Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter 1: Purpose and organization...
 Chapter 2: Guidelines for preparation...
 Chapter 3: Indonesia - East Java...
 Chapter 4: Tanzania - the Arusha...
 Chapter 5: Kenya - Egerton...
 Chapter 6: Dominican Republic -...
 Chapter 7: Peru - Banco Industrial...
 Chapter 8: India - Cujarat medium...
 Chapter 9: Kenya - Kitui and semi-arid...

Title: Instructors manual to gender roles in development projects
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081141/00001
 Material Information
Title: Instructors manual to gender roles in development projects
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Overholt, Catherine
Anderson, Mary B.
Cloud, Kathleen
Austin, James E.
Publisher: Harvard Institute for International Development
Publication Date: 1984
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081141
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Chapter 1: Purpose and organization of instructors manual
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Chapter 2: Guidelines for preparation of case studies on women in development
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 23
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        Page 25
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        Page 28
    Chapter 3: Indonesia - East Java family planning and nutrition income generation project
        Page 29
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    Chapter 4: Tanzania - the Arusha planning and village development project
        Page 41
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    Chapter 5: Kenya - Egerton College
        Page 50
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    Chapter 6: Dominican Republic - program for development of micro-enterprises
        Page 60
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        Page 65
        Page 66
    Chapter 7: Peru - Banco Industrial Del Peru credit for the development of rural enterprise
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Chapter 8: India - Cujarat medium irrigation project
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Chapter 9: Kenya - Kitui and semi-arid lands project
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
Full Text










) I L

Copies of this manual are available through:

Office of Women in Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
3243 New State Department
Washington, D.C. 20523

Copies of the case studies and readings book Gender Roles in Development
Projects may be ordered through:

Kumarian Press
630 Oakwood Avenue
Suite 119
West Hartford, CT 06110-1505


CHAPTER ONE Purpose and Organization of Instructor's Manual

CHAPTER TWO Guidelines for the Preparation of Case Studies on Women in

Purpose and Scope ........................................ 3

The Case Study Method: An Overview ...................... 3

Pedagogical Objectives for WID Cases ..................... 5

WID Case Preparation ................................. .. 7

The Preparation of Teaching Notes ........................19

CHAPTER THREE Indonesia: East Java Family Planning and Nutrition-Income
Generation Project Teaching Note

Case Synopsis ............................................29

Pedagogical Objectives ...................................30

Study Questions .......................................... 30

Case Analysis and Teaching Plan .......................... 31

CHAPTER FOUR Tanzania: The Arusha Planning and Village Development
Project--Teaching Note

Case Synopsis ............................................ 41

Pedagogical Objectives ........................... ..... 42

Study Questions .............. .......................... 42

Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ......................... 43

CHAPTER FIVE Kenya: Egerton College--Teaching Note

Case Synopsis ......................................... 50

Pedagogical Objectives ............................. ..... 51

Study Questions ......................................... 52

Case Synopsis and Teaching Plan ..........................52

CHAPTER SIX Dominican Republic: Program for Development of

Case Synopsis ............................................60

Pedagogical Objectives .................................. 60

Study Questions .......................................... 61

Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ........................61

CHAPTER SEVEN Peru: Banco Industrial del Peru Credit for the Development
of Rural Enterprise--Teaching Note

Case Synopsis ............................................67

Pedagogical Objectives .................................67

Study Questions ....................................... 68

Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ........................ 68

CHAPTER EIGHT India: Gujarat Medium Irrigation Project--Teaching Note

Case Synopsis ............................................73

Pedagogical Objectives ........................ .. ...... 73

Study Questions ........................................ 74

Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ..........................74

CHAPTER NINE Kenya: Kitui Arid and Semi-arid Lands Project--Teaching

Case Synopsis ............................................82

Pedagogical Objectives .................................. 83

Study Questions ............................ ............ 83

Case Analysis and Teaching Plan ..........................84

Chapter 1


The purpose of this manual is to assist instructors in the

classroom use of our text and case studies book Gender Roles in Development

Projects. It is also hoped that the manual will motivate and facilitate

the development of additional case studies, thereby enriching further the

community's portfolio of women in development teaching materials.

This manual is one of the products of a research and training

project carried out through the Harvard Institute for International

Development through a grant from the Office of Women in Development of the

U.S. Agency for International Development (Grant OTR-0100-G-55-2236-00).

The case studies and technical papers contained in Gender Roles in

Development Projects were developed as part of this project. The cases

were prepared using actual AID projects and were based on official

documents as well as field-based research. The cases have been used in

training sessions for AID personnel as well as for professionals from other

development organizations and universities. The teaching notes in this

manual have been elaborated based on those classroom experiences.

Chapter Two presents guidelines on the preparation of case

studies and teaching notes on women in development. Although many readers

will not actually develop any new case studies, the chapter will provide

the instructor with a clearer view of the pedagogical nature of cases and

teaching by the case method. It will also facilitate the reading and use

of the teaching notes found in the following chapters.

Chapters Three through Nine contain the teaching notes for each

of the cases in the book. The technical readings in the book are meant to


accompany the cases to provide a greater conceptual and factual basis for

the case discussions. The readings are not discussed separately in this

manual. However, instructors might choose to use those readings as the

basis for discussions apart from the case discussions.


Chapter 2



The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidance in the

preparation of case studies concerning women in development to be used in

the training of individuals involved in the design or implementation of

development projects. This chapter will present the key elements and steps

in preparing a case, and references will be made to other publications on

case writing. The distinctive emphasis of the guidelines presented herein

is on women in development. Cases prepared on this subject require a

special orientation as to their focus, content, and form.

The following section will provide an introduction to the case

study method. This is followed by a statement of the specific pedagogical

objectives for WID cases. Then the key considerations in WID case

development are presented (including general steps, case outline, and data

considerations). The final section presents guidelines for the preparation

of teaching notes which should accompany the case study. Lastly, there are

four annexes, including an appendix of technical references on the case

study method.


The case study method has a long history as a particularly

effective pedagogical approach to developing problem-solving and

decision-making skills. It is based on the philosophy that the students

must take an active part in and responsibility for the learning process.

- 4-

The basic premise is that active intellectual participation is essential if

the learning experience is to be most meaningful.

The case studies are the pedagogical vehicles through which

student involvement is generated. Cases are factual descriptions of actual

situations facing decision-makers in organizations. The case studies do

not set forth theories or hypotheses but rather present a slice of the real

world in a form that allows the discussion participants to think

purposefully about issues which are highly relevant to their own

professional work. Thus, the approach is practitioner-oriented and


The cases do not include an analysis or evaluation of a situation

but rather provide the raw material from which participants can engage in

their own analysis and draw their own conclusions. As in the real world,

the case situations do not have one "right answer"; there may be many

reasonable alternatives and defensible recommendations. From the learning

perspective, the answer is less important than the problem-solving skills

that are developed in the process of deriving systematically a logical and

sensible set of conclusions and recommendations.

The learning steps in the case study process usually are three:

first, participants read and analyze the case individually; second, they

meet in small study groups (5-8 people) to exchange ideas, clarify

analyses, and expand their perspectives; and third, there is a plenary

discussion of the entire class (15-18 people) led by the instructor. It is

clear that learner involvement is central in each of these three steps.

Also key is the element of collective interchange. By sharing analyses and

perspectives and by having to defend logically one's position, students

enter the dynamics of the learning process. True communication occurs and


the resultant intellectual sum exceeds that of the separate parts. Thus,

the case learning process is active and collective as contrasted to tradi-

tional teaching methods which tend to be passive and individual.

It is important to reiterate that the basis for the whole learn-

ing process is the case study. If this is poorly prepared, then the entire

process is significantly weakened.

For further description of the case method, the reader should

consult the references listed in Annex IV.


There is a growing recognition within the international

development community of the importance of women's role in the development

process. Major development organizations, such as AID, The World Bank,

CIDA, and UNDP have made institutional commitments to increasing their

capability to deal effectively with the issues surrounding women in

development. The primary vehicles through which development organizations

can have an impact in this area are projects. Thus, the tasks of project

design and implementation are critical in determining that impact.

There now exists sufficient empirical evidence to conclude that

weaknesses in project design and implementation have caused adverse effects

on women, or reduced benefits accruing to them, or failed to capture fully

their contributions to projects and the development process. These project

weaknesses are a reflection of inadequacies in the skills and awareness of

the staff involved in preparing or implementing a project. These

inadequacies are not surprising because the distinctive nature of women's

role in development gives rise to a unique set of project design require-

ments. Staff, researchers, or educators need a new set of conceptual and

- 6 -

analytical perspectives and skills in order to deal explicitly, effec-

tively, and efficiently with women-related issues in the spectrum of

projects in which they become involved. The objectives for the WID cases

flow from these training needs.

Specifying the learning objectives of a case study is one of the

most critical aspects of the case development process. The objectives of a

case provide guidance in the collection and presentation of the case

information. They should be delineated explicitly and clearly. If they

are left implicit or vague, the case preparation will be surrounded with

ambiguity, thereby complicating the tasks of deciding what information to

include or exclude and how to present it.

There are various types of pedagogical objectives, but they can

be grouped into three general categories:

increase conceptual understanding;

develop technical skills; or

transmit factual information.

The Women in Development (WID) case studies will generally have

objectives in each of these three categories, although particular cases

might tend to emphasize one over the others, depending on the teaching

situation and other teaching materials being used. The objectives for the

WID cases related to project design and implementation are the following:

increase an understanding of how to conceptualize the
activities of women, the determinants of those
activities, and the way the activities and determinants
should shape project design and implementation;

develop the analytical skills to systematically
categorize information on women in development, and
translate it into terms which are relevant to project
design and implementation;

- 7-

transmit information which increases one's knowledge of
the situation and circumstances of women in developing

These three objectives can be given more precision or elaboration

based on the specific case study and how the case is to be used. Ideally

the specific objectives for each case should be formulated by the trainers

(case supervisors) and the casewriter.


Relationship to Objectives

An "interesting situation" has been located, and a decision has

been made to do research on it and write it up into a case study. How does

one begin? The writing of a case is an iterative process. It is of first

importance that the basic objectives of the particular case be determined.

Why is this case interesting? What is interesting about it? What does it

show in particular about women that makes it interesting? Does it show one

thing or many things? Does it show interactions among many aspects of

experience? The answers to these questions by the casewriter and

supervisor will focus the purpose of the research about the case and will

help focus the data to be collected and the ways of collecting it. As

material is collected, the original objectives should be reexamined by

writer and supervisor to see if they are still appropriate.

Relationship to Teaching Note

There is a disagreement among casewriters and teachers about the

relationship of a teaching note to a case. We believe that the teaching

note should be written in tandem with the case. This is, again, because of


the importance of the iterative process in case development. A teaching

note written while a case is being drafted will help clarify the pedagog-

ical purposes of the case and will, therefore, help the casewriter outline

and organize the case. As the case is drafted, adjustments may be called

for in the teaching note as well because each process interacts with the

other. After a case is taught, the teaching note will again need to be

revised to reflect experience with the case in the classroom.

General Procedures in Case Preparation

This section discusses some of the important features of the

case-writing process that can help new casewriters become more effective.

(1) General Description. A case is a description or record of an

actual situation. Cases range in length from ten to twenty-five pages.

They include both a textual section and a group of exhibits which present

the facts, opinions and quantitative material on which classroom discussion

will be based. Cases are not written to illustrate correct or incorrect

handling of a situation, nor are they written with an editorial bias to

imply a particular conclusion.

(2) Supervision. Case supervision is particularly important when a

number of cases is being produced for a single purpose by several different

casewriters. The content, scope, organization and orientation of all cases

must fit into an overall plan for the use of the materials, and the plan is

determined by the teacher-trainer. Supervision for case writing is

required except when the teacher is doing the case writing.

(3) Confidentiality. For the case-writing process to be successful,

the casewriter needs to learn the true facts of a situation. Information

that is essential to a case must be asked for directly. No information


should be acquired surreptitiously. At times, this may require that the

casewriter be entrusted with information which is normally available only

to a very limited number of individuals. It is important that casewriters

explain to their information sources their policies and safeguards for

treating privileged information. It is possible to disguise material in

order to preserve confidentiality and still retain the educational value of

the information. Casewriters must be scrupulous in maintaining

confidentiality of all privileged information which is entrusted to them.

(4) Elements of a Good Case. A good case brings reality into the

classroom to be worked over by the students and instructor. Because a case

is used as a substitute for a real situation, its details should be as

close to reality as possible. Therefore, obstacles to dealing with the

realities reported in the case must be minimized. An unobtrusive case

allows the student to work on the situation, not the case.

The "audience" or user of a case is the student. The facts of a

case situation must be clear to the student. The case structure--that is,

its beginning, sequence and conclusion--must make sense to the reader who

is presumed to be unfamiliar with the facts. Techniques such as reliance

on topic sentences and paragraph unity, or transitional words and phrases,

help show the reader what comes next. Students should be able to

understand and appreciate the situation in order to analyze it with the

intent of planning and carrying out action regarding the circumstances

described in the case.

A good case is well researched and well written. The casewriter

must pay attention to the selection of what to write about, to the

mechanics of language and organization, and to artistry. However, no

writing technique or artistry can make up for inadequate information.

- 10 -

Casewriters must be well informed about the real situation on which they


(5) Data Gathering. WID casewriters depend on both printed material

and interviews as source material for cases. Casewriters will have to

search extensively to meet the information needs of a case. Suggestions

for particular sources of information relevant to WID cases are included in

a subsequent section. Interviewing techniques include the following:

a. Give your whole attention to the person being

b. Listen--don't talk.

c. Never argue--never give advice.

d. Listen to

what the interviewee wants to say;
what he/she does not want to say;
what he/she cannot say without help.

e. Occasionally summarize what you have heard for comment.

f. Consider everything said a personal confidence.

(6) Writing Process. From past experience with case writing, it is

possible to identify procedures for writing which are helpful in the

iterative construction of a case.

(a) Once a case has been identified, the WID casewriter should

write its preliminaries. These include:

case preview--a summary paragraph that explains where and
when the case takes place and what the focal problems

list of probable exhibits;

statement of what students are expected to learn; and

statement of the intended use of the case.

- 11 -

The preliminaries provide a basis for agreement about the case between the

supervisor and the casewriter, and they identify elements that are

important for the teaching note.

(b) An outline should be written after the casewriter has

reviewed the available data and redefined the case in light of this. This

outline should amplify and organize the preview as well as give an

estimated length of the text. Once again, the written outline can provide

the means by which the supervisor and the casewriter can agree on the

content, scope, and organization of the case. The recommended outline for

WID cases is presented in a subsequent section.

(c) The purpose and content of the case must be decided. This

will affect the selection and sequencing of information. These

considerations are determined by the type of case being written.

There are three general types of cases:

specific problem cases where the problem is clearly

diagnostic cases where the problem is not very clear; and

appraisal cases with emphasis on prognosis.

(d) The orientation of these cases may be as follows:

as a springboard that poses a problem so that it leads
the discussion to the more general issues of a central

as a "booby-trap" which implies questions that are not
the central "right questions"; or

as the backbone for systematic analysis which develops
useful ways of thinking, observing, and making more
suitable decisions.

WID cases may fall into any of these three general types, but

they should be solidly oriented toward systematic analysis. The type of

- 12 -

case and its orientation should be agreed upon in consultation with the


(e) Certain writing procedures have proved useful in the

preparation of cases and are now generally accepted norms:

use of past tense (cases written in the past tense retain
their currency longer);

use of active verbs (active verbs are more powerful than
passive ones unless the writer is deliberately trying to
achieve a change of pace);

exclusion of value judgments and editorializing
(casewriters report but do not judge or express

use of headings, titles and outline style to give clarity
to the presentation;

ensuring accuracy (proofread for errors, do the analysis,
and check for consistency);

rewriting (few writers are clear and accurate the first
time; three to four drafts usually are required); and

editing (get an outside editor with no experience with
the case facts and material).

The writing stage includes a number of standard decisions. These

include decisions related to content as well as presentation. Standard

procedure is to concentrate on the content in the first draft and on

methods of presentation in subsequent drafts.

References for this section include (see Annex IV):

o Bennett, John, "Writing a Case and Its Teaching Note."

o Bennett, John, "Good Writing."

o Culliton, John, "Handbook on Case Writing."

o Lenders, M. and J. Erskine, "Case Research: The Case
Writing Process."

o Lawrence, Paul, "Preparation of Case Materials."

- 13 -

Outline for WID Cases

For teaching purposes, each case study about women in development

and project design and implementation should follow a standard outline.

This will make case comparisons easier. The structure of the cases also

suggests processes for data and information collection in future project

design. The outline for WID cases should be as follows:

I. Country, Sector, and Project Background

Two or three pages of relevant information about the
history, economy, culture and political conditions in the
country are important. These comprise the context for all
project activities and have direct relevance for planning.
Data should be chosen for their relevance to the project. If
it is an education project, information should focus on
schooling systems and literacy, teacher, etc. data.

Project background may be woven into country background
or treated separately whichever works better for the case.
Project background should describe the initiative for the
project, its planning procedure and the expectations of its
planners. Actual project description comes below.

II. Context for Women

Several pages should be focused on the roles of and
context for women in the country in general and in the project
area specifically. Categories of information should include:

A. Socio-cultural perspective
B. Details of economic activities and social functions of
men and women
C. Social and economic determinants of activities
D. Access to education

Other project-relevant categories, such as information
concerning particular laws or other factors may be added.

III. Project Description

The actual project must be described with clear informa-
tion but no evaluative comment. The description should

- 14 -

A. Project objectives
B. Components
C. Provisions for monitoring and evaluation
D. Implementation
E. Follow-up (if relevant)

IV. Annexes

Supporting data, tables, statistics and charts are useful
for background to case readers. Careful selection of data can
keep the case text brief. Do not, however, attach every bit
of available data. Be selective and focused on information
needed to understand the project and its impact. Use the data
you have and make up your own tables or charts for presenta-
tion if necessary to ensure relevance to the case.

Aspects of Collecting Data on Women

(1) Data Requirements. The framework (see Chapter 1 in the book)

that will be used in analysis of these cases stresses two major categories

of information: first, the social and economic activities of both women

and men in the project area, and, second, women's access to and control

over both resources and benefits.

With regard to the activity analysis, it is important to identify

both male and female activities because their relative positioning and

interrelationships will affect and be affected by the project. How one

categorizes activities is important. We suggest the following three


(a) The production of goods and services. Whenever possible,

for each type of good or service produced, the specific productive

activities carried out by women and men should be identified. For example,

in millet production in the Zander region of Niger, men clear the field;

women select the seed and plant it; both men and women weed and harvest;

women thresh; men are responsible for extended family level storage; women

are responsible for household level storage; women hand pound grain for

- 15 -

family use; men sell some surplus to the government purchasing agency;

women sell or barter some surplus at the village level.

(b) The reproduction and maintenance of human capital.

Activities that are performed to produce and care for family members need

to be specified. These might include fuel and water collection, food

preparation, child care and education, health care and birthing. Although

these activities are often viewed as noneconomic and generally carry no

pecuniary remuneration, they are, in fact, essential economic functions.

They consume a scarce resource, human labor. How a project affects these

activities, and how these activities affect project implementation need to

be explicitly analyzed in case discussions.

(c) Social functions. Refer to activities performed in the

community that are part of political processes or traditional social


Identifying activities is a necessary but not sufficient step in

the data preparation for project analysis. Underlying each of these

activities is a series of socio-economic factors which determine who does

what, where and how. Of particular concern is how these factors influence

women's access to and control of resources and benefits in each of the

three major activity categories (production, reproduction and maintenance,

and social). Common categories of resources are land, labor, capital

technology, education, and political power. Access and control are

concepts that are fundamental to realizing an increased contribution from

and equity for women.

The socio-economic determinants could be categorized in numerous

ways, particularly because of their interrelationships. We suggest the


- 16 -

community norms;

religious beliefs;

familial norms;

legal parameters;

demographic factors (including person/resource ratios and

economic conditions (including poverty levels, inflation,
income distribution, infrastructure); and

institutional structures (including the nature of
government bureaucracies).

(2) Data Problems and Approaches. The scarcity and weakness of data

reflecting women's economic activities in developing countries are

generally acknowledged. The major problem is a general lack of data

disaggregated by sex. Where disaggregated data do exist they are often

problematic because of faulty construction of analytic categories such as

definitions of labor force participation which are biased against seasonal

and part-time employment or misuse of the housewife category to mask

part-time employment or unpaid family labor in agriculture and commerce.

There are also problems with data collecting procedures. One should

identify who is asking the questions and who is giving the answers.

Reliance on male heads of households for information on female economic

activities is now generally held to bias results.

In accumulating and selecting data on women for inclusion in the

case, it is important to use multiple sources of data from both the

technical literature and the women and development literature whenever

possible. Micro and macro data should be cross-checked whenever possible,

with the micro literature used as a way of understanding and evaluating the

macro. In general, it is useful to weigh sources against one another, and

- 17 -

to use caution in making global statements. Material on cases can often

usefully be presented as indicative, rather than conclusive or as showing

trends rather than absolute magnitudes.

(3) Data Sources. Because the availability of regional and local

data on women is very uneven, and it often requires considerable ingenuity

to find relevant information, it is worthwhile to pursue several search

strategies simultaneously. For example, project documents, AID/Country

Development Strategy Statements (CDSS) and previous reports on technical

assistance efforts are all possible sources of information both in-country

and in Washington. It is also increasingly likely that some organization

will have supported a country study on women such as those undertaken by

AID in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Ghana, the Cameroons and Mauritania. Women's

Ministries, Commissions and Bureaus in host countries are often able to

provide information on the situation of women in the project area, and are

a valuable resource to draw on in case development.

Other donors may be sources of information either in-country or

in their general publications. UNDP, for example, has published extensive

data on women and national planning in Haiti, Indonesia, Rwanda and Syria

in Evaluation Study #3 entitled Rural Women's Participation in Development.

FAO has a computerized documentation center that can be searched with key

words related to women and women's work in rural areas.

The scholarly community has developed a series of annotated

bibliographies on Women and Development that can be useful in locating

resources (Annex I). Bibliographies and other information resources are

being generated and exchanged through a network of international research

centers which can provide a sense of what information is available in their

particular areas of expertise (Annex II).

- 18 -

With the advent of Title XII and the AID Women and Development

grants to regional consortia, universities are becoming increasingly

specialized in their knowledge of women's work both in terms of geographic

area (University of Arizona/Sahelian Africa), and technical problems

(Kansas State and Florida State Farming Systems). The easiest way to

locate information for a particular project would be to be in touch with

the consortium project directors for referral to particular institutions

(Annex III).

Macro data are used by governments and development agencies to

set priorities and develop program strategies. Although often too general

to be of direct use in project analysis, such data can serve to set the

context in which a particular project takes place.

Sources of macro data include national census data as well as

selected data on women available through donors. AID has supported a

women's data file on sixty-nine countries for nineteen variables ranging

from vital statistics and literacy to economic participation and migration.

Country-by-country data from this data set are also being made available to

Missions, and can be accessed through AID DS/DIU.

The World Bank and UNDP are cooperating in the support of

National Household Survey Capability programs in developing countries.

Fifteen developing countries have fairly regular programs of household

surveys, and another forty are struggling to develop such capability.

Donor support for these programs includes advice, training, equipment and

local costs. The contact for this effort is the Office of the Adviser on

Women in Development, The World Bank.

More information on access to these and other macro data sets and

a useful discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the data are

- 19 -

contained in "Progress Toward an AID Data Base on Women and Development"

(Biocentric, 1977) and "Report from a Workshop of Macro Data Sets for Women

and Development" (Jaquette, 1981), both available from AID/WID.


Purpose of Teaching Notes

The basic purpose of teaching notes is to provide guidance to

instructors on how the case studies can be used effectively in the

classroom. The key word is guidance. Teaching notes suggest ways of

handling a case discussion rather than dictate a correct way. Every

teacher has his or her own style of teaching, and every teaching situation

presents particular demands. This means that the case discussion has to be

adapted to those specific circumstances. One of the virtues of case

studies is their inherent flexibility to allow such adaptations.

Consequently, the teaching notes serve as an important base and departure

point for the instructor but by no means constitute a unique pedagogical

map for handling the case discussion.

The teaching note increases the efficiency of the instructor in

preparing to teach the case. It also increases the usableness of the case

because it encourages and enables instructors who have little or no

experience with case study teaching to try this method. The note also

ensures transferability; the case is not just teachable by the persons who

developed it, but rather their ideas are transmitted to others through the

note. Finally, the note serves as a quality control mechanism for the

preparation of the case study itself.

The pedagogical objectives specified in the note provide guidance

as to type and form of information to be gathered and included in the case.

- 20 -

The teaching note's analysis of the case provides a check on whether the

case data are sufficient, accurate, and workable when analyzed. The note

provides a pretestt," allowing teachers to put themselves in the position

of the students. Gaps or problem areas can be identified and the case

study adjusted accordingly.

To summarize, teaching notes provide pedagogical guidance to

instructors, increase their efficiency and preparation, broaden case

usefulness, ensure transferability, and serve as a quality control

mechanism for case development.

Components of Teaching Notes

The format for a teaching note can vary but we suggest that it

consist of four components: Case Synopsis, Pedagogical Objectives, Study

Questions, Case Analysis and Teaching Plan. Each will be discussed in


(1) Case Synopsis. The note can begin with a brief (1-2 paragraphs)

summary of the case study. This should include a description of the

country and project setting, the year of occurrence and the major problems

or issues.

The instructor should read the case study carefully prior to

studying the teaching note. The note is prepared with the assumption that

the teacher is completely familiar with the case and, therefore, extensive

descriptive data are not included in the note. However, some instructors

will find it useful to read the teaching note in a preliminary way before

studying the case. In this instance, the synopsis is most useful.

(2) Pedagogical Objectives. The statement of objectives is, in one

sense, the most critical element of a teaching note. Objectives provide

- 21 -

the guidance and focus for the case and its analysis. The reader is

referred to the previous section which discussed objectives for WID cases.

Each teaching note should contain an explicit statement of the objectives

for that particular case.

(3) Study Questions. To assist the students in their individual

analysis of the case study, a set of questions can be formulated and

distributed to them along with the case. These questions are shaped by the

case content and the pedagogical objectives. If one wishes to emphasize,

for example, developing skills relating to the systematic categorization of

information on women's activities, then questions such as the following

could be formulated:

What are the economic, maintenance, reproductive and
social activities of the women?

How do these roles relate to those performed by men?

How is women's time allocated among these activities?

How are these activities related to one another?

To deepen the students' conceptual understanding of the women's

activities, one might use questions directed toward the underlying


What factors determine the gender-specific pattern of

How do specific economic, social, political, or
institutional factors affect women's access to or control
of resources?

What are the consequences for women and the development
process of that access and control situation?

If one wished to push the students' analysis in the direction of

project design, then additional questions such as the following might be


- 22 -

Has the current project design recognized the economic
roles of women?

How will the design of the project impact on the present
configuration of women's activities?

Will increased demands on one set of women's activities
be feasible given their other activities?

How will the project affect women's access to and control
of resources?

Do the existing institutions have the appropriate
personnel structure to deal with women?

The foregoing study questions are, of course, only illustrative. The

questions given to students could be more precise, if you want them to

focus on a particular part of the case information or carry out a specific

type of analytical exercise. A list of study questions is not meant to be

exhaustive. Rather, it serves to provide some structure and to stimulate

the students' process of inquiry. Other questions will arise from the

students' own analysis.

(4) Case Analysis and Teaching Plan. The bulk of a teaching note

consists of the analysis of the case and suggestions as to how the plenary

discussion can be managed. These two dimensions can be integrated or

presented separately. The two are often so entwined that separation is

difficult. On the other hand, separating them may be a more comfortable

approach for casewriters who have little teaching experience and therefore

are less certain about making suggestions on classroom pedagogy. The

person who does teach the case can then use the separate analysis section

as an input into the development of his or her own teaching plan without

having to filter out the note's teaching suggestions.

The case analysis and the class discussion can be structured

around the answering of the study questions. There may well be other ways

- 23 -

to organize the analysis that seem more logical or efficient. However,

these should always also incorporate responses to the questions. In

carrying out the analysis, one should recognize that there is not

necessarily "one right answer." Students or other instructors will come up

with additional or alternative analyses and conclusions.

The note writer's task is to carry out the analysis to check

whether the information in the case study is sufficient and clear enough to

answer the questions fully. This process will often identify aspects of

the case that need editing or areas where additional information is

required. The analysis may also reveal that some existing information

should be left out of the case because it is not relevant to the analysis

and is superfluous. Information might also be removed if its absence would

force the students to carry out further analysis which would enrich the

case's learning value. What to exclude from a case study is as important

as what to include.

The casewriter should include in the teaching note information

excluded from the case but relevant to understanding the situation. This

might include a description of what happened to the project subsequent to

the case study if this is known. References might also be included to

papers or books which are relevant to understanding the main issues or

country setting.

In terms of the teaching plan one must recognize that, like the

case.analysis, there is no "one right way" to teach the case. Nonetheless,

suggestions can be made as to how a discussion can be structured. Case

discussions create their own dynamic and the Socratic approach implies that

one should go with the flow of the class discussion as it unfolds.

Nonetheless, an underlying structure is important to the discussion.

- 24 -

The study questions can provide one structure for case

discussion. The sequence of the discussion is very important and can

reinforce pedagogical objectives. One should estimate the amount of time

needed for each discussion section in order to pace the discussion and

ensure that all the material is covered. Additional questions (not in

student list) can be suggested which could be used in the discussion to

force the students to dig deeper.

Special teaching techniques might be suggested. These might

include role playing, mini lectures, films, etc. depending on what seems to

fit the case.

The teaching plan should also flag those aspects of the case

where students might have particular difficulty. While this is difficult

to anticipate without having first taught the case and without knowing the

precise characteristics of the students, suggestions along these lines can

be helpful.

Teaching notes should not be viewed as finished products once

they are written. They, like cases, should be revised as insights are

gleaned from teaching the cases. One of the great virtues of the case

study method is that the discussion and learning process it stimulates

enables the instructor to continue to enrich the process.

- 25 -


1. American Council of Voluntary Agencies of Foreign Service, Inc. Women
A Bibliography, 1980. New York: Technical Assistance Information
Clearing House.
200 Park Avenue South
New York, NY 10003

2. Fortmann, Louise. Tillers of the Soil and Keepers of the Hearth: A
Bibliographic Guide to Women and Rural Development. Rural Development
Committee, Cornell University Bibliographic Series, Cornell
University, Ithaca, NY, Dec. 1979.

3. Michigan State University, Non-Formal Education Information Center.
Women in Development: A Selected Annotated Bibliography and Resource
Guide. Prepared by Linda Gire Vaurus with Ron Cadieux and the Center
Institute for International Studies in Education
College of Education, Michigan State University
513 Erickson Hall
East Lansing, Michigan 48824

4. New TransCentury Secretariat for Women in Development. Women in
Development: A Resource List. 1979.
1789 Columbia Road, NW
Washington, DC 20009

5. Republique Francaise, Ministere de la Cooperation. La Femme Africaine
et Malgache, Elements Bibliographiques. Paris, 1978.

6. United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa. Annotated Bibliogra-
phies on Women and Development. The following country bibliographies
are completed or nearing completion: Kenya, Ethiopia, Cameroon, Mali,
Zambia, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Egypt. United Nations, New

7. United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa. Women and Development
in Africa: An Annotated Bibliography. Bibliography Series No. 1
United Nations, New York, 1977 (ECA/SDD/ATRCW/BIBLIOG/77).


1. FAO, Library and Documentation Division.
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
0100 Rome, Italy

2. New TransCentury Foundation. Has an extensive key worded document
collection on women and development.
1789 Columbia Road NW
Washington, DC 20009

- 26 -


Association of African Women for Research and Development (AAWORD)
B.P. 11.007 C.D. Annexe
Dakar, Senegal

African Training and Research Center for Women (ATRCW)
Nancy Hafkin, Information Officer
U.N. Economic Commission for Africa
Box 300
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Asian and Pacific Centre for Women and Development (APCWD)
c/o APDC P.O. Box 2224
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Office of Women and Development
Department of State
Washington, DC 20523

International Research Inventory
International Section of American Home Economics Association
2010 Massachusetts Ave.
Washington, DC 20036

International Center for Research on Women
2101 L Street N.W.
Washington, DC 20087

Resources for Feminist Research
Dept. of Sociology (OISE)
252 Bloor St. West
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M55IV6

International Institute for Research and Training for the Advancement of
Office of the Assistant Secretary-General
Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs
One United Nations Plaza, Room DC-1026
New York, NY 10017

Women and Food Information Network
24 Peabody Terrace #1403
Cambridge, MA 02138

- 27



Ellen Fenoglio SECID
1901 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
Suite 300
Washington, DC 20006
(202) 223-3098

Helen Henderson
CID/WID Project Coordinator
5151 E. Broadway Suite 1500
Tucson, Arizona 85711
(602) 623-2897

- 28 -


Basic Sources

Bennett, J., "Writing a Case and Its Teaching Note," #9-376-243A.

Bennett, J., "Good Writing," #9-372-049A.

Culliton, J., "Handbook on Case Writing," 1973, #9-373-747.

Dooley, A. and W. Skinner, "Casing Case-method Methods," 1977, #9-379-108.

Gragg, C., "Because Wisdom Can't Be Told," 1951, #9-451-005.

Gragg, C., "Teachers Also Must Learn," #9-375-010.

Shapiro, B., "Case Studies for the Harvard Business School," 1975,

Supplemental Sources

Corey, R., "The Use of Cases in Management Education," 1976, #9-376-240.

Hatcher, J., et al. "The Case Method: Its Philosophy and Educational
Concept," #9-375-614.

Lawrence, P., "Preparation of Case Materials," #9-451-006A.

Learned, E.P., "Reflections of a Case Method Teacher," #9-381-006.

Lender, M. and J. Erskine, "Case Research: The Casewriting Process."

Mason, C., "Note to a Beginning Case Method Teacher," #9-381-007.

Merry, R., "The Usefulness of the Case Method for Training in
Administration," 1967, #9-372-105.

Schendel, D., "Managerial Problem-Solving and the Case Method," #9-375-822.

Shapiro, B., "An Introduction to the Case Method," 1975, #9-576-031.

The articles listed above may be ordered from

Case Services
Harvard Business School
Morgan Hall
Soldiers Field Station
Boston, MA 02163

To order, use the seven-digit case number given above along with the
article title and the author's name.

- 29 -

Chapter 3



Teaching Note


The case initially provides background data on Indonesia which

highlights the size and density of its population, its cultural diversity,

the importance of rice production, the poverty levels, and community norms.

The emergence of the country's family planning program as a priority area

is indicated. Concern about malnutrition and program actions are also


The second section on culture and women describes the de jure

equality of men and women and also points out some of the de facto

inequalities. The economic activities of men and women are presented as

well as various factors limiting women's access and control to key

resources. The impact of technology on women's roles in these patterns is


The third section of the case describes the design and

implementation of the program which consisted of adding a credit to the

family planning and nutrition program component aimed at income generation

for women. Data on the progress of the project indicates who received the

loans, what they were used for, and possible effects on nutrition and

family planning.

- 30 -


(1) To develop an Activities Analysis profile in order to

delineate the importance of specifying the gender

division of labor. (Refer to "Women in Development: A

Framework for Project Analysis," Chapter 1 in casebook.)

(2) To reveal how technology can affect the gender division

of labor with adverse consequences for women.

(3) To examine factors which affect women's access to and

control of resources.

(4) To identify how project design and implementation can

affect women.

(5) To examine the desirability of a women's-only component.


(1) What are the activities that females undertake relative

to others regarding production of goods and services and

reproduction and maintenance of human resources?

(2) What factors affect women's access to and control of

resources and the gender division of labor?

(3) What are the critical elements in the design of this


(4) Evaluate the performance of the project.

(5) What recommendations, if any, would you make for the

redesign of this project?

- 31 -


The case discussion can be structured into five sections

corresponding to the study questions: activities analysis, access and

control, project elements, performance evaluation, and project redesign.

Activities Analysis

The case data are sufficiently rich so that students can readily

lay out the gender division of labor. Pages 5-6 and Table 9 in the

casebook are the key sources. Annex 1 to this teaching note provides the

activities profile. This information would fill one blackboard.

When the agricultural activities are being delineated and listed

on the blackboard, it is important to ask (if the students don't mention

it) whether there are any changes that are taking place in the gender

division of labor. This will lead to the impact of the introduction of the

rotary weeders and steel sickles which were used by men rather than women.

This caused significant displacement of women: 20 woman-days to 8 man-days

for the weeding and 200 woman-days to 70 man-days for harvesting. The

introduction of mechanized milling has also displaced women from their

previous hand milling activity (125 million woman-days lost per year). One

can also note that richer women work less and thus are not affected; this

highlights the need to disaggregate by class within the gender divisions.

One should ask what the impact of this displacement has been. It

has pushed women into other activities, with trading emerging as a new

major occupation (40% of women classified as small traders). The pressure

for employment or income generation is growing. This need is particularly

acute for female headed households (FHH) which constitute 16% of the total

- 32 -

and even more in the rural areas. High divorce and desertion and widower

rates give rise to this situation; 49% of these heads of households are

unable to support even themselves, let alone dependents.

In the Maintenance Activities discussion it is important to

include the financial management function. The woman dominates this

critical activity with some consultation with the husband.

Access and Control

The access and control can focus on the basic resources of

credit, land, income, labor, technology, education and political power.

Annex 2 to this note indicates the relative access and control to these

resources based on the case information. Another blackboard can be used

for this. They should also be asked as to why barriers to access exist,

e.g., lower female education was due to high opportunity costs of their

inputs to the family labor pool and a lower perceived need for education

given lower access to skilled jobs and their traditional roles as wives.

The interrelationships among those barriers should be examined, e.g., male

ownership of land leaves the women without collateral which then precludes

them from access to the formal credit channels. It is useful to have the

students draw out the distinction between the informal and formal credit

sources. The females, being blocked from formal sources, created their own

informal mechanisms.

Critical Project Elements

The purpose of this section is to have,the students identify the

key elements in project design. These will become reference points for the

subsequent discussions on project performances and redesign.

- 33 -

Among the critical elements would be the following:

(1) Objectives--multiple (family planning, nutrition, income


(2) Women's component--men excluded from credit

(3) Loan eligibility criteria--family planning acceptor,

mother of child under 5, have productive skills

(4) No collateral requirement--mutual group responsibility

(5) Loan ceiling--Rp. 50,000

(6) Forced savings and capitalization--1/2 of interest


(7) Two-tiered interest rates--40% and 20% depending on loan


(8) Short-term loans--3 to 7 months

(9) Credit only--no technical assistance was given

(10) Use existing institutions for delivery system--family

planning and nutrition program staff

These elements and others could constitute another blackboard.

Project Performance

One can begin this discussion by asking how each of these design

elements or the way they were implemented (an important distinction)

affected project performance.

(1) Objectives--There will be discussion about whether it

made sense to fuse the three objectives and about the

merits of their relative priority. If the credit program

was to serve as a stimulus to the family planning and

nutrition objectives, then the data from Tables 12 and 13

- 34 -

in the case do not reveal concrete synergy in terms of

effects. However, the time was short, the number of

credit recipients small, and other contributory factors

more powerful. Conclusive evidence does not exist.

(2) Women's Component--This did increase females' access to

formal credit thus overcoming a traditional barrier noted

in the access and control analyses.

(3) Loan Eligibility Criteria--The family planning and

nutrition criteria were not strictly adhered to. Older

and wealthier women near the center of the village were

loan recipients. These were also the skilled women.

Thus, the poorer, less educated, more isolated, and more

fertile women were not reached. The program adminis-

trators preempted the credit for themselves.

(4) No Collateral Requirement--Repayment to date had been

100%, which in part relates to the actual recipients

being the lower credit risk portion of the women.

However, it also suggests that the loans were put to

productive use and generated surpluses.

This latter point may be overlooked by the students. One

should ask whether the loan recipients benefited. Annex

B of the case provides examples (one could assume they

are representative) of the types of loans and their

economic effects. Simple calculations reveal very high

returns for most of the projects (see Annex 3 to this

note for an example). This reveals that investments in

- 35 -

small income-generating projects can be very sound


(5) Loan Ceiling--This does ensure that no single project

will absorb all the capital. However, it also relegates

the loans to small projects with lower employment

generating possibilities.

One can ask how the uses of the loan relate to the prior

activities profile. This should draw out the fact that

none of the loans deal with rice. This may constitute a

major missed opportunity and could be due to either the

small loan size, the fact that the higher income women

don't work so much in the rice fields, or that the loan

was only for women.

(6) Forced Savings and Capitalization--This will go far

towards ensuring continuity of the program and it appears

to be working. Even the "interest" which could be used

for nutrition seems to have been siphoned off in some

instances into the capitalization process. This may

reflect the desires of the program managers and current

loan recipients rather than the actual needs, of the

village poor.

(7) Two-Tier Interest Rates--This keeps a lower burden on the

smaller loan recipients. It is a redistribution subsidy

that might help those who can only mount a small economic

activity; these might tend to be poorer women.

(8) Short-Term Loans--This forces the projects mainly to

focus on working capital loans. This may forego

- 36 -

productivity increasing investments which require fixed

asset investments that could only be repaid over a longer

period. The time limits might hinder the use for crop

loans where there is a single annual harvest.

(9) Credit Only--The lack of training or technical assistance

meant that the poorer, unskilled members could not take

advantage of this new resource. The example (in Annex B)

of the one loan recipient whose chickens died because

they weren't inoculated revealed the riskiness of the

credit-only approach.

(10) Use Existing Institutions--Using the family planning-

nutrition delivery system had the advantage of an

in-place staff. It was capable of handling records,

disbursing the credit (largely to themselves), and

ensuring repayment. However, it had the disadvantage of

not reaching out to the more needy, of not having

capability for technical assistance for economic

projects, and perhaps of being overburdened by yet

another activity. No clear ties were made to the

relevant institutions, e.g., Ministry of Agriculture.

Nor was there an effort to use the informal credit

organizations as the vehicle.

Project Redesign

.The final section of the discussion is for the students to

redesign the project to rectify whatever weaknesses they identified in the

previous project performance analysis. Depending on time availability or

- 37 -

pedagogical purpose, this final task could also be the subject of a second

session or group reports or a written analysis.

There is, of course, no "right" answer. However, any of the

proposals presented should be supported with clear arguments. There are

two proposals that might arise or should be raised. One is the women-only

aspect and the other is the fusion or separation of the income generation

component and the family planning and nutrition components. Strong cases

can be made for and against and it is important that these be aired. One

should also be sure that the students have addressed in the redesign phase

all the weaknesses that they identified in the performance analysis.

- 38 -

Annex 1

Production of Goods and Services


Field Prep

Wage Labor

Communal Labor

Food Processing
Rice Milling



(Tec. Change-Rotary Weeder)
(Tec. Change-Sickles)

(Tec.Change-Mechanical milling)


(MA) (FA increase due to female labor
displacement from above
technology changes)

Maintenance of Human Resources

Child Care
Food Preparation
Fuel Collection
Water Collection
Finance Management

Note: Parentheses indicate that the
relatively minor degree.

activity is performed but to a




- 39 -

Annex 2

Access & Control



No Collateral

Male Ownership







Lo (indirect)



- 40 -

Annex 3

Financial Analysis of Rabbit Project Loan


100 rabbits @ Rp. 1,000 100,000


20 rabbits @ Rp. 500 10,000
Cages (estimated) 9,000
Immunization (estimated) 1,000
Feed (grass gathered by children)
Interest 40% on Rp. 50,000 loan 20,000
Misc. costs 10,000
Total costs 50,000

Profit 50,000

Return on Investment: 100% in five months plus original investment of
20 rabbits intact and Rp. 10,000 in savings (1/2 of interest). On a cash
flow basis, repaying the loan and selling off the 20 original rabbits at
Rp. 1,000, she would have a net cash flow of Rp. 30,000, or an ROI of 60%.

- 41 -

Chapter 4


Teaching Note


In 1972, the Tanzanian government made a decision to decentralize

governmental administration. To do this, it sought funds to initiate a

Regional Integrated Development Program (RIDEP) in each of its 20 regions.

USAID funded the RIDEP in Arusha Region called the Arusha Planning and

Village Development Project (APVDP) for a cost of $21 million beginning in

late 1979 and running through mid-1983.

The Arusha Region has six districts, three of which are

agricultural and three of which have a livestock economy. There are 500

villages in the region and a population of 500,000 people. The purpose of

APVDP was to improve the planning capability of the region, districts and

villages and their abilities to implement and evaluate development efforts.

This effort was focused on: 1) improving planning; 2) improving

agricultural production; 3) promoting other economic activities especially

rural industries; and 4) improving the infrastructure, especially road and

water systems.

As is true for Tanzania generally, no specific planning was

undertaken for women's involvement in APVDP because it was assumed that

everyone would benefit equally. In fact, a study of the project in 1981

showed that women were not involved in, or even aware of, a great deal of

the project's activities. Nor were they receiving many benefits from it.

- 42 -


1. To illustrate the extreme imbalance between male and

female economic activities in the district through

Activities Analysis.

2. To illustrate the relevance of Access & Control analysis,

and to show the importance of cultural tradition in access

and control.

3. To show that decentralization effort may run into cultural

tradition very strongly and possibly more than centrally

run projects.

4. To illustrate that, when there are strongly cultural

inequalities between men and women, a "gender blind"

project will not affect both equally but differentially.


1. In the Arusha Region what activities do women and men do

in the production of goods and services and in household


2. What is the nature of women's and men's access to and

control over resources that are important in production in

this area?

3. What are the principal determinants of these patterns of

activities and of access and control?

- 43 -

4. To what extent have women participated in the project?

What project design features influence that participation?

What effect did this have on project performance?

5. What adjustments, if any, would you suggest for the

project design or implementation to make it more



The Activity Analysis should be the first task. It is largely

derivable from Tables 3, 4, and 5 in the case. Annex 1 to this teaching

note presents a summarized view. If the students are quite familiar with

constructing the gender disaggregated activities profile, the instructor

could put Annex 1 on the blackboard prior to class and use that as a

starting point. The task is to then derive conclusions from the patterns

revealed by the profile. In this instance it is clear that the women do

the overwhelming portion of the physical labor. Men specialize in the

livestock area, but even there the women handle key tasks of milking,

manure cleaning, and forage gathering. The Technical Paper "Women's

Productivity in Agricultural Systems" (Chapter 2 in the casebook) provides

a broader perspective from which to examine the Tanzanian pattern.

The next step in the discussion is to focus the access and

control dimensions of the situation. This is particularly important in

this case because the contrasts are so striking. One can start by asking

how the country's leader perceives this issue. President Neyere's state-

ment shows that he fully recognizes the major economic role of women and

the necessity to create equality for them as a prerequisite to the

- 44 -

country's realization of its full economic potential. In effect, he is

sustaining the hypothesis that social equity is a necessary condition for

economic progress. His words had also been translated into laws guaran-

teeing women's economic rights.

The first contrast comes when one matches this de jure equality

with the de facto inequality. In practice, the laws are not upheld or are

interpreted differently. The students should lay out an access and control

profile. Annex 2 to this note presents a possible version of this using

resource categories of land, labor, equipment, capital, technology,

political power, education and income flows. The second contrast is the

clearly inferior position of the women compared to the men. The third

contrast is that women have high access to land, labor, and capital but

very low control. They are largely excluded from much of the decision

making. As the comments from the men indicate, control over assets,

particularly cattle, are central to maintaining male dominance. Thus, the

gender division of economic activity is one determinant of control.

Traditional social norms is another factor. A third is the lower level of

education of women and the lack of fluency in Kiswahili.

Within this general pattern, however, it is important to note

some exceptions. In education the traditional pattern may be changing. At

the primary level almost half the students are girls, while the percentage

falls as one goes higher into the system (secondary, 30%; senior, 20%;

university, 15%) reflecting the current results of past inequities. In the

political arena the UWT does provide a forum for the women to participate

in without the male dominance. Their participation was active there in

contrast to their reticence to speak in the male-dominated Councils and

Assemblies. The UWT was the least well-funded of the party's activities

- 45 -

and the focus was on home production and maintenance activities (nutrition,

health, home management, etc.), reflecting a low priority and narrow view

of the women's role, but it still constituted a nontraditional vehicle for

mobilizing women. Additionally, the women did have some spheres of

economic independence through their small businesses (beermaking,

handicrafts, bananas, cloth, etc.) and to some extent through the small

livestock. In these they exercised control over the decision making and

the resources generated.

The focus should next be placed on the project and the query

should be about the degree of women's participation in the project, why,

and with what impact on the project. The level of participation was very

low. The basic flaw was the assumption that a gender blind approach would

have gender neutral effects. As one decentralizes, the impact of gender

biases through customs and economic roles becomes more powerful and results

in uneven effects across the sexes. The women did not comment on the

projects in the council meetings which should not have been surprising

given traditional patterns. By using that institution as the consultative

and decision-making forum, the project precluded meaningful female

participation. The project groups that were formed did not include women

and most of the women were not even aware that the APVDP opportunities were

available to them. Their low access to information impeded their

mobilization. Although the project initially insisted that the women

attend the meetings for water project, when attendance dropped they

proceeded anyway. The resultant mislocation of the water sites is a clear

negative consequence due to the lack of the women's participation.

The project was also not able to elicit the women's voluntary

labor to the degree expected. The main exceptions were the maize mill and

- 46 -

the barley plots in which the women took great interest and made major

labor inputs. Both of these involved activities of key economic value to

the women. The maize grinding could save the women considerable time by

replacing the in-home activity and they are clearly time constrained. The

barley might offer them a new source of outside income. In general, the

project probably missed several significant project opportunities by not

viewing the spectrum of economic activities that the women actually engage

in or could undertake. The males discouraged any project that moved out of

the home and into the economic arena whereby women might gain greater

independence from them.

The final part of the discussion should involve recommended

changes in the design or implementation of the project. Clearly the

project redesign process must shift from the previous gender blind approach

to a gender conscious approach. The students may be frustrated by the

strength and pervasiveness of the male domination, but they should push to

identify opportunity points. There is a need to elicit the women's ideas

and desires, but this requires a nontraditional forum. It may be that the

UWT might be reoriented to serve that purpose. It is an approved

structure, the women actively speak out, and there is a precedent for

starting projects. Perhaps strengthening the technical assistance through

that vehicle would enable more women to participate and to have their

project be more economically viable. It is also likely that by promoting

types of projects which are traditionally in the women's economic sphere

would also enhance their participation. The project might also attempt to

identify those women who have demonstrated a greater propensity to

participate actively. There is some indication that female heads of

- 47 -

household might be a target group. They might form a nucleus for starting

projects, perhaps even through a separate project component.

One could also contemplate starting a cultural reorientation

process for the male leaders, but that is a long run undertaking. For the

women, classes in Kiswahili might be encouraged to remove one barrier from

their participation in the traditional village meetings. Informal child

care arrangements might be another action area to enable the women to

participate in expanded political and economic activities.

One could end the discussion by asking for general guidelines on

designing decentralization projects such that women's participation is

garnered so as to benefit them and the attainment of the project goals.

- 48 -

Annex 1

Activities Analysis


buy/select seeds
clear land









food prep.
child care
health care
food processing
house bldg./repair





- 49 -

Annex 2

Access & Control (Over Resources and Benefits)


Land MA FA
Labor FA FA
Equipment MA MA
Capital (FA) MA FA MA FA MA
Technology MA
Political Power MA MA ?
Education (FA) MA MA MA
Income Flows MA (FA) MA (FA) MA

Factors Influencing:

Other work and responsibilities
Institutions and legal arrangements

Parentheses indicate some access, control or benefit but a relatively minor

- 50 -

Chapter 5


Teaching Note


In Kenya, 85% of the labor force is employed in agriculture and

80% of the total population lives on smallholdings under 8 hectares.

Eight-eight percent of Kenyan women live in rural areas and 85-90% of these

work on family holdings. The smallholder share of gross marketed

production is increasing (it hit 51% in 1976 from 20% in 1960; see Table 3

in case), but productivity of this sector lags behind that of large farms

(Table 4).

The government of Kenya (GOK) is committed to increasing the

productivity of small farms and understands that programs to assist

smallholders must differ substantially from those that have been developed

over the years to support large farm production. Egerton College trains

the majority of middle-level agricultural extension staff who are

responsible for planning and supervising the contract extension work

through which small farmers can be reached. After studies showed that a

major shortfall could be expected in trained agricultural personnel at this

middle level, the GOK sought support to expand Egerton College, and AID

agreed to do so. The project intended to expand Egerton College from 686

students to 1,632 and to improve its curriculum and research to meet the

special needs and circumstances of small farmers.

The project is an institution building project. Understanding

that the intent of the GOK in building Egerton College into a stronger

- 51 -

institution is one element of its program to increase smallholder farm

productivity, and understanding the central role that women perform in

small farming in rural Kenya, the question arises as to whether and how the

expansion of the college and the tailoring of its curriculum to the needs

of small farmers can and should take account of the fact that most small

farmers are women.


1. To provide an exercise in gender based activity analysis

and to introduce additional subtlety into the analysis by

examining the forces that affect gender roles in this

society, such as custom, ethnic group, location, family

status, as well as changing demographic patterns.

2. To expose the processes by which access to education

involves the passage of a series of successive gates and

gatekeepers thus reinforcing patterns of access and

exclusion that already exist in a society.

3. To analyze the relationships that exist between an effort

at institution building in a given area and the ultimate

goals which the institution is supposed to serve.

4. To provide an exercise in project redesign in institution

building in the education sector where composition of the

student body and curriculum content are both issues that

a) affect the success or failure of the institution in

- 52 -

achieving its ultimate goal; and b) affect the inclusion

or exclusion of women in the development process.


1. In rural Kenya, what are the activities that women

undertake relative to others in the production of goods

and services and in household production?

2. What resources have the most significant impact on women's

productivity and how do you assess women's access to and

control over these resources?

3. Analyze the critical elements in.the project to expand

Egerton College in terms of their contribution to the

GOK's goal of increasing smallholder productivity.

4. What adjustments, if any, would you make to this project

to enhance its effectiveness in affecting small farm



The teaching should begin with the activity analysis (see Annex A

attached). If this case is the first at a workshop, then this should be

done with some care and the factors that determine work roles should be

brought out as well. These include age, tribal or ethnic grouping, family

status, location and demographic trends.

If another case has been taught, one may get the class to chart

women's and men's activities, comparing these to those of the previous

cases) and thus drawing out the factors that influence work roles. Or,

- 53 -

the teacher may pre-set the activities on the blackboard and ask the class

to think about what is there, critique and correct it, and then analyze the

factors that determine roles. The focus here, in any of these approaches,

should be on the understanding that all women's roles are not the same

across an entire country. Because Egerton College trains agricultural

workers who work in all parts of Kenya rather than being regionally

focused, this variation is particularly important in this case.

The major discussion of this case should be on the project

itself, and its relationship to the overarching GOK goal of increasing

small farmer productivity. The case offers a number of points for

examining critical elements of institution building projects in affecting

the integration of women into development. Because there is no single line

of women's involvement, this case is not simple. Therefore, the sequencing

of the teaching framework is very important.

Two themes underlie the teaching of an institution building case:

(1) Where are the points in this institution where it would be

appropriate to take women's roles into account in order to

ensure greater overall project effectiveness and greater

inclusion of women into the development process?

(2) Where are the points in the institution where the issues

of access to resources and benefits arise in particular as

these affect women's project integration?

The teacher should be explicit about the focus on institution

building, and in order to direct the discussion might put on one board the

following chart.

- 54 -

GOK goal: to increase small farmer productivity

AID assistance $$, TA

Egerton College Expansion

-Agricultural extension workers

Small farmer productivity

The point to make is that the GOK, in order to achieve its goals, asked AID

for dollar and technical assistance to expand Egerton College, from which

trained agricultural extension workers are graduated, who in turn, work

with small farmers in order to increase their productivity. This simple

pictorial representation of the chain helps students see the elements in

context and allows the teacher to refer back to this board as the

discussion progresses.

There are two main elements of the Egerton College expansion that

deserve exploration and one subsidiary one to explore if time allows. The

first is the students; the second is the curriculum; and the third is the

participant training of faculty in the U.S. Other aspects of the project

include technical assistance in administration and construction of

facilities. These may come into the discussion but are not especially

fruitful lines of discussion on their own.

- 55 -

The teacher should begin by asking the class to consider the ways

in which the composition of the student body, the recruitment of students,

and the types of people they are might affect ultimate project goals. This

discussion will bring out the unresolvable issue of whether it is necessary

to have female extension workers in order to reach female small farmers.

There is some evidence in the case that this has been important in the past

and is becoming less so--implying that it still has some importance. One

might discuss possible regional variation in this.

Behind the issue of whether female workers are better at reaching

women farmers is the more fundamental issue of access of trained

agricultural personnel to the ultimate target group of small farmers. The

students may be asked to think about the characteristics, in addition to

gender, that will influence the effectiveness of the Egerton College

graduates in reaching small farmers. At this point, the students will

point out that these graduates are primarily planners and administrators;

they supervise others who do the majority of the direct contact work with

the farmers. (EC graduates spend 30% of their time in direct contact; 70%

in planning, supervision and administration.)

A fact not in the case but discovered subsequently is that the EC

students went on strike a few years ago demanding wages commensurate with

those received by University of Nairobi graduates. This may be brought

into the discussion of characteristics that would be ideal in the students.

Having laid out what would be the ideal student composition, the

class can then examine what we know about the composition of EC classes and

the recruitment processes. This allows a critique of the project, and

suggestions for redesign.

- 56 -

Regarding curriculum the discussion can begin with an examination

of the types of things that should be included in the curriculum of such an

institution in order to strengthen its role in achieving the project goal.

Another fact not included in the case: EC students in certain courses are

taken to different parts of the country for field work so that they can

actually observe and be involved in farming different land types.

The teacher may ask what we do and don't know about the EC

curriculum, as affected by the project. The class will lack precise

knowledge of course content but they do know that the number of diploma

areas has increased markedly and that this represents increased

specialization. One could ask them to make a rough assessment of these

diploma areas and their relevance to the activities of small farmers as

evidenced in the activities analysis. This is the opportunity to remind

the class of who the small farmers are (women) and what they do (activity

analysis). Because there is no single answer to the benefits or costs of

the trend toward specialization, the class should explore both

possibilities, and be asked to defend the positions they choose.

Finally, the teacher might pull out the chart (Annex B) showing

the enrollments by gender in the different diploma courses and ask the

class to comment on trends or biases they see in this. They will find

concentrations of women in certain fields and men in others and the

discussion should focus on the areas where there is greatest likelihood of

increasing productivity and having an impact on smallholdings.

If time permits, the class may think about the relevance of MSc

and Ph.D training in the U.S. to the teaching competence of the EC faculty

as it affects student ability to affect small farmer productivity. Again,

- 57 -

while there will not be agreement, students should be asked to defend the

positions they take on this important decision issue.

The teacher should be sure to summarize the discussion of this

case since it has so many points included in it. The summary should make

the connections between the decision to build an institution as one step in

achieving another development goal (increased small farmer productivity)

and should remind the students of the elements of that institution where

the effects might be most important. The issues for decision in each of

these areas should be reviewed and the basis for deciding (ultimate access

to and impact on small farmers who are mostly women) should be brought out


- 58 -

Annex A


Activity Analysis

Production of Goods and Services

Household Production

Food Crops (some sales)
land clearing

Cash Crops
cotton, weeding & harvesting
tea, coffee
sugar cane
trade, small
off-farm wage

Food prep & processing
Child care
MA Water
Animal care
MA small
MA large
MA House building, mtce.



- 59 -

Annex B


No. of No. of
Male Female
Diploma Area Students Students

General Agriculture 94 20
Agricultural Education 101 31
Soil and Water Engineering 84 5
Farm Power and Machinery 85 1
Animal Husbandry 131 17
Animal Health 84 6
Farm Management 121 16
Horticulture 61 34
Dairy Technology 67 9
Food Science and Technology 36 12
Agriculture and Food Marketing 33 5
Agriculture and Home Economics 0 101
Wildlife Management 33 4
Ranch Management 50 0
Range Management 115 0
Forestry 54 2

- 60 -

Chapter 6


Teaching Note


The case describes the evolution of a project aimed at helping

through credit and management assistance urban micro-enterprises in the

Dominican Republic. The pressures from large and growing unemployment

provide the rationale for assisting the small scale enterprise (SSE)

sector. The sector is described in terms of type of enterprise and gender

profile. The context for women both within the sector and the larger

society is described. The design and implementation experience for the

project are laid out.


1. To identify and understand gender patterns in the SSE


2. To analyze barriers facing urban-based, small-scale


3. To identify how project design and implementation factors

can adversely affect women's participation.

4. To provide and exercise in project redesign to enhance

economic performance through increased participation of


- 61 -


1. What gender patterns exist in the SSE sector and wage

labor in the Dominican Republic and why?

2. How effective has the project been in attaining the

participation of women?

3. What factors have affected this participation rate?

4. Should the project increase female participation from the

standpoint of enhancing the attainment of the project's


5. If one wished to increase such participation, what changes

would you recommend in project design or implementation?


This case is a companion of the Banco Industrial del Peru case

which deals with a banking institution lending to SSEs in rural areas (see

Teaching Note in Chapter 7). The Dominican Republic case provides a useful

comparison given its use of a nonbank credit dispensing organization and

its urban orientation. Although we will not make an explicit comparative

analysis in this teaching note, we do suggest that instructors consider

posing the discussion question for similarities and differences between the

two projects as a way of extending the students' thought processes. We

have taught the two cases both separately as well as jointly; either

approach is feasible and productive. The choice depends on the specific

circumstances and objectives facing the instructor. The students should

also read in conjunction with this case Chapter 4 in the casebook: "Small

Scale Enterprise and Women." The case discussion can basically follow the

study questions:

- 62 -

Gender Patterns

There are clearly demarcated divisions by gender in both wage

labor and SSEs. Tables 8 and 9 in the case lay out the employment pattern.

It reveals that women are primarily (42%) concentrated in the service area,

largely engaged as domestics in homes, hotels, restaurants, or other

businesses. Most (61%) of the migrants from rural areas enter this

category of work. These jobs require the lowest skills and 72% of the

women in them are illiterate and mostly from low income classes. More

educated middle and upper class working women are found in the office

(16%), teacher (11%), and health/nursing (5%) categories. These are

traditional, socially approved areas for female employment. Women have a

10% participation in the "Machine Operators and Artisans" category. This

primarily consists of seamstresses in the free trade zone clothing

manufacturers. Males totally dominate transportation and construction

which may reflect social norms. Male rates are double for business and

professions and significantly higher for salespersons, retail operators and


Table 7 provides a gender disaggregated typology of the SSE

sector. The division is clear with only two areas (enclosed stands and

neighborhood food stores) having both male and female entrepreneurs. The

question to pose is what caused this pattern. An examination of the female

operations would suggest two possibilities: first, the skills involved are

extensions of the skills learned in the performance of the household

production activities, e.g., food preparation, sewing, hair styling; and

second, low female mobility due to child care or other home-based

activities e.g., fixed or semi-fixed selling locations. The male SSEs tend

to be much more mobile, particularly through the use of the tricycles.

- 63 -

There is also the suggestion that the physical exertion required also

limited the participation of women.

Female Participation

The project attained differential participation rates of women in

the two different components of the project. In the micro-enterprises

component 20% of the loan recipients were women. All of these were

seamstresses. Within the 80% of the male run enterprises 11% of the

employees were female. In the solidarity group component 17% received

working capital (as opposed to equipment) loans; of these, 75% were women,

thus constituting 13% of this component's loans. The female rates are

obviously far below the male rates. They are also less than the 32% (Table

3) rate of female participation in the urban work force and the probably

even higher rate of women in the SSE sector.

The question to be posed is why. One could point to the social

and institutional explanatory factors which reduce female participation in

the economy in general (refer to "Context for Women" section of case).

These are relevant, but of greater interest for our pedagogical purposes

are any aspects of project identification, design, and implementation that

may have contributed to the low participation. These are the elements that

are under the control of the project personnel.

1. Project Identification

The Dominican Republic project arose out of the PISCES project

and in both instances the objectives were gender blind. The PISCES

objectives were to find low cost mechanisms for channeling credit to small

scale enterprises. The Dominican Republic project objectives were to

- 64 -

increase income among the poor, to create new jobs, and to strengthen

precarious jobs. Reaching women was not a conscious goal. An implicit,

although not consciously recognized, assumption behind gender blind

objectives is that the project will be gender neutral in its impact, that

is the project will not favor (or injure) one gender over another.

Obviously, this condition did not hold in the Dominican Republic. In fact,

in the initial feasibility study, commerce was excluded under the assump-

tion that it would use loans to increase inventory but not jobs. This

identification step thereby excluded many women engaged in small commerce.

The failure to create a gender disaggregated profile of the SSE sector

prevented the project analysts from seeing the exclusionary nature of the

identification process.

2. Project Design

The two components, micro-enterprises and solidarity groups and

the use of credit and management assistance were reasonable approaches to

SSEs. They recognized problems common to most SSEs regardless of gender.

However, the selection of the target SSEs did have a gender bias. For the

solidarity groups the emphasis on the "tricicleros" automatically excluded

women. This choice may have emerged because of high visibility of the

"tricicleros," the clear opportunity to have positive income effects

through equipment loans, and the pressure on ACCION to show quick positive

results. Similarly, the female micro-enterprises chosen as credit

recipients are all seamstresses, suggesting a failure to see or reach the

other types of female SSEs. Another design problem was in the purchase

order procedures. These proved rigid, and constrained the women from

managing their inventories more flexibly in response to shifting market

- 65 -

conditions. A finer disaggregation of the project beneficiaries would have

revealed the differences in operating circumstances and the need to have

more flexible procedures.

3. Project Implementation

The staff was all male initially. From the comments of the women

in the solidarity group, one could conclude that they felt isolated and

without anyone to talk to, and the one female coordinator hired was not

assigned to these groups. Her assignment was in a neighborhood where

problems emerged due to some political actions by a local politician;

subsequently, however, this neighborhood produced several women's groups,

thus suggesting the desirability of using female staff.

Desirability of Participation

As with the Peru case it is useful to ask whether the attainment

of the Dominican Republic project's objectives would be enhanced by

increasing the participation of women. In terms of increasing the income

among the poor, women's participation would seem desirable because they

seem to be among the poorest. Their unemployment rate is double the

males', they receive lower wages than males', and many are heads of

household. Their jobs are at least as "precarious" as males. Male SSEs do

not appear to be significant employers of female labor (11%) and so

increasing female wage labor may also require strengthening female SSEs.

Evidence is not clear about creditworthiness, but the male "tricicleros"

have a 33% late payment rate. Evidence from other countries (including

Peru) suggests that women are better repayers. Furthermore, the expansion

- 66 -

into a second city may depend on tending more effectively to the needs of

women SSEs because their demand for credit reportedly exceeded the males'.

Project Redesign

The final question is how they would change the project to elicit

greater female participation. The students will focus on various

dimensions and the discussion will largely carry itself. Among the points

that might be covered are staffing (hire more women, sensitize and train

male staff), procedures (e.g., the purchase orders), loan type (working

capital vs. equipment), information system (gender disaggregated analysis

of potential and actual clients). One could raise again the issue of a

women's-only project or component vs. the integrated approach. Lastly, one

could elevate the discussion to a more general level and ask the students

to formulate guidelines for project analysis for women in SSE projects.

- 67 -

Chapter 7


Teaching Note


The case describes how the Industrial Bank of Peru transformed

its lending portfolio from exclusively large industrial loans to include

significant lending to small scale rural enterprises. The issue is raised

as to the extent that this new orientation has resulted in increased credit

to women. To address this issue the case presents gender disaggregated

data on the bank's loans. It also describes the bank's procedures and the

loan experiences of some small scale business people. The general context

for women and for small scale rural enterprises is also set forth in the



1. To identify and understand gender patterns in the small

scale enterprise sector.

2. To analyze barriers to lending to small scale

businesswomen in rural towns and areas.

3. To demonstrate the applicability at the sector level of

the "Framework for Project Analysis" presented in Chapter

1 of the case and readings book.

4. To provide an exercise in project redesign to enhance

economic performance through increased participation of


- 68 -


1. How well has the bank done in reaching women through its

rural enterprise lending program?

2. What internal (bank procedures) and external (societal

and in small scale enterprise sector) factors have

affected its performance?

3. Should the bank increase its lending to women from the

standpoint of project effectiveness?

4. If one decided to increase lending to women, how might

this be achieved?


It is suggested that this case be taught after students have

become familiar with the Framework for Analysis and have applied the

activity analysis and access and control analysis techniques to other case

studies. The students should also read Chapter 4 in the casebook: "Small

Scale Enterprise and Women." With that background the discussion can focus

immediately on the project rather than going through those analyses

explicitly. Rather, to sustain their positions in analyzing the project,

the students will have to draw on the gender analysis techniques. The case

discussion can follow the study questions. As indicated in the Chapter 6

teaching note, the Peru case can be taught in conjunction with the

Dominican Republic case.

Bank Lending to Women

Exhibits 13 and 14 in the case provide the basic data for a

gender profile of the bank's portfolio:

- 69 -

(1) Percent of loans to women--1980 (13%), 1981 (19%), 1982 (11%).

(2) Size of loans to women vs. men--1980 (.52), 1981 (.78), 1982


(3) The bigger the loan, the fewer are the women borrowers.

The analysis reveals that women have been reached, but in

proportions quite inferior to men. The next question to pursue is: why?

Determinants of Gender Profile of Credits

The determinants are found in the country's and the small scale

enterprise (SSE) sector's gender structure as well as in the bank's own

procedures. One starting point would be to ask: where does the bank lend

its money? (Described in text.) This could be followed by: where are

women found in the economy? (Exhibit 2.) This reveals the following:







Bank Lending Female Employment

63% 1%

8 15

21 39

2 16

4 20

This comparison reveals that the bank's sectoral allocation is in

sharp contrast with the sectoral distribution of women. This incongruency

is one explanation for the lower percentage of female borrowers.

- 70 -

The logical next question is: why are women where they are?

i.e., how do we explain sectoral gender patterns? Annex 1 in the case

provides even more detailed profiles of gender roles in the two towns of

Mayobamba and Chiuchin. One of the conclusions that can be drawn is that

women enter into jobs and start small enterprises in activities that employ

skills they have exercised within the household production and maintenance

activities, e.g., restaurants, rooming houses, laundries, bakeries, clothes

making, trading. Pushing this further, one can explore why this occurs.

This could lead into a useful discussion of access to resources

(education--see Exhibits 5, 6, 7, technology, capital, etc.).

The discussion can next focus on the bank's procedures. It is

useful to first ask how effective they were in shifting their portfolio

toward the SSE sector. The case reveals that they were very successful in

adopting a new strategy and altering their organizational structure and

administrative procedures in order to reach the small scale entrepreneurs.

They decreased collateral requirements, simplified administrative

procedures, set up an extensive branch office network, used heavy

promotion, offered low interest rates, and provided some technical

assistance. The result was a dramatic increase in SSE loans. The changes

clearly addressed many of the barriers facing small scale entrepreneurs,

male or female. The issue is whether they failed to address female

specific barriers.

To pursue this, one can encourage the students to review the five

borrower experiences as well as other borrower-related data presented in

the case. Among the points that may be raised are the following: (1) 71%

of the borrowers are in the cities; women may be less mobile than men due

to their household activities; (2) women had less access to the technical

- 71 -

assistance due to their household duties (Rosa sent her husband instead);

(3) collateral requirements may be excessive for women given male-dominated

property patterns; (4) tellers apparently treated the poorer women

negatively (revealing both class and gender discrimination); (5) the bank

has only a small percentage of women as professionals; (6) the bank had no

explicit goal of reaching women and did not monitor the gender dimension of

their portfolio. What may also emerge is the barrier that the government

bureaucracy places on the entrepreneurs in order to get licenses for their

businesses prior to qualifying for credit. It may be useful to think of

these barriers in terms of "gates and gatekeepers" between the women and

the resources they need.

Desirability of Lending to Women

Before moving on to the issue of overcoming whatever barriers

have been identified, it is important to confront the basic issue of

whether the SSE credit project's performance will be enhanced by increasing

lending to women. This is a way to test the economic justification hypoth-

esis, i.e., does it contribute to the attainment of the development bank's

objectives? These objectives include extending loans that generate

economic growth and are repaid to be lent again and that in the process

enhance the well-being of the rural small enterprise sector and the finan-

cial viability of the bank. The evidence in the case, although fragmen-

tary, indicates that women have a better repayment rate than men and are

more serious about their loans. Furthermore, they constitute a growth

opportunity for the bank because they are underrepresented in the port-

folio. In addition, women have higher unemployment rates than men. These

factors suggest that it makes good business and development sense to

- 72 -

increase lending to women. This may be a good example of women's increased

participation making a good project even better. It might be observed,

however, that women entrepreneurs tend to generate fewer jobs and fewer

nonfamily jobs than male entrepreneurs. From a development impact stand-

point this might suggest that increased lending to men would be preferable.

A discussion as to why this phenomenon exists would point back toward the

sectors that men are operating in and the size of loans they are receiving.

This in turn could raise the issue of the bank's facilitating female access

to these opportunity areas, which leads to the final discussion area.

Project Redesign

The students will readily present various suggestions to increase

lending to women. Among these will be different promotion techniques,

alternative scheduling or location of technical assistance and loan

processing to overcome mobility constraints, changes in regulations

governing collateral and licensing regulations, increased emphasis on

different sectors where female SSEs are more common, greater hiring of

female employees, and a gender-based information system to gather and

analyze the data on this market segment. One could raise the issue of

whether there should be a separate women's lending component or quotas.

Regardless of the outcome of that discussion, it is important to leave a

message about the necessity of making the gender variable visible and

managing it as an explicit and critical component in project design and


- 73 -

Chapter 8


Teaching Note


This case describes a traditional production system undergoing

change in a densely populated society where class is an important

determinant of access to resources. Increasing the available irrigation

water permits both intensification of current production, and shifts in

cropping patterns to make the best use of the new resource. Choices about

water use have differing effects on different groups by gender and by

class. To address this issue, the case presents both normative and

empirical data on gender activities, much of it by class. It also

describes the rationale and nature of the government of India's commitment

to irrigated agriculture, and gives technical data on the total system and

the Fatawadi subproject.


1. To identify and understand the interaction of gender and

class characteristics of some agricultural systems.

2. To illustrate the multiple changes induced by irrigation

water, and their relationship to gender issues.

3. To provide an exercise in understanding interrelation-

ships between water management, agronomy, economics, and

social organizations in an irrigated production system.

- 74 -


1. What is the gender division of labor and control over

resources, and how does it differ by class and caste?

2. The introduction of a resource as productive as water

will undoubtedly cause changes in many parts of the

system. What changes are planned? What others do you


3. Do you anticipate that any of them will affect the gender

patterns of work and resource control? What differences

will be seen by caste and class?

4. If you were Ellen Treacy, what issues would you raise

when the team began to discuss possible changes in

cropping systems and changing water allocation patterns

to support the new cropping patterns? What would you

recommend? Why?

5. Aside from cropping patterns, what other issues would you

raise in the team discussions?


It is suggested that this case be taught after students have

become familiar with the Activity Analysis and the Access and Control

Analysis through other case studies. If they have not previously done so,

they should also read Chapter 2, "Women's Productivity in Agricultural

Systems: Implications for Project Design." The case discussion can be

structured into segments corresponding to the study questions; the present

gender patterns by class, the dimensions of change, the effects of change

- 75 -

on gender patterns, the effects of different crop choices on women's

income, and other issues.

Present Gender Activities by Class

Since analysis of project effects will be dependent on under-

standing class and caste differences, it is suggested that the session

begin by establishing the class and gender activity profile, and access and

control profile. Materials for the Activity Analysis can be quickly found

in Tables 7 and 11 in the case, and the last two pages of the case. The

information on access and control will take a little more digging, as it is

scattered throughout the case.

Important points to note include the following:

Very little unpaid field work is done by farm wives,

except at peaks of labor demand such as rice trans-

planting, wheat and rice harvesting, and cotton picking,

where their participation is traditional. Poorer women

work for wages during most of the rice production cycle,

at the end of the wheat cycle, and in one community they

are the major labor force in harvesting and separating

cotton. Such employment is limited. If a woman worked

all possible days in a rice production cycle, she would

have only thirty days' employment. Other crops offer

fewer days.

In contrast to field crop production, dairy production

provides substantial cash flow throughout the year, which

is at least partially under the control of women. The

- 76 -

case is not explicit about whether landless households

own cattle, but they note that "poor" women do, and sell

more of their milk, because they can't afford to drink as

much of it. As a point of information, it is possible to

get a bank loan for a milch cow, and the Women's Self

Help Union of Ahmenabad has been active in assisting even

landless women to procure loans in this region.

Women of all classes are responsible for reproduction and

maintenance of human capital. Provision of domestic

water is obviously very time-consuming in the dry months.

In contrast to some systems, domestic water for village

tanks has priority over agricultural water when there is

a shortage. Yet, the physical facilities for laundry,

bathing and animal watering are often not well designed

and maintained.

The instructor may wish to raise the question of who is respon-

sible for this, and to draw out that it is the local Panchayat, where older

women hold largely ceremonial roles. It is worthwhile to draw out a

discussion of institutional power as a resource, since access to water is

controlled by institutions which are now subject to examination and change.

Annexes 1 and 2 to this note provide examples of the blackboard layout.

Dimensions of Change

The AID project simply funds the irrigation infrastructure, but

several other changes are being funded by The World Bank, including major

changes in the way the water is managed and distributed, and a complete

- 77 -

overhaul of the extension system. The case projects an increase of wheat

production to 9% of the command area, and of rice to 26%. It also suggests

a rise in cash crops, particularly cotton. All of this is intended to

produce higher production, higher farm incomes, and greater rural employ-

ment. One odd note is struck by discussion of an impact evaluation which

found that further cultivation of rice would be detrimental to the system,

due to the high salinity of the soils. It recommended that crops more

resistant to salinity need to be introduced. It is an obvious glitch in

the system, and it would be useful to discuss it in relation to what the

new extension service will extend, and what crops will receive preference

in water allocation.

Influence of Differing Crop Choices on Gender Control of Resources

By now, the discussion has laid out the gender and class roles in

a traditional arid production system and changes that are anticipated as

the result of a series of projects. Putting the two together, what effect

will the different cropping choices have on different women?

Water used on field crops will benefit poor women through

increased employment, with rice providing the most.

High proportions of families have cattle, which are

clearly profitable, but increased dairying is constrained

in some areas by lack of drinking water and fodder in the

dry season. Fodder, which is saline-resistant, could be

grown under irrigation, and either used or sold. Such a

change would involve changes in the water allocation

patterns controlled by the Gujarat Irrigation department.

- 78 -

It could be either encouraged or discouraged by the new

extension system, depending on what crops they were

charged with extending. It could add to women's work

load, and their income, or as the income became larger,

they could lose control of it. They do not control the

institutional structure of the co-op, and seem to have no

formal ways to influence it. The milk co-ops are a

relatively new and rapidly spreading phenomenon which is

supported out of a different ministry than either

irrigation or agriculture. Coordination necessary to

increase the use of water for fodder and cattle might be

complicated, but the economics seem to be in its favor.

One thing that the team should do is gather more informa-

tion about the relative profitability of the different

crops, and the suitability of fodder as a replacement of

some of the rice production. It will also be important to

pull out of the discussion some consideration of which

households will benefit and which may lose. Exhibit 8

throws some light on how widely cattle ownership is

distributed, but there is no clear answer. This also

bears further investigation.

Other Issues

Some groups may end with the previous discussion; others may wish

to explore issues in addition to cropping patterns. Among these may be:

- 79 -

- The presence of treated sewage in the river water filling

the tanks used for bathing and cleaning household


- The charge of the new extension system; what information

to what clients?

- The absence of effective female representation on the

irrigation advisory board, and the Panchayat, which deals

with domestic water, and the village tanks.

- 80 -



Activity Analysis

Agriculture Large Farmers Med/Small Farmers Laborers

Rice (Paddy) MA MA (FA) MA FA
Wheat MA (FA) MA MA (FA)
Cotton MA MA FA
Dairy FA FA

Reproduction and Maintenance of Human Capital

Food prep FA FA FA
Household water
provision FA FA FA
Laundry cleaning FA FA FA
fuel collection FA FA FA
child care FA FC FA FC FA FC

- 81 -



Female Male


Female Male

Household water

Village tanks for animals
& cleaning

Irrigation water

Low + Hi
by location

Low + Hi
by location
Low Low + Hi
by location






Low + Hi
by location
and class




Wage labor opportunities

Family Income Streams

Proceeds from field crops
(see marketing line
Table 11)
Proceeds from dairy
Proceeds from wage labor

Hi or Low


+ Low to med by class





Hi or Low
by class

Hi or Low
by class


Institutional Power

In Panchayat -
re: village tanks
In Irrigation Board -
re: irrigation water
In dairy co-ops
In state/national
government domestic vs.
irrigation water allocats




Low + Hi
by class




Low Hi
by class
Low Hi
by class


Training (dairy)
Extension training


- 82 -

Chapter 9


Teaching Note


A great deal of Kenya's rural land area has been classified as

arid or semi-arid lands (ASALs), and droughts are a regular problem.

Population pressures are increasing on these lands causing increasing soil

and water deterioration. The GOK has made the development of the ASALs a

priority in its Fourth Five Year Plan (1979-1983) and AID, along with other

international donors, has agreed to fund an ASAL development project.

The area of AID's ASAL project is Kitui. The major focus of the

project is on research and data collection about land deterioration but it

includes an action component in a pilot area of the Kitui District. The

action is centered on land reclamation and water conservation as a

necessary part of the district's strategy to increase crop and livestock


The budgetary arrangements for the project placed the GOK

contribution at 31% of which 75% was in imputed labor costs of volunteers.

In Kitui there are many volunteer groups, called "mwethya," of which about

80% are women. Women, however, are already overtaxed in time with their

household and crop production. In addition, seasonal labor requirements

change their availability over the year and as men have increasingly

migrated to cities for wage labor, their work responsibilities for cash

crops and livestock are increasing. Time, therefore, is a serious

constraint. Even while this is true, Kenya's economy has suffered from

unfavorable foreign trade balances so that the GOK has increased its

- 83 -

reliance on voluntary labor in its share of project costs. All activities

of the project are behind schedule.


1. To provide an exercise in Activity Analysis, particularly

introducing the factors of change, both seasonal, and over

time due to migration of men and land deterioration.

2. To analyze and criticize project design as it succeeds or

fails in relating inputs to outputs, viz. expectations of

women's labor in return for increased water security.

3. To provide an exercise in project redesign in rural areas

where labor is relatively occupied albeit at low



1. What are the activities of women and men in the Kitui

District in the production of goods and services and

household production?

2. What factors affect these activities?

a. seasonally?

b. over time?

3. What were the principal components of the Kitui District

ASAL pilot project that affected these work roles?

4. What, if anything, did women stand to gain from

involvement in the Kitui pilot project? How well does

- 84 -

their potential gain match up with their contribution to

project activities?

5. What recommendations, if any, would you make for either

the design or implementation of the Kitui pilot project to

ensure its greater effectiveness?


This case may best be taught fairly early in a workshop because

of the richness in its information about activities done by women and men

and the ways in which these change by seasons, hard times, and in response

to larger demographic and economic trends. Because the project is so far

behind schedule and there is, therefore, very little information about

actual implementation, the later analysis must focus on design rather than


One can begin the plenary discussion with a charting of the

Activity Analysis (see Annex 1). The instructor should introduce the

notion of change, if the students do not do so, and discuss how these roles

change with the seasons, and how they are changing over the long run with

changing demographic patterns and land deterioration. In the discussion of

the dry season, one should note the construction and ceremonies activities.

Since much of the pilot project activities are construction activities,

this will be relevant in the design discussion below.

Regarding the long term factors, the outmigration of men should

receive attention. Tables 6 and 7 in the case give information about this.

In addition, we have information about the relative reliance in rural

families on income from crops and farming and off-farm activities (58% of

- 85 -

income is in-kind from farming activity; 42% from off-farm activities,

excluding remittances.)

In moving to the discussion of the Kitui pilot project, one

should focus on the pilot component which fits within the larger technical

advice and research components. Students should be asked to describe in as

much detail as they can the intentions of the pilot component. Major

characteristics include:

involvement of local people, particularly as volunteer


construction of dams, catchments, ditches for water

retention and distribution;

field terracing to preserve topsoil and retain water;

implements and tools were to be supplied to groups of

volunteers who undertook the construction projects

(different sets of tools were to go to different groups so

that their comparative effectiveness could be assessed);

demonstration plots were selected on 350 acres of the

Better Living Institute in Kitui (this land was superior

in quality and potential to most of that in the district);

training courses in land use planning and soil and water

conservation for 55 people from the local area;

training for others in the Ministry of Water Development,

Ministry of Transport and Communications and the Survey of

Kenya to support the technical and data collection aspects

of the project.

- 86 -

Students should be asked to assess these design elements based on

what they know of the area. Points that might be made here include:

relative quality of land of the demonstration plots as

compared to the land the people are using in general;

condition of women in the area (low literacy, high child

mortality rates, high disease rates e.g., see Table 1);

relative predominance of female headed households;

time as a major constraint for women on whom work depended

(delayed completion of project components shown in Table

11 may be used here).

If the students do not mention it, the teacher should bring up

the fact that women are expected to supply labor now in the expectation of

future increased water (helping with their time problems) and increased

productivity from use of the implements supplied through the project. In

consideration of the project design, those elements that address women's

work issues should be brought out:

supply of tools and implements;

potential training though it is not specified that women

will participate and their literacy rates may be an


the future availability of water and the fact that it is

women's work to fetch it.

87 -

Regarding project redesign, students should be asked to propose

changes in project design that address the points they have made above. In

particular they should be asked to come up with ideas for methods of easing

the time constraint of women's volunteer work (such as payment with food,

seasonal scheduling, explicit inclusion in training, etc.).

- 88 -



Production of Goods

Food Crops

Cash Crops




Wage Labor


and Services


FA* (MA)






Household Production

Child Care FA

Food Prep FA

Housecleaning FA

Water FA*

Fuel FA*

Forage FA*

Ceremonies FA*

*Increases in the dry season.








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