk-tales from India about the time of the Crusaders.
The collections known in Europe by the titles of The Fables
of Bidpat, The Seven Wise Masters, Gesta Romanorum, and ;
Barlaam and Josaphat, were extremely popular during the
Middle Ages, and their contents passed on the one hand
into the Exempla of the monkish preachers, and on the
other into the WVovelle of Italy, thence, after many days, to
contribute their quota to the Elizabethan Drama. Perhaps
nearly one-tenth of the main incidents of European folk-
tales can be traced to this source.

There are even indications of an earlier literary contact
between Europe and India, in the case of one branch of the

folk-tale, the Fable or Beast Droll. In a somewhat elabo-





Preface ix
rate discussion * I have come to the conclusion that a
goodly number of the fables that pass under the name of
the Samian slave, A’sop, were derived from India, probably
from the same source whence the ene tales were utilised
in the Jatakas, or Birth-stories of Buddha. These Jatakas
contain a large quantity of genuine early Indian folk-
tales, and form the earliest collection of folk-tales in the
world, a sort of Indian Grimm, collected more than two
thousand years before the good German brothers went on
their quest among the folk with such delightful results.
For this reason I have included a considerable number of
them in this volume; and shall be surprised if tales that
have roused the laughter and wonder of pious Buddhists
for the last two thousand years, cannot produce the same
effect on English children. The Jatakas have been fortu-
nate in their English translators, who render with vigour
and point; and I rejoice in being able to publish the
translation of two new Jatakas, kindly done into English for
this volume by Mr. W. H. D. Rouse, of Christ’s College,
Cambridge. In one of these I think I have traced the
source of the Tar Baby incident in ‘ Uncle Remus.”
Though Indian fairy tales are the earliest in existence,
yet they are also from another point of view the youngest.

* “ History of the A‘sopic Fable,” the introductory volume to my
edition of Caxton’s Fadles of Esope (London, Nutt, 1889).



x Preface

For it is only about twenty-five years ago that Miss Frere
began the modern collection of Indian folk-tales with her
charming “Old Deccan Days” (London, John Murray,
1868; fourth edition, 1889). Her example has been followed
by Miss Stokes, by Mrs. Steel, and Captain (now Major)
Temple, by the Pandit Natesa Sastri, by Mr. Knowles and |
Mr. Campbell, as well as others who have published folk-
tales in such periodicals as the Indian Antiquary and The
Orientalist. The story-store of modern India has been well
dipped into during the last quarter of a century, though the
immense range of the country leaves room for any number
of additional workers and collections. Even so far as the
materials already collected go, a large number of the com-
monest. incidents in European folk-tales have been found in
India. Whether brought there or born there, we have
scarcely any criterion for judging; but as some of those
still current among the folk in India can be traced back
more than a millennium, the presumption is in favour of an
Indian origin.

From all these sources—from the Jatakas, from the
Bidpai, and from the more recent collections—I have
selected those stories which throw most light on the origin
of Fable and Folk-tales, and at the same time are most
likely to attract English children. JI have not, however,

included too many stories of the Grimm types, lest I



Preface xi

_should repeat the contents of the two preceding volumes
of this series, - This has to some degree weakened the case
for India as represented by this book. The need of catering
for the young ones has restricted my selection from the
well-named ‘‘ Ocean of the Streams of Story,” Katha-Sarit
Sagara of Somadeva. The stories existing in Pali and
Sanskrit I have taken from translations, mostly from the
German of Benfey or the vigorous English of Professor
Rhys- Davids, whom I have to thank for permission to use
his versions of the Jatakas.

I have been enabled to make this book a representative
collection of the Fairy Tales of Ind by the kindness of the
original collectors or their publishers. I have especially to
thank Miss Frere, who kindly made an exception in my
favour, and granted me the use of that fine story, “ Punch-
kin,” and that quaint myth, “ How Sun, Moon, and Wind
went out to Dinner.” Miss Stokes has been equally
gracious in granting me the use of characteristic speci-
mens from her “Indian Fairy Tales.” To Major Temple
I owe the advantage of selecting from his admirable
Wideawake Stories, and Messrs, Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.
have allowed me to use Mr. Knowles’ “ Folk-tales of
Kashmir,” in their Oriental Library ; and Messrs. W. H.
Allen have been equally obliging with regard to Mrs.

Kingscote’s “Tales of the Sun.” Mr, M. L. Dames has



Xi Preface

enabled me add to the published story-store of India by
granting me the use of one from his inedited collection of
Baluchi folk-tales.

I have again to congratulate myself on the co-operation
of my friend Mr. J. D. Batten in giving beautiful or amusing
form to the creations of the folk fancy of the Hindoos. It
is no slight thing to embody, as he has done, the glamour
and the humour both of the Celt and of the Hindoo. It is
only a further proof that Fairy Tales are something more

than Celtic or Hindoo. They are human.

JOSEPH JACOBS.



Il.

{Il.

IV.

Vv.

VI.

VII.

VIII,

Ix.

XII.

XIII.

XIV.

Contents

- THE LION AND THE CRANE.

HOW THE RAJA’S SON WON THE FRINCESS LABAM
THE LAMBIKIN

PUNCHKIN

THE BROKEN POT

THE MAGIC FIDDLE.

THE CRUEL CRANE OUTWITTED

LOVING LAILI

THE TIGER, THE BRAHMAN, AND THE JACKAL
THE SOOTHSAYER’S SON

HARISARMAN 2

THE CHARMED RING .

THE TALKATIVE TORTOISE .

A LAC OF RUPEES FOR A PIECE OF ADVICE

PAGE

I

oc
46
51
66

70

go
100

103



XIV

XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
XX.
XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVHI.

XXIX,

Contents

THE GOLD-GIVING SERPENT .

THE SON OF SEVEN QUEENS . .

A LESSON FOR KINGS

PRIDE GOETH BEFORE A FALL

RAJA RASALU

THE ASS IN THE LION’S SKIN

THE FARMER AND THE MONEY-LENDER .

THE BOY WHO HAD A MOON ON HIS FOREHEAD AND A

STAR ON HIS CHIN
THE PRINCE AND THE FAKIR
WHY THE FISH LAUGHED
THE DEMON WITH THE MATTED HAIR

THE IVORY CITY AND ITS FAIRY PRINCESS
SUN, MOON, AND WIND GO OUT TO DINNER
HOW THE WICKED SONS WERE DUPED

THE PIGEON AND THE CROW . tA im . . z

NOTES AND REFERENCES,

PAGE
Iz

115

150

152

156
179
186

194
199
218.

(221

227





Full-page Illustrations

PRINCESS LABAM . ; ; : ; : 5 5 : Frontispiece
THE LION AND THE CRANE , ; ; : 5 To face page 2
PUNCHKIN a 36
LOVING LAILI. 3 : ; : ee ; : es 64
THE CHARMED RING ee 96
THE SON OF SEVEN QUEENS . 120
RAJA RASALU : 5 A - 0 146
BOY WITH MOON ON FOREHEAD see . : . 58 165
DEMON WITH MATTED HAIR. © ‘ . : fi a 196

(Plates, vignettes, initials, and cuts are from ‘‘ process’? blocks supplied by

Messrs. J. C. Drummond & Co. of Covent Garden. ]



The Lion and the Crane

crane; now Brahmadatta was at that
time reigning in Benares. Now it
chanced that as a lion was eating
meat a bone stuck in his throat.

The throat became swollen, he could
not take food, his suffering was terrible. The crane seeing
him, as he was perched on a tree looking for food, asked,
‘‘What ails thee, friend?” He told him why. ‘I could
free thee from that bone, friend, but dare not enter
thy mouth for fear thou mightest eat me.” ‘“ Don’t be
afraia friend, I’ll not eat thee ; only save my life.” ‘‘ Very
well,” says he, and caused him to lie down on his left side.
But thinking to himself, “Who knows what this fellow will
do,” he placed a small stick upright between his two jaws
that he could not close his mouth, and inserting his head
inside his mouth struck one end of the bone with his beak.
Whereupon the bone dropped and fel’ ut. As soon as he
had caused the bone to fall, he got out of the lion’s mouth,
striking the stick with his beak so that it fell out, and then
A





2 Indian Fairy Tales

settled on a branch. The lion gets well, and one day was
eating a buffalo he had killed. The crane thinking “I
will sound him,” settled on a branch just over him, and in

conversation spoke this first verse :

‘ A service have we done thee:
To the best of our ability,
King of the Beasts! Your Majesty !
What return shall we get from thee ?”

In reply the Lion spoke the second verse :

‘As I feed on blood,
And always hunt for prey,
’Tis much that thou art still alive
Having once been between my teeth.”

Then in reply the crane said the two other verses :

‘Ungrateful, doing no good,
; Not doing as he would be done by,
In him there is no gratitude,
To serve him is useless.

“His friendship is not won
By the clearest good deed.
Better softly withdraw from him,
Neither envying nor abusing.”

And having thus spoken the crane flew away.

And when the great Teacher, Gautama the Buddha, told
this tale, he used to add: “Now at that time the lon was
Devadatta the Traitor, but the white crane was I myself.”





MarR
LG



CRANE

THE LION AND THE







How the Raja’s Son won the
Princess Labam.

A country there was a Raja who had an
only son who every day went out to hunt.
One day the Rani, his mother, said to
him, ‘‘ You can hunt wherever you like
on these three sides ; but you must never



go to the fourth side.” This she said
because she knew if he went on the fourth side he would
hear of the beautiful Princess Labam, and that then he
would leave his father and mother and seek for the princess.

The young prince listened to his mother, and obeyed her
for some time; but one day, when he was hunting on the
three sides where he was allowed to go, he remembered what
she had said to him about the fourth side, and he determined
to go and see why she had forbidden him to hunt on that
side. When he got there, he found himself in a jungle, and
nothing in the jungle but a quantity of parrots, who lived in
it. The young Raja shot at some of them, and at once they
all flew away up to the sky. All, that is, but one, and this
was their Raja, who was called Hiraman parrot.



4 Indian Fairy Tales

When Hiraman parrot found himself left alone, he called
out to the other parrots, “ Don’t fly away and leave me alone
- when the Raja’s son shoots, If you desert me like this, I will
tell the Princess Labam.” ?

Then the parrots all flew back to their Raja, chattering.
The prince was greatly surprised, and said, “Why, these birds
can talk!” Then he said to the parrots, ‘‘ Who is the
Princess Labam ? Where does she live?” But the parrots
would not tell him where she lived. ‘‘ You can never get to
the Princess Labam’s country.” That is all they would say.

The prince grew very sad when they would not tell him
anything more ; and he threw his gun away, and went home.
When he got home, he would not speak or eat, but lay on
his bed for four or five days, and seemed very ill.

At last he told his father and mother that he wanted to go
and see the Princess Labam. “I must go,” he said; ‘1
must see what she is like. Tell me where her country is.”

)

“We do not know where it is,” answered his father and

mother.
. “Then I must go and look for it,” said the prince.

“No, no,” they said, ‘‘ you must not leave us. You are
our only son. Stay with us. You will never find the
Princess Labam.” :

“‘T must try and find her,” said the prince. “ Perhaps
God will show me the way. If I live and I find her, I will
come back to you; but perhaps I shall die, and then I shall
never see you again. Still I must go.

_ So they had to let him go, though they cried very much
at parting with him. His father gave him fine clothes to
wear, and a fine horse. And he took his gun, and his bow
and arrows, and a great many other weapons, “for,” he



The Princess Labam 5

said, “I may want them.” His father, too, gave him plenty
of rupees.

Then he himself got his horse all ready for the journey,
and he said good-bye to his father and mother; and his
mother took her handkerchief and wrapped some sweetmeats
in it, and gave it to her son. “ My child,” she said to him,
‘When you are hungry eat some of these sweetmeats.”

He then set out on his journey, and rode on and on till he
came to a jungle in which were a tank and shady trees. He
bathed himself and his horse in the tank, and then sat down
under a tree. ‘‘ Now,” he said to himself, “ I will eat some
of the sweetmeats my mother gave me, and I will drink

’

some water, and then I will continue my journey.” He opened
his handkerchief, and took out a sweetmeat. He found an
ant in it. He took out another. There was an ant in that
one too. So he laid the two sweetmeats on the ground, and
he took out another, and another, and another, until he had
taken them all out; but in each he found an ant. ‘“‘ Never
mind,” he said, ““T won’t eat the sweetmeats ; the ants shall
eat them.” Then the Ant-Raja came and stood before him
and said, ‘‘ You have been good to us. If ever. you are in
trouble, think of me and we will come to you.”

The Raja’s son thanked him, mounted his horse and con-
tinued his journey. He rode on and on until he came to
another jungle, and there he saw a tiger who had a thorn in
his foot, and was roaring loudly from the pain.

“Why do you roar like that?” said the young Raja.
“What is the matter with you ?”

“T have had a thorn in my foot for twelve years,”
answered the tiger, ‘and it hurts me so; that is why I roar.”

“Well,” said the Raja’s son, “I will take it out for you.



\

6 Indian Fairy Tales

But perhaps, as you are a tiger, when I have made you

well, you will eat me?”



“Oh, no,” said the tiger, “I won’t eat you. Do make
me well.”

Then the prince took a little knife from his pocket, and
cut the thorn out of the tiger’s foot ; but when he cut, the
tiger roared louder than ever—so loud that his wife heard
him in the next jungle, and came bounding along to see
what was the matter. The tiger saw her coming, and hid
the prince. in the jungle, so that she should not see him.

“What man hurt you that you
roared so loud ?” said the wife.




‘““No one hurt me,” answered
Ase :
bos _# the husband ; ‘‘but a Raja’s son

Ve
1

“came and took the thorn out of




my foot.”

‘“Where is he ? Show him to me,” said his wife.

“If you promisé not to kill him, I will call him,” said the
tiger.



The Princess Labam 7

’ answered his

“YT won't kill him; only let me see him,’
wife.

Then the tiger called the Raja’s son, and when he came
the tiger and his wife made him a great many salaams.
Then they gave him a good dinner, and he stayed with them
for three days. Every day he looked at the tiger’s foot, and
the third day it was quite healed. Then he said good-bye
to the tigers, and the tiger said to him, “If ever you are in
trouble, think of me, and we will come to you.”

The Raja’s son rode on and on till he came to a third
jungle. Here he found four fakirs whose teacher and master
had died, and had left four things,—a bed, which carried
whoever sat on it whithersoever he wished to go; a bag, that
gave its owner whatever he wanted, jewels, food, or clothes ;
a stone bowl that gave its owner as much water as he wanted,
no matter how far he might be from a tank; and a stick and
rope, to which its owner had only to say, if any one came to
make war on him, “ Stick, beat as many men and soldiers
as are here,” and the stick would beat them and the rope
would tie them up.

The four fakirs were quarrelling over these four things.

One said, “I want this ;”
)

another said, ‘‘ You cannot have
it, for I want it;” and so on. ‘

The Raja’s son said to them, ‘‘Do not quarrel for these
things. I will shoot four arrows in four different directions,
Whichever of you gets to my first arrow, shall have the first
thing—the bed. Whosoever gets to the second arrow, shall
have the second thing—the bag. He who gets to the third
arrow, shall have the third thing—the bowl. And he who
gets to the fourth arrow, shall have the last things——the stick

and rope.” To this they agreed, and the prince shot off his



8 | Indian Fairy Tales

first arrow. Away raced the fakirs to get it. When they
brought it back to him he shot off the second, and when
they had found and brought it to him he shot off his third,
and when they had brought him the third he shot off the
fourth.

While they were away looking for the fourth arrow the
Raja’s son let his horse loose in the jungle, and sat on the
bed, taking the bowl, the stick and rope, and the bag with
him. Then he said, ‘‘Bed, I wish to go to the Princess
Labam’s country.” The little bed instantly rose up into
the air and began to fly, and it flew and flew till it came to
the Princess Labam’s country, where it settled on the
ground. The Raja’s son asked some men he saw, ‘‘ Whose
country is this ?”

“The Princess Labam’s country,” they answered. Then
the prince went on till he came to a house where he saw an
old woman. .

“Who are you?” she said. “ Where do you come from?”

“T come from a far country,” he said; “do let me stay
‘with you to-night.

“No,” she answered, “I cannot let you stay with me;
for our king has ordered that men from other countries may
not stay inhis country. You cannot stay in my house.”

“You are my aunty,” said the prince; “ let me remain
with you for this one night. You see it is evening, and if
I go into the jungle, then the wild beasts will eat me.”

“Well,” said the old woman, ‘‘you may stay here
to-night ; but to-morrow morning you must go away, for if
_the king hears you have passed the night in my house, he
will have me seized and put into prison.”

- Then she took him into her house, and the Raja’s son



The Princess Labam 9

was very glad. The old woman began preparing dinner,
but he stopped her, “Aunty,” he said, “I will give you
food.” He put his hand into his bag, saying, “Bag, I
want’ some dinner,” and the bag gave him instantly a-
delicious dinner, served up on two gold plates. The old
woman and the Raja’s son then dined together.

When they had finished eating, the old woman said,
‘‘ Now I will fetch some water.”

‘‘Don’t go,” said the prince. ‘‘ You shall have plenty of
water directly.” So he took his bowl and said to it,
“Bowl, I want some water,” and then it filled with water.
When it was full, the prince cried out, ‘‘Stop, bowl,” and
the bowl stopped filling. “See, aunty,’ he said, ‘‘ with
this bowl I can always get as much water as I want.”

By this time night had come. “ Aunty,” said the Raja’s
son, “ why don’t you light a lamp?”

“There is no need,” she said. “Our king has for-
bidden the people in his country to light any lamps; for, as
soon as it is dark, his daughter, the Princess Labam, comes
and sits on her roof, and she shines so that she lights
up all the country and our houses, and we can see to do
our work as if it were day.”

When it was quite black night the princess got up. She
dressed herself in her rich clothes and jewels, and rolled up
her hair, and across her head she put a band of diamonds.
and pearls. Then she shone like the moon, and her beauty
made night day. She came out of her room, and sat on
the roof of her palace. In the daytime she never came out.
of her house; she only came out at night. All the people
in her father’s country then went about their work and
finished it. 4



10 Indian Fairy Tales

The Raja’s son watched the princess quietly, and was
very happy. He said to himself, ‘‘ How lovely she is!”

At midnight, when everybody had gone to bed, the
princess came down from her roof, and went to her room ;
and when she was in bed and asleep, the Raja’s son got up
softly, and sat on his bed. “Bed,” he said to it, ‘‘I want
to go to the Princess Labam’s bed-room.” So the little
bed carried him to the room where she lay fast asleep.

The young Raja took his bag and said, “I want a great
deal of betel-leaf,” and it at once gave him quantities of
betel-leaf. This he laid near the princess’s bed, and then
his little bed carried him back to the old woman’s house.

Next morning all the princess’s servants found the betel-
leaf, and began to eat it. ‘Where did you get all that
betel-leaf?” asked the princess.

“We found it near your bed,” answered the servants.
Nobody knew the prince had come in the night and put it
all there.

In the morning the old woman came to the Raja’s son.

?

‘“Now it is morning,” she said, “‘and you must go; for if
, ? > J

the king finds out all I have done for you, he will seize
me.”

“Tl am ill to-day, dear aunty,” said the prince; “do let
me stay till to-morrow morning.”

“Good,” said the old woman. So he stayed, and they
took their dinner out of the bag, and the bowl gave
them water. :

When night came the princess got up and sat on her
roof, and at twelve o’clock, when every one was in bed, she
went to her bed-room, and was soon fast asleep. Then
the Raja’s son sat on his bed, and it carried him to the



The Princess Labam II

princess. He took his bag and said, ‘‘ Bag, I want a most
lovely shawl.” It gave him a splendid shawl, and he
spread it over the princess as she lay asleep. Then he
went back to the old woman’s house and slept till morning.

In the morning, when the princess saw the shawl she
was delighted. ‘See, mother,” she said; ‘ Khuda must
have given me this shawl, it is so beautiful.” Her mother
was very glad too.

“Yes, my child,” she said ; ‘‘ Khuda must have given you
this splendid shawl.”

When it was morning the old woman said to the Raja’s
son, ‘‘Now you must really go.”

“ Aunty,” he answered, “I am not well enough yet.
Let me stay a few days longer. I will remain hidden in
your house, so that no one may see me.” So the old
woman let him stay.

When it was black night, the princess put on her lovely
clothes and jewels, and sat on her roof. At midnight she
went to her room and went to sleep. Then the Raja’s son
sat on his bed and flew to her bed-room. ‘There he said
to his bag, ‘“‘ Bag, I want a very, very beautiful ring.” The
bag gave him a glorious ring. Then he took the Princess
Labam’s hand gently to put on the ring, and she started up
very much frightened.

““Who are you?” she said to the prince. ‘Where do
you come from? Why do you come to my room?”

“Do not be afraid, princess,” he said; “I am no thief.
I am a great Raja’s son. Hiraman parrot, who lives in the
jungle where I went to hunt, told me your name, and then
I left my father and mother, and came to see you.”

‘““ Well,” said the princess, “as you are the son of such a





12 Indian Fairy Tales

great Raja, I will not have you killed, and I will tell my
father and mother that I wish to marry you.”

The prince then returned to the old woman’s house; and
when morning came the princess said to her mother, “‘ The
son of a great Raja has come to this country, and I wish to
marry him.” Her mother told this to the king.

“Good,” said the king; “but if this Raja’s son wishes
to marry my daughter, he must first do whatever | bid
him. If he fails I will kill him. I will give him eighty
pounds weight of mustard seed, and out of this he must
crush the oil in one day. If he cannot do this he
shall die.”

In the morning the Raja’s son told the old woman that
he intended to marry the princess. ‘ Oh,” said the old
woman, “ go away from this country, and do not think of
marrying her. A great many Rajas and Rajas’ sons have
come here to marry her, and her father has had them all
killed. He says whoever wishes to marry his daughter
must first do whatever he bids him. If he can, then he
shall marry the princess; if he cannot, the king will have
“him killed. But no one can do the things the king tells
him to do; so all the Rajas and Rajas’ sons who have tried
have been put to death. You will be killed too, if you try.
Do go away.” But the prince weuld not listen to anything
she said.

The king sent for the prince to the old woman’s house,
and his servants brought the Raja’s son to the king’s court-
house to the king. There the king gave him eighty pounds
of mustard seed, and told him to crush all the oil out of it
that day, and bring it next morning to him to the court-
house. ‘‘ Whoever wishes to marry my daughter,” he



The Princess Labam 13

said to the prince, “must first do all I tell him. If he
cannot, then I have him killed. So if you cannot crush all
the oil out of this mustard seed, you will die.”

The prince was very sorry when he heard this. ‘‘ How
can I crush the oil out of all this mustard seed in one
day?” he said to himself; ‘and if I do not, the king will
kill me.” He took the mustard seed to the old woman's
house, and did not know what to do. At last he remem-
bered the Ant-Raja, and the moment he did so, the Ant-
Raja and his ants came to him. ‘ Why do you look so
sad?” said the Ant-Raja.

The prince showed him the mustard seed, and said to
him, “ How can I crush the oil out of all this mustard seed
in one day? And if I do not take the oil to the king
to-morrow morning, he will kill me.”

“Be happy,” said the Ant-Raja; “lie down and sleep ;
we will crush all the oil out for you during the day, and
to-morrow morning you shall take it to the king.” The
Raja’s son lay down and slept, and the ants crushed out
the oil for him. The prince was very glad when he saw
the oil.

_, The next morning he took it to the court-house to the
king. But the king said, ‘You cannot yet marry my
daughter. If you wish to do so, you must first fight with
my two demons and kill them.” The king a long time ago
had caught two demons, and then, as he did not know what
to do with them, he had shut them up in a cage. He was
afraid to let them loose for fear they would. eat up all the
people in his country; and he did not know how to kill
them. So all the kings and kings’ sons who wanted to
marry the Princess Labam had to fight with these demons ;



14 | Indian Fairy Tales

“for,” said the king to himself, “ perhaps the demons may
be killed, and then I shall be rid of them.”

When he heard of the demons the Raja’s son was very
sad. ‘ What can I do?” he said to himself. ‘‘ How can
I fight with these two demons?” Then he thought’ of his
tiger: and the tiger and his wife came to him and said,
“Why are you so sad?” The Raja’s son answered, “‘ The
king has ordered me to fight with his two demons and kill

ce

= AT





them. How can I do this?” “Do not be frightened,”
said the tiger. “Be happy. I and my wife will fight with
them for you.”

Then the Raja’s son took out of his bag two splendid
coats. They were all gold and silver, and covered with
pearls and diamonds. These he put on the tigers to make
them beautiful, and he took them to the king, and said to
him, “May these tigers fight your demons for me?”
“Yes,” said the king, who did not care in the least who









The Princess Labam 15

killed his demons, provided they were killed. ‘Then call
your demons,” said the Raja’s son, “and these tigers will
fight them.” The king did so, and the tigers and the.
demons fought and fought until the tigers had killed the
' demons. :

‘That is good,” said the king. ‘‘ But you must do some-
thing else before I give you my daughter. Up in the sky
I have a kettle-drum. You ot go and beat it. If you
cannot do this, I will kill you.”

The Raja’s son thought of his little Bee so he went to
the old woman’s house and sat on his had, “ Little bed,”
he said, ‘‘up in the sky is the king’s kettle-drum. I want
to go to it.” The bed flew up with him, and the Raja’s son
beat the drum, and the king heard him. Still, when he
came down, the king would not give him his daughter.
“You have,” he said to the prince, ‘‘done the three things
I told you to do; but you must do one thing more.” ‘If
I can, I will,” said the Raja’s son. .

Then the king showed him the trunk of a tree that was
lying near his court-house. It was a very, very thick
trunk, He gave the prince a wax hatchet, and said, “ To-
morrow morning you must cut this trunk in two with this
wax hatchet.”

The Raja’s son went back to the old woman’s house.
He was very sad, and thought that now the Raja would
certainly killhim. “IT had his oil crushed out by the ants,”
he said to himself. ‘‘T had his demons killed by the tigers.
My bed helped me to beat his kettle-drum. But now what
can I do? How can I cut that thick tree-trunk in two
with a wax hatchet ?”

At night he went on his bed to see the princess. ‘‘To-





16 Indian Fairy Tales

morrow,” he said to her, “your father will kill me.”
“Why ?” asked the princess.

“ He has told me to cut a thick tree-trunk in two with a
wax hatchet. How can I ever do that?” said the Raja’s
son. ‘Do not be afraid,” said the princess; ‘‘ do as I bid
you, and you will cut it in two quite easily.”

Then she pulled out a hair from her head, and gave it to
the prince. ‘‘ To-morrow,” she said, ‘‘ when no. one is near
you, you must say to the tree-trunk, ‘The Princess Labam
commands you to let yourself be cut in two by this hair.’
Then stretch the hair down the edge of the wax hatchet’s
blade.”

The prince next day did exactly as the princess had told
him; and the minute the hair that was stretched down the
edge of the hatchet-blade touched the tree-trunk it split into
two pieces.

The king said, ‘‘Now you can marry my daughter.”
Then the wedding took place. All the Rajas and kings of
the countries round were asked to come to it, and there
were great rejoicings. After a few days the prince’s son
said to his wife, ‘‘ Let us go to my father’s country.” The
Princess Labam’s father gave them a quantity of camels
and horses and rupees and servants; and they travelled
in great state to the prince’s country, where they lived
happily.

The prince always kept his bag, bowl, bed, and stick ;
only, as no one ever came to make war on him, he never
needed to use the stick.



The Lambikin

NCE upon a time there was a wee wee
Lambikin, who frolicked about on his
little tottery legs, and enjoyed himself
amazingly.

Now one day he set off to visit his



Granny, and was jumping with joy to
think of all the good things he should get from her, when
who should he meet but a Jackal, who looked at the tender
young morsel and said: “ Lambikin! Lambikin! VU Eat ~
YOUR

But Lambikin only gave a little frisk



and said:

‘To Granny’s house I go,
Where I shall fatter grow,



Then you can eat me so.”

Dee

The Jackal thought this reasonable, and let Lambikin
pass.

By-and-by he met a Vulture, and the Vulture, looking
hungrily at the tender morsel before him, said: ‘‘ Lambikin !
Lambikin! VIL rear YOU!”



18 Indian Fairy Tales
But Lambikin only gave a little frisk, and said:

“To Granny’s house I go,
Where I shall fatter grow,
Then you can eat me so.”

The Vulture thought this reasonable, and



> let Lambikin pass.

Hye ewe, ‘And by-and-by he met a Tiger, and then
a Wolf, and a Dog, and an Eagle, and all these, when
they saw the tender little morsel, said: ‘ Lambikin!
Lambikin! IT’ll rar YOU!”

But to all of them Lambikin replied, with a little frisk :

“To Granny’s house I go,
Where I shall fatter grow,
Then you can eat me so.”



At last he reached his Granny’s house,

Vane laee ee

and said, all in a great hurry, ‘‘ Granny, dear, I’ve promised

to get very fat; so, as people ought to keep their promises,
please put me into the corn-bin af once.”

So his Granny said he was a good boy, and put him into
the corn-bin,. and there the greedy little Lambikin stayed
for seven days, and ate, and ate, and ate, until he could
scarcely waddle, and his Granny said he was fat enough
for anything, and must go home. But cunning little Lambi-
kin said that would never do, for some animal would be sure
to eat him on the way back, he was so plump and tender.

” said Master Lambikin,

“Il tell you what you must do,
“you must make a little drumikin out of the skin of my
little brother who died, and then I can sit inside and trundle

along nicely, for I’m as tight as a drum myself.”



The Lambikin 1g

So his Granny made a nice little drumikin out of his
brother’s skin, with the
wool inside, and Lambikin -
curled himself up snug and
warm in the middle, and



trundled away gaily. Soon
he met with the Eagle, who called out:

“ Drumikin ! Drumikin !
Have you seen Lambikin? ”

And Mr. Lambikin, curled up in his soft warm nest
replied :
“Fallen into the fire, and so will you
On little Drumikin. Tum-pa, tum-too!”

““How very annoying!” sighed the Eagle, thinking
regretfully of the tender morsel he had let slip.
Meanwhile Lambikin trundled along, laughing to himself,
and singing :
““Tum-pa, tum-too ;
Tum-pa, tum-too! ”

Every animal and bird he met asked him the same
question :

“ Drumikin ! Drumikin !
Have you seen Lambikin ?”

And to each of them the little slyboots replied :

‘‘ Fallen into the fire, and so will you
On little Drumikin. Tum-pa, tum too ;
Tum-pa, tum-too; Tum-pa, tum-too !”



20 Indian Fairy Tales

Then they all sighed to think of the tender little morsel
they had let slip.

At last the Jackal came limping along, for all his sorry
looks as sharp as a needle, and he too called out—

“ Drumikin! Drumikin !
Have you seen Lambikin ?”

And Lambikin, curled up in his snug little nest, replied
gaily :
“Fallen into the fire, and so will you

”



On little Drumikin! Tum-pa

But he never got any further, for the Jackal recognised
his voice at once, and cried: “Hullo! you’ve turned your-
self inside out, have you? Just you come out of that!”

Whereupon he tore open Drumikin and gobbled up

Lambikin.































Punchkin

ERS NCE upon a time there was a Raja who
N2 had seven beautiful daughters. They
were all good girls; but the youngest,
named Balna, was more clever than the
rest. The Raja’s wife died when they



were quite little children, so these seven
poor Princesses were left with no mother to take care of
them.

The Raja’s daughters took it by turns to. cook their
father’s dinner every day, whilst he was absent deliberating
with his Ministers on the affairs of the nation.

About this time the Prudhan died, leaving a widow and
one daughter; and every day, every day, when the seven



22 | Indian Fairy Tales

Princesses were preparing their father’s dinner, the Prudhan’s
widow and daughter would come and beg for a little fire
from the hearth. Then Balna used to say to her sisters,
“Send that woman away ; send her away. Let her get the
fire at her own house. What does she want with ours.?
If we allow her to come here, we shall suffer for it some
day.”
But the other sisters would answer, ‘‘ Be quiet, Balna;
why must you always be quarrelling with this poor woman ?
Let her take some fire if she likes.” Then the Prudhan’s
widow used to go to the hearth and take a few sticks from
it ; and whilst no one was looking, she would quickly throw
some mud into the midst of the dishes which were being
prepared for the Raja’s dinner.

Now the -Raja was very fond of his daughters. Ever
since their mother’s death they had cooked his dinner with
their own hands, in order to avoid the danger of his being
poisoned by his enemies. So, when he found the mud
mixed up with his dinner, he thought it must arise from
their carelessness, as it did not seem likely that any one
should have put mud there on purpose; but being very
kind he did not like to reprove them for it, although this
spoiling of the curry was repeated many successive days.

At last, one day, he determined to hide, and watch his
daughters cooking, and see how it all happened; so he
went into the next room, and watched them through a hole
in the wall.

There he saw his seven daughters carefully washing the
rice and preparing the curry, and as each dish was com-
pleted, they put it by the fire ready to be cooked. Next
he noticed the Prudhan’s widow come to the door, and beg



Punchkin 23

for a few sticks from the fire to cook her dinner with.
Balna turned to her, angrily, and said, ‘‘ Why don’t you
keep fuel in your own house, and not come here every day
and take ours? Sisters, don’t give this woman any more
wood; let her buy it for herself.

Then the eldest sister answered, ‘ Balna, let the poor
woman take the wood and the fire; she does us no harm.”
But Balna replied, “If you let her come here so often,
maybe she will do us some harm, and make us sorry for
it, some day.”

The Raja then saw the Prudhan’s widow go to the
place where all his dinner was nicely prepared, and, as
she took the wood, she threw a little mud into each of the
dishes.

At this he was very angry, and sent to have the woman
seized and brought before him. But when the widow came,
she told him that she had played this trick because she
wanted to gain an audience with him; and she spoke so
cleverly, and pleased him so well with her cunning words,
that instead of punishing her, the Raja married her, and
made her his Ranee, and she and her daughter came to live
in the palace.

Now the new Ranee hated the seven poor Princesses, and
wanted to get them, if possible, out of the way, in order
that her daughter might have all their riches, and live in
the palace as Princess in their place ; and instead of being
grateful to them for their kindness to her, she did all she
could to make them miserable. She gave them nothing but
bread to eat, and very little of that, and very little water to
drink ; so these seven poor little Princesses, who had been
accustomed to have everything comfortable about them, and



24 Indian Fairy Tales

good food and good clothes all their lives long, were very
miserable and unhappy ; and they used to go out every
day and sit by their dead mother’s tomb and cry—and



say:

‘(Oh mother, mother, cannot you see your poor children,
how unhappy we are, and how we are starved by our cruel
step-mother ? ”

One day, whilst they were thus sobbing and crying, lo
and behold! a beautiful pomelo tree grew up out of the
grave, covered with fresh ripe pomeloes, and the children
satisfied their hunger by eating some of the fruit, and every

_day after this, instead of trying to eat the bad dinner their

step-mother provided for them, they used to go out to their
mother’s grave and eat the pomeloes which grew there on
the beautiful tree.

Then the Ranee said to her daughter, ‘I cannot tell how
it is, every day those seven girls say they don’t want any
dinner, and won't eat any; and yet they never grow thin
nor look ill; they look better than you do. I cannot tell
how it is.” And she bade her watch the seven Princesses,
and see if any one gave them anything to eat.

So next day, when the Princesses went to their mother’s
grave, and were eating the beautiful pomeloes, the Prudhan’s
daughter followed them, and saw them gathering the fruit.

Then Balna said to her sisters, ‘‘Do you not see that
girl watching us? Let us drive her away, or hide the
pomeloes, else she will go and tell her mother all about it,
and that will be very bad for us.”

But the other sisters said, ‘‘Oh no, do not be unkind,
Balna. The girl would never be so cruel as to tell her
mother. Let us rather invite her to come and have some





Punchkin 215

of the fruit.” And calling her to them, they gave her one
of the pomeloes.

No sooner had she eaten it, however, than the Prudhan’s
daughter went home and said to her mother, ‘I do not
wonder the seven Princesses will not eat the dinner you
prepare for them, for by their mother’s grave there grows
a beautiful pomelo tree, and they go there every day and
eat the pomeloes. I ate one, and it was the nicest I have
ever tasted.”

The cruel Ranee was much vexed at hearing this, and
all next day she stayed in her room, and told the Raja
that she had a very bad headache. The Raja was
deeply grieved, and said to his wife, ‘‘ What can I do for
you?” She answered, ‘‘There is only one thing that
will make my headache well. By your dead wife’s tomb
there grows a fine pomelo tree; you must bring that here,
and boil it, root and branch, and put a little of the water in
which it has been boiled, on my forehead, and that will cure
my headache.” So the Raja sent his servants, and had
the beautiful pomelo tree pulled up by the roots, and did as
the Ranee desired and when some of the water, in which
it had been boiled, was put on her forehead, she said her
headache was gone and she felt quite well.

Next day, when the seven Princesses went as usual to
the grave of their mother, the pomelo tree had disappeared.
Then they all began to cry very bitterly.

Now there was by the Ranee’s tomb a small tank, and
as they were crying they saw that the tank was filled with
a rich cream-like substance, which quickly hardened into a
thick white cake. At seeing this all the Princesses were
very glad, and they ate some of the cake, and liked it ;-and



26 Indian Fairy Tales

next day the same thing happened, and so it went on for
many days. Every morning the Princesses went to their
mother’s grave, and found the little tank filled with the
nourishing cream-like cake. Then the cruel step-mother
said to her daughter: “I cannot tell how it is, I have had
the pomelo tree which used to grow by the Ranee’s grave
destroyed, and yet the Princesses grow no thinner, nor
look more sad, though they never eat the dinner I give
them. I cannot tell how it is!”

And her daughter said, ‘‘ I will watch.”

Next day, while the Princesses were eating the cream
cake, who should come by but their step-mother’s daughter.
Balna saw her first, and said, ‘‘ See, sisters, there comes
that girl again. Let us sit round the edge of the tank and
not allow her to see it, for if we give her some of our cake,
she will go and tell her mother; and that will be very un-
fortunate for us.

The other sisters, however, thought Balna unnecessarily
suspicious, and instead of following her advice, they gave
the Prudhan’s daughter some of the cake, and she went
home and told her mother all about it.

The Ranee, on hearing how well the Princesses fared,
was exceedingly angry, and sent her servants to pull down
the dead Ranee’s tomb, and fill the little tank with the
ruins. And not content with this, she next day pretended
to be very, very ill—in fact, at the point of death—and
when the Raja was much grieved, and asked her whether it
was in his power to procure her any remedy, she said to

_ him: “ Only one thing can save my life, but I know you
will not do it.” He replied, “ Yes, whatever it is, I will
do it.” She then said, ‘“‘ To save my life, you must kill the



Punchkin 25)

seven daughters of your first wife, and put some of their
blood on my forehead and on the palms of my hands, and
their death will be my life.” At these words the Raja
was very sorrowful; but because he feared to break his
word, he went out with a heavy heart to find his daughters.

He found them crying by the ruins of their mother's
grave.

Then, feeling he could not kill them, the Raja spoke
kindly to them, and told them to come out into the jungle
with him; and there he made a fire and cooked some rice, and
gave it to them. But in the afternoon, it being very hot,
the seven Princesses all fell asleep, and when he saw they
were fast asleep, the Raja, their father, stole away and left
them (for he feared his wife), saying to himself: “It is
better my poor daughters should die here, than be killed by
their step-mother.”

He then shot a deer, and returning home, put some of
its blood on the forehead and hands of the Ranee, and she
thought then that he had really killed the Princesses, and
said she felt quite well.

Meantime the seven Princesses awoke, and when they
found themselves all alone in the thick jungle they were
much frightened, and began to call out as loud as they
could, in hopes of making their father hear; but he was
by that time far away, and would not have been able to
hear them even had their voices been as loud as thunder.

It so happened that this very day the seven young sons
of a neighbouring Raja chanced to be hunting in that same
jungle, and as they were returning home, after the day’s
sport was over, the youngest Prince said to his brothers:
“Stop, I think I hear some one crying and calling out.





28 Indian Fairy Tales

Do you not hear voices? Let us go in the direction of the
sound, and find out what it is.”

So the seven Princes rode through the wood until they
came to the place where the seven Princesses sat crying
and wringing their hands. At the sight of them the young
Princes were very much astonished, and still more so on
learning their story; and they settled that each should
take one of these poor forlorn ladies home with him, and
marry her.

So the first and eldest Prince took the eldest Princess
home with him, and married her.

And the second took the second ;

And the third took the third ;

And the fourth took the fourth ;

And the fifth. took the fifth ;

And the sixth took the sixth ;

And the seventh, and the handsomest of all, took the
beautiful Balna. °

And when they got to their own land, there was great
rejoicing throughout the kingdom, at the marriage of the
seven young Princes to seven such beautiful Princesses.

About a year after this Balna had a little son, and his
uncles and aunts were so fond of the boy that it was as if
he had seven fathers and seven mothers. None of the
other Princes and Princesses had any children, so the son
of the seventh Prince and Balna was acknowledged their
heir by all the rest.

They had thus lived very happily for some time, when
one fine day the seventh Prince (Balna’s husband) said he
would go out hunting, and away he went; and they waited
long for him, but he never came back.





Punchkin 29

Then his six brothers said they would go and see what
had become of him; and they went away, but they also did
not return.

And the seven Princesses grieved very much, for they
feared that their kind husbands must have been killed.

One day, not long after this had happened, as Balna was
rocking her baby’s cradle, and whilst her sisters were
working in the room below, there came to the palace door
a man in a long black dress, who said that he was a Fakir,
and came to beg. The servants said to him, ‘‘ You cannot
go into the palace—the Raja’s sons have all gone away;
we think they must be dead, and their widows cannot be
interrupted by your begging.” But he said, “I am a holy
man, you must let me in.” Then the stupid servants let
him walk through the palace, but they did not know that
this was no Fakir, but a wicked Magician named Punchkin.

Punchkin Fakir wandered through the palace, and saw
many beautiful things there, till at last he reached the room
where Balna sat singing beside her little boy’s cradle. The
Magician thought her more beautiful than all the other
beautiful things he had seen, insomuch that he asked her to
go home with him and to marry him. But she said, ‘ My
husband, I fear, is dead, but my little boy is still quite
young; I will stay here and teach him to grow up a clever
man, and when he is grown up he shall go out into the
world, and try and learn tidings of his father. Heaven
forbid that I should ever leave him, or marry you.” At
these words the Magician was very angry, and turned her
into a little black dog, and led her away; saying, “Since
you will not come with me of your own free will, I will
make you.” So the poor Princess was dragged away,



30 Indian Fairy Tales

without any power of effecting an escape, or of letting her
sisters know what had become of her. As Punchkin
passed through the palace gate the servants said to him,
‘‘Where did you get that pretty little dog?” And he
answered, “(One of the Princesses gave it to me as a
present.” At hearing which they let him go without
further questioning.

Soon after this, the six elder Princesses heard the little
baby, their nephew, begin to cry, and when they went
upstairs they were much surprised to find him all alone, and
Balna nowhere to be seen. Then they questioned the
servants, and when they heard of the Fakir and the little
black dog, they guessed what had happened, and sent in
every direction seeking them, but neither the Fakir nor the
dog were to be found. What could six poor women do?
They gave up all hopes of ever seeing their kind husbands,
and their sister, and her husband, again, and devoted
themselves thenceforward to teaching and taking care of
their little nephew.

Thus time went on, till Balna’s son was fourteen years
old. Then, one day, his aunts told him the history of the
family ; and no sooner did he hear it, than he was seized
with a great desire to go in search of his father and mother
and uncles, and if he could find them alive to bring them
home again. His aunts, on learning his determination,
were much alarmed and tried to dissuade him, saying, ‘‘ We
have lost our husbands, and our sister and her husband,
and you are now our sole hope ; if you go away, what shall
we do?” But he replied, “I pray you not to be discouraged ;
I will return soon, and if it is possible bring my father and
mother and uncles with me.” So he set out on his travels ;



Punchkin | or

but for some months he could learn nothing to help him in
his search.

At last, after he had journeyed many hundreds of weary
miles, and become almost hopeless of ever hearing anything
further of his parents, he one day came to a country that
seemed full of stones, and rocks, and trees, and there he saw
a large palace with a high tower; hard by which was a
Malee’s little house.

As he was looking about, the Malee’s wife saw him, and
ran out of the house and said, “My dear boy, who are you
that dare venture to this dangerous place?” He answered,
“T am a Raja’s son, and I come in search of my father,
and my uncles, and my mother whom a wicked enchanter
bewitched.” i

Then the Malee’s wife said, ‘This country and _ this
palace belong to a great enchanter ; he is all powerful, and
if any one displeases him, he can turn them into stones and
trees. All the rocks and trees you see here were living
people once, and the Magician turned them to what they
now are. Some time ago a Raja’s son came here, and
shortly afterwards came his six brothers, and they were all
turned into stones and trees; and these are not the only
unfortunate ones, for up in that tower lives a beautiful
Princess, whom the Magician has kept prisoner there for
twelve years, because she hates him and will not marry
him,”

Then the little Prince thought, “These must be my
parents and my uncles. I have found what I seek at last.”
So he told his story to the Malee’s wife, and begged her to
help him to remain in that place awhile and inquire further
concerning the unhappy people she mentioned; and she



Be Indian Fairy Tales

promised to befriend him, and advised his disguising
himself lest the Magician should see him, and turn him
likewise into stone. To this the Prince agreed. So the
Malee’s wife dressed him up in a saree, and pretended that
he was her daughter.

One day, not long after this, as the Magician was walking
in his garden he saw the little girl (as he thought) playing
about, and asked her who she was. She told him she was
the Malee’s daughter, and the Magician said, ‘You .are a
pretty little girl, and to-morrow you shall take a present of
flowers from me to the beautiful lady who lives in the
tower.

The young Prince was much delighted at hearing this,
and went immediately to inform the Malee’s wife; after
consultation with whom he determined that it would be
more safe for him to retain his disguise, and trust to the
chance of a favourable opportunity for establishing some
communication with his mother, if it were indeed she.

Now it happened that at Balna’s marriage her husband
had given her a small gold ring on which her name was
engraved, and she had put it on her little son’s finger when
he was a baby, and afterwards when he was older his aunts
had had it enlarged for him, so that he was still able to
wear it. The Malee’s wife advised him to fasten the well-
known treasure to one of the bouquets he presented to his
mother, and trust to her recognising it. This was not to
be done without difficulty, as such a strict watch was kept
over the poor Princess (for fear of her ever establishing
communication with her friends), that though the supposed
Malee’s daughter was permitted to take her flowers every
day, the Magician or one of his slaves was always in the





Punchkin 23

room at the time. At last one day, however, opportunity
favoured him, and when no one was looking, the boy tied
the ring to a nosegay, and threw it at Balna’s feet. It fell
with a clang on the floor, and Balna, looking to see what
made the strange sound, found the little ring tied to the
flowers. On recognising it, she at once believed the story
her son told her of his long search, and begged him to
advise her as to what she had better do; at the same time
entreating him on no account to endanger his life by trying
to rescue her. She told him that for twelve long years
the Magician had kept her shut up in the tower because she
refused to marry him, and she was so closely guarded that
she saw no hope of release.

Now Balna’s son was a bright, clever boy, so he said,
“Do not fear, dear mother; the first thing to do is to
discover how far the Magician’s power extends, in order
that we may be able to liberate my father and uncles,
whom he has imprisoned in the form of rocks and trees.
You have spoken to him angrily for twelve long years ;
now rather speak kindly. Tell him you have given up all
hopes of again seeing the husband you have so. long
mourned, and say you are willing to marry him. Then
endeavour to find out what his power consists in, and
whether he is immortal, or can be put to death,”

Balna determined to take her son’s advice ; and the next
day sent for Punchkin, and spoke to him as had been
suggested.

The Magician, greatly delighted, begged her to allow the
wedding to take place as soon as possible. :

But she told him that before she married him he must
allow her a little more time, in which she might make his

c



34. Indian Fairy Tales

acquaintance, and that, after being enemies so long, their
friendship could but strengthen by degrees. ‘‘And do tell
me,” she said, “ are you quite immortal? Can death never
touch you? And are you too great an enchanter ever to
feel human suffering ?”

“Why do you ask ?” said he.

‘‘ Because,” she replied, ‘‘if I am to be your wife, I would
fain know all about you, in order, if any calamity threatens
you, to overcome, or if possible to avert it.”

“Tt is true,” he added, “that I am not as others. Far,
far away, hundreds of thousands of miles from this, there
lies a desolate country covered with thick jungle. In the
midst of the jungle grows a circle of palm trees, and in the
centre of the circle stand six chattees full of water, piled
one above another: below the sixth chattee is a small cage
which contains a little green parrot; on the life of the
parrot depends my life; and if the parrot is killed I must
die. It is, however,” he added, ‘‘ impossible that the parrot
should sustain any injury, both on account of the inaccessi-
bility of the country, and because, by my appointment,
many thousand genii surround the palm trees, and kill all
who approach the place.”

Balna told her son what Punchkin had said; but at the same
time implored him to give up all idea of getting the parrot.

The Prince, however, replied, “ Mother, unless | can get
hold of that parrot, you, and my father, and uncles, cannot
be liberated: be not afraid, I will shortly return. Do you,
meantime, keep the Magician in good humour—still putting
off your marriage with him on various pretexts ; and before
he finds out the cause of delay, I will be here.” So
saying, he went away.







Punchkin Bis

Many, many weary miles did he travel, till at last he
came to a thick jungle; and, being very tired, sat down
under a tree and fell asleep. He was awakened by a soft
rustling sound, and looking about him, saw a large serpent
which was making its way to an eagle’s nest built in the
tree under which he lay, and in the nest were two young
eagles. The Prince seeing the danger of the young birds,
drew his sword, and killed the serpent; at the same
moment a rushing sound was heard in the air, and the two
old eagles, who had been out hunting for food for their young
ones, returned. They quickly saw the dead serpent and
the young Prince standing over it; and the old mother
eagle said to him, ‘“ Dear boy, for many years all our young
ones have been devoured by that cruel serpent; you
have now saved the lives of our children ; whenever you
are in need, therefore, send to us and we will help you;
and as for these little eagles, take them, and let them
be your servants.”

At this the Prince was very glad, and the two eaglets
crossed their wings, on which he mounted ; and they carried
him far, far away over the thick jungles, until he came to
the place where grew the circle of palm trees, in the midst
of which stood the six chattees full of water. It was the
middle of the day, and the heat was very great. All round
the trees were the genii fast asleep; nevertheless, there
were such countless thousands of them, that it would have
been quite impossible for any one to walk through their
ranks to the place; down swooped the strong-winged
eaglets—down jumped the Prince; in an instant he had
overthrown the six chattees full of water, and seized the
little green parrot, which he rolled up in his cloak ; while,



36 Indian Fairy Tales

as he mounted again into the air, all the genii below awoke,
and finding their treasure gone, set up a wild and melan-
choly howl.

Away, away flew the little eagles, till they came to their
home in the great tree; then the Prince said to the old
eagles, ‘‘ Take back your little ones; they have done me.
good service; if ever again I stand in need of help, I will
not fail to come to you.” He then continued his journey
on foot till he arrived once more at the Magician’s palace,
where he sat down at the door and began playing with the
parrot. Punchkin saw him, and came to him quickly, and
said, “ My boy, where did you get that parrot? Give it to
me, I pray you.”

But the Prince answered, ‘‘Oh no, I cannot give away
my parrot, it is a great pet of mine; I have had it many
years.”

Then the Magician said, ‘If it is an old favourite, I can
understand your not caring to give it away; but come
what will you sell it for ?”

“Sir,” replied the. Prince, “I will not sell my
parrot.”

Then Punchkin got frightened, and. said, ‘‘ Anything,
anything; name what price you will, and it shall be
yours.” The Prince answered, ‘(Let the seven Raja’s
sons whom you turned into rocks and trees be instantly
liberated.”

‘Tt is done as you desire,” said the Magician, ‘‘ only give
me my parrot.” And with that, by a stroke of his wand,
Baina’s husband and his brothers resumed their natural
shapes. ‘“ Now, give me my parrot,” repeated Punchkin.

“Not so fast, my master,” rejoined the Prince; ‘‘ 1 must







st A
See

Ns) he











pa



Punchkin a7

first beg that you will restore to life all whom you have
thus imprisoned.”

The Magician immediately waved his wand again; and,
whilst he cried, in an imploring voice, “Give me my

1?

parrot!” the whole garden became suddenly alive: where
rocks, and stones, and trees had been before, stood Rajas,
and Punts, and Sirdars, and mighty men on prancing
horses, and jewelled pages, and troops of armed attendants.

“Give me my parrot!” cried Punchkin. Then the boy
took hold of the parrot, and tore off one of its wings; and
as he did so the Magician’s right arm fell off.

Punchkin then stretched out his left arm, crying, ‘“‘ Give
me my parrot!’’ ‘The Prince pulled off the parrot’s second
wing, and the Magician's left arm tumbled off.

““Give me my parrot!” cried he, and fell on his knees.
The Prince pulled off the parrot’s right leg, the Magician’s
right leg fell off: the Prince pulled off the parrot’s left leg,
down fell the Magician’s left.

‘Nothing remained of him save the limbless body and the
head ; but still he rolled his eyes, and cried, ‘‘ Give me my
cried the boy, and

J

parrot!” ‘Take your parrot, then,’
with that he wrung the bird’s neck, and threw it at the
. Magician; and, as he did so, Punchkin’s head twisted
round, and, with a fearful groan, he died!

Then they let Balna out of the tower; and she, her son,
and the seven Princes went to their own country, and lived
very happily ever afterwards. And as to the rest of the
world, every one went to his own house.



The Broken Pot

}HERE lived in a certain place a Brahman,
whose name was Svabhavakripana, which
means “a born miser.” He had col-
lected a quantity of rice by begging,
and after having dined off it, he filled
a pot with what was left over. He



hung the pot on a peg on the wall, placed his couch
beneath, and looking intently at it all the night, he thought,
‘Ah, that pot is indeed brimful of rice. Now, if there
should be a famine, I should certainly make a hundred
rupees by it. With this I shall buy a couple of goats.
They will have young ones every six months, and thus I
shall have a whole herd of goats. Then, with the goats, I
shall buy cows. As soon as they have calved, I shall sell
the calves. Then, with the calves, I shall buy buffaloes ;
with the buffaloes, mares. When the mares have foaled, I
shall have plenty of horses ; and when I sell them, plenty
of gold. With that gold I shall get a house with four
wings. And then a Brahman will come to my house, and
will give me his beautiful daughter, with a large dowry.
She will have a son, and I shall call him Somasarman.



The Broken Pot 39

When he is old enough to be danced on his father's knee,
I shall sit with a book at the back of the stable, and while
I am reading, the boy will see me, jump from his mother’s
lap, and run towards me to be danced on my knee. He
will come too near the horse’s hoof, and, full of anger, J
shall call to my wife, ‘Take the baby; take him!’ But



she, distracted by some domestic work, does not hear mc.
Then I get up, and give her such a kick with my foot.”
While he thought this, he gave a kick with his foot, and
broke the pot. All the rice fell over him, and made him
quite white. Therefore, I say, ‘‘He who makes foolish
plans for the future will be white all over, like the father of
Somasarman.”



‘The Magic Fiddle

— WN NCE upon a time there lived seven brothers



and a sister. The brothers were married,
but their wives did not do the cooking
for the family. It was done by their
sister, who stopped at home to cook. The
wives for this reason bore their sister-
in-law much ill-will, and at length they combined together
to oust her from the office of cook and general provider,
so that one of themselves might obtain it. They said,
‘“She does not go out to the fields to work, but remains
quietly at home, and yet she has not the meals ready at
the proper time.” They then called upon their Bonga,
and vowing vows unto him they secured his good-will and
assistance; then they said to the Bonga, “At midday
when our sister-in-law goes to bring water, cause it thus
to happen, that on seeing her pitcher the water shall
vanish, and again slowly re-appear. In this way she will
be delayed. Let the water not flow into her pitcher, and
you may keep the maiden as your own.”

At noon when she went to bring water, it suddenly
dried up before her, and she began to weep. Then after



The Magic Fiddle ai

a while the water began slowly to rise. When it reached
her ankles she tried to fill her pitcher, but it would not
go under the water, Being frightened she began to wail
and cry to her brother:



“Oh! my brother, the water reaches to my ankles,
Still, Oh! my brother, the pitcher will not dip.”

The water continued to rise until it reached her knee,
when she began to wail again:



42 Indian Fairy Tales,

“Oh! my brother, the water reaches to my knee,
Still, Oh! my brother, the pitcher will not dip.”

The water continued to rise, and when it reached her
waist, she cried again :

“‘Oh! my brother, the water reaches to my waist,
Still, Oh! my brother, the pitcher will nat dip.”

The water still rose, and when it reached her neck she
kept on crying:

“Oh! my brother, the water reaches to my neck,
Still, Oh! my brother, the pitcher will not dip.”

At length the water became so deep that she felt herself
drowning, then she cried aloud:

‘Oh! my brother, the water measures a man’s height,
Oh! my brother, the pitcher begins to fill.”

The pitcher filled with water, and along with it she
sank and was drowned. The Bonga then transformed her
into a Bonga like himself, and carried her off.

After a time she re-appeared as a bamboo growing on
the embankment of the tank in which she had been
drowned. When the bamboo had grown to an immense
size, a Jogi, who was in the habit of passing that way,
seeing it, said to himself, “ This will make a splendid fiddle.”
So one day he brought an axe to cut it down; but when
he was about to begin, the bamboo called out, ‘‘ Do not cut
at the root, cut higher up.” When he lifted his axe to
cut high up the stem, the bamboo cried out, ‘“Do not cut
near the top, cut at the root.” When the Jogi again
prepared himself to cut at the root as requested, the
bamboo said, “‘ Do not cut at the root, cut higher up ;” and
when he was about to cut higher up, it again called out to
him, “ Do not cut high up, cut at the root.” The Jogi by



The Magic Fiddle | 43

this time felt sure that a Bonga was trying to frighten
him, so becoming angry he cut down the bamboo at the
root, and taking it away made a fiddle out of it. The
instrument had a superior tone and delighted all who heard
it. The Jogi carried it with him when he went a-begging,
and through the influence of its sweet music he returned
home every evening with a full wallet.

He now and then visited, when on his rounds, the
house of the Bonga girl’s brothers, and the strains of the
fiddle affected them greatly. Some of them were moved
even to tears, for the fiddle seemed to wail as one in bitter
anguish, The elder brother wished to purchase it, and
offered to support the Jogi for a whole year if he would
consent to part with his wonderful instrument. The Jogi,
however, knew its value, and refused to sell it.

It so happened that the Jogi some time after went to the
house of a village chief, and after playing a tune or two on
his fiddle asked for something to eat. They offered to
buy his fiddle and promised a high price for it, but he
refused to sell it, as his fiddle brought to him his means of
livelihood. When they saw that he was not to be prevailed
upon, they gave him food and a plentiful supply of liquor.
Of the latter he drank so freely that he presently became
intoxicated. While he was in this condition, they took
away his fiddle, and substituted their own old one for it.
When the Jogi recovered, he missed his instrument, and
suspecting that it had been stolen asked them to return it to
him. They denied having taken it, so he had to depart,
leaving his fiddle behind him. The chief’s son, being a
musician, used to play on the Jogi’s fiddle, and in his hands
the music it gave forth delighted the ears of all who heard it.



44 Indian Fairy Tales

When all the household were absent at their labours in
the fields, the Bonga girl used to come out of the bamboo
fiddle, and prepared the family meal. Having eaten her own
share, she placed that of the chief’s son under his bed, and
covering it up to keep off the dust, re-entered the fiddle.
This happening every day, the other members of the house-
hold thought’ that some girl friend of theirs was in this
manner showing her interest in the young man, so they did
not trouble themselves to find out how it came about.
The young chief, however, was determined to watch, and
see which of his girl friends was so attentive to his comfort.
He said in his own mind, “I will catch her to-day, and
give her a sound beating ; she is causing me to be ashamed
before the others.” So saying, he hid himself in a corner
in a pile of firewood. In a short time the girl came out of
the bamboo fiddle, and began to dress her hair. Having
completed her toilet, she ccoked the meal of rice as usual,
and having eaten some herself, she’ placed the young
man’s portion under his bed, as before, and was about to
enter the fiddle again, when he, running out from his hiding-
place, caught her in his arms. The Bonga girl exclaimed,
“Fie! Fie! you may be a Dom, or you may be a Hadi
of some other caste with whom I cannot marry.” He
said, ‘No. But from to-day, you and I are one.” So
they began lovingly to hold converse with each other.
When the others returned home in the evening, they saw
that she was both a human being and a Bonga, and they
rejoiced exceedingly.

Now in course of time the Bonga girl’s family became
very poor, and her brothers on one occasion came to the
chief’s house on a visit.



The Magic Fiddle ane

The Bonga girl recognised them at once, but they did
not know who she was. She brought them water on their
arrival, and afterwards set cooked rice before them. Then
sitting down near them, she began in wailing tones to up-
braid them on account of the treatment she had been sub-
jected to by their wives. She related all that had befallen
her, and wound up by saying, ‘‘You must have known
it all, and yet you did not interfere to save me.” And that
was all the revenge she took. .













ONG ago the Bodisat was born to a forest
life as the Genius of a tree standing
near a certain lotus pond.

Now at that time the water used to
run short at the dry season in a certain



pond, not over large, in which there were
a good many fish. And a crane thought on seeing the
fish :

“JT must outwit these fish somehow or other and make a
prey of them.”

And he went and sat down at the edge of the water,
thinking how he should do it.

When the fish saw him, they asked him, ‘‘ What are you
sitting there for, lost in thought ?”

“‘T am sitting thinking about you,” said he.

‘Oh, sir! what are you thinking about us?” said they.



The Cruel Crane Outwitted 47

“Why,” he replied; “there is very little water in this
pond, and but little for you to eat ; and the heat is so great!
So I was thinking, ‘What in the world will these fish do
now ?’”

“Yes, indeed, sir! what are we to do?” said they.

“Tf you will only do as I bid you, I will take you in my
beak to a fine large pond, covered with all the kinds of
” answered the crane.

“That a crane should take thought for the fishes is a
thing unheard of, sir, since the world began. It’s eating

lotuses, and put you into it,

us, one after the other, that you’re aiming at.”

“Not I! So long as you trust me, I won’t eat you.
But if you don’t believe me that there is such a pond, send
one of you with me to go and see it.”

Then they trusted him, and handed over to him one of
their number —— a big fellow, blind of one eye, whom
they thought sharp enough in any emergency, afloat or
ashore.

Him the crane took with him, let him go in the pond,
showed him the whole of it, brought him back, and let him
go again close to the other fish. And he told them all the
glories of the pond.

And when they heard what he said, they exclaimed, ‘ All
right, sir! You may take us with you.”

Then the crane took the old purblind fish first to the
bank of the other pond, and alighted in a Varana-tree grow-
ing on the bank there. But he threw it into a fork of
the tree, struck it with his beak, and killed it ; and then ate
its flesh, and threw its bones away at the foot of the tree.
Then he went back and called out:

“ T’ve thrown that fish in ; let another one come.”



48 Indian Fairy Tales

And in that manner he took all the fish, one by one, and
ate them, till he came back and found no more!

But there was still a crab left behind there; and the
crane thought he would eat him too, and called out :

“‘T say, good crab, I’ve taken all the fish away, and
put them into a fine large pond. Come along. I'll take
you too!”

“ But how will you take hold of me to carry me along ?”

“Pll bite hold of you with my beak.”

‘You'll let me fallif you carry me like that. I won't go
with you !”

“Don’t be afraid! I'll hold you quite tight all the
way.”

Then said the crab to himself, “If this fellow once got
hold of fish, he would.never let them go in a pond! Now
if he should really put me into the pond, it would be capital ;
but if he doesn’t—then I'll cut his throat, and kill him!”
So he said to him:

‘(Look here, friend, you won't be able to hold me tight
enough ; but we crabs have a famous grip. If you let me
catch hold of you round the neck with my claws, I shall be
glad to go with you.”

And the other did not see that he was trying to outwit
him, and agreed. So the crab caught hold of his neck with
his claws as securely as with a pair of, blacksmith’s pincers,
and called out, ‘ Off with you, now!”

And the crane took him and showed him the pond, and
then turned off towards the Varana-tree.

“ Uncle!” cried the crab, “the pond lies that way, but
you are taking me this way!”



The Cruel Crane Outwitted 49

‘‘Oh, that’s it, is it?” answered the crane. ‘ Your dear
little uncle, your very sweet nephew, you call me! You
mean me to understand, I suppose, that I am your slave,
who has to lift you up and carry you about with him!
Now cast your eye upon the heap of fish-bones lying at
the root of yonder Varana-tree. Just as I have eaten
those fish, every one of them, just so I will devour you as
well!”

“Ah ! those fishes got eaten through their own stupidity,”
answered the crab ; “ but I’m not going to let you eat me.
On the contrary, is it you that I am going to destroy. For
you in your folly have not seen that I was outwitting you.
If we die, we die both together; for I will cut off this head
of yours, and cast it to the ground!” And so saying, he
gave the crane’s neck a grip with his claws, as with a
vice.

Then gasping, and with tears trickling from his eyes, and
trembling with the fear of death, the crane beseeched him,
saying, ‘“O my Lord! Indeed I did not intend to eat you.
Grant me my life!”

‘Well, well! step down into the pond, and put me in
there.”

And he turned round and stepped down into the pond,
and placed the crab on the mud at its edge. But the crab
cut through its neck as clean as one would cut a lotus-
stalk with a hunting-knife, and then only entered the
water ! :

When the Genius who lived in the Varana-tree saw this
strange affair, he made the wood resound with his plaudits,
uttering in a pleasant voice the: verse:



50 Indian Fairy Tales

“The villain, though exceeding clever,
Shall prosper not by his villainy.
He may win indeed, sharp-witted in deceit,

But only as the Crane here from the Crab !”





Loving Laili

NCE there was a king called King Dantal,



who had a great many rupees and soldiers
and horses. He had also an only son
called Prince Majnun, who was a handsome
boy with white teeth, red lips, blue eyes,
red cheeks, red hair, and a white skin.
This boy was very fond of playing with the Wazir’s son,
Husain Mahamat, in King Dantal’s garden, which was
very large and full of delicious fruits, and flowers, and trees,
They used to take their little knives there and cut the fruits
and eat them. King Dantal had a teacher for them to
teach them to read and write.

One day, when they were grown two fine young men,
Prince Majnun said to his father, “ Husain Mahamat and I
should like to go and hunt.” His father said they might
go, so they got ready their horses and all else they wanted
for.their hunting, and went to the Phalana country, hunting
all the way, but they only founds jackals and birds.

The Raja of the Phalana country was called Munsuk
Raja, and he had a daughter named Laili, who was very
beautiful; she had brown eyes and black hair.



Bee Indian Fairy Tales

One night, some time before Prince Majnun came to her
father’s kingdom, as she slept, Khuda sent to-her an angel
in the form of a man who told her that she should marry
Prince Majnun and no one else, and that this was Khuda’s
command to her. When Laili woke she told her father of
the angel’s visit to her as she slept; but her father paid no

“attention to her story. From that time she began repeating,

“ Majnun, Majnun ; I want Majnun,” and would say nothing
else. Even as she sat and ate her food she kept saying,
“Majnun, Majnun; I want Majnun.” Her father used to
get quite vexed with her. ‘Who is this Majnun ? who
ever heard of this Majnun ?” he would say.

“He is the man I am to marry,” said Laili. “ Khuda
has ordered me to marry no one but Majnun.” And she
was half mad.

Meanwhile, Majnun and Husain Mahamat came to hunt
in the Phalana country; and as they were riding about,
Laili came out on her horse to eat the air, and rode behind
them. All the time she kept saying, ‘“ Majnin, Majnun; I
want Majnun.” The prince heard her, and turned round.
“Who is calling me?” he asked. At this Laili looked at
him, and the moment she saw him she fell deeply in love
with him, and she said to herself, “I am sure that is
the Prince Majnun that Khuda says I am to marry.” And
she went home to her father and said, ‘‘ Father, I wish to
marry the prince who has come to your kingdom; for I
know he is the Prince Majnun I am to marry.”

“Very well, you shall have him for your husband,” said
Munsuk Raja. ‘We. will ask him to-morrow.” Laili
consented to wait, although she was very impatient. As it
happened, the prince left the Phalana kingdom that night,



Loving Laili 5B

and when Laili heard he was gone, she went quite mad,

“She would not listen to a word her father, or her mother,
or her servants said to her, but went off into the jungle,
and wandered from jungle to jungle, till she got farther and
farther away from her own country. All the time she kept
saying, ‘‘Majnun, Majnun; I want Majnun; and so she
wandered about for twelve years.

At the end of the twelve years she met a fakir—he was
really an angel, but she did not know this—who asked her,
“Why do you always say, ‘Majnun, Majnun; I want
Majnun’?” She answered, “I am the daughter of the
king of the Phalana country, and I want to find Prince
Majnun ; tell me where his kingdom is.”

‘I think you will never get there,” said the fakir, “ for
it is very far from hence, and you have to cross many
rivers -to reach it.” But Laili said she did not care;
she must see Prince Majnun. ‘ Well,” said the fakir,
‘““when you come to the Bhagirathi river you will see a big
fish, a Rohu; and you must get him to carry you to Prince
Majnun’s country, or you will never reach it.”

She went on and on, and at last she came to the
Bhagirathi river. There was a great big fish called the
Rohu fish. It was yawning just as she got up to it,
and she instantly jumped down its throat into its stomach.
All the time she kept saying, ‘‘ Majnun, Majnun.” At this
the Rohu fish was greatly alarmed and swam down the river
as fast as he could. By degrees he got tired and went
slower, and a crow came and perched on his back, and
said ‘Caw, caw.” “Oh, Mr. Crow,” said the poor fish
“do see what is in my stomach that makes such a noise.”

“Very well,” said the crow, “ open your mouth wide,



54 Indian Fairy Tales

and [ll fly down and see.” So the Rohu opened his jaws
and the crow flew down, but he came up again very quickly.
“You have a Rakshas in your stomach,” said the crow,
and he flew away. This news did not comfort the poor
Rohu, and he swam on and on till he came to Prince
Majnun’s country. There he stopped. And a jackal came











down to the river to drink. ‘‘Oh, jackal,” said the Rohu
“do tell me what I have inside me.”

“Flow can I tell?” said the jackal. “I cannot see
unless I go inside you.” So the Rohu opened his mouth
wide, and the jackal jumped down his throat ; but he came

up very quickly, looking much frightened and saying,
“You have a Rakshas in your stomach, and if I don’t run
away quickly, I am afraid it will eat me.” So off he



Loving Laili Ie

ran. After the jackal came an enormous snake. ‘“ Oh,”
says the fish, ‘‘do tell me what I have in my stomach, for
it rattles about so, and keeps saying, ‘‘ Majnun, Majnun; I
want Majnun.”

The snake said, ‘‘Open your mouth wide, and I'll go
down and see what it is.’ The snake went down: when
he returned he said, ‘‘ You have a Rakshas in your stomach,
but if you will let me cut you open, it will come out of
you.” “If you do that, I shall die,” said the Rohu. ‘Oh,
no,” said the snake, “‘ you will not, for I will give you a
medicine that will make you quite well again.” So the fish
agreed, and the snake got a knife and cut him open, and
out jumped Laili.

She was now very old. Twelve years she had wandered
about the jungle, and for twelve years she had lived inside
her Rohu; and she was no longer beautiful, and had lost
her teeth. The snake took her on his back and carried her
into the country, and there he put her down, and she
wandered on and on till she got to Majnun’s court-house,
where King Majnun was sitting. There some men heard

her crying, ‘ Majnun, Majnun; I want Majnun,”

and they
asked her what she wanted. ‘I want King Majnun,” she
said.

So they went in and said to Prince Majnun, ‘“ An old
woman outside says she wants you.” ‘I cannot leave
this place,” said he; “send her in here.” They brought
her in and the prince asked her what she wanted. ‘I
want to marry you,” she answered. ‘Twenty-four years
ago you came to my father the Phalana Raja's country, and
I wanted to marry you then; but you went away without
marrying me. Then I went mad, and I have wandered



56 Indian Fairy Tales

about all these years looking for you.” Prince Majnun
said, “ Very good.”

“Pray to Khuda,” said Laili, “to make us both young
again, and then we shall be married.” So the prince
prayed to Khuda, and Khuda said to him, “Touch Laili’s
clothes and they will catch fire, and when they are on fire,
she and you will become young again.” When he touched
Laili’s clothes they caught fire, and she and he became
young again. And there were great feasts, and they were
married, and travelled to the Phalana country to see her
father and mother.

Now Laili’s father and mother had wept so much for
their daughter that they had become quite blind, and her
father kept always repeating, ‘ Laili, Laili, Laili.” When
Laili saw their blindness, she prayed to Khuda to restore
their sight to them, which he did. As soon as the father
and mother saw Laili, they hugged her and kissed her, and
then they had the wedding all over again amid great
rejoicings. Prince Majnum and Laili stayed with Munsuk
Raja and his wife for three years, and then they returned
to King Dantal, and lived happily for some time with him.

They used to go out hunting, and they often went from
country to country to eat the air and amuse themselves.

One day Prince Majnun said to Laili, “Let us go
through this jungle.” ‘No, no,” said Laili; ‘if we go
through this jungle, some harm will happen to me.” But
Prince Majnun laughed, and went into the jungle. And as
they were going through it, Khuda thought, “I should like
to know how much Prince Majnun loves his wife. Would
he be very sorry if she died? And would he marry
another wife? I will see. So he sent one of his angels



Loving Laili 57

in the form of a fakir into the jungle; and the angel went
up to Laili, and threw some powder in her face, and
instantly she fell to the ground a heap of ashes.

Prince Majnun was in great sorrow and grief when he
saw his dear Laili turned into a little heap of ashes; and
he went straight home to his father, and for a long, long
time he would not be comforted. After a great many years
he grew more cheerful and happy, and began to go again
into his father’s beautiful garden with Husain Mahamat.
King Dantal wished his son to marry again. “I will only
have Laili for my wife ; I will not marry any other woman,”
said Prince Majnun.

“How can you marry Laili? Laili is dead. She will
never come back to you,” said the father.

“Then I'll not have any wife at all,” said Prince
Majnun.

Meanwhile Laili was living in the jungle where her
husband had left her a little heap of ashes. As soon as
Majnun had gone, the fakir had taken her ashes and made
them quite clean, and then he had mixed clay and water with
the ashes, and made the figure of a woman with them, and
so Laili regained her human form, and Khuda sent life into
it. But Laili had become once more a hideous old woman,
with a long, long nose, and teeth like tusks ; just such an
old woman, excepting her teeth, as she had been when she
came out of the Rohu fish ; and she lived in the jungle, and
neither ate nor drank, and she kept on saying, “ Majnun,
Majnun ; I want Majnun.”

At last the angel who had come as a fakir and thrown
the powder at her, said to Khuda, “ Of what use is it that
this woman should sit in the jungle crying, crying for ever,



58 Indian Fairy Tales

‘Majnun, Majnun ; I want Majnun,’ and eating and drinking
nothing? Let me take her to Prince Majnun.” ‘‘ Well,”
said Khuda, ‘‘ you may do so; but tell her that she must
not speak to Majnun if he is afraid of her when he sees
her; and that if he is afraid when he sees her, she will
become a little white dog the next day. Then she must go
to the palace, and she will only regain her human shape
when Prince Majnun loves her, feeds her with his own food,
and lets her sleep in his bed.”

So the angel came to Laili again as a fakir and carried
her to King Dantal’s garden, ‘‘ Now,” he said, ‘it is
Khuda’s command that you stay here till Prince Majnun
comes to walk in the garden, and then you may show
yourself to him. But you must not speak to him, if he is
afraid of you; and should he be afraid of you, you will the
next day become a little white dog.” He then told her
what she must do as a little dog to regain her human
form.

Laili stayed in the garden, hidden in the tall grass, till
Prince Majnun and Husain Mahamat came to walk in the
garden. King Dantal was now a very old man; and
Husain Mahamat, though he was really only as old as
Prince Majnun, looked a great deal older than the prince,
who had been made quite young again when he married
Laili.

As Prince Majnun and the Wazir’s son walked in the
garden, they gathered the fruit as they had done as little
children, only they bit the fruit with their teeth; they did
not cut it, While Majnun was busy eating a fruit in this
way, and was talking to Husain Mahamat, he turned
towards him and saw Laili walking behind the Wazir’s son.



Loving Laili 59

“Oh, look, look!” he cried, “see what is following you ;
it is a Rakshas or a demon, and I am sure it is going to
eat us.” Laili looked at him beseechingly with all her
eyes, and trembled with age and eagerness ; but this only
frightened Majnun the more. “It is a Rakshas, a Rakshas!”
he cried, and he ran quickly to the palace with the Wazir’s
son; and as they ran away, Laili disappeared into the
jungle. They ran to King Dantal, and Majnun told him
there was a Rakshas or a demon in the garden that had
come to eat them.

_ “What nonsense,” said his father. “Fancy two grown
men being so frightened by an old ayah or a fakir! And if
it had been a Rakshas, it would not have eaten you.”
Indeed King Dantal did not believe Majnun had seen any-
thing at all, till Husain Mahamat said the prince was
“speaking the exact truth. They had the garden searched
for the terrible old woman, but found nothing, and King
Dantal told his son he was very silly to be so much frightened.
However, Prince Majnun would not walk in the garden any
more.

The next day Laili turned into a pretty little dog; and
in this shape she came into the palace, where Prince Majnun
soon became very fond of her. She followed him every-
where, went with him when he was out hunting, and helped
him to catch his game, and Prince Majnun fed her with
milk, or bread, or anything else he was eating, and at night
the little dog slept in his bed.

But one night the little dog disappeared, and in its stead
there lay the little old woman who had frightened him so
much in the garden ; and now Prince Majnun was quite sure
she was a Rakshas, or a demon, or some such horrible



60 Indian Fairy Tales

thing come to eat him; and in his terror he cried out,
“What do you want? Oh, do not eat me; do not eat
me!” Poor Laili answered, “Don’t you know me? I am
your wife Laili, and I want to marry you. Don’t you
remember how you would go through that jungle, though I
begged and begged you not to go, for I told you that harm
would happen to me, and then a fakir came and threw
powder in my face, and I became a heap of ashes. But
Khuda gave me my life again, and brought me here, after I
had stayed a long, long while in the jungle crying for you,
and now I am obliged to be a little dog; but if you will
marry me, I shall not be a little dog any more.” Majnun,
however, said ‘‘ How can I marry an old woman like you ?
how can you be Laili? I am sure you are a Rakshas or a
demon come to eat me,” and he was in great terror.

In the morning the old woman had turned into the little
dog, and the prince went to his father and told him all that
had happened. “An old woman! an old woman! always
an old woman!” said his father. ‘You do nothing but
think of old women. How can a strong man like you be
so easily frightened?” However, when he saw that his
son was really in great terror, and that he really believed
the old woman would came back at night, he advised him to
say to her, “I will marry you if you can make yourself a
young girl again. How can I marry such an old woman as
you are?”

That night as he lay trembling in bed the little old
woman lay there in place of the dog, crying “ Majnun,
Majnun, I want to marry you. I have loved you all these
long, long years. When I was in my father’s kingdom a
young girl, I knew of you, though you knew nothing of



Loving Laili 61

me, and we should have been married then if you had not
gone away so suddenly, and for long, long years I followed
you.” ‘ Well,” said Majnun, ‘if you can make yourself a
young girl again, I will marry you.”

Laili said, ‘‘Oh, that is quite easy. Khuda will make
me a young girl again. In two days’ time you must go
into the garden, and there you will see a beautiful fruit.
You must gather it and bring it into your room and cut it
open yourself very gently, and you must not open it when
your father or anybody else is with you, but when you are
quite alone; for I shall be in the fruit quite naked, without
any clothes at all on.” In the morning Laili took her little
dog’s form, and disappeared in the garden.

Prince Majnun told all this to his father, who told him to
do all the old woman had bidden him. In two days’ time
he and the Wazir’s son walked in the garden, and there
they saw a large, lovely red fruit. ‘ Oh!” said the Prince,
“‘T wonder shall I find my wife in that fruit.” Husain
Mahamat wanted him to gather it and see, but he would
not till he had told his father, who said, ‘‘ That must be the
fruit ; go and gather it.” So Majnun went back and broke
the fruit off its stalk; and he said to his father, ‘‘Come
with me to my room while I open it; I am afraid to open
it alone, for perhaps I shall find a Rakshas in it that will
eat me.”

“No,” said King Dantal ; ‘‘ remember, Laili will be naked ;
you must go alone and do not be afraid if, after all, a
Rakshas is in the fruit, for I will stay outside the door,
and you have only to call me with a loud voice, and I will
come to you, so the Rakshas will not be able to eat you.”

Then Majnun took the fruit and began to cut it open



62 Indian Fairy Tales

tremblingly, for he shook with fear ; and when he had cut
it, out stepped Laili, young and far more beautiful than she
had ever been. At the sight of her extreme beauty, Majnun
fell backwards fainting on the floor. :

Laili took off his turban and wound it all round herself
like a sari (for she had no clothes at all on), and then she
ealled King Dantal, and said to him sadly, “ Why has
Majnun fallen down like this? Why will he not speak to
me? He never used to be afraid of me; and he has seen
me so many, many times.”

King Dantal answered, ‘‘It is because you are so beauti-
ful. You are far, far more beautiful than you ever were.
But he will be very happy directly.” Then the King got
some water, and they bathed Majnun’s face and gave him
some to drink, and he sat up again.

Then Laili said, ‘‘ Why did you faint? Did you not see
I am Laili ?”

“Oh!” said Prince Majnun, ‘‘I see you are Laili come
back to me, but your eyes have grown so wonderfully
beautiful, that I fainted when I saw them.” Then they
were all very happy, and King Dantal had all the drums in
the place beaten, and had all the musical instruments played
on, and they made a grand wedding-feast, and gave
presents to the servants, and rice and quantities of rupees
to the fakirs.

After some time had passed very happily, Prince Majnun
and his wife went out to eat the air. They rode on the
same horse, and had only a groom with them. They came
to another kingdom, to a beautiful garden. ‘ We must go
into that garden and see it,” said Majnun.

“No, no,” said Laili; “it belongs to a bad Retin,



Loving Laili 63

'Chumman Basa, a very wicked man.” But Majnun insisted
on going in, and in spite of all Laili could say, he got off
the horse to look at the flowers. Now, as he was looking
at the flowers, Laili saw Chumman Basa coming towards
them, and she read in his eyes that he meant to kill her
husband and seize her. So she said to Majnun, ‘‘ Come,
come, let us go; do not go near that bad man. I see in
his eyes, and I feel in my heart, that he will kill you to
seize me.”

‘What nonsense,” said Majnun. “I believe he is a
very good Raja. Anyhow, I am so near to him that I
could not get away.”

“Well,” said Laili, “it is better that you should be
killed than I, for if I were to be killed a second time,
Khuda would not give me my life again; but I can bring
you to life if you are killed.” Now Chumman Basa had
come quite near, and seemed very pleasant, so thought
Prince Majnun; but when he was spéaking to Majnun, he
drew his scimitar and cut off the prince’s head at one blow,

Laili sat quite still on her horse, and as the Raja
came towards her she said, “Why did you kill my
husband ?”

“ Because I want to take you,” he answered.

“You cannot,” said Laili.

”

“Yes, I can,” said the Raja.

‘Take me, then,” said Laili to Chumman Basa; so he
came quite close and put out his hand to take hers to lift
her off her horse. But she put her hand in her pocket and
pulled out a tiny knife, only as long as her hand was broad,
and this knife unfolded itself in one instant till it was such

a length! and then Laili made a great sweep with her arm



64 : Indian Fairy Tales

and her long, long knife, and off came Chumman Basa’s head
at one touch.

Then Laili slipped down off her horse, and she went to
Majnun’s dead body, and she cut her little finger inside her
hand straight down from the top of her nail. to her palm,
and out of this gushed blood like healing medicine. Then
she put Majnun’s head on his shoulders, and smeared her
healing blood all over the wound, and Majnun woke up and
said, ‘‘ What a delightful sleep I have had! Why, I feel
as if I had slept for years!” Then he got up and saw the
Raja’s dead body by Laili’s horse.

‘‘What’s that ?” said Majnun.

“ That is the wicked Raja who killed you to seize me,
just as I said he would.”

“Who killed him?” asked Majnun.

“J did,” answered Laili, ‘‘ and it was I who brought you
to life.””

“Do bring the poor man to life if you know how to
do so,” said Majnun.

“No,” said Laili, ‘‘ for he is a wicked man, and will try
to do you harm.” But Majnun asked her for such a long
time, and so earnestly to bring the wicked Raja to life, that
at least she said, ‘‘ Jump up on the horse, then, and go far
away with the groom.”

“What will you do,” said Majnun, ‘if I leave you ? a
cannot leave you.”

“TY will take care of myself,” said Laili; ‘“ but this man
is so wicked, he may kill you again if you are near him,”
So Majnun got up on the horse, and he and the groom
went a long way off and waited for Laili Then she set
the wicked Raja’s head straight on his shoulders, and she



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Loving Laili 65

squeezed the wound in her finger till a little blood-medicine
came out of it. Then she smeared this over the place
where her knife had passed, and just as she saw the Raja
opening his eyes, she began to run, and she ran, and ran so
fast, that she outran the Raja, who tried to catch her; and
she sprang up on the horse behind her husband, and they
rode so fast, so fast, till they reached King Dental’s
palace.

There Prince Majnun told everything to his father, who
was horrified and angry. ‘‘ How lucky for you that you
have such a wife,” he said. “Why did you not do what
she told you? But for her, you would be now dead.”
Then he made a great feast out of gratitude for his son’s
safety, and gave many, many rupees to the fakirs. And
he made so. much of Laili. He loved her dearly ; he could
not do enough for her. Then he built a splendid palace
for her and his son, with a great deal of ground about it,
and lovely gardens, and gave them great wealth, and heaps
of servants to wait on them. But he would not allow
any but their servants to enter their gardens and palace,
and he would not allow Majnun to go out of them, nor
Laili; “for,” said King Dantal, ‘ Laili is so beautiful, that

perhaps some one may kill my son to take her away.”





The Tiger, the Brahman, and
the Jackal

NCE upon a time, a tiger was caught in a
trap. He tried in vain to get out through
the bars, and rolled and bit with rage and
grief when he failed.



By chance a poor Brahman came by.
“Tet me out of this cage, oh pious one!”

cried the tiger.

“Nay, my friend,” replied the Brahman mildly, ‘‘ you
would probably eat me if I did.”

“Not at all!” swore the tiger with many oaths; ‘on
the contrary, I should be for ever grateful, and serve you
as a slave!”

Now when the tiger sobbed and sighed and wept and
swore, the pious Brahman’s heart softened, and at last he

consented to open the door of the cage. Out popped the ©

tiger, and, seizing the poor man, cried, “ What a fool you



Tiger, Brahman, and Jackal 67

are! What is to prevent my eating you now, for after
being cooped up so long I am just terribly hungry !”

In vain the Brahman pleaded for his life; the most he
could gain was a promise to abide by the decision of the
first three things he chose to question as to the justice of
the tiger’s action.

So the Brahman first asked a pipal tree what it thought
of the matter, but the pipal tree replied coldly, ‘‘ What. have
you to complain about ? Don’t I give shade and shelter to
every one who passes by, and don’t they in return tear
down my branches to feed their cattle? Don’t whimper—
be a man!”

Then the Brahman, sad at heart, went further afield till
he saw a buffalo turning a well-wheel; but he fared no
better from it, for it answered, ‘‘ You are a fool to expect
gratitude! Look at me! Whilst I gave milk they fed me
on cotton-seed and oil-cake, but now I am dry they yoke
me here, and give me refuse as fodder!”

_ The Brahman, still more sad, asked the road to give him
its opinion.

“My dear sir,’
expect anything else! Here am I, useful to everybody,
yet all, rich and poor, great and small, trample on me as
they go past, giving me nothing but the ashes of their pipes

)

said the road, ‘‘how foolish you are to

and the husks of their grain!”

On this the Brahman turned ‘back sorrowfully, and on
the way he met a jackal, who called out, ‘‘ Why, what’s the
matter, Mr. Brahman? You look as miserable as a fish
out of water!”

The Brahman told him all that had _ occurred.

“How very confusing!” said the jackal, when the recital



68 Indian Fairy Tales

was ended; “would you mind telling me over again, for
everything has got so mixed up ?”

The Brahman told it all over again, but the jackal shook
his head in a distracted sort of way, and still could not
understand.

“Tt’s very odd,” said he, sadly, “ but it all seems to go
in at one ear and out at the other! I will go to the place
where it all happened, and then perhaps I shall be able to
give a judgment.”

So they returned to the cage, by which the tiger was
waiting for the Brahman, and sharpening his teeth and
claws.

“You've been away a long time!” growled the savage
beast, ‘‘ but now let-us begin our dinner.”

“Our dinner!” thought the wretched Brahman, as his
knees knocked together with fright ; ‘‘ what a remarkably
delicate way of putting it!”

“ Give me five minutes, my lord!” he pleaded, ‘‘in order
that I may explain matters to the jackal here, who is some-
what slow in his wits.”

The tiger consented, and the Brahman began the whole
story over again, not missing a single detail, and spinning
as long a yarn as possible.

“Oh, my poor brain! oh, my poor brain!” cried the
jackal, wringing its paws. ‘‘Let me see! how did it all

begin? You were in the cage, and the tiger came walking
by: vy



“Pooh!” interrupted the tiger, “what a fool you are!
f was in the cage.”

“OF course!” cried the jackal, pretending to tremble
with fright ; ‘yes! I was in the cage—no I wasn’t —dear !



Tiger, Brahman, and Jackal 69

dear! where are my wits? Let me see—the tiger was in



the Brahman, and the cage came walking by no, that’s
not it, either! Well, don’t mind me, but begin your dinner,
for I shall never understand !”

“Yes, you shall!” returned the tiger, in a rage at the

jackal’s stupidity ; ‘Vl make you understand! Look here



— I am the tiger.
a Yes, my lord!”
“ And that is the Brahman bs
‘Yes, my lord!”
“ And that is the cage i

“Yes, my lord!”





“ And I was in the cage—do you understand ?”
“ Yes—no



Please, my lord——”

‘(Well ?” cried the tiger impatiently.

‘Please, my lord !—how did you get in?”

“ How !-why in the usual way, of course!”

‘Oh, dear me !—my head is beginning to whirl again!
Please don’t be angry, my lord, but what is the usual
way ?”

At this the tiger lost patience, and, jumping into the
cage, cried, “This way! Now do you understand how it
was ?”

“ Perfectly !” grinned the jackal, as he dexterously shut
the door, ‘and if you will permit me to say ‘so, I think
matters will remain as they were !”



The Soothsayer’s Son _

‘SOOTHSAYER when on his deathbed
wrote out the horoscope of his second





son, whose name was Gangazara, and be-
oy queathed it to him as his only property,
ro leaving the whole of his estate to his
8)
over the horoscope, and said to himself:

‘Alas! am I born to this only in the world? The say-

eldest son. The second son thought

ings of my father never failed. I have seen them prove
true to the last word while he was living ; and how has he
fixed my horoscope! ‘From my birth poverty!’ Nor
is that my only fate. ‘For ten years, imprisonment’
—-a fate harder than poverty; and what comes next?
‘Death on the sea-shore’; which means that I must
die away from home, far from friends and relatives on a
sea-coast. Now comes the most curious part of the horo-
scope, that I am to ‘have some happiness afterwards !’
What this happiness is, is an enigma to me.”

Thus thought he, and after all the funeral obsequies of
his father were over, took leave of his elder brother, and
started for Benares. He went by the middle of the Deccan,



The Soothsayer’s Son 71

avoiding both the coasts, and went on journeying and
journeying for weeks and months, till at last he reached the
Vindhya mountains. While passing that desert he had to
journey for a couple of days through a sandy plain, with no
signs of life or vegetation. The little store of provision
with which he was provided for a couple of days, at last
was exhausted. The chombu, which he carried always full,
filling it with the sweet water from the flowing rivulet or
plenteous tank, he had exhausted in the heat of the desert.
There was not a morsel in his hand to eat; nor a drop of
water todrink. Turn his eyes wherever he might he found
a vast desert, out of which he saw no means of escape.
Still he thought within ‘himself, ‘Surely my father’s
prophecy never proved untrue. I must survive this
calamity to find my death on some sea-coast.” So thought
he, and this thought gave him strength of mind to walk fast
and try to find a drop of water somewhere to slake his dry
throat.

At last he succeeded ; heaven threw in his way a ruined
well. He thought he could. collect some water if he let
down his chombu with the string that he always carried
noosed to the neck of it. Accordingly he let it down ; it
went some way and stopped, and the following words came
from the well: ‘‘Oh, relieve me! I am the king of tigers,
dying here of hunger. For the last three days I have had
nothing. Fortune has sent. you here. If you assist me
now you will find a sure help in me throughout your life.
Do not think that I am a beast of prey. When you have
become my deliverer I will never touch you. Pray, kindly
lift me up.” Gangazara thought: “Shall I take him out or
not? If I take him out he may make me the first morsel of



We Indian Fairy Tales

his hungry mouth. No; that he willnot do. For my father’s
prophecy never came untrue. I must die on a sea-coast,
and not by a tiger.” Thus think-
ing, he asked the tiger-king to
hold tight to the vessel, which
he accordingly did, and he lifted
him up slowly. The tiger reached
the top of the well and felt him-
self on safe ground. True to his
word, he did no harm to Gan-
gazara. On the other hand, he
walked round his patron three
times, and standing before him,
humbly spoke the following
words: “My life-giver, my
benefactor! I shall never forget
this day, when I regained my
life through your kind hands.
In return for this kind assistance
I pledge my oath to stand by
you in all calamities. When- -
ever you are in any difficulty
just think of me. I am there
with you ready to oblige you by
all the means that I can. - To
tell you briefly how I came in
here: Three days ago I was





roaming in. yonder forest, when
I saw a goldsmith passing through
it. I chased him. He, finding it impossible to escape my
claws, jumped into this well, and is living to this moment



The Soothsayer’s Son oh 78

in the very bottom of it. I also jumped in, but found
myself on the first ledge of the well; he is on the last and
fourth ledge. In the second lives a serpent half-famished
with hunger. On the third lies a rat, also half-famished,
and when you again begin to draw water these may
request you first to release them. In the same way the
goldsmith also may ask you. I beg you, as your bosom
friend, never assist that wretched man, though he is your
relation as a human being. Goldsmiths are never to be
trusted. You can place more faith in me, a tiger, though
I feast sometimes upon men, in a serpent, whose sting
makes your blood cold the very next moment, or in a rat,
which does a thousand pieces of mischief in your house.
But never trust a goldsmith. Do not release him; and if
you do, you shall surely repent of it one day or other.”
Thus advising, the hungry tiger went away without waiting
for an answer.

Gangazara thought several times of the eloquent way in
which the tiger spoke, and admired his fluency of speech.
But still his thirst was not quenched. So he let down his
vessel again, which was now caught hold of by the serpent,
who addressed him thus: “Oh, my protector! Lift me
up. I am the king of serpents, and the son of Adisesha,
who is now pining away in agony for my disappearance.
Release me now. I shall ever remain your servant, re-
member your assistance, and help you throughout life in all
possible ways. Oblige me: I am dying.” Gangazara,
calling again to mind the ‘death on the sea-shore”
of the prophecy lifted him up. He, like the tiger-king,
walked round him thrice, and prostrating himself before him
spoke thus: “Oh, my life-giver, my father, for so I must



74. Indian Fairy Tales

call you, as you have given me another birth. I was three
days ago basking myself in the morning sun, when I saw a
rat running before me. I chased him. He fell into this
well. I followed him, but instead of falling on the third
storey where he is now lying, I fell into the second. I am
going away now to see my father. Whenever you are in
_ any difficulty just think of me. I will be there by your side
to assist you by all possible means.” So saying, the Nagaraja
glided away in zigzag movements, and was out of sight in
a moment. A

The poor son of the Soothsayer, who was now almost
dying of thirst, let down his vessel for a third time. The
rat caught hold of it, and without discussing he lifted up
the poor animal at once. But it would not go away with-
out showing its gratitude: “Oh, life of my life! My
benefactor! Iam the king of rats. Whenever you are in
any calamity just think of me. I will come to you, and
assist you. My keen ears overheard all that the tiger-king
told you about the goldsmith, who is in the fourth storey.
It is nothing but a sad truth that goldsmiths ought never
to be trusted. Therefore, never assist him as you have done
to us all. And if you do, you will suffer for it. I am
hungry; let me go for the present.” Thus taking leave of
his benefactor, the rat, too, ran away.

Gangazara for a while thought upon the repeated advice
given by the three animals about releasing the goldsmith:
‘« What wrong would there be in my assisting hin? Why
should I not release him also?” So thinking to himself,
Gangazara let down the vessel again. The goldsmith
caught hold of it, and demanded help. The Soothsayer’s
son had no time to lose; he was himself dying of thirst.



The Soothsayer’s Son | 75

Therefore he lifted the goldsmith up, who now began his
story. “Stop for a while,” said Gangazara, and after
quenching his thirst by letting down his vessel for the fifth
time, still fearing that some one might remain in the well
and demand his assistance, he listened to the goldsmith,
who began as follows: ‘My dear friend, my protector,
what a deal of nonsense these brutes have been talking to
you about me; I am glad you have not followed their advice.
I am just now dying of hunger. Permit me to go away.
My name is Manikkasari. I live in the East main street of
Ujjaini, which is twenty kas to the south of this place, and
so lies on your way when you return from Benares. Do
not forget to come to me and receive my kind remembrances
of your assistance, on your way back to your country.”
So saying, the goldsmith took his leave, and Gangazara also
pursued his way north after the above adventures.

He reached Benares, and lived there for more than ten
years, and quite forgot the tiger, serpent, rat, and goldsmith.
After ten years of religious life, thoughts of home and of his
brother rushed into his mind. “I have secured enough
merit now by my religious observances. Let me return
home.” Thus thought Gangazara within himself, and
very soon he was on his way back to his country.
Remembering the prophecy of his father he returned by the
same way by which he went to Benares ten years before.
While thus retracing his steps he reached the ruined: well .
where he had released the three brute kings and the gold-
smith. At once the old recollections rushed into his mind,
and he thought of the tiger to test his fidelity. Only a
moment passed, and the tiger-king came running before him
carrying a large crown in his mouth, the glitter of the



76 Indian Fairy Tales

diamonds of which for a time outshone even the bright rays
of the sun. He dropped the crown at his life-giver’s feet,
and, putting aside all his pride, humbled himself like a pet
cat to the strokes of his protector, and began in the follow-
ing words: ‘My life-giver! How is it that you have
forgotten me, your poor servant, for such a long time? I
am glad to find that I still occupy a corner in your mind. I
can never forget the day when I owed my life to your lotus
hands. I have several jewels with me of little value. This
crown, being the best of all, I have brought here as a single
ornament of great value, which you can carry with you
and dispose of in your own country.” Gangazara looked at
the crown, examined it over and over, counted and recounted
the gems, and thought within himself that he would become
the richest of men by separating the diamonds and gold, and
selling them in his own country. He took leave of the
tiger-king, and after his disappearance thought of the kings
of serpents and rats, who came in their turn with their
presents, and after the usual greetings and exchange of
words took their leave. Gangazara was extremely delighted
at the faithfulness with which the brute beasts behaved, and
went on his way to the south. While going along he spoke
to himself thus: “These beasts have been very faithful
in their assistance. Much more, therefore, must Manikkasari
be faithful. I do not want anything from him now. If I
take this crown with me as it is, it occupies much space in
my bundle. It may also excite the curiosity of some robbers
on the way. I will go now to Ujjaini on my way.
Manikkasari requested me to see him without failure on my
return journey. I shall do so, and request him to have the
crown melted, the diamonds and gold separated. He must



The Soothsayer’s Son 77

do that kindness at least for me. I shall then roll up these
diamonds and gold ball in my rags, and wend my way
homewards.”. Thus thinking and thinking, -he reached
Ujjaini. At once he inquired for the house of his goldsmith
friend, and found him without difficulty. Manikkasari was
extremely delighted to find on his threshold him who ten
years before, notwithstanding the advice repeatedly given
him by the sage-looking tiger, serpent, and rat, had relieved
him from the pit of death. Gangazara at once showed him
the crown that he received from the tiger-king, told him how
he got it, and requested his kind assistance to separate the
gold and diamonds. Manikkasari agreed to do so, and
‘meanwhile asked his friend to rest himself for a while to
have his bath and meals; and Gangazara, who was very
observant of his religious ceremonies, went direct to the
river to bathe.

- How came the crown in the jaws of the tiger? The king
of Ujjaini had a week before gone with all his hunters on a
hunting expedition. All of a sudden the tiger-king started
from the wood, seized the king, and vanished. —

When the king’s attendants informed the prince about the
death of his father he wept and wailed, and gave notice that
he would give half of his kingdom to any one who should
bring him news about the murderer of his father. The
goldsmith knew full well that it was a tiger that killed the
‘king, and not any hunter’s hands, since he had heard
from Gangazara how he obtained the crown. Still, he
resolved to denounce Gangazara as the king’s murderer, so,
hiding the crown under his garments, he flew to the palace.
He went before the prince and informed him that the
assassin was caught, and placed the crown before him.



78 Indian Fairy Tales

The prince took it into his hands, examined it, and at
once gave half the kingdom to Manikkasari, and then
inquired about the murderer. ‘‘ He is bathing ih the river,
and is of such and such appearance,” was the reply. |
At once four armed soldiers flew to the river, and bound the
poor Brahman hand and foot, while he, sitting in meditation,
was without any knowledge of the fate that hung over him.
They brought Gangazara to the presence of the prince, who
turned his face away from the supposed murderer, and asked
his soldiers to throw him into a dungeon. In a minute,
without knowing the cause, the poor Brahman found him-
self in the dark dungeon.

It was a dark cellar underground, built with strong stone
walls, into which any criminal guilty of a capital offence
was ushered to breathe his last there without food and
drink. Such was the cellar into which Gangazara was
thrust. What were his thoughts when he reached that
place? ‘It is of no use to accuse either the goldsmith or
the prince now. We are all the children of fate. We
must obey her commands, This is but the first day of my
father's prophecy. So far his statement is true. But how
am I going to pass ten years here? Perhaps without any-
thing to sustain life I may drag on my existence for a day
‘or two. But how pass ten years? That cannot be, and I
must die. Before death comes let me think of my faithful
brute friends.”

So pondered Gangazara in the dark cell underground, and
at that moment thought of his three friends, The tiger-king,
serpent-king, and rat-king assembled at once with their
armies at a garden near the dungeon, and for a while did not
know what todo. They held their council, and decided to



The Soothsayer’s Son 79

make an underground passage from the inside of a ruined
well to the dungeon. The rat raja issued an order at once
to that effect to his army. They, with their teeth, bored
the ground a long way to the walls of the prison. After
reaching it they found that their teeth could not work on
the hard stones. The bandicoots were then specially
ordered for the business ; they, with their hard teeth, made
a small slit in the wall for a rat to pass and repass without
difficulty. Thus a passage was effected.

The rat raja entered first to condole with his protector on
his misfortune, and undertook to supply his protector with
provisions. ‘’ Whatever sweetmeats or bread are prepared
in any house, one and all of you must try to bring whatever
you can to our benefactor. Whatever clothes you find
hanging in a house, cut down, dip the pieces in water, and
bring the wet bits to our benefactor. He will squeeze them
and gather water for drink! and the bread and sweetmeats
shall form his food.” Having issued these orders, the king
of the rats took leave of Gangazara. They, in obedience
to their king’s order, continued to supply him with provisions
and water.

The snake-king said: ‘I sincerely condole with you in
your calamity , the tiger-king also fully sympathises with
you, and wants me to tell you so, as he cannot drag his
huge body here as we have done with our small ones. The
king of the rats has promised to do his best to provide you
with food. We would now do what we can for your release.
From this day we shall issue orders to our armies to oppress
all the subjects of this kingdom. The deaths by snake-bite
and tigers shall increase a hundredfold from this day, and
day by day it shall continue to increase till your release.



80 Indian Fairy Tales

Whenever you hear people near you, you had better baw]
out. so as to be heard by them: ‘The wretched prince
imprisoned me on the false charge of having killed his
father, while it was a tiger that killed him, From that day.
these calamities have broken out in his dominions, If I
were released I would save all by my powers of healing
poisonous wounds and by incantations.’ Some one may
report this to the king, and if he knows it, you will obtain
your liberty.” Thus comforting his protector in trouble, he
advised him to pluck up courage, and took leave of him.
From that day tigers and serpents, acting under the orders
of their kings, united in killing as many persons and cattle
as possible. Every day people were carried away by tigers
or bitten by serpents. Thus passed months and years.
Gangazara sat in the dark cellar, without the sun’s light
falling upon him, and feasted upon the breadcrumbs and
sweetmeats that the rats so kindly supplied him with.
These delicacies had completely changed his body into
ared, stout, huge, unwieldy mass of flesh. Thus passed full
ten years, as prophesied in the horoscope.

Ten complete years rolled away in close imprisonment.
On the last evening of the tenth year one of the serpents
got into the bed-chamber of the princess and sucked her
life. She breathed her last. She was the only daughter
of the king. The king at once sent for all the snake-bite
curers. He promised half his kingdom and his daughter’s
hand to him who would restore her to life. Now a servant of
the king who had several times overheard Gangazara’s cries,
reported the matter to him, The king at once ordered the
cell to be examined. There was the man sitting in it.
How had he managed to live so long in the cell? Some



Full Text












PRINCESS LABAM
INDIAN
FAIRY TALES

| INDIAN
“Fairy | ALES

SELECTED AND EDITED BY

(Omer tie PA CO BS

EDITOR OF ‘‘FOLK-LORE'

ILLUSTRATED BY

JOEENG De ByAvnay EN



LONDON
ID AN WIEID) ANP WEP a gr SMIPIR AA INT 1D)
1892
[Rights of translation and reproduction reserved |
TO

MY DEAR LITTLE PHIL
Preface

ROM the extreme West of the Indo-



European world, we go this year to the
extreme East. From the soft rain and
green turf of Gaeldom, we seek the
garish sun and arid soil of the Hindoo.
In the Land of Ire, the belief in
fairies, gnomes, ogres and monsters is all but dead; in
the Land of Ind it still flourishes in all the vigour of
animism.

Soils and national characters differ ; but fairy tales are
the same in plot and incidents, if not in treatment. The
majority of the tales in this volume have been known in the
West in some form or other, and the problem arises how
to account for their simultaneous existence in farthest West
and East. Some—as Benfey in Germany, M. Cosquin in
France, and Mr. Clouston in England—have declared that
India is the Home of the Fairy Tale, and that all European

fairy tales have been brought from thence by Crusaders, by
Vill Preface

Mongol missionaries, by Gipsies, by Jews, by traders, by
travellers. The question is still before the courts, and one
can only deal with it as an advocate. So far as my instruc-
tions go, I should be prepared, within certain ‘limits, to hold
a brief for India. So far as the children of Europe have
their fairy stories in common, these—and they form more

are derived from India. In



than a third of the whole
particular, the majority of the Drolls or comic tales and
jingles can be traced, without much difficulty, back to the
Indian peninsula. |

Certainly there is abundant evidence of the early trans-
mission by literary means of a considerable number of drolls
and folk-tales from India about the time of the Crusaders.
The collections known in Europe by the titles of The Fables
of Bidpat, The Seven Wise Masters, Gesta Romanorum, and ;
Barlaam and Josaphat, were extremely popular during the
Middle Ages, and their contents passed on the one hand
into the Exempla of the monkish preachers, and on the
other into the WVovelle of Italy, thence, after many days, to
contribute their quota to the Elizabethan Drama. Perhaps
nearly one-tenth of the main incidents of European folk-
tales can be traced to this source.

There are even indications of an earlier literary contact
between Europe and India, in the case of one branch of the

folk-tale, the Fable or Beast Droll. In a somewhat elabo-


Preface ix
rate discussion * I have come to the conclusion that a
goodly number of the fables that pass under the name of
the Samian slave, A’sop, were derived from India, probably
from the same source whence the ene tales were utilised
in the Jatakas, or Birth-stories of Buddha. These Jatakas
contain a large quantity of genuine early Indian folk-
tales, and form the earliest collection of folk-tales in the
world, a sort of Indian Grimm, collected more than two
thousand years before the good German brothers went on
their quest among the folk with such delightful results.
For this reason I have included a considerable number of
them in this volume; and shall be surprised if tales that
have roused the laughter and wonder of pious Buddhists
for the last two thousand years, cannot produce the same
effect on English children. The Jatakas have been fortu-
nate in their English translators, who render with vigour
and point; and I rejoice in being able to publish the
translation of two new Jatakas, kindly done into English for
this volume by Mr. W. H. D. Rouse, of Christ’s College,
Cambridge. In one of these I think I have traced the
source of the Tar Baby incident in ‘ Uncle Remus.”
Though Indian fairy tales are the earliest in existence,
yet they are also from another point of view the youngest.

* “ History of the A‘sopic Fable,” the introductory volume to my
edition of Caxton’s Fadles of Esope (London, Nutt, 1889).
x Preface

For it is only about twenty-five years ago that Miss Frere
began the modern collection of Indian folk-tales with her
charming “Old Deccan Days” (London, John Murray,
1868; fourth edition, 1889). Her example has been followed
by Miss Stokes, by Mrs. Steel, and Captain (now Major)
Temple, by the Pandit Natesa Sastri, by Mr. Knowles and |
Mr. Campbell, as well as others who have published folk-
tales in such periodicals as the Indian Antiquary and The
Orientalist. The story-store of modern India has been well
dipped into during the last quarter of a century, though the
immense range of the country leaves room for any number
of additional workers and collections. Even so far as the
materials already collected go, a large number of the com-
monest. incidents in European folk-tales have been found in
India. Whether brought there or born there, we have
scarcely any criterion for judging; but as some of those
still current among the folk in India can be traced back
more than a millennium, the presumption is in favour of an
Indian origin.

From all these sources—from the Jatakas, from the
Bidpai, and from the more recent collections—I have
selected those stories which throw most light on the origin
of Fable and Folk-tales, and at the same time are most
likely to attract English children. JI have not, however,

included too many stories of the Grimm types, lest I
Preface xi

_should repeat the contents of the two preceding volumes
of this series, - This has to some degree weakened the case
for India as represented by this book. The need of catering
for the young ones has restricted my selection from the
well-named ‘‘ Ocean of the Streams of Story,” Katha-Sarit
Sagara of Somadeva. The stories existing in Pali and
Sanskrit I have taken from translations, mostly from the
German of Benfey or the vigorous English of Professor
Rhys- Davids, whom I have to thank for permission to use
his versions of the Jatakas.

I have been enabled to make this book a representative
collection of the Fairy Tales of Ind by the kindness of the
original collectors or their publishers. I have especially to
thank Miss Frere, who kindly made an exception in my
favour, and granted me the use of that fine story, “ Punch-
kin,” and that quaint myth, “ How Sun, Moon, and Wind
went out to Dinner.” Miss Stokes has been equally
gracious in granting me the use of characteristic speci-
mens from her “Indian Fairy Tales.” To Major Temple
I owe the advantage of selecting from his admirable
Wideawake Stories, and Messrs, Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.
have allowed me to use Mr. Knowles’ “ Folk-tales of
Kashmir,” in their Oriental Library ; and Messrs. W. H.
Allen have been equally obliging with regard to Mrs.

Kingscote’s “Tales of the Sun.” Mr, M. L. Dames has
Xi Preface

enabled me add to the published story-store of India by
granting me the use of one from his inedited collection of
Baluchi folk-tales.

I have again to congratulate myself on the co-operation
of my friend Mr. J. D. Batten in giving beautiful or amusing
form to the creations of the folk fancy of the Hindoos. It
is no slight thing to embody, as he has done, the glamour
and the humour both of the Celt and of the Hindoo. It is
only a further proof that Fairy Tales are something more

than Celtic or Hindoo. They are human.

JOSEPH JACOBS.
Il.

{Il.

IV.

Vv.

VI.

VII.

VIII,

Ix.

XII.

XIII.

XIV.

Contents

- THE LION AND THE CRANE.

HOW THE RAJA’S SON WON THE FRINCESS LABAM
THE LAMBIKIN

PUNCHKIN

THE BROKEN POT

THE MAGIC FIDDLE.

THE CRUEL CRANE OUTWITTED

LOVING LAILI

THE TIGER, THE BRAHMAN, AND THE JACKAL
THE SOOTHSAYER’S SON

HARISARMAN 2

THE CHARMED RING .

THE TALKATIVE TORTOISE .

A LAC OF RUPEES FOR A PIECE OF ADVICE

PAGE

I

oc
46
51
66

70

go
100

103
XIV

XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
XX.
XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVHI.

XXIX,

Contents

THE GOLD-GIVING SERPENT .

THE SON OF SEVEN QUEENS . .

A LESSON FOR KINGS

PRIDE GOETH BEFORE A FALL

RAJA RASALU

THE ASS IN THE LION’S SKIN

THE FARMER AND THE MONEY-LENDER .

THE BOY WHO HAD A MOON ON HIS FOREHEAD AND A

STAR ON HIS CHIN
THE PRINCE AND THE FAKIR
WHY THE FISH LAUGHED
THE DEMON WITH THE MATTED HAIR

THE IVORY CITY AND ITS FAIRY PRINCESS
SUN, MOON, AND WIND GO OUT TO DINNER
HOW THE WICKED SONS WERE DUPED

THE PIGEON AND THE CROW . tA im . . z

NOTES AND REFERENCES,

PAGE
Iz

115

150

152

156
179
186

194
199
218.

(221

227


Full-page Illustrations

PRINCESS LABAM . ; ; : ; : 5 5 : Frontispiece
THE LION AND THE CRANE , ; ; : 5 To face page 2
PUNCHKIN a 36
LOVING LAILI. 3 : ; : ee ; : es 64
THE CHARMED RING ee 96
THE SON OF SEVEN QUEENS . 120
RAJA RASALU : 5 A - 0 146
BOY WITH MOON ON FOREHEAD see . : . 58 165
DEMON WITH MATTED HAIR. © ‘ . : fi a 196

(Plates, vignettes, initials, and cuts are from ‘‘ process’? blocks supplied by

Messrs. J. C. Drummond & Co. of Covent Garden. ]
The Lion and the Crane

crane; now Brahmadatta was at that
time reigning in Benares. Now it
chanced that as a lion was eating
meat a bone stuck in his throat.

The throat became swollen, he could
not take food, his suffering was terrible. The crane seeing
him, as he was perched on a tree looking for food, asked,
‘‘What ails thee, friend?” He told him why. ‘I could
free thee from that bone, friend, but dare not enter
thy mouth for fear thou mightest eat me.” ‘“ Don’t be
afraia friend, I’ll not eat thee ; only save my life.” ‘‘ Very
well,” says he, and caused him to lie down on his left side.
But thinking to himself, “Who knows what this fellow will
do,” he placed a small stick upright between his two jaws
that he could not close his mouth, and inserting his head
inside his mouth struck one end of the bone with his beak.
Whereupon the bone dropped and fel’ ut. As soon as he
had caused the bone to fall, he got out of the lion’s mouth,
striking the stick with his beak so that it fell out, and then
A


2 Indian Fairy Tales

settled on a branch. The lion gets well, and one day was
eating a buffalo he had killed. The crane thinking “I
will sound him,” settled on a branch just over him, and in

conversation spoke this first verse :

‘ A service have we done thee:
To the best of our ability,
King of the Beasts! Your Majesty !
What return shall we get from thee ?”

In reply the Lion spoke the second verse :

‘As I feed on blood,
And always hunt for prey,
’Tis much that thou art still alive
Having once been between my teeth.”

Then in reply the crane said the two other verses :

‘Ungrateful, doing no good,
; Not doing as he would be done by,
In him there is no gratitude,
To serve him is useless.

“His friendship is not won
By the clearest good deed.
Better softly withdraw from him,
Neither envying nor abusing.”

And having thus spoken the crane flew away.

And when the great Teacher, Gautama the Buddha, told
this tale, he used to add: “Now at that time the lon was
Devadatta the Traitor, but the white crane was I myself.”


MarR
LG



CRANE

THE LION AND THE




How the Raja’s Son won the
Princess Labam.

A country there was a Raja who had an
only son who every day went out to hunt.
One day the Rani, his mother, said to
him, ‘‘ You can hunt wherever you like
on these three sides ; but you must never



go to the fourth side.” This she said
because she knew if he went on the fourth side he would
hear of the beautiful Princess Labam, and that then he
would leave his father and mother and seek for the princess.

The young prince listened to his mother, and obeyed her
for some time; but one day, when he was hunting on the
three sides where he was allowed to go, he remembered what
she had said to him about the fourth side, and he determined
to go and see why she had forbidden him to hunt on that
side. When he got there, he found himself in a jungle, and
nothing in the jungle but a quantity of parrots, who lived in
it. The young Raja shot at some of them, and at once they
all flew away up to the sky. All, that is, but one, and this
was their Raja, who was called Hiraman parrot.
4 Indian Fairy Tales

When Hiraman parrot found himself left alone, he called
out to the other parrots, “ Don’t fly away and leave me alone
- when the Raja’s son shoots, If you desert me like this, I will
tell the Princess Labam.” ?

Then the parrots all flew back to their Raja, chattering.
The prince was greatly surprised, and said, “Why, these birds
can talk!” Then he said to the parrots, ‘‘ Who is the
Princess Labam ? Where does she live?” But the parrots
would not tell him where she lived. ‘‘ You can never get to
the Princess Labam’s country.” That is all they would say.

The prince grew very sad when they would not tell him
anything more ; and he threw his gun away, and went home.
When he got home, he would not speak or eat, but lay on
his bed for four or five days, and seemed very ill.

At last he told his father and mother that he wanted to go
and see the Princess Labam. “I must go,” he said; ‘1
must see what she is like. Tell me where her country is.”

)

“We do not know where it is,” answered his father and

mother.
. “Then I must go and look for it,” said the prince.

“No, no,” they said, ‘‘ you must not leave us. You are
our only son. Stay with us. You will never find the
Princess Labam.” :

“‘T must try and find her,” said the prince. “ Perhaps
God will show me the way. If I live and I find her, I will
come back to you; but perhaps I shall die, and then I shall
never see you again. Still I must go.

_ So they had to let him go, though they cried very much
at parting with him. His father gave him fine clothes to
wear, and a fine horse. And he took his gun, and his bow
and arrows, and a great many other weapons, “for,” he
The Princess Labam 5

said, “I may want them.” His father, too, gave him plenty
of rupees.

Then he himself got his horse all ready for the journey,
and he said good-bye to his father and mother; and his
mother took her handkerchief and wrapped some sweetmeats
in it, and gave it to her son. “ My child,” she said to him,
‘When you are hungry eat some of these sweetmeats.”

He then set out on his journey, and rode on and on till he
came to a jungle in which were a tank and shady trees. He
bathed himself and his horse in the tank, and then sat down
under a tree. ‘‘ Now,” he said to himself, “ I will eat some
of the sweetmeats my mother gave me, and I will drink

’

some water, and then I will continue my journey.” He opened
his handkerchief, and took out a sweetmeat. He found an
ant in it. He took out another. There was an ant in that
one too. So he laid the two sweetmeats on the ground, and
he took out another, and another, and another, until he had
taken them all out; but in each he found an ant. ‘“‘ Never
mind,” he said, ““T won’t eat the sweetmeats ; the ants shall
eat them.” Then the Ant-Raja came and stood before him
and said, ‘‘ You have been good to us. If ever. you are in
trouble, think of me and we will come to you.”

The Raja’s son thanked him, mounted his horse and con-
tinued his journey. He rode on and on until he came to
another jungle, and there he saw a tiger who had a thorn in
his foot, and was roaring loudly from the pain.

“Why do you roar like that?” said the young Raja.
“What is the matter with you ?”

“T have had a thorn in my foot for twelve years,”
answered the tiger, ‘and it hurts me so; that is why I roar.”

“Well,” said the Raja’s son, “I will take it out for you.
\

6 Indian Fairy Tales

But perhaps, as you are a tiger, when I have made you

well, you will eat me?”



“Oh, no,” said the tiger, “I won’t eat you. Do make
me well.”

Then the prince took a little knife from his pocket, and
cut the thorn out of the tiger’s foot ; but when he cut, the
tiger roared louder than ever—so loud that his wife heard
him in the next jungle, and came bounding along to see
what was the matter. The tiger saw her coming, and hid
the prince. in the jungle, so that she should not see him.

“What man hurt you that you
roared so loud ?” said the wife.




‘““No one hurt me,” answered
Ase :
bos _# the husband ; ‘‘but a Raja’s son

Ve
1

“came and took the thorn out of




my foot.”

‘“Where is he ? Show him to me,” said his wife.

“If you promisé not to kill him, I will call him,” said the
tiger.
The Princess Labam 7

’ answered his

“YT won't kill him; only let me see him,’
wife.

Then the tiger called the Raja’s son, and when he came
the tiger and his wife made him a great many salaams.
Then they gave him a good dinner, and he stayed with them
for three days. Every day he looked at the tiger’s foot, and
the third day it was quite healed. Then he said good-bye
to the tigers, and the tiger said to him, “If ever you are in
trouble, think of me, and we will come to you.”

The Raja’s son rode on and on till he came to a third
jungle. Here he found four fakirs whose teacher and master
had died, and had left four things,—a bed, which carried
whoever sat on it whithersoever he wished to go; a bag, that
gave its owner whatever he wanted, jewels, food, or clothes ;
a stone bowl that gave its owner as much water as he wanted,
no matter how far he might be from a tank; and a stick and
rope, to which its owner had only to say, if any one came to
make war on him, “ Stick, beat as many men and soldiers
as are here,” and the stick would beat them and the rope
would tie them up.

The four fakirs were quarrelling over these four things.

One said, “I want this ;”
)

another said, ‘‘ You cannot have
it, for I want it;” and so on. ‘

The Raja’s son said to them, ‘‘Do not quarrel for these
things. I will shoot four arrows in four different directions,
Whichever of you gets to my first arrow, shall have the first
thing—the bed. Whosoever gets to the second arrow, shall
have the second thing—the bag. He who gets to the third
arrow, shall have the third thing—the bowl. And he who
gets to the fourth arrow, shall have the last things——the stick

and rope.” To this they agreed, and the prince shot off his
8 | Indian Fairy Tales

first arrow. Away raced the fakirs to get it. When they
brought it back to him he shot off the second, and when
they had found and brought it to him he shot off his third,
and when they had brought him the third he shot off the
fourth.

While they were away looking for the fourth arrow the
Raja’s son let his horse loose in the jungle, and sat on the
bed, taking the bowl, the stick and rope, and the bag with
him. Then he said, ‘‘Bed, I wish to go to the Princess
Labam’s country.” The little bed instantly rose up into
the air and began to fly, and it flew and flew till it came to
the Princess Labam’s country, where it settled on the
ground. The Raja’s son asked some men he saw, ‘‘ Whose
country is this ?”

“The Princess Labam’s country,” they answered. Then
the prince went on till he came to a house where he saw an
old woman. .

“Who are you?” she said. “ Where do you come from?”

“T come from a far country,” he said; “do let me stay
‘with you to-night.

“No,” she answered, “I cannot let you stay with me;
for our king has ordered that men from other countries may
not stay inhis country. You cannot stay in my house.”

“You are my aunty,” said the prince; “ let me remain
with you for this one night. You see it is evening, and if
I go into the jungle, then the wild beasts will eat me.”

“Well,” said the old woman, ‘‘you may stay here
to-night ; but to-morrow morning you must go away, for if
_the king hears you have passed the night in my house, he
will have me seized and put into prison.”

- Then she took him into her house, and the Raja’s son
The Princess Labam 9

was very glad. The old woman began preparing dinner,
but he stopped her, “Aunty,” he said, “I will give you
food.” He put his hand into his bag, saying, “Bag, I
want’ some dinner,” and the bag gave him instantly a-
delicious dinner, served up on two gold plates. The old
woman and the Raja’s son then dined together.

When they had finished eating, the old woman said,
‘‘ Now I will fetch some water.”

‘‘Don’t go,” said the prince. ‘‘ You shall have plenty of
water directly.” So he took his bowl and said to it,
“Bowl, I want some water,” and then it filled with water.
When it was full, the prince cried out, ‘‘Stop, bowl,” and
the bowl stopped filling. “See, aunty,’ he said, ‘‘ with
this bowl I can always get as much water as I want.”

By this time night had come. “ Aunty,” said the Raja’s
son, “ why don’t you light a lamp?”

“There is no need,” she said. “Our king has for-
bidden the people in his country to light any lamps; for, as
soon as it is dark, his daughter, the Princess Labam, comes
and sits on her roof, and she shines so that she lights
up all the country and our houses, and we can see to do
our work as if it were day.”

When it was quite black night the princess got up. She
dressed herself in her rich clothes and jewels, and rolled up
her hair, and across her head she put a band of diamonds.
and pearls. Then she shone like the moon, and her beauty
made night day. She came out of her room, and sat on
the roof of her palace. In the daytime she never came out.
of her house; she only came out at night. All the people
in her father’s country then went about their work and
finished it. 4
10 Indian Fairy Tales

The Raja’s son watched the princess quietly, and was
very happy. He said to himself, ‘‘ How lovely she is!”

At midnight, when everybody had gone to bed, the
princess came down from her roof, and went to her room ;
and when she was in bed and asleep, the Raja’s son got up
softly, and sat on his bed. “Bed,” he said to it, ‘‘I want
to go to the Princess Labam’s bed-room.” So the little
bed carried him to the room where she lay fast asleep.

The young Raja took his bag and said, “I want a great
deal of betel-leaf,” and it at once gave him quantities of
betel-leaf. This he laid near the princess’s bed, and then
his little bed carried him back to the old woman’s house.

Next morning all the princess’s servants found the betel-
leaf, and began to eat it. ‘Where did you get all that
betel-leaf?” asked the princess.

“We found it near your bed,” answered the servants.
Nobody knew the prince had come in the night and put it
all there.

In the morning the old woman came to the Raja’s son.

?

‘“Now it is morning,” she said, “‘and you must go; for if
, ? > J

the king finds out all I have done for you, he will seize
me.”

“Tl am ill to-day, dear aunty,” said the prince; “do let
me stay till to-morrow morning.”

“Good,” said the old woman. So he stayed, and they
took their dinner out of the bag, and the bowl gave
them water. :

When night came the princess got up and sat on her
roof, and at twelve o’clock, when every one was in bed, she
went to her bed-room, and was soon fast asleep. Then
the Raja’s son sat on his bed, and it carried him to the
The Princess Labam II

princess. He took his bag and said, ‘‘ Bag, I want a most
lovely shawl.” It gave him a splendid shawl, and he
spread it over the princess as she lay asleep. Then he
went back to the old woman’s house and slept till morning.

In the morning, when the princess saw the shawl she
was delighted. ‘See, mother,” she said; ‘ Khuda must
have given me this shawl, it is so beautiful.” Her mother
was very glad too.

“Yes, my child,” she said ; ‘‘ Khuda must have given you
this splendid shawl.”

When it was morning the old woman said to the Raja’s
son, ‘‘Now you must really go.”

“ Aunty,” he answered, “I am not well enough yet.
Let me stay a few days longer. I will remain hidden in
your house, so that no one may see me.” So the old
woman let him stay.

When it was black night, the princess put on her lovely
clothes and jewels, and sat on her roof. At midnight she
went to her room and went to sleep. Then the Raja’s son
sat on his bed and flew to her bed-room. ‘There he said
to his bag, ‘“‘ Bag, I want a very, very beautiful ring.” The
bag gave him a glorious ring. Then he took the Princess
Labam’s hand gently to put on the ring, and she started up
very much frightened.

““Who are you?” she said to the prince. ‘Where do
you come from? Why do you come to my room?”

“Do not be afraid, princess,” he said; “I am no thief.
I am a great Raja’s son. Hiraman parrot, who lives in the
jungle where I went to hunt, told me your name, and then
I left my father and mother, and came to see you.”

‘““ Well,” said the princess, “as you are the son of such a


12 Indian Fairy Tales

great Raja, I will not have you killed, and I will tell my
father and mother that I wish to marry you.”

The prince then returned to the old woman’s house; and
when morning came the princess said to her mother, “‘ The
son of a great Raja has come to this country, and I wish to
marry him.” Her mother told this to the king.

“Good,” said the king; “but if this Raja’s son wishes
to marry my daughter, he must first do whatever | bid
him. If he fails I will kill him. I will give him eighty
pounds weight of mustard seed, and out of this he must
crush the oil in one day. If he cannot do this he
shall die.”

In the morning the Raja’s son told the old woman that
he intended to marry the princess. ‘ Oh,” said the old
woman, “ go away from this country, and do not think of
marrying her. A great many Rajas and Rajas’ sons have
come here to marry her, and her father has had them all
killed. He says whoever wishes to marry his daughter
must first do whatever he bids him. If he can, then he
shall marry the princess; if he cannot, the king will have
“him killed. But no one can do the things the king tells
him to do; so all the Rajas and Rajas’ sons who have tried
have been put to death. You will be killed too, if you try.
Do go away.” But the prince weuld not listen to anything
she said.

The king sent for the prince to the old woman’s house,
and his servants brought the Raja’s son to the king’s court-
house to the king. There the king gave him eighty pounds
of mustard seed, and told him to crush all the oil out of it
that day, and bring it next morning to him to the court-
house. ‘‘ Whoever wishes to marry my daughter,” he
The Princess Labam 13

said to the prince, “must first do all I tell him. If he
cannot, then I have him killed. So if you cannot crush all
the oil out of this mustard seed, you will die.”

The prince was very sorry when he heard this. ‘‘ How
can I crush the oil out of all this mustard seed in one
day?” he said to himself; ‘and if I do not, the king will
kill me.” He took the mustard seed to the old woman's
house, and did not know what to do. At last he remem-
bered the Ant-Raja, and the moment he did so, the Ant-
Raja and his ants came to him. ‘ Why do you look so
sad?” said the Ant-Raja.

The prince showed him the mustard seed, and said to
him, “ How can I crush the oil out of all this mustard seed
in one day? And if I do not take the oil to the king
to-morrow morning, he will kill me.”

“Be happy,” said the Ant-Raja; “lie down and sleep ;
we will crush all the oil out for you during the day, and
to-morrow morning you shall take it to the king.” The
Raja’s son lay down and slept, and the ants crushed out
the oil for him. The prince was very glad when he saw
the oil.

_, The next morning he took it to the court-house to the
king. But the king said, ‘You cannot yet marry my
daughter. If you wish to do so, you must first fight with
my two demons and kill them.” The king a long time ago
had caught two demons, and then, as he did not know what
to do with them, he had shut them up in a cage. He was
afraid to let them loose for fear they would. eat up all the
people in his country; and he did not know how to kill
them. So all the kings and kings’ sons who wanted to
marry the Princess Labam had to fight with these demons ;
14 | Indian Fairy Tales

“for,” said the king to himself, “ perhaps the demons may
be killed, and then I shall be rid of them.”

When he heard of the demons the Raja’s son was very
sad. ‘ What can I do?” he said to himself. ‘‘ How can
I fight with these two demons?” Then he thought’ of his
tiger: and the tiger and his wife came to him and said,
“Why are you so sad?” The Raja’s son answered, “‘ The
king has ordered me to fight with his two demons and kill

ce

= AT





them. How can I do this?” “Do not be frightened,”
said the tiger. “Be happy. I and my wife will fight with
them for you.”

Then the Raja’s son took out of his bag two splendid
coats. They were all gold and silver, and covered with
pearls and diamonds. These he put on the tigers to make
them beautiful, and he took them to the king, and said to
him, “May these tigers fight your demons for me?”
“Yes,” said the king, who did not care in the least who






The Princess Labam 15

killed his demons, provided they were killed. ‘Then call
your demons,” said the Raja’s son, “and these tigers will
fight them.” The king did so, and the tigers and the.
demons fought and fought until the tigers had killed the
' demons. :

‘That is good,” said the king. ‘‘ But you must do some-
thing else before I give you my daughter. Up in the sky
I have a kettle-drum. You ot go and beat it. If you
cannot do this, I will kill you.”

The Raja’s son thought of his little Bee so he went to
the old woman’s house and sat on his had, “ Little bed,”
he said, ‘‘up in the sky is the king’s kettle-drum. I want
to go to it.” The bed flew up with him, and the Raja’s son
beat the drum, and the king heard him. Still, when he
came down, the king would not give him his daughter.
“You have,” he said to the prince, ‘‘done the three things
I told you to do; but you must do one thing more.” ‘If
I can, I will,” said the Raja’s son. .

Then the king showed him the trunk of a tree that was
lying near his court-house. It was a very, very thick
trunk, He gave the prince a wax hatchet, and said, “ To-
morrow morning you must cut this trunk in two with this
wax hatchet.”

The Raja’s son went back to the old woman’s house.
He was very sad, and thought that now the Raja would
certainly killhim. “IT had his oil crushed out by the ants,”
he said to himself. ‘‘T had his demons killed by the tigers.
My bed helped me to beat his kettle-drum. But now what
can I do? How can I cut that thick tree-trunk in two
with a wax hatchet ?”

At night he went on his bed to see the princess. ‘‘To-


16 Indian Fairy Tales

morrow,” he said to her, “your father will kill me.”
“Why ?” asked the princess.

“ He has told me to cut a thick tree-trunk in two with a
wax hatchet. How can I ever do that?” said the Raja’s
son. ‘Do not be afraid,” said the princess; ‘‘ do as I bid
you, and you will cut it in two quite easily.”

Then she pulled out a hair from her head, and gave it to
the prince. ‘‘ To-morrow,” she said, ‘‘ when no. one is near
you, you must say to the tree-trunk, ‘The Princess Labam
commands you to let yourself be cut in two by this hair.’
Then stretch the hair down the edge of the wax hatchet’s
blade.”

The prince next day did exactly as the princess had told
him; and the minute the hair that was stretched down the
edge of the hatchet-blade touched the tree-trunk it split into
two pieces.

The king said, ‘‘Now you can marry my daughter.”
Then the wedding took place. All the Rajas and kings of
the countries round were asked to come to it, and there
were great rejoicings. After a few days the prince’s son
said to his wife, ‘‘ Let us go to my father’s country.” The
Princess Labam’s father gave them a quantity of camels
and horses and rupees and servants; and they travelled
in great state to the prince’s country, where they lived
happily.

The prince always kept his bag, bowl, bed, and stick ;
only, as no one ever came to make war on him, he never
needed to use the stick.
The Lambikin

NCE upon a time there was a wee wee
Lambikin, who frolicked about on his
little tottery legs, and enjoyed himself
amazingly.

Now one day he set off to visit his



Granny, and was jumping with joy to
think of all the good things he should get from her, when
who should he meet but a Jackal, who looked at the tender
young morsel and said: “ Lambikin! Lambikin! VU Eat ~
YOUR

But Lambikin only gave a little frisk



and said:

‘To Granny’s house I go,
Where I shall fatter grow,



Then you can eat me so.”

Dee

The Jackal thought this reasonable, and let Lambikin
pass.

By-and-by he met a Vulture, and the Vulture, looking
hungrily at the tender morsel before him, said: ‘‘ Lambikin !
Lambikin! VIL rear YOU!”
18 Indian Fairy Tales
But Lambikin only gave a little frisk, and said:

“To Granny’s house I go,
Where I shall fatter grow,
Then you can eat me so.”

The Vulture thought this reasonable, and



> let Lambikin pass.

Hye ewe, ‘And by-and-by he met a Tiger, and then
a Wolf, and a Dog, and an Eagle, and all these, when
they saw the tender little morsel, said: ‘ Lambikin!
Lambikin! IT’ll rar YOU!”

But to all of them Lambikin replied, with a little frisk :

“To Granny’s house I go,
Where I shall fatter grow,
Then you can eat me so.”



At last he reached his Granny’s house,

Vane laee ee

and said, all in a great hurry, ‘‘ Granny, dear, I’ve promised

to get very fat; so, as people ought to keep their promises,
please put me into the corn-bin af once.”

So his Granny said he was a good boy, and put him into
the corn-bin,. and there the greedy little Lambikin stayed
for seven days, and ate, and ate, and ate, until he could
scarcely waddle, and his Granny said he was fat enough
for anything, and must go home. But cunning little Lambi-
kin said that would never do, for some animal would be sure
to eat him on the way back, he was so plump and tender.

” said Master Lambikin,

“Il tell you what you must do,
“you must make a little drumikin out of the skin of my
little brother who died, and then I can sit inside and trundle

along nicely, for I’m as tight as a drum myself.”
The Lambikin 1g

So his Granny made a nice little drumikin out of his
brother’s skin, with the
wool inside, and Lambikin -
curled himself up snug and
warm in the middle, and



trundled away gaily. Soon
he met with the Eagle, who called out:

“ Drumikin ! Drumikin !
Have you seen Lambikin? ”

And Mr. Lambikin, curled up in his soft warm nest
replied :
“Fallen into the fire, and so will you
On little Drumikin. Tum-pa, tum-too!”

““How very annoying!” sighed the Eagle, thinking
regretfully of the tender morsel he had let slip.
Meanwhile Lambikin trundled along, laughing to himself,
and singing :
““Tum-pa, tum-too ;
Tum-pa, tum-too! ”

Every animal and bird he met asked him the same
question :

“ Drumikin ! Drumikin !
Have you seen Lambikin ?”

And to each of them the little slyboots replied :

‘‘ Fallen into the fire, and so will you
On little Drumikin. Tum-pa, tum too ;
Tum-pa, tum-too; Tum-pa, tum-too !”
20 Indian Fairy Tales

Then they all sighed to think of the tender little morsel
they had let slip.

At last the Jackal came limping along, for all his sorry
looks as sharp as a needle, and he too called out—

“ Drumikin! Drumikin !
Have you seen Lambikin ?”

And Lambikin, curled up in his snug little nest, replied
gaily :
“Fallen into the fire, and so will you

”



On little Drumikin! Tum-pa

But he never got any further, for the Jackal recognised
his voice at once, and cried: “Hullo! you’ve turned your-
self inside out, have you? Just you come out of that!”

Whereupon he tore open Drumikin and gobbled up

Lambikin.




























Punchkin

ERS NCE upon a time there was a Raja who
N2 had seven beautiful daughters. They
were all good girls; but the youngest,
named Balna, was more clever than the
rest. The Raja’s wife died when they



were quite little children, so these seven
poor Princesses were left with no mother to take care of
them.

The Raja’s daughters took it by turns to. cook their
father’s dinner every day, whilst he was absent deliberating
with his Ministers on the affairs of the nation.

About this time the Prudhan died, leaving a widow and
one daughter; and every day, every day, when the seven
22 | Indian Fairy Tales

Princesses were preparing their father’s dinner, the Prudhan’s
widow and daughter would come and beg for a little fire
from the hearth. Then Balna used to say to her sisters,
“Send that woman away ; send her away. Let her get the
fire at her own house. What does she want with ours.?
If we allow her to come here, we shall suffer for it some
day.”
But the other sisters would answer, ‘‘ Be quiet, Balna;
why must you always be quarrelling with this poor woman ?
Let her take some fire if she likes.” Then the Prudhan’s
widow used to go to the hearth and take a few sticks from
it ; and whilst no one was looking, she would quickly throw
some mud into the midst of the dishes which were being
prepared for the Raja’s dinner.

Now the -Raja was very fond of his daughters. Ever
since their mother’s death they had cooked his dinner with
their own hands, in order to avoid the danger of his being
poisoned by his enemies. So, when he found the mud
mixed up with his dinner, he thought it must arise from
their carelessness, as it did not seem likely that any one
should have put mud there on purpose; but being very
kind he did not like to reprove them for it, although this
spoiling of the curry was repeated many successive days.

At last, one day, he determined to hide, and watch his
daughters cooking, and see how it all happened; so he
went into the next room, and watched them through a hole
in the wall.

There he saw his seven daughters carefully washing the
rice and preparing the curry, and as each dish was com-
pleted, they put it by the fire ready to be cooked. Next
he noticed the Prudhan’s widow come to the door, and beg
Punchkin 23

for a few sticks from the fire to cook her dinner with.
Balna turned to her, angrily, and said, ‘‘ Why don’t you
keep fuel in your own house, and not come here every day
and take ours? Sisters, don’t give this woman any more
wood; let her buy it for herself.

Then the eldest sister answered, ‘ Balna, let the poor
woman take the wood and the fire; she does us no harm.”
But Balna replied, “If you let her come here so often,
maybe she will do us some harm, and make us sorry for
it, some day.”

The Raja then saw the Prudhan’s widow go to the
place where all his dinner was nicely prepared, and, as
she took the wood, she threw a little mud into each of the
dishes.

At this he was very angry, and sent to have the woman
seized and brought before him. But when the widow came,
she told him that she had played this trick because she
wanted to gain an audience with him; and she spoke so
cleverly, and pleased him so well with her cunning words,
that instead of punishing her, the Raja married her, and
made her his Ranee, and she and her daughter came to live
in the palace.

Now the new Ranee hated the seven poor Princesses, and
wanted to get them, if possible, out of the way, in order
that her daughter might have all their riches, and live in
the palace as Princess in their place ; and instead of being
grateful to them for their kindness to her, she did all she
could to make them miserable. She gave them nothing but
bread to eat, and very little of that, and very little water to
drink ; so these seven poor little Princesses, who had been
accustomed to have everything comfortable about them, and
24 Indian Fairy Tales

good food and good clothes all their lives long, were very
miserable and unhappy ; and they used to go out every
day and sit by their dead mother’s tomb and cry—and



say:

‘(Oh mother, mother, cannot you see your poor children,
how unhappy we are, and how we are starved by our cruel
step-mother ? ”

One day, whilst they were thus sobbing and crying, lo
and behold! a beautiful pomelo tree grew up out of the
grave, covered with fresh ripe pomeloes, and the children
satisfied their hunger by eating some of the fruit, and every

_day after this, instead of trying to eat the bad dinner their

step-mother provided for them, they used to go out to their
mother’s grave and eat the pomeloes which grew there on
the beautiful tree.

Then the Ranee said to her daughter, ‘I cannot tell how
it is, every day those seven girls say they don’t want any
dinner, and won't eat any; and yet they never grow thin
nor look ill; they look better than you do. I cannot tell
how it is.” And she bade her watch the seven Princesses,
and see if any one gave them anything to eat.

So next day, when the Princesses went to their mother’s
grave, and were eating the beautiful pomeloes, the Prudhan’s
daughter followed them, and saw them gathering the fruit.

Then Balna said to her sisters, ‘‘Do you not see that
girl watching us? Let us drive her away, or hide the
pomeloes, else she will go and tell her mother all about it,
and that will be very bad for us.”

But the other sisters said, ‘‘Oh no, do not be unkind,
Balna. The girl would never be so cruel as to tell her
mother. Let us rather invite her to come and have some


Punchkin 215

of the fruit.” And calling her to them, they gave her one
of the pomeloes.

No sooner had she eaten it, however, than the Prudhan’s
daughter went home and said to her mother, ‘I do not
wonder the seven Princesses will not eat the dinner you
prepare for them, for by their mother’s grave there grows
a beautiful pomelo tree, and they go there every day and
eat the pomeloes. I ate one, and it was the nicest I have
ever tasted.”

The cruel Ranee was much vexed at hearing this, and
all next day she stayed in her room, and told the Raja
that she had a very bad headache. The Raja was
deeply grieved, and said to his wife, ‘‘ What can I do for
you?” She answered, ‘‘There is only one thing that
will make my headache well. By your dead wife’s tomb
there grows a fine pomelo tree; you must bring that here,
and boil it, root and branch, and put a little of the water in
which it has been boiled, on my forehead, and that will cure
my headache.” So the Raja sent his servants, and had
the beautiful pomelo tree pulled up by the roots, and did as
the Ranee desired and when some of the water, in which
it had been boiled, was put on her forehead, she said her
headache was gone and she felt quite well.

Next day, when the seven Princesses went as usual to
the grave of their mother, the pomelo tree had disappeared.
Then they all began to cry very bitterly.

Now there was by the Ranee’s tomb a small tank, and
as they were crying they saw that the tank was filled with
a rich cream-like substance, which quickly hardened into a
thick white cake. At seeing this all the Princesses were
very glad, and they ate some of the cake, and liked it ;-and
26 Indian Fairy Tales

next day the same thing happened, and so it went on for
many days. Every morning the Princesses went to their
mother’s grave, and found the little tank filled with the
nourishing cream-like cake. Then the cruel step-mother
said to her daughter: “I cannot tell how it is, I have had
the pomelo tree which used to grow by the Ranee’s grave
destroyed, and yet the Princesses grow no thinner, nor
look more sad, though they never eat the dinner I give
them. I cannot tell how it is!”

And her daughter said, ‘‘ I will watch.”

Next day, while the Princesses were eating the cream
cake, who should come by but their step-mother’s daughter.
Balna saw her first, and said, ‘‘ See, sisters, there comes
that girl again. Let us sit round the edge of the tank and
not allow her to see it, for if we give her some of our cake,
she will go and tell her mother; and that will be very un-
fortunate for us.

The other sisters, however, thought Balna unnecessarily
suspicious, and instead of following her advice, they gave
the Prudhan’s daughter some of the cake, and she went
home and told her mother all about it.

The Ranee, on hearing how well the Princesses fared,
was exceedingly angry, and sent her servants to pull down
the dead Ranee’s tomb, and fill the little tank with the
ruins. And not content with this, she next day pretended
to be very, very ill—in fact, at the point of death—and
when the Raja was much grieved, and asked her whether it
was in his power to procure her any remedy, she said to

_ him: “ Only one thing can save my life, but I know you
will not do it.” He replied, “ Yes, whatever it is, I will
do it.” She then said, ‘“‘ To save my life, you must kill the
Punchkin 25)

seven daughters of your first wife, and put some of their
blood on my forehead and on the palms of my hands, and
their death will be my life.” At these words the Raja
was very sorrowful; but because he feared to break his
word, he went out with a heavy heart to find his daughters.

He found them crying by the ruins of their mother's
grave.

Then, feeling he could not kill them, the Raja spoke
kindly to them, and told them to come out into the jungle
with him; and there he made a fire and cooked some rice, and
gave it to them. But in the afternoon, it being very hot,
the seven Princesses all fell asleep, and when he saw they
were fast asleep, the Raja, their father, stole away and left
them (for he feared his wife), saying to himself: “It is
better my poor daughters should die here, than be killed by
their step-mother.”

He then shot a deer, and returning home, put some of
its blood on the forehead and hands of the Ranee, and she
thought then that he had really killed the Princesses, and
said she felt quite well.

Meantime the seven Princesses awoke, and when they
found themselves all alone in the thick jungle they were
much frightened, and began to call out as loud as they
could, in hopes of making their father hear; but he was
by that time far away, and would not have been able to
hear them even had their voices been as loud as thunder.

It so happened that this very day the seven young sons
of a neighbouring Raja chanced to be hunting in that same
jungle, and as they were returning home, after the day’s
sport was over, the youngest Prince said to his brothers:
“Stop, I think I hear some one crying and calling out.


28 Indian Fairy Tales

Do you not hear voices? Let us go in the direction of the
sound, and find out what it is.”

So the seven Princes rode through the wood until they
came to the place where the seven Princesses sat crying
and wringing their hands. At the sight of them the young
Princes were very much astonished, and still more so on
learning their story; and they settled that each should
take one of these poor forlorn ladies home with him, and
marry her.

So the first and eldest Prince took the eldest Princess
home with him, and married her.

And the second took the second ;

And the third took the third ;

And the fourth took the fourth ;

And the fifth. took the fifth ;

And the sixth took the sixth ;

And the seventh, and the handsomest of all, took the
beautiful Balna. °

And when they got to their own land, there was great
rejoicing throughout the kingdom, at the marriage of the
seven young Princes to seven such beautiful Princesses.

About a year after this Balna had a little son, and his
uncles and aunts were so fond of the boy that it was as if
he had seven fathers and seven mothers. None of the
other Princes and Princesses had any children, so the son
of the seventh Prince and Balna was acknowledged their
heir by all the rest.

They had thus lived very happily for some time, when
one fine day the seventh Prince (Balna’s husband) said he
would go out hunting, and away he went; and they waited
long for him, but he never came back.


Punchkin 29

Then his six brothers said they would go and see what
had become of him; and they went away, but they also did
not return.

And the seven Princesses grieved very much, for they
feared that their kind husbands must have been killed.

One day, not long after this had happened, as Balna was
rocking her baby’s cradle, and whilst her sisters were
working in the room below, there came to the palace door
a man in a long black dress, who said that he was a Fakir,
and came to beg. The servants said to him, ‘‘ You cannot
go into the palace—the Raja’s sons have all gone away;
we think they must be dead, and their widows cannot be
interrupted by your begging.” But he said, “I am a holy
man, you must let me in.” Then the stupid servants let
him walk through the palace, but they did not know that
this was no Fakir, but a wicked Magician named Punchkin.

Punchkin Fakir wandered through the palace, and saw
many beautiful things there, till at last he reached the room
where Balna sat singing beside her little boy’s cradle. The
Magician thought her more beautiful than all the other
beautiful things he had seen, insomuch that he asked her to
go home with him and to marry him. But she said, ‘ My
husband, I fear, is dead, but my little boy is still quite
young; I will stay here and teach him to grow up a clever
man, and when he is grown up he shall go out into the
world, and try and learn tidings of his father. Heaven
forbid that I should ever leave him, or marry you.” At
these words the Magician was very angry, and turned her
into a little black dog, and led her away; saying, “Since
you will not come with me of your own free will, I will
make you.” So the poor Princess was dragged away,
30 Indian Fairy Tales

without any power of effecting an escape, or of letting her
sisters know what had become of her. As Punchkin
passed through the palace gate the servants said to him,
‘‘Where did you get that pretty little dog?” And he
answered, “(One of the Princesses gave it to me as a
present.” At hearing which they let him go without
further questioning.

Soon after this, the six elder Princesses heard the little
baby, their nephew, begin to cry, and when they went
upstairs they were much surprised to find him all alone, and
Balna nowhere to be seen. Then they questioned the
servants, and when they heard of the Fakir and the little
black dog, they guessed what had happened, and sent in
every direction seeking them, but neither the Fakir nor the
dog were to be found. What could six poor women do?
They gave up all hopes of ever seeing their kind husbands,
and their sister, and her husband, again, and devoted
themselves thenceforward to teaching and taking care of
their little nephew.

Thus time went on, till Balna’s son was fourteen years
old. Then, one day, his aunts told him the history of the
family ; and no sooner did he hear it, than he was seized
with a great desire to go in search of his father and mother
and uncles, and if he could find them alive to bring them
home again. His aunts, on learning his determination,
were much alarmed and tried to dissuade him, saying, ‘‘ We
have lost our husbands, and our sister and her husband,
and you are now our sole hope ; if you go away, what shall
we do?” But he replied, “I pray you not to be discouraged ;
I will return soon, and if it is possible bring my father and
mother and uncles with me.” So he set out on his travels ;
Punchkin | or

but for some months he could learn nothing to help him in
his search.

At last, after he had journeyed many hundreds of weary
miles, and become almost hopeless of ever hearing anything
further of his parents, he one day came to a country that
seemed full of stones, and rocks, and trees, and there he saw
a large palace with a high tower; hard by which was a
Malee’s little house.

As he was looking about, the Malee’s wife saw him, and
ran out of the house and said, “My dear boy, who are you
that dare venture to this dangerous place?” He answered,
“T am a Raja’s son, and I come in search of my father,
and my uncles, and my mother whom a wicked enchanter
bewitched.” i

Then the Malee’s wife said, ‘This country and _ this
palace belong to a great enchanter ; he is all powerful, and
if any one displeases him, he can turn them into stones and
trees. All the rocks and trees you see here were living
people once, and the Magician turned them to what they
now are. Some time ago a Raja’s son came here, and
shortly afterwards came his six brothers, and they were all
turned into stones and trees; and these are not the only
unfortunate ones, for up in that tower lives a beautiful
Princess, whom the Magician has kept prisoner there for
twelve years, because she hates him and will not marry
him,”

Then the little Prince thought, “These must be my
parents and my uncles. I have found what I seek at last.”
So he told his story to the Malee’s wife, and begged her to
help him to remain in that place awhile and inquire further
concerning the unhappy people she mentioned; and she
Be Indian Fairy Tales

promised to befriend him, and advised his disguising
himself lest the Magician should see him, and turn him
likewise into stone. To this the Prince agreed. So the
Malee’s wife dressed him up in a saree, and pretended that
he was her daughter.

One day, not long after this, as the Magician was walking
in his garden he saw the little girl (as he thought) playing
about, and asked her who she was. She told him she was
the Malee’s daughter, and the Magician said, ‘You .are a
pretty little girl, and to-morrow you shall take a present of
flowers from me to the beautiful lady who lives in the
tower.

The young Prince was much delighted at hearing this,
and went immediately to inform the Malee’s wife; after
consultation with whom he determined that it would be
more safe for him to retain his disguise, and trust to the
chance of a favourable opportunity for establishing some
communication with his mother, if it were indeed she.

Now it happened that at Balna’s marriage her husband
had given her a small gold ring on which her name was
engraved, and she had put it on her little son’s finger when
he was a baby, and afterwards when he was older his aunts
had had it enlarged for him, so that he was still able to
wear it. The Malee’s wife advised him to fasten the well-
known treasure to one of the bouquets he presented to his
mother, and trust to her recognising it. This was not to
be done without difficulty, as such a strict watch was kept
over the poor Princess (for fear of her ever establishing
communication with her friends), that though the supposed
Malee’s daughter was permitted to take her flowers every
day, the Magician or one of his slaves was always in the


Punchkin 23

room at the time. At last one day, however, opportunity
favoured him, and when no one was looking, the boy tied
the ring to a nosegay, and threw it at Balna’s feet. It fell
with a clang on the floor, and Balna, looking to see what
made the strange sound, found the little ring tied to the
flowers. On recognising it, she at once believed the story
her son told her of his long search, and begged him to
advise her as to what she had better do; at the same time
entreating him on no account to endanger his life by trying
to rescue her. She told him that for twelve long years
the Magician had kept her shut up in the tower because she
refused to marry him, and she was so closely guarded that
she saw no hope of release.

Now Balna’s son was a bright, clever boy, so he said,
“Do not fear, dear mother; the first thing to do is to
discover how far the Magician’s power extends, in order
that we may be able to liberate my father and uncles,
whom he has imprisoned in the form of rocks and trees.
You have spoken to him angrily for twelve long years ;
now rather speak kindly. Tell him you have given up all
hopes of again seeing the husband you have so. long
mourned, and say you are willing to marry him. Then
endeavour to find out what his power consists in, and
whether he is immortal, or can be put to death,”

Balna determined to take her son’s advice ; and the next
day sent for Punchkin, and spoke to him as had been
suggested.

The Magician, greatly delighted, begged her to allow the
wedding to take place as soon as possible. :

But she told him that before she married him he must
allow her a little more time, in which she might make his

c
34. Indian Fairy Tales

acquaintance, and that, after being enemies so long, their
friendship could but strengthen by degrees. ‘‘And do tell
me,” she said, “ are you quite immortal? Can death never
touch you? And are you too great an enchanter ever to
feel human suffering ?”

“Why do you ask ?” said he.

‘‘ Because,” she replied, ‘‘if I am to be your wife, I would
fain know all about you, in order, if any calamity threatens
you, to overcome, or if possible to avert it.”

“Tt is true,” he added, “that I am not as others. Far,
far away, hundreds of thousands of miles from this, there
lies a desolate country covered with thick jungle. In the
midst of the jungle grows a circle of palm trees, and in the
centre of the circle stand six chattees full of water, piled
one above another: below the sixth chattee is a small cage
which contains a little green parrot; on the life of the
parrot depends my life; and if the parrot is killed I must
die. It is, however,” he added, ‘‘ impossible that the parrot
should sustain any injury, both on account of the inaccessi-
bility of the country, and because, by my appointment,
many thousand genii surround the palm trees, and kill all
who approach the place.”

Balna told her son what Punchkin had said; but at the same
time implored him to give up all idea of getting the parrot.

The Prince, however, replied, “ Mother, unless | can get
hold of that parrot, you, and my father, and uncles, cannot
be liberated: be not afraid, I will shortly return. Do you,
meantime, keep the Magician in good humour—still putting
off your marriage with him on various pretexts ; and before
he finds out the cause of delay, I will be here.” So
saying, he went away.




Punchkin Bis

Many, many weary miles did he travel, till at last he
came to a thick jungle; and, being very tired, sat down
under a tree and fell asleep. He was awakened by a soft
rustling sound, and looking about him, saw a large serpent
which was making its way to an eagle’s nest built in the
tree under which he lay, and in the nest were two young
eagles. The Prince seeing the danger of the young birds,
drew his sword, and killed the serpent; at the same
moment a rushing sound was heard in the air, and the two
old eagles, who had been out hunting for food for their young
ones, returned. They quickly saw the dead serpent and
the young Prince standing over it; and the old mother
eagle said to him, ‘“ Dear boy, for many years all our young
ones have been devoured by that cruel serpent; you
have now saved the lives of our children ; whenever you
are in need, therefore, send to us and we will help you;
and as for these little eagles, take them, and let them
be your servants.”

At this the Prince was very glad, and the two eaglets
crossed their wings, on which he mounted ; and they carried
him far, far away over the thick jungles, until he came to
the place where grew the circle of palm trees, in the midst
of which stood the six chattees full of water. It was the
middle of the day, and the heat was very great. All round
the trees were the genii fast asleep; nevertheless, there
were such countless thousands of them, that it would have
been quite impossible for any one to walk through their
ranks to the place; down swooped the strong-winged
eaglets—down jumped the Prince; in an instant he had
overthrown the six chattees full of water, and seized the
little green parrot, which he rolled up in his cloak ; while,
36 Indian Fairy Tales

as he mounted again into the air, all the genii below awoke,
and finding their treasure gone, set up a wild and melan-
choly howl.

Away, away flew the little eagles, till they came to their
home in the great tree; then the Prince said to the old
eagles, ‘‘ Take back your little ones; they have done me.
good service; if ever again I stand in need of help, I will
not fail to come to you.” He then continued his journey
on foot till he arrived once more at the Magician’s palace,
where he sat down at the door and began playing with the
parrot. Punchkin saw him, and came to him quickly, and
said, “ My boy, where did you get that parrot? Give it to
me, I pray you.”

But the Prince answered, ‘‘Oh no, I cannot give away
my parrot, it is a great pet of mine; I have had it many
years.”

Then the Magician said, ‘If it is an old favourite, I can
understand your not caring to give it away; but come
what will you sell it for ?”

“Sir,” replied the. Prince, “I will not sell my
parrot.”

Then Punchkin got frightened, and. said, ‘‘ Anything,
anything; name what price you will, and it shall be
yours.” The Prince answered, ‘(Let the seven Raja’s
sons whom you turned into rocks and trees be instantly
liberated.”

‘Tt is done as you desire,” said the Magician, ‘‘ only give
me my parrot.” And with that, by a stroke of his wand,
Baina’s husband and his brothers resumed their natural
shapes. ‘“ Now, give me my parrot,” repeated Punchkin.

“Not so fast, my master,” rejoined the Prince; ‘‘ 1 must




st A
See

Ns) he











pa
Punchkin a7

first beg that you will restore to life all whom you have
thus imprisoned.”

The Magician immediately waved his wand again; and,
whilst he cried, in an imploring voice, “Give me my

1?

parrot!” the whole garden became suddenly alive: where
rocks, and stones, and trees had been before, stood Rajas,
and Punts, and Sirdars, and mighty men on prancing
horses, and jewelled pages, and troops of armed attendants.

“Give me my parrot!” cried Punchkin. Then the boy
took hold of the parrot, and tore off one of its wings; and
as he did so the Magician’s right arm fell off.

Punchkin then stretched out his left arm, crying, ‘“‘ Give
me my parrot!’’ ‘The Prince pulled off the parrot’s second
wing, and the Magician's left arm tumbled off.

““Give me my parrot!” cried he, and fell on his knees.
The Prince pulled off the parrot’s right leg, the Magician’s
right leg fell off: the Prince pulled off the parrot’s left leg,
down fell the Magician’s left.

‘Nothing remained of him save the limbless body and the
head ; but still he rolled his eyes, and cried, ‘‘ Give me my
cried the boy, and

J

parrot!” ‘Take your parrot, then,’
with that he wrung the bird’s neck, and threw it at the
. Magician; and, as he did so, Punchkin’s head twisted
round, and, with a fearful groan, he died!

Then they let Balna out of the tower; and she, her son,
and the seven Princes went to their own country, and lived
very happily ever afterwards. And as to the rest of the
world, every one went to his own house.
The Broken Pot

}HERE lived in a certain place a Brahman,
whose name was Svabhavakripana, which
means “a born miser.” He had col-
lected a quantity of rice by begging,
and after having dined off it, he filled
a pot with what was left over. He



hung the pot on a peg on the wall, placed his couch
beneath, and looking intently at it all the night, he thought,
‘Ah, that pot is indeed brimful of rice. Now, if there
should be a famine, I should certainly make a hundred
rupees by it. With this I shall buy a couple of goats.
They will have young ones every six months, and thus I
shall have a whole herd of goats. Then, with the goats, I
shall buy cows. As soon as they have calved, I shall sell
the calves. Then, with the calves, I shall buy buffaloes ;
with the buffaloes, mares. When the mares have foaled, I
shall have plenty of horses ; and when I sell them, plenty
of gold. With that gold I shall get a house with four
wings. And then a Brahman will come to my house, and
will give me his beautiful daughter, with a large dowry.
She will have a son, and I shall call him Somasarman.
The Broken Pot 39

When he is old enough to be danced on his father's knee,
I shall sit with a book at the back of the stable, and while
I am reading, the boy will see me, jump from his mother’s
lap, and run towards me to be danced on my knee. He
will come too near the horse’s hoof, and, full of anger, J
shall call to my wife, ‘Take the baby; take him!’ But



she, distracted by some domestic work, does not hear mc.
Then I get up, and give her such a kick with my foot.”
While he thought this, he gave a kick with his foot, and
broke the pot. All the rice fell over him, and made him
quite white. Therefore, I say, ‘‘He who makes foolish
plans for the future will be white all over, like the father of
Somasarman.”
‘The Magic Fiddle

— WN NCE upon a time there lived seven brothers



and a sister. The brothers were married,
but their wives did not do the cooking
for the family. It was done by their
sister, who stopped at home to cook. The
wives for this reason bore their sister-
in-law much ill-will, and at length they combined together
to oust her from the office of cook and general provider,
so that one of themselves might obtain it. They said,
‘“She does not go out to the fields to work, but remains
quietly at home, and yet she has not the meals ready at
the proper time.” They then called upon their Bonga,
and vowing vows unto him they secured his good-will and
assistance; then they said to the Bonga, “At midday
when our sister-in-law goes to bring water, cause it thus
to happen, that on seeing her pitcher the water shall
vanish, and again slowly re-appear. In this way she will
be delayed. Let the water not flow into her pitcher, and
you may keep the maiden as your own.”

At noon when she went to bring water, it suddenly
dried up before her, and she began to weep. Then after
The Magic Fiddle ai

a while the water began slowly to rise. When it reached
her ankles she tried to fill her pitcher, but it would not
go under the water, Being frightened she began to wail
and cry to her brother:



“Oh! my brother, the water reaches to my ankles,
Still, Oh! my brother, the pitcher will not dip.”

The water continued to rise until it reached her knee,
when she began to wail again:
42 Indian Fairy Tales,

“Oh! my brother, the water reaches to my knee,
Still, Oh! my brother, the pitcher will not dip.”

The water continued to rise, and when it reached her
waist, she cried again :

“‘Oh! my brother, the water reaches to my waist,
Still, Oh! my brother, the pitcher will nat dip.”

The water still rose, and when it reached her neck she
kept on crying:

“Oh! my brother, the water reaches to my neck,
Still, Oh! my brother, the pitcher will not dip.”

At length the water became so deep that she felt herself
drowning, then she cried aloud:

‘Oh! my brother, the water measures a man’s height,
Oh! my brother, the pitcher begins to fill.”

The pitcher filled with water, and along with it she
sank and was drowned. The Bonga then transformed her
into a Bonga like himself, and carried her off.

After a time she re-appeared as a bamboo growing on
the embankment of the tank in which she had been
drowned. When the bamboo had grown to an immense
size, a Jogi, who was in the habit of passing that way,
seeing it, said to himself, “ This will make a splendid fiddle.”
So one day he brought an axe to cut it down; but when
he was about to begin, the bamboo called out, ‘‘ Do not cut
at the root, cut higher up.” When he lifted his axe to
cut high up the stem, the bamboo cried out, ‘“Do not cut
near the top, cut at the root.” When the Jogi again
prepared himself to cut at the root as requested, the
bamboo said, “‘ Do not cut at the root, cut higher up ;” and
when he was about to cut higher up, it again called out to
him, “ Do not cut high up, cut at the root.” The Jogi by
The Magic Fiddle | 43

this time felt sure that a Bonga was trying to frighten
him, so becoming angry he cut down the bamboo at the
root, and taking it away made a fiddle out of it. The
instrument had a superior tone and delighted all who heard
it. The Jogi carried it with him when he went a-begging,
and through the influence of its sweet music he returned
home every evening with a full wallet.

He now and then visited, when on his rounds, the
house of the Bonga girl’s brothers, and the strains of the
fiddle affected them greatly. Some of them were moved
even to tears, for the fiddle seemed to wail as one in bitter
anguish, The elder brother wished to purchase it, and
offered to support the Jogi for a whole year if he would
consent to part with his wonderful instrument. The Jogi,
however, knew its value, and refused to sell it.

It so happened that the Jogi some time after went to the
house of a village chief, and after playing a tune or two on
his fiddle asked for something to eat. They offered to
buy his fiddle and promised a high price for it, but he
refused to sell it, as his fiddle brought to him his means of
livelihood. When they saw that he was not to be prevailed
upon, they gave him food and a plentiful supply of liquor.
Of the latter he drank so freely that he presently became
intoxicated. While he was in this condition, they took
away his fiddle, and substituted their own old one for it.
When the Jogi recovered, he missed his instrument, and
suspecting that it had been stolen asked them to return it to
him. They denied having taken it, so he had to depart,
leaving his fiddle behind him. The chief’s son, being a
musician, used to play on the Jogi’s fiddle, and in his hands
the music it gave forth delighted the ears of all who heard it.
44 Indian Fairy Tales

When all the household were absent at their labours in
the fields, the Bonga girl used to come out of the bamboo
fiddle, and prepared the family meal. Having eaten her own
share, she placed that of the chief’s son under his bed, and
covering it up to keep off the dust, re-entered the fiddle.
This happening every day, the other members of the house-
hold thought’ that some girl friend of theirs was in this
manner showing her interest in the young man, so they did
not trouble themselves to find out how it came about.
The young chief, however, was determined to watch, and
see which of his girl friends was so attentive to his comfort.
He said in his own mind, “I will catch her to-day, and
give her a sound beating ; she is causing me to be ashamed
before the others.” So saying, he hid himself in a corner
in a pile of firewood. In a short time the girl came out of
the bamboo fiddle, and began to dress her hair. Having
completed her toilet, she ccoked the meal of rice as usual,
and having eaten some herself, she’ placed the young
man’s portion under his bed, as before, and was about to
enter the fiddle again, when he, running out from his hiding-
place, caught her in his arms. The Bonga girl exclaimed,
“Fie! Fie! you may be a Dom, or you may be a Hadi
of some other caste with whom I cannot marry.” He
said, ‘No. But from to-day, you and I are one.” So
they began lovingly to hold converse with each other.
When the others returned home in the evening, they saw
that she was both a human being and a Bonga, and they
rejoiced exceedingly.

Now in course of time the Bonga girl’s family became
very poor, and her brothers on one occasion came to the
chief’s house on a visit.
The Magic Fiddle ane

The Bonga girl recognised them at once, but they did
not know who she was. She brought them water on their
arrival, and afterwards set cooked rice before them. Then
sitting down near them, she began in wailing tones to up-
braid them on account of the treatment she had been sub-
jected to by their wives. She related all that had befallen
her, and wound up by saying, ‘‘You must have known
it all, and yet you did not interfere to save me.” And that
was all the revenge she took. .










ONG ago the Bodisat was born to a forest
life as the Genius of a tree standing
near a certain lotus pond.

Now at that time the water used to
run short at the dry season in a certain



pond, not over large, in which there were
a good many fish. And a crane thought on seeing the
fish :

“JT must outwit these fish somehow or other and make a
prey of them.”

And he went and sat down at the edge of the water,
thinking how he should do it.

When the fish saw him, they asked him, ‘‘ What are you
sitting there for, lost in thought ?”

“‘T am sitting thinking about you,” said he.

‘Oh, sir! what are you thinking about us?” said they.
The Cruel Crane Outwitted 47

“Why,” he replied; “there is very little water in this
pond, and but little for you to eat ; and the heat is so great!
So I was thinking, ‘What in the world will these fish do
now ?’”

“Yes, indeed, sir! what are we to do?” said they.

“Tf you will only do as I bid you, I will take you in my
beak to a fine large pond, covered with all the kinds of
” answered the crane.

“That a crane should take thought for the fishes is a
thing unheard of, sir, since the world began. It’s eating

lotuses, and put you into it,

us, one after the other, that you’re aiming at.”

“Not I! So long as you trust me, I won’t eat you.
But if you don’t believe me that there is such a pond, send
one of you with me to go and see it.”

Then they trusted him, and handed over to him one of
their number —— a big fellow, blind of one eye, whom
they thought sharp enough in any emergency, afloat or
ashore.

Him the crane took with him, let him go in the pond,
showed him the whole of it, brought him back, and let him
go again close to the other fish. And he told them all the
glories of the pond.

And when they heard what he said, they exclaimed, ‘ All
right, sir! You may take us with you.”

Then the crane took the old purblind fish first to the
bank of the other pond, and alighted in a Varana-tree grow-
ing on the bank there. But he threw it into a fork of
the tree, struck it with his beak, and killed it ; and then ate
its flesh, and threw its bones away at the foot of the tree.
Then he went back and called out:

“ T’ve thrown that fish in ; let another one come.”
48 Indian Fairy Tales

And in that manner he took all the fish, one by one, and
ate them, till he came back and found no more!

But there was still a crab left behind there; and the
crane thought he would eat him too, and called out :

“‘T say, good crab, I’ve taken all the fish away, and
put them into a fine large pond. Come along. I'll take
you too!”

“ But how will you take hold of me to carry me along ?”

“Pll bite hold of you with my beak.”

‘You'll let me fallif you carry me like that. I won't go
with you !”

“Don’t be afraid! I'll hold you quite tight all the
way.”

Then said the crab to himself, “If this fellow once got
hold of fish, he would.never let them go in a pond! Now
if he should really put me into the pond, it would be capital ;
but if he doesn’t—then I'll cut his throat, and kill him!”
So he said to him:

‘(Look here, friend, you won't be able to hold me tight
enough ; but we crabs have a famous grip. If you let me
catch hold of you round the neck with my claws, I shall be
glad to go with you.”

And the other did not see that he was trying to outwit
him, and agreed. So the crab caught hold of his neck with
his claws as securely as with a pair of, blacksmith’s pincers,
and called out, ‘ Off with you, now!”

And the crane took him and showed him the pond, and
then turned off towards the Varana-tree.

“ Uncle!” cried the crab, “the pond lies that way, but
you are taking me this way!”
The Cruel Crane Outwitted 49

‘‘Oh, that’s it, is it?” answered the crane. ‘ Your dear
little uncle, your very sweet nephew, you call me! You
mean me to understand, I suppose, that I am your slave,
who has to lift you up and carry you about with him!
Now cast your eye upon the heap of fish-bones lying at
the root of yonder Varana-tree. Just as I have eaten
those fish, every one of them, just so I will devour you as
well!”

“Ah ! those fishes got eaten through their own stupidity,”
answered the crab ; “ but I’m not going to let you eat me.
On the contrary, is it you that I am going to destroy. For
you in your folly have not seen that I was outwitting you.
If we die, we die both together; for I will cut off this head
of yours, and cast it to the ground!” And so saying, he
gave the crane’s neck a grip with his claws, as with a
vice.

Then gasping, and with tears trickling from his eyes, and
trembling with the fear of death, the crane beseeched him,
saying, ‘“O my Lord! Indeed I did not intend to eat you.
Grant me my life!”

‘Well, well! step down into the pond, and put me in
there.”

And he turned round and stepped down into the pond,
and placed the crab on the mud at its edge. But the crab
cut through its neck as clean as one would cut a lotus-
stalk with a hunting-knife, and then only entered the
water ! :

When the Genius who lived in the Varana-tree saw this
strange affair, he made the wood resound with his plaudits,
uttering in a pleasant voice the: verse:
50 Indian Fairy Tales

“The villain, though exceeding clever,
Shall prosper not by his villainy.
He may win indeed, sharp-witted in deceit,

But only as the Crane here from the Crab !”


Loving Laili

NCE there was a king called King Dantal,



who had a great many rupees and soldiers
and horses. He had also an only son
called Prince Majnun, who was a handsome
boy with white teeth, red lips, blue eyes,
red cheeks, red hair, and a white skin.
This boy was very fond of playing with the Wazir’s son,
Husain Mahamat, in King Dantal’s garden, which was
very large and full of delicious fruits, and flowers, and trees,
They used to take their little knives there and cut the fruits
and eat them. King Dantal had a teacher for them to
teach them to read and write.

One day, when they were grown two fine young men,
Prince Majnun said to his father, “ Husain Mahamat and I
should like to go and hunt.” His father said they might
go, so they got ready their horses and all else they wanted
for.their hunting, and went to the Phalana country, hunting
all the way, but they only founds jackals and birds.

The Raja of the Phalana country was called Munsuk
Raja, and he had a daughter named Laili, who was very
beautiful; she had brown eyes and black hair.
Bee Indian Fairy Tales

One night, some time before Prince Majnun came to her
father’s kingdom, as she slept, Khuda sent to-her an angel
in the form of a man who told her that she should marry
Prince Majnun and no one else, and that this was Khuda’s
command to her. When Laili woke she told her father of
the angel’s visit to her as she slept; but her father paid no

“attention to her story. From that time she began repeating,

“ Majnun, Majnun ; I want Majnun,” and would say nothing
else. Even as she sat and ate her food she kept saying,
“Majnun, Majnun; I want Majnun.” Her father used to
get quite vexed with her. ‘Who is this Majnun ? who
ever heard of this Majnun ?” he would say.

“He is the man I am to marry,” said Laili. “ Khuda
has ordered me to marry no one but Majnun.” And she
was half mad.

Meanwhile, Majnun and Husain Mahamat came to hunt
in the Phalana country; and as they were riding about,
Laili came out on her horse to eat the air, and rode behind
them. All the time she kept saying, ‘“ Majnin, Majnun; I
want Majnun.” The prince heard her, and turned round.
“Who is calling me?” he asked. At this Laili looked at
him, and the moment she saw him she fell deeply in love
with him, and she said to herself, “I am sure that is
the Prince Majnun that Khuda says I am to marry.” And
she went home to her father and said, ‘‘ Father, I wish to
marry the prince who has come to your kingdom; for I
know he is the Prince Majnun I am to marry.”

“Very well, you shall have him for your husband,” said
Munsuk Raja. ‘We. will ask him to-morrow.” Laili
consented to wait, although she was very impatient. As it
happened, the prince left the Phalana kingdom that night,
Loving Laili 5B

and when Laili heard he was gone, she went quite mad,

“She would not listen to a word her father, or her mother,
or her servants said to her, but went off into the jungle,
and wandered from jungle to jungle, till she got farther and
farther away from her own country. All the time she kept
saying, ‘‘Majnun, Majnun; I want Majnun; and so she
wandered about for twelve years.

At the end of the twelve years she met a fakir—he was
really an angel, but she did not know this—who asked her,
“Why do you always say, ‘Majnun, Majnun; I want
Majnun’?” She answered, “I am the daughter of the
king of the Phalana country, and I want to find Prince
Majnun ; tell me where his kingdom is.”

‘I think you will never get there,” said the fakir, “ for
it is very far from hence, and you have to cross many
rivers -to reach it.” But Laili said she did not care;
she must see Prince Majnun. ‘ Well,” said the fakir,
‘““when you come to the Bhagirathi river you will see a big
fish, a Rohu; and you must get him to carry you to Prince
Majnun’s country, or you will never reach it.”

She went on and on, and at last she came to the
Bhagirathi river. There was a great big fish called the
Rohu fish. It was yawning just as she got up to it,
and she instantly jumped down its throat into its stomach.
All the time she kept saying, ‘‘ Majnun, Majnun.” At this
the Rohu fish was greatly alarmed and swam down the river
as fast as he could. By degrees he got tired and went
slower, and a crow came and perched on his back, and
said ‘Caw, caw.” “Oh, Mr. Crow,” said the poor fish
“do see what is in my stomach that makes such a noise.”

“Very well,” said the crow, “ open your mouth wide,
54 Indian Fairy Tales

and [ll fly down and see.” So the Rohu opened his jaws
and the crow flew down, but he came up again very quickly.
“You have a Rakshas in your stomach,” said the crow,
and he flew away. This news did not comfort the poor
Rohu, and he swam on and on till he came to Prince
Majnun’s country. There he stopped. And a jackal came











down to the river to drink. ‘‘Oh, jackal,” said the Rohu
“do tell me what I have inside me.”

“Flow can I tell?” said the jackal. “I cannot see
unless I go inside you.” So the Rohu opened his mouth
wide, and the jackal jumped down his throat ; but he came

up very quickly, looking much frightened and saying,
“You have a Rakshas in your stomach, and if I don’t run
away quickly, I am afraid it will eat me.” So off he
Loving Laili Ie

ran. After the jackal came an enormous snake. ‘“ Oh,”
says the fish, ‘‘do tell me what I have in my stomach, for
it rattles about so, and keeps saying, ‘‘ Majnun, Majnun; I
want Majnun.”

The snake said, ‘‘Open your mouth wide, and I'll go
down and see what it is.’ The snake went down: when
he returned he said, ‘‘ You have a Rakshas in your stomach,
but if you will let me cut you open, it will come out of
you.” “If you do that, I shall die,” said the Rohu. ‘Oh,
no,” said the snake, “‘ you will not, for I will give you a
medicine that will make you quite well again.” So the fish
agreed, and the snake got a knife and cut him open, and
out jumped Laili.

She was now very old. Twelve years she had wandered
about the jungle, and for twelve years she had lived inside
her Rohu; and she was no longer beautiful, and had lost
her teeth. The snake took her on his back and carried her
into the country, and there he put her down, and she
wandered on and on till she got to Majnun’s court-house,
where King Majnun was sitting. There some men heard

her crying, ‘ Majnun, Majnun; I want Majnun,”

and they
asked her what she wanted. ‘I want King Majnun,” she
said.

So they went in and said to Prince Majnun, ‘“ An old
woman outside says she wants you.” ‘I cannot leave
this place,” said he; “send her in here.” They brought
her in and the prince asked her what she wanted. ‘I
want to marry you,” she answered. ‘Twenty-four years
ago you came to my father the Phalana Raja's country, and
I wanted to marry you then; but you went away without
marrying me. Then I went mad, and I have wandered
56 Indian Fairy Tales

about all these years looking for you.” Prince Majnun
said, “ Very good.”

“Pray to Khuda,” said Laili, “to make us both young
again, and then we shall be married.” So the prince
prayed to Khuda, and Khuda said to him, “Touch Laili’s
clothes and they will catch fire, and when they are on fire,
she and you will become young again.” When he touched
Laili’s clothes they caught fire, and she and he became
young again. And there were great feasts, and they were
married, and travelled to the Phalana country to see her
father and mother.

Now Laili’s father and mother had wept so much for
their daughter that they had become quite blind, and her
father kept always repeating, ‘ Laili, Laili, Laili.” When
Laili saw their blindness, she prayed to Khuda to restore
their sight to them, which he did. As soon as the father
and mother saw Laili, they hugged her and kissed her, and
then they had the wedding all over again amid great
rejoicings. Prince Majnum and Laili stayed with Munsuk
Raja and his wife for three years, and then they returned
to King Dantal, and lived happily for some time with him.

They used to go out hunting, and they often went from
country to country to eat the air and amuse themselves.

One day Prince Majnun said to Laili, “Let us go
through this jungle.” ‘No, no,” said Laili; ‘if we go
through this jungle, some harm will happen to me.” But
Prince Majnun laughed, and went into the jungle. And as
they were going through it, Khuda thought, “I should like
to know how much Prince Majnun loves his wife. Would
he be very sorry if she died? And would he marry
another wife? I will see. So he sent one of his angels
Loving Laili 57

in the form of a fakir into the jungle; and the angel went
up to Laili, and threw some powder in her face, and
instantly she fell to the ground a heap of ashes.

Prince Majnun was in great sorrow and grief when he
saw his dear Laili turned into a little heap of ashes; and
he went straight home to his father, and for a long, long
time he would not be comforted. After a great many years
he grew more cheerful and happy, and began to go again
into his father’s beautiful garden with Husain Mahamat.
King Dantal wished his son to marry again. “I will only
have Laili for my wife ; I will not marry any other woman,”
said Prince Majnun.

“How can you marry Laili? Laili is dead. She will
never come back to you,” said the father.

“Then I'll not have any wife at all,” said Prince
Majnun.

Meanwhile Laili was living in the jungle where her
husband had left her a little heap of ashes. As soon as
Majnun had gone, the fakir had taken her ashes and made
them quite clean, and then he had mixed clay and water with
the ashes, and made the figure of a woman with them, and
so Laili regained her human form, and Khuda sent life into
it. But Laili had become once more a hideous old woman,
with a long, long nose, and teeth like tusks ; just such an
old woman, excepting her teeth, as she had been when she
came out of the Rohu fish ; and she lived in the jungle, and
neither ate nor drank, and she kept on saying, “ Majnun,
Majnun ; I want Majnun.”

At last the angel who had come as a fakir and thrown
the powder at her, said to Khuda, “ Of what use is it that
this woman should sit in the jungle crying, crying for ever,
58 Indian Fairy Tales

‘Majnun, Majnun ; I want Majnun,’ and eating and drinking
nothing? Let me take her to Prince Majnun.” ‘‘ Well,”
said Khuda, ‘‘ you may do so; but tell her that she must
not speak to Majnun if he is afraid of her when he sees
her; and that if he is afraid when he sees her, she will
become a little white dog the next day. Then she must go
to the palace, and she will only regain her human shape
when Prince Majnun loves her, feeds her with his own food,
and lets her sleep in his bed.”

So the angel came to Laili again as a fakir and carried
her to King Dantal’s garden, ‘‘ Now,” he said, ‘it is
Khuda’s command that you stay here till Prince Majnun
comes to walk in the garden, and then you may show
yourself to him. But you must not speak to him, if he is
afraid of you; and should he be afraid of you, you will the
next day become a little white dog.” He then told her
what she must do as a little dog to regain her human
form.

Laili stayed in the garden, hidden in the tall grass, till
Prince Majnun and Husain Mahamat came to walk in the
garden. King Dantal was now a very old man; and
Husain Mahamat, though he was really only as old as
Prince Majnun, looked a great deal older than the prince,
who had been made quite young again when he married
Laili.

As Prince Majnun and the Wazir’s son walked in the
garden, they gathered the fruit as they had done as little
children, only they bit the fruit with their teeth; they did
not cut it, While Majnun was busy eating a fruit in this
way, and was talking to Husain Mahamat, he turned
towards him and saw Laili walking behind the Wazir’s son.
Loving Laili 59

“Oh, look, look!” he cried, “see what is following you ;
it is a Rakshas or a demon, and I am sure it is going to
eat us.” Laili looked at him beseechingly with all her
eyes, and trembled with age and eagerness ; but this only
frightened Majnun the more. “It is a Rakshas, a Rakshas!”
he cried, and he ran quickly to the palace with the Wazir’s
son; and as they ran away, Laili disappeared into the
jungle. They ran to King Dantal, and Majnun told him
there was a Rakshas or a demon in the garden that had
come to eat them.

_ “What nonsense,” said his father. “Fancy two grown
men being so frightened by an old ayah or a fakir! And if
it had been a Rakshas, it would not have eaten you.”
Indeed King Dantal did not believe Majnun had seen any-
thing at all, till Husain Mahamat said the prince was
“speaking the exact truth. They had the garden searched
for the terrible old woman, but found nothing, and King
Dantal told his son he was very silly to be so much frightened.
However, Prince Majnun would not walk in the garden any
more.

The next day Laili turned into a pretty little dog; and
in this shape she came into the palace, where Prince Majnun
soon became very fond of her. She followed him every-
where, went with him when he was out hunting, and helped
him to catch his game, and Prince Majnun fed her with
milk, or bread, or anything else he was eating, and at night
the little dog slept in his bed.

But one night the little dog disappeared, and in its stead
there lay the little old woman who had frightened him so
much in the garden ; and now Prince Majnun was quite sure
she was a Rakshas, or a demon, or some such horrible
60 Indian Fairy Tales

thing come to eat him; and in his terror he cried out,
“What do you want? Oh, do not eat me; do not eat
me!” Poor Laili answered, “Don’t you know me? I am
your wife Laili, and I want to marry you. Don’t you
remember how you would go through that jungle, though I
begged and begged you not to go, for I told you that harm
would happen to me, and then a fakir came and threw
powder in my face, and I became a heap of ashes. But
Khuda gave me my life again, and brought me here, after I
had stayed a long, long while in the jungle crying for you,
and now I am obliged to be a little dog; but if you will
marry me, I shall not be a little dog any more.” Majnun,
however, said ‘‘ How can I marry an old woman like you ?
how can you be Laili? I am sure you are a Rakshas or a
demon come to eat me,” and he was in great terror.

In the morning the old woman had turned into the little
dog, and the prince went to his father and told him all that
had happened. “An old woman! an old woman! always
an old woman!” said his father. ‘You do nothing but
think of old women. How can a strong man like you be
so easily frightened?” However, when he saw that his
son was really in great terror, and that he really believed
the old woman would came back at night, he advised him to
say to her, “I will marry you if you can make yourself a
young girl again. How can I marry such an old woman as
you are?”

That night as he lay trembling in bed the little old
woman lay there in place of the dog, crying “ Majnun,
Majnun, I want to marry you. I have loved you all these
long, long years. When I was in my father’s kingdom a
young girl, I knew of you, though you knew nothing of
Loving Laili 61

me, and we should have been married then if you had not
gone away so suddenly, and for long, long years I followed
you.” ‘ Well,” said Majnun, ‘if you can make yourself a
young girl again, I will marry you.”

Laili said, ‘‘Oh, that is quite easy. Khuda will make
me a young girl again. In two days’ time you must go
into the garden, and there you will see a beautiful fruit.
You must gather it and bring it into your room and cut it
open yourself very gently, and you must not open it when
your father or anybody else is with you, but when you are
quite alone; for I shall be in the fruit quite naked, without
any clothes at all on.” In the morning Laili took her little
dog’s form, and disappeared in the garden.

Prince Majnun told all this to his father, who told him to
do all the old woman had bidden him. In two days’ time
he and the Wazir’s son walked in the garden, and there
they saw a large, lovely red fruit. ‘ Oh!” said the Prince,
“‘T wonder shall I find my wife in that fruit.” Husain
Mahamat wanted him to gather it and see, but he would
not till he had told his father, who said, ‘‘ That must be the
fruit ; go and gather it.” So Majnun went back and broke
the fruit off its stalk; and he said to his father, ‘‘Come
with me to my room while I open it; I am afraid to open
it alone, for perhaps I shall find a Rakshas in it that will
eat me.”

“No,” said King Dantal ; ‘‘ remember, Laili will be naked ;
you must go alone and do not be afraid if, after all, a
Rakshas is in the fruit, for I will stay outside the door,
and you have only to call me with a loud voice, and I will
come to you, so the Rakshas will not be able to eat you.”

Then Majnun took the fruit and began to cut it open
62 Indian Fairy Tales

tremblingly, for he shook with fear ; and when he had cut
it, out stepped Laili, young and far more beautiful than she
had ever been. At the sight of her extreme beauty, Majnun
fell backwards fainting on the floor. :

Laili took off his turban and wound it all round herself
like a sari (for she had no clothes at all on), and then she
ealled King Dantal, and said to him sadly, “ Why has
Majnun fallen down like this? Why will he not speak to
me? He never used to be afraid of me; and he has seen
me so many, many times.”

King Dantal answered, ‘‘It is because you are so beauti-
ful. You are far, far more beautiful than you ever were.
But he will be very happy directly.” Then the King got
some water, and they bathed Majnun’s face and gave him
some to drink, and he sat up again.

Then Laili said, ‘‘ Why did you faint? Did you not see
I am Laili ?”

“Oh!” said Prince Majnun, ‘‘I see you are Laili come
back to me, but your eyes have grown so wonderfully
beautiful, that I fainted when I saw them.” Then they
were all very happy, and King Dantal had all the drums in
the place beaten, and had all the musical instruments played
on, and they made a grand wedding-feast, and gave
presents to the servants, and rice and quantities of rupees
to the fakirs.

After some time had passed very happily, Prince Majnun
and his wife went out to eat the air. They rode on the
same horse, and had only a groom with them. They came
to another kingdom, to a beautiful garden. ‘ We must go
into that garden and see it,” said Majnun.

“No, no,” said Laili; “it belongs to a bad Retin,
Loving Laili 63

'Chumman Basa, a very wicked man.” But Majnun insisted
on going in, and in spite of all Laili could say, he got off
the horse to look at the flowers. Now, as he was looking
at the flowers, Laili saw Chumman Basa coming towards
them, and she read in his eyes that he meant to kill her
husband and seize her. So she said to Majnun, ‘‘ Come,
come, let us go; do not go near that bad man. I see in
his eyes, and I feel in my heart, that he will kill you to
seize me.”

‘What nonsense,” said Majnun. “I believe he is a
very good Raja. Anyhow, I am so near to him that I
could not get away.”

“Well,” said Laili, “it is better that you should be
killed than I, for if I were to be killed a second time,
Khuda would not give me my life again; but I can bring
you to life if you are killed.” Now Chumman Basa had
come quite near, and seemed very pleasant, so thought
Prince Majnun; but when he was spéaking to Majnun, he
drew his scimitar and cut off the prince’s head at one blow,

Laili sat quite still on her horse, and as the Raja
came towards her she said, “Why did you kill my
husband ?”

“ Because I want to take you,” he answered.

“You cannot,” said Laili.

”

“Yes, I can,” said the Raja.

‘Take me, then,” said Laili to Chumman Basa; so he
came quite close and put out his hand to take hers to lift
her off her horse. But she put her hand in her pocket and
pulled out a tiny knife, only as long as her hand was broad,
and this knife unfolded itself in one instant till it was such

a length! and then Laili made a great sweep with her arm
64 : Indian Fairy Tales

and her long, long knife, and off came Chumman Basa’s head
at one touch.

Then Laili slipped down off her horse, and she went to
Majnun’s dead body, and she cut her little finger inside her
hand straight down from the top of her nail. to her palm,
and out of this gushed blood like healing medicine. Then
she put Majnun’s head on his shoulders, and smeared her
healing blood all over the wound, and Majnun woke up and
said, ‘‘ What a delightful sleep I have had! Why, I feel
as if I had slept for years!” Then he got up and saw the
Raja’s dead body by Laili’s horse.

‘‘What’s that ?” said Majnun.

“ That is the wicked Raja who killed you to seize me,
just as I said he would.”

“Who killed him?” asked Majnun.

“J did,” answered Laili, ‘‘ and it was I who brought you
to life.””

“Do bring the poor man to life if you know how to
do so,” said Majnun.

“No,” said Laili, ‘‘ for he is a wicked man, and will try
to do you harm.” But Majnun asked her for such a long
time, and so earnestly to bring the wicked Raja to life, that
at least she said, ‘‘ Jump up on the horse, then, and go far
away with the groom.”

“What will you do,” said Majnun, ‘if I leave you ? a
cannot leave you.”

“TY will take care of myself,” said Laili; ‘“ but this man
is so wicked, he may kill you again if you are near him,”
So Majnun got up on the horse, and he and the groom
went a long way off and waited for Laili Then she set
the wicked Raja’s head straight on his shoulders, and she
i



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Loving Laili 65

squeezed the wound in her finger till a little blood-medicine
came out of it. Then she smeared this over the place
where her knife had passed, and just as she saw the Raja
opening his eyes, she began to run, and she ran, and ran so
fast, that she outran the Raja, who tried to catch her; and
she sprang up on the horse behind her husband, and they
rode so fast, so fast, till they reached King Dental’s
palace.

There Prince Majnun told everything to his father, who
was horrified and angry. ‘‘ How lucky for you that you
have such a wife,” he said. “Why did you not do what
she told you? But for her, you would be now dead.”
Then he made a great feast out of gratitude for his son’s
safety, and gave many, many rupees to the fakirs. And
he made so. much of Laili. He loved her dearly ; he could
not do enough for her. Then he built a splendid palace
for her and his son, with a great deal of ground about it,
and lovely gardens, and gave them great wealth, and heaps
of servants to wait on them. But he would not allow
any but their servants to enter their gardens and palace,
and he would not allow Majnun to go out of them, nor
Laili; “for,” said King Dantal, ‘ Laili is so beautiful, that

perhaps some one may kill my son to take her away.”


The Tiger, the Brahman, and
the Jackal

NCE upon a time, a tiger was caught in a
trap. He tried in vain to get out through
the bars, and rolled and bit with rage and
grief when he failed.



By chance a poor Brahman came by.
“Tet me out of this cage, oh pious one!”

cried the tiger.

“Nay, my friend,” replied the Brahman mildly, ‘‘ you
would probably eat me if I did.”

“Not at all!” swore the tiger with many oaths; ‘on
the contrary, I should be for ever grateful, and serve you
as a slave!”

Now when the tiger sobbed and sighed and wept and
swore, the pious Brahman’s heart softened, and at last he

consented to open the door of the cage. Out popped the ©

tiger, and, seizing the poor man, cried, “ What a fool you
Tiger, Brahman, and Jackal 67

are! What is to prevent my eating you now, for after
being cooped up so long I am just terribly hungry !”

In vain the Brahman pleaded for his life; the most he
could gain was a promise to abide by the decision of the
first three things he chose to question as to the justice of
the tiger’s action.

So the Brahman first asked a pipal tree what it thought
of the matter, but the pipal tree replied coldly, ‘‘ What. have
you to complain about ? Don’t I give shade and shelter to
every one who passes by, and don’t they in return tear
down my branches to feed their cattle? Don’t whimper—
be a man!”

Then the Brahman, sad at heart, went further afield till
he saw a buffalo turning a well-wheel; but he fared no
better from it, for it answered, ‘‘ You are a fool to expect
gratitude! Look at me! Whilst I gave milk they fed me
on cotton-seed and oil-cake, but now I am dry they yoke
me here, and give me refuse as fodder!”

_ The Brahman, still more sad, asked the road to give him
its opinion.

“My dear sir,’
expect anything else! Here am I, useful to everybody,
yet all, rich and poor, great and small, trample on me as
they go past, giving me nothing but the ashes of their pipes

)

said the road, ‘‘how foolish you are to

and the husks of their grain!”

On this the Brahman turned ‘back sorrowfully, and on
the way he met a jackal, who called out, ‘‘ Why, what’s the
matter, Mr. Brahman? You look as miserable as a fish
out of water!”

The Brahman told him all that had _ occurred.

“How very confusing!” said the jackal, when the recital
68 Indian Fairy Tales

was ended; “would you mind telling me over again, for
everything has got so mixed up ?”

The Brahman told it all over again, but the jackal shook
his head in a distracted sort of way, and still could not
understand.

“Tt’s very odd,” said he, sadly, “ but it all seems to go
in at one ear and out at the other! I will go to the place
where it all happened, and then perhaps I shall be able to
give a judgment.”

So they returned to the cage, by which the tiger was
waiting for the Brahman, and sharpening his teeth and
claws.

“You've been away a long time!” growled the savage
beast, ‘‘ but now let-us begin our dinner.”

“Our dinner!” thought the wretched Brahman, as his
knees knocked together with fright ; ‘‘ what a remarkably
delicate way of putting it!”

“ Give me five minutes, my lord!” he pleaded, ‘‘in order
that I may explain matters to the jackal here, who is some-
what slow in his wits.”

The tiger consented, and the Brahman began the whole
story over again, not missing a single detail, and spinning
as long a yarn as possible.

“Oh, my poor brain! oh, my poor brain!” cried the
jackal, wringing its paws. ‘‘Let me see! how did it all

begin? You were in the cage, and the tiger came walking
by: vy



“Pooh!” interrupted the tiger, “what a fool you are!
f was in the cage.”

“OF course!” cried the jackal, pretending to tremble
with fright ; ‘yes! I was in the cage—no I wasn’t —dear !
Tiger, Brahman, and Jackal 69

dear! where are my wits? Let me see—the tiger was in



the Brahman, and the cage came walking by no, that’s
not it, either! Well, don’t mind me, but begin your dinner,
for I shall never understand !”

“Yes, you shall!” returned the tiger, in a rage at the

jackal’s stupidity ; ‘Vl make you understand! Look here



— I am the tiger.
a Yes, my lord!”
“ And that is the Brahman bs
‘Yes, my lord!”
“ And that is the cage i

“Yes, my lord!”





“ And I was in the cage—do you understand ?”
“ Yes—no



Please, my lord——”

‘(Well ?” cried the tiger impatiently.

‘Please, my lord !—how did you get in?”

“ How !-why in the usual way, of course!”

‘Oh, dear me !—my head is beginning to whirl again!
Please don’t be angry, my lord, but what is the usual
way ?”

At this the tiger lost patience, and, jumping into the
cage, cried, “This way! Now do you understand how it
was ?”

“ Perfectly !” grinned the jackal, as he dexterously shut
the door, ‘and if you will permit me to say ‘so, I think
matters will remain as they were !”
The Soothsayer’s Son _

‘SOOTHSAYER when on his deathbed
wrote out the horoscope of his second





son, whose name was Gangazara, and be-
oy queathed it to him as his only property,
ro leaving the whole of his estate to his
8)
over the horoscope, and said to himself:

‘Alas! am I born to this only in the world? The say-

eldest son. The second son thought

ings of my father never failed. I have seen them prove
true to the last word while he was living ; and how has he
fixed my horoscope! ‘From my birth poverty!’ Nor
is that my only fate. ‘For ten years, imprisonment’
—-a fate harder than poverty; and what comes next?
‘Death on the sea-shore’; which means that I must
die away from home, far from friends and relatives on a
sea-coast. Now comes the most curious part of the horo-
scope, that I am to ‘have some happiness afterwards !’
What this happiness is, is an enigma to me.”

Thus thought he, and after all the funeral obsequies of
his father were over, took leave of his elder brother, and
started for Benares. He went by the middle of the Deccan,
The Soothsayer’s Son 71

avoiding both the coasts, and went on journeying and
journeying for weeks and months, till at last he reached the
Vindhya mountains. While passing that desert he had to
journey for a couple of days through a sandy plain, with no
signs of life or vegetation. The little store of provision
with which he was provided for a couple of days, at last
was exhausted. The chombu, which he carried always full,
filling it with the sweet water from the flowing rivulet or
plenteous tank, he had exhausted in the heat of the desert.
There was not a morsel in his hand to eat; nor a drop of
water todrink. Turn his eyes wherever he might he found
a vast desert, out of which he saw no means of escape.
Still he thought within ‘himself, ‘Surely my father’s
prophecy never proved untrue. I must survive this
calamity to find my death on some sea-coast.” So thought
he, and this thought gave him strength of mind to walk fast
and try to find a drop of water somewhere to slake his dry
throat.

At last he succeeded ; heaven threw in his way a ruined
well. He thought he could. collect some water if he let
down his chombu with the string that he always carried
noosed to the neck of it. Accordingly he let it down ; it
went some way and stopped, and the following words came
from the well: ‘‘Oh, relieve me! I am the king of tigers,
dying here of hunger. For the last three days I have had
nothing. Fortune has sent. you here. If you assist me
now you will find a sure help in me throughout your life.
Do not think that I am a beast of prey. When you have
become my deliverer I will never touch you. Pray, kindly
lift me up.” Gangazara thought: “Shall I take him out or
not? If I take him out he may make me the first morsel of
We Indian Fairy Tales

his hungry mouth. No; that he willnot do. For my father’s
prophecy never came untrue. I must die on a sea-coast,
and not by a tiger.” Thus think-
ing, he asked the tiger-king to
hold tight to the vessel, which
he accordingly did, and he lifted
him up slowly. The tiger reached
the top of the well and felt him-
self on safe ground. True to his
word, he did no harm to Gan-
gazara. On the other hand, he
walked round his patron three
times, and standing before him,
humbly spoke the following
words: “My life-giver, my
benefactor! I shall never forget
this day, when I regained my
life through your kind hands.
In return for this kind assistance
I pledge my oath to stand by
you in all calamities. When- -
ever you are in any difficulty
just think of me. I am there
with you ready to oblige you by
all the means that I can. - To
tell you briefly how I came in
here: Three days ago I was





roaming in. yonder forest, when
I saw a goldsmith passing through
it. I chased him. He, finding it impossible to escape my
claws, jumped into this well, and is living to this moment
The Soothsayer’s Son oh 78

in the very bottom of it. I also jumped in, but found
myself on the first ledge of the well; he is on the last and
fourth ledge. In the second lives a serpent half-famished
with hunger. On the third lies a rat, also half-famished,
and when you again begin to draw water these may
request you first to release them. In the same way the
goldsmith also may ask you. I beg you, as your bosom
friend, never assist that wretched man, though he is your
relation as a human being. Goldsmiths are never to be
trusted. You can place more faith in me, a tiger, though
I feast sometimes upon men, in a serpent, whose sting
makes your blood cold the very next moment, or in a rat,
which does a thousand pieces of mischief in your house.
But never trust a goldsmith. Do not release him; and if
you do, you shall surely repent of it one day or other.”
Thus advising, the hungry tiger went away without waiting
for an answer.

Gangazara thought several times of the eloquent way in
which the tiger spoke, and admired his fluency of speech.
But still his thirst was not quenched. So he let down his
vessel again, which was now caught hold of by the serpent,
who addressed him thus: “Oh, my protector! Lift me
up. I am the king of serpents, and the son of Adisesha,
who is now pining away in agony for my disappearance.
Release me now. I shall ever remain your servant, re-
member your assistance, and help you throughout life in all
possible ways. Oblige me: I am dying.” Gangazara,
calling again to mind the ‘death on the sea-shore”
of the prophecy lifted him up. He, like the tiger-king,
walked round him thrice, and prostrating himself before him
spoke thus: “Oh, my life-giver, my father, for so I must
74. Indian Fairy Tales

call you, as you have given me another birth. I was three
days ago basking myself in the morning sun, when I saw a
rat running before me. I chased him. He fell into this
well. I followed him, but instead of falling on the third
storey where he is now lying, I fell into the second. I am
going away now to see my father. Whenever you are in
_ any difficulty just think of me. I will be there by your side
to assist you by all possible means.” So saying, the Nagaraja
glided away in zigzag movements, and was out of sight in
a moment. A

The poor son of the Soothsayer, who was now almost
dying of thirst, let down his vessel for a third time. The
rat caught hold of it, and without discussing he lifted up
the poor animal at once. But it would not go away with-
out showing its gratitude: “Oh, life of my life! My
benefactor! Iam the king of rats. Whenever you are in
any calamity just think of me. I will come to you, and
assist you. My keen ears overheard all that the tiger-king
told you about the goldsmith, who is in the fourth storey.
It is nothing but a sad truth that goldsmiths ought never
to be trusted. Therefore, never assist him as you have done
to us all. And if you do, you will suffer for it. I am
hungry; let me go for the present.” Thus taking leave of
his benefactor, the rat, too, ran away.

Gangazara for a while thought upon the repeated advice
given by the three animals about releasing the goldsmith:
‘« What wrong would there be in my assisting hin? Why
should I not release him also?” So thinking to himself,
Gangazara let down the vessel again. The goldsmith
caught hold of it, and demanded help. The Soothsayer’s
son had no time to lose; he was himself dying of thirst.
The Soothsayer’s Son | 75

Therefore he lifted the goldsmith up, who now began his
story. “Stop for a while,” said Gangazara, and after
quenching his thirst by letting down his vessel for the fifth
time, still fearing that some one might remain in the well
and demand his assistance, he listened to the goldsmith,
who began as follows: ‘My dear friend, my protector,
what a deal of nonsense these brutes have been talking to
you about me; I am glad you have not followed their advice.
I am just now dying of hunger. Permit me to go away.
My name is Manikkasari. I live in the East main street of
Ujjaini, which is twenty kas to the south of this place, and
so lies on your way when you return from Benares. Do
not forget to come to me and receive my kind remembrances
of your assistance, on your way back to your country.”
So saying, the goldsmith took his leave, and Gangazara also
pursued his way north after the above adventures.

He reached Benares, and lived there for more than ten
years, and quite forgot the tiger, serpent, rat, and goldsmith.
After ten years of religious life, thoughts of home and of his
brother rushed into his mind. “I have secured enough
merit now by my religious observances. Let me return
home.” Thus thought Gangazara within himself, and
very soon he was on his way back to his country.
Remembering the prophecy of his father he returned by the
same way by which he went to Benares ten years before.
While thus retracing his steps he reached the ruined: well .
where he had released the three brute kings and the gold-
smith. At once the old recollections rushed into his mind,
and he thought of the tiger to test his fidelity. Only a
moment passed, and the tiger-king came running before him
carrying a large crown in his mouth, the glitter of the
76 Indian Fairy Tales

diamonds of which for a time outshone even the bright rays
of the sun. He dropped the crown at his life-giver’s feet,
and, putting aside all his pride, humbled himself like a pet
cat to the strokes of his protector, and began in the follow-
ing words: ‘My life-giver! How is it that you have
forgotten me, your poor servant, for such a long time? I
am glad to find that I still occupy a corner in your mind. I
can never forget the day when I owed my life to your lotus
hands. I have several jewels with me of little value. This
crown, being the best of all, I have brought here as a single
ornament of great value, which you can carry with you
and dispose of in your own country.” Gangazara looked at
the crown, examined it over and over, counted and recounted
the gems, and thought within himself that he would become
the richest of men by separating the diamonds and gold, and
selling them in his own country. He took leave of the
tiger-king, and after his disappearance thought of the kings
of serpents and rats, who came in their turn with their
presents, and after the usual greetings and exchange of
words took their leave. Gangazara was extremely delighted
at the faithfulness with which the brute beasts behaved, and
went on his way to the south. While going along he spoke
to himself thus: “These beasts have been very faithful
in their assistance. Much more, therefore, must Manikkasari
be faithful. I do not want anything from him now. If I
take this crown with me as it is, it occupies much space in
my bundle. It may also excite the curiosity of some robbers
on the way. I will go now to Ujjaini on my way.
Manikkasari requested me to see him without failure on my
return journey. I shall do so, and request him to have the
crown melted, the diamonds and gold separated. He must
The Soothsayer’s Son 77

do that kindness at least for me. I shall then roll up these
diamonds and gold ball in my rags, and wend my way
homewards.”. Thus thinking and thinking, -he reached
Ujjaini. At once he inquired for the house of his goldsmith
friend, and found him without difficulty. Manikkasari was
extremely delighted to find on his threshold him who ten
years before, notwithstanding the advice repeatedly given
him by the sage-looking tiger, serpent, and rat, had relieved
him from the pit of death. Gangazara at once showed him
the crown that he received from the tiger-king, told him how
he got it, and requested his kind assistance to separate the
gold and diamonds. Manikkasari agreed to do so, and
‘meanwhile asked his friend to rest himself for a while to
have his bath and meals; and Gangazara, who was very
observant of his religious ceremonies, went direct to the
river to bathe.

- How came the crown in the jaws of the tiger? The king
of Ujjaini had a week before gone with all his hunters on a
hunting expedition. All of a sudden the tiger-king started
from the wood, seized the king, and vanished. —

When the king’s attendants informed the prince about the
death of his father he wept and wailed, and gave notice that
he would give half of his kingdom to any one who should
bring him news about the murderer of his father. The
goldsmith knew full well that it was a tiger that killed the
‘king, and not any hunter’s hands, since he had heard
from Gangazara how he obtained the crown. Still, he
resolved to denounce Gangazara as the king’s murderer, so,
hiding the crown under his garments, he flew to the palace.
He went before the prince and informed him that the
assassin was caught, and placed the crown before him.
78 Indian Fairy Tales

The prince took it into his hands, examined it, and at
once gave half the kingdom to Manikkasari, and then
inquired about the murderer. ‘‘ He is bathing ih the river,
and is of such and such appearance,” was the reply. |
At once four armed soldiers flew to the river, and bound the
poor Brahman hand and foot, while he, sitting in meditation,
was without any knowledge of the fate that hung over him.
They brought Gangazara to the presence of the prince, who
turned his face away from the supposed murderer, and asked
his soldiers to throw him into a dungeon. In a minute,
without knowing the cause, the poor Brahman found him-
self in the dark dungeon.

It was a dark cellar underground, built with strong stone
walls, into which any criminal guilty of a capital offence
was ushered to breathe his last there without food and
drink. Such was the cellar into which Gangazara was
thrust. What were his thoughts when he reached that
place? ‘It is of no use to accuse either the goldsmith or
the prince now. We are all the children of fate. We
must obey her commands, This is but the first day of my
father's prophecy. So far his statement is true. But how
am I going to pass ten years here? Perhaps without any-
thing to sustain life I may drag on my existence for a day
‘or two. But how pass ten years? That cannot be, and I
must die. Before death comes let me think of my faithful
brute friends.”

So pondered Gangazara in the dark cell underground, and
at that moment thought of his three friends, The tiger-king,
serpent-king, and rat-king assembled at once with their
armies at a garden near the dungeon, and for a while did not
know what todo. They held their council, and decided to
The Soothsayer’s Son 79

make an underground passage from the inside of a ruined
well to the dungeon. The rat raja issued an order at once
to that effect to his army. They, with their teeth, bored
the ground a long way to the walls of the prison. After
reaching it they found that their teeth could not work on
the hard stones. The bandicoots were then specially
ordered for the business ; they, with their hard teeth, made
a small slit in the wall for a rat to pass and repass without
difficulty. Thus a passage was effected.

The rat raja entered first to condole with his protector on
his misfortune, and undertook to supply his protector with
provisions. ‘’ Whatever sweetmeats or bread are prepared
in any house, one and all of you must try to bring whatever
you can to our benefactor. Whatever clothes you find
hanging in a house, cut down, dip the pieces in water, and
bring the wet bits to our benefactor. He will squeeze them
and gather water for drink! and the bread and sweetmeats
shall form his food.” Having issued these orders, the king
of the rats took leave of Gangazara. They, in obedience
to their king’s order, continued to supply him with provisions
and water.

The snake-king said: ‘I sincerely condole with you in
your calamity , the tiger-king also fully sympathises with
you, and wants me to tell you so, as he cannot drag his
huge body here as we have done with our small ones. The
king of the rats has promised to do his best to provide you
with food. We would now do what we can for your release.
From this day we shall issue orders to our armies to oppress
all the subjects of this kingdom. The deaths by snake-bite
and tigers shall increase a hundredfold from this day, and
day by day it shall continue to increase till your release.
80 Indian Fairy Tales

Whenever you hear people near you, you had better baw]
out. so as to be heard by them: ‘The wretched prince
imprisoned me on the false charge of having killed his
father, while it was a tiger that killed him, From that day.
these calamities have broken out in his dominions, If I
were released I would save all by my powers of healing
poisonous wounds and by incantations.’ Some one may
report this to the king, and if he knows it, you will obtain
your liberty.” Thus comforting his protector in trouble, he
advised him to pluck up courage, and took leave of him.
From that day tigers and serpents, acting under the orders
of their kings, united in killing as many persons and cattle
as possible. Every day people were carried away by tigers
or bitten by serpents. Thus passed months and years.
Gangazara sat in the dark cellar, without the sun’s light
falling upon him, and feasted upon the breadcrumbs and
sweetmeats that the rats so kindly supplied him with.
These delicacies had completely changed his body into
ared, stout, huge, unwieldy mass of flesh. Thus passed full
ten years, as prophesied in the horoscope.

Ten complete years rolled away in close imprisonment.
On the last evening of the tenth year one of the serpents
got into the bed-chamber of the princess and sucked her
life. She breathed her last. She was the only daughter
of the king. The king at once sent for all the snake-bite
curers. He promised half his kingdom and his daughter’s
hand to him who would restore her to life. Now a servant of
the king who had several times overheard Gangazara’s cries,
reported the matter to him, The king at once ordered the
cell to be examined. There was the man sitting in it.
How had he managed to live so long in the cell? Some
The Soothsayer’s Son Rx

whispered that he must be a divine being. Thus they
discussed, while they brought Gangazara to the king..

The king no sooner saw Gangazara than he fell on the
ground. He was struck by the majesty and grandeur of
his person. His ten years’ imprisonment in the deep cell
underground had given a sort of lustre to his body. His
hair had first to be cut before his face could be seen. The
king begged forgiveness for his former fault, and requested
him to revive his daughter.

“ Bring me within an hour all the corpses of men and
cattle, dying and dead, that remain unburnt or unburied
within the range of your dominions; I shall revive them
all,” were the only words that Gangazara spoke.

Cartloads of corpses of men and cattle began to come in
every minute. Even graves, it is said, were broken open,
and corpses buried a day or two before were taken out and
sent for their revival. As soon as all were ready, Gangazara
took a vessel full of water and sprinkled it over them all,
thinking only of his snake-king and tiger-king. All rose
up as if from deep slumber, and went to their respective
homes. The princess, too, was restored to life. The joy
of the king knew no bounds. He cursed the day on which
he imprisoned him, blamed himself for having believed the
word of a goldsmith, and offered him the hand of his
daughter and the whole kingdom, instead of half, as he
promised. Gangazara would not accept anything, but asked
the king to assemble all his subjects in a wood near: the
town. ‘I shall there call in all the tigers and serpents, and
give them a general order.”

When the whole town was assembled, just at the dusk of
evening, Gangazara sat dumb for a moment, and thought

F
82 Tadian Fairy Tales

upon the Tiger King and the Serpent King, who came with
all their armies. People began to take to their heels at the
sight of tigers. Gangazara assured them of safety, and
stopped them,

The grey light of the evening, the pumpkin colour of
Gangazara, the holy ashes scattered lavishly over his body,
the tigers and snakes humbling themselves at his feet, gave
him the true majesty of the god Gangazara. For who else
by a single word could thus command vast armies of tigers
and serpents, said some among the people. ‘Care not for
it; it may be by magic, That is not a great thing. That
he revived cartloads of corpses shows him’ to be surely
Gangazara,” said others.

“Why should you, my children, thus trouble these poor
subjects of Ujjaini? Reply to me, and henceforth desist
from your ravages.” Thus said the Soothsayer’s son, and
the following reply came from the king of the tigers: “ Why
should this base king imprison your honour, believing the
mere word of a goldsmith that your honour killed his father ?
All the hunters told him that his father was carried away
by a tiger. J was the messenger of -death sent to deal the
blow on his neck. I did it, and gave the crown to your
honour. The prince makes no inquiry, and at once im-
prisons your honour. How can we expect justice from such
a stupid king as that? Unless he adopt a better standard
of justice we will go on with our destruction.”

The king heard, cursed the day on which he believed in
the word of a goldsmith, beat his head, tore his hair, wept
and wailed for his crime, asked a thousand pardons, and
swore to rule in a just way from that day. The serpent-
king and tiger-king also promised to observe their oath as
The Soothsayer’s Son 83

' long as justice prevailed, and took their leave. The gold-
smith fled for his Jife. He was caught by the soldiers of the
king, and was pardoned by the generous Gangazara, whose
voice now reigned’supreme. All returned to their homes.

The king again pressed Gangazara to accept the hand of
his daughter. He agreed to do so, not then, but some time
afterwards. He wished to go and see his elder brother
first, and then to return and marry the princess. The king
agreed ; and Gangazara left the city that very day on his
way home. i

It so happened that unwittingly he took a wrong road,
and had to:pass near a sea-coast. His elder brother was
also on his way up to Benares by that very same route.
They met and recognised each other, even at a distance.
They flew into each other’s arms. Both remained still for a
time almost unconscious with joy. The pleasure of Gan-
gazara was so great that he died of joy.

The elder brother was a devout worshipper of Ganesa.
That was a Friday, a day very sacred to that god. The
elder brother took the corpse to the nearest Ganesa temple
and called upon him. The god came, and asked him what
he wanted. ‘My poor brother is dead and gone; and this
is his corpse. Kindly keep it in your charge till I finish
worshipping you. If I leave it anywhere else the devils
may snatch it away when I am absent worshipping you;
after finishing the rites I shall burn him.” Thus said the
elder brother, and, giving the corpse to the god Ganesa,
he went to prepare himself for that deity’s ceremonials.
Ganesa made over the corpse to his Ganas, asking them

to watch over it carefully. But instead of that they de-
voured it.
84 Indian Fairy Tales

The elder brother, after finishing the puja, demanded his
brother's corpse of the god. The god called his Ganas, who
came to the front blinking, and fearing the anger of their
master. The god was greatly enraged. The elder brother
was very angry. When the corpse was not forthcoming
he cuttingly remarked, ‘‘Is this, after all, the return for
my deep belief in you? You are unable even to
return my brother’s corpse.” Ganesa was much ashamed
at the remark. So he, by his divine power, gave
him a living Gangazara instead of the dead corpse.
Thus was the second son of the Soothsayer restored
to life.

The brothers had a long talk about each other's adven-
tures. They both went to Ujjaini, where Gangazara married
the princess, and succeeded to the throne of that kingdom.
He reigned for a long time, conferring several benefits
upon his brother. And so the horoscope was fully fulfilled.


Harisarman

HERE was a certain Brahman in a certain



village, named Harisarman. He was
poor and foolish and in evil case for
want of employment, and he had very
many children, that he might reap the
fruit of his misdeeds in a former life.
He wandered about begging with his family, and at last he
reached a certain city, and entered the service of a rich
householder called Sthuladatta. His sons became keepers
of Sthuladatta’s cows and other property, and his wife
a servant to him, and he himself lived near his house,
performing the duty of an attendant. One day there was
a feast on account of the marriage of the daughter of
Sthuladatta, largely. attended by many friends of the bride-
groom, and merry-makers. Harisarman hoped that he
would be able to fill himself up to the throat with ghee and
flesh and other dainties, and get the same for his family,
in the house of his patron. While he was anxiously
expecting to be fed, no one thought of him.

Then he was distressed at getting nothing to eat, and he
said to his wife at night, ‘It is owing to my poverty and


86 | Indian Fairy Tales

stupidity that I am treated with such disrespect here ; so I
will pretend by means of an artifice to possess a knowledge
of magic, so that I may become an object of respect to this
Sthuladatta ; so, when you get an opportunity, tell him that
I possess magical knowledge.” He said this to her, and
after turning the matter over in his mind, while people were



asleep he took away from the house of Sthuladatta a horse
on which his master’s son-in-law rode. He placed it in
concealment at some distance, and in the morning the
friends of the bridegroom could not find the horse, though
they searched in every direction. Then, while Sthuladatta
was distressed at the evil omen, and searching for the
thieves who had carried off the horse, the wife of Hari-
sarman came and said to him, ‘“‘ My husband is a wise
man, skilled in astrology and magical sciences; he can
get the horse back for you; why do you not ask him?”
Harisarman 87

When Sthuladatta heard that, he called Harisarman, who
said, “ Yesterday I was forgotten, but to-day, now the
horse is stolen, I am called to mind,” and Sthuladatta then
propitiated the Brahman with these words—‘ I forgot you,
forgive me”—and asked him to tell him who had taken
away their horse. Then Harisarman drew all kinds of
pretended diagrams, and said: ‘“‘ The horse has been placed
by thieves on the boundary line south from this place. It
is concealed there, and before it is carried off to a distance,
as it will be at close of day, go quickly and bring it.”
When they heard that, many men ran and brought the
horse quickly, praising the discernment of Harisarman.
Then Harisarman was honoured by all men as a sage, and
dwelt there in happiness, honoured by Sthuladatta.

Now, as days went on, much treasure, both of gold
and jewels, had been stolen by a thief from the palace
of the king. As the thief was not known, the king
quickly summoned Harisarman on account of his reputation
for knowledge of magic. And he, when summoned, tried
to gain time, and said, “TI will tell you to-morrow,”
and then he was placed in a chamber by the king, and
carefully guarded. And he was sad because he had pre-
tended to have knowledge. Now in that palace there was
a maid named Jihva (which means Tongue), who, with the
assistance of her brother, had stolen that treasure from
the interior of the palace. She, being alarmed at Hari-
sarman’s knowledge, went at night and applied her ear to
the door of that chamber in order to find out what he was
about. And Harisarman, who was alone inside, was at
that very moment blaming his own tongue, that had made
a vain assumption of knowledge. He said: “O Tongue,


88. Indian Fairy Tales

what is this that you have done through your greediness ?
Wicked one, you will soon receive punishment in full.”
When Jihva heard this, she thought, in her terror, that she
had been discovered by this wise man, and she managed
to get in where he was, and falling at his feet, she said to
the supposed wizard: ‘‘ Brahman, here I am, that Jihva
whom you have discovered to be the thief of the treasure,
and after I took it I buried it in the earth in a garden
behind the palace, under a pomegranate tree. So spare
me, and receive the small quantity of gold which is in my
possession.”

When Harisarman heard that, he said to her proudly :
‘Depart, I know all this; I know the past, present and
future; but I will not denounce you, being a miserable
creature that has implored my protection. But whatever
gold is in your possession you must give back to me.”
When he said this to the maid, she consented, and departed
quickly. But Harisarman reflected in his astonishment :
‘Fate brings about, as if in sport, things impossible, for
when calamity was so near, who would have thought
chance would have brought us success? While I was
blaming my jihva, the thief Jihva suddenly flung herself
at my feet. Secret crimes manifest themselves by means
of fear.” Thus thinking, he passed the night happily in
the chamber. And in the morning he brought the king,
by some skilful parade of pretended knowledge into the
garden, and led him up to the treasure, which was buried
under the pomegranate tree, and said that the thief had
escaped with a part of it. Then the king was pleased ,
and gave him the revenue of many villages.

But the minister, named Devajnanin, whispered in the
Harisarman 89

king’s ear: ‘‘ How can a man possess such knowledge un-
attainable by men, without having studied the books of
magic ; you may be certain that this is a specimen of
the way he makes a dishonest livelihood, by having a secret
intelligence with thieves. It will be much better to test him
by some new artifice.” Then the king of his’ own accord
brought a covered pitcher into which he had thrown a frog,
and said to Harisarman, “ Brahman, if you can guess what
there is in this pitcher, I will do you great honour to-day.”
When the Brahman Harisarman heard that, he thought that
his last hour had come, and he called to mind the pet name
of ‘ Froggie” which his father had given him in his child-
hood in sport, and, impelled by luck, he called to himself
by his pet name, lamenting his hard fate, and suddenly
called out: “This is a fine pitcher for you, Froggie; it
will soon become the swift destroyer of your helpless
self.” The people there, when they heard him say that,
raised a shout of applause, because his speech chimed in
so well with the object presented to ‘him, and murmured,
“Ah! a great sage, he knows even about the frog !”
Then the king, thinking that this was all due to knowledge
of divination, was highly delighted, and gave Harisarman
the revenue of more villages, with gold, an umbrella, and
state carriages of all kinds. So Harisarman prospered in
the world.


The Charmed Ring

MERCHANT started his son in life with
three hundred rupees, and bade him go to
another country and try his luck in trade.
The son took the money and departed.

. He had not gone far before he came across



some herdsmen quarrelling over a.dog,

that some of them wished to kill. ‘‘ Please do not kill the
dog,” pleaded the young and tender-hearted fellow ; “I will
give you one hundred rupees for it’ Then and there, of

course, the bargain was concluded, and the foolish fellow
took the dog, and continued his journey. He next met
with some people fighting about a cat. Some of them
wanted to kill it, but others not. ‘Oh! please do not kill
it,” said he; ‘‘I will give you one hundred rupees for it.”
Of course they at once gave him the cat and took the money.
He went on till he reached a village, where some folk were
quarrelling over a snake that had just been caught., Some
of them wished to kill it, but others did not. ‘‘ Please do
not kill the snake,” said he ; ‘I will give you one hundred
rupees.” Of course the people agreed, and were highly
delighted. s
The Charmed Ring QI

What a fool the fellow was! What would he do now
that all his money was gone ? What could he do except
return to his father? Accordingly he went home.

“You fool! You scamp!” exclaimed his father when
he had heard how his son had wasted all the money that
had been given to him. ‘Go and live in the stables and
repent of your folly. You shall never again enter my
house.”

So the young man went and lived in the stables. His
bed was the grass spread for the cattle, and his companions
were the dog, the cat, and the snake, which he had pur-
chased so dearly. These creatures got very fond of him,
and would follow him about during the day, and sleep by
him at night; the cat used to sleep at his feet, the dog at
his head, and the snake over his body, with its head hang-
ing on one side and its tail on the other.

One day the snake in course of conversation said to its
master, ‘‘I amtheson of Raja Indrasha. One day, when I
had come out of the ground to drink the air, some people
seized me, and would have slain me had you not most
opportunely arrived to my rescue. I do not know how I
shall ever be able to repay you for your great kindness to
me. Would that you knew my father! How glad he
would be to see his son’s preserver! ”

“Where does he live? I should like to see him, if
possible,” said the young man.

“Well said!” continued the snake. “Do you see
yonder mountain ? At the bottom of that mountain there
is a sacred spring. If you will come with me and dive into
that spring, we shall both reach my father’s country. Oh!
how glad he will be to see you! He will wish to reward


g2 Indian Fairy Tales

you, too. But how can he do that? However, you may
be pleased to accept something at lIfis hand. If he asks
you what you would like, you would, perhaps, do well to
reply, ‘The ring on your right hand, and the famous pot and
spoon which you possess.’ With these in your possession,
you would never need anything, for the ring is such that a
man has only to speak to it, and immediately a beautiful
furnished mansion will be provided for him, while the pot
and the spoon will supply him with all manner of the
rarest and most delicious foods.”

Attended by his three companions the man walked to
the well and prepared to jump in, according to the snake’s
directions. ‘“O master!” exclaimed the cat and dog, when
they saw what he was going to do. ‘‘ What shall we do?
Where shall we go?”

“Wait for me here,” he replied. ‘1 am not going far.
I shall not be long away.” On saying this, he dived into
the water and was lost to sight.

“ Now what shall we do ?” said the dog to the cat.

‘““We must remain here,” replied the cat, ‘‘ as our master
ordered. Do not be anxious about food. I will go to the
people’s houses and get plenty of food for both of us.”
And so the cat did, and they both lived very comfortably
till their master came again and joined them.

The young man and the snake reached their destination
in safety; and information of their arrival was sent to the
Raja. His highness commanded his son and the stranger
to appear before him. But the snake refused, saying that
it could not go to its father till it was released from this
stranger, who had saved it from a most terrible death, and
whose slave it therefore was. Then the Raja wernt and em-
The Charmed Ring 93

braced his son, and saluting the stranger welcomed him to
his dominions. The young man stayed there a few days,
during which he received the Raja’s right-hand ring, and
the pot and spoon, in recognition of His Highness’s grati-
tude to him for having delivered his son. He then re-
turned. On reaching the top of the spring he found his
friends, the dog and the cat, waiting for him. They told
one another all they had experienced since they had last
seen each other, and were all very glad. Afterwards they
walked together to the river side, where it was decided to
try the powers of the charmed ring and pot and spoon.
The merchant’s son spoke to the ring, and immediately.a
beautiful house and a lovely princess with golden hair
appeared. He spoke to the pot and spoon, also, and the
most delicious dishes of food were provided for them. So
he married the princess, and they lived very happily for
several years, until one morning the princess, while ar-
ranging her toilet, put the loose hairs into a hollow bit
of reed and threw them into the river that flowed along
under the window. The reed floated on the water for
many miles, and was at last picked up by the prince of
that country, who curiously opened it and saw the golden
hair. On finding it the prince rushed off to the palace,
locked himself up in his room, and would not leave it. He
had fallen desperately in love with the woman whose hair
he had picked up, and refused to eat, or drink, or sleep, or
move, till she was brought to him. The king, his father,
was in great distress about the matter, and did not know
what to do. . He feared lest his son should die and leave
him without an heir. At last he determined to seek the
counsel of his aunt, who was an ogress. The old woman
94 Indian Fairy Tales

consented to help him, and bade him not to be anxious, as
she felt certain that she would succeed in getting the
beautiful woman for his son’s wife.

She assumed the shape of a bee and went along buzzing,
and buzzing, and buzzing. Her keen sense of smell
soon brought her to the beautiful princess, to whom she
appeared as an old hag, holding in one hand a stick by way
of support. She introduced herself to the beautiful princess
and said, “I am your aunt, whom you have never seen
before, because I left the country just after your birth.”
She also embraced and kissed the princess by way of adding
force to her words. The beautiful princess was thoroughly
deceived. She returned the ogress’s embrace, and invited
her to come and stay in the house as long as she could,
and treated her with such honour and attention, that the
ogress thought to herself, ‘I shall soon accomplish my
errand.” When she had been in the house three days, she
began to talk of the charmed ring, and advised her to
keep it instead of her husband, because the latter was
constantly out shooting and on other such-like expeditions,
and might lose it. Accordingly the beautiful princess asked
her husband for the ring, and he readily gave it to her.

The ogress waited another day before she asked to see the
precious thing. Doubting nothing, the beautiful princess
complied, when the ogress seized the ring, and reassuming
the form of a bee flew away with it to the palace, where the
prince was lying nearly on the point of death “ Rise up.
Be glad. Mournno more,” she saidto him. “The woman
for whom you yearn will appear at your summons. See, here
is the charm, whereby you may bring her before you.” The
prince was almost mad with joy when he heard these words,
The Charmed Ring 95

and was so desirous of seeing the beautiful princess, that he
immediately spoke to the ring, and the house with its fair
occupant descended in the midst of the palace garden. He
at once entered the building, and telling the beautiful princess
of his intense love, entreated her to be his wife. Seeing no
escape from the difficulty, she consented on the condition
that he would wait one month for her.

Meanwhile the merchant’s son had returned from hunting
and was terribly distressed not to find his house and wife.
There was the place only, just as he knew it before he had
tried the charmed ring which Raja Indrasha had given him.
He sat down and determined to put an end to himself.
Presently the cat and dog came up. They had gone away
and hidden themselves, when they saw the house and every-
thing disappear. ‘Omaster!” they said, “ stay your hand.
Your trial is great, but it can be remedied. Give us one
month, and we will go and try to recover your wife and
house.”

‘© Go,” said he, ‘and may the great God aid your efforts.
Bring back my wife, and I shall live.”

So the cat and dog started off at a run, and did not stop
till they reached the place whither their mistress and the
house had been taken. ‘‘We may have some difficulty
here,” said the cat. ‘Look, the king has taken our
master’s wife and house for himself. You stay here. I
will go to the house and try to see her.” So the dog sat
down, and the cat climbed up to the window of the

room, wherein the beautiful princess was sitting, and
entered. The princess recognised the cat, and informed
it of all that had happened to her since she had left
them.






96 Indian Fairy Tales

“ But is there no way of escape from the hands of these
people ?” she asked. *

“Yes,” replied the cat, “if ‘you can tell me where the
charmed ring is.”

’ she said.

“The ring is in the stomach of the ogress,’

“ All right,” said the cat, “I will recover it. If we once
get it, everything is ours.” Then the cat descended the
wall of the house, and went and laid down by a rat’s hole
and pretended she was dead. Now at that time a great
wedding chanced to be going on among the rat community
of that place, and all the rats of the neighbourhood were
assembled in that one particular mine by which the cat had
lain down. The eldest son of the king of the rats was
about to be married. The cat got to know of this, and at
once conceived the idea of seizing the bridegroom and
making him render the necessary help. Consequently,
when the procession poured forth from the hole squealing
and jumping in honour of the occasion, it immediately -
spotted the bridegroom and pounced down on him. ‘‘ Oh!
let me go, let me go,” cried the terrified rat. ‘Oh! let
him go,” squealed all the company. “It is his wedding
day.”

“No, no,” replied the cat. “Not unless you do some-
thing for me. Listen. . The ogress, who lives in that
house with the prince and his wife, has swallowed a ring,
which I very much want. If you will procure it for me, I
will allow the rat to depart unharmed. If you do not, then
your prince dies under my feet.”

“ Very well, we agree,”

said they all. ‘“ Nay, if we do
not get the ring for you, devour us all.”

This was rather a bold offer. However, they accom-




THE CHARMED RING


The Charmed Ring 97

plished the thing. At midnight, When the ogress was
sound asleep, one of the rats went to her bedside, climbed
up on her face, and inserted its tail into her throat ;
whereupon the ogress coughed violently, and the ring
came out and rolled on to the floor. The rat immediately
seized the precious thing and ran off with it to its king,
who was very glad, and went at once to the cat and
released its son.

As soon as the cat received the ring, she started back
with the dog to go and tell their master the good tidings.
All seemed safe now. They had only to give the ring to
him, and he would speak to it, and the house and_ beautiful
princess would again be with them, and everything would
go on as happily as before. ‘‘ How glad master will be!”
they thought, and ran as fast as their legs could carry
them. Now, on the way they had to cross a stream. The
dog swam, and the cat sat on its back. Now the dog
was jealous of the cat, so he asked for the ring, and
threatened to throw the cat into the water if it did not
give it up; whereupon the cat gave up the ring. Sorry
moment, for the dog at once dropped it, and a fish
swallowed it.

“Oh! what shall I do? what shall I do?” said the dog.

‘What is done is done,” replied the cat. “We must
try to recover it, and if we do not succeed we had better
drown ourselves in this stream. I have a plan. You go
and kill a small lamb, and bring it here to me.”

‘All right,” said the dog, and at once ran off. Hesoon
came back with a dead lamb, and gave it to the cat. The
cat got inside the lamb and lay down, telling the dog to
go away a little distance and keep quiet. Not long after

G
98 Indian Fairy Tales

this a nadhar, a bird whose look can break the bones of
a fish, came and hovered over the lamb, and eventually
pounced down on it to carry it away. On this the
cat came out and jumped on to the bird, and threatened
to kill it if it did not recover the lost ring. This was
most readily promised by the nadhar, who immediately
flew off to the king of the fishes, and ordered it to make
inquiries and to restore the ring. The king of the fishes
did so, and the ring was found and carried back to
the cat.

“Come along now; I have got the ring,” said the cat to
the dog.

“No, I will not,” said the dog, “ unless you let me have
the ring. I can carryit as well as you. Let me have it
or I will kill you.” So the cat was obliged to give up the
ring. The careless dog very soon dropped it again. This
time it was picked up and carried off by a kite.
away to that big tree,” the cat



“‘ See, see, there it goes
exclaimed.

“Oh! oh! what have I done?” cried the dog. ®

“You foolish thing, 1 knew it would be so,” said the
cat. “ But stop your barking, or you will frighten away
the bird to some place where we shall not be able to trace
tea

The cat waited till it was quite dark, and then climbed
the tree, killed the kite, and recovered the ring. “ Come
along,” it said to the dog when it reached the ground.
“We must make haste now. We have been delayed.
Our master will die from grief and suspense. Come on.”

The dog, now thoroughly ashamed of itself, begged the
cat’s pardon for all the trouble it had given. It was afraid
The Charmed Ring 99

to ask for the ring the third time, so they both reached
their sorrowing master in safety and gave him the precious
charm. In a moment his sorrow was turned into joy.
He spoke to the ring, and his beautiful wife and house
reappeared, and he and everybody were as happy as ever

they could be.
The Talkative Tortoise

HE future Buddha was once born in a
minister’s family, when Brahma-datta was
reigning in Benares ; and when he grew
up, he became the king’s adviser in
things temporal and spiritual.



Now this king was very talkative ;
while he was speaking, others had no opportunity for a word.
And the future Buddha, wanting to cure this talkativeness
of his, was constantly seeking for some means of doing so.

At that time there was living, in a pond in the Himalaya
mountains, a tortoise. Two young hamsas, or wild ducks,
‘who came to feed there, made friends with him. And one
day, when they had become very intimate with him, they
said to the tortoise :

“‘ Friend tortoise ! the place where we live, at the Golden
‘Cave on Mount Beautiful in the Himalaya country, is a
‘delightful spot. Will you come there with us ?”

‘But how can I get there ?”’

“We can take you, if you can only hold your tongue, and
‘will say nothing to anybody.”

“Oh! that Ican do. Take me with you.”
The Talkative Tortoise IOI

“ That’s right,” said they. And making the tortoise bite
hold of a stick, they themselves took the two ends in their
teeth, and flew up into the air.-

Seeing him thus carried by the hamsas, some villagers
called out, ‘‘ Two wild ducks are carrying a tortoise along
on a stick!” Whereupon the tortoise wanted to say, “ If
my friends choose to carry me, what is that to you, you
wretched slaves!” So just as the swift flight of the wild
ducks had brought him over the king’s palace in the city .



of Benares, he let go of the stick he was biting, and falling
in the open courtyard, split in two! And there arose a
universal cry, ‘‘ A tortoise has fallen in the open courtyard,
and has split in two!”

The king, taking the future Buddha, went to the place,
surrounded by his courtiers ; and looking at the tortoise, he
asked the Bodisat, ‘‘ Teacher! how comes he to be fallen
here?”

The future Buddha thought to himself, “ Long expecting,
wishing to admonish the king, have I sought for some
means of doing so. This tortoise must have made friends
with the wild ducks; and they must have made him bite
hold of the stick, and have flown up into the air to take him
to the hills. But he, being unable to hold his tongue when
102 Indian Fairy Tales

he hears any one else talk, must have wanted to say some-
thing, and let go the stick ; and so must have fallen down
from the sky, and thus lost his life.” And-saying, “Truly,
O king! those who are called chatter-boxes—people whose
words have no end—come to grief like this,” he uttered
these Verses :
“ Verily the tortoise killed himself

Whilst uttering his voice ;

Though he was holding tight the stick,

By a word himself he slew.

“ Behold him then, O excellent by strength !
And speak wise words, not out of season.
You see how, by his talking overmuch,

The tortoise fell into this wretched plight !”

The king saw that he was himself referred to, and said,
‘“©O Teacher! are you speaking of us ?”

And the Bodisat spake openly, and said, ‘O great king!
be it thou, or be it any other, whoever talks beyond measure
meets with some mishap like this.”

And the king henceforth refrained himself, and became a

man of few words.,
















A Lac of Rupees for a Bit
of Advice

POOR blind Brahman and his wife were

dependent on their son for their subsist-
ence. Every day the young fellow used to
go out and get what he could by begging.
This continued for some time, till at last
he became quite tired of such a wretched
life, and determined to go and try his luck in another
country. He informed his wife of his intention, and ordered
her to manage somehow or other for the old people during
the few months that he would be absent. He begged her

to be industrious, lest his parents should be angry and
curse him,



One morning he started with some food in a bundle,


104 ° Indian Fairy Tales

and walked on day after day, till he reached the chief city
of the neighbouring country, Here he went and sat down
by a merchant’s shop and asked alms. The merchant in-
quired whence he had come, why he had come, and what
was his caste ; to which he replied that he was a Brahman,
and was wandering hither and thither begging a livelihood
for himself and wife and parents. Moved with pity for the
man, the merchant advised him to visit the kind and gene-
rous king of that country, and offered to accompany him to
the court. Now at that time it happened that the king was
seeking for a Brahman to look after a golden temple which
he had just had built. His Majesty was very glad, there-
fore, when he saw the Brahman and heard that he was good
and honest. He at once deputed him to the charge of this
temple, and ordered fifty kharwars of rice and one hundred
rupees to be paid to him every year as wages.

Two months after this, the Brahman’s wife, not having
heard any news of her husband, left the house and went in
quest of him. By a happy fate she arrived at the very
place that he had reached, where she heard that every
morning at the golden temple a golden rupee was given in
the king’s name to any beggar who chose to go for it.
Accordingly, on the following morning she went to the
place and met her husband.

“Why have you come here?” he asked. ‘ Why have
you left my parents? Care you not whether they curse
me and I die? Go back immediately, and await my
return.”

‘No, no,” said the woman. “I cannot go back to starve
and see your old father and mother die. There is not a
grain of rice left in the house.”
Lac of Rupees for Bit of Advice 105

“OQ Bhagawant!" exclaimed the Brahman. “ Here,
take this,” he continued, scribbling a few lines on some
paper, and then handing it to her, “and give it to the king.
You will see that he will give you a lac of rupees for it.”
Thus saying he dismissed her, and the woman left.

On this scrap of paper were written three pieces of advice—
First, If a person is travelling and reaches any strange
place at night, let him be careful where he puts up, and not
close his eyes in sleep, lest he close them in death.
Secondly, If a man has a married sister, and visits her
in great pomp, she will receive him for the sake of what
she can obtain from him; but if he comes to her in
poverty, she will frown on him and disown him. Thirdly,
If a man has to do any work, he must do it himself, and do
it with might and without fear.

On reaching her home the Brahmani told her parents of
her meeting with her husband, and what a valuable piece
of paper he had given her ; but not liking to go before the
king herself, she sent one of her relations. The king read
the paper, and ordering the man to be flogged, dismissed
him. The next morning the Brahmani took the paper, and
while she was going along the road to the darbar reading it,
the king’s son met her, and asked what she was reading,
whereupon she replied that she held in her hands a paper
containing certain bits of advice, for which she wanted a
lac of rupees. The prince asked her to show it to him,
and when he had read it gave her a parwana for the
amount, and rode on. The poor Brahmani was very
thankful. That day she laid in a great store of pro-
visions, sufficient to last them all for a long time.

In the evening the prince related to his father the meet-








106 Indian Fairy Tales

ing with the woman, and the purchase of the piece of paper.
' He thought his father would applaud the act. But it was
not so. The king was more angry than before, and
banished his son from the country.

So the prince bade adieu to his mother and relations
and friends, and rode off on his horse, whither he did
not know. At nightfall he arrived at some place, where a
man met him, and invited him to lodge at his house. The
prince accepted the invitation, and was treated like a
prince. Matting was spread for him to squat on, and the
best provisions set before him.

“Ah!” thought he, as he lay down to rest, ‘here is a
case for the first piece of advice that the Brahmani gave
me. I will not sleep to-night.”

It was well that he thus resolved, for in the middle of
the night the man rose up, and taking a sword in his hand,
rushed to the prince with the intention of killing him. But
he rose up and spoke.

“Do not slay me,” he said. “ What profit would you
get from my death? If you killed me you would be sorry
afterwards, like that man who killed his dog.”

“What man? What dog?” he asked.

““] will tell you,” said the prince, ‘if you will give me }
that sword.”

So he gave him the sword, and the prince began his
story : ;

“Once upon a time there lived a wealthy merchant who
had a pet dog. He was suddenly reduced to poverty, and
had to part with his dog. He got a loan of five thousand
rupees from a brother merchant, leaving the dog as a pledge,
and with the money began business again. Not long after
Lac of Rupees for Bit of Advice 107

this the other merchant’s shop was broken into by thieves
and completely sacked. There was hardly ten rupees’
worth left in the place. The faithful dog, however, knew
what was going on, and went and followed the thieves, and
saw where they deposited the things, and then returned.

‘‘In the morning there was great weeping and lamen-
tation in the merchant’s house when it was known what
had happened. The merchant himself nearly went mad.
Meanwhile the dog kept on running to the door, and pull-
ing at his master’s shirt and paijamas, as though wishing
him to go outside. At last a friend suggested that, perhaps,
the dog knew something of the whereabouts of the things,
and advised the merchant to follow its -leadings. The
merchant consented, and went after the dog right up to the
very place where the thieves had hidden the goods. Here

the animal scraped and barked, and showed in various ways
that the things were underneath. So the merchant and his
friends dug about the place, and soon came upon all the
stolen property. Nothing was missing. There was every-
thing just as the thieves had taken them.

“The merchant was very glad. On returning to his
house, he at once sent the dog back to its old master with a
letter rolled under the collar, ‘wherein he had written about
the sagacity of the beast, and begged his friend to forget
the loan and to accept another five thousand rupees as
a present. When this merchant saw his dog coming
back again, he thought, ‘Alas! my friend is wanting the
money. How can I pay him? I have not had sufficient
time to recover myself from my retent losses. I will slay
the dog ere he reaches the threshold, and say that another
must have slain it. Thus there will be an end of my debt.
108 Indian Fairy Tales

No dog, no loan.’ Accordingly he ran out and killed the
poor dog, when the letter fell. out of its collar. The
merchant picked it up and read it. How great was his
grief and disappointment when he knew the facts of the
case! '

‘‘Beware,” continued the prince, ‘‘lest you do that
which afterwards you would give your life not to have
done.”

By the time the prince had concluded this story it was
nearly morning, and he went away, after rewarding the
man,

‘The prince then visited the country belonging to his
brother-in-law. He disguised himself as a jogi, and sitting
down by a tree near the palace, pretended to be absorbed
in worship. News of the man and of his wonderful piety
reached the ears of the king. He felt interested in him,
as his wife was very ill; and he had sought for hakims to
cure her, but in vain. He thought that, perhaps, this holy
man could do something for her. So he sent to him.
But the jogi refused to tread the halls of a king, saying
that his dwelling was the open air, and that if his
Majesty wished to see him he must come himself and
bring his wife to the place. Then the king took his wife
and brought her to the jogi. The holy man bade her
prostrate herself before him, and when she had remained in
this position for about three hours, he told her to rise and
go, for she was cured.

In the evening there was great consternation in the
palace, because the queen had lost her pearl rosary, and
nobody knew anything about it. At length some one went
to the jogi, and found it on the ground by the place where
Lac of Rupees for Bit of Advice 109.

the queen had prostrated herself. When the king heard
this he was very angry, and ordered the jogi to be executed.
This stern order, however, was not carried out, as the
prince bribed the men and escaped from the country. But
he knew that the second bit of advice was true.

Clad in his own clothes, the prince was walking along
one day when he saw a potter crying and laughing alter-
nately with his wife and children. ‘‘O fool,” said he,
“what is the matter? If you laugh, why do you weep?
If you weep, why do you laugh ?”

‘‘Do not bother me,” said the potter. ‘What does it
matter to you?”

‘Pardon me,” said the prince, “but I should like to
know the reason.”

“The reason is this, then,”

said the potter, ‘ The king
of this country has a daughter whom he is obliged to
marry every day, because all her husbands die the first
night of their stay with her. Nearly all the young men of
the place have thus perished, and our son will be called on
soon. We laugh at the absurdity of the thing—a potter’s
son marrying a princess, and we cry at the terrible conse-
quence of the marriage. What can we do?”

“Truly a matter for laughing and weeping. But weep
no more,” said the prince. ‘I will exchange places with
your son, and will be married to the princess instead of
him. Only give me suitable garments, and prepare me for
the occasion.”

So the potter gave him beautiful raiment and ornaments,
and the prince went to the palace, At night he was con-
ducted to the apartment of the princess. “Dread hour!”
thought he; ‘am I to die like the scores of young men.
IIO Indian Fairy Tales

before me?” He clenched his sword with firm grip, and
lay down on his bed, intending to keep awake all the night
and see what would happen. In the middle of the night
he saw two Shahmars come out from the nostrils of the
princess. They stole over towards him, intending to kill
him, like the others who had been before him: but he was
ready for them. He laid hold of his sword, and when the
snakes reached his bed he struck at them and killed them.
In the morning the king came as usual to inquire, and was.
surprised to hear his daughter and the prince talking gaily
together. ‘‘Surely,” said he, “this man must be her
husband, as he only can live with her.”

‘“Where do you come from? Who are you?” asked
the king, entering the room.

“© king!” replied the prince, “ I am the son of a king
who rules over such-and-such a country.”

When he heard this the king was very glad, and bade
the prince to abide in his palace, and appointed him his
successor to the throne. ‘The prince remained at the palace
for more than a year, and then asked permission to visit
his own country, which was granted. The king gave him
elephants, horses, jewels, and abundance of money for the
expenses of the way and as presents for his father, and the
prince started.

On the way he had to pass through the country belong-
ing to his brother-in-law, whom we have already mentioned.
Report of his arrival reached the ears of the king, who
came with rope-tied hands and haltered neck to do him
homage. He most humbly begged him to stay at his
palace, and to accept what little hospitality could be provided.
While the prince was staying at the palace he saw his
Lac of Rupees for Bit of Advice 111

sister, who greeted him with smiles and kisses. On leaving
he told her how she and her husband had treated him at
his first visit, and how he had escaped ; and then gave them
two elephants, two beautiful horses, fifteen soldiers, and ten
lacs rupees’ worth of jewels.

Afterwards he went to his own home, and informed his
mother and father of his arrival. Alas! his parents had
both become blind from weeping about the loss of their son.
“Let him come in,’ said the king, “and put his hands
upon our eyes, and we shall see again.” So the prince
entered, and was most affectionately greeted by his old
parents ; and he laid his hands on their eyes, and they saw
again. 3

Then the prince told his father all that had happened to
him, and how he had been saved several times by attending
to the advice that he had purchased from the Brahmani.
Whereupon the king expressed his sorrow for having sent
him away, and all was joy and peace again.


The Gold-giving Serpent

= OW in a certain place there lived a
Brahman named Haridattaa He was a
farmer, but poor was the return his
labour brought him. One day, at the
end of the hot hours, the Brahman, over-
come by the heat, lay down under the
shadow of a tree to have a doze. Suddenly he saw a great
hooded snake creeping out of an ant-hill near at hand. So
he thought to himself, “ Sure this is the guardian deity of
the field, and I have not ever worshipped it. That’s why
my farming is in vain. I will at once go and pay my
respects to it.”



When he had made up his mind, he got some milk,
poured it into a bowl, and went to the ant-hill, and said
aloud: “O Guardian of this Field! all’ this while I did not
know that you dwelt here. That is why I have not yet
paid my respects to you; pray forgive me.” And he laid
the milk down and went to his house. Next morning he
came and looked, and he saw a gold denar in the bowl, and
from that time onward every day the same thing occurred:
he gave milk to the serpent and found a gold denar.
The Gold-giving Serpent 113

One day the Brahman had to go to the village, and so
he ordered his son to take the milk to the ant-hill. The
son brought the milk, put it down, and went back home.
Next day he went again and found a denar, so he thought
to himself: “ This ant-hill is surely full of golden denars ;
I'll kill the serpent, and take them all for myself.” So next
day, while he was giving the milk to the serpent, the
Brahman’s son struck it on the head with a cudgel. But
the serpent escaped death by the will of fate, and in a rage
bit the Brahman’s son with its sharp fangs, and he fell
down dead at once. His people raised him a funeral pyre
not far from the field and burnt him to ashes.



Two days afterwards his father came back, and when he
learnt his son’s fate he grieved and mourned. But after a
time, he took the bowl of milk, went to the arit-hill, and
praised the serpent with a loud voice. After a long, long
time the serpent appeared, but only with its head out of the
opening of the ant-hill, and spoke to the Brahman: ‘’Tis
greed that brings you here, and makes you even forget the

H
114 Indian Fairy Tales .

loss of your son. From this time forward friendship
between us is impossible. Your son struck me in youthful
ignorance, and I have bitten him to death. How can I
forget the blow with the cudgel ? And how can you forget
the pain and grief at the loss of your son ?” So speaking,
it gave the Brahman a costly pearl and disappeared. But
before it went away it said: ‘Come back no more.” The
Brahman took the pearl, and went back home, cursing the
folly of his son.
The Son of Seven Queens

4) NCE upon a time there lived a King who
had seven Queens, but no children.
This was a great grief to him, espe-
cially when he remembered that on his
death there would be no heir to inherit
the kingdom.



Now it happened one day that a poor old fakir came
to the King, and said, “ Your prayers are heard, your
desire shall be accomplished, and one of your seven Queens
shall bear a son.”

The King’s delight at this promise knew no bounds, and
he gave orders for appropriate festivities to be prepared
against the coming event throughout the length and breadth
of the land.

Meanwhile the seven Queens lived luxuriously in a
splendid palace, attended by hundreds of female slaves, and
fed to their hearts’ content on sweetmeats and confec-
tionery.

‘Now the King was very fond of hunting, and one day,
before he started, the seven Queens sent him a message

saying, ‘‘ May it please our dearest lord not.to hunt towards
116 Indian Fairy Tales

the north to-day, for we have dreamt bad dreams, and fear
lest evil should befall you.”

The King, to allay their anxiety, promised regard for
their wishes, and set out towards the south ; but as luck
would have it, although he hunted diligently, he found no
game. Nor had he more success to the east or west, so
that, being a keen sportsman, and determined not to go.

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home empty-handed, he forgot all about his promise, and
turned to the north. Here also he was at first unsuccess-
ful, but just as he had made up his mind to give up for that
day, a white hind with golden horns and silver hoofs
flashed past him into a thicket. So ‘quickly did it pass
that he scarcely saw it ; nevertheless a burning desire to
capture and possess the beautiful strange creature filled his
The Son of Seven Queens 117

breast. He instantly ordered his attendants to form a ring
round the thicket, and so encircle the hind ; then, gradually
narrowing the circle, he pressed forward till he could
distinctly see the white hind panting in the midst. Nearer
and nearer he advanced, till, just as he thought to lay hold
of the beautiful strange creature, it gave one mighty bound,
leapt clean over the King’s head, and fled towards the
mountains. Forgetful.of all else, the King, setting spurs
to his horse, followed at full speed. On, on he galloped,
leaving his retinue far behind, keeping the white hind in
view, never drawing bridle, until, finding himself in a narrow
ravine with no outlet, he reined in his steed. Before him
stood a miserable hovel, into which, being tired after his
long, unsuccessful chase, he entered to ask for a drink of
water. An old woman, seated in the hut at a spinning-
~ wheel, answered his request by calling to her daughter, and
immediately from an inner room came a maiden so lovely
and charming, so white-skinned and golden-haired, that the
King was transfixed by astonishment at seeing so beautiful
a sight in the wretched hovel.

She held the vessel of water to the King’s lips, and as
he drank he looked into her eyes, and then it became clear
to him that the girl was no other than the white hind
with the golden horns and silver feet he had chased so
far.

Her beauty bewitched him, so he fell on his knees,
begging her to return with him a8 his bride; but she only
laughed, saying seven Queens were quite enough even for a
King to manage. However, when he would take no refusal,
but implored her to have pity on him, promising her every-

‘thing she could desire, she replied, ‘‘Give me the eyes of
118 Indian Fairy Tales

your seven Queens, and then perhaps I may believe you
mean what you say.”

The King was so carried away by the glamour of the
white hind’s magical beauty, that he went home at once,
had the eyes of his seven Queens taken out, and, after
throwing the poor blind creatures into a noisome dungeon
whence they could not escape, set off oncé more for the
hovel in the ravine, bearing with him his horrible offering.
But the white hind only laughed cruelly when she saw the
fourteen eyes, and threading them as a necklace, flung it
round her mother’s neck, saying, ‘“ Wear that, little mother,
as a keepsake, whilst I am away in the King’s palace.”

Then she went back with the bewitched monarch, as his
bride, and he gave her the seven Queens’ rich clothes and
jewels to wear, the seven Queens’ palace to live in, and the
seven Queens’ slaves to wait upon her; so that she really
had everything even a witch could desire. :

Now, very soon after the seven wretched hapless Queens
had. their eyes torn out,. and were cast into prison,
a baby was born to the youngest of the Queens. It
was a handsome boy, but the other Queens were very
jealous that the youngest amongst them should be so
fortunate. But though at first they disliked the handsome
little boy, he soon proved so useful to them, that ere long
they all looked on him as their son. Almost as soon as he
could walk about he began scraping at the mud wall of their
dungeon, and in an incredibly short space of time had made
a hole big enough for him to crawl through. Through this
he disappeared, returning in an hour or so laden with sweet-

meats, which he divided equally amongst the seven blind
Queens.
The Son of Seven Queens 119

As he grew older he enlarged the hole, and slipped out
two or three times every day to play with the little nobles
in the town. No one knew who the tiny boy was, but
everybody liked him, and he was so full of funny tricks and
antics, so merry and bright, that he was sure to be rewarded
by some girdle-cakes, a handful of parched grain, or some
sweetmeats. All these things he brought home to his seven
mothers, as he loved to call the seven blind Queens, who
by his help lived on in their dungeon when all the world
thought they had starved to death ages before.

At last, when he was quite a big lad, he one day took
his bow and arrow, and went out to seek for game.
Coming by chance past the palace where the white hind
lived in wicked splendour and magnificence, he saw some
pigeons fluttering round the white marble turrets, and,
taking good aim, shot one dead. It came tumbling past
the very window where the white Queen was sitting ; she
rose to see what was the matter, and looked out. At the
first glance of the handsome young lad standing there bow
in hand, she knew by witchcraft that it was the King’s son.

She nearly died of envy and spite, determining to destroy
the lad without delay; therefore, sending a servant to
bring him to her presence, she asked him if he would sell
her the pigeon he had just shot. .

“No,” replied the sturdy lad, ‘‘the pigeon is for my
seven blind mothers, who live in the noisome dungeon, and
who would die if I did not bring them food.”

“Poor souls!” cried the cunning white witch; “ would
you not like to bring them their eyes again? Give me the
pigeon, my dear, and I faithfully promise to show you
where to find them.”
120 Indian Fairy Tales

Hearing this, the lad was delighted beyond measure, and.
gave up the pigeon at once. Whereupon the white Queen
told him to seek her mother without delay, and ask for the
eyes which she wore as a necklace.

“She will not fail to give them,” said the cruel Queen,
“if you show her this token on which I have written what
I want done.”

So saying, she gave the lad a piece of broken potsherd,
with these words inscribed on it—“ Kill the bearer at once,
and sprinkle his blood like water!”

Now, as the son of seven Queens could not read, he
took the fatal message cheerfully, and set off to find the
white Queen’s mother.

Whilst he was journeying he passed through a town, where
every one of the inhabitants looked so sad, that he could
not help asking what was the matter. They told him it
was because the King’s only daughter refused to marry ; so
when her father died there would be no heir to the throne.
They greatly feared she must be out of her mind, for though
every good-looking young man in the kingdom had been
shown to her, she declared she would only marry one who
was the son of seven mothers, and who ever heard of such
a thing? The King, in despair, had ordered every man
who entered the city gates to be led before the Princess ;
so, much to the lad’s impatience, for he was in an immense
hurry to find his mothers’ eyes, he was dragged into the
presence-chamber.

No sooner did the Princess catch sight of him than she
blushed, and, turning to the King, said, “ Dear father, this
is my choice!”

Never were such rejoicings as these few words produced.















‘The Son of Seven Queens 121

The inhabitants nearly went wild with joy, but the son of
seven Queens said he would not marry the Princess unless
they first let him recover his mothers’ eyes. When the
beautiful bride heard his story, she asked to see the
potsherd, for she was very learned and clever. Seeing the
treacherous words, she said nothing, but taking another
similar-shaped bit of potsherd, she wrote on it these words
—‘ Take care of this lad, giving him all he desires,” and
returned it to the son of seven Queens, who, none the wiser,
set off on his quest.

Ere long he arrived at the hovel in the ravine where the
white witch’s mother, a hideous old creature, grumbled
dreadfully on reading the message, especially when the lad
asked for the necklace of eyes. Nevertheless she took it
off, and gave it him, saying, ‘‘ There are only thirteen of em
now, for I lost one last week.

The lad, however, was only too glad to get any at all, so
he hurried home as fast as he could to his seven mothers,
and gave two eyes apiece to the six elder ‘Queens ; but to
the youngest he gave one, saying, “ Dearest little mother!
—I will be your other eye always!”

After this he set off ‘to marry the Princess, as he had
promised, but when passing by the white Queen’s palace
he saw some pigeons on the roof. Drawing his bow, he
shot. one, and it came fluttering past the window. The
white hind looked out, and lo! there was the King’s son
alive and well.

She cried with hatred and disgust, but sending for the
lad, asked him how he had returned so soon, and when she
heard how he had brought home the thirteen eyes, and
given them to the seven blind Queens, she could hardly
122 Indian Fairy Tales’

restrain her rage. Nevertheless she pretended to be
charmed with his success, and told him that if he would
give her this pigeon also, she would reward him with the
Jogi’s wonderful cow, whose milk flows all day long, and
makes a pond as big as a kingdom. The lad, nothing loth,
gave her the pigeon; whereupon, as before, she bade him
go ask her mother for the cow, and gave him a potsherd
whereon was written—‘ Kill this lad without fail, and.
sprinkle his blood like water!”

But on the way the son of seven Queens looked in on
‘the Princess, just to tell her how he came to be delayed,
and she, after reading the message on the potsherd, gave .
him another in its stead ; so that when the lad reached the
old hag’s hut and asked her for the Jogi’s cow, she could
not refuse, but told the boy how to find it; and bidding
him of all things not to be afraid of the eighteen thousand
demons who kept watch and ward over the treasure, told
him to be off before she became too angry at her daughter’s
foolishness in thus giving away so many good things.

Then the lad did as he had beentold bravely. He journeyed
on and on till he came to a milk-white pond, guarded by
the eighteen thousand demons. They were really frightful
to behold, but, plucking up courage, he whistled a tune as
he walked through them, looking neither to the right nor
the left. By-and-by he came upon the Jogi’s cow, tall,
white, and beautiful, while the Jogi himself, who was king
of all the demons, sat milking her day and night, and the
milk streamed from her udder, filling the milk-white tank.

The Jogi, seeing the lad, called out fiercely, ‘‘ What do
you want here?”

Then the lad answered, according to the old hag’s bidding,
The Son of Seven Queens 123

“JT want your skin, for King Indra is making a new kettle-
drum, and says your skin is nice and tough.”

Upon this the Jogi began to shiver and shake (for no
Jinn or Jogi dares disobey King Indra’s command), and,
falling at the lad’s feet, cried, “If you will spare me I will
give you anything I possess, even my beautiful white cow!”

To this the son of seven Queens, after a little pretended
hesitation, agreed, saying that after all it would not be
difficult to find a nice tough skin like the Jogi’s elsewhere ;
so, driving the wonderful cow before him, he set off home-
wards. The seven Queens were delighted to possess so
marvellous an animal, and though they toiled from morning
till night making curds and whey, besides selling milk to
the confectioners, they could not use half the cow gave, and
became richer and richer day by day.

Seeing them so comfortably off, the son of seven Queens
started with a light heart to marry the Princess; but when
passing the white hind’s palace he could not resist sending
a bolt at some pigeons which were cooing on the parapet.
One fell dead just beneath the window where the white
Queen was sitting. Looking out, she saw the lad hale and
hearty standing before her, and grew whiter than ever with
rage and spite.

She sent for him to ask how he had returned so soon,
and when she heard how kindly her mother had received
him, she very nearly had a fit; however, she dissembled
her feelings as well as she could, and, smiling sweetly,
said she was glad to have been able to fulfil her promise,
and that if he would give her this third pigeon, she would
do yet more for him than she had done before, by giving
him the million-fold rice, which ripens in one night.
124 Indian Fairy Tales

The lad was of course delighted at the very idea, and,
giving up the pigeon, set off on his quest, armed as before
with a potsherd, on which was written, ‘‘Do not fail this
time. Kill the lad, and sprinkle his blood like water!”

But when he looked in on his Princess, just to prevent
her becoming anxious about him, she asked to see the pot-
sherd as usual, and substituted another, on which was
written, ‘‘ Yet again give this lad all he requires, for his
blood shall be as your blood!”

Now when the old hag saw this, and heard how the lad
wanted the million-fold rice which ripens in a single night,
she fell into the most furious rage, but being terribly afraid
of her daughter, she controlled herself, and bade the boy go
and find the field guarded by eighteen millions of demons,
warning him on no account to look back after having plucked
the tallest spike of rice, which grew in the centre.

So the son of seven Queens set off, and soon came ta
the field where, guarded by eighteen millions of demons,
the million-fold rice grew. He walked on bravely, looking
neither to the right or left, till he reached the centre and
plucked the tallest ear, but as he turned homewards a
thousand sweet voices rose behind him, crying in tenderest
accents, ‘‘ Pluck me too! oh, please pluck me too!” He
looked back, and lo! there was nothing left of him but a
little heap of ashes !

Now as time passed by and the lad did not return, the
old hag grew uneasy, remembering the message ‘‘ his blood
shall be as your blood”; so she set off to see what had
happened.-

Soon she came to the heap of ashes, and knowing by
her arts what it was, she took a little water, and kneading
The Son of Seven Queens 125

the ashes into a paste, formed it into the likeness of a man ;
then, putting a drop of blood from her little finger into its
mouth, she blew on it, and instantly the son of seven
Queens started up as well as ever.

“ Don’t you disobey orders again !”
grumbled the old hag, “or next
time Pll leave you alone. Now be
off, before I repent of my kindness!”

So the son of seven Queens
returned joyfully to his seven
mothers, who, by the aid of the
million-fold rice, soon became the
richest people in the kingdom. Then
they celebrated their son’s marriage
to the clever Princess with all
imaginable pomp ; but the bride was
so clever, she would not rest until
she had made known her husband
to his father, and punished the wicked
white witch. So she made her hus-
band build a palace exactly like the









one in which the seven Queens had
lived, and in which the white witch
now dwelt in splendour. Then,



when all was prepared, she bade
her husband give a grand feast to the King. Now the
King had heard much of the mysterious son of seven
Queens, and his marvellous wealth, so he gladly accepted
the invitation; but what was his astonishment when on
entering the palace he found it was a facsimile of his own
in every particular! And when his host, richly attired,








126 Indian Fairy Tales

led him straight to the private hall, where on royal
thrones sat the seven Queens, dressed as he had last seen
them, he was speechless with surprise, until the Princess,
coming forward, threw herself at his feet, and told him the
whole story. Then the King awoke from his enchantment,
and his anger rose against the wicked white hind who had
bewitched him so long, until he could not contain himself.
So she was put to death, and her grave ploughed over, and
after that the seven Queens returned to their own splendid
palace, and everybody lived happily.






A Lesson for Kings

NCE upon a time, when Brahma-datta was
reigning in Benares, the future Buddha
returned to life as his son and heir. And
when the day came for choosing a name,
they called him Prince Brahma-datta. He
grew up in due course ; and when he was



sixteen years old, went to Takkasila, and became accom-
plished in all arts. And after his father died he ascended
the throne, and ruled the kingdom with righteousness and
equity. He gave judgments without partiality, hatred,
ignorance, or fear. Since he thus reigned with justice,
with justice also his ministers administered the law. Law-
suits being thus decided with justice, there were none who
brought false cases. And as these ceased, the noise and
tumult of litigation ceased in the king’s court. Though
128 Indian Fairy Tales

the judges sat all day in the court, they had to leave
without any one coming for justice. It came to this, that
the Hall of Justice would have to be closed !

‘Then the future Buddha thought, “ It cannot be from my
reigning with righteousness that none come for judgment ;
the bustle has ceased, and the Hail of Justice will have to
be closed. I must, therefore, now examine into my own
faults ; and if I find that anything is wrong in me, put that
away, and practise only virtue.”

‘Thenceforth he sought for some one to tell him his faults,
but among those around him he found no one who would
tell him of any fault, but heard only his own praise.

Then he thought, “It is from fear of me that these men
speak only good things, and not evil things,” and he sought
among those people who lived outside the palace. And
finding no fault-finder there, he sought among those who
lived outside the city, in the suburbs, at the four gates.
And there too finding no one to find fault, and hearing
only his own praise, he determined to search the country
places. i

So he made over the kingdom to his ministers, and
mounted his chariot ; and taking only his charioteer, left the
city in disguise. And searching the country through, up to
the very boundary, he found no fault-finder, and heard only
of his own virtue ; and so he turned back from the outer-
most boundary, and returned by the high road towards the
city.

Now at that time the king of Kosala, Mallika by name,
was also ruling his kingdom with righteousness ; and when
seeking for some fault in himself, he also found no fault-
finder in the palace, but only heard of his own virtue! So

’
A Tbesyom fore Kings 129

seeking in country places, he too came to that very spot.
And these two came face to face in a low cart-track’ with
precipitous sides, where there was no space for a chariot to
get out of the way !

Then the charioteer of Mallika the king said to the
charioteer of the king of Benares, “ Take thy chariot out of
the way!”

But he said, ‘‘ Take thy chariot out of the way, O
charioteer! In this chariot sitteth the lord over the king-
dom of Benares, the great king Brahma-datta.”

Yet the other replied, “In this chariot, O charioteer,
sitteth the lord over the kingdom of Kosala, the great king
Mallika. Take thy carriage out of the way, and make room
for the chariot of our king!”

Then the charioteer of the king of Benares thought,
“They say then that he too is a king! What zs now tobe
done?” After some consideration, he said to himself, “I
know a way. [’ll find out how old he is, and then I’ll let
the chariot of the younger be got out of the way, and so
make room for the elder.”

And when he had arrived at that conclusion, he asked
that charioteer what the age of the king of Kosala was.
But on inquiry he found that the ages of both were equal.
Then he inquired about the extent of ‘his kingdom, and
about his army, and his wealth, and his renown, and about
the country he lived in, and his caste and tribe and family.
And he found that both were lords of a kingdom three hun-
dred leagues in extent; and that in respect of army and
wealth and renown, and the countries in which they lived,
and their caste and their tribe and their family, they were

just on a par!
126 Indian Fairy Tales

Then he thought, ‘1 will make way. for the most
righteous.” And he asked, “ What kind of righteousness
has this king of yours ?”

Then the chorister of the king of Kosala, proclaim-
ing his king’s wickedness ‘as goodness, uttered the First
Stanza :

“The strong he overthrows by strength,
The mild by mildness, does Mallika ;
The good he conquers by goodness,
And the wicked by wickedness too.

Such is the nature of ¢hzs king!
Move out of the way, O charioteer!”

s

But the charioteer of the king of Benares asked
him, ‘ Well, have you told all the virtues of your
king ?”

“ Yes,” said the other.

“Tf these are his wirtwes, where are then his faults ?”
replied he.

The other said, ‘‘ Well, for the nonce, they shall be faults, ©
if you like! But pray, then, what is the kind of goodness
your king has ?”

And then the charioteer of the king of Benares
called unto him to hearken, and uttered the Second

Stanza :
‘‘ Anger he conquers by. calmness,
And by goodness the wicked ;
The stingy he conquers by gifts,
And by truth the speaker of lies.
Such is the nature of ¢izs king !
Move out of the way, O charioteer!”
A Lesson for Kings 131

And when he had thus spoken, both Mallika the king and
his charioteer alighted from their chariot. And they took

out the horses, and removed their chariot, and made way
for the king of Benares!
Pride goeth before a Fall

y N a certain village there lived ten cloth merchants,
who always went about together. Once upon a
time they had travelled far afield, and were returning
home with a great deal of money which they had
obtained by selling their wares. Now there hap-



pened to be a dense forest near their village, and
this they reached early one morning. In it there lived three
notorious robbers, of whose existence the traders had never
heard, and while they were still in the middle of it the

robbers stood before them, with swords and cudgels in
- their hands, and ordered them to lay down all they had.
The traders had no weapons with them, and_ so, though
they were many more in number, they had to submit them-
selves to the robbers, who took away everything from them,
even the very clothes they wore, and gave to each only
a small loin-cloth a span in breadth and a cubit in
length. 5

The idea that they had conquered ten men and plundered
all their property, now took possession of the robbers’
minds. They seated themselves like three monarchs before
the men they had plundered, and ordered them to dance
Pride goeth before a Fall 133

to them before returning home. The merchants now
mourned their fate. They had lost all they had, except
their loin-cloth, and still the robbers were not satisfied, but
ordered them to dance.

There was, among the ten merchants, one who was very
clever. He pondered over the calamity that had come
upon him and his friends, the dance they would have to
perform, and the magnificent manner in which the three
robbers had seated themselves on the grass. At the same
time he observed that these last had placed their weapons
on the ground, in the assurance of having thoroughly
cowed the traders, who were now commencing to dance.
So he took the lead in the dance, and, as a song is
always sung by the leader on such occasions, to which
the rest keep time with hands and feet, he thus began to
sing :

“We are enty men,
They are erith men:
If each erith man,
Surround eno men
Eno man remains.
Ta, tat, tém, tadingana.”

The robbers were all uneducated, and thought that the
leader was merely singing a song as usual. So it was in
one sense; for the leader commenced from a distance, and
had sung the song over twice before he and his com-
panions commenced to approach the robbers. ‘They had
understood his meaning, because they had been trained in
trade.

When two traders discuss the price of an article in
134 Indian Fairy Tales

the presence of a purchaser, they use a riddling sort of
language. :

‘What is the price of this cloth ?”
one trader will ask another.

“Enty rupees,” another will reply,
meaning “ ten rupees.”

Thus, there is no possibility of the
purchaser knowing what is meant un-
less he be acquainted with trade language. By the rules of
this secret language erith means “three,” enty means “‘ ten,”
and eno means “one.” So
the leader by his song meant
to hint to his fellow-traders
that they were ten men, the
robbers only three, that if
three pounced upon each of the
robbers, nine of them could
hold them down, while the remaining one bound the robbers’
hands and feet.

The three thieves,
glorying in their vic-
tory, and little un- —
derstanding themean-
ing of the song and
the intentions of the

dancers, were proudly seated chewing betel and tobacco.
Meanwhile the song was sung a third time. 7é
tai tom had left the lips of the singer ; and, be-
fore ¢fadingana was out of them, the traders
separated into parties of three, and each party
pounced upon athief. The remaining one—
pide soctn werore a Rall 15

the leader himself—tore up into long narrow strips a
large piece of cloth, six cubits long, and tied the hands and
feet of the robbers. These were entirely humbled now,
and rolled on the ground like three bags of rice !

The ten traders now took back all their property,
and armed themselves with the swords and cudgels of
their enemies ; and when they reached their village, they
often amused their friends and relatives by relating their

adventure.
Raja Rasalu.

NCE there lived a great Raja, whose name
was Salabhan, and he had a Queen, by
name Lona, who, though she wept and
prayed at many a shrine, had never a
child to gladden her eyes. After along



time, however, a son was promised to her.

Queen Lona returned to the palace, and when the time
for the birth of the promised son drew nigh, she inquired
of three Jogis who came begging to her gate, what the
child’s fate would be, and the youngest of them answered
and said, ‘‘ Oh, Queen! the child will be a boy, and he
will live to be a great man. But for twelve years you must
not look upon his face, for if either you or his father see it
before the twelve years are past, you willsurely die! This is
what you must do; as soon as the child is born you must
send him away to a cellar underneath the ground, and never
let him see the light of day for twelve years. After they
are over, he may come forth, bathe in the river, put on new
clothes, and visit you. His name shall be Raja Rasalu,
and he shall be known far and wide.”

So, when a fair young Prince was in due time born into
Raja Rasalu 137

the world, his parents hid him away in an underground
palace, with nurses, and servants, and everything else a
King’s son might desire. And with him they sent a young
colt, born the same day, and sword, spear, and shield,
against the day when Raja Rasalu should go forth into the
world.

So there the child lived, playing with his colt, and talk-
ing to his parrot, while the nurses taught him all things
needful for a King’s son to know.

Young Rasalu lived on, far from the light of day, for
eleven long years, growing tall and strong, yet contented to
remain playing with his colt, and talking to his parrot ; but
when the twelfth year began, the lad’s heart leapt up with
desire for change, and he loved to listen to the sounds of
life which came to him in his palace-prison from the out-
side world.

‘“T must go and see where the voices come from!” he
said; and when his nurses told him he must not go for one
year more, he only laughed aloud, saying, ‘‘ Nay ! I stay no
longer here for any man!”

Then he saddled his Arab horse Bhaunr, put on his
shining armour, and rode forth into the world ; but mindful
of what his nurses had oft told him, when he came to the
river, he dismounted, and, going into the water, washed
himself and his clothes.

Then, clean of raiment, fair of face, and brave of heart,
he- rode on his way until he reached his father’s city.
There he sat down to rest awhile by a well, where the
women were drawing water in earthen pitchers. Now, as
they passed him, their full pitchers poised upon their heads,
the gay young Prince flung stones at the earthen vessels,
138 Indian Fairy Tales

and broke them all. Then the women, drenched with water,
went weeping and wailing to the palace, complaining to the
King that a mighty young Prince in shining armour, with a
parrot on his wrist and a gallant steed beside him, sat by
the well, and broke their pitchers.

Now, as soon as Rajah Salabhan heard this, he guessed
at once that it was Prince Rasalu come forth before the
time, and, mindful of the Jogis’ words that he would die if
he looked on his son’s face before twelve years were past,
he did not dare to send his guards to seize the offender and
bring him to be judged. So he bade the women be com-
forted, and take pitchers of iron and brass, giving new ones
from his treasury to those who did not possess any of their
own.

But when Prince Rasalu saw the women returning to the
well with pitchers of iron and brass, he laughed to himself,
and drew his mighty bow till the sharp-pointed arrows
pierced the metal vessels as though they had been clay.

Yet still the King did not send for him, so he mounted
his steed and set off in the pride of his youth and strength
to the palace. He strode into the audience hall, where his
father sat trembling, and saluted him will all reverence ;
but Raja Salabhan, in fear of his life, turned his back
hastily and said never a word in reply.

Then Prince Rasalu called scornfully to him across the hall:

‘““T came to greet thee, King, and not to harm thee !
What have I done that thou shouldst:turn away ?
Sceptre and empire have no power to charm me—
I go to seek a worthier prize than they!”

Then he strode away, full of bitterness and anger; but,
Raja Rasalu 139

as he passed under the palace windows, he heard his mother
weeping, and the sound softened his heart, so that his
wrath died down, and a great loneliness fell upon him, be-
caused he was spurned by both father and mother. So he
cried sorrowfully,

‘‘Oh heart crown’d with grief, hast thou nought
But tears for thy son ?
Art mother of mine? Give one thought
To my life just begun!”

And Queen Lona answered through her tears :

“ Yea! mother am I, though I weep,
So hold this word sure,—
Go, reign king of all men, but keep
Thy heart good and pure!”

So Raja Rasalu was comforted, and began to make ready
for fortune. He took with him his horse Bhaunr and his
parrot, both of whom had lived with him since he was
born.

So they made a goodly company, and Queen Lona, when
she saw them going, watched them from her window till she
saw nothing but a cloud of dust on the horizon; then she
bowed her head on her hands and wept, saying:

“ Oh! son who ne’er gladdened mine eyes,
Let the cloud of thy going arise,

. Dim the sunlight and darken the day ;
For the mother whose son is away

Is as dust!”

Rasalu had started off to play chaupur with King Sarkap.
And as he journeyed there came a fierce storm of thunder
I40 Indian Fairy Tales

and lightning, so that he sought shelter, and found none
save an old graveyard, where a headless corpse lay upon the
ground. So lonesome was it that even the corpse seemed
company, and Rasalu, sitting down beside it, said :

s

There is no one here, nor far nor near,
Save this breathless corpse so cold and grim ;
Would God he might come to life again,
*Twould be Iess lonely to talk to him.”

And immediately the headless corpse arose and sat beside
Raja Rasalu. And he, nothing astonished, said to it:

“The storm beats fierce and loud,
The clouds rise thick in the west 5
What ails thy grave and shroud,
Oh. corpse ! that thou canst not rest ?”

Then the headless corpse replied :

“On earth I was even as thou,
My turban awry like a king,
My head with the highest, I trow,
Having my fun and my fling,
Fighting my foes like a brave,
Living my life with a swing.
And, now I am dead,
Sins, heavy as lead,
Will give me no rest in my grave!”

So the night passed on, dark and dreary, while Rasalu
sat in the graveyard and talked to the headless corpse.
Now when morning broke and Rasalu said he must continue
Raja Rasalu [Al

his journey, the headless corpse asked him whither he was
going, and when he said “to play chaupur with King
Sarkap,” the corpse begged him to give up the idea saying,
“JT am King Sarkap’s brother, and I know his ways.
Every day, before breakfast, he cuts off the heads of two or
three men, just to amuse himself. One day no one else
was at hand, so he cut off mine, and he will surely cut off
yours on some pretence or another. However, if you are
determined to go and play chaupur with him, take some of
the bones from this graveyard, and make your dice out of
them, and then the enchanted dice with which my brother
plays will lose their virtue. Otherwise he will always win.”
So Rasalu took some of the bones lying about, and
fashioned them into dice, and these he put into his pocket.
Then, bidding adieu to the headless corpse, he went on his
way to play chaupur with the King.

Now, as Raja Rasalu, tender - hearted and strong,
journeyed along to play chaupur with the King, he came to
a burning forest, and a voice rose from the fire saying, ‘Oh,
traveller! for God’s sake save me from the fire!”

Then the Prince turned. towards the burning forest, and,
lo! the voice was the voice of a tiny cricket. Nevertheless,
Rasalu, tender-hearted and strong, snatched it from the fire
and set it at liberty. Then the little creature, full of
gratitude, pulled out one of its feelers, and giving it to its
preserver, said, ‘‘ Keep this, and should you ever be in
trouble, put it into the fire, and instantly I will come to
your aid.”

The Prince smiled, saying, “ What help could you give
me?” Nevertheless, he kept the hair and went on

his way.
142 Indian Fairy Tales

Now, when he reached the city of King Sarkap, seventy
maidens, daughters of the King, came out to meet him,—
seventy fair maidens, merry and careless, full of smiles and
laughter ; but one, the youngest of them all, when she saw
the gallant young Prince riding on Bhaunr Iraqi, going
gaily to his doom, was filled with pity, and called to him
saying :

“Fair Prince, on the charger so gray,
Turn thee back! turn thee back!
Or lower thy lance for the fray ;
‘Thy head will be forfeit to- -day!
Dost love life ? then, stranger, I pray,
Turn thee back! turn thee back !”

But he, smiling at the maiden, answered lightly :

“ Fair maiden, I come from afar,
Sworn conqueror in love and in war!
King Sarkap my coming will rue,
His head in four pieces J’ll hew ;
Then forth as a bridegroom I'll ride,
With you, little maid, as my bride!”

Now when Rasalu replied so gallantly, the maiden
looked in his face, and seeing how fair he was, and how
brave and strong, she straightway fell in love with him, and
would gladly have followed him through the world.

But the other sixty-nine maidens, being jealous, laughed
scornfully at her, saying, ‘“ Not so fast, oh gallant warrior !
If you would marry our sister you must first do our
bidding, for you will be our younger brother.”

“ Fair sisters!” quoth Rasalu gaily, ““ give me my task
and I will perform it.”


Raja Rasalu 143

So the sixty-nine maidens mixed a hundred-weight of millet
seed witha hundredweight of sand, and giving it to Rasalu,
bade him separate the seed from the sand.

Then he bethought him of the cricket, and drawing the
feeler from his pocket, thrust it into the fire. And
immediately there was a whirring noise in the air, and a
great flight of crickets alighted beside him, and amongst
them the cricket whose life he had saved.

Then Rasalu said, ‘‘ Separate the millet seed from the
sand.”

“Ts that all?” quoth the cricket; ‘had I known how
small a job you wanted me to do, I would not have
assembled so many of my brethren.”

With that the flight of crickets set to work, and in one
night they separated the seed from the sand.

Now when the sixty-nine fair maidens, daughters of the
king saw that Rasalu had performed his task, they set him
another, bidding him swing them all, one by one, in their
swings, until they were tired.

Whereupon he laughed, saying, “ There are seventy of
you, counting my little bride yonder, and I am not going to
spend my life swinging girls! Why, by the time I have
given each of you a swing, the first will be wanting another !
No! if you want a swing, get in, all seventy of you, into
one swing, and then I’ll see what can be done.”

So the seventy maidens climbed into one swing, and Raja
Rasalu, standing in his shining armour, fastened the ropes
to his mighty bow, and drew it up to its fullest bent.
Then he let go, and like an arrow the swing shot into
the air, with its burden of seventy fair maidens, merry and

careless, full of smiles and laughter.
I44 Indian Fairy Tales

But as it swung back again, Kasalu, standing there in his
shining armour, drew his sharp sword and severed the
ropes. Thenthe seventy fair maidens fell to the ground
headlong ; and some were bruised and some broken, but
the only one who escaped unhurt was the maiden who
loved Rasalu, for she fell out last, on the top of the others,
and so came to no harm.

After this, Rasalu strode on fifteen paces, till he came
to the seventy drums, that every one who came to play
chaupur with the King had to beat in turn; and he beat
them so loudly that he broke them all. Then he came to
the seventy gongs, all in a row, and he hammered them so
hard that they cracked to pieces.

Seeing this, the youngest Princess, who was the only one
who could run, fled to her father the King in a great fright,
saying :

“ A mighty Prince, Sarkap! making havoc, rides along,

He swung us, seventy maidens fair, and threw us out

headlong ;

He broke the drums you placed there and the gongs too

in his pride,

Sure, he will kill thee, father mine, and take me for his

bride !”

But King Sarkap replied scornfully :

“ Silly maiden, thy words make a lot
Of a very small matter ;
For fear of my valour, 1 wot,
His armour will clatter.
As soon as I’ve eaten my bread
I'll go forth and cut off his head!”
Raja Rasalu 145

Notwithstanding these brave and boastful words, he was
in reality very much afraid, having heard of Rasalu’s
renown. And learning that he was stopping at the house
of an old woman in the city, till the hour for playing
ehaupur arrived, Sarkap sent slaves to him with trays of
sweetmeats and fruit, as to an honoured guest. But the
food was poisoned.

Now when the slaves brought the trays to . Raja
Rasalu, he rose up haughtily, saying, ‘‘Go, tell your
master I have nought to do with him in friendship. I am
his sworn enemy, and I eat not of his salt!”

So saying, he threw the sweetmeats to Raja Sarkap’s
dog, which had followed the slave, and lo! the dog died.

Then Rasalu was very wroth, and said bitterly, ‘‘ Go
back to Sarkap, slaves! and tell him that Rasalu deems it
no act of bravery to kill even an enemy by treachery.”

Now, when evening came, Raja Rasalu went forth to play
chaupur with King Sarkap, and as he passed some potters’
kilns he saw a cat wandering about restlessly ; so he
asked what ailed her, that she never stood still, and she
replied, ‘‘ My kittens are in an unbaked pot in the kiln
yonder. It has just been set alight, and my children will
be baked alive ; therefore I cannot rest!”

Her words moved the heart of Raja Rasalu, and, going to
the potter, he asked him to sell the kiln as it was; but the
potter replied that he could not settle a fair price till the
pots were burnt, as he could not tell how many would come
out whole. Nevertheless, after some bargaining, he
consented at last to sell the kiln, and Rasalu, having
searched all the pots, restored the kittens to their mother,
and she, in gratitude for his mercy, gave him one of them,

K
146 Indian Fairy ‘Tales

saying, ‘‘ Put it in your pocket, for it will help you when
you are in difficulties.” So Raja Rasalu put the kitten in
his pocket, and went to play chaupur with the King.

Now, before they sat down to play, Raja Sarkap fixed
his stakes,—on the first game, his kingdom; on the
second, the wealth of the whole world; and, on the third,
his own head. So, likewise, Raja Rasalu fixed his stakes,
——on the first game, his arms; on the second, his horse ;
and, on the third, his own head.

Then they began to play, and it fell to Rasalu’s lot to
make the first move. Now he, forgetful of the dead man’s
warning, played with the dice given him by Raja Sarkap,
besides which, Sarkap let loose his famous rat, Dhol Raja,
and it ran about the board, upsetting the chaupur pieces on
the sly, so that Rasalu lost the first game, and gave up his
shining armour.

Then the second game began, and once more Dhol
Raja, the rat, upset the pieces; and Rasalu, losing the
game, gave up his faithful steed. Then Bhaunr, the Arab
steed, who stood by, found voice, and cried to his master,

“Sea-born am J, bought with much gold;
Dear Prince ! trust me now as of old.
Tll carry you far from these wiles—
My flight,.all unspurr’d, will be swift as a bird,
For thousands and thousands of miles!
Or if needs you must stay ; ere the next game you play,
Place hand in your pccket, I pray!”

Hearing this, Raja Sarkap frowned, and bade his slaves
remove Bhaunr, the Arab steed, since he gave his master
advice in the game. Now, when the slaves came to lead










R cyaRasaluyl ayieliciubut

with Raja-Sarkap.


:

Raja Rasalu 147

the faithful steed away, Rasalu could not refrain from
tears, thinking over the long years during which Bhaunr,
the Arab steed, had been his companion. But the horse
cried out again,

“Weep not, dear Prince! I shall not eat my bread
Of stranger hands, nor to strange stall be led.
Take thy right hand, and place it as I said.”

These words roused some recollection in Rasalu’s mind,
and when, just at this moment, the kitten in his pocket
began to struggle, he remembered all about the warning,
and the dice made from dead men’s bones. Then his heart
rosé up once more, and he called boldly to Raja Sarkap,
‘‘Leave my horse and arms here for the present. Time
enough to take them away when you have won my head!”

Now, Raja Sarkap, seeing Rasalu’s confident bearing,
began to be afraid, and ordered all the women of his palace
to come forth in their gayest attire and stand before Rasalu,
so as to distract his attention from the game. But he never
even looked at them, and drawing the dice from his pocket,
said to Sarkap, ‘‘We have played with your dice all this
time ; now we will play with mine.”

Then the kitten went and sat at the window through
which the rat Dhol Raja used to come, and the game began.

After a while, Sarkap, seeing Raja Rasalu was winning,
called to his rat, but when Dhol Raja saw the kitten he was
afraid, and would not go further. So Rasalu won, and
took back his arms. Next he played for his horse, and
once more Raja Sarkap called for his rat ; but Dhol Raja,
seeing the kitten keeping watch, was afraid. So Rasalu
won the second stake, and took back Bhaunr, the Arab steed.
148 ~ Indian Fairy Tales

Then Sarkap brought all his skill to bear on the third
and last game, saying

‘Oh moulded pieces! favour me to-day !
For sooth this is a man with whom I play.
No paltry risk—but life and death at stake ;

As Sarkap does, so do, for Sarkap’s sake!”

But Rasalu answered back,

“ Oh moulded pieces! favour me to-day !
For sooth it is a man with whom I play.
No paltry risk—but life and death at stake ;
As Heaven does, so do, for Heaven’s sake!”

So they began to play, whilst the women stood round

in a circle, and the kitten watched Dhol Raja from the
window. Then Sarkap lost, first his kingdom, then the
wealth of the whole world, and lastly his head.
Just then, a servant came in to announce the birth of a
daughter to Raja Sarkap, and he, overcome by misfortunes,
said, “ Kill her at once! for she has been born in an evil
moment, and has brought her father ill luck !”

But Rasalu rose up in his shining armour, tender-
hearted and strong, saying, ‘‘Not so, oh king! She has
done no evil. Give me this child to wife ; and if you will
vow, by all you hold sacred, never again to play chaupur
for another’s head, I will spare yours now!”

Then Sarkap vowed a solemn vow never to play for
another’s head ; and after that he took a fresh mango
branch, and the new-born babe, and placing them on a
golden dish gave them to Rasalu.

Now, as he left the palace, carrying with him the new-
Raja Rasalu 149

born babe and the mango branch, he met a band of
prisoners, and they called out to him,

‘A royal hawk art thou, oh King! the rest
But timid wild-fowl. Grant us our request,—
Unloose these chains, and live for ever blest !”

And Raja Rasalu hearkened to them, and bade King
Sarkap set them at liberty.

Then he went to the Murti Hills, and placed the new-born
babe, Kokilan, in an underground palace, and planted the
mango branch at the door, saying, ‘(In twelve years the
mango tree will blossom; then will I return and marry
Kokilan.”

And after twelve years, the mango tree began to flower,
and Raja Rasalu married the Princess Kokilan, whom he
won from Sarkap when he played chaupur with the King.










The Ass in the Lion’s Skin

T the same time, when Brahma-datta was
reigning in Benares, the future Buddha
was born one of a peasant family ; and
when he grew up, he gained his living by
tilling the ground.



At that time a hawker used to go from
place to place, trafficking in goods carried by an ass. Now
at each place he came to, when he took the pack down from
the ass’s back, he used to clothe him in a lion’s skin, and
turn ‘him loose in the rice and barley fields. And when the
watchmen in the fields saw the ass, they dared not go near
him, taking him for a lion.






The Ass in the Lion’s Skin 151

So one day the hawker stopped in a village; and whilst
he was getting his own breakfast cooked, he dressed the ass
in a lion’s skin, and turned him loose in a barley-field.
The watchmen in the field dared not go up to him; but
going home, they published the news. Then all the vil-
lagers came out with weapons in their hands ; and blowing
chanks, and beating drums, they went near the field and
shouted. Terrified with the fear of death, the ass uttered
a cry—the bray of an ass!

And when he knew him then to be an ass, the future
Buddha pronounced the First Verse:

‘(This is not a lion’s roaring,
Nor a tiger’s, nor a panther’s ;
Dressed in a lion’s skin,
’Tis a wretched ass that roars !”

But when the villagers knew the creature to be an ass,
they beat him till his bones broke; and, carrying off the
lion’s skin, went away. Then the hawker came ; and see-
ing the ass fallen into so bad a plight, pronounced the
second Verse :

4 “Long might the ass,
Clad in a lion’s skin,
Have fed on the barley green.
But he brayed !
And that moment he came to ruin.”

And even whilst he was yet speaking the ass died on the
spot !
The Farmer and the Money-

lender

HERE was once a farmer who suffered
much at the hands of a money-lender.
Good harvests, or bad, the farmer was.
always poor, the money-lender rich. At
the last, when he hadn’t a farthing left,



farmer went to the money-lender’s house,
and said, ‘‘ You can’t squeeze water from a stone, and as,
you have nothing to get by me now, you might tell me the
secret of becoming rich.”

“My friend,” returned the money-lender, piously, “ riches:
come from Ram—ask him.”

“Thank you, I will!” replied the simple farmer ; so
he prepared three girdle-cakes to last him on the journey,
and set out to find Ram.

First he met a Brahman, and to him he gave a cake,
asking him to point out the road to Ram; but the Brahman
only took the cake and went on his way without a word.
Next the farmer met a Jogi or devotee, and to him he gave
a cake, without receiving any help in return. At last, he
Farmer and the Money-lender 153

came upon a poor man sitting under a tree, and finding out
he was hungry, the kindly farmer gave him his last cake,
and sitting down to rest beside him, entered into conver-
sation.

“And where are you going?” asked the poor man, at
length.

“Oh, I have a long journey before me, for I am going to
find Ram!” replied the farmer. ‘I don’t suppose you
could tell me which way to go?”

“Perhaps I can,”

said the poor man, smiling, “for J am
Ram! What do you want of me?”

Then the farmer told the whole story, and Ram, taking
pity on him, gave him a conch shell, and showed him how
to blow it in a particular way, saying, ‘“‘ Remember! what-
ever you wish for, you have only to blow the conch that
way, and your wish will be fulfilled. Only have a care of
that money-lender, for even magic is not proof against their
wiles !”

The farmer went back to his village rejoicing. In fact
the money-lender noticed his high spirits at once, and: said
to himself, “Some good fortune must have befallen the
stupid fellow, to make him hold his head so jauntily.’
Therefore he went over to the simple farmer’s ‘house, and
congratulated him on his good fortune, in such cunning
words, pretending to have heard all about it, that before
long the farmer found himself telling the whole story—all
except the secret of blowing the conch, for, with all his



simplicity, the farmer was not quite such a fool as to tell
that.

Nevertheless, the money-lender determined to have the
conch by hook or by crook, and as he was villain enough
154 Indian Fairy Tales

not to stick at trifles, he waited for a favourable oppor-
tunity and stole the conch.

But, after nearly bursting himself with blowing the conch
in every conceivable way, he was obliged to give up the
secret as abad job. However,
being determined to succeed —
he went back to the farmer,
and said, coolly, ‘‘ Look here ;
’ I’ve got your conch, but I can’t
use it; you haven’t got it, so
it’s clear you can’t use it
either. Business is at a stand-
still unless we make a bargain.
Now, I promise to give you
back your conch, and never to
interfere with your using it, on
one condition, which is this,
—whatever you get from it,
I am to get double.” :

“Never!” cried the far-
mer; “that would be the old
business all over again!” _

“Not at all!” replied the
wily money-lender ; “ you will



have your share! Now, don’t
be a dog in the manger, for
if you get all you want, what can it matter to you if J am
rich or poor ?”

At last, though it went sorely against the grain to be of
any benefit to a money-lender, the farmer was forced to
yield, and from that time, no matter what he gained by the
Farmer and the Money-lender 155

power of the conch, the money-lender gained double. And
the knowledge that this was so preyed upon the farmer's
mind day and night, so that he had no satisfaction out of
anything.
At last, there came a very dry season,—so dry that the
farmer's crops withered for want of rain. Then he blew
his conch, and wished for a well to water them, and lo! there
was the well, but the money-lender had two !—two beautiful
new wells! This was too much for any farmer to stand;
and our friend brooded over it, and brooded over it, till at
last a bright idea came into his head. He seized the conch,
blew it loudly, and cried out, “Oh, Ram! I wish to be
' blind of one eye!” And so he was, in a twinkling, but
the money-lender of course was blind of both, and in trying
to steer his way between the two new wells, he fell into
one, and was drowned.
Now this true story shows that a farmer once got the
better of a money-lender—but only by losing one of his
“eyes,
‘The Boy who had a Moon on
his Forehead and a Star
on. his Chin

x; a country were seven daughters of poor
| parents, who used to come daily to play
under the shady trees in the King’s garden
with the gardener’s daughter ; and daily
she used to say to them, ‘' When I am



married I shall have a son. Such a
beautiful boy as he will be has never been seen. He will
have a moon on his forehead and a star on his chin.” Then
her playfellows used to laugh at her and mock her.

But one day the King heard her telling them about the
beautiful boy she would have when she was married, and he
said to himself he should like very much to have sucha son ;.
the more so that though he had already four Queens he had
no child. He went, therefore, to the gardener and told him.
he wished to marry his daughter. This delighted the gardener:
and his wife, who thought it would indeed be grand for their
daughter to become a princess. So they said “ Yes” to the
King, and invited all their friends to the wedding. The
Boy with Moon on Forehead 157

King invited all his, and he gave the gardener as much
money as he wanted. Then the wedding was held with
great feasting and rejoicing.

A year later the day drew near on which the gardener’s
daughter was to have her son ; and the King’s four other
Queens came constantly to see her. One day they said to her,
“The King hunts every day ; and the time is soon coming
when you will have your child. Suppose you fell ill whilst
he was out hunting and could therefore know nothing of
your illness, what would you do then ?”

When the. King came home that evening, the gardener’s
daughter said to him, “Every day you go out hunting.
Should I ever be in trouble or sick while you are away, how
could I send for you?” The King gave hey a kettle-drum
which he placed near the door for her, and he said to her,
‘« Whenever you want me, beat this kettle-drum. No matter
how far away I may be, I shall hear it, and will come at once
to you.”

Next morning when the King had gone out to hunt, his
four other Queens came to‘see the gardener’s daughter. She
told them all about her kettle-drum. ‘‘ Oh,” they said, “do
drum on it just to see if the King really will come to you.”

“No, I will not,” she said ; “for why should I call him
from his hunting when I do not want him ?”

“Don’t mind interrupting his hunting,” they answered.
“(To try if he really will come to you’ when you beat your
kettle-drum.” So at last, just to please them, she beat it,
and the King stood before her.

‘““ Why have you called me?” he said. “ See, I have left
my hunting to come to you.”

““T want nothing,” she answered; ‘‘I only wished to
158 Indian Fairy Tales

“know if you really would come to me when I beat my
drum.”

“Very well,” answered the King ; “but do not call me
again unless you really need me.” Then he returned to his
hunting.

The next day, when the King had gone out hunting as
usual, the four Queens again came to see the gardener’s daugh-
ter. They begged and begged her to beat her drum once
more, “just to see if the King will really come to see you
this time.” At first she refused, but at last she consented.
So she beat her drum, and the King came to her. But when
he found she was neither ill nor in trouble, he was angry,
and said to her, “ Twice I have left my hunting and lost
my game to come to you when you did not need me. Now
you may call me as much as you like, but I will not come
to you,” and then he went away in a rage.

The third day the gardener’s daughter fell ill, and she beat
and beat her kettle-drum ; but the King never came. He
heard her kettle-drum, but he thought, “She does not really
want me; she is only trying to see if I will go to her.”

Meanwhile the four other Queens came to her, and they
said, “ Here it is the custom before a child is born to bind
its mother’s eyes with a handkercheif that she may not see
it just at first. So let us bind your eyes.” She answered,
“Very well, bind my eyes.” The four wives then tied a
handkerchief over them.

Soon after, the gardener’s daughter had a beautiful little
son, witha moon on his forehead and a star on his chin,
and before the poor mother had seen him, the four wicked
Queens took the boy to the nurse and said to her, ‘ Now you
must not let this child make the least sound for fear his
Boy with Moon on Forehead 159

mother should hear him; and in the night you must either
kill him, or else take him away, so that his: mother may
never see him. If you obey our orders, we will give you a
great many rupees.” All this they did out of spite. The
nurse took the little child and put him into a box, and the
four Queens went back to the gardener’s daughter.

First they put a stone into her boy's little bed, and then
they took the handkerchief off her eyes and showed it her,
saying, “‘Look! this is your son!” The poor girl cried
bitterly, and thought, “ What will the King say when he
finds no child?” But she could do nothing.

When the King came home, he was furious at hearing his
youngest wife, the gardener’s daughter, had given him a
stone instead of the beautiful little son she had promised
him. He made her one of the palace servants, and never
spoke to her.

In the middle of the night the nurse took the box in
which was the beautiful little prince, and went out to a broad
plain in the jungle. There she dug a hole, made the fasten-
ings of the box sure, and put the box into the hole, although
the child in it was still alive. The King’s dog, whose name
was Shankar, had followed her to see what she did with the
box. As soon as she had gone back to the four Queens (who.
gave her a great many rupees), the dog went to the hole in
which she had put the box, took the box out, and opened it.
When he saw the beautiful little boy, he was very much de-
lighted and said, ‘If it pleases Khuda that this child should
live, I will not hurt him; I will not eat him, but I will swal-
low him whole and hide him in my stomach.” This he did.

After six months had passed, the dog went by night to the
jungle, and thought, “ I wonder whether the boy is alive or


160 Indian Fairy Tales

dead.” Then he brought the child out of his stomach and
rejoiced over his beauty. The boy was now six months old.
When Shankar had caressed and loved him, he swallowed
him again for another six months. At the end of that time
he went once more by night to the broad jungle-plain. There
he brought up the child out of his stomach (the child was —
now a year old), and caressed and petted him a great deal,
and was made very happy by his great beauty.

But this time the dog’s keeper had followed and watched
the dog ; and he saw all that Shankar did, and the beautiful
little child, so he ran to the four Queens and said to them,
“Inside the King’s dog there is a child! the loveliest child!
He has a moon on his forehead and a star on his chin.
Such a child has never been seen!” At this the four wives
were very much frightened, and as soon as the King came
home from hunting they said to him, ‘“ While you were
away your dog came to our rooms, and tore our clothes
and knocked about all our things. We are afraid he will
kill us.” ‘Do not be afraid,” said the King. Eat your
dinner and be happy. I will have the dog shot to-morrow
morning.”

Then he ordered his servants to shoot the dog at dawn,
but the dog heard him, and said to himself, ‘‘ What shall I
do? The King intends to kill me. I don’t care about that,
but what will become of the child if I am killed? He will
die. But I will see if I cannot save him,”

So when it was night, the dog ran to the King’s cow, who
was called Suri, and said to her, ‘‘ Suri, I want to give you
something, for the King has ordered me to be shot to-morrow.
‘Will you take great care of whatever I give you ?”

“Let me see what it is,” said Suri, “I will take care of it if
Boy with Moon on Forehead 161

Ican.” Then they both went together to the wide plain, and
there the dog brought up the boy. Suri was enchanted with
him. ‘I never saw such a beautiful child in this country,”
she said. “ See, he has a moon on his forehead and a star on
his chin. I will take the greatest care of him.” So saying
she swallowed the little prince. The dog made her a great
many salaams, and said, “To-morrow I shall die ;” and the
cow then went back to her stable.

Next morning at dawn the dog was taken to the jungle
and shot.

The child now lived in Suri’s stomach; and when one
whole year had passed, and he was two years old, the cow
went out to the plain, and said to herself, “I do not know
whether the child is alive or dead. But I have never hurt
it, so I will see.” Then she brought up the boy; and he
played about, and Suri was delighted ; she loved him and
caressed him, and talked to him. Then she swallowed him,
and returned to her stable.

At the end of another year she went again to the plain
and brought up the child. He played and ran about for an
hour to her great delight, and she talked to him and caressed
him. His great beauty made her very happy. Then she
swallowed him once more and returned to her stable. The
child was now three years old.

But this time the cowherd had followed Suri, and had seen
the wonderful child and all she did to it. So he ran and
told the four Queens, ‘‘ The King’s cow has a beautiful boy
inside her. He has a moon on his forehead and a star on
his chin. Such a child has never been seen before !”

At this the Queens were terrified. They tore their clothes
and their hair and cried. When the King came home at

Ie
162 Indian Fairy Tales

evening, he asked them why they were so agitated. ‘ Oh,”
they said, “ your cow came and tried to kill us; but we ran

‘away. Shetore our hair and our clothes.” “ Never mind,”

said the King. ‘‘ Eat your dinner and be happy. The cow
shall be killed to-morrow morning.”

Now Suri heard the King give this order to the servants,
so she said to herself, ““ What shall I do to save the child ?”
When it was midnight, she went to the King’s horse called
Katar, who was very wicked, and quite untameable.. No one
had ever been able to ride him; indeed no one could go
near him with safety, he was so savage. Suri said to this
horse, ‘ Katar, will you take 'care of something that I want
to give you, because the King has ordered me to be killed
to-morrow ?”

“ Good,” said Katar ; “ show me what it is.” Then Suri
brought up the child, and the horse was delighted with him.
“Yes,” he said, ‘‘I will take the greatest care of him. Till
now no one has been able to ride me, but this child shall
ride me.” Then he swallowed the boy, and when he had
done so, the cow made him many salaams, saying, “It is
for this boy’s sake that I am to die.” The next morning she
‘was taken to the jungle and there killed.

The beautiful boy now lived in the horse’s stomach, and
he stayed in it for one whole year. At the end of that
time the horse thought, “I will see if this child is alive or
dead.” So he brought him up; and then he loved him,
and petted him, and the little prince played all about the
stable, out of which the horse was never allowed to go.
Katar was very glad to see the child, who was now four years
old. After he had played for some time, the horse swallowed
him again. At the end of another year, when the boy was
Boy with Moon on Forehead 163

five years old, Katar brought him up again, caressed him,
loved him, and let him play about the stable as he had done
a year before. Then the horse swallowed him again.

But this time the groom had seen all that happened, and

when it was morning, and the King had gone away to his

hunting, he went to the four wicked Queens, and told them all
“he had seen, and all about the wonderful, beautiful child that
lived inside the King’s horse Katar. On hearing the groom’s
story the four Queens cried,and tore their hair and clothes, and
refused to eat. When the King returned at evening and
asked them why they were so miserable, they said, “ Your
horse Katar came and tore our clothes, and upset all our
things, and we ran away for fear he should kill us.”

“Never mind,” said the King. ‘ Only eat your dinner
and be happy. I will have Katar shot to-morrow.” Then
he thought that two men unaided could not kill-such a wicked
horse, so he ordered his servants to bid his troop of sepoys
shoot him.

So the next day the King placed his sepoys all round the
stable, and he took up his stand with them; and he said he.
would himself shoot any one who let his horse escape.

Meanwhile the horse had overheard all these orders. So
he brought up the child and said to him, “ Go into that little
room that leads out of the stable, and you will find in it a
saddle and bridle which you must put on me. Then you
will find in the room some beautiful clothes such as princes
wear ; these you must put on yourself; and you must take
the sword and gun you will find there too. Then you must
mount on my back.” Now Katar was a fairy-horse, and
came from the fairies’ country, so he could get anything he
wanted ; but neither the King nor any of his people knew this.
164 Indian Fairy Tales

When all was ready, Katar burst out of his stable, with the
prince on his back, rushed past the King himself before the
King had time to shoot him, galloped away to the great
jungle-plain, and galloped about all over it. The King saw
his horse had a boy on his back, though he could not see
the boy distinctly. The sepoys tried in vain to shoot the
horse ; he galloped much too fast ; and at last they were all





~\ Ne

AM




scattered over the plain. Then the King had to give it up
and go home; and the sepoys went to their homes. The
King could not shoot any of his sepoys for letting his horse
escape, for he himself had let him do so.

‘Then Katar galloped away, on, and on, and on ; and when
night came they stayed under a tree, he and the King’s son.
The horse ate grass, and the boy wild fruits which he found
Boy with Moon on Forehead 165

in the jungle. Next morning they started afresh, and went
far, and far, till they came to a jungle in another country,
which did not belong to the little prince’s father, but to another
king. Here Katar said to the boy, ‘‘ Now get off my back.”
Off jumped the prince. ‘‘ Unsaddle me and take off my
bridle ; take off your beautiful clothes and tie them all up
in a bundle with your sword and gun.” This the boy did.
Then the horse gave him some poor, common clothes, which
he told him to put on. As soon as he was dressed in them
the horse said, ‘“‘ Hide your bundle in this grass, and IJ will
take care of it for you. I will always stay in this jungle-plain,
so that when you want me you will always find me. You
must now go-away and find service with some one in this
country.”

This made the boy very sad. I know nothing about
anything,” he said. ‘ What shall I do all alone in this
country.”

‘Do not be afraid,” answered Katar. “ You will find
service, and I will always stay here to help you when you
want me. So go, only before you go, twist my right ear.”
The boy did so, and his horse instantly became a donkey.
“ Now twist your right ear,” said Katar. And when the boy
had twisted it, he was no longer a handsome prince, but a
poor, common-looking, ugly man; and his moon and star
were hidden.

Then he went away further into the country, until he came
to a grain merchant of the country, who asked him who he

’

was. “Iam a poor man,” answered the boy, ‘and I want
service.” . ‘‘ Good,” said the grain merchant, ‘‘ you shall be
my servant.”

Now the grain merchant lived near the King’s palace, and
166 Indian Fairy Tales

one night at twelve o’clock the boy was very hot; so he
went out into the King’s cool garden, and began to sing a
lovely song. The seventh and youngest daughter of the
King heard him, and she wondered who it was who could
sing so deliciously. Then she put on her clothes, rolled up
her hair, and came down to where the seemingly poor com-
mon man was lying singing. ‘‘ Who are you? where do you
come from?” she asked,

But he answered nothing.

‘Who is this man who does not answer when I speak
to him?” thought the little princess, and she went away.
On the second night the same thing happened, and on the
third night too. But on the third night, when she found she
could not make him answer her, she said to him, “ What a
strange man you are not to answer me when I speak to you.”
But still he remained silent, so ghe went away.

_ The next day, when he had finished his work, the young
prince went to the jungle to see his horse, who asked him,
“Are you quite well and happy?” “Yes, I am,” answered
the boy. ‘Iam servant toa grain merchant. The last three
nights I have gone into the King’s garden and sung a song,
and each night the youngest princess has come to me and
asked me who I am, and whence I came, and I have answered
nothing. What shall I do now?” The horse said, “ Next
' time she asks you who you are, tell her you are a very poor
man, and came from your own country to find service here.”

The boy then went home to the grain merchant, and at
night, when every one had gone to bed, he went to the King’s
garden and sang his sweet song again. The youngest
princess heard him, got up, dressed, and came to him,
“Who are you? Whence do you come?” she asked.






THE BOY WITH THE MOON ON HIS FOREHEAD
Boy with Moon on Forehead 167

“T am a very poor man,” he answered. ‘I came from
my own country to seek service here, and | am now one of
the grain merchant’s servants.” Then she went away. For
three more nights the boy sang in the King’s garden, and
each night the princess came aud asked him the same ques-
tions as before, and the boy gave her the same answers.

Then she went to her father, and said to him, “ Father,
I wish to be married ; but I must choose my husband my-
self.” Her father consented to this, and he wrote and in-
vited all the Kings and Rajas in the land, saying, ‘‘ My
youngest daughter wishes to be married, but she insists on
choosing her husband herself. As I do not know who it is
she wishes to marry, | beg you will all come on a certain
day, for her to see you and make her choice.

A great many Kings, Rajas, and their sons accepted this
invitation and came. When they had all arrived, the little
princess’s father said to them, ‘To-morrow morning you
must all sit together in my garden” (the King’s garden was
very large), ‘for then my youngest daughter will come and
see you all, and choose her husband. I do not know whom
she will choose.

The youngest princess ordered a grand elephant to be
ready for her the next morning, and when the morning
came, and all was ready, she dressed herself in the most
lovely clothes, and put on her beautiful jewels; then she
mounted her elephant, which was painted blue. In her
hand she took a gold necklace.

Then she went into the garden where the Kings, Rajas,
and their sons were seated. The boy, the grain merchant’s
‘servant, was also in the garden : not as a suitor, but looking
on with the other servants.


168 Indian Fairy Tales

The princess rode all round the garden, and looked at
all the Kings and Rajas and princes, and then she hung
the gold necklace round the neck of the boy, the grain mer-
chant’s servant. At this everybody laughed, and the Kings
were greatly astonished. But then they and the Rajas said,
“What fooling is this?” and they pushed the pretended
poor man away, and took the necklace off his neck, and said
to him, “Get out of the way, you poor, dirty man. .Your
clothes are far too dirty for you to come near us!” The boy
went far away from them, and stood a long way off to see
what would happen,

Then the King’s youngest daughter went all round the gar-
den again, holding her gold necklace in her hand, and once
more she hung it round the boy’s neck, Every one laughed
at her and said, ‘How can the King’s daughter think of
marrying this poor, common man!” and the Kings and the
Rajas, who had come as suitors, all wanted to turn him out
of the garden. But the princess said, ‘Take care! take
care! You must not turn him out. Leave him alone.”
Then she put him on her elephant, and took him to the palace.

The Kings and Rajas and their sons were very much
astonished, and said, “ What does this mean? The princess

. does not care to marry one of us, but chooses that very poor

man!” Her father then stood up, and said to them all,
‘I promised my daughter she should marry any one she
pleased, and as she has twice chosen that poor, common
man, she shall marry him.” And so the princess and the
boy were married with great pomp and splendour : her father
and mother were quite content with her choice ; and the
Kings, the Rajas and their sons, all returned to their homes.

Now the princess’s six sisters had all married rich princes,
Boy with Moon on Forehead 169

and they laughed at her for choosing such a poor ugly hus-
band as hers seemed to be, and said to each other, mock-
ingly, “See! our sister has married this poor, common man !”
Their six husbands used to go out hunting every day, and
every evening. they brought home quantities of all kinds of
game to their wives, and the game was cooked for their
dinner and for the King’s ; but the husband of the youngest
princess always stayed at home in the palace, and never
went out hunting at all. This made her very sad, and she
said to herself, “‘ My sisters’ husbands hunt every day, but
my husband never hunts at all.”

At last she said to him, ‘“ Why do you never go out hunt-
ing as my sisters’ htisbands do every day, and every day they
bring home quantities of all kinds of game? Why do you
always stay at home, instead of doing as they do?”

One day he said to her, “I am going out to-day to eat
the air.”

“Very good,” she answered ; ‘go, and take one of the
horses.”

“No,” said the young prince, “I will not ride, I will
walk.” Then he went to the jungle-plain where he had
left Katar, who all this time had seemed to be a donkey,
and he told Katar everything. “Listen,” he said; “I have
married the youngest princess ; and when we were married
everybody laughed at her for choosing me, and said, ‘What
a very poor, common man our princess has chosen for her
husband!’ Besides, my wife is very sad, for her six sisters’
husbands all hunt every day, and bring home quantities of
game, and their wives therefore are very proud of them.
But I stay at home all day, and never hunt. To-day I
should like to hunt very much.”
170 Indian Fairy Tales

“Well,” said Katar, ‘‘ then twist my left ear ;” and as soon
as the boy had twisted it, Katar was a horse again, and not
a donkey any longer. ‘‘ Now,” said Katar, ‘twist your left
ear, and you will see what a beautiful young prince you will
become.” So the boy twisted his own left ear, and there he
stood no longer a poor, common, ugly man, but a grand young
prince with a moon on his forehead and a star on his chin,
Then he put on his splendid clothes, saddled and bridled
Katar, got on his back with his sword and gun, and rode off
to hunt.

He rode very far, and shot a great many birds and a
quantity of deer. That day his six brothers-in-law could
find no game, for the beautiful young prince had shot it all.
Nearly all the day long these six princes wandered about
looking in vain for game; till at last they grew hungry and
thirsty, and could find no water, and they had no food with
them. Meanwhile the beautiful young prince had sat down
under a tree, to dine and rest, and there his six brothers-in-
law found him. By his side was some delicious water, and
also some roast meat.

When they saw him the six princes said to each other,
‘‘Look at that handsome prince. He has a moon on his
forehead and a star on his chin. We have never seen such
a prince in this jungle before; he must come from another
country.” Then they came up to him, and made him many
salaams, and begged him to give them some food and water.
“Who are you?” said the young prince. “We are the
husbands of the six elder daughters of the King of this
country,” they answered ; ‘and we have hunted all day, and
are very hungry and thirsty.” They did not recognise their
brother-in-law in the least.


Boy with Moon on Forehead 171

“Well,” said the young prince, “I will give you some-
thing to eat and drink if you will do as I bid you.” “We
will do all you tell us to do,” they answered, “ for if we do
not get water to drink, we shall die.” “‘ Very good,” said
the young prince. “ Now you must let me put a red-hot
pice on the back of éach of you, and then I will give you
food and water. Do you agree to this?” The six princes
consented, for they thought, ‘‘No one will ever see the
mark of the pice, as it will be covered by our clothes ; and
we shall die if we have no water to drink.” Then the young
prince took six pice, and made them red-hot in the fire; he
laid one on the back of each of the six princes, and gave them
good food and water. They ate and drank ; and when they
had finished they made him many salaams and went home.

The young prince stayed under the tree till it was evening ;
then he mounted his horse and rode off to the King’s
palace. All the people looked at him as he came riding
along, saying, “ What a splendid young prince that is! He
has a moon on his forehead and a star on his chin.” But no
one recognised him. When he came near the King’s palace,
all the King’s servants asked him who he was ; and as none
of them knew him, the gate-keepers would not let him pass
in, They all wondered. who he could be, and all thought
him the most beautiful prince that had ever been seen.

At last they asked him who he was. “I am the husband
of your youngest princess,” he answered.

“No, no, indeed you are not, Le ey said; ‘for he is a
poor, common-looking, and ugly man.’

But I am he,” answered the prince ; only no one sone
believe him.

“Tell us the truth,” said the servants ; ‘‘ who are you? a






ge Indian Fairy Tales

“ Perhaps you cannot recognise me,” said the young prince,
‘“but call the youngest princess here. I wish to speak to
her.” The servants called her, and she came. ‘‘ That man
is not my husband,” she said at once. “ My husband is not
nearly as handsome as that man. This must be a prince
from another country.”

Then she said to him, “ Who are you ? Why do you say
you are my husband ? ” ;

“Because I am your husband, I am telling you the
truth,”

“No you are not, you are not telling me the truth,” said

answered the young prince.

the little princess. ‘My husband is not a handsome man
like you. I married a very poor, common-looking man.”

“That is true,” he answered, “but nevertheless I am
your husband. I was the grain merchant’s servant ; and
one hot night I-went into your father’s garden and sang, and
you heard me, and came and asked me who I was and
where I came from, and I would not answer you. And
the same thing happened the next night, and the next, and
on the fourth I told you I was a very poor man, and had
come from my country to seek service in yours, and that I
was the grain merchant’s servant. Then you told your
father you wished to marry, but must choose your own
husband ; and when all the Kings and Rajas were seated in
your father’s garden, you sat on an elephant and went round
and looked at them all; and then twice hung your gold
_ necklace round my neck, and chose me. See, here is your
nerklace, and here are the ring and the handkerchief you
gave me on our wedding day.”

Then she believed him, and was very glad that her hus-:
band was such a beautiful young prince. ‘What a strange
Boy with Moon on Forehead 173

man you are!” she said to him. ‘‘ Till now you have been
poor, and ugly, and common-looking. Now you are beauti-
ful and look like a prince; I never saw such a handsome
man as you are before ; and yet I know you must be my hus-
band.” Then she worshipped God and thanked him for
letting her have such a husband. ‘‘I have,” she said, ‘a
beautiful husband. There is no one like him in this country.
He has a moon on his forehead and a star on his chin.”
Then she took him into the palace, and showed him to her
father and mother and to everyone. They all said they had
never seen any one like him, and were all very happy. And
the young prince lived as before in the King’s palace wie his
wife, and Katar lived in the King’s stables.

One day, when the King and his seven sons-in-law were
in his court-house, and it was full of people, the young prince
said to him, ‘‘ There are six thieves here in your court-house.”
‘(Six thieves!” said the King. ‘‘ Where are they ? Show
them to me.” ‘There they are,” said the young prince,
pointing to his six brothers-in-law. The King and every
one else in the court-house were very much astonished, and
would not believe the young prince. ‘‘ Take off their coats,”
he said, ‘‘and then you will see for yourselves that each of
them has the mark of a thief on his back.” So their coats
were taken off the six princes, and the King and everybody
in the court-house saw the mark of the red-hot pice. The
six princes were very much ashamed, but the young prince
_ was very glad. He had not forgotten how his brothers-in-
law had laughed at him and mocked him when he seemed a
poor, common man.

Now, when Katar was still in the jungle, before the prince
was married, he had told the boy the whole story of his


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174 Indian Fairy Tales

birth, and all that had happened to him and his mother.
“When you are married,” he said to him, ‘I will take you
back to your father’s country.” So two months after the
young prince had revenged himself on his brothers-in-law,
Katar said to him, “ It is time for you to return to your father.
Get the King to let you go to your own country, and I will
tell you what to do when we get there.”

The prince always did what his horse told him to do; so
he went to his wife and said to her, “I wish very much to
go to my own country to see my father and mother.” “ Very
well,” said his wife ; ‘I will tell my father and mother, and
ask them to let us go.” Then she went to them, and told
them, and they consented to let her and her husband leave
them. The King gave his daughter and the young prince
a great many horses, and elephants, and all sorts of presents,
and also a great many sepoys to guard them. In this grand
state they travelled to the prince’s country, which was not a
great many miles off. When they reached it they pitched
their tents on the same plain in which the prince had been
left in his box by the nurse, where Shankar and Suri had
swallowed him so often. i

When the King, his father, the gardener’s daughter's hus-
band, saw the prince's camp, he was very much alarmed,
and thought a great King had come to make war on him.
He sent one of his servants, therefore, to ask whose camp.
it was. The young prince then wrote him a letter, in which
he said, ‘You are a great King. Do not fear me. Iam
not come to make war on vou. I am as if I were your son.
fam a prince who has come to see your country and to
speak with you. I wish to give you a grand feast, to which
every one in your country must come—men and women, old
Boy with Moon on Forehead 175

and young, rich and poor, of all castes; all the children,
fakirs, and sepoys. You must bring them all here to me
for a week, and I will feast them all.”

The King was delighted with this letter, and ordered all
the men, women, and children of all castes, fakirs, and sepoys,
in his country to go to the prince’s camp to a grand feast the
prince would give them. So they all came, and the King
brought his four wives too. All came, at least all but the
gardener’s daughter. No one had told her to go to the
feast, for no one had thought of her.

When all the people were assembled, the prince saw his
mother was not there, and he asked the King, ‘‘ Has every
one in your country come to my feast ?”

“Yes, every one,” said the King.

“ Are you sure of that ?” asked the prince.

‘Quite sure,” answered the King.

“J am sure one woman has not come,” said the prince.
“(She is your gardener’s daughter, who was once your wife
and is now a servant in your palace.”

“True,” said the King, “I had forgotten Here: Then
the prince told his servants to take his finest palanquin and
to fetch the gardeners daughter. They were to bathe her,
dress her in beautiful clothes and handsome jewels, and then
bring her to him in the palanquin.

While the servants were bringing the gardener’s daughter,
the King thought how handsome the young prince was ; and
he noticed particularly the moon on his forehead and the
star on his chin, and he wondered in what country the young
prince was born.

And now the palanquin arrived bringing the gardener’s
daughter, and the young prince went himself and took her

M






176 Indian Fairy Tales

out of it, and brought her into the tent. He made her a
great many salaams. The four wicked wives looked on and
were very much surprised and very angry. ‘They remem-
bered that, when they arrived, the prince had made them
no salaams, and since then had not taken the least notice of
them ; whereas he could not do enough for the gardener’s

daughter, and seemed very glad to see her.

When they were all at dinner, the prince again made the
gardener’s daughter a great many salaams, and gave her
food from all the nicest dishes. She wondered at his kind-
ness to her, and thought, ‘Who is this handsome prince,
with a moon on his forehead and a star on his chin? I
never saw any one so beautiful. What country does he come
from ?” ;

Two or three days were thus passed in feasting, and all
that time the King and his people were talking about the
prince's beauty, and wondering who he was.

One day the prince asked the King if he had any children.
“None,” he answered.

“Do you know who I am?” asked the prince.

“No,” said the King. “Tell me who you are.”

“Tam your son,” answered the prince, “ and the gardener’s
daughter is my mother.”

The King shook his head sadly. “How can you
be my son,” he said, ‘when I have never had any
children ?”

‘But I am your son,” answered the prince. “ Your four.
wicked Queens told you the gardener’s daughter had given
you a stone and not a son ; but it was they who put the stone
in my little bed, and then they tried to kill me.”

The King did not believe him. ‘I wish you were my
Boy with Moon on Forehead 177

son,’ he said; but as I never had a child, you cannot be my
son.” ‘Do you remember your dog Shankar, and how you
had him killed? And do you remember your cow Suri; and
how you had her killed too? Your wives made you kill
them because of me. And,” he said, taking the King to
Katar, ‘do you know whose horse that is ?”

The King looked at Katar, and then said, ‘ That is my
horse Katar.’ ‘Yes,” said the prince. “Do you not
remember how he rushed past you out of his stable with me
on his back?” Then Katar told the King the prince was
really his son, and told him all the story of his birth, and of
his life up to that moment; and when the King found the
beautiful prince was indeed his son, he was so glad, so glad.
He put his arms round him and kissed him and cried
for joy.

“Now,” said the King, “ you must come with me to my
palace, and live with me always.”

“No,” said the prince, “that I cannot do. I cannot go
to your palace. I only came here to fetch my mother; and ~
now that I have found her, I will take her with me to my
father-in-law’s palace. 1 have married a King’s daughter,
and we live with her father.”

“‘ But now that I have found you, I cannot let you go,” said
his father. You and your wife must come and live with
your mother and me in my palace ”

“That we will never do,” said the prince, ‘unless you
will kill your four wicked Queens with your own hand. If
you will do that, we will come and live with you.”

So the King killed his Queens, and then he and his wife,
the gardener’s daughter, and the prince and his wife, all
went to live in the King’s palace, and lived there happily
178 Indian Fairy Tales

together for ever after ; and the King thanked God for giving
him such a beautiful son, and for ridding him of his four
wicked wives.

Katar did not return to the fairies’ country, but stayed
always with the young prince, and never left him.
a EN TE eT



:
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x





The Prince and the Fakir

HERE was once upon a time a
King who had no children. Now
this King went and laid him
down to rest at a place where
four roads met, so that every
one who passed had to step
over him,

At last a Fakir came along,
and he said to the King, ‘‘ Man,
why are you lying here?”

He replied, “Fakir, a thousand men have come and
passed by ; you pass on too.”

But the Fakir said, “ Who are you, man ?”

The King replied, ‘‘I am a King, Fakir. Of goods and
gold I have no lack, but I have lived long and have no
children. So I have come here, and have laid me down at
the cross-roads. My sins and offences have been very
many, so I have come and am lying here that men may
pass over me, and perchance my sins may be forgiven me,
and God may be merciful, and I may have a son.”
180 Indian F airy Tales

The Fakir answered him, “ Oh King! If you have
children, what will you give me ?”

“Whatever you ask, Fakir,” answered the King.

The Fakir said,
“Of goods and gold
I have no lack,













but I will say a
prayer for you, and
you will have two
sons ; one of those
sons will be mine.”

Then he took out
two sweetmeats and
handed them to the
King, and said,
“King! take these



\. - and give them to
oe your wives; give
them to the wives
you love best.”

The King took the sweetmeats and put them in his
bosom.

Then the Fakir said, “King! in a year I will return,

and of the two sons who will be born to you one is mine
and one yours.”
The Prince and the Fakir 181

The King said, ‘‘ Well, I agree.”

Then the Fakir went on his way, and the King came
home and gave one sweetineat to each of his two wives.

After some time two sons were born to the King. Then
what did the King do but place those two sons
in an underground room, which he had built in the
earth.

Some time passed, and one day the Fakir appeared, and
said, ‘‘ King! bring me that son of yours!”

What-did the King do but bring two slave-girls’ sons
and present them to the Fakir. While the Fakir was
sitting there the King’s sons were sitting down below in
their cellar eating their food. Just then a hungry ant had
carried away a grain of rice from their food, and was going
along with it to her children. Another stronger ant came
up and attacked her in order to get this grain of rice. The
first ant said, ‘“O ant, why do you drag this away from
me? I have long been lame in my feet, and I have got just
one grain, and am carrying it to my children. The King’s
sons are sitting in the cellar eating their food; you go and
fetch a grain from there; why should you take mine from
me?” On this the second ant let go and did not rob
the first, but went off to where the King’s sons were eating
their food.

On hearing this the Fakir said, ‘‘ King! these are not
your sons ; go and bring those children who are eating
their food in the cellar.”

Then the King went and brought his own sons. The
Fakir chose the eldest son and took him away, and set off
with him on his journey, When he got home he told the
King’s son to go out to gather fuel.








182 Indian F airy Tales

So the King’s son went out to gather cow-dung, and
when he had collected some he brought it in.

Then the Fakir looked at the King’s son and put on a
great pot, and said, “‘ Come round here, my pupil.”

But the King’s son said, ‘‘ Master first, and pupil after.”

The Fakir told him to come once, he told him twice, he
told him three times, and each time the King’s son answered,
“ Master first, and pupil after.”

Then the Fakir made a dash at the King’s son, thinking
to catch him and throw him into the caldron, There
were about a hundred gallons of oil in this caldron, and ©
the fire was burning beneath it. Then the King’s son,
lifting the Fakir, gave him a jerk and threw him into oe
caldron, and he was burnt, and became roast meat. He
then saw a key of the Fakir’s lying there; he took this key
and opened the door of the Fakir’s house, Now many men
were locked up in this house; two horses were standing
there in a hut of the Fakir’s ; two greyhounds were tied up
there ; two simurgs were imprisoned, and two tigers also
stood there, So the King’s son let all the creatures go,
and took them out of the house, and they all returned
thanks to God. Next he let out all the men who were in
prison. He took away with him the two horses, and he
took away the two tigers, and he took away the two hounds,
and he, took away the two simurgs, and with them he set
out for another country.

As he went along the road he saw above him a bald
man, grazing a herd of calves, and this bald man called out
to him, ‘‘ Fellow! can you fight at all?” .

The King’s son replied, “ When I was little I could:
fight a bit, and now, if any one wants to fight, I am
The Prince and the Fakir 183

not so unmanly as to turn my back. Come, I will fight
you.”

The bald man said, “If I throw you, you shall be my
slave ; and if you throw me, I will be your slave.” So
they got ready and began to fight, and the King’s son
threw him.

On this the King’s son said, “I will leave my beasts
here, my simurgs, tigers, and dogs, and horses; they will
all stay here while I go to the city to see the sights. I
appoint the tiger as guard over my property. And you are
my slave, you, too, must stay here with my belongings.”
So the King’s son started off to the city to see the sights,
and arrived at a pool.

He saw that it was a pleasant pool, and thought he
would stop and bathe there, and therewith he began to
strip off his clothes.

Now the King’s daughter, who was sitting on the roof
of the palace, saw his royal marks, and she said, ‘ This
man is a king ; when I marry, 1 will marry him and no
other.” So she said to her father, ‘‘ My father; I wish to
marry.”

“ Good,” said her father.

Then the King made a proclamation: ‘“ Let all men, great
and small, attend to-day in the hall of audience, for the
King’s daughter will to-day take a husband.”

All the men of the land assembled, and the traveller
Prince also came, dressed in the Fakir’s clothes, saying to
himself, ‘(I must see this ceremony to-day.” He went in
and sat down.

The King’s daughter came out and sat in the balcony,
and cast her glance round all the assembly. She noticed
184 Indian Fairy Tales

that the traveller Prince was sitting in the assembly in
Fakir’s attire.

The Princess said to her handmaiden, ‘‘ Take this dish
of henna, go to that traveller dressed like a Fakir, and
sprinkle scent on him from the dish.” :

The handmaiden obeyed the Princess’s order, went to
him, and sprinkled the scent over him.

Then the people said, ‘‘ The slave-girl has. made a mis-
take.”

But she replied, ‘‘The slave-girl has made no mistake,
‘tis. her mistress has made the mistake.”

On this the King married his daughter to the Fakir, who
was really no Fakir, -but a Prince.

What fate had decreed came to pass in that country, and
they were married. But the King of that city became very
sad in his heart, because when so many chiefs and nobles
were sitting there his daughter had chosen none of them,
but had chosen that Fakir ; but he kept these thoughts con-
cealed in his heart.

One day the traveller Prince said, ‘‘Let all the King’s
sons-in-law come out with me to-day to hunt.”

People said, “What is this Fakir that he should go
a-hunting ?” ;

However, they all set out for the hunt, and fixed their
meeting-place at a certain pool.

The newly married Prince went to his tigers, and told his
tigers and hounds to kill and bring in a great number of

. gazelles and hog-deer and markhor. Instantly they killed

and brought in a great number. Then taking with him
these spoils of the chase, the Prince came to the pool settled
on as a meeting-place. The other Princes, sons-in-law of
The Prince and the Fakir 185

the King of that city, also assembled there ; but they had
brought in no game, and the new Prince had brought a
great deal. Thence they returned home to the town, and
went to the King their father-in-law, to present their game.

Now that King had no son. Then the new Prince told
him that in fact he, too, was a Prince. At this the King,
his father-in-law, was greatly delighted and took him by
the hand and embraced him. He seated him by himself,
saying, “O Prince, I return thanks that you have come
here and become my son-in-law ; I am very happy at this,
and I make over my kingdom to you.”


Why the Fish Laughed.

S a certain fisherwoman passed by a palace
crying her fish, the queen appeared at
one of the windows and beckoned her to
come near and show what she had. -At
that moment a very big fish jumped about



.in the bottom of the basket.

“Ts ita he or a she?” inquired the queen. “T wish
to purchase a she fish.”

On hearing this the fish laughed aloud.

“Tt's a he,” replied the fisherwoman, and proceeded
on her rounds.

The queen returned to her room in a great rage ; and on
coming to see her in the evening, the king noticed that
something had disturbed her.

“ Are you indisposed ? * he said.

“No; but I am very much annoyed at the strange
behaviour of a fish. A woman brought me one to-day,
and on my inquiring whether it was ‘a male or female, the
fish laughed most rudely.”


Why the Fish Laughed 187

“ A fish laugh! Impossible! You must be dreaming.”

“Tam not a fool. I speak of what I have seen with my
own eyes and have heard with my own ears.”

“ Passing strange! Be it so. I will inquire concern-
ing it.”

On the morrow the king repeated to his vizier what his
wife had told him, and bade him investigate the matter, and
be ready with a satisfactory answer within six months, on
pain of death. The vizier promised to do his best, though
he felt almost certain of failure. For five months he
laboured indefatigably to find a reason for the laughter of
the fish. He sought everywhere and from every one.
The wise and learned, and they who were skilled in magic
and in all manner of trickery, were consulted. Nobody,
however, could explain the matter; and so ‘he returned
broken-hearted to his house, and began to arrange his
affairs in prospect of certain death, for he had had sufficient
experience of the king to know that His Majesty would not
go back from his threat. Amongst other things, he advised
his son to travel for a time, until the king’s anger should
have somewhat cooled.

The young fellow, who was both clever and handsome,
started off whithersoever Kismat might lead him. He had
been gone some days, when he fell in with an old farmer,
who also was on a journey to a certain village. Finding
the old man very pleasant, he asked him if he might accom-
pany him, professing to be on a visit to the same place.
The old farmer agreed, and they walked along together.
The day was hot, and the way was long and weary.

“Don’t you think it would be pleasanter if you and I
sometimes gave one another a lift?” said the youth.




188 Indian Fairy Tales

“What a fool the man is!” thought the old farmer.

Presently they passed through a field of corn ready for
the sickle, and looking like a sea of gold as it waved to and
fro in the breeze.

“Is this eaten or not ?” said the young man.

Not understanding his meaning, the old man replied,
‘“‘T don’t know.”

After a little while the. two travellers arrived at a big
village, where the young man gave his companion a clasp-
knife, and said, ‘‘ Take this, friend, and get two horses with
it; but mind and bring it back, for it is very precious.”

The old man, looking half amused and half angry, pushed
back the knife, muttering something to the effect that his
friend was either a fool himself or else trying to play the
fool with him. The young man pretended not to notice his
reply, and remained almost silent till they reached the city,
a short distance outside which was the old farmer’s house.
They walked about the bazar and went to the mosque, but
nobody saluted them or invited them to come in and rest.

‘What a large cemetery!” exclaimed the young man.

“What does the man mean,” thought the old farmer;
‘calling this largely populated city a cemetery ?”

On leaving the city their way led through a cemetery
where a few people were praying beside a grave and dis-
tributing chapatis and kulchas to passers-by, in the name
of their beloved dead. They beckoned to the two travellers

‘and gave them as much as they would.

“What a splendid city this is!” said the young man.

‘‘Now, the man must surely be demented!” thought the
old farmer. “I wonder what he will do next? He will
be calling the land water, and the water land ; and be


Why the Fish Laughed _ 189

speaking of light where there is darkness, and of darkness
when it is light.” . However, he kept his thoughts to him-
self.

Presently they had to wade through a stream that ran
along the edge of the cemetery. The water was rather
deep, so the old farmer took off his shoes and paijamas and
crossed over; but the young man waded through it with
his shoes and paijamas on.

‘Well! I never did see such a perfect fool, both in word
and in deed,” said the old man to himself.

However, he liked the fellow; and thinking that he
would amuse his wife and daughter, he invited him to
come and stay at his house as long as he had occasion to
remain in the village.

“Thank you very much,” the young man replied; “ but
let me first inquire, if you please, whether the beam of your
house is strong.”

The old farmer left him in despair, and entered his house
laughing.

“There is a man in yonder field,” he said, after returning
their greetings. “He has come the greater part of the
way with me, and I wanted him to put up here as long as
he had to stay in this village. But the fellow is such a
fool that I cannot make anything out of him. He wants to
know if the beam of this house is all right. The man
must be mad!” and saying this, he burst into a fit of
laughter.

“Father,” said the farmer's daughter, who was a very
sharp and wise girl, ‘‘ this man, whosoever he is, is no fool,
as you deem him. He only wishes to know if you can
afford to entertain him.”








l

Igo Indian Fairy Tales

“Oh! of course,” replied the farmer. “I see. Well
perhaps you can help me to solve some of his other
mysteries. While we were walking together he asked
whether he should carry me or I should carry him, as he
thought that would be a pleasanter mode of proceeding.”

“‘ Most assuredly,” said the girl. ‘He meant that one of
you should tell a story to beguile the time.”

“Oh yes. Well, we were passing through a corn-field,
when he asked me whether it was eaten or not.”

“And didn’t you know the meaning of this, father ?
He simply wished to know if the man was in debt or not .
because, if the owner of the field was in debt, then the
produce of the field was as good as eaten to him ; that is,
it would have to go to his creditors.” 5

“Yes, yes, yes; of course! Then, on entering a certain
village, he bade me take his clasp knife and get two horses
with it, and bring back the knife again to him.”

“Are not two stout sticks as good as two horses for
helping one along on the road? He only asked you to
cut a couple of sticks and be careful not to lose his knife.”

““T see,” said the farmer. ‘While we were walking
over the city we did not see anybody that we knew, and
not a soul gave us a scrap of anything to eat, till we were
passing the cemetery ; but there some people called to us
and put into our hands some chapatis and kulchas ; so my
companion called the city a cemetery, and the cemetery a
city.”

“This also is to be understood, father, if one thinks of
the city as the place where everything is to be. obtained,
and of inhospitable people as worse than the dead. The
city, though crowded with people, was as if dead, as far as
Why the Fish Laughed 191

you were concerned; while, in the cemetery, which is
crowded with the dead, you were saluted by kind friends
and provided with bread.”

“True, true!” said the astonished farmer. ‘‘ Then, just
now, when we were crossing the stream, he waded through
it without taking off his shoes and paijamas.”

“Tl admire his wisdom,” replied the girl. ‘I have often
thought how stupid people were to venture into that swiftly
flowing stream and over those sharp stones with bare feet.
The slightest stumble and they would fall, and be
wetted from head to foot, This friend of yours is a
most wise man. I should like to see him and speak
to him.”

“Very well,” said the farmer ; ‘1 will go and find him,
and bring him in.”

“Tell him, father, that our beams are strong enough,
and then he will come in. TI’ll send on ahead a present
to the man, to show him that we can afford to have him for
our guest.”

Accordingly she called a servant and sent him to ithe
young man with a present of a basin of ghee, twelve
chapatis, and a jar of milk, and the following message :—
‘‘O friend, the moon is full; twelve months make a year,
and the sea is overflowing with water.”

Half-way the bearer of this present and message met
his little son, who, seeing what was in the basket, begged
his father to give him some of the food. His father
foolishly complied. Presently he saw the young man, and
gave him the rest of the present and the message.

“Give your mistress my salam,” he replied, “ and tell
her that the moon is new, and that I can only find

N
1g2 Indian Fairy Tales

eleven months in the year, and the sea is by no means
full.”

Not understanding the meaning of these words, the
servant repeated them word for word, as he had heard
them, to his mistress; and thus his theft was discovered,
and he was severely punished. After a little while the
young man appeared with the old farmer. Great attention
was shown to him, and he was treated in every way as if
he were the son of a great man, although his humble host
knew nothing of his origin. At length he told them every-
about the laughing of the fish, his father’s threatened



thing
execution, and his own banishment—and asked their advice
as to what he should do.

“The laughing of the fish,” said the girl, “which
seems to have been the cause of all this trouble, indicates
that there is a man in the palace whois plotting against the
king’s life.”

“Joy, joy !”’ exclaimed the vizier’s son. ‘‘ There is yet
time for me to return and save my father from an igno-
minious and unjust death, and the king from danger.”

The following day he hastened back to his own country,
taking with him the farmer’s daughter. Immediately on
arrival he ran to the palace and informed his father of
what he had heard. The poor vizier, now almost dead
from the expectation of death, was at once carried to the
king, to whom he repeated the news that his son had just
brought.

“ Never!” said the king.

“But it must be so, Your Majesty,” replied the vizier ;
“(and in order to prove the truth of what I have heard, I
pray you to call together all the maids in your palace, and
Why the Fish Laughed 193

order them to jump over a pit, which must be dug. We'll
soon find out whether there is any man there.”

The king had the pit dug, and commanded all the
maids belonging to the palace to try to jump it. All of

aE

—

<<

LZ
se
Z



N

them tried, but only one succeeded. That one was found
to be a man !!

Thus was the queen satisfied, and the faithful old vizier
saved.

Afterwards, as soon as could be, the vizier’s son married
the old farmer’s daughter; and a most happy marriage

it was.




|
i
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t
{

The Demon with the Matted
Hair

|\ALS story the Teacher told in Jetavana
about a Brother who had ceased striving



after righteousness. Said the Teacher to
him: “Is tt really true that you have
ceased all striving ?”—“ Yes, Blessed
One,” he replied. Then the Teacher
sad: “O Brother, in former days wise men made effort in
the place where effort should be made, and so attained unto
-royal power.” And he told a story of long ago.

Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was King of
Benares, the Bodhisatta was born as son of his chief queen.
On his name-day they asked 800 Brahmans, having satisfied
them with all their desires, about his lucky marks. The
Brahmans who had skill in divining from such marks be-
held the excellence of his, and made answer :

‘Full of goodness, great King, is your son, and when
you die he will become king; he shall be famous and re-
4



Demon with the Matted Hair 195

nowned for his skill with the five weapons, and shall be the
chief man in all India. On hearing what the Brahmans
had to say, they gave him the name of the Prince of the
Five Weapons, sword, spear, bow, battle-axe, and shield.

When he came to years of discretion, and had agtained
the measure of sixteen years, the King said to him:

“My son, go and complete your education.”

“Who shall be my teacher ?” the lad asked.

‘©Go, my son; in the kingdom of Candahar, in the city
of Takkasila, is a far-famed teacher from whom I wish you
to learn. Take-this, and give it him for a fee.” With that
he gave him a thousand pieces of money, and dismissed him.

The lad departed, and was educated by this teacher ; he
received the Five Weapons from him as a gift, bade him
farewell, and leaving Takkasila, he began his journey to
Benares, armed with the Five Weapons.

On his way he came to a forest inhabited by the Demon
with the Matted Hair. At the entering in of the forest
some men saw him, and cried out:

“ Hullo, young sir, keep clear of that wood! There’s a
Demon in it called he of the Matted Hair: he kills every
man he sees!” And they tried to stop him. But the
Bodhisatta, having confidence in himself, went straight on,
fearless as a maned lion.

When he reached mid-forest the Demon showed himself.
He made himself as tall as a palm tree; his head was
the size of a pagoda, his eyes as big as saucers, and he had
two tusks all over knobs and bulbs; he had the face of a
hawk, a variegated belly, and blue hands and feet.

“ Where are you going ?” he shouted. ‘Stop! You'll
make a meal for me!”




















i
i!
iI
i
|
i



196 Indian F airy Tales

Said the Bodhisatta : “Demon, I came here trusting in
myself. I advise you to be careful how you come near
me. Here’s a poisoned arrow, which I’ll shoot at you and
knock you down!” With this menace, he fitted to his.
bow an arrow dipped in deadly poison, and let fly. The
arrow stuck fast in the Demon’s hair. Then he shot and
shot, till he had shot away fifty arrows ; and they all stuck in
the Demon’s hair. The Demon snapped them all off short, and
threw them down at His feet ; then came up to the Bodhisatta,.
who drew his sword and cate: the Demon, threatening him
the while. His sword—it was three-and- -thirty inches.
long—stuck in the Demon’s hair! The Bodhisatta struck
him with his spear—that stuck too! He struck him with

his club—and that stuck too!

When the Bodhisatta saw that this had stuck fast, he
addressed the Demon. “ You, Demon!” said he, “ did
you never hear of me before—the Prince of the Five
Weapons ? When I came into the forest which you live in
I did not trust to my bow and other weapons. This day
will I pound you and grind you to powder!” Thus did he
declare his resolve, and with a shout he hit at the Demon
with-his right hand. It stuck fast in his hair! He hit
him with his left hand—that stuck too! With his right
foot he kicked him—that stuck too; then with his left—
and that stuck too! Then he butted at him with his head,
crying, “I'll pound you to powder!” and_ his head stuck
fast like the rest.

Thus the Bodhisatta was five times snared, caught fast
in five places, hanging suspended: yet he felt no fear—was
not even nervous.

Thought the Demon to himself: “ Here's a lion of aman!

‘


THE DEMON WITH THE MATTED HAIR
Demon with the Matted Hair 197

A noble man! More than man is he! Here he is, caught by
a Demon like me; yet he will not fear a bit. Since I have
ravaged this road, I never saw such a man. Now, why is
it that he does not fear? ” He was powerless to eat the
man, but asked him: “ Why is it, young sir, that you are
not frightened to death ?”

“Why. should I fear, Demon?” replied he. “In one
life a man can die but once. Besides, in my belly is a
thunderbolt ; if you eat me, you will never be able to digest
it; this will tear your inwards into little bits, and kill
you: so we shall both perish. That is why I fear no-
thing.” (By this, the Bodhisatta meant the weapon of
knowledge which he had within him.)

When he heard this, the Demon thought: ‘This young
man speaks the truth. A piece of the flesh of such a lion-
man as he would be too much for me to digest, if it were no
bigger than a kidney-bean. Pll let him go!” So, being
frightened to death, he let go the Bodhisatta, saying :

“Young sir, you are a lion of a man! I will not eat
you up. I set you free from my hands, as the moon is
disgorged from the jaws of Rahu after the eclipse. Go
back to the company of your friends and relations !”

And the Bodhisatta said: ‘‘ Demon, I will go, as you say.
You were born a Demon, cruel, blood-bibbing, devourer of
the flesh and gore of others, because you did wickedly in
former lives. If you still go on doing wickedly, you will
go from darkness to darkness. But now that you have
seen me you will find it impossible to do wickedly. Taking
the life of living creatures causes birth, as an animal, in the
world of Petas, or in the body of an Asura, or, if one is re-
born as a man, it makes his life short.” With this and the




1g 8 Indian Fairy Tales

like monition he told him the disadvantage of the five kinds
of wickedness, and the profit of the five kinds of virtue,
and frightened the Demon in various ways, discoursing to
him until he subdued him and made him _ self-denying,
and established him in the five kinds of virtue ; he made
him worship the deity to whom offerings were made in
that wood; and having carefully admonished him, departed
out of it.

At the entrance of the forest he told all to the people
thereabout ; and went on to Benares, armed with his five
weapons. Afterwards he became king, and ruled righteously ;
and after giving alms and doing good he passed away
according to his deeds.

And the Teacher, when this tale was ended, became perfectly
enlightened, and repeated this verse :

Whose mind and heart Srom all desire is free,
Who seeks for peace by living virtuously,

Fle in due time will sever all the bonds
that. bind him fast to life, and cease to be.

Thus the Teacher reached the summit, through sainthood
and the teaching of the law, and thereupon he declared the Four
Truths. At the end of the declaring of the Truths, this Brother
also attained to sainthood. Then the Teacher made the connexion,
and gave the key to the birth-tale, saying : “At that nine
Angulimala was the Demon, but the Prince of the Five
Weapons was I myself.”


The Ivory City and its F airy

Princess

NE day a young prince was out practising
archery with the son of his father’s
chief vizier, when one of the arrows
accidentally struck the wife of a mer- —
chant, who was walking about in an



upper room-of a house close by. The
prince aimed at a bird that was perched on the window-sill
of that room, and had not the slightest idea that anybody
was at hand, or he would not have shot in that direction.
Consequently, not knowing what had happened, he and the
vizier’s son walked away, the vizier’s son chaffing him
because he had missed the bird.
200 Indian Fairy Tales

Presently the merchant went to ask his wife about some-
thing, and found her lying, to all appearance, dead in the
middle of the room, and an arrow fixed in the ground
within half a yard of her head. Supposing that she was
dead, he rushed to the window and shrieked, ‘‘ Thieves
thieves! They have killed my wife.” The neighbours
quickly gathered, and the servants came running upstairs
to see what was the matter. It happened that the woman
had fainted, and that there was only a very slight wound in
her breast where the arrow had grazed.

As soon as the woman recovered her senses she told
them that two young men had passed by the place with
their bows and arrows, and that one of them had most
deliberately aimed at her as she stood by the window.

On hearing this the merchant went to the king, and told
him what had taken place. His Majesty was much enraged
at such audacious wickedness, and swore that most terrible
punishment should be visited on the offender if he could be

discovered, He ordered the merchant to go back and
ascertain whether his wife could recognise the young men if
she saw them again.

“Oh yes,” replied the woman, “I should know them
again among all the people in the city.”

“Then,” said the king, when the merchant brought back
this reply, ‘‘ to-morrow I will cause all the male inhabitants
of this city to pass before your house, and your wife will
stand at the window and watch for the man who did this
wanton deed.”

A royal proclamation was issued to this effect. So the
next day all the men and boys of the city, from the age of
ten years upwards, assembled and marched by the house of
Ivory City and Fairy Princess 201

the merchant. By chance (for they both had been excused
from obeying this order) the king's son and the vizier’s son
were also in the company, and passed by in the crowd,
They came to see the tamasha.

As soon as these two appeared in front of the merchant’s
window they were recognised by the merchant's wife, and
at once reported to the king.

“My own son and the son of my chief vizier!" ex-
claimed the king, who had been present from the commence-
ment. ‘What examples for the people! Let them both
be executed.”

‘“Not so, your Majesty,” said the vizier, ‘‘1 beseech you
Let the facts of the case be thoroughly investigated. How
is it?” he continued, turning to the two young men.
“Why have you done this cruel thing ?”

“T shot an arrow at a bird that was sitting on the sill of
- an open window in yonder house, and missed,” answered
the prince. ‘‘ I suppose the arrow struck the merchant’s
wife. Had I known that she or anybody had been near I
should not have shot in that direction.”

‘We will speak of this later on,’

J

said the king, on hear-
ing this answer. ‘‘ Dismiss the people. Their presence is
no longer needed.”

In the evening his Majesty and the vizier had a long and
earnest talk about their two sons. The king wished both
of them to be executed ; but the vizier suggested that the
prince should be banished from the country. This was
finally agreed to.

Accordingly, on the following morning, a little company
of soldiers escorted the prince out of the city. When they
reached the last custom-house the vizier’s son overtook
202 Indian Fairy Tales

them. He had come with all haste, bringing with him four
bags of muhrs on four horses. ‘I am come,” he said,
throwing his arms round the prince’s neck, “ because I can-
not let you go alone. We have lived together, we will be
exiled together, and we will die together. Turn me not
back, if you love me.”

“Consider,” the prince answered, “what you are doing.
All kinds of trial may be before me. Why should you
leave your home and country to be with me?”

“Because I love you,” he said, ‘“‘and shall never be
happy without you.”

So the two friends walked along hand in hand as fast as
they could to get out of the country, and behind them
marched the soldiers and the horses with their valuable
burdens. On reaching a place on the borders of the
king’s dominions the prince gave the soldiers some gold,
and ordered thern to return. The soldiers took the money
and left; they did not, however, go very far, but hid
themselves behind rocks and stones, and waited till they
were quite sure that the prince did not intend to come back.

On and on the exiles walked, till they arrived at a
certain village, where they determined to spend the night
under one of the big trees of the place. The prince made
preparations for a fire, and arranged the few articles of
bedding that they had with them, while the vizier’s son
went to the baniya and the baker and the butcher to get
something for their dinner. For some reason he was
delayed ; perhaps the tsut was not quite ready, or the
baniya had not got all the spices prepared. After waiting
half an hour the prince became impatient, and rose up and
walked about,
Ivory City and Fairy Princess 203

He saw a pretty, clear little brook running along not far
from their resting-place, and hearing that its source was
not far distant, he started off to find it. The source was a
beautiful lake, which at that time was covered with the
magnificent lotus flower and other water plants. The
prince sat down on the bank, and being thirsty took up
some of the water in his hand. Fortunately he looked into
his hand before drinking, and there, to his great astonish-
ment, he saw reflected whole and clear the image of a
beautiful fairy. He looked round, hoping to see the reality ;
but seeing no person, he drank the water, and put out his
hand to take some more. Again he saw the reflection in
the water which was in his palm. He looked around as
before, and this time discovered a fairy sitting by the bank
on the opposite side of the lake. On seeing her he fell so
madly in love with her that he dropped down in a swoon.

When the vizier’s son returned, and found the fire lighted,
the horses securely fastened, and the bags of muhrs lying
altogether in a heap, but no prince, he did not know what
to think. He waited a little while, and then shouted ; but
not getting any reply, he got up and went to the brook.
There he came across the footmarks of his friend. Seeing
these, he went back at once for the money and the horses,
and bringing them with him, he tracked the prince to the
lake, where he found him lying to all appearance dead.

“ Alas! alas!” he cried, and lifting up the prince, he
poured some water over his head and face. “Alas! my
brother, what is this? Oh! do not die and leave me thus.
Speak, speak! I cannot bear this! a

In a few minutes the prince, revived by the water,
opened his eyes, and looked about wildly.
204 Indian Fairy Tales

“Thank God!” exclaimed the vizier’s son. ‘“ But what
is the matter, brother ?”

“Go away,” replied the prince. “I don’t want to say
anything to you, or to see you. Go away.”

“Come, come; let us leave this place. Look, I have
brought some food for you, and horses, and everything.
Let us eat and depart.”

“ Go alone,” replied the prince.

““ Never,” said the vizier’s son. ‘ What has happened
to suddenly estrange you from me? A little while ago we
were brethren, but now you detest the sight of me.”

“‘T have looked upon a fairy,” the prince said. ‘But a
moment I saw her face; for when she noticed that I was
looking at her she covered her face with lotus petals. Oh,
how beautiful she was! And while I gazed she took out of
her bosom an ivory box, and held it up. to me. Then I
fainted. Oh! if you can get me that fairy for my wife, I
will go anywhere with yot.”

“Oh, brother,” said the vizier’s son, “you have indeed
seen a fairy. She is a fairy of the fairies. This is none
other than Gulizar of the Ivory City. I know this from the
signs that she gave you. From her covering her face with
lotus petals I learn her name, and from her showing
you the ivory box I learn where she lives. Be patient,
and rest assured that I will arrange your marriage with
her.”

When the prince heard these encouraging words he felt
much comforted, rose up, and ate, and then went away
gladly with his friend.

On the way they met two men. These two men be-
longed to a family of robbers. There were eleven of them
Ivory City and Fairy Princess 205

altogether, One, an elder sister, stayed at home and
cooked the food, and the other ten—all brothers—went
out, two and two, and walked about the four different ways
that ran through that part of the country, robbing those
travellers who could not resist them, and inviting others,
who were too powerful for two of them to manage, to
come and rest at their house, where the whole family
attacked them and stole their goods. These thieves lived
in a kind of tower, which had several strong-rooms in it,
and under it was a great pit, wherein they threw the
corpses of the poor unfortunates who chanced to fall into
their power,

The two men came forward, and, politely accosting
them, begged them to come and stay at their house for the
night. ‘It is late,” they said, “and there is not another
village within several miles.”

“ Shall we accept this good man’s invitation, brother?”
asked the prince.

The vizier’s son frowned slightly in token of disapproval ;
but the prince was tired, and thinking that it was only a
whim of his friend’s, he said to the men, “ Very well. It
is very kind of you to ask us.”

So they all four went to the robbers’ tower.

Seated in a room, with the door fastened on the outside,
the two travellers bemoaned their fate.

“It is no good groaning,” said the vizier'sson. ‘I will
climb to the window, and see whether there are any means
of escape. Yes! yes!” he whispered, when he had reached
the window-hole. ‘ Below. there is a ditch. surrounded by
a high wall. I will jump down and reconnoitre. You stay
here, and wait till I return.”




206 Indian Fairy Tales

Presently he came back and told the prince that he had
seen a most ugly woman, whom he supposed was the
robbers’ housekeeper. _ She had agreed to release them on
the promise of her marriage with the prince.

So the woman led the way out of the enclosure by a
secret door.

“But where are the horses and the goods ?” the vizier’s
son inquired.

,

“You cannot bring them,” the woman said. “To go
out by any other way would be to thrust oneself into the
grave.”

‘All right, then; they also shall go out by this door.
I have a charm, whereby I can make them thin or fat.” So
the vizier’s son fetched the horses without any person
knowing it, and repeating the charm, he made them pass
through the narrow doorway like pieces of cloth, and when
they were all outside restored them to their former con-
dition. He at once mounted his horse and laid hold of the
halter of one of the other horses, and then beckoning to the
prince to do likewise, he rode off. The prince saw his
opportunity, and in a moment was riding after him, having
the woman behind him.

Now the robbers heard the galloping of the horses, and
ran out and shot their arrows at the prince and his com-
panions. And one of the arrows killed the woman, so they
had to leave her behind.

On, on they rode, until they reached a village where they
stayed the night. The following morning they were off
again, and asked for Ivory City from every passer-by. At
length they came to this famous city, and put up at a little
hut that belonged to an old woman, from whom they feared
Ivory City and Fairy Princess 207

no harm, and with whom, therefore, they could abide in
peace and comfort. At first the old woman did not like the
idea of these travellers staying in her house, but the sight
of a muhr, which the prince dropped in the bottom of a cup
in which she had given him water, and a present of another
muhr from the vizier’s son, quickly made her change her
mind, She agreed to let them stay there for a few
days.

As soon as her work was over the old woman came and
sat down with her lodgers. The vizier’s son pretended
to be utterly ignorant of the place and people. ‘ Has this
city a name ?” he asked the old woman.

“Of course it has, you stupid. Every little village,
much more. a city, and such a city as this, has a
name.”

“What is the name of this city ?”

“Tyory City. Don’t you know that? I thought the
name was known all over the world.”

On the mention of the name Ivory City the prince gave
a deep sigh. The vizier’s son looked as much as to say,
“Keep quiet, or you'll discover the secret,”

“Ts there a king of this country ?” continued the vizier’s
son,

‘Of course there is, and a queen, and a princess.”

“What are their names ? ”

“The name of the princess is Gulizar, and the name of

”



the queen

The vizier’s son interrupted the old woman by turning to
look at the prince, who was staring likea madman. ‘‘ Yes,”
he said to him afterwards, ‘‘we are in the right country.
We shall see the beautiful princess.”

oO
208 Indian Fairy Tales

One morning the two travellers noticed the old woman’s
most careful toilette: how careful she was in the arrange-
ment of her hair and the set of her kasabah and puts.

“Who is coming ?” said the vizier’s son.

“Nobody,” the old woman replied.

“Then where are you going ?”

“T am going to see my daughter, who is a servant of the
Princess Gulizar. I see her and the princess every day.
I should have gone yesterday, if you had not been here and
taken up all my time.”

“ Ah-h-h! Be careful not to say anything about us in
the hearing of the princess.” The vizier’s son asked her
not to speak about them at the palace, hoping that, because
she had been told not to do so, she would mention their
arrival, and thus the princess would be informed of- their
coming.

On seeing her mother the girl pretended to be very
angry. ‘Why have you not been for two days?” she
asked.

“Because, my dear,” the old woman answered, “ two
young travellers, a prince and the son of some great vizier,
have taken up their abode in my hut, and demand so much
of my attention. It is. nothing but cooking and cleaning,
and cleaning and cooking, all day long. I can’t understand
the men,” she added ; ‘‘one of them especially appears very
stupid. He asked me the name of this country and the
the name of the king. Now where can these men have
come from, that they do not know these things? However,
they are very great and very rich. They each give me a
muhr every morning and every evening.”

After this the old woman went and repeated almost the
Ivory City and Fairy Princess 209

same words to the princess, on the hearing of which the
princess beat her severely; and threatened her with a
severer punishment if she ever again spoke of the strangers
before her.

In the evening, when the old woman had returned to her
hut, she told the vizier’s son how sorry she was that she
could not help breaking her promise, and how the princess
had struck her because she mentioned their coming and all
about them. ‘ q

“ Alas! alas!” said the prince, who had eagerly listened
to every word. ‘‘ What, then, will be her anger at the
sight of a man?”

“ Anger ?” said the vizier’s son, with an astonished air.
“ She would be exceedingly glad to see one man. I
know this. In this treatment of the old woman I see her
request that you will go and see her during the coming
dark fortnight.”

““ Heaven be praised!” the prince exclaimed.

The next time the old woman went to the palace Gulizar
called one of her servants and ordered her to rush into the’
room while she was conversing with the old woman; and
if the old woman asked what was the matter, she was to
say that the king’s elephants had gone mad, and were rush-
ing about the city and bazaar in every direction, and

‘destroying everything in their way.

The servant obeyed, and the old woman, fearing lest the
elephants should go and push down her hut and kill the
prince and his friend, begged the princess to let her depart.
Now Gulizar had obtained a charmed swing, that landed
whoever sat on it at the place wherever they wished to be.

she said to one of the servants standing

”)

“ Get the swing,
210 Indian Fairy Tales

by. When it was brought she bade the old woman step
into it and desire to be at home.

The old woman did so, and was at once carried through
the air quickly and safely to her hut, where she found her
two lodgers safe and sound. “ Oh!” she cried,“ I thought
that both of you would be killed by this time. The royal
elephants have got loose and are running about wildly.
When I heard this I was anxious about you. So the
princess gave me this charmed swing to return in. But
come, let us get outside before the elephants arrive and
batter down the place.”

‘‘Ton’t believe this,” said the vizier’s son, “It is a
mere hoax. They have been playing tricks with you.”

“ You will soon have your heart's desire,” he whispered
aside to the prince. ‘‘ These things are signs.”

Two days of the dark fortnight had elapsed, when the
prince and the vizier’s son seated themselves in the swing,
and wished themselves within the grounds ef the palace.
In a moment they were there, and there too was the object
of their search standing by one of the palace gates, and
longing to see the prince quite as much as he was longing
to see her.

Oh, what a happy meeting it was!

“At last,” said Gulizar, “I have seen my beloved, my
husband.”

‘A thousand thanks to Heaven for bringing me to you,”
said the prince.

Then the prince and Gulizar betrothed themselves to one
another and parted, the one for the hut and the other for
the palace, both of them feeling happier than they had ever
been before.
| Ivory City and Fairy Princess 211

Henceforth the prince visited Gulizar every day and
returned to the hut every night. One morning Gulizar
begged him to stay with her always. She was constantly
afraid of some evil happening to him—perhaps robbers
would slay him, or sickness attack him, and then she would
be deprived cf him. She could not live without seeing him.
The prince showed her that there was no real cause for
fear, and said that he felt he ought to return to his friend at
night, because he had left his home and country and risked
his life for him ; and, moreover, if it had not been for his
friend’s help he would never have met with her.

Gulizar for the time assented, but she deterniined in
her heart to get rid of the vizier’s son as soon as possible.
A few days after this conversation she ordered one of her
maids to make a pilaw. She gave special directions that a
certain poison was to be mixed into it while cooking, and
as soon as it was ready the cover was to be placed on the
saucepan, so that the poisonous steam might not escape.
When the pilaw was ready she sent it at once by the hand
of a servant to the vizier’s son with this message:
“ Gulizar, the princess, sends you an offering in the name
of her dead uncle.”

On receiving the present the vizier’s son thought that
the prince had spoken gratefully of him to the princess, and
therefore she had thus remembered him. Accordingly he
sent back his salam and expressions of thankfulness.

When it was dinner-time he took the saucepan of pilaw
and went out to eat it by the stream, Taking off the lid,
he threw it aside on the grass and then washed his hands.

-During the minute or so that he was performing these
ablutions, the green grass under the cover ot the saucepan
212 Indian Fairy Tales

turned quite yellow. He was astonished, and suspect-
ing that there was poison in the pilaw, he took a little and
threw it to some crows that were hopping about. The
moment the crows ate what was thrown to them they fell
down dead.

“ Heaven be praised,” exclaimed the vizier’s son, ‘‘ who
has preserved me from death at this time!”

On the return of the prince that evening the vizier’s son
was very reticent and depressed. The prince noticed this
change in him, and asked what was the reason, “Is it
because I am away so much at the palace?” The vizier’s
son saw that the prince had nothing to do with the sending
of the pilaw, and therefore told him everything.

“Took here,” he said, ‘in this handkerchief is some
pilaw that the princess sent me this morning in the name of
her deceased uncle. It is saturated with poison. Thank
Heaven, I discovered it in time!”

“Oh, brother! who could have done this thing ? Who
is there that entertains enmity against you ?”

“The Princess Gulizar. Listen. The next time you
go to see her, I entreat you to take some snow with you;
and just before seeing the princess put a little of it into
both your eyes. It will provoke tears, and Gulizar will ask
you why you are crying. Tell her that you weep for the
loss of your friend, who died suddenly this morning. Look!
take, too, this wine and this shovel, and when you have
feigned intense grief at the death of your friend, bid the
princess to drink a little of the wine. It is strong, and will
immediately send her into a deep sleep. Then, while she
is asleep, heat the shovel and mark her back with it.
Remember to bring back the shovel again, and also to take
Ivory City and Fairy Princess 213

her pearl necklace. This done, return. Now fear not to
execute these instructions, because on the fulfilment of them
depends your fortune and happiness. I will arrange that
your marriage with the princess shall be accepted by the
king, her father, and all the court.”

The prince promised that he would do everything as the
vyizier’s son had advised him; and he kept his promise.

The following night, on the return of the prince from his
visit to Gulizar, he and the vizier’s son, taking the horses
and bags of muhrs, went to a graveyard about a mile or so
distant. It was arranged that the vizier’s son should act
the part of a fakir and the prince the part of the fakir’s
disciple and servant.

In the morning, when Gulizar had returned to her senses,
she felt a smarting pain in her back, and noticed that her
pearl necklace was gone. She went at once and informed
the king of the loss of her necklace, but said nothing to him
about the pain in her back.

The king was very angry when he heard of the theft,
and caused proclamation concerning it to be made through-
out all the city and surrounding country.

‘Tt is well,” said the vizier’s son, when he heard of this
proclamation. ‘‘Fear not, my brother, Put go and take this
necklace, and try to sell it in the bazaar.’

The prince took it to a goldsmith and asked him to
buy it.

“ How much do you want for it?” asked the man.

“Fifty thousand rupees,” the prince replied.

“ All right,” said the man ; ‘‘wait here while I go and
fetch the money.”

The prince waited and waited, till at last the goldsmith
214 Indian Fairy Tales

returned, and with him the kotwal, who at once took the
prince into custody on the charge of stealing the princess’s
necklace.

“ How did you get the necklace ?” the kotwal asked.

_ “A fakir, whose servant I am, gave it to me to sell in
the bazaar,” the prince replied. ‘‘ Permit me, and I will
show you where he is.”

The prince directed the kotwal and the policeman to the
place where he had left the vizier’s son, and there they
found the fakir with his eyes shut and engaged in prayer.
Presently, when he had finished his devotions, the kotwal
asked him to explain how he had obtained possession of the
princess’s necklace.

- “Call the king hither,” he replied, “and then I will tell
his Majesty face to face.”

On this some men went to the king and told him what
the fakir had said. His Majesty came, and seeing the
fakir so solemn and earnest in his devotions, he was afraid
to rouse his anger, lest peradventure the displeasure of
Heaven should descend on him, and so he placed his hands
together in the attitude of a supplicant, and asked, “ How
did you get my daughter’s necklace ? ”

“ Last night,” replied the fakir, ““we were sitting here
by this tomb worshipping Khuda, when a ghoul, dressed as
a princess, came and exhumed a body that had been buried
a few days ago, and began to eat it. On seeing this I was
filed with anger, and beat her back with a shovel, which
lay on the fire at the time. While running away from
me her necklace got loose and dropped. .You wonder at
these words, but they are not difficult to prove. Examine
your daughter, and you will find the marks of the burn on
Ivory City and Fairy Princess 215

her back. Go, and if it is as I say, send the princess to
me, and I will punish her.”

The king went back to the palace, and at once ordered
the princess’s back to be examined.

“Tt is so,”

said the maid-servant ; ‘‘the burn is there.”
“Then let the girl be slain immediately,” the king
shouted.

“No, no, your Majesty,”

they replied. ‘‘Let us send
her to the fakir who discovered this thing, that he may do
whatever he wishes with her.”

The king agreed, and so the princess was taken to the
graveyard.

“Let her be shut up in a cage, and be kept near the
grave whence she took out the corpse,” said the fakir.

This was done, and in a little while the fakir and his
disciple and the princess were left alone in the graveyard.
Night had not long cast its dark mantle over the scene
when the fakir and his disciple threw off their disguise,
and taking their horses and luggage, appeared before the
cage, They released the princess, rubbed some ointment
over the scars on her back, and then sat her upon one of
their horses behind the. prince. Away they rode fast and
far, and by the morning were able to rest and talk over
their plans in safety. The vizier’s son showed the princess
some of the poisoned pilaw that she had sent him, and
asked whether she had repented of her ingratitude. The
princess wept, and acknowledged that he was her greatest
helper and friend.

A letter was sent to the chief vizier telling him of all
that’had happened to the prince and the vizier’s son since
they had left their country. When the vizier read the letter




216 Indian Fairy Tales

he went and informed the king. The king caused a reply
to be sent to the two exiles, in which he ordered them not
to return, but to send a letter to Gulizar’s father, and inform
him of everything. Accordingly they did this; the prince
wrote the letter at the vizier’s son’s dictation.

On reading the letter Gulizar’s father was much enraged
with his viziers and other officials for not discovering the
presence in his country of these illustrious visitors, as he
was especially anxious to ingratiate himself in the favour of
the prince and the vizier’s son. He ordered the execution
of some of the viziers on a certain date.

“Come,” he wrote back to the vizier’s son, ‘‘ and stay at
the palace. And if the prince desires it, I will arrange for
his marriage with Gulizar as-soon as possible.”

The prince and the vizier’s son most gladly accepted the
invitation, and received a right noble welcome from the
king. The marriage soon took place, and then after a few
weeks the king gave them presents of horses and elephants,
and jewels and rich cloths, and bade them start for their
own land; for he was sure that the king would now receive
them, The night before they left the viziers and others,
whom the king intended to have executed as soon as his
visitors had left, came and besought the vizier’s son to plead
for them, and promised that they each would give him a
daughter in marriage. He agreed to do so, and succeeded
in obtaining their pardon.

Then the prince, with his beautiful bride Gulizar, and
the vizier’s son, attended by a troop of soldiers, and a
large number of camels and horses bearing very much |
treasure, left for their own land. In the midst of the
way they passed the tower of the robbers, and with the
Ivory City and Fairy Princess 217

help of the soldiers they razed it to the ground, slew all
its inmates, and seized the treasure which they had been
amassing there for several years.

At length they reached their own country, and when
the king saw his son’s beautiful wife and his magnificent
retinue he was at once reconciled, and ordered him to enter
the city and take up his abode there.

Henceforth all was sunshine on the path of the prince.
He became a great favourite, and in due time succeeded to
the throne, and ruled the country for many, many years in
peace and happiness.














‘w





How Sun, Moon, and Wind

went out to Dinner

NE day Sun, Moon, and Wind went out
to dine with their uncle and aunts
Thunder and Lightning. Their mother
(one of the most distant Stars you see
far up in the sky) waited alone for her



eee children’s return.

Now both Sun and Wind were greedy and selfish. They
enjoyed the great feast that had been prepared for them,
without a thought of saving any of it to take home to their
Sun, Moon, and Wind 219

mother—but the gentle Moon did not forget her. Of every
dainty dish that was brought round, she placed a small
portion under one of her beautiful long finger-nails, that
Star might also have a share ‘in the treat.

On their return, their mother, who had kept watch for
them all night long with her little bright eye, said, “ Well,
children, what have you brought home for me?” Then
Sun (who was eldest) said, “I have brought nothing home
for you. I went out to enjoy myself with my friends—not
to fetch a dinner for my mother!” And Wind said,
‘(Neither have I brought anything home for you, mother.
You could hardly expect me to bring a collection of good
things for you, when I merely went out for my own
pleasure.” But Moon said, ‘‘Mother, fetch a plate, see
what I have brought you.” And shaking her hands she
showered down such a choice dinner as never was seen
before.

Then Star turned to Sun and spoke thus, ‘ Because
you went out to amuse yourself with your friends, and
feasted and enjoyed yourself, without any thought of your
mother at home—you shall be. cursed. Henceforth, your
rays shall ever be hot and scorching, and shall burn all that
they touch. And men shall hate you, and cover their
heads when you appear.”

(And that is why the ‘Sun is so hot to this day.)

Then she turned to Wind and said, ‘‘ You also who
forgot your mother in the midst of your selfish pleasures—
hear your doom. You shall always blow in the hot dry.
weather, and shall parch and shrivel all living things.
And men shall detest and avoid you from this very

time.”
220 ‘Indian Fairy Tales

(And that is why the Wind in the hot weather is still so
disagreeable.)

But to Moon she said, ‘‘ Daughter, because you remem-
bered your mother, and kept for her a share in your own
enjoyment, from henceforth you shall be-ever cool, and
calm, and bright. No noxious glare shall accompany your
pure rays, and men shall always call you ‘ blessed.’”

(And that is why the moon’s light is so soft, and cool,
and beautiful even to this day.)
How the Wicked Sons were
Duped.

VERY wealthy old man, imagining that
he was on the point of death, sent for
his sons and divided his property among
them. However, he did not die for
several years afterwards ; and miserable



years many of them were. Besides the
weariness of old age, the old fellow had to bear with much
abuse and cruelty from his sons. Wretched, selfish ingrates !
Previously they vied with one another in trying to please
their father, hoping thus to receive more money, bat now
they kad received their patrimony, they cared not how soon
he left them—nay, the sooner the better, because he was
only a needless trouble and expense. And they let the
poor old man know what they felt.

One day he met a friend and related to him all his
troubles. The friend sympathised very much with him,
and promised to think over the matter, and call in a little
while and tell him what to do. He did so; in a few days
he visited the old man and put down four bags full of stones

and gravel before him.


222 Indian Fairy Tales

‘Look here, friend,’ said he. ‘‘ Your sons will get to
know of my coming here to-day, and will inquire about it.
You must pretend that I came to discharge a long-standing
debt with you, and that you are several thousands of rupees
richer than you thought ‘you were. Keep these bags in
your own hands, and on no account let your sons get to
them as long as you are alive. You will soon find them
change their conduct towards you. Salaam. I will come
again soon to see how you are getting on.”

When the young men got to hear of this further increase
of wealth they began to be more attentive and pleasing to

‘their father than ever before. And thus they continued

to the day of the old man’s. demise, when the bags were
greedily opened, and found to contain only stones and
gravel !


The Pigeon and the Crow

NCE upon a time the Bedhisatta was a

Pigeon, and lived in a nest-basket which
a rich man’s cook had hung up in the
kitchen, in order to earn merit by it. A
greedy Crow, flying near, saw all sorts
of delicate food lying about in the
kitchen, and fell a-hungering after it. ‘‘ How in the world
can I get some?” thought he? At last he hit upon a
plan.

When the Pigeon went to search for food, behind him,
following, following, came the Crow.

“What do you want, Mr. Crow? You and I don't feed
alike.”

‘Ah, but I like you and your ways! Let me be your
‘chum, and let us feed together.”

The Pigeon agreed, and they went on in company. The
Crow pretended to feed along with the Pigeon, but ever
and anon he would turn back, peck to bits some heap of-
cow-dung, and eat a fat worm. When he had got a bellyful
of them, up he flies, as pert as you like:

“Hullo, Mr. Pigeon, what a time you take over your

p
224 Indian Fairy. Tales

meal! One ought to draw the line somewhere. Let’s be
going home before it is too late.” And so they did.

The cook saw that his Pigeon had brought a friend, and
hung up another basket for him.

A few days afterwards there was a great purchase of
fish which came to the rich man’s kitchen. How the Crow
longed for some! So there he lay, from early morn,
groaning and making a great noise. Says the Pigeon to
the Crow:

“Come, Sir Crow, and get your breakfast !”

“Oh dear! oh dear! I have such a fit of indigestion !”
. says he.

“Nonsense! Crows never have indigestion,” said the
Pigeon. “If you eat a lamp-wick, that stays in your
stomach a little while; but anything else is digested in a
trice, as soon-as you eat it. Now do what I tell you ;
don't behave in this way just for seeing a little fish.”

“Why do you say that, master? I have indigestion.”

“Well, be careful,” said the Pigeon, and flew away.

The cook prepared all the dishes, and then stood at the
kitchen door, wiping the sweat off his body. ‘Now's my
time!” thought Mr. Crow, and alighted on a dish containing
some dainty food. Click! The cook heard it, and looked
round. Ah! he caught the Crow, and plucked all the
feathers out of his head, all but one tuft ; he powdered
ginger and cummin, mixed it up with butter-milk, and
rubbed it well all over the bird’s body.

‘‘That’s for spoiling my master’s dinner and making me
throw it away!”
Oh, how it hurt !

By-and-by the Pigeon came in, and saw the Crow lying

said he, and threw him into his basket.
The Pigeon and the Crow 225

there, making a great noise. He made great game of him, and
repeated a verse of poetry :

‘‘Who is this tufted crane I see
Lying where he’s no right to be ?
Come out! my friend, the crow is near,
And he may do you harm, I fear!”

To this the Crow answered with another :

‘No tufted crane am I—no, no !
I’m nothing but a greedy crow.
I would not do as I was told,
So now I’m plucked, as you behold.”

And the Pigeon rejoined with a third verse :

‘You'll come to grief again, I know—
It is your nature to do so ;
If people make a dish of meat,
‘Tis not for little birds to eat.”

Then the Pigeon flew away, saying: “I can’t live with
this creature any longer.” And the Crow lay there groaning
till he died.



Notes and References

THE story literature of India is in a large measure the outcome of the
moral revolution of the peninsula connected with the name of Gautama
Buddha. As the influence of his life and doctrines grew, a tendency
arose to connect all the popular stories of India round the great
teacher. This could be easily effected owing to the wide spread of the
belief in metempsychosis. All that was told of the sages of the
past could be interpreted of the Buddha by representing them as pre-
incarnations of him. Even with Fables, or beast-tales, this could be
done, for the Hindoos were Darwinists long before Darwin, and re-
garded beasts as cousins of men and stages of development in the
progress of the soul through the ages. Thus, by identifying the
Buddha with the heroes of all folk-tales and the chief characters in
the beast-drolls, the Buddhists were enabled to incorporate the whcle
of the story-store of Hindostan in their sacred books, and enlist on
their side the tale-telling instincts of men.

In making Buddha the centre figure of the popular literature of
India, his followers also invented the Frame as a method of literary
art. The idea of connecting a number of disconnected stories familiar
to us from Zhe Arabian Nights, Boccaccio’s Decamerone, Chaucer's
Canterbury Tales, or even Pickwick, is directly traceable to the plan
of making Buddha the central figure of India folk-literature. Curiously
enough, the earliest instance of this in Buddhist literature was in-
tended to be a Decameron, ten tales of Buddha’s previous births, told
of each of the ten Perfections. Asvagosha, the earlier Boccaccio, died
when he had completed thirty-four of the Birth-Tales. But other
collections were made, and at last a corpus of the JATAKAS, or Birth-
Tales of the Buddha, was carried over to Ceylon, possibly as early as
the first introduction of Buddhism, 241 B.c. There they have re-
mained till the present day, and have at last been made accessible in
a complete edition in the original Pali by Prof. Fausbéll.
228 Notes and References

These JATAKAS, as we now have them, are enshrined in a com-
mentary on the gechkas, or moral verses, written in Ceylon by one of
Buddhaghosa’s school in the fifth century a.D. They invariably
begin with a “Story of the Present, an incident in Buddha’s life which
calls up to him a “Story of the Past,” a folk-tale in which he had
played a part during one of his former incarnations. Thus the fable
of the Lion and the Crane, which opens the present collection, is intro-
duced by a “Story of the Present” in the following words :—

*“A service have we done thee” [the opening words of the gata or
moral verse]. “ This the Master told while living at Jetavana concern-
ing Devadatta’s treachery. Not only now, O Bhickkus, but in a former
existence was Devadatta ungrateful. And having said this he tolda
tale.” Then follows the tale as given above (pp. 1, 2), and the com-
mentary concludes : “ The Master, having given the lesson, summed up

the Jataka thus: ‘At that time, the Lion was Devadatta, and the

Crane was I myself.” Similarly, with each story of the past the
Buddha identifies himself, or is mentioned as identical with, the
virtuous hero of the folk-tale. These Jatakas are 550 in number;
and have been reckoned to include some 2000 tales. Some of these
had been translated by Mr. Rhys-Davids (Buddhist Birth Stortes, L,
Triibner’s Oriental Library, 1880), Prof. Fausbéll (#%ve /atakas,
Copenhagen), and Dr. R. Morris (Folk-Lore /ourna/, vols. ii.-v.). A
few exist sculptured on the earliest Buddhist Stupas. ‘Thus several
of the circular figure designs on the reliefs from Amaravati, now on the
grand staircase of the British Museum, represent Jatakas, or previous
births of the Buddha.

Some of the Jatakas bear a remarkable resemblance to some of the
most familiar FABLES OF AESOP. So close is the resemblance, indeed,
that it is impossible not to surmise an historical relation between the
two. What this relation is I have discussed at considerable length in
the “History of the Aisopic Fable,” which forms the introductory
volume to my edition of Caxton’s Esope (London, D. Nutt,
“ Bibliothéque de Carabas,” 1889). In this place I can only roughly
summarise my results. I conjecture that a collection of fables existed
in India before Buddha and independently of the Jatakas, and con-
nected with the name of Kasyapa, who was afterwards made by the
Buddhists into the latest of the twenty-seven pre-incarnations of the
Buddha. This collection of the Fables of Kasyapa was brought to
Europe with a deputation from the Cingalese King Chandra Muka
Siwa (obiit 52 a.D.) to the Emperor Claudius about 50 4.D., and
was done into Greek as the Adyou Avixoi of “Kybises.” These were
utilised by Babrius (from whom the Greek AZsop is derived) and Avian,
Notes and References 229

and so came into the European A‘sop. I have discussed all those
that are to be found in the Jatakas in the “ History” before mentioned,
i. pp. 54-72 (see Notes i. xv. xx.). In these Notes henceforth I refer to
this ‘‘ History” as my sof.

There were probably other Buddhist collections of a similar nature
to the Jatakas with a framework. When the Hindu reaction against
Buddhism came, the Brahmins adapted these, with the omission of
Buddha as the central figure. There is scarcely any doubt that the so-
called FaBLes of BipPat were thus derived from Buddhistic sources.
In its Indian form this is now extant as a Panchatantra or Pentateuch,
five books of tales connected by a Frame. This collection is of
special interest to us in the present connection, as it has come to
Europe in various forms and shapes. I have edited Sir Thomas
North’s English version of an Italian adaptation of a Spanish trans-
lation of a Latin version of a Hebrew translation of an Arabic adap-
tation of the Pehlevi version of the Indian original (Fadles of Bidpai,
London, D. Nutt, “Bibliothéque de Carabas,” 1888). In this I
give a genealogical table of the various versions, from which I
calculate that the tales have been translated into thirty-eight
languages in 112 different versions, twenty different ones in Eng-
lish alone. Their influence on European folk-tales has been very
great: it is probable that nearly one-tenth of these can be traced to
the Bidpai literature. (See Notes v. ix. x. xiii. xv.)

Other collections of a similar character, arranged in a frame, and
derived ultimately from Buddiistic sources, also reached Europe and
formed popular reading in the Middle Ages. Among these may be
mentioned THE TALES OF SINDIBAD, known to Europe as 7he Seven
Sages of Rome: from this we get the Gellert story (cf Celtic Lary
Tales), though it also occurs in the Bidpai. Another popular collection
was that associated with the life of St. Buddha, who has been canon-
ised as St. Josaphat: BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT tells of his conversion
and much else besides, including the tale of the Three Caskets, used
by Shakespeare in the Merchant of Venice.

Some of the Indian tales reached Europe at the time of the
Crusades, either orally or in collections no longer extant. The earliest
selection of these was the Disciplina Clericalis of Petrus Alphonsi, a
Spanish Jew converted about 1106: his tales were to be used as
seasoning for sermons, and strong seasoning they must have proved.
Another Spanish collection of considerably later date was entitled
El Conde Lucanor (Eng. trans. by W. York): this contains the fable
of The Man, his Son, and their Ass, which they ride or carry as the
popular voice decides. But the most famous collection of this kind
Ze Notes and References

was that known as GESTA ROMANORUM, much of which was certainly
derived from Oriental and ultimately Indian sources, and so might
more appropriately be termed Gesta [ndorim.

All these collections, which reached Europe in the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries, became very popular, and were used by monks
and friars to enliven their sermons as EXEMPLA. Prof. Crane has
given a full account of this very curious phenomenon in his erudite
edition of the Exempla of Jacques de Vitry (Folk Lore Society, 1890).
The Indian stories were also used by the Italian Movellier7, much of
Boccaccio and his school being derived from this source. As these
again gave material for the Elizabethan Drama, chiefly in W. Painter’s
Palace of Pleasure, a collection of translated Movel/e which I have
edited (Lond., 3 vols. 1890), it is not surprising that we can at times
trace portions of Shakespeare back to India. It should also be men-
tioned that one-half of La Fontaine’s Fables (Bks. vii-xii.) are
derived from Indian sources. (See Note on No. v.)

In India itself the collection of stories in frames went on and stiil
goes on. Besides those already mentioned there are the stories of
Vikram and the Vampire (Vetala), translated among others by the late
Sir Richard Burton, and the seventy stories of a parrot (Swha Saptatt).
The whole of this literature was summed up by Somadeva, c. 1200 A.D.
in a huge compilation entitled Katha Sarit Sagara (“Ocean of the
Stream of Stories”). Of this work, written in very florid style,
Mr. Tawney has produced a translation in two volumes in the Biéio-
theca Indica. Unfortunately, there is a Divorce Court atmosphere
about the whole book, and my selections trom it have been accordingly
restricted. (Notes, No. xi.)

So much for a short sketch of Indian folk-tales so far as they have
been reduced to writing in the native literature** The Jatakas are
probably the oldest collection of such tales in literature, and the
greater part of the rest are demonstrably more than a thousand years
old. It is certain that much (perhaps one-fifth) of the popular literature
of modern Europe is derived from those portions of this large bulk
which came west with the Crusades through the medium of Arabs and
Jews. In his elaborate Zivlettung to the Pantschatantra, the Indian
version of the Fables of Bidpai, Prof. Benfey contended with enormous
erudition that the majority of folk-tale incidents were to be found in the
Bidpai literature. His introduction consisted of over 200 mono-

* An admirable and full account of this literature was given by M. A. Barth in
Alélusine, t. iv. No. t2, and t.v. No. r. See also Table i. of Prof. Rhys-Davids’
Birth Stories.
Notes and References 231

graphs on the spread of Indian tales to Europe. He wrote in 1859,
before the great outburst of folk-tale collection in Europe, and he had
not thus adequate materials to go about in determining the extent of
Indian influence on the popular mind of Europe. But he made it
clear that for beast-tales and for drolls, the majority of those current
in the mouths of occidental people were derived from Eastern and mainly
Indian sources. He was not successful, in my opinion, in tracing the
serious fairy tale to India. Few of the tales in the Indian literary
collections could be dignified by the name of fairy tales, and it was
clear that if these were to be traced to India, an examination of the
contemporary folk-tales of the peninsula would have to be attempted.
The collection of current Indian folk-tales has been the work of the
last quarter of a century, a work, even after what has been achieved,
still in its initial stages. ‘Ihe credit of having begun the process is
due to Miss Frere, who, while her father was Governor of the Bombay
Presidency, took down from the lips of her aya#, Anna de Souza, one
of a Lingact family from Goa who had been Christian for three
generations, the tales she afterwards published with Mr. Murray in
1868, under the title, “ O/d Deccan Days, or, Indian Fairy Legends
current in Southern India, collected from oral tradition by M1. Frere,
with an introduction and notes by Sir Bartle Frere.” Wer example
was followed by Miss Stokes in her Jadian Fairy Tales (London,
Ellis & White, 1880), who took down her tales from two ayais anda
Khitmatgar, all of them Bengalese—the aya/s Hindus, and the man a
Mohammedan. Mr. Ralston introduced the volume with some re-
marks which dealt too much with sun-myths for present-day taste.
Another collection from Bengal was that of Lal Behari Day, a Hindu
gentleman, in his Folt-Zales of Bengal (London, Macmillan, 1883).
The Panjab and the Kashmir then had their turn: Mrs. Steel col-
lected, and Captain (now Major) Temple edited and annotated, their
Wideawake Stories (London, Triibner, 1884), stories capitally told
and admirably annotated. Captain Temple increased the value of
this collection by a remarkable analysis of all the incidents contained
in the two hundred Indian folk-tales collected up to this date. It is
not too much to say that this analysis marks an onward step in the
scientific study of the folk-tale: there is such a thing, derided as it
may be. I have throughout the Notes been able to draw attention to
Indian parallels by a simple reference to Major Temple’s Analysis.
Major Temple has not alone himself collected: he has been the
cause that many others have collected. In the pages of the /ydzan
Antiquary, edited by him, there have appeared from time to time folk-
tales collected from all parts of India. Some of these have been
22 Notes and References

issued separately. Sets of tales from Southern India, collected by
the Pandit Natesa Sastri, have been issued under the title Folk-
Lore of Southern India, three fascicules of which have been recently
re-issued by Mrs. Kingscote under the title, Zales of the Sun (W.H.
Allen, 1891) : it would have been well if the identity of the two works
had been clearly explained. The largest addition to our knowledge
of the Indian folk-tale that has been made since Wideawake Stories
is that contained in Mr. Knowles’ Folk-Tales of Kashmir (Triibner’s
Oriental Library, 1887), sixty-three stories, some of great length. These,
with Mr.Campbell’s Sandal Tales (1892) ; Ramaswami Raju’s /ndian
‘ables (London, Sonnenschein, n.d.); M. Thornhill, /ndian Fairy Tales
(London, 1889) ; and E. J. Robinson, Zales of S. India (1885), together
with those contained in books of travel like Thornton’s Bann or
Smeaton’s Kavens of Burmah bring up the list of printed Indian folk-
tales to over 350—a respectable total indeed, but a mere drop in the
the ocean of the stream of stories that must exist in such a huge
population as that of India: the Central Provinces in particular are
practically unexplored. There are doubtless many collections still
unpublished. Col. Lewin has large numbers, besides the few
published in his Lushai Grammar; and Mr. M. L. Dames has a
number of Baluchi tales which I have been privileged to use.
Altogether, India now ranks among the best represented countries
for printed folk-tales, coming only after Russia (1500), Gerinany (1200),
Italy and France (1000 each.)* Counting the ancient with the modern,
India has probably some 600 to 700 folk-tales printed and translated in
accessible form. There should be enough material to determine the
vexed question of the relations between the European and the Indian
collections.

This question has taken a new departure with the researches of M.
Emanuel Cosquin in his Contes populaires de Lorraine (Paris, 1886, 2°
ttrage, 1890), undoubtedly the most important contribution to the scien- _
tific study of the folk-tale since the Grimms. M. Cosquin gives in the
annotations to the eighty-four tales which he has collected in Lorraine
a mass of information as to, the various forms which the tales take in
other countries of Europe and in the East. In my opinion, the work
he has done for the European folk-tale is even more valuable than the
conclusions he draws from it as to the relations with India. He has
taken up the work which Wilhelm Grimm dropped in 1859, and shown
from the huge accumulations of folk-tales that have appeared during
the last thirty years that there is a common fund of folk-tales which

* Isinland boasts of 12,000, but most of these lie unprinted among the archives of
the Helsingfors Literary Society.
Notes and References 233

every country of Europe without exception possesses, though this does
not of course preclude them from possessing others that are not shared
by the rest. M. Cosquin further contends that the whole of these have
come from the East, ultimately from India, not by literary transmission,
as Benfey contended, but by oral transmission. He has certainly
shown that very many of the most striking imcidents common to
European folk-tales are also to be found in Eastern mihrchen, ‘Nhat,
however, he has failed to show is that some of these may not have been
carried out to the Eastern world by Europeans. Borrowing tales is a
mutual process, and when Indian meets European, European meets
Indian ; which borrowed from which, is a question which we have
very few criteria to decide. It should be added that Mr W. A.
Clouston has in England collected with exemplary industry a large
number of parallels between Indian and European folk-tale incidents in
his Popular Tales and Fictions (Edinburgh, 2 vols., 1887) and Book of
Noodles (London, 1888), Mr Clouston has not openly expressed his
conviction that all folk-tales are Indian in origin: he prefers to con-
vince us wom wi sed s@pe cadendo. He has certainly made out a good
case for tracing all European drolls, or comic folk-tales, from the East.

With the fairy tale strictly so called—ze., the serious folk-tale of
romantic adventure—I am more doubtful. It is mainly a modern
product in India as in Europe, so far as literary evidence goes. The
yast bulk of the Jatakas does not contain a single example worthy the
name, nor does the Bidpai literature. Some of Somadeva’s tales, how-
ever, approach the nature of fairy tales, but there are several Celtic
tales which can be traced to an earlier date than his (1200 a.D.) and
are equally near to fairy tales. Yet it is dangerous to trust to mere
non-appearance in literature as proof of non-existence among the folk.
To take our own tales here in England, there is not a single instance
of a reférence to Jack and the Beanstalk tor the last three hundred
years, yet it is undoubtedly a true folk-tale. And it is indeed remark-
able how many of the formule of fairy tales have been found of recent
years in India. Thus, the Magzc Fiddle, found among the Santals by
Mr. Campbell in two variants (see Notes on vi.), contains the germ idea,
of the wide-spread story represented in Great Britain by the ballad of
Binnorie (see English Fairy Tales, No. ix.). Similarly, Mr. Knowles’
collection has added considerably to the number of Indian variants of
European “formule” beyond those noted by M. Cosquin.

It is still more striking as regards zc/dents, In a paper read before.
the Folk-Lore Congress of 1891, and reprinted in the Zrausactzons, pp.
76 seg., | have drawn up a list of some 630 incidents found in common
among European folk-tales (including drolls). Of these, | reckon that
234 Notes and References

about 250 have been already found among Indian folk-tales, and the
number is increased by each new collection that is made or printed.
The moral of this is, that India belongs to a group of peoples who
have a common store of stories ; India belongs to Europe for purposes
of comparative folk-tales.

Can we go further and say that India is the source of all the incidents
that are held in common by European children? I think we may
answer “ Yes” as regards droll incidents, the travels of many of which
we can trace, and we have the curious result that European children
owe their earliest laughter to Hindu wags. As regards the serious
incidents further inquiry is needed. Thus, we find the incident of an
“external soul” (Life Index, Captain Temple very appropriately
named it) in Asbjornsen’s Morse Tales and in Miss Frere’s O/d Deccan
Days (see Notes on Punchhin). Yet the latter is a very suspicious
source, since Miss Frere derived her tales from a Christian ayah whose
family had been in Portuguese Goa for a hundred years. May they
not have got the story of the giant with his soul outside his body
from some European sailor touching at Goa? Thisis to acertain extent
negatived by the fact of the frequent occurrence of the incident in Indian
folk-tales. (Captain Temple gave a large number of instances in
Wideawake Stories, pp. 404-5). On the other hand, Mr. Frazer in
his Golden Bough has shown the wide spread of the idea among all
savage or semi-savage tribes. (See Note on No. iv.)

In this particular case we may be doubtful; but in others, again—as
the incident of the rat’s tail up nose (see Notes on The Charmed
Ating)—there can be little doubt of the Indian origin. And generally,
so far as the incidents are marvellous and of true fairy-tale character,
the presumption is in favour of India, because of the vitality of
animism or metempsychosis in India throughout all historic time.
No Hindu would doubt the fact of animals speaking or of men trans-
formed into plants and animals. The European may once have had
these beliets, and may still hold them implicitly as “ survivals ”; but in
the “survival” stage they cannot afford material for artistic creation,
and the fact that the higher minds of Europe for the last thousand
years have discountenanced these beliefs has not been entirely without
influence. Of one thing there is practical certainty: the fairy tales
that are common to the Indo-European world were invented once for
all in a certain locality, and thence spread to all the countries in culture
contact with the original source. The mere fact that contiguous
countries have more similarities in their story store than distant
ones is sufficient to prove this: indeed, the fact that any single country
has spread throughout it a definite set of folk-tales as distinctive
Notes and References 2G

as its flora and fauna, is sufficient to prove it. It is equally certain
that not all folk-tales have come from one source, for each country
has tales peculiar to itself. The question is as to the source of the
tales that are common to all European children, and increasing
evidence seems to show that this common nucleus is derived from
India and India alone. The Hindus have been more successful than
others, because of two facts: they have had the appropriate ‘“‘atmo-
sphere” of metempsychosis, and they have also had spread among the
people sufficient literary training and mental grip to invent plots. The
Hindu tales have ousted the native European, which undoubtedly
existed independently ; indeed, many still survive, especially in Celtic
lands. Exactly in the same way, Perrault’s tales have ousted the older
English folk-tales, and it is with the utmost difficulty that one can get
true English fairy tales because Red Riding Hood, Cinderella, Blue
Beard, Puss in Boots and the rest, have survived in the struggle for
existence among English folk-tales. So far as Europe has a common
store of fairy tales, it owes this to India.

I do not wish to be misunderstood. I! do not hold with Benfey that
all European folk-tales are derived from the Bidpai literature and
similar literary products, nor with M. Cosquin that they are all
derived from India. The latter scholar has proved that there is a
nucleus of stories in every European land which is common to all. I
calculate that this includes from 30 to 50 per cent. of the whole, and it
is this common stock of Europe that I regard as coming from India
mainly at the time of the Crusades, and chiefly by oral transmission.
It includes all the beast tales and most of the drolls, but evidence is
still lacking about the more serious fairy tales, though it is increasing
with every fresh collection of folk-tales in India, the great importance
of which is obvious from the above considerations.

In the following Notes I give, as on the two previous occasions, the
source whence I derived the tale, then Jaradlels, and finally remarks.
For Indian parallels 1 have been able to refer to Major Temple’s
remarkable Analysis of Indian Folk-tale incidents at the end of Wide-
awake Stories (pp. 386-436), for European ones to my alphabetical List
of Incidents, with bibliographical references, in Zrassactions of Fotk-
Lore Congress, 1892, pp. 87-98. My remarks have been mainly devoted
to tracing the relation between the Indian and the European tales, with
the object of showing that the latter have been derived from the
former. I have, however, to some extent handicapped myself, as I
have avoided giving again the Indian versions of stories already given
in English Fairy Tales ov Celtic Fairy Tales.
236 Notes and References

I. THE LION AND THE CRANE.

Source.—V. Fausboll, Fzve /dtakas, Copenhagen, 1861, pp. 35-8, text
and translation of the J/avasakuna Jdtaka. | have ventured to English
Prof. Fausbéll’s version, which was only intended as a “crib” to the
Pali. For the omitted Introduction, see supra.

Purallels.—1 have given a rather full collection of parallels, running
to about a hundred numbers, in my .Zs0/, pp. 232-4. The chief of these
are: (1) for the East, the Midrashic version (“ Lion and Egyptian Part-
ridge”), in the great Rabbinic commentary on Genesis (Bereshith-
vrabba, c. 64); (2) in classical antiquity, Pheedrus, i. 8 (‘“‘ Wolf and
Crane”), and Babrius, 94 (“ Wolf and Heron”), and the Greek proverb
Suidas, ii. 248 (“Out of the Wolf's Mouth”) ; (3) in the Middle Ages,
the so-called Greek sof, ed. Halm, 276 4, really prose versions of
Babrius and “ Romulus,” or prose of Phzedrus, i. 8, also the Romulus of
Ademar (fl. 1030), 64; it occurs also on the Bayeux Tapestry, in Marie
de France, 7, and in Benedict of Oxford’s Afishle Shualim (Heb.), 8;
(4) Stainhéwel took it from the “Romulus” into his German A®sop
(1480), whence all the medern European Zsops are derived.

Remarks.—I\ have selected The Wolf and the Crane as my typical
example in my “History of the 4Zsopic Fable,” and can only give here
a rough summary of the results I there arrived at concerning the fable,
merely premising that these results are at present no more than hypo-
theses. The similarity of the Jataka form with that familiar to us, and
derived by us in the last resort from Pheedrus, is so striking that few
will deny some historical relation between them. I conjecture that
the Fable originated in India, and came West by two different routes.
First, it came by oral tradition to Egypt, as one of the Libyan Fables
which the ancients themselves distinguished from the A®sopic Fables
It was, however, included by Demetrius Phalereus, tyrant of Athens,
and founder of the Alexandrian library c. 300 B.C., in his Assemblies of
.Esopic Fables, which I have shown to be the source of Pheedrus’
Fables c. 30 A.D. Besides this, it came from Ceylon in the Fables of
Kybises—e.e., Kasyapa the Buddha—c. 50 A.D, was adapted into
Hebrew, and used for political purposes, by Rabbi Joshua ben Chananyah
in a harangue to the Jews c. 120 A.D., begging them to be patient while
within the jaws of Rome. The Hebrew form uses the lion, not the
wolf, as the ingrate, which enables us to decide on the Indian prove-
nance of the Midrashic version. It may be remarked that the use of
the lion in this and other Jatakas is indirectly.a testimony to their
great age, as the lion has become rarer and ‘rarer in India during
Notes and References 237

historic times, and is now confined to the Gir forest of Kathidwar, where
only a dozen specimens exist, and are strictly preserved.

The verses at the end are the earliest parts of the Jataka, being in
more archaic Pali than the rest: the story is told by the commentator
(c. 400 A.D.) to illustrate them. It is probable that they were brought
over.on the first introduction of Buddhism into Ceylon, c. 241 B.C. This
would give them an age of over two thousand years, nearly three

hundred years earlier than Phzedrus, from whom comes our Wolf and
Crane.

Il. PRINCESS LABAM.

Source.—Miss Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales, No. xxii. pp. 153-63, told
by Muniyd, one of the ayahs. I have left it unaltered, except that I
have replaced “ God” by “ Khuda,” the word originally used (see Notes

Us Cop, (0) BEGIN, ee :
Parallels.—The tabu, as to a particular direction, occurs in other

Indian stories as well as in European folk-tales (see notes on Stokes,
p. 286). The grateful animals theme occurs in “The Soothsayer’s
Son” (¢z/fra, No. x.), and frequently in Indian folk-tales (see Temple’s
Analysis, III.i.5-7; Wideawake Stories, pp. 412-3). The thorn in the
tiger’s foot is especially common (Temple, /. ¢., 6,9), and recalls the
story of Androclus, which occurs in the derivates of Phaedrus, and may
thus be Indian in origin (see Benfey, Panschatantra, i. 211, and the paral-
lels given in my .£ sof, Ro. ili. 1. p. 243). The theme is, however, equally
frequent in European folk-tales: see my List of Incidents, Proc.
Folk-Lore Congress, p. 91, s.v. “Grateful Animals” and “Gifts by
Grateful Animals.” Similarly, the “ Bride Wager” incident at the end is
common toa large number of Indian and European folk-tales (Temple,
Analysis, p. 430; my List, Z.¢. sb voce). The tasks are also equally com-
mon (cf. “ Battle of the Birds” in Celtic Fairy Tales), though the exact
forms as given in “ Princess Labam” are not known in Europe.
Remarks.—We have here a concrete instance of the relation of
Indian and European fairy-tales, The human mind may be the same
everywhere, but it is not likely to hit upon the sequence of incidents,
Direction tabu—Grateful Animals—Bride-wager— Tasks, by accident,
or independently : Europe must have borrowed from India, or India
from Europe. As this must have occurred within historic times,
indeed within the last thousand years, when even European peasants
are not likely to have zzvented, even if they believed, in the incident
of the grateful animals, the probability is in favour of borrowing from
. India, possibly through the intermediation of Arabs at the time of the
238 Notes and References

Crusades. It is only a probability, but we cannot in any case reach
more than probability in this matter, just at present.

III. LAMBIKIN.

Source.—Steel-Temple, Wideawake Stories, pp. 69-72, originally
published in /udian Antiguary, xii. 175. The droll is common
throughout the Panjab.

Paralleis.—The similarity of the concluding episode with the finish
of the “ Three Little Pigs” (Eng. Fairy Tales, No. xiv.) In my notes
on that droll I have pointed out that the pigs were once goats or kids
with “hair on their chinny chin chin.” This brings the tale a stage
nearer to the Lambikin.

Remarks.—The similarity of Pig No. 3 rolling down hill in the
churn and the Lambikin in the Drumikin can scarcely be accidental,
though, it must be confessed, the tale has undergone considerable
modification before it reached England.

IV. PUNCHKIN.

Source—Miss Frere, Old Deccan Days, pp. 1-16, from her ayah,
Anna de Souza, of a Lingaet family settled and Christianised at Goa
for three generations. I should perhaps add that a Prudhan is a
Prime Minister, or Vizier ; Punts are the same, and Sirdars, nobles.

Parallels.—The son of seven mothers is a characteristic Indian con-
ception, for which see Notes on “The Son of Seven Queens” in this
collection, No. xvi. The mother transformed, envious stepmother, ring
recognition, are all incidents common to East and West; biblio-
graphical references for parallels may be found under these titles in my
List of Incidents. The external soul of the ogre has been studied by
Mr. E. Clodd in Folk-Lore Journal, vol. ii., “ The Philosophy of Punch-
kin,” and still more elaborately in the section, ‘The External Soul in
Folk-tales,” in Mr. Frazer's Golden Bough, ii. pp. 296-326. See also
Major Temple’s Analysis, II. ii1., Wideawake Stories, pp. 404-5, who
there gives the Indian parallels.

Remarks.—Both Mr. Clodd and Mr. Frazer regard the essence of
the tale to consist in the conception of an external soul or “life-index,”
and they both trace in this a “survival” of savage philosophy, which they
consider occurs among all men at a certain stage of culture. But the
most cursory examination of the sets of tales containing these incidents
in Mr. Frazer’s analyses shows that many, indeed the majority, of these


Notes and References 239

tales cannot be independent of one another; for they contain not
alone the incident of an external materialised soul, but the further point
that this is contained in something else, which is enclosed in another
thing, which is again surrounded by a wrapper. This Chinese ball
arrangement is found in the Deccan (“ Punchkin”) ; in Bengal (Day,
Folk-Tales of Bengal); in Russia (Ralston, p. 103 seg., “ Koschkei the
Deathless,” also in Mr. Lang’s Red Fairy Book) ; in Servia (Mijatovics,
Servian Folk-Lore, p. 172); in South Slavonia (Wratislaw, p. 225) ; in
Rome (Miss Busk, p. 164); in Albania (Dozon, p. 132 seg.) ; in Transyl-
vania (Haltrich, No. 34); in Schleswig- Holstein (Miillenhoff, p. 404) ; in
Norway (Asbjérnsen, No. 36, af. Dasent, Pop. Tales, p. 55, “The Giant
who had no Heart in his Body”); and finally, in the Hebrides (Camp-
bell, Pop. Tales, p. 10, cf. Celtic Fairy Tales, No. xvii., “Sea Maiden”).
Here we have the track of this remarkable idea of an external soul
enclosed in a succession of wrappings, which we can trace from
Hindostan to the Hebrides.

It is difficult to imagine that we have not here the actual migration
of the tale from East to West. In Bengal we have the soul “in a
necklace, in a box, in the heart of a dva/ fish, in a tank” ; in Albania “it
is in a pigeon, in a hare, in the silver tusk of a wild boar”; in Rome it
is ‘in a stone, in the head of a bird, in the head of a leveret, in the
middle head of a seven-headed hydra”; in Russia “it is inan egg, ina
duck, in a hare, in a casket, in an oak”; in Servia it is “in a board, in
the heart of a fox, in a mountain” ; in Transylvania “it is in a light, in
an egg, in a duck, in a pond, in a mountain ;” in Norway it is “in an
egg, in a duck, in a well, in a church, on an island, in a lake”; in the
Hebrides it is “in an egg, in the belly of a duck, in the belly of a
wether, under a flagstone on the threshold.” It is impossible to imagine
the human mind independently imagining such bizarre convolutions.
They were borrowed from one nation to the other, and till we have
reason shown to the contrary, the original lender was a Hindu. I should
add that the mere conception of an external soul occurs in the oldest
Egyptian tale of “The Two Brothers,” but the wrappings are absent.

V. THE BROKEN POT.

Source.—Pantschatantra, V. ix., tr. Benfey, ii. 345-6.
Parallels.—Benfey, in § 209 of his Eznleztung, gives bibliographica
references to most of those which are given at length in Prof. M.
Miiller’s brilliant essay on “The Migration of Fables” (Selected
Essays, i. 500-76), which is entirely devoted to the travels of the fable

Q
24.0 Notes and References

from India to La Fontaine. Seealso Mr. Clouston, Pop. Tales, ii. 432
seg. I have translated the Hebrew version in my essay, “ Jewish
Influence on the Diffusion of Folk-Tales,” pp. 6-7. Our proverb,
“Do not count your chickens before they are hatched,” is ultimately
to be derived from India.

feemarks.—The stories of Alnaschar, the Barber's fifth brother in
the Arabian Nights, and of La Perette, who counted her chickens
before they were hatched, in La Fontaine, are demonstrably derived
from the same Indian original from which our story was obtained.
The travels of the “ Fables of Bidpai” from India to Europe are well
known and distinctly traceable. I have given a rough summary of the
chief critical results in the introduction to my edition of the earliest
English version of the Fadles of Bidpat, by Sir Thomas North, of
Plutarch fame (London, D. Nutt, “ Bibliothéque de Carabas,” 1888),
where I have given an elaborate genealogical table of the multitudinous
versions. La Fontaine’s version, which has rendered the fable so
familiar to us all, comes from Bonaventure des Periers, Contes ef
Nouvelles, who got it from the Dzalogus Creaturarum of Nicholaus
Pergamenus, who derived it from the Sermones of Jacques de Vitry
{see Prof. Crane’s edition, No. li.), who probably derived it from the
Directorium Humana Vite of John of Capua, a converted Jew, who |
translated it from the Hebrew version of the Arabic Kallah wa
Dininah, which was itself derived from the old Syriac version of a
Pehlevi translation of the original Indian work, probably called after
Karataka and Damanaka, the names of two jackals who figure in the
earlier stories of the book. Prof. Rhys-Davids informs me that these
names are more akin to Pali than to Sanskrit, which makes it still
more probable that the whole literature is ultimately to be derived

_ from a Buddhist source.

The theme of La Perette is of interest as showing the Zterary
transmission of tales from Orient to Occident. It also shows the
possibility of an influence of literary on oral tradition, as is shown by .
our proverb, and by the fact, which Benfey mentions, that La Fon-
taine’s story has had influence on two of Grimm’s tales, Nos. 164, 168.

VI. THE MAGIC FIDDLE.

Source.—A. Campbell, Santal Folk- Tales, 1892, pp. 52-6, with some
verbal alterations. A Bonga is the presiding spirit of a certain kind |
of rice land; Doms and Hadis are low-caste aborigines, whose touch
is considered polluting. The Santals are a forest tribe, who live in the
Notes and References 241

Santal Parganas, 140 miles N.W. of Calcutta (Sir W. W. Hunter,
The Indian Empire, 57-60).

Paraliels.—Another version occurs in Campbell, p. 106 seg., which
shows that the story is popular among the Santals. It is obvious,
however, that neither version contains the real finish of the story,
which must have contained the denunciation of the magic fiddle of
the murderous sisters. This would bring it under the formula of The
Stnuging Bone, which M. Monseur has recently been studying with a
reniarkable collection. of European {variants in the Bulletin of the
‘Wallon Folk-Lore Society of Liége (cf Eng. Fairy Tales, No. ix.).
There is a singing bone in Steel-Temple’s Wrdeawake Stories,
pp. 127 seg. (“ Little Anklebone”). ‘

Renarks.—Here we have another theme of the common store of
European folk-tales;found in India. Unfortunately, the form in which
it occurs is mutilated, and we cannot draw any definite conclusion
from it. ‘

VII. THE CRUEL CRANE OUTWITTED.

Source-—The Baka-Jataka, Fausbdéll, No. 38, tr. Rhys-Davids,
Pp. 315-21. The Buddha this time is the Genius of the Tree.
Parallels.—This Jataka got into the Bidpai literature, and occurs in

Se OY
BARN AAR N
SS

At

F SS

tf
we



all its multitudinous offshoots (see Benfey, Einledtung, § 60) among
ethers in the earliest English translation by North (my edition, pp. 118-
22), where the crane becomes ‘fa great Paragone of India (of those
that live a hundredth yeares and neuer mue their feathers).” The crab,
24.2 Notes and References

on hearing the ill news “called to. Parliament all the Fishes of the:
Lake,” and before all are devoured destroys the Paragon, as in the
Jataka, and returned to the remaining fishes, who “all with one consent
gave hir many a thanke.” ;

Remarks.—An interesting point, to which I have drawn attention in:
my Introduction to North’s Bidpai, is the probability that the illustra-
tions of the tales as well as the tales themselves, were translated, so to;
speak, from one country to another. We can trace them in Latin,,
Hebrew, and Arabic MSS., and a few are extant on Buddhist Stupas..
Under these circumstances, it may be of interest to compare with Mr.
Batten’s conception of the Crane and the Crab (supra, p. 50) that
of the German artist who illustrated the first edition of the Latin.
Bidpai, probably following the traditional representations of the MS.»
which itself could probably trace back to India.

VIII. LOVING LAILI.

Source.—Miss Stokes, Jndian Fairy Tales, pp. 73-84. Majnun and
Laili are conventional names for lovers, the Romeo and Juliet of
Hindostan. :

. Parallels.—Living in animals’ bellies occurs elsewhere in.Miss Stokes”
book, pp. 66, 124; also in Miss Frere’s, 188. The restoration of beauty
by fire occurs as a frequent theme (Temple, Analysis, I11. vi. f. p. 418).
Readers will be reminded of the déxouement of Mr. Rider Haggard’s
She. Resuscitation from ashes has been used very effectively by Mr.
Lang in his delightful Przzce Prigzo.

Remarks.—The white skin and blue eyes of Prince Majnun
deserve attention. They are possibly a relic of the days of Aryan
conquest, when the fair-skinned, fair-haired Aryan conquered the
swarthier. aboriginals. The name for caste in Sanskrit is varna,
“colour”; and one Hindu cannot insult another more effectually than
by calling him a black man. C/- Stokes, pp. 238-9, who suggests that
the red hair is something solar, and derived from myths of the solar

hero.
IX. THE TIGER, THE BRAHMAN, AND THE JACKAL.

Source.-—Steel-Temple, Wideawake Stories, pp. 116-20; first pub-
lished in Zndian Antiguary, xii. p. 170 seq. ;

Parallels.—-No less than 94 parallels are given by Prof. K. Krohn in his
elaborate discussion of this fable in his dissertation, Mann und Fuchs,
(Helsingfors, 1891), pp. 38-60; to which may be added three Indian
variants, omitted by him, but mentioned by Capt. Temple, 7. c., p. 324>
Notes and References 24.3

in the Bhdgavata Purdna, the Gui Bakdolt and Jud. Ant. xii. 177 ; and
a couple more in my sof, p. 253: add Smeaton, Karens, p. 126.

Remarks.—Prof. Krohn comes to the conclusion that the majority, of
the oral forms of: the tale come from literary versions (p. 47), whereas
the Reynard form has only had influence on a single variant. He
reduces the century of variants to three type forms. The first occurs in
two Egyptian versions collected in the present day, as well as in Petrus
Alphonsi in the twelfth century, and the Fadule Extravagantes of the
thirteenth or fourteenth: here the ingrate animal is a crocodile, which
asks to be carried away from a river about to dry up, and there is only
one judge. The second is that current in India and represented by the’
story in the present collection: here the judges are three. . The third is
that current among Western Europeans, which has spread to S. Africa
and N. and S. America: alsothree judges. Prof. K. Krohn counts the
first the original form, owing to the single judge and the naturalness of
the opening, by which the critical situation is brought about. The
further question arises, whether this form, though found in Egypt now,
is indigenous there, and if so, how it got to the East. Prof. Krohn
grants the possibility of the Egyptian form having been invented in
India and carried to Egypt, and he allows that the European forms
have been influenced by the Indian. The “Egyptian” form is found
in Burmah (Smeaton, 4 ¢., p. 128), as well as the Indian, a fact of
which Prof. K. Krohn was unaware though it turns ‘his whole
argument. The evidence we have of other folk-tales of the beast-
epic emanating from India improves the chances of this also
‘coming from that.source. One thing at least is certain: all these
hundred variants come ultimately from one-source. The incident
“Inside again” of the Arabian Nights (the Djinn and the Bol) and
European tales is also a secondary derivate.

xX. THE SOOTHSAYER’S SON,

Source.—Mrs. Kingscote, Tales of ithe Sun (p. 11 seg.), from Pandit
Natesa Sastri’s Folk-Lore of Southern India, pt. ii., originally from
Ind. Antiguary. 1 have considerably condensed and modified the
somewhat Babu English of the original.

Parallels.—See. Benfey, Pantschatantra, § 71,1. pp. 193-222, who
quotes the Karma /dtaka as the ultimate source: it also occurs in the
Saccankira Jataka (Fausboll, No. 73), trans. Rev. R. Mojris, Fodk-
Lore Jour. iii. 348 seg. ‘The story of the ingratitude of man compared
with the gratitude of beasts came early to the West, where it occurs in
the Gesta Romanorum, c. 119. It was possibly from-an early form of
244 Notes and References

this collection that Richard Cceur de Lion got the story, and used it to
rebuke the ingratitude of the English nobles on his return in 1195.
Matthew Paris tells the story, své anno (it is an addition of his to
Ralph Disset), Hzs¢. JZajor, ed. Luard, ii. 413-6, how a lion and a serpent
and a Venetian named Vitalis were saved from a pit by a woodman,
Vitalis promising him half his fortune, fifty talents. The lion brings
his benefactor a leveret, the serpent “gemmam pretiosam,” probably “the
precious jewel in his head” to which Shakespeare alludes (As You Like
ft, ii. 1., of Benfey, 7. ¢., p. 214, 7.), but Vitalis refuses to have anything
to do with him, and altogether repudiates the fifty talents. ‘“ Hzec
referebat Rex Richardus{munificus, ingratos redarguendo.”

keemarks.—Apart from the interest of its wide travels, and its appear-
ance in the standard medizval History of England by Matthew Paris,
the modern story shows the remarkable persisterice of folk-tales in the
popular mind. Here we have collected from the Hindu peasant of to-
day a tale which was probably told before Buddha, over two thousand
years ago, and certainly included among the Jatakas before the Chris-
tian era. The same thing has occurred with The Tiger, Brahman, and
Jackal (No. ix. supra).



XI. HARISARMAN,

Source.—Somadeva, Katha-Sarit-Sagara, trans. Tawney (Calcutta;
1880), i. pp. 272-4. I have slightly toned down the inflated style of
the original.

Paratlels—Benfey has collected and discussed a number in Orient
and Occident, i. 371 seg., see also Tawney, ad loc. The most remark-
able of the parallels is that afforded by the Grimms’ “ Doctor Allwis-
send” (No. 98), which extends even to such a minute point as his
exclamation, “Ach, ich armer Krebs,” whereupon a crab is discovered
under a dish. The usual form of discovery of the thieves is for the
Dr. Knowall to have so many days given him to discover the thieves,
and at the end of the first day he calls out, “There’s one of them,”
meaning the days, just as one of the thieves peeps through at him.
Hence the title and the plot of C. Lever’s One of Them.

XII. THE CHARMED RING.

Source.—Knowles, Folk-Tales of Kashmir, pp. 20-8,

Parallels—The incident of the Aiding Animals is frequent in
folk-tales: see bibliographical references, sad voce, in my List of
Incidents, Zrans. Folk-Lore Congress, p. 88; also Knowles, 21, 7. >
Notes and References 245

and Temple, Wideawake Stortes, pp. 401, 412. The Magic Ring is
also “common form” in folk-tales ; cf Kohler af. Marie de France,
Lats, ed. Warncke, p. lxxxiv. And the whole story is to be found
very widely spread from India (Wideawake Stories, pp. 196-206) to
England (Ezy. Fairy Tales, No. xvii, “ Jack and his Golden Snuff-box,”
cf. Notes, zdzd.), the most familiar form of it being “ Aladdin and the
Wonderful Lamp.”

Remarks.—M. Cosquin has pointed out (Condes de Lorraine, p. xi. seg.)
that the incident of the rat’s-tail-up-nose to recover the ring from the
stomach of an ogress, is found among Arabs, Albanians, Bretons, and
Russians. It is impossible to imagine that incident—occurring in the
same series of incidents—to have been invented more than once, and if
that part of the story has been borrowed from India, there is no reason
why the whole of it should not have arisen in India, and have been
spread tothe West. The English variant was derived from an English
Gipsy, and suggests the possibility that for this particular story the
medium of transmission has been the Gipsies. This contains the
incident of the. loss of the ring by the faithful animal, which again
could not have been independently invented.

XII. THE TALKATIVE TORTOISE.







































Source-—The Kacchapa Jataka, Fausbéll, No. 215; also in his Fzve
Jatakas, pp. 16, 41, tr. Rhys-Davids, pp. vili-x.
24.6 Notes and References

Parattels.—It_ occurs also in the Bidpai literature, in nearly all its
multitudinous offshoots. See Benfey, Eznledtung, § 84 ; also my Bidpai,E,
4a; and North’s text, pp. 170-5, where it is the taunts of the other birds
that cause the catastrophe: “O here is a brave sight, looke, here is a
goodly ieast, what bugge haue we here,” said some. “See, see, fhe
hangeth by the throte, and therefor fhe fpeaketh not,” saide others ;
“and the beast flieth not like a beast ;” so she opened her mouth and
“ pafhte hir all to pieces.” :

Remarks.—I have reproduced in my edition the original illustration
of the first English Bidpai, itself derived from the Italian block, A
replica of it here may serve to show that it could be used equally well
to illustrate the Pali original as its English great-great-great-great-
great-great grand-child. :

XIV. LAC OF RUPEES.

Source.—Knowles, Folk-Tales of Kashmir, pp. 32-41. 1 have
reduced the pieces of advice to three, and curtailed somewhat.

Parallels.—See Celtic Fairy Tales, No. xxii.. “Tale of Ivan,” from
the old Cornish, now extinct, and notes z颢. Mr. Clouston points out
(Pop. Tales, ii. 319) that it occurs in Buddhist literature, in “ Budda-
ghoshas Parables,” as “The Story of Kulla Pauthaka.”

femarks.—lt is indeed curious to find the story better told in Corn-
wall than in the land of its birth, but there can be little doubt that
the Buddhist version is the earliest and original form of the story.
The piece of advice was originally a charm, in which a youth was to
say to himself, “Why are you busy? Why are you busy?” He does
so when thieves are about, and so saves the king’s treasures, of which
he gets an appropriate share. It would perhaps be as well if many of
us should say to ourselves “ Ghatesa, ghatesa, kim kérana?”

XV. THE GOLD-GIVING SERPENT.

Source.—Pantschatantra, Il. v., tr. Benfey, ii. 244-7.

Parallels given in my sop, Ro. ii. 10, p. 40. The chief points
about them are—(r) though the tale does not exist in either Phzedrus
or Babrius, it occurs in prose derivates from the Latin by Ademar, 6s,
and “ Romulus,” ii. ro, and from Greek, in Gabrias, 45, and the prose
sop, ed. Halm, 96; Gitlbauer has restored the Babrian form in his
edition of Babrius, No. 160. (2) The. fable: occurs among folk-tales,
Notes and References 24.7
Grimm, 105; Woycicki, Polm. Mdhr. 105; Gering, fslensk. 4 vent:
59, possibly derived from La Fontaine, x. 12.

Remarks.—Benfey has proved most ingeniously and conclusively
(Zin. i. 359) that the Indian fable is the source of both Latin and
Greek fables. . 1 may borrow from my sof, p. 93, parallel abstracts
of the three versions, putting Benfey’s results in a graphic form,
series of bars indicating the passages where the classical fables have



failed to preserve the original.

BIDPAI.

_ A Brahmin once observed a suake in
his field, and thinking it the tutelary
‘spirit of the field, he offered it a liba-
tion of milk in a bowl. Next day he
finds a piece of gold in the bowl, and he
receives this each day after offering the
libation. One day he had to go else-
where, and he sent his son with the liba-
tion. The son sees the gold, and think-

ing the serpent’s hole full of treasure -

determines to slay the snake. Hestrikes
at its head with a cudgel, and the en-
raged serpent stings him to death. The
Brahmin mourns his son’s death, but
next morning’as usual brings the liba-
tion of milk (in the hope of getting the
gold as before). The serpent appears
after a long delay at the mouth of its
lair, and declares their friendship at an
end, as it could not forget the blow of
the Brahmin’s son, nor the Brahmin his
son's death from the bite of the snake.

Pants. Il. v. (Benf, 244-7).

PH2EDRINE.

- - - Agood man had become friendly
with the snake, who came into his house
and brought luck with it, so that the
man became rich through it. - - - One
day he struck the serpent, which dis-
appeared, and with it the man’s riches.
The good man tries to make it up, but
the serpent declares their friendship at
an end, as it could not forget the
blow.

Phzed. Dressl. VII. 28 (Rom. II. xi.)

BABRIAN,

A serpent stung a farmer's son to
death. The father pursued the serpent
with an axe, and struck off part of its
tail. Afterwards fearing its vengeance
he brought food and honey to its lair,
and begged reconciliation. The serpent,
however, declares friendship impossible,
as it could not forget the blow - - - nor
the farmer his son's death from the bite
of the snake.

Esop, Halm 96? (Babrius-Gitlb. 160).

In the Indian fable every step of the action is thoroughly justified,
whereas the Latin form does not explain why the snake was friendly
in the first instance, or why the good man was enraged afterwards ;
and the Greek form starts abruptly, without explaining why the
serpent had killed the farmers. son. Make a composite of the
Pheedrine and Babrian forms, and you get the Indian one, which is
thus shown to be the original of both.
248 Notes and References

XVI. THE SON OF SEVEN QUEENS.

Source.—Steel-Temple, Wideawake Stories, pp. 98-110, originally
published in Jud. Antig. x. 147 seg.

Parallels.—A \ong variant follows in Jud. Antig., 7. ¢c. M. Cosquin
refers to several Oriental variants, 7.¢. p. xxx. 7. For the direction
tabu, see Note on Princess Labam, sufrva, No. 1. The “letter
to kill bearer” and “letter substituted” are frequent in both Euro-
pean (see my List s. v.) and Indian Folk-Tales (Temple, Analysis, II.
iv. 4, 6, p. 410). The id2a of a son of seven mothers could only arise
in a polygamous country. It occurs in “ Punchkin,” supra, No. iv. ;
Day, Folk-Tales of Bengal, 117 seg., Ind. Antig. i. 170 (Temple, 7. ¢.,
398).

Remarks. —M. Cosquin (Contes de Lorraine, p. xxx.) points out how,
in a Sicilian story, Gonzenbach (S7zsz?. Mahr. No. 80), the seven
co-queens are transformed into seven step-daughters of the envious
witch who causes their eyes to be taken out. It is thus probable,
though M. Cosquin does not point this out, that the “ envious step-
mother” of folk-tales (see my List, s. v.) was originally an envious
co-wife. But there can be little doubt of what M. Cosquin does point
out—viz., that the Sicilian story is derived from the Indian one.

XVII. A LESSON FOR KINGS.

Source—Rajovada Jataka, Fausboll, No. 151, tr. Rhys-Davids,
pp. XxXil.—vi.

Remarks.—This is one of the earliest of moral allegories in exist-
ence. The moralising tone of the Jatakas must be conspicuous to all
reading them. Why, they can moralise even the Tar Baby (see
znfra, Note on “Demon with the Matted Hair,” No. xxv.).

XVIII. PRIDE GOETH BEFORE A FALL.

Source.—Kingscote, Tales of the Sun. 1 have changed the Indian
mercantile numerals into those of English “ back-slang,” which make
a very good parallel.

XIX. RAJA RASALU.

Source.-—Steel-Temple, Wirdeawake Stories, pp. 247-80, omitting
“ How Raja Rasalu was orn,” ‘‘ How Raja Rasalu’s Friends Forsook
Him,” “How Raja Rasalu Killed the Giants,” and “How Raja
Rasalu became a Jogi.” A further version in Temple, Legends of
Notes and References 249

- Panjab, vol.i. Chaupur,1 should explain, is a game played by two
players with eight men, eachon a board in the shape of across, four men
to each cross covered with squares. The moves of the men are decided
by the throws of a long form of dice. The object of the game is to
see which of the players can first move all his men into the black
centre square of the cross (Temple, 7. ¢., p. 344, and Legends of Panjab,
i, 243-5). It is sometimes said to be the origin of chess.

Paralleis—Rev. C. Swynnerton, “Four Legends about Raja
Rasalu,” in Folk-Lore Journal, p. 158 seg., also in separate book
much enlarged, The Adventures of Raja Rasalu, Calcutta, 1884.
Curiously enough, the real interest of the story comes after the end of
our part of it, for Kokilan, when she grows up, is married to Raja
Rasalu, and behaves as sometimes youthful wives behave to elderly
husbands. He gives her her lover's heart to eat, d 4a Decameron, and
she dashes herself over the rocks. For the parallels of this part of the
legend see my edition of Painter’s Palace of Pleasure, tom. i. Tale 39,
or, better, the Programm of H. Patzig, Zur Geschichte der Hersindre
(Berlin, 1891). Gambling for life occurs in Celtic and other folk-tales ;
cf. my List of Incidents, s. v. “Gambling for Magic Objects.”

Remarks.—Raja Rasalu is possibly a historic personage, according
to Capt. Temple, Calcutta Review, 1884, p. 397, flourishing in the
eighth or ninth century. There is a place cailed Sirikap ka-kila in
the neighbourhood of Sialkot, the traditional seat of Rasalu on the
Indus, not far from Atlock.

Herr Patzig is strongly for the Eastern origin of the romance,
and finds its earliest appearance in the West in the Anglo-Norman
troubadour, Thomas’ Lat Guzrun, where it becomes part of the
Tristan cycle. There is, so far as I know, no proof of the earliest
part of the Rasalu legend (or part) coming to Europe, except the
existence of the gambling incidents of the same kind in Celtic and
other folk-tales.

XX. THE ASS IN THE LION’S SKIN.

Source —The Sila Camma Jataka, Fausboll, No. 189, trans. Rhys-
Davids, pp. v. vi. ;

Parallels—It also occurs in Somadeva, Katha Sarit Sagara, ed.
Tawney, ii. 65, and #. For A®sopic parallels cf my sop, Av. iv.
It is in Babrius, ed. Gitlbaur, 218 (from Greek prose ASsop, ed. Halm, No.
323), and Avian, ed. Ellis, 5, whence it came into the modern Asop.

Remarks.—Avian wrote towards the end of the third century, and
put into Latin mainly those portions of Babrius which are unparalleled
250 Notes and References

by Phzedrus. Consequently, as I have shown, he has a much larger
proportion of Eastern elements than Pheedrus. There can be little
doubt that the Ass in the Lion’s Skin is from India. As Prof. Rhys-
Davids remarks, the Indian form gives a plausible motive for the
masquerade which is wanting in the ordinary AZsopic version..

XXI. THE FARMER AND THE MONEY-LENDER.

Source.—Steel- Temple, Wideawake Stori Zes, Pp. 215- 8.

Parallels enumerated in my sof, Av. xvii. See also Jacques de
Vitry, Exempla, ed. Crane, No. 196 (see notes, p. 212), and Bozon,
Contes moralisés, No. 112. It occurs in Avian, ed. Ellis, No. 22. Mr.
Kipling has a very similar tale in his Life's Handicap.

Remarks.—Here we have collected in modern India what one cannot
help thinking is the Indian original of a fable of Avian. The pre-
ceding number showed one of his fables existing among the Jatakas,
probably before the Christian era. This makes it likely that we shall
find an earlier Indian original of the fable of the Avaricious and
Envious, perhaps among the Jatakas still untranslated.

XXII. THE BOY WITH MOON ON FOREHEAD.

Source.—Miss Stokes’ Jadian Fairy Tales, No. 20, pp. 119-137.

Parallels to heroes and heroines in European fairy tales, with stars
on their foreheads, are given with some copiousness in Stokes, 7. c.,
pp. 242-3. This is an essentially Indian trait; almost all Hindus
have some tribal or caste mark on their bodies or faces. The choice
of the hero disguised as a menial is also common property of Indian
and European fairy tales: see Stokes, /. ¢., p. 231, and my List of
Incidents (s. v. “ Menial Disguise.”)

XXII THE PRINCE AND THE FAKIR.

Source.—Kindly communicated by Mr. M. L. Dames from his un-
published collection of Baluchi tales. :
Remarks.—Unholy fakirs are rather rare. See Temple, Analysis,

I. il. @, p- 394.
XXIV. WHY THE FISH LAUGHED.

Source.—Knowles, Folk-Tales of Kashmir, pp. 484-90. :
Parailels.—The latter part is the formula of the Clever Lass who
Notes and References 251

guesses riddles. She has been bibliographised by Prof. Child, Ezg.
and Scotch Ballads, i. 485; see also Benfey, K/. Schr. ii. 156 seq.
The sex test at the end is different from any of those enumerated by
Prof. Kéhler on Gonzenbach, Sezil. Mahr. ii. 216. :

Remarks—Here we have a further example of a whole formula, or
series. of incidents, common to most European collections, found in
India, and in a quarter, too, where European influence is little likely
to penetrate. Prof. Benfey, in an elaborate dissertation (‘‘ Die Kluge
Dirne,” in Azsland, 1859, Nos. 20-25, now reprinted in KZ. Schr. ii.
156 seg.), has shown the wide spread of the theme both in early Indian
literature (though probably there derived from the folk) and in modern
European folk literature.

XXV. THE DEMON WITH THE MATTED HAIR.

Source.—The Pancavudha-Jitaka, Fausbiéll, No. 55, kindly trans-
lated for this book by Mr. W. H. D. Rouse, of Christ’s College,
Cambridge. There is a brief abstract of the Jataka in Prof. Estlin
Carpenter's sermon, Three Ways of Salvation, 1884, p. 27, where my
attention was first called to this Jataka.

Parallels.—Most readers of these Notes will remember the central
episode of Mr. J. C. Harris’ Uncle Remus, in which Brer Fox, annoyed
at Brer Rabbit’s depredations, fits up “a contrapshun, what he calls a
Tar Baby.” Brer Rabbit, coming along that way, passes the time
of day with Tar Baby, and, annoyed at its obstinate silence, hits it with
right fist and with left, with left fist and with right, which successively
stick to the “contrapshun,” till at fast he butts with his head, and that
sticks too, whereupon Brer Fox, who all this time had “lain low,”
saunters out, and complains of Brer Rabbit that he is too stuck up.
In the sequel Brer Rabbits begs Brer Fox that he may “ drown me as
deep ez you please, skin me, scratch out my eyeballs, t’ar out my years
by the roots, en cut off my legs, but do don’t fling me in dat brier
patch;” which, of course, Brer Fox does, only to be informed by
the cunning Brer Rabbit that he had been “bred en bawn in a brier
patch.” The story is a favourite one with the negroes : it occurs in
Col. Jones’ Negro Myths of the Georgia Coast (Uncle Remus is from
S. Carolina), also among those of Brazil (Romero, Coztos do Brazil),
and in the West Indian Islands (Mr. Lang, “ At the Sign of the Ship,”
Longmans Magazine, Feb. 1889). We can trace it to Africa, where
it occurs in Cape Colony (South African Foik-Lore Journal, vol. i.).

Remarks.—The five-fold attack on the Demon and the Tar Baby is
so preposterously ludicrous that it cannot have been independently
252 Notes and References

invented, and we must therefore assume that they are causally con-
nected, and the existence of the variant in South Africa clinches the
matter, and gives us a landing-stage between India and America.
There can be little doubt that the Jataka of Prince Five Weapons
came to Africa, possibly by Buddhist missionaries, spread among the
negroes, and then took ship in the holds of slavers for the New World,
where it is to be found in fuller form than any yet discovered in the
home of its birth. I say Buddhist missionaries, because there is a
certain amount of evidence that the negroes have Buddhistic symbols
among them, and we can only explain the identification of Brer Rabbit
with Prince Five Weapons, and so with Buddha himself, by supposing
the change to have originated among Buddhists,-where it would be
quite natural. For one of the most celebrated metempsychoses of
Buddha is that detailed in the Sasa /Jdtaka (Fausbdll, No. 316, tr. R.
Morris, Folk-Lore Journal, ii. 336), in which the Buddha, as a hare,
performs a sublime piece of self-sacrifice, and as a reward is trans-
lated to the moon, where he can be seen to this day as “the hare in
the moon.” Every Buddhist is reminded of the virtue of self-sacrifice
whenever the moon is full, and it is easy to understand how the
Buddha became identified as the Hare or Rabbit. A striking con-
firmation of this, in connection with our immediate subject, is offered
by Mr. Harris’ sequel volume, Wights with Uncle Remus. Were
there is a whole chapter (xxx.) on ‘“‘ Brer Rabbit and his famous Foot,”
and it is well known how the worship of Buddha’s foot developed in
later Buddhism. No wonder Brer Rabbit is so ’cute: he is nothing
less than an incarnation of Buddha. Among the Karens of Burmah,
where Buddhist influence is still active, the Hare holds exactly the
same place in their folk-lore as Brer Rabbit among the negroes. The
sixth chapter of Mr. Smeaton’s book on them is devoted to “ Fireside
Stories,” and is entirely taken up with adventures of the Hare, all of
which can be paralled from Uncle Remus.

Curiously enough, the negro form of the five-fold attack—* fighting
with jive fists,” Mr. Barr would call it—is probably nearer to the original
legend than that preserved in the Jataka, though 2000 years older.
For we may be sure that the thunderbolt of Knowledge did not exist
in the original, but was introduced by some Buddhist Mr. Barlow, who,
like Alice’s Duchess, ended all his tales with : “And the moral of that
is ” For no well-bred demon would have been taken in by
so simple a “sell” as that indulged in by Prince Five-Weapons in our
Jataka, and it is probable, therefore, that Uncle Remus preserves a
reminiscence of the original Indian reading of the tale. On the other



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Notes and References 258

hand, it is probable that Carlyle’s Indian god with the fire in his belly
was derived from Prince Five-Weapons.

The negro variant has also suggested to Mr. Batten an explanation
of the whole story which is extremely plausible, though it introduces a
method of folk-lore exegesis which has been overdriven to death.
The Sasa /dtaka identifies the Brer Rabbit Buddha with the hare
in the moon. It is well known that Easterns explain an eclipse of the
moon as due to its being swallowed up bya Dragon or Demon. May
not, asks Mr. Batten, the Pancavudha Jataka be an idealised account
of an eclipse of the moon? ‘This suggestion receives strong confirm-
ation from the Demon’s reference to Rahu, who does, in Indian myth
swallow the moon at times of eclipse. The Jataka accordingly contains
the Buddhist explanation why the moon—ze. the hare in the moon, ze.
Buddha—is not altogether swallowed up by the Demon of Eclipse, the
Demon with the Matted Hair. Mr. Batten adds that in imagining
what kind of Demon the Eclipse Demon was, the Jataka writer was
probably aided by recollections of some giant octopus, who has saucer
eyes and a kind of hawk’s beak, knobs on its “tusks,” and avery varie-
gated belly (gasteropod). It is obviously unfair of Mr. Batten both
to illustrate and also to explain so well the Tar Baby Jataka—taking
the scientific bread, so to speak; out of a poor folk-lorist’s mouth—
but his explanations seem to me so convincing that I cannot avoid
including them in these Notes.

I am, however, not so much concerned with the original explanation
of the Jataka as to trace its travels across the continents of Asia,
Africa, and America. I think I have done this satisfactorily, and will
have thereby largely strengthened the case for less extensive travels
of other tales. I have sufficient confidence of the method employed
to venture on that most hazardous of employments, scientific prophecy.
I venture to predict that the Tar Baby story will be found in
Madagascar in a form nearer the Indian than Uncle Remus, and I
will go further, and say that it will #o¢ be found in the grand
Helsingfors collection of folk-tales, though this includes 12,000, of which
1000 are beast-tales.

XXVI. THE IVORY PALACE.

Source.— Knowles, Folk-Tales of Kashmir, pp. 211-25, with some
slight omissions. Gulizar is Persian for rosy-cheeked.

Paraltlels—Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales, No. 27. ‘‘ Panwpatti Rani,”
pp. 208-15, is the same story. Another version in the collection Battal
Pachist, No. 1.
254 Notes and References



Remarks —The themes of love by mirror, and the faithful friend, are
common European, though the calm attempt at poisoning is perhaps
characteristically Indian, and reads like a page from Mr. Kipling.

XXVII. SUN, MOON, AND WIND.

Source.—Miss Frere, Old Deccan Days, No. 10, pp. 153-5.
_ Remarks.—Miss Frere observes that she has not altered the
traditional mode of the Moon’s conveyance of dinner to her mother
the Star, though it must, she fears, impair the value of the story as a
mo ral lesson in the eyes of all instructors of youth.

XXVIII. HOW WICKED SONS WERE DUPED.

Source.—Knowles, Folk- Tales of Kashmir, pp. 241-2.

Paratlels.—A Gaelic parallel was given by Campbell in | Trans.
Lthnol. Soc., ii. p. 336 ; an Anglo-Latin one from the Middle Ages by
T. Wright a ae ae (Percy Soc.), No. 26; and for these and
points of anthropological interest in the Celtic variant see Mr. Gomme’s.
article in Fo/k-Lore, i. pp. 197-206, “A Highland Folk-Tale and its
Origin in Custom.” ;

Remarks.—Mr. Gomme is of opinion that the tale arose from certain.
rhyming formule occurring in the Gaelic and Latin tales as written on
a mallet left by the old man in the box opened after his death. The
rhymes are to the effect that a father who gives up his wealth to his
children in his own lifetime deserves to be put to death with the mallet.
Mr. Gomme gives evidence that it was an archaic custom to put old-
sters to death after they had become helpless. He also points out
that it was customary for estates to be divided and surrendered during
the owners’ lifetime, and generally he connects a good deal of primi- |
tive custom with our story. I have already pointed out in Fo/k-Lore,
p- 403, that the existence of the tale in Kashmir without any reference
to the mallet makes it impossible for the rhymes on the mallet to be
the source of the story. As a matter of fact, it is a very embarrassing
addition to it, since the rhyme tells against the parent, and the story
is intended to tell against the ungrateful children. The existence of
the tale in India renders it likely enough that it is not indigenous to
the British Isles, but an Oriental importation... It is obvious, therefore,
that it cannot be used as anthropological evidence of the existence of
the primitive customs to be found in it. The whole incident, indeed,
is a striking example of the dangers of the anthropological method of
dealing with folk-tales before some attempt is made to settle the ques-
tions of origin and diffusion.
Notes and References 215.5

XXIX. THE PIGEON AND THE CROW.

Source.—The Lola Jataka, Fausbill, No. 274, kindly translated
and slightly abridged for this book by Mr. W. H. D. Rouse.

Remarks.—We hegan with an animal Jataka, and may appro-
priately finish with one which shows how effectively the writers of the
Jatakas could represent animal folk, and how terribly moral they in-
variably were in their tales. I should perhaps add that the Bodhisat
is not precisely the Buddha himself but a character which is on its

way to becoming perfectly enlightened, and so may be called a future
Buddha.



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