Citation
Not of woman born

Material Information

Title:
Not of woman born monstrous interfaces and monstrosity in video games
Creator:
Taylor, Laurie N.
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2006
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Childrens games ( jstor )
Computer games ( jstor )
Documentary films ( jstor )
Educational games ( jstor )
Fear ( jstor )
Horror fiction ( jstor )
Narratives ( jstor )
Siblings ( jstor )
Video games ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Computer technologies ( JSTOR )
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- UF
English thesis, Ph. D
Fairy tales ( JSTOR )
Family structure ( JSTOR )
Femininity ( JSTOR )
Game theory ( JSTOR )
Gothic, horror, video
Horror fiction ( JSTOR )
Social structures ( JSTOR )
Video games ( JSTOR )
Visual materials ( JSTOR )
City of Gainesville ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Not of Woman Born combines an examination of the structure and genre of horror within video games to analyze how horror video games operate and the significance of those workings to video games and digital media, horror across media types, Gothic literature, and gender. The majority of texts on games like Espen Aarseth's Cybertext and Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman's Rules of Play have focused on founding the overall methods by which games operate, either in terms of other media forms or solely within games and new media. Not of Woman Born focuses on the particularities of horror games to illustrate commonalities in video games, and to illustrate how certain conventions fail or can be subverted in order to produce particular effects. Running through the chapters is an awareness of games and their current placement as mass-conglomerated media, even as games repeatedly diverge into alternative projects like independent and political games and movements like the Serious Games Initiative and the Games for Health projects. Not of Woman Born configures game and new media studies in such a way that gender studies and studies of Gothic literature expose the function of horror in/by video games, the relationship of gaming norms to that function, and the significance of horror games to typical and atypical video game playing and production from the typical technological improvements leading to improved graphical realism to the atypical and more complex connection among technology, design, and production. Essentially, Not of Woman Born serves as a foil to the structuralist studies by studying abnormal play and design, including the relevance of atypical design and play to innovative design for positive or more equivocal gender representations and for larger possibilities in game design. ( ,,,,,,,,,,, )
Abstract:
The Gothic functions as a series of monstrous becomings, and it is within these becomings that this study operates monstrosities made in the interface, the visual representations, the narratives, and in the technologies of horror games.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 2006.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
General Note:
Title from title page of source document.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 226 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Laurie N. Taylor.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Laurie N. Taylor. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
003589322 ( ALEPH )
658185363 ( OCLC )

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Full Text












NOT OF WOMAN BORN: MONSTROUS INTERFACES AND MONSTROSITY IN VIDEO GAMES













By

LAURIE N. TAYLOR


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2006


































Copyright 2006

by

Laurie N. Taylor



































To Pete.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I have many people to thank for this dissertation: my friends, family, and teachers. I would also like to thank the University of Florida for encouraging the study of popular media, with a high level of critical theory and competence. This dissertation also would not have been possible without the diligent help and guidance from my committee members, Donald Ault and Jane Douglas, as well as numerous other faculty members and graduate students both at the University of Florida and at other institutions. Thanks go to friends and loved ones (and cats): Colin, Jeremiah, Nix, Galahad, and Mila. And, thanks go always to Pete, for helping with research, discussion, giving me love and support, and for being wonderful.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


A CKN OW LED GM EN TS .............................................................................................. iv

A B S T R A C T ................................................................................................................. v iii

CHAPTER

I IN TROD U CTION .................................................................................................... 1

In tro d u ctio n .............................................................................................................. 1
The G othic ........................................................................................................ 5
H o rro r F ilm s ........................................................................................................... 1 1
Ludic G othic and H orror G am es .......................................................................... 14
G ender and Textuality ......................................................................................... 18
G am e Studies ..................................................................................................... 20

2 ENEMIES, MONSTERS, AND THE OTHER IN VIDEO GAMES ................... 23

Conflict, Opponents, Enem ies, and M onsters .......................................................... 24
The Player-Character and H er Opponent(s) ......................................................... 27
M onsters and H orror .......................................................................................... 29
M onstrous Focus in Resident Evil and Fatal Fram e ........................................... 33
M onsters and the Other ....................................................................................... 41
C o n c lu sio n ............................................................................................................. 4 3

3 FRACTURED INDENTITIES: SIBLINGS AND DOPPELGANGERS IN
V ID EO GAM E S ................................................................................................ 46

Siblings in Structure: Player-Characters and Enem ies ......................................... 51
Siblings in N arrative ............................................................................................ 55
Sibling W orlds: Chaos of Changing Structures ................................................. 60
Sibling W orlds: Enem ies and M onsters ............................................................. 66
C h a ra c te rs ............................................................................................................... 6 8
D oubles, Shadow s, and the Other ........................................................................ 70
Conclusion: Survival Horror and Family Border Crossings ................................ 74

4 GOTHIC SUBVERSIONS OF GENDER: WOMEN HEROES IN VIDEO
G A M E S .................................................................................................................. 7 6

G othic and G ender .............................................................................................. 78









G ender as Style .................................................................................................. 79
C o n c lu sio n ............................................................................................................. 9 9

5 REMNANTS, RUINS, AND RUPTURES: HORROR VIDEO GAMES'
SUBVERSION OF CAPITALISTIC CONCEPTIONS OF SPACE ...................... 102

In tro d u ctio n .......................................................................................................... 1 0 2
V ideo G am e Spatiality .......................................................................................... 104
Typical V ideo G am e Spatial Construction ............................................................ 106
Space in Ludic G othic and horror gam es ............................................................... 111
G othic, H orror, and Spaces of M em ory ................................................................. 118
G othic's D iscontents ............................................................................................. 121
C o n c lu sio n ........................................................................................................... 12 3

6 DOCUMENTING HORROR: VIDEO GAMES AS INTERACTIVE, AND
U NREAL, D O CU M EN TARIES ........................................................................... 126

In tro d u ctio n .......................................................................................................... 12 6
D ocum entary and D ocu-gam es ............................................................................. 129
M ock-docum entaries for the V oiceless and Invisible ............................................ 133
D ocu-gam es for the U ndocum entable ................................................................... 138
D ocum entary Traditions in Fictional G am es ......................................................... 145
C o n c lu sio n ........................................................................................................... 14 7

7 PLATFORM DEPENDENT: CONSOLE AND COMPUTER CULTURES ......... 152

In tro d u ctio n .......................................................................................................... 1 5 2
G am e Culture Platform D ependence ..................................................................... 155
A cadem ics and Com puter V s. Console G am es ...................................................... 156
Internal D ivisions: Console W ars .......................................................................... 160
G am ing Interface .................................................................................................. 163
Consoles are for K ids ............................................................................................ 166
Places and Ways of Play: Living Rooms, Online Hints, and Game Play
C o n v e n tio n s ..................................................................................................... 1 6 7
G a m e G e n re s ........................................................................................................ 1 7 3
Conclusion: Platform s for A cadem ics ................................................................... 174

8 SEQUELS, PREQUELS, AND SERIALITY IN VIDEO GAMES ....................... 176

In tro d u ctio n .......................................................................................................... 1 7 6
Continuing N arratives, Closure, and Character D evelopm ent ................................ 178
Serials and Series .................................................................................................. 180
Sequels, Prequels, and Seriality in G am es ............................................................. 187
Defying Closure: Serial Functioning of Ludic Gothic and Horror Games .............. 192
C o n c lu sio n ........................................................................................................... 1 9 9

LIST OF REFEREN CES ............................................................................................. 203



vi









BIO GR APH ICAL SK ETCH ....................................................................................... 217















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

NOT OF WOMAN BORN: MONSTROUS INTERFACES AND MONSTROSITY IN VIDEO GAMES

By

Laurie N. Taylor

May 2006

Chair: Donald Ault
Major Department: English

Not of Woman Born combines an examination of the structure and genre of horror within video games to analyze how horror video games operate and the significance of those workings to video games and digital media, horror across media types, Gothic literature, and gender.

The majority of texts on games-like Espen Aarseth's Cybertext and Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman's Rules of Play-have focused on founding the overall methods by which games operate, either in terms of other media forms or solely within games and new media. Not of Woman Born focuses on the particularities of horror games to illustrate commonalities in video games, and to illustrate how certain conventions fail or can be subverted in order to produce particular effects. Running through the chapters is an awareness of games and their current placement as mass-conglomerated media, even as games repeatedly diverge into alternative projects like independent and political games and movements like the Serious Games Initiative and the Games for Health projects. Not









of Woman Born configures game and new media studies in such a way that gender studies and studies of Gothic literature expose the function of horror in/by video games, the relationship of gaming norms to that function, and the significance of horror games to typical and atypical video game playing and production-from the typical technological improvements leading to improved graphical realism to the atypical and more complex connection among technology, design, and production. Essentially, Not of Woman Born serves as a foil to the structuralist studies by studying abnormal play and design, including the relevance of atypical design and play to innovative design for positive or more equivocal gender representations and for larger possibilities in game design. The Gothic functions as a series of monstrous becomings, and it is within these becomings that this study operates-monstrosities made in the interface, the visual representations, the narratives, and in the technologies of horror games.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
"Who are the girls who fight without weapons around their lord? The dark ones

always protect him, and the fair ones seek to destroy him." A game of chess.

Mark Bryant, Dictionary of Riddles.

Introduction

Given the recent books on video games, in addition to the online journal Game Studies and the printed Games and Culture journal, video games are beginning to be recognized as electronic, artistic, and literary forms. Not of Woman Born studies video games as an amalgamation of their electronic and literary aspects by studying horror and the Gothic in games. In particular, Not of Woman Born studies the Gothic and horror as they transfer into gaming, within games that contain elements of the Gothic and horror in a form I refer to as the ludic Gothic. The Gothic and horror genres, as they operate in other media and as they transform into the ludic Gothic for gaming, follow exacting formulas of production and, in doing so, also manage to disrupt the formulaic nature of much of game design. Ludic Gothic games thus allow for both innovation in game design and for alternate representations of norms, values, and concepts.

Ludic Gothic games draw on conventions of the Gothic for their imagery and their narratives, as well as to subvert typical game narrative conventions, typical game controls, and the history of gaming development. This subversion is also an act of transgression. "The usual subject of Gothic fiction can be described as the transgression of the paternal metaphor;" Fred Botting argues, "Transgression, however, is not simply a









celebratory breaking of laws and taboos considered unjust or repressive, nor is it a straightforward libertion from rules and conventions binding individuals within strict frameworks of duty or normative identity" (282). Botting continues to explain transgression in line with Foucault's concept of "play," whereby transgression relies on the prior limit and then the limit subsequently relies on the possibility of a real transgression. Ludic Gothic games similarly utilize the limits already present in gaming and in the overall trajectory of game design and development to subvert those limits in order to present new possibilities, and new implications, for game design and development. This dissertation studies ludic Gothic games to show how they operate in terms of gaming and to show their significance.

Instead of approaching games from a meta-level that seeks to analyze the entire medium, this book studies the extremely popular genre of horror games to analyze how the games reaffirm certain values while subverting others to thus become ludic Gothic. Horror games rely heavily on gaming and narrative conventions-conventions which are established through genre divisions as well as player expectations and are formed through player experience with other media and other mediated experiences-to either use or refute those conventions. Because horror is one of the most popular gaming genres and because it is one of the least studied by academia, horror has the potential to disrupt both player and academic expectations in ways that are significant to game studies and to larger cultural conceptions.

Game studies, new media studies, and gender studies, like earlier studies of Gothic literature, all study the relationship of the structure of an individual work to the work itself and to larger issues of the media form or genre. Gender studies most often









emphasizes the presentation of the structure of the self, the other, and the system of selves and others as it relates to gender. Gothic literature studies more often addresses the highly conventional nature of individual texts in relation to the manner in which those texts present typical social and narrative structures while simultaneously disrupting those structures. Not of Woman Born: Monstrous Interfaces and Monstrosity in Video Games combines an examination of the structure and genre of horror video games to analyze how they operate with a study of the significance of those operations to video games and new media, horror across media types, Gothic literature, and gender.

The majority of critical studies of games have focused on founding the overall

methods by which games operate, either in terms of other media forms or solely within games and new media. This study, by contrast, focuses on the particularities of horror games to illustrate commonalities in video games, and to illustrate how certain conventions fail or can be subverted for particular effects. Running through these chapters is an awareness of games and their current placement as mass-conglomerated media, even as games repeatedly diverge into alternative projects like independent and political games through organizations like the Learning and Serious Games Initiatives and Games for Health. This book configures game and new media studies, gender studies, and studies of Gothic literature in order to examine the function of horror in video games, the relationship of gaming norms to that function, and the significance of horror games to typical and atypical video game playing and production. Essentially, Not of Woman Born serves as a foil to studies of typical play and design by studying the abnormal play and design of horror games, including its relevance to innovative design for positive or more equivocal gender representations as well as for larger possibilities in






4


game design. For games, structure may refer to the immediately visible structures that the player is presented with, like the visual representations, spatial representations, the interface controls, and the game narrative. Gaming structures also include the programmatic code through which the game operates and paratextual elements like gaming communities and game booklets that often accompany or complement the games. The diversity of structures and structural elements in any given game-and their relationship to game genres, gaming as a medium, and the gaming industry-demand complex systems of analysis.

As game studies emerges as a new field, it requires both the analysis of its works and an analysis of the relationship of those works to existing fields of inquiry. While many scholars have examined the typical structuring of video games, such structures are often inverted or subverted in horror games. By examining the manner in which normative game-play structures and game-play itself is altered in horror games, this study shows how atypical structures and play both reaffirm certain video game norms and repudiate others. By analyzing horror games, which are more often found on console systems (as opposed to computers), this study addresses a doubly neglected area in game studies. Game studies most often addresses either adventure or more serious games than horror games, and game studies most often addresses games found on computers instead of consoles despite the greater popularity and use of console games. By addressing these doubly neglected games, this study also addresses the function of horror games and games in general as popular texts in the same vein as Jane Tompkins' study of sensational fiction, which showed that sensational fiction had been dismissed because of its popularity and its appearance of simplicity. Inverting that, Tompkins studied









sensational fiction for the manners in which it did and did not conform to seemingly simple formulas and the effect of conformance and nonconformance. Likewise, this study specifically aligns the hyper-structuralization of horror video games to the popular texts of Gothic literature-both of which often present seemingly normative narrative, character, and world structures in order to subvert elements within those structures and the structures themselves.

Horror games repeatedly subvert typical narrative and game-play structures, including altering the manner in which game space is presented and the way that the game interface is constructed and operates. By differing from the more typical game-play interface models, studies of horror games present a significant alternative to many studies of new media design and architecture. Further, horror games specifically counter the typical position of women in games by allowing for a greater percentage of women player-characters, non-player-characters, heroes, and monsters. Non-horror games allow for significantly fewer women and they only allow for significantly less powerful women. My study integrates these threads-video games, new media interface design, Gothic literature, and gender-to study game creation, presentation, and representation.

The Gothic

Any discussion of genre works risks formalizing and limiting it, instead of simply creating a loose definition for use in analysis. As Lawrence Alloway contends, "One of the dangers of genre theory is that the categories may be taken rigidly. When that happens they lose their descriptive usefulness and assume a normative function" (53). Genre divisions and their descriptive usefulness also pertain to games as a medium. Marie-Laure Ryan notes that Wittgenstein' s arguments from Philosophical Investigations can be used to show that games as a medium have a complicated network of similarities









and details, which sometimes overlap and sometimes do not. From Ryan's perspective, Wittgenstein argues that particular forms are best characterized by "family resemblance" because they overlap and criss-cross without forming an exact structure (177). Consequently, video game genres, like larger media structures, are constituted by systems of family resemblances that are cannot be strictly delimited. Ryan further states, "What constitutes a family, however, is not resemblance but kinship relations. The set of games may be fuzzy, which means that there is no set of necessary and sufficient conditions for an activity to be covered by the word game" (177). While Ryan is addressing how to classify games as a general category, the same 'kinship relations' apply to game genres. The individual games may or may not share specific resemblances with each other, but they will share kinship relations in terms of their formal and functional elements. As genres, the Gothic and horror genres share many family traits as they exist in other media, and it is with those traits that many horror games operate. However, while the Gothic has often been described as changing from text to text and from one media form to another, the Gothic is often more strictly defined than can be most productive for game studies.1 Given the stricter definition, I use the term ludic Gothic to refer to games that may be generically classes as horror or Gothic, but which specifically thwart gaming conventions in significant manners.

Gothic literature has long been connected to periods of change, both technological and social. In its early form, Gothic literature relied on hyper-structuralization in order to


1 For more on the conventions of the Gothic, see Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, The Coherence of Gothic Conventions (New York: Methuen, 1980); David Punter and Glennis Byron, The Gothic (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004); David Punter, Gothic Pathologies: the Text, the Body and the Law (New York: St. Martin's, 1998); Glennis Byron and David Punter, eds., Spectral Readings: Towards a Gothic Geography (New York: St. Martin's, 1999); and E.J. Clery and Robert Miles, eds., Gothic Documents: A Sourcebook, 1700-1820 (New York: St. Martin's, 2000).









then subvert or question those structures. In doing so, it became, as Mark Edmundson notes, "the literature of revolution" (Nightmare on Main Street 17), which nevertheless is also often extremely popular. This popularity has often been used as a reason to dismiss the Gothic for, as Jane Tompkins notes of the closely related form of sensational fiction, "The popularity of novels by women has been held against them almost as much as their preoccupation with 'trivial' feminine concerns" (xiv). Just as the popularity of sensational fiction has often been held against it, it has also been held against the Gothic. In being dismissed by virtue of their popularity, both the Gothic and sensational fiction are often refused critical acknowledgement. "The problem with the notion that a classic work transcends the limitations of its age," Tompkins remarks, "and appeals to critics and readers across the centuries is that one discovers, upon investigation, that the grounds of critical approval are always shifting" (35). Video games that incorporate Gothic themes are often dismissed in the same manner as Gothic and sensational fiction. Games like Resident Evil, Fatal Frame, and, to a less extent, Silent Hill, are often critically lauded as games while simultaneously being dismissed as ridiculous horror games unworthy of narrative analysis because of their formulaic design and story structures. Tompkins again proves useful as she states:

In arguing for the positive value of stereotyped characters and sensational,
formulaic plots, I have self-consciously reversed the negative judgments that critics
have passed on these features of popular fiction by re-describing them from the
perspective of an altered conception of what literature is. (xvii)

Similarly, I address ludic Gothic and horror games as significant in part because of their stereotypical design and visual representations and formulaic plots. The formulaic nature of ludic Gothic and horror games must be defined not as a rigid limiting dimension, but as a flexible yet fundamental factor in their full analysis. As game studies continues to









grow as a medium, analyses of formulaic game designs and plots are pivotal in illustrating both game formulas and structures but also in illustrating how typical structures and designs can be and are subverted for alternate effects and uses. By virtue of their extreme popularity, ludic Gothic and horror games are simultaneously influential for video game development, and vulnerable to dismissal by academic criticism.

The Gothic presents formulas that are not only structurally and narratively based, but also related to social, political, and technological change. As the literature of revolution, the Gothic acts as a subversive genre not just for classic literature, but also for later literary forms and other media forms that rely on the conventions of the Gothic. For instance, Allan Lloyd Smith notes that the Gothic excelled during industrialization by acting concurrently with social and political change. He argues that as such, the Gothic relies on a shift between technology and production, which links traditional Gothic works to cyberpunk (15). The Gothic thus relies on social, political, and technological structures and their interrelations. From those structures, the Gothic builds a subversive stance which remains intrinsically related to the structures it subverts. Similarly, Christoph Grunenberg states, "The ubiquity of the cultural phenomenon of the Gothic continues in the newest media: the computer games Myst or Obsidian explore the romantic and industrial Gothic respectively in animated, comic-style versions of fairy-tales" (208). While Grunenberg focuses more heavily on the artistic representation of the Gothic in video games, games are hybrid forms that blend visual representation, narrative, and interface designs into interactive texts.

Because games rely on these components, the Gothic often acts as an element of visual representation in games, the narrative, and the interface. Gaming interfaces are









often presented as mere extensions of the gamer, to be learned and acclimated. However many games, particularly horror games, use the interface as part of the overall gaming experience. For example, many action games have sequences where the game controllers are set to "rumble" or vibrate to complement gaming activity. Unlike those complementary sequences, horror games often use the interface to contradict normal play. For instance, the Resident Evil series regularly uses the rumble functions on the game controllers to thump on alternating sides with alternating intensities in order to mimic a human heartbeat. This thumping is done to increase tension during game-play, but it has no corollary to onscreen shown activity. Similarly, Eternal Darkness uses an insanity factor when the player encounters too many enemies. The insanity factor causes the internal game representations to blur and slide and allow enemies that are not actually there to be displayed. Such insanity factors even affect the interface itself These include messages stating that the game controller was unplugged, that all of the saved game information was being erased, and so forth. These uses of the gaming interface question the relationship of the gamer to the game, and of the gaming interface as a mediator in that relationship. The majority of games use the interface as a functional means of allowing for game play to occur. In contrast, ludic Gothic games often use the interface to subvert typical play and to challenge conceptions of game interface design and game design.

In addition to the Gothic subversion of typical interface design and visual

representation, the Gothic strongly shapes gaming narratives. The traits of the Gothic, as Anne Williams illustrates, include abduction, blood, caves, dreams, earthquakes, feeblemindedness, gaming, harems, maskings, portraits, lost reputations, suicides, twins,









mad scientists, and demonic children (17). The majority of these features are present in any horror video game, as is the Gothic use of the family as history, which is portrayed in Gothic literature through the use of the family as a basic structure in both the narrative and the spatial design. In Gothic literature, this is often accomplished through the castle or haunted house in which the narrative takes place, with frequent remarks on the past inhabitants through decorations, paintings, and other elements. In ludic Gothic video games-which are most often set in haunted houses, castles, or science-fiction or cyberpunk Gothic settings like space ships and island-based laboratories-the same elements remain. The frequent use of books, paintings, pictures, vases, sculptures, and other elements populate the game world to show that it is already inhabited by the past, and the specifically past as a patriarchal structure. In doing so, ludic Gothi video games both present the family and undermine it. Anne Williams cites the same behavior in Gothic fiction:

The first of these has to do with Mark Turner's analysis of "family" as a privileged
or "basic conceptual metaphor." [... ] Elsewhere Lakoff and Turner (and others)
emphasize that metaphors are not verbal ornaments (mere "flowers of fancy") but
patterns fundamental to thought.[... ] Turner demonstrates that "family" is a source
domain both basic to cognition and particularly privileged in Western culture. To
think about any subject, we are likely to use metaphors of kinship, so that our
thinking about the subject is inevitably shaped by what we assume is and should be.
(87-8)

In relating the Gothic to typical conceptions of family, the Gothic story unsettles typical narratives and has the ability to disrupt notions held in conjunction with the story-like the male dominance in video game narratives disrupted to open a space for equal female characters. The disruption of patriarchal systems in Gothic narratives in the past has served to create, as Williams explains the female Gothic plot. Williams contends that these plots are constructive and empowering for female readers because they value






I1I


female thought-processes, "not only affirm the possibilities of 'feminine' strength; they also sketch in the outlines of a female self that is more than the 'other' as purely archetypal or stereotypical" (138). The Female Gothic Plot carries through diverse media forms including film and video games with a significantly higher proportion of women primary characters in horror video games than in non-horror games. For film, the Gothic as a subversive genre relating to women can perhaps best be seen with the Alien films.

Horror Films

Since the 1970s, horror films have largely transitioned from their portrayal of

single-minded violence towards women to valorizing women with what Carol Clover has termed the final girl: "The image of the distressed female most likely to linger in memory is the image of the one who did not die: the survivor, or Final Girl" (35). Clover's study reveals that, from 1974 on, the survivor figure in horror films has been female. While Clover's entire book examines the complexity of gender and horror films, horror video games confirm the trend in horror films of empowering female characters. Horror video games are not yet completely aligned with film, as to have a Final Girl in horror, but horror games do present significantly more female characters than any other gaming genre with the exception of "pink games" or games targeted only at female players. By allowing for a higher percentage of female player-characters, horror games subvert typical game narratives and gaming conventions in line with the Gothic.

Horror films, like horror in other media, function through the crossing of borders. While horror films operate by presenting the narrative transgression and reaffirmation of borders, they often present only the transgression or dissolution of borders. Horror works also often present the transgression of borders in ways that transgress social norms. The Alien films in particular critique capitalism and patriarchy within a gothic-science-fiction









setting. Even in more typical horror films, horror defines borders so that the borders can be crossed and then possibly reinforced. "Horror defines and redefines," Gregory Waller argues and, in doing so, it "clarifies and obscures the relationship between the human and the monstrous, the normal and the aberrant, the sane and the mad, the natural and the supernatural, the conscious and unconscious, the daydream and the nightmare" (12). In exploring these borders and in constantly defining and redefining them, horror can be both remarkably formulaic and traditional and also remarkably subversive in its redefinition of borders and in its border crossing. Similarly, Tony Williams notes that the family is often a locus of horror as it is in Gothic works, "Major works of family horror explore the social contradictions of dysfunctional families forced into rigid patterns by the dominant ideology producing victims and victimizers. Family horror films sometimes implicitly protest against this system" (Hearths 270). Because the family often stands as a microcosm of society, with social hierarchies and economic functions replicated within the family unit, questioning the family structure has repercussions for all other social systems. In this regard, Williams also catalogues the importance of horror films to larger social critiques, especially in relation to their marginalized position as horror works. In particular, Williams studies the relationship of George Romero's films to social critique and to social critiques from horror comics.

EC Comics began as Educational Comics and quikly shifted to Entertaining

Comics, which focused on horror and crime. In doing so, EC Comics gathered readers and media attention, eventually leading to the government's intervention in the US and the Comics Code Authority regulations which sought to remove both the explicit gore as well as much of EC Comics social commentary. Like Romero's horror films, Williams









shows that EC Comics' marginalized placement from their horror status allowed them to present broad social critiques, which continue to influence other horror media. Williams refers to this as the "gross out" factor:

These culturally marginalised productions also contained important allegorical
messages within their versions of "gross-out." Both EC comics and Stephen King's
writing put their respective audiences in touch with the "nightmare anxieties" of
youth, which are often socially based. The youthful readers of EC comics certainly noticed the differences between perception of real-life injustices and the hysterical
activities of the adult world. (Cinema of George A. Romero 115)

While American horror comics, particularly comics during the early age of the comics code, have been largely lost to the mainstream American public, their impact still reverberates through other media, particularly horror films and video games. The EC comics tradition is directly pertinent to horror games because the comics often embedded their social messages, often anti-discrimination and often pro-female empowerment, within graphic decapitations, zombies, and witches. In doing so, EC comics were able to pass as mainstream fodder while also presenting strong messages. Horror video games, like sensational and Gothic fiction, act in the same manner, making the connections among Gothic fiction, horror films, horror comics, and horror video games quite strong. Additionally, many horror games have been inspired by Romero's film-making, as well as the Giallo Films or Italian Horror Films from the 1970s, horror comics as in the EC comics tradition, as well as horror manga. The films and comics have frequently used narrative conventions from Gothic and other horror fiction. In turn, horror games have relied on the narrative traditions from Gothic fiction as well as horror films and comics. In addition, horror games have drawn on horror films and comics for visual representation styles, as well as relying on sound conventions from film.









Ludic Gothic and Horror Games

Ludic Gothic and horror games operate within both a rich tradition of horror media and the technical limitations of computer gaming. While those limitations have relaxed with increases in technology, the majority of ludic Gothic games still bear a trace of those limitations. For instance, the first Silent Hill used fog to limit the visual scope of the game world so that the first PlayStation could run the game. The fog allowed the game to run without having to process all of the surrounding graphics, which would have otherwise exceeded the PlayStation's processing abilities. Similarly, the Resident Evil series have relied on closely confined spaces to limit the visual scope and the number of items user's avatars can carry. Later ludic Gothic games have followed these horror gaming conventions even when these conventions are no longer necessary from a technological standpoint given the increases in processing power. Many of these conventions alter typical game-play and gaming conventions for significant effects. In addition, ludic Gothic games rely on traditional stylistic horror visual elements, including dark landscapes, confined spaces which are then further confined through the use of specific camera angles, dark castles and Gothic mansions, and-as in all Gothic workselaborate indications of the past of the place with photographs, paintings, old furniture, books, journals, videos, and, eventually, corpses and ghosts. The heavily historicized and personalized worlds in horror games also lend themselves to a fuller presentation of monsters or enemies, which Chapter 2 addresses in detail. Speaking to the designation of horror, Vivian Sobchack notes, "In the SF [science fiction] film, the Creature is less personalized, has less of an interior presence than does the Monster in the horror film"

(32). Sobchack goes on to explain that the viewer's sympathy is never elicited by the SF creature because it always remains a thing, while the monster becomes personalized and






15


humanized in some ways. The difference between SF and horror monsters is thus not the setting, but the presentation, as with SF films that have personalized monsters like the Alien films, with its final film focusing on the child of Ripley and the Alien Queen. Similarly, games like System Shock 2 are set in SF worlds, but their monsters are intensively described and humanized, making the game exist within the borders of SF, action, and horror genres. The function and presentation of the Monster in horror games are thus defining attributes of horror games, as well as helping to define the manner in which games present and use enemies for particular-and often socially significanteffects. Like the monster, visual conventions of horror also include an emphasis on doubles and doubling, as explored in Chapter 3. In video games, horror games in particular firmly embrace the convention of doubles and doubling for characters, spaces, replay, and for game serialization.

Many ludic Gothic and horror games also utilize static points of view through fixed and primarily high and closely confined camera angles. These angles present the player as trapped within the screen and prevent the player from being able to view all aspects within even the plane the player is in, increasing the horror effects and making the games more difficult. In addition to their origins in horror and thriller cinema, these camera angles originated in technological limitations, as do many of the innovations in horror games and in gaming in general. In this case, because of the level of control required to maintain the appearance of three dimensions, horror games relied on highly controlled cameras and highly divided spaces to make two-dimensional game spaces appear and act as though they were three dimensional spaces. The separate game space units were then sutured together through doors, black fades, or other cinematic techniques. These were









used in conjunction with cinematic sound techniques-including drawing on horror films for atypical sound use such as the use of ambient sound from the game environment instead of an over-arching soundtrack as is used in most games. Chapter 5 studies the use of sound and visual representation in the game space and in game design in general.

Ludic Gothic games are also heavily defined by their relationship to the gaming

interface. While this concern runs throughout the chapters, Chapter 7 in particular covers the significance of gaming platforms-in addition to gaming interfaces-to horror games. In addition to their internal platforms and interfaces, horror games are especially significant for their use of media within the games. Ludic Gothic games often inherently exhibit media awareness through their incorporation of specific media forms to conjure historical times and the telepresent nature of media. For instance, Resident Evil orients game-play through a save and escape model which relies on a typewriter for saving; Fatal Frame relies on a camera for capturing spirits and saving game play; Silent Hill uses a radio whose growing static indicates the approach of monsters; and Obscure uses compact discs for saving game progress. Additionally, the games all include media sources that add to game-play by presenting riddles or the information needed to solve riddles. The fragments of language as they are embedded in particular media and as they relate to solving the mysteries of game-play also connect ludic Gothic games to their antecedents in Gothic fiction. As Anne Williams mentions, "In Gothic, fragments of language often serve ambiguously to further the plot-in letters (lost, stolen, buried); in mysterious warnings, prophecies, oaths, and curses; in lost wills and lost marriage lines"

(67). The emphasis on language is often found in the game-play riddles, which typify the extreme codification and the subversive potential in horror games for, as Ruth E. Burke









argues, "In order to break the spell [... ] the reader has to know the secret language of the adepts and be initiated into the society of those who understand the significance and the interpretation of the symbols" (15). In this way, language in ludic Gothic games as embedded in particular media serves as both a means for game-play and a metadiscourse on that play.

In ludic Gothic games, the actual media within the games provide both a metaphor for game-play and a path through game-play's telepresent attributes. The emphasis on media forms for narrative and game-play also lends itself to a documentary stylization, as it does in science-fiction films. Sobchack remarks on this tendency: "The usual mode of ritual dialogue is, however, the television newscast and montage[... ] In general, the newscast is used as an economical way of compressing information or expressing emotion" (191-2). While the use of television and newspapers for truncated communication appears in many film genres and video games, ludic Gothic video games rely on these for background information as well as for pivotal game-play information in a manner that informs other usages. Many real world based video games, particularly military simulation and combat games and political games, rely on documentary techniques. Far fewer other-world settings games use documentary techniques to even limited extents. However, horror games, with their often very other-worldly settings, do. The method of documentary stylization, from game-play segments to paratextual documentaries that are included with the games like the prison-setting documentary in The Suffering and the supplemental disc with Wesker's Report for Resident Evil are analyzed in relation to the creation of reality and to documentaries in general in Chapter 6. The documentary stylization is especially pertinent because it highlights the manner in






18


which horror games, while they often operate in fantastic and other-worldly settings, still utilize and negotiate real world social and political issues. Gender and female empowerment are the most prominently addressed concerns of all of the social issues most frequently covered by ludic Gothic games.

Gender and Textuality

As is perhaps already apparent, horror presents many subversive possibilities that directly relate to gender. While horror films were once focused primarily on the domination of women, now women have come to dominate horror and ludic Gothic games. Similarly, Gothic fiction was once neglected because of its seemingly trivial concerns. Now, however, scholars like Jane Tompkins and Nina Auerbach have reclaimed Gothic fiction, replete with its subversive and empowering abilities. Digital texts have also been lauded as potentially empowering for their non-linear and nonpatriarchal methods of data organization and access, a sort of digital! 'ecriture feminine. On radical methods of writing, Ellen G. Friedman and Miriam Fuchs argue:

Although the woman in the text may be the particular woman writer, in the case of
twentieth-century women experimental writers, the women in the text is also an
effect of the textual practice of breaking patriarchal fictional forms; the radical
forms-nonlinear, nonhierarchical, and decentering-are, in themselves, a way of
writing the feminine. (3-4)

While artists like Mary Flanagan and Shelley Jackson have explored these possibilities in educational gaming like the Josie True project and hypertext like Patchwork Girl, the possibility that mainstream video games may present the same empowering potential has been less studied. Chapter 4 addresses the radical positioning of women in horror games because, as Anne Williams argues, "the madwoman in the attic has awakened readers to possible affinities between women writers and a literature that specializes in fear and in monstrous domestic secrets" (10). The madwoman in the attic, a long-standing






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convention of the Gothic, both reaffirms the position of the woman as connected to the house and home while showing the insanity and horror of that connection. Ludic Gothic video games, as they are often set in haunted houses or dwellings and with their high frequency of female characters, foreground the same questions of womanhood, domestic life, and monstrosity.

While many ludic Gothic games and horror films begin with women characters,

this has not always been and may not always be the case. Just as the revisions and sequels often also alter the narratives and characterization in the earlier games, so they alter the overall framework in which the characters and the games themselves operate. Following these issues, Chapter 8 addresses sequels and the function of seriality and sequence in video games. In doing so, it studies revisionist techniques in gaming, often techniques where women characters are added. The complex framework within which video game sequels exist-where characters change in appearance, sound, background, actions, abilities, and contexts-is perhaps most akin to Donald Ault' s articulation of aspectual interconnection in which details localized to particular characters in William Blake's texts may negotiate through the text into the text itself Thus alternate versions of the text are useful in noting the structural complexity and fluidity of the characters and texts (Narrative Unbound). Aspectual interconnection aids in bringing seemingly disparate and disconnected elements from the games as they are sequenced, into relation. The serial nature of games (with remakes, patches, mods, and sequels), game interfaces, visual representation, narrative, and the relationship of games to other media and to social issues are all significant to game studies as a growing field.









Game Studies

Many of the current arguments on video games try to situate games within a larger metastructure of narrative, game (Aarseth's Cybertext; Wolfs The Medium of the Video Game), or visual representation. While these approaches can be useful for creating a vocabulary to discuss video games, these approaches often fail to move beyond the particulars of video games into those moments of complexity that open up discussion of the relationship of the player, the game space, and the game narrative. Taxonomizing and classifying moves were necessary at the infancy of game studies as a field. However, game studies is now slightly older and, because the computer presents extremely plastic and malleable forms, operating as a work environment for virtual word processing, as a portal to the web, as a means to experience virtual spaces, and more, such primitive taxonomization proves rather limiting. Like film studies in the 1960s, game studies has not yet found a place for itself, so games are currently being studied from various fields and with various methods and technical vocabularies.

Following, and often included with, previous arguments over game genre and terminology are arguments over the limits of game studies. While games have only relatively recently been studied from the perspectives of media, communications, English, film, sociology, history, computer science, and other disciplines, game studies, in many senses, is not a new field because sociologists like Johan Huizinga and Roger Callois have studied games and play, as have game historians like David Parlett. But the emphasis on games in their computerized and visual format as their own field is rather recent. Many current debates in game studies concern whether game studies (or games studies) should exist as its own specific field or whether it can exist in established disciplines without being overly subordinated. While these are important debates, game









studies is best served by interdisciplinary approaches that include studies of gaming histories. Resources for this sort of work include studies of board and card games like David Parlett's The Oxford History of Board Games and The Oxford Guide to Card Games; studies of play like Johan Huizinga's Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture; and existing media studies theories. In game studies, as with other fields, theories should be used as analytical tools. Further, game studies must learn from the fan communities as comics studies have been informed through fan communities. Because games are a massively popular form and because games are expensive commercial entities that have not yet being largely archived and documented except through fan communities, those fan communities can act both as a valuable resource for scholars studying games and as a means for scholars to discuss their work with larger audiences.

Game studies has many hurdles to overcome, including the traditional desires for texts to be closed and archivable, which are significant problems alone. Following those, game studies, like comics studies, is on the forefront of image usage and citation in academic studies and publishing. Game studies and comic studies both more frequently require significant image use for arguments than many other fields. While online journals have eased these concerns, the typical academic publishing systems that weighs paperbased publications more favorably presents a serious impediment to game studies. Gothic and horror games are an important genre for game studies because they simultaneously present and subvert typical game-play and typical game construction, as well as typical means of analysis. As Kelly Hurley suggests: "Gothic in particular has been theorized as an instrumental genre, reemerging cyclically, at periods of cultural stress, to negotiate the anxieties that accompany social and epistemological transformations and crises" (5). The









Gothic as part of popular ludic Gothic games, especially with their emphasis on embedded media, questions the relationship of the games to the technology, and subsequently of the players to the technology. In this movement, ludic Gothic games are also significant for the manner in which they present and theorize anxieties about technology and other social issues. The culture industry is most often studied for its destructive capacities because it, as Adorno notes, combines old and new and high and low art. In doing so, it creates "products which are tailored for consumption by masses, and which to a great extent determine the nature of that consumption, are manufactured more or less according to plan" (55). The Gothic and horror follow the exacting formulas of the culture industry and, in doing so, serve to disrupt the formulaic nature of much of game design. This allows for both innovation in game design and for the representation of alternate social values, concepts, and ideals. The Gothic, as Kelly Hurley notes, "In its obsession with abominations, the Gothic may be said to manifest a certain gleefulness at the prospect of a world in which no fixity remains, only an endless series of monstrous becomings" (28). It is within these becomings that this study operates-monstrosities made in the interface, in the visual representations, in the narratives, and in the technologies of horror games.














CHAPTER 2
ENEMIES, MONSTERS, AND THE OTHER IN VIDEO GAMES

Video games have been extensively studied for the player's relationship to the

player-character and the function and structure of the player-character within the game by critics including Espen Aarseth's Cybertext; Lev Manovich's The Language of New Media; Andrew Rollings and Dave Morris' Game Architecture andDesign; Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman's Rules of Play; Bob Rehak' s "Playing at Being." These and other works address the overall structure of game-play or the place of the player-character or avatar in depth. But, by necessity of their wide-scope approach, they spend less time on the figure generally classed as enemy or opponent. In regard to enemy figures, Salen and Zimmerman note that conflict is an intrinsic part of narratively based games, but given their abstracted approach, they do not address the nature of conflict nor the fact that many video games show the conflict through battles with individual enemies (79). Similarly, Mark J.P. Wolf and Bernard Perron attempt to define video games without enemies, instead stating that video games are made of the fundamental elements, "an algorithm, player activity, interface, and graphics" ("Introduction" 14). Like these studies, the majority of scholarship on video games has focused on establishing a wider image or core theory for game studies. In order to do so, these theories must be abstracted and cannot include monsters or the Other because many games, like the quintessential examples of Pong and Tetris, do not have enemies or monsters.

While definitions that include conflict and player activity are necessary for game studies and abstracted analysis, heavily narrativized games like Deus Ex (2000), Tenchu: 23









Stealth Assassins (1998), the games in the Final Fantasy, Resident Evil, and Fatal Frame series, and many others require a nuanced approach to conflict because they functionfor both game play and game narrative-through a fundamental relationship between the player-character and the enemy-monster-other figures. Because relatively little work has been done on the function and place of the opponent figures, it is beyond the scope of this article to present a comprehensive study. However, the function of the opponent-as opponent, enemy, monster, or another form of Other-relates specifically to the game play type, the game world type, and the game narrative, so these figures need to be addressed within the specifics of their game world, game narrative, and game play. For this, I focus specifically on monsters and the Other as enemies in horror games to illustrate the function, use, and significance of these figures as narrativized symbols of conflict that also affect game play.

In this chapter, I use the examples of the zombies in Resident Evil and the ghosts in Fatal Frame to show that enemies, monsters, and the Other are not synonymous with abstracted concepts of conflict or opponent. While video games are capable of presenting varied forms of opponents and enemies, in presenting monsters and monstrous Others, games must rely on the structure of monsters and the Other instead of relying on stereotypical game design. This is because, while stereotypical game design schemas operate effectively for enemies, they lack the ability to present and accommodate monsters and the Other because these fall outside of the simple role of enemy or opponent.

Conflict, Opponents, Enemies, and Monsters

While many video game enemies can easily be covered under Salen and

Zimmerman's rubric of conflict-for instance, the game space itself as conflict and the









enemies as threats to controlling territory in games like Civilization and Warcraft games that are heavily narratively driven more often have enemies that are characters and that cannot be covered under conflict alone. Even non-horrific games like those in The Legend of Zelda, Metroid, and Sonic the Hedgehog series use 'dark' enemies to further define their player-characters through the relationship of the player-characters to their enemies. As will be discussed in Chapter 3, these dark enemies are visually and characteristically mirrored or inverted versions of the primary characters-just as the duplication of siblings occurs in games-as with Shadow Sonic. In this way, many video game characters are defined as much by what or whom they fight as they are internally defined. The definitional aspect of the enemies as opponents serves to lay the framework for the game world as well as for much of the functioning for game play.

Video games design and play schemas often create monsters that are simply nondescript evil enemies, which exist as tropes for the Other and as tropes for conflict. Horror games like System Shock 2 (1998), Resident Evil (1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2002), Fatal Frame (2002, 2003), and Silent Hill (2000) change these schemas by creating enemies that are actual characters, though they often are flawed or mutated characters. Horror games explore enemy character schemas more fully than many video games because horror games rely on the personalization and humanization of the enemy characters to make the game spaces more horrific. Because of this, the game narrativethrough its depiction of enemies and monsters-directly relates to game play and the gaming experience. While some degree of additional time on the enemy characters is expected with horror games, many horror games like Resident Evil explore their monsterenemies as fully as they do their player-characters, which is odd even given the larger









enemy-development schemas for horror video games. Resident Evil's extended exploration of the enemies aids in making the enemies more than tropes for conflict or troped opponents.

Many video games present monsters as both the monster-as-Other and as actual monstrous beasts. Monsters in video games serve to both structure and disrupt the game structure through their abnormal workings. As Jeffrey Jerome Cohen notes, "a monster signifies something other than itself, it is always a displacement, always inhabits the gap between the time of upheaval that created it and the moment into which it is received, to be born again" ("Monster Culture" 4). Cohen continues on to argue that monsters are an attempt at embodying Otherness or the uncanny, "The monster is difference made flesh, come to dwell among us" (7). Similarly, Kathy Nuzum remarks, "any individual or group that can be marginalized or viewed as standing outside the norm may be monstrosized" ("The Monster's Sacrifice" 208). As such, monsters cannot accurately be subsumed into larger classifications of conflict or opponent because they serve to disrupt the very classification systems that would seek to normalize them by placing them within those systems.

Because the vast majority of video games present enemies as simplistic beings to be fought against, horror games like Resident Evil's personification and exploration of enemy characters represents new avenues in game design, which changes the schemas for the enemies, for the structure of game play, and for the structure of the game world. Resident Evil's use of monsters is similar to the monsters in other horror games like Fatal Frame, and the daughter-as-monster in the first Silent Hill. In each of these games, monstrosity itself narratively and structurally embodies the fragmentation and dissolution









of boundaries between human and non-human, between good and evil, and between men and women. For instance, in Resident Evil, the enemies are depicted as monsters in the present time of the game. However, the game also represents the past when the monsters were human. In doing so, the lines between monster and human are blurred. The dissolution of boundaries through the player-character and enemy relationship also often parallels the changing game spaces which, in horror games, often evolve over time to be more horrific and more monstrous. By undermining boundaries, the monster serves to create its own space in which traditional cultural rules, and traditional rules of game play and game design, also change.

The Player-Character and Her Opponent(s)

Narratively based video games super-construct the self-other relationship.1 In

narrativized video games, the player is often constrained to using or manipulating only the player-character, and often the player can obtain only limited information on other characters aside from their appearances. With this, the player relationships are playercharacters, non-player-characters (NPCs) who are helpful or sympathetic to the playercharacter, and enemies. In order to define the player and player-character relationship, video games attempt to clearly construct systems that predetermine who the player is and is not within the game. This is often done through the game visual representation during game play as well as through game book paratexts that describe the player-character, non-player-characters, and enemies. While these attempts to fix the relationship between

1 By narratively based video games, I mean video games with intrinsic stories like Resident Evil; games like Civilization could also arguably qualify, but Tetris does not because it does not have an intrinsic story, just an intrinsic game. Narrative and non-narrative games are one of the larger discussions in game studies, and this chapter is by no means an attempt to separate games into narrative and non-narrative. Rather, this simply argues that many games have enemies, opponents, and monsters that cannot be sufficiently described under the rubric of 'conflict' or 'algorithm,' which are two of the terms chosen because they operate with equal validity for games and can avoid the problems of narrative or non-narrative games.









the player and player-character remain problematic,2 they still lay the foundation for the abstracted tripartite game design and game play structure that includes player-character, non-player-character, and opponent. While useful, the level of abstraction required for this structure of characters (or potential characters) in games fails to allow for the complexity of opponents as enemies, monsters, and as Others.

Within the abstracted structure, players may play as more than one playercharacter, as with party system games like those in the Final Fantasy series where the player controls a group of characters, but the basic structure remains. Enemies may come in more than one form, but essentially, the player only experiences her own positionality in the world, which is that of the player-character. All of this structuring often leads to a fundamental collapse of the Other, the enemy, and the monster into one position within the game structure as the opponent. In these cases, the enemies and monsters are all nondescript others to the self-as-player-character. While this simplification can be useful for game play design-David Kusher notes the Doom (1993) designers chose to remove narrative elements and to make the enemies more generalized for faster paced game play (Masters of Doom)-this simplification also removes many possibilities in game narratives and game design.

Horror games, because of their need for monsters to define the horrific nature of the game space and game narrative, have more fully explored the possibilities offered with using fully developed enemies. This is because, in order to make the system more horrific, horror games undermine the fundamental structure in most video games-that of player-character, NPC, opponent-by making the monsters not clearly the opponents,

2 For more on the tenuous relationship between the player and the player-character, see Bob Rehak's "Playing at Being" and Laurie N. Taylor's "When Seams Fall Apart," as well as the wealth of research on Lara Croft and her relationship to the player.






29


which leads to changes in game play. For instance, horror games often require players to flee from fights instead of constantly engaging in battle as in most games. The game play becomes not just that of opposition or conflict, but of conflict avoidance.

Other non-horror games-notably including the Metroid series with the playercharacter Samus Aran being defined largely by her relationship with the monsters called Metroids instead of by the game narrative-have explored enemies and monsters as more than simple opponent figures. Like the atypical Metroid games, horror games take advantage of this sort of atypical play by forcing the player-character into frequent and direct contact with the monsters. Subgenres of horror like survival horror games further complicate this by adding the 'survival' aspect, which forces the player through lack of ammunition to run frequently instead of fighting. In this process, survival horror games change the typical video game structure of 'us against them' to 'us away from them.' This makes the game space more horrific because the player is forced into proximity with the monsters, while having escape or avoidance as the primary goals. Additionally, video games also sometimes change the structure of PC, NPC, and opponent by portraying friendly or sympathetic characters as they become traitors and by showing the human side of some of the monsters. This process upsets the fundamental structure, allowing for further exploration of the structure itself and its functioning within the game narrative and game space. In doing so, it shows that changing the game play function of the opponent is inextricably linked to changing the narrative function of the monster, both of which change the overall structure of the game and the game play.

Monsters and Horror

In video games, as in film, the horror genre holds the monster as one of its most

significant aspects, be it the monster proper or a monstrous Other. While comparisons of









genre-especially across media-are problematic, horror in all forms focuses on the monster. Horror video games, in turn, can utilize studies of horror in other forms while still noting differences as they occur in video games especially as those differences apply to the playable game space and game play itself While the horror genre most often includes a monstrous Other, the monstrous Other need not actually be a monster in the typical werewolf, ghost, zombie sense, but can also be represented as an alien monster, monstrous humanity (often serial killers in 'realist' horror), as well as through the internal loss of control (as in American McGee's Alice where Alice fights herself). In "Reimagining the Gargoyle: Psychoanalytic Notes on Alien," Greenberg discusses the anatomy of horror films and comments, "No matter how evocative the milieu, the monster film ultimately stands or falls on the believability of its inhuman protagonist"

(89). Greenberg's comment shows how monster films particularly, and horror films more generally, rely on the monstrous Other to form their settings and narratives.

Like horror films, horror video games also rely on the monster to construct game play, game space, and game narrative. Because video game conventions are so firmly defined through the player-character-against-opponent structure, video game playercharacters and video game spaces are defined by their relation to the opponent. Horror games in particular rely on the opponent as monster to create the horrific game space. Many games are more 'classically' horror in that they are gothically stylized and focus on haunted houses, supernatural events, and fantastic settings that transgress one world and go into another dark world. Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem (2002), Fatal Frame (2002), and Silent Hill all typify this sort of classic monster or monstrous world horror. However, the Gothic style is by no means inclusive of horror video games because games









like System Shock 2 (1998) create horror in science fiction settings. System Shock 2 is a particularly good example because nothing in it is supernatural. Instead, it offers science gone mad through the monster of the murderous artificially intelligent computer SHODAN. For the slippery divisions between horror and non-horror, Vivian Sobchack's remarks on the formulation of horror in relation to its monsters prove useful:

In the SF [science fiction] film, the Creature is less personalized, has less of an
interior presence than does the Monster in the horror film... Our sympathy is never
evoked by an SF Creature; it remains, always, a thing. Conversely, in the horror film there is always something sympathetic about the Monster, something which
gives us however briefly a sense of seeing the world through his eyes, from his
point of view. (32)

Sobchack's comments show that horror is not defined simply by the world theme; indeed, if it were, Lucas Arts humorous Grim Fandango (1998) could qualify as horror for its use of the dead and demons. Instead, horror is defined by the monsters that alter the structure of the world to make the world itself horrific. Other game genres similarly use the form of the monster to disrupt typical game design and game play.

Sobchack explains not only the manner in which horror is formed, but the

significance of the monster in that formulation and the manners in which monsters are transgressive because they question the relationship of the human to the monster. For video games, personalized monsters pervade the entire game space because the games are played and structured with the player in direct opposition to the monster. As such, any discussion of the structure of the horror game must also include a discussion of the monster, a clause that either does not hold for other game genres, or does not hold in the same degree.

Because the monster and horror are intertwined, video games handle horror in

similar ways to horror film in terms of setting and visual structure as scholars like Steven









Poole have argued (66-9). In "Hands-On Horror," Tanya Krzywinska remarks on this tendency and argues that horror video games present more intense horror experiences than horror film. She suggests that the video games create horror through a combination of cinematic effects and through the alteration between player control and loss of control (206-223). This loss of control stems both from the structure of the game and from the internal game elements. While Krzywinska's analysis operates specifically at the level of the horror genre and within the medium of video games, her notes on the visual display and its relation to game play for creating horrific effects are significant because they address both how video games draw upon cinema and how they remediate cinematic effects.

Because the horror genre is extremely structured in terms of narrative and

opponent-enemy-monster formulation, it offers a base structure from which alteration and change in the individual game elements can emerge. Horror games, like horror films, fall into one of the most codified genres in their medium. Conventions of the video game horror genre often include constrained views; limited fighting ability, often through lack of weapons or an inability to fight back, as with the monsters in Siren (2004) that cannot be killed; horrific premises, that are often supernatural with ghosts, demons, and gates to hell; monsters or enemies that undermine the player-character's humanity as in American McGee's Alice (2000) in which Alice's fight for sanity and her killing the monsters is clearly her killing the unwell parts of herself, and altered realities, as with the two worlds of Silent Hill. Conventions of subgenres like survival horror genre are further constrained, and include limitations placed on game play to make the horror games more









horrific by making the games more difficult to play. However, one element that remains constant in horror and its subgenres is that of the enemy as monster.

Monstrous Focus in Resident Evil and Fatal Frame

The stark demarcations of elements within horror games allow for a clear analysis of the monster and how the monster operates in these games. In order to explain how horror games use and rely on monsters and monstrous Others for game play and game space creation, Resident Evil's use of zombies and Fatal Frame's use of ghosts and demons illustrate how the monstrous blurs distinctions and complicates game play and game readings. Zombies in video games often exist as simple examples of enemymonsters, appearing in the Castlevania (action-adventure) games and the House of the Dead (arcade style) light gun shooter games. However, the Resident Evil games actually explore zombies as perversions of life and living. In order to produce zombies as fully defined creatures, rather than as generally horrific or monstrous creatures, the zombies are shown in direct contrast to their former living selves. The figure of the zombie is that of the dead returned, or the undead, and showing the undead without revealing their prior life negates the un-ness of the dead and makes them a fashion of monster instead of a specific monster type with the trappings of that particular figure. Many early horrorthemed games, like Castlevania (1987) and House of the Dead, did not explore the figure of the zombie because they did not explore these creatures' existences prior to their zombie conversion, nor did they explore the human to zombie conversion that took place after the humans were infected.

On the other hand, the Resident Evil series, which falls within the subgenre of

survival horror, aimed to create a horrific atmosphere and so showed the particularities of the zombie figure as a perversion of life in order to increase the horrific nature of game









experience. The exploration of the monster and the monstrous in the Resident Evil games directly serves game play and game design in the creation of a tense and horrific atmosphere. Other games do not rely on monsters for game play tension. For instance, horror and monsters are not explored in the House of the Dead games because they are light gun shooters and do not require narrative in the normal sense; likewise the exploration of monstrous characters outside of Dracula is not warranted within the Castlevania game series which combines role-playing and action adventure elements to focus on the story of Dracula and the Beaumont family that fights him.

The Resident Evil games begin by showing zombies as a tropological figure of the Other, the enemy, or the generalized monster. But as the internal game play of each Resident Evil game progresses and, as the series itself progressed, the games began to explore more fully the nature each zombie and of zombies in general. This progression includes having the main characters first fight seemingly non-humanized zombies in each game. But as each individual game progresses, the players read the notes and see the belongings of those who have since become zombies. Thus, the zombies in each game progresses from more generalized opponent figures to specific and often named persons who have become monsters. As the game series progresses, and the technology used in the games progresses with it, even more background is provided for the once-human monsters. The Resident Evil games even force the player-characters to kill their loved ones after they become zombies, or face dying. In doing so, the games create horrific game spaces by relying on the narrativized relationship and game play interaction between the player-character and the non-player-characters who become monsters.









In Resident Evil Code: Veronica- (2000), the player occasionally plays through

Steve Burnside, making him temporarily a player-character. At other times, he also exists as a non-player-character in the sense that he is not continuously playable and that his death does not constitute a losing, but a winning scenario at the game's end. While a playable character, Steve kills his father to protect Claire Redfield, one of the main player-characters. After befriending and trusting Steve, Claire is later forced to kill him after he becomes a zombie. The Resident Evil games present various situations like this, where player-characters or friendly non-player characters die or are treacherous and must be killed or fought. Perhaps the most significant examples of treachery are Albert Wesker, who betrays the main tactical team S.T.A.R.S. and directly causes almost all of the suffering and death in the games. To a much lesser degree, Barry Burton betrays Jill Valentine in the first Resident Evil order to protect his family from Albert Wesker. While these convolutions of friend and foe and the changing from human to zombie proliferate in the Resident Evil games, one example typifies the difference between Resident Evil's use of zombies and monsters and the other games' use of monsters. This example comes in the form of the child-woman named Lisa Trevor.

Lisa Trevor, who appears in Resident Evil: 0 (2002), represents the most in-depth zombie created in any video game thus far. Lisa appears in the first Resident Evil. She is a child, whose father, George Trevor, inadvertently worked for Umbrella by acting as the architect for the Spenser Mansion. As a maniacal corporation, Umbrella management killed George and his wife. Lisa managed to escape immediate death, but was infected by the zombie-causing virus. Lisa grows into a zombie-creature with some memories. Before confronting Lisa, the player has a chance to read Lisa's journal, where Lisa writes









of missing her mother and being afraid. Slowly, Lisa's journal entries deteriorate in terms of grammar, punctuation, and spelling, until her last entry consists only of scratches on the page.

Resident Evil's use of journals to narrate the transition from human to zombie, with the gradual breakdown of language that occurs as the change progresses shows Lisa as both human and as a monster, along with the intermediate steps. When the player first meets Lisa, Lisa attacks and captures the player, saving the player to be eaten later. Most representations of zombies, including those in Resident Evil games, depict zombies as mindless, unthinking creatures. Lisa exhibits not only a past as a human, but a current ability to think that cannot rely only on past experience because an ordinary young girl would not know how to capture and constrain an adult. Later in the game, the player escapes Lisa by opening a coffin, and throwing it over a ledge, with the remains of Lisa's mother inside. Lisa jumps after her mother, yelling "mo..ther.." Lisa clearly has both memories and thought processes as a zombie, and she has the ability to care, as she does for her mother. While players could ignore the narrative elements that construct Lisa as a character, Lisa cannot be fought outright or physically. In order to defeat Lisa, players must read about her character to learn that Lisa would abandon food for her mother. The game narrative in this and many other instances is wedded to the game play-in this case, for defeating Lisa-and the game space, in this case for making the space more horrific based on the narrative.

By presenting Lisa first as a monster, and then as a monster with a past, Lisa is both associated with otherness from the start, while also moving towards humanness because of her past and because of her ability to remember and think, attributes that separate her









from other monsters. Lisa is always a monster in the exact present of the game, yet she also carries a trace of humanity with her. As such, Lisa is unlike monsters in most video games, and unlike those in a good deal of literature. As Ruth Waterhouse notes about female monsters:

Grendel's mother is a monster who, like Hyde, Frankenstein's wretch, and Dracula,
kills, she differs strikingly from the women in the recent monster discourses
because unlike Lucy, who in Dracula is drawn into Otherness only after her death,
she is, together with Grendel, associated from the start with Otherness. (35)

Like Grendel's mother, Lisa is associated from the start with Otherness, but she is also associated with humanness from the start. Lisa is a monster who carries traces of human, thus narratively complicating any easy divisions or simplifications between human and monster. When Lisa follows her mother, the player is able to escape, but the player can never directly fight Lisa. To fight Lisa guarantees death because a single hit from Lisa kills and because Lisa is not even injured by the weapons available to the player. The player's inability to fight Lisa displaces the normal structure of monster/opponent equivalence because the opponent role in video games implies the ability to fight, at least at some point in the game. Because Lisa can never be fought, Lisa is also outside of the structure for normal opponents or conflict even though she can kill the player and thus end the game.

Lisa Trevor is certainly an extreme example, but she is an elaborated form of many of the zombies in Resident Evil, whose human pasts are shown in their photographs and journals. She is also an elaborated form of many of the creatures in horror games who cannot be fought, and so they cannot be easily classified as generic enemies. For the zombie-character backgrounds, Resident Evil even goes so far as to have the journals appear on the screen, while having the character who wrote them provide a voice-over









reading. This voice-over serves to bring the dead-as-alive back into the journal writing and to the moment in which the player reads the journal by making the writer's voice exist in the present. The combination of opponents that cannot be opponents because they cannot be fought and monsters that cannot be simply monsters because their humanness constantly re-intrudes upon the game leads to an overall breakdown of the clarity of game play. This breakdown leads the player to be aware of the need for running instead of fighting, for using items, or for fighting, instead of relying on the general schema to fight anything that can be fought, which would inevitably cause the player to lose many horror games.

In terms of game narrative, this also prevents the player from making any easy

distinctions between friend and foe, because these change the game play. For instance, in Resident Evil Code: Veronica-, the player as Claire Redfield must leave items for her brother Chris Redfield to use, or the game becomes incredibly difficult to play as Chris. The player cannot simply follow this logic and leave additional items for other characters, like Steve Burnside, because the player has to fight and kill Steve after he becomes a zombie. If the player had left items for Steve, the player would have inadvertently hindered her own game play in doing so. The lack of clear distinctions shows how horror games subvert norms to establish their own game play and genre through that subversion.

Like Resident Evil's penchant for zombies, the Fatal Frame games rely on ghostly monsters-most of whom appear to be ghosts and demons-to create horrific worlds. Unlike Resident Evil, where the zombies are generally non-descript people who may have been in service to the evil Umbrella corporation or who could have been innocent









bystanders, with the divisions coming through based on the journals and notes found, Fatal Frame's enemies are almost entirely evil in some way.

The Fatal Frame games are both set in small communities-the first, in a mansion home with the surrounding support systems buildings and the second, in a small villagewhose residents have tried to sacrifice young women. In each of the games, the game narrative insinuates that the villagers are trapped in an undead state, not for the murdersacrifices they committed, but for their failure in performing one of these ritualized murders. Given this premise, the townspeople are all portrayed as somewhat monstrous initially for their part in these rituals, but also as very human for being trapped in these cycles of death and fear. Because the townspeople did live in these places, the buildings, rooms, and gardens are filled with their journals, photographs, clothing, and day-to-day items like pots and pans. This abundance of material portrays the people, even with their horrendous acts, as humans and, even in their horrendous forms as ghosts, as extremely human. The game further confuses questions of good and evil and human and monstrous by making the sacrificed "innocents" also attack the player-characters. The game also muddles these distinctions by making the player-characters slowly become like the nowdead sacrificed women. This is evidenced Miku's scars in the first Fatal Frame and by Mayo's possession by the place and by one of the sacrificed in the second Fatal Frame.

By presenting Fatal Frame's mansion and townspeople not as normal video game non-player-characters-which is a norm that places them as either helpful or innocuous towards the player-characters-the townspeople populate a horrific place that has complicated moral determinants. The townspeople committed decidedly wrong acts by killing young girls; however, they were also forced to commit these acts by their









circumstances. This makes the townspeople's actions no less deplorable, but it does make the actors not overtly evil, where most video games have opponents that are evil actors and evil characters collapsed into one singular figure of the opponent for representational ease and clarity.

Similarly, the player-characters in each Fatal Frame game slowly become like the girls killed before them. Even as they do, the sacrificed girls continue to attack them. The "innocent" girls attacking the innocent player-characters and attempting to kill them blurs the lines between monster and human because the sacrificed girls are narratively the victims. The repetition of human characters who are not necessarily immoral and their immoral attacks on the player-character could indicate that they are just ghosts, and that as ghosts they act in evil ways, except for the fact that the second game has the ghost of a young boy who is good. By presenting him as a ghost from the same time and the same town, and yet allowing him to be good, the game erases the possibility for any clear moral divisions that could situate the ghosts as evil, thus allowing the townspeople to remain morally indeterminate as ghosts and humans. Instead, Fatal Frame works to blurs the boundaries between good and evil, moral and immoral, and action and character. In doing so, a video game structure of player-character and opponent cannot sufficiently address the functioning of the characters in light of the game narratives.

Lisa, the less elaborate zombies in Resident Evil, and the monsters in Fatal Frame are not presented as simple enemy-monsters, but as complex creatures who have been formed through their human pasts and monstrous present. "Monsters are never created ex nihilo," Cohen argues, but are instead created, "through a process of fragmentation and recombination in which elements are extracted 'from various forms' (including indeed,









especially marginalized social groups) and then assembled as the monster, 'which can then claim an independent identity"' ("Monster Culture" 11). The majority of zombies in Resident Evil are either lower-level Umbrella employees or innocent bystanders. As such, they are most often portrayed as middle or working class people who have been trapped into their positions, and their eventual zombification, through their social standing. Like them, the ghosts in Fatal Frame are trapped in their towns and as ghosts because of the bizarre rituals required of them to keep the gates to Hell closed. Their humanness, including the social rules that bound and doomed them into their later monstrous forms, along with the monstrousness of the zombies and ghosts combine to create monsters that are more than the troped opponent or conflict schemas established in earlier games.

Monsters and the Other

In addition to the monster as a form of Other, some horror games clearly present creatures which are explicitly both monster and human, making them fundamentally Other and uncodifable. With their full exploration of monsters as more than a simplistic form of opponents, the zombies in Resident Evil and the ghosts in Fatal Frame are unlike those in other video games. However, each of these enemies/monsters is still an alteration of the typical opponent structure. In addition to the opponent structure, are monstrous non-player-characters who cannot be fought, and are narratively constructed such that the player-character would not fight them. In this place, the narrative significance of the nonplayer-character still affects game play by creating a more horrific game space and more horrific game play that does not narratively end even with the winning of the game. An example of this comes from the player-character in Silent Hill, Harry, who is seeking his adopted daughter Cheryl who was lost in the town of Silent Hill after a car accident. Because the player-character goal for the game is a reunion with Cheryl, the game









requires that players follow narrative cues to learn more about Cheryl and more about her whereabouts.

In her discussion of survival horror structures, in "Play Dead: Genre and Affect in Silent Hill and Planescape Torment" Diane Carr notes that, "Silent Hill's tight, maze structure fuels its ability to frighten its users" (para. 17). Carr continues on to note that Silent Hill uses monsters to change the town's structure from the safe regions of schools and hospitals to horrific spaces. In her notes, Carr does not definitively place the monsters as the flying and skittering non-human things or as Harry's daughter, but Harry's daughter could be the most monstrous of all.

As the game progresses, the player learns that Cheryl was not formally adopted, but found. Also as the game progresses, Harry learns that Cheryl was not born and is not a singular entity. Instead, Cheryl is one part of two children who form a demon, or the antiChrist (the game is a bit unclear as to the exact name or place of the creature, but it is fairly clear that the creature is a demon who can end all existence). Harry's relationship begins with Harry as a father to Cheryl, which is certainly a self-other relationship in the psychoanalytic sense. Then Harry learns that Cheryl is a monster, making the relationship a self-other in the human-monstrous sense. Subsequently, Harry must deal with the fact that Cheryl is not even one monster, but part of one monster. She is thus not human and not monster; she is also his daughter and not his daughter. Cheryl is in some ways defined by what she is not, but by the end of the game, she cannot be defined by what she is. In this way, Cheryl becomes wholly Other because she cannot be included in any structure-she exists outside of all. As Cohen remarks, Cheryl and other monsters are disruptions because of their abnormal existences where they refuse "to participate in the









classificatory 'order of things"' and act as, "disturbing hybrids whose externally incoherent bodies resist attempts to include them in any systematic structuration. And so the monster is dangerous, a form suspended between forms that threatens to smash distinctions" ("Monster Culture" 6). Harry similarly occupies an odd place as playercharacter because of his relationship as father to Cheryl as monster.

With Harry's entire driving motivation in Silent Hill his desire to save his daughter, Harry's existence is bound to his relationship to Cheryl. Cheryl's otherness pushes the town of Silent Hill from a typical town to being a town that is sometimes earthly, and sometimes part of a demonic or hellish plane of existence. Neither of these spaces can accommate Cheryl because she is neither monster nor human; she is part monster, but not even a full being. The physical changing game space of the town of Silent Hill is thus directly related to the game narrative and Cheryl. While Cheryl is a non-player-character, Lisa is a monster, and Steve is both a player-character and an opponent-monster, the narrativization of each of these characters as fully being Other characters affects the feel of the game space as well as the method of game play.

Conclusion

Video games may present enemies, monsters, and the Other who are more than just troped figures for conflict. In doing so, they allow for new directions in game design and game narrative because they include a figure that complicates traditional game design boundaries as well as traditional narrative boundaries. Additionally, the figure of the monster complicates the overall structure of the game by breaking and crossing existing boundaries that serve to create that structure. Cohen remarks on how monsters change structures noting, "The monster haunts; it does not simply bring past and present together, but destroys the boundary that demanded their twinned foreclosure" ("Preface"









ix-x). Cohen also remarks that, "Monstrosity challenges a coherent or totalizing concept of history" ("Preface" x). Cohen's remark on monsters and borders, and monsters and history directly relate to monsters in video games because monsters in video games serve to transgress and alter boundaries both for game narratives and for game design.

The history of the monstrous creatures before becoming monstrous also serves to present multiple narrative possibilities for the game space and for the game narrative, each of which tie to game design because of the influence of narrative on game play. As the monster disrupts the systems in which it exists, it also metaphorically points outside of itself Basic opponents exist as tropes and generally do not have internal representation so they cannot act metaphorically in relation to something outside of themselves, but nontroped, or fully formed enemies and monsters can. This full formation of opponentenemy-monster allows for the critique of consumerism in both Romero's Dawn of the Dead and the critique of humanity in System Shock 2 and Resident Evil. As Constance Penley suggests about horror film:

George Romero's Dawn of the Dead is more than a kitsch ambience, it is a way of
concretely demonstrating the zombification of consumer culture. By exposing
every corner of the mall stores, escalators, public walkways, basement, roof the
location becomes more saturated with meaning. (71)

Similarly, Resident Evil uses zombies to critique the general video game structuresvideo game structures that I have previously noted enforce capitalistic systems of points for kills and for exploration ("Working the System"). Instead, Resident Evil offers extras only for beating the game quickly, which necessitates running and not fighting and not exploring.

The zombies and ghosts in horror games critique video game structures that offer troped and unformed opponents who have no internal characteristics by offering









opponents whose humanity is imbued in the artifacts of their lives within the game space. Horror games also offer a critique to the types of game play that these general structures give rise to in relation to monsters and enemies because, while many games operate as 'hack and slash' or the ambivalent killing for progress, horror games often instead make players question every bullet or attack by restricting ammunition. The critiques are often presented in kitschy and overly contrived Gothic stylings-like Romero's Dead series and the 1970's Italian horror films, known as Giallo, from which the games draw stylistic and thematic elements. While the presentation of horror games often leads them to be dismissed as a result of poor game design or poor game narrative, horror games like Resident Evil, Silent Hill, and Fatal Frame present alternate options for game design by fully incorporating the monster into their game structures. In doing so, the overly contrived structures, game play, and themes serve to create boundaries that the monster blurs and dissolves.














CHAPTER 3
FRACTURED INDENTITIES: SIBLINGS AND DOPPELGANGERS IN VIDEO GAMES

As a new media form, video games are inextricably bound by their technological limitations.1 These include limitations in terms of processing power and in terms of code space on early cartridge and CD-based games. The limitations for game design have decreased dramatically as the processing power of the game stations and the run-of-themill personal computer have increased along with the data capacity for individual games. However, the prior limitations led to certain approaches to game construction that became tropes of game design that remain in use. Those former technologically based limitations that have become tropes often rely on the doubled use of code to mirror certain parts of the screen or parts of the game world, parts of the game narrative, and particular game characters or aspects of the characters. Using examples from several video games and particularly games from the Resident Evil and Fatal Frame series, this chapter demonstrates the manner in which character mirroring or doubling functions in games. In particular, I argue that the mirrored characters parallel the structure of folk and fairy tales in their subversive potential. By studying popular video games in connection with folk and fairy tales, this chapter illustrates the potential of popular, mainstream video games to present subversive and empowering narratives to their players.





1 An earlier version of this chapter appears as "Fractured Identities: Siblings and Doubles in Video Games," in Reconstruction: Studies in Contemporary Culture 5.2 (Spring 2005).









In literature, the figure of the double takes many forms. As Albert Guerard notes, "The word double is embarrassingly vague, as used in literary criticism. It need not imply autoscopic hallucination or even close physical resemblance" (3). In video games, which are bound by technological limitations, the double emerges in a very distinct manner both within game-play and within gaming narratives. In a single-character and thus seemingly simpler example, many critics have attempted to frame Tomb Raider's Lara Croft within Laura Mulvey's theories of voyeurism in film. However, as Helen W. Kennedy rightly argues in "Lara Croft: Feminist Icon or Cyberbimbo?: On the Limits of Textual Analysis," Lara Croft cannot be easily accommodated into the voyeuristic gaze because Lara is both the object of the gaze and the acting heroine within the game. Lara Croft manages to complicate any attempt to simplify her relationship to the player or the game because of the importance of game-play. While Lara Croft offers a comparatively simple example because she is one character, many video games double and multiply single characters into multiple player-character choices, and may then even double those playercharacters into their own enemies.

Studies on doubling and identification in games have more often used

psychoanalysis to focus on the doubling of the player in relation to the player-character. However, doubling and mirroring in video games also occurs at the level of game-play, with the player doubling the player-character, and within the game structure as the characters themselves are doubled and multiplied. The doubling and multiplication within the game structure is directly tied to the game's technological requirements that demand the mirroring of code for conservation of space. For instance, the first Metroid presented mirrored game areas so that the game could appear more expansive while utilizing the









same code. However, because technological mirroring proves necessary, many games incorporate that mirroring into the game narratives to make the games' narratives operate within the structural confines of that mirroring. Thus, many games have structural and spatial, as well as narratively mirrored characters. Because of the partly technologyderived mirroring of narratives and characters, and their subsequent multiplication, video games often focus on sibling rather than romantic relationships.

The shift from romantic to sibling relationships not only changes the space in which the games are played, but also the overall movement and shape of the game narratives. In doing so, many video game stories present radical departures from traditional romantic storytelling conventions specifically because they adhere to game design conventions and constraints. While many games also follow more conventional romantic storylines, these are often portrayed in conjunction with sibling storylines. While psychologically-motivated romantic structures occur more frequently in game narratives, as video games develop and more mature-rated and adult-themed games are released, the sibling structures dominating earlier game narratives still remains in use in many current and upcoming games.

Because of their prevalent use of sibling structures, video games connect to a long tradition of fairy and folk tales. Further, folk and fairy tales highlight the subversive and radical possibilities in video games, whereby video games can subvert traditional

2
narrative and typical game-play conventions. Bruno Bettelheim notes in his study of


2 Typical game-play conventions tend to focus on acquisition and progression while less typical games tend to focus on exploration and use. By focusing on acquisition and progression, many games emulate an exchange model where game-play is rewarded by virtual goods or spaces. For more on game-play dynamics and their relationship to an exchange model, see Laurie N. Taylor, "Working the System: Economic Models for Video Game Narrative and Play," Works and Days 2: 43-44 (2004): 143-153.









fairy tales The Uses of Enchantment that two siblings are often used in fairy tales, often as brother and sister, to represent two different types or different aspects of the same person. This structure has continued and evolved through comics, animation, and video games. One modern day example of this structure comes from Donald Duck's nephews, Huey, Dewey, and Louie who act as a unit in terms of actions and speech-they are parts of one person divided into three. In video games, this occurs frequently with one sibling representing greater skill in one area or more fully embodying a certain concept. For instance, one game player-character is stronger and another is faster, or, as a variation on the "Two Brothers" theme that Bettelheim studies, one character often embodies "the striving for independence and self-assertion, and the opposite tendency to remain safely home, tied to the parents (91). Bettelheim's remarks here are in reference to the entire frame of fairy tales, but they also apply to video games, as Janet Murray has noted in using Vladmir Propp's "Morphology of the Folk Tale" to study the story structure of video games (Hamlet on the Holodeck). While Propp can be apt and useful for many games, for others, Propp's analysis is overly simplistic and cannot account for the many variations. As a result Bettelheim's remarks on the movement and tension between siblings and on how those tensions often vary in accordance with the siblings' relationships opens the gap left in Propp's work and shows that video games, like fairy tales, need a more complex approach to even seemingly simple stories.

The sibling structure in video games often acts in the same subversive manner as the sibling structures in fairy tales. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari explain the significance of sibling relationships for social change in the context of schizoanalysis, which they consider to be an alternative to psychoanalysis in respecting the relationship









of siblings and equals instead of predicating all relationships on the dominant family structure with father and mother. "This combined formula, which has value only as an ensemble, is that of schizo-incest," Deleuze and Guattari explain: "Psychoanalysis, because it understands nothing, has always confused two sorts of incest: the sister is presented as a substitute for the mother, the maid as a derivative of the mother, the whore as a reaction-formation" (Kafka 66). Psychoanalysis reaffirms that dominant structure by insisting on the power and presence, even in absence, of the ordering or power structure of the adult-parent formation. As Deleuze and Guattari note, psychoanalysis insists on the mother even when the mother is absent; when the mother is absent and the sister fills a pivotal role by becoming representative of the mother. Alternately, schizoanalysis argues that for some texts while the parental-power formation remains present the parentalpower structure is not the pivotal relationship within that structure.

The structure of schizoanalysis is a structure of confusion and movement, of

doubles and combinations. As such, it allows for changing and evolving structures that exist outside of the patriarchal power system. Folk tales that subvert social norms like Hansel and Gretel as the tale of two children surviving parental abandonment and as a critique of the family structure that allowed for child abandonment often use figures of children to question the existing power structure in part by reaffirming the fundamental nature of the sibling relationship. Similarly, many video games also reaffirm the sibling relationship, often to specifically argue against the power structures present in the game.

Because of their emphasis on game-play, video games rely heavily on the

reader/player for interpretation and meaning, especially as that meaning may change based on different game-play strategies. The fluid nature of video game play allows









games to be analyzed using schizoanalysis and psychoanalysis with the majority of games displaying components of each, especially given the usefulness of psychoanalysis to articulate the relationship between the player and the player-character(s). The usefulness of psychoanalytic and non-psychoanalytic models is clear given the ubiquity of sibling relationships in video games. These siblings are often doubles in their places within the game narratives and in their visual representation and also afford a subversive vision akin to the sibling doubles from fairy tales, a vision that requires multiple lenses. The prevalent use of siblings and emphasis on sibling relationships in games points to narrativized struggles between traditional and non-traditional social models. As Paul Wells notes, the double is generally used as a metaphor for "struggles between law and order, the sacred and the profane, barbarism and civility, truth and lies" (8-9).

Siblings in Structure: Player-Characters and Enemies

Video game designers often use sibling relationships because-though changing

rapidly with the popularity of teen and mature rated games-the majority of video games are still created and rated for all ages. Video games need stories that are accessible for all ages and that can be translated for cultural and linguistic changes. The need for translatability is foregrounded because video games are sold across the world, with most games developed in either Japan or the United States. The need for translation requires video games to use a simple schema for game-play, and one that backgrounds more adult-related issues like sexuality. While many video games do have romantic relationships and high levels of explicit sexuality, these present greater difficulty in translation because of the different cultural standards for beauty, romantic relationships, and gender-specific behavior. While having a female character fight to save her beloved may not easily translate across cultures because of the position of women in those






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cultures, children's stories provide a schema in which male and female player-characters can play and fight with almost equal strength as siblings.

Using nearly- equivalent siblings also allows game designers to easily offer player character options that do not unfairly skew game-play. As Andrew Rollings and Dave Morris note in Game Architecture and Design, game balance includes matching the player's skill to the game-play, matching game-play elements with each other (for instance having equivalent weapons do equivalent damage), and matching the player option so that each player, or player-character, is afforded equal skills and abilities (734). Rollings and Morris go on to note that exact symmetry is the fairest solution, "but it's rarely the most interesting" (74). By striving for symmetry, video games follow other competitive sports and events like horse races and boxing in that video games try to equally weigh the players in order to create an even and competitive match. One common way to make games fair while also providing equivalent, but not symmetrical, characters is to make multiple player-characters that have higher abilities in certain areas. The characters are then balanced overall with each excelling in certain areas; the characters are siblings in structural usage because they are equivalent but not necessarily symmetrical.

One example of the relationship of sibling structures for character creation and development are the characters in Tenchu. Stealth Assassins. In Tenchu, the player can choose to play as the male character Rikimaru or the female character, Ayame, who is faster but less powerful than her male counterpart. This allows for slight player-character differences that relate to gender, but that more significantly relate to different options in game-play. Ayame allows for game-play that is based on quick movement and that









requires more hits for a kill, while Rikimaru allows for slower play based on slower, more powerful attacks with less movement and fewer hits required for a kill. The two characters are then synonymous with their game-play options and they parallel each other in terms of their ability to represent facets of game-play.

Following the need for ease of translation, game designers also need to be able to easily implement multiple possible player-characters, for play in multiplayer games, and in multiple-character single player games. Siblings and sibling structures-where the player-characters are equivalent in age, overall skills, and goals-allow for game designers to create multiple characters with few extra programming demands. Because video games are incredibly popular and game technology is rapidly evolving, game designers' and technological needs play a large role in the creation and evolution of game structures and narratives. As such, the sibling structures for game-play and game design operate on both the more simplistic level of player-character choice, as well as on the level of the underlying game meta-structures.

In terms of player-character choice, using siblings as the multiple player-character options allows the game narratives to be written once, and then the siblings can be easily substituted for each other during game-play without the need for multiple narrative structures or game-play options. This also allows game designers to add additional characters and character types and to add in unlockable3 or extra characters with relative ease. One simplified example of a video game that uses characters within a sibling structure, but not a sibling narrative is Gauntlet. Gauntlet provides an excellent example



' In video games, items and characters are said to be unlockable if they are at first locked and inaccessible to the player and then, after the player completes a particular action or quest, the items become 'unlocked' and available.









of the sibling structure because the player plays as one of several player-characters which all begin with different levels of ability within the same skill sets. As the game progresses, all of the characters slowly grow more powerful in the same main categories of strength, speed, endurance, and magic. New characters with the same skill areas can be unlocked and all characters have the same maximum levels for each skill, allowing them to become equal in terms of their in-game attributes. While the characters differ only slightly, and their differences do not greatly affect game play, Gauntlet still offers the appearance of choice by using the sibling player-character structure with each character as an aspect of the other characters.

The sibling structure also allows game designers to easily add in additional

characters for the appearance of additional game-play options and rewards. For instance, Super Mario Brothers uses the siblings Mario and Luigi as identical character options, except for their coloration, in the two-player game. While Super Mario Brothers is 'a princess on a pedestal game,' in which the player fights to save a trapped princess, it focuses first on the sibling relationship because both brothers are enlisted to save the princess. Mario and Luigi are identical in terms of abilities, age, and their appearance only varies in terms of the colors of their clothing; Mario wears red and brown and Luigi

4
wears white and green.

In Super Mario Brothers, the sibling relationship is also apparent in enemies like

the Hammer Brothers, who are always in pairs and who fight by throwing hammers at the player-character. In later Mario games, the player can play as Mario, Luigi, Toad, or the Princess, all of whom have higher abilities in some areas, but have equal overall skills. 4 Mario and Luigi's appearances do change in later games, but at first they appear identical except for the colors of their outfits.









More recent games also feature the character Wario, a larger and more yellow version of Mario, as an enemy or a player-character, depending on the game. The multiple playercharacters and monsters, even in the simple example of the Super Mario Brothers, connect to the overall evolution of monsters. As Judith Halberstam notes, "[t]he postFrankenstein monster emerges at the turn of the century as a creature marked by an essential duality and a potential multiplicity" (53). Like other monsters, those presented by video games are multiple in each of their instances, and in the spectrum of their iterations within a single game. And while the monsters in Super Mario Brothers are not horrific monsters, the general structural and narrative multiplicity of enemies and monsters in video games allows for the creation of multiple monster types, including horrific monsters and doppelgangers.

Siblings in Narrative

Design requirements push game designers towards using sibling structures for player-characters. However, the scope in which many games use siblings not only for player-character choice, but for the game meta-narrative and game-play design shows that video games operate both within traditional romantic and familial structures, as well as within alternatives like sibling structures. For games using the sibling structures for game design, Deleuze and Guattari's schizoanalysis proves a useful approach. For instance, both of the early games Super Mario Brothers (1985) and The Legend of Zelda (1986) are technically 'princess on pedestal' stories, but to read these merely in a psychoanalytic manner misses the sibling relationships in each. In The Legend of Zelda, the main character, Link, and Zelda, the princess he must save, appear as brother and sister. In a later game in the series, The Legend of Zelda: the Wind Waker Link is, in fact, explicitly named as brother to Aryll, whom he must save.









In each of these games, the 'princess on a pedestal' story is also a narrative of a

brother saving his sister. As such, the game narratives are more like modern renditions of radical folk tales that question the explicit power structure by presenting an alternate structure. The folk and fairy tale structures in these games further reinforces their subversive tendencies, as Jack Zipes notes: "No matter what has become of the fairy tale, its main impulse was at first revolutionary and progressive, not escapist, as has too often been suggested" (36). While folk and fairy tales can be subversive, Zipes also argues that their presentation often diminishes or negates their subversive potential. In particular, Zipes states that the mass production of fairy tales leads to, "a technologically produced universal voice and image which impose themselves on the imagination of passive audiences. The fragmented experiences of atomized and alienated people are ordered and harmonized by turning the electric magic switch" (17). Thus, the structure of folk and fairy tales alone does not necessarily allow for subversion. Rather, it is a combination of the stories themselves and the manner in those stories and their structures are presented that allow for the subversive potential. Because video games must offer options, or the appearance of options, and because they rely on game-play, they may escape the universalized voice. For instance, even in games like Super Mario Brothers in which the player is sent on a quest to save the princess, the game focuses first on the brotherly relationship between Mario and Luigi and then on their quest to save the princess. In moves similar to this, the Mario video games often posit the primary relationship to be that of siblings, with the Princess included as an equal as she is a player-character in several of the games.









Super Mario Brother's characters can be incorporated into a psychoanalytic

structure that would reaffirm the dominant social-power structure of the family, but to remain only within this interpretative framework would neglect or obscure significant aspects of the game. Making this misstep, Mia Consalvo in "Hot Dates and Fairy-Tale Romances: Studying Sexuality in Videogames" psychoanalytically analyzes one of the games in the immensely popular Final Fantasy series for its characters' romances. However, Consalvo's analysis fails to take note that all of the characters in Final Fantasy are orphans in worlds torn by war, with absent parents, making the characters siblings through their loss. Her analysis also neglects that, while the games' ending and the jokes during the game suggest romance, the game is played in a traditional fairy tale form with the siblings fighting for survival. Consalvo bases her psychoanalytic reading of the Final Fantasy games only on the game dialogue. While dialogue is an important component for game analysis, game-play and structure point to another structural level that complicate readings of the game structure presented by the game dialogue.

The sibling structure employed in Final Fantasy, with its use of orphan-siblings as the player characters, also occurs in the Final Fantasy offshoot, Kingdom Hearts. Kingdom Hearts retains some of the Final Fantasy characters while also adding new ones. Kingdom Hearts also has the player-character Sora fight his own shadow. Final Fantasy and Kingdom Hearts' use of orphans to provide equivalent player characters influences the game narrative and connects to doubles. As Karl Miller notes, "[w]here the double is, the orphan is never far away" (39). For video games, orphans and doubles are connected by the game narratives that seek to provide equality, and must thus remove the more powerful 'parental' figures and make the characters equal by way of making them









orphans. Because of the need to balance player characters, video games use doubles for both characters and enemies. By making the players in Final Fantasy orphans, the players are equal in a manner that psychoanalysis, with its emphasis on sexual relationships and the priority of the parent, cannot grasp.

Furthermore, because the player-characters are all orphans and exhibit equivalent abilities, the player-characters act as doubles of each other with each one providing slight alterations, but acting in similar ways and remaining tied to the other characters within the narrative. Similar to Final Fantasy, the game ICO places the player as a young boy banished from his home village. In order to escape the prison the villagers confine him to, he must help another prisoner, a young girl named Yorda. Because of the girl's age and the game's storytelling style, ICO also shows a sibling relationship with the two children joined in their orphaned status, banishment, and loss. In Gender Inclusive Game Design, Sheri Graner Ray argues that in ICO, "the way in which the NPC [non-player character] is presented to the player encourages emotional involvement" (55).

This emotional involvement stems from the depiction of Yorda depicts as a sibling in need of help, and as a sibling in circumstances that place both the player-character and Yorda living by themselves in exile. The fairy tale structure in these games is not a reaffirmation of the dominant structure, but one more in line with the subversive nature of early fairy tales. This is not to say that video games were designed for their revolutionary potential, just as folk and fairy tales were not always created for revolutionary reasons. As Zipes contends, folk and fairy tales have been considered subversive, "as they have tended to project other and better worlds," and additionally they, "have provided the critical measure of how far we are from taking history into our









own hands and creating more just societies" (Zipes 3). The majority of video games are certainly not developed with revolution in mind, but the majority of video games do present the possibility of better worlds and a method for making those worlds, if only in terms of the fictional worlds they present.

Final Fantasy, ICO, Super Mario Brothers, and The Legend of Zelda are typical video games in their presentation of sibling relationships as the primary relationships, with parents and parental structures being notably absent. On its own, a psychoanalytic framework proves inadequate for video games like these, if one wants to address the manner in which relationships are constructed and explored, as they are often without parental or other hegemonic structures. Psychoanalytic theories would most likely respond to this that the parents may be removed, but that they still exist structurally. In these games, however, the parents and all parental structures have not only been removed, but the game worlds are also frequently in chaos. To argue that this chaos still implies a traditional psychoanalytic structure misapprehends these narratives and their development through game-play. As an alternative to a psychoanalytical frame for discussing these games, schizoanalysis helps to illustrate the manner in which games use sibling structures and the significance of the sibling structures in games.

In Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, Deleuze and Guattari argue that

psychoanalysis misunderstands the function of the family. In doing so, they argue that the entire field of the familial structure is misinterpreted in making the family the site where the entire social field is applied and performed:

The family becomes the subaggregate to which the whole of the social field is
applied. Since each person has his own private father and mother, it is a distributive
subaggregate that simulates for each person the collective whole of social persons and that closes off his domain and scrambles his images. Everything is reduced to









the father-mother-child triangle, which reverberates the answer 'daddy-mommy'
every time it is stimulated by images of capital. (265)

Deleuze and Guattari here specifically relate schizoanalysis to the capitalistic system and to the overall social structure. While it is beyond the scope of this paper to explore the implications of sibling-structured video games for capitalist society, the alternative social structure presented in such games corresponds to the subversive potential of folk and fairy tales which question the dominant social order.

Sibling Worlds: Chaos of Changing Structures

Horror games like those in the Fatal Frame and Resident Evil series present

examples of subversive texts that rely on the sibling structure in order to question the narrativized power structures in their game worlds and the function of player-characters and non-player-characters in those worlds. Unlike many sibling-based games that are designed for all player ages and designed with little of a recognizably real world included, survival horror games provide a critical perspective on sibling relationships because they are situated within more realistic worlds, both with older player-characters, and designed for older players. Furthermore the games also question all of the world structures they depict. Survival horror games are also easier to disentangle from their explicit narratives because the narratives are often Gothic. As Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick explains of Gothic conventions; "Surely no other modern literary form as influential as the Gothic novel has also been as pervasively conventional. Once you know that a novel is of Gothic kind [...] you can predict its contents with an unnerving certainty" (9). Gothic conventions may make for greater confusion in terms of the actual narrative and structure; yet, the codification of Gothic conventions serves to simplify the separation of the structures from the explicit narrative. Because Gothic narratives often appear as









psychologically motivated tales, their use in survival horror games also further helps to show the need for schizoanalysis given the failure of psychoanalysis to fully explain these games. Psychoanalysis postulates that the fundamental structure is that of the family-whether this structure is that of mother-father-child or of caregiver's absence, the structure always refers to the initial values of the hierarchical family of parents and children. Deleuze and Guattari argue against this structure because it attributes all power to the parents and reifies the small nuclear group even as it applies to the larger social structures. The subversion of this is the schizoanalytic structure, which is one of change and evolution and which focuses on the relationship between equals that of siblings or doubles.

Removal of the parents or governing power, which is typical of many childrens' stories and video games, does not in itself change the narrative movement from psychoanalytic to schizoanalytic. The psychoanalytic structure must be fundamentally subverted or questioned for the schizoanalytic structure to take hold. This fundamental change is enacted throughout the Resident Evil and Fatal Frame games, in which the parental figures are removed, undermined, or corrupted. The removal of parental figures and structures leads to changes in the narrative structure and the game world presentation that make psychoanalytic treatments of these games inadequate. Deleuze and Guattari contend that:

The Oedipal incest occurs, or imagines that it occurs, or is interpreted as if it
occurs, as an incest with the mother, who is a territoriality, a reterritorialization.
Schizo-incest takes place with the sister, who is not a substitute for the mother, but
who is on the other side of the class struggle, the side of maids and whores, the
incest of deterritorialization [...] Schizo-incest, in contrast, is connected to sound, to the manner in which sound takes flight and in which memory-less blocks introduce themselves in full vitality into the present to activate it, to precipitate it, to multiply
its connections. (Kafka 67)






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In many video games, the sister or brother is just that a sister or brother and does not represent the mother or any sort of territorialized structure. In the survival horror games investigated here, all of the existing structures are eroded or destroyed; only the sibling relationships remain and these are relationships of tension and change.

Within the schizoanalytic structure, Deleuze and Guattari also note the importance of sound for schizo-incest's ability to take flight. Sound in the doubled and sibling worlds of survival horror video games provides the only reliable game system vision cannot be trusted, and often cannot be used effectively at all because of the lack of light and heavy fog. Sound fills survival horror games to define the characters' relationship to the virtual space of the game world, the narrative, and each other. Survival horror games are nightworlds and operate, as Paul Coates suggests, as worlds "in which vision is abolished and a series of suggestive sounds come into their own" (123). Within these worlds, all structures are lost, save for sounds and siblings. The emphasis on sound complements the narrative removal of traditional hierarchies (with parents and the government) by removing the traditional focus of the game display by refocusing it on the auditory rather than the visual.

The Resident Evil games begin with capitalistic and militaristic structures gone

haywire. The games' conflict begins with a corporation named Umbrella, which engineers biological weapons, creating one called the T-Virus (and mutations of this virus in subsequent games). This virus animates dead flesh so that dead creatures live on in an undead state and attack the living in the attempt to devour them. As the virus mutates and as Umbrella develops other virus strains, dead plants and animals also become extremely violent and aggressive. In the various game iterations, the virus gets released into a city









and several Umbrella training and development areas, which the player fights his or her way through in order to survive and to find friends and family. While the basic plot on the surface seems to be that of a low-budget horror film, the story that unfolds through game-play and the game characters indicates that this can hardly be the case. Through game paratexts and game-play, the player learns that some of the player-characters are members of S.T.A.R.S., a tactical unit that has been sent in to control the virus.

Player-characters include Claire Redfield, sister to Chris who is in the S. T.A.R. S. unit; Leon Kennedy, who was reporting to Raccoon City to be a police officer (but since the Police are destroyed, he is completely unconnected); Steve Burnside, son of two Umbrella operatives now dead; and Billy Coen, a fugitive naval officer who was framed, incarcerated, and has escaped from that incarceration. In the course of the game plot, the S.T.A.R.S. leader, Albert Wesker, betrays the group and attempts to kill them. In all of these cases, for ST.A.R.S. members like Chris, Jill Valentine, Barry Burton, and Rebecca Chambers, and for the others like Claire, Leon, Steve, and Billy, the controlling social structure is absent. Only in Steve's case is this structure literally parental, but all of the characters previously existed within a psychoanalytic structure of family, career, and military forces, but which have been removed or proved corrupt.

Psychoanalysis could take this removal and aberration of the traditional structure as simply that, an aberration being used to generate horror in the games. However, the games refuse such a simple reading. The removal of the parental and patriarchal structures is shown in small paratextual notes and in short cinematic sequences sprinkled in with game-play so sparsely as to be insignificant compared to the sibling relationships. For instance, members of the S.T.A.R.S. team are all shocked when they learn of









Wesker's betrayal, but that shock in reaction to Wesker is much less than their reaction to the loss of any of their quasi-sibling team members. The overall game trajectory, including the overall movement of actual play, focuses on the characters operating as siblings in order to help each other, often in direct opposition to their other orders. The focus of the game is on saving the sibling characters, and those who act otherwise are shown to be destructive and evil.

Even the romantic relationships in Resident Evil are first and foremost sibling

relationships-in structure or in actuality-and only after that are any of the relationships romantic for those that are not actual siblings. In Resident Evil 0, the S.T.A.R. S. medic Rebecca Chambers, and the fugitive Billy Coen have moments where they seem to be romantically interested in each other, but the game never makes this clear. They are both clearly linked as caring friends, as comrades fighting against the monsters around them. This cooperation questions the apparent order because Rebecca's military orders are to capture Billy and because, even though she was told that Billy is a criminal by her superiors, she still trusts him. Rebecca is still a teenager in the game and her placement as a child within a militaristic order structure casts her military superiors, like Albert Wesker, as parental figures. While this is true for all of the S.T.A.R.S. members, it is especially true for Rebecca because she does not appear to be in a strong position, in terms of age or physical ability, to resist the existing structure in any way. Her placement as medic, and thus less skilled with weaponry, further reinforces her subordinate position. However, she disobeys her orders and resists the dominant powers with little effort.

Like the seemingly romantic relationship between Rebecca and Billy, Jill Valentine and Chris Redfield (Resident Evil, Resident Evil 2) seem to be romantically interested in









each other. Like Chris, Jill is a member of the S. T.A.R. S. team and they both fight to help each other. Their relationship, other than their functional relationship as siblings in their military unit, is never made explicit. However, Chris searches for Jill in the same manner that he searches for his sister, Claire; and as Claire and Jill are furthermore similar in appearance, they both function and appear as Chris' sister. In addition to these oddly unromantic relationships, one must also consider Barry Burton and his family (Resident Evil). Barry obeys Wesker because Wesker threatens to kill Barry's wife and child. Barry acts as a traitor to his team for a period of time, but then risks his family in order to save his team members. In doing so, Barry both overthrows Wesker's control and reaffirms that the sibling relationship between S.T.A.R.S. members and other survivors comes before that of the traditional family structure. Following Barry, the traditional family is even shown to be a destructive force.

Destructive forces appear in all of the complete family units presented even in those that are now incomplete, as with Steve Burnside's family (Resident Evil Code: Veronica -) and Lisa's family (Resident Evil). Steve Burnside has to fight to survive after he and his parents are taken to an island and imprisoned by Umbrella. In one cut scene, Steve even kills his zombified father in order to protect Claire. While this could be read psychoanalytically with the teenage Steve destroying his father to emerge in full manhood, the scene, however is merely a cut-scene and the player has no control over this action. Steve does kill his father to save Claire, and Steve is clearly shown to be attracted to Claire; but his patricide is clearly shown as motivated by the desire to protect his equal and become part of the system in which she exists with her brother Chris, a system of siblings and of survival.






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Sibling Worlds: Enemies and Monsters

While the sibling system presents a web of equal and equivalent characters, it also provides the basic structure that ties the characters to their enemies. The doubling of characters in video games applies to player-characters, non-player-characters, and enemies alike, as well as to the entire structure of game-play itself In the words of Matt Bittanti, "[t]he avatar is a technologically charged doppelgdinger" (248). This doubling of the player and the player-character is repeated throughout video games for both playercharacters and their enemies. This multiplicity figures in the construction of the monster in both game narrative and structure because the monster also presents a portion of the subject. The monster, Judith Halberstam explains, is the subject's double and, "represents not simply that which is the buried self, rather the monster is evidence of the production of multiformed egos. Indeed, it is only the evidence of one self buried in the other that marks the subject human" (7 1). In this way, the monsters within the sibling system also present the system itself either by verifying the sibling structure or by embodying the traditional structures and showing that these must be destroyed. While this replication of the system could serve to verify the hegemonic structures, in the case of survival horror video games, it serves to further undermine those structures.

A large factor in undermining the traditional family structure is Lisa, in the first Resident Evil, a monster. Like Steve, Lisa is a young girl whose parents worked for and were subsequently killed by Umbrella. Lisa's parents are already dead when the game narrative begins, but the player learns of Lisa's parents through their journals, notes, and other remnants of their lives as humans. As noted in Chapter 2, the player also finds Lisa's journal which progresses from Lisa the small girl, through her infection by the virus where her written language deteriorates until she at last writes meaningless






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scribbles. Lisa is one of the more difficult opponents to fight in terms of game-play because Lisa is strong and still has some level of intelligence. By reading Lisa's journals and other notes in the game, the player learns that Lisa wants to be whole again and so Lisa eats everything and everyone in order to have them as part of her. Lisa has been given a clear psychological motivation in this sense, because she desires to fill her emotional needs by quite literally devouring that which she needs, and her needs include human companionship. Specifically she wants to eat her mother, the one she misses most.

Lisa and, to a lesser extent Steve, can thus be read psychoanalytically, but to read them only psychoanalytically misses the complexity of both game narrative and gameplay. Lisa and Steve represent traditional family structures, are both monsters, and are both killed in the end The structure that is killed with them represents the attempt at a traditional family structure and unity. Steve tries to be a sibling to Claire, but he is inevitably unable to escape his family structure and has to kill himself in order to protect Claire from the monster he becomes. Like Steve, Lisa is trapped by her familial past and is killed.

By showing the family structure fetishized by psychoanalysis as a structure which kills, the Resident Evil games open the possibility for another reading; and, because of the emphasis on equal sibling relationships with the chaotic disruptions that this brings with it, a schizoanalytic reading. Because the games can be considered Gothic, the conventionality of the games in terms of structure and narrative sets the stage for explicit breakages within the hyper- structuralization of the Gothic genre. As Halberstam demonstrates, the Gothic, "tracks the transformation of struggles within the body politic


5While they seem to die, the game leaves open whether or not Lisa survives.









to local struggles within individual bodies. The Gothic monster, moreover, as a creature of mixed blood, breaks down the very categories that constitute class, sexual, and racial difference" (78). Lisa, as a monster, acts to break down multiple categories through her growth from a child into an adult monster. As a monster of family, Lisa thus represents family even while disrupting the familial structures.

Characters

Far from being unusual examples, the Resident Evil games parallel the Fatal Frame series of games, which also present sibling relationships as the fundamental connection between player-characters. This connection is made and maintained even through multiple realms of existence. In Fatal Frame's case these are a realistic realm and at least one spiritual realm. The first Fatal Frame follows a young girl named Miku as she searches for her brother Mafuyu in a haunted mansion. Because of her concern for him, Miku searches for her brother even when confronted with terrifying ghosts and the gates to hell. Not only are Miku and Mafuyu children of a dead mother and an absent father, they are also psychically linked, which is how Miku is able to track her brother. During game-play, the player as Miku will occasionally stumble onto a place her brother has been recently and the player, along with Miku, sees what happened to Mafuyu at that place.

Fatal Frame 2: Crimson Butterfly also follows two siblings. This time the siblings are twin girls, Mio and Mayu Amakura. The player plays primarily as Mio, but also plays as the sibling Mayu for short sequences. Fatal Frame 2 begins with the two sisters walking in the woods. They stumble into a haunted village and, once inside, they cannot leave. Mayu seems possessed by the place and walks away, quickly lost in the space and time of the village. The village is frozen in time from nearly a century ago, when the









town was supposed to perform a bloody ritual involving the sacrifice of twin girls to appease spirits. The townspeople failed, and now the town is frozen in time and place, trapping and killing all those who enter. As Mayu drifts into the alternate realm in which the town exists, she also slowly merges with one of the twins who was to be sacrificed so many years ago, while Mio attempts to save them both. The Fatal Frame games differ from the Resident Evil games because the player only has one player-character choice in the Fatal Frame games. However, the sibling relationship in the Fatal Frame games is even more intense because the only relationships in the games are that of the two siblings, and those of the ghosts of the townspeople who performed human sacrifices.

In each of the games, the narrative focuses on human sacrifice-women in the first game and young girls in the second. A male town elder sacrifices the women in order to prevent a catastrophe from occuring. In each game, the other townspeople assist the male elder in the sacrifices. After the sacrifices fail, the townspeople in their ghostly forms attack the player-characters. In fact, the only helpful non-player-character in either of the games is a young boy in the second game. However, the townspeople-ghosts' cruelty towards the player-characters is understandable because the mansion and the town suffer not for performing these sacrifices, but for failing to do so. The sacrifices are presented as good acts, in the sense of preventing the doors to hell from opening, as well as evil for their cruelty. All of the townspeople's relationships are bound by death and, at best, ambiguous moral choices. In this way, the only relationship that does not involve death is that of the siblings, and the only path to freedom or even survival is through the siblings working together. The parents, town elders, and all those in power are absent or malevolent. The only survival or hope is through disrupting the systems that they have









put in place by reaffirming the sibling relationship. In both the Resident Evil and the Fatal Frame series, the characters, worlds, and game-play are thus defined by the sibling relationships. The sibling relationships, moreover, define the enemies and their places within these narratives.

Doubles, Shadows, and the Other

Like the doubling of player-characters, video games also present enemies as double or shadow characters because it allows the game designers to repeat code, making the games easier to program and design. These double or shadow characters can be found in all game types. Some of the games with explicit shadow characters include: Super Mario Sunshine, which presents a water-shadow Mario enemy; The Legend of Zelda II, which has a dark or shadow Link enemy; and Sonic Adventure 2, which has a Shadow Sonic enemy. The shadows in these and many other games are doubles and are concordantly presented and often also named "Shadow" or "Dark," but these doubles are not horrific as doubles and shadows often are. Instead, doubles and shadows are connected to technology for both literature and for video games. In The Double and the Other: Identity as Ideology in Post-Romantic Fiction, Paul Coates argues that the large-scale emergence of the double in literary works relates to the cheapening of mirrors and their increasing commonality in people's experiences, stating: "As the multiplication of reflecting surfaces, mirrors and plate glass in modern architecture increases the self-consciousness of society, the sight of one's own image ceases to be the harbringer of death" (35). To cope with the technological limitations, Nick Montfort explains, video game doubling









began with the early games, where half of the screen had to be mirrored to present a full

6
screen.

Following the extreme limitations of mirroring the game screen, other early games, like The Legend of Zelda II, doubled characters because it allowed the game designers to reuse code for both the fighting and movement styles as well as the character appearance. Even in the early Resident Evil games, the doubling of the player-character-choices with only minor changes to the game space and game-play for each character- allowed the game world to seem larger without requiring large amounts of additional code. While the repeated use of code led to many doubled characters, many of these were doubles in a non-horrific sense.

The double as a horrific structure further complicates and subverts traditional structures. Doubles exist within traditional structures, and they exist in manners that question the relationship of one of the doubles to the other. In video games, the doubling questions both the relationship of the doubles and the structures in which the doubles exist because video games that use sibling structures present horrific doubles that are fundamentally connected to each other and to the story. Because video games often use sibling relationships as primary, the threat of the other becomes not a threat of something unknown, but the threat of a perversion of the known. As such, video game enemies in sibling-based stories are more likely to be doppelgangers, shadows or doubles of the player-characters. While early shadow characters are simply that, video games quickly 6 See Nick Montfort's work on early text-based games and early video game consoles, like the Atari for more on code and screen mirroring. It is also interesting to note that mirror effects in games, where the characters could walk in front of a mirror or mirrored surface like water and see their reflection, is a rather recent effect in games, emerging around 2003. The underlying technical mirroring exists on the code and narrative levels, but the visual representation of that mirroring has only been technically possible in recent games. Montfort presented his work on this at Princeton's "Video Game, Form, Culture, and Criticism Conference," in March 2004.









developed non-symmetrical shadow characters in the double and doppelganger figures of Mario's double in Wario, Luigi's double in Waluigi, Solid Snake's double in Liquid Snake, and Samus' Alien-Samus double in Metroid Fusion. Resident Evil Code: Veronica also has the explicitly double characters of Chris and Claire Redfield as brother and sister and as the game's player-characters, and then their doubles in sister and brother Alexia and Alfred Ashford, the heads of the Umbrella corporation and the main enemies in this game. Code: Veronica also uses Alexia and Alfred as dopplegangers, having Alex dress in drag as Alexia after he has confined her to a zombie existence through a failed experiment. Alexia emerges to fight as a zombie-esque creature at the end of the game, making her a double or perversion of her human self The reversal and mirroring of the brother-sister pair in Resident Evil concretizes the seemingly simple sibling relationships in video games, but also the twisted relationships of dual character games where the male and female characters are used as interchangeable counterparts for each other to add player-character choice without disrupting the game narrative.

Fatal Frame more explicitly doubles the player-characters in relation to the

enemies than does the Resident Evil series, as the first Fatal Frame depicts the scars of the sacrificed women slowly appearing on Miku while she stays on the haunted estate. In Fatal Frame 2, the twin girls parallel the girls who were almost sacrificed so long ago. The twin girls become doubles of each other and of the pair of girls before them. In addition to the player-character doubles in the twin girls, the earlier twins themselves have doubles in their dolls. In the game's background story, one of the earlier twin girls to be sacrificed ran away, and her sister was terribly upset. To console her, the townspeople made a doll of her sister that slowly comes to life as the girl plays with, and









loves, the human-sized doll. The player-character has to fight both of these earlier twin girls and the doll, which also gets doubled into two dolls, at different points in the game. The use of dolls as doubles is a familiar trope, as Paul Coates discusses Henry James' non-horror What Maisie Knew and how the young girl, Maisie, used her dolls in such a way that they became her doubles (59). The dolls as doubles for video games is particularly odd because it inherently questions methods of game-play because the player is playing as one of the characters, making the character perform as a puppet or a doll for the player. This bizarre connection between the player and the player-character is further reinforced in games like Resident Evil where the controller can be set to use rumbleeffects to thump and pulse like a human heartbeat. These odd connections serve to increase the doubling effect and to increase the horror of the game, all the while increasing the importance of the sibling relationship as the only means of escape.

Fatal Frame's game-play and fighting style further increase the doubling effects because its game-play is based on the characters fighting the ghosts by taking photographs of them that slowly diminish the ghosts' power and eventually destroy them. In discussing that the double most often appears at dusk, Coates argues that the double is like that of the photograph, stating that "[t]he Double in fin de siecle literature is thus the uncanny aspect of the photograph, which is similarly momentary and monochrome" (4). The ghosts in Fatal Frame can only be clearly seen through the camera lens, but using the camera lens makes moving the player-character more difficult and more awkward. When the player takes pictures of the ghosts, the ghosts are sometimes knocked backwards by the force of the shot, while at other times the ghost retreat slightly, and on occasion the ghosts charge forward, undaunted. The closer the range in which the






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photographs are taken, the more damage to the ghosts, so the player must balance fear of the ghosts and the damage they do with the need to conserve film to survive subsequent encounters. Balancing these needs often means that, in terms of game-play, the player must wait until the ghosts fill the entire screen view, because the view is through the camera lens, and the ghosts are about the pounce upon the player before the player attacks. The need for close-up photographs and the camera-view construction forces the player into close proximity with the ghosts. Thus, the player is bound by a visual and proximate relationship with the ghosts while also forced to take multiple shots of a single ghost, memorializing these enemies in the game photographs, which the game allows the player to keep. The Fatal Frame and Resident Evil series, while extremely codified, also present ruptures using the sibling structures to double the human with human, the human with monster, to double the structures of narrative, and to double the structures of game design. Moreover, the actual game-play further enforces this ghostly doubling by repeatedly bringing the characters in contact with doubled spaces and doubled monsters.

Conclusion: Survival Horror and Family Border Crossings

The doubles in video games serve to undermine traditional family structures while also presenting game spaces filled by multiplicity, mirrors, and complications that intertwine game-play, narrative, and game design. Using the figure of the double, video games present subversive texts that parallel folk and fairy tales in their questioning of dominant structures, including their foregrounding of technological structures that require such doubling. Arguing for the neutral value of technology in the presentation of folk and fairy tales, Zipes states, "Technology itself is not an enemy of folk and fairy tales. On the contrary, it can actually help liberate and fulfill the imaginative projections of better worlds which are contained in fairy tales" (18). Zipes' statement indicates that video









games, like folk and fairy tales, can display both alternate world structures or the problems in current worlds. Video game doubles and sibling structures inherently question the reigning order and provide an alternate path, one for which folk and fairy tales point the way for both children's stories and adult fiction.

In More Than a Game, Barry Atkins suggests that Tomb Raider is very much like an epic folk tale because of its use of a princely narrative structure where the child of an aristocrat goes on heroic quests (42). Atkins' remarks on the folk tale are a minor note in terms of his overall argument; however, his remarks are telling in that so many games, even those with limited use of doubles, still connect to folk and fairy tales. Furthermore, video games' relationship to folk and fairy tales are far from simple. While Tomb Raider and many video games like the classic hero story-structured The Legend of Zelda can easily be read as duplicating a basic fairy tale structure, seeing only that structure without regard to its implications for subversion neglects other equally valid structures within the text. Video games, as a new and popular medium, are in danger of being inaccurately analyzed as simplistic stories in ways that neglect the interplay between game design, game-play, and narrative. Schizoanalysis is but one method for investigating video games in a manner that respects their formulation through game-play, game design, and narrative, because it retains the complex interrelations of power and social structures and sees them in relation to the subversive structures created by the game narrative and the actions of game play.














CHAPTER 4
GOTHIC SUBVERSIONS OF GENDER: WOMEN HEROES IN VIDEO GAMES

Video games most often feature male protagonists. When video games do feature female protagonists, the women are generally intended as-whether or not they prove to be-eye-candy for a male audience, like Tomb Raider's Lara Croft (first released by Eidos in 1996) and the girls of Dead or Alive (Cad Douglas et al. 6). However, other depictions of women and gender are explored in video games. Several ludic Gothic horror video games, because of their relation to the breakages and openings created by the Gothic, serve as settings for several of the most progressive female video game characters to date. These include the Fatal Frame games and Resident Evil games complete with their dark towers and eerie courtyards and American McGee's Alice, with its Gothic-punk Alice and Cheshire Cat. Women in Fatal Frame, Resident Evil, and American McGee's Alice disrupt the norms of video gaming because they present strong female protagonists who are defined by skill and wit, rather than by their feminine physiques or feminized personalities.' The women in these games are rounded characters

- capable of fighting and thinking because they were designed as full characters and must be played as such in order to succeed in the games. This chapter addresses the changing role of women as players and characters in video games, as this evolution occurs in several ludic Gothic video games with emphasis on the peculiar manner in 1In one of the more exaggerated examples of female characters being defined by their bodies, Dead or Alive 2 was actually programmed to make the female fighter's breasts bounce at all times-even when the characters were not otherwise moving. The breasts bounce without any possible physical reason for doing so. For details on the programming involved, see Chris Baker's "Gettin' Jiggly wit It" in Wired Magazine, 10. 11 (Nov. 2002): 5 pars. 1 Sept. 2005 .


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which this evolves in American McGee's Alice and in the Fatal Frame and Resident Evil series.

The Gothic setting allows for the disruption of norms and normality. In doing so,

the female characters are not immediately identified as sexualized objects, but are instead identified as characters trying to survive. Within these games' Gothic settings, the characters' physical appearances do not factor into their abilities and actions, nor into the game narratives as they do for female characters in other games. By being made first into full characters, rather than caricatures of women, they exceed the stereotypical confines for women in games. The games themselves also require excessive repetition and replay, such that the method of play becomes nonstandard and non-stereotypical. By exceeding the predetermined limits imposed by normal gaming, ludic Gothic and horror games allow for women characters to be portrayed within the act of play as a sort of l 'criture feminine in much the same manner that theorists like Michelle Kendrick have argued hypertext could allow for a possible eruption of l'critureftminine (3). For video games, l'critureftminine relates to the context of the video game narratives and worlds, but primarily to the construction of play which relies on the process of a form of disruption as a form for play.

The women characters in Fatal Frame, Resident Evil, and American McGee's Alice are composed as whole characters formed through fragments. They rise to the level of full characters as heroes and monsters, roles that they have been barred from in other video games. They have been empowered to occupy these more complete roles by the changes in character and world design that Gothic allows, and through the Gothic method of play that subverts play standards that would otherwise codify these characters.









Gothic and Gender

The Gothic is particularly important to the evolution of women as characters in and players of video games because the Gothic allows for the fissures through which new representations and methods of play may erupt. Gothic elements create Gothic texts; however, a codified Gothic genre does not exist because the Gothic relates to a composition of fragments and themes instead of cohesive elements. As Misha Kavka argues "there is no established genre called Gothic cinema or Gothic film" (209). Kavka continues, the Gothic is not a unified form or class, but a collection of elements that together situate a particular work as Gothic: there are "Gothic images and Gothic plots and Gothic characters and even Gothic styles [... ] but there is no delimited or demonstrable genre specific to film called the Gothic" (209). Because the Gothic is defined by these elements horror video games, like horror films, may have elements of the Gothic; therefore, they may also function as Gothic texts.

Within the fragmentary form of the Gothic, ludic Gothic video games present an opening for changing video game gender roles in terms of the visual and narrative representations as well as the game-play methods. While not all games have narrativesas with Pong and Tetris-and some games relate to their narratives in only marginal or tangential ways, ludic Gothic games heavily rely on the game narratives for continued game-play and for the construction of the game world. In this reliance on the game narrative, ludic Gothic games depict Gothic themes that subvert the often implicit and foundational patriarchal narratives found in other video games. As Anne Williams argues in Art of Darkness: A Poetics of Gothic, "'The Gothic myth,' the mythos or structure informing this Gothic category of 'otherness,' is the patriarchal family" (22). The Gothic as such serves to disrupt the norms of video games as a whole as with the presentation









and implementation of female figures. The history of Gothic narratives situates gothically-styled video games within a rich tradition of breakages-breakages specifically within patriarchal structures and concepts. These breakages allow for nontraditional video game gender roles, while also allowing for non-traditional video game structures.

The Gothic for video games is indicative of a blending and dissolution of

boundaries. Because games often present truncated narratives and world views, games also often reduce difficult concepts to binary oppositions. However, the Gothic disrupts simple oppositions. As William Veeder suggests, the Gothic is not a set of simple oppositions, but the interplay between oppositions, a "praxis that involves necessarily the interplay of psychological and social forces" (20). Judith Butler similarly presents a view of the Gothic not as an overall category, but one that "is the breakdown of genre and the crisis occasioned by the inability to 'tell,' meaning both the inability to narrate and the inability to categorize" (Skin Shows 23). Ludic Gothic video games, like Resident Evil and American McGee's Alice, embody the breakdown of oppositions and definitions through the movement between individual versus collective psychological and social forces in their game narratives, their representations of women, and their game-play.

Gender as Style

Because of the widespread, disproportionate number of male to female characters in other video games, many examinations of gender in video games have focused on how any female characters are used. Lara Croft has garnered the most attention because of her prominent role as the player-character in the Tomb Raider series and because of her prominent sexuality. While Lara certainly figures into any study of gender and gaming, I suggest here that the use of gendered characters, the stories in which they exist, and the









method of game-play must be seen as interacting together to portray gender in gaming. Consequently, the use of female characters alone is less significant than the manner in which the characters are presented in video games. Thus, while Lara Croft is "an avatar; she is not just viewed, she is played, occupied and propelled by an off-screen agent," as Diane Carr notes (171), Lara is also structured first as a woman and as a woman to be looked upon. Carr continues, "When I play as Lara, I play in the company of her creators, and in the shadow of the desiring gaze that her breasts and short shorts were formed to address" (174). Similarly, Claudia Herbst remarks on Lara's construction, "The image of Lara has been employed in the promotion of female empowerment. [... ] Women are supposed to ignore that the image of Lara was created neither by them nor for them" (28). Helen W. Kennedy similarly argues that Lara Croft cannot be easily accommodated into the voyeuristic gaze because Lara is both the object of the gaze and the acting heroine within the game. Kennedy, Carr, and Herbst all note that Lara, while in many ways representative of female empowerment, remains a construction completely based on gender. Carr rightly concludes that Lara, despite her strength and agency, still "reaffirms more borders than she crosses" (178). Lara does so because, while disrupting some gender stereotypes, she simultaneously functions to encourage others.

Lara's gendering remains problematic because, as Judith Butler has shown, gender is not a fixed category, but a "corporeal style, an 'act' [... ] which is both intentional and performative, where 'performance' suggests a dramatic and contingent construction of meaning" (Gender Trouble 130). As such, gender in video games can be examined in terms of that performance. Lara performs in empowered ways, disrupting gender norms; however, her appearance and even her very existence then recapitulate those norms. In









video games, gender acts as created performance to an additional degree because the player performs as the character, who is often preset to perform as a certain gender and according to certain gendered norms.

Eric Hayot and Edward Wesp, in their article "Style: Strategy and Mimesis in Ergodic Literature," have analyzed the performance of social and cultural stereotypes. Hayot and Wesp frame the use of race in video games through Rey Chow's concept of 'coercive mimeticism' in which Chow argues that ethnic subjects are expected to both wear and perform the mark of their difference. Hayot and Wesp argue that this expected performance connects directly to video games in terms of the predetermined methods of play in colonial video games, like Age of Empires. While Hayot and Wesp relate Chow's coercive mimeticism to representations of race in video games, the same coercive mimeticism also functions for representations of gender. Hayot and Wesp posit that the games they examined use race to mark the physical appearance of the ethnic groups, while also marking the game-play strategies as ethnic. Hayot and Wesp note, "The ethnic subjects of game-play in Age of Kings have no 'choice' but to enact at the levels of both ornament and ability the ethnic identity to which game designers have assigned them" (411). Hayot and Wesp further argue that the game's logic teaches players to perform as the ethnic identity chosen the Mongols are best played as horseback-riding archers, the Chinese begin with a larger population, more easily outnumbering enemies and that this performance is encoded in a "genetic" game logic that situates race as a determined and determining factor of appearance and action.

In this same stylistic encoding, video games engender player-characters by making the female characters both appear and act as excessively feminine. In doing so, the games









coerce players into playing the game within the confines of the character's limits for the performance of gender. For instance, women characters in most video games both look and act within stereotypical gender bounds; women characters are much more likely to be skilled at running or healing than the male characters who are presumed to be more skilled at fighting. While Lara Croft breaks borders through her strength and her ability to fight, she nonetheless reaffirms borders through the way her female bodily characteristics are hyperbolically represented. Despite her reaffirmation of some borders, however, Lara still breaks from the traditional video game representation by not coercing the players to play "as a woman," which would generally mean to play as a healer or as a cooperative helper. Nevertheless, Lara still cannot completely break the barriers of her gender because of her placement within a highly defined gaming genre and game design. The same limits that bind Lara are often the result of game designers' needs for ease and clarity of game-play.

Using gender as style to create a coercive mimeticism is facilitated by game

designers' needs to offer non-trivial game choices while also offering a balanced gameplay system. Andrew Rollings and Dave Morris argue in Game Architecture and Design that, "player/player balance is the art of making the game fair so that each player gets no other special advantage but his skill. There can be luck in the game, but it must apply evenly to all players" (73). But Rollings and Morris also contend while that symmetry "may be the fairest solution [... ] it's rarely the most interesting" (74). In order to provide interesting, yet equal, variations many games offer female characters as alternatives to male characters. The female characters appear not only as feminine in appearance, but also as women according to culturally sanctioned roles for women.









The gendered player-character roles can be seen easily in party system games, where a single player controls multiple characters, each with different skills. In party system games, the woman character is most often the healer, as is the case with White Mage in Final Fantasy. Similarly, the gendered roles are also apparent in single player games where the female player-character is an option with other male player-characters and, in most of these games, the woman character is better skilled at fleeing than at fighting. Examples of skilled escapist women include the Princess in Super Mario Brothers 2, who excels at jumping, making the difficult game jumps easier and allowing her to jump over enemies.

Other games present the "fleeing woman" less transparently and structure the

woman character's skills to be faster and more nimble, yet less powerful and less able to endure attacks from other characters. This format applies to for the woman ninja, Ayame, in Tenchu: Stealth Assassins and the many woman warrior-characters in Dynasty Warriors 3. In presenting women characters this way, video games use femininity as a stylistic choice, and one that encodes traditional gender norms of women as healers or caretakers, and as physically smaller and weaker. While these options for any single game are not inherently problematic, the lack of women characters combined with the limited presentation of female characters who most often exemplify femininity through their appearance and/or function becomes problematic for the overall video game medium.

Despite video game design, which attempts to normalize female characters as the sexualized sisters of their male counterparts, the very act of making them into women, and into sisters in particular, opens game design for more possibilities and ruptures. As









Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari acknowledge in Kafka: Towards a Minor Literature; "But women present an even more precise blend of things: they are part sister, part maid, part whore. They are anticonjugal and antifamilial" (64). By including women characters at all, video games open a space for change and for characters that are actually women, rather than the amalgamation of gendered attributes and performances. The changes also allow for atypical game design, as in the case of ludic Gothic games, which in turn allow for the further disruption of video game and gender borders.

Gender as Structure

Gothic structures in video games present breakages that allow for alternatives to the traditional stereotypical representations of women. While most female video game characters began as either versions of their male counterparts as with Ms. Pac-Man in Ms. Pac-Man, the female frog in Frogger, and the Valkyrie in Gauntlet or as damsels in distress, ludic Gothic games immediately allow for primary woman characters. The damsels needing rescue, from angry apes like King Kong in Mario Brothers and evil spiders in Wizards and Warriors, are generally the first women video game characters noted by game journalists and game studies critics. They also note that Lara Croft is the first major woman protagonist, although this is far from true. The history of women characters in video games, especially by virtue of its omissions, proves that women characters in video games need a rupture or breakage to overcome the design limitations already present. The history of video game women characters, designers, and players is particularly important because the meta-narrative tells of a masculine genre, with male characters and male players. Without reclaiming parts of this history, some of the more recent changes cannot be properly contextualized. Ludic Gothic games are particularly









important in this regard because they are ahistorical in terms of most video game development. They are ahistorical in that video games generally follow a trajectory of increasing technological ability that corresponds to improvements in computer graphics. Ludic Gothic and horror games; however, often rely on lower-quality images to obfuscate image and vision, disrupting technologically-based historical placement.

Before delving further into women in ludic Gothic games, it is necessary to mention their precursors in the history of women game characters. One of the first breakages allowing for women video game characters occurred in an action adventure game. This rupture came with Samus Aran, who starred inMetroid as the galaxy's best bounty hunter. Both Sheri Graner Ray and Marsha Kinder have noted the oddity of Samus Aran as such a powerful character in the early years of mainstream video gaming (Gender Inclusive Game Design and Playing with Power). Metroid s game book told players that Samus Aran's past was unknown, but that he was the last hope for the galaxy in the face of the alien Metroid threat. The game book referred to Samus as 'he,' but after winning, Metroid's final credits revealed Samus to be a woman by showing her with long hair and in a bikini. She became the first Nintendo female protagonist, when Metroid was released in 1985.

Most important, while Samus appears in the bikini at the end of Metroid, players see this ending only if they win by meeting several requirements. Moreover, Samus always appears first in her spacesuit, so her outfit is not sexualized. In addition to her initial outfit, Samus also does not appear as sexualized in any sort of graphical manner. Her image is extremely basic and the hair and bikini are used to show her as female she does not have exaggerated breasts and she does not appear outside of her space suit in






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more graphically advanced games that would be capable of showing her as sexualized. This explanation of Samus' s outfit and appearance is necessary to show the important differences between Samus and Lara Croft. Both characters are highly skilled, but Lara is portrayed as a highly sexualized object while Samus is not. Samus came alive in a game that never mentioned her past and in which she never spoke. Samus's silence offers the counter-history of women in video games-that of a slow and steady growth of strength and power that is not immediately recognizable in mainstream histories of gender and video games. Samus, in herself, certainly does not represent a full history of gender in video games, but she does serve as a pivotal example of how the existing histories that focus on Lara Croft have missed not only a precursor, but another version of femininity which favors innate ability over a sexualized appearance.

As the first non-hypersexualized female video game protagonist, Samus Aran

presents an opening in the history of gender in video games. Despite this initial opening, emphasis on male video game characters remains because of the types of stories that video games present and because of players' perceptions of those stories. Video game stories often draw on existing story frameworks, and many of those frameworks put men as the main characters with women as helpers, romantic interests, or side characters. This use of existing stories is evident in military scenario games; detective based stories like Max Payne and Post Mortem; anti-hero epics like Soul Reaver and Grand Theft Auto 3; action-adventure knight tales like The Legend of Zelda, Prince of Persia, and Maximo; and many others. These story types fit within basic culturally-held story schemas where the protagonist is generally a man, where women only save or help him in his quest. Video game story schemas are adapting these pre-existing schemas to include more









women characters; however, schema modification occurs slowly. In order for women characters to be present in video games in more active and empowered positions, the games themselves, as well as the stories the games are based on, must change.

The majority of video games that include female characters have amended the

narratives in minor ways to allow for women to play a more prominent role. For instance, in cases like Onimusha the player performs as the woman character for only a few minutes during the entire game-play. In games that replace the male for a female protagonist, as with games like Ms. Pac-Man and Bloodrayne, a woman plays the antihero. In games that use gender as a stylistic choice, as with Dynasty Warriors 3 and with the ruling figures in strategy games like Civilization III, a woman plays as a hero who is divorced from gender. These three uses of women in video games do show an overall arc of improvement in that women are being included in games more frequently, but none of these constitute a radical shift in the way gender is configured in games. Gender in video games, like other media, remains highly problematic.

For games to present gender in ways that do not fall under the current problems of gender as style or simple option of appearance, video games must use existing schemas that do not figure gender within the common cultural stereotypes of woman as weak, non-aggressive, victims, and men as strong, heroic, and aggressive. Gothic narratives present this opportunity because they are based in breaks from family rule, patriarchy, and conventional conceptions of gender. Gothic narratives thus present stories that can be used to portray gender roles that exist outside of stereotypical constructs. Further, because the Gothic is founded on disruptions of vision and space, game-play based on the Gothic similarly changes.









Ludic Gothic Video Games

As an amorphous and changing collection of elements, Gothic narratives are not easily situated in any particular time or place. Instead, Gothic narratives are most often defined by their setting (normally castles, mansions, or another form that invokes the structure and influence of the often familial past); involvement with tangled (and often incestuous) family and hegemonic structures; pre-occupation with the past (often resulting in hauntings); and an overall focus on disrupting the traditional family structure, through the broken home, broken family history, or broken social concepts that underlie these structures. In discussing the home as a family structure, Anne Williams argues that "A haunted castle, so crucial to early Gothic, connotes many inherited traditions, such as the structures of political power and families, which are not only inherited but potentially imprisoning: in short, the Gothic novel evokes the weight of the past" ("Edifying Narratives: The Gothic Novel, 1764-1997" 127). The focus on the past and the existing structures of power situates Gothic narratives as disruptions-Gothic texts overtly structure the past and the structure of power as it builds from past to present. This emphasis on the past and the structure allows Gothic narratives to disrupt convention.

The Gothic, because its existing structures and images have altered throughout its use, has traditionally relied on multiple, conflicting structures in order to present its counters to those structures and divisions. Kate Ferguson Ellis claims, of monasteries, prisons, and insane asylums: "In the Gothic novels of this period, these institutions are set up as foils to the domestic sphere" (45). Since Gothic narratives often construct two types of buildings that divide gender, with the home for women and those buildings outside the home for men, Ellis argues that, "The reconceptualization of womanhood that is being






89


argued out in the subtext if the Gothic novel engendered a parallel discourse about men" (15 1). Gothic narratives, by arguing against the traditional gender roles for men and women, present new ways of conceptualizing gender as a whole in terms of both gender roles and the spatial context in which those roles are enacted. Thus, Gothic narratives fuse with spatial construction to disrupt the general schemas for patriarchal story structures and world views.

Video games that use Gothic narratives then, are able to break not only with the

commonly known and accepted stories for video games but also with the common tropes for game-play. Video games that use Gothic narratives present the openings and radical dimensions that are found in other Gothic texts. These Gothic elements are radical not only for the types of stories they allow, but for the types of play spaces they create. In "'Complete Freedom of Movement': Video Games as Gendered Play Spaces," Henry Jenkins notes that action-oriented play spaces are gendered as male both in the physical and the virtual spaces of novels and video games. Unlike the stereotype of action-only video games, American McGee's Alice and the Fatal Frame and Resident Evil series all present action-oriented spaces that are couched within Gothic narratives, which create the narratives as spaces of action for both men and women.

Resident Evil, Fatal Frame, and American McGee's Alice are representative of ludic Gothic video games that present Gothic narratives and disruptions in the standard video game form. Each of these games presents women characters in atypical ways for video games. They do so by presenting women characters who are well-developed and defined by more than their appearance or their stylization as female. The Gothic settings









and stories of each of these games allow for the presentation and the playability of some of the most powerful female video game characters to date.

Additionally, the continuing Resident Evil and Fatal Frame series allow players to repeatedly play using the women characters, which allows for further character development. In a similar vein, Jeffrey A. Brown notes that television serials allow viewers to more easily "grasp the heroines as more than mere fetish objects for male viewers. They may be sex symbols, but they are sex symbols that we come to know over time as fully rounded characters" (71). While Brown is discussing female characters in television, the same transformational character development is afforded through the serialization of video games. Because they are serials, these video games also show that their representations of women in one game are not errors or experiments, but that the portrayal is part of a larger gaming structure, be that the narrative or the game world design. Combined with the disjointed structure of ludic Gothic games, the iterability and repetition of play-both within the play of a single game and through repeated serialized play-help to foster a type of atypical play, play that repeats and undoes itself as l'Vcritureftminine. As l'Vcritureftminine, this atypical play counters the typical methods of play while also subverting the entire structure through which play is codified.

Un-making Family and Social Structures

The Resident Evil games offer players the choice of playing as a male or a female character. The game-play develops differently for each character, based on the character's background and the items to which each character has access. The game stories also vary slightly based on the character used. In most of the Resident Evil games, the player will control both sexes at some point in the game or both sexes will be reunited









in one or more cut-scenes. The family, military, and corporate structures presented in Resident Evil are all corrupt and broken allowing for characters to prove themselves based on their actions rather than their placements within these structures. Resident Evil lacks a traditional patriarchal structure because all systems in the game lack dominant male figures. The two militaristic units, Umbrella and S.T.A.R.S.-the tactical team sent to kill the zombies and right Umbrella's wrongs-itself both lack paternal figures. In addition to the absence of dominant males within these structures, the characters in Resident Evil lack actual fathers. Resident Evils characters include a number of young adult player-characters including eighteen-year old Rebecca Chambers (Resident Evil 0), nineteen-year old Claire Redfield (Code Veronica), and seventeen-year old Steve Burnside (Code Veronica).

In Code Veronica Claire, who lacks professional training, has set out to find her brother, Chris (who is a member of the S.T.A.R.S. team), but their parents are not mentioned. Chris also fights to find Claire, but neither of them is shown as the better or stronger of the two. Instead, Chris and Claire both fight valiantly in a world overrun by zombies and confusion. Rebecca is the youngest member of the S.T.A.R.S. team and is a medic; thus she narratively falls into the traditional role afforded for women in video games, that of the healer. Yet, while Rebecca is listed as the S.T.A.R.S. medic, she does not actually function as the medic on the team because of the way that the game-play is constructed. Instead, she fights, heals, and rests as much and as often the other characters. While S.T.A.R.S. is led by the male commander Albert Wesker, he turns on everyone, including Umbrella, for which he initially betrayed the S.T.A.R.S. team. Thus, Rebecca lacks any resemblance of a patriarchal frame. No mention of Rebecca's family or parents




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describe
'18789' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWBR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_008.QC.jpg'
2a89b524b333f6702a19551932401635
5a363326c7a672b377dea7fb52d3b537807584f2
'2011-12-12T16:47:32-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWBS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_008.tif'
ca9e588e727971fd10be785bbfbfa1e3
d73cea5ef2737cfd91ce36da5316d938c7bb7805
'2011-12-12T16:47:16-05:00'
describe
'1629' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWBT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_008.txt'
d078fabe11e626ab4831f5ee6f2006e9
e5f5091ab7adf206c5c1fb32647758e820802466
'2011-12-12T16:46:14-05:00'
describe
'4946' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWBU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_008thm.jpg'
2bed535be68032c46dc5414d4bf0f085
de717cc94a784869fb44df931414581cb2800726
'2011-12-12T16:46:50-05:00'
describe
'61342' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWBV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_009.jp2'
814667141732318795e235e4bb3f569e
071349015c7df676a7ce6430885aa4c6be87df1e
describe
'46430' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWBW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_009.jpg'
79eeb5d0be1f7fb7dbe6df75ab43ca35
733afc79635492f918d073584c8792c0f9535899
'2011-12-12T16:44:12-05:00'
describe
'26526' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWBX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_009.pro'
cb1a8c45f6460793248133eba438ed63
062e68164c7d86deee6506f24522dcb528b43217
'2011-12-12T16:46:52-05:00'
describe
'14664' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWBY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_009.QC.jpg'
15c4e357ed6ac370ffabec60537dfa84
58e88316124a12cc5f059a936ebd50e979dcb94e
'2011-12-12T16:45:00-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWBZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_009.tif'
80818e80e7d6f1fe6f2427dfc1bdbb89
330ff9a02c5f30a47d8a29d607aa0a7ca3a22011
'2011-12-12T16:43:34-05:00'
describe
'1053' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_009.txt'
98005e0c0fb6f37bdc6562448856e769
af440648b4006b64837239599ba7767d043af421
describe
'3478' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_009thm.jpg'
7eee84e58af028a1eb2c8430b3606ac8
0adf404c309c091ec06e3d2b4258f609603b23c7
'2011-12-12T16:45:41-05:00'
describe
'92822' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_010.jp2'
52966786d0158accb7aec5e43f027913
0ce2132ab489176b5c9a125cac2f719727970cc7
'2011-12-12T16:46:22-05:00'
describe
'70061' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_010.jpg'
d3de2aa109b318074c27b18e8c979c27
57c206470b7f2aa01a1a6f9f3f0af03986ad2dce
'2011-12-12T16:43:09-05:00'
describe
'42343' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_010.pro'
4f5b27201af991c1a2564986887727d6
44dadde2af2be99092b7ee60462964778b44150a
'2011-12-12T16:47:10-05:00'
describe
'21181' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_010.QC.jpg'
7207217eefea91ae76aaa61dace5ac41
798961211204ac5102a98f72c666f5e76b637f22
'2011-12-12T16:46:23-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_010.tif'
b197822f79553f7a8364af65b064a8c8
62a69513fc07261e20bd60bb64c6f3fc142454f6
'2011-12-12T16:47:20-05:00'
describe
'1796' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_010.txt'
d79d1edee6a7604eb37f9fd80a8af989
b0c512281c92f5933289a220d4a7d52eaf8208f8
'2011-12-12T16:44:47-05:00'
describe
'5444' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_010thm.jpg'
56af183bb7b2bb4826f6b4361d8944f9
0ee9c9858968d7dc9b6bf8adf6756562d23c9508
'2011-12-12T16:44:19-05:00'
describe
'107429' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_011.jp2'
d483c790c610ac322d5d221e964c0c24
52b4dd4fc50a937218ac19ab984a3a5b79959260
'2011-12-12T16:47:31-05:00'
describe
'81291' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_011.jpg'
fb5f28928287a01bb1c0c3d5350cfc08
0b0433d7118934f123e833c1335759695c871572
'2011-12-12T16:46:12-05:00'
describe
'49799' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_011.pro'
0bed28f368a7ba6779605521684349a9
33908a9fb2cccd973de459ac019fcbb13e4c416a
'2011-12-12T16:47:24-05:00'
describe
'24864' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_011.QC.jpg'
0dfcd5f9790fc7e2781bfd5e799b6fe0
4375248e061b1cc1015382e21254fb2dbc93da08
'2011-12-12T16:44:51-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_011.tif'
49e39f6bc9f01e487073305a0735e34c
814ff6601a6274ce91e5282e54b499be8a1c0a45
'2011-12-12T16:43:40-05:00'
describe
'1965' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_011.txt'
6be3ba11aa5bf986494a09b651c76a36
4b2cdbc48c0b6fcded8c144e6af2c3900abf7d42
'2011-12-12T16:44:52-05:00'
describe
'6248' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_011thm.jpg'
e7fd9ca3ee0aa34b378ee3a1043b4736
9e67712267c500771360b0af868457705262a50d
'2011-12-12T16:43:50-05:00'
describe
'114274' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_012.jp2'
53599537b69b2cff8ec12c782818dabe
c5369fb55c3f178401da048e0e38ba5ff270fe97
'2011-12-12T16:45:25-05:00'
describe
'85836' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_012.jpg'
2ffbc12560f8ebbd1fec1bbdf473773a
4b6d1a682e88b45ad97d2f0b64be1ce5d8094823
'2011-12-12T16:48:44-05:00'
describe
'52390' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_012.pro'
f02d139f83c89639724b34a25f4b629a
53b0835644bc20b12b532b31025a7e8efabd071e
'2011-12-12T16:46:18-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_012.QC.jpg'
db5aa16baa82326fb50ea01fdeebe4c4
7d02b914fa1caff910d54acffeca5d80aafeba92
'2011-12-12T16:45:52-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_012.tif'
83b3c5ba1293f3bb05d1b9b1ca99f382
1e4f636553e83640d8263b5360b870ba5a66223b
describe
'2054' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_012.txt'
b0f95768a21148611f0538347fb91a03
5698371a0c9b17d762562ec3585a7d98520a9e76
'2011-12-12T16:48:18-05:00'
describe
'6423' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_012thm.jpg'
7dde3290f35c0d583c8f8114467afe9a
84a0d93f280b6a1f4a7bee00947317797e563561
describe
'110565' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_013.jp2'
d43696a4058078dfb12f2103d89f2da4
e8404f107a5e4c3ac8d31213005d088d308dff29
'2011-12-12T16:44:00-05:00'
describe
'83403' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_013.jpg'
927c96ed894278d4583f1ab93894dffb
453a934464e621fb0891f5c47adc40fb63475cac
'2011-12-12T16:45:28-05:00'
describe
'50217' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWCZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_013.pro'
7e599b082d7039b96100cc2d9211ef9b
8a5b0da5dcb7faddc461ef60f93adb8bc22bde5d
'2011-12-12T16:45:21-05:00'
describe
'25905' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_013.QC.jpg'
34641aea27eff9d62642a4c3f6ac9b4a
0a56dab65d9e6e5a6b1b26a08220d555dc312c34
'2011-12-12T16:46:48-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_013.tif'
7d46eab39e7a58f534718185ce576bef
1c9e6d20f634c0a79cc6ff9a3a1ea6ef98de7fa9
'2011-12-12T16:46:31-05:00'
describe
'1972' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_013.txt'
aa1b7f6081b3a8f057274716330ec4a5
42737b47754bdbcc6488b0db2a2802dcfcdb2fdf
describe
'6263' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_013thm.jpg'
d1ff62f1f2588b7a45daaba8ab138930
0a17ec2a58fdfff54198a56955ac2c5d531f4ddd
'2011-12-12T16:47:45-05:00'
describe
'111396' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_014.jp2'
1a44af8b8ef33f1f66ef00f0cd286ff8
ddb79e9abd2dce1f8995d4ef9944c23608cc80c2
'2011-12-12T16:49:13-05:00'
describe
'83330' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_014.jpg'
2efb394e66317bb1e106888241d91714
950b04c9bfc16a9c8b8a302049d5c8f8786ffae8
'2011-12-12T16:45:39-05:00'
describe
'51092' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_014.pro'
f5b0549beb2070b759b48910cfef22b2
6b88bf979716a5c1615ed49434a2604c65deb7af
'2011-12-12T16:47:53-05:00'
describe
'26727' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_014.QC.jpg'
62ce495509eef6f02ac5552ad297ef62
3873a4857cb1c6afe085bc29372c875ee788f1fe
'2011-12-12T16:43:20-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_014.tif'
ae25f5ae2a37ff4bac8169d1b72e7c0c
b9a3fb000c3a55404c8f5dbbf65b3074d6498bb6
describe
'2045' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_014.txt'
7016196c489b5a378c688b4645ffcbb7
839de2d770344880aa56b5cc5de0ba9f5f19cc0e
describe
'6308' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_014thm.jpg'
4957d8dd10a7cefb5434e933678e0877
af3861712ec60e7308e5519e08bb2ba29fb895fb
describe
'122093' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_015.jp2'
a8e853690d5b5a5f357b0d8b9eb5f058
e9691b154f995ca41f91f686093f3d3cf03ddc78
'2011-12-12T16:48:02-05:00'
describe
'91038' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_015.jpg'
1b530b812927f01d269042f95b11ec18
c01ef976879a9c8662c2772a76176f8dc0dd306c
'2011-12-12T16:46:59-05:00'
describe
'59565' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_015.pro'
2f1aaeedf5940e6969b4d3dd5b498370
80a07fa9f619b1cf6975a5269d267c826c704e21
'2011-12-12T16:43:13-05:00'
describe
'27590' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_015.QC.jpg'
950e05799b20ca98ba8e28b164d987d7
91bbd5039419a39f9487ba3e7ff9b9e90031f9da
'2011-12-12T16:46:58-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_015.tif'
4221ef45d6af3f3d3e21f84ae141e5a0
f1a89dc032620d0f6d9d19fc4ae88600f0bc224c
describe
'2321' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_015.txt'
fbaac1be1c03af8497c7c4acc50e3c8c
06b68de151f1e6d4a84d1b1f1a4d456050eed125
'2011-12-12T16:45:08-05:00'
describe
'6593' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_015thm.jpg'
6d636cca5cbea1533cf05b540309d802
17a0bb9ccc2b48b8d311b1db05fc19cf0b381f45
'2011-12-12T16:45:29-05:00'
describe
'118592' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_016.jp2'
959302054d130c46ca58d81daa76da9c
2473743be52ad11283d7e9535331fc17998b08b2
'2011-12-12T16:44:57-05:00'
describe
'90554' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_016.jpg'
9f21bed12bcf346166ea15a073e4f425
ae3a81b137e98fb81c1f9fe125517d3837493576
'2011-12-12T16:46:42-05:00'
describe
'56352' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_016.pro'
d7dd7425816f793f3094874b04280170
bf5c480cff94a131216a7a97b99890c366476a8f
'2011-12-12T16:43:29-05:00'
describe
'27552' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_016.QC.jpg'
2a2b673741ee8053d031545953b951cd
29bdc23113e3f244975e735208464a275fecff59
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_016.tif'
a4d28e21f158d2b21036355f9bc980b0
d6bacd982a5e7e7276d922089a730237d4cb66af
'2011-12-12T16:49:04-05:00'
describe
'2222' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_016.txt'
9fbc9033b4a3b8b7a934402028ff3adc
4fadb1eef3bb0cfaca13430bc61eefaee0a48685
'2011-12-12T16:43:31-05:00'
describe
'6630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_016thm.jpg'
c520b7e3a6127b1f87cff94d9ec31850
894ac30c8bfcc0fba2e120840874c19a70521d69
'2011-12-12T16:43:47-05:00'
describe
'109644' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWDZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_017.jp2'
b4c7c6576f7849b0a963df5f619a9b86
bf655ebd5863ad74961de5b5553d3975a01a300d
'2011-12-12T16:48:13-05:00'
describe
'84285' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_017.jpg'
2ae575c9334589cbfe4072c1572af38b
07c2453a27382986c6772e14b63940c5031bd406
'2011-12-12T16:45:42-05:00'
describe
'51727' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_017.pro'
36e824b1efbccec561c3e1f10f092188
600e1af8c6aba86d6fa2ec614d4ab91c9db53043
'2011-12-12T16:45:49-05:00'
describe
'25919' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_017.QC.jpg'
39f82ed9134ab00b487132bc92ec6f25
0000d2a0d53a94e7d5291c1540507aed791c7ae6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWED' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_017.tif'
8b10feffef44083873ab9d332036cffa
cb817b8a0bab615e6707a520c0229aa209c086a5
'2011-12-12T16:43:58-05:00'
describe
'2039' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_017.txt'
b5dc98a3e55a22db909dae46aa26544e
86b117abfeecd3b399d7a424941ad0bffceb51af
'2011-12-12T16:46:16-05:00'
describe
'6238' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_017thm.jpg'
7e37400766aae437a547b15abdcc23d8
401e8fbbb4a6d1eb0a87295af43addd237582a40
'2011-12-12T16:45:35-05:00'
describe
'109980' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_018.jp2'
4b2ab4a354979a8c3289adeadc05194b
f23bba3b58b76481b7b86294fc3e7f2c1be26a23
'2011-12-12T16:47:46-05:00'
describe
'82530' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_018.jpg'
b69d4ce393c043df9bf761c177b29117
637fbdf9a729ea29a5d1473dfb27bbd8967f775c
'2011-12-12T16:45:37-05:00'
describe
'50770' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_018.pro'
2e8bb6d6429af4844969695b4fd109eb
c5fabb412b3a8b2cbb3d75d07aeba764459b3578
'2011-12-12T16:43:35-05:00'
describe
'25352' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_018.QC.jpg'
2dbce09e559ca62fd1338da23adc5e42
ae85611ed920d9ab5c7f1231fdc3c94b502ebf4a
'2011-12-12T16:46:24-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_018.tif'
629593ee5827db59aaf4da7445fb240d
68c257bda07cd378438e47468f39d826b33df959
'2011-12-12T16:46:43-05:00'
describe
'1993' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_018.txt'
152408650b71e708a0ff945cb0b07dd5
98dbb5c810742ab6a056f84052ef35ee2e14e390
'2011-12-12T16:44:09-05:00'
describe
'6267' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_018thm.jpg'
d005aa86966d83f2f144b7365caf2034
5b935326904fbf13c4afb016535777e31ad56c42
describe
'119915' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_019.jp2'
d5604be5f7d902d61c1c2db226922d78
67518222689b5b08c7c4b529705e33614d79c13f
'2011-12-12T16:47:13-05:00'
describe
'93343' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_019.jpg'
585fa756398b553acb55313a1df41608
be51ed5aba792a8ec55e8dad6c361b17775c304b
describe
'57908' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_019.pro'
4faf2f7a3d65bbcc47d0fd3027e19f1d
5ca0d754a50ceaac68d180fdf35ef5dfb0ac4f85
describe
'27670' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_019.QC.jpg'
52755227808d272470a220f6927e8d8c
bcb227dd6d065d1c263d2faace7236afdfdd8e02
'2011-12-12T16:44:36-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWER' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_019.tif'
61c4ce66f16b1d4e0429ca84af89f6d9
f8d940302ab0f94ea68d4cc1e1aafdd2d14dc92c
'2011-12-12T16:43:15-05:00'
describe
'2304' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWES' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_019.txt'
4bbd84fd5d550a7c14c475a6b32be6ed
442d8fc1e99540a210d5d67997a410e380376d6f
'2011-12-12T16:43:45-05:00'
describe
'6339' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWET' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_019thm.jpg'
02935ef91f371f8fb9283a47badc9684
f59bf9afcb2dc0dec65467f7ff73d3fab908c1da
'2011-12-12T16:44:08-05:00'
describe
'113024' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_020.jp2'
823ead184e0775c14984169f2bb58f2e
d0458623d054903d32407928f180242d5ab5aec7
'2011-12-12T16:46:32-05:00'
describe
'87473' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_020.jpg'
60bcf38712c240bc4bf0ecf6ec5ccc1e
5fadb253749213a039fa38ba546b34e9572a6fb8
'2011-12-12T16:47:52-05:00'
describe
'53449' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_020.pro'
4f92f074bae3a8157d4f94c50ca5c8a6
c8838a52684443ba3827ddda7c389cf04fcb5b07
describe
'27350' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_020.QC.jpg'
2cce58d6b9921ddce578d54a9ecc7c1c
c1944f40685ec3f437d0d87f9b7fd33d22440528
'2011-12-12T16:48:43-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_020.tif'
8d09ba059f1dd2bb9241eb82cfc718e9
b9f95e6d78359be2c1ffa4233d0b07e556452030
'2011-12-12T16:45:57-05:00'
describe
'2133' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWEZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_020.txt'
1a28801221ca319a57af772770855548
96c91da57c362c7f51a45264cf959caa97868b07
'2011-12-12T16:48:11-05:00'
describe
'6340' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_020thm.jpg'
46310b62b3f55ce9bfca276ad88dfc4c
ec2bc15e16e0bbb58503265f3c04138aac7a94f8
'2011-12-12T16:44:42-05:00'
describe
'111762' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_021.jp2'
b956733ffa4fd6d4129a4eb213457a91
5c5f85c08385ba0a4da7116b804608392a880176
describe
'86257' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_021.jpg'
a929f46201393cb91f3d74f606ae90c5
4ca995b2800ed3446bec73fbbf61a45110e4fd43
'2011-12-12T16:45:46-05:00'
describe
'52331' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_021.pro'
933ef98b000484fa982176e4ac90c03f
044170759d7d9e21a60764b134b25fe089b357f9
'2011-12-12T16:48:27-05:00'
describe
'26580' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_021.QC.jpg'
6bf581e78ab6402ffa6e90d512b35e84
7b8efb8a165b7ecd46ce02356e4d45e29c3f18f1
'2011-12-12T16:44:24-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_021.tif'
64b0c3f91bcccada5ae68a86071be267
12de6d9272e0a61757acea4f278e8829e3569fd6
'2011-12-12T16:45:15-05:00'
describe
'2053' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_021.txt'
af9dead2fa946c304133b59888c1c7b9
498b064cdcdc162a66e4d92037458a7a44e097da
describe
'6507' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_021thm.jpg'
1894785392d8214c6243db33117e1b6c
1e852c2a029c5c00226b761ef840b2f95be99a41
describe
'114687' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_022.jp2'
d873489f93dc858c049831a16e0d727a
9230fccb9dfbaf898b7c67bc2d8590a9db628f31
'2011-12-12T16:45:34-05:00'
describe
'89586' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_022.jpg'
95dea28b0623a42523681c8a4beae677
e247244118334bca13c573c50fc9adc26df67f15
'2011-12-12T16:47:48-05:00'
describe
'54242' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_022.pro'
b518243826b3d4247ec712e694eec0b9
318a8a1e2b5caf811eb34cd64791523a7c7d1bdc
describe
'25996' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_022.QC.jpg'
bfde619bf9c5f3207b6c276e6204f137
a7f7fbfb87f48aea260a03e4bf3c4e7178b4f1fc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_022.tif'
b3911452450206cf515e112974e5cc47
cf3d9609ec735ad72080a2585e43dcbb67abf2a4
'2011-12-12T16:45:09-05:00'
describe
'2158' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_022.txt'
1ad16188b4eed9f79ccb045be8b6f3a8
9e8f3aa7616207758db26167f3bd30490cb376c4
'2011-12-12T16:48:50-05:00'
describe
'6204' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_022thm.jpg'
208414ae370033b063187d5eaf41bbce
bc490d7609cad5284ae46ccbaa14ba9c26aabdb4
'2011-12-12T16:46:36-05:00'
describe
'115724' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_023.jp2'
7337bf50a68ca60d6dc891e78fe88db6
62c352ac4d2456768d1a2cffab7381693ed499ad
describe
'88691' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_023.jpg'
b158a1747a7cd7b0dddce74781179acb
fbab3dac226aa72e7aa39e2a2f80d490868c1f5e
describe
'54219' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_023.pro'
33b9d2612c0c55cfb07d90a94cec9e46
f9aeba2da84107366f00c15f5e6e4c306934c1fd
describe
'27673' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_023.QC.jpg'
bc5f27111c5755e8dc69ffdc35d58e72
672bd43184b7d16368415d0b01fbf79d25cb9eae
'2011-12-12T16:47:23-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_023.tif'
eff9c4323830e47469f627634262a707
27ef9cafc09c47b0bc01fd396fd72a56a4b04ab9
'2011-12-12T16:44:15-05:00'
describe
'2148' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_023.txt'
8375e99d7b528cd0f65b9789cd5e83a4
50439e9919385cb2727e6f4ff56babfc01f996cd
'2011-12-12T16:44:53-05:00'
describe
'6451' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_023thm.jpg'
6d05da153f5ededcd2ef1c3f0853ff8d
74b0f56632efb042d015b8edd6d6df37ad5e7364
'2011-12-12T16:46:51-05:00'
describe
'110737' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_024.jp2'
138c4068bb7ffae73e14223e0aac0a08
f315f3fcafb86fd7eddeaa506ba5c07519036d77
'2011-12-12T16:45:33-05:00'
describe
'85202' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_024.jpg'
607838763ec366deb146fa0b4088b6d4
9f9b7e5f9e625a7d65ab58b27bccb711ca2207dd
'2011-12-12T16:44:34-05:00'
describe
'51643' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_024.pro'
728f7222a529f5a8271c7a4e09ce3fc4
fd2730f0f3e507a9fec9639c5403d1ce05cf0ad2
'2011-12-12T16:46:45-05:00'
describe
'26517' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWFZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_024.QC.jpg'
e7c95ff83d2e5f1b2d81396076601657
0dba6d2bc73ae43a5610e3aeb05b724d7caf99c3
'2011-12-12T16:44:48-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_024.tif'
69861e815908addfc2dec6bf6cfe6960
ff9de865a8443443dc56f8f7463a3eae8ccdccd8
describe
'2026' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_024.txt'
4dae9a4d4f985a2edf8085f117fa1a34
163f06573fc8af0abd07daeea4b6a4751d78f03b
'2011-12-12T16:46:34-05:00'
describe
'6417' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_024thm.jpg'
8a35f5b4dbdcb89d410bf7c974aa6d4f
ad49d78f18db8580d17548067b74180ca05d313c
'2011-12-12T16:43:11-05:00'
describe
'114697' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_025.jp2'
77c9a8485cb9b97f571bc30097317847
739fcd55386c07156c2a5d776b19843dc6664d38
'2011-12-12T16:49:06-05:00'
describe
'87162' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_025.jpg'
df9a3fdba6616dae08dbe5ea7b630a76
acd3808c81dd613cc23f9087c223f6f805b137f9
describe
'53078' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_025.pro'
b61ec1669e074ddce27bbcb10b108d37
588338058b1935de9cb9cf079c785b4c9bfc79a3
'2011-12-12T16:47:40-05:00'
describe
'27020' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_025.QC.jpg'
3b6340d90058db18a036ca78f0670fda
322ae4e79601ec1aae333ce2df4a734b67f92c32
'2011-12-12T16:45:32-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_025.tif'
96a922f90c9f1eb7a344b67735c5d7f3
13eac23546c3ecf249e724b8db32ca115623afba
describe
'2080' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_025.txt'
dce9ebeb0a95a4af9be21ccd193f60cd
5f1490b8dfe064816d3b36bc26f977ca0f0c3804
'2011-12-12T16:47:42-05:00'
describe
'6623' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_025thm.jpg'
7a893600a6bdf9ef6b559f7d80bd8d26
e38eb9590fbd9c9cc3cda8f57d406f386fac2deb
describe
'109659' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_026.jp2'
ba5797deff8edeb75e642410907def81
6b5d72f34f81bd48e00176d9424956dd568c731b
describe
'84433' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_026.jpg'
9b2149fedc8c96ff321e347f59e29103
fcb84a9a8a31bc213ad8b0671d6438e935eb2df3
'2011-12-12T16:45:23-05:00'
describe
'50514' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_026.pro'
6de63a64303d3d158daa66889bdc6dc5
3f08f1eeec6c65c42d4cfda5e8b110e0783dcdea
'2011-12-12T16:45:38-05:00'
describe
'25836' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_026.QC.jpg'
6b7cdb93905ffb5bd9a3959d50bb92d9
67f523c121863722a116a7d328b2408db50d00e7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_026.tif'
d48e44457a62bac09f9aa5539ca78dab
4b9273db38ba99b00ba3900cfe56d78112e48d0c
'2011-12-12T16:45:31-05:00'
describe
'1982' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_026.txt'
14e8022a2cf40dbba7795333e38fd932
2666415206ca7c85e9c36103d9e0e2fbe0e14d05
'2011-12-12T16:45:12-05:00'
describe
'6413' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_026thm.jpg'
0ca74dd2f797e11fc58197141b58386f
b6e234b6ba58b52f7fba5b32cf4ef2f7fd9d8559
describe
'116125' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_027.jp2'
ac2685caed247dc9671253629454f697
493bcd4dae3bad1b1fb8f2a626e801851c9dd520
describe
'87935' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_027.jpg'
2a9cdab3cb40957740ad94991c6f6a00
f53fef448faa76e5f37076bdf7432508929c0afa
'2011-12-12T16:45:18-05:00'
describe
'53870' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_027.pro'
9899b2d636d40eef1d578c3dd0fd29f8
18d22259d857dcde55ecc3bc9f23a313aec15883
'2011-12-12T16:45:30-05:00'
describe
'27186' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_027.QC.jpg'
b0418fc5e8f651386e2116738977d999
f9e797fc4f81020b3b67821f88d591388a255f7e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_027.tif'
06d45240e6bf7fc75d0695192935fb09
09187190b7c3310d38bd2311bcbc82f10291c3b0
describe
'2167' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_027.txt'
ceeb2c0fbb4ba0ee7b118cdf896d5081
6d8bcc4bb750bb8eb6fa174e930d9d306102cf3c
describe
'6384' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_027thm.jpg'
84569d95cb29ac88c2dcc1402e52841e
825a5a1819f6490629cda20d0cda0e614efd67fa
describe
'105421' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_028.jp2'
7f766735ec6d6388f93f6af8f3ea26fb
3d36a8c48cad2e6f9e99597eb1e4eff1ab04af70
describe
'80384' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWGZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_028.jpg'
de59a178675061d5ffcc621609b7801d
ac16a89f22c630cf7222db95bb9ae28a79855314
'2011-12-12T16:43:16-05:00'
describe
'48212' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_028.pro'
dcb110361f914ca5ef48173b768ccbde
7af9e91c2e97744983094788c6bc531e5667dac6
describe
'24641' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_028.QC.jpg'
22ec3d0fad2a3be1ae77e55296f2b1d1
d5e3d01bad2da4a8ae131faeb62bddd123e8a551
'2011-12-12T16:48:19-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_028.tif'
923a859d577ecd5ce5424f09cad9efcc
59ad99da05d152f1fb1d70c8da3600bcb1cf887f
describe
'1900' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_028.txt'
4022be7c039db788f1fee1c0551bcd8a
f68d9c919e41c5f86138f87c4667063da35838dc
describe
'6061' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_028thm.jpg'
1895d544c7b491d8b2a4e88b6284aefb
662030433c246fb7a022171ab029775bbd95d250
describe
'113686' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_029.jp2'
b8f848687d2a11b43955b58cdbd918ac
51d0296e5b992910304ca0858c8352381c83c372
describe
'86245' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_029.jpg'
46fd028435b72f94b4b7adb5c41ac106
385439dcbb101127602a5d04015e4550790145f3
'2011-12-12T16:46:44-05:00'
describe
'52015' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_029.pro'
96e03bdfb75ca51b1adeaf121b83a4bf
8bcc8cd06c805b39bd0d23f0ab80c81ef2614c98
'2011-12-12T16:45:24-05:00'
describe
'26507' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_029.QC.jpg'
165ec3e064c5a6fb10b721767c922599
64928345d901a67a4261b0cbbda66f680bf92fce
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_029.tif'
5ad1390779cde5ff1cdf56787d2e355e
c45b0bc3ca57f9eec20a17295a1f161371b090f4
'2011-12-12T16:43:14-05:00'
describe
'2079' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_029.txt'
f293a3c73befc2eca8d2810a09116d5c
46d7a68104af89fc93cfd8cc84bd55d1b43e0641
describe
'6276' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_029thm.jpg'
dfa4f616d45dba34613b35ba9207327b
06094ec2eef896dc3e9fe37bcfc7bfb65ac813c3
'2011-12-12T16:43:52-05:00'
describe
'116721' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_030.jp2'
ccf77e8e5308fbfbb27379b776a4ce28
7116e2a9573fbcf16431536de2bbe42813e1d668
describe
'87950' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_030.jpg'
33c478ce72d68c412aba0824b765ff68
658de03cb961d9bea3c8f294d8199c30da87dffb
'2011-12-12T16:47:33-05:00'
describe
'52900' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_030.pro'
632a64031de914152d1cdc5dfb38367b
db4d58e1717e325008fc0b3eae2e8c7dd90b1f28
describe
'26855' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_030.QC.jpg'
8fc02d324c7b759e28ad6e983e2802c5
f2e3b12146416237d7c5bc79dc5d81bba4374b31
'2011-12-12T16:49:00-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_030.tif'
0d554b052ff4abe5dc45e5ef71d15d92
ccfcd6bdb650efa45edf9d0bcb6e79d9ebb0cd91
'2011-12-12T16:45:20-05:00'
describe
'2073' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_030.txt'
d49b769a1df7e72e67b9ae1961fb0fb5
a087506cac069b499f3c04d941aa64991bafbfd3
describe
'6525' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_030thm.jpg'
7f0d7729e9591a33e9fe75bbe998cc0e
817096d738685bcdf584a6a295ffbd177832f9fb
describe
'81641' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_031.jp2'
5880f71b1684a5e0349ff553739282db
275e8c978e4246f6087d2adedba7334e0277b7ae
'2011-12-12T16:48:20-05:00'
describe
'62385' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_031.jpg'
a61f3828b7fb1e05b08e9d64a3519aca
cd242d8948474156ab2ab543db241bbc25e117e5
'2011-12-12T16:44:21-05:00'
describe
'37235' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_031.pro'
b9692f40ed3e9e19058a430817f81a21
cc452dd8ff0894db1ce96f30e25fb1063a593b00
'2011-12-12T16:44:43-05:00'
describe
'19610' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_031.QC.jpg'
bf56b83a0b385ea019b4e5fef33d8b3c
51b5c55315ad20a0402af93347dedd45644a4807
'2011-12-12T16:43:27-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_031.tif'
a5b1a76bf3e51965555e50ae83052743
9954fa050a604f8c9c09b96b4529a59183f62309
'2011-12-12T16:48:33-05:00'
describe
'1477' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_031.txt'
a018b9782be96b25f4c6a8404a34a88b
e261df06973f29d872852d3babff078b65164efa
describe
'4810' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWHZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_031thm.jpg'
2c6daa071a50fa308287f392007fff4f
41c2cc93e8f063017a0b6630c3f4437b4c7febc9
'2011-12-12T16:44:35-05:00'
describe
'103625' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_032.jp2'
85029f5ba41b16214ccb04d48595568e
725051ee5ae58f038f07945ccf0d43bc3f1b5036
describe
'79220' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_032.jpg'
04b81553b11b369d0903cc7c60918513
618a5a1a0883f65926ccdcbed6c504f51dd52d6c
describe
'46804' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_032.pro'
48eb4beccd4ca0511bc5de86b470c791
68ecd122169ca6beddf3deacceca6f30ada03399
'2011-12-12T16:48:42-05:00'
describe
'24669' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWID' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_032.QC.jpg'
6b41e66be9a65b32cc7b9e6096bae1d4
07c1d1a67977e4cdef83a622bf24727b14ce36b9
'2011-12-12T16:43:10-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_032.tif'
0e252861416d70520bcfa3bce93e2ad8
538c0efd83cad9e7b0cdc5487aa7cdbbecba71b6
'2011-12-12T16:45:48-05:00'
describe
'1937' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_032.txt'
f6393398cd8c5e7cb9a43575bbef9bd2
318eb369e077f62099ce645f06ee594a1a3e7328
'2011-12-12T16:47:55-05:00'
describe
'5947' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_032thm.jpg'
b218427d4b2cbf09f61eb93b3654518c
44eb595d609e41ec7b32a42720803ee4e422896a
'2011-12-12T16:49:01-05:00'
describe
'108687' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_033.jp2'
2e375ac6ba98611faa67280ff17b9546
fd7ec80cbbdff191c451a53d373fc0fd9d756989
'2011-12-12T16:48:47-05:00'
describe
'83409' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWII' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_033.jpg'
65a9980d43fe600f42bc6de44fc3fa41
430f81b8403359c332ee3b2c6a2c22d3a779aa15
'2011-12-12T16:47:56-05:00'
describe
'49754' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_033.pro'
4499a703dbcf111410688dd496d8585a
bb1c606111eff752d52854a2b9017c587b3959f6
describe
'26662' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_033.QC.jpg'
0081d8e7fa947c98770c2e208d569c9b
2d954ec36209bb362335c153f9a06bfa03426a47
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_033.tif'
ccfe7ffacf81447ff5b34ef069772b62
ab05b2ae18045f11a3d7f13f06a804ffaad88f51
'2011-12-12T16:43:25-05:00'
describe
'1985' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_033.txt'
71ffd3d3d58c62098603b0cb69e6a99f
34f9230b1845b25b2c79b6a75e8857eae4bb58b5
'2011-12-12T16:47:18-05:00'
describe
'6133' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_033thm.jpg'
db3e0f4225f177b2cfe1abaaac4fb7e6
f2b599803ffcf78e0722d5a9693379cda4e72d3c
describe
'114173' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_034.jp2'
be3012c74aa6b51420a27a6681acc59c
9a1af306600d9ab120bcbff33f48a21a30613c0c
describe
'85975' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_034.jpg'
3dfd10e546d26f6f3251671954de1a7e
114ea99e0218e2583b3c190fed8a9bcfcc8448f9
'2011-12-12T16:43:05-05:00'
describe
'51876' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_034.pro'
f172fd2ef719a1607ce742ce9fb50bb4
d0e79c760bc1475463ba53c7900a6a71fc398be3
'2011-12-12T16:47:01-05:00'
describe
'26861' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_034.QC.jpg'
af82eaeb0a112ebacd990bc08f191ff5
1c6ae3b078967645788abbf68671e4cbe8e789ee
'2011-12-12T16:44:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_034.tif'
7330f80927da8edb37bd3a65295a391b
e11b5f2ecf9930c6712c9ce443d67c7be1626e53
describe
'2035' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_034.txt'
c2764b3d6aaaf10e1fb6e9379c870ae5
4988f8ff0dc768c5fda0be13e3e4edae6b1f9241
describe
'6491' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_034thm.jpg'
05dd0e9c78efcb823a1f297b42f75591
ea8efc0d8dd1ef2ce659227b75502d410488ece3
'2011-12-12T16:47:03-05:00'
describe
'107313' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_035.jp2'
b9d9dc8f6f6191605d6e27a3e5062722
0b2237f4033226ab8eeb56364e984c1399e19a1a
describe
'82089' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_035.jpg'
6caf2c0251436e17ab31661ee5f7a57d
03db078376f842738ad68686d568e60e89942853
describe
'48886' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_035.pro'
8d52ae37f771a662346da19f4461ca63
d13244eadd83ad3fdd2922f0ca4c351427d268cb
describe
'25096' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_035.QC.jpg'
fafc09fcb4cf792823e6f6a247b44bf9
774dbd6d53fa5af4f96dd5da53db1eea8eb1e798
'2011-12-12T16:48:10-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWIZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_035.tif'
705b880360aa6697beace2c5624755bc
8a7897b58b1a21a82a7192682692df01dcff4a34
'2011-12-12T16:48:06-05:00'
describe
'1925' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_035.txt'
9ad7b18dc65a82e817b0784ad2383e4b
0f3f2dc0a756b6e7ad015cc175cb87f2e308a0f1
describe
'6443' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_035thm.jpg'
3350f73330ae5926a2e3c501af593c9d
a35732182d75d963fd17163360415334195eac41
'2011-12-12T16:46:04-05:00'
describe
'124854' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_036.jp2'
f9a62164661607c3352531485da814b0
f9bc48be69cb5f9e16abb671bf25e5ae5c4151a4
'2011-12-12T16:48:22-05:00'
describe
'92545' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_036.jpg'
69f865a6591b2b65b86a58d09a3b46cf
4ff7c94148bfd03ef2e9c1c151125953e8e3ecbf
'2011-12-12T16:49:19-05:00'
describe
'63706' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_036.pro'
368c41ae7d14ad885791eba8b951e6e8
842d920bca564ba1c5beeae8a3c7f484c99f5782
describe
'27874' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_036.QC.jpg'
2afc79956fdd69787f7d66fcbfec8175
97ddb7cc93c2dc1537c161f8c19640f892c03f83
'2011-12-12T16:46:28-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_036.tif'
715e1d75bc8ec42c51673415297a333a
94cd206bff6f3fb9441244aeba698b3ec74c5e3e
describe
'2474' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_036.txt'
4bccd510f790c33c1197e79b682f707b
23b743d4121e952490be568fa217dced2d3c6694
'2011-12-12T16:43:57-05:00'
describe
'6493' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_036thm.jpg'
52d049ebec47ae6df0575f5d75e69d34
c76b517dff801a7bd913ad9140e20305dd7c5a64
'2011-12-12T16:44:32-05:00'
describe
'115257' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_037.jp2'
8ea513719423d2aa9c4aa53d49b3f82a
e1aa0cf04e3ca5ab41b3fd9178b2868606df4cfb
'2011-12-12T16:43:12-05:00'
describe
'88284' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_037.jpg'
8bf1375ec9417453cdf091e0d2e73794
ab67124b5aa8a0683b2581268fda183fbd76b0a6
'2011-12-12T16:47:59-05:00'
describe
'55344' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_037.pro'
5ba2e8ca00fe4ef6591d72b55b68f10e
af568cc9b27d2f07caf686eee3b10369a08e0b22
'2011-12-12T16:46:38-05:00'
describe
'26976' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_037.QC.jpg'
c4dbe75490025dee50485811738d758c
671a21fd6eb7bf1ffa395f1a95753b7cb86ca671
'2011-12-12T16:47:14-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_037.tif'
3a0cf903e3b9fcb8263fd128359f1a21
a0a03371a5c6fa28c3521e7a4173a1cb1e62e842
'2011-12-12T16:45:16-05:00'
describe
'2163' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_037.txt'
fbfddb919fbf89141a2cf900fbcbd625
f8d7835737a5f9a3286fb145bea5c37ac58e8a80
describe
'6524' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_037thm.jpg'
7a2d7123689f36daa354f43fa2c75d47
1e426c5ebe6d9e209d6d646eb907be233f82d5f2
describe
'113876' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_038.jp2'
d6b66f17430c3aeaf4082ed91fd082bb
a0bceb4a95941c9af39310de441adce072a46b94
describe
'87815' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_038.jpg'
2928e998ed62a37529cc273133173b8c
248552e0b50176c3705713a0b9e07adeb264e6c7
'2011-12-12T16:48:54-05:00'
describe
'52782' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_038.pro'
a165a2a75b358464b6c2a3a6e2197e36
ecfc069a73089eb5d7aa6cf44720eaf3a70367d3
'2011-12-12T16:45:26-05:00'
describe
'27987' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_038.QC.jpg'
fb778bc2bf58e35cca0b604d06578bff
a3dff07abbd87ae19d7df4bab288b6be2d25ed92
'2011-12-12T16:48:51-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_038.tif'
4959d3fc377d0a48d577b469ca2f7343
9e397c0f97a26d26f2e998874dbec16392886134
'2011-12-12T16:44:20-05:00'
describe
'2109' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_038.txt'
44b23e385b87cba1a6b909431bd421ae
5f1e0b334b7ddf95df1b9b9a3cf1df4b821e12c2
describe
'6578' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_038thm.jpg'
2ce2b7e625f81f2ff85c727495309ade
bee5e9f4d7d31e87fc6945078551a115760599b5
describe
'113156' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_039.jp2'
f5e4baeadf8317a23d9a22c8c978a0c8
4fe2d7e62eddf7c8b201cb1654c0861160131b50
describe
'85821' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_039.jpg'
39a25a6000a65eb64d71c91bedc66c79
ef3c261dc9fcc0b75992e9f21e320874c5cc1e6f
describe
'52546' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWJZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_039.pro'
f9a9bfadd46ce2bc4c4b99538cd6b8d9
e6ac94bb0e4c8c31c41bae9919cc5c5296799146
describe
'26556' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_039.QC.jpg'
45bc83f45a65e34730aef746785c85c0
3a6ae6d4ad7c3ceef48c74e9a54f8ecb88b69c30
'2011-12-12T16:48:03-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_039.tif'
306e0661debeac363e82c3c05ce6f80a
43398f7ad6c21b508977ef31d004ebfb8cabc5cf
'2011-12-12T16:46:55-05:00'
describe
'2060' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_039.txt'
174318e074e8d0a3d4a70b8018891b23
84a0d3002210d8f09b23789cf9d8ef393812585d
describe
'6437' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_039thm.jpg'
5f567d676e8ae79f735b732d112238f0
898037ffae377a4580a8e4b2996b3b83fd45a47f
describe
'114922' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_040.jp2'
15c39bf89f5ceae081b542c81fc0b025
fdeb3a48e17afff65b70659559acffd78a4fd271
'2011-12-12T16:49:15-05:00'
describe
'88443' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_040.jpg'
ac678f2c3bf59e1a8354e021d19c4752
2caa276547ca6ced3abd51f6ae6fa579156a5acf
describe
'54559' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_040.pro'
faf309dd47633c8c0a1fba2ca588695c
42398034efa7f3e8e841dc4cf9a8f83ee39772bf
describe
'26888' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_040.QC.jpg'
3f37c7d402e5ac1421643c3131a5a091
268a1b7b64f5a1f455d9fca3d3e1f15f9aafb9ca
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_040.tif'
5fc2659d77eaa7a55df543da0c350b13
9c96dabe5a6c599f8c26c1d1469b17b7bba096be
describe
'2182' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_040.txt'
87496bcc25862901446aee77501f3467
a77554474dc10ece07fb2ab9887e9f9992675a93
describe
'6379' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_040thm.jpg'
0a6abcea6b30a7c6f814e4923b0d766e
861fd25aa3a930013c17b6035a4a83a70773dec1
describe
'105194' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_041.jp2'
29012f4aff71a3e3d81411e14c4f64c5
8793fe06eb6a64e8df41d92f2cacbfcabefcccd8
'2011-12-12T16:43:48-05:00'
describe
'80691' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_041.jpg'
1a91263439f6cbd4a1cfb802e73f6bd5
aa8fefa898f247180c53440083d0be9addbcf7cc
describe
'48724' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_041.pro'
bc60500692a5e21af5e609607f38f79d
e43d8861feef60154468a5d58c0c128acd819425
'2011-12-12T16:47:29-05:00'
describe
'24705' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_041.QC.jpg'
962198962a612003faff0c979f8bcb2f
66c713120273d24bea25017556c467c5736acc30
'2011-12-12T16:43:24-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_041.tif'
85eab79459771655473cb8dc52ce5ff5
be5edf6d6eb56442766597ea558da11e945b6d4f
'2011-12-12T16:46:10-05:00'
describe
'1918' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_041.txt'
a1ddeaac646830f3a58a4ab2298dc69d
cde3c1bb6014bca3af69081a016b2ff4316ffe4c
describe
'6177' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_041thm.jpg'
a912226c40f7fae7de05a3d339bf1686
4e0ee7e6e0cdf5679cc5c0d38a733471c62f3bbc
describe
'113203' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_042.jp2'
4060734ad439abab6dad9b6b77b47f37
a2b77df997aa1c67fbd860d57e220294dc69c2a2
'2011-12-12T16:43:21-05:00'
describe
'86738' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_042.jpg'
87f0011e80215755e2d6c33816b208f0
6df23abb5a89ba1465783dea5b124ce1304a5908
'2011-12-12T16:47:19-05:00'
describe
'52303' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_042.pro'
9485ca478a5ed0a53895299f6405de86
7c35f50797b934e5c1689180f5d3121ddf3bcafe
describe
'27458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_042.QC.jpg'
e7561bfbf6c0ffc42011711f95e82793
4d198f7ced56b0415fc29a53466132bb3733e60f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_042.tif'
67fe9efae6c5818b3185c9daab56dad0
ec31d5f035ddf6ce97256c68ed475beba3fae90b
describe
'2076' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_042.txt'
7e8b147a2e1abe8b809a54e33035de91
167767f34bc7e7e7b10b5dd9635b18fcb3368a2c
describe
'6401' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_042thm.jpg'
d1a7a1995990902c1ab20bede93ff2d3
87f975653ac3e31bb617de23712a0255a82b6ded
'2011-12-12T16:49:02-05:00'
describe
'108546' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWKZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_043.jp2'
ab8e0e3f910ff166f0724257e5e5bc04
d45e7bf09c5340d4bd9a3af234dbb09e8d8198f9
describe
'82259' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_043.jpg'
922b35185ab241b65bd1118711b8e4a2
d6fdaf3debbe1cb766b74694066a0779e7bea31b
'2011-12-12T16:46:46-05:00'
describe
'48918' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_043.pro'
cfd37836bc4f4a7d5714ef7033444e3f
7dc294725d3f6ab44f3b8f7ddbdede9d10d54c57
'2011-12-12T16:47:47-05:00'
describe
'25627' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_043.QC.jpg'
19ab620f7df3e942e919cb4eab113ec9
b39a7a3ccd70d68dd111382682487017ad6c7327
'2011-12-12T16:47:15-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_043.tif'
ace1366eb37b5d1a6f72bec1538afd83
0620c3dbf5b5773b133256bc08434dfc0fe27927
describe
'1926' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_043.txt'
78e886ca764ce7ccb724e769f13f63d0
e0063b954371968f2d87b736b4fea3f05daf14db
describe
'6147' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_043thm.jpg'
9e967e00e81c9e55df18dbae01ed777f
a2613c4e492e875a84b5545b99a97b1b0d4313ee
'2011-12-12T16:48:04-05:00'
describe
'112963' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_044.jp2'
a2fe3475f2fd70228d90bad95f6f6d0b
6976d94c9db97976e491087cff4013adedbd1393
describe
'86927' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_044.jpg'
83510e2a9aedbb8bef57a0c80b0b4993
554093cc325862642e6b0f435b93fb0a5486d7d0
describe
'52422' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_044.pro'
2824e1e2ae947f8532d867e4fd1106c2
bb4bc3f4fe9e7e6c1179b4eec6e3366439603d13
'2011-12-12T16:47:26-05:00'
describe
'27025' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_044.QC.jpg'
ad79abe90b18ad1e222ca85de4f969aa
796231eaf6b9fd6caad906edbae34bc52c6b7d23
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_044.tif'
b3c70a73a892d3e48ec5a4d41b83297d
7bc22f8be1a7cc7fc8c411321394fac69f3a499b
describe
'2062' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_044.txt'
1c0f9e0bc4192e051a4306d74f6b2443
a53b20ded9b2d11ebc615ba02c3c0f62ab72cceb
'2011-12-12T16:48:32-05:00'
describe
'6671' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_044thm.jpg'
ded2755d162733a2f9e2a40f97e050ce
979292c4c3dc66fa2cf5752ffd290b518cc2d09e
describe
'106914' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_045.jp2'
233c3a88a7327cf55f5c7d921c4f1ff0
e8ae4f61c97291f5a2e892743d7a1eb79d20c9e8
'2011-12-12T16:48:23-05:00'
describe
'82148' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_045.jpg'
17f5ecb8cc1b72551e8023ff20a1ac60
391a826f5f23bb6d01cfcea62e10f9f063289c48
describe
'50221' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_045.pro'
ad366da8c0ffba603e2fbdd8178578a1
6077c636cd399fe87840d027571c3ef791150aea
describe
'25340' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_045.QC.jpg'
69dbea2f34c4d5b82f840717ee8d06a2
f8391427ae16b7834ac0fec27b9cb690a5d86fe7
'2011-12-12T16:46:29-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_045.tif'
39c85592925b72b726d0aa3cbefe45a9
d5f97cadef24cfa91121584f132ea135be13d811
'2011-12-12T16:48:12-05:00'
describe
'1980' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_045.txt'
1e97254e11f3184e4d7b9fba66b8b306
26f7ca1a0dbbec9f8c13b975067e68e49167d37a
'2011-12-12T16:44:41-05:00'
describe
'6471' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_045thm.jpg'
f590a44985bc7d9e5ef44531371159e3
65e72cb28da927e39e8279c8d3afb85436916b0c
describe
'112512' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_046.jp2'
f70ffcabf19d862bc6bd6bc1c814a4bf
c284cc234567ac49d68f87379c8c5000fe66264f
describe
'88552' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_046.jpg'
f143a73bf8356c4eaf053e76f884aa3f
862295805257d5eddcabe224ba6e160a2a162641
describe
'53458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_046.pro'
d29b3abe0cfd52ed1585cf1b073ec251
87a158d7d8d2450679138e44641ba12d32ecce01
'2011-12-12T16:47:09-05:00'
describe
'26761' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_046.QC.jpg'
01bd25a344e1e30257406c305f8891fc
364f821135b55ef32dc6c311015e8db365df3ff3
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_046.tif'
2e3060b712ca7b4913a4efc83f80ef9f
17a0207f8268d78b7574dd9a69e739470b6c16e5
'2011-12-12T16:45:27-05:00'
describe
'2118' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWLZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_046.txt'
b3810cb7bca2570a490d9de47aa2e5b5
73b8079e9ff5e52dedfcc791770c16645db9a4a4
describe
'6373' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_046thm.jpg'
6dd109cfa5f2ffa4f89a094663342178
82de0136fe32fea6fbfe7b0a8222c8b1fc88d9dc
describe
'105795' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_047.jp2'
ad09e2745ab12712e3e94d2dc2cb6119
dac9f581e15d81fb163f09b1ba12701bf82003f6
describe
'81618' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_047.jpg'
389f72ca3a9be0fc0308438743bc24d2
180ecc37f24bad53a2e38aa70efac9c186013828
describe
'48583' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_047.pro'
07d4cc1a366f7cb8e94c18c457364cae
ab24eaebd46d9376e55ca2cefacdcc71a19870ef
'2011-12-12T16:43:51-05:00'
describe
'25288' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWME' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_047.QC.jpg'
454c22e85943ac410e029a8a2728cf0d
4b14c571e785dd487405f1ded59e4099517ee4e5
'2011-12-12T16:44:56-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_047.tif'
a9e4c6dc32d5d5f8c2ec1a08b383c02f
0ae0d41c05842cd55e15f6079f3b279a92db889a
'2011-12-12T16:46:27-05:00'
describe
'1919' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_047.txt'
4a433ca37ae46fd4b52d16dc6bc401fd
502cafc90d1b0c727fe59dccb5501276ea41239a
describe
'6217' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_047thm.jpg'
200c3c0248a8032837587f3968cd3ddf
5fe58f216cca7d8bb5c44de8d95f0179efed2c5f
describe
'111937' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_048.jp2'
c280b1cdb99144465879fcd802271a10
33530abeec6ea43296890e0500da1e709b414200
'2011-12-12T16:46:33-05:00'
describe
'85684' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_048.jpg'
6a0dbe4803b2d073245bbada0491d990
c63524c2b4f1444d8d3eee3e2ff84e2081e8d0a2
'2011-12-12T16:46:00-05:00'
describe
'51906' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_048.pro'
e47acb35cc27683b12a9797e022a7c4e
816682f18a3f54b7915ebe7f4cf1f16ddf90de53
describe
'26374' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWML' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_048.QC.jpg'
e023e503256edf3c332b402a570f1a75
17cc602efb898704e1c1e2e924542fe770b15229
'2011-12-12T16:43:23-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_048.tif'
c930c835090506ca6f6062beef0f7359
92ab1497e73c7c77100b19d1e9f703aeda64f9dc
'2011-12-12T16:49:07-05:00'
describe
'2043' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_048.txt'
aaef43b18cee5b9a50e3c567dc64c3af
c851d6c5eb065a6663c36828c34bdc2194c3d58d
'2011-12-12T16:48:16-05:00'
describe
'6441' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_048thm.jpg'
4135c953f3a842c6fad568dedb73ff08
0fcc5ea7dc0c0ff723062797599127edcc7e11c8
describe
'110809' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_049.jp2'
631377dba9e57dbd1a9b6c0658902f33
d51e6ceafe9363eaf1375796f563580f36931fbc
describe
'84200' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_049.jpg'
c494c4c6d9e9d3c49860444793992978
5a4b4f2e7348c820caecadfdae014b0916859b70
'2011-12-12T16:47:12-05:00'
describe
'51399' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_049.pro'
212f73bc97d990cb854ce394a10f7f06
bb66ac9fea989f837a1d611e5653a3584dcaf183
describe
'26670' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_049.QC.jpg'
e599fc61dd31124ca8983c9ad1bf1a44
003ddc114480e90ceef1bfb55271f84db2001878
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_049.tif'
24d63bcef967961aff05dfaed99c4d7a
e1d699519f0a2d923278b9be75c255f749cdd57d
'2011-12-12T16:43:38-05:00'
describe
'2022' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_049.txt'
91d62f3f125d72d2854a6b7160cbc43c
5de95f303d720d6755a5426fba4ec173bf6b5b5f
describe
'6479' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_049thm.jpg'
f1a64e5086ea5575b5b4b3bafcddcc72
d0db7274a47612e98be0e7755a030f514171f935
'2011-12-12T16:48:25-05:00'
describe
'115308' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_050.jp2'
4ade5c4b5ef12535ebcaab72276007ad
bbec93de6b1d376c7e6cfe7b39a8dc9375c19f85
describe
'89659' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_050.jpg'
109537c5dd3b9f32c18cc4c4c311f35e
52caf6fed3d09f92bc6655d056cff04887ccb589
'2011-12-12T16:47:06-05:00'
describe
'54232' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_050.pro'
a21dc3580d0a0217337a9f21d25824fa
bfd2fbde7cf0ef660db97787e939a551c0da47cf
describe
'27947' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWMZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_050.QC.jpg'
4b43c9560c31d1bcf15025d17d5075b7
7dc4bb9fce0c9019ebcb6c1510e8b6a1b11d07c1
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_050.tif'
ab4564931535458c47e39cf7f98f72ca
4dce4f3c5d056617afc8acfbc410f05eaa131db8
'2011-12-12T16:47:35-05:00'
describe
'2153' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_050.txt'
8ae4d35298480968cc331cc6ce828faf
4c77143a7cfce577551f8b8edcdf5335331832bd
describe
'6640' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_050thm.jpg'
305f91fc57f13789597c0506316059f6
4e1bbcce2868a7252ad4b0db65c30b53a33f3516
describe
'106630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWND' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_051.jp2'
98bd2eebca98270ac9ecad9ad31eb30e
c9bb24fe948daa55b80765b771a4e8ca5fcf8897
'2011-12-12T16:44:46-05:00'
describe
'82076' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_051.jpg'
a68cbbdc63e108e97ad51f166ecc7cb0
7bac52e83276ba1ff86e2f7aff5b358cabff9d53
describe
'50969' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_051.pro'
41818ad90529201929674f53cee72dba
2c1ff685111bbe70d54645ab08e17844e756e507
describe
'25546' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_051.QC.jpg'
7153f93591beaab9616e575ab7aee5f8
802053543e6815f83317cad79d69504241d4ab94
'2011-12-12T16:47:51-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_051.tif'
051e459c7f8173a4d99d54e8adb36dd2
02f7344f1d557af7a13e996262b586fd1c70e1ac
'2011-12-12T16:45:58-05:00'
describe
'2006' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_051.txt'
10273f69d0434a946ab3cdd07ebd6471
252f25e5592b0655701080eddead9f342945e8a4
describe
'6447' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_051thm.jpg'
3ded57295a94333c643ff2fcf3ebd2e6
9c951113cad4fa020714b1d8fb893cc6fd74d368
'2011-12-12T16:44:33-05:00'
describe
'111318' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_052.jp2'
031ecb8d15de6eac227f7c11f02c70bd
3a436e08badcf6ac53e0f8aea4619ec90202f686
'2011-12-12T16:45:36-05:00'
describe
'84860' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_052.jpg'
69b5c2086d1e63a7d55fb2d1d8f4611c
73a52690f91808a8f9f8f44cdc4a0d57bf68f13e
describe
'52244' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_052.pro'
28db3fe35592d3fd811632f171f28317
5dfeb66a6bdf4c8057ce6b1585e44025d11d73e7
describe
'26815' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_052.QC.jpg'
0715b6bd574e3d1bcf2ff32192d90e77
2f69935b8be9fdbe198555ee0dff2dffb158591c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_052.tif'
4a4ec417a67cfffbd847f7494de8022b
f1d1d6c2c48410d9ece1b59d84e38f8fabb04321
'2011-12-12T16:46:39-05:00'
describe
'2089' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_052.txt'
a1cf4f20379a1bc1346faf0f6a45bfe0
7354143fc7f75e70c79ce5296fbf3ec5acd2b4f7
describe
'6360' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_052thm.jpg'
d6d9216e35f03eca372e9ffe22c766ec
67af4f06b8a4e773e97a0c2a9832d244cb091547
describe
'113959' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_053.jp2'
111187297bfbd9ced453f5c034352e97
3bf4aab91a16fa7bd1e18ac044c13d4298a4e422
'2011-12-12T16:44:01-05:00'
describe
'85619' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_053.jpg'
a301d051815b0b10dcabd9e49e6306a8
974c2117d84c934db179e76e7a78eef69b635535
'2011-12-12T16:47:22-05:00'
describe
'52458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_053.pro'
de62e5124c795aa5e4c882df1bc216de
356fa8743575c3bf008fc5392e34493145e9f2f3
describe
'26504' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_053.QC.jpg'
0a52668dee9ea5657ce5cd4cd41f512b
62fb804e6f2a655d0691e88d3a416c5ed2a64dec
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_053.tif'
a35dcdc6e730e669a28c0668dba72041
02b1ccbd273924ef58f5fac55b0d8d937a154d66
'2011-12-12T16:46:40-05:00'
describe
'2092' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_053.txt'
7228386f14a5ce543b8c9bae23a9e384
952b0c02a19e054b1f80e2c4632cfcfcea7f9151
describe
'6190' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_053thm.jpg'
476863982db0181ba995c505bec6a633
690c20409c32ccbba8c9c14dfb61c8ef0360c3a4
'2011-12-12T16:43:54-05:00'
describe
'63838' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_054.jp2'
1f8b444b995577b4013d6c4795ca77e7
25a47cad40bb122783a8403003f9b087ae730721
describe
'48355' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWNZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_054.jpg'
78035834293a85e7d0dae5c279d695be
25afa68b5769683525b4dbc4ea87eb702e930d9e
describe
'28309' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_054.pro'
01298fe187308af9fe0a74872921a1e1
43f25f9d89f3ef219cf9bcc20bcd8caa1f820243
describe
'15301' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_054.QC.jpg'
1855abdd61e81a4e30f2e4f39ef84419
db0f8b32a0ff5d4c61759f1957bd381b136ec6c8
'2011-12-12T16:49:12-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_054.tif'
f10609070fdf1ec7e9c8901e65e2c27d
7d60b9b9b7759737e8db2c0f52fd99d09cd45ad5
describe
'1124' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_054.txt'
dac81aaad857f88fb602f504bb57a5fb
98b8b63a84bb350898ff947a0fed826390f60f20
describe
'3662' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_054thm.jpg'
2f5e56b45f825bb1dd9e2af5fb1189dc
a926cd04e5bafb334dad12dda946894a3423714e
'2011-12-12T16:48:36-05:00'
describe
'94513' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_055.jp2'
4bd3696b251a30271e84311030745f5c
7606cf9e11818067fc6164cb636a81c7771ff3c7
'2011-12-12T16:44:58-05:00'
describe
'72369' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_055.jpg'
cbfbd55ee7ec1f03a69e6b5617d7ea52
e2600ebd13b5ae401f51283dbb873fe17b3fa7a0
describe
'43426' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_055.pro'
b5ea471a1018ee8a989bf7176b28b1ae
34e968108e0dd9543cd94289815bf651649c005a
describe
'21843' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_055.QC.jpg'
01824cb6e3c660586768f55c67ad4436
e24bbf8f67299cd99deaa32731a3ef9dc3c89162
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_055.tif'
fbabf7297d07cf78293b2dd361fa89cd
7a1fce09c47642daa1ffea04ea974edc850a0a5e
describe
'1800' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_055.txt'
a77204a201a7832c04aaec40353ef611
34a386fa48ec63a9db44f759af01b51867764d19
describe
'5315' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_055thm.jpg'
d8ca819de04c630833a5c8e9262c2af0
5d43d3e199dd38b4c2355bdcd566df3b98139c0c
'2011-12-12T16:44:31-05:00'
describe
'1051961' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_056.jp2'
ae6005d66efd8211c73c996c485f8f5c
10432078b0532edd40555dd09fa2af35a115c63c
'2011-12-12T16:48:45-05:00'
describe
'85284' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWON' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_056.jpg'
d33fcd0c7aefe7c2fa1890fe02eef9e8
efd62ec404f2a152245d142e667b78abe7183269
'2011-12-12T16:48:07-05:00'
describe
'51367' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_056.pro'
5fd591c49ac37bc8479e49f13c001886
b02889d788f07c7e55575b7c6e3bafc2516dc3ba
'2011-12-12T16:45:14-05:00'
describe
'26150' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_056.QC.jpg'
012b440ee7e2114a50d23e5330dae866
b7dd4837805249110bbe9a8a2b6ef55191ab7e53
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_056.tif'
e4b13c824bdee5125a40b5f74ef03294
0785e64824bffda36bfb7df30f972bfc1ef7cb74
'2011-12-12T16:44:44-05:00'
describe
'2021' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_056.txt'
7dd79b76164f77ad3fe129e7146bf9a9
2dd31702e494bee32f908cc44e64f5759f16a7b5
describe
'6477' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_056thm.jpg'
6efe072a00e7d093cbce53c851ada426
045b8f95be9801cad41bee7abf6b6cd37dc49c8b
'2011-12-12T16:48:14-05:00'
describe
'1051890' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_057.jp2'
5dde0438d38c50b527d099a7c9a6d4bb
7565331f0ffa741b3083a8eaadc64bb208891d90
describe
'87110' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_057.jpg'
812ccb97af72e03b355441804a7c81a7
924ac03ac68481949b77d588c8fa23af89e6a05f
describe
'56971' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_057.pro'
7d18a2eadcd91beb0f74f0297b7a3984
cac4bf53267f8bf99548fb81d8aed220fb83a877
'2011-12-12T16:46:15-05:00'
describe
'25926' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_057.QC.jpg'
22624a9141f03f0f1bb3e2697f5a142e
ad94a3463239be44b79692d47d6b552e48e4c046
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_057.tif'
f8d8bf1564d22c80e72dbe74b13d8c6c
65d2c9f340b24e7d24e7d5eb6b60b0ac20a528c7
'2011-12-12T16:48:30-05:00'
describe
'2220' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_057.txt'
63563597b97eb5ab702c29b432b46ffa
3f16ca9ab04b66ec0ec758df413010d94153ac91
'2011-12-12T16:47:04-05:00'
describe
'6143' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWOZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_057thm.jpg'
d73e4172800786f5d420d73fd4c1438b
d4a441405ec6a9871475127176e4190ea30afb91
'2011-12-12T16:46:13-05:00'
describe
'112997' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_058.jp2'
cf51bdd2a84e39d25777b61d1c4e0ca0
1e029817c1fd9e6127e7966aacf1650b21df0cf5
describe
'85649' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_058.jpg'
0ca4ac593e76f37353e9a23edc64ed3f
1f242dcb1522635ed3f74398e6c6b01715f7abcd
'2011-12-12T16:49:09-05:00'
describe
'52511' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_058.pro'
fd3495f2387c3349b44852ce0bdc2a88
00ef0ab393cc6523445eaa59b6d0829a9c5dcd5b
describe
'26584' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_058.QC.jpg'
33614ddc4fa27c3741084dc281209502
74711b4d2252ac9141bc9292d39528368e195675
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_058.tif'
463f0303709f68f5c6a41f739cdba076
7a0f385ff6bf703a8dd82cd2041578e03a73a9b7
'2011-12-12T16:44:27-05:00'
describe
'2059' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_058.txt'
d80410f8c2309bef4104540fb34999c1
9c9f4d231c595636e5139c908088e0f26b19399c
describe
'6470' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_058thm.jpg'
5e7caf2f174ae6c11725db8680775b71
4c4e6a48346ded4c2aa4abd1a228f99cf916cb16
describe
'112322' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_059.jp2'
f3f9c7c4989b83ce5d03d7a3036ca056
d69c30211792676a9834ff386a1e6ea83fc40fa2
describe
'85987' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_059.jpg'
2c707747239561cb3b35214f6230cf6f
a0c74b9d4ed12f87eab036e0835582efd506ee7f
describe
'52847' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_059.pro'
1a5284ab5e8c508f48ff31032e43e8fe
5beaa2da61a740e8b53507ad2335f097a22be4fc
'2011-12-12T16:47:43-05:00'
describe
'26731' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_059.QC.jpg'
5a0955fee70ffd1e5d5d4182e5985084
1f6d4d27fe2b284de85fae772c809446ab471530
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_059.tif'
7b0586c5677f9e08a25a5733b0309e10
ff384a21e00c33e94b6420b97743ef3e46b2cb9d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_059.txt'
980ab60b0a6dc6692914be601d2f591e
3333868249352345974f94203a7088d821a9ec73
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_059thm.jpg'
46f7ef769096a52c78525e8215906993
d04a13763c40a9d239b7e003ab431b600e26285d
describe
'117156' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_060.jp2'
601f2ae57113047775d73dd3680015b2
2f4391b51d23c75407914d3b208c525bdbd8965a
describe
'89466' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_060.jpg'
2c71a633f06eb3f0c236b7e9532ef500
89182dc56129f35ceafa2f198b29e866b236c8c2
describe
'54307' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_060.pro'
55b0dcd76030391545fc9ddbde2e49fa
80522e5b44f3380cee102956360e7a254a6f0a45
describe
'28162' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_060.QC.jpg'
bb2aac663d7b0c07829fadf7c906bdcc
7001b6d5b9784e2846d35dee4341a2b02fd18a52
'2011-12-12T16:43:07-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_060.tif'
a5e032fd64222b7794d3ef95f52cb060
4f994416220c3fc7ad005f158972138d5b607d03
describe
'2141' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_060.txt'
28dca30c7e059b156837b0221922354d
7822f0bcaa8ba6e39aa12752f06e4ed9e62bb9f5
'2011-12-12T16:48:17-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_060thm.jpg'
c01a679165579aea239dfd9f8dcbb733
3d666fcaf1e858f2f14dba3a741b7d7318d29cf1
'2011-12-12T16:45:47-05:00'
describe
'108805' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_061.jp2'
9a8312ee9887fcdf068c67f16f79dfd8
3dd2159f2ec25c5f1b0eabf329e9a1019c75c41b
'2011-12-12T16:43:26-05:00'
describe
'82111' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_061.jpg'
40355bc476a25093b4b7833a25b3a730
7991a4d2b7516bedffa242417ac4c890a73b8d3d
'2011-12-12T16:45:43-05:00'
describe
'50126' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_061.pro'
20b5910c0ef6c2661238e29c23d895f0
1d0cff5ff99de7896995a88f67988cdf577d1214
describe
'25803' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_061.QC.jpg'
7a3d87bf1e56576ced63769b6d1eaf2e
9439cdcf50130d2fd41e80e640fd09b02a2b4c49
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWPZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_061.tif'
f440c45fead4c93bfccb804f6288ce7a
28916a2a707fa78f5f84cd952ebcd41d2a2593e7
'2011-12-12T16:43:17-05:00'
describe
'1973' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_061.txt'
a3d35cdd670c03c0bf1a7bddc2cf2c98
1f19a65993d353059860b7d484e4161f0b8ec1bc
describe
'6338' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_061thm.jpg'
f1b0b46955e2951098324ef108fe17d1
661159d4fbfaf0cfd93c89864e3f698fe2e398fd
describe
'111283' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_062.jp2'
5cad873b6ea17b14735277d6ba419f2f
3f56f1002f93c1a2c0b19e0b46b64667b2cfda39
'2011-12-12T16:45:04-05:00'
describe
'84147' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_062.jpg'
e5b5955f96bd7acf5bd73a6b846ee85d
5b3d11f37bbd37c6124cccbb8c3c22a5611344ef
'2011-12-12T16:46:03-05:00'
describe
'52877' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_062.pro'
4802b7d17f4a95f476f7952722055617
a58ffadcc291091019a19ed034d3b54f474444c1
'2011-12-12T16:46:08-05:00'
describe
'26107' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_062.QC.jpg'
6c94e474b59165da5dbdc12182451965
e50d9fd1ce9494673d279ffbc8dfd5f59ddacc12
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_062.tif'
c23fac8ddcc26c73ae75ac69fe2baea3
b8c6c60b4bc109c880eabea84befa977852f85b1
'2011-12-12T16:46:01-05:00'
describe
'2077' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_062.txt'
fa54f84da1531b0d0e01e6dbdc665bbb
088472cdee41ff16f93d5bbe9d0977ce5f719e2b
describe
'6374' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_062thm.jpg'
c60237d3ff6cf39b5fdb09f13f9b83cb
72adca0faedc7ee91b483884e95709a70f944b48
'2011-12-12T16:48:57-05:00'
describe
'110176' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_063.jp2'
a7f8a75b2b1714d8d762126e6ecee598
690758ce80154d28823200fb54ad15e16a8ad42f
describe
'83657' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_063.jpg'
f273a903807c64b85f01a5bc6716eb3a
08e41c144d07c77f4b182eb030d8f73013d35e6b
describe
'51976' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_063.pro'
4892cd35db6e3ba87f2a26fde481cc6d
cc614ba5089a9949b7df0255e6d2814c5904be6a
describe
'26098' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_063.QC.jpg'
5b1a4ddef4f8843849507638b860a604
aca3e87dde3ff3290a6b9962bf81521d7857c850
'2011-12-12T16:48:15-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_063.tif'
d5a41feee2a1dfbe351f39f8608bd147
b80d743d49978ab35160fa26b75e68dc5e4e903e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_063.txt'
fe820c1205d1c521c4f5d817cac5b70c
775fdb487d4ec6d8baf34fecd5471d62deb832fb
'2011-12-12T16:48:26-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_063thm.jpg'
0c8f5c33b7c3b57adc34c6b4d213c869
ea18cc76d622641a3672cc1d71f1bb145adb1da5
'2011-12-12T16:47:36-05:00'
describe
'110991' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_064.jp2'
28e82140722d3cc2d1cb702048371baf
679dab25299c67a348c1358c1675dbd0502a274a
describe
'84345' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_064.jpg'
9153fb998e2f8bb12b7e4031d4950c93
8e6ed391f8d5d07dbf6f6265574b26a21b3a0179
describe
'51269' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_064.pro'
0f23d411ed1179d8f75130e1a38e4bef
3aa44fc06945204c0baa97a71b60b04713a9c8bd
describe
'26555' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_064.QC.jpg'
22523f783bd8a7de6e74acb0a6927cd5
ea18b16c52520c1d3b636244e26c5ec3480e4880
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_064.tif'
396c4b352443a16678cc1505a725752e
182ee0f413dad4c5f92022c4dbeefb2e3a90dd03
describe
'2042' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_064.txt'
9667eeeb97abe0473d20d5d322dbd85e
cb832f333c109955d64f516504041bc69e302a9e
describe
'6355' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_064thm.jpg'
ce6412e4d866aac07024a782c7c4326e
6107858af51cb91ef6f7cc1927883973611e4502
'2011-12-12T16:43:22-05:00'
describe
'105808' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_065.jp2'
9279dfbd23e3486fd2aee5a47046ffeb
b71c1c21af945bc7bdefd07b63566d94d5f7a361
describe
'80952' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_065.jpg'
dd8bec115dcd17eda1d522311e63a49b
762d08dba402578da60b55dad582e173f1e966f2
'2011-12-12T16:47:41-05:00'
describe
'49519' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWQZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_065.pro'
8afd7e50db5b490189412eb920e4d8ce
85b35c285f3bbd362164a3abb38f08fc60a50a08
describe
'25425' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_065.QC.jpg'
24f15597a542be7fef356632962a53cc
6d1d2a78bca59c3ce340cb07f970630f1a205223
'2011-12-12T16:47:50-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_065.tif'
55416c02715fbe66590430267bc93414
b3289fd8072a45a3760c372cbc3bb21851de7f14
describe
'1953' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_065.txt'
5079daedf0fa4d3c72ad37a6677df57b
5db964192684a62025dd85f2b260085e7eb2c2f5
describe
'6066' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_065thm.jpg'
ca6cab09ac4916e6797ee2c7fb11abad
2abd4bd0a3975be85cd1ac04f86cf221737827f3
'2011-12-12T16:47:25-05:00'
describe
'1051982' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_066.jp2'
b92c9bc41fed4391089fac74bbd63f94
759acb2abdbaf2ea5d2eb4b4d416d89aebdf0e46
describe
'86731' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_066.jpg'
f2fe0d5796b0ca4e70280f6b79108c05
5f9e8b2b18c94b09dbbe7ca15d21d78e64ce5cdd
'2011-12-12T16:44:29-05:00'
describe
'52045' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_066.pro'
a73d29c70016fff9cbe8b33b8318f9f4
3fddf5342292cd7596609de50e4b1372e305dda0
'2011-12-12T16:48:35-05:00'
describe
'26675' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_066.QC.jpg'
b660a1f4a039868a3d11d09b9096bb0f
e38d84c97d629aba6827f239d3cadf1ab976c32b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_066.tif'
a0e08a7b41f322fb10f7a2866914a7b2
1c5c3a2ebd7d5fa1b150a6d3ea5283da3a780bc5
'2011-12-12T16:44:59-05:00'
describe
'2047' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_066.txt'
bf419e1935fd501086992a90b9a896cb
2638d9cdeb5291228efcfe08cb033424d2dddf43
'2011-12-12T16:45:03-05:00'
describe
'6517' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_066thm.jpg'
2b3605989a338b983a7aea20c88511a2
3b73742c3b34d16e20fa466a72186c00941e22b7
describe
'110335' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_067.jp2'
318fb2516124a9ba544fed225e7784e5
bcd5037b4f9491d6d952099940b14d8c0d1917ed
describe
'83950' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_067.jpg'
0a59ffaeeed430924a44a6e86b2ef8ba
8608052dce9b07b36fd14a708a607de3931ec4a2
describe
'51772' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_067.pro'
39e16483730e94389097fc694a275a46
ac089e50d7350f009f74dd89f7d87159c571336f
describe
'26118' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_067.QC.jpg'
f059b5be08f8d3fc1f60350d1b1b8fd5
c9df2d393ea9f409e8e7983bbc1c3be3b4eeca81
'2011-12-12T16:47:07-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_067.tif'
fadf50609c9eb50273123bcb92f64ce4
6222c4b0ebaf4dd4bb6bb5e18207503887a3791b
describe
'2037' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_067.txt'
0f278db5c4048cecc9b841ab275fa52d
36ce764640cfe099b672a64f572bece1a22c4046
describe
'6434' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_067thm.jpg'
605e7616d08552d26a0d5524a3637547
3662bc327e75b177afd7a682eb507e28eff910af
describe
'116447' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_068.jp2'
87dd4caed0143290d6ec28bb08295d8f
d721b023207fad30cfa16becf728c17888bfc095
describe
'88187' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_068.jpg'
c4f2aeb935b42333e8bce925fab7c23d
2b564a7d9071de2461ae24608f750290ac4910fb
describe
'54886' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_068.pro'
06cdbb1cfc3dc2ff27a01e8eb98a4966
fd83e1d6cd8e9b3d58a62ac2518bec4db07e10b2
'2011-12-12T16:46:17-05:00'
describe
'27299' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_068.QC.jpg'
27bfb46d22607b510a27b45cf33cd10e
cb3dc1a264572839e51e6750b0e2249745c6cb9c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_068.tif'
becf6dc43871af7683dd00add189283c
9014903ea2018eeca96635b6421f1d7cc72dc542
describe
'2170' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_068.txt'
3ccbda9ba175ccd0c7da887e900a9877
2494b90d2b7fdc5ae1164291a630cea53226b95c
'2011-12-12T16:44:06-05:00'
describe
'6411' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_068thm.jpg'
a9735f28714eb9ce2e336a847ae54e1f
6f0b3d7e920197939fbba8f9fd0a2fc6e08761ab
'2011-12-12T16:43:44-05:00'
describe
'112498' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWRZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_069.jp2'
819af0109e67286e238a4f5d295b3ae2
65afafc00be836770519841ceb4344f46c905129
describe
'85409' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_069.jpg'
8763ae7c976347450bb201abf41eae5e
a7560a4e2a19e719a8bdb345bfa88e96b451cc4c
'2011-12-12T16:43:59-05:00'
describe
'52839' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_069.pro'
cd164a382900a1f77cfc0a91a665f562
c82a203f849688a8918642fe57f6908e280f8930
describe
'26955' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_069.QC.jpg'
7eeccd268e0e8ba7469cb8b66e7da4f6
df934de07c7065caa0cf9042f1b20cd19ddb0c84
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_069.tif'
c22a768d63ba641e5aec603ecea75f7f
b026b59a7949e1b365f8fd84d53a0fbf502747b0
describe
'2102' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_069.txt'
fb0666486a70a50d20feda5f1d28c553
7d5af9ec8b3c8c8328f8a04213bb050614bd4de1
describe
'6317' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_069thm.jpg'
a5fcb2b47bb567ddb3e9c36eb13771a8
7a94b334510142ed7f8c238337997dee2c2a1609
describe
'117143' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_070.jp2'
d914350dd80bae831bb13c183386f215
a3bbe633272888417f7c284e048ad0170d218178
describe
'88975' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_070.jpg'
227e93b82f28d03ba7f55dd870cf0563
ede3c0ab6744457c0877168856b5e00db4aa5417
'2011-12-12T16:46:11-05:00'
describe
'57346' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_070.pro'
20368b54d985d275cf3bc23a4f8c8b21
203f3271e1d774313c8332a78d5b965e359f4580
describe
'26288' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_070.QC.jpg'
0621e0c7e611c95313c4ba59d0246783
fb3f12cba0e62a8e184f7e1e0b12d84afb5f89de
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_070.tif'
1ec79a48a6146ae96515421327283193
9bd29405b9c138c4befe7a64974fadfe1a5c24e9
describe
'2267' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_070.txt'
23f1e5246bbd6b8e6b1d3d48b0c1089f
744fa28572cd6dc2684ab8315a37f1a5f494109f
describe
'6297' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_070thm.jpg'
00114de940b371db66920bd89a6924c1
006bf23788b93762db278c1aca865df2bd657f45
describe
'110137' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_071.jp2'
6ec4016f62a76210430ecf109c1bdbf2
dfbd90cedbd8770dcdd909ce1844505be56c0f36
'2011-12-12T16:47:44-05:00'
describe
'84369' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_071.jpg'
2671305cb992639b8b691ed0c96c98b3
accda79ceeeae4faf342c1ba4733b5617e947560
'2011-12-12T16:45:44-05:00'
describe
'51905' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_071.pro'
a5edf162263b1043ba0409905b5d720a
5de686b1ebc243881caee06210921437cd0d3b12
describe
'25971' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_071.QC.jpg'
35e4181f01cabba451accc867cc7fb21
6b2d104544cb300a64ea6a44cea7484c28ec51e6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_071.tif'
b0fcd4e78323b397e3581d531fb75adb
b62e065932f895aed23e457bab08ca8b41baef77
describe
'2041' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_071.txt'
e68ef9e8674a7c01450a961a63a8cfff
13dc600b10d086cdbe462402e9b312333f449cf5
'2011-12-12T16:46:26-05:00'
describe
'6583' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWST' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_071thm.jpg'
03f1a326698522a2010a9de9a368b792
45337fb6bd0fc33ff9b1dadb333b7aded01bdd9c
describe
'111165' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_072.jp2'
c6af1a92054c6f72a2b4202f49aebe75
3b2e452154237c95d4be24ab06d1166f1e0fdf2f
describe
'86038' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_072.jpg'
adb58595a454a97b335f98a01a4ae023
9d93c98f523419e54d386796a673ca9086e7eca6
'2011-12-12T16:49:05-05:00'
describe
'52757' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_072.pro'
5a78a474ba3d6daff15e116a99cc1c65
554ad39f792e9355ce5702626c4c5be6256e43b0
'2011-12-12T16:46:49-05:00'
describe
'26738' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_072.QC.jpg'
89534e9f90c4101373b5d950099196c0
ae1837b7ce8994c162ca89c0004c069feb996055
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_072.tif'
4f49b74d98cf0612735c4a10077a8d4f
26d579c522d6c928f046a9b944763fb2f72d4ed4
'2011-12-12T16:48:56-05:00'
describe
'2075' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWSZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_072.txt'
8772b1f0177ca40c2f964a8c4f10adcf
064ae7fddd26b687de09be60ebd03ba742f0dba0
describe
'6628' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_072thm.jpg'
a0320b13569c29b416b0194ba612dec0
3b543e530ca32d68d56aeaa40c180cc3689fa26b
describe
'110174' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_073.jp2'
39e1cac115b749249bbd50a57c8fb601
b38b1514eedfaab25ca3dcc26a91d71e8bae0c0e
describe
'84778' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_073.jpg'
5ef64540c6e8bcf624f4441f716ffae7
2039b90e9be6192a1f9c9515f1490f4dead527d4
describe
'52405' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_073.pro'
44e6589d595b9662114ae73cd228311c
baa986e24bbc234248849bdb644857ab3d01d4bb
describe
'26187' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_073.QC.jpg'
998c92c7eb6d53183144cb2a5da5a18b
5d19a6f088aac1306a82753987dc0c2174875076
'2011-12-12T16:43:28-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_073.tif'
69b2fdc8317d3430613ae49e5fe749a1
78307b0133f0610caccd8e5bbec52335bc719e3c
describe
'2061' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_073.txt'
33f6a3840a67fe5e0f2a2a2c26cdba40
4f9d9da6e9022788f449a0bc2d441f2795705a12
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_073thm.jpg'
751b06ed18abe0ee166cc923d1572cf3
92cc02f6a3e62c720c02c06b908d4b13ef96f41f
'2011-12-12T16:43:03-05:00'
describe
'107120' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_074.jp2'
fdc112b98f04a75bbe1dbd62de39b7cd
3d1d01a3bc4449b5fdc49828c826de07d7be8d3c
'2011-12-12T16:48:37-05:00'
describe
'83815' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_074.jpg'
4304ee613564495756405fbaf2a1ebb5
0da9d287bbb07116b6d8661240fd3f814661a9b9
describe
'51457' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_074.pro'
51577e18fe53c69f471b5e6b521ee626
f3b93bd090a2de942f6285868897cd658ea6d33f
describe
'26030' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_074.QC.jpg'
f2188b2a69ca2229c017d30e3b9f7167
d62645547cc575ab23d76e98e8638fd03d967f5c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_074.tif'
9cbbb3688720e8e23bc3e491d992366b
b213b39f95f2b4e6fc10f0ff9fdc4db703c0e8c1
'2011-12-12T16:47:39-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_074.txt'
695c6e71db26d006fd7046deea4ced0b
2d3742ac34e8ecc46a2a62ad0e986f9c9acd14b0
describe
'6368' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_074thm.jpg'
d1370d4ef252abb9b95bc1b558a8ed15
94b23f9009549bf95310cce87f490cdcceaac8f2
describe
'1051985' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_075.jp2'
4aaf32ca79b4f22576d10be1247f069f
c91091e81bceb58febc539a84807e7ad9ccdc528
describe
'88338' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_075.jpg'
644de96c2835d77e1df0f589c4526879
e2b3cddb3381d6509dd464398220979da3a2b8e4
describe
'54412' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_075.pro'
bf4eb3edf7c0139a54740fe972e39d87
f7f5d57c47c71e572c0710faa936892b2f4a0b5d
'2011-12-12T16:46:09-05:00'
describe
'27469' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_075.QC.jpg'
c98c5811a50f62549d09c2a2b3722051
70d6f815965580fbdbaf2c6e1259392f43319326
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_075.tif'
65cf767dc4c7427f1da51bae7d3a14ed
f4c94d4e04754a9a632deb6e382d008fbdfefce2
describe
'2159' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_075.txt'
ebe71f52321a135c083cd2e76eb6bbf2
281c24283cf0415610fe42c5e62b09061a82bade
describe
'6490' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_075thm.jpg'
3002030e9ab9f723728b9848e47feb3b
57d913f8597111e780cd7fd4774c22a420d0808a
describe
'108345' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_076.jp2'
d65a71591c01d966fd27ac5a74068ed6
840fd1a16c0e4cc15012c903c46fa3ff7dc5b842
describe
'84001' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_076.jpg'
8b4d23cb57b07eef7a752adf982742e2
060c86790c86ebd853643f934fcf1cd6b54143dd
describe
'51585' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_076.pro'
7a1292ec6d117e14bd4038a4441bc0e8
095c91b5b17829edff39ae2a5db877fda8e19d6d
describe
'25948' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWTZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_076.QC.jpg'
3a8b61993e34dd2ce118decd5eebb5e7
09a2b24ca8dedfe7edfa6be1e5779caf46908556
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_076.tif'
58b4f7fd9121a0f1bcd5e64a4d87eba9
4639fa7e4d4bc6c77c3a118d5f89adf03fa261c5
'2011-12-12T16:44:03-05:00'
describe
'2027' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_076.txt'
4188016900bd659ab02dc3d41725fbc6
50ef907d8669dded389378d3dcb9c3c7869318ec
'2011-12-12T16:44:17-05:00'
describe
'6291' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_076thm.jpg'
54fdfe710c6017aafd0b12379a86dcc9
e7fb18f5994193f59aaa32b244ffc0f9281464c7
describe
'109189' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_077.jp2'
6873eb59597c9fa1f92a188437113956
26766fc978edae9712b82a3b14e8eba411ecd775
describe
'83828' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_077.jpg'
5a3320be339c194f47f849c109970fae
b7eb7a0c6998506d4e76015df56f0a4b6fd9bb0e
describe
'50435' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_077.pro'
993b014a182878ab3a7ceec3ca256b25
6450f2106ea9157675818151457cfcfc77932151
describe
'25884' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_077.QC.jpg'
8b7bb3789ad2398a81d636e69630089a
b8a04728409fc4b79cf8b562be06ebf935cbb4ad
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_077.tif'
350080cab91f1578bc8fc0200fa95614
b415fa0917f50fa6230466af57557698a8281f23
describe
'2018' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_077.txt'
65e476facad8ebe5b966862b481948b5
c77e9e8b26fb68b0a873d3d1140c19eaf62c06e3
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_077thm.jpg'
f8dd0e434964c38c50d85b01087fd1a2
5d1a1469c8d77330e6e732f46d05948d13a8de24
describe
'113905' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_078.jp2'
259587ee00642cd124dfc6e947034f95
db856383a20d41903e44de65545528ee4dd876d5
describe
'87628' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_078.jpg'
37848c8dca1a9224ad5fede17feada2d
8b2c460be0063b01cabb6563e0e93cba50a1c6a7
describe
'53631' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_078.pro'
338f12e06a3f5123b188199dc8ae233c
6bb25c267128044e83b23f5070dc30e427c1703c
describe
'27285' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_078.QC.jpg'
3fc761b0caba2103f2c0f93493898c98
211a8478851adfc454bc1bfab81b5b2f518388a9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_078.tif'
4ee9453aa67879f32566c0e379819924
3fd9f1af77d7bfc0b7a7296cdd68e95c59c6d42f
'2011-12-12T16:47:02-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_078.txt'
6c557f920799bb41fd787c4f1306b2fd
1afa47dfa1f3b6fdf8809ac488f2221a2bfcb07a
describe
'6685' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_078thm.jpg'
3639f1f128736cbe253a66d27cab46a9
69f9673d9aef8fbe084d0fc042903fff4cbb4ff6
describe
'101259' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_079.jp2'
6b73ef26ed532a1cd4daf816fa9a6dd9
73bd9132c2def349a1a63dd2908058e2b437edb8
describe
'75750' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_079.jpg'
5487cddf48d6252b9dda11546ff161e8
42b9b5080a0d50f7746a9f21a651121a5330cfd2
describe
'44763' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_079.pro'
7f78fd4e4a0e943eb9d87b4e405fc54e
5e6fa3232629fe129611a4dcfceae4b209f3192c
describe
'23751' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_079.QC.jpg'
f0c1aa09cbc04d7bbb69bdf7ead329a8
eda45f59fcf6577f0707186063a36bda43a5bf2a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_079.tif'
9f26338cdd33bda7a7a67784bdc54fd7
26ec4663c0ff86ffe9a69a3e897772ed00e361fa
describe
'1797' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_079.txt'
9076c0df3fcd025698faacca2c781515
dd9f39b7c801391f5639450f316c3cd40903e9a2
'2011-12-12T16:46:35-05:00'
describe
'5900' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_079thm.jpg'
d1b10c378ecf64c18f364e160b990b10
1c5e835cd34abd4c8400c8fd275b1a9794cc3a0f
describe
'119983' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_080.jp2'
92f2870e2f94771f39a23cd9338161de
f3254163176012eab14943335d01b7036bbcc788
describe
'89721' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWUZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_080.jpg'
b2ffa2104b1511f7530572ba9b60f412
134d3a960c9c10e33579907e28418592e5755c3a
describe
'60850' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_080.pro'
241fac005170d338394cef2dff90a871
329db8ea89426e4a408cf249daba14aae82a5697
describe
'26474' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_080.QC.jpg'
226616cbe200b731c623490adbbfb7fc
d45df4a22432fbb5e159ee17396bc5c4369828e6
'2011-12-12T16:44:16-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_080.tif'
9675e3c838c97bd19e2a514b2fa0534d
1ba52e4d31119ab82049483bf27d1e97ee989201
describe
'2364' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_080.txt'
3cfc8f4d67ace60d73c9938429a19ee0
e24d62ff94af4f20530840a6bd4a28134d0bea5c
describe
'6439' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_080thm.jpg'
f18a3b401c2dab331609d40610849f1a
1321be15a4ff9c23399746b8581221a72e7ff7e2
'2011-12-12T16:49:16-05:00'
describe
'1051957' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_081.jp2'
44bf50de4519cd24626305f7b92cd67e
d85669cc4dd4eab647ed91257ebcc15c538d5ca8
describe
'88844' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_081.jpg'
ab83daa02e04f28cbd2b0b8dd7b2a04b
1391921ca42ed9495faef4671d5ff333cbb9a426
describe
'52755' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_081.pro'
cb5ffdf2f2b3dd9aadce4abf475890dc
5b548af71a060116561755d7f93101b6607e1fad
'2011-12-12T16:47:27-05:00'
describe
'27424' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_081.QC.jpg'
b2d5242a23c586d15abbe0359b9eb1c4
18582842d2f7feaa4123688c1b929cde51ebb7b9
'2011-12-12T16:47:58-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_081.tif'
93cec0c1fa01d8e3d4be367338ccb67a
b42b91552a1fa0dfcdbae148c859762dc27aa9e1
describe
'2068' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_081.txt'
3566a826d3c351654a3a3250d7d375b6
d7e045583408604f968f86c99d09de7cb17a5c46
'2011-12-12T16:44:49-05:00'
describe
'6813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_081thm.jpg'
d22e364c0900141a0bf0eedfa54deb32
4582e6ecd3aff0868db42304c8f812bdf5f7b409
describe
'112992' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_082.jp2'
2b73a5b371c564c1902989edf0de428b
475c5c9087975d795957612012566a2f71bde0ea
'2011-12-12T16:44:45-05:00'
describe
'86720' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_082.jpg'
cb104286534580f692911152ae0107e6
b5708ded082643c03282b945358c4cc72d4a13b3
'2011-12-12T16:45:11-05:00'
describe
'52721' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_082.pro'
df8a12c292ded77aa650d86b71097dff
6b35faff3b106cdcb98937650f5f4b929b5fc44c
describe
'27017' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_082.QC.jpg'
445baed7a5f8359af378f367c372e822
e428f0220508fa6d30cac18074b984bcf2e32795
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_082.tif'
5bc8050fee487128d60bd37ace45d928
705d41f13908b3d975ae9cb613957839e08c29af
describe
'2067' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_082.txt'
0a5df0fac792817135ce46d652f4818b
23412d6df5d2ffa940713c8f69b37876fa6d9eeb
'2011-12-12T16:44:14-05:00'
describe
'6587' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_082thm.jpg'
f9ca25aeb58c0c61e88bf68afcbab6ec
db0a2f3e824a4f80fd6096c021065f408e06c452
'2011-12-12T16:47:00-05:00'
describe
'117621' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_083.jp2'
facf0fe907f9ca303b9f0cd2039030fa
5b5b58a35d601249af271edd20c1d28f2a50fc9b
describe
'90713' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_083.jpg'
4b003c9bb5d7c42de2a0e5ffd187149d
935ce2b325a9c5b2b3d6fcaeda49a0c14c2ee057
'2011-12-12T16:47:11-05:00'
describe
'55389' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_083.pro'
5773558f5c12b5884f176391b2fd86d6
efd96471b50898d4ce5032191b7333976ce0a530
describe
'28319' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_083.QC.jpg'
01675b10bd78fb58942aa9d73fceec71
80dc07a05b57a7a2fb51dc1539a9db5996278bc8
'2011-12-12T16:48:24-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_083.tif'
339b5ca9c8d444d606a6882c2881be79
0a37da51d261d17efd6b6ac7ec581c5217a9f57b
describe
'2179' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_083.txt'
83bab35ccb7ec66da19198a3f12319bb
75c7b5a3bb749cc49cbfae3e9fa09eeff581396b
'2011-12-12T16:45:19-05:00'
describe
'6694' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWVZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_083thm.jpg'
e78b984c5b7808d145d3f78517b22d08
ebc380a38672a793c5891ad2dd8617252fd6cd3b
describe
'95377' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_084.jp2'
609e848d01c7d7b5f89d0f20978687d7
bdd19371892f596b7d5e91ffebe1dd476db7c0c0
describe
'72955' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_084.jpg'
04bc626761dd8a6ddcc1240b04fc77d9
68e2fdb94473cdc1362b30dcbe6296ce7fdc30e8
describe
'43925' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_084.pro'
fac887453853352682f15fbdf1b714e8
c40d86df23ce473a7c857e96fb115017333b0d8a
describe
'23041' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_084.QC.jpg'
3bc167a6ccf1730fa90ef15b21902c41
8cd23eb1654d3247b03ca2e8d2a6537345bbf7dd
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_084.tif'
2b1633c4bc34128bdfa70596b10a75a9
700283a69c05e6054125eb79c349569fa9525486
describe
'1746' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_084.txt'
efe15b80f26ffd0e92a740eb74339fce
1ef2f6281713994379b61b4e4dab7ef69bc6166b
describe
'5481' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_084thm.jpg'
9844feb37fd4596df877e9c16b95266b
852a07968c7c082f784d3c7656a375f69e4bbd46
describe
'113149' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_085.jp2'
a95fad6d8a2bb11a17024ec1d569b58b
3f1e1e83439e3d53e8ce2a058a653b57f3f1d4a9
describe
'84287' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_085.jpg'
10cd62f80864c2ba79e453a4ba442c07
c5adef49d385c513f9a4ac1357f4cdc1be135f1c
'2011-12-12T16:46:21-05:00'
describe
'54171' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_085.pro'
23ec06e54f78ac0e94bea437805ba314
324f781ca2b81e0683f97a800ed1d64aa2130026
describe
'25050' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_085.QC.jpg'
7dc8147d03c1f78fa813e2e67de8b0cd
752307b5572e11e720c46a55a6921695e1d7aa45
'2011-12-12T16:46:06-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_085.tif'
40da553a79faa180af1a372ac34e4f38
ac3203da4a7a1876cfb9f092ec8867621522cff9
describe
'2143' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_085.txt'
fdbb1669c84a48c2a603c8269c6dbd3a
21b2cfa94073219e28d1c7cd4240ee74c7235c16
describe
'6010' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_085thm.jpg'
ce3fb81c10adb5095065d646aa74417f
4e99f8ddc0939de1969a458c4d14db13e73b6d2a
describe
'107954' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_086.jp2'
923c5d4b096ac1d00a90fdc2b48732ca
a1f6bc7001b88f45da23d59cbba287243d3d6f2a
'2011-12-12T16:48:46-05:00'
describe
'81001' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_086.jpg'
3bba325ca28a7c47c17a6e30de553350
7e4d48f146b16e48d80b5be7fa29a8b8dfa82f2b
describe
'49165' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_086.pro'
bedb4d3cd3e39a7c9034ddfc3c7cf774
4c61595a96a4fc5c9daf7ce14c9dda4b5622bf99
describe
'25234' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_086.QC.jpg'
d1d6e210ba1d5df5b451f8efe9cfb03b
f20911b212600ab6d6db4b7840412e88c38c643c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_086.tif'
431be9f0b773f3d635f38c94bf9ed87d
02bdaff91e1b375ae09355276d0c7ec187b76b65
describe
'1942' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_086.txt'
fb987a59cd58ff9b61cf6ae9a118a34b
4e1e85fdde6211287625788bd447834cedef4274
describe
'6293' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_086thm.jpg'
ea25d123bdbbbc0c55a8477a63798e08
6788d3dc424ac4f13005ef77b4926f0b40eb1245
describe
'112388' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_087.jp2'
44c6de95b4bbf403bf2aab3aca2fd6e9
85156079358c18b396cd63764c3b451313c69183
describe
'86557' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_087.jpg'
fe92eeb6de1103359be797d89aaa6228
3a1e15ea659cbb8de569a1961cf59a28d037b8cd
describe
'52130' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_087.pro'
0419fa6ab5a0cdb1ddf2ba7eb26646e9
093d1246d7253a937f3db6f1e37716879bd912fd
describe
'26744' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_087.QC.jpg'
da723b7f2e62a8c8dd1e5f8d4cbdc1b7
a392f27a431f1273fe8a1f3a239a364b8afceed3
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWWZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_087.tif'
ba56f8e5e7671ec90c3420a750b1232d
6528fc29ded3d45a2ca568e336b522060620f98f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_087.txt'
ed048edc558c6e0fb816cb36179aa4be
2610aac13a15abfde2da5e33a0478a73974efb51
describe
'6243' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_087thm.jpg'
bd886a522e5b00b67bb6a49efc69b255
1251e4ad666cef29ab5dc8b20a5b1130e51f7678
'2011-12-12T16:49:11-05:00'
describe
'111101' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_088.jp2'
d512c9e6d0813ba943e9d305c941d9dc
b88d1c3d6af881ce679ed78f8aecda2ee75a94c7
describe
'84428' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_088.jpg'
b0b6ad1a6804e5b4ade206be03b1194e
b2552126628c5534715056b9bf1bc7610131ab90
describe
'51211' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_088.pro'
6a787e654403ff0d38999af3ae12d9bb
5e52b30e48dc49d1d051daa1e462efdca1cc2f10
describe
'26470' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_088.QC.jpg'
e7010a3b025260d8806e71b5699a142a
34f844021abfec1bd02c313465d861a31350134d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_088.tif'
e171e148b306806b05d3670d8054342e
19e1cb30d7e9f60f0c052264a4b272fe7ddc4bca
describe
'2046' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_088.txt'
01b70802aabc4f787b67134d661a2565
2628405bc624d5072de565c37263ea53a5f268fa
'2011-12-12T16:47:05-05:00'
describe
'6422' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_088thm.jpg'
f28ed4d8516cb513133eac7a47efaca4
925152c4c8711d3a6110f449023d908304225904
describe
'113387' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_089.jp2'
3fe29fedd47a1e5b802486d57afb7a6e
ea71eb9fddc9840ab3f45e2b1912bea61ee08498
describe
'85811' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_089.jpg'
0046d69c78112f7d7489bb27a3537f8f
c8cfbf8b9d50f77bb5eb90332ae1600f188dbb81
describe
'52468' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_089.pro'
53ceb19d11db501bce76426d87f45013
76789d3090bb2c510b0eac5e10da8bcdc44dfc37
describe
'26785' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_089.QC.jpg'
6dab49f8c3e45293a4f41095fb1379ed
1894bf1998c75fbd63c6203f1c9dd811623810ec
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_089.tif'
9444c25192c50dc8a744e21b7981f758
c51fb12aa477c65846c41da0199fd5043d69f9cc
'2011-12-12T16:44:28-05:00'
describe
'2057' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_089.txt'
4b5c20085aa83b50c00b7181b5c3d739
ab571521da225bb9e1e117adb274903b3b90e5cc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_089thm.jpg'
a8b6ebadc1227aaeb3d046404c72f47f
686697f35c0bacfdef705df3c76ceff317b4d66f
describe
'1051925' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_090.jp2'
f822d061326a314b070d26389232933d
5fccaa6fe15a2b7ea8a4a9795d6a671463191986
describe
'84415' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_090.jpg'
14a3df478fe9ee425697309c30cadf16
bb13c5735e569a9865ba88f6ae4a2e0bd8853ce0
describe
'50215' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_090.pro'
042b03e22cb7c0caa295c28fb4812e4e
46631ef8620e7b465a1642d20b029733ab35f8f3
describe
'26307' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_090.QC.jpg'
64d8a702c3bd56c4ea81927a39252860
411794ea2e04aa821e4e628c297243604f82b3c7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_090.tif'
44c1318cfbbc3b2f7bf2d12ceda8bfe7
95dd4cd0931f811590490cbc4347dc0c4908006b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_090.txt'
ae0df23c74cb2ebcd5791137a36601da
4d3b819fc7724b8364483817c4f9dd90de7c44bc
describe
'6466' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_090thm.jpg'
8ab6e5a91d7c3cfb693b62cfdb33b568
b13e615729592d7adcdf0ae95cce74d053b3904b
describe
'110679' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_091.jp2'
2008ff772c761ab092dd56ce59791ef2
ddc2056887f6792ff8b069b57840016c33a18b50
describe
'84368' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_091.jpg'
41374d56c161d2c586b1557ec2604ff7
a99579a7e5ae0c6896fdfe69437c5e74f7e293e5
describe
'51237' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWXZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_091.pro'
0076c5fc3a7d84ee389025b03699f3ce
6e01115b90c20836d7f4d2c6b262e72b74c2d2ad
describe
'26334' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_091.QC.jpg'
36a843d04e8c91b86f261fc108bab6bf
f7fd99e33d6bdbf2e6155428bc8dec7808736eaa
'2011-12-12T16:45:50-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_091.tif'
f1bb348a5ff09f632aecae375476b416
7743ff1c8ca656b45fa8596a58cdf3fa29a6f8df
describe
'2011' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_091.txt'
6b07c700abfaca0535f37b51a54ebbbe
1f6ea2f59364cb0a7dec10b0d31ce2c26aead0d7
describe
'6304' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_091thm.jpg'
2b3c0f482b6652f73bc8a9d58687defb
b68a60b0091d9471a0a1b8d93de5ed04bd432a19
describe
'106206' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_092.jp2'
201a3b22ce619b2da278045b524a5d2c
3c90c3996dc5b1100da86d4f96844732ae631583
describe
'79625' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_092.jpg'
a18cf7039702fe275e883a18584c31d8
36b9ec6d1552bf737027bd3c5f9d10c5b466d1ef
describe
'48332' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_092.pro'
f999f92befe54a23bb3df9eb92fd3ad2
24f06685d28cf5f9009703b9101720989c8567fb
'2011-12-12T16:44:40-05:00'
describe
'24303' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_092.QC.jpg'
8361bc19a9f4062fcce52de49d38815e
e6cbb03f9e64f92a08215adbd5e766e0668540dc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_092.tif'
2b6e807a6f65bd7ac9f2dbe9379605d8
2eb6068595669f9c90df153a0dd90e348cabd0fb
describe
'1916' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_092.txt'
9b50cc98afa9fe6718278bb8ddb54833
a681e360c837acc40e95edf3026d950a07f7cb33
describe
'6117' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_092thm.jpg'
95c5996d34828ec6ae1970f2f7441456
b70a6a922756396e42a34a8001d3a942e5bfc185
describe
'111649' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_093.jp2'
45c48db94f9e219f4b9d0e9bff1a3f19
503bed476aff5c4a3136da43f0649d12557ae5e5
describe
'84151' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_093.jpg'
504e4e1b22b47ec9402fac63b4c0c970
41b8103fa19dc08b391438e3ec59bba5389e7832
describe
'50539' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_093.pro'
000bd4258577d5ba02caca13af9c0b1d
78de4c880c5c773477c198a87a8bf6df908b4ff3
describe
'26232' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_093.QC.jpg'
8526a6b30484536c40c0ca32bcf44f53
e0d0bd1188cc14d480ce94e745f0661f652ed747
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_093.tif'
36128246ab7ef5b85ffbb96775fa99bc
0ae2cdc7ebfbddc8af60de39810c242c61e0f454
describe
'2014' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_093.txt'
4ec57db26f237fbe5502875ae9db479a
f4643f7651c24d22d1a78c807a946bea7f08c2dd
describe
'6395' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_093thm.jpg'
c1bd5b571c33af874d0e1d8e33044d96
227184d6d41bea738aeceec545b0f25acf5e8daf
describe
'110344' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_094.jp2'
808cb534d8580616e53d778c43ec0580
663bd28d42ec41354da58d2465b87bd34e805e60
describe
'83674' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_094.jpg'
a40da03e87994e92f8cc94c69ffa27e5
6aabbafe97214edbcf7d60580df0357f9cb2ea30
describe
'50375' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_094.pro'
ecd888ce679460b61e692ec58438fdc1
a355e1d839d794e1740b7e3c4278eca9bf21c65b
describe
'26268' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_094.QC.jpg'
0b43a2e7714a25b370db6ed35690178e
d9f7d26e73d891e1664595c7daa7a884bedbb421
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_094.tif'
519fe6ac78edbea79eac6c0d1f275fb8
7e1a748baadf870c3cb734eef522312d96b5f2db
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_094.txt'
92d96bcf080261754f73d52f1430c9b3
84c0ff75f40ccc71099fa710210709c17a0773a0
describe
'6539' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_094thm.jpg'
640d8a80e7edf6b9718f934685167e13
e7466ab6d34ee788cdf6f9289bd5f6935eabf83f
describe
'114499' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWYZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_095.jp2'
5ac3665b8ad30c89d7d86f4eba248885
18a361d5b13d7f37453dcfdf0de1b20137ce4716
describe
'85618' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_095.jpg'
fe4d66a1bf0afa950cba92ffd77a8ca7
eb4b95972275f86ecdf9499ee0e153e5f88e5de4
describe
'51989' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_095.pro'
2e8ac1712e629d3b26dacff90dff6037
18af8a8e3ace70ba3fb71ffde391fcbcdee99339
describe
'26305' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_095.QC.jpg'
8f3b07c6a54f34a19669dcb00f6a73c9
4e25820c9c6373d4d06871dcb1f31db65e0dbf66
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_095.tif'
7f7340286a870f15e2e7512e9f06a399
1a0058bf82068f664c39f2e65c881b36a2e659f6
describe
'2040' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_095.txt'
1b6c2f624d5d2b2ca9b34963d734831d
15aa1cc92b093b6c79f9d190f10db050be7c6877
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_095thm.jpg'
a349919cbfaa8fa03cea4173025c73c3
902f43a1de5e82b90bfba9d103e903f591f4491d
describe
'109303' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_096.jp2'
4ef177f7d73e9680a3850b98fd727322
5da2eff5e5e8c06bb371285d812b8310e944bfa3
describe
'82872' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_096.jpg'
81ae27d892275f2592246ab8d6eab64e
b235e76ae5f8b56de239d6a781740e42c5c0ab0e
describe
'49749' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_096.pro'
9458dec9db94faa99b2b6b8f5f335f4d
e74b6ddeb255b4422363760763429900b501711c
describe
'25551' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_096.QC.jpg'
3ef6e90fbde008f446946e531dd32541
0e2205570d5a77f44d49efb41aa0e2d0cd29363d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_096.tif'
0b76175fd9a0461437251ae664f91ee4
08ef60de653c143504590677a3d5fc98402df9fa
'2011-12-12T16:48:48-05:00'
describe
'1963' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_096.txt'
32c5c74bf3f1c2058e195e6c571fc788
a8bb43a8b05ab445837af5ec707cb50badd0de9e
describe
'6242' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_096thm.jpg'
5837a88bc2fd63118f7d4da9c9d242bd
50b085bfb378c68cfa1258a6bb9481e9e6bd4c75
describe
'109669' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_097.jp2'
5293feb36dd45eba32b6fb3988020cbb
274e92788d7f7aba95b7f4d61b492cdcab3cec61
describe
'84444' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_097.jpg'
a3f3dcdb4e0f7230b33a60819f5405e8
beecf4526e6f4ec638c3bdc42d554189fef037d2
'2011-12-12T16:48:40-05:00'
describe
'52064' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_097.pro'
9d2f02304c4fc443a455d10a912d09e9
eeb438cf2f2c41f45b580f3ee894bd7c593683c4
describe
'26167' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_097.QC.jpg'
df9990eead4463eddf6331edbb1a060a
de9bca01359af43b6d7a52c0044f1ed7b47b7224
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_097.tif'
5c6b92be969cd7b9b92eb2d11a66be42
57e878ab938539912d3255041964bb2c750157a7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_097.txt'
57ff133b3934580b7800b2e613b04a42
c9aa83fb4d2b9eb135e794e427f73120008fa33b
describe
'6341' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_097thm.jpg'
36ddf5971d212926c7e02d44b93a7ea2
375143cd3df7d6dece0f516860e2ed4517d04019
'2011-12-12T16:44:54-05:00'
describe
'106100' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_098.jp2'
c6205146d3d24bc99587358c7ddfbd16
9dbe41889d29c7a758f30dba63c9a64c15daa840
describe
'79857' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_098.jpg'
ab028252da263e08f7df3fd8ee29549c
bbdc400080c7c720b8bf81b5665ad0c0a6fa9a15
describe
'47740' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_098.pro'
021eabc722a271b9b5b9db1534555b8b
a88a4489cdca653cf46ce0848c2648e0a8825109
describe
'24702' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_098.QC.jpg'
6be14b2645d0407a904ae6f6eac67b0e
26617c4a37b9a090914bb491a5d4706d1f409887
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_098.tif'
cb297c8863a45ea13cf613a2b7425089
83cfa0fbcc39a1ccdb2e4ba84d1bdbc696ef15d1
describe
'1885' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAWZZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_098.txt'
5e7eeb139bd21fc199335f2f7bfc067b
f08c792bb129bf70cb9354e8b39a98deea17a308
describe
'5989' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_098thm.jpg'
64460f33cc6fa77469496dd26b2c3f7e
9b09c74f81c621f022500dcc8a4aabfebd8ed7de
describe
'110420' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_099.jp2'
80a21b8978633cbde1e30e0050d8b798
212cd15686ab78c71735137d9e4b8b3aca61d326
describe
'83837' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_099.jpg'
130773f3e7b953a23b1bdb6c3f9010a8
7bb2ea15fd2066427ff356ac4101a22b11b58d0d
describe
'50763' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_099.pro'
6aca855a1b849980f630beba7c6ec611
2b718493faa2420b949d51556c689f689caa0323
describe
'26049' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_099.QC.jpg'
01ebba2bbd55766573953a0fc2523823
749c6b762c82f41244828a1ba1b22a3a4161cd70
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_099.tif'
e5477231f893bc67d2a8c4f3a8f203e1
959b87c39d98058f249f79bd1a7009c90bfee52e
describe
'2020' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_099.txt'
2e64db89b44ebbe47b16e30338b32313
209f8fcae6f47cfb8fbab81193e350ac1e6ba8cd
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_099thm.jpg'
d82148ee88d9c610827ad42799163eec
4c00e70e8f8006c32be14cd7895c1825ad648c32
describe
'109929' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_100.jp2'
75bb35756d63e2e95928995aef3b79e2
78c2fd49106770f7968c0109afa8fc4139a4f9a8
describe
'84467' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_100.jpg'
1b99eb8058415d867039b4147598605f
49deb5334e8a79b8c5bcd2c22170bb009c9d2339
describe
'51816' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_100.pro'
b50fd98eb2709c3f9ac8a9b5287473d8
7585c3d59d39af03fa9f3f8cf3cd24d21c5d6543
'2011-12-12T16:47:17-05:00'
describe
'26104' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_100.QC.jpg'
ca00ee5d671273127dae37d1d46d9d94
e6e7879f1d1106e7f476d69e0366ce1528a453fa
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_100.tif'
cf4bd5b2537263ca13e2bd5f20ae54e1
7b3d08b2d57f3f3cb40434526ef76cf0a4011cbe
describe
'2032' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_100.txt'
7a65fd006877c903587363a0851c787f
eaf314f1cd2eef4a88a228b8dca788c0e1c1706e
describe
'6600' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_100thm.jpg'
d0ac725ee93587af39fcc664a449ba1c
7c2ac6ed73df73c0c5c767fd65bb1f23dd0b0ba8
describe
'110000' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_101.jp2'
698692d95cda9a4cbc0e593a4dbdfaf3
fcbf5cd1b82299b74df927901418c61bed12f4c5
describe
'85328' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_101.jpg'
b958b3f73fe3b9585c078a59f7e2caa2
111eacee36fe99175ddf14d438cc86e42d495271
describe
'52035' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_101.pro'
c54c6ced71cf000c3234012f3c369a11
117435d7d4dd7242e645b6c70689e922d731a0b2
describe
'26622' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_101.QC.jpg'
59893d264da4647f7542b58167b36980
62630050cc49b095e1329951dd3d505a07f438d2
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_101.tif'
7b14ec8709249dd781e6f59f0c1f56d1
1ffbc4fe37dbcf3196d06b7a5c25bfadf6c8fca2
'2011-12-12T16:43:36-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_101.txt'
d758b35ab77308b02ecad471db9f61be
c5c4f45165a5a3bb3eeb0f0b7958b70b204d14f7
'2011-12-12T16:48:09-05:00'
describe
'6566' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_101thm.jpg'
bf05865f9152681a4f5c3d4c897bea0f
cc35e1fbd664e5f17e582915e5f757c5afb8ab50
describe
'106495' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_102.jp2'
c7a19418c08d426b23f7254c69a535da
2e85c4f974b45d9b0e952d099828a106e07464ea
describe
'82810' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_102.jpg'
ca96bee804fa1cde40729147568a9d72
c4d8fef18f6b57a2271d5ea15f58ddac6ff55ae1
describe
'50313' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_102.pro'
9afa40a57882c83816ebb19ea8b907cc
085825ed1c73dd6b05042c91c1bd82bbbdffacc9
describe
'25582' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXAZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_102.QC.jpg'
9ea37d3798b541d84c099e988fe90738
bbeeec9a7946d44965e16d725824e31c9f8b6130
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_102.tif'
573f4fa3a746130a361fdd45211473a8
13140e728647d92d37e6e2df26c19c44598bb15d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_102.txt'
a5dcd4232c78ba7dec34b3ac1bb03656
9bf0816b0d2bc5693bcf15a7b30cf72d53356d2c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_102thm.jpg'
0906592117769f84cb0e4b97b25beef8
ec5b910c3f6bf68d9c0e029c24084a814e2f1322
describe
'116761' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_103.jp2'
4cdda794eef4e9c09fd100dcf9bef477
568c958306feace87d3775c573fc44a4fac976ff
describe
'86696' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_103.jpg'
b932875a42814eba4d820f2de79cb297
2cc0661b31b5927ad7a0312cbd3e40be09b11a79
describe
'57260' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_103.pro'
48ab8ec9545ff7e9b8c4b7228bd8cefa
529e9d310c3206a2567d45bff277521c294c62bb
describe
'26396' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_103.QC.jpg'
4e5017c7053ed35f2d8681bb305cc43c
67d45a3dbe57fccaca170132c94aa80504f4f3d7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_103.tif'
0b7717debaffac915511f240221b063d
b4ac5f12da1966225b68fe790d020587f6e31c82
describe
'2232' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_103.txt'
cf7b720e1bc558a668aa3537ca84fdf0
00f025cce9f850759ce343680818ab7e1319e082
describe
'6189' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_103thm.jpg'
8a3dd9a18c8b7ccfd1a1c4666aec0c3a
3d4d3fabc7d77c2d01ebef5c1410ae240f431e3c
describe
'105009' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_104.jp2'
f00d2de3507556ea65e13262ae222b30
221c0635107bb44dabb064792590762e4d4cd6ee
describe
'81141' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_104.jpg'
2d905c4ca99b659bf5c5c618a3fe5ed4
de3ed9d651f723a2b5fd9cfef84851b0a86776d7
describe
'48274' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_104.pro'
b380884e5782cdd3eade25d5b515f1ab
10dfa38e84e689fc6363eab7a8d69af17db10b78
describe
'25103' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_104.QC.jpg'
e1dad8ffe09835d80744978b94671978
30dac0b1e3042ddcfb2500d5e60be86902f703c1
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_104.tif'
7573ca8c4063b6436f7151a183732a6b
b791a142d79bb7cffd68fb334cd6c6bd1013bf5e
describe
'1905' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_104.txt'
452b9b4791b6b6e329e000ac21020c85
5695f3308e85aea93d72707c0120dada1dfb1123
describe
'6345' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_104thm.jpg'
8a04cd55dbb9394a9452d77df78c75bb
e1b42ec2294ee1a748d871c0dfcacff3f54e6ea1
describe
'111152' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_105.jp2'
9d8b340e4d511057089b366f1ea2ce9e
88def5976a5499bf88c67ac666899025b5ba71b5
describe
'84612' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_105.jpg'
faaecba95dc5f937349b3f7d430f1154
19853b583a9b3c550fd8cbff6e5d391c672f3426
describe
'51350' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_105.pro'
81f78f87ebe250db21fe5ee7fff8164c
ddb9c530e0c6f91c0f7e412f49b8ee928294ebf5
describe
'26426' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_105.QC.jpg'
89f7d1c0150383d52490a18ebbba18eb
c123fc3c4735095f730321c6022af9d86669ec3e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_105.tif'
cc5fe9a74fc6e475c79d7f9e5222fe94
40b83a432a314d3cdec51c868578358ddf858dc2
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_105.txt'
3e9de81741b857922cd7e8f7d0eda026
23ea8e4eff9cd6c412a2124cfb68734ae6c5eb2f
'2011-12-12T16:48:21-05:00'
describe
'6303' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_105thm.jpg'
1d9bde5779d0e71a13a13599ec6f3a22
4d1e9c983dfa78cffd752c87f7c46a88cc845142
describe
'145948' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_106.jp2'
36ec32e9001ed98e392eff16a70fb4f8
b28527251586efe225ac12686fb96e70e3a41b86
describe
'106938' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXBZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_106.jpg'
d82ddbff09fb6e1b20e639a52b99eec8
3ffbca6288ae246e7c2292e14366a29ec729e270
describe
'80281' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_106.pro'
cd937d7b9608a0073b7cf2fb0aca0621
c1127431332d890da859d424222e2fd63710f146
describe
'29826' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_106.QC.jpg'
334a09b497c0601627c41faf1ade50b2
3398f58a038b353a3ef00eb926caa7bfc3db5dca
'2011-12-12T16:48:34-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_106.tif'
0d117333de1d52ec3ef4dd49c2b4e6e7
57ef899e111deb02925e39211df2db1a4f657690
describe
'3069' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_106.txt'
33fa95a30e58c55880d508221b2d85d9
621498caffc201f61e399b020a5f2124159f529e
describe
'6779' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_106thm.jpg'
43ae0816b731dbd2059d28f9ec058eb2
bbf0fcf38919f41e0175fca677e0596f57df5722
'2011-12-12T16:45:55-05:00'
describe
'106567' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_107.jp2'
23ed2fc2a7ad47af349731cb94cd5e4c
8c0876e2747ad332c574b3d63b683f2d006fd0df
describe
'81574' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_107.jpg'
b69e0a7d1d901c18db6704014475b3ec
6dbebcbdeee1a728b80ffc6dcd608cff0a509402
describe
'48906' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_107.pro'
8b16bc34efb2e0ad54511389b6bb4b08
afef197effffd4993e52c7a3bf9fe68cd22e09ae
describe
'24965' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_107.QC.jpg'
cac73c46e45c01754504532d2cf1e8ca
703fe32f40951590ddd1fd6ec581553a4ad193ed
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_107.tif'
8870ac4061007d5928718642bee539d5
92a3648be5e310fc3105137d3b28882bf65461da
describe
'1930' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_107.txt'
87b74a8e85f5f8d6bfce50621498e9f7
2e54a77b34b839627175aee9b0b57d271b29d940
describe
'6233' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_107thm.jpg'
2be8f630fd56ca956fdaa281ab841587
430424a7740f13c5154acb43c74f5ea0c49dbf9f
'2011-12-12T16:49:14-05:00'
describe
'111820' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_108.jp2'
7eb4163342c08b2c8c5a4cae8e3b249b
1b77f07a6791c060428f355bac27c68320732bbf
describe
'85718' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_108.jpg'
cecd5382a37a16fb81530055ba7d21e2
87280522274c6a5cd1b27ec99e912b79f400fa65
describe
'51528' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_108.pro'
0590dcebc8110fdeadcfd276d2379f4c
1d83e92b6de16642922c96346e91e3c059727859
describe
'26741' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_108.QC.jpg'
ed7bcb98d44a58f0a817802d24985779
6194d6837289c2636494de6b4e7579cf66b05e8b
'2011-12-12T16:48:00-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_108.tif'
eb7750d71b43dd1ce9930a50ae14bc08
22f068b534d42a615228b5958b1454cf898b48b5
describe
'2066' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_108.txt'
98edb64ef08bd402ded0af5192f0ec55
727daf16b5df86784980b335e6d9755bcffbc3d8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_108thm.jpg'
a29e56f22f8638af72169cc79130c351
dc33cfa4c7c85fad9baf9bd296563ff154b29cce
describe
'1051958' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_109.jp2'
97112285fc44f94b560cea8f45de9d7b
0922e46f83d3d9d2ec5cfefa1deeda25c354dbcf
describe
'83083' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_109.jpg'
060e58e9367f05cd978f3443b09ac6bd
bf5a463a292f03e6218af7d8ade09a869d8b6aa0
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_109.pro'
6c318b6bf7ea3c00b675fa7a0a871483
87467c28689b447479d8a7d1caac694472f5d1c1
describe
'25723' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_109.QC.jpg'
b5796f6e4c5705d8d61212f720abb5a3
dd834a785ef083582b1b3a00dbfe56918cc95a5e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_109.tif'
d2f819877c158bb9ff4aad3464022f24
87e656d564aec808151ca1c8fd9dfcf359a089a6
'2011-12-12T16:43:42-05:00'
describe
'1960' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_109.txt'
c6ef296e82efb1c463eb073310ad9af6
832512e5b70e2ab1a69722b4467bf4e9a4ffaa39
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXCZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_109thm.jpg'
985fe197e6cde190a812240cf66daa34
448d1f630254cf6ab28ec1b47264057fb6a3bf42
describe
'67955' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_110.jp2'
cbc15a7f7b700a1f5dc4f062ada5d116
831479d9648be936c04e5b681f6e4ef5bed926ec
describe
'52475' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_110.jpg'
219ae950cdfe38b166b721ab14c4b1da
96f350099c5c60f6d21b9b2642284cb4354f651a
describe
'30456' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_110.pro'
1afcd55a48cf66955ee492b1cbef6d89
df2f7ea9e4d8c3e9a79688c6c0ad9c86276aeea4
describe
'16372' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_110.QC.jpg'
3e2b8c0fde46371f071d3443bbba832b
d868b201ab1011dc4990e098e04c445a5ecd52f7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_110.tif'
45d18433cfdf2e345d0726b753c970d6
0ba170a688582e905893272fcfb1fd8466e58066
describe
'1209' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_110.txt'
5ad6043c59ee5ca9d208971bbec85e17
0f8365498fe89d64341961099275f1a933362e84
describe
'3952' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_110thm.jpg'
4a983159b4ce21543d9ad01be039cf64
95c72ac4f23da7ed6d2dcec7dd2bd39c916bfbb4
describe
'93513' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_111.jp2'
bd671f9f7c6350d54257cd6d9d9adaf4
20290761b7de05df5faf8cb93324c3159cc24356
describe
'73014' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_111.jpg'
0f896ec0d387213d48c74db4b30a302b
807edffa414d2769ec492cbb0e5ff92aa0f290d4
describe
'42801' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_111.pro'
469a9c730dd42cd4dcc407e314ed5ad0
923b5a097e634ebcf818711ca889f032e3075006
'2011-12-12T16:45:06-05:00'
describe
'21904' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_111.QC.jpg'
783fe22377fd1a352cba824efbcff07e
e61816f774da6dc66a9272130e6726928c637734
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_111.tif'
67c997cc2938e5393881cbc2949a3a7c
8df7a60dba5549e07aa624ca0e2d3115bec68160
describe
'1809' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_111.txt'
86bfd0a2fe89fc3a56e3e0dbe8927795
6848d350c9e1311f5bb3d036206b22f87f4daf88
describe
'5253' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_111thm.jpg'
21ba1e9c889ffd4da4d444045d7fab9c
5063ebae8766ff2807640bd018db03523d4d9213
describe
'119438' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_112.jp2'
f3b82d44e5281ba0e8bed1c2d214acd5
6a3aca15453aa86303845bbed534f6c0a017b8b0
describe
'91299' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_112.jpg'
19a244391f3aab1e4bd706c39138251b
68450983ba5b97362342a9e5ddbd3b72a020d9f1
describe
'57322' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_112.pro'
fed6fb472fab6b624df0e7184412d254
4224bd3acd4faa23a4f5b7aafb8df7a053071556
describe
'27422' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_112.QC.jpg'
283d4b6525120351ece5d28f74f8f30a
c32c2c1aa9e96df5e1b99f640f5131fa214e62a7
'2011-12-12T16:45:10-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_112.tif'
682085956f7aee1276f72279cf42f925
011a7c1e775df18d09484ad5a0ff34b7f04e5996
describe
'2231' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_112.txt'
1116d7ac940fb9d3aa2114e1100c12a5
21e4c78b675df3d260c16bddc2d9254d2a47d3ab
describe
'6489' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_112thm.jpg'
b6d771d19f11ed37321d18a75f75f3be
aa3465a730ebf84582bd04b01aa08796a47db82e
describe
'1051966' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_113.jp2'
3a47e60ae304d3764f15c552a2c655a0
52bb79a20a630657ed3a45a38fc27e86787ab9f7
describe
'86466' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_113.jpg'
4ea10786603d3a47460f2fed4305a03c
c4f7531bbb42e91d52ae77979102aedf5715c38f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_113.pro'
7b447d4e69c41c8580ee176b0a5bf5ed
80b51878b03ed2bbaebed81e691c27ccefe7f639
'2011-12-12T16:43:32-05:00'
describe
'27023' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_113.QC.jpg'
e8404c37feb3ef637b22840c58e27f77
5bb62ed209d6a798632e0007451d98bfb87dc4c4
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXDZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_113.tif'
3e53c9a6d863b5df4097eb5cd863e212
3f8678356b79dc8ee6f76d4e3e0544080ffbb40e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_113.txt'
ff27dcc0f0635ae12887b39846aa7ba7
254f4c7f5fe0baaf770fba0010c440124bd32eb6
describe
'6285' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_113thm.jpg'
ecf5bb20cb90d7f65c5dbd9c950ee430
70c0b43a70e852ee8faf22583d3ce859801e986b
describe
'1051975' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_114.jp2'
e79f2b38ce9b0eb39eb9e827b81ccc37
20a9b59f44b26b20a542f4ba7d59b3d89fae73c5
describe
'85177' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXED' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_114.jpg'
a7fab7d1749d10b0604e981024592101
ff5b5fe75bdbbdcc755e31505406b965bdaecca6
describe
'52126' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_114.pro'
7d2975e605b1174963f5c4b4d4927dac
622e254211d84ac435b3df4d0d254449b613209a
'2011-12-12T16:48:39-05:00'
describe
'26607' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_114.QC.jpg'
6a69377d89f45b7200806aba9741ff21
9d7d17449b98102c8eb132ad82b1af347d87b7ec
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_114.tif'
4a2cf7a5b64f26ed5527670a4d7e074f
e07fa3ee80613e1ddf46fa36000805168a32d947
'2011-12-12T16:43:08-05:00'
describe
'2048' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_114.txt'
a542a2e5b72a547851d8b5b754eacde6
e1ff9d9b83f9e06bcbcdb0cb4953fee67fa9a68d
describe
'6415' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_114thm.jpg'
5696ceb5d5f29b5095d0b06b66af96ab
f13e33c4b205501f67a0b630c6ff2e18ef1f3e8c
describe
'1051983' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_115.jp2'
8ed64b5b8405dfb927f11b42b35f8b94
6f2a9efac5272ea6e444ed323dcb1c558f3ba5c4
describe
'86118' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_115.jpg'
51fca444b4b1effb6e5385622aa243a6
d889dfbebd4102c9e61abb53cc8fff61263ef9e1
describe
'53098' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_115.pro'
9a27f80f2f7c8e6290342bb44398acfe
b1e748921e33985f0fc3bc8cda2dea10cb09ac2d
describe
'27627' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_115.QC.jpg'
f6843e7706d9e635bd5812abceebcfc0
b1ac14fb55a4ab2cc970532537c89b1eaeb64132
'2011-12-12T16:49:18-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_115.tif'
75933db6d301086fc3d614f61332b9d3
4e5cd3f515a7e4e0cd23a924c539be438f6503c3
'2011-12-12T16:43:30-05:00'
describe
'2106' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_115.txt'
d3bba7b5c64441047b7aa14e5490dbd6
55e9cc19dc08911e49bbba87446dc0c8e5615c8b
describe
'6572' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_115thm.jpg'
63392c04fa35e975ce44f9874f99beb2
bc84d594919fe533c15611a6f3e98fc837f56d9a
describe
'108144' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_116.jp2'
abab4f0d40ba82e5d71a9aa5c6f31e83
bd4d41a99950322c3740a32389e08021f260af0b
describe
'81335' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXER' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_116.jpg'
5d3b47c87e0f456f1a492c183fe2ef68
dc35b83f576553b9d8b900caab8c20c7444aaec4
describe
'49013' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXES' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_116.pro'
9d997f10c621c84b3424b72612f305c7
c39a478a8f79143fa897bcbba42f7767621bae68
describe
'25247' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXET' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_116.QC.jpg'
02cfeea4ebc448f51ef16d1d3e955465
5c0ae4035b9c622f275d0e9374e710db3f46c8fc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_116.tif'
f66d5b1ba9e59e447ecc0d11fe685bc2
46dc7b9f21532d5732dd2fbff80309d3076499da
describe
'1935' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_116.txt'
94c88b8e8a557cca28d1558124bf8221
6b3c509af0a5e74e7621b3a638535d737b1550b0
describe
'6394' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_116thm.jpg'
f6157ed0b1e826da019841497f6fab5a
3bd60094fcddb1188971fb59c4c271f180df719c
describe
'114401' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_117.jp2'
f596156ce45d354f03c79dac34eb6a7b
811db6eb75f565776210d742a22e65021c633878
describe
'86378' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_117.jpg'
476dff2fbbb6977bbfde0eb8ee4f0bf8
6eb35e4b9f37a0475181cd41774a3fba5892f3d4
describe
'52913' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXEZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_117.pro'
af014f5f11b645f087fbc1c4417d720d
bc4bc60b29bba7231f6a39fc4826ef38bf82ff95
describe
'26656' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_117.QC.jpg'
7a795ba44ee5421f330ff505d598bca5
d06bf49d10565dee80fe8a4deb43dab090341803
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_117.tif'
0d59be32347cd5ad4c1c6946feafb552
29e886f5ada2f5957650f8d314124462881a7bcb
describe
'2074' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_117.txt'
bad7883844b81fd6d7c80fa22186224a
90cdc5bc94e65819064979fd3f0e608ea92dffbc
describe
'6712' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_117thm.jpg'
6495be1dbffaaec37ea5a7e03154ee0f
2b25eb9cd51a9142038f4efc7f5f797eda2a21e6
describe
'113269' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_118.jp2'
02a4a019faff68f42e52753fcf41fc51
69c107a88c1e19c652601e6dc8361a47b8fff4b9
describe
'86404' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_118.jpg'
7005952c5a61746f804edadba90f03c7
e9bb4c7e15fd878e81267c9c2423b84472f2a18e
describe
'52778' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_118.pro'
ed2ce09438c99b04032a19d995b482d8
427a6c25d575b2c98b72e01549ae76305f666516
'2011-12-12T16:44:10-05:00'
describe
'26594' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_118.QC.jpg'
d03fd47441a0028a1386b564b7e0c5ce
a8841875199dd8562fda55dfcbb73082ca342568
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_118.tif'
324181f46922b1ccad91f39f6277cd0f
f15dcd11968d177b2b06f3e2aed3b455a40daa9d
describe
'2070' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_118.txt'
137b6201bdc698dbb54a946f5b39c487
50884628c22c5e2d300703c441513cbb4cf53c63
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_118thm.jpg'
1d2ebd28e8417bb33894bdf31c824605
55f07d54910a122d4c5ac57c2aedd52e358c91ea
describe
'112763' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_119.jp2'
695cdc736f00895b1e0b9a66581cc371
e774fc3b183018163b8f525aee024bb3c408ff49
describe
'85659' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_119.jpg'
d7fcc7e22c412e8c9a7f013a19b05fcb
2ac55496948bc74f760e646d852e16757cb9862e
describe
'52354' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_119.pro'
a728a316964fead3fb52c016c31b259e
f0a1cedc7c85318bcf29c3263b9973dafddd5d93
describe
'26398' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_119.QC.jpg'
1cfda2bf29ef00483680578c838ec0a0
78cbb2057c174372d44c799a86d6b32c9d200d42
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_119.tif'
e9e47f37342ccf3417f96e0dc1bc6716
1b4ad116e7afe3cc994c039aad2bcbf01a53a44c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_119.txt'
3501d1bc6cb4456369fdb8506d51fc21
00831b21892c1101b472d7b82762cd1371030043
describe
'6388' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_119thm.jpg'
e483f21ed44fbd93c8f5baf7d5fb052e
4de870b570d61650a936b020f92f6f75d87cfe3d
describe
'114906' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_120.jp2'
25ed0e9f44775530d54b6373d55cce94
a71ff30a865e042b9a5a38cbf91743e3164ad39d
describe
'87497' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_120.jpg'
2d6cf74db5486d91afb3306971e66053
d8daa8a21febb2f3a536ffc4930e6a3e748562cd
describe
'53754' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_120.pro'
3c263a3094f4b3406e8ac203a6ea88a2
bb0944a8719e53775d6050863aa273f1d56c7d9c
describe
'26979' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_120.QC.jpg'
d2c9f287f2a8ed7665798322e2100c37
cf0b2a5ed6443b96cd4162b5f124fdee437189c6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_120.tif'
f1dbd3ea211d2a750a35083db4d07552
956163b4e5090f21309bf90b11aa94beb2c336bc
describe
'2134' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_120.txt'
334e157282f8d303fb631f6fb0e689cf
6c401d174c853a7bb0bc7d7d2e1087d8b6a21db4
describe
'6505' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_120thm.jpg'
54b5deb088f6b08e3d3e50be51389942
6cff079d14e9985e012ea12f280a5745f92b5f89
describe
'113968' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXFZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_121.jp2'
64aacc3266f69c0809030473a0be413e
5f845be1a4c5c0689c795f3e60d3c54d22e15a83
describe
'86218' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_121.jpg'
622cea7e287ec5ad3c2b72c18fc1dcf6
6583f147c8bb8ce4d5894a7531bf579e39b3bb55
describe
'52522' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_121.pro'
cbc18add029c937f1689df9eeb9c1d5e
cdb2313b6b13af99ff0a6264abd5e31e978b9c63
describe
'26929' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_121.QC.jpg'
e5cec96d66794f5f78605405529440ea
d9d0a5b287f5f2a2b3de7bbe6f185c8dc0c35415
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_121.tif'
1619a429a2af291f9f986159b1dfe780
b1695149db84506563b17c5ed24f9913598e007c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_121.txt'
a139ee978de1eb98eaa6f352af73080b
19c9032134567821c5da9eee1a758763589b0c6d
describe
'6512' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_121thm.jpg'
9d42842b7e87b93e9a763832a9824986
177f6d26930d2feb6fa676960d125c017e9fe859
describe
'108813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_122.jp2'
f66bec5627e5146a7eabe8ccd2d83f8a
31a5a9667b798ab5272fcbadbeab4c1954473662
describe
'83287' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_122.jpg'
376bbc8b90908b8dc6555607b1ecc023
de072399c0bf2c2752ed74bbd8779219891538f8
describe
'49759' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_122.pro'
ce6afb9196452da75350a025440a5a54
3af8f52f278dbedd7e95229d6766dded13268041
describe
'25465' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_122.QC.jpg'
5c5b1c35ee419cd5e828f041227e41cf
2c427ce14b9a651089d8cbea83835e3c182b7544
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_122.tif'
6f34f2668a223c5bbce4f5420a0c4f9f
da0a136caf28b7c732ff5d0edadc119e24c66937
describe
'1955' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_122.txt'
2d5f880ca85bf50c2b48c95f61cc0415
57bfdd085061bc4fd3f54edd468fdec8b272497d
describe
'6253' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_122thm.jpg'
3004c4b1ffa5e4814ffd896734c2b391
d0b5a3fe924a2ad6a432b60bb61fcf7a5156bb9c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_123.jp2'
37ca37112be141629a3ab846396093ca
b78baff785684cf099549a46e5a2c81c9f312781
describe
'94291' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_123.jpg'
483c934808cf4147416722dfbcfefa75
10e0cab1ea987b73b4b98000cfb184d5e8a1084e
describe
'58528' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_123.pro'
3be9bc3cc89cb7f8dddfd921e7c14d46
ca1f095383f368050c3c42c57a2bdbacbf35e2b6
describe
'28461' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_123.QC.jpg'
589836579f57383685d5967786e71b79
e0e83828e35540b325d5ac2b2fba09181b315b9f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_123.tif'
e5c70dab3ce5b6beebbcacfd309b37cf
63e2b1a99953ccc438d05a75f92bed3edaeaa9ea
'2011-12-12T16:48:28-05:00'
describe
'2276' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_123.txt'
32410fe10b303bdc0bb1a47c96326d51
34a5aee5e2a167805dc0f7138754053384c5e10b
describe
'6687' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_123thm.jpg'
6035dea914802dd31e3821ec41ff3758
0979176d30eb47778cb9aa4a48126611c6dab739
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_124.jp2'
9a6c959dd7448dcfd0ffccd311df9730
fa8efa28195c3c74b46c917cf82e73a5e14ac34a
describe
'85700' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_124.jpg'
9b03a60629f3619ce9bd14fc9daa9c12
f33fa3e5c3e4305a13bb9473b027de674b14803b
describe
'52346' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_124.pro'
fd28392fd2abef7fc6bf56841c0401d2
c0fba805a91346c03a99f1f7283509f0324a9df7
describe
'26406' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_124.QC.jpg'
f618c0c33d9e757beb1889f413c93610
4b6406d8f952f53bb799a5542f8f0cb1efbe53f1
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_124.tif'
994af449d86a079b0864506e21f2fca7
10bdee170bbf7809f55bd166ab9584062608aaf9
'2011-12-12T16:46:57-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXGZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_124.txt'
a305617e6218ec9e986e75d6d7936d3e
6191c1364968885438cc79b99901b59521a6b5c7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_124thm.jpg'
ce44cec300dc61c38c7b9d915327c320
00d4b3b3313f6c19232b6dcc1eb6cee4f7fec610
describe
'1051949' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_125.jp2'
8c4c6e7908b726657fae7fc9f601b247
f632f8644742b2369374eb2e920e1b43e39b7ef4
describe
'85190' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_125.jpg'
c2f4ed65591777afb22c55ea6b6fd5d0
5b9f7c5c21192b2c0cb53c53372c243678334f42
describe
'52649' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_125.pro'
88b8c9c669cd8ea7cf5ae9cc141544fa
50c5cbe9615a4d3140871f6492131269a6f7ce44
describe
'25702' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_125.QC.jpg'
7b00d4c1270b06e70b420ab23b53ddef
1c68b69461d11fbcc52280af70312b4d3511e471
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_125.tif'
01001067acde583232cc0c1ca398619e
0473cdca715f7eecf9d50b141028d42a7bcd6139
'2011-12-12T16:46:19-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_125.txt'
daae9c671fef24a06b76670e59b679dc
24e66c7004f681dfa0cf8f405edcbe8c96ef9845
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_125thm.jpg'
782c9a37ae4b3a6379385fb73ea8956c
c4840fea5d83a4dbe2e0667731de62b3755b0afd
describe
'122592' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_126.jp2'
b5c0dad6c643e7a9b3300273d3fe168c
88724765aa0f7561d79b87ddab5b9d04c4af62da
describe
'92812' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_126.jpg'
833785c7ca57608e178bb7dae04ae7d0
95caf1367d247f0674684f8a606fe6504b61d3a8
'2011-12-12T16:45:13-05:00'
describe
'60266' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_126.pro'
92bae0154d03f93773ba050070536a7e
43029fb449d239ac8d68721da408fb1af56322b1
describe
'27548' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_126.QC.jpg'
385bbbe7065874dfcf5e19374b55b20b
4caf2324dcc57e32623d70cc667132efd3e66866
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_126.tif'
160b43cde15b024d4febcf8e4c449054
b2ff9c79d3dbb1c0b74979abf8f720e3074f4589
describe
'2332' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_126.txt'
5e5e1216cc89b2ce2f8f9cccce556684
c196e4f00c77e1456dd7282840363ebd779c865a
describe
'6574' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_126thm.jpg'
2e12ad849e28283d4f4188b0bde9576b
5193166830a7bd0ddc9b505b86d0aabc40b56a30
describe
'103451' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_127.jp2'
e69986c606d86bfb42702caaba7f00d4
e1e74bf5f3dfecf369a67d72690cc8806179755c
describe
'79715' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_127.jpg'
8aa86af832939a393e3c226f7e651e93
028650028baef96c6e35e7a096056876c999e554
describe
'47629' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_127.pro'
0213704c60b470558ffcd98e1a10a5cc
6af0c69738640c08dba2bbcff37fbfb82e32e2d9
describe
'24109' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_127.QC.jpg'
2bad75a789ecbc9d9da7afff69fdf680
b41fd3e53aba9c3be31fee6af5ba767d3354d72e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_127.tif'
303c1826ec5e23e8a8bd6916af9f17db
067cc1086539bb0e18f814eb3b6e5eba81f85f63
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_127.txt'
cb0c410618f9717670ba1f0912d018c0
a5c11750a4819b9954dad09e7e16576febbc69ff
describe
'6041' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_127thm.jpg'
42b0a6260c146c08d39f44785c549947
e315da567279fb9a1a6187a5e10e4bbf0e845896
describe
'109664' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_128.jp2'
17c3746d92342ec6db1b71cbfbc768b8
1ca7b8e42b81ec99e1f52f309bb8c2fdb880cbea
describe
'83943' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_128.jpg'
804054d11666c8f31d1139441c8db9db
63909dd2f7a77b9c2efedf72ed3ea21039386f4c
describe
'50506' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_128.pro'
e20b9563a83509f27b0f541eea1f16b2
d06a8845b1a4d8b7974f05c171030df8b11e3a68
describe
'25742' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXHZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_128.QC.jpg'
321b5beb8645b519b63c79a126a8d61e
476a291a7308809ea3a6587389570242f74e2619
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_128.tif'
6be813cad7d9fc140305d665eb8d1668
e85fc62a252b5076d65549e67ea4ac8a886bb7c8
describe
'1988' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_128.txt'
18e7cc6647630c92ff8445f7a56349a0
c90e4bcff17b6bc862478242114c90a9d18c92ab
describe
'6306' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_128thm.jpg'
60898559af2d06ed69e4003572686755
64e265122e68f4c4e5e6940098be8f3a5c200173
describe
'112002' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXID' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_129.jp2'
441741a5a350a0fcbccc6da765f8d667
e60c0e8d05cb58e627286f0b4e4fd800e19cbb7a
describe
'86556' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_129.jpg'
9032bbe987c2075d7021da4db9311b75
d4845af8316bafe851d6e21138e57ddcc68a48fb
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_129.pro'
da4a490e9872b708e12fc7b62e7dc900
10de6a242d171a2c2a8563b6a7a9d0ffaed86efc
'2011-12-12T16:43:02-05:00'
describe
'26541' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_129.QC.jpg'
1f60a46a229a7e29a445cc281c4654d9
a74b24a46688b495df2e57609c07c3e7f1c4bf4c
'2011-12-12T16:43:56-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_129.tif'
8b2309b78aa9c17b78e2c1a1bec65740
ec190a4ddcd79405ebe2932d0cf8ba0ec7a5088a
'2011-12-12T16:45:59-05:00'
describe
'2097' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXII' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_129.txt'
87516d38eeab5839bd941c4452ff3689
c4af9d8f199f423397247ca1a7f855a3baa2fe0d
describe
'6364' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_129thm.jpg'
6c8e7cccfe19b43b71244bde33054244
eff223b1e148afcc5dab0611d733bd93a98326fe
describe
'103640' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_130.jp2'
bd3fc923576cc2d3cc106a01f77c32de
28aec7a662f5e48063907e281431d2bb4649e6a3
describe
'79604' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_130.jpg'
150e609b1be776a4e546be8e0a142fd5
fddb1fcde0b2041720bc6a3e22c56a410be6a741
describe
'47396' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_130.pro'
a56d7834337e137d79de2b46bc3c20a1
757548336bfd40bf4d3b62890857f97173729d1c
describe
'24333' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_130.QC.jpg'
0b4dc65aff9aa6da86874fd6bcfc0075
5843efcd5b4dce35ad83e0c67f29937841b53d3d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_130.tif'
3762ef0c0a8c0ece6f212902e723b6c2
466959fbad1aec498adf89dba98facda4eaacc88
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_130.txt'
e1f18627fab58db19c6dc550e59886c6
03b25e4e57a5776fc15efa8c902ef9ea67bfdc2d
describe
'6084' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_130thm.jpg'
66262daba5cee2e3b381b51e0f9a8d2d
24c0aa2f74562ba8d946cd1618214f64a1f8e58b
describe
'117206' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_131.jp2'
e6c7178a991092bba3c356dcaae66f7e
de8ca9216ddd0fec2c473274f6e35dd80198fd2b
describe
'90053' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_131.jpg'
7382069a7589dbcb19a9e79ab8422c4f
341a50086c39925baa31dfd5376f793b0f9bfce4
describe
'57025' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_131.pro'
57701d0f3085906620722cbd85a0d4af
19e35eeac18f52dbd6e324d10d6761a818022112
describe
'27331' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_131.QC.jpg'
c7a3f69c38ee7ca8dc9c09d1a1e13e3f
f3887f0c49f37d08e554938e958a0f749a846afb
'2011-12-12T16:46:05-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_131.tif'
e0fd2cb5bf92a634c73b481df3394cee
6e3740235ac2ce432cee0e7e5bb2595538d4bea8
describe
'2226' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_131.txt'
7211711a0d22643310792c0079c835d0
d96d7150e05b009bbbbcc5bc3975a10831fa0408
describe
'6550' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_131thm.jpg'
3e9a7a84f32d8fa60c113ab1f1ef8acb
8d4448522737e914f272cf0be6c5f6e6ad3c47c6
describe
'1051928' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_132.jp2'
ae2729911b21811f5d7a2161b1777f89
000ff97538565f177e6bc4ce65255d7de778cc07
'2011-12-12T16:45:07-05:00'
describe
'83002' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXIZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_132.jpg'
ad0f55232b00ae6373640c2c75fd469e
d3f23dbcdf36e233080d6c92aba6641942fe3bbd
describe
'50259' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_132.pro'
018d65bf3e48d37f9fc55900ef7367a6
21e28d1cbca0295d73d7ff2135ab707143039cc9
describe
'25587' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_132.QC.jpg'
cf04845f68895be9126b54c22be523ce
c84ba94f728f5900aff961949f33965696b5a4c8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_132.tif'
49229e2d3ef2ed478651072d43f2c79a
b9671525a2ac1c8dcab486815d0aee8efe106729
describe
'2012' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_132.txt'
57b639439fa49a09695d0d93cd80c73f
a8d2694882e1686b7c4c3d2883d2d66b1f04c2e1
describe
'6210' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_132thm.jpg'
4dadc2d587154b97ba9c1bd5a46d5330
099593169135e4de0ec59de1afc103e1322e089c
describe
'1051981' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_133.jp2'
1c840d1264caeecd020d26cdb1c63d3a
f8172933743d564a435eac5923cbf18944c581e5
describe
'84013' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_133.jpg'
f084620680238f28af696733e28bbae9
1896b65a082d596ecc8778fb6826005205ac3aa6
describe
'50765' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_133.pro'
93cf723d047c3d5f5a1fc8afb35d269f
4b0f743708f045ee2ba05d66d758ef81b89b54b4
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_133.QC.jpg'
67ff52b6da5dc092831fff3e16175b85
08fa283ddb7272635e171b7bc509b7504f2c5527
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_133.tif'
398b62be3fcb3d2ad794a32e92189d4a
3abefd553a4a75a3fcc829fffdefbf848ff250e6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_133.txt'
f938849af65627dba05995c6c0ffa324
34965738d5a3e26d718fa8e957a163ee5656b173
describe
'6430' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_133thm.jpg'
fb6830c170c4105bc84ade47aaadf4eb
303f7e01a7044136d47dabbf86122207609bd117
describe
'41747' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_134.jp2'
2fe8d89acce90716634c38228f0aed0f
e11207d21b9c297182a9fcbcbf8f744f532b66ad
describe
'31531' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_134.jpg'
abdee429f14d76e33821b66720facf52
9c4ddb9a732d9c1c9279519bd23402a762dad46b
'2011-12-12T16:44:11-05:00'
describe
'17911' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_134.pro'
169f24fbabc76706807bda39f2ee1b30
0d78a3f3187df6c10b30dd30c2f8f82f162df25b
describe
'10271' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_134.QC.jpg'
45e79386effb72f2a1274e68c231fe37
1b3e42406529a96cb245ca260f55f5a22ae40d61
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_134.tif'
48bc88fa5a60cddc61ba566cbacfb724
aa2ab03c17b4991e99a1921e479687e07a8fa898
describe
'712' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_134.txt'
164b80ec59f01eb4322ae0aeab76b65d
7e2e1063c4d2944d3d1ff0e11eb655ba4dc66981
describe
'2532' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_134thm.jpg'
2693afe56ef273cab4d0f2e201ada19e
286701b8385fd7a26fd835298acc5346c060e726
describe
'90469' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_135.jp2'
22a19dc7d1e06e84610f17bfabb60943
38d9a38de913a7e521ad1e9d12aaa10457da6f3e
describe
'69055' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_135.jpg'
a55046c786c559092d886bc2e5d79362
1dd52db8d58849fe7bd82582c35d6164886d415c
describe
'39767' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_135.pro'
4bf7d33d0e33a2103a3f1010a9dff50c
fac99f0350d5e1380adb1a2dcba3c6765939ceb2
'2011-12-12T16:48:31-05:00'
describe
'21939' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_135.QC.jpg'
944445e2d15a8d0a095f53c2533fc772
37d0ee8bbe04dd069ca16e05b15863f268484c82
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_135.tif'
8c880b8028a98da7917c3596a397b21b
90d7138f98658de973946e1daa1362e09d5f1318
describe
'1692' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_135.txt'
7fa490feb8ababfef2f31a9388a468b2
5c0410a29ff6b56eb7b9e4a822d97fbdc1035f82
describe
'5336' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXJZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_135thm.jpg'
04e0f2a91f73f2545a6350bda60bb44d
b14d520db64e0e47993f7bfb589a8c71f7f1c4e9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_136.jp2'
81da5d8a95012a9af01dceecb42317c0
8fb1b8460a8bd1f19da9850ae6c437052b183cbe
describe
'85226' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_136.jpg'
d00d3576a17c9a72b998bcf972828d36
f397930cc0d9ab182bce198ffb44cc591cd2b666
describe
'51413' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_136.pro'
1f3c0f0ea8808810b281d522805532db
8b7e7dffd6199c7012b5e237f779ffaa7240ddff
describe
'26019' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_136.QC.jpg'
84ec5604560ab845ad8708c324b80ac4
2de346e9fc48e850c48fac2754c1a8029a8baa92
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_136.tif'
e0606ef03bbd56ccf9d4367041b8e1c9
b0caab504f6c5e3d72d7223ac2442be213803438
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_136.txt'
1647180931d04c8f106d4e62e605591b
b0429b5c51a502686b737f18117662d68942d324
describe
'6321' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_136thm.jpg'
91311ec73fc25d30d071f93ad44f3f39
d80eddd19188a6f8ec97185bdc2bd9e175426123
describe
'109424' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_137.jp2'
ffd9e4f4b03cbcac2913236241a3655b
ffdf25ec51fe95778ed9c5c27f33af61e62bb560
describe
'83596' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_137.jpg'
d9fc720afe4ad060f3bd1fe3985416fe
0d8fc76e707366c6af55f9dd74ce19ffca8bcd48
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_137.pro'
5ab5609a32db762673af4341893a73be
39ce2238ea93b27d33b409f015d60c09925aa25d
describe
'25487' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_137.QC.jpg'
eeddbb64f6a008ba9c2d70b19c81e64a
3bf96a6cafed4d9e3066769ff7427e79c9c85a69
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_137.tif'
ef0a9325b2ef39a444c1ee106742f989
9dcd262f40353d3571e93655cb1e6da9ae73c726
describe
'1975' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_137.txt'
3c12333beea66e9c189b21905bcbd66a
a88bc4bd5b04d0eceebcc7785b72fab5f64f3b7a
describe
'6350' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_137thm.jpg'
7fa8ef8b81f2442c8d2b80800ddd753a
40448d8a8f11bcc0dbddb497c071216a86b46b18
describe
'112189' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_138.jp2'
bc82fca544530dc2c1998b36e2f32df9
b26d1347f605b6ba6f06acccca890945d98ea3c1
describe
'86092' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_138.jpg'
cfb92465b9b7115ddf938eeef91e8f16
d16256ae7985a903b97226288df0a39e4b61291d
describe
'52662' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_138.pro'
23f92444b7665431d2331eb048789e39
e53256968fbb14aa5ed9db237a48594be3ff2d78
describe
'26536' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_138.QC.jpg'
e98fca059c94e948942a209e3eff07c7
0ceb4924d28957c62d2e3ebacb13be7d2c65e9f2
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_138.tif'
a618608f6f02a42764729f97b4f3a37b
658c53dbf8dd0c3836cf3f5231bc58f87aa6a8c9
describe
'2096' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_138.txt'
de081d1fe705a1d32eda576d5b19b7fa
e891230a47ac5f9df4a2b0d59c0f30064844b354
describe
'6277' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_138thm.jpg'
23b9829bc0042bb827d4351e75b9b542
6c677f52aeab4c2c53824d88d8e5467da0f27979
describe
'1051941' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_139.jp2'
30eb596547abe59ec2df4a452ff15b0e
2a13d8b204f684a677f39c78cd8138576cbe475b
describe
'83984' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_139.jpg'
32665a960691752aa33e2482602ea736
618c93b48893de54fa1dbe7589e3d1eedd82aba4
describe
'51200' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_139.pro'
138915b218f54a527e576372da8ca9a0
ceccc0ab6209a4e4612c5962998f12ca5e465398
'2011-12-12T16:47:54-05:00'
describe
'25593' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_139.QC.jpg'
5fd4a92256b9fc05b0dd53c429be51aa
fcc80b9f251b0d4cf7d931affa27a6f72d9d642a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXKZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_139.tif'
17a062b3baee0ff7b3637b850478ee05
63111e1a51500fda21262db190d9efb2e4e106b0
describe
'2008' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_139.txt'
178d6a997a3d027ed68034822107b3c4
533e3b45f834f066bc8e2b14f00583eaa974b812
describe
'6264' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_139thm.jpg'
5e6d225a202e4ed0243140d3ff2e005d
039dcf525f411b9b424800d883d7b823bbf850cd
describe
'107786' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_140.jp2'
297eb6d196570777d99d9896df6df5d6
7a76ac25ea6da0bd056c9f8b4939ce67333b59b8
describe
'81147' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_140.jpg'
d50f45886954b4732e079dc852f74ab5
f82d0b857735be7e7aa425ec902d39e9aca11b9f
describe
'49058' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_140.pro'
7ad3d802d1af52af808b6d26e44c24f6
55ec0b753b261b0c92c673661d52222c8eb54cf6
describe
'25355' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_140.QC.jpg'
b71a72cc9122e675f46b869e2a27608a
b49c9af74734c7a0df99727076c4632688acf243
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_140.tif'
557709189f0485fce23b4c34a9df4ece
8a72017f9c4a02d17a743120b65b8a386cee9213
describe
'1933' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_140.txt'
454180f04a0336c4c72a4187851ca8f3
2397862a03fd315523990c4ff53d32571307e711
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_140thm.jpg'
90d6079642269dfadf32bf5a278c7df9
855f6e39d44a8d0a8f378915c1e75b87b6f1ab2f
describe
'115823' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_141.jp2'
3113be8a9dff11a82c05fbe9d74ba5fd
9f52db65406c26a64a42b1b10e85f5937b469fdb
describe
'88375' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_141.jpg'
2d2923f9e013f772b0ad701a95f8f0ec
07992f81c03028f6fe1d1f7c6e5fca98b7f1309b
describe
'54013' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_141.pro'
f79f1249aa702ab9a0fdbee9ab44e8ac
bf8d192594fe6ae64e32d2f13e769c9fd7b2d872
describe
'26244' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_141.QC.jpg'
f1ab60fe9833daa97a3b867ea8e8a034
470b52d9d3d0e31b21ce64225d3164eaf2024abd
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_141.tif'
9703c62e7b506f54c4f3dc99716a0aef
bd589b2adc30986db5aa17dc9cf8aeb4dbe867af
describe
'2155' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_141.txt'
fffa2b32dbaf5f26efc985a18949ad34
412daed57545db7be3aec915474aaa93dceffb93
describe
'6230' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_141thm.jpg'
e68637d158fb789052020e99f887ab34
b4de95559c4695fdb928b286a297c86847c13741
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_142.jp2'
c857b7d42217daec68c438d4c5bafdcc
ff95a123850708d0853be10fde54f49b676de056
describe
'87058' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_142.jpg'
49c733ac67fc7e8984305141ac3da8ad
a518b031bde04cde998c33b75a4d1a8e0cd7a55e
describe
'52169' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_142.pro'
2b886cb999d7ad2403784467b358659a
82cd94c877db038f366d672383b26418f3ee944c
describe
'27323' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_142.QC.jpg'
cc926494f1c4b1378469852ecc77e167
7fcbe773a7193b2fdddfaeba78cf96d09c388689
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_142.tif'
226a1b54327c7768b98983466c2aa6de
9f05bc5c3c1af17abd9cac85e52ec4354c1fb158
'2011-12-12T16:46:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_142.txt'
91cd4863068420965a4e01499efa963e
659b2152df51b511c73c8659c7702091bc160161
describe
'6211' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_142thm.jpg'
a92cb79ab08181a8d1a166650305ac38
0f4ed0680f9f31b0d79aab71158b60246151f34c
describe
'108065' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_143.jp2'
de83a73652ac6223003b512e13f11e3a
4e3520cfd2efefc4ede43c5283b6f9b7690cb65b
describe
'81850' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_143.jpg'
356d3f2c535bba1c19441723db4db461
9d13087baa5bac45247077edf9cfab01ba4726b8
describe
'50441' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXLZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_143.pro'
0af61b84e89d5d568f4417ee676c2456
1e4fd523ebabdf6a68ef602d336633095f42b0fc
describe
'25417' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_143.QC.jpg'
258c143740bb54d312dbdcd5ef2e4a00
c5694c68467f7cceaec1c162947ab9eebe78d97d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_143.tif'
6b93e1e431895d791779c8dd1dcc35d5
5d041606b28a7004cbb6130169c7cc4ee042f8f4
describe
'1984' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_143.txt'
3dfa0069bdee1391bac0316f4a7c5d47
0dd82796715d5d4360efdc720e7f386bc964232a
describe
'6295' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_143thm.jpg'
822a1a46c9977abd67f3fd00e0c1de79
389448b1d62f69e023e139d8c11fc5ea44ceb0a9
describe
'108784' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXME' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_144.jp2'
e7628d509abb7999d9f31845b124d375
0492207cb855f8953c11b107441194677b2d3a92
describe
'83644' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_144.jpg'
8e7b30859fc207c23af28b2923cfab64
d551ebc2c0f3a8f7aff5fee68ef2188faa6b0cbd
describe
'51288' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_144.pro'
250d24b940678479cbf2b448aac7437a
e5bc0509a1eb3ae05e188edb1e7bcd892c6c304f
describe
'26129' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_144.QC.jpg'
f9bb356807e01efe9e38cf25593ba73d
0a42334a673b5adcf4f752520fa02ef7737462e1
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_144.tif'
2215399583190fa0c15b735b46ed50c2
d69b59124e1b34b7a935576a4c9b8ceb324fcff8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_144.txt'
eb815f3caeadcab8e2f0c8b00990c791
a28713bc5650f5775726aa42d5cad33689f998ad
describe
'6331' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_144thm.jpg'
d76fd08bda535f3e2cb9e3b169f52b43
80dba3953a94febefd013ca4773e8c874c8f4990
describe
'1051952' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXML' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_145.jp2'
ab9d5c24efd0f776b10c1b8b3c5b691c
66fedd3990b1fb62fab24fa342b527456fa1b044
'2011-12-12T16:44:50-05:00'
describe
'83945' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_145.jpg'
be7b049f0dae208760e6dba1513fffce
f15d0a52971234d210d497fb66b9df9f9cb5dd1a
describe
'50498' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_145.pro'
a51ddaffd7836225da46ddc0cf6703b6
0fbdafbae6d8d365af09517524ff5a368acbbf51
describe
'25643' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_145.QC.jpg'
05c36e14026b0891507f0f6aef8f2307
d9d9e1ff45dbaa4074b23f63fe89b824d25f3d27
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_145.tif'
45667a24fab775465ec998d8f19b151a
ecc5dc5dfe52412911ff6f95c1d7fa6840b79233
'2011-12-12T16:47:08-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_145.txt'
1df73843f5c3ba9292b9d15fc6575662
026ee10bc9447914d5e0626863ada3220aecee93
describe
'6358' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_145thm.jpg'
4f8303b73224e20e45210308dc6a5f7e
0ed91c0aa6a746fb1df895715153713e4a408509
describe
'110173' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_146.jp2'
028716f58b138c4911eaf53844d0b9d0
740839ce3a52a20b31fcac022397eb51518fc67c
describe
'84272' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_146.jpg'
792986e5b71465dc512f269c8ab0e2ab
257b40f41a8e46314981f7dad118f82f7066db96
describe
'51261' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_146.pro'
9263f807f49429c90ee2f0a6e4d8d27e
0b2ed20846a939e43f4605fc1070cb4cf2cef4ea
describe
'25829' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_146.QC.jpg'
3ff06a2ce9d032a2cabc2022fac288fc
96913c41bd3583f64016501d64470ca70ced2772
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_146.tif'
8ea362e1a509cde70205b207f4384f74
3a57e3cec80f954bec7e7b71d7a248a1b5c614dd
describe
'2016' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_146.txt'
58bd16e536c5f3ab947a9e8e7b39eaa9
2598a7126436c6212eca5d7c810bf844586ae0a0
describe
'6286' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_146thm.jpg'
3357c02198a3246ce60db683e1f4a847
6cadec7e0eaa99f077b611d95733a770ea1ba907
describe
'110407' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXMZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_147.jp2'
5db0c55489c6adac34e75ec9cdc70968
746ef3826b61a04eed7aeb8152699af35602ee11
describe
'84952' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_147.jpg'
078673065c0a07e60d0d6a9e49baead4
343bbff891125c441e5d33970735f383e9f9de69
describe
'51142' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_147.pro'
101ee97e8f80852f2c4c18200d435468
8fe8c3fe8de9ef5aefcd3af71482d79a9d7d230f
describe
'25939' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_147.QC.jpg'
8b5644c4b7d72ed2a84e3ad43f4f9405
1bc7487f2f18f5a7cd887602ba851929d7b04065
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXND' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_147.tif'
61f7b49bd631628f1ecf0a25555fc29e
8f112a44f0cf2a72d5e45ea7fd2c49a1a77f3db6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_147.txt'
d8204701f726f34bbb80a599f5ef92a7
971f8c53a4214b287a7f83ded836df140a501cb0
describe
'6255' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_147thm.jpg'
651db66a8010d23307561aa0c36923be
3ff945298d0bde51e43122b49e4afbac2574af3a
describe
'112731' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_148.jp2'
966369ffddfbbd0b27c6502aa38cf177
1133a5cac98788441b43ae982523c08d6a54a888
describe
'85069' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_148.jpg'
6a71c9d0e49c3834d332576e7f93e4d2
5e06bdcdf298b55df64192ecd2a63dbc62f69c80
describe
'53058' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_148.pro'
59a8e798d89f2a46b10942b532d9899a
2ecd41498bddc418ed71c92515a81861b5c5348e
describe
'26368' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_148.QC.jpg'
d101d798cac9c2ef983a4630cf6c9b87
d631483c8647e1beed8c0cfcd0103433c1b88ccc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_148.tif'
183970c9e68dfd84833e96982b805b6b
de81e1acbc00e4479d5a36ae142ae09352410aa0
describe
'2087' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_148.txt'
0e35b104587f576057eec529f333c799
4a11d3caae679966980c794189b03d11a5c1d67e
describe
'6266' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_148thm.jpg'
524f2ef367967233c37ee2ce02796aeb
8ee8e87faf75ea17b09fd77dcb19d42de9e7e2bd
describe
'107900' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_149.jp2'
103a3fdf3d065f7cde01b7a6a113ff82
6b32a46bd3a16e1c3b33e41fba1646f703f2475b
describe
'82881' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_149.jpg'
d06e46e05f742bb22d6ef6dcfe1fcbe0
10ae41c9ccb713b35d80795ad023dcc6f84f2f2b
describe
'50480' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_149.pro'
9b4f0614034ea77955444667c3c1c88b
0b65e4f8b5a10e29655aa51cba36550d48083760
describe
'25501' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_149.QC.jpg'
c5430fa89c528c79b6ff61c4ff307337
012c7ead2af95eac0945975a4b9596718a4b622a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_149.tif'
2099353e7eac7837e16e735eca055043
cbc99c9603d327ced06062d919879b1419011cf1
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_149.txt'
2133809b0fe5bbf25ce95323924405f3
85844a2c3d377be79552a02c816204452fb51a47
describe
'6280' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_149thm.jpg'
21afc649733478b6baef78f7a8a1325f
797a799849ca5a53026323aff468f4c55c3ffa74
describe
'110791' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_150.jp2'
3d4c6fd98a15f8f3b5b498286db0f61c
21f0ea348c1d5be8b81c97e3edcdebaab72f746e
describe
'84677' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_150.jpg'
e2ef204af14eba5882fd3ce8ca18eb9c
56a0bd7569432c3f24ffa4bd06a12049b3651f6d
describe
'51697' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_150.pro'
36e526428db5d9f2101f43332edea43d
185c6d66c119f48e282e5077daa889822bee898f
describe
'26207' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_150.QC.jpg'
20ff866895d13f18df09e6a7832352f4
63587f5540db4acbcc9cc5e2ad08cbaf5fa59cd2
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_150.tif'
f3f5f0d445d51579fe5f6cbb54d1329a
11c1e0186c1821265f82eba6fef01ab7a8499c75
describe
'2038' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXNZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_150.txt'
28c324b4fac5ac0fe225a40e067b6705
afdbf9ac5958b67bff4b0e4b6230377c37eb94dd
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_150thm.jpg'
a13520fdfa295c14924a37fbbcd5ba85
1a229b97e9074cd0f8f291b5f84b4047da3b7bf8
describe
'1051969' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_151.jp2'
ce50257921103e837ed285a48caaf195
9ab22201a6368727cb6b18b137526de5b4daade7
describe
'85144' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_151.jpg'
b16241fe17979b7c7f80f8cfb8c863c2
4742ace3d32cf4e6c02923a0b2ece4fd9b361b6f
describe
'51612' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_151.pro'
f640d2728dc4482b94adf8c7ad4f1416
d8029813aa324aad0657ff7b7270a43dd2e52713
describe
'26309' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_151.QC.jpg'
5cdee88da69e630f8777964b2ef7fba0
bbd4de9359cb88be3b4795d51844008e28513b7f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_151.tif'
2bb9c83e618fa2252575ef1094f3fd56
d607fcdd2d1c0d9ea1a859f6d41a53a072322131
describe
'2033' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_151.txt'
4ae120173b8f4719df14415351f20cac
29d615b3513ed39e2f20db59464194cefeb52ff2
describe
'6335' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_151thm.jpg'
d501280bd3f5592d0a18f272811c74f9
e558e7aeb48453a7ef7707a26351b8cdd15a40a8
describe
'1051976' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_152.jp2'
c8d6c65ff667808ef539a6ff0ec30c3b
cc0f3d1a9130593cb0daf00774d5bee4dbe207fe
describe
'89319' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_152.jpg'
d76b26cc2718445abf7b41df874f9710
34377ee28cb0644253d227f9e256a571d84f7f52
describe
'54732' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_152.pro'
6472f94d630ba8bb1c6cf5208e1998e3
de9f05bf80378c1bafb077ab8bfb9fc5efd6eff6
describe
'27419' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_152.QC.jpg'
64a4d8e78321b8749491f30480266783
83eef1efe63bbda20677221ac2c5e8225faf2d11
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_152.tif'
2682c2dc1d76e3780e69e5cbd63f7370
7fe1869ed06081e64927ba5aa934075e6db4f28b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXON' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_152.txt'
00c4aafc55de4f89d3ef56c2cf64ddf4
df19599a4e5adb4be912aad11062c404e96d97cc
describe
'6261' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_152thm.jpg'
756dec9b70f463deff011c8258b0c468
e7a9018106b7035e631143ffc536097c63bdd6f4
describe
'117455' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_153.jp2'
e7f85075aab913f119d65272b81a1d36
bd32800b542c9b8b7dea63bea23e811cfb743f46
describe
'88030' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_153.jpg'
7c3799da715427870f7aa698d559e455
2c3d6ba9ed10f3ca9f13a2ded7c8f4245d2e784e
'2011-12-12T16:48:05-05:00'
describe
'56288' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_153.pro'
d7c465a433de0d1fb25c8fd6201ac3f2
df7f7739661654f9ab5e79cb98863a29ae085fc5
describe
'26874' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_153.QC.jpg'
de19fd30f4f786c2356e87f20f7db8b0
aacf9e4f868f6e82c04dbcd642ba7088a9d95c99
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_153.tif'
399537f88c704591b0c2c0c2380ee6b5
2570f83e8d2c7d701825f0a0215f1f9f8bffda35
describe
'2196' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_153.txt'
2ef15dbf149b48492cf3aa41e53a6d1c
52dd8c155a39f7804cdd657be91a0dd2fd898a72
describe
'6259' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_153thm.jpg'
6db8c8c23f7ccdf07389a6a305bb8b5a
4593953fbaa66387a55c74f4d04f279a0b0125a9
describe
'110410' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_154.jp2'
72dd0aa7324aeca771d380771d435d83
97e878908ae2345d10347008536c5c25a7956c3b
describe
'84079' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_154.jpg'
fbd3209b5f75f8511c143ebed5c50b52
debb9cdf1b50f50c2fb77b7ae56ac1b9bbb81727
describe
'51862' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_154.pro'
07e66e045e370466d179c0b6008fc81f
5efed165fcaeed2f9a817a2fd018d0d1c5e5512d
'2011-12-12T16:44:26-05:00'
describe
'26531' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXOZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_154.QC.jpg'
2786b7e900f7fc212e0c386995c99ef6
0b229c12e0dc56183e6a01c14aeb13c3fb9cf42c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_154.tif'
5cf8d3086034bace178c270b2fbb5a84
acd1a73dd184e0f2bd25dfcd19663523fd2f0edf
describe
'2058' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_154.txt'
83f2b06f0b2ed1a0717451f1ab9acb86
ce7e20f6eccdc4be8e33e4a62e581cba1e887e22
describe
'6274' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_154thm.jpg'
e74b0ec3d051ad5578a1b727607196c6
fc1278b489614b1722d78d2e9e05f01002b38916
describe
'105605' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_155.jp2'
f104767e5235cf83065be2814cc6253f
721491da5d256d18a9f3533dedb3436a05723003
describe
'79628' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_155.jpg'
f6d7edc9afc28691b7f545a69e572789
246deb7344e7225ef186efb482ebe523e45eab05
describe
'48356' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_155.pro'
d655da7e353255ee050c55aa4be0ae93
26d3a156a9b498dd174e3989ef0e5d4cd0005167
describe
'24550' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_155.QC.jpg'
f3857139813ecdcf363df365b9f5ed68
2a8d19aef7237e772d561f04f52a8280d40e1762
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_155.tif'
1cde3456173967a9e44ca55eeb782cc4
e77ee7082745ca76735c85c319b53e6036d3984f
describe
'1906' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_155.txt'
b19b25b3ec0478f0c9381bcc806257f8
d71fd616a3f8384b7b916f720362a23fcd6328d6
describe
'6092' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_155thm.jpg'
6b12a57b8b905ba2bff9350120f0173e
239a9c76f7433f59907f2140fb0d58ab8cd41e7b
describe
'112099' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_156.jp2'
4d22e02f0516a0a616b511121d4016d1
83b1a4816bf2ef54f7ad0d09ee88ecb5e56df8a7
describe
'84373' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_156.jpg'
8843bee52bfe717bebb5d9ca9aee3acd
45a840356859a6e28efbe19dbf77aa325af7778e
describe
'51304' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_156.pro'
82551645910666eb514ba24b882f38d3
7d4f61d34e24c0f617b8b2dc93b469651b761d87
describe
'26454' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_156.QC.jpg'
a87e1e10a763bcec888d8ed524cf1ee5
87b67dbb35810f44fa416953569dc4b5f4848ff1
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_156.tif'
e2c259f8d3a3417bfe2eb2772638b705
d47d22fcffbd3642201fc8843c9b3c236d549b6c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_156.txt'
136502c7d566be07eb9ecbb3a13a850c
333c46b437aedf3db81c7582b91b279e8dca12c1
describe
'6252' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_156thm.jpg'
990865c8fd849cc4cf2ebd7a5df9609a
0b2eb674c186f376f2cd0b3a3d4e61975917fb16
describe
'117077' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_157.jp2'
72f7057e70a69884d7f09a62311b210c
824aae85795c73ba951f0371d1fb8a37d2f6a0f9
describe
'89594' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_157.jpg'
4c76e6a124e5128360f016912fa5d2a1
640af6832cd1b1271a0ce0291ce87e1def46c320
describe
'55696' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_157.pro'
ba8aac13d45c5f220ec0bb351681daf9
2c693153e5a44123110d2937ece618e48bff5793
describe
'26908' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_157.QC.jpg'
ad2a11b809e601ba524b001afdb4ab85
e873c9afc8c969126cc98f4fa4896d9913fea31e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_157.tif'
8c0313165db93c73de4bc259966f17e2
08585d6102429d5f99223e84b7abc3915881c7ae
describe
'2215' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_157.txt'
fa5e73d28e94f8f9651bf69ec80a5572
f3ab88c1a965d2850f79413cecaac8a627e1b14b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_157thm.jpg'
27c9630bb40bd9e8eb211d6d0477de84
a0116f0f158eb216cc0a662f6bc4032bb165c1e9
describe
'106779' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_158.jp2'
ed1b07bfa58112cf07796b66781aa646
8fccbe7430a67d4cb197608abff3f962ce59fab2
describe
'80813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXPZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_158.jpg'
65a8ba9cc372c32fef317ec48214abb5
3cf4d72f90ce628e5f669316e361b8bbbde1e218
describe
'49031' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_158.pro'
36e9d78cf81ff68d6959609d8f4c6810
c49df50680836e876af54238dab7cfe3f9221176
describe
'25285' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_158.QC.jpg'
b64de297cb62e1c326b2de9ba0925698
0bd814b4d6f81db9c385320d6121f66e21096882
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_158.tif'
713526fcf60a7412ac31d534ceeae754
9556bda95357a463852c85f2327c6d0c28a38bb3
describe
'1931' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_158.txt'
5b1200da6955f9a7a76e90c600dd94fe
546d07fd5593c59c3101071fd9852289a9305dce
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_158thm.jpg'
09db854322fc1577557eb6704f45831d
dd55785ec6a89cad850994fa208792c08e69fa3d
describe
'108701' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_159.jp2'
fcfc2dcd1d4eafbc63f81204630adecd
5587d0c6ae0548fe5b9c26e0d6a9e8b99ed5b313
describe
'83179' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_159.jpg'
5a66dc0a974c3d79c64cd8eb963c0173
58dc849a57d793f2d405fa12c791bd6a8c83a51a
describe
'50193' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_159.pro'
6cff66259cd71094049dac0ded4e51a4
03150d6b34d9d20e0421e064cfd49fa5f31d09e1
describe
'25261' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_159.QC.jpg'
b4e4117ef517e913c7ec6dcf7c53d09d
2552b0b10be64e6ca8d81ec6f7243028c5846c90
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_159.tif'
dc7fc350762b0b1c6bc133f77aa8df8e
2d1a205baa219c4703edd9a04fdc8eb73d2b5c19
describe
'1974' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_159.txt'
28eb48ded4d4e89c2d7506067c0a1ebb
ef58e01bf933bb621644be00bef283ffd6b7509a
describe
'6138' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_159thm.jpg'
1459cc235122d8019880bc69fe9c910a
f8d0961eb2f3d0678f423897ca86c2faa08db883
describe
'9485' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_160.jp2'
e0b12026899bd51423292284fdce697c
e9af85d2796550cd00d4ce2a3c69e1a4a6a774fc
describe
'7165' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_160.jpg'
f059488a876e1d18c672bfafb41e3fac
6d9704cc7396fd80d4f4f3c1ada0b4a3eeed77ac
describe
'3007' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_160.pro'
1d4f17561c2e780957a3f4e902b51a28
c51b27ee671b7e1963a8c0fcbee53664290f21c5
describe
'2578' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_160.QC.jpg'
668c29c5b8a68295122231bc7fc63c5c
98d682dec113f3cf2d9aa3902b4b97f771c0b651
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_160.tif'
358ec20002c2e4002da5496a87c83605
3dd7f690939c4b038c3d3b059b1afb12e633c10e
describe
'165' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_160.txt'
3320ef5d3dd6268c5fa07a46bcfe891c
c03e895ee86b58328a58c3bf4309562f2900b228
describe
'761' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_160thm.jpg'
9ba22b830c2e172e9fad2e75cda458bb
5d0b84108933d46b63f851caf36850b9d2cc6857
describe
'99300' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_161.jp2'
4d80ac1a2dbddf526890f6dae703d2cd
00b0dca5de9876da161501885c7aa1562c0915f8
describe
'75667' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_161.jpg'
08e5a2f84d9dd95d56bd796e6822fb7e
fb80b3020b2e297c30952e9f7f5dcc453e0e1e9d
describe
'45323' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_161.pro'
3c867c3c4724e5f36200909361493e94
0120ee188d21df5fd463be9fdeb7bc5259aa3788
describe
'22784' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_161.QC.jpg'
0440cb453b2f06adb48f97328921298d
0db080d9e90758b2fb30f8393116708249488750
'2011-12-12T16:45:45-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_161.tif'
ec27aabda719a6a66086320908a54684
e22aba49ee88aae6d4b3e806f8c8a6ea7fc8163e
describe
'1864' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_161.txt'
8a89987cfe0eb4031f2a4e77a73b2a8d
4da603bb89366a71f4dadc73aa5ba2bba4ae2e6d
'2011-12-12T16:43:53-05:00'
describe
'5550' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXQZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_161thm.jpg'
b67833fd5a3a8a8c55caa63bad1e28f9
837802a9c10e8b550ed135b112b0298baef79450
describe
'119599' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_162.jp2'
ebdc7c41076fb802281d5eea948d43e5
3d177a55634770d07f37a9517b2d3f867ca83738
describe
'90957' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_162.jpg'
30ee4a65c48c314ed3fd2fe7ac2a10f1
b0d20ed2a87bc112e1411fd554c405b09d213e06
describe
'55069' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_162.pro'
5b1615f8e78844572bee02c78012baff
0c7b3b9b08e5a225964116fb387165759863d21d
describe
'27194' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_162.QC.jpg'
a6167030430def0942273602ba4554fd
454a1e7147955949e9e73911bdd4e26615c02f98
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_162.tif'
391fa9cce8602a4e21da72ec2cf66915
0b89f72a2bffdb081322add37a77c76f06f71ce7
describe
'2190' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_162.txt'
d90b1daa18f67bc81da6bc16cf89e17b
426da6b59e9ee3569499ea769cc11d419e847b5b
describe
'6425' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_162thm.jpg'
a15039c9978a160d21c40dc8e4517930
1e3d0be49ec7eb1c03e52330d4c80f8b21def6b0
describe
'110007' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_163.jp2'
c25586ea004a2b4570e1510b4030f708
2cd426b711656458f4baa75b1baf7eb077498cf4
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_163.jpg'
8afa501183d5a124493956fffed9846f
0b3eb0be44aefb8a2ed5ab40153b668ebc20ed2d
describe
'49792' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_163.pro'
a105c6106af560c107fbfc4edadcc30f
85e34667bc66c597eed4c2e92e57bc2847ee7ad0
describe
'25424' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_163.QC.jpg'
e2d817106476d9ea932ec47a450ac98e
0610ab8286af67b90c07489732b492b2e6187357
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_163.tif'
3b5cad26286fbd1c5a4448c00d647e66
ca81a0b56d8bfeb4cf6fd75ed8491988232164f1
describe
'1961' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_163.txt'
b6a207d7c0d167eb077bcf83c5b4154c
77c8d5d32a4e27b798f30f2ab831e85b41dc9ebe
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_163thm.jpg'
fb86a2271551599ff0d409e886be2c4d
7390da7356af30b5384428652877eec57b21fe7f
describe
'108285' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_164.jp2'
09ccdcf469326c222036c3e549735f8c
a5f72975b8377f93a5023e1d9efa91069f4f5331
describe
'82454' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_164.jpg'
d9b9d8fe99d6dda90cccc72b5b5a127e
e266eb49cd8c390ad571b26f242130ddcee71965
describe
'49482' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_164.pro'
0c792d81016f175aa5343ac9ac5c41f9
7e8bdbf7adcd236ef398ce7bb8d1761c3d4087c4
describe
'26035' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_164.QC.jpg'
3f57ab83c59bb8952bfb0b9c783f161c
812a1d1ecdeb5828412f1f40dfb6ac2f05d241a9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_164.tif'
deea91df2f410bddab29895dac339c06
ebb60f8964a4b62e00c14343f9c3067e6a5190b1
describe
'1976' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_164.txt'
66787c16f97eea8f6150f107410deb1c
45c2fb175ab273f9afb579f0db583f812621a330
describe
'6108' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_164thm.jpg'
2819a10676831f56981913dd2a4f16a9
beaf49a1dda9b81f27011545bc19a069d228b83c
describe
'115920' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_165.jp2'
facc163bf899570193755713fdd713ef
cf165b7bddb5b0fd2e67f2260d473fbac755aa80
describe
'87294' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_165.jpg'
c792d602e91baa67d5362658cf89cd0d
8b7c5fcb96898235bbbb04e0e5aeb2a9e04dacd4
describe
'51790' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_165.pro'
a94a874e0a5b7aa30762036d86a82692
80e78683b1edbe62d84aa942990a93b5a6a12ac3
describe
'26554' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_165.QC.jpg'
ac1003bcf2f0b18290e8cbf2c5caeb52
42e168d0885d75bbb43f1a61bc4a7b9d160e960f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXRZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_165.tif'
b820f01323d4454c2d12e930c8149f84
31052e2e5495355a053cd174ba1caa8ff9e21fd3
describe
'2049' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_165.txt'
41c6e8072035318045ad0ca8b84fb876
9ba21e248bde5e7486eb2ada8931ca88dd2c9b25
describe
'6636' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_165thm.jpg'
e1e8a20588f0de1fb3248530d3f1f54f
97d1deb23cabb3d0f1443899178a8c2644c89c66
describe
'108016' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_166.jp2'
81096fd44caad6cae26295820b520ef8
05544fc14ec64678e019fa536c119bdd026dd871
describe
'82339' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_166.jpg'
7df5c6302079f1877d1afea334382532
73dccc93e7af5b107312089cd0e52fcb4c83d228
describe
'49166' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_166.pro'
9d669dc2a70023703d3533f4299f4923
42dab1b92fc46345695a3030237d836d66f12b24
describe
'25148' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_166.QC.jpg'
7c952d25f3b30e124087d078defa9b4a
7f326cdea37236d7b79f5b5f21a78baafd305aef
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_166.tif'
ff3ce9f81fddcb564b130bbd4948b20d
0f58ad46ad4f330620fbf79cd0a804404f91ff98
describe
'1940' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_166.txt'
cba505087b890513a0f559763d7779c6
5ca78301c5a25da8dd922c5ebdb20d09bf5fb30a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_166thm.jpg'
2adf80a21a9b1fc1a4950d7ac2cca5f4
39b0a91d849a964c493b96c8fb4f427bf3586a46
describe
'111140' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_167.jp2'
6871fec3e704a455e368b57131ec839b
581d6d27d8a3c5473b99bfc8c559595e0a117436
describe
'83927' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_167.jpg'
357d9cf67277dc19f0d3623b1f5eab58
e5275cd0f2e003a0f562078432ad4925de03bb87
describe
'50230' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_167.pro'
cf72d0479e936466df6c4e09ba0ff990
eacf7065c7ecca41acdec2c31c62e03d4df0b664
describe
'25908' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_167.QC.jpg'
daf0741da0923cecc5d5d95b75c40340
f68713d22d8985d536a898130119770547d49216
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_167.tif'
f306d81b223e72e83c336a69af655409
c54cbf7fc1400236f453ff0edb3d2ddc9e5b4460
'2011-12-12T16:44:22-05:00'
describe
'1978' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_167.txt'
31d02b14dcdc604bf07ff009ee90570a
36f8aa1d97d4956772514fd6b5d5aecc44b6f273
describe
'6519' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_167thm.jpg'
0e39bbc2006ff6380b93ed698d1ae8ed
79eb0b9e98de0455fa7fef8e996ac0bca1a1c9bb
describe
'112044' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_168.jp2'
8278f2cb7e4792588a22f16e0b2aaa71
dd90cc406f07a78c6011e066e91220c793626671
describe
'85950' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_168.jpg'
4ec1d4c9a6e82084384df9369098d841
40010b5589b8a6c61ddc75d4557b22d20ebbf3ec
describe
'52685' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_168.pro'
b2387d419d57e0ab1c5eece06c053377
add639d978537cf591e761776037ff7726940cfd
describe
'26320' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXST' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_168.QC.jpg'
227bf0fd0879a03b61d45e1d075b9391
106a74b89e94498b488df81318def99cfc3afebb
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_168.tif'
b8e129aa16de04ba7f083d0a42f24a3f
963036267ea7ecfc70e069ec4e8bcaeb93434c05
describe
'2069' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_168.txt'
7926b4302db1b2784f537e56824344c1
e780110243002f628ed29883aa3155f9682d0c8a
describe
'6435' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_168thm.jpg'
0b031dad5be63fa69b4ebf83a527c227
d4f3feeb274f17245dde12d1c57677390498288f
describe
'113072' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_169.jp2'
f1a3cf3e06f144a8aa5c8a0b17ff069e
803158740db28e5b0448f6c8d73d10f6462500fd
describe
'85397' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_169.jpg'
8a89a873d5d48a507ab815689804f18d
980a5f538fad052cc1c9950033802a189a1e82a0
describe
'51584' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXSZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_169.pro'
099f680ec0b7586371d7dbe826bdeaec
069eeb833078639475c7be7ac6e10868c1acfd89
describe
'27216' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_169.QC.jpg'
726d31fc9ee9a66b7f606c486b7f2b26
b686f1a7160caf34da42eecbc99af0cf97c08f29
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_169.tif'
a72984eb042220b6cde70858ce24fc88
a496747068d1d8f49b542cce7058b2b3abaad328
describe
'2052' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_169.txt'
8a731bfdeb45e852c237d7f44c3a11f3
d75c2d3725fae3f79f3b76a9e86142d0cdece8f5
describe
'6342' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_169thm.jpg'
d768879fad14bdad28460c1f69e7213e
a26d3adde405a414adc28da4fb48732fc354de2b
describe
'113652' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_170.jp2'
76c19eb1287415a7a43a302fae562f0f
7fb251822cda50cea53080e3976ce5a5ec768d9b
describe
'85753' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_170.jpg'
2d445923948008b8bad9b794d879254c
18d583d9e9155f960deee86a47d167dc865915e1
describe
'51081' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_170.pro'
3a3973103ee8865b3f02322cd7d1c1f9
6c516182c7712b7cf53c3f50b14423189aeb916a
describe
'26606' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_170.QC.jpg'
8c0621f6d848a17f84d3b8a61fdcb4c8
1f6f834a6848e7e4d5b86b944883400eb1072d40
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_170.tif'
5f216919e380a0b9f7ac973227ddc164
67f7807484dc14b16144b5be82cd2be3557e134d
describe
'2004' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_170.txt'
417e9412d9f5d7a0411df108b78ab15a
20fbbfab335eb042245b57bb2fef7743e6e51673
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_170thm.jpg'
afaadb70dad795c85cfa4ef3efbd59ab
859d6a653fb02f151e10410e6544ae46731f17e6
describe
'1051970' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_171.jp2'
7b1cb2c2484f7d96505d5ba9dff17bc0
2e024ad96c9c6a55ecc2f2379bf0ff64b787a0a2
describe
'84240' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_171.jpg'
40eaf0746d35691538ae0f3bfb792d1c
11eca580b90e5d648f37882a7d3a8587cf3b0a5d
describe
'50054' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_171.pro'
32d66f03771ad7d43d076351ac39576b
1df2effbf5b1ba2aaaa090f6fe3b5b58350b66b4
describe
'25941' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_171.QC.jpg'
35fd37e53aa477d7912223c509b197fd
c4098df5e21de3ab8c9831ffe356b45aed49f682
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_171.tif'
64eb08e27bbc166c72b2338ae1aef9b6
5caa1edd8e92700cae079f28611a0b2454b04a6c
describe
'1970' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_171.txt'
a50171447cec3bb348d69c1dbec897a1
8c27dbdf5cc93bd3dfb215e0faf4535b07baf313
describe
'6406' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_171thm.jpg'
12d0b42a56f5fc5ab42859aecc0f63d7
5d3c2c73d63f74535791950924abce94e46f8f74
describe
'108467' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_172.jp2'
bbd0469c2d990b83e1d82e3c1cb2136b
245bc0cfa4787d2d145a0fc5593c666a55cb74f4
describe
'83575' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_172.jpg'
5a93e02458846ee028b480216d339653
15feab39045f70d0e07b231223f546214adc464c
describe
'49572' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_172.pro'
554a26728dd0669e7c3dd21dba535d7b
8cb69cdfde057cf90bad618dacbb3f677692942e
describe
'26257' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_172.QC.jpg'
c27010da524f87a1cb5fdacbaa1e7628
05fb20f8101d4a16108b41bdbf3fe8e00058e6cd
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_172.tif'
af71e5c4c64a1f22ba2b160bae986354
f6d8b4cb1acacb888eb43f9c2a48ab2d2db6170d
'2011-12-12T16:44:02-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_172.txt'
e968eac709ac906460f4c774347b7f15
33d5c53b39a6ca47369a7df2ec4b5b376bb6a66a
describe
'6127' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_172thm.jpg'
6b7f6f2d35b615ff3a0f275182dd993e
f27f117f23db9d4d34816586b3a6695250de529b
describe
'112204' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXTZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_173.jp2'
82c7afefe7a873e32d0e6bb0dfe37f92
a06481495f3213b4c5f25f56e1cb19ff52eaaf46
'2011-12-12T16:44:05-05:00'
describe
'84938' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_173.jpg'
23a6d5194a968b93a54bc8d0e94bd2e8
0a338b047e00c0ffc7dfe0fb6a37f4970f4b38e2
describe
'51095' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_173.pro'
bde938ab9eee297d538071bfca71b2ba
e3d51da43c32dc8c23f85c616f59428a82086b3c
describe
'26527' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_173.QC.jpg'
829d7665d7b2b9458fd00dab4a81315b
f5d4908037a333388a27706a5b724bad64b75ba8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_173.tif'
24401f36354b9013dc7de2d5399ce636
ecdd86dc72765168afa491f25ce0a462b7ad4cce
describe
'2015' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_173.txt'
ddd910d9f12e840fcccb5279b44e1d3a
b885129a8d465cf8172d87fbb4851c411b1620e3
describe
'6356' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_173thm.jpg'
3b526039ff6f01babf78f818714b40ef
31377a64fe0d128fff13242df2d69ab44b03c7fa
describe
'110530' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_174.jp2'
70c07a9aa06d77f1df7efe3cffe810f1
484a4b61fb75adc9915eccfd35da60eb94b841f1
describe
'83036' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_174.jpg'
cc2d756e79ea4fa34782996fa1dc3609
6e347879e61454b5abbd96896aa48f1f3a8f30da
describe
'51892' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_174.pro'
1d8bd9ead53ec5d46cfae0b1579da0af
65a49454eb315ac5b84a5dcd5494f45b7dc7b5bd
describe
'26068' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_174.QC.jpg'
d963d6a9730df8864ac6705e7e96e73c
de2e6d648f69b3a330ef56ea516e7461a99f0064
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_174.tif'
cbd700a69ded8dde9a1f08459ac8eaa0
1f33eeb25e9f06f0027b334d6741be7471117a21
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_174.txt'
02b9f10a0347eace19b78b9b202d3681
85020739274160738c0e61976a530600de89634f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_174thm.jpg'
168a01d4b9c5002eafa11a584703179d
a307b618b5ed3421b5408320d9b1cab5cb4fb308
describe
'108165' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_175.jp2'
ddef07dac02e815a1e7b0d724b7d3e3a
1c21a97106d60cfa3d1cc88ef6d75ba67d9423c8
describe
'81300' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_175.jpg'
381c6120a03c2a9f308be745c8351bcc
d975cba4f367ba88f48911d599fbd90d13a0f881
describe
'47908' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_175.pro'
1ba7fdd88db6182791540423ba2ada6b
03ab2603626085b19f593e97f53fdb1290a9a9ed
describe
'24773' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_175.QC.jpg'
201ec268f96179eba561c5ac95d718b1
422ccab40edf0aa55b1421835e354f4cbecdedd2
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_175.tif'
97ac24777ffc3953fc375329370aa44b
84203eee08da43498b549063b575cd70daab7818
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_175.txt'
eda3d05dd4fb42cc73b65d615162e521
058e2241da702986c5ca36511a3e1bef85545f4e
describe
'6256' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_175thm.jpg'
c5690823674ffec800995a20c4dc319b
4f2cab234c258daf3482cf0c4096716f0f3249dd
describe
'1051979' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_176.jp2'
bab907ba9c17264cb268044b1d92fb84
8d5fc177d3d3bf79c9f6506965077b986aab7152
describe
'85713' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_176.jpg'
8755c10e6922349d6871b43598045053
0186f649069c0fc2db9aa3f65cd5fdcc893ebc39
describe
'51307' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_176.pro'
8da8a3483790f9ea1a8a344c161ab618
5b18f28d488a2c4e38f596146af1268ba45338eb
describe
'26624' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_176.QC.jpg'
f936f10f36bcc5573dcf3a0d9aab7e6d
01ddbbbbff98b11b38b593dccae05cf7ac76ee9c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_176.tif'
602221f04df026f5b514d2a31faf5402
a86d6b04d93566ba0c0c800b462f964ebcf0e16a
'2011-12-12T16:43:37-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXUZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_176.txt'
3614404ed796af017507f8d753636502
c998f8e33a7272177b6e05b6f7aac484f7872ab0
'2011-12-12T16:47:37-05:00'
describe
'6319' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_176thm.jpg'
4987e73fe6bd4616f6b0b9fcfe6aba9f
9ad63cbc7791bbfa3198c91d97c8974420cec921
describe
'126743' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_177.jp2'
e0918db1dcf9cad9727506c6c82417ed
8c1a373387444945c09fddeb48b727073b763993
describe
'96730' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_177.jpg'
4fa9bb0bce71439fbcb5b137a04b747f
9e516efbd999690e98cebd9e4b58b1f3d5edfab5
describe
'58840' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_177.pro'
dccfbf6bb2d8ba308bffd620570605c1
71b978ac13633a6102544f3c44e9dcf57072be1f
describe
'28506' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_177.QC.jpg'
4490f99d31222ad4d054d25648f524e0
e742c30ac15ce1a4ea7974703c7c6e097bd895cc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_177.tif'
a4bac7c264e505ae921a8aa7c15b4333
2df86cd4fcdc976222b0644c0d0a45b385eeffe9
describe
'2347' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_177.txt'
d5c9c892a0595663b091da3fc6a477e3
23b769e07c4ca7255398fc90344d541718ba6e4b
describe
'6562' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_177thm.jpg'
683ae9f66fecc5629d56a841f10ba5d1
6e7a8e026057543b254a76af8399308080f6d703
describe
'1051943' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_178.jp2'
72baafb00a989bf7e9ebe9645e4425c6
844c2c59ab4df230ff5c90881b5b515548f426c9
describe
'85008' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_178.jpg'
31266dd428c3ecbc3e78e5d9494749c6
0fe877f63192d64ba74b460faaf8348ebd5ad2d6
describe
'49817' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_178.pro'
0254272ec8e24023879fe4b0b36e017b
545269ae9e001beae77974ca3dcc1cdaeab4957e
describe
'25785' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_178.QC.jpg'
8949e8b32129c97f946ca0285e5c8516
a71ee13b7fa9afcf718c3799df60b02819a9af36
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_178.tif'
db201b05558aa2a8b34a604454bac58b
c96f9093a9466e794569cbb8a00c4078703d6ad3
describe
'1967' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_178.txt'
69b4f094c2bf1e8698cf39fabe7149cf
c88e7191572b2b667626e052685a592754a75caf
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_178thm.jpg'
2f493723440bfa3d807bad65bf243797
9dccbda88c70e4f7fdecaf9b532309df5aa855e9
describe
'111426' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_179.jp2'
c4cae6d719d788f3b36eeec2c4ae42ed
9ff8061003ed4b2543258489fb0b80b6c6b5f0b3
describe
'83864' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_179.jpg'
dfb4b313715f032a1c044f89b3fd0322
2b0472ea951da45e9bb2f3f4b1b7ea856d886a69
describe
'50025' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_179.pro'
73d2ae21ac74ade83324eb18b50101ec
fe3805c789bd0cb0b234ef694ce3edbc13ee40ed
describe
'25847' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_179.QC.jpg'
baee12741752e2acaaefd39aa08d0aaf
ae1fefb5c60f92fac03631709541d95a124577b5
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_179.tif'
2cb5b4e88e6007d0598c3d344a4d10c8
f498c75a0398b748cbea1ccd3a72d89e607098dc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_179.txt'
1717f5140b4bbd893654cc77eaba573f
a06917911f6e353e57430097dbce71ec2505c213
describe
'6444' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_179thm.jpg'
05b2a09da81b8be68aa06aedce8577b7
12e3481a4aaff530242deb625fce7cbb33ffcb48
describe
'106310' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_180.jp2'
c81feeef289b457a68a9f83ded2e4c1d
8010e1e54444ac645c8a5aac1d1e679069c18212
describe
'81311' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_180.jpg'
b8ea5b3e792c4950cc99aa701400dc38
d09e7db0741ececde7bc1b52ae9e74b1fd490ec5
describe
'48299' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_180.pro'
4ba1b0773c52ba519c6658626476c0a9
6d5607d1cee2fd1bd96002632434a21f9e664d4a
describe
'25031' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXVZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_180.QC.jpg'
3d62c2c67685b630f2849ba9dfaba706
d6127cb00c5e01b7c2b3046145bf8f805e0b98fd
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_180.tif'
4948d61b914220441f31601b6df3c3d2
3d583f205cc570252fc2073b81e7457776ee1a36
describe
'1904' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_180.txt'
7f444f5819e04546d92af2b88b48049a
b5812647fae3e403a9f02ba591985cdbdb09395e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_180thm.jpg'
91ca3d875af6a018dfecd12f8ed7bcfd
93d9207b8db562bde0bca0e08911fe69425bbbeb
describe
'1051986' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_181.jp2'
0b95546b525931a805fe715a233cb36a
dbfc76a3fefa96103455dd9b5894fcd81083809e
describe
'87291' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_181.jpg'
a876a5cf2c3be4b1fa84149e69c82594
a9cef25a1a0572006b0229d59df07edfa2a8851e
describe
'53669' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_181.pro'
6b8c6de40f2900507dc3d9e6c400a11c
37b59fbd8b4afd7ca30e4d1d3ad32032f1f2895b
describe
'26590' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_181.QC.jpg'
1f9b0edbe72b43d511ab52e09ae80b8b
a2840934d355235b3735992b9e5c86c0c84a369a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_181.tif'
f8f15f939d37e608d97de752c57f970d
06f5ec83d7f9c2885eea553f060a74ad32baa4f1
describe
'2099' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_181.txt'
9202398124cd47f74c9daf9e396cf12c
76a8d275146452614ac2adb92a7c1e73a21e28ee
describe
'6461' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_181thm.jpg'
180420bd81bf6d91351676f05fadf668
8abb18728efc6f6dc7b92bcbb32247b825ea8d1f
describe
'118654' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_182.jp2'
1d1361e37351c3b7804558b1054bb285
fc66776cc4af04c8dd0389958a4384ffdaa10816
describe
'89430' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_182.jpg'
958aacfbb9a74a87616d38b14a6b8cd3
2850a985c996ecd4ced671ec813757c0fd9cf2d0
describe
'53121' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_182.pro'
7a37b6e19be2f835837f324a7536ca47
c5154c16d057cafa6e2e21092e4e132a77c31a99
describe
'27773' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_182.QC.jpg'
f761c37b64581b4c0624506f4a3a41f7
9982cb572b1a85f7e8e8d7ac4aa185914fb04b71
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_182.tif'
bf1bd1d8a54551c2bcbb4a4b08bf3da3
8e3349003a6542413841652cbf9884236a30724b
describe
'2116' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_182.txt'
854f9d925b17bef5682625ad80fd7d1f
0ef120bc4ab632da0eb367a6a420ddc6cd589fb5
describe
'6551' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_182thm.jpg'
1e126d2a2b264866699a6eacf6fd3104
b7bde41c3a71d3a0491d95c033d1582950a7b6ea
describe
'112207' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_183.jp2'
6bc8bc0607b676788844a8c422aa627b
42beefd474a3e8f93a67b22f7e79a78674be7789
describe
'84693' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_183.jpg'
b0ee8b9c96531cd75f68697d1a56b8e8
563f90d14bc160e6fc89e93082e1cbce386ac756
describe
'51185' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_183.pro'
4f1643e316fa89290b1d8768acdbd2a9
552fa4371043180e5bcee9acba4100e79a548706
describe
'26256' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_183.QC.jpg'
f762ad76f6cab9c85e6b2369957d71a7
515123c88d5fbfae46ea0099e67ac49aeb97674a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_183.tif'
d0ac06a024e9fc16e3347a4134a7255a
f091a1f9aaffd12b21aa7c4b0e3c7fb00323b23a
describe
'2034' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_183.txt'
2356f1de5637194a72d30b75ae0ab408
373f6cdde1ce986f3ca909f7598aeb3672ecf627
describe
'6558' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_183thm.jpg'
0a1c8e9ec4253b41058125afd051c743
95b8daf4a453c997dbde39e89861cbfb993952c3
describe
'56619' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_184.jp2'
8fc7533e8cbc7aaab060c19ff65dccc9
6831f3a93674d55c2f462404d40a36bf444bc988
describe
'43184' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXWZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_184.jpg'
3a9a7ffb881762e4554ea810cb30903f
111de6713b1e5d9495fdd4c2823092579f025e03
describe
'24301' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_184.pro'
a808897894f40ee92e62501d939654f0
461d5c56d2ae0c9adc1feef1a4585ed85cbbf698
describe
'13776' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_184.QC.jpg'
4c42e8dd1ffe796cd9c89ec89497207a
8102219616286df643a9c310a83810d6aa21e912
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_184.tif'
41fc0cda4d0f437f8a6cab4e40a267e2
97637def5a12325d25dfd6861fb954eb81d7f6cc
describe
'971' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_184.txt'
fcc3bb5bade00e4572347f701d66794b
fa66a8f98e8314e4714a1c343579f304db666cb6
describe
'3344' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_184thm.jpg'
ef895bfc552283afdb457f340e274ce6
017465aa9fba7aba2b299520525bca9896a43cf0
describe
'97089' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_185.jp2'
23d3512a63adab80e12a961483409311
077c0f35b2b8afd3fc2a4f02f1425ef4ee0c509b
describe
'74545' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_185.jpg'
fc4ecb7ad10a02df24d326260495aa42
6a895268d9d1d20ed66bb2d4eab1023eaff09f94
describe
'43813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_185.pro'
3a81e56cddb27571ac374754489b35ee
76a2f31937c2fad0c3dfed6ed0cd8e7cfa9de53b
describe
'22626' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_185.QC.jpg'
f06f4e12cffc93f9812bff00811a4c65
2d029d6db591733432c2bacb7269c7d7e59b0b95
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_185.tif'
cf628c7c9d2a9e7d2ba443ee05965047
a2cd9898b08e5ae34c4233b2f00eb486f2293985
describe
'1818' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_185.txt'
98be1288b63df856c0be9c408622d0ff
7f0ee17e8f6c5ce269466346ad3ba887a8e51f9f
describe
'5463' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_185thm.jpg'
e59556db5a63145e5d501bf27a935360
ca8c17c257758f9410481b30c1a3a9e042729c01
describe
'112197' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_186.jp2'
a14dd5791b9da7540dbc0b419ed4d409
3929993d1a0ada8e99536787f8a8ea2817f2e9b0
describe
'85348' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_186.jpg'
da27116be8d8d012716701d8ae6d0014
a06bd1de6fd72f7012c5e8dbfabf82e4390ccb8a
describe
'51985' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_186.pro'
8b735fb1c73840621c42f4c186b71c00
e47e7efde1edb43c4cd40f0e285e22e496ffff3e
describe
'26528' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_186.QC.jpg'
a1b61a2e134685d8672660386bc438ad
5d4edf350f10538e4fb5bf851eca9506149544d9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_186.tif'
b0c9338741d6374604faeb99d1da331f
3822b47500adab22dfa501e0f483960ab3ca883d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_186.txt'
986506d7d783a5d9a337de899984702e
e5b104bc0d5f3c5d4c9ef2372307f9ecc99f0cd3
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_186thm.jpg'
d0170f5e8e72326a7d6c86061e1fc922
6bc2255b364d1ecaea34958b90e406f214244551
describe
'104307' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_187.jp2'
71fd15632ba74ee30507a768bbcf1536
507bb9afa1945861b36a1df61f472ae99dd95d37
describe
'79124' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_187.jpg'
64c4875625af1250038a72ca17fad017
99604ee73aec3d15510750233c6780ed15d3f399
describe
'47532' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_187.pro'
38b8ff6d9d32410fbc80292721213be5
f6adaae252e920c671353b334b4b0195777476b3
describe
'24326' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_187.QC.jpg'
a56de2f134ac61cbc7994f6aed533c48
ef30969658025fc87424d5432adc341cbe6d8de1
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_187.tif'
c2166879843ffab330c278d1820e326c
892cea9021b59a0e8d6461dbabbe077787e23a55
describe
'1892' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_187.txt'
e2af9350778e07b2db69eb4af06a18f5
a4a47fb13f485e4a92969f129d868968bf0f8d37
describe
'5994' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXXZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_187thm.jpg'
f859d5f755151a81efd2637e08138f2c
151d787895b6c2f66bc21058bc0769ef4f6e6de6
describe
'135679' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_188.jp2'
16e4bd35912e656b7267ac82ff680d4f
e0fb65946d50c40c507a5c18e3640d4c3effdb1d
describe
'98483' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_188.jpg'
16421288918cdd7822ed3d130fef33d4
927e11f4ff0d750eb8ebc4a35bbd6b49a22ef4e8
describe
'72065' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_188.pro'
743ff258a34c0a4c69e3bb21c4adee1f
e63e29a2c77439edd6d25d97d047cb8f0b633b8e
describe
'26961' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_188.QC.jpg'
373ad3b5fcf17da51b01f5a6f3b4db51
da59fd8ff7c9b64f94076627d74ad0e59c294002
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_188.tif'
b73cc87fc2f865b592f21c5e33da1362
a46baae27e4b96bfca19ee4566a16733b819fd5e
describe
'2763' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_188.txt'
6dc1b1e2c336f954adfbcbc674dceb85
dde76905d4f96fc758669e684a4d046e0febc5ca
describe
'6455' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_188thm.jpg'
db631a5c36f2c339e91dec1933700878
1e5fa3fabe18c08861c9dcb7eec6a80cc5f828bb
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_189.jp2'
1e6fd929228e6be304e14ea4e3efa9c7
2f84a0f9762e03a04572c7692573141f6b215c63
describe
'82748' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_189.jpg'
4a0bda8c852248024d3a0f5ea8424036
a6f35cf32ccbb60cbbff663dae903662d3de3418
describe
'51505' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_189.pro'
f645f9c957d0bac2e50507448da41751
69e8bb7e49465e0a68d64e8eb23ffc803688cc03
describe
'25637' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_189.QC.jpg'
fddb4c70b7a0d920c6032888d0941b6d
9355f59c342acef0061233e581a9e0481e5c49c5
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_189.tif'
41dc924700ac209f2bfa5f75c0ef48dc
7259e23a9e8b9933eb8cf010c5ef6f18585fe61c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_189.txt'
fa48817d6139d0eaebfe7282855ef7c2
8f4744457cdbc6ed3c824d9b14d2ab986645d022
describe
'5982' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_189thm.jpg'
c92abd5afc2bcb225f57219d7811f4ed
56562f49785b26a4c31dc36fd859dba4d0d92655
describe
'111412' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_190.jp2'
5258a3fcc42964694444f5823bda9b88
5bb914654e5c2a211846ab3942e5c588e98cda91
describe
'83934' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_190.jpg'
5ca8488eddb869e9e2addce1b4b1cc01
e9770ce4819d3b1d366b1bf3ee8bfbe071c4b3e9
describe
'51690' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_190.pro'
b04e50caa58f691cd897ea5d678eb0a2
efb514faf44e0f5358d6cb86ab7760474cd11d0a
describe
'25928' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_190.QC.jpg'
98c3ed41ff1b0e44369eefea84fd0610
57ec51957c781f978378ce7efa869a38985df33c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_190.tif'
86bc8cdff6eb69b22fa235e5c73af9c5
1e9bfd029f7066646da889fb24d0fe456bfd420e
describe
'2028' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_190.txt'
3c29b1b0ef24c47fc614e02e3e07189d
eec32481e60b25c27009f78e958021e684dbda1d
describe
'6409' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_190thm.jpg'
3d55117a043b5bf92e5581b3d1b23dbf
49e38c518864a929e83cb8ad06ac29442d9f1320
describe
'132408' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_191.jp2'
2cd6172de7170e41dd6f892e7915fb4e
308996b680419369fc38695d2f3ca1d6d3d045d7
describe
'97532' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_191.jpg'
2b73b8c5dfafbfa8199a3f036f036b61
0ee45c98006ce60925eb2320dfa222922a760ee0
describe
'68783' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_191.pro'
53cde0d2e803e5b258c7d1a20a475bcd
3c61b88d50a98c5d2f1f4d62f3834962ad417b1e
describe
'28128' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_191.QC.jpg'
35f1b5d80a6647bfffb47d169a86bb15
9b35e5b65f738d25a051e4660269f0d2842e2f83
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXYZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_191.tif'
9eff390693ac27a1d97e9fecae247c45
89c93cdee9d76f21b2690f56ab78c867daf6100b
describe
'2634' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_191.txt'
96c014b8bdbfad6000f902b04392f194
2902e5d28e34fe6a500daa8fc6748243e883d739
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_191thm.jpg'
92ba47fcf8035ab4455fa4bd0c7bcc09
788f227a6e0a61b797fc6f4043e03d2462a03d57
describe
'131173' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_192.jp2'
257bf63da8270cf18c4ae9288ebe07e3
e9263fd721b6373727adf36d9bd327d6f9796689
describe
'97793' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_192.jpg'
a6a1ff1f1a05037fb324fbfe0c2e4369
93dd34403139b2184f4ac925cb400a9d6b507d46
describe
'68591' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_192.pro'
dcf14bb6e13d90f3c61f9dc88d4a7301
aa35a999fc8d2f91550cca253a004d569e9d8229
describe
'27934' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_192.QC.jpg'
3a78a8b8214ed654de47f6a7a05a1c30
a6d002eccb959fe0c8b445c4849c3a77e06500ba
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_192.tif'
7cffb423aa76c61ae3d2e662c55fa7ad
c4403e662bc9d5900cc7c635ec2f8c9ad583b05f
describe
'2630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_192.txt'
32abdeef56b194dd977c883dc52714bb
93dfd1f44f8c5aeab5497a92ba11ff1d144ad844
describe
'6699' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_192thm.jpg'
425cd58370efca353752ecdf39ba3573
92d56f91b2f3c51b3754ab1ee250808aa18580e0
describe
'1051971' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_193.jp2'
0ce46f8a916d8a530b5a656a8407243d
e2c9d5b93586acc74378766c1277b75841af41b7
describe
'96662' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_193.jpg'
2e092da76237327bf0f0d605617c6d74
63ce6070baf9e90291c1eeff63afe93350a91a82
describe
'65673' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_193.pro'
c6d60f6429a7bad86285e113a7666fe8
1bfd78fd68a618951498cf611591db18211c7b1f
describe
'28974' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_193.QC.jpg'
e9395a71837119908baf579dd25d6608
a851c7f96b7cacbde3ac5b1d9e3470f9a833aff2
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_193.tif'
c69e09a7f03570610a8382bc8cb42909
c6fd7dd3ae9bcdbd0093b3996d1b7a9fbaf99adc
'2011-12-12T16:47:38-05:00'
describe
'2528' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_193.txt'
4bbd6034a3b385dde95c95cad1a2737c
dfd06afc7c84a97c91b106f9b4f8891ea4b25e63
describe
'6696' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_193thm.jpg'
5878d4c6ea3adfe2f3f2dbed7a61b921
c784c730049042cba3174370e061c2104461e8b0
describe
'1051930' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_194.jp2'
d4ca65eff0ffc99d2ed25c68cde993d4
cb981eb545b4fbf97d69eeb1612f1d79320e7197
describe
'114827' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_194.jpg'
b82a7379c2f437b0f32d85176ffd2141
43cde872a1d5f38646b9bc7e6f5eebae5e767b74
describe
'89377' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_194.pro'
a0b38875b0418fb02a17913ef4726bb2
d91bfe4eaad8aec473e7517f3589d0508a71a944
describe
'30538' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_194.QC.jpg'
6efc2828616bc326e24e616bdf5aac09
79bfc4043f502979794482d387403e4e7445913d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_194.tif'
9fe6f31393792150d86a09fdec420bf2
4defa27970f13cce084ab11fa841c38c34c61e09
'2011-12-12T16:45:17-05:00'
describe
'3429' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_194.txt'
0423841bdc26ab733c25647b483116f3
99f74b93b41fc36b6c1cedb171682807a54ae750
describe
'6980' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_194thm.jpg'
58a5392ba8d2c00ce51f422163e418fe
f0c0e64e72564a48f989d08b6d8653594eff4be2
describe
'110716' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_195.jp2'
4aad2628e30b1b39fa09fa418b309079
3106431596b2ab8d1a3422dc31bf6589ca45c093
describe
'83998' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_195.jpg'
271f14ff82d398747db470c581d4d528
51025a9c15046c3e0a61d384e306760480070c04
describe
'50520' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAXZZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_195.pro'
60ce71f5e7955928d448ba01dafc62bd
2588cb1d97ec426e20e7d6429733b8b1500217bc
describe
'25978' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_195.QC.jpg'
053b9508055cbbaa2438d86ed6310312
9f4d81d4a38eaa7bff03aa1ab7613569511a0e11
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_195.tif'
7e2f39bcc3472148bfe03f099f5bc909
eeaffcbbff90c14088dbe485de721a4f228e0b38
describe
'1983' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_195.txt'
5cf6a6ba7d2e420c2c96982b228fdbf6
5a5c312c9b5376d64b7d0e6b4e1ca7e712cddc4a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_195thm.jpg'
63053c63c4586f0001575e272e7632e0
1c8fe0dbcb2a8b068fe732720e411bc315f9c0a4
describe
'136089' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_196.jp2'
17d5d21f6dadfd47222f1a99fc7fc756
0670ef04349bbad0357a5d7f512599a474a21c1e
describe
'100727' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_196.jpg'
c0ff1e35e08226360429bcfec6a32d99
4dac2d7367e3f3a86917e0e701f240663d031d15
describe
'73654' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_196.pro'
3eea4a13451d48d56923ff5a8f012ffc
7e190b07c6c7eb9776a17a8e507b3619be222737
describe
'27868' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_196.QC.jpg'
b789f83f72ce52c590a76560db275bd8
2f3e36660f2e7b4fbbf2fc81d530abdef3bfc6fe
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_196.tif'
408b5e85a013ec5882d86c9cf8fa2b70
0571be46b6cce2e700663cf122b439b8b42da6c5
describe
'2859' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_196.txt'
09ff221b2f7194e0af6750d4aa59408b
12b36586ed269c1860f00bdada01fa64cf68bef2
describe
'6469' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_196thm.jpg'
0c7815c728894f84d51037791293343a
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describe
'111190' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_197.jp2'
86a685026378834d8cb59e1bd4944f8d
604ad0e72b9cb8cbe19899380dece033a75b1498
describe
'84512' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_197.jpg'
3edb5ba22b24a007e547f263d5cf70f0
c559d64c333497566a7ef605183b1837aa5e5dc9
describe
'51266' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_197.pro'
62a3f265531dae9874c50ea73786e05b
da8981cd11ea1608ee8dea0f74a5f5965519590a
describe
'26076' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_197.QC.jpg'
479fdb3dc1e7ca184e13dd2d752b03a9
3236ebc25913755d223f9d3a1ccfa97b5cbfbc63
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_197.tif'
7120a5421a0cf6022c7b799ae718d735
9baee9367e6f1ddab7b6de02577b6542931442ac
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_197.txt'
c9f4419a6417dc849a6f7528c04be1bf
698edafc59c925a4d54ad5896f5dfb601ccadea8
describe
'6552' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_197thm.jpg'
b6164ee98052b2df9319737bf89e7e6c
bea360ebb497d32dcae4ce751f61f1b4c3189cb5
describe
'103060' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_198.jp2'
307bf4ca43f0b92ad3edfbcc7b5f0d96
b4df0cc030de4ec5b8a5c0b05cc747ff2f717d9c
describe
'78262' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_198.jpg'
3e257cb525d87c68d5dc3c0a7b604e22
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describe
'46672' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_198.pro'
6276647d2aa5fb0f0e1e604db3fb682a
cabc37f962cfbc61f2390ac3337065f2fa93dd3c
describe
'24678' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_198.QC.jpg'
39eac613219959ba1927480fa7abd3df
19cfb29ccd3ff418a2074cd2cd46cb2c4f5e739c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_198.tif'
1df2a3cfbf13d44eb6963e183d9d6778
a28cf3554365f35ce19986609dbbbd16c905bb8f
describe
'1849' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_198.txt'
8b5b2e6df5b051955e4617f2c77525fa
83386f9cd500b531c021eebf0645c6fee570eed0
describe
'5926' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_198thm.jpg'
4993fb3490425b6a578fd3f25ae628bb
43ce4a2640e2f39ae7541dcb187f5e7e1f1558ab
describe
'114144' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYAZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_199.jp2'
a65ee93277f2f206dd7442d9349e316f
bccd9e64f1256883f791aa6935324ca1d85f930e
describe
'85866' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_199.jpg'
628148bcb8d26173f49446607d679966
30377084e3ad5f875e850e2587a7c88a7472f0e7
describe
'51698' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_199.pro'
c139614d692eece7efbbe584c57ad492
ffa02b6df5a0befb71e57d9b64aee72dd4ae1c77
describe
'26764' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_199.QC.jpg'
1ffdf281d7f30d57d20c5d297078bccf
27fb4611d0dbc2833263908f1b955966bde68089
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_199.tif'
41243eb9ff8768eb321a55743444ca88
c320397a8418ff4e6af82a34b1057d605ea7f6b9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_199.txt'
335d937b200dd1c504006dc25910205a
67cb7015a5bf6ce242488c28c584c90659ec9967
describe
'6480' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_199thm.jpg'
719c72419a2fcd8747739c7be176dac5
078585e6942f9d9119a40a51f7e7df1adeaa1b73
describe
'110513' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_200.jp2'
01636f310fdb12993ddc2819d3971a8e
7fb68c4aef450723a828954023a86b09db76a3ae
describe
'83383' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_200.jpg'
830040308d8f52870fdf7fea1a7a5250
be89340f866e4ccd31f0cb338f4d0b2104c9c841
describe
'50505' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_200.pro'
da9e71624855d4abe27177a906f08d37
27743d8db3f45263cbea1e8edda0de3924b7056f
describe
'25707' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_200.QC.jpg'
97b1ef7f858f064505554aa5db691fd5
3346eb6a5f3af2116b775c7727bbd5343752b397
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_200.tif'
796404b3f18fb314fbea55c150c75244
e24d7993741bd3ab2df8dad729bd2db149ab37ce
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_200.txt'
56a13542d92a77be089961c5d477b6cf
817c791f77fc8e80b2024d9c369b70c5bde8d47d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_200thm.jpg'
c3faafacff924f2e5706a1e8a755bbea
4bb5b2b73d7d430d621719225f1e72035a307e8d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_201.jp2'
9766f13ca3ace94a515327d49188c1f3
0fc1258b6379efd14d974e3805b360a58dca71cd
describe
'86862' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_201.jpg'
08f0c08c5b32a4a073a4f730fd25f656
eee7559c106c7b6b3e63e9cd93a69d227342f41d
describe
'52371' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_201.pro'
8dcf3ebbfcec8491edf7f3910f4a78d3
be275878b7124d89bf669010a5507bbefe7b5bbc
describe
'27503' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_201.QC.jpg'
2ebc3372cd2530bf1a0e678c7d8ce5d9
c70f213c34d0883190f5e61f76b0e438b1c40536
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_201.tif'
cc91a849e16220ac83969322b4854ea6
d2e1c74c04397337d73953aae1cee31922ca2ae6
describe
'2064' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_201.txt'
f2e14f61c6621106fbd3c2830a8e4162
0ae937235d723360e2fdf7cd3bbe344f9906ea9e
describe
'6545' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_201thm.jpg'
f13016c508cf8840db33feb7a07b7bdf
ea52ca77b47fd4451c0d22beba622debe35deb58
describe
'117292' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_202.jp2'
72ff0e4cbcf27f8eeacfc97b5ac8e077
16695a9f8fb759dfad2c32f28993edee696f076d
describe
'88117' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_202.jpg'
782ebe4113b37787a211b50f3765c7bf
ab83aa159c14bf21a9dae3d856164e3ffc6001a3
describe
'59168' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_202.pro'
ece60c980eca0d83cca45ac0f04c23fd
cb5a3a8c6fe8cd2ba4f81de48b0af6ba93affcc3
describe
'26494' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_202.QC.jpg'
21013235109516703c31e9e0b06a2c55
077687d155ff9efbbb6e08f3bbbb82627a2efad7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_202.tif'
780ad7378322322da59ad0946d473a84
acc348053b41dcafc801e6226b5a718fbc45f49e
describe
'2303' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYBZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_202.txt'
7dfadf527eb5a1dcd5c1ea99ce87e955
f64f26f9b71d0d781b4336becf1dea612b682bed
describe
'6269' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_202thm.jpg'
c060e43de40413573021dc0fafe4fc1c
51aae9f4d5b8ccf69703713c2e91f5bc3d0e7ada
describe
'110193' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_203.jp2'
4c4e61ec73e11ae8781dfb65b52a7285
5899aa036cb63761dc0c2bc29f7dd2c83fc63067
describe
'84162' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_203.jpg'
8c63898109c1bcb58b82108f14b099c8
c885ac87c247de88426e3249e15eb3ba52eeb56d
describe
'51112' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_203.pro'
b902c30a3df0364ed407c8a9a22e525b
a003d78c9799198db5f2f5e48d6f82d527d7771e
describe
'26294' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_203.QC.jpg'
e44e431ad628f8f13eb7bf3e536e36e5
7aaa9c4b4dd07535defcb97668f75e9b7039b41d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_203.tif'
1c3735e6227b43e2c6af8df146f95428
04b848b6096efd095839441afeb4da3fb7139745
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_203.txt'
9ce77d724d10ca41c8b53948823363b0
170223011b86a9fb1d23afd6e1e059a99cf9f6c6
describe
'6615' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_203thm.jpg'
366cfc2e4fe9a89fd94942b572afef1e
4f0da3228367cb29a99247b777f0eb2386336006
describe
'104606' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_204.jp2'
3420a08fe464aa67427e2e9041502e39
a6da6d92df5bf0e1ae0d85ec2f3bbe212c8eadb6
describe
'80084' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_204.jpg'
fc15e3691e367395ce870f2446b293b3
5fcebe072e32e8138b4bc91ac4a4bb90cb83903f
describe
'47792' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_204.pro'
7fed9c612a0b987a3020d9139c714c71
58bcd9ba395c76b1b01037a96604e15512e8fc4f
describe
'25003' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_204.QC.jpg'
188e688721345b737d127faaeb5dc515
af377ad47fee83ccaec39305306846e4564e934b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_204.tif'
a01171fb9bae38a98ca199e63f6df0f5
fd1d776dbb8f4625d09cd4ce76b8ea35773925cb
describe
'1887' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_204.txt'
a0ecc9060cb8f7c16bf28a9888586091
24829868e2a5f8e6c973ea139c506e25074895d2
describe
'5954' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_204thm.jpg'
77409c981db0a43443e8d3f89f69e2fb
03f53115687bab36380b91bd74172cafd821d6fd
describe
'116037' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_205.jp2'
43647a7c62162d2a3ada10645c642bd2
12290382c5e6a48d360dbf1bca7705420e4a0c4f
describe
'87826' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_205.jpg'
8150f0f6caf619fe32e1aa7d9f930cd2
a3b5f0e65460194567ca81a13f5b1c0dc4aa300d
describe
'57610' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_205.pro'
d472602268af7fef63bfbdff3ed1ceef
c359b18face05c67576b63cab45f2377fc0bc2ef
describe
'26532' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_205.QC.jpg'
9c0895619c35d71e00379a888d0ab6f3
55f6f37592bbd097a8af8fe9e1d2a8a08507c10c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_205.tif'
13f43e95983169092c9927e53e9cb63a
b3a9e1e4ac969cebecfa4cdb52bef787b2822e1e
describe
'2252' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_205.txt'
cb38d0c18ddcb3112bf49ef72255175f
01c8a653eecc943b3fdc9c479f798f8e336b2a1d
describe
'6495' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_205thm.jpg'
af9db844f913565c520ad21302ee3c37
393be40326ccbdb18cb6d36ba74373da2d1a32b1
describe
'106880' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_206.jp2'
9651c8946189167dd343a629d31c94c3
10943dd85ee620056ce79c75c0f42111b0c551d7
describe
'81670' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_206.jpg'
3d2d8e51c196006ac5f8a3a38f4435c4
639a4d34a3d18a21590a8ace3b70d7506f2f67d8
describe
'49640' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_206.pro'
de7bae7d161cc60aa92d06afa4ba5156
f0ad095c0b03c4b57627972a105cb5492809b2f9
describe
'25283' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYCZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_206.QC.jpg'
28a0c1475ef1115f82ed9807a9b2b54a
8672e848f326a515aa4d62e816c0eb7700794524
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_206.tif'
db7dfcf97e833e2420effc1560ec3dc9
974e52bb4ae49439a72ce3c8b805cee3c4e46803
'2011-12-12T16:44:04-05:00'
describe
'1952' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_206.txt'
fb0163eeb4450682e1a9c4ac2de8ea8b
d8a2a8aa3c513d1030a3c2b16d5b0f6cacb9a257
describe
'6124' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_206thm.jpg'
0374f2abaf451452f54efdf29847b267
c4a8b0fc349b4d0d12ee1c05e705777dc2dcc332
describe
'154216' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_207.jp2'
4cdf39b7bd9f2ba94d32e8b1227dc5c3
03ed9fa4dda2fc9b3c22baa546ffbb87a5f8f41d
describe
'110479' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_207.jpg'
0d2e45602fc6bacf07fdb8846bf17c8a
75907ecb32ddba78608ce99064f53c2444b05f8c
describe
'84565' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_207.pro'
f62fc79ae69e7c838cc2083ac7d1251e
a78f1c24cf727e9bf5d09e33dac119d0aa5bb843
describe
'30108' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_207.QC.jpg'
afabb890fde06f2acae0d50c42c84cae
f11c1d6eeab7eee3795ed160ef2071552c8a9fab
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_207.tif'
44a9689cd12d6444db8d49444bebd903
7819bcc4f591ffb4e512540eccbacc1f4e511d5f
describe
'3237' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_207.txt'
bad99a9b20d4d20d8e607456b94015cc
f09d12276367f74ff3fab6cc199d5b9ae97893af
describe
'6861' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_207thm.jpg'
f2c86c95b0c79f4c8c4225315c725288
0537020055fbbbcf88a6d10426d2b428d74e5466
describe
'108119' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_208.jp2'
415df6dd8e8d7827deb0c2bf4f0590bf
ed189f365ee81476fb3ff9bf110e3cc2e6ffdd8e
describe
'83006' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_208.jpg'
b45757461528cf1658bfeb976d452fa4
bc1f1b606009446676600c0d07418eb87c4469fd
describe
'49968' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_208.pro'
46f674591d8b64a682d0dc409f110a46
8775b791a38240fc42b964da0f6f333d9b01d3fa
describe
'25471' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_208.QC.jpg'
47a1cc09e4df9faf5b073ed9c459bb44
6532036a180f8f9af5e6812e7403678b40ab2d4a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_208.tif'
75dd574743b1279ca04d7eca6aaca9ad
79da1ef75286c71710d339e30dd2b38586553e69
describe
'2005' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_208.txt'
5f09deab9d95cd89c082c2eacd57a373
bd31023e4c7bbfc17669e7ad44b546dc03a53277
describe
'6171' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_208thm.jpg'
e6a0b146675fbe01d5b731fb32acc1d5
9c9f99964e3c262e741cfe399a28f977bb382722
describe
'128636' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_209.jp2'
e9411d9a51d314bbe4a6c8abe49c26f6
62450f20fdee1d4c0724526ca3cbe254f6d453cd
describe
'96296' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_209.jpg'
1fc84c570e54995a305a8e7a94a79c5d
871f707adc8728aeabbfb6ae69b87b7d2b3a37d9
describe
'69177' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_209.pro'
41e8d92ed29ca95628bbc23a2429a2be
86cafe3b7797afb9e3eaa11d0acf9d5b7ed3a7cc
describe
'26982' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_209.QC.jpg'
43937076cdc4228465a347b92fb99fa9
a7156c7b688e64a3f4d6785c4fde7f10e2d774c7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_209.tif'
eb23959b84ac84f83591e781cddc0d1c
c48b31c646b30fe7df19ed9c22cac7b952d7fb9e
describe
'2703' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_209.txt'
7b8ef96a636413bd71c46442d0fe00f5
1f3cad7801cd739ddd1376fc084c9eb5991eabc9
describe
'6445' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_209thm.jpg'
659bab67272e702fd87d848bfbe4e153
3d3302d272d4c436edfb789ee00a0825e0e1e6a6
describe
'114277' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_210.jp2'
fdc40a697be9898705999c624bfe4b93
d055e806f3a2799d608d253b8219439fb6adc53a
describe
'86831' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYDZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_210.jpg'
b4b334b346abfbcf5a4043d3c83bcb6b
b9595a2ef7106daa456e6da28e6e81ad6a1e3329
describe
'53456' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_210.pro'
660874cfec5794e89f7aef5daf2ca022
956766b4b6990a5aab3212f32c0a54837e20a7a6
describe
'26928' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_210.QC.jpg'
88d44dfc3f08adb2c801a711cdfa82cb
f6053afbdfbf0ac12b2bdfd20fb43233dd0a3d1c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_210.tif'
f98154b7fbfafda15d205f1340306696
c44004b2eff4b521a8e681abe03256da16df76b5
describe
'2094' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYED' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_210.txt'
1ac31814c29b4728845e79f04e2f4e8f
540b2e763f755dab27cf08bf423f298f5d3725c0
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_210thm.jpg'
a477b4a953f7d273c81a5e819e08f85e
f781b35204c4f85d3a74c036a1b484a77b7cb09a
describe
'53362' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_211.jp2'
d69631e977adf66b5a59a356ab1fb18e
e765fa787859c9e1d0e4787af0eed8e6725b2537
describe
'40785' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_211.jpg'
41b03ea9b6886a577d2b34575ab3451d
1af8e264c82d88544b19199cca16a5873a965eb4
describe
'23693' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_211.pro'
a8cccd5c1e74ede2cdb81929ea378f03
e1840dcdfd17c631f3941c9f8065be10ddddafd5
describe
'13093' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_211.QC.jpg'
df776d79751a7042ab89e94341a2dbae
95def166e21d540c53533f11e77219bd06b51813
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_211.tif'
a22febe94ce9d3bd6c6cc9360f4d08bd
b260965c88b594e087988155a56c3a4d5af38db8
describe
'938' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_211.txt'
53ec97c999fdb874466ba04b3365c700
d973be2c19b123ad5d871e36559ffab09f9e7b9a
describe
'3266' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_211thm.jpg'
8903c54c155b7d7dae60df1cd09bde4c
674b6c73011d67ea95f793d18e5656c8e5b315a7
describe
'99314' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_212.jp2'
e45efe567a513324c2cbc009c53b3ff5
3d29c16f9deca76ceb1855c0fab6037c09379187
describe
'75744' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_212.jpg'
b900d0d495fb52f70d2f2bfe105b3b5e
ea7f2a0e3a619fdd3997bc7373b6782bc38e6bca
describe
'43572' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_212.pro'
a3f853c6e4ac6d0a239860b51426dea0
1fb1301157201947a5b386d1b14c51986bd51e5f
describe
'22230' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_212.QC.jpg'
77d8262a65215cb528f041735cdb39bd
b88781d1babc8416ef52d0a8fd081f089b9771b7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_212.tif'
2d405ed445847ba0e35b0b34885d0aac
4c4a5bf58bbbf8efba6f5d3996deda3f01ae0104
describe
'1792' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYER' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_212.txt'
089759605394986ee1aafbb1a5f2550d
4ac3cc8cbc504de8395e0f4b57d3de0361717add
describe
'5543' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYES' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_212thm.jpg'
9794d006ea8e5e7cc4a9d84a5d677ebb
8a34aeb421fe91bd9be342a0d489c6df8d88ccc3
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYET' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_213.jp2'
cf0389150b9fcf917e1f2f87a25aafbe
3c16426837107feb6d8de13164083cb3fc8ed256
describe
'80577' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_213.jpg'
c9f6a2dbdc2ec88ddd6c44114179125d
d1ab7261fab89fb5b3633472a3b99eeaed8277f2
describe
'47659' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_213.pro'
a473757edfcb1d953bc6127881f2741f
db239ceea707c36e50aa814cae25168b1948f5e7
describe
'24765' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_213.QC.jpg'
7e7017c218339da3f7df7910874354ef
5588f73d1646bf775e2ecdb8fdd6aa67ec87b123
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_213.tif'
2d5af9907fc37f78d5745d637df6b745
624bf154185094112287fa04d04767c66c6d8972
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_213.txt'
654375f03bb9a84b55fd25e0ba95c3d9
8863885a0796f1ac32aebb8ffdff5070c2d2b2f4
describe
'6197' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYEZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_213thm.jpg'
7b0fbbeb2ec0d980e00c45f5d5723c4e
c01b685d90a987ad576a8673b9c60c7e6d7ff354
describe
'126173' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_214.jp2'
26621593228ff35af0b67b26ccff366f
afd1d0c535d63b52af1d278ae66cbed0e22dc5b3
describe
'94884' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_214.jpg'
3d0eb0f169f4429d9d93a49a7ef819c4
b2ec53eece4d184e16d387bd4713c33e3135a63e
describe
'57033' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_214.pro'
bb9abee56c87b777309d8be67ac32a70
a6aa6823d0e2aef3bd243467c612e6fa3e532b1a
describe
'28106' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_214.QC.jpg'
7ac51b9f00c1887490601d80a4c4059e
5a1a5b435438bc943e64522a3dd09f6270cc47d7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_214.tif'
7e92a094cd185c56ff7f36d044e4993e
934e7965bbf351be0aaa683c8e0aff06640fa321
describe
'2285' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_214.txt'
0e4e4e4ba8dd8a40d2be81cdade700ee
bd9d33538b5296859ccd482cab2c91e3655cc60c
describe
'6559' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_214thm.jpg'
6964b65b661ee8532a605defa2202156
8015f039d2de899abd92efd61efe02c5600fa579
describe
'120626' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_215.jp2'
dfa8d0485916ba4b319c0f4b0f1d4564
37faa1ec90a618f26dad63ca49243087e35708cc
describe
'90502' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_215.jpg'
57289a0dd13c7641c81e220d5c650516
1c0a393086f44d77879f2474e27061c6ce3a56be
describe
'54131' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_215.pro'
deb657473b50d7f3f640c05a654e5c01
c95f52a8c3c489e30e8c388eb730f33b8a12f189
describe
'26239' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_215.QC.jpg'
51c639c6585ee281e7a8d0d44bdbd3f7
18b3837fec58be324460f0a735340a17bd61762a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_215.tif'
12a949866a712a5e385cfea8c6e85b57
6d40cac0f2cc5d78782549b58c79b873b3d13818
describe
'2177' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_215.txt'
0fd99b4ccc033e9f7e8a8e077550e069
e1f56a478b2f0a5bb6656ef4d04deee25f2b4985
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_215thm.jpg'
a578d466c08c4350078591c2d634146f
fa51c3a1620971d4ee471a0ba66f6db7db857334
describe
'126637' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_216.jp2'
bae8451c8f2679e8073085e663b8c022
67f471b3d4cde956d5495121118cb7bc4dfd508a
describe
'102335' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_216.jpg'
eb2a67ab493dd20f0abd3a24ca692466
85274fc3b980bbe77662e5df97e43504a4b3232d
describe
'57757' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_216.pro'
aa1aac75df31ecdaabb447b1a0b84b51
753af775a75bf90d199750772088089669bcfba1
describe
'27974' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_216.QC.jpg'
0fe59c8c76b6da977c6752a858391c51
bf6a2e880c6198d5d1659b2ebf26e690f0d5e289
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_216.tif'
0e805eaa63032b48cf856a96d4b9dcc9
955e5e111c4fec49e1701d99296a8816e95871f3
describe
'2342' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_216.txt'
8611fa2b0e9ebe62ef9fddd2599c96da
9faa2e182f419f42505c6adccb310476fb642fee
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'6518' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFU' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_216thm.jpg'
8e52211252204c197232fdf51d36a5c1
a1559da76c2be2eaf7d217c456b00253cb13e193
describe
'122040' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFV' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_217.jp2'
1c508340fd2c4ad8f96d052e7bd61d07
bc79db497d6bfe634e18e2d97d97cb09bc49f98f
describe
'93785' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFW' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_217.jpg'
ba1722b67ec5284460c22a4c514bcc79
1fae1a03862c8424ae03ae32a9fb8bc58120e75a
describe
'54480' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFX' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_217.pro'
77b9398752c54cd9a872d6c6ea81d5cc
64860e0e6821a4418a07197e97d2f977dfd254a2
describe
'26445' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFY' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_217.QC.jpg'
4fb6767d3883cf44a69e75e0499d51b4
6ac1b770d87e75c63107cd7c507ec9bd7e31a5c8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYFZ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_217.tif'
3e14b477e535a1fc058c5db765e2cb3d
3a445e61af6dc0647dab3a6807108f7a6177cbd1
describe
'2199' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGA' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_217.txt'
a7efc07fc47edc0919e2111bd1d8f45d
1074cd2765c1135ec82f2d1ba29d43dcfcbd59f6
describe
'6472' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGB' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_217thm.jpg'
4a1f7fd245633989d1a4648cc32d2bd1
e74f922839b34d4b99287caca53d6dc1646a5efb
describe
'120749' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGC' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_218.jp2'
ca8cb4fc34545c7c5df79ebd81d7a62c
8884b65258971a38a685132d2dd6459ccfdfd112
describe
'91173' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGD' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_218.jpg'
4fd7f0e3b38cbc03fb7c86b9826ab6cf
39d250d15e5a6639e4e59b53c2c2c8463e5b2610
describe
'53415' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGE' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_218.pro'
20da802a32f8bd6e09adda36a35a3c17
b37d212b43a972e4435e40e1a5c57f956a4cdc48
describe
'25898' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGF' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_218.QC.jpg'
575993a214ee16c6dee9ae3b593e496c
0557c8b59a7b1badac82ca14aacae9f4fbfadae4
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGG' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_218.tif'
8f5e744027bd65d2ea2e688e55ac494f
af5b3e96a3bcdef48e321b55482502acbc678314
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGH' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_218.txt'
e9ad4c75b07681884fd9a87416344d54
5ba93aa343b77bb037493f98eeb04b030e029bf5
describe
'6271' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGI' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_218thm.jpg'
23506c55d36cd301be3d3678010b283a
f129074f861339c2938742cb89f55df3bba847d7
describe
'112450' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGJ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_219.jp2'
ead50b3d4e9a62d9e472fb2241bc75c3
29387b8391efaae62e3ed1bab66db900d944a13d
describe
'88664' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGK' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_219.jpg'
c1fc45fe28a9edd91dbccb22ad17d415
9e29314863a0fea0cbf32b1ceaf33a38d1190076
describe
'49663' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGL' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_219.pro'
0fd081f9d70a8fbd8f549c222a732d89
25e402e545cfbebb87e009b9a1dc8583b0bbd0d1
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGM' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_219.QC.jpg'
b0302eea39f1a6181d19f0ea069049dd
1c7958427e87f6ea1aef22bbdefb7ede1b21f808
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGN' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_219.tif'
fed70a14a103f6b5ae86e5098b107a98
9c5cc051d5c6ff7984cb4aa35bc10a2761c53fd8
describe
'2007' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGO' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_219.txt'
fa1eb9080598e0c4e2f88fc44d2256d4
cf5451e8838827f9f0809e3415bf744d3820f16e
describe
'6040' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGP' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_219thm.jpg'
f23d4d12fdb25ffdbb19f839081fb52b
e2ab9c2d5a958aced792d5f1da118ce15fe7d716
describe
'105804' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGQ' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_220.jp2'
5460e64f7285a9266d7af57f7b94ad98
8c3bc08aba409a5fbfe035a120b48a2c01eeff63
describe
'79371' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGR' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_220.jpg'
ffcf67472baa6e9b14097731ddddb347
f70b353ee25b5a789773293d83d3d9047ba54bc7
describe
'44963' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGS' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_220.pro'
6e669874be4448a0fe9d0005905a8d3d
bc556ca4f640d41bae52bf83bc40707b441011f6
describe
'24339' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAACTfileF20080515_AAAYGT' 'sip-filestaylor_l_Page_220.QC.jpg'
5aa2a23c1b17a161a0f0cabb0349c420
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NOT OF WOMAN BORN: MONSTROUS INTERFACES AND MONSTROSITY IN VIDEO GAMES By LAURIE N. TAYLOR A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2006

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Copyright 2006 by Laurie N. Taylor

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To Pete.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I have many people to thank for this dissertation: my friends, family, and teachers. I would also like to thank the University of Florida for encouraging the study of popular media, with a high level of critical theory and competence. This dissertation also would not have been possible without the diligent help and guidance from my committee members, Donald Ault and Jane Douglas, as well as numerous other faculty members and graduate students both at the University of Florida and at other institutions. Thanks go to friends and loved ones (and cats): Colin, Jeremiah, Nix, Galahad, and Mila. And, thanks go always to Pete, for helping with research, discussion, giving me love and support, and for being wonderful.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..............................................................................................iv ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................1 Introduction..............................................................................................................1 The Gothic................................................................................................................5 Horror Films...........................................................................................................11 Ludic Gothic and Horror Games.............................................................................14 Gender and Textuality............................................................................................18 Game Studies..........................................................................................................20 2 ENEMIES, MONSTERS, AND THE OTHER IN VIDEO GAMES.......................23 Conflict, Opponents, Enemies, and Monsters..........................................................24 The Player-Character and Her Opponent(s).............................................................27 Monsters and Horror...............................................................................................29 Monstrous Focus in Resident Evil and Fatal Frame ................................................33 Monsters and the Other...........................................................................................41 Conclusion.............................................................................................................43 3 FRACTURED INDENTITIES: SIBLINGS AND DOPPELGANGERS IN VIDEO GAMES.....................................................................................................46 Siblings in Structure: Player-Characters and Enemies.............................................51 Siblings in Narrative...............................................................................................55 Sibling Worlds: Chaos of Changing Structures.......................................................60 Sibling Worlds: Enemies and Monsters...................................................................66 Characters...............................................................................................................68 Doubles, Shadows, and the Other............................................................................70 Conclusion: Survival Horror and Family Border Crossings.....................................74 4 GOTHIC SUBVERSIONS OF GENDER: WOMEN HEROES IN VIDEO GAMES..................................................................................................................76 Gothic and Gender..................................................................................................78

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vi Gender as Style.......................................................................................................79 Conclusion.............................................................................................................99 5 REMNANTS, RUINS, AND RUPTURES: HORROR VIDEO GAMESÂ’ SUBVERSION OF CAPITALISTIC CONCEPTIONS OF SPACE......................102 Introduction..........................................................................................................102 Video Game Spatiality..........................................................................................104 Typical Video Game Spatial Construction............................................................106 Space in Ludic Gothic and horror games ...............................................................111 Gothic, Horror, and Spaces of Memory .................................................................118 GothicÂ’s Discontents.............................................................................................121 Conclusion...........................................................................................................123 6 DOCUMENTING HORROR: VIDEO GAMES AS INTERACTIVE, AND UNREAL, DOCUMENTARIES...........................................................................126 Introduction..........................................................................................................126 Documentary and Docu-games.............................................................................129 Mock-documentaries for the Voiceless and Invisible............................................133 Docu-games for the Undocumentable...................................................................138 Documentary Traditions in Fictional Games.........................................................145 Conclusion...........................................................................................................147 7 PLATFORM DEPENDENT: CONSOLE AND COMPUTER CULTURES.........152 Introduction..........................................................................................................152 Game Culture Platform Dependence.....................................................................155 Academics and Computer Vs. Console Games......................................................156 Internal Divisions: Console Wars..........................................................................160 Gaming Interface..................................................................................................163 Consoles are for Kids............................................................................................166 Places and Ways of Play: Living Rooms, Online Hints, and Game Play Conventions.....................................................................................................167 Game Genres........................................................................................................173 Conclusion: Platforms for Academics...................................................................174 8 SEQUELS, PREQUELS, AND SERIALITY IN VIDEO GAMES.......................176 Introduction..........................................................................................................176 Continuing Narratives, Closure, and Character Development................................178 Serials and Series..................................................................................................180 Sequels, Prequels, and Seriality in Games.............................................................187 Defying Closure: Serial Functioning of Ludic Gothic and Horror Games..............192 Conclusion...........................................................................................................199 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................203

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vii BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................217

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viii Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy NOT OF WOMAN BORN: MONSTROUS INTERFACES AND MONSTROSITY IN VIDEO GAMES By Laurie N. Taylor May 2006 Chair: Donald Ault Major Department: English Not of Woman Born combines an examination of the structure and genre of horror within video games to analyze how horror video games operate and the significance of those workings to video games and digital media, horror across media types, Gothic literature, and gender. The majority of texts on games—like Espen Aarseth’s Cybertext and Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman’s Rules of Play —have focused on founding the overall methods by which games operate, either in terms of other media forms or solely within games and new media. Not of Woman Born focuses on the particularities of horror games to illustrate commonalities in video games, and to illustrate how certain conventions fail or can be subverted in order to produce particular effects. Running through the chapters is an awareness of games and their current placement as mass-conglomerated media, even as games repeatedly diverge into alternative projects like independent and political games and movements like the Serious Games Initiative and the Games for Health projects. Not

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ix of Woman Born configures game and new media studies in such a way that gender studies and studies of Gothic literature expose the function of horror in/by video games, the relationship of gaming norms to that function, and the significance of horror games to typical and atypical video game playing and production—from the typical technological improvements leading to improved graphical realism to the atypical and more complex connection among technology, design, and production. Essentially, Not of Woman Born serves as a foil to the structuralist studies by studying abnormal play and design, including the relevance of atypical design and play to innovative design for positive or more equivocal gender representations and for larger possibilities in game design. The Gothic functions as a series of monstrous becomings, and it is within these becomings that this study operates—monstrosities made in the interface, the visual representations, the narratives, and in the technologies of horror games.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION “Who are the girls who fight without weapons around their lord? The dark ones always protect him, and the fair ones seek to destroy him.” A game of chess. Mark Bryant, Dictionary of Riddles. Introduction Given the recent books on video games, in addition to the online journal Game Studies and the printed Games and Culture journal, video games are beginning to be recognized as electronic, artistic, and literary forms. Not of Woman Born studies video games as an amalgamation of their electronic and literary aspects by studying horror and the Gothic in games. In particular, Not of Woman Born studies the Gothic and horror as they transfer into gaming, within games that contain elements of the Gothic and horror in a form I refer to as the ludic Gothic. The Gothic and horror genres, as they operate in other media and as they transform into the ludic Gothic for gaming, follow exacting formulas of production and, in doing so, also manage to disrupt the formulaic nature of much of game design. Ludic Gothic games thus allow for both innovation in game design and for alternate representations of norms, values, and concepts. Ludic Gothic games draw on conventions of the Gothic for their imagery and their narratives, as well as to subvert typical game narrative conventions, typical game controls, and the history of gaming development. This subversion is also an act of transgression. “The usual subject of Gothic fiction can be described as the transgression of the paternal metaphor;” Fred Botting argues, “Transgression, however, is not simply a

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2 celebratory breaking of laws and taboos considered unjust or repressive, nor is it a straightforward libertion from rules and conventions binding individuals within strict frameworks of duty or normative identity” (282). Botting continues to explain transgression in line with Foucault's concept of “play,” whereby transgression relies on the prior limit and then the limit subsequently relies on the possibility of a real transgression. Ludic Gothic games similarly utilize the limits already present in gaming and in the overall trajectory of game design and development to subvert those limits in order to present new possibilities, and new implications, for game design and development. This dissertation studies ludic Gothic games to show how they operate in terms of gaming and to show their significance. Instead of approaching games from a meta-level that seeks to analyze the entire medium, this book studies the extremely popular genre of horror games to analyze how the games reaffirm certain values while subverting others to thus become ludic Gothic. Horror games rely heavily on gaming and narrative conventions—conventions which are established through genre divisions as well as player expectations and are formed through player experience with other media and other mediated experiences—to either use or refute those conventions. Because horror is one of the most popular gaming genres and because it is one of the least studied by academia, horror has the potential to disrupt both player and academic expectations in ways that are significant to game studies and to larger cultural conceptions. Game studies, new media studies, and gender studies, like earlier studies of Gothic literature, all study the relationship of the structure of an individual work to the work itself and to larger issues of the media form or genre. Gender studies most often

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3 emphasizes the presentation of the structure of the self, the other, and the system of selves and others as it relates to gender. Gothic literature studies more often addresses the highly conventional nature of individual texts in relation to the manner in which those texts present typical social and narrative structures while simultaneously disrupting those structures. Not of Woman Born : Monstrous Interfaces and Monstrosity in Video Games combines an examination of the structure and genre of horror video games to analyze how they operate with a study of the significance of those operations to video games and new media, horror across media types, Gothic literature, and gender. The majority of critical studies of games have focused on founding the overall methods by which games operate, either in terms of other media forms or solely within games and new media. This study, by contrast, focuses on the particularities of horror games to illustrate commonalities in video games, and to illustrate how certain conventions fail or can be subverted for particular effects. Running through these chapters is an awareness of games and their current placement as mass-conglomerated media, even as games repeatedly diverge into alternative projects like independent and political games through organizations like the Learning and Serious Games Initiatives and Games for Health. This book configures game and new media studies, gender studies, and studies of Gothic literature in order to examine the function of horror in video games, the relationship of gaming norms to that function, and the significance of horror games to typical and atypical video game playing and production. Essentially, Not of Woman Born serves as a foil to studies of typical play and design by studying the abnormal play and design of horror games, including its relevance to innovative design for positive or more equivocal gender representations as well as for larger possibilities in

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4 game design. For games, structure may refer to the immediately visible structures that the player is presented with, like the visual representations, spatial representations, the interface controls, and the game narrative. Gaming structures also include the programmatic code through which the game operates and paratextual elements like gaming communities and game booklets that often accompany or complement the games. The diversity of structures and structural elements in any given game—and their relationship to game genres, gaming as a medium, and the gaming industry—demand complex systems of analysis. As game studies emerges as a new field, it requires both the analysis of its works and an analysis of the relationship of those works to existing fields of inquiry. While many scholars have examined the typical structuring of video games, such structures are often inverted or subverted in horror games. By examining the manner in which normative game-play structures and game-play itself is altered in horror games, this study shows how atypical structures and play both reaffirm certain video game norms and repudiate others. By analyzing horror games, which are more often found on console systems (as opposed to computers), this study addresses a doubly neglected area in game studies. Game studies most often addresses either adventure or more serious games than horror games, and game studies most often addresses games found on computers instead of consoles despite the greater popularity and use of console games. By addressing these doubly neglected games, this study also addresses the function of horror games and games in general as popular texts in the same vein as Jane Tompkins’ study of sensational fiction, which showed that sensational fiction had been dismissed because of its popularity and its appearance of simplicity. Inverting that, Tompkins studied

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5 sensational fiction for the manners in which it did and did not conform to seemingly simple formulas and the effect of conformance and nonconformance. Likewise, this study specifically aligns the hyper-structuralization of horror video games to the popular texts of Gothic literature—both of which often present seemingly normative narrative, character, and world structures in order to subvert elements within those structures and the structures themselves. Horror games repeatedly subvert typical narrative and game-play structures, including altering the manner in which game space is presented and the way that the game interface is constructed and operates. By differing from the more typical game-play interface models, studies of horror games present a significant alternative to many studies of new media design and architecture. Further, horror games specifically counter the typical position of women in games by allowing for a greater percentage of women player-characters, non-player-characters, heroes, and monsters. Non-horror games allow for significantly fewer women and they only allow for significantly less powerful women. My study integrates these threads—video games, new media interface design, Gothic literature, and gender—to study game creation, presentation, and representation. The Gothic Any discussion of genre works risks formalizing and limiting it, instead of simply creating a loose definition for use in analysis. As Lawrence Alloway contends, "One of the dangers of genre theory is that the categories may be taken rigidly. When that happens they lose their descriptive usefulness and assume a normative function" (53). Genre divisions and their descriptive usefulness also pertain to games as a medium. Marie-Laure Ryan notes that Wittgenstein’s arguments from Philosophical Investigations can be used to show that games as a medium have a complicated network of similarities

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6 and details, which sometimes overlap and sometimes do not. From Ryan’s perspective, Wittgenstein argues that particular forms are best characterized by “family resemblance” because they overlap and criss-cross without forming an exact structure (177). Consequently, video game genres, like larger media structures, are constituted by systems of family resemblances that are cannot be strictly delimited. Ryan further states, “What constitutes a family, however, is not resemblance but kinship relations. The set of games may be fuzzy, which means that there is no set of necessary and sufficient conditions for an activity to be covered by the word game” (177). While Ryan is addressing how to classify games as a general category, the same ‘kinship relations’ apply to game genres. The individual games may or may not share specific resemblances with each other, but they will share kinship relations in terms of their formal and functional elements. As genres, the Gothic and horror genres share many family traits as they exist in other media, and it is with those traits that many horror games operate. However, while the Gothic has often been described as changing from text to text and from one media form to another, the Gothic is often more strictly defined than can be most productive for game studies.1 Given the stricter definition, I use the term ludic Gothic to refer to games that may be generically classes as horror or Gothic, but which specifically thwart gaming conventions in significant manners. Gothic literature has long been connected to periods of change, both technological and social. In its early form, Gothic literature relied on hyper-structuralization in order to 1 For more on the conventions of the Gothic, see Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, The Coherence of Gothic Conventions (New York: Methuen, 1980); David Punter and Glennis Byron, The Gothic (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004); David Punter, Gothic Pathologies: the Text, the Body and the Law (New York: St. Martin's, 1998); Glennis Byron and David Punter, eds., Spectral Readings: Towards a Gothic Geography (New York: St. Martin's, 1999); and E.J. Clery and Robert Miles, eds., Gothic Documents: A Sourcebook, 1700-1820 (New York: St. Martin's, 2000).

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7 then subvert or question those structures. In doing so, it became, as Mark Edmundson notes, “the literature of revolution” ( Nightmare on Main Street 17), which nevertheless is also often extremely popular. This popularity has often been used as a reason to dismiss the Gothic for, as Jane Tompkins notes of the closely related form of sensational fiction, “The popularity of novels by women has been held against them almost as much as their preoccupation with ‘trivial’ feminine concerns” (xiv). Just as the popularity of sensational fiction has often been held against it, it has also been held against the Gothic. In being dismissed by virtue of their popularity, both the Gothic and sensational fiction are often refused critical acknowledgement. “The problem with the notion that a classic work transcends the limitations of its age,” Tompkins remarks, “and appeals to critics and readers across the centuries is that one discovers, upon investigation, that the grounds of critical approval are always shifting” (35). Video games that incorporate Gothic themes are often dismissed in the same manner as Gothic and sensational fiction. Games like Resident Evil, Fatal Frame and, to a less extent, Silent Hill are often critically lauded as games while simultaneously being dismissed as ridiculous horror games unworthy of narrative analysis because of their formulaic design and story structures. Tompkins again proves useful as she states: In arguing for the positive value of stereotyped characters and sensational, formulaic plots, I have self-consciously reversed the negative judgments that critics have passed on these features of popular fiction by re-describing them from the perspective of an altered conception of what literature is. (xvii) Similarly, I address ludic Gothic and horror games as significant in part because of their stereotypical design and visual representations and formulaic plots. The formulaic nature of ludic Gothic and horror games must be defined not as a rigid limiting dimension, but as a flexible yet fundamental factor in their full analysis. As game studies continues to

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8 grow as a medium, analyses of formulaic game designs and plots are pivotal in illustrating both game formulas and structures but also in illustrating how typical structures and designs can be and are subverted for alternate effects and uses. By virtue of their extreme popularity, ludic Gothic and horror games are simultaneously influential for video game development, and vulnerable to dismissal by academic criticism. The Gothic presents formulas that are not only structurally and narratively based, but also related to social, political, and technological change. As the literature of revolution, the Gothic acts as a subversive genre not just for classic literature, but also for later literary forms and other media forms that rely on the conventions of the Gothic. For instance, Allan Lloyd Smith notes that the Gothic excelled during industrialization by acting concurrently with social and political change. He argues that as such, the Gothic relies on a shift between technology and production, which links traditional Gothic works to cyberpunk (15). The Gothic thus relies on social, political, and technological structures and their interrelations. From those structures, the Gothic builds a subversive stance which remains intrinsically related to the structures it subverts. Similarly, Christoph Grunenberg states, “The ubiquity of the cultural phenomenon of the Gothic continues in the newest media: the computer games Myst or Obsidian explore the romantic and industrial Gothic respectively in animated, comic-style versions of fairy-tales” (208). While Grunenberg focuses more heavily on the artistic representation of the Gothic in video games, games are hybrid forms that blend visual representation, narrative, and interface designs into interactive texts. Because games rely on these components, the Gothic often acts as an element of visual representation in games, the narrative, and the interface. Gaming interfaces are

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9 often presented as mere extensions of the gamer, to be learned and acclimated. However many games, particularly horror games, use the interface as part of the overall gaming experience. For example, many action games have sequences where the game controllers are set to “rumble” or vibrate to complement gaming activity. Unlike those complementary sequences, horror games often use the interface to contradict normal play. For instance, the Resident Evil series regularly uses the rumble functions on the game controllers to thump on alternating sides with alternating intensities in order to mimic a human heartbeat. This thumping is done to increase tension during game-play, but it has no corollary to onscreen shown activity. Similarly, Eternal Darkness uses an insanity factor when the player encounters too many enemies. The insanity factor causes the internal game representations to blur and slide and allow enemies that are not actually there to be displayed. Such insanity factors even affect the interface itself. These include messages stating that the game controller was unplugged, that all of the saved game information was being erased, and so forth. These uses of the gaming interface question the relationship of the gamer to the game, and of the gaming interface as a mediator in that relationship. The majority of games use the interface as a functional means of allowing for game play to occur. In contrast, ludic Gothic games often use the interface to subvert typical play and to challenge conceptions of game interface design and game design. In addition to the Gothic subversion of typical interface design and visual representation, the Gothic strongly shapes gaming narratives. The traits of the Gothic, as Anne Williams illustrates, include abduction, blood, caves, dreams, earthquakes, feeblemindedness, gaming, harems, maskings, portraits, lost reputations, suicides, twins,

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10 mad scientists, and demonic children (17). The majority of these features are present in any horror video game, as is the Gothic use of the family as history, which is portrayed in Gothic literature through the use of the family as a basic structure in both the narrative and the spatial design. In Gothic literature, this is often accomplished through the castle or haunted house in which the narrative takes place, with frequent remarks on the past inhabitants through decorations, paintings, and other elements. In ludic Gothic video games—which are most often set in haunted houses, castles, or science-fiction or cyberpunk Gothic settings like space ships and island-based laboratories—the same elements remain. The frequent use of books, paintings, pictures, vases, sculptures, and other elements populate the game world to show that it is already inhabited by the past, and the specifically past as a patriarchal structure. In doing so, ludic Gothi video games both present the family and undermine it. Anne Williams cites the same behavior in Gothic fiction: The first of these has to do with Mark Turner's analysis of “family” as a privileged or “basic conceptual metaphor.” [. .] Elsewhere Lakoff and Turner (and others) emphasize that metaphors are not verbal ornaments (mere “flowers of fancy”) but patterns fundamental to thought.[. .] Turner demonstrates that “family” is a source domain both basic to cognition and particularly privileged in Western culture. To think about any subject, we are likely to use metaphors of kinship, so that our thinking about the subject is inevitably shaped by what we assume is and should be. (87-8) In relating the Gothic to typical conceptions of family, the Gothic story unsettles typical narratives and has the ability to disrupt notions held in conjunction with the story—like the male dominance in video game narratives disrupted to open a space for equal female characters. The disruption of patriarchal systems in Gothic narratives in the past has served to create, as Williams explains the female Gothic plot. Williams contends that these plots are constructive and empowering for female readers because they value

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11 female thought-processes, “not only affirm the possibilities of ‘feminine’ strength; they also sketch in the outlines of a female self that is more than the ‘other’ as purely archetypal or stereotypical” (138). The Female Gothic Plot carries through diverse media forms including film and video games with a significantly higher proportion of women primary characters in horror video games than in non-horror games. For film, the Gothic as a subversive genre relating to women can perhaps best be seen with the Alien films. Horror Films Since the 1970s, horror films have largely transitioned from their portrayal of single-minded violence towards women to valorizing women with what Carol Clover has termed the final girl: “The image of the distressed female most likely to linger in memory is the image of the one who did not die: the survivor, or Final Girl” (35). Clover’s study reveals that, from 1974 on, the survivor figure in horror films has been female. While Clover’s entire book examines the complexity of gender and horror films, horror video games confirm the trend in horror films of empowering female characters. Horror video games are not yet completely aligned with film, as to have a Final Girl in horror, but horror games do present significantly more female characters than any other gaming genre with the exception of “pink games” or games targeted only at female players. By allowing for a higher percentage of female player-characters, horror games subvert typical game narratives and gaming conventions in line with the Gothic. Horror films, like horror in other media, function through the crossing of borders. While horror films operate by presenting the narrative transgression and reaffirmation of borders, they often present only the transgression or dissolution of borders. Horror works also often present the transgression of borders in ways that transgress social norms. The Alien films in particular critique capitalism and patriarchy within a gothic-science-fiction

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12 setting. Even in more typical horror films, horror defines borders so that the borders can be crossed and then possibly reinforced. “Horror defines and redefines,” Gregory Waller argues and, in doing so, it “clarifies and obscures the relationship between the human and the monstrous, the normal and the aberrant, the sane and the mad, the natural and the supernatural, the conscious and unconscious, the daydream and the nightmare” (12). In exploring these borders and in constantly defining and redefining them, horror can be both remarkably formulaic and traditional and also remarkably subversive in its redefinition of borders and in its border crossing. Similarly, Tony Williams notes that the family is often a locus of horror as it is in Gothic works, “Major works of family horror explore the social contradictions of dysfunctional families forced into rigid patterns by the dominant ideology producing victims and victimizers. Family horror films sometimes implicitly protest against this system” ( Hearths 270). Because the family often stands as a microcosm of society, with social hierarchies and economic functions replicated within the family unit, questioning the family structure has repercussions for all other social systems. In this regard, Williams also catalogues the importance of horror films to larger social critiques, especially in relation to their marginalized position as horror works. In particular, Williams studies the relationship of George Romero’s films to social critique and to social critiques from horror comics. EC Comics began as Educational Comics and quikly shifted to Entertaining Comics, which focused on horror and crime. In doing so, EC Comics gathered readers and media attention, eventually leading to the government’s intervention in the US and the Comics Code Authority regulations which sought to remove both the explicit gore as well as much of EC Comics social commentary. Like Romero’s horror films, Williams

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13 shows that EC Comics’ marginalized placement from their horror status allowed them to present broad social critiques, which continue to influence other horror media. Williams refers to this as the “gross out” factor: These culturally marginalised productions also contained important allegorical messages within their versions of “gross-out.” Both EC comics and Stephen King's writing put their respective audiences in touch with the “nightmare anxieties” of youth, which are often socially based. The youthful readers of EC comics certainly noticed the differences between perception of real-life injustices and the hysterical activities of the adult world. ( Cinema of George A. Romero 115) While American horror comics, particularly comics during the early age of the comics code, have been largely lost to the mainstream American public, their impact still reverberates through other media, particularly horror films and video games. The EC comics tradition is directly pertinent to horror games because the comics often embedded their social messages, often anti-discrimination and often pro-female empowerment, within graphic decapitations, zombies, and witches. In doing so, EC comics were able to pass as mainstream fodder while also presenting strong messages. Horror video games, like sensational and Gothic fiction, act in the same manner, making the connections among Gothic fiction, horror films, horror comics, and horror video games quite strong. Additionally, many horror games have been inspired by Romero’s film-making, as well as the Giallo Films or Italian Horror Films from the 1970s, horror comics as in the EC comics tradition, as well as horror manga. The films and comics have frequently used narrative conventions from Gothic and other horror fiction. In turn, horror games have relied on the narrative traditions from Gothic fiction as well as horror films and comics. In addition, horror games have drawn on horror films and comics for visual representation styles, as well as relying on sound conventions from film.

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14 Ludic Gothic and Horror Games Ludic Gothic and horror games operate within both a rich tradition of horror media and the technical limitations of computer gaming. While those limitations have relaxed with increases in technology, the majority of ludic Gothic games still bear a trace of those limitations. For instance, the first Silent Hill used fog to limit the visual scope of the game world so that the first PlayStation could run the game. The fog allowed the game to run without having to process all of the surrounding graphics, which would have otherwise exceeded the PlayStation’s processing abilities. Similarly, the Resident Evil series have relied on closely confined spaces to limit the visual scope and the number of items user’s avatars can carry. Later ludic Gothic games have followed these horror gaming conventions even when these conventions are no longer necessary from a technological standpoint given the increases in processing power. Many of these conventions alter typical game-play and gaming conventions for significant effects. In addition, ludic Gothic games rely on traditional stylistic horror visual elements, including dark landscapes, confined spaces which are then further confined through the use of specific camera angles, dark castles and Gothic mansions, and—as in all Gothic works— elaborate indications of the past of the place with photographs, paintings, old furniture, books, journals, videos, and, eventually, corpses and ghosts. The heavily historicized and personalized worlds in horror games also lend themselves to a fuller presentation of monsters or enemies, which Chapter 2 addresses in detail. Speaking to the designation of horror, Vivian Sobchack notes, “In the SF [science fiction] film, the Creature is less personalized, has less of an interior presence than does the Monster in the horror film” (32). Sobchack goes on to explain that the viewer’s sympathy is never elicited by the SF creature because it always remains a thing, while the monster becomes personalized and

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15 humanized in some ways. The difference between SF and horror monsters is thus not the setting, but the presentation, as with SF films that have personalized monsters like the Alien films, with its final film focusing on the child of Ripley and the Alien Queen. Similarly, games like System Shock 2 are set in SF worlds, but their monsters are intensively described and humanized, making the game exist within the borders of SF, action, and horror genres. The function and presentation of the Monster in horror games are thus defining attributes of horror games, as well as helping to define the manner in which games present and use enemies for particular—and often socially significant— effects. Like the monster, visual conventions of horror also include an emphasis on doubles and doubling, as explored in Chapter 3. In video games, horror games in particular firmly embrace the convention of doubles and doubling for characters, spaces, replay, and for game serialization. Many ludic Gothic and horror games also utilize static points of view through fixed and primarily high and closely confined camera angles. These angles present the player as trapped within the screen and prevent the player from being able to view all aspects within even the plane the player is in, increasing the horror effects and making the games more difficult. In addition to their origins in horror and thriller cinema, these camera angles originated in technological limitations, as do many of the innovations in horror games and in gaming in general. In this case, because of the level of control required to maintain the appearance of three dimensions, horror games relied on highly controlled cameras and highly divided spaces to make two-dimensional game spaces appear and act as though they were three dimensional spaces. The separate game space units were then sutured together through doors, black fades, or other cinematic techniques. These were

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16 used in conjunction with cinematic sound techniques—including drawing on horror films for atypical sound use such as the use of ambient sound from the game environment instead of an over-arching soundtrack as is used in most games. Chapter 5 studies the use of sound and visual representation in the game space and in game design in general. Ludic Gothic games are also heavily defined by their relationship to the gaming interface. While this concern runs throughout the chapters, Chapter 7 in particular covers the significance of gaming platforms—in addition to gaming interfaces—to horror games. In addition to their internal platforms and interfaces, horror games are especially significant for their use of media within the games. Ludic Gothic games often inherently exhibit media awareness through their incorporation of specific media forms to conjure historical times and the telepresent nature of media. For instance, Resident Evil orients game-play through a save and escape model which relies on a typewriter for saving; Fatal Frame relies on a camera for capturing spirits and saving game play; Silent Hill uses a radio whose growing static indicates the approach of monsters; and Obscure uses compact discs for saving game progress. Additionally, the games all include media sources that add to game-play by presenting riddles or the information needed to solve riddles. The fragments of language as they are embedded in particular media and as they relate to solving the mysteries of game-play also connect ludic Gothic games to their antecedents in Gothic fiction. As Anne Williams mentions, “In Gothic, fragments of language often serve ambiguously to further the plot—in letters (lost, stolen, buried); in mysterious warnings, prophecies, oaths, and curses; in lost wills and lost marriage lines” (67). The emphasis on language is often found in the game-play riddles, which typify the extreme codification and the subversive potential in horror games for, as Ruth E. Burke

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17 argues, “In order to break the spell [. .] the reader has to know the secret language of the adepts and be initiated into the society of those who understand the significance and the interpretation of the symbols” (15). In this way, language in ludic Gothic games as embedded in particular media serves as both a means for game-play and a metadiscourse on that play. In ludic Gothic games, the actual media within the games provide both a metaphor for game-play and a path through game-play’s telepresent attributes. The emphasis on media forms for narrative and game-play also lends itself to a documentary stylization, as it does in science-fiction films. Sobchack remarks on this tendency: “The usual mode of ritual dialogue is, however, the television newscast and montage[. .] In general, the newscast is used as an economical way of compressing information or expressing emotion” (191-2). While the use of television and newspapers for truncated communication appears in many film genres and video games, ludic Gothic video games rely on these for background information as well as for pivotal game-play information in a manner that informs other usages. Many real world based video games, particularly military simulation and combat games and political games, rely on documentary techniques. Far fewer other-world settings games use documentary techniques to even limited extents. However, horror games, with their often very other-worldly settings, do. The method of documentary stylization, from game-play segments to paratextual documentaries that are included with the games like the prison-setting documentary in The Suffering and the supplemental disc with Wesker’s Report for Resident Evil are analyzed in relation to the creation of reality and to documentaries in general in Chapter 6. The documentary stylization is especially pertinent because it highlights the manner in

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18 which horror games, while they often operate in fantastic and other-worldly settings, still utilize and negotiate real world social and political issues. Gender and female empowerment are the most prominently addressed concerns of all of the social issues most frequently covered by ludic Gothic games. Gender and Textuality As is perhaps already apparent, horror presents many subversive possibilities that directly relate to gender. While horror films were once focused primarily on the domination of women, now women have come to dominate horror and ludic Gothic games. Similarly, Gothic fiction was once neglected because of its seemingly trivial concerns. Now, however, scholars like Jane Tompkins and Nina Auerbach have reclaimed Gothic fiction, replete with its subversive and empowering abilities. Digital texts have also been lauded as potentially empowering for their non-linear and nonpatriarchal methods of data organization and access, a sort of digital l’ecriture feminine On radical methods of writing, Ellen G. Friedman and Miriam Fuchs argue: Although the woman in the text may be the particular woman writer, in the case of twentieth-century women experimental writers, the women in the text is also an effect of the textual practice of breaking patriarchal fictional forms; the radical forms—nonlinear, nonhierarchical, and decentering—are, in themselves, a way of writing the feminine. (3-4) While artists like Mary Flanagan and Shelley Jackson have explored these possibilities in educational gaming like the Josie True project and hypertext like Patchwork Girl the possibility that mainstream video games may present the same empowering potential has been less studied. Chapter 4 addresses the radical positioning of women in horror games because, as Anne Williams argues, “the madwoman in the attic has awakened readers to possible affinities between women writers and a literature that specializes in fear and in monstrous domestic secrets” (10). The madwoman in the attic, a long-standing

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19 convention of the Gothic, both reaffirms the position of the woman as connected to the house and home while showing the insanity and horror of that connection. Ludic Gothic video games, as they are often set in haunted houses or dwellings and with their high frequency of female characters, foreground the same questions of womanhood, domestic life, and monstrosity. While many ludic Gothic games and horror films begin with women characters, this has not always been and may not always be the case. Just as the revisions and sequels often also alter the narratives and characterization in the earlier games, so they alter the overall framework in which the characters and the games themselves operate. Following these issues, Chapter 8 addresses sequels and the function of seriality and sequence in video games. In doing so, it studies revisionist techniques in gaming, often techniques where women characters are added. The complex framework within which video game sequels exist—where characters change in appearance, sound, background, actions, abilities, and contexts—is perhaps most akin to Donald Ault’s articulation of aspectual interconnection in which details localized to particular characters in William Blake’s texts may negotiate through the text into the text itself. Thus alternate versions of the text are useful in noting the structural complexity and fluidity of the characters and texts ( Narrative Unbound ). Aspectual interconnection aids in bringing seemingly disparate and disconnected elements from the games as they are sequenced, into relation. The serial nature of games (with remakes, patches, mods, and sequels), game interfaces, visual representation, narrative, and the relationship of games to other media and to social issues are all significant to game studies as a growing field.

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20 Game Studies Many of the current arguments on video games try to situate games within a larger metastructure of narrative, game (Aarseth's Cybertext ; Wolf's The Medium of the Video Game ), or visual representation. While these approaches can be useful for creating a vocabulary to discuss video games, these approaches often fail to move beyond the particulars of video games into those moments of complexity that open up discussion of the relationship of the player, the game space, and the game narrative. Taxonomizing and classifying moves were necessary at the infancy of game studies as a field. However, game studies is now slightly older and, because the computer presents extremely plastic and malleable forms, operating as a work environment for virtual word processing, as a portal to the web, as a means to experience virtual spaces, and more, such primitive taxonomization proves rather limiting. Like film studies in the 1960s, game studies has not yet found a place for itself, so games are currently being studied from various fields and with various methods and technical vocabularies. Following, and often included with, previous arguments over game genre and terminology are arguments over the limits of game studies. While games have only relatively recently been studied from the perspectives of media, communications, English, film, sociology, history, computer science, and other disciplines, game studies, in many senses, is not a new field because sociologists like Johan Huizinga and Roger Callois have studied games and play, as have game historians like David Parlett. But the emphasis on games in their computerized and visual format as their own field is rather recent. Many current debates in game studies concern whether game studies (or games studies) should exist as its own specific field or whether it can exist in established disciplines without being overly subordinated. While these are important debates, game

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21 studies is best served by interdisciplinary approaches that include studies of gaming histories. Resources for this sort of work include studies of board and card games like David Parlett's The Oxford History of Board Games and The Oxford Guide to Card Games ; studies of play like Johan Huizinga's Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture ; and existing media studies theories. In game studies, as with other fields, theories should be used as analytical tools. Further, game studies must learn from the fan communities as comics studies have been informed through fan communities. Because games are a massively popular form and because games are expensive commercial entities that have not yet being largely archived and documented except through fan communities, those fan communities can act both as a valuable resource for scholars studying games and as a means for scholars to discuss their work with larger audiences. Game studies has many hurdles to overcome, including the traditional desires for texts to be closed and archivable, which are significant problems alone. Following those, game studies, like comics studies, is on the forefront of image usage and citation in academic studies and publishing. Game studies and comic studies both more frequently require significant image use for arguments than many other fields. While online journals have eased these concerns, the typical academic publishing systems that weighs paperbased publications more favorably presents a serious impediment to game studies. Gothic and horror games are an important genre for game studies because they simultaneously present and subvert typical game-play and typical game construction, as well as typical means of analysis. As Kelly Hurley suggests: “Gothic in particular has been theorized as an instrumental genre, reemerging cyclically, at periods of cultural stress, to negotiate the anxieties that accompany social and epistemological transformations and crises” (5). The

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22 Gothic as part of popular ludic Gothic games, especially with their emphasis on embedded media, questions the relationship of the games to the technology, and subsequently of the players to the technology. In this movement, ludic Gothic games are also significant for the manner in which they present and theorize anxieties about technology and other social issues. The culture industry is most often studied for its destructive capacities because it, as Adorno notes, combines old and new and high and low art. In doing so, it creates “products which are tailored for consumption by masses, and which to a great extent determine the nature of that consumption, are manufactured more or less according to plan” (55). The Gothic and horror follow the exacting formulas of the culture industry and, in doing so, serve to disrupt the formulaic nature of much of game design. This allows for both innovation in game design and for the representation of alternate social values, concepts, and ideals. The Gothic, as Kelly Hurley notes, “In its obsession with abominations, the Gothic may be said to manifest a certain gleefulness at the prospect of a world in which no fixity remains, only an endless series of monstrous becomings” (28). It is within these becomings that this study operates—monstrosities made in the interface, in the visual representations, in the narratives, and in the technologies of horror games.

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23 CHAPTER 2 ENEMIES, MONSTERS, AND THE OTHER IN VIDEO GAMES Video games have been extensively studied for the player’s relationship to the player-character and the function and structure of the player-character within the game by critics including Espen Aarseth’s Cybertext ; Lev Manovich’s The Language of New Media; Andrew Rollings and Dave Morris’ Game Architecture and Design ; Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman’s Rules of Play ; Bob Rehak’s “Playing at Being.” These and other works address the overall structure of game-play or the place of the player-character or avatar in depth. But, by necessity of their wide-scope approach, they spend less time on the figure generally classed as enemy or opponent. In regard to enemy figures, Salen and Zimmerman note that conflict is an intrinsic part of narratively based games, but given their abstracted approach, they do not address the nature of conflict nor the fact that many video games show the conflict through battles with individual enemies (79). Similarly, Mark J.P. Wolf and Bernard Perron attempt to define video games without enemies, instead stating that video games are made of the fundamental elements, “an algorithm, player activity, interface, and graphics” (“Introduction” 14). Like these studies, the majority of scholarship on video games has focused on establishing a wider image or core theory for game studies. In order to do so, these theories must be abstracted and cannot include monsters or the Other because many games, like the quintessential examples of Pong and Tetris, do not have enemies or monsters. While definitions that include conflict and player activity are necessary for game studies and abstracted analysis, heavily narrativized games like Deus Ex (2000), Tenchu:

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24 Stealth Assassins (1998), the games in the Final Fantasy, Resident Evil, and Fatal Frame series, and many others require a nuanced approach to conflict because they function— for both game play and game narrative—through a fundamental relationship between the player-character and the enemy-monster-other figures. Because relatively little work has been done on the function and place of the opponent figures, it is beyond the scope of this article to present a comprehensive study. However, the function of the opponent—as opponent, enemy, monster, or another form of Other—relates specifically to the game play type, the game world type, and the game narrative, so these figures need to be addressed within the specifics of their game world, game narrative, and game play. For this, I focus specifically on monsters and the Other as enemies in horror games to illustrate the function, use, and significance of these figures as narrativized symbols of conflict that also affect game play. In this chapter, I use the examples of the zombies in Resident Evil and the ghosts in Fatal Frame to show that enemies, monsters, and the Other are not synonymous with abstracted concepts of conflict or opponent. While video games are capable of presenting varied forms of opponents and enemies, in presenting monsters and monstrous Others, games must rely on the structure of monsters and the Other instead of relying on stereotypical game design. This is because, while stereotypical game design schemas operate effectively for enemies, they lack the ability to present and accommodate monsters and the Other because these fall outside of the simple role of enemy or opponent. Conflict, Opponents, Enemies, and Monsters While many video game enemies can easily be covered under Salen and Zimmerman's rubric of conflict—for instance, the game space itself as conflict and the

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25 enemies as threats to controlling territory in games like Civilization and Warcraft— games that are heavily narratively driven more often have enemies that are characters and that cannot be covered under conflict alone. Even non-horrific games like those in The Legend of Zelda, Metroid, and Sonic the Hedgehog series use ‘dark’ enemies to further define their player-characters through the relationship of the player-characters to their enemies. As will be discussed in Chapter 3, these dark enemies are visually and characteristically mirrored or inverted versions of the primary characters—just as the duplication of siblings occurs in games—as with Shadow Sonic. In this way, many video game characters are defined as much by what or whom they fight as they are internally defined. The definitional aspect of the enemies as opponents serves to lay the framework for the game world as well as for much of the functioning for game play. Video games design and play schemas often create monsters that are simply nondescript evil enemies, which exist as tropes for the Other and as tropes for conflict. Horror games like System Shock 2 (1998), Resident Evil (1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2002), Fatal Frame (2002, 2003), and Silent Hill (2000) change these schemas by creating enemies that are actual characters, though they often are flawed or mutated characters. Horror games explore enemy character schemas more fully than many video games because horror games rely on the personalization and humanization of the enemy characters to make the game spaces more horrific. Because of this, the game narrative— through its depiction of enemies and monsters—directly relates to game play and the gaming experience. While some degree of additional time on the enemy characters is expected with horror games, many horror games like Resident Evil explore their monsterenemies as fully as they do their player-characters, which is odd even given the larger

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26 enemy-development schemas for horror video games. Resident Evil ’s extended exploration of the enemies aids in making the enemies more than tropes for conflict or troped opponents. Many video games present monsters as both the monster-as-Other and as actual monstrous beasts. Monsters in video games serve to both structure and disrupt the game structure through their abnormal workings. As Jeffrey Jerome Cohen notes, “a monster signifies something other than itself; it is always a displacement, always inhabits the gap between the time of upheaval that created it and the moment into which it is received, to be born again” (“Monster Culture” 4). Cohen continues on to argue that monsters are an attempt at embodying Otherness or the uncanny, “The monster is difference made flesh, come to dwell among us” (7). Similarly, Kathy Nuzum remarks, “any individual or group that can be marginalized or viewed as standing outside the norm may be monstrosized” (“The Monster’s Sacrifice” 208). As such, monsters cannot accurately be subsumed into larger classifications of conflict or opponent because they serve to disrupt the very classification systems that would seek to normalize them by placing them within those systems. Because the vast majority of video games present enemies as simplistic beings to be fought against, horror games like Resident Evil ’s personification and exploration of enemy characters represents new avenues in game design, which changes the schemas for the enemies, for the structure of game play, and for the structure of the game world. Resident Evil’ s use of monsters is similar to the monsters in other horror games like Fatal Frame, and the daughter-as-monster in the first Silent Hill In each of these games, monstrosity itself narratively and structurally embodies the fragmentation and dissolution

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27 of boundaries between human and non-human, between good and evil, and between men and women. For instance, in Resident Evil, the enemies are depicted as monsters in the present time of the game. However, the game also represents the past when the monsters were human. In doing so, the lines between monster and human are blurred. The dissolution of boundaries through the player-character and enemy relationship also often parallels the changing game spaces which, in horror games, often evolve over time to be more horrific and more monstrous. By undermining boundaries, the monster serves to create its own space in which traditional cultural rules, and traditional rules of game play and game design, also change. The Player-Character and Her Opponent(s) Narratively based video games super-construct the self-other relationship.1 In narrativized video games, the player is often constrained to using or manipulating only the player-character, and often the player can obtain only limited information on other characters aside from their appearances. With this, the player relationships are playercharacters, non-player-characters (NPCs) who are helpful or sympathetic to the playercharacter, and enemies. In order to define the player and player-character relationship, video games attempt to clearly construct systems that predetermine who the player is and is not within the game. This is often done through the game visual representation during game play as well as through game book paratexts that describe the player-character, non-player-characters, and enemies. While these attempts to fix the relationship between 1 By narratively based video games, I mean video games with intrinsic stories like Resident Evil ; games like Civilization could also arguably qualify, but Tetris does not because it does not have an intrinsic story, just an intrinsic game. Narrative and non-narrative games are one of the larger discussions in game studies, and this chapter is by no means an attempt to separate games into narrative and non-narrative. Rather, this simply argues that many games have enemies, opponents, and monsters that cannot be sufficiently described under the rubric of ‘conflict’ or ‘algorithm,’ which are two of the terms chosen because they operate with equal validity for games and can avoid the problems of narrative or non-narrative games.

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28 the player and player-character remain problematic,2 they still lay the foundation for the abstracted tripartite game design and game play structure that includes player-character, non-player-character, and opponent. While useful, the level of abstraction required for this structure of characters (or potential characters) in games fails to allow for the complexity of opponents as enemies, monsters, and as Others. Within the abstracted structure, players may play as more than one playercharacter, as with party system games like those in the Final Fantasy series where the player controls a group of characters, but the basic structure remains. Enemies may come in more than one form, but essentially, the player only experiences her own positionality in the world, which is that of the player-character. All of this structuring often leads to a fundamental collapse of the Other, the enemy, and the monster into one position within the game structure as the opponent. In these cases, the enemies and monsters are all nondescript others to the self-as-player-character. While this simplification can be useful for game play design—David Kusher notes the Doom (1993) designers chose to remove narrative elements and to make the enemies more generalized for faster paced game play ( Masters of Doom )—this simplification also removes many possibilities in game narratives and game design. Horror games, because of their need for monsters to define the horrific nature of the game space and game narrative, have more fully explored the possibilities offered with using fully developed enemies. This is because, in order to make the system more horrific, horror games undermine the fundamental structure in most video games—that of player-character, NPC, opponent—by making the monsters not clearly the opponents, 2 For more on the tenuous relationship between the player and the player-character, see Bob Rehak’s “Playing at Being” and Laurie N. Taylor’s “When Seams Fall Apart,” as well as the wealth of research on Lara Croft and her relationship to the player.

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29 which leads to changes in game play. For instance, horror games often require players to flee from fights instead of constantly engaging in battle as in most games. The game play becomes not just that of opposition or conflict, but of conflict avoidance. Other non-horror games—notably including the Metroid series with the playercharacter Samus Aran being defined largely by her relationship with the monsters called Metroids instead of by the game narrative—have explored enemies and monsters as more than simple opponent figures. Like the atypical Metroid games, horror games take advantage of this sort of atypical play by forcing the player-character into frequent and direct contact with the monsters. Subgenres of horror like survival horror games further complicate this by adding the ‘survival’ aspect, which forces the player through lack of ammunition to run frequently instead of fighting. In this process, survival horror games change the typical video game structure of ‘us against them’ to ‘us away from them.’ This makes the game space more horrific because the player is forced into proximity with the monsters, while having escape or avoidance as the primary goals. Additionally, video games also sometimes change the structure of PC, NPC, and opponent by portraying friendly or sympathetic characters as they become traitors and by showing the human side of some of the monsters. This process upsets the fundamental structure, allowing for further exploration of the structure itself and its functioning within the game narrative and game space. In doing so, it shows that changing the game play function of the opponent is inextricably linked to changing the narrative function of the monster, both of which change the overall structure of the game and the game play. Monsters and Horror In video games, as in film, the horror genre holds the monster as one of its most significant aspects, be it the monster proper or a monstrous Other. While comparisons of

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30 genre—especially across media—are problematic, horror in all forms focuses on the monster. Horror video games, in turn, can utilize studies of horror in other forms while still noting differences as they occur in video games especially as those differences apply to the playable game space and game play itself. While the horror genre most often includes a monstrous Other, the monstrous Other need not actually be a monster in the typical werewolf, ghost, zombie sense, but can also be represented as an alien monster, monstrous humanity (often serial killers in 'realist' horror), as well as through the internal loss of control (as in American McGee's Alice where Alice fights herself). In “Reimagining the Gargoyle: Psychoanalytic Notes on Alien, ” Greenberg discusses the anatomy of horror films and comments, “No matter how evocative the milieu, the monster film ultimately stands or falls on the believability of its inhuman protagonist” (89). Greenberg’s comment shows how monster films particularly, and horror films more generally, rely on the monstrous Other to form their settings and narratives. Like horror films, horror video games also rely on the monster to construct game play, game space, and game narrative. Because video game conventions are so firmly defined through the player-character-against-opponent structure, video game playercharacters and video game spaces are defined by their relation to the opponent. Horror games in particular rely on the opponent as monster to create the horrific game space. Many games are more 'classically' horror in that they are gothically stylized and focus on haunted houses, supernatural events, and fantastic settings that transgress one world and go into another dark world. Eternal Darkness: Sanity’s Requiem (2002), Fatal Frame (2002), and Silent Hill all typify this sort of classic monster or monstrous world horror. However, the Gothic style is by no means inclusive of horror video games because games

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31 like System Shock 2 (1998) create horror in science fiction settings. System Shock 2 is a particularly good example because nothing in it is supernatural. Instead, it offers science gone mad through the monster of the murderous artificially intelligent computer SHODAN. For the slippery divisions between horror and non-horror, Vivian Sobchack's remarks on the formulation of horror in relation to its monsters prove useful: In the SF [science fiction] film, the Creature is less personalized, has less of an interior presence than does the Monster in the horror film... Our sympathy is never evoked by an SF Creature; it remains, always, a thing. Conversely, in the horror film there is always something sympathetic about the Monster, something which gives us however briefly a sense of seeing the world through his eyes, from his point of view. (32) Sobchack's comments show that horror is not defined simply by the world theme; indeed, if it were, Lucas Arts humorous Grim Fandango (1998) could qualify as horror for its use of the dead and demons. Instead, horror is defined by the monsters that alter the structure of the world to make the world itself horrific. Other game genres similarly use the form of the monster to disrupt typical game design and game play. Sobchack explains not only the manner in which horror is formed, but the significance of the monster in that formulation and the manners in which monsters are transgressive because they question the relationship of the human to the monster. For video games, personalized monsters pervade the entire game space because the games are played and structured with the player in direct opposition to the monster. As such, any discussion of the structure of the horror game must also include a discussion of the monster, a clause that either does not hold for other game genres, or does not hold in the same degree. Because the monster and horror are intertwined, video games handle horror in similar ways to horror film in terms of setting and visual structure as scholars like Steven

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32 Poole have argued (66-9). In “Hands-On Horror,” Tanya Krzywinska remarks on this tendency and argues that horror video games present more intense horror experiences than horror film. She suggests that the video games create horror through a combination of cinematic effects and through the alteration between player control and loss of control (206-223). This loss of control stems both from the structure of the game and from the internal game elements. While Krzywinska's analysis operates specifically at the level of the horror genre and within the medium of video games, her notes on the visual display and its relation to game play for creating horrific effects are significant because they address both how video games draw upon cinema and how they remediate cinematic effects. Because the horror genre is extremely structured in terms of narrative and opponent-enemy-monster formulation, it offers a base structure from which alteration and change in the individual game elements can emerge. Horror games, like horror films, fall into one of the most codified genres in their medium. Conventions of the video game horror genre often include constrained views; limited fighting ability, often through lack of weapons or an inability to fight back, as with the monsters in Siren (2004) that cannot be killed; horrific premises, that are often supernatural with ghosts, demons, and gates to hell; monsters or enemies that undermine the player-character's humanity as in American McGee's Alice (2000) in which Alice's fight for sanity and her killing the monsters is clearly her killing the unwell parts of herself; and altered realities, as with the two worlds of Silent Hill Conventions of subgenres like survival horror genre are further constrained, and include limitations placed on game play to make the horror games more

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33 horrific by making the games more difficult to play. However, one element that remains constant in horror and its subgenres is that of the enemy as monster. Monstrous Focus in Resident Evil and Fatal Frame The stark demarcations of elements within horror games allow for a clear analysis of the monster and how the monster operates in these games. In order to explain how horror games use and rely on monsters and monstrous Others for game play and game space creation, Resident Evil' s use of zombies and Fatal Frame 's use of ghosts and demons illustrate how the monstrous blurs distinctions and complicates game play and game readings. Zombies in video games often exist as simple examples of enemymonsters, appearing in the Castlevania (action-adventure) games and the House of the Dead (arcade style) light gun shooter games. However, the Resident Evil games actually explore zombies as perversions of life and living. In order to produce zombies as fully defined creatures, rather than as generally horrific or monstrous creatures, the zombies are shown in direct contrast to their former living selves. The figure of the zombie is that of the dead returned, or the undead, and showing the undead without revealing their prior life negates the un-ness of the dead and makes them a fashion of monster instead of a specific monster type with the trappings of that particular figure. Many early horrorthemed games, like Castlevania (1987) and House of the Dead did not explore the figure of the zombie because they did not explore these creatures' existences prior to their zombie conversion, nor did they explore the human to zombie conversion that took place after the humans were infected. On the other hand, the Resident Evil series, which falls within the subgenre of survival horror, aimed to create a horrific atmosphere and so showed the particularities of the zombie figure as a perversion of life in order to increase the horrific nature of game

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34 experience. The exploration of the monster and the monstrous in the Resident Evil games directly serves game play and game design in the creation of a tense and horrific atmosphere. Other games do not rely on monsters for game play tension. For instance, horror and monsters are not explored in the House of the Dead games because they are light gun shooters and do not require narrative in the normal sense; likewise the exploration of monstrous characters outside of Dracula is not warranted within the Castlevania game series which combines role-playing and action adventure elements to focus on the story of Dracula and the Beaumont family that fights him. The Resident Evil games begin by showing zombies as a tropological figure of the Other, the enemy, or the generalized monster. But as the internal game play of each Resident Evil game progresses and, as the series itself progressed, the games began to explore more fully the nature each zombie and of zombies in general. This progression includes having the main characters first fight seemingly non-humanized zombies in each game. But as each individual game progresses, the players read the notes and see the belongings of those who have since become zombies. Thus, the zombies in each game progresses from more generalized opponent figures to specific and often named persons who have become monsters. As the game series progresses, and the technology used in the games progresses with it, even more background is provided for the once-human monsters. The Resident Evil games even force the player-characters to kill their loved ones after they become zombies, or face dying. In doing so, the games create horrific game spaces by relying on the narrativized relationship and game play interaction between the player-character and the non-player-characters who become monsters.

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35 In Resident Evil Code: Veronica(2000), the player occasionally plays through Steve Burnside, making him temporarily a player-character. At other times, he also exists as a non-player-character in the sense that he is not continuously playable and that his death does not constitute a losing, but a winning scenario at the game's end. While a playable character, Steve kills his father to protect Claire Redfield, one of the main player-characters. After befriending and trusting Steve, Claire is later forced to kill him after he becomes a zombie. The Resident Evil games present various situations like this, where player-characters or friendly non-player characters die or are treacherous and must be killed or fought. Perhaps the most significant examples of treachery are Albert Wesker, who betrays the main tactical team S.T.A.R.S. and directly causes almost all of the suffering and death in the games. To a much lesser degree, Barry Burton betrays Jill Valentine in the first Resident Evil order to protect his family from Albert Wesker. While these convolutions of friend and foe and the changing from human to zombie proliferate in the Resident Evil games, one example typifies the difference between Resident Evil' s use of zombies and monsters and the other games' use of monsters. This example comes in the form of the child-woman named Lisa Trevor. Lisa Trevor, who appears in Resident Evil: 0 (2002), represents the most in-depth zombie created in any video game thus far. Lisa appears in the first Resident Evil She is a child, whose father, George Trevor, inadvertently worked for Umbrella by acting as the architect for the Spenser Mansion. As a maniacal corporation, Umbrella management killed George and his wife. Lisa managed to escape immediate death, but was infected by the zombie-causing virus. Lisa grows into a zombie-creature with some memories. Before confronting Lisa, the player has a chance to read Lisa's journal, where Lisa writes

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36 of missing her mother and being afraid. Slowly, Lisa's journal entries deteriorate in terms of grammar, punctuation, and spelling, until her last entry consists only of scratches on the page. Resident Evil 's use of journals to narrate the transition from human to zombie, with the gradual breakdown of language that occurs as the change progresses shows Lisa as both human and as a monster, along with the intermediate steps. When the player first meets Lisa, Lisa attacks and captures the player, saving the player to be eaten later. Most representations of zombies, including those in Resident Evil games, depict zombies as mindless, unthinking creatures. Lisa exhibits not only a past as a human, but a current ability to think that cannot rely only on past experience because an ordinary young girl would not know how to capture and constrain an adult. Later in the game, the player escapes Lisa by opening a coffin, and throwing it over a ledge, with the remains of Lisa's mother inside. Lisa jumps after her mother, yelling “mo..ther..” Lisa clearly has both memories and thought processes as a zombie, and she has the ability to care, as she does for her mother. While players could ignore the narrative elements that construct Lisa as a character, Lisa cannot be fought outright or physically. In order to defeat Lisa, players must read about her character to learn that Lisa would abandon food for her mother. The game narrative in this and many other instances is wedded to the game play—in this case, for defeating Lisa—and the game space, in this case for making the space more horrific based on the narrative. By presenting Lisa first as a monster, and then as a monster with a past, Lisa is both associated with otherness from the start, while also moving towards humanness because of her past and because of her ability to remember and think, attributes that separate her

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37 from other monsters. Lisa is always a monster in the exact present of the game, yet she also carries a trace of humanity with her. As such, Lisa is unlike monsters in most video games, and unlike those in a good deal of literature. As Ruth Waterhouse notes about female monsters: GrendelÂ’s mother is a monster who, like Hyde, Frankenstein's wretch, and Dracula, kills, she differs strikingly from the women in the recent monster discourses because unlike Lucy, who in Dracula is drawn into Otherness only after her death, she is, together with Grendel, associated from the start with Otherness. (35) Like Grendel's mother, Lisa is associated from the start with Otherness, but she is also associated with humanness from the start. Lisa is a monster who carries traces of human, thus narratively complicating any easy divisions or simplifications between human and monster. When Lisa follows her mother, the player is able to escape, but the player can never directly fight Lisa. To fight Lisa guarantees death because a single hit from Lisa kills and because Lisa is not even injured by the weapons available to the player. The player's inability to fight Lisa displaces the normal structure of monster/opponent equivalence because the opponent role in video games implies the ability to fight, at least at some point in the game. Because Lisa can never be fought, Lisa is also outside of the structure for normal opponents or conflict even though she can kill the player and thus end the game. Lisa Trevor is certainly an extreme example, but she is an elaborated form of many of the zombies in Resident Evil, whose human pasts are shown in their photographs and journals. She is also an elaborated form of many of the creatures in horror games who cannot be fought, and so they cannot be easily classified as generic enemies. For the zombie-character backgrounds, Resident Evil even goes so far as to have the journals appear on the screen, while having the character who wrote them provide a voice-over

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38 reading. This voice-over serves to bring the dead-as-alive back into the journal writing and to the moment in which the player reads the journal by making the writer’s voice exist in the present. The combination of opponents that cannot be opponents because they cannot be fought and monsters that cannot be simply monsters because their humanness constantly re-intrudes upon the game leads to an overall breakdown of the clarity of game play. This breakdown leads the player to be aware of the need for running instead of fighting, for using items, or for fighting, instead of relying on the general schema to fight anything that can be fought, which would inevitably cause the player to lose many horror games. In terms of game narrative, this also prevents the player from making any easy distinctions between friend and foe, because these change the game play. For instance, in Resident Evil Code: Veronica-, the player as Claire Redfield must leave items for her brother Chris Redfield to use, or the game becomes incredibly difficult to play as Chris. The player cannot simply follow this logic and leave additional items for other characters, like Steve Burnside, because the player has to fight and kill Steve after he becomes a zombie. If the player had left items for Steve, the player would have inadvertently hindered her own game play in doing so. The lack of clear distinctions shows how horror games subvert norms to establish their own game play and genre through that subversion. Like Resident Evil 's penchant for zombies, the Fatal Frame games rely on ghostly monsters—most of whom appear to be ghosts and demons—to create horrific worlds. Unlike Resident Evil, where the zombies are generally non-descript people who may have been in service to the evil Umbrella corporation or who could have been innocent

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39 bystanders, with the divisions coming through based on the journals and notes found, Fatal Frame 's enemies are almost entirely evil in some way. The Fatal Frame games are both set in small communities—the first, in a mansion home with the surrounding support systems buildings and the second, in a small village— whose residents have tried to sacrifice young women. In each of the games, the game narrative insinuates that the villagers are trapped in an undead state, not for the murdersacrifices they committed, but for their failure in performing one of these ritualized murders. Given this premise, the townspeople are all portrayed as somewhat monstrous initially for their part in these rituals, but also as very human for being trapped in these cycles of death and fear. Because the townspeople did live in these places, the buildings, rooms, and gardens are filled with their journals, photographs, clothing, and day-to-day items like pots and pans. This abundance of material portrays the people, even with their horrendous acts, as humans and, even in their horrendous forms as ghosts, as extremely human. The game further confuses questions of good and evil and human and monstrous by making the sacrificed “innocents” also attack the player-characters. The game also muddles these distinctions by making the player-characters slowly become like the nowdead sacrificed women. This is evidenced Miku’s scars in the first Fatal Frame and by Mayo’s possession by the place and by one of the sacrificed in the second Fatal Frame By presenting Fatal Frame ’s mansion and townspeople not as normal video game non-player-characters—which is a norm that places them as either helpful or innocuous towards the player-characters—the townspeople populate a horrific place that has complicated moral determinants. The townspeople committed decidedly wrong acts by killing young girls; however, they were also forced to commit these acts by their

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40 circumstances. This makes the townspeople’s actions no less deplorable, but it does make the actors not overtly evil, where most video games have opponents that are evil actors and evil characters collapsed into one singular figure of the opponent for representational ease and clarity. Similarly, the player-characters in each Fatal Frame game slowly become like the girls killed before them. Even as they do, the sacrificed girls continue to attack them. The “innocent” girls attacking the innocent player-characters and attempting to kill them blurs the lines between monster and human because the sacrificed girls are narratively the victims. The repetition of human characters who are not necessarily immoral and their immoral attacks on the player-character could indicate that they are just ghosts, and that as ghosts they act in evil ways, except for the fact that the second game has the ghost of a young boy who is good. By presenting him as a ghost from the same time and the same town, and yet allowing him to be good, the game erases the possibility for any clear moral divisions that could situate the ghosts as evil, thus allowing the townspeople to remain morally indeterminate as ghosts and humans. Instead, Fatal Frame works to blurs the boundaries between good and evil, moral and immoral, and action and character. In doing so, a video game structure of player-character and opponent cannot sufficiently address the functioning of the characters in light of the game narratives. Lisa, the less elaborate zombies in Resident Evil, and the monsters in Fatal Frame are not presented as simple enemy-monsters, but as complex creatures who have been formed through their human pasts and monstrous present. “Monsters are never created ex nihilo ,” Cohen argues, but are instead created, “through a process of fragmentation and recombination in which elements are extracted ‘from various forms’ (including indeed,

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41 especially marginalized social groups) and then assembled as the monster, ‘which can then claim an independent identity’” (“Monster Culture” 11). The majority of zombies in Resident Evil are either lower-level Umbrella employees or innocent bystanders. As such, they are most often portrayed as middle or working class people who have been trapped into their positions, and their eventual zombification, through their social standing. Like them, the ghosts in Fatal Frame are trapped in their towns and as ghosts because of the bizarre rituals required of them to keep the gates to Hell closed. Their humanness, including the social rules that bound and doomed them into their later monstrous forms, along with the monstrousness of the zombies and ghosts combine to create monsters that are more than the troped opponent or conflict schemas established in earlier games. Monsters and the Other In addition to the monster as a form of Other, some horror games clearly present creatures which are explicitly both monster and human, making them fundamentally Other and uncodifable. With their full exploration of monsters as more than a simplistic form of opponents, the zombies in Resident Evil and the ghosts in Fatal Frame are unlike those in other video games. However, each of these enemies/monsters is still an alteration of the typical opponent structure. In addition to the opponent structure, are monstrous non-player-characters who cannot be fought, and are narratively constructed such that the player-character would not fight them. In this place, the narrative significance of the nonplayer-character still affects game play by creating a more horrific game space and more horrific game play that does not narratively end even with the winning of the game. An example of this comes from the player-character in Silent Hill, Harry, who is seeking his adopted daughter Cheryl who was lost in the town of Silent Hill after a car accident. Because the player-character goal for the game is a reunion with Cheryl, the game

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42 requires that players follow narrative cues to learn more about Cheryl and more about her whereabouts. In her discussion of survival horror structures, in “Play Dead: Genre and Affect in Silent Hill and Planescape Torment ” Diane Carr notes that, “ Silent Hill 's tight, maze structure fuels its ability to frighten its users” (para. 17). Carr continues on to note that Silent Hill uses monsters to change the town’s structure from the safe regions of schools and hospitals to horrific spaces. In her notes, Carr does not definitively place the monsters as the flying and skittering non-human things or as Harry’s daughter, but Harry's daughter could be the most monstrous of all. As the game progresses, the player learns that Cheryl was not formally adopted, but found. Also as the game progresses, Harry learns that Cheryl was not born and is not a singular entity. Instead, Cheryl is one part of two children who form a demon, or the antiChrist (the game is a bit unclear as to the exact name or place of the creature, but it is fairly clear that the creature is a demon who can end all existence). Harry’s relationship begins with Harry as a father to Cheryl, which is certainly a self-other relationship in the psychoanalytic sense. Then Harry learns that Cheryl is a monster, making the relationship a self-other in the human-monstrous sense. Subsequently, Harry must deal with the fact that Cheryl is not even one monster, but part of one monster. She is thus not human and not monster; she is also his daughter and not his daughter. Cheryl is in some ways defined by what she is not, but by the end of the game, she cannot be defined by what she is. In this way, Cheryl becomes wholly Other because she cannot be included in any structure—she exists outside of all. As Cohen remarks, Cheryl and other monsters are disruptions because of their abnormal existences where they refuse “to participate in the

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43 classificatory 'order of things'” and act as, “disturbing hybrids whose externally incoherent bodies resist attempts to include them in any systematic structuration. And so the monster is dangerous, a form suspended between forms that threatens to smash distinctions” (“Monster Culture” 6). Harry similarly occupies an odd place as playercharacter because of his relationship as father to Cheryl as monster. With Harry's entire driving motivation in Silent Hill his desire to save his daughter, Harry's existence is bound to his relationship to Cheryl. Cheryl’s otherness pushes the town of Silent Hill from a typical town to being a town that is sometimes earthly, and sometimes part of a demonic or hellish plane of existence. Neither of these spaces can accommate Cheryl because she is neither monster nor human; she is part monster, but not even a full being. The physical changing game space of the town of Silent Hill is thus directly related to the game narrative and Cheryl. While Cheryl is a non-player-character, Lisa is a monster, and Steve is both a player-character and an opponent-monster, the narrativization of each of these characters as fully being Other characters affects the feel of the game space as well as the method of game play. Conclusion Video games may present enemies, monsters, and the Other who are more than just troped figures for conflict. In doing so, they allow for new directions in game design and game narrative because they include a figure that complicates traditional game design boundaries as well as traditional narrative boundaries. Additionally, the figure of the monster complicates the overall structure of the game by breaking and crossing existing boundaries that serve to create that structure. Cohen remarks on how monsters change structures noting, “The monster haunts; it does not simply bring past and present together, but destroys the boundary that demanded their twinned foreclosure” (“Preface”

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44 ix-x). Cohen also remarks that, “Monstrosity challenges a coherent or totalizing concept of history” (“Preface” x). Cohen's remark on monsters and borders, and monsters and history directly relate to monsters in video games because monsters in video games serve to transgress and alter boundaries both for game narratives and for game design. The history of the monstrous creatures before becoming monstrous also serves to present multiple narrative possibilities for the game space and for the game narrative, each of which tie to game design because of the influence of narrative on game play. As the monster disrupts the systems in which it exists, it also metaphorically points outside of itself. Basic opponents exist as tropes and generally do not have internal representation so they cannot act metaphorically in relation to something outside of themselves, but nontroped, or fully formed enemies and monsters can. This full formation of opponentenemy-monster allows for the critique of consumerism in both Romero's Dawn of the Dead and the critique of humanity in System Shock 2 and Resident Evil. As Constance Penley suggests about horror film: George Romero's Dawn of the Dead is more than a kitsch ambience, it is a way of concretely demonstrating the zombification of consumer culture. By exposing every corner of the mall stores, escalators, public walkways, basement, roof the location becomes more saturated with meaning. (71) Similarly, Resident Evil uses zombies to critique the general video game structures— video game structures that I have previously noted enforce capitalistic systems of points for kills and for exploration (“Working the System”). Instead, Resident Evil offers extras only for beating the game quickly, which necessitates running and not fighting and not exploring. The zombies and ghosts in horror games critique video game structures that offer troped and unformed opponents who have no internal characteristics by offering

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45 opponents whose humanity is imbued in the artifacts of their lives within the game space. Horror games also offer a critique to the types of game play that these general structures give rise to in relation to monsters and enemies because, while many games operate as 'hack and slash' or the ambivalent killing for progress, horror games often instead make players question every bullet or attack by restricting ammunition. The critiques are often presented in kitschy and overly contrived Gothic stylings—like Romero's Dead series and the 1970’s Italian horror films, known as Giallo, from which the games draw stylistic and thematic elements. While the presentation of horror games often leads them to be dismissed as a result of poor game design or poor game narrative, horror games like Resident Evil, Silent Hill, and Fatal Frame present alternate options for game design by fully incorporating the monster into their game structures. In doing so, the overly contrived structures, game play, and themes serve to create boundaries that the monster blurs and dissolves.

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46 CHAPTER 3 FRACTURED INDENTITIES: SIBLINGS AND DOPPELGANGERS IN VIDEO GAMES As a new media form, video games are inextricably bound by their technological limitations.1 These include limitations in terms of processing power and in terms of code space on early cartridge and CD-based games. The limitations for game design have decreased dramatically as the processing power of the game stations and the run-of-themill personal computer have increased along with the data capacity for individual games. However, the prior limitations led to certain approaches to game construction that became tropes of game design that remain in use. Those former technologically based limitations that have become tropes often rely on the doubled use of code to mirror certain parts of the screen or parts of the game world, parts of the game narrative, and particular game characters or aspects of the characters. Using examples from several video games and particularly games from the Resident Evil and Fatal Frame series, this chapter demonstrates the manner in which character mirroring or doubling functions in games. In particular, I argue that the mirrored characters parallel the structure of folk and fairy tales in their subversive potential. By studying popular video games in connection with folk and fairy tales, this chapter illustrates the potential of popular, mainstream video games to present subversive and empowering narratives to their players. 1 An earlier version of this chapter appears as "Fractured Identities: Siblings and Doubles in Video Games," in Reconstruction: Studies in Contemporary Culture 5.2 (Spring 2005).

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47 In literature, the figure of the double takes many forms. As Albert Guerard notes, “The word double is embarrassingly vague, as used in literary criticism. It need not imply autoscopic hallucination or even close physical resemblance” (3). In video games, which are bound by technological limitations, the double emerges in a very distinct manner both within game-play and within gaming narratives. In a single-character and thus seemingly simpler example, many critics have attempted to frame Tomb Raider ’s Lara Croft within Laura Mulvey’s theories of voyeurism in film. However, as Helen W. Kennedy rightly argues in “Lara Croft: Feminist Icon or Cyberbimbo?: On the Limits of Textual Analysis,” Lara Croft cannot be easily accommodated into the voyeuristic gaze because Lara is both the object of the gaze and the acting heroine within the game. Lara Croft manages to complicate any attempt to simplify her relationship to the player or the game because of the importance of game-play. While Lara Croft offers a comparatively simple example because she is one character, many video games double and multiply single characters into multiple player-character choices, and may then even double those playercharacters into their own enemies. Studies on doubling and identification in games have more often used psychoanalysis to focus on the doubling of the player in relation to the player-character. However, doubling and mirroring in video games also occurs at the level of game-play, with the player doubling the player-character, and within the game structure as the characters themselves are doubled and multiplied. The doubling and multiplication within the game structure is directly tied to the game’s technological requirements that demand the mirroring of code for conservation of space. For instance, the first Metroid presented mirrored game areas so that the game could appear more expansive while utilizing the

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48 same code. However, because technological mirroring proves necessary, many games incorporate that mirroring into the game narratives to make the games’ narratives operate within the structural confines of that mirroring. Thus, many games have structural and spatial, as well as narratively mirrored characters. Because of the partly technologyderived mirroring of narratives and characters, and their subsequent multiplication, video games often focus on sibling rather than romantic relationships. The shift from romantic to sibling relationships not only changes the space in which the games are played, but also the overall movement and shape of the game narratives. In doing so, many video game stories present radical departures from traditional romantic storytelling conventions specifically because they adhere to game design conventions and constraints. While many games also follow more conventional romantic storylines, these are often portrayed in conjunction with sibling storylines. While psychologically-motivated romantic structures occur more frequently in game narratives, as video games develop and more mature-rated and adult-themed games are released, the sibling structures dominating earlier game narratives still remains in use in many current and upcoming games. Because of their prevalent use of sibling structures, video games connect to a long tradition of fairy and folk tales. Further, folk and fairy tales highlight the subversive and radical possibilities in video games, whereby video games can subvert traditional narrative and typical game-play conventions.2 Bruno Bettelheim notes in his study of 2 Typical game-play conventions tend to focus on acquisition and progression while less typical games tend to focus on exploration and use. By focusing on acquisition and progression, many games emulate an exchange model where game-play is rewarded by virtual goods or spaces. For more on game-play dynamics and their relationship to an exchange model, see Laurie N. Taylor, “Working the System: Economic Models for Video Game Narrative and Play,” Works and Days 2: 43-44 (2004): 143-153.

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49 fairy tales The Uses of Enchantment that two siblings are often used in fairy tales, often as brother and sister, to represent two different types or different aspects of the same person. This structure has continued and evolved through comics, animation, and video games. One modern day example of this structure comes from Donald Duck's nephews, Huey, Dewey, and Louie who act as a unit in terms of actions and speech—they are parts of one person divided into three. In video games, this occurs frequently with one sibling representing greater skill in one area or more fully embodying a certain concept. For instance, one game player-character is stronger and another is faster, or, as a variation on the “Two Brothers” theme that Bettelheim studies, one character often embodies “the striving for independence and self-assertion, and the opposite tendency to remain safely home, tied to the parents (91). Bettelheim's remarks here are in reference to the entire frame of fairy tales, but they also apply to video games, as Janet Murray has noted in using Vladmir Propp's “Morphology of the Folk Tale” to study the story structure of video games ( Hamlet on the Holodeck ). While Propp can be apt and useful for many games, for others, Propp's analysis is overly simplistic and cannot account for the many variations. As a result Bettelheim's remarks on the movement and tension between siblings and on how those tensions often vary in accordance with the siblings’ relationships opens the gap left in Propp’s work and shows that video games, like fairy tales, need a more complex approach to even seemingly simple stories. The sibling structure in video games often acts in the same subversive manner as the sibling structures in fairy tales. Gilles Deleuze and Flix Guattari explain the significance of sibling relationships for social change in the context of schizoanalysis, which they consider to be an alternative to psychoanalysis in respecting the relationship

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50 of siblings and equals instead of predicating all relationships on the dominant family structure with father and mother. “This combined formula, which has value only as an ensemble, is that of schizo-incest,” Deleuze and Guattari explain: “Psychoanalysis, because it understands nothing, has always confused two sorts of incest: the sister is presented as a substitute for the mother, the maid as a derivative of the mother, the whore as a reaction-formation” ( Kafka 66). Psychoanalysis reaffirms that dominant structure by insisting on the power and presence, even in absence, of the ordering or power structure of the adult-parent formation. As Deleuze and Guattari note, psychoanalysis insists on the mother even when the mother is absent; when the mother is absent and the sister fills a pivotal role by becoming representative of the mother. Alternately, schizoanalysis argues that for some texts – while the parental-power formation remains present – the parentalpower structure is not the pivotal relationship within that structure. The structure of schizoanalysis is a structure of confusion and movement, of doubles and combinations. As such, it allows for changing and evolving structures that exist outside of the patriarchal power system. Folk tales that subvert social norms – like Hansel and Gretel as the tale of two children surviving parental abandonment and as a critique of the family structure that allowed for child abandonment – often use figures of children to question the existing power structure in part by reaffirming the fundamental nature of the sibling relationship. Similarly, many video games also reaffirm the sibling relationship, often to specifically argue against the power structures present in the game. Because of their emphasis on game-play, video games rely heavily on the reader/player for interpretation and meaning, especially as that meaning may change based on different game-play strategies. The fluid nature of video game play allows

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51 games to be analyzed using schizoanalysis and psychoanalysis with the majority of games displaying components of each, especially given the usefulness of psychoanalysis to articulate the relationship between the player and the player-character(s). The usefulness of psychoanalytic and non-psychoanalytic models is clear given the ubiquity of sibling relationships in video games. These siblings are often doubles in their places within the game narratives and in their visual representation and also afford a subversive vision akin to the sibling doubles from fairy tales, a vision that requires multiple lenses. The prevalent use of siblings and emphasis on sibling relationships in games points to narrativized struggles between traditional and non-traditional social models. As Paul Wells notes the double is generally used as a metaphor for "struggles between law and order, the sacred and the profane, barbarism and civility, truth and lies" (8-9). Siblings in Structure: Player-Characters and Enemies Video game designers often use sibling relationships because—though changing rapidly with the popularity of teen and mature rated games—the majority of video games are still created and rated for all ages. Video games need stories that are accessible for all ages and that can be translated for cultural and linguistic changes. The need for translatability is foregrounded because video games are sold across the world, with most games developed in either Japan or the United States. The need for translation requires video games to use a simple schema for game-play, and one that backgrounds more adult-related issues like sexuality. While many video games do have romantic relationships and high levels of explicit sexuality, these present greater difficulty in translation because of the different cultural standards for beauty, romantic relationships, and gender-specific behavior. While having a female character fight to save her beloved may not easily translate across cultures because of the position of women in those

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52 cultures, children's stories provide a schema in which male and female player-characters can play and fight with almost equal strength as siblings. Using nearly-equivalent siblings also allows game designers to easily offer player character options that do not unfairly skew game-play. As Andrew Rollings and Dave Morris note in Game Architecture and Design, game balance includes matching the player's skill to the game-play, matching game-play elements with each other (for instance having equivalent weapons do equivalent damage), and matching the player option so that each player, or player-character, is afforded equal skills and abilities (734). Rollings and Morris go on to note that exact symmetry is the fairest solution, "but it's rarely the most interesting" (74). By striving for symmetry, video games follow other competitive sports and events like horse races and boxing in that video games try to equally weigh the players in order to create an even and competitive match. One common way to make games fair while also providing equivalent, but not symmetrical, characters is to make multiple player-characters that have higher abilities in certain areas. The characters are then balanced overall with each excelling in certain areas; the characters are siblings in structural usage because they are equivalent but not necessarily symmetrical. One example of the relationship of sibling structures for character creation and development are the characters in Tenchu: Stealth Assassins. In Tenchu, the player can choose to play as the male character Rikimaru or the female character, Ayame who is faster but less powerful than her male counterpart. This allows for slight player-character differences that relate to gender, but that more significantly relate to different options in game-play. Ayame allows for game-play that is based on quick movement and that

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53 requires more hits for a kill, while Rikimaru allows for slower play based on slower, more powerful attacks with less movement and fewer hits required for a kill. The two characters are then synonymous with their game-play options and they parallel each other in terms of their ability to represent facets of game-play. Following the need for ease of translation, game designers also need to be able to easily implement multiple possible player-characters, for play in multiplayer games, and in multiple-character single player games. Siblings and sibling structures—where the player-characters are equivalent in age, overall skills, and goals—allow for game designers to create multiple characters with few extra programming demands. Because video games are incredibly popular and game technology is rapidly evolving, game designers’ and technological needs play a large role in the creation and evolution of game structures and narratives. As such, the sibling structures for game-play and game design operate on both the more simplistic level of player-character choice, as well as on the level of the underlying game meta-structures. In terms of player-character choice, using siblings as the multiple player-character options allows the game narratives to be written once, and then the siblings can be easily substituted for each other during game-play without the need for multiple narrative structures or game-play options. This also allows game designers to add additional characters and character types and to add in unlockable3 or extra characters with relative ease. One simplified example of a video game that uses characters within a sibling structure, but not a sibling narrative is Gauntlet. Gauntlet provides an excellent example 3 In video games, items and characters are said to be unlockable if they are at first locked and inaccessible to the player and then, after the player completes a particular action or quest, the items become ‘unlocked’ and available.

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54 of the sibling structure because the player plays as one of several player-characters which all begin with different levels of ability within the same skill sets. As the game progresses, all of the characters slowly grow more powerful in the same main categories of strength, speed, endurance, and magic. New characters with the same skill areas can be unlocked and all characters have the same maximum levels for each skill, allowing them to become equal in terms of their in-game attributes. While the characters differ only slightly, and their differences do not greatly affect game play, Gauntlet still offers the appearance of choice by using the sibling player-character structure with each character as an aspect of the other characters. The sibling structure also allows game designers to easily add in additional characters for the appearance of additional game-play options and rewards. For instance, Super Mario Brothers uses the siblings Mario and Luigi as identical character options, except for their coloration, in the two-player game. While Super Mario Brothers is ‘a princess on a pedestal game,’ in which the player fights to save a trapped princess, it focuses first on the sibling relationship because both brothers are enlisted to save the princess. Mario and Luigi are identical in terms of abilities, age, and their appearance only varies in terms of the colors of their clothing; Mario wears red and brown and Luigi wears white and green.4 In Super Mario Brothers, the sibling relationship is also apparent in enemies like the Hammer Brothers, who are always in pairs and who fight by throwing hammers at the player-character. In later Mario games, the player can play as Mario, Luigi, Toad, or the Princess, all of whom have higher abilities in some areas, but have equal overall skills. 4 Mario and Luigi's appearances do change in later games, but at first they appear identical except for the colors of their outfits.

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55 More recent games also feature the character Wario, a larger and more yellow version of Mario, as an enemy or a player-character, depending on the game. The multiple playercharacters and monsters, even in the simple example of the Super Mario Brothers, connect to the overall evolution of monsters. As Judith Halberstam notes, "[t]he postFrankenstein monster emerges at the turn of the century as a creature marked by an essential duality and a potential multiplicity" (53). Like other monsters, those presented by video games are multiple in each of their instances, and in the spectrum of their iterations within a single game. And while the monsters in Super Mario Brothers are not horrific monsters, the general structural and narrative multiplicity of enemies and monsters in video games allows for the creation of multiple monster types, including horrific monsters and doppelgngers. Siblings in Narrative Design requirements push game designers towards using sibling structures for player-characters. However, the scope in which many games use siblings not only for player-character choice, but for the game meta-narrative and game-play design shows that video games operate both within traditional romantic and familial structures, as well as within alternatives like sibling structures. For games using the sibling structures for game design, Deleuze and Guattari’s schizoanalysis proves a useful approach. For instance, both of the early games Super Mario Brothers (1985) and The Legend of Zelda (1986) are technically ‘princess on pedestal’ stories, but to read these merely in a psychoanalytic manner misses the sibling relationships in each. In The Legend of Zelda, the main character, Link, and Zelda, the princess he must save, appear as brother and sister. In a later game in the series, The Legend of Zelda: the Wind Waker Link is, in fact, explicitly named as brother to Aryll, whom he must save.

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56 In each of these games, the ‘princess on a pedestal’ story is also a narrative of a brother saving his sister. As such, the game narratives are more like modern renditions of radical folk tales that question the explicit power structure by presenting an alternate structure. The folk and fairy tale structures in these games further reinforces their subversive tendencies, as Jack Zipes notes: "No matter what has become of the fairy tale, its main impulse was at first revolutionary and progressive, not escapist, as has too often been suggested" (36). While folk and fairy tales can be subversive, Zipes also argues that their presentation often diminishes or negates their subversive potential. In particular, Zipes states that the mass production of fairy tales leads to, “a technologically produced universal voice and image which impose themselves on the imagination of passive audiences. The fragmented experiences of atomized and alienated people are ordered and harmonized by turning the electric magic switch” (17). Thus, the structure of folk and fairy tales alone does not necessarily allow for subversion. Rather, it is a combination of the stories themselves and the manner in those stories and their structures are presented that allow for the subversive potential. Because video games must offer options, or the appearance of options, and because they rely on game-play, they may escape the universalized voice. For instance, even in games like Super Mario Brothers in which the player is sent on a quest to save the princess, the game focuses first on the brotherly relationship between Mario and Luigi and then on their quest to save the princess. In moves similar to this, the Mario video games often posit the primary relationship to be that of siblings, with the Princess included as an equal as she is a player-character in several of the games.

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57 Super Mario Brother 's characters can be incorporated into a psychoanalytic structure that would reaffirm the dominant social-power structure of the family, but to remain only within this interpretative framework would neglect or obscure significant aspects of the game. Making this misstep, Mia Consalvo in "Hot Dates and Fairy-Tale Romances: Studying Sexuality in Videogames" psychoanalytically analyzes one of the games in the immensely popular Final Fantasy series for its characters’ romances. However, Consalvo’s analysis fails to take note that all of the characters in Final Fantasy are orphans in worlds torn by war, with absent parents, making the characters siblings through their loss. Her analysis also neglects that, while the games’ ending and the jokes during the game suggest romance, the game is played in a traditional fairy tale form with the siblings fighting for survival. Consalvo bases her psychoanalytic reading of the Final Fantasy games only on the game dialogue. While dialogue is an important component for game analysis, game-play and structure point to another structural level that complicate readings of the game structure presented by the game dialogue. The sibling structure employed in Final Fantasy with its use of orphan-siblings as the player characters, also occurs in the Final Fantasy offshoot, Kingdom Hearts Kingdom Hearts retains some of the Final Fantasy characters while also adding new ones. Kingdom Hearts also has the player-character Sora fight his own shadow. Final Fantasy and Kingdom Hearts’ use of orphans to provide equivalent player characters influences the game narrative and connects to doubles. As Karl Miller notes, "[w]here the double is, the orphan is never far away" (39). For video games, orphans and doubles are connected by the game narratives that seek to provide equality, and must thus remove the more powerful ‘parental’ figures and make the characters equal by way of making them

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58 orphans. Because of the need to balance player characters, video games use doubles for both characters and enemies. By making the players in Final Fantasy orphans, the players are equal in a manner that psychoanalysis, with its emphasis on sexual relationships and the priority of the parent, cannot grasp. Furthermore, because the player-characters are all orphans and exhibit equivalent abilities, the player-characters act as doubles of each other with each one providing slight alterations, but acting in similar ways and remaining tied to the other characters within the narrative. Similar to Final Fantasy, the game ICO places the player as a young boy banished from his home village. In order to escape the prison the villagers confine him to, he must help another prisoner, a young girl named Yorda. Because of the girl's age and the game’s storytelling style, ICO also shows a sibling relationship with the two children joined in their orphaned status, banishment, and loss. In Gender Inclusive Game Design Sheri Graner Ray argues that in ICO, “the way in which the NPC [non-player character] is presented to the player encourages emotional involvement" (55). This emotional involvement stems from the depiction of Yorda depicts as a sibling in need of help, and as a sibling in circumstances that place both the player-character and Yorda living by themselves in exile. The fairy tale structure in these games is not a reaffirmation of the dominant structure, but one more in line with the subversive nature of early fairy tales. This is not to say that video games were designed for their revolutionary potential, just as folk and fairy tales were not always created for revolutionary reasons. As Zipes contends, folk and fairy tales have been considered subversive, “as they have tended to project other and better worlds,” and additionally they, “have provided the critical measure of how far we are from taking history into our

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59 own hands and creating more just societies” (Zipes 3). The majority of video games are certainly not developed with revolution in mind, but the majority of video games do present the possibility of better worlds and a method for making those worlds, if only in terms of the fictional worlds they present. Final Fantasy, ICO, Super Mario Brothers and The Legend of Zelda are typical video games in their presentation of sibling relationships as the primary relationships, with parents and parental structures being notably absent. On its own, a psychoanalytic framework proves inadequate for video games like these, if one wants to address the manner in which relationships are constructed and explored, as they are often without parental or other hegemonic structures. Psychoanalytic theories would most likely respond to this that the parents may be removed, but that they still exist structurally. In these games, however, the parents and all parental structures have not only been removed, but the game worlds are also frequently in chaos. To argue that this chaos still implies a traditional psychoanalytic structure misapprehends these narratives and their development through game-play. As an alternative to a psychoanalytical frame for discussing these games, schizoanalysis helps to illustrate the manner in which games use sibling structures and the significance of the sibling structures in games. In Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, Deleuze and Guattari argue that psychoanalysis misunderstands the function of the family. In doing so, they argue that the entire field of the familial structure is misinterpreted in making the family the site where the entire social field is applied and performed: The family becomes the subaggregate to which the whole of the social field is applied. Since each person has his own private father and mother, it is a distributive subaggregate that simulates for each person the collective whole of social persons and that closes off his domain and scrambles his images. Everything is reduced to

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60 the father-mother-child triangle, which reverberates the answer 'daddy-mommy' every time it is stimulated by images of capital. (265) Deleuze and Guattari here specifically relate schizoanalysis to the capitalistic system and to the overall social structure. While it is beyond the scope of this paper to explore the implications of sibling-structured video games for capitalist society, the alternative social structure presented in such games corresponds to the subversive potential of folk and fairy tales which question the dominant social order. Sibling Worlds: Chaos of Changing Structures Horror games like those in the Fatal Frame and Resident Evil series present examples of subversive texts that rely on the sibling structure in order to question the narrativized power structures in their game worlds and the function of player-characters and non-player-characters in those worlds. Unlike many sibling-based games that are designed for all player ages and designed with little of a recognizably real world included, survival horror games provide a critical perspective on sibling relationships because they are situated within more realistic worlds, both with older player-characters, and designed for older players. Furthermore the games also question all of the world structures they depict. Survival horror games are also easier to disentangle from their explicit narratives because the narratives are often Gothic. As Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick explains of Gothic conventions; “Surely no other modern literary form as influential as the Gothic novel has also been as pervasively conventional. Once you know that a novel is of Gothic kind [...] you can predict its contents with an unnerving certainty” (9). Gothic conventions may make for greater confusion in terms of the actual narrative and structure; yet, the codification of Gothic conventions serves to simplify the separation of the structures from the explicit narrative. Because Gothic narratives often appear as

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61 psychologically motivated tales, their use in survival horror games also further helps to show the need for schizoanalysis given the failure of psychoanalysis to fully explain these games. Psychoanalysis postulates that the fundamental structure is that of the family—whether this structure is that of mother-father-child or of caregiver’s absence, the structure always refers to the initial values of the hierarchical family of parents and children. Deleuze and Guattari argue against this structure because it attributes all power to the parents and reifies the small nuclear group even as it applies to the larger social structures. The subversion of this is the schizoanalytic structure, which is one of change and evolution and which focuses on the relationship between equals – that of siblings or doubles. Removal of the parents or governing power, which is typical of many childrens’ stories and video games, does not in itself change the narrative movement from psychoanalytic to schizoanalytic. The psychoanalytic structure must be fundamentally subverted or questioned for the schizoanalytic structure to take hold. This fundamental change is enacted throughout the Resident Evil and Fatal Frame games, in which the parental figures are removed, undermined, or corrupted. The removal of parental figures and structures leads to changes in the narrative structure and the game world presentation that make psychoanalytic treatments of these games inadequate. Deleuze and Guattari contend that: The Oedipal incest occurs, or imagines that it occurs, or is interpreted as if it occurs, as an incest with the mother, who is a territoriality, a reterritorialization. Schizo-incest takes place with the sister, who is not a substitute for the mother, but who is on the other side of the class struggle, the side of maids and whores, the incest of deterritorialization [...] Schizo-incest, in contrast, is connected to sound, to the manner in which sound takes flight and in which memory-less blocks introduce themselves in full vitality into the present to activate it, to precipitate it, to multiply its connections. ( Kafka 67)

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62 In many video games, the sister or brother is just that – a sister or brother – and does not represent the mother or any sort of territorialized structure. In the survival horror games investigated here, all of the existing structures are eroded or destroyed; only the sibling relationships remain and these are relationships of tension and change. Within the schizoanalytic structure, Deleuze and Guattari also note the importance of sound for schizo-incest’s ability to take flight. Sound in the doubled and sibling worlds of survival horror video games provides the only reliable game system – vision cannot be trusted, and often cannot be used effectively at all because of the lack of light and heavy fog. Sound fills survival horror games to define the characters' relationship to the virtual space of the game world, the narrative, and each other. Survival horror games are nightworlds and operate, as Paul Coates suggests, as worlds "in which vision is abolished and a series of suggestive sounds come into their own" (123). Within these worlds, all structures are lost, save for sounds and siblings. The emphasis on sound complements the narrative removal of traditional hierarchies (with parents and the government) by removing the traditional focus of the game display by refocusing it on the auditory rather than the visual. The Resident Evil games begin with capitalistic and militaristic structures gone haywire. The games' conflict begins with a corporation named Umbrella, which engineers biological weapons, creating one called the T-Virus (and mutations of this virus in subsequent games). This virus animates dead flesh so that dead creatures live on in an undead state and attack the living in the attempt to devour them. As the virus mutates and as Umbrella develops other virus strains, dead plants and animals also become extremely violent and aggressive. In the various game iterations, the virus gets released into a city

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63 and several Umbrella training and development areas, which the player fights his or her way through in order to survive and to find friends and family. While the basic plot on the surface seems to be that of a low-budget horror film, the story that unfolds through game-play and the game characters indicates that this can hardly be the case. Through game paratexts and game-play, the player learns that some of the player-characters are members of S.T.A.R.S., a tactical unit that has been sent in to control the virus. Player-characters include Claire Redfield, sister to Chris who is in the S.T.A.R.S. unit; Leon Kennedy, who was reporting to Raccoon City to be a police officer (but since the Police are destroyed, he is completely unconnected); Steve Burnside, son of two Umbrella operatives now dead; and Billy Coen, a fugitive naval officer who was framed, incarcerated, and has escaped from that incarceration. In the course of the game plot, the S.T.A.R.S. leader, Albert Wesker, betrays the group and attempts to kill them. In all of these cases, for S.T.A.R.S. members like Chris, Jill Valentine, Barry Burton, and Rebecca Chambers, and for the others like Claire, Leon, Steve, and Billy, the contro lling social structure is absent. Only in Steve's case is this structure literally parental, but all of the characters previously existed within a psychoanalytic structure of family, career, and military forces, but which have been removed or proved corrupt. Psychoanalysis could take this removal and aberration of the traditional structure as simply that, an aberration being used to generate horror in the games. However, the games refuse such a simple reading. The removal of the parental and patriarchal structures is shown in small paratextual notes and in short cinematic sequences sprinkled in with game-play so sparsely as to be insignificant compared to the sibling relationships. For instance, members of the S.T.A.R.S. team are all shocked when they learn of

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64 Wesker's betrayal, but that shock in reaction to Wesker is much less than their reaction to the loss of any of their quasi-sibling team members. The overall game trajectory, including the overall movement of actual play, focuses on the characters operating as siblings in order to help each other, often in direct opposition to their other orders. The focus of the game is on saving the sibling characters, and those who act otherwise are shown to be destructive and evil. Even the romantic relationships in Resident Evil are first and foremost sibling relationships—in structure or in actuality—and only after that are any of the relationships romantic for those that are not actual siblings. In Resident Evil 0, the S.T.A.R.S. medic Rebecca Chambers, and the fugitive Billy Coen have moments where they seem to be romantically interested in each other, but the game never makes this clear. They are both clearly linked as caring friends, as comrades fighting against the monsters around them. This cooperation questions the apparent order because Rebecca's military orders are to capture Billy and because, even though she was told that Billy is a criminal by her superiors, she still trusts him. Rebecca is still a teenager in the game and her placement as a child within a militaristic order structure casts her military superiors, like Albert Wesker, as parental figures. While this is true for all of the S.T.A.R.S. members, it is especially true for Rebecca because she does not appear to be in a strong position, in terms of age or physical ability, to resist the existing structure in any way. Her placement as medic, and thus less skilled with weaponry, further reinforces her subordinate position. However, she disobeys her orders and resists the dominant powers with little effort. Like the seemingly romantic relationship between Rebecca and Billy, Jill Valentine and Chris Redfield ( Resident Evil, Resident Evil 2 ) seem to be romantically interested in

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65 each other. Like Chris, Jill is a member of the S.T.A.R.S. team and they both fight to help each other. Their relationship, other than their functional relationship as siblings in their military unit, is never made explicit. However, Chris searches for Jill in the same manner that he searches for his sister, Claire; and as Claire and Jill are furthermore similar in appearance, they both function and appear as Chris' sister. In addition to these oddly unromantic relationships, one must also consider Barry Burton and his family ( Resident Evil ). Barry obeys Wesker because Wesker threatens to kill Barry's wife and child. Barry acts as a traitor to his team for a period of time, but then risks his family in order to save his team members. In doing so, Barry both overthrows Wesker's control and reaffirms that the sibling relationship between S.T.A.R.S. members and other survivors comes before that of the traditional family structure. Following Barry, the traditional family is even shown to be a destructive force. Destructive forces appear in all of the complete family units presented even in those that are now incomplete, as with Steve Burnside's family ( Resident Evil Code: Veronica ) and Lisa's family ( Resident Evil ). Steve Burnside has to fight to survive after he and his parents are taken to an island and imprisoned by Umbrella. In one cut scene, Steve even kills his zombified father in order to protect Claire. While this could be read psychoanalytically with the teenage Steve destroying his father to emerge in full manhood, the scene, however is merely a cut-scene and the player has no control over this action. Steve does kill his father to save Claire, and Steve is clearly shown to be attracted to Claire; but his patricide is clearly shown as motivated by the desire to protect his equal and become part of the system in which she exists with her brother Chris, a system of siblings and of survival.

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66 Sibling Worlds: Enemies and Monsters While the sibling system presents a web of equal and equivalent characters, it also provides the basic structure that ties the characters to their enemies. The doubling of characters in video games applies to player-characters, non-player-characters, and enemies alike, as well as to the entire structure of game-play itself. In the words of Matt Bittanti, “[t]he avatar is a technologically charged doppelgnger ” (248). This doubling of the player and the player-character is repeated throughout video games for both playercharacters and their enemies. This multiplicity figures in the construction of the monster in both game narrative and structure because the monster also presents a portion of the subject. The monster, Judith Halberstam explains, is the subject’s double and, “represents not simply that which is the buried self, rather the monster is evidence of the production of multiformed egos. Indeed, it is only the evidence of one self buried in the other that marks the subject human” (71). In this way, the monsters within the sibling system also present the system itself either by verifying the sibling structure or by embodying the traditional structures and showing that these must be destroyed. While this replication of the system could serve to verify the hegemonic structures, in the case of survival horror video games, it serves to further undermine those structures. A large factor in undermining the traditional family structure is Lisa, in the first Resident Evil a monster. Like Steve, Lisa is a young girl whose parents worked for and were subsequently killed by Umbrella. Lisa's parents are already dead when the game narrative begins, but the player learns of Lisa’s parents through their journals, notes, and other remnants of their lives as humans. As noted in Chapter 2, the player also finds Lisa's journal which progresses from Lisa the small girl, through her infection by the virus where her written language deteriorates until she at last writes meaningless

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67 scribbles. Lisa is one of the more difficult opponents to fight in terms of game-play because Lisa is strong and still has some level of intelligence. By reading Lisa's journals and other notes in the game, the player learns that Lisa wants to be whole again and so Lisa eats everything and everyone in order to have them as part of her. Lisa has been given a clear psychological motivation in this sense, because she desires to fill her emotional needs by quite literally devouring that which she needs, and her needs include human companionship. Specifically she wants to eat her mother, the one she misses most. Lisa and, to a lesser extent Steve, can thus be read psychoanalytically, but to read them only psychoanalytically misses the complexity of both game narrative and gameplay. Lisa and Steve represent traditional family structures, are both monsters, and are both killed in the end.5 The structure that is killed with them represents the attempt at a traditional family structure and unity. Steve tries to be a sibling to Claire, but he is inevitably unable to escape his family structure and has to kill himself in order to protect Claire from the monster he becomes. Like Steve, Lisa is trapped by her familial past and is killed. By showing the family structure fetishized by psychoanalysis as a structure which kills, the Resident Evil games open the possibility for another reading; and, because of the emphasis on equal sibling relationships with the chaotic disruptions that this brings with it, a schizoanalytic reading. Because the games can be considered Gothic, the conventionality of the games in terms of structure and narrative sets the stage for explicit breakages within the hyper-structuralization of the Gothic genre. As Halberstam demonstrates, the Gothic, “tracks the transformation of struggles within the body politic 5 While they seem to die, the game leaves open whether or not Lisa survives.

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68 to local struggles within individual bodies. The Gothic monster, moreover, as a creature of mixed blood, breaks down the very categories that constitute class, sexual, and racial difference” (78). Lisa, as a monster, acts to break down multiple categories through her growth from a child into an adult monster. As a monster of family, Lisa thus represents family even while disrupting the familial structures. Characters Far from being unusual examples, the Resident Evil games parallel the Fatal Frame series of games, which also present sibling relationships as the fundamental connection between player-characters. This connection is made and maintained even through multiple realms of existence. In Fatal Frame 's case these are a realistic realm and at least one spiritual realm. The first Fatal Frame follows a young girl named Miku as she searches for her brother Mafuyu in a haunted mansion. Because of her concern for him, Miku searches for her brother even when confronted with terrifying ghosts and the gates to hell. Not only are Miku and Mafuyu children of a dead mother and an absent father, they are also psychically linked, which is how Miku is able to track her brother. During game-play, the player as Miku will occasionally stumble onto a place her brother has been recently and the player, along with Miku, sees what happened to Mafuyu at that place. Fatal Frame 2: Crimson Butterfly also follows two siblings. This time the siblings are twin girls, Mio and Mayu Amakura. The player plays primarily as Mio, but also plays as the sibling Mayu for short sequences. Fatal Frame 2 begins with the two sisters walking in the woods. They stumble into a haunted village and, once inside, they cannot leave. Mayu seems possessed by the place and walks away, quickly lost in the space and time of the village. The village is frozen in time from nearly a century ago, when the

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69 town was supposed to perform a bl oody ritual involving the sacrifice of twin girls to appease spirits. The townspeople failed, and now the town is frozen in time and place, trapping and killing all those who enter. As Mayu drifts into the alternate realm in which the town exists, she also slowly merges with one of the twins who was to be sacrificed so many years ago, while Mio attempts to save them both. The Fatal Frame games differ from the Resident Evil games because the player only has one player-character choice in the Fatal Frame games. However, the sibling relationship in the Fatal Frame games is even more intense because the only relationships in the games are that of the two siblings, and those of the ghosts of the townspeople who performed human sacrifices. In each of the games, the narrative focuses on human sacrifice—women in the first game and young girls in the second. A male town elder sacrifices the women in order to prevent a catastrophe from occuring. In each game, the other townspeople assist the male elder in the sacrifices. After the sacrifices fail, the townspeople in their ghostly forms attack the player-characters. In fact, the only helpful non-player-character in either of the games is a young boy in the second game. However, the townspeople-ghosts’ cruelty towards the player-characters is understandable because the mansion and the town suffer not for performing these sacrifices, but for failing to do so. The sacrifices are presented as good acts, in the sense of preventing the doors to hell from opening, as well as evil for their cruelty. All of the townspeople’s relationships are bound by death and, at best, ambiguous moral choices. In this way, the only relationship that does not involve death is that of the siblings, and the only path to freedom or even survival is through the siblings working together. The parents, town elders, and all those in power are absent or malevolent. The only survival or hope is through disrupting the systems that they have

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70 put in place by reaffirming the sibling relationship. In both the Resident Evil and the Fatal Frame series, the characters, worlds, and game-play are thus defined by the sibling relationships. The sibling relationships, moreover, define the enemies and their places within these narratives. Doubles, Shadows, and the Other Like the doubling of player-characters, video games also present enemies as double or shadow characters because it allows the game designers to repeat code, making the games easier to program and design. These double or shadow characters can be found in all game types. Some of the games with explicit shadow characters include: Super Mario Sunshine which presents a water-shadow Mario enemy; The Legend of Zelda II, which has a dark or shadow Link enemy; and Sonic Adventure 2, which has a Shadow Sonic enemy. The shadows in these and many other games are doubles and are concordantly presented and often also named "Shadow" or "Dark," but these doubles are not horrific as doubles and shadows often are. Instead, doubles and shadows are connected to technology for both literature and for video games. In The Double and the Other: Identity as Ideology in Post-Romantic Fiction, Paul Coates argues that the large-scale emergence of the double in literary works relates to the cheapening of mirrors and their increasing commonality in people's experiences, stating: "As the multiplication of reflecting surfaces, mirrors and plate glass in modern architecture increases the self-consciousness of society, the sight of one's own image ceases to be the harbringer of death" (35). To cope with the technological limitations, Nick Montfort explains, video game doubling

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71 began with the early games, where half of the screen had to be mirrored to present a full screen.6 Following the extreme limitations of mirroring the game screen, other early games, like The Legend of Zelda II doubled characters because it allowed the game designers to reuse code for both the fighting and movement styles as well as the character appearance. Even in the early Resident Evil games, the doubling of the player-character—choices with only minor changes to the game space and game-play for each character— allowed the game world to seem larger without requiring large amounts of additional code. While the repeated use of code led to many doubled characters, many of these were doubles in a non-horrific sense. The double as a horrific structure further complicates and subverts traditional structures. Doubles exist within traditional structures, and they exist in manners that question the relationship of one of the doubles to the other. In video games, the doubling questions both the relationship of the doubles and the structures in which the doubles exist because video games that use sibling structures present horrific doubles that are fundamentally connected to each other and to the story. Because video games often use sibling relationships as primary, the threat of the other becomes not a threat of something unknown, but the threat of a perversion of the known. As such, video game enemies in sibling-based stories are more likely to be doppelgngers, shadows or doubles of the player-characters. While early shadow characters are simply that, video games quickly 6 See Nick Montfort's work on early text-based games and early video game consoles, like the Atari for more on code and screen mirroring. It is also interesting to note that mirror effects in games, where the characters could walk in front of a mirror or mirrored surface like water and see their reflection, is a rather recent effect in games, emerging around 2003. The underlying technical mirroring exists on the code and narrative levels, but the visual representation of that mirroring has only been technically possible in recent games. Montfort presented his work on this at Princeton’s “Video Game, Form, Culture, and Criticism Conference,” in March 2004.

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72 developed non-symmetrical shadow characters in the double and doppelgnger figures of Mario's double in Wario, Luigi's double in Waluigi, Solid Snake's double in Liquid Snake, and Samus' Alien-Samus double in Metroid Fusion Resident Evil Code: Veronica also has the explicitly double characters of Chris and Claire Redfield as brother and sister and as the gameÂ’s player-characters, and then their doubles in sister and brother Alexia and Alfred Ashford, the heads of the Umbrella corporation and the main enemies in this game. Code: Veronica also uses Alexia and Alfred as dopplegngers, having Alex dress in drag as Alexia after he has confined her to a zombie existence through a failed experiment. Alexia emerges to fight as a zombie-esque creature at the end of the game, making her a double or perversion of her human self. The reversal and mirroring of the brother-sister pair in Resident Evil concretizes the seemingly simple sibling relationships in video games, but also the twisted relationships of dual character games where the male and female characters are used as interchangeable counterparts for each other to add player-character choice without disrupting the game narrative. Fatal Frame more explicitly doubles the player-characters in relation to the enemies than does the Resident Evil series, as the first Fatal Frame depicts the scars of the sacrificed women slowly appearing on Miku while she stays on the haunted estate. In Fatal Frame 2, the twin girls parallel the girls who were almost sacrificed so long ago. The twin girls become doubles of each other and of the pair of girls before them. In addition to the player-character doubles in the twin girls, the earlier twins themselves have doubles in their dolls. In the gameÂ’s background story, one of the earlier twin girls to be sacrificed ran away, and her sister was terribly upset. To console her, the townspeople made a doll of her sister that slowly comes to life as the girl plays with, and

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73 loves, the human-sized doll. The player-character has to fight both of these earlier twin girls and the doll, which also gets doubled into two dolls, at different points in the game. The use of dolls as doubles is a familiar trope, as Paul Coates discusses Henry JamesÂ’ non-horror What Maisie Knew and how the young girl, Maisie, used her dolls in such a way that they became her doubles (59). The dolls as doubles for video games is particularly odd because it inherently questions methods of game-play because the player is playing as one of the characters, making the character perform as a puppet or a doll for the player. This bizarre connection between the player and the player-character is further reinforced in games like Resident Evil where the controller can be set to use rumbleeffects to thump and pulse like a human heartbeat. These odd connections serve to increase the doubling effect and to increase the horror of the game, all the while increasing the importance of the sibling relationship as the only means of escape. Fatal Frame 's game-play and fighting style further increase the doubling effects because its game-play is based on the characters fighting the ghosts by taking photographs of them that slowly diminish the ghosts' power and eventually destroy them. In discussing that the double most often appears at dusk, Coates argues that the double is like that of the photograph, stating that "[t]he Double in fin de sicle literature is thus the uncanny aspect of the photograph, which is similarly momentary and monochrome" (4). The ghosts in Fatal Frame can only be clearly seen through the camera lens, but using the camera lens makes moving the player-character more difficult and more awkward. When the player takes pictures of the ghosts, the ghosts are sometimes knocked backwards by the force of the shot, while at other times the ghost retreat slightly, and on occasion the ghosts charge forward, undaunted. The closer the range in which the

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74 photographs are taken, the more damage to the ghosts, so the player must balance fear of the ghosts and the damage they do with the need to conserve film to survive subsequent encounters. Balancing these needs often means that, in terms of game-play, the player must wait until the ghosts fill the entire screen view, because the view is through the camera lens, and the ghosts are about the pounce upon the player before the player attacks. The need for close-up photographs and the camera-view construction forces the player into close proximity with the ghosts. Thus, the player is bound by a visual and proximate relationship with the ghosts while also forced to take multiple shots of a single ghost, memorializing these enemies in the game photographs, which the game allows the player to keep. The Fatal Frame and Resident Evil series, while extremely codified, also present ruptures using the sibling structures to double the human with human, the human with monster, to double the structures of narrative, and to double the structures of game design. Moreover, the actual game-play further enforces this ghostly doubling by repeatedly bringing the characters in contact with doubled spaces and doubled monsters. Conclusion: Survival Horror and Family Border Crossings The doubles in video games serve to undermine traditional family structures while also presenting game spaces filled by multiplicity, mirrors, and complications that intertwine game-play, narrative, and game design. Using the figure of the double, video games present subversive texts that parallel folk and fairy tales in their questioning of dominant structures, including their foregrounding of technological structures that require such doubling. Arguing for the neutral value of technology in the presentation of folk and fairy tales, Zipes states, “Technology itself is not an enemy of folk and fairy tales. On the contrary, it can actually help liberate and fulfill the imaginative projections of better worlds which are contained in fairy tales” (18). Zipes' statement indicates that video

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75 games, like folk and fairy tales, can display both alternate world structures or the problems in current worlds. Video game doubles and sibling structures inherently question the reigning order and provide an alternate path, one for which folk and fairy tales point the way for both children's stories and adult fiction. In More Than a Game, Barry Atkins suggests that Tomb Raider is very much like an epic folk tale because of its use of a princely narrative structure where the child of an aristocrat goes on heroic quests (42). Atkins' remarks on the folk tale are a minor note in terms of his overall argument; however, his remarks are telling in that so many games, even those with limited use of doubles, still connect to folk and fairy tales. Furthermore, video gamesÂ’ relationship to folk and fairy tales are far from simple. While Tomb Raider and many video games like the classic hero story-structured The Legend of Zelda can easily be read as duplicating a basic fairy tale structure, seeing only that structure without regard to its implications for subversion neglects other equally valid structures within the text. Video games, as a new and popular medium, are in danger of being inaccurately analyzed as simplistic stories in ways that neglect the interplay between game design, game-play, and narrative. Schizoanalysis is but one method for investigating video games in a manner that respects their formulation through game-play, game design, and narrative, because it retains the complex interrelations of power and social structures and sees them in relation to the subversive structures created by the game narrative and the actions of game play.

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76 CHAPTER 4 GOTHIC SUBVERSIONS OF GENDER: WOMEN HEROES IN VIDEO GAMES Video games most often feature male protagonists. When video games do feature female protagonists, the women are generally intended as—whether or not they prove to be—eye-candy for a male audience, like Tomb Raider 's Lara Croft (first released by Eidos in 1996) and the girls of Dead or Alive (Cad Douglas et al. 6) However, other depictions of women and gender are explored in video games. Several ludic Gothic horror video games, because of their relation to the breakages and openings created by the Gothic, serve as settings for several of the most progressive female video game characters to date. These include the Fatal Frame games and Resident Evil games – complete with their dark towers and eerie courtyards – and American McGee's Alice, with its Gothic-punk Alice and Cheshire Cat. Women in Fatal Frame, Resident Evil, and American McGee's Alice disrupt the norms of video gaming because they present strong female protagonists who are defined by skill and wit, rather than by their feminine physiques or feminized personalities.1 The women in these games are rounded characters – capable of fighting and thinking – because they were designed as full characters and must be played as such in order to succeed in the games. This chapter addresses the changing role of women as players and characters in video games, as this evolution occurs in several ludic Gothic video games with emphasis on the peculiar manner in 1 In one of the more exaggerated examples of female characters being defined by their bodies, Dead or Alive 2 was actually programmed to make the female fighter's breasts bounce at all times—even when the characters were not otherwise moving. The breasts bounce without any possible physical reason for doing so. For details on the programming involved, see Chris Baker's "Gettin' Jiggly wit It" in Wired Magazine 10.11 (Nov. 2002): 5 pars. 1 Sept. 2005 .

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77 which this evolves in American McGee's Alice and in the Fatal Frame and Resident Evil series. The Gothic setting allows for the disruption of norms and normality. In doing so, the female characters are not immediately identified as sexualized objects, but are instead identified as characters trying to survive. Within these gamesÂ’ Gothic settings, the charactersÂ’ physical appearances do not factor into their abilities and actions, nor into the game narratives as they do for female characters in other games. By being made first into full characters, rather than caricatures of women, they exceed the stereotypical confines for women in games. The games themselves also require excessive repetition and replay, such that the method of play becomes nonstandard and non-stereotypical. By exceeding the predetermined limits imposed by normal gaming, ludic Gothic and horror games allow for women characters to be portrayed within the act of play as a sort of lÂ’criture fminine in much the same manner that theorists like Michelle Kendrick have argued hypertext could allow for a possible eruption of lÂ’criture fminine (3). For video games, lÂ’criture fminine relates to the context of the video game narratives and worlds, but primarily to the construction of play which relies on the process of a form of disruption as a form for play. The women characters in Fatal Frame, Resident Evil, and American McGee's Alice are composed as whole characters formed through fragments. They rise to the level of full characters as heroes and monsters, roles that they have been barred from in other video games. They have been empowered to occupy these more complete roles by the changes in character and world design that Gothic allows, and through the Gothic method of play that subverts play standards that would otherwise codify these characters.

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78 Gothic and Gender The Gothic is particularly important to the evolution of women as characters in and players of video games because the Gothic allows for the fissures through which new representations and methods of play may erupt. Gothic elements create Gothic texts; however, a codified Gothic genre does not exist because the Gothic relates to a composition of fragments and themes instead of cohesive elements. As Misha Kavka argues “there is no established genre called Gothic cinema or Gothic film” (209). Kavka continues, the Gothic is not a unified form or class, but a collection of elements that together situate a particular work as Gothic: there are “Gothic images and Gothic plots and Gothic characters and even Gothic styles [. .] but there is no delimited or demonstrable genre specific to film called the Gothic” (209). Because the Gothic is defined by these elements horror video games, like horror films, may have elements of the Gothic; therefore, they may also function as Gothic texts. Within the fragmentary form of the Gothic, ludic Gothic video games present an opening for changing video game gender roles in terms of the visual and narrative representations as well as the game-play methods. While not all games have narratives— as with Pong and Tetris —and some games relate to their narratives in only marginal or tangential ways, ludic Gothic games heavily rely on the game narratives for continued game-play and for the construction of the game world. In this reliance on the game narrative, ludic Gothic games depict Gothic themes that subvert the often implicit and foundational patriarchal narratives found in other video games. As Anne Williams argues in Art of Darkness: A Poetics of Gothic “‘The Gothic myth,’ the mythos or structure informing this Gothic category of ‘otherness,’ is the patriarchal family” (22). The Gothic as such serves to disrupt the norms of video games as a whole as with the presentation

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79 and implementation of female figures. The history of Gothic narratives situates gothically-styled video games within a rich tradition of breakages—breakages specifically within patriarchal structures and concepts. These breakages allow for nontraditional video game gender roles, while also allowing for non-traditional video game structures. The Gothic for video games is indicative of a blending and dissolution of boundaries. Because games often present truncated narratives and world views, games also often reduce difficult concepts to binary oppositions. However, the Gothic disrupts simple oppositions. As William Veeder suggests, the Gothic is not a set of simple oppositions, but the interplay between oppositions, a “praxis that involves necessarily the interplay of psychological and social forces” (20). Judith Butler similarly presents a view of the Gothic not as an overall category, but one that “is the breakdown of genre and the crisis occasioned by the inability to ‘tell,’ meaning both the inability to narrate and the inability to categorize” ( Skin Shows 23). Ludic Gothic video games, like Resident Evil and American McGee’s Alice, embody the breakdown of oppositions and definitions through the movement between individual versus collective psychological and social forces in their game narratives, their representations of women, and their game-play. Gender as Style Because of the widespread, disproportionate number of male to female characters in other video games, many examinations of gender in video games have focused on how any female characters are used. Lara Croft has garnered the most attention because of her prominent role as the player-character in the Tomb Raider series and because of her prominent sexuality. While Lara certainly figures into any study of gender and gaming, I suggest here that the use of gendered characters, the stories in which they exist, and the

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80 method of game-play must be seen as interacting together to portray gender in gaming. Consequently, the use of female characters alone is less significant than the manner in which the characters are presented in video games. Thus, while Lara Croft is “an avatar; she is not just viewed, she is played, occupied and propelled by an off-screen agent,” as Diane Carr notes (171), Lara is also structured first as a woman and as a woman to be looked upon. Carr continues, “When I play as Lara, I play in the company of her creators, and in the shadow of the desiring gaze that her breasts and short shorts were formed to address” (174). Similarly, Claudia Herbst remarks on Lara’s construction, “The image of Lara has been employed in the promotion of female empowerment. [. .] Women are supposed to ignore that the image of Lara was created neither by them nor for them” (28). Helen W. Kennedy similarly argues that Lara Croft cannot be easily accommodated into the voyeuristic gaze because Lara is both the object of the gaze and the acting heroine within the game. Kennedy, Carr, and Herbst all note that Lara, while in many ways representative of female empowerment, remains a construction completely based on gender. Carr rightly concludes that Lara, despite her strength and agency, still “reaffirms more borders than she crosses” (178). Lara does so because, while disrupting some gender stereotypes, she simultaneously functions to encourage others. Lara’s gendering remains problematic because, as Judith Butler has shown, gender is not a fixed category, but a “ corporeal style, an ‘act’ [. .] which is both intentional and performative, where ‘ performance’ suggests a dramatic and contingent construction of meaning” ( Gender Trouble 130). As such, gender in video games can be examined in terms of that performance. Lara performs in empowered ways, disrupting gender norms; however, her appearance and even her very existence then recapitulate those norms. In

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81 video games, gender acts as created performance to an additional degree because the player performs as the character, who is often preset to perform as a certain gender and according to certain gendered norms. Eric Hayot and Edward Wesp, in their article “Style: Strategy and Mimesis in Ergodic Literature,” have analyzed the performance of social and cultural stereotypes. Hayot and Wesp frame the use of race in video games through Rey Chow's concept of ‘coercive mimeticism’ in which Chow argues that ethnic subjects are expected to both wear and perform the mark of their difference. Hayot and Wesp argue that this expected performance connects directly to video games in terms of the predetermined methods of play in colonial video games, like Age of Empires. While Hayot and Wesp relate Chow’s coercive mimeticism to representations of race in video games, the same coercive mimeticism also functions for representations of gender. Hayot and Wesp posit that the games they examined use race to mark the physical appearance of the ethnic groups, while also marking the game-play strategies as ethnic. Hayot and Wesp note, “The ethnic subjects of game-play in Age of Kings have no ‘choice’ but to enact at the levels of both ornament and ability the ethnic identity to which game designers have assigned them” (411). Hayot and Wesp further argue that the game’s logic teaches players to perform as the ethnic identity chosen – the Mongols are best played as horseback-riding archers, the Chinese begin with a larger population, more easily outnumbering enemies – and that this performance is encoded in a “genetic” game logic that situates race as a determined and determining factor of appearance and action. In this same stylistic encoding, video games engender player-characters by making the female characters both appear and act as excessively feminine. In doing so, the games

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82 coerce players into playing the game within the confines of the character’s limits for the performance of gender. For instance, women characters in most video games both look and act within stereotypical gender bounds; women characters are much more likely to be skilled at running or healing than the male characters who are presumed to be more skilled at fighting. While Lara Croft breaks borders through her strength and her ability to fight, she nonetheless reaffirms borders through the way her female bodily characteristics are hyperbolically represented. Despite her reaffirmation of some borders, however, Lara still breaks from the traditional video game representation by not coercing the players to play “as a woman,” which would generally mean to play as a healer or as a cooperative helper. Nevertheless, Lara still cannot completely break the barriers of her gender because of her placement within a highly defined gaming genre and game design. The same limits that bind Lara are often the result of game designers’ needs for ease and clarity of game-play. Using gender as style to create a coercive mimeticism is facilitated by game designers’ needs to offer non-trivial game choices while also offering a balanced gameplay system. Andrew Rollings and Dave Morris argue in Game Architecture and Design that, “player/player balance is the art of making the game fair so that each player gets no other special advantage but his skill. There can be luck in the game, but it must apply evenly to all players” (73). But Rollings and Morris also contend while that symmetry “may be the fairest solution [. .] it’s rarely the most interesting” (74). In order to provide interesting, yet equal, variations many games offer female characters as alternatives to male characters. The female characters appear not only as feminine in appearance, but also as women according to culturally sanctioned roles for women.

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83 The gendered player-character roles can be seen easily in party system games, where a single player controls multiple characters, each with different skills. In party system games, the woman character is most often the healer, as is the case with White Mage in Final Fantasy Similarly, the gendered roles are also apparent in single player games where the female player-character is an option with other male player-characters and, in most of these games, the woman character is better skilled at fleeing than at fighting. Examples of skilled escapist women include the Princess in Super Mario Brothers 2, who excels at jumping, making the difficult game jumps easier and allowing her to jump over enemies. Other games present the “fleeing woman” less transparently and structure the woman character’s skills to be faster and more nimble, yet less powerful and less able to endure attacks from other characters. This format applies to for the woman ninja, Ayame, in Tenchu : Stealth Assassins and the many woman warrior-characters in Dynasty Warriors 3. In presenting women characters this way, video games use femininity as a stylistic choice, and one that encodes traditional gender norms of women as healers or caretakers, and as physically smaller and weaker. While these options for any single game are not inherently problematic, the lack of women characters combined with the limited presentation of female characters who most often exemplify femininity through their appearance and/or function becomes problematic for the overall video game medium. Despite video game design, which attempts to normalize female characters as the sexualized sisters of their male counterparts, the very act of making them into women, and into sisters in particular, opens game design for more possibilities and ruptures. As

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84 Gilles Deleuze and Flix Guattari acknowledge in Kafka: Towards a Minor Literature ; “But women present an even more precise blend of things: they are part sister, part maid, part whore. They are anticonjugal and antifamilial” (64). By including women characters at all, video games open a space for change and for characters that are actually women, rather than the amalgamation of gendered attributes and performances. The changes also allow for atypical game design, as in the case of ludic Gothic games, which in turn allow for the further disruption of video game and gender borders. Gender as Structure Gothic structures in video games present breakages that allow for alternatives to the traditional stereotypical representations of women. While most female video game characters began as either versions of their male counterparts – as with Ms. Pac-Man in Ms. Pac-Man the female frog in Frogger, and the Valkyrie in Gauntlet – or as damsels in distress, ludic Gothic games immediately allow for primary woman characters. The damsels needing rescue, from angry apes like King Kong in Mario Brothers and evil spiders in Wizards and Warriors, are generally the first women video game characters noted by game journalists and game studies critics. They also note that Lara Croft is the first major woman protagonist, although this is far from true. The history of women characters in video games, especially by virtue of its omissions, proves that women characters in video games need a rupture or breakage to overcome the design limitations already present. The history of video game women characters, designers, and players is particularly important because the meta-narrative tells of a masculine genre, with male characters and male players. Without reclaiming parts of this history, some of the more recent changes cannot be properly contextualized. Ludic Gothic games are particularly

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85 important in this regard because they are ahistorical in terms of most video game development. They are ahistorical in that video games generally follow a trajectory of increasing technological ability that corresponds to improvements in computer graphics. Ludic Gothic and horror games; however, often rely on lower-quality images to obfuscate image and vision, disrupting technologically-based historical placement. Before delving further into women in ludic Gothic games, it is necessary to mention their precursors in the history of women game characters. One of the first breakages allowing for women video game characters occurred in an action adventure game. This rupture came with Samus Aran, who starred in Metroid as the galaxy's best bounty hunter. Both Sheri Graner Ray and Marsha Kinder have noted the oddity of Samus Aran as such a powerful character in the early years of mainstream video gaming ( Gender Inclusive Game Design and Playing with Power ). Metroid ’s game book told players that Samus Aran's past was unknown, but that he was the last hope for the galaxy in the face of the alien Metroid threat. The game book referred to Samus as ‘he,’ but after winning, Metroid' s final credits revealed Samus to be a woman by showing her with long hair and in a bikini. She became the first Nintendo female protagonist, when Metroid was released in 1985. Most important, while Samus appears in the bikini at the end of Metroid, players see this ending only if they win by meeting several requirements. Moreover, Samus always appears first in her spacesuit, so her outfit is not sexualized. In addition to her initial outfit, Samus also does not appear as sexualized in any sort of graphical manner. Her image is extremely basic and the hair and bikini are used to show her as female she does not have exaggerated breasts and she does not appear outside of her space suit in

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86 more graphically advanced games that would be capable of showing her as sexualized. This explanation of Samus’s outfit and appearance is necessary to show the important differences between Samus and Lara Croft. Both characters are highly skilled, but Lara is portrayed as a highly sexualized object while Samus is not. Samus came alive in a game that never mentioned her past and in which she never spoke. Samus’s silence offers the counter-history of women in video games—that of a slow and steady growth of strength and power that is not immediately recognizable in mainstream histories of gender and video games. Samus, in herself, certainly does not represent a full history of gender in video games, but she does serve as a pivotal example of how the existing histories that focus on Lara Croft have missed not only a precursor, but another version of femininity which favors innate ability over a sexualized appearance. As the first non-hypersexualized female video game protagonist, Samus Aran presents an opening in the history of gender in video games. Despite this initial opening, emphasis on male video game characters remains because of the types of stories that video games present and because of players’ perceptions of those stories. Video game stories often draw on existing story frameworks, and many of those frameworks put men as the main characters with women as helpers, romantic interests, or side characters. This use of existing stories is evident in military scenario games; detective based stories like Max Payne and Post Mortem ; anti-hero epics like Soul Reaver and Grand Theft Auto 3 ; action-adventure knight tales like The Legend of Zelda, Prince of Persia, and Maximo; and many others These story types fit within basic culturally-held story schemas where the protagonist is generally a man, where women only save or help him in his quest. Video game story schemas are adapting these pre-existing schemas to include more

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87 women characters; however, schema modification occurs slowly. In order for women characters to be present in video games in more active and empowered positions, the games themselves, as well as the stories the games are based on, must change. The majority of video games that include female characters have amended the narratives in minor ways to allow for women to play a more prominent role. For instance, in cases like Onimusha the player performs as the woman character for only a few minutes during the entire game-play. In games that replace the male for a female protagonist, as with games like Ms. Pac-Man and Bloodrayne a woman plays the antihero. In games that use gender as a stylistic choice, as with Dynasty Warriors 3 and with the ruling figures in strategy games like Civilization III, a woman plays as a hero who is divorced from gender. These three uses of women in video games do show an overall arc of improvement in that women are being included in games more frequently, but none of these constitute a radical shift in the way gender is configured in games. Gender in video games, like other media, remains highly problematic. For games to present gender in ways that do not fall under the current problems of gender as style or simple option of appearance, video games must use existing schemas that do not figure gender within the common cultural stereotypes of woman as weak, non-aggressive, victims, and men as strong, heroic, and aggressive. Gothic narratives present this opportunity because they are based in breaks from family rule, patriarchy, and conventional conceptions of gender. Gothic narratives thus present stories that can be used to portray gender roles that exist outside of stereotypical constructs. Further, because the Gothic is founded on disruptions of vision and space, game-play based on the Gothic similarly changes.

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88 Ludic Gothic Video Games As an amorphous and changing collection of elements, Gothic narratives are not easily situated in any particular time or place. Instead, Gothic narratives are most often defined by their setting (normally castles, mansions, or another form that invokes the structure and influence of the often familial past); involvement with tangled (and often incestuous) family and hegemonic structures; pre-occupation with the past (often resulting in hauntings); and an overall focus on disrupting the traditional family structure, through the broken home, broken family history, or broken social concepts that underlie these structures. In discussing the home as a family structure, Anne Williams argues that “A haunted castle, so crucial to early Gothic, connotes many inherited traditions, such as the structures of political power and families, which are not only inherited but potentially imprisoning: in short, the Gothic novel evokes the weight of the past” (“Edifying Narratives: The Gothic Novel, 1764-1997” 127). The focus on the past and the existing structures of power situates Gothic narratives as disruptions—Gothic texts overtly structure the past and the structure of power as it builds from past to present. This emphasis on the past and the structure allows Gothic narratives to disrupt convention. The Gothic, because its existing structures and images have altered throughout its use, has traditionally relied on multiple, conflicting structures in order to present its counters to those structures and divisions. Kate Ferguson Ellis claims, of monasteries, prisons, and insane asylums: “In the Gothic novels of this period, these institutions are set up as foils to the domestic sphere” (45). Since Gothic narratives often construct two types of buildings that divide gender, with the home for women and those buildings outside the home for men, Ellis argues that, “The reconceptualization of womanhood that is being

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89 argued out in the subtext if the Gothic novel engendered a parallel discourse about men” (151). Gothic narratives, by arguing against the traditional gender roles for men and women, present new ways of conceptualizing gender as a whole in terms of both gender roles and the spatial context in which those roles are enacted. Thus, Gothic narratives fuse with spatial construction to disrupt the general schemas for patriarchal story structures and world views. Video games that use Gothic narratives then, are able to break not only with the commonly known and accepted stories for video games but also with the common tropes for game-play. Video games that use Gothic narratives present the openings and radical dimensions that are found in other Gothic texts. These Gothic elements are radical not only for the types of stories they allow, but for the types of play spaces they create. In “‘Complete Freedom of Movement’: Video Games as Gendered Play Spaces,” Henry Jenkins notes that action-oriented play spaces are gendered as male both in the physical and the virtual spaces of novels and video games. Unlike the stereotype of action-only video games, American McGee's Alice and the Fatal Frame and Resident Evil series all present action-oriented spaces that are couched within Gothic narratives, which create the narratives as spaces of action for both men and women. Resident Evil, Fatal Frame, and American McGee's Alice are representative of ludic Gothic video games that present Gothic narratives and disruptions in the standard video game form. Each of these games presents women characters in atypical ways for video games. They do so by presenting women characters who are well-developed and defined by more than their appearance or their stylization as female. The Gothic settings

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90 and stories of each of these games allow for the presentation and the playability of some of the most powerful female video game characters to date. Additionally, the continuing Resident Evil and Fatal Frame series allow players to repeatedly play using the women characters, which allows for further character development. In a similar vein, Jeffrey A. Brown notes that television serials allow viewers to more easily “grasp the heroines as more than mere fetish objects for male viewers. They may be sex symbols, but they are sex symbols that we come to know over time as fully rounded characters” (71). While Brown is discussing female characters in television, the same transformational character development is afforded through the serialization of video games. Because they are serials, these video games also show that their representations of women in one game are not errors or experiments, but that the portrayal is part of a larger gaming structure, be that the narrative or the game world design. Combined with the disjointed structure of ludic Gothic games, the iterability and repetition of play—both within the play of a single game and through repeated serialized play—help to foster a type of atypical play, play that repeats and undoes itself as l’criture fminine. As l’criture fminine, this atypical play counters the typical methods of play while also subverting the entire structure through which play is codified. Un-making Family and Social Structures The Resident Evil games offer players the choice of playing as a male or a female character. The game-play develops differently for each character, based on the character’s background and the items to which each character has access. The game stories also vary slightly based on the character used. In most of the Resident Evil games, the player will control both sexes at some point in the game or both sexes will be reunited

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91 in one or more cut-scenes. The family, military, and corporate structures presented in Resident Evil are all corrupt and broken – allowing for characters to prove themselves based on their actions rather than their placements within these structures. Resident Evil lacks a traditional patriarchal structure because all systems in the game lack dominant male figures. The two militaristic units, Umbrella and S.T.A.R.S.—the tactical team sent to kill the zombies and right Umbrella's wrongs—itself both lack paternal figures. In addition to the absence of dominant males within these structures, the characters in Resident Evil lack actual fathers. Resident Evil 's characters include a number of young adult player-characters including eighteen-year old Rebecca Chambers ( Resident Evil 0 ), nineteen-year old Claire Redfield ( Code Veronica ), and seventeen-year old Steve Burnside ( Code Veronica ). In Code Veronica Claire, who lacks professional training, has set out to find her brother, Chris (who is a member of the S.T.A.R.S. team), but their parents are not mentioned. Chris also fights to find Claire, but neither of them is shown as the better or stronger of the two. Instead, Chris and Claire both fight valiantly in a world overrun by zombies and confusion. Rebecca is the youngest member of the S.T.A.R.S. team and is a medic; thus she narratively falls into the traditional role afforded for women in video games, that of the healer. Yet, while Rebecca is listed as the S.T.A.R.S. medic, she does not actually function as the medic on the team because of the way that the game-play is constructed. Instead, she fights, heals, and rests as much and as often the other characters. While S.T.A.R.S. is led by the male commander Albert Wesker, he turns on everyone, including Umbrella, for which he initially betrayed the S.T.A.R.S. team. Thus, Rebecca lacks any resemblance of a patriarchal frame. No mention of Rebecca's family or parents

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92 is made; instead, Rebecca is characterized only in relation to her status within the S.T.A.R.S. team, which is a team without male leadership, a team that can never return to any base because its base has been destroyed by Umbrella. Moreover, the team is constantly being separated into single units by the need to fight zombies. Unlike Rebecca and Claire, Steve has no relation to the S.T.A.R.S. “family.” Steve's parents both work for Umbrella and they are both turned into zombies. Later in the game to protect himself and Claire, Steve has to kill his zombified father, who was imprisoned with his entire family for selling Umbrella's secrets. This killing is done in a cut-scene, so the player has no control over Steve's decision to kill his father instead of running. While Steve’s killing of his father to protect Claire could be read as Steve’s reindoctrination into the patriarchal order to assume the place of the dominant male figure in the game world, this is far from the case. Steve is constantly shown to be young, naive, and annoying—as Claire characterizes many of Steve's actions. In addition to Steve's placement as less than a leader-figure, Steve literally becomes a monster at the end of the game and must kill himself to avoid killing Claire. Older Resident Evil player-characters include Jill Valentine and Chris Redfield, both of whom are members of S.T.A.R.S. Jill and Rebecca are the only female members of the largely male S.T.A.R.S. team, but the game-play for male and female characters in the Resident Evil games is equal despite this disparity, because many of the other S.T.A.R.S. male team members are killed even before game-play begins. The lack of a family structure with dead family members and missing parents, along with the absence of father figures within the two primary structures, S.T.A.R.S. and Umbrella, shows that no patriarchal system exists in Resident Evil. Further, Resident Evil uses mansions and

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93 underground catacombs as settings for the games. These settings present gothically stylized worlds that are corrupted and that serve as breaking points from normalcy.2 Resident Evil ’s playable, strong women characters function in much the same manner as do women in more recent horror films. Clover notes the importance of the survivor figure in horror, stating, “The image of the distressed female most likely to linger in memory is the image of the one who did not die: the survivor, or Final Girl.” Clover goes on to examine the final girl, how she is injured, chased, and “abject terror personified.” Further, Clover illustrates that from 1 974 on, the survivor figure has been female (35). While Clover's entire book examines the complexity of gender and horror films, this complexity is greatly intensified in horror video games – in particular the Resident Evil series. Horror games, in turn, further complicate the relationship by offering two survivor figures with one of each gender. Paul Wells, in discussing Clover’s concept of the Final Girl, suggests: “They [Final Girls] often distinguish themselves by not merely rejecting the established tenets of masculine behavior, but enhance their credentials as modern post-feminist women by moving beyond both the traditional/generic expectations of women, and feminist/psychoanalytic orientations” (19). Wells essentially argues that the Final Girl figure presents a break in the traditional portrayals of women as victims. The Final Girls in video games certainly also present a point of rupture, and they are allowed to become the Final Girls through the opening created by ludic Gothic horror games. The differences in the final survivor figure from the traditional girl in horror films to the male-female pair in many horror games, shows the changes in figuring gender in 2 See Chapter, “Enemies, Monsters, and the Other.”

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94 these games. One manner in which gender is reconfigured is through the traditionally feminized healer role, which becomes twisted in Gothic settings. This is because the healers must become fighters within the undead enemy structure which focuses more on healers-as-fighters than fighters-as-fighters. While this seems convoluted and confusing, a simple way to envision this is that the undead enemies make life or survival paramount. As such, healing becomes a greater force than fighting for oppositional power. In most horror games of this type, running and healing are done more often than fighting because of constraints in the game world.3 Similar to the Resident Evil games, the Fatal Frame series follows two characters within each of the first two game iterations. In the first two Fatal Frame games, two siblings are trapped within a horrific situation, and in each a sister saves her sibling. Both of the games remove parents and parental figures from the game narratives. Additionally, both games focus on the ability of a single female character to fight malevolent, powerful ghosts, demons, and the very gates of Hell to save her sibling. The first Fatal Frame follows a young girl, Miku Hinasaki, as she searches for her brother, Mafuyu, who has gone missing in the haunted Himuro Mansion. Because of her concern for him, Miku searches for her brother even when confronted and forced to fight ghosts and demons. The first Fatal Frame opens with the player playing as the playercharacter's brother, Mafuyu. The female player-character, Miyu, comes in after the opening sequence and remains as the player-character for the rest of the game. 3 This inversion of fighting and healing can also be seen in more traditional games like Final Fantasy where the female healer character can cast a healing spell on an undead creature to actually kill the creature. In these inverted situations and games, healing becomes a fighting force as the healer also becomes a fighter in games and in their filmic forms as with the nurse-fighter in the remake of Dawn of the Dead (2004) and the doctor-fighter in Day of the Dead (1985)

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95 Fatal Frame 2 follows Mio Amakura as she tries to find her twin sister Mayu in a haunted village. Mayu is possessed, and so the majority of the game is played with Mio, but for short sequences, the player does control Mayu. In each of these games, one young woman fights to save her sibling. In doing so, she fights horrid ghosts, including enemies who are dead female shrine maidens. For each game, the narrative focuses on a small group of people who sacrifice women in order to keep the gates to Hell closed. In each, something has gone wrong with the sacrifice, and the gates to Hell have opened. The first game takes place within a mansion and the surrounding estate. The mansion and surrounding area were overtaken by ghosts and demons after the residents failed to sacrifice a woman by ripping her limb from limb. As a result, the woman who was not properly killed, and the women before her who were, become some of the primary enemies. The second game focuses on a small town that sacrifices one of two twins in order to keep demons out. The town became possessed after one twin ran away and the sacrifice could not be performed. In the second game, the player fights the ghosts of the killed and sacrifice-surviving twins as well as the townspeople who all participated in this ritual. In both of the Fatal Frame games, the player-characters’ parents go unmentioned (or mentioned only as dead and ghostly). Further, the town family structures are those that have been undone by their placement in controlling the gates of hell and by their placement as being destroyed by their failure in these rites. The first game focuses on the ‘Shrine Maidens’ who are drawn and quartered for the human sacrifice. The second game is more complex, with twin girls needed and their bodies and souls in jeopardy. Because

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96 the sacrifices are all women in the first game and almost all women in the second, the attacking ghosts are the ghosts of those women and others from the time period. The women are particularly horrible because, in addition to being malicious spirits, their bodies are also physically distorted and broken from the ceremonies. Their heads are twisted backwards and upside-down hanging from their bodies. Their contorted positions are more horrific in appearance than the human-like appearance of the male characters, but they are also more difficult to defeat because their broken bodies move abnormally, making their movements more difficult to track and predict. The twin girls in Fatal Frame 2 are also more difficult than the other characters to fight because they are physically smaller and faster, and because they tend to attack as a pair. The Gothic narrative, combined with the more difficult game-play structure and the less predictable monsters build these Gothic texts into games that disrupt traditional gaming narratives, play styles, and typical gendering in games. The use of female player-characters, combined with equal numbers of male and female monsters, makes the Fatal Frame series one of the more progressive presentations of women in video games because the female characters are empowered to fight as women who are defined by their personal strength and determination, even in the face of horrific enemies. Further, the absolute grotesqueness of the enemies who are female themselves shows representations of women who exceed traditional spectrums of attractiveness and unattractiveness to present women who are not defined by feminine appearance, actions, or a simple inverse of those. Instead, these characters and enemies are individually constructed through their own internal traits and through game-play— neither of which is dictated by gender. Further, the game-play style of both the Resident

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97 Evil and Fatal Frame games is classed under the genre of “survival horror,” which means that game-play consists of running, trying to escape or evade, and fighting less often due to constraints on ammunition. The survival horror genre inverts gaming tropes for fighting. In doing so, it similarly presents a Gothic rupture in terms of game-play. Like the Gothic worlds of Resident Evil and Fatal Frame, American McGee's Alice, depicts Alice’s journey back into Wonderland, which has become corrupt after the death of Alice's parents and her later attempted suicide. Eventually, Alice must fight the Queen, and then Alice must fight herself, to escape her corrupted mind and to restore order to the corrupted Wonderland. Because Alice fights for her sanity, she is one of the few video game women—like the women in Fatal Frame and Resident Evil —who is not defined by her appearance or her function as ‘simply’ a female. Alice also presents a significant break from traditional video game presentations of femininity and traditional video game presentations of the Alice character. In American McGee's Alice, Alice fighting herself is also her fighting the other depictions of herself in other Alice games, which have mainly been low-level children's games with Alice playing checkers, or her wandering through a forest.4 4 Interestingly, the death of Alice's parents and her attempted suicide are shown through cut-scenes and the initial game menu screens. Her mental escape as paralleling her fight for Wonderland is covered in the final closing cinematic sequence when she defeats the Queen and herself to walk free from Wonderland and the mental hospital she's been living in since her parent's death. While this presents a very interesting story for Freudian analysis into her developing sexuality, replete with huge vaginal monsters in the final levels, the analysis would be lacking because this sexual emergence is not present throughout game-play, only in the opening and closing scenes. However, the ice wand, which is the only weapon Alice uses that is not made specifically from a toy presents another possibility. The ice wand operates as both a familiar object from other video games and as a sexualized freezing object. In relation to the Gothic, Anne Williams cites Luce Irigaray's conception of ice as a figure for the repressed mother with water and the ocean as mother and ice as the mirror ( Art of Darkness 200). Alice's ice wand is a conspicuous oddity in the game world because it is not representative of any toys or any real world weapons, which all of the other weapons are. The ice wand does draw on traditional video game weapon sets, but this is out of place within a game that does not draw on traditional video game depictions. While the ice wand function simply by freezing enemies and thus its function does not point to any greater structure of sexuality and reflection, its conspicuous placement within the game world does deserve further study.

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98 The other Alice games were typical so-called “pink” games in that they did not require much skill, and were based on cuteness rather than well structured game-play. In this way, Alice's fighting represents both her fighting her way through Wonderland and her fighting the previous depictions of herself to emerge fully as a character with agency. Alice is perhaps the most blatant gender-questioning game because the character of Alice fights free from her childhood, shown to be in a fairly traditional early 1900's setting, to emerge as free, independent woman at the end of the game. In fighting, she saves Wonderland and herself and emerges as a character without family, but with a future that will be defined by her. Notably, the final battle features Alice fighting the Queen, who also has Alice’s head, and who also has vaginal imagery surrounding her. The vaginal imagery, combined with Alice’s suicide attempt and the early twentieth century placement shows Alice’s battle to be a battle for autonomy and adulthood. This reframes the normal trajectory of women game characters because it shows Alice as neither a child nor an adult—as a character who is in between ages and worlds, who defines herself through the game. The fighting style in Alice however, only indirectly complements the strong Gothic narrative and imagery. Alice ’s fighting style is typical of many other games because it relies on Quake’s system for game action. Despite the fact that the game-play itself is codified to a degree because of the game engine, the narrative and the placement of Alice —as a game using a first-person shooter game system to present a specific character study—is disruptive to the history of the gaming engine on which it relies. Thus, while the game-play system itself does not subvert or invert gaming styles in the same manner

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99 as the Resident Evil and Fatal Frame games, it does offer a smaller point of rupture within the normally rather codified genre of first-person shooters (FPS). Conclusion Women video game characters are sometimes differentiated from typical gender norms, as with Lara Croft who is portrayed as unfeminine in her level of action, while being hyperbolically feminine in appearance. But even Lara does not represent simple answers. The women characters in horror video games are often represented as being forced into their situations. They are still feminine and not male-identified by having male interests, but that they are in a situation in which male interests and female interests are broken down into a question of survival instead of gender. Ludic Gothic games make this particularly clear with the sisters in Fatal Frame and Resident Evil because they all fight only to escape and save their siblings. They enact traditional feminine roles of supporting their families; but in the disruption of gender and social structures, fighting is incorporated into this family support and the patriarchal family structure is replaced with one in which sisters and brothers, as siblings, are primary.5 Changes like this show how ludic Gothic video games present a radical departure from traditional gaming gender roles that cannot easily then be reinserted into typical video game tropes. The history of games beginning with Samus Aran's silence in Metroid— which opened a path for women characters that exist as more than the stylized forms of gender stereotypes and as more than a choice in appearance—pointed the way for other openings in video game gender portrayals. American McGee's Alice and the Resident Evil and Fatal Frame series have more recently explored other possibilities that fuse visual representation, game-play, and game narrative. The changes in gender configuration are 5 See Chapter 3, “Siblings and Dppelgangers.”

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100 necessary to explore new and further possibilities for gender in games. These changes are also necessary to show how video games can use existing schemas from other media in combination with existing video game schemas to create new types of games and new types of game-play. In this, the Gothic narratives in American McGee's Alice and the Resident Evil and Fatal Frame series point to one particularly powerful method of doing so, a method that engages not only the characters and the narrative, but also the gameplay and the game landscape. In Resident Evil, Fatal Frame, and Alice, the Gothic narrative—in terms of setting, stylization, and the inversions of family structures—allows for a disruption of norms and normality. The changes in visual presentation and game-play combine with the Gothic narrative to create games that are disruptive on multiple levels. In doing so, each game creates characters who embody contradictory gender norms. By embodying difference and disruption, the characters refuse systemization and they refute the systemization found in games more generally. Because of their peculiar placement within the traditionally disruptive form of Gothic narrative, the characters emerge as existing outside simple video game conventions and stereotypes. Further, the Gothic within these games combines game narrative, game-play, and game visual representation in order to foster the changes in video game gender portrayals. By disrupting traditional game representations and game-play, ludic Gothic games are able to change the apparatus by which video games are viewed and played. Of horror films Clover notes that the Final Girl, or the survivor in most recent horror films, is shown to be feminine, yet also unfeminine through “her exercise of the ‘active investigating gaze’ normally reserved for males and punished in females when they

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101 assume it themselves” (48). Unlike the Final Girl in film, the Final Girl(s) in video games must assume the active investigating gaze, because the games demand it. The women characters in ludic Gothic games are not signaled as unfeminine in the games because they do not choose to look; instead, they are placed in worlds where looking equals living. By changing the system from which the look originates, the look, too, is changed into a visual and textual l’criture fminine. Ludic Gothic games continue in their tendency to rupture and alter by presenting a space that almost seems to demand for feminist form and feminist content. “Cixous believes the poetic must underlie the political for a truly oppositional politics to be effective;” Kennedy explains and then argues that, “Hypertext may give us a space for a poetics of the and/and/and rather than the either/or: a place where our feminist content, arguments or musings, may coexist side by side with their contradictions” (par. 21). Gothic games also offer a space of connection and rupture—a space defined by contradictions and possibilities which in turn allow for a feminist way of gaming.

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102 CHAPTER 5 REMNANTS, RUINS, AND RUPTURES: HORROR VIDEO GAMES’ SUBVERSION OF CAPITALISTIC CONCEPTIONS OF SPACE Introduction As a genre, the Gothic comes in many forms, including print novels, short stories, film, and video games. The Gothic moves easily from one media to another because it is a hybrid that alters slightly in each use and each media. As Kimberley Reynolds notes, the Gothic is a hybrid genre, which masquerades under the label 'horror', but which in reality combines characteristics of what literary critics have traditionally termed the fantastic, the marvelous, the grotesque, the Gothic, the uncanny, literature of terror, and literature of the occult. (3-4) In all of its many forms, it continues as a genre fixated on boundaries and divisions, including the use of space to depict horrific blurrings and transgressions. In its use and disruption of boundaries and divisions, many Gothic texts are highly spatial, in terms of both the narrative and visual depictions of space. Misha Kavka points out the Gothic draws much of its force on screen through the spatial visual representation, “When the conventional themes of the literary Gothic are cast on screen, their discomfiting representation inevitably draw its effect from the plasticity of space ” (210). While capitalist conceptions of space seek to present space as objective, quantifiable, and controlled, Gothic and Marxist interpretations of space inherently question and undermine the seemingly constant and quantifiable nature of space. Even within the virtual spaces presented in video games—which often exemplify typical

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103 presentations of limited, controllable, and quantifiable space1—ludic Gothic and horror games inherently question the typical video game spatial construction by presenting spaces that are larger than their Cartesian dimensions based on their phenomenological components. Essentially, ludic Gothic and horror games populate their spaces with the narrative significance of the spaces, remnants of the characters that have been in the spaces, and other remnants of the history and potential future of those spaces within the game and the game world. These elements, in turn, augment the programmatic dimensions of game spaces. In a subversion of typical video game structures that compress time and space to be equally representative of each other, ludic Gothic and horror video game worlds populate the game spaces to create thick, phenomenological or experiential spaces. In order to present thick spaces, these games rely on linear, claustrophobic spatial construction so that each space is limited not by the geometric dimensions, but by the historical, emotional, and lived depth of each area. In doing so, ludic Gothic and horror video games subvert the typical gaming spatial construction that reinforces capitalist conceptions of space, and capitalism itself. As a mass-media form, the subversive potential and the popularity of ludic Gothic and horror games presents an important point of rupture that undermines other hegemonic portrayals and uses of capitalism in games. In this chapter, I demonstrate the function of space in several ludic Gothic horror games to show how space functions differently in them as compared to how space functions in typical video games. In doing so, I show how the Gothic setting allows for a conception and creation of space that deconstructs typical capitalistic notions of space as commodity. Furthermore, I argue that this 1 For a longer discussion of the how both the video game industry and internal game design standards recapitulate capitalistic norms, see Laurie N. Taylor, "Working the System: Economic Models for Video Game Narrative and Play," Works and Days, 22 :43-44 (2004), pp. 143-153.

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104 deconstruction of capitalist conceptions of space continues through to a deconstruction of capitalistic notions of order and identity. Video Game Spatiality While video game spaces are virtual, represented spaces, they are also played through and experienced. As such, they occupy a precarious position because they blend idealized representations with representational, or lived, spaces. Edward W. Soja explains Henri Lefebvre's notions of space as interrelating, “in a dialectically linked triad: Spatial Practice ( espace peru perceived space); Representations of Space ( espace conu conceived space); Spaces of Representation ( espace vcu lived space)” (65). These divisions prove useful for video game studies because video games create spaces that blend these three forms. In doing so, video games present virtual spaces that may be taken as conceptually relevant to real spaces. In the same manner that Gaston Bachelard's argues of physical spaces, “Inhabited space transcends geometric space,” so do the experiential spaces of video games transcend their programmatic dimensions (47). Thus, video game spaces relate directly to spatial comprehension and have implications for the politics of space. As Soja states, spatialization involves not only spatial metaphors, but the contextualization of politics and concepts: “[S]patialization [...] is a vital discursive turn that both contextualizes the new cultural politics and facilitates its conceptual revisioning around the empowerment of multiplicity, the construction of combinatorial rather than competitively fragmented and separated communities of resistance” (96). For some games, this turn serves to reinforce capitalistic norms; however, for others, the presentation of space allows for radical possibilities. Because video games are played through, they are lived spaces. However, they are first representations of conceived spaces. As conceived spaces, they are constructed in

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105 various ways using programmed visual, auditory, narrative, interface, and paratextual elements. The diversity of components allows for multiple types of conceived space to be creating in different games. Some games rely on what we might call thick and thin spaces, after Clifford Geertz’s notion of thick and thin description in anthropology. Geertz classified thin description as the basic description pertaining to cultural spaces— who was married to whom, what food was eaten, general commerce information, and the like. He then defined thick description as the larger cultural and contextual information that included the social significance of that information. For instance, a mother yelling at her child would be included in thin description; thick description would also include why the mother yelled, what rule the child had broken, and the significance of the exchange. For digital media, Terry Harpold has applied “thick” to digital works to explain how digital spaces operate—sometimes thick for experiential richness, and sometimes “thinned” for user clarity. According to Harpold, some digital media, like interfaces and computer applications, purposely try to thin the virtual space in order to clarify options to the user and to make the user experience simpler. For instance, Harpold explains that the desktop metaphor thins the computer interface for the user to make the computer easier to use. Harpold defines thin space as, “a form of space that is very nearly emptied out beforehand, so that movements within it and mastery of the objects it contains are minimally challenging to users” (15). Other works, like video games, use thin spaces because they are simpler to create, even though thick spaces offer viable options for video game spatial representation. The tendency in game design to use thin spaces relates directly to capitalism in that thin spaces are less costly from a design standpoint, take less mental energy for player’s

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106 to play within because the spaces are more defined, and thin spaces are more easily and completely codifable such that each item has a direct use value. Thus, traditional game design focused more heavily on thin game spaces because thin game spaces are more easily defined, controlled, and conquered. Furthermore, in most video games the space itself becomes a codified object that is ‘won’ through game play that rewards successful play with additional space in which to play. In these games, the space itself becomes a troped object whose use value is that of a reward for successful play. Thick game spaces like those found in ludic Gothic and horror games, on the other hand, present spaces that are not merely rewards for successful play, nor are they merely changing landscapes to be conquered. Instead, ludic Gothic and horror game spaces are constituted by their uncontrollability, inaccessibilty, and their lack of a simple quantifiable measurement. ludic Gothic horror games present thick, often subversive spaces as opposed to typical games and typical gaming conventions. This difference for ludic Gothic and horror games exists in part because of the manner in which games have traditionally been designed and in part because most video games follow capitalistic traditions in their conceptions and representations of space. Typical Video Game Spatial Construction Video games are constructed through a combination of the programmatic game space and the experience of the player working from within that space. In order to do so, video games rely on the creation of a consistent spatial presentation to sustain the gaming environment. In the creation of a persistent game space, Marie Laure Ryan's remarks, “A successful game is a global design that warrants an ac tive and pleasurable participation of the player in the game-world ” (181). While Ryan emphasizes the player’s active participation in the game world, different games construct game worlds differently. Some

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107 game worlds require nothing more than a simple interface for a puzzle, others require full worlds populated by various characters. The politics of various games often comes across in the game spatial representation of conceived space and in the allowance or negation of lived space. Many video games use space simply as a surface upon which the game takes place. In this sense, most video games use space as a board game uses the game board. The game boards in most video games and board games serve no purpose other than providing a playing field. These basic playing fields lack spatial depth because they exist only as surfaces on which the games are played. As both Espen Aarseth and Terry Harpold have separately noted, these playing fields, whether two or three-dimensional in presentation, lack the spatial sense or presence in actual, physical spaces (Aarseth “Allegories of Space” and Harpold “Thick and Thin”). Many of the video games that do attempt to create a sense of place and space fail because they construct the space as simply a geometrically contrived space of polygons instead of a space or place of encounter. The spaces are insufficiently imagined and populated and so they present the geometric form instead of an actualized space. This is in keeping with capitalistic notions of space, where the space can be objectively measured, contained, and controlled. Like capitalistic notions of space, these game spaces are only defined geometrically, their sense of place and space is then created by the elements—or effectively the property value—they contain. While many games use the space as a simple board on which the game is played, as with Civilization III ; others use the space as a simple trope for conflict or progress, as with platform games where the player fights to progress in the space. In platform games,

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108 the space itself is often a greater conflict than that of fighting enemies. Other games use the game space as an exploratory space of play, as is often the case with children's games. Still other games use the sp ace as a place of encounter for the game narrative. Horror and ludic Gothic games are uncommon in that they present game spaces as spaces of encounter, encounter with the space itself and the game narrative. While many video games use the game space as the setting for the game narrative and many games require the player to interact with the game space, other games do not force players to occupy the space in the same manner, nor do they instill such a great sense of place, space, and depth within the game space. Further, horror games create this depth and field of encounter not through improved programming and rich three-dimensional environments, but through claustrophobic cameras, breakages, remnants, and through a lack of visual acuity. The lack of visual acuity and accuracy in horror and ludic Gothic games presents game spaces that are not controllable or codifiable in the typical capitalistic conception of spatial accuracy and control. While capitalism generally seeks to place an absolute value on an object, and attempts to objectify space in order to do so, ludic Gothic and horror games resist the visual determinacy necessary for such a move. Despite ludic Gothic and horror gamesÂ’ deviation from the video game paradigm of visual accuracy for control, most video game scholarship and journalism presumes that video game spaces are gauged primarily through their visual accuracy. Janet Murray and other critics go so far as to equate video games with virtual reality. While video games do present virtualized realities, ones that often parallel real world social problems, these are not the antiseptic promised worlds of virtual reality. Further, visual accuracy and rendering do not equate to the thickness and depth of the game space in terms of the

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109 player's experience with the space. This is because the spatial depth relates to how the player experiences the space as space, instead of the space as only the visual field. Horror games are most quickly defined not by their visual clarity, but by their need for small inventories, locked areas, relative control schemes, and constrained views because they present three-dimensional spaces using only two-dimensional graphics. By often relying on outdated technical constraints, horror games function outside of the typical game design dependence on improved hardware and on the system of commodification that encourages further technology-related products and purchases. Many games present purely geometric game spaces. These spaces range from those present in board games, where all information about the space is completely accessible by the player, to other simple, yet not so holistically represented games spaces, as present in games like Civilization III. In Civilization III, the space itself is multilayered, yet each layer is still discrete and quantifiable, especially in relation to its use-value in the game. The game presents the game world as a map, which players can view from the overall world level—showing oceans and general land masses as well as the cities and unexplored areas—or from the individual city levels—showing the basic elements of the city and allowing players to choose and alter certain aspects of the city. Thus, the map is the space, and each directly relate to their use-value in terms of building an empire within the game. The multiple levels of space can be seen in the larger view of the game world and in the closer view for particular elements. These levels are embedded within Civilization III ’s two-dimensional visual spatial representation. This visual interface which is similar to a computer screen then offers multiple levels of two-dimensional spaces. In doing so, the game offers a complex interface with many levels of control;

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110 however, Civilization III still in many ways epitomizes one version of a capitalist, transparent space. Civilization III, like the other Civilization games before it and like other territorial strategy games, is based on controlling the game space. The aim in Civilization III is to control the entire game space either through conquering the space literally or by controlling through cultural prominence or alliances. Regardless of the method of control, the space exists as a structure to be conquered and controlled. The game spatial layout is that of nearly perfect information. David Parlett in The Oxford History of Board Games explains that board games show the game layout and present all of the possible information for the players, as games like Monopoly and Risk do, such that the players are in question as to how they will play, but not as to how the game is structured (18-19). Perfect information in a game like Monopoly means that each player knows the amount of money that each item in the game is worth, each player starts with the same known amount of money, and that each player knows that the only randomness stems from the dice and the cards on the game board. Perfect information thus means that each object is known and controlled by the rules of game play, and that any randomness is carefully controlled within those rules. Perfect information also bolsters capitalistic conceptions of space by conceiving of space that is objectifiable, as with the other game objects, and space that is completely controllable or comprehensible. Under Parlett's definition, Civilization III presents nearly perfect information that, when combined with the game spatial control goals, creates a game where space exists both as a playing board and as a measure of game success. The space thus becomes a trope for conflict or progress instead of existing as a full space of possibilities. Chess presents an ideal example of perfect information because chess

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111 boards are all exactly defined, the rules are clearly laid out, the pieces all have exact movement allowances, and each player is aware of all of these settings and the rules. Perfect information thus relates to the manner in which the game is structured, but it does not necessarily relate to the manner in which the game is played. It is here that ludic Gothic and horror games excel in disrupting the typical manners of game design as well as the typical capitalistic conceptions and representations of game space. Similarly, games like Max Payne present three-dimensional space, but the space is thinned by the fact that—despite the many doors, alleyways, newspapers, and posters throughout the game—the player can only interact with usable items. The space is thus reduced to a flow chart of the status of its parts instead of existing as a rich experiential space instead of being populated to give a sense of a larger world in which the game exists. Further thinning the space, Max Payne is set in a city, but the city itself could be any city or any industrial or suburban setting. Any narrative significance of the space is imposed from the cut scenes and the paratext, the space itself is irrelevant. By thinning the game space, Max Payne presents a simplified world view where all objects have direct values and where space and reality equate to the same geometric configuration. Unlike these narratively and experientially thinned spaces with their reinforcement of capitalism are the thick spaces regularly found in ludic Gothic and horror games. Space in Ludic Gothic and horror games Ludic Gothic and horror games can be defined antithetically to typical game design. While typical game design focuses on transparency and visual accuracy and acuity, ludic Gothic and horror games rely instead on the loss of visibility, the loss of spatial comprehension, and on thickened spaces that complicate any attempts at transparency. Because video games are primarily visual and spatial, horror games disrupt

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112 both visual and spatial comprehension by preventing players from having lines of sight by which to perceive any holistic version of the game space. As Tanya Krzywinska contends on the differences between horror films and horror games, “In some respects the more open economics of looking in games unravels the predetermined, ideological systems codified in looking patterns in the horror film” (217). These open economics of looking, added to the inability for full sight in ludic Gothic and horror games allow for the representation of and play within space that places greater emphasis on spatial experience than the typical spatial commodification in other games. The visual layout of any video game relates to its mental imageability, or the player’s ability to develop a mental image of the space. In Image of the City, Kevin Lynch studied urban design and navigation; however, because of the focus on space and movement, many of the same concepts apply to video game spaces. Developing a mental image allows players to codify the space as a map of the terrain for ease in game play. While imageability aids in game play, it also serves to make the space more of a mapped, geometric construction than a vivid, changing space of encounter. In discussing visual comprehension, Lynch argues that smog and haze hinder imageability and that visibility across a distance can help create persistent landmarks and reference points that orient the overall space (41, 54-55). Lynch's arguments directly relate to video games because the field of view the rendering of objects in the distance such that those objects in the distance, like houses and castles, appear on the screen even when they are far away is used to improve game visibility and navigation. In contrast to video games that use a large field of view to aid navigation, ludic Gothic and horror games frequently block visibility through extreme camera angles and spatial divisions. For instance, Silent Hill

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113 separates spaces through a dense fog, because of which the player cannot see across a narrow road in the game. The use of fog obscures vision making the game space seem more limited and more difficult to explore. Further, the fog allows navigation to be influenced by sound with the gameÂ’s radio signalling when enemies are near. Compounding the navigation issues, horror games focus on movement through thick space, forcing players to navigate and encounter the purposely difficult spaces. In addition to the obfuscation of visibility, ludic Gothic and horror games also regularly remake game spaces so that even if the spaces were imageable, the spatial image would be forced to change. To create the thick game spaces, horror games, ludic Gothic and horror game spaces constantly change and reconfigure in terms of the spaces they connect to by unlocking new areas and destroying previous areas with falling buildings or debris. In doing so, the space comes to be a place of encounter rather than just a board on which the game is played. This leads to the game space becoming more than the sum of its parts and exceeding the limits required of capitalistic gaming conventions. For instance, in Resident Evil Code: Veronica-, one of the characters, Claire, must travel through the Umbrella training facility multiple times to solve puzzles and open new spaces for escape. As Claire solves puzzles, the spaces change with new areas opening and previous areas becoming blocked. After Claire escapes from this training facility, the game progresses and eventually the player plays as Claire's brother Chris. Chris must also fight through the initial training facility, which has again changed because of an explosion that Claire set during her escape. All of these are multiple iterations of the same spaces as those spaces change, and all within different contexts.2

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114 The repetition of the game spaces allow the player to play in the game spaces not as places on a map to be traveled through and over, but instead as spaces within an overall space of change and difference. The repeated traversal of the same and of slightly changed spaces allows the player to occupy these spaces as parts of a changing and indeterminate whole. Through the limited and changing visual apparatus and spaces, ludic Gothic and horror games also undermine the use of game maps, a staple in the codification and commodification of game spaces in most games. Where most games equate the map itself to the spatial significance of the place, horror games imbue the space with significance and meaning that cannot be represented by a simple placement and spatial relation as displayed in a map. In lived spaces outside of video games as in video games, maps can serve to help orient an encounter with space or they can serve to codify and limit the spatial experience. As Lynch notes in The Image of the City the usefulness of any map is directly related to its connection to the space it represents, “You can provide the viewer with a symbolic diagram of how the world fits together: a map[...] As long as he can fit reality to the diagram, he has a clue to the relatedness of things” (11). Lynch's remarks show that maps must correspond to that which they represent in order to strengthen image development. Most video games use maps in this way with an accurate method of connecting the maps to the actual spaces they depict. For instance: Civilization III presents a game world that is itself a map, whereas Dynasty Warriors 3 has an in-game map that can be selected by pausing the game and a small map that can remain in the corner of the screen during game play to provide immediate correlation with the space. Because of the tightly constrained views used in horror games, maps in 2 For more on the changing spaces in Ludic Gothic and horror games, see Laurie N. Taylor, “Compromised Divisions: Thresholds in Comic Books and Video Games,” ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies, 1 .1 (2004), .

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115 horror games seem to have little or no relation to the spaces they represent because the view point shifts dramatically within each small modularized space, and the individual point of view units seem to have little or no connection to the overall game space. As such, the maps—which are so often used as direct correlates to the game spaces in other games—are shown, in horror games, to be overly reductive and flawed in their goal of presenting the game spaces as limited and quantifiable. While a map in a game like Resident Evil Code: Veronica should assist the player in imaging the game space, it does not accomplish this because spaces in ludic Gothic horror games are framed within certain areas that the player can move through, then combined with permanently claustrophobic views. Moreover, each frame transition breaks the space again and requires a reorientation. Because of these constant breaks and reorientations, maps in these games prove fairly useless for actually providing direction and spatial clarity. Instead, the player must become familiar with the space through interaction in order to function and move within the space. Even when the maps do prove useful in orienting the player within the game space, as the maps in Silent Hill do the maps still prove useless in indicating the significance of the space within the game. Rather than maps and the typical emphasis on visibility and spatial control found in other video games, ludic Gothic and horror video games populate the space as a rich field of encounter and, to do so, they rely more heavily on sound than on visual imageability as found in maps. In More Than a Game: The Computer Game as Fictional Form Barry Atkins suggests that sound influences the horror of a text through its lack of explanation and the sheer effect of the unknown (69). Sound in video games frequently comes in the form of a soundtrack that is divorced from gaming events or as soundtracks that differ

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116 based on the area in order to delimit different spatial areas. In this way, it serves to mark off and codify certain spaces as when particular soundtracks play in certain game levels or areas.3 Unlike typical games use of sound to delimit certain areas, or even more complex sounds which are used to cue the player for events, the sounds in horror games are more often ambient sounds. Many segments in horror games are completely devoid of sound, while other areas have ambient sounds of bugs buzzing or monsters in the distance. Horror games also normally include the sound of footfalls when the player-characters walk. This aids in indicating hollow areas where secret passages may lie and in creating a greater sense of tension. Additionally, horror games normally include the sound of the character breathing, and the character tends to breathe more deeply after running. The sounds of the characters’ footfalls and breathing on the quiet backdrop help to create a sense of a large, empty, lonely world. Sounds from the character and from within the space itself create a space that is alive and dynamic, which is unlike game soundtracks that force the space to conform to a predetermined sound-set that drowns out the possibility of other sounds, of echoes, and of silence. Ludic Gothic and horror games use sound to create game spaces that are lived spaces of encounter. The sounds echo, reverberate, and populate the often seemingly empty game spaces. In doing so, the games exceed their Cartesian dimensions to offer a sense of depth and spatiality that eschews codification and simplistic readings. Horror games like those in the Resident Evil, Silent Hill, and Fatal Frame series also have moans, whispers, and laughter in the distance.4 Sometimes these noises indicate 3 For a longer discussion of the use of sound in games, see Zach Whalen, “Play Along An Approach to Videogame Music,” Game Studies, 4. 1 (2004), .

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117 the presence of another character or monster. But, at other times, the sounds serve only to thicken the game space without clarifying from where or what they came. Because the sounds sometimes alert users that monsters are present but provide no indication of where the monsters are, the moans and shuffles increase player anxiety rather than actually providing information. The radio in Silent Hill proves the best example of the significance of sound in survival horror. The radio in Silent Hill plays only static and it functions as a warning device with the static growing louder when the main character is closer to monsters. The radio provides no indication of direction and the player can only tell the direction of the monster by running and seeing which direction quiets the radio. However, if multiple monsters are near, the radio's buzzing may grow louder in multiple directions, so the radio provides a sense of depth without giving any concrete information about the location of enemies. Because it is not directional and instead works on proximity, the radio gives the spatial field a depth completely separate from visual depth. Furthermore, in each instance the sounds in these horror games are not directly equivalent to in-game use values. Sometimes the sounds equate to warnings about passing enemies; sometimes the sounds indicate secret passages; and sometimes the sounds do not have any usable function in the games. The majority of video games treat sound in the same manner as the game space—as an object that is codified and can be used, thus having a use-value, in the game. Ludic Gothic and horror games complicate the use of sound as well as and in furtherance of their use of space. 4 The Resident Evil and Fatal Frame series each have multiple games with additional games in development. The ones specifically referenced for this article not already mentioned are: Capcom, Resident Evil (Sunnyvale, CA: Capcom, 1996); Capcom, Resident Evil 0, (Sunnyvale, CA: Capcom, 2002); Capcom, Resident Evil 2 (Sunnyvale, CA: Capcom, 1997); Capcom, Resident Evil 3: Nemesis, (Sunnyvale, CA: Capcom, 1999); Tecmo, Fatal Frame, (Torrence, CA: Tecmo, 2002); and Tecmo, Fatal Frame 2: Crimson Butterfly, (Torrence, CA: Tecmo, 2003).

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118 Gothic, Horror, and Spaces of Memory Gothic and horror spatial visibility and the use of sound still remain directly connected to the physicality of the game space. Both aspects are certainly important to the creation of lived space in the games. However, ludic Gothic and horror games also thicken and complicate game spatial construction through the game narrative elements. These elements are perhaps the most radical aspects of the games in that they create a direct relationship between humanity and human suffering with the fullness of existence and its inability to be truncated without causing harm. They do so by narratively populating the broken game spaces with fragments and remnants of those who have occupied the space before. Horror largely defines game spaces by the people who have left the space. Notes, pictures, books, equipment, and other belongings of the dead, act as remnants reminding the player that this space was once filled. These bits occasionally aid the player in solving game puzzles; however, far more often these remnants serve neither game play nor the overall game narrative. Instead, these remnants serve to show the incompleteness of the presented space and serve to remind the player of the voices of others that have occupied these spaces. Horror games then use these items in conjunction with their thick spatial presentations to point to a regular world, with space as a complicated field, filled with those who now haunt the game space: the zombies, ghosts, demons, or the past. With each of these objects, the use value is divorced from items themselves (pictures, journals, and so on). The only remaining function is the function of memory and its inability to completely represent the objects or the people who have encountered those objects.

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119 Because the objects do not serve a distinct purpose, as they would in a more typical game, the objects serve to haunt the game space. In Victorian Hauntings, Julian Wolfreys provides an in-depth study of the field of memory in Gothic texts. Throughout the book, Wolfreys repeatedly argues that the effects of haunting cannot be systematized. In ways similar to Victorian literature, horror games found themselves in breakage, thus preventing systemization in order to present the landscape of memory. Most video games populate the game space with bits and pieces of equipment and then use these to provide in-game hints, to provide additional equipment, and as answers to puzzles or quests. Horror games use the extra items for these same reasons; however, they also provide these additional notes and pictures for no usability reasons at all. In the early horror games, the text-based notes and single images were used as a simple method to communicate greater narrative depth without stressing the physical game system processing power. In later games these notes were added to files, as though the players were collecting evidence against to solve these crimes and later prosecute them. Yet, some of the images and files have nothing to do with any game goals and serve only to further the game stories. Ryan notes that immersive techniques often rely on what, "Roland Barthes ascribes to l'effet de rel (the reality effect): the mention of concrete details whose sole purpose is to fix an atmosphere and to jog the reader's memory" (130). Horror games have taken the concrete details to extreme levels by putting thousands of notes, ribbons, videos, tape recordings, and more inside the games, most of which have nothing to do with winning the game. Many of the files do not even serve to further the main game narrative and instead further the overall game world to create a thick world space.

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120 The sheer variety and quantity of extraneous elements prove the significance of the unusable items. Further, these items do not occupy inventory space, proving their unnecessary nature because all items in the majority of horror games that can be of use take up inventory space. These unusable items show the past of the place and slowly reveal the many stories within. The pictures, lab notes, diaries, letters, notices, posters, video tapes, old home movie clips, and others are all used to tell the story of the game. The player can certainly complete the game without using these items. Although these items often refer directly to the problems at hand in game play, many of these items are simply extras and serve only to show the story of what has happened prior to the player’s arrival. But these stories are often illogical, sometimes contradictory, and always just fragments – especially the diaries and notes written during the process in which their writers become ghosts or zombies. Ludic Gothic and horror games also have a tendency to populate the game space with architectural components from multiple periods. While Gothic novels often have aging castles and mansions, video games continue the process of including historical architectural artifacts to invoke the past and to complicate readings of the game space. Lynch demonstrates that space and historical time are related, with spatial construction giving a sense of time, and a sense of the past: The contrast of old and new, the accumulated concentration of the most significant elements of the various periods gone by, even if they are only fragmentary reminders of them, will in time produce a landscape whose depth no period can equal. (57) In the inclusion of small objects and in the inclusion of buildings and other architectural elements from the past, ludic Gothic and horror games invoke the past into the present of the game. In doing so, they create game spaces that are thickened spatially and

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121 temporally. This creates spaces that elude simplistic readings or capitalistic control through the fixity of time or place. GothicÂ’s Discontents Ludic Gothic horror games clearly present new possibilities in video game spatial construction, construction that deviates from the typical problems of capitalistic control. However, because of the popularity Gothic horror as a genre, other games have attempted to use elements of the genre, including Clock Tower 3. Clock Tower 3 was designed to be a horror game; yet, it followed a more traditional gaming trajectory in its attempt at closure and transparency. The lack of spatial depth is functionally compounded by a removal of thickness in having space have a singular purpose in the game play sequence. The game then removes the additional notes, journals, and other internal elements that aid in thickening the game space. Given all of these removals, Clock Tower 3 Â’s placement in London for actual historical points (1942, 1963, 1982 and 2002) proves particularly problematic. Clock Tower 3 removes the aspects of ludic Gothic and horror games that allow the games to create thick, lived spaces and, in doing so, shows that relying on tropes from the Gothic and horror, even as they have already been implemented in other games, does not guarantee an escape from codification and commodification. Clock Tower 3 focuses on player-character Alyssa Hamilton, a young girl who must fight to escape her home and her evil Grandfather, who wants to kill her and who can travel through time. To survive, she must ease the suffering of the innocent dead in order to defeat the undead Entities, who are evil killers from different time periods. Clock Tower 3 combines this premise with the realistic and specific place of modern day (2002)

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122 London.5 This placement unravels as Alyssa is teleported to London during the German air raids of World War II. Here, in the first fifteen minutes of game play, Alyssa sees that to appease the suffering of the dead who have been killed by the bombing raids, all she must do is find one item and return it to its proper place. The first item Alyssa finds is a diamond engagement ring, and she must place it in the ring box to send the owner's ghost to rest in peace or the ghost remains tied to life and attacks Alyssa. The ring's owner who never had closure or saw the ringÂ’s intended again is completely satisfied by having the ring moved from the street to the ring box. Once the item is returned, the ghost dissolves into nothing. In this way, each object in Clock Tower 3 has a direct use value, and, moreover, a direct use value that acts as a totalitarian representation of the historical past, of personal pasts, and of the people who have become ghosts. Clock Tower 3 's ghosts are wholly defined in terms of their relationship to particular objects. The ghosts can be completely removed from the game space by achieving a simple goal. In creating the ghosts in this manner, the ghosts equate to value of their most prized object; for different ghosts the objects are rings, teddy bears, watches, and the like. Other horror games like the Fatal Frame, Silent Hill, and Resident Evil series do not promise any sense of holism or salvation. Instead, they use fragments to present broken spaces that cannot be made whole. By presenting broken spaces without the possibility of closure or completion, horror games thicken the game space to show a space that is not completely comprehensible and controllable. In contrast, Clock Tower 3 uses the visual display of horror games and combines it with the typical method of video 5 Clock Tower 3Â’s background is typical of many horror games, and similarly sounds somewhat ridiculous when being paraphrased. The difference in the creation of the game space from this game to other horror games stems not from the basic plot, but from the manner of execution in regard to the space.

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123 game play, which is over-determined in relation to capitalism, control, and commodification. In most horror games, the players can escape from the undead, or perhaps temporarily banish the undead, but the undead can never be completely removed from the game space. The undead haunt survival horror games and create a sense of space, both by their physical/corporeal presence and by the remnants they leave behind. Clock Tower 3 allows Alyssa to fully banish the ghosts and to give them over to some absolute peace through the use of a single item. This attempt at holism is the false holism of capitalism where a person can be reduced to a commodity. This falseness is only amplified through placement within an actual historical situation. Conclusion While the Gothic provides video games with an avenue for disruption and change, use of the Gothic does not guarantee that the Gothic’s subversive potential will be realized. As Maggie Kilgour contends of the Gothic in other media, “the gothic appears to be a transgressive rebellion against norms which yet ends up reinstating them, an eruption of unlicensed desire that is fully controlled by governing systems of limitation” (8). While the Gothic carries with it a tradition of rebellion and subversion, that tradition can also be subsumed into larger systems of limitation and codification, and this can occur with the Gothic in any media form including video games. Games both use the Gothic as a backdrop for typical play, as with Clock Tower 3, and games rely on the player’s perception of the game. Essentially for video games, any space can be thin in terms of the player's interaction with the spatial dimension of the game. Thin game spaces, in their emphasis on ease, often over-emphasize the totalitarian nature of use and value, thus recapitulating capitalistic tropes for control. However, even the thick aspects

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124 along with the potential political implications, can be ignored, based on the player’s experience with the game space. Ryan describes the significance of the spatial experience: “The difference between ‘being in space,’ like things, and ‘inhabiting’ or ‘haunting space,’ like the embodied consciousness, is a matter of both mobility and virtuality” (71). Here Ryan shows that spatial usage can determine spatial form. While ludic Gothic video games often present thick spaces that question the normative functioning of other gaming spaces and of larger social issues, players may still play as though they are within a thin space, ignoring the greater implications of the game world and game narrative. Despite the mainstream movement of games and players that participate in the further commodification of gaming in line with a traditional capitalist trajectory, the presence of ludic Gothic games allows for a breakage. That breakage in turn allows for games to present space, the passage of time, and the human presence within the virtual space of games. In doing so, some games exhibit spaces that participate in Lefebvre’s triple consciousness. “A more specific historical geography,” Soja argues, “of Lefebvre's triple consciousness of the complex linkages between space, time, and social being, or, as I suspect he would prefer them to be called, the production of space, making of history, and the composition of social relations or society” (7). Video games, and particularly ludic Gothic and horror games, through their use of thick space, emphasis on time, and through their narrative emphasis on characters and humanity, foreground the production of space during game play. Unlike the mainstream video game trajectory towards transparency and the erasure of borders and breakages, horror games present worlds that are fundamentally broken and inexact. In doing so, they provide an alternative

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125 developmental line that allows for a dialectical questioning of value. Further, they also allow for digital development that veers away from antiseptic, capitalist presentations of space into presentations of space that embrace rupture, creating a subversive space. As video games can serve to reinforce or subvert the status quo, ludic Gothic and horror games provide an instrumental function in shaping spatial conceptions, along with other concepts that follow from them, including issues of order and identity. The space of the games themselves is an integral, required component for further studies of the presentation and creation of order and identity in video games.

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126 CHAPTER 6 DOCUMENTING HORROR: VIDEO GAMES AS INTERACTIVE, AND UNREAL, DOCUMENTARIES “Documentary film practice is the site of contestation and change.” (Bill Nichols Representing Reality 12) Introduction In earlier games and text-based interactive fiction, the individual works were often packaged with maps or other paratextual elements. As video games have moved to DVD and multiple CD formats, these paratextual elements have become embedded in the games themselves. While many games include internal information, like maps, notes on game-play, encyclopedias, photograph albums, and similar paratextual elements, horror games often include longer documentary segments. The documentary segments are often embedded within videos, journals, notes, and other records—such as the source of the monsters—that aid in unraveling the mystery that surrounds the particular horror. These segments logically follow the structure of the horror games themselves, with the embedded mysteries and their close affinity with adventure and mystery games which demand a great deal of item collection. However, many horror games also include larger documentaries that do not directly relate to game-play. For instance, the Resident Evil series has released Wesker’s Report, a bonus CD of Albert Wesker’s—one of the game’s characters—reports about the events in the games. Similarly, The Suffering includes a short documentary film on the game disc about the prison on which the game’s prison is modeled.

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127 The documentary elements in video games follow two primary trajectories. One follows more traditional documentary film styles, as with games like Titanic: Adventure out of Time which features a fly-through of the ship that is so realistic that it has been used in museum exhibits on the Titanic. Games like these blur the boundaries between simulation and documentary, and between documentaries and game, acting in ways that Tracy Fullerton terms “docu-games.” Fullerton argues that game simulations—analogous to courtroom computer simulations that are becoming more admissible as evidence— present a new method of documentary by which simulations represent the real or the possible. Another game documentary trajectory, and the one I explore in this chapter, is that of game mocku-mentaries, or mocku-games. These mocku-games function in ways similar to film mocku-mentaries, using the documentary form to document unreal happenings. However, game mocku-mentaries also use the documentary or docu-game style to create representations and experiences which cannot otherwise be represented. Whereas docu-games offer simulations of real events that could not otherwise be experienced, mocku-games offer simulations of unreal events or events that lack the traces of significant historical information by which to construct a simulation. For instance, the Fatal Frame games allow players to experience the social and cultural place of women in historical Japan, along with the experience of the supernatural. Because Fatal Frame is made in Japan and because Japanese culture is more accepting of the possibility of the supernatural, the representation of the supernatural is intended to present an undocumentable, nonfiction reality within a fiction. In games, the undocumentable, nonfiction reality presented within a fiction constitutes a mocku-game which importantly allows players to both see and experience the realities of the

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128 undocumentable stories. As Hayden White argues in “Historiography and Historiophoty,” historiophoty—the representation of history through film and visual imagery—is often afforded a lesser degree of validity than historiography—the representation of history in writing. White argues that this division is overly simplistic, especially given the inherent problems with unitary verbal or visual histories, stating: “Too often, discussions of the irredeemably fictional nature of historical films fail to take account of the work of experimental or avant-garde filmmakers, for whom the analytic function of their discourse tends to predominate over the exigencies of ‘storytelling’” (1199). White also mentions that feminist filmmaking has questioned the “conventions of historical representation and analysis” because of the way these conventions continue to “effectively present a patriarchal version of history” (1199). Similarly, docu-games tend to present histories based on an abundance of historical documentation. Mocku-games often present histories based on less or unaccepted forms of documentation or a smaller amount of historical documentation; however, they continue in the experimental filmmaking tradition in order to make artifacts that present alternate and silenced histories. Like the supernatural in Fatal Frame and the unknowable aspects of imprisonment in The Suffering, mocku-games take many forms. This chapter examines the emergence and function of these mocku-games in order to explicate the function of mocku-mentaries and documentaries in the formation of the game narrative and in the creation of a horrific game space. Specifically, this chapter focuses on mocku-games that present possible realities that are otherwise unrepresentable or unexperienceable as a new avenue in documentary and mockumentary production, one which presents fictional dimensions in

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129 service of non-fictional realities using a playable or experiential form. I argue that the fictional dimensions can help correct nonfictional realities in terms of the representation and documentation of women and minorities, because traditional documentary practice and documentation itself often silences women and minority voices while simultaneously obscuring their images in games and in reality. Documentary and Docu-games Documentary, as a form, is tied to the film medium. In print, documentary styles connect to historical artifacts such as official histories, diaries, photographs, and the like. For webbed media, documentary styles link to websites that archive historical information ranging from official history sites like Visual History Foundations’ “Survivors of the Shoah” project, to less official sites like Wikipedia, and even to personal websites that archive family histories and websites that act as diaries as with sites found on Livejournal.com. However, video games, as a new media form, have yet to delineate such a rich historical and documentary tradition. This is largely due to the fact that video games are interactive or participatory so the events in games can change. Documentary and historical traditions are often rooted in the relationship of the represented object, specifically for documentary film, the relationship of the moving image to the real object. As Bill Nichols argues in Introduction to Documentary, “Because documentaries address the world in which we live rather than a world imagined by the filmmaker, they differ from the various genres of fiction (science fiction, horror, adventure, melodrama, and so on) in significant ways” (xi). Nichols continues on to explain that the differences, “guarantee no absolute separation between fiction and documentary” (xi); yet he also reaffirms the connection of documentary to the world stating, “But documentary is not a reproduction of reality, it is a representation of the

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130 world we already occupy” (20). While the connection to the real world is required of documentary film practice, that world and the manner in which it is presented constantly change. As Nichols demonstrates in Blurred Boundaries, “Traditionally, the word documentary has suggested fullness an d completion[...] More r ecently, though, documentary has come to suggest incompleteness and uncertainty, recollection and impression, images of personal worlds and their subjective construction” (1). Documentary films have thus followed the trajectory of other historical documentation, at first seeking to prove a unitary sense of history and events and more recently seeking to show multiple viewpoints in the construction of events and history. In allowing for multiple viewpoints, documentaries have, in some ways, exceeded their cinematic form because film is inherently limited in the portrayal of particular senses and in the depiction of infinitely possible viewpoints and worlds. Video games, on the other hand, rely on simulations and can simulate factual histories or the possibilities of histories, whether or not those can be proven to exist. Even as documentary film has changed to embrace multiple perspectives and worlds, theories about exactly what constitutes a documentary are, as John Corner notes, “quite few and most of them maintain a strong connection with specific practice, either by way of critique or recommendation” (9). Trinh T. Minh-ha goes so far as to claim, “There is no such thing as documentary—whether the term designates a category of material, a genre, an approach, or a set of techniques” (90). Minh-ha further argues that the definition of documentary needs to be in motion so that it does not become closed and unable to change. In its ability to present alternate histories and additional viewpoints, documentary as a form can be liberating and informative. However, Minh-ha’s concerns

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131 that documentary film practice could also become standardized is a valid fear in light of the prevalence of documentary-styled programming. Video games offer new possibilities for documentary in the form of docu-games, as articulated by Fullerton, as well as in mocku-games. While Minh-ha’s worries address representation in documentaries, because of its format documentaries are constantly faced with change. These changes are often in context with technological developments because, as film technologies improve, documentaries are more able to capture and represent events on film. As Keith Beattie states, “Throughout its history, documentary representation has been linked to changing technologies, the invention of colour and sound film, portable cameras, 16 mm and 8 mm film stocks, video and the camcorder have all impacted variously on documentary representation.” As video games present new technological possibilities, they also present new possibilities for documentary styles. Beattie rightly contends that digital media presents changes to the documentary format by reworking established forms which allow “viewers to arrange the order of material presented on screen in an interactive, non-linear process which enables a viewer to explore issues and perspectives at will, and hence to disrupt the unidirectional 'linear' rhetorical drive of established documentary forms” (213). Along with the changes in interaction come changes with representation, as with docu-game and mocku-games. Minh-ha and Beattie both see the need for documentary to change and adapt, Beattie with a specific emphasis on technology and viewer/user exploration. In some ways the traditional form of documentary is repeatedly deconstructed and reconstructed for use in fiction film and television. Carl R. Plantiga cites Oliver Stone’s JFK (1991) as

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132 particularly interesting because it blends the Zapruder footage and staged footage within the film (23). The changes to documentary with digital, interactive texts point directly to Nichols’ requirements for documentary: “Images and memories must be made to move, to take time, to trace a path from then to now, to reenter the historical narrative from which they have been excised. This proves only partially successful” ( Blurred Boundaries 128). While the movement of images and memories in traditional documentary are only partially successful according to Nichols, the changes in documentary available in digital forms allow for different methods of creation, representation, access, and interaction. As such, the images and memories are able to move and change in manners not previously available. Fullerton has rightly argued for the viability of games as documentaries or docugames—as with JFK: Reloaded, Medal of Honor, and 911 Survivor According to Fullerton: there remains the creative question of what we can learn from documentaries in which we participate, and how do these experiences add to our understanding of historical events and the issues surrounding them, rather than simply allowing us to be “in the moment.” There may yet be an expressive mixing of the game and documentary forms that will someday carry a cultural value equal to that associated with film documentaries. (20-1) While Fullerton is specifically discussing the possibilities for historical documentaries in games, games offer multiple trajectories based on documentary traditions. In addition to games that act as documentaries in the more traditional sense, game documentaries also act within the growing traditions of mock-documentaries akin to The Blair Witch Project. J.P. Telotte notes that while Blair Witch is not a game, it shares many similarities with games because the website and the narrative it supports “draws to varying degrees on each of these [interactive and game play] ‘pleasures,’ which, it forecasts to those who

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133 have grown up with the computer and the Internet, extend into the world of the film as well” (43). James Keller also argues for the significance of Blair Witch in that it complicates the original source material, “The comprehensiveness of Curse of the Blair Witch and the book The Blair Witch Project: A Dossier tends to prioritize them, rendering the cinematic release a merely supplementary text” (55). While Blair Witch is not a game, it does share many aspects with video games. Because documentaries, as Fullerton has shown, and mock-documentaries, such as Blair Witch, share many similarities with video games, the potential connections between mock-documentaries and video games create the possibility for games that function in a way more closely akin to mock-documentaries while also informing traditional documentary practice for representing viewpoints and worlds that cannot otherwise be represented because of cultural biases or technological limitations. Mock-documentaries for the Voiceless and Invisible In Faking It: Mock-documentary and the Subversion of Factuality, Jane Roscoe and Craig Hight argue that, “At the margins of documentary are also a growing body of fictional texts which, to varying degrees, represent a commentary on, or confusion or subversion of, factual discourse” (1). Roscoe and Hight define these as mockdocumentaries which they define as “ fictional texts; those which make a partial or concerted effort to appropriate documentary codes and conventions in order to represent a fictional subject” (2). Under this definition even the real world events and realistic representations in the games Fullerton examines could qualify as mock-documentaries. However, Roscoe and Hight continue to further codify mock-documentaries as, “fictional texts, but they position themselves quite differently in relation to the discourses of fact and fiction. In sharp contrast to drama-documentary, they tend to foreground their

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134 fictionality” (46). This definition of mock-documentary limits the form to those texts that are in some way intentionally fictional, instead of the traditional documentary texts that include fictional elements in service of non-fictional representations. For instance, actual documentaries often include re-enactments to support or illustrate the non-fiction within the documentary. Some texts are created and received as nonfiction, only to be later reframed as fiction, as with the documentary witch pamphlets that Kirilka Stavreva investigates as docu-fiction (“Fighting Words”). Mock-documentaries like Curse of Blair Witch examine the fiction in order to support that fiction, in this case to support The Blair Witch Project. For the Resident Evil video games, Wesker’s Report serves as a mocku-mentary that complements the fiction of the games. However, this leaves a gap between documentary—as those texts which aim for non-fictional representations—and mock-documentary—as those texts which aim to have a fiction dimension. This gap encompasses texts that are complete fictions, but that are in service of a non-fiction reality that cannot be otherwise represented. These texts include the Fatal Frame games, which are fictional and also depict the supposedly nonfiction of the supernatural, a nonfiction that cannot otherwise be represented or documented. Mocku-games need to be recognized not only for their fictions, but also their nonfiction implications. Kathleen Brogran argues that ghost stories often use the supernatural in order to recover lost histories and that, “in the process of recovering history emphasizes the difficulty of gaining access to a lost or denied past, as well as the degree to which any such historical reconstruction is essentially an imaginative act” (6). As all historical texts and all documentaries exist within particular frames, none represent

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135 absolute truth or nonfiction. With events that cannot be otherwise created—as in the case with supernatural experiences which many cultures validate—the simulation abilities of video games allows for a mocku-game style that relies on traditions of documentary and docu-games in order to present the realities of otherwise unrepresentable events. Texts of this sort are fewer in number than completely fictional mock-documentaries or the documentaries proper, with their nonfictional aspirations; however, these texts do exist. Further, the form of video games, which allows for the simulation and exploration of possible non-fiction events, realizes further depth to these real, yet unreal histories and events. Roscoe and Hight indicate a possible path into these fictional texts that are in service of a non-fiction reality. Noting the constructedness of any documentary, they state that “new technologies allow the referent itself to be manipulated--in other words, the basic integrity of the camera as a recording instrument is fundamentally undermined” (39). Texts that focus on the reality of events that are impossible to prove operate in a parallel fashion by manipulating not the integrity of the recording instrument, but the integrity of the reality that can be recorded. For instance, Nichols argues, “In documentary, we remain attentive to the documentation of what comes before the camera. We uphold our belief in the authenticity of the historical world represented on screen” ( Introduction to Documentary 36). Yet, the belief in the world before the camera allows viewers to forget those rendered without voices and rendered invisible which the camera either neglects or cannot capture. As Nichols also posits, “The most compelling critique of realism involves the subordinated position of women, not simply in terms of roles but also in terms of narrative structure” ( Representing Reality 176). The lack of

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136 representation of women in documentaries and histories is only one aspect at the tip of the iceberg, as it were, of the virtual erasure of representation for many groups. Yet the belief in the reality of the world before the camera facilitates the disappearance or erasure of what the camera neglects, overlooks, or cannot capture—rendering whole dimensions of cultural reality as silenced voices and invisible figures as if they are unreal or nonexistent. The mocku-mentary and mocku-game allows for the recovery of the vanished and suppressed gender, minority, and other truths. Both mainstream popular cinema and documentaries have tended to underrepresent women. Because of this pervasive subordinate of women, Janet Walker and Diane Waldman contend, “the most urgent project of feminist film work has always been twofold: a critique of the dominant cinema (defined as Hollywood fiction film) and support for the development of an alternative feminist cinema” (6). Like cinema, video games are a media form born into a patriarchal system and so they focus on male fantasies and male histories, as in the docu-games Fullerton discusses. Yet, video games are a new media form created with digital imaging and can also create representations for which no analog in the real world exists. Dana Heller suggests that, in the process of creating realistic versions of events that have not been recorded, film developed strategies to mimic found footage, thereby creating a space where unrepresented even unrepresentable, yet real, histories, can now be used to support a history of feminism (93). Video games, through their creation of visual and auditory representations—often within narrative and social contexts—can readily create the same sort of “found” footage. Additionally, because video games are played through, they offer the ability for players to make choices and to play an active

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137 role in those choices. To choose, for example, to follow paths of previously suppressed or unrepresentable realities. They also offer players, through replay, the ability to make multiple different choices, even choices that conflict. Alexandra Juhasz comments on the urgency of this sort of interaction in feminist documentary, arguing, “Feminists have a need for the recent past—history—to be alive, instructive, interactive, so as to be able to perpetuate (the) movement ” (95-6). Nichols similarly insists on the necessity for feminist positionalities within documentaries, “de Lauretis argues that the principal challenge for a feminist aesthetics is to construct a feminist viewer position or subjectivity regardless of the actual gender or subjectivity of the viewer” ( Blurred Boundaries 97). Similarly, J. Yellowlees Douglas argues that video games especially need to offer more than just masculine genderings specifically because video games can allow for the simulation and experience of otherwise inaccessible views, like that of the opposite gender (“Virtual Intimacy and the Male Gaze Cubed”). Essentially, each of these theorists argues for the validity of feminist documentary given its ability to depict and realize feminist positions, whether or not those positions are available through actual archival materials or through created, yet appropriate documents. Video games offer the same possibilities, with the added advantage of placing the player in the role of the character, whether that character is a man or a woman. As with the case of gender, docu-games and mocku-games can both allow for simulated unrealities that act in service of realities. Docu-games act in service of realities that could otherwise potentially be depicted through traditional documentary form, and mocku-games may act in service of realities that could not otherwise be depicted nor elicited through traditional documentary form.

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138 Docu-games for the Undocumentable Studies of player positionality have focused largely on the relationship of player to the screen (Rehak) or the player and gender—especially in studies of Lara Croft (Carr “Playing with Lara;” Lancaster). While those are essential to the formation of game studies, here I am more interested in the formation of game documentaries, particularly in games that document events for which insufficient archival materials exist. This sort of fictional non-fiction is already in use in historical museums through what Stacy Flora Roth terms “ghost interpretation,” which is the process by which re-enactors take the role of a ghost from previous times to lead museum visitors through the past and through the ghost’s personal memories (17). In doing so, the ghosts can represent the past from subjectivities for which only limited documentation may be available. Further, the ghosts can comment on both the past as it was experienced and the past as seen through the present. Creations that seek to express events for which no record remains or ever existed follow Renov’s four fundamental tendencies of documentary: “1. to record, reveal or preserve; 2. to persuade or promote; 3. to analyze or interrogate; 4. to express” (“Toward a Poetics of Documentary” 21). These tendencies interconnect to form the basis for documentary texts as well as the basis for non-traditional documentary forms. Fatal Frame presents one possibility in game design because the game focuses on the story of a young girl, Miku Hinasaki, and her journey into a haunted past of oppression while promising to be “based on a true story.” Makoto Shibata, the game’s director, based the game on his experiences with the supernatural and on the story of incidents that occurred in a small mountainous village in Japan (“Interview with the Team”) along with the stories surrounding locations in Tokyo (GameZone). Thus, the

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139 gameÂ’s specific goal is to create a representation whereby players can experience the supernatural, which by its definition is undocumentable by conventional means. The supernatural experience as a game design goal seems at odds with Western standards for objectivity and documentary, yet it accomplishes several goals when read in context with Japanese culture and society. First, Japanese society does not restrict the validity of the paranormal in the same manner that the United States dismisses and often condemns belief in the paranormal. The cultural differences are highlighted when major corporations in Japan like Sony invest in paranormal research (Landers) and when tourism in Asia suffers after the 2005 Tsunami in part because people fear the ghosts of the dead (Cheng). Second, by bringing in the supernatural as a valid part of the game and by setting the game within real stories of Japan, Fatal Frame is marked as a specifically Japanese game and, further, as a game that represents a dimension of Japanese culture and society that cannot be represented by traditional documentary methods.1 This particular aspect cannot be otherwise as accura tely documented because it is predicated on an experience or belief in the paranormal. Thus, such things as documents of people discussing the paranormal do not constitute the intellectual issue at stake; the actual events that follow from the already accepted existence of the paranormal are. Western logic for documentaries would suggest negating these issues, at least as other than novel or idiosyncratic cultural artifacts; however, the presence of women adds a dimension not so easily dismissed. Fatal Frame not only bases itself on Japanese belief in the spirit world, but also on the history of Japan and the unor under-represented 1 Even within the select few documentaries that would study Japanese society and women in Japan, the paranormal as viewed within Japanese society could not be as experientially addressed.

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140 history of women and the oppression of women in Japan as these are tied to a history of belief in the supernatural. Japan in Fatal Frame thus becomes an ethical space in the same way that Nichols argues regarding documentaries where, “Historical place becomes ethical space” ( Representing Reality xv). In becoming an ethical space, the game aids in creating a history that both does and does not exist. After all, “What does it take for a historical event to gain entry into the circulatory system of prime time news, especially if there are no publicists to make a case for it?” ( Representing Reality 11). As a game set in the historical and ethical space of Japanese history, Fatal Frame begins with Miku Hinasaki traveling to Himura Mansion to find her brother. Her brother, Mafuyu, is a journalist and has accompanied several other investigators to the mansion and its surrounding gardens and grounds to study the supernatural events that take place there. The game thus begins as a ghost story of sorts, but as Miku explores the mansion, she learns that the mansion was the site where women were ritually sacrificed for years. The women, called Shrine Maidens, were sacrificed in the mansion by being torn apart. Ropes were tied to their arms, legs, and necks; then, the women were literally pulled until their bodies broke. The ghost story quickly evolves into social and cultural commentary as Miku learns that the Shrine Maidens had to remain pure for their sacrifice to be accepted. In the fictional game narrative, the system of sacrifice is disrupted when Kirie, a specifically isolated young woman, looks upon a man and feels interest in him. According to the documents that Miku finds, this interest is enough to pollute Kirie’s mind and, because her sacrificers do not know of this pollution and continue with the sacrifice, the system goes awry with Kirie as the tainted sacrifice.

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141 With this story, the game appears to be a tale of oppression and destructive gender roles. However, this simple reading is complicated by the fact that the sacrifices were necessary to keep the Hell Gate, which is underneath the mansion, closed. When the ritual failed, the mansion descended into a hellish dimension and all who were in the mansion and surrounding areas were killed. Hell here can be read metaphorically as the established social system, yet to do so neglects the obvious and literal emphasis on the supernatural. The game first acts as a documentary of the undocumentable aspects of the supernatural, and then as a documentary on the role of women in Japanese society both in the past and in the present. Using the supernatural to conjoin past and present, the game expands to directly comment on women in traditional Japanese society. As Miku explores the mansion, she develops rope burns on her arms, legs, and neck. With these wounds, Miku is shown as being transported back into the past and into a world where women are oppressed and tortured. Miku also slowly collects items that speak of the suffering of the women in the mansion, and of womenÂ’s suffering throughout Japanese history. Some of the womenÂ’s suffering is told through their notes, diaries, hair clips, the lone window in their prison room through which they can barely see the outside world, and some are told through their broken, ghostly bodies. The game itself functions as a museum or a documentary in its collection of items, stories, and events. In particular, by focusing on the under-represented past of women in Japan, it provides a method of documenting what is unspoken, unknown, or otherwise inaccessible. In addition to offering a critique of what can be and is represented in documentaries, Fatal Frame also offers meta-commentary on the technologies of representation. It offers this commentary through the camera used in the game, which is

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142 specifically referred to as the camera obscura. MikuÂ’s family structure embeds issues of technology, documentation, and gender within one another because Miku fights the ghosts using the camera obscura that her mother gave her. MikuÂ’s mother, like Miku and Mafuyu, had a connection with the supernatural, so her camera connects Miku to technology, to her mother, and to the paranormal system that both she and her mother can access. By situating the camera as a connection between technology, spirituality, and history the camera binds these together in context with the history of women in Japan. Fatal Frame also serves to document the changes of technology, which connect older Japanese traditions with more modern traditions. This game strategy again depicts the role of women and society in connection with technology and spirituality. Traditional documentary methods could provide general historical information, more recent personal accounts, and information gleaned from artifacts. However, traditional documentary practice could not put players in contact with the same depth of information and its valences. Through replay, characters gain insight into the multiple compossibilities of events and are allowed to experience the, often limited, choices that construct particular historical situations. Players playing through MikuÂ’s story also play in a manner akin to a documentary form of lÂ’criture fminine in that the players play as a woman, telling a womanÂ’s story, and telling the history of women, while simultaneously playing to create a path that frees the women trapped in this tale and this history. In representing an otherwise unrepresentable depth to a social situation, Fatal Frame acts as a fictional genre of documentary practice, or as a mocku-game. By presenting Miku and the camera as embodiments of the connection and divide between old and new Japan, technology and the supernatural, and the opportunities for

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143 women in both cases, Miku comes to represent a personal story that acts as a path into these issues. Miku’s story as a personal account thus also embodies certain elements of documentary filmmaking for, as Nichols contends: the attempt to give witness to personal, subjective experience rather than categorical knowledge coincides with an increased reliance on the techniques of fiction in documentary. The goal of this reliance is usually more to archive a sense of historically situated subjectivity than to transform the historical person into a narrative character or mythic persona. (“‘Getting to Know You...’” 175) In a similar move, The Suffering uses a single figure to present a documentary-styled critique of the penal system. The Suffering does this first by basing itself in the real historical place of Pennsylvania’s Eastern State Penitentiary—in the game this is reconstructed fictitiously as Maryland’s Abbott State Penitentiary—and then by adding ghosts and demons to create a method of game play where the prisoner can be either innocent or guilty of horrible crimes. The Suffering thus both bases itself on a real world prison and makes this basis clear to players through the inclusion of a documentary film (in the traditional sense) on the game disc about the prison and about the making of the game. The Suffering focuses on a man named Torque, who has been sentenced to prison and to die for killing his exwife and children. The game then allows players to decide Torque’s guilt or innocence through the method of game play. If the player performs cruelly as Torque (killing guards and not just demons), then Torque will eventually be shown to be a murderer. However, if the player performs morally, Torque will be eventually shown to be a man plagued by demons, but not a murderer. Within the moral play options also comes a commentary on race in games. Torque’s ex-wife and children are shown in a photograph with dark skin, as AfricanAmericans. Torque himself defies racial categorization because his skin is essentially a

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144 pale gray color.2 However, he has been sentenced to death, a penalty more often imposed on African-American males than on Caucasian males. While Torque’s race may appear as a minor variation in game design, it is worth noting that the vast majority of game characters across the board are Caucasian or Asian, and that very few are AfricanAmerican unless their race is explicitly tied to the gaming narrative as either a representation of the real, or as a racist stereotype as with racing games that portray African-American street-smart racing criminals. As representations of the real, games like Madden Football depict real life African-American players realistically in the games, and Def Jam: Fight for New York accurately represents characters based on real people like Snoop Dog. Other games rarely incorporate African-American characters in the foreground.3 Because of the overall absence of African-American characters in video games, Torque as possibly an African-American male—with the meta-commentary on the prison system that accompanies this—shows his race to be relevant to the gaming narrative and the game’s larger social implications. The Suffering ’s game setting includes the prison, part of a World War II bunker that the prison was built next to, and the site of much earlier witch burnings. By embedding these locations within the game—and especially by contextualizing them with notes that decry all killings as murder—the entire penal, war, and social systems within which Torque exists are critiqued. Further, some of the supposedly good guards are also shown to be corrupt and some of the evil prisoners are shown to be overly punished. For 2 The Suffering ’s game designers, in the making of the game video which is included on the game disc, state that they chose to make Torque’s racial and ethnic appearance ambiguous. 3 For more on the problematic and often racist portrayal of characters in games see David Leonard, “’Live in your world, play in ours’: Race, video games, and consuming the Other,” Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education 3 (4): November 2003.

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145 instance, Abbott’s Commanding Officer Hargrave feels justified in torturing or even killing prisoners because he believes the prisoners deserve death. Similarly, Dr. Killjoy formerly tortured patients in the asylum on part of Carnate Island where Abbott State Penitentiary sits. The monsters that erupt from Abbott are also depicted as due to the suffering of the prisoners and due to the fact that prisoners were executed on the prison grounds. The game—clearly a fictitious tale of demons and anger—still contextualizes itself within a real US prison, and within the US penal system, which it then critiques. By critiquing the death penalty, the prison system, asylums, the people in charge of such institutions, and even the determination of guilt for criminals, the game presents a factual argument that could not otherwise be sustained because of the lack of complete records on prison abuse, convictions of innocents, and the like. In this, The Suffering also serves to critique video game play which most often reaffirms the righteousness of social institutions and killing as a viable and morally acceptable method of control and social protection. It further examines the continued lack of racial diversity for characters in video games, and the lack of racial diversity in other media forms. Documentary Traditions in Fictional Games Fatal Frame and The Suffering parallel other video games in their creation of a documentary sense. Yet they go beyond most video games in both trying to represent a reality, and a reality for which documentation is lacking. Many games, like the ones Fullerton discusses, are based on real world events for which sufficient documentation exists. Other games use documentary styles in order to better create the fictional game world. Games of this sort include games which use grainy camera footage to create the illusion of technical and economic film restrictions in much the same way as Sarah L.

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146 Higley and Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock have argued that the grainy camera footage and seeming technical limitations led viewers to believe that The Blair Witch Project was a real documentary (21). Games featuring documentary elements also include games that embed additional items within the games—as with the diaries, notes, letters, videos, and photographs in each of the Resident Evil games—as well as supplementary game materials not included in the games—as with Wesker’s Report, which is a separate promotional disc for Resident Evil that details a report made by one of the game characters, Albert Wesker. Similarly, Alternative Reality Games use supplemental materials, including supplemental websites and print media, to create the game world—essentially the entire game is constructed through paratextual elements that subsequently constitute the existence of a primary text. The documentary styles that do not aim to be actual documentaries also include paratextual elements like video game out-takes, bloopers, and other items that serve to create the video game world or its characters as real and the game as the fiction. In larger circulation, many games use in-game news bulletins, fictional interviews, fictionalized records, and the like. Yet each of these retains the trace of a documentary style in that each of these—whether they are real or they imply the reality of the documents within the given scenario—could be used in a documentary setting. Vivian Sobchack comments on the use of similar documentary styles of news bulletins and interviews in science fiction film, stating, “In general, the newscast is used as an economical way of compressing information or expressing emotion, which, if stated by characters in an unframed situation, would sound talky or unnatural or funny” (191-2).

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147 Video games similarly use these documentary elements to quickly convey information and to provide a sense of reality. Even the use of minor elements in games like notes and x-rays in video games also connect to the accepted history of documentaries as they are changing to include these elements as well as more officially constructed elements. On the changing nature of documentaries and their inclusion of different artifacts, Renov notes, “Now we can see as never before that medical records, curriculum vitae, and performance art are autobiographical acts of a most profound sort and arguably more pertinent to our lived experience than their pedigreed literary cousins” ( The Subject of Documentary xiii). The changes in documentary as a film form—from the creation of a more linear history to the expression of subjective viewpoints that create a multitude of voices and compossible histories—parallel the changes and opportunities that video games create for the documentary form. Video games allow for an evolution of the documentary form by allowing for additional representations, representational methods, and by allowing players to have experiences with those representations even when they are of undocumented voices and events. Conclusion The docu-games Fullerton explores utilize the perceived standard techniques of documentary film practice, while Fatal Frame and The Suffering rely more fully on mock-documentary practices. Further, each of these have implications for game documentaries and for documentary practice as a whole. “Historical representation, and collage, becomes a form of cartography quite distinct from its Cartesian predecessors,” Nichols has rightly argued, and, “the assumption of a fixed reference point or even the determination of a fixed location ‘on the map’ no longer has the commonsense cogency that was once taken for granted” ( Blurred Boundaries 120). In viewing historical

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148 representation as closer to a line of flight than to a fixed path, Nichols acknowledges the vicissitudes of the real and of the past. Similar to the changes in historical representations, in terms of tracing movements rather than attempting to trace an exact chain of events, documentaries have diversified from a singular narrative voice to that of many, and sometimes conflicting, voices. The changes in historical representation and documentary also impact how new media forms use conventions and standards from documentary film practice and from methods of historical representation. Documentary is still seen as having a semi-fixed or fixed form. This fixed form persists despite the fact that Nichols contends, “Documentary as a concept or practice occupies no fixed territory. It mobilizes no finite inventory of techniques, addresses no set number of issues, and adopts no completely known taxonomy of forms, styles, or modes” ( Representing Reality 12). While documentaries have explored many possible depictions and permutations, they are still most closely allied with representations of the real as it can be visually captured, an alliance troubled by digital representations. As Nichols also posits, digital media changes the primacy of the visual such that, “fidelity lies in the mind of the beholder as much as it lies in the relationship between a camera and what comes before it” ( Introduction to Documentary xii). Nichols adds that the presentation of the real is necessary to inst ill belief: Fiction may be content to suspend disbelief (to accept its world as plausible), but non-fiction often wants to instill belief (to accept its world as actual). This is what aligns documentary with the rhetorical tradition, in which eloquence serves a social as well as aesthetic purpose. ( Introduction to Documentary 2) Renov similarly argues for the rhetorical nature, and subsequent fictiveness, of documentary, “all discursive forms—documentary included—are, if not fictional, at least fictive this by virtue of their tropic character (their recourse to tropes or rhetorical

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149 figures)” (“Introduction” 7). While both Nichols and Renov claim the importance of the fictive and rhetorical in documentaries, they also continually return to the presence of the real. For instance, Nichols cautions against the use of reenactments instead of archival footage because of reenactments lack a primary correlate to the real, “Reenactments risk implying greater truth-value for the recreated event than it deserves when it is merely an imitation or a copy of what has already happened once and for all” (“'Getting to Know You...': Knowledge, Power, and the Body” 176). Despite these arguments, the “real” that sometimes seems so precious to documentary film practice cannot be captured fully on camera, if at all. Renov elucidates certain aspects of the real that cannot be captured, “Where Barthes confined his analysis to the photographic sign, I take heart in my extrapolation to film and video, for increasingly, the 'somewhere' from which the dead are both memorialized and annulled is in the moving image form” ( The Subject of Documentary 122). As memorials to the dead, film, video, and now video games serve to document the undocumentable—to stand as a testament to that which they cannot represent. The undocumentable and unrepresentable are two aspects which are brought to the forefront with recent mock-documentary practices and with the emergence of similar practices in video games. Mock-documentaries question and enlarge traditional documentary practices in several manners. First they reinforce the fact that, like historical representation, documentary practice traces a possible path instead of fixed, exact events. Second, they trouble the position and possibilities afforded by documentary film practice. As Roscoe and Hight argue, “Within this complexity of social-political and audio-visual contexts,

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150 mock-documentary seems to be symptomatic of a subversion of the continued privileged status of documentary itself” (4). In vexing the position and possibilities for documentary film practice, mock-documentaries can also open histories that are neglected, closed, and lost. Further, they can introduce these lost histories into the mainstream so that other cultural forms can represent, or attempt to represent, these histories. By interjecting themselves into the mainstream, “The mock-documentary form has attracted a wide audience, outside of the academic and visually sophisticated elite which have been the main viewer's of the form's factual cousin, the reflexive documentary” (Roscoe and Hight 189). The wider audience of mock-documentaries in turn allows for documentary film practice to change, adapt, and further connect to mainstream audiences. Mocku-games often use their connection to mainstream audiences to present arguments to which those audiences would not normally have access. In the US, as the majority of video game players remain white males (despite initiatives to change this), The Suffering and Fatal Frame present arguments engaging the national issues of race and imprisonment along with transnational questions on cultural beliefs and on the history of women’s rights. Thus, video games based on the unrepresentable aspects of the real offer a corrective to documentary film practice through their clearly unreal visual representations and through their interactive format which allows for the presentation of multiple viewpoints and chronologies. Video game interactivity allows for the shifting of viewpoints, the opening of new options, the playing of new segments, and for the changing and altering of events that occur. Play in video games is always fundamentally a reenactment, so the reenactment is not privileged. Instead, the fact that the real cannot

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151 be known is privileged and, in this, the unrepresentable and the invisible can take a tangible form.

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152 CHAPTER 7 PLATFORM DEPENDENT: CONSOLE AND COMPUTER CULTURES Introduction Ludic Gothic and horror games more often appear on consoles than on computers.1 This difference could be a minor statistical anomaly; however, closer analysis shows that this stems from larger reasons underlying the difference between console and computer platforms. The differences between computer and console gaming alter game design, game genres, gaming audiences, and game studies. While the differences between consoles and computers are reducing as consoles grow more powerful, these differences impact games and game studies in such a manner and to such a degree that they need to be addressed. As game studies emerges from new media as a new interdisciplinary field, it has focused on many new media related issues like interactivity and immersion. In order to do so, game studies often truncates games into one unified field, rather than examining them as the related, yet disparate fields of computer and console games. Computer and console games differ in use and in the cultures that they create because of their intrinsic differences in game-play, game usage, and game type. Academic study has traditionally focused on computer games because of their ease of access, with most academics having access to computers but not to consoles; their ease of use, due to easy cheating methods for computer games; and because of their generally older gaming cultures. Console 1 A version of this chapter will appear as “Console Wars: Console and Computer Games,” in Among Players: Digital Gaming and Social Life J. Patrick Williams and Jonas Heide Smith, eds., (Jefferson, NC: McFarland Press, Forthcoming 2006).

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153 games, on the other hand, have been studied far less because they require additional materials, are more difficult to play and to cheat at playing, and because their gaming communities are generally younger. Further, most academic game studies have examined only the cultures present in multiplayer games, rather than including the large gaming communities that are formed around single-player games as these cultures begin and develop in online discussion, bulletin boards, forums, magazines, and other venues. The differences between console and computer gaming communities are formed through the game interfaces, the spaces of game play, and through player perceptions that often mis-label consoles as childrenÂ’s games and computers as systems for girls or older players. These different gaming communities are then fostered through online and faceto-face discussion, magazines targeted at particular platform players, and through player perceptions on the types of games that belong on a certain platform. Academia has situated itself more closely with computer gaming communities despite the importance of console gaming communities for console game studies and for game studies as a whole. As James Paul Gee rightly notes: A good number of people play both platform games and computer games, of course. Nonetheless, somewhat different affinity groups, with different attitudes and values, have arisen around each domain, with lots of overlap in between. There are people who play in both domains but have strong opinions about what sorts of games are best played on platforms and what sorts are best played on computers. (35) This article traces the reasons for the divisions between console and computer gaming cultures so that the different cultures may be noted for historical accuracy, for studies of gaming cultures and of gaming genres as they relate to platform, and for future game studies, particularly mobile gaming studies. For game studies, the gaming platform relates directly to game play and to game genre because of the manner in which gaming

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154 interfaces and gaming key configurations are used as tropes for particular game types and particular gaming cultures. These connections based on platform are necessary to note for the differences in game types, game narratives, and gaming cultures that emerge in relation to the platform. Distinguishing between console and computer gaming cultures aids in differentiating studies of audience as many studies are divided by audience age, gender, skills, education, and so forth. Furthermore, gaming communities and cultures have been examined primarily for the manner in which they operate during multiplayer play. Gaming cultures also operate around and during single-player play as focused on video games as their objects of interest in much the same manner as other subcultures like Trekkers, Xena fan communities, Buffy the Vampire Slayer communities operate. Because gaming cultures often divide themselves based not only on game titles or game narrative types (for instance, horror gaming fans), but also as based on the gaming platform, studies of gaming platforms aid in studies of overall gaming communities, particular gaming communities, and the creation of gaming communities. Future approaches to game studies that account for platform differences will also be needed as the Xbox 360 and Nintendo Revolution are promising to act as virtual consoles, allowing for legal emulation, but emulation that alters the nostalgia that often fosters console gaming communities. Further, as consoles increasingly offer online gaming culture support, the differences between online gaming cultures and offline gaming cultures (through magazines, websites, and shared physical play spaces) will need to be nuanced in relation to the gaming platform. Studies that account for platform are also a needed caveat for game studies itself as many academics tend to focus on

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155 computer games and their cultures with less attention to console games and the cultures they create. Studies of gaming cultures also need to take into account the importance of platform as the portable gaming market expands. With the release of the Nintendo DS and Sony PSP, along with other portable gaming systems embedded in cell phones and PDAs, the portable gaming market is growing at a rapid pace. The portable gaming market directly relates to the gaming platform because the manner of game-play and the games themselves are tied to the platform, especially as game developers create games for this casual, quick play market. Notions of platform and its relationship to game studies aids in bridging portable game studies with studies of other portable devices like the wealth of scholarship on the Sony Walkman. Game Culture Platform Dependence While many gamers play on both consoles and PCs, many have a specific preference for one and that preference defines their relationship to their gaming community. These preferences for specific interfaces and platforms, and the cultures that they create, can be seen with the options for controller configurations provided by games as well as on popular clothing, like the shirt patterns from GameSkins.com which depict the button sequences for throwing fireballs or for multiple lives. All video games can certainly be studied under one rubric, with interface and platform differentiations as subsidiary considerations for game studies in much the same vein as media differences like the differences between televised film, theater film, and DVDs operate in relation film and media studies. However, for game interfaces and platforms, game players often divide themselves into computer and console gamers (the rise of mobile gaming may soon lead to new categories like cell phone gamers and PDA

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156 gamers)2 with important differences for each. For clarity, the category computer games here refers specifically to games played on desktop computers like those running DOS, Windows, Linux, or a Macintosh Operating System and consoles refers specifically to dedicated (or nearly dedicated) game machines like the Game Boy, Playstation, Playstation2, Xbox, GameCube, Atari, and so on. Computer and console games differ in use and in the cultures that they create because of their intrinsic differences in game-play, game usage, and game type. Academia currently tends to neglect the differences between these gaming communities or the games themselves, but there are important distinctions that warrant examination for their influence on the gaming communities and the games. Academics and Computer Vs. Console Games Many of the academics first analyzing video games studied video games as a new media art form akin to film or hypertext. These scholars tended to focus on computer games, and on computer games as in relation to new media, as with Espen AarsethÂ’s Cybertext, J. Yellowlees DouglasÂ’ The End of Books or Books Without End?, and Lev ManovichÂ’s The Language of New Media. They also tended to focus on computer games like Myst and Riven and did not include console games like those played on Nintendo and Atari systems In fact, one of the few texts on console gaming is Marsha KinderÂ’s Playing with Power in Movies, Television and Video Games From Muppet Babies to Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles which is actually focused on childrenÂ’s media and not on gaming. While the work by Douglas, Aarseth, and Manovich proves excellent and applicable to video games in general, the differences between console and computer games need to be noted because of their significance for gaming and for gaming cultures. 2 The gaming industry already has a category for casual gamers, who are players that play shareware games and are primarily women.

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157 Video games – while existing as one expansive heterogeneous field – contain critical differences that originate in the platform type and that are more pervasive and significant than simplified issues of interface that are found with all electronic media. Indeed, while other scholars have specifically studied gaming cultures, their studies generally focused on multiplayer computer gaming cultures, as with Sherry Turkle’s Life on the Screen and The Second Self and Sue Morris’s “First-Person Shooters – A Game Apparatus.” Many scholars are now studying console video games, but academia on the whole neglects that there are significant differences in the apparatus, the culture, and the communities for console and computer games. Academic games studies is in its infancy as a field, but already many scholars argue that platform differences are minor, or they neglect these differences entirely. Video game scholar Mark J. P. Wolf argues that computer games are a subset of video games, stating: “‘Computer games,’ then are most usefully seen as a subset of video games, due to the shared technologies such as the microprocessor and the cathoderay tube. Furthermore, many games are now released across multiple platforms at once” (“The Video Game as a Medium” 17). All video games are played on computer systems; however, for video games – on computers or consoles – the distinction of platform is more significant than a generalized sense can encompass and these distinctions can only be reduced with caution. While classifying video games as one field with the platform as a subcategory simplifies game studies, it also obscures significant aspects of game-play, including particular games being released only on particular platforms and the cultures that accompany those platforms, effectively closing investigation of those relationships.

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158 Further, classing computer games as a subset of video games effectively hides issues of platform, culture, and gaming interface. The ever-advancing technology in console systems like the PS2 and Xbox with their hard drives and network adapters continues to blur the divisions between consoles and computers. The distinctions between console and computer games may soon be academic for some platforms; however, the gaming cultures that these differences have created will not automatically be negated. Despite this slow merging and blurring, games have traditionally been, and indeed still are, wedded to their platforms in manners that are significant enough to warrant recognition. In discussing the history of video games, Wolf also claims that the distinctions between console and computer games are insignificant and diminishing: “Although some people make a distinction between ‘video games’ and ‘computer games,’ games are often ‘ported’ (rewritten into different computer languages or systems) from one platform to another, broadening their markets and appearing in multiple modes of exhibition” (“The Video Game as a Medium” 27). Wolf rightly argues that the differences are rapidly shrinking for console and computer games; however, the significance of the platform for existing games and the fact that many games are still not ported and are only available for other systems through illegal emulation programs makes the study of current platforms necessary. The argument that games are ported also neglects the fact that these ports are generally not as successful on the secondary systems, as Patrick Klepek states in Computer Gaming World : “After all, console publishers have traditionally limited their PC support to pushing out half-assed ports of console releases” (33). The extremely popular Resident Evil series highlights the lack of porting because one of the most

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159 popular of the Resident Evil series, Resident Evil – Code: Veronica – (2000) has st ill not be ported as a computer game, despite winning game of the year from several gaming publications. Additionally, the games that have been transferred have received consistently lower ratings for their computer editions.3 The popularity and critical acclaim of the Resident Evil games, yet their failure to be completely transferred to computers shows that significant differences exist both for the gaming platform and for the gaming culture as it relates to that platform. While many games are available on both computer and console systems, many more are not available through legal means and the method of play changes dramatically when shifted from console to computer or computer to console. With the latest generation of game systems, and in particular the Xbox, computer and console games are more often being simultaneously released. Despite the simultaneous and cross-over releases, which are still in limited degree, the method of game-play and the gaming cultures still vary greatly as divided by the gaming platform. Further, the rise of cell phones, PDAs, and multiple mobile gaming forms like the many versions of the Game Boy, and Sony’s portable gaming system, the PSP, also require further studies into platform. Gaming interfaces, as they relate to game platforms also require greater attention because of the ways in which gaming interfaces shape the gaming experience and cultures. In “As We Become Machines: Corporealized Pleasures in Video Games” discussing game interfaces and their relationship to embodiment, Martti Lahti argues that the new shock controllers aid in blurring the boundaries between user and interface, 3 See for instance Gamespot.com’s overall rankings of the Resident Evil games. The first received an 8.2 for the Playstation release and a 7.2 for the computer release; the second received an 8.9 on the PlayStation and a 7.0 on the computer.

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160 “They provide a tactile feedback from the computer to the body that literalizes the implied bodily sensations conveyed through visual and sonic effects used in earlier games” (162). Lahti also argues that games make players cyborgs through their relationship to the games and to the game interfaces: “Joysticks, game controllers, pedals, and various steering systems further foreground haptic interaction and simultaneously encapsulate players in a game world complete with bodily sensation” (169). Notably absent from this list of interfaces are keyboards and mouses, despite the fact that most of Lahti's examples are computer games. While computer games can use joysticks and controllers, Wolfenstein 3D (1992) Unreal (1998) Half-Life (1998) Duke Nukem 3D (1996) Doom (1993) and many of Lahti's other examples are more commonly played on computers by a user with a keyboard and mouse. Lahti's argument could rely on a wealth of research on computer users, but instead it seems to couch itself within a rhetoric of console controllers, or computer peripherals, which in turn limits the analysis because it fails to address the manner in which most of the games mentioned are played. Studies that address the differences between computer and console gaming cultures are additionally necessary because console gaming cultures are further into divided by the types of consoles. Internal Divisions: Console Wars In addition to the separate gaming cultures formed by the division of console and computer games, individual gaming systems like the Game Boy, GameCube, PlayStation, Xbox, and even iterations of a gaming system, like the Sony systems and the Nintendo systems serve to create their own miniature gaming cultures. This is due in part to the availability of a game on a particular system and to the fact that many gamers have access to only one or a few systems. The gaming cultures are influenced by the gamers’ only

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161 having access to that or those systems and games, which has spawned forums and magazines devoted to particular console systems like Nintendo Power, Xbox Nation and PlayStation Monthly. Gaming cultures are also supplemented by internet discussions and by production from the gaming culture itself. “Game players excited about specific games such as The Legend of Zelda: Majora’s Mask, ” Mia Consalvo explains in her study of video game fans, “can jump on the internet, where they engage in chat, read newsgroups, hang out on Internet Relay Chat, and create and surf web sites devoted to their creators” (327). As Poole posits in Trigger Happy by the 1980s and 1990s, “Already by this stage a great number of teenagers were more interested in videogames than in pop music. And Nintendo and Sega inspired fanatical loyalty” (4). That loyalty served to harness many players and to keep them tied to a particular console type, or to consoles in general. In delimiting the different gaming cultures, many single games embody the divisions between the different player communities and cultures, and these divisions often cause controversies. These controversies include the “console wars” in which the different console types struggle against each other to win portions of the console gaming communities with their specific games and interfaces (Sam Leitch). For instance, Nintendo’s GameCube won the right to exclusively release the latest Resident Evil games, Resident Evil 0 (2002) and several remakes. Nintendo fought for the exclusive rights because the console gaming industry recognized that the Resident Evil series featured prominently in console gaming culture and so players would purchase the GameCube specifically to play these games. In doing so, Nintendo further instilled divisions of gaming cultures based on the gaming platform. Further as Max Lake notes, Nintendo recognized that exclusive rights to this

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162 Mature-Rated series would make the GameCube appear as a more mature system so it could appeal to a larger gaming culture with older gamers (“ Resident Evil Series: GameCube Exclusive”). In addition to the internal console wars, these controversies also include arguments from players over where certain game titles or types 'belong', as with the arguments around the new StarCraft (1998) being released on consoles, instead of on a computer system. StarCraft began solely on computers as a real-time strategy game, generally a computer gaming genre. As commentator Malcivar remarks, players often argue that a particular game, like StarCraft, belongs on a computer or a console and that the game cannot operate properly on the other platform (“User Comments, Starcraft: Ghost Demo at E3”). While many of these arguments are popular bravado, they are voiced from a distinctive fan culture which has emerged because many games do remain wedded to a particular platform despite clear economic rewards for releasing on multiple systems. The gaming culture divisions based on platform feed player arguments because games released on multiple platforms remain more common for games released either on multiple computer systems or on multiple console platforms—like different versions of Windows and Macintosh or different versions released on the Xbox and PlayStation 2— than games released on both console and computer systems together. While console systems often each have their own smaller gaming communities, the larger gaming cultures are more greatly connected to the difference between the console or computer system. The two cultures are formed in part by the technological differences in the game systems and can be differentiated by several factors that also relate to those technical differences like game-play conventions, the gaming interface, and game genres. Each of

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163 these technical differences relates heavily to console or computer gaming and, thus, to their respective gaming cultures. Gaming Interface Despite the blurring of divisions by academia, the technical apparatus for console and computer play differs greatly and these differences are perhaps one of the most visible divisions between console and computer gaming cultures. Video games can now often be played on both consoles or computers because of emulation programs and multiplatform games. Furthermore, many console games can now be played through additional peripherals like keyboards and computer games can be played through additional peripherals like controller pads. However, the typical manner of play relates heavily to the typical interface for any given platform, be it computer or console. The typical console interface features a controller pad with several buttons and directional-sticks or pads for movement. This typical configuration is present on the controllers that are included with the majority of console game systems including the Game Boy, Game Boy Advance, all of the Nintendo Home Systems, the two PlayStation Systems, the Sega Systems, the Xbox, and others. The typical computer interface consists of a keyboard and mouse. While the difference in keystrokes and button configurations may seem insignificant, Gillian Crampton Smith and Philip Tabor both contend in "The Role of the Artist-Designer" that interface design affect users: "There is a commonly held assumption that content is somehow separate from form[...] We think that this assumption is mistaken. Content cannot be perceived without form, and the form of a message affects the content" (43). Terry Winograd also argues for the importance of the interface to the actual work: “Design cannot neatly be divided into compartments for software and for devices. The

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164 possibilities for software are both created and constrained by the physical interfaces” (xviii). As Winograd explains, software must be designed with a platform in mind. As such, the platform affects the manner of software design, which in turn affects the software user. Because of this, the interfaces for consoles and computers affect the games on each, and the types of games that are available on each. In doing so, they also affect both how the players play the games on each platform and whether the players play on multiple platforms and thus within both computer and console gaming cultures. Human-Computer Interaction Scholar Donald Norman notes that for interface design, “In fact, controls with more than one function are indeed harder to remember and use" ( The Design of Everyday Things 22). Computer game interfaces are generally more programmable than console interfaces both because computer games can assign a single function to a single keyboard “hot” key and because most computer games allow players to assign each skill to a key. Console games, on the other hand, generally allow between one and three preset button configurations. These configurations cannot be changed, so players must learn the configurations in order to play. However, for skilled console players, the preset configurations are normally related to the popular key sets for other console games. The reuse of similar configurations makes console games easier to play for those familiar with them, and makes them more difficult for those unfamiliar with consoles. The difficulty levels for console or computer gaming interfaces are exacerbated when moving between the two forms, which in turn reinforces the boundaries between console and computer gaming cultures. Illustrating the importance of control configurations, is the Resident Evil game series’ implementation of extremely limited game controls. The Resident Evil games use

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165 a character-relative control configuration, which simply means that pressing a direction on the directional pad will always make the character move in that direction. However, these games combine the character-relative controls within changing screens that are sharply divided into small segments such that pressing up over one screen can quickly result in the player moving in the opposite direction in a new screen because of the game design. Character-relative controls are often viewed to be controls for hardcore gamers and they are more popular for console gamers. Character-relative controls are most often found in console horror games, which shows the connection between control schemes and platform as well as control schemes and game genres.4 As Zovni mentions in the Moby Games review of Silent Hill 2 (2001), a game that offers both camera and character-relative controls: “Thankfully, those of us with reflexproblems can now switch between camera-relative and character-relative controls that finally allow you to handle your character in a more natural way when placed under the game's kickass but often awkward camera positions” (para. 6). Character-relative controls are difficult for players who have not learned them, and they require a longer than average learning curve. However, Resident Evil was first released in 1996 on the PlayStation, with many subsequent games on various systems, and so many console players learned the controls, especially with console players as more familiar with the overall use of a controller. Computer players did see the release of Resident Evil a year later, as well as later releases of several other Resident Evil games; however, the gaming controls are still seen as too obtuse for many computer games. 4 See Tanya Krzywinska’s “Hands-On Horror,” which studies horror games and the manner in which horror games allow for a greater loss of control due to game play and the game interface.

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166 While the interfaces do differ from console to console system, the primary differences are between console and computer games. As Gee notes—referring to console games as platforms as they are generally referred to in gaming magazines; “Many platform-game players think keyboards are a bad way to play video games, while some computer-game players think they are a good way. In turn, these matters are connected to their identities as game players” (34). While the differences between console and computer interfaces can be mitigated through the use of peripherals console and computer gamers, and thus their gaming cultures, generally view the differences not simply as aspects of the interface, but as intrinsic to the game type and as extremely significant to game-play. Consoles are for Kids The interface differences are also the basis for gaming community biases. Console and computer gaming communities are further separated by the representation of one community within the other as less skilled, more childish, or in some way a weaker community. In particular, computer gaming communities often depict console gaming communities as being younger and less mature based on the types of games available on console systems, and this depiction continues in academic studies. Game designer Crawford divides milestone games into ‘videogames’ and ‘computer games,’ using the same child-console gaming bias stating that in their early development computer games and video games were easily separated: “videogames played on consoles didn't have much computer power and tended to appeal to younger kids, while computer games were played on more expensive personal computers and so tended to appeal to older boys” (20). The perception of consoles as children's systems and computers as gaming systems

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167 for adults continues through both gaming cultures and through much of the older work on game studies. In The Design of Everyday Things, Norman states that the Nintendo is “meant to be used by children” and even describes the system as “The Nintendo Children's Toy” (1389). While the arguments over platforms and age appropriateness have evolved since that publication Norman again argues in Emotional Design that consoles are for young people, specifically young males (43). Like Norman, Sheri Graner Ray confines her analysis of games based on age and gender in relation to platform. Because she studies young girl gamers, she bases her arguments on computer games (2-6). Both Norman and Graner Ray’s divisions of console and computer games are implicit in their arguments. In this, they define a gaming culture based on a particular platform; in this case, they define consoles as more for boys or dedicated gamers and computers as more available for girls, older players, or atypical players in general. While problematic, these divisions do carry some validity and do underlie some of the divisions in gaming cultures because young boys are more likely to have console systems available for them and atypical players, like girls and older players, are more likely to have access only to computers (Graner Ray 314). These divisions are also due in part to the fact that computer games require a higher initial cost for the computer. The perception of consoles as for children and computer gaming as for older players also relates directly to the spaces in which the games are played. Places and Ways of Play: Living Rooms, Online Hints, and Game Play Conventions In addition to the technical aspects of consoles and computers are the physical placement of the systems. Early gaming culture derived from arcade games where players could enter their initials for high scores. The physical format of arcade games led to

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168 others watching while one player would play. This, combined with the social acknowledgement for high scores formed small communities based on location. These individual gaming cultures were united by the types of games they played, the places the games were played, and the manner of game-play. Like arcade games, computer and console gaming cultures were and are based largely on the spaces in which the games are played. The platform type relates to the space in which the games are played, which also directly relates to the gaming cultures, as Jay Bolter and Richard Grusin posit: Arcade games, home video games, and desktop computer games each operate within their own social space[ ...] Home video games must be played where the television is located, which is often a large and public room. Although one or two people can actively participate, everyone who sits in or walks through the room shares the experience of the game[...] Desktop computer games, played where the computer is located in an office or perhaps a bedroom, are comparatively antisocial, for they are often designed for a single player. On the other hand, desktop games may use networking to expand their social space. (102) The physical space of game-play leads to different gaming cultures because the television space required of console games places console games in a localized communal space. In this communal space, several people often participate in the playing of a single game. Computer games, however, are often played in an office in a bedroom and require that the player be closer to the screen. The change in location and in physical set-up lead computer games to more often be played by a single player without others participating in the same physical location. However, computer games are more easily connected to networks for virtual community play. Because of the differences in play spaces, computer gaming cultures became more immediately tied to online culture, and console gaming cultures remained more concretely based in small groups of players and more reliant on magazines for larger gaming culture discussions. Now, the Xbox and PS2 allow for multiplayer online play, but this has only recently been the case.

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169 Because of the more localized spaces of play for console games, and because those spaces most often reside in communal areas, console games have founded communities based around single-player games like the Resident Evil series, the many games in the Mario world (of which several can be played as multiplayer games), and games like Devil May Cry (2001) These communities, based around single-player games, either originate through the small, localized play groups that play and watch the games being played, or through external discussion of the games in magazines and forums. While many scholars have investigated the gaming communities present in online multiplayer games, much less attention has been paid to the gaming communities present with single-player games. These cultures are much more difficult to study because they exist asynchronously from game-play, yet they are significant because they affect the gaming culture as a whole. Before the internet revolution with forums, bulletin boards, and chat sessions focusing on aspects of video game culture was Nintendo Power. Nintendo Power was first released in the spring of 1988 and featured high score lists, gaming contests, a letters to the editor section, a fan art section, and other areas that fostered the creation of a Nintendo gaming culture based on the primarily single-player games for the original Nintendo Entertainment System. As David Sheff contends, “ Nintendo Power became the largest-circulation magazine for kids in America by the end of its first year” (179). Game journalism initially split between the console magazines like Nintendo Power and Electronic Gaming Monthly ( EGM ) and the magazines dedicated to computer games like Computer Gaming World. However, their split is being minimized as console and computer games continue to blur and as the magazines share articles and websites like

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170 1UP.com, which supplements console magazines like EGM and Xbox Nation as well as computer magazines like Computer Gaming World. Acknowledging the differences in computer gaming audiences and games, Klepek also claims that the differences are often invisible even within the industry, “Having found success on consoles, however, many publishers may be coming into the PC world without much of an idea of how the audiences and markets differ” (33). Magazines and their websites, as well as fan sites, offer walkthroughs, maps, and hint guides. While these exist as external texts to the games and game cultures, they still operate for the creation and continuance of gaming cultures, as Gee notes, “These texts are all integrated into the appreciative systems associated with the affinity groups connected to video games” (101). Because the game walkthroughs, maps, and tips all refer to specific games—even with ported games, these texts often differ based on the game system— these texts all serve to engender a gaming culture specifically tied to the game system. The hints and walkthroughs connect to the overall gaming culture, which is tied by issues of interface and gaming convention, and which then fosters the culture through the repeated use of those conventions, including cheating. Gaming conventions differ for consoles and computer games, making game-play and game design for each format differ based on the gaming platform. Some of the more significant differences include saving and cheating. Computer games normally allow players to save at any point in game-play. Console games, on the other hand, often limit the number and frequency of game saves as determined by their limited game memory space for internal, incremental saves. Gee suggests that console gamers are more accustomed to extended replay, “Furthermore, in my experience, many platform users do

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171 not see playing large parts of a game over and over again as repetition in the way in which I do” (34). This extended replay is necessary for console games because of the limited save allowances, but limited saves are often counted against computer games when games are reviewed. One of the most extreme examples of limited saves can be found in the Resident Evil series. Reviewer Ron Dulin notes: “The method by which you save games will infuriate PC purists, as it is not only sporadic, but requires an item of which there are a limited number” (para. 7). Originally, the game saves were limited due to technological constraints for memory space. However, this became a game convention for the series and many players cannot win because the game severely limits ammunition and saves so that the player is easily killed and replay becomes more difficult. This forced replay and limited save system is part of the reason for the failure of Resident Evil on computer systems, because the conventions for computer games and the Resident Evil games are at odds. Additionally, cheating is easier to perform on a computer system because cheat codes and 'hacks' are readily available through codes that grant infinite life, ‘God Codes’ and other basic codes entered into the game files. For console games, cheat codes can usually only be administered through additional peripheral materials that must be purchased and then configured. Because cheating was generally more difficult on consoles, easy cheating methods became part of the console gaming culture. One example of this is the Metroid (1985) “JUSTIN BAILEY” cheat code which gave the player almost all of the game powers, the Contra (1988) and Life Force (1987) code for additional lives, which was done using the controller keys “Up, Up, Down, Down, Left,

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172 Right, Left, Right, Select, Start.” In fact, the popularity of these codes as part of the culture now feeds t-shirt sales with businesses like GameSkins.com selling shirts with these codes on them.5 Like cheating, modification of games proves simpler on computers because computer games are meant to be modifiable for corrections. Further, computer players are familiar and accustomed to being given incomplete games and downloading patches to correct their games. Because of the need for patches, computer players are also readily familiar with the need to alter their existing games, through both the game’s sponsored corrections and through player-made modifications or “mods.” These mods have even fostered mod communities where groups of players work together to create personalized mods of games, like specific-themed Quake (1996) mods and Sims (2001) character mods (Morris). Console gamers, on the other hand, have not had the possibility for mods until recently. In prior and many of the contemporary gaming consoles, mods are not possible because the game materials must be contained on the game cartridge or disc. While the PlayStation2 and Xbox now have hard drives for their systems, enabling console players to use game or player created mods, game mods were almost entirely unavailable until now. In fact, the culture of console gamers has come to expect games to be fully developed. “PC gamers are often tech junkies. They like to fiddle with their boxes,” as Rider notes “Console gamers just don’t want to be that bothered with the technology – they don’t want to install patches, tweak settings, or work to play the game. Consoles are made to be powered up and played with little to no hassle” (para. 5-6). While computer 5 Even the gaming clothing divides computer and console gamers with the clothes on GameSkins.com most often depicting console gaming icons and the clothes on sites like ThinkGeek.com most often depicting geek culture with computer coding and computer gaming icons.

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173 gamers often developed communities around game modifications and patches, because console players had to rely on the game cartridge or disc, their communities often developed because of the cultural commonalities in dealing with cartridge and disc errors. One of these commonalities is the method of cleaning dust from the original NES cartridges. Many players used cotton-tipped swabs with rubbing alcohol to clean the dust from the cartridges, despite the fact that Nintendo specifically advised against it. Other players developed special methods of blowing into the cartridges to clean out the dust. In addition to legal mods are the illicit mods and methods of copying games which have fostered subcultures for both computer and console gamers. Because computer games are available on full computers, the games are more easily copied even with copy protection. Game Genres Further reinforcing gaming cultures divided by gaming platform are the technical aspects of gaming genres. Given their consistent releases divided by console or computer, certain games, game series, and game genres are representative of their platform and its relationship to genre because the games remain, despite popularity or demand, on a single system for many iterations. For instance, massively-multiplayer games like Everquest (1999) and City of Heroes (2004) are more often found on computer systems, as are realtime strategy games like WarCraft (1994) and StarCraft (1998). Real-time strategy games are more often found on computers because they require multiple functions, and are more easily mapped to the multiple keys on a keyboard, and because they require higher processing power which is more readily available on computers. Conversely, multiplayer racing games like Rush 2049 (2000) and Mario Kart (2003) are more often found on console systems because these games predicate on small groups of players playing collectively. Regarding the transfer of game genres to different platforms Klepek

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174 states, “Many of these games are from genres (fighting, shooting) that typically don’t find success with PC audiences” (33). The fighting and shooting game genres are both situated with console systems and console gamers in large part because of the spaces in which the games are played because of the controller configuration for the games. While certain genres are tied to the platform interface, many genres also remain tied to their systems because of the gaming culture’s perception of that genre or game series. Because of the divided gaming cultures, genre differences, which may or may not be based within those separate gaming cultures, still serve to further differentiate those cultures. Conclusion: Platforms for Academics In some ways, the significance of platform type for consoles and computers is diminishing with technological improvements; however, the differences for portable gaming systems like cell phones and PDAs has barely begun. Aside from the mobile gaming platform differences, console and computer game interfaces still differ and their differences still factor largely for gaming culture in general, as well as for gaming genres and the act of game-play. Game studies needs to further recognize the impact of the platform and interface for purposes of historical accuracy and for the significance of platform given the changes in platforms with the Nintendo DS radicalizing the handheld market, and with the rise of other gaming platforms. The complex relationship of the gaming apparatus to gaming cultures shows that games cannot be studied without regard to their platform and to their gaming culture. Any attempt to do so would serve to further instantiate an academic gaming culture, one that has already begun in its preference for computer games with their cheat codes. The differences in gaming platform, as these differences inform all gaming aspects, must be noted and investigated.

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175 The academic gaming culture is driven in part by the desire to have replicable gaming experiences through the multiple saves offered by computer games, and the desire to archive the games for later use. Console game emulators make older games available for play on computers; however the method of play is still drastically changed, often in fundamental ways that alter game-play and game reception. Once the differences between computer and console games are recognized, then the academic desire to protect data may come to include console games and pieces of console gaming culture through the archiving of console gaming systems instead of just their ‘essence’ through the archiving of emulators. Whether or not this archiving could be successful, the recognition of the differences between console and computer games would still serve to inform investigations of gaming systems, mobile gaming, and gaming cultures.

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176 CHAPTER 8 SEQUELS, PREQUELS, AND SERIALITY IN VIDEO GAMES Introduction Globalization has brought an increase in mass media convergences, which have in turn led to the increased production of texts in multiple media forms and in multiple iterations. Scholars like Vera Dika have called this a “serial impulse” (205). While serialized and multiform texts have been a common practice, the degree and type of serialization has changed with globalization and the rise of digital media. Of these changes, Angela Ndalianis argues that, “Expressing their seriality in alternate ways and through alternate forms of media, contemporary entertainments reveal a serial logic that has emerged from the contexts of globalization, postmodernism, and advances in new technology” (32-3). She contends that “One media form serially extends its own narrative spaces and spectacles and those of other media as well” (33). As one of the newest media forms to be serialized, video games operate within the complex movements of this serial impulse or serial logic. Because of their mass-market status and because of their extremely high production costs, video games often beget sequels. While the sequels themselves are often first created due to market conditions, those same market conditions subsequently add security in terms of sales for the sequels especially in global markets. The extremely high production costs for any one particular game—in terms of conceptual art, game engines, game design, story development, and more—often lead video game designers to create sequels from existing games in hopes of ensuring a greater return on the game

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177 development costs by marketing an already known commodity. In doing so, game sequels are often afforded a greater level of explorative potential in certain, confined manners. This exploration is allowed within the confines of the series because, while the game sequels continue and expand from the previous games, other aspects of the game’s design may exist outside of the prescribed role of the sequel. Those elements in a sequel are often more negotiable and mutable because they exist within a familiar framework. The exploratory potential that arises in serialization is often radical, making sequels pivotal for video games in terms of design standards as well as design innovation. Like video games, other media and other genres similarly beget or are founded on series and seriality. Comics and television shows are, in many ways, founded in the notion of series and seriality. Similarly as a genre, horror is wedded to series and seriality because of its focus on repeated experiences or encounters with the uncanny or the monstrous and the tension engendered through those encounters. While video games from all genres regularly result in sequels, these sequels take on different aspects than do the sequels in horror games. This chapter analyzes the plot, narrative, game design, and game-play in the typical game series type, as found in the Mario Brothers games, as well as in more atypical series, as in the Resident Evil games, to illustrate how game series function and how sequels and seriality reciprocally affect game design, game-play and game narrative. After providing an overview of the function of seriality in video games, I examine women characters as they develop inside ludic Gothic and horror game series to show how single games and game series—through their use of play and replay—function akin to serial narratives in the manner in which they defy closure particularly in regards to the development of women characters.

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178 Ludic Gothic and horror game series—partly because horror games individually break the common mold for game design—further diverge from common game design conventions in each of their iterations in such a manner as to allow for multiple representations of the same character. Because ludic Gothic and horror games often include women characters, these multiple representations form constellations that constitute l’criture fminine because the ludic Gothic horror sequels show these women characters in play repeatedly, but never in quite the same play and never towards any codified singular character identity. Continuing Narratives, Closure, and Character Development The complex framework within which many serialized forms, including video game sequels, exist is perhaps most akin to Donald Ault’s articulation of aspectual interconnection. Ault uses aspectual interconnection to show how details localized to particular characters in William Blake’s texts may negotiate through the text into the text itself and into alternate versions of the text in such a manner as to undermine any attempt at a codified definition ( Narrative Unbound ). While refuting any simple character definitions or definitions for story elements, aspectual interconnection still aids in bringing seemingly disparate and disconnected elements from the games as they are sequenced into relation. Aspectual interconnection underlies studies of serial and series texts because serial works have repeatedly been studied as rich intertextual objects, as with Linda Hughes’ “Turbulence in the ‘Golden Stream’: Chaos Theory and the Study of Periodicals,” where she argues for studying serial studies as an analogue to chaos theory because of the complexity of interrelated variables in any serial publication. While

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179 Hughes directs her comments toward print literature, serial impulses also have crossmedia effects.1 Both aspectual interconnection and chaos theory present a method for examining texts that are intricately connected while also contradictory at points. Studies of video games require an approach that embraces both the connections and implicit contradictions because video games generally follow two sometimes conflated trajectories. The first of these serial or series trajectories is one in which the games strive towards a holistic version of the game world, game characters, or game narrative. The other is a trajectory in which the games undermine these attempts at holism using changing technology, changing game concepts, and in the case of ludic Gothic and horror games, through their repeated refusal to codify characters or worlds and instead present situations that can only be defined in terms of the relationship between the game elements. As shown in regard to games and concept art in my “Networking Power: Video Game Structure from Concept Art,” the trajectory towards holism attempts to incorporate all games and all aspects of individual games (including patches, expansions, texts in other media) into one larger holographic whole. That whole then codifies the game world and the game characters. While this codification is useful in terms of establishing certain 1 Because video games are, in many ways, at the forefront of digital media, serial and series functioning for video games has implications for other digital forms, like hypertext narratives and visual computer interface representations as those representations change with subsequent software releases. Changes in computer interfaces for particular programs is especially relevant to video games as games in a series change their appearance based on the technology available for their presentation and as artistic gaming styles change. Further, changes in the physical interfaces have implications for various media types as for music using the iPod interface, games using different gaming interfaces, and television using digital video recording (DVR) interfaces. Subsequently, video game serial and series structures also have implications for other forms as they become digital, including film as films are encoded to DVD format with skipping and the inclusion of peripheral materials; television with DVRs like Tivo and Replay TV; for radio as Satellite radio and Podcasting changes the way people listen to radio broadcasted music and other programming, and for more print-aligned works like novels, as with the importance of the online discussion forum for the novel House of Leaves.

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180 video game tropes, worlds, and characters, it also limits alternative character representations. The second trajectory for video game serials and series follows a more typical serial narrative and character development in that it rejects closure. In doing so, the characters in these serially-functioning games escape the confines of the game and the game world to exist as characters in relation to, but not defined by, their environments. In ludic Gothic and horror games, these characters are women and the escaping of definitions is particularly important within the video game medium because video games generally attempt to codify women into stock or troped objects rather than allowing them to exist as full, changing characters. In order to show how games, even though almost entirely released as series rather that serials by definition, function as both serial and series texts, I now turn to the more significant aspects of serials and series in relation to video games and in relation to video game character development. Serials and Series Video games are one of the newer media forms to be serialized, and while their interactive or participatory properties alter the manner of the serialization, video games draw upon the history of serialized texts for their serial design and function. Thus, theories of serialization and series in print, comics, and television prove relevant and useful both for video games and for other digital media forms. Jennifer Hayward explains the serial in relation to print and television as, “an ongoing narrative released in successive parts,” that shares aspects like, “refusal of closure; intertwined subplots; large casts of characters (incorporating a diverse range [...] to attract a similarly diverse audience); interaction with current political, social, or cultural issues; dependence on profit; and acknowledgement of audience response” (3). Hayward’s definition clearly

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181 applies to both serialized fiction and to serialized television shows like soap operas. While video game sequels generally lack the immediate narrative connection found in serials and the open-ended closing segments or cliffhangers found in serial works, the family resemblances Hayward notes are shared within any particular game series. Importantly, many series games also draw on shifts in contemporary political, social, or cultural issues as well as changes in game design for their successive releases. Ludic Gothic and horror games, in particular, present issues of gender through their iterations, and the conflation between serials and sequels allow ludic Gothic and horror games to present and trouble, rather than define, gender. While viewing video games in relation to both serials and series can be provocative, the generally accepted properties of serials often do not apply to video games. The definition of serial itself becomes more problematic when applied to video games because not all video games are narratively based. For instance, Mario Kart is a racing game that has been released in multiple iterations. Each new game is an expanded, changed version of the first. According to Hayward’s definition, Mario Kart would be a series, but not a serial because Mario Kart is closer in form to the Little Nemo in Slumberland comic strips of which Hayward remarks, “As a rule, they are series rather than true serials since they center on the activities of a consistent cast of characters but do not usually involve narrative continuity” (90). Jeremy Butler similarly argues that “Unlike the series, the serial expects us to make specific and substantial narrative connections between one episode and the next. In the series, the link between each week’s programs is rather vague” (27). He continues to define the serial as those works where, “the connection is fundamental to its narrative pleasures. The main difference

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182 between the series and the serial is the way that each handles the development of the narrative from episode to episode” (27). By requiring the serial to make specific and substantial narrative connections between one episode and the next, almost all video games become series instead of serials. On one level this distinction is a matter of form because the video games do not necessarily include narrative. In the emphasis on narrative, however, these distinctions negate many of the connections between serials and serial functions in other media and in video games.2 Situating video games with both serials and series, instead of a more constrained view of series alone, proves fruitful because of the manner in which serials have functioned in terms of design, reader and cultural reception, and market determinants. The medium of video games justifies this move because video game serials and series are particularly difficult to define in light of massively multiplayer online games (MMORPGs) like Asheron’s Call and games with expansion packs like Neverwinter Nights, where the expansion of the game space is directly tied to the expansion of the game narrative or of the potential game narrative. Games like the Grand Theft Auto series function more explicitly as series according to this definition; yet, GTA: San Andreas does expand upon the main character’s narrative from GTA 3. Further, GTA: Liberty City Stories returns to the space of GTA 3. Similarly, the Fatal Frame games do not linearly follow each other in terms of chronology, but they do follow from each other in terms of 2 While tying the definition of a serial to the narrative proves sensible for many serial forms, video games are primarily spatial as Espen Aarseth and others have argued (“Allegories of Space”). Thus, video game notions of seriality may be better served by definitions that focus on expanding the space of the games rather than extending the game narratives. Amending this, Ndalianis argues that, for contemporary entertainment, seriality relates to the process of connection instead of the explicit narrative (33-4). Ndalianis’ continues to suggest that seriality is an amalgamation of serials, series, and sequels. In addition to the changes Ndalianis addresses in seriality overall, particular video games still draw on particular aspects of series, sequels, and serials for different games, and the articulation of how video games draw on which aspects proves necessary for game studies and for studies of Gothic and horror games in particular.

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183 establishing and developing women characters and of the significance of women from one game to the next. This process—if the games are taken separately as sequels— undermines the use of successive iterations to establish the importance of women, system of oppression, and forgotten histories that the games continually return to in their depictions of the characters and the game world.3 Aligning video games with serials also proves useful because of the manner in which serials are read and the manner in which video games are played, particularly in terms of audience reception. While the surface connections between video game sequels and the serialization of print texts alone are interesting, even more interesting are the connections based on the act of reading/viewing serials and the act of playing video games. Hughes and Lund define the serial as “a continuing story over an extended time with enforced interruptions” (1), and they stipulate that this differs from the reading of single volumes because, “Readers approaching stories within a single volume can ‘cheat,’ thumbing ahead to a mystery’s solution; serial readers could not” (4). Thus, they argue that not only is the textual form of the serials different with their enforced interruptions and their emphasis on narrative—as they are smaller texts that build into a single, larger work—it is also different because of the manner in which serials are read. Hughes and Lund summarize their position stating, “much of what made literature meaningful to the nineteenth century occurred during the reading of a work, before its ending had been 3 Further, viewing video game series as potentially serials aligns them with the rich history of serial fiction. In doing so, serial fiction studies may also learn something from game structures and gain an improved relationship with video games, a relationship already emphasized in other forms of new media, like hypertext and websites. As Hughes and Lund argue in their study of serial fiction, “we no longer live in the age of the literary. [...] But by examining an old frame of reference from our own place in time, we hope to illuminate both landscapes” (14). Similarly examining video games, which may appear as single volume publications may be enriched through an analysis of serial works. Seemingly singular games may benefit from serial studies because of the patches, mods, remakes, ported versions, stories, spaces, and even game play models that evolve within single games as well as throughout subsequent releases.

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184 reached” (12). They thus argue that the act of reading itself was pivotal to serial works.4 Ludological trends in game studies similarly seek to emphasize the importance of video game play as a process with an intricate and intertextual network of variables that influence both game play, game reception, and game design itself, thus aligning the participatory or interactive nature of game play more closely with the reading process. While this could be said of any series works, the pacing of serial fiction also aligns itself with video game play because in many games players cannot skip ahead or “cheat” to discover the ending and players often play through new games in a similar playing community as serials had with their reading communities. The interactive aspects of serial reading and game play are also factors in the actual time spent experiencing the text. Peter Brooks argues that serial reading’s pauses make “the time it takes, to get from beginning to end,” (20) a factor of the overall reading experience, so much so that the time of the reading experience is “very much part of our sense of the narrative [. ] if we think the effects of serialization [. .] we can perhaps grasp more nearly how time in the representing is felt to be a necessary analogue of the time represented” (20-1). Video games, like serial fiction, require an elongated amount of time for players to work through individual segments. The elongated time requirement stems from the fact that video games require play and replay for players to successfully complete and continue through portions of the game. This does not apply for all video games (certainly some puzzle games or computerized solitaire would be exceptions). 4 While Gothic and horror console games generally do not allow players to skip through the game play segments to reach the end, non-gothic games and computer games do frequently allow players to skip to the end using cheat codes that unlock later levels without the player needing to play those levels. This unlockable feature is important because it allows players to view the game and the game’s characters as synonymous with the ending, instead of viewing the game through the progression of individual increments during game play. Thus, the serial nature of game play can disrupt codification by positing game play and character development as a set of interrelated events rather than a linear, codified endpoint.

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185 However, games generally do fit the model of repeated play and replay for progress in the game. ludic Gothic and horror games, in particular, use this repeated play to disrupt codification and to continually transgress character boundaries and other borders.5 In addition to the longer time requirements for novels published in installments and for video games, serial works are also able to respond relatively quickly to garner market share and to influence their readers. Serialized fiction as well as series video games rely on the structure of serialization to capture and keep audiences. As Ndalianis demonstrates in Neo-Baroque Aesthetics and Contemporary Entertainment, cross-media seriality dramatically affects marketing (41). Serialization and series function similarly in their ability to capture and keep audiences. Many individual games release patches, mods, and updates in order to improve, expand, or alter a particular gaming experience and to gain or maintain player-audiences. This can most often be seen with first-person shooter games like Quake and with massively multiplayer games like Everquest. These patches and mods do not expand the narrative of the game directly, and thus are not serial aspects 5 Like Brooks’ connecting the pacing of time in serial novels to the pacing of the represented time, Patricia Okker demonstrates that the gaps in reading also lend themselves to a textual community. Okker argues that this community is based on the readers’ experiences with the pacing of the texts: “One of the effects of having to put a serial novel ‘down’ at a particular moment is that readers experience the text together. [...] that sense of community—that social experience—is precisely what happens with popular serial novels” (15). The sense of community during the reading process is also fostered by video games. It is fostered not by the physical textual breakage between parts of the game itself alone, but because of the game text and the difficulty in game play, which Aarseth refers to a structure of aporia and epiphany ( Cybertext 91, 125). These aporias in turn often lead players to seek advise and help through fan networks, including online forums and fan magazines. This is particularly important for difficult or innovative games—as with Gothic and horror games—because the fan communities aid other players in learning and succeeding in game play. Okker notes that she has found, “no elaborate diaries detailing the thrill of receiving a new installment in the mail or the agony—and pleasure—of waiting for the next” (11). However, these logs are found for both new games in a series as well as for new segments of game play within an individual game because of the difficulty in accessing portions of the game. The function of serials and series in regards to the manner in which audiences consume them, then, is more than a function of the structure of the serial or series itself. It is also a function of the manner of consumption that leads to alterations in the time spent with the text and in the community that forms around the text. While for print and many other media forms, these divisions can be best elucidated through divisions based on narrative structures, for video games the divisions alter based on the use of the texts instead of the structure of the texts alone.

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186 because serials are generally defined in relation to narrative expansion. However, these expansions function in the same manner for the audience and for the overall alteration and expansion of the game space. In addition to market concerns, Hayward demonstrates that serialized media like comic strips have also been used for propaganda because of their ability to adapt within the individual serials; “Publishers and syndicate editors were well aware of the power of comic strips in reflecting and influencing American attitudes. Comics were often seen and used as propaganda weapons” (127). Video games have also been used as propaganda machines: for the US government with America’s Army which acts as a recruiting game; for hate groups with modified games often used to interest new members; for political and social change with many politicians using games during runs for office; and for serious gaming movements like Games for Health, the Learning Games Initiative, and other serious games that promote personal and social well being. The majority of the serious games are used for personal or social improvement (education, self-esteem, weight loss), and the majority of these games are single episodes in that they are often produced on a small scale for web distribution and they are often single games without subsequent iterations on the same topic. Unlike these pointedly political or socially oriented games, mainstream games often do not overtly include political or social arguments. However, the mainstream games that more often include political and social arguments are generally games in a series. Political arguments are more often embedded in series games because the base mechanics of the game narrative and game play are already established, thus leaving more space and time to further elaborate and include real world political referents. Ludic Gothic and horror games—

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187 because of their inherent questioning of structures—specifically question gender and societal structures through their serial functioning. While many games could function as serials—due to game play and replay—many game series function instead as elaborate series texts. In order to illustrate the trajectories that both codify and refuse codification in the game worlds, a close examination of series games proves necessary. Following the examination of the more typical game series trajectory, I then examine to games that act as serials in defying closure. Sequels, Prequels, and Seriality in Games For many video games, sequels function in much the same manner they do in films, books, and comics. Video game sequels come in many forms, including those that are not narrative sequels.6 Types of sequels include games where the original story is enlarged, retold, or remade. Even these separations for sequel types are relatively vague because the lines between retellings and remakings of games often blur, and prequels and sequels often include information for the prior and subsequent games. Because of the variation in sequel types and usage, video games align themselves most closely with the often confusing structure of sequentiality and seriality in comics. Within their often convoluted structure of sequence and seriality, games that are enlarged, 6 Video games iterations come in many permutations. Some are closer to sequels as they are most often defined in that they follow an earlier game narrative, including the same characters, within the same game world. Others are more of spatial sequels because they continue on in the same game world while not continuing the previous narrative or without connecting to the previous characters as occurs in the Resident Evil: Outbreak and Resident Evil: Survivor games. Still other sequels follow the same game characters within the same game world, but not within the overall game series, as occurred with Final Fantasy X-2, which followed Yuna and her companions from Final Fantasy X, yet did not warrant the title Final Fantasy XI. The Final Fantasy series is a series known for creating each game as a self-contained story within a unique world, and with an original setting and characters. Within this series’ framework, continuing the series from one game to another, in the case of Final Fantasy X to Final Fantasy X-2, actually broke the normal progression. The next game in the general series came after both Final Fantasy X and X-2 was thus named Final Fantasy XI because it did not follow the earlier games as X-2 did. In this case, actually following the characters and events from the earlier game led to a breakage in the series, and thus in the naming convention.

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188 retold, and remade serve as a useful grouping to begin to trace serials and sequels in games, as well as the difficulty in applying typical notions of series and seriality to games. Enlarged sequels often take the form of a new game that creates a new episode which occurs either after the original story (a sequel), or before the newest game iteration (as in a prequel). Enlarged sequels would include both narratively and spatially enlarged iterations. Enlarged games could thus include the Silent Hill games, which take place in the town of that name, and in the case of the fourth game, for example, they unfold in the spirit of the world of Silent Hill. It could also include more narratively enlarged games like Tenchu as the series follows the narrative and characters from the first Tenchu game through their stories and the spaces of those stories Retold games are often situated within a revisionist frame where the game is retold through another characterÂ’s perspective. However, this also includes stories that are cyclical and retold in the same game worlds with the same characters, but with new stories. The Castlevania and The Legend of Zelda games are perhaps the best examples of retold games. In the Castlevania games, the player takes on the role of one of the Belmont family members. Then, the player fights Dracula, or one of his permutations like Alucard. The game world is situated in the town around DraculaÂ’s castle and DraculaÂ’s castle. While the characters and setting are always effectively the same, the game permutations differ widely from the type of game (action, adventure, role-playing), the game platform (PlayStation, PS2, GameCube, Game Boy, DS, and more), in the game representation (two and three dimensional game versions), and the game narrative. The games thus change not just based on the narrative chronology, but also on the alterations in the game world and method of game play.

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189 The Legend of Zelda games are even more difficult to place because they do not necessarily exist within a narrative chronology. Each game focuses on Link, who most often fights a form of evil in Hyrule to save Princess Zelda from Ganon (or a permutation of Ganon like Ganondorf). However, Link also exists as a young boy fighting to save his sister in The Wind Waker and as a young boy fighting against an evil wizard with the help of the magical Minish in The Legend of Zelda: The Minish Cap. Each of these games is still a Legend of Zelda game, and are in a manner that exceeds a simple branding. The Mario game empire, with such difficult to class games as Mario Power Tennis and its subsequent iterations is even difficult to class for its more explicitly narrativerelated games of the main Mario series cannot be easily classed as sequels. “ Donkey Kong Jr is the only game in the Mario series that could be called a true sequel in terms of storyline, a continuation rather than a remake,” Chris Kohler remarks, also noting, "For the rest of the Super Mario Bros. games, the basic plot of the original—Mario defeats Bowser, saves Princess Peach—is retained, but there are more cinematic scenes and sometimes plot twists over the course of the game" (63). Even Kohler’s estimation of the Mario games as remakes focuses on the primary Mario games, and not the larger world of Mario game franchises like Mario Power Tennis, Mario Kart, the Wario games, and others. Each of these games exists within the world of the Mario games, yet few could be called sequels or serials in the usual sense. While each of these games is normally considered part of one of these very popular series, none fits the definition of serial nor series in its normative sense.

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190 Remade games are more easily classed within the category of remakes, yet many remade games are also not remakes in the normal sense. Remade games often occur when games are redesigned for different platforms with additional clothing, characters, or areas included. Such games are often marked with an additional subtitle as with the added “X” in Resident Evil Code: Veronica – X and the “Director’s Cut” subtitle for Fatal Frame 2: Crimson Butterfly, Director’s Cut. The concurrent, or nearly concurrent release of these games further ties video games to the workings of serials in addition to series works because serials often appeared in multiple forms simultaneously; “We need, then, to see the serial taking place amidst many different texts and many different voices. In fact, different versions of the same story sometimes even appeared concurrently” (Hughes and Lund 11). Seemingly simple series games like Mario Kart could also be classed under either retellings or remakes because the basic game structure does not change, nor does the game narrative. In games like the Mario Kart series—if it could be called a series— the changes occur in platform type, character options, race tracks, car options, and other similar factors. However, the narrative is not expanded, nor is the game world enlarged in a particularly narrativized or chronologically expanded sense. Remade games can also include augmented or altered games like games that are changed by patches or mods to have better graphics, enlarged game areas, and games that are ported to different platforms. Again though, the distinctions begin to break down because a modded version of Quake could expand the game space and the game narrative to such a degree as to be considered an enlarged version of Quake. In each of these examples, the game series are defined and operate in relation to several key factors. These factors include expanding and developing spatially, and

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191 sometimes also narratively and chronologically (as with the expansion packs for Neverwinter Nights which do both) and developing the characters, or the monsters, throughout each game iteration (as with the majority of games, including the Mario and the Resident Evil games where new characters and enemies are introduced in each). Other factors include developing and changing the game art style (as with the Final Fantasy and Legend of Zelda series)—changes that are incorporated into the larger system of the game world and its visual representation—and expanding through seemingly minor elements like patches and releases on additional systems. These factors and their impact, however, follow either the path towards or against holism for the series, game world, and game characters. For either path, each of these factors within the series is received by the gaming community, especially the communities that follow the particular series such that the series is created through these expansions working in conjunction with the gaming audiences. In this manner, typical serials and series for games are like comics in their operations within particular worlds. For example, the “Marvel Universe” refers to all of the characters published by Marvel and to the potential for cross-overs when certain superheroes join forces with other superheroes while simultaneously existing independently in other comics’ series. Marvel normally separates its characters into single lines, like X-Men, X-Factor and Spider-Man; however, cross-overs occur when different comics run parallel or intersecting lines and when the particular characters then cross into the other comics. While Mario exists within the Mario world, he also exists within the Nintendo Universe. This allows for cross-overs in games like Super Smash Bros. Melee, which includes all sorts of Nintendo characters in one game, including

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192 Mario, Pikachu, Samus Aran, and others. Super Smash Bros. Melee is not a sequel or a serial in itself; however, it represents part of the serial world in which games exist and develop. Given the interrelations inside the Marvel Universe, the question of seriality and series for comics quickly becomes one based on the world of a particular superhero or story, and on the operations of that world—like Spider-Man’s New York City—as a full and complete world unto itself. Video games similarly create series not as a continuation of an earlier story, but of a set of relations amongst an individual title or character from one game to another. While this presents a very broad working usage of serial and series for video games, ludic Gothic and horror games present more narrowly defined possibilities for game series, and they present a version that has repercussions for game serials and series particularly in regards to representations of women. Defying Closure: Serial Functioning of Ludic Gothic and Horror Games In addition to the many types of video game series already addressed, all video games are series or retellings in the sense that they are played and replayed in order to progress. Because games must be played and replayed, the individual play of the game follows the serial function. Further, the individual games are not the same within replay. For many narrative games, the games are not simply changed in the sense of the order of steps and events, but in the occurrence or lack of occurrence of those events. Games achieve these changes through randomization, and through the overabundance of objects—a particularly common factor in ludic Gothic and horror games—such that the player is (almost) guaranteed to experience different events during each play. These differences in game play escape the typical trajectory towards closure found in games to establish a trajectory that favors open-ended story, world, and character development.

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193 The refusal of closure in these games parallels the refusal of closure from one section of a serial text to the next. Serials and series in ludic Gothic and horror games present many of the same difficulties in definition and delineation as do serials and series in other games. However as genre texts, ludic Gothic and horror games do utilize a restricted implementation of serials and series. As a genre horror itself has come to imply series because horror—from the writings of H. P. Lovecraft to the zombie mutations in the Resident Evil games— constantly replays the tension between human and the Other. In discussing Universal Studios’ horror films, Paul Wells notes, “It was necessary to create sequels, and to ensure that the terrors played out in horror films were sufficiently petrifying but acceptable conservative” (49). Ludic Gothic and horror video games operate in the same manner in that they beget sequels because they constantly replay the tension between the playercharacter and the Other and, in doing so, constantly trouble the character definitions and depictions in them by defining the characters only in relation to the other game elements. The serial structure of horror video games allows for all of the characters to be developed to a greater degree than they could be in a single game iteration.7 Resident Evil proves a far richer example because it begins with the first game on two discs. This creates a concurrent serial structure within the first game, released on the first platform even before the game has sequels, a prequel, side stories, and re-releases. The first Resident Evil offers players the ability to play as either Chris Redfield or Jill Valentine, 7 Horror games almost implicitly rely on the serial structure in instances like that of Eternal Darkness and Resident Evil. Eternal Darkness is only a single game, and yet it relies on the serial structure of multiple stories within a frame story of one character who finds chapters of a book and journeys into different worlds through the characters in those chapters. While Eternal Darkness is a single game, it showcases characters of both genders, an oddity in a medium dominated by male player-characters.

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194 and the second game offers the ability to chose to play as either Leon Kennedy or Claire Redfield. By offering players the choice to play essentially the same game from different perspectives, the games rely on their inherent serial/series/sequel structure to include women player-characters. Women player-characters are a rarity in most games, and yet the Resident Evil games use their format to include both women and men playercharacters. Thus, the games were ensured of financial security through the use of a male character while also taking this risk and opening the game to women players who often do not want to play as male characters. The concurrent versions of essentially the same game with multiple discs for a single game, in addition to concurrent versions of the game on different platforms, also mirror the structure of print serials with their variants. In addition to similar game versions simultaneously released, Resident Evil 4 was also released in two different versions—the first for the Nintendo GameCube only included a male primary character, Leon Kennedy. The second version was released soon after for the Sony PlayStation 2. This second version included a long segment with the female character Ada Wong. Thus, the serial structure allowed for a timely revisioning that showed that even when women are not immediately included, they are not excluded or forgotten either. By including women characters within a Gothic and horror serialized format, games like the Resident Evil games manage to escape the codification that comes with most game play and within the serial impulse which often strives towards a unified vision. Whereas games like Tomb Raider focus on an Lara Croft in different actionadventure settings to further establish Lara as a character, the Resident Evil games utilize their horrific worlds to focus not solely on the characters, but on the characters within and

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195 in relation to particular worlds and scenarios. This means that each Resident Evil game— instead of contributing to a greater holistic vision of the characters as each Tomb Raider contributes to a unified version of Lara—contributes to the multiplicity of each character. The characters within the internal segments of each game and within each game version of Resident Evil constantly change in response to their horrific situations and thus defy any sort of codification or closure. They do not, as many games do, change only to better fit within a holistic version of their game worlds. Resident Evil ’s serial functioning and use of women characters show that this resistance to closure is more than a simple factor of horror-based game worlds. While the horrific worlds allow for the situation and the characters to together determine the characterization of each character, the use of multiple male and female characters further showcases the multiplicity and uncodifiable aspects of the characters. Reliance on serialization giving rise to greater opportunities for the depictions of women is far from new for Gothic and horror works. As Barry Keith Grant mentions of Romero’s depiction of Barbara in Night of the Living Dead “although it seems to have gone largely unnoticed, a crucial aspect of Romero's vision almost from the beginning has been his generally positive treatment of women, even a striking empathy with them” (203). As with Romero’s revisioning of Barbara in the Night of the Living Dead films, the moment-by-moment revisioning of the characters in Resident Evil and other ludic Gothic horror games both expands the boundaries for women in games and expands them in such a way that the women characters can continue to escape the boundaries during play as l’criture fminine

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196 L’criture fminine, as writing the feminine, indicates methods that escape traditional limits of the masculine. Traditionally, the masculine as it is defined as a social and conceptual construct indicates a linear, logical progression towards a codified whole. L’criture fminine seeks to exceed or transgress that closed linear set because such a set institutes biased and oppressive borders for people, forms, and concepts. The masculine can be seen as part of the holographic tendency, where each component exists to serve and support the overall closure of the defined whole. The masculine can be seen with the visual and narrative depictions of video game characters, as where each version of Lara Croft supports and further defines the general character of Lara Croft. The depictions— especially within the current media and its serial impulse—are supported by the games, the concept art, the films based on the game, the comics based on the game, and all other Tomb Raider items.8 The serial impulse for some games thus leads to the building of a holistic vision of the characters in those games. Unlike the holographic tendency, the holograph(em)ic tendency eschews closure with each event supporting versions of the whole, but versions that defy a unified vision.9 For instance, none of the Resident Evil games present clearly defined character abilities or significant information in regard to a character’s background. Instead, the games present limited information on each of the characters and then do not elaborate on elements intrinsic to those characters in the games. Thus, instead of learning more about 8 See Laurie N. Taylor, “Networking Power: Video Game Structure from Concept Art,” in Videogames and Art: Intersections and Interactions, eds. Andy Clarke and Grethe Mitchell, (Bristol, UK: Intellect, Forthcoming 2005). 9 I take the term holograph(em)ic from Donald Ault’s work. He first formally introduced the term at the International Conference on Narrative in his presentation, “Narrative Transformation through Holographemic Reading: Blake, Comics, and Mathematical Notation,” held April 4, 1997 in Gainesville, Florida.

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197 the player-character through a game play that allows for the accumulation of abilities and information on the player-character, the Resident Evil games require players to work from limited information to escape from particular elements. The characters themselves are thus not defined intrinsically, but instead in relation to the temporary and changing constellation of elements they are trying to escape. Similarly, the Fatal Frame games present player-characters with limited internal definition. As players progress through the games, players learn more about the player-character’s families than they do about the player-characters themselves. Further, because the Fatal Frame games focus on the flight from a particular place, the player-characters are presented in relation to a collection of changing elements rather than as a collection of unchanging elements. The game play in each of the individual games as well as the visual presentation—which obscures as much as it reveals—also contributes to a nonlinear, noncodified method of game play, and a method for representing game characters and game worlds. The remakes, sequels, and the serial function of each allow Resident Evil and other ludic Gothic horror games to function as l’criture fminine in their depiction of women. This, in turn, allows for game play that relies on the transgression and mutability of boundaries in order to continue through each serial increment. In addition to the focus on the characters and their worlds in building the interrelated depiction of characters in ludic Gothic and horror games, the use of technology also shows the incompleteness of any representation to reinforce the fact that the games, their characters, and representation itself are never finished, never whole. The technology in the games shows this, as does the narrative within the game serials which

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198 builds not towards a limit or closure, but towards a literal escape from the horrific worlds so that the characters can begin to define themselves outside of their situations. Video games in general often rely on a narrativized technology for saving— whether these are save crystals, save spaces, or another method—however, many games have transitioned to simple save options within game menus. These save methods generally operate under the rubric of technological transparency. However, ludic Gothic and horror games continue to rely on save methods that are direct uses of, and commentaries on, technology.10 For instance, the Resident Evil games utilize typewriters to save game play. They continue to use typewriters even in Resident Evil 4 despite the fact that all of the Resident Evil games are set in a modern environment and are populated with computers. In a similar move to include anachronistic technology, the Fatal Frame games rely on saving through old cameras. The cameras in Fatal Frame are anachronistic not because of their form as older camera technology, but because they are too new for the world settings which transports modern day characters into the past. This is coupled with other technologies that are both too old and too new, as with radios that can 10 In addition to the narrativized use of technology in games, the games themselves comment on technology through their changes as they are released under different levels of technological ability. While the serial for any form has adapted to technological changes—with serialized fiction being packaged as novels, serialized televisions shows being packaged as seasons on DVD—Gothic and horror games have used their still required serial design to offer commentary on technology in each iteration. Perhaps most interesting in this regard is that as the technology has improved and the games could be adapted to better explore those technological possibilities, the games instead remained wedded to the older technological limitations. The Resident Evil games began by using relative movement, a process by which the directional commands change based on the perspective of a particular room (thus “up” on the controller correlates to different directions in different rooms). Relative movement was used in the Resident Evil games to account for the fact that the game spaces were designed as two dimensional spaces that were then restrained in order to make them appear as three-dimensional spaces. The spaces were designed as two-dimensional because the early game systems could not technologically process three-dimensional spaces. However, even once the game systems could process the three-dimensional spaces, the Resident Evil games retained relative movement, and this is even once the games were designed as full three-dimension games as with Resident Evil – Code: Veronica .10 Similarly, Silent Hill relied on fog in the first game to obscure the graphics that could not be otherwise processed. Silent Hill 2 was released on the PlayStation 2, which no longer required the fog, yet the designers chose to keep the fog in order to enhance the game experience.

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199 broadcast the essence left in certain stones. The repeated use of old technology—both within the game world and as a repeated trope in gaming where the norm in gaming is to modify each game iteration to fit the newest and most powerful technology—shows that ludic Gothic and horror games repeat elements in order to establish seriality. However, the manner in which ludic Gothic and horror games repeat elements simultaneously subverts representations and uses of technology in order to establish seriality while also subverting a normalized serial function. The anachronistic use of technology and constant use of technology that has been replaced undermine traditional conceptions of technological progress towards a unified system in the same manner that the worlds of ludic Gothic and horror games refuse unified order in general and in the depiction of characters. Depictions of technology within ludic Gothic and horror games foreground the technological nature of game serials, with changing game technology, as well as the changing nature of serials themselves. In doing so, the depictions of technology support the overall worldview which rejects holism and unity for the characters in each game and through the sequels and serialized sections of the games. Thus, ludic Gothic and horror games use their serial and sequel structures to repeat sequences in ways that focus on the difference, the repetition, and the impossibility of holism in the representations of characters, their worlds, and the act of playing. Conclusion As Ndalianis rightly insists, “contemporary serials are multidirectional in that they fold and expand toward multiple paths” (123). Henry Jenkins suggests that media consumers view these interrelated paths within an overall structure, the “meta-text” within which each serial component acts as a supporting thread ( Textual Poachers 98).

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200 As contemporary serialized texts operate as serials, sequels, and series within an overall meta-text, the individual games themselves shift recursively with each iteration. This progressive and recursive shift operates in particular force for ludic Gothic and horror games where the radical potential of serialized works is realized both in terms of game design standards and in terms of radical narratives for character development, and especially for women. While ludic Gothic and horror games tend to be dismissed in much of popular culture for being sensational—in much the same way that Gothic and horror works are dismissed in other media forms—their serial functioning allows them to deal with social issues beyond their seemingly fantastic forms. These issues include the place of technology in society, the role of women in games and society, and even in their portrayal of contemporary issues like terrorism as with the game narrative in Resident Evil 4 which repeatedly refers to the enemy as terrorists, and these terrorists are also involved in biological warfare through the creation of mutated creatures and biological mind-control agents.11 In addition to altering the normal trajectories for game design and game narratives, serialized video games in general also present new possibilities for serial studies. In particular, envisioning serials, sequels, and seriality as intertwined concepts that can be 11 The issues surrounding terrorism and warfare are still addressed within a sensational form, but a form in which many of the players would be familiar. As Anthony Antoniou explains of a similarly set and constructed text, the film Battle Royale Fukasaka, the director, worked in a munitions factory with other classmates during WWII. Antoniou observes in July 1945, the classmates were caught in a barrage of artillery fire. Just like the fictitious world Fukasaka would chronicle fifty-five years later, there was barely any chance of escape from violent and messy death. The survivors of the attack used the corpses of their friends as cover and, after the violence had passed, Fukasaka and his surviving friends were given the task of disposing of the body parts of their former classmates. Not surprisingly, this experience influenced both his worldview and the films he would make during the course of his career. (227) Battle Royale would be a familiar text for many game players, and its method of communicating social issues housed within graphic displays of violence and blood and within a game like framework would also be familiar.

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201 based on narrative or form, as Ndalianis does, proves useful in studies of video games and in studies of related media like websites, software versions, and comics (especially with the rise of the graphic novel which collects serialized comics and reformats them in specific ways). Conceptualizing serial works within this complex network enlarges serial studies which often exclude texts based on narrative restrictions. For instance, Paul Budra and Betty A. Schellenberg excluded from their definition of serials and sequels, “the related and fascinating category of non-sequential rewritings or adaptations, such as the numerous versions of Arthurian legends” (7). This is a much more difficult move to make for video games, software, and other digital texts because of the inherent capacity for change (often lumped under the category of interactivity for mods, patches, and updates that are more akin to serial processing). Including texts like adaptations in theorizing serials could benefit both serials and adaptations by providing a common ground for terminology and by providing a common, flexible network by which to view remakes, adaptations, serials, and other similarly iterative texts. While video games are far from the first texts to be serialized, they are serialized in interesting ways that expand the current notions of seriality. Further, ludic Gothic and horror games use this expansion to explore possibilities in game design, character representations, and connections to contemporary concerns. Ndalianis’ conception of the serial as a fluid structure is exactly the form which ludic Gothic and horror games utilize to create more fluid variants in game sequels. The Gothic and horror are genres that have often been serialized and—in their most recent form as digital, interactive or participatory works—they further connect to serials from the past, enlightening and enlarging serials to encompass their formal and narrative properties as well as their significance for audience

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202 and social impact. Further, the ergodic dimension of video game play and replay would clearly benefit from a model as complex as that afforded by serial studies. As Hughes posits, “chaos theory can serve as a useful model for rethinking some troublesome points—intellectual turbulence, as it were—within the field of periodical study” (117); similarly, game studies could benefit from a perspective that encompasses multiple iterations of games that both strive towards and away from closure. The serial nature of games (with remakes, patches, mods, and sequels), game interfaces, visual representation, narrative, and the relationship of games to other media and to social issues are all significant to game studies as a growing field. Game studies itself could also benefit from viewing its own structure as part of the complexity of interrelated factors and media like that of serials.

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217 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Laurie N. Taylor was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, but has lived in Florida since the age of three. Laurie has studied at the University of Florida for the past six years. Laurie is most interested in studying video games and new media, and this dissertation attempts to better understand new media in terms of atypical design. She lives with her partner, James (Pete) C. Taylor, in Gainesville, Florida, and with her brothers, Colin and Jeremiah.