Material Information

Uniform Title:
Horizons (Washington, D.C.)
Distinctive title:
Women in development
Abbreviated Title:
Horizons (Washington, D.C.)
United States -- Agency for International Development
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Publications Division
Place of Publication:
Washington D.C.
Publications Division, Office of Public Affairs, Agency for International Development
Publication Date:
4 nos. per year[1984-]
Bimonthly[ FORMER July/Aug. 1982-Nov./Dec. 1982]
11 issues yearly[ FORMER 1983]
completely irregular
Physical Description:
6 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Economic development -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Periodicals -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (July/Aug. 1982)-v. 6, no. 1 (spring 1987).
General Note:
Title from cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
Agency for International Development.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
08673013 ( OCLC )
82645938 ( LCCN )
0735-1755 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Agenda (Washington, D.C. : 1978)


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On the cover: Women the world over
must balance family and wage-earning
responsibilities. Their labor helps build
local and national economies. Articles
begin on page 18.

18 The Female Factor: Peter McPherson
Doubling the Dividends
20 The Policy Perspective Deborah R. Purcell
21 Gender: A Centerpiece for Roger Mahan
Development Strategy
26 Factoring Gender into the Nadine R. Horenstein
Development Equation
31 Eye-Opening Survey Unlocks Mayra Buvinic
Doors for Low-Income Women and Margaret Lycette
34 A Diamond in the Rough Sharon Isralow
38 Self-Employed Women: Visible Raisa Scriabine
and Valuable

1 Accent on Development
5 AID Bulletin
9 Business
12 Academe
15 Lessons Learned
41 Tech Transfer
43 Bookcase

Photo credits: ILO, cover; Dolores Weiss, pp
7, 16, 17 (top), 23; Nation Newspapers Ltd.,
pp. 9, 11; The Weekly Review, p. 10 (top);
Kay Chernush, p. 10 (bottom); USAID/Mo-
rocco, p. 13 (top); Carol Cooper, p. 14 (top);
Gyani Shakya, p. 14 (bottom); Robert Clay,
p. 15; Clyde McNair, pp. 21, 38; Ray Witlin,
p. 29; Bart Kull, p. 30; Rebecca Masters, pp.
31, 33 (bottom, left); Earl Kessler, pp. 32-33;
Sharon Isralow, pp. 34-37; AID, all others.

Horizons is published as a service to profes-
sionals working in the field of international de-
velopment. It is free to professionals upon re-
quest. Readers are invited to submit original
manuscripts (including speeches) and photo-
graphs on any aspect of international develop-
ment. Such material cannot be returned unless
accompanied by a stamped, self-addressed
envelope of sufficient size and strength. Con-
tents may be reprinted or excerpted unless
copyrighted or unless a non-AID source is
noted. Credit to Horizons is requested. The
magazine has been approved by the
Communications Review Board.

Peter McPherson, Administrator
Kate Semerad. Assistant Administrator,
Bureau for External Affairs
Office of Publications
Agency for International Development
Washington. DC 20523
(202) 632-4330
Judy Van Rest, Office Director
Sharon Isralow, Editor
Mary Felder, Administrative Assistant

ISSN 0735-1755



The bang for the buck' a development proj-
ect achieves may well hinge on how the "buck" is
meted out in the household. Mounting evidence
shows that income, frequently measured at the level
of the household, isn't simply pooled and then
parcelled out as need dictates Rather, income is
spent according to different earners' priorities. With
increasing household incomes the goal of so many
projects, it is essential to consider what happens to
the income once family members bring it inside the
The key to predicting the results of increasing
household incomes lies in the understanding that all
income is not treated the same. The dynamics of
decision making within households, which span
from altruism to self-interest when it comes to
money; provide valuable insights into a project's
potential for success and sustainability.
AID's Bureau for Program and Policy Coordina-
tion recently funded several studies on the allocation
of resources and income in households. The studies
include a broad review of the literature on allocation
of resources within the household, accompanied by
a separate extensive bibliography and nine country-
specific case studies. The documents look at how
this allocation affects participation in and impact of
development projects Taken together, the studies
point out the crucial need to look within the house-
hold to predict potential outcomes of projects.
According to the studies, households do not
function as single units; an internal economy exists
in which members perform certain tasks entitling
them to certain rewards, based on perceptions of
what those tasks are worth. Members of the house-
hold then may bargain to determine how tasks and
goods are distributed. Division of labor and earnings
within the home is the starting gale for gauging a
program's impact. If such divisions in the home are

not taken into consideration, program benefits may
be diluted or diverted from the people for whom
they are intended. A project benefiting some may
increase the burden on others by shifting responsi-
bilities or access to resources. And, the effects of
altering the form, reliability, and earner of the
household income also must be considered.
These changes, if they bar participation, may
cause a project to fail Ultimately, the project may
inadvertently disrupt the support networks upon
which the household previously relied
The studies provide numerous lessons for devel-
opment planners as well as guidelines for incor-
porating lessons into the development planning
process Copies of individual reports can be
obtained trom Judy McGuire, AID!PPC/PDPR,
Roorrm 3889 Washington DC 20523.

4- population, they compose one-third of the
paid labor force and actually perform two-thirds of
the world's working hours. For this, they earn one-
tenth of the world's income, and own only one per-
cent of the world's property.-From the UN Decade
for Women mid-conference at Copenhagen, 1980.

," than 60% of the mothers in a two-year study
of 750 farnlies in Honduras maintained use of oral
rehydration therapy. Stanford University conducted
the study in the Central American country, the
principal research and development site for AID's
communications-based Mass Media and Health
Practices project. The results were achieved by
AID s Office of Education and Otlice of Health
working closely with the Honduras mission's


4,012 lillifw

104"W's 1: 100

Teauicipalpa Health Sector I project and the
Honduran Ministry of Health
The study demonstrated clear relationships be-
tween changes in knowledge and behavior Infant
mortality caused by diarrhea dropped 40% Analyses
clearly showed that the project was responsible for
the dramatic acceptance of ORT in the area.
The project is developing similar programs in
Ecuador. Peru, The Gambia, Swaziland, Lesotho,
and Indonesia

1" standing intra-household dynamics is an
important key to successfully integrating women into
the development process When measuring re-
sources and responsibilities within homes, the unit
for analysis is the "household," an ambiguous term
at best Obviously, no definition fits all circumstances
completely But, a number of associations can be
identified such as co-residence, joint production.
shared consumption, and kinship ties These labels
and their relationships, too, belie a universal mean-
ing. In some places, a co-residence could mean
many dwellings in a single compound, rather
than one house. Similarly, individuals producing
goods or services may be different than the people
consuming them. It seems that planners and re-
searchers alike must accept the fact that the equiv-
alent of the western concept of the household does
not exist in most places,' writes Beatrice Rogers in
'The Internal Dynamics of Households A Critical
Factor in Development Policy."
The point is that it makes sense to analyze all
dimensions of interest, whether it be sharing
responsibilities for production, common uses of
income, co-residence, or the common cooking pot
In this way, assumptions about behavior based on
false information can be avoided.

"1:, audiovisual modules on women in develop-
ment are available through the Board for Interna-
tional Food and Agricultural Development lBIFAD)
The modules were prepared as part of BIFAD's
program to orient university staff preparing for over-
seas work The three topics are "Gender Issues in
Agricultural Development: A West African Example,"
"Invisibility of Women in Income Generation Activi-
ties," and "Women, Natural Resources, and Energy
in International Development "
Each module, which lakes about two hours to

use, consists of slides, an audio cassette, a case
study, and an instructor s manual The modules are
useful tools for self-study or for briefing others They
are suitable for classroom use, and for development
education activities with community groups
Mary Hill Rojas and Marilyn Hoskins of Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and Helen Henderson from the
University of Arizona prepared the modules.
Modules can be ordered from Glenhursl Publica-
tions. Inc Central Community Center, 6300
Walker Street, St. Louis Park, MN 55416. Single
modules are $60.00 The set of three costs $165.00.
plus postage and handling.

Gender shouldn't limit lob opportunities, say
occupational health experts meeting recently under
the auspices of the World Health Organization
Instead, as more and more women enter the work
force, working conditions and equipment should be
adapted to meet their needs For example.
machines, by and large designed for the "average
man," need to be redesigned to take into account
characteristics of working women, especially factory
and farm laborers.
The experts also point to the need for methods to
protect women of child-bearing age, that is, most
working women, against the hazards of chemicals
and other occupational health hazards. Such chemi-
cals or ionizing radiation absorbed into the body
could damage genes and chromosomes (called
mutagenicity) of both men and women, causing letal
death, congenital malformation and leukemia in
newborns. Solvents absorbed by the body could
also appear in breast milk, and poison babies.
As women take on a greater number of non-tradi-
tional lobs, more needs to be learned about psycho-
social implications of long working hours as well as
the health hazards. This includes studying the effects
of chemicals on pregnant workers, allowing women
to breast-feed children at special facilities at work
sites, providing health education programs to alert
women of occupational hazards, and other efforts
to promote safety lor women at work
Between one-third and one-half the women in
industrialized countries are salaried, working in
businesses outside the home. By comparison,
one-tenth to one-third of female workers in devel-
oping countries earn wages Most developing
country workers are unsalaried, typically laboring 70
to 80 hours a week in the home or on family farms,
according to International Labor Organization

HI IKI 'I 'M-.

< WOMEN. "It is neither accurate nor prac-
tical to accept the contention of some villagers that
men speak for women in matters of community
interest," says Mary Racelis-Hollnsteiner, director
of UNICEF's Eastern African Regional Office. Com-
munity participation, which she views as the very
essence of development, can't be considered
genuine unless women play an active part in
defining community problems, setting priorities for
action, implementing these activities, and assess-
ing their outcome.
In an article entitled "Children and Community
Participation" published by the World Health Or-
ganization, she points out that, too often, com-
munity workers discuss local needs and activities
with men only. In part, this stems from following
protocol calling for consultations with formal vil-
lager leaders- usually men. A good community
worker," she says, "should have the capacity to
develop a scheme that will enable every group in
the community to express its views and be heard
especially the most disadvantaged such as women,
landless workers, and others among the voiceless
and powerless."
Racelis-Hollnsteiner ticks off the lengthy list of
chores women routinely perform and notes that
despite women's contributions to family, community,
and society, the significance of women's efforts still
goes largely unnoticed.
She suggests that as women sharpen manage-
ment and other skills through participation in pro-
grams such as child growth surveillance, primary
health care, and nutrition, perhaps men will become
directly involved in providing for children's needs
and be more responsive to women's participation in
household and community decisions.

'109 you or your children ever read books by
Dr. Seuss? Entertaining, aren't they?
Today, the children of the world also have a
good chance to read a Dr. Seuss book and, at the
same time, receive a powerful and useful environ-
mental message.
The Lorax, a 70-page book, is about environ-
mental degradation The land, once underdeveloped
and beautiful, undergoes change as seen by the
Lorax, a unique character who speaks for the trees
that have no tongues. He cautions against cutting
off the Truffula trees for their bright-colored tufts
that can be converted into thneeds-a fine-

Dr. Seuss has assigned the rights to the book to
the United Nations Environment Program for the
Lorax project for mass production and distribution
in developing countries.
The Lorax has already been translated into
French Spanish, Arabic, Portugese, Chinese, Thai,
and Hindi. A Swahili version is in the process of
being Iranslated. Details on costs and availability
can be acquired from either the United Nations
Environment Program, Nairobi, Kenya, or AID,
Bureau for External Affairs, Washington, DC 20523.

04r0 HOME GARDENS are a mainstay for many
- s families in developing countries. AID's Office
of Nutrition in the Bureau for Science and Tech-
nology has been working with several organizations
to promote successful home gardening where
For example. AID and UNICEF have worked to-
gether to promote school gardening programs.
AID funds a nutritionist at the Asian Vegetable
Research and Development Center who designs
and promotes home gardens that save money and
provide balance to the diet.
AID and the U.S. Peace Corps have commis-
sioned a home garden training manual. The manual
supplements training courses for specialists from
the developing world who are field-level workers in
health, nutrition, rural development, and agriculture
and for their Peace Corps counterparts. The manual
and courses teach basic home gardening and
mixed-gardening techniques. "Mixed gardening"
combines home gardens with home fish ponds or
poultry or small livestock enterprises.
AID has also supported home-garden research
carried out by the League for International Food
Education (LIFE) LIFE analyzed the literature on
home gardens to find new ways of increasing food
supplies and improving nutrition in developing
In addition, LIFE is compiling a library and roster
of experts on home gardening. For more informa-
tion on home gardening, contact Maura Mack in
AID's Office of Nutrition, Bureau for Science and
Technology, Washington, DC 20523.

"I FERENCE: The second International Con-
ference on Oral Rehydration Therapy (ICORT II) will
be held in Washington, DC, on December 10-13,


The conference is sponsored by AID in cooperation
with the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the
UN Development Program, the World Bank, and
the International Center for Diarrheal Disease
Research in Bangladesh.
ORT is a simple, inexpensive method of treating
diarrheal diseases. It has been heralded as one of
the most important health advances of the century.
ICORT II will build on the successes of the first
meeting, sponsored by AID in June 1983 in
Washington, DC. Over 600 of the world's leading
scientists, physicians, and representatives from de-
veloping countries and international development
organizations attended the conference which stim-
ulated the expansion of ORT efforts in many
The 1985 conference will focus on implementa-
tion issues and ways to overcome barriers to the
greater use of ORT. Some of the topics to be
covered are: interventions to prevent and control
diarrheal diseases; integration of ORT with other
health activities; communications and social market-
ing; distribution and logistics; training of health
personnel; supervision and monitoring; and evalua-
tion and cost.
Simultaneous translations will be available in
French, English. Spanish, and Arabic. There is no
fee for attendance; however, registration is required.
Early registration is recommended.
For further information on the conference and
registration, contact- Linda Ladislaus, ICORT II Con-
ference Staff, Creative Associates, Inc., 3201 New
Mexico Avenue NW, Suite 270, Washington, DC

From U.S. universities participating in the
AID-funded Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Re-
search Support Program (CRSP) have teamed
up with counterparts in 13 developing countries
to improve availability and use of Deans and
cowpeas. Research is being carried out on envi-
ronmental concerns, such as the effects of drought
and heat on bean and cowpea yields. The research
findings hold promise for reducing agricultural
constraints to production in all legume-producing
nations, including the United States. Five disease-
resistant bean breeding lines already have been
developed. Kay H. McWatters of the University of
Georgia, and Patrick N'goddy and Veronica
Onuorah of the University of Nigeria at Nsukka,
are working together to improve food preparation,
processing, and preservation techniques. Their

research is resulting in an impressive array of
low-cost, traditional products that will simplify
preparation of bean and cowpea dishes.
From its inception, the CRSP has incorporated
a strong women in development focus because of
the predominant involvement ol host country
women in food production and processing. Gender
issues are taken into account as information is
gathered. The CRSP ascertains that innovations,
such as improved seed varieties, new techniques,
and technologies do not by-pass women or
increase their workloads. Women are encouraged
to participate in the projects as researchers,
technicians, and students.
As part of its women in development activities,
the CRSP is preparing a series of resource guides
for the countries in which it works. The guides are
available for Botswana and Cameroon, one will
soon be published for Guatemala.
The guides provide an overview of the small
farm sector, paying particular attention to intra-
household dynamics and women's roles in
agriculture. Included in each is a literature review,
a section examining the implications of this
literature for project goals, a list of women's
organizations and information on educational
opportunities in the host country, and an extensive
annotated bibliography
For further information or copies of the guides,
contact Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management
Office, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

4*6i11 FIRED UP ABOUT KILNS: If any book
4 can spark interest in kilns, Werner Roos
and Ursula Rojczyk's Construction of Simple Kiln
Systems can. The book cuts a swath of information
on charcoal-making techniques, backed up by
good photos and uncomplicated illustrations of
the many types of earth, brickwork, and metal
kilns. The 34-page guide provides in detail one
process for every kind of kiln-horizontal, vertical,
earth pit, small domed, brickwork type RH4,
drum, and transportable steel, as well as the earth
pit pile. For the other kilns, the book gives short
construction and operating instructions.
Information on how to order this book, published
by Vieweg & Sohn, may be obtained from the
German Appropriate Technology Exchange, GTZ,
Postbox 5180, D-6236 Eschborn 1, Federal
Republic of Germany. In the United States, contact
Heyden & Son Inc., 247 South 41st Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104.


UN Holds Conference on Women

The United Nations Decade
for Women comes to an end
this summer with a major
conference in Nairobi,
Kenya. The Nairobi Con-
ference, to be held July 15-
26, is the third international
conference of the UN Dec-
ade for Women. Its primary
purpose will be to appraise
achievements of all UN
member nations in address-
ing women's roles and needs
during the Decade, as well as
to develop future strategies
to enhance women's partic-
ipation in the social and eco-
nomic development of their
The UN Decade for Wom-
en marks 10 years of growth
in awareness and activity
among women worldwide.
The years also have revealed
the depth and breadth of the
problems which encompass
women's lives: the growing
phenomenon of households
headed by females; the high
proportion of illiteracy

among women and girls; the
unique problems of migrant
and refugee women; the
vital, and often unrecog-
nized, role of women
throughout the developing
world as food producers,
farmers, and laborers in

formal and informal sectors.
The UN Decade for Wom-
en was formally launched at
the World Conference of the
International Women's Year
held in 1975 in Mexico City.
Women from around the
world gathered to discuss
common concerns and how
to address them. The Mexico
City conference adopted a
World Plan of Action for the
advancement of women,
based on the goals of equal-
ity, development, and peace.
The plan called for govern-
ments to act on a series of
recommendations over the
following 10 years.
In 1980, delegates from 145
nations met in Copenhagen
to discuss progress made in
the first half of the decade
and to draw up a program of
action for the next five years.
In addition to the goals
adopted in Mexico, the
Copenhagen conference
considered the themes of
education, employment, and
The Nairobi Conference

The meetings in Nairobi will appraise and develop strategies
geared to strengthening women's role in development.

V.4 IV Ar., .. .,
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'* '

(known officially as the
"World Conference to Re-
view and Appraise Progress
Achieved and Obstacles
Encountered in Attaining
the Goals and Objectives of
the United Nations Decade
for Women") will again
bring together officially
appointed delegations of the
UN member nations, as well
as representatives of num-
erous private and voluntary
organizations and non-
governmental organizations
linked to the UN system.
The U.S. Delegation will be
headed by Maureen Reagan
and includes Jeanne Kirk-
patrick, former U.S. Ambas-
sador to the United Nations,
as well as women leaders
from both public and private
Concurrent with the offi-
cial UN conference, a
non-governmental meeting,
known as "Forum '85," will
take place. Forum '85 will of-
fer an informal arena for dis-
cussing issues to be pre-
sented at the official confer-
ence. The meeting will pro-
vide opportunities for
debate, discussion, and prac-
tical hands-on experience
through workshops, exhibi-
tions, and other activities
proposed and coordinated
by the participants.
AID is providing support
for several technical work-
shops at the Forum, as well
as assisting participation of
selected Third World
women leaders at events.
Similar non-governmen-
tal meetings were held at the
Mexico City and Copen-
hagen conferences and were
attended by large numbers
of U.S. and Third World
women leaders and repre-
sentatives of major national

and international women's
The effects of these con-
ferences and the UN Decade
for Women on govern-
ments, the UN system, and
international organizations
have been substantial. New
women's organizations have
been formed; special gov-
vernment bureaus or minis-
tries have been established
to speak to women's issues;
new programs, projects, and
policies geared to strength-
ening women in develop-
ment have been imple-
mented. All these activities
clearly demonstrate the in-
creasing recognition of the
critical, continuing role
women play in developing
countries. 0

* -r mx

AID seeks to integrate women in the mainstream of develop-
ment activities. At the AID-funded Opportunities Industriali-
zation Center of Liberia, male and female students learn
marketable skills and are guided in finding jobs.

Conference Examines Women's Economic Roles

More than 750 national and
international researchers,
scholars, development prac-
titioners, and policy makers
met in Washington, DC, in
April to assess the extent of
women's involvement in
economic development. The
three-day meeting was spon-
sored by the Association
for Women in Development
(AWID) a U.S.-based asso-
ciation created in 1982 by a
group of scholars, practi-
tioners, and policy makers.
The theme of the second
national conference was
"Women Creating Wealth:
Transforming Economic De-
velopment." The confer-
ence examined the lessons of
the United Nations Decade
for Women and explored
ways of wealth creation in
the developing world. A
major focus was the rela-

tionships among human,
natural, and capital re-
sources, and their different
effects on women and men.
"Women are a vital con-
sideration in every AID
program," affirmed AID
Administrator M. Peter
McPherson during the open-
ing session. McPherson told
the banquet audience which
included over 100 women
from less developed coun-
tries, that the purpose of
AID policy is to focus on
women without isolating
them from the mainstream of
development activities. "The
world has changed the way
it looks at women in devel-
opment in the last decade,"
McPherson said. He also
emphasized the linkages be-
tween the U.S. foreign assist-
ance program, democracy,
and freedom.

Other keynote speakers
included Loret Ruppe, di-
rector of the U.S. Peace
Corps; Zarina Bhatty, a pro-
gram specialist in the Of-
fice of Programs, Analysis
and Evaluation Division in
AID's mission in India; and
Paula Goddard, AWID
The conference was de-
signed to serve as a "trialo-
gue" among representatives
from the research communi-
ty, academic institutions,
and development organiza-
tions. The plenary session,
"Lessons from the Decade: A
Retrospective," reflected this
theme from three differ-
ent perspectives: research,
policy, and practical experi-
ence. Speakers were Elisa-
beth Croll, an anthropolo-
gist who is currently a Fellow
at Wilson College at Oxford;

Ayse Kudat, a policy analyst
with the UN Center for the
Advancement of Women,
Vienna, Austria; and Peggy
Antrobus, a development
practitioner from the Uni-
versity of West Indies, St.
Michael's, Barbados.
Croll, representing the re-
search perspective, noted
the end of the UN Decade
marks an occasion for re-
flection, assessment, and
evaluation. She said empir-
ical research has brought
attention to women's pro-
ductive roles and the impor-
tance of services and activi-
ties provided by women in
the informal sector.
Croll pointed out that one
of the achievements of the
Decade has been identifying
constraints circumscribing
women's activities. Another
clear achievement has been
investigations of constraints
which have challenged prev-
iously held assumptions
about gender, and drawn at-
tention to the ways gender
hierarchies shape the activi-
ties of women within house-
holds, communities, and
societies. Other challenged
assumptions deal with intra-
household dynamics, and
the conceptualization of
women as a singular cate-
gory in terms of age, status,
and class.
In light of the achieve-
ments in documentation,
conceptualization, and meth-
odology, Croll called the
Decade a "decade of dis-
Croll noted that the Dec-
ade has challenged the re-
search process. She called for
a reexamination of field
techniques and the relation-
ship between researchers
and decision makers. In ad-


edition, she recommended
publicizing research find-
ings, and emphasizing the
relevance and effectiveness
of research in terms of policy
Representing the policy
perspective at the trialo-
gue, Ayse Kudat, who is the
coordinator of the July U N
Decade for Women confer-
ence in Nairobi, said there is
a much firmer realization of
the need for women's effec-
tive participation in all as-
pects of society than 10 years
ago. "It is far clearer now
than before," she said, "that
women have been mobilized
and are more articulate in
identifying their needs and
in voicing their demands.
There is no turning back,"
she said.
However, Kudat pointed
out that although there has
been increased visibility of
women's roles, "the majority
of women in the world still
face major problems in many
aspects of their lives. The
challenge is still survival and
substantial basic needs."
The essential problems,
according to Kudat, remain
"accessing bare minimum

income, food, shelter, and
employment, acquiring lit-
eracy and an acceptable level
of education, and having
adequate health to work pro-
ductively and enjoy the
fruits of one's labor."
Kudat said, however, that
wide documentation of
women's situations has re-
sulted in many countries giv-
ing priority to policies
geared to meeting women's
basic needs and finding
more effective ways of incor-
porating women into the de-
velopment process. World-
wide networking along with
increased research and rec-
ognition of women's roles
have helped "create a height-
ened consciousness of the
previous invisibility of
women and new apprecia-
tion of their roles in society,"
she said.
Kudat noted that in-
creased focus on women's
roles, responsibilities, and
rights in areas other than
those specific to women also
attests to progress made
during the Decade.
One area of visible and
consistent progress, she said,
has been legislation. During

Conferees pointed out that research has brought attention to
women's productive roles.

- -- -, -
Matching women's energy with skills and experience results
in greater returns on development investments. These women
have organized to produce and market sombreros in Ecuador.

the decade, she said, an over-
whelming majority of 66
countries that ratified the
UN Convention on Equal
Political Rights' Elimination
of all Forms of Discrimina-
tion Against Women (en-
tered in 1981) have intro-
duced constitutional, civil,
or other legislative provi-
sions guaranteeing the
equality of women and men
and prohibiting discrimi-
nation on the grounds of sex.
She noted, however, that
"progress with respect to em-
ployment, education, and
health has been less uni-
form." She claimed, "Na-
tional machineries for ad-
vancing women in overall
development policies and
plans... tend to lack ade-
quate human and financial
resources. In many coun-
tries," Kudat explained,
"women's organizations
complement the efforts for
formal machineries.
"In the developing
world," she said, "despite
improvements in legislation

and greater awareness of
women's contributions to
development, gender-bias
continues in the delivery of
resources and services, and
women are largely excluded
from mainstream develop-
ment efforts. But," she con-
tended, "the call for equality
of income and wealth is
stronger now than a decade
Peggy Antrobus pre-
sented the lessons of the De-
cade for Women from the
practitioner's perspective.
Antrobus called for collabo-
ration and cooperation
among women in develop-
ment programs at local, re-
gional, and national levels,
as well as the global level.
"As the Decade draws to an
end and our world faces
major crises, I hope we can
find ... effective ways of
pooling our resources and
our energies," she said.
Antrobus, who heads the
Women and Development
Unit of the University of
West Indies, has a long his-



tory of involvement in shap-
ing programs to advance
women in development in a
number of Caribbean coun-
tries. She presented lessons
from the field, based on ex-
perience in the Caribbean.
These included:
Economic growth must
be accompanied by partici-
pation in decision making at
the domestic, community,
national, and international
Methodology is crucial
in that for women the process
is as important as the prod-
uct. Unless the process pro-
motes and provides women
autonomy, dignity, initia-
tive, self-reliance, and self-
esteem, the product can be of
questionable value for them.
International agencies
and consultants need to es-
tablish and collaborate links
with indigenous agencies at
regional and national levels.
Five concurrent sessions
were held during the three-
day conference, with pre-
sentation of over 40 papers
and panel discussions on di-
verse topics. The presenta-
tions reflected how the
gender issue of economic
development can enhance
the total development effort
in all sectors. A number of
workshop sessions follow-
ing the plenary trialogue
focused on women's roles in
agricultural production and
farming systems projects.
Other sessions were held on
mechanisms to reach indig-
enous women, natural re-
sources and economic pro-
ductivity, and the women in
development programs of
the donor community.
Panels assessed some of
the lessons learned from the
first decade of women in


The role women play in creating wealth in the developing
world is becoming increasingly recognized.

development activities. A
common theme among
speakers emphasized that it
is now time to engage devel-
oping country women and
men more effectively in
seeking new perspectives
and creative solutions to the
severe economic and social
problems faced by most
Representatives from the
Canadian International De-
velopment Agency and vari-
ous United Nations agencies

were among the participants.
For information on ob-
taining conference proceed-
ings, contact the Association
for Women in Development,
One Dupont Plaza, Suite 710,
Washington, DC 20036. U

This article was prepared by
Sharon Isralow, editor of Hor-
izons, and Deborah R. Purcell,
a writer/editor in AID's Office
of Women in Development,
Bureaufor Program and Policy

Bank Project Helps Exports

The Chase Manhattan Bank,
N.A. (New York), will partic-
ipate in an AID-funded
project to stimulate job cre-
ation and export activity in
the Dominican Republic.
The bank will act as a re-
pository for a collateral ac-
count from which a $2 mil-
lion AID loan to a private

Dominican development
bank will be disbursed.
The agreement was signed
April 18 in Washington, DC,
by Chase Manhattan Bank
Vice President Brandon L.
Minor, Executive Vice
President Simon B. Suarez
of Banco de Desarrollo
FINADE, the development

bank, and Senior Deputy
Assistant Administrator
Lewis Reade of AID's
Bureau for Private Enter-
prise. FINADE is matching
AID's loan.
The funds deposited in
Chase Manhattan Bank in
FINADE's name will pro-
vide credit for small- and
medium-sized private enter-
prises in the Dominican
Republic that produce non-
traditional exports for the
U.S. market such as handi-
crafts and winter vegetables.
The loan pool will improve
the country's ability to earn
foreign exchange and in-
crease domestic employment
by financing start-ups and
expansion in the private
sector. By boosting the eco-
nomy of an important U.S.
neighbor, the project also
supports the Administra-
tion's Caribbean Basin
Chase Manhattan will
issue standby letters of cred-
it from the FINADE account
which, in effect, will guar-
antee loans in local currency.
The mechanism protects
FINADE and its sub-
borrowers against devalua-
tion risks connected with
borrowing dollars over a
period of time.
The new collateral ac-
count agreement with Chase
and the original loan
agreement with FINADE,
signed last year, were de-
signed by the Bureau for
Private Enterprise. That
Bureau spearheads AID's
efforts to stimulate econom-
ic growth in developing
countries by encouraging
the private business sector.
The loan to FINADE is at
near-market, rather than
concessional rates. E



Women in Business:

A Credit-able

By Wendy D. Dubow

Lack of access to credit can
cripple small enterprises be-
fore they get off the ground.
Without funds to invest in necessary
expansion, these enterprises will
falter. They will lose their customers
to more efficient producers who are
able to improve the quality of their
products and establish more com-
petitive prices. And while this prob-
lem is a significant one for any new
business, it is particularly acute for
microenterprises run by women.
In developing countries, women
entrepreneurs often find it extremely
difficult to obtain necessary credit
through the formal banking sector.
Traditional banking procedures
usually require entrepreneurs to
show proof of substantial assets as
collateral to obtain needed financing
for business projects. Small enter-
prises in general and women-owned
businesses in particular often do not
have such collateral. Ironically,
studies show that women-owned or
run small enterprises have extremely
good payback records in those credit
markets they are able to enter.
The markets women turn to are
traditionally run by moneylenders
who generally charge significantly
higher interest rates than those pre-
vailing among commercial banks. If
women entrepreneurs had greater
access to credit at more competitive
interest rates, they not only could
become iore fully integrated into
their national economies, but could
as well substantially increase their
families' standard of living.
Meeting the challenge of opening
the formal money economy to
women entrepreneurs is the mandate
of a creative, new network of busi-
nesswomen, Women's World Bank-
ing. The group was established in

Women's World Banking's goal is to help women own and operate their own
businesses, such as this clock repair shop.

Local women's organizations raise
funds to cover their share of the loan
guaranty effort.

1979 to fill this need, first articulated
at the 1975 International Women's
Conference in Mexico City. It has
developed methods for encouraging
banks to make loans to microenter-
prises run by women. Women's
World Banking also seeks to build
a worldwide network of women in
business and finance, as well as to
establish innovative marketing and
finance tools to distribute the
products of women-owned busi-
Since its creation, Women's World
Banking has become a worldwide
organization working with women in
business and banking in over 40

countries, primarily in the develop-
ing world. Grants from AID's Office
of Women in Development in the
Bureau for Program and Policy Co-
ordination, and the Bureau for
Private Enterprise have helped
Women's World Banking become an
effective catalyst for strengthening
women's participation in the private
sector of developing nations'
A central feature of the Women's
World Banking program is its nearly
$3 million capital fund, which func-
tions as a guaranty fund for com-
mercial loans to small, women-
owned businesses.
Women's World Banking's local
affiliates are composed of profes-
sional women leaders with business,
banking, and financial experience.
The affiliates are responsible for
identifying local lending institutions
willing to participate in the effort to
expand credit availability to women
entrepreneurs. They also arrange
management assistance and training
programs for the entrepreneurs who
receive loans. This training effort
helps strengthen the loan portfolio
by making the borrowers more effi-
cient and competitive. The affiliates
also raise local capital to cover their


_- .a '. ...... ..

Small but promising businesses, particularly those operated by women who do not
yet have collateral, are targetedfor assistance.

share of the loan guaranty effort.
To encourage commercial banks to
lend to women-owned small busi-
nesses, Women's World Banking
guarantees 75% coverage of each
loan-50% provided by the Women's
World Banking letter of credit or
deposit and 25% using the funds
collected by the local affiliate. The
remaining 25% of the risk is assumed
by the local bank.

The Women's World Banking net-
work has guaranteed more than 800
loans in seven countries since the
effort began. To date, there have
been no defaults on these loans.
These loans are made strictly on
commercial terms. Borrowers must
have an established enterprise with
growth potential within a market,
and a sound financial track record.
The borrower must show a willing-


Business expansion loans, such as one made to a dress manufacturer in the
Dominican Republic, generate jobs and create opportunities to learn new skills.

ness to participate in necessary
management training programs, and
must meet minimum local standards
established by lending institutions
for commercial loans.
Loans guaranteed by Women's
World Banking are made in local
currency. Borrowers pay a 3% sur-
charge over and above the interest
on their loans. This surcharge is
earmarked by Women's World Bank-
ing to cover management and train-
ing costs. A fund has been created
from the proceeds of these fees
which serves as the first resort in
case of loss.
By the end of 1986, Women's
World Banking hopes to have raised
$5 million for its capital fund
through contributions, grants, and
the sale of debentures with an
interest rate of 8% payable in 1990.
In addition to AID support,
Women's World Banking has re-
ceived assistance from the Norwe-
gian, Swedish, Dutch, and Canadian
governments, and the United Na-
tions Development Program. Ad-
ditionally, private foundations and
corporations have been approached
to support the capital fund drive.
Women's World Banking and its
local affiliates seek to be self-
sustaining institutions within five
years. Women's World Banking is
not dependent on any one source for
its financing, and it has been an
objective from the outset to establish
a self-supporting institution large
enough to have an impact on a
global scale.
This effort is already bearing fruit
through concrete improvements in
the daily lives of many of the entre-
preneurs who have obtained loans
guaranteed by the association.
For example, Women in Finance
and Entrepreneurship, the Philip-
pines affiliate of Women's World
Banking, has designed several pro-
grams to increase Filipino women's
participation in their economy. One
of these programs teaches potential
entrepreneurs a variety of skills,


^" "*.*^vJig^ L -," '.,.: -.,
Women entrepreneurs, such as these carpet weavers, are excellent credit risks. No
one has defaulted on a loan backed by Women's World Banking to date.

from fruit and vegetable processing
and goat raising to bookkeeping,
accounting, and sales. After success-
fully completing the training course
of their choice, the women receive
proficiency certificates which help
them obtain start-up loans from local
financial institutions.
In Thailand, the local affiliate
Friends of Women's World Banking/
Thailand is helping women develop,
expand, and improve their small
businesses to create jobs and raise
living standards. This affiliate is part
of a national dairy development pro-
gram created by the Thai govern-
ment to encourage the nation's dairy
The local affiliate has become
involved in establishing small dairy
farms, recommending 85 households
to the Bangkok Bank for financial
assistance. Eighty-two of these have
been approved. The Bank incurs the
risk because the local affiliate has
raised money and established an
interest-bearing account with the
bank to cover its share of the poten-
tial losses. The new businesses
created by the loans will purchase
livestock and receive training in all
aspects of dairy farming from milk-


Si s

-- n
Loan recipients display their crochet
work. Many women are learning
managerial skills necessary for the
business end of the operation.

ing cattle to artificial insemination.
Another strong local affiliate of
Women's World Banking is the Self-
Employed Women's Association
(SEWA) in India. SEWA, an inde-
pendent organization of more than
8,000 microentrepreneurs, estab-
lished its own cooperative bank.
Women's World Banking loaned the
SEWA bank the funds it needed to
expand its loan program for low-
income women entrepreneurs. Bor-
rowers include cart pullers who want

to purchase their own carts, veg-
etable sellers who seek to increase
their daily incomes, and patch work-
ers who aim to buy their own scraps
rather than working for middlemen
at low piece rates.
SEWA's clients traditionally have
had to resort to moneylenders who
often charge daily interest rates as
high as 20%. The SEWA bank pro-
vides an alternative to those with no
visible collateral. The SEWA bank
obtains information about potential
borrowers through social networks,
by visiting their homes, their work
places, and the markets where their
goods are bought, sold, or shipped to
suppliers. Beyond looking at assets
like a traditional bank would, SEWA
evaluates a borrower's true ability to
repay a loan through a legitimate
assessment of the borrower's business
Such programs, as well as being
innovative, are rooted in sound
business principles. Says Pierre
Vinde, assistant administrator of the
United Nations Development Pro-
gramme, "It's not charity. We
believe that the methodology
chosen, sharing the responsibility for
risk between the international
group, the local group, and the
credit institution is a very sound
In the past several months, annual
self assessments have been com-
pleted by Women's World Banking's
local affiliates. The results show vis-
ible achievements, including ex-
panding access to credit for women's
enterprises, increasing women's em-
ployment and income, and improv-
ing managerial and technical skills.
With the Women's World Banking
network continuing to grow, more
and more opportunities are becom-
ing available to assist women to
enter the mainstream of today's
world economy. U

Wendy D. Dubow is a program assistant
in the New York Office of Women's
World Banking.



Technical Assistants

Gain Experience,

Improve Projects
By Beverly B. Mack

When new water taps were
installed in Nepal as part
of a major development
project to conserve and manage
natural resources threatened by
environmental deterioration, the
new system met only drinking water
needs. Women still had to trek
to the river to wash their laundry
and bathe.
Too often development programs
inadequately address indigenous
women's needs because they lack suf-
ficient gender-specific data.
AID is helping to fill such infor-
mation gaps by supporting U.S.
Title XII university participation in
development projects.
One such gender-oriented activity
is the International Technical Assist-
ance Fellowship Program funded by
AID through the Center for Women
in Development (CWID) of the
South-East Consortium for Inter-
national Development (SECID). The
consortium is one of the largest
academic consortia, with 34 member
institutions. Through its Center for
Women in Development, SECID is
taking the lead in incorporating
gender-specific considerations at the
planning stages of development
projects. AID provided $380,000 to
the Center in 1984-85.
CWID technical assistants are
graduate students or junior faculty
affiliated with SECID member insti-
tutions. Selected individuals partici-
pate in short-term field research
positions that focus on gender-
specific data collection, project
assessment, and assistance in the
implementation of projects. Most
such projects address needs in the
areas of agricultural and animal
production, health and nutrition,



- 4

"', ''. ',
"u' .

Researchers from U.S. universities asked Nepali women-primary firewood gath-
erers and water collectors-how an environmental project might better meet their


forestry conservation, and agricul-
tural extension and education. The
results of the field work feed back
into the overall design of the project
and provide useful insights central
to future development project
Since the program's inception in
1982, CWID technical assistants have
worked in many developing coun-
tries collecting gender-specific data
and making recommendations con-
cerning women's roles in devel-
opment projects. In Burkina Faso,
for example, CWID technical assist-
ants examined women's roles in
rural grain production and market-
ing. Their research and nutritional
surveys to measure grain consump-
tion determined the need for more

sensitive gender-specific studies.
They found that factors such as
child-rearing responsibilities, size
and composition of the household,
access to regional markets, levels of
indebtedness, and access to extension
programs all affected a woman's role
in the market economy. These fac-
tors are not only more significant for
women, but they are also more
variable for female than for male
farmers and traders. Because
women's domestic obligations limit
the time they may devote to grain
production and marketing, their
production costs and credit needs
differ from those of men.
Culture-specific factors also affect
women's market activities. In strict
Moslem households in West Africa,


Left: The needs of all women, not
just those in the public milieu,
must be addressed. Moslem women,
who may produce food but are
secluded from public market activi-
ties, rely on agents to access mar-

Below: In Burkina Faso, surveys
revealed that factors such as access
to markets, household responsibili-
ties, and size and composition of
the household affect women's role
in the economy.

Ir A~

I. ,-

k Ir .

for example, although a woman is by
religious law free from obligation to
contribute to the domestic budget,
she often will use her income to
supplement family food and clothing
costs. Traditional interpretation of
Islamic law, however, forbids her
from taking an active role in public
market activities. This complicates a
woman's efforts to participate in
market trade. In such situations, the
secluded woman often generates
income through market agents who
act as middlemen. Income derived
in this way may benefit the entire
household provided it also affords
capital sufficient to perpetuate the
income-generating activity. Issues
such as women's access to credit must
address the needs of all women, not
just those in the public milieu.
Research by CWID technical
assistants in Senegal and Belize
focused on animal production for
household use and income-genera-
tion. In Senegal, where women are
involved in small ruminant hus-
bandry and sales, a CWID technical
assistant surveyed village practices
in poultry, livestock, and agricul-
tural production. Suggestions for
improving these endeavors involved
increased use of residues and waste
as feed for poultry; improved strate-
gies for marketing goats and sheep;
and increased agricultural education
opportunities for women.
In Belize, CWID facilitated better
livestock management practices
among women, who are responsible
for swine production. CWID noticed
the swine were often disease-ridden
and underweight because they
roamed free and foraged for food. As
a result of CWID research, efforts
were made to encourage women to
control their swine stock in a con-
fined area, resulting in higher
weights and disease-free animals.
The healthier stock brought higher
market prices.
The results of other activities, such
as one of SECID's larger projects
affiliated with AID's Resource Con-


servation and Utilization project in
Nepal, are equally impressive. In
this project, technical assistants have
been instrumental in assessing
women's roles. In 1982, the CWID
program's first two technical assist-
ants spent four months in hill
villages investigating and assessing
ways in which women could better
benefit from the Resource Conserva-
tion and Utilization project. At the
formal opening of the new water tap
system, these two CWID field work-
ers discovered that local women felt
the new system did not help them
address all their water needs. AID
responded by developing a more
appropriate,tap system.
Forestry management and con-
servation education are major
focuses of the Nepal project where
technical assistants have studied the
role of women as the primary fuel
and firewood gatherers in the area.
In trying to influence women to use
alternative fuel sources, CWID real-


Anthropologist Debra Davidson from
the University of North Carolina-
Chapel Hill interviewed Nepali bene-
ficiaries of an AID resource conserva-
tion project about their needs.

ized the need to reach rural women
through female extension agents. As
a result of these studies, women are
now entering Nepal's Institute for

LL -
Holly Reid, a technical assistant from Duke University's School of Forestry and
Environmental Management, monitored air pollution levels given off by tradi-
tional cookstoves in Nepal. The stoves, which were causing serious respiratory dis-
eases among Nepali women, were replaced with smokeless cookstoves.

Renewable Natural Resources to
train as agriculture extension agents.
Health and nutrition projects sup-
ported by CWID include studies in
countries as diverse as Nepal, Sene-
gal, Brazil, and Bolivia. In Nepal,
traditional cookstoves are operated
in unventilated areas, giving off
high levels of air pollution and
causing serious respiratory disease
among Nepali women. CWID assist-
ants have measured pollution levels
and assisted in replacing the stoves
with smokeless cookstoves.
In Senegal, activities centered on
kitchen gardening. By producing
crops best-suited to changing envi-
ronmental conditions, Senegalese
women have been better able to sup-
plement both household nutritional
needs and their own income.
Technical assistants studied infant
health and nutrition among low-
income women in Brazil. They also
studied the conditions of Bolivian
women's health care facilities.
The CWID technical assistance
fellowship pays attention to small
but significant aspects of local situa-
tions, reviewing women's immediate
needs and assessing the extent to
which those needs can better be met
through ongoing development proj-
ects. The successes logged by
CWID's studies indicate that small-
scale, qualitative research is vital to
development efforts. The gender-
specific data provided by the grad-
uate students and junior faculty can
trigger immediate results while
adding a new perspective to the
project. Furthermore, the fellowship
program underscores AID's efforts
to integrate women into the main-
stream of development while offer-
ing graduate students and junior
faculty an opportunity to sharpen
and apply professional skills, laying
a solid foundation for development
work in the years to come. 0

Beverly B. Mack is a project assistant
at SECID's Centerfor Women in



Is "Women in



By Anamaria Viveros-Long and
Christine Krueger

his year marks the end of the
United Nations Decade for
Women and more than 10
years of AID efforts to increase the
participation of women in its inter-
national development projects. AID's
Center for Development Information
and Evaluation (CDIE) is making
the first systematic assessment of the
progress AID has made in inte-
grating women into development
activities at the project level. The
lessons drawn will serve as concrete
guidelines for project planning and
implementation in the years ahead.
Over the years, AID has shifted
emphasis from a "women-only" to an
"integrated" approach which stresses
incorporating women into main-
stream development activities. With
this shift, concepts and terms have
also changed.
In earlier years, attention to wom-
en was conceptualized in terms of
equity. The goals were to ensure that
women benefit as much as men from
the development process and that
innovations made in the name of
development should not overlook
women or increase their burdens.
In 1982, an AID Policy Paper on
Women in Development expanded
the implications of the legislative
mandate based on growing experi-
ence and insights. The policy paper
directs that AID regard gender as a
major variable in development plan-
ning; that women be recognized both
as agents and beneficiaries in the
development process; that women's
economic roles be supported; and
that Agency divisions address gender
issues in their activities. The issue
of equity remains important, but the
policy paper recognizes that women

should be fully integrated into devel-
opment initiatives for reasons of effi-
ciency and effectiveness as well.
This practical and conceptual evo-
lution is also reflected in the current
use of the term "gender" to indicate
the focus of concern. That is, roles
and responsibilities among targeted
populations are often fundamentally
shaped by gender expectations. Con-
sequent behaviors-for each gender
and in their interrelationships-
should be fully recognized by project
planners and incorporated into proj-
ect design, implementation, and
The current CDIE study seeks to

AID is taking a hard look at its exper-
ience with women in development.

determine whether AID projects re-
flect this shift in policy orientation.
Are gender roles and related issues
recognized throughout the various
stages of a project? Are projects
adapted to reflect differences in gen-
der roles? Does attention to gender
help achieve project goals?
The CDIE assessment is divided
into two phases-desk studies and
field studies. Preliminary findings
from the desk studies of some 98
projects offer insights into the first
two questions. But project documen-
tation is too limited to address the

third question- What difference does
attention to gender really make?
That assessment will depend almost
entirely on results from 10 in-depth
field studies to be published as case
studies later this year.
The 98 projects included in the
desk study were selected at random
from a larger sample of 700, which
had been pre-selected for their rele-
vance to women or gender from the
approximately 4,000 projects included
in the AID data base since 1974.
The sample included 40 projects
from Africa, 32 from Latin America,
14 from Asia, and 12 from the Near
East. Table 1 shows the distribution of
the 98 projects reviewed by sector and
type (integrated or women-specific).
Table 1
Inte- Women-
Sector grated Specific Total

Water and

34 6 40

14 5 19

The results of the desk study are
limited by the amount and quality of
project documentation available.
Because more than half the projects
were ongoing, only planning docu-
ments were available at AID's head-
quarters in Washington, DC. Of the
49 completed projects, only 38 had
documentation covering all project
phases-planning and design, imple-
mentation, and evaluation. Docu-
mentation for each sector was
reviewed by consultants.

Are Gender Roles Recognized?
All 98 projects included in the
sample recognized gender issues to
some extent. One finding from the
desk study is that the quality and
extent of recognition have improved
in recent years. Before 1980, treat-


ment of gender in project papers was
generally superficial and gender was
infrequently related to project objec-
tives. Since 1980, gender analysis
has become more substantive and
gender is more often related to
project objectives.
The scarcity of project implemen-
tation and evaluation documents
makes it difficult to reach conclu-
sions about the extent to which
gender roles are being recognized
throughout the life of projects. The
desk studies indicate that recognition
of gender roles is typically limited to
the project planning stage and not
often sustained throughout the life
of the project.
However, the finding that more
recent projects do, in fact, show a
marked improvement at the plan-
ning stage leads to the expectation
'that field studies will reveal that the
more recently designed, ongoing
projects have better records of gender
recognition at all project stages.

Are Projects Adapted to Reflect
Differences in Gender Roles?
To date, it appears that even when
gender roles are recognized at the
design stage, there are few cases
where such awareness translates into
targeting resources. While approxi-
mately 50% of the projects reviewed
analyzed gender in depth, only 11%
specifically directed project resources
to women.
Some projects showed adaptations
which responded concretely to
gender concerns. In these, gender
was a common critical variable in
such areas as choice of technology,
location and timing of project activi-
ties, definition of eligibility criteria
affecting participation, and creation
of support systems necessary for par-
ticipation. For example, information
about innovative technologies is
more likely to reach women when
there are female extension agents.
A review of project documents from
Burundi, Honduras, and Lesotho
revealed that cookstove technolo-

gies benefit women when they
respond to women's real cooking
needs, are reasonably priced, and
properly marketed.
In the water and sanitation sector,
the documentation noted that the
location, quantity, accessibility, and
reliability of water sources are essen-
tial for reducing the amount of time
women spend drawing and transport-
ing water. Time saving also occurs
when water-drawing technologies
minimize interruptions in the deliv-
ery of water and when the quantity
of water is sufficient to perform
household chores such as soaking
food, washing utensils, laundering,
and bathing.
Employment and income genera-
tion projects showed least adaptation
to gender issues, but several types of
adaptation were identified as promis-
ing mechanisms for improvement. In
general, the desk studies revealed
projects are more beneficial to
women if they include both credit
and training components. It is im-
portant that training be in skills for
which a market exists or is being
created as an integral part of the
Characteristics of credit programs
must be carefully examined. Poten-
tial women borrowers, for example,
are often found in the informal sector

where information is communicated
verbally rather than through the
written word and through personal
rather than institutional contacts. It
is essential to examine information
dissemination and delivery channels.
Other characteristics requiring care-
ful scrutiny are loan size since most
women are small borrowers, and the
cost of applying for credit in terms
of time, travel requirements, and
application procedures. Other ele-
ments that should be examined
closely are collateral requirements
(because resources available to
women are not usually recognized as
collateral), and repayment terms.
More frequent, smaller payments are
often more suitable to women.
Employment and income-genera-
tion projects which include training
as well as credit must address issues
common to education and training
activities. A major issue is eligibility.
Women are often excluded from par-
ticipating in projects because they do
not meet prerequisites. Constraints
on women's behavior and time re-
quire that activities be located at
sites and times that are accessible
to women, given their household
responsibilities (taking into account
daily and seasonal variations) and
limited monetary resources.
Interestingly, the desk studies to

Analyzing women's roles in collecting water could help determine the best loca-
tions for water systems. A convenient, reliable water supply saves time that can be
better spent on other productive activities.


l --I
r *

1r~~ .

Accessible education and training programs are keys to integrating women into
the development process.

date indicate that education and
training projects tend to recognize
gender issues more consistently, take
them into account at both the project
planning and implementation stages,
and adapt projects in the course of
implementation as problems are en-
countered. For example, project
implementers in Botswana, having
discovered there were no dormito-
ries for women, added a construction
component to ensure women would
not be excluded for this reason.
Likewise, several projects have in-
cluded facilities for child care to
enable women to participate in skills
training or employment and income
generation activities.
In general, gender roles in agri-
culture have been more widely recog-
nized than in most other sectors.
However, the AID desk studies
yielded little positive information
about the adaptation of projects in
light of gender issues.
Agriculture projects iin Africa
proved the exception to the rule. In
contrast to other regions, gender
issues were more thoroughly and
consistently explored, women were
regarded as both actors and benefi-
ciaries, and projects were adapted
accordingly. Evidence suggests that
the Africa record correlates with the
newness of many African projects,
the more-frequent inclusion of wom-

I 1- -

Productivity improved and women
and households benefited when agri-
cultural projects focused on women's

en on project design and implemen-
tation teams, and the inclusion of
women in project delivery systems.

Is Consideration of Gender Issues
Enhancing Development Goals?
Limited evidence from the desk
studies supplemented by the consul-
tants' field experiences confirms that
early awareness of gender issues and
the presence of good baseline data
do increase the chances that gender
issues will be incorporated into proj-
ect goals and that project resources
will be targeted to address gender
issues. When these occur, women are
more likely to participate in and

benefit from projects. That is, women
are more apt to become integrated
into mainstream development
But can it also be said that projects
are more efficient and effective at
achieving such goals as increased
productivity, self-sustained develop-
ment, and improved quality of life?
In the desk study, energy and
water and sanitation projects both
succeeded in benefiting women and
achieving project objectives. Simi-
larly, when agriculture projects fo-
cused on women's animals and crops,
productivity improved; women and
entire households benefited. Evi-
dence is accumulating to indicate
that attention to gender issues yields
positive development outcomes.
The positive results achieved by
projects that target household activi-
ties suggest that these projects should
be more fully analyzed. For example,
indirect targeting of resources to
women often does not upgrade the
status of women. Results fall short of
the policy mandate to integrate
women into meaningful economic
activities. Often, project efficiency
and effectiveness are also diminished.

Implications for the Future
The issues surrounding gender are
complex and still evolving. Most
experts agree that gender is a key
factor for determining effective de-
velopment interventions. Lessons
clarifying the specific role gender
plays in making projects more equi-
table and efficient are still being
learned. Further analysis of informa-
tion gleaned from the desk studies,
coupled with results from ongoing
field studies, should further identify
more effective ways to incorporate
gender needs and resources into
development processes. E

Anamaria Viveros-Long is a social science
analyst in AID's Center for Development
Information and Evaluation. Christine
Krueger is an anthropologist and inde-
pendent development consultant.


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he conclusion of the United Nations
Decade for Women is an appropriate
time to reflect on our collective achieve-
ments and assess our future directions. The
dedication of this issue of Horizons to the
importance of women to the development
process is also a mark of the importance that
AID places on its Women in Development pro-
gram, initiated in 1974. We have reached a
milestone. This issue's discussion of the current
strategies and policy directions pioneered by
women the world over makes a significant
contribution to the ongoing dialogue.
Today, policy makers and planners perceive
that women are performing more tasks, fulfill-
ing more needs, and making more contributions
to both family and world economies than ever
before. Part of this progress is the result of
growing opportunities for women, but a great
deal of it is due simply to acknowledging the
contributions that women always have made.
Recognition of women's contributions has
opened up a variety of new opportunities for
development professionals to consider in their
efforts to aid the growth of Third World
Critical policy decisions over the past four
years have led to the successful recognition of
such opportunities by AID -the most crucial
being that the concept of women in development
now is addressed primarily as an economic issue
that can increase the success of many AID
projects. Gender roles can be a key variable to
project success. Experience proves, however,
that this variable has often been overlooked
when projects are designed. It is for this reason
that Agency policy now requires the collection
of gender-disaggregated data, as well as gender-
specific socioeconomic analysis, in the earliest
stages of project planning.
Once development professionals have seen
the "dollars and cents" value of gender
analysis, they generally are eager to learn more
about the women in development concept, its
implementation, and its results. Foreign assist-
ance dollars are scarce and we must ensure that
maximum benefit is derived from every dollar
spent to assist the Third World. We can

maximize our return on the development
dollars spent by:
* tapping all human and capital resources in
developing countries, and
* extending development benefits to all Third
World societies.
It is these two strategies that constitute the
cutting edge of the Women in Development
program. As noted in AID's Policy Paper on
Women in Development, published in 1982, "To
pursue a development strategy without a women
in development focus is wasteful and self-
defeating-wasteful because of the loss of the
contribution of vital human resources and
self-defeating because development which does
not bring its benefits to the whole society has
The Women in Development program has
reached a watershed era as the United Nations
Decade for Women draws to a close. Like AID
itself, the program has been built upon the four
basic pillars of foreign assistance: private
enterprise development, technology transfer,
institution building, and policy dialogue. But
much needs to be done to continue building on
these foundations.
Our major goal over the past four years has
been to ensure that the roles and potential
contributions of women are considered in the
earliest stages of the development process by
every bureau and mission of this Agency. The
process is now largely in place, but our work
has not ended. Our next task is to look to the
results--the results that women as economic
producers can bring to development. As the UN
Decade for Women concludes, we know that our
investment in women has been sound and that
the dividends will continue to multiply. As we
expand and improve the opportunities available
to women, as we see their expertise begin to
match their energies, we will witness the true
potential of the developing world blossom into

Peter McPherson
AID Administrator


M re than a decade has
pa.ed since Congrev, lirst
introduced the subject of
iwomienl in development into AID'.
program The 1971 "Pert Amend-
ment" to the For.reign ,,Asistance Act
required U.S. bilateral assistance to
"give particular a tension to those
pr which tend to integrate %omen into
the national economies of foreign
countrie-. thu, impro\ ing their status
and assistini the total derelopiilent
In 1977, thi, section of the law was.
restated to emphasize t, omen's roles in
etonomnic production, lamiil income,
and overall development. A portion
of assistance lunds wtas designated to
support activities \ which inctreae the
economic productivity and income
earning capacity ol women. AID's Of-
fice ol Women in Devellopment inl the
Bureau lor Program and Policy Coor-
dination administers these hlnd, aidl
works to ensure that AID's W\omen in
Development polly ol inlteg iling
x'nmen and girl: into the overall
dee loplnent process' is ipnplelenteld.
Recently all AID missions and
buhireauls reported on tleii V'Iariosl
n-floit tto inlliteate gender concerns
into lield strat-.gies.. I he result- have
been anailyed aind pseenttil in the
l s.14 Rtpif l ai. C ,nrim e, -t n I',leln in
Di eht.i,4/- ntiii. lihe repot also will
po\ ide benchlmarlks by which to
umeasuile luture pLI ro es in integral-
ine, ,omen into de\elopmlenl inl
Third World societies. TIhe report
addresses concernI, in lite major sec-
toral areas: agI cultural development.
employment and income generations.
education and training, energy and
natural resoirtes. and water, health,
and ltantiitation.
Experience has proven that a:gri itil-
tural assistance prograils mutIst reach
women if they are to increase ugri-
cultural production ;nd raie rural

BY DA,,irah R. Purr-, 1/

AID recognizes

women as


resources as well as


incolmes. N any AI\D l"'prtlct t hroiugh-
oult the developing worll arie concen-
litillng on integr.lling women into the?
ariolus aspect ofl .iglrittlle. recolg-
ni/zing lile nmultiplet roles womllen Ipl1ay
in algicultuit l Iroductioln for both
market and household usi.-.
\Wolmenl have enter-edi the labor
lorce iln unprecedented numbers.
Miich ol li('e work available to women,
however, relahins low-paying. and
employ nienlt opportunities renlmain
extrietmely limited. Increasingly,
womeli are turning to sell-genetated
emnployinent in the inforiinial sector.
All of A.\ID's regional bureaus support
projects to iimprote employ lnt and ii income for women through atppro-
priate skills training, practical nman-
agement training, and acce',ible
credit and minarkeling programs.
Lack of educational opportunities
reduces social and economic options
lor wolllell in developing conlill ites
and dimlinilhe the poien-tiJl socio-
economic returns oif developing con-ll-
Ii ies' inviemll-inen in education. The-
number ol chlilldrn enrolled in pri-
mary schools in developing coun-I-
tries has increased markedly, but
neither uni eri al pi inla v education
for girl' and boys, Inot equal access to
primnry edulitioln lor both seles !is
been realized. AID projects address
constraints on girl," educi.ilion
through school construction, curr icula

development. and teacher training
priogaamns. Js well aI p'a ticipant
Iraininug piog1ranl<.
Il nwlost (c-\ eloping countries.
\lwomelln and girls are retsponsille for
sprioiding for household energy
needs. Projects that improve energy
supplies can free worien'l, tinice for
rilthel endeavors. AID reforestation
projects and luel-eflicient store proj-
cts are prime examples of activi-
tic-s which p~\ oide major benefit, to
Women play a central part in stiatc'-
gies to inlprove health, raise nutri-
tional 1(-\ els, and control population.
While \women's toles in these aue..i
traditionally have been recognized.
development efforts hiae not always
addressed them in the imot p)odulc-
lise wav.ys. Now. several Agency proj-
ects are setting example, for the idle
range ot behnelits and rol-s for women
which can be derive d frotum ttlit.r and
sanitation projects
Since the UN Decade ftl Wonvll
began, con-ldeisable progrels has been
made toward iiicreaisinl tile aw3ireni-'ss
ol woien's resoutes, c ntr'l ibtltions,.
,alld conlcerin around the wor \'l While
.AID recol nizes that notable plrog ew
has beeni mIade. much work remain s
to be done. Re-search and data have
revealed that \%onimn mu1st play ,:
central and active tole in planning g
viable strategires lior the future. Police\
makers Imust continue to pioneer
inlnoative nlme10ll'res tol address
women in devc-lopmlent conccrllllS ill
all development activities. AID of-
ferO both goverinmellal and lri-
governcnieni i l development partlnei
the opportunity to Identily and
expand the roles of w omeni la1milies.
conlllllun itic, and in3tioi ns. U

D..bic lh R lPuti ll c ia l. can i .ii.ri
ill .iI/D s O /Il '"e ll'ito in lD vilop-
vntu Bur,/ 1ii Plir pin P ,:




Three AID experts probe some of the
misconceptions about gender that may block
development efforts.

- 7--

Paula Goddard

A t the forefront of AID's efforts to
integrate women into the devel-
opment process are Kay Davies,
director of AID's Office of Women in
Development, Bureau for Program and
Policy Coordination; Paula Goddard,
deputy associate assistant administrator,
Center for Development Information and
Evaluation, Bureau for Program and

.. Sa



Policy Coordination; and Sarah Tinsley,
deputy assistant administrator, Bureau for
External Affairs. Goddard and Tinsley
formerly served as directors of the Office
of Women in Development. Roger
Mahan, senior writer/editor for the
Bureau for External Affairs, talked with
them about the past, present, and future of
women in development.

Kay Davies




In some cases, gender roles form the basis of economic organization in the household.

Delegates to the upcoming UN confer-
ence in Nairobi will be reviewing the
accomplishments of the UN Decade for
Women, now in its final year. It has been
12 years since the passage of the Percy
Amendment to the U.S. Foreign Assist-
ance Act which spurred AID's involve-
ment in women's roles in development in
the Third World. What do you feel has
been achieved?

Tinsley: Here at AID, one of the most
notable accomplishments was the pub-
lication of the Agency's Policy Paper
on Women in Development in 1982.
For the first time, the Agency adopted
a policy which outlined how it was
going to specifically implement the
goals of the Percy Amendment. In the
beginning, the Agency didn't see the
concept of women in development as
critical to AID's work. I think now, as
a result of the policy paper, the
Agency is beginning to understand
the link between gender and the
achievement of development objec-


Goddard: I feel one of the most
significant accomplishments has been
the acceptance of the notion that
women's economic roles are critical to
the development process.

Then, recognition of women's roles in
development has finally come about?

Tinsley: Yes, a lot of people recognize
that women's contributions are critical
to the development process. But, it's
not just a recognition of the roles
women play that is important. What
needs to be included is the gender
factor as an element of analysis in
the design and implementation of a

Goddard: The subject of women in
development has evolved over the last
10 or 12 years from something you do
for women to something that you're
doing for development. Initially, the
Percy amendment was looked upon as
a requirement to improve the status
of women and enhance their oppor-

tunities. That was seen as an end
in itself.
More recently, it is being defined as
a means to achieving development
objectives overall. And the reverse is
also true. If you don't provide oppor-
tunities for women or if you harm
women's interests in the development
process, then the outcome of devel-
opment may not be what was
For example, what if one of the
goals of a project is to achieve higher
levels of income for "farm families." If
the project doesn't take into account
the way that income reaches individ-
ual members of the family in the
household, you may find the project
goals, such as improving children's
nutritional status or health status, will
not be met.

The policy paper notes that strategies to
raise family income levels which focus
solely on a male wage earner may not
achieve the benefits of improving women
and children's living standards.

Goddard: Yes, if there is one single
misunderstanding that has underlined
the need for a Women in Develop-
ment program, it is the misunder-
standing about why women need cash
at all. The lingering perception is that
women, like children, are taken care
of by others. In the past, development
experts contended that raising the
community's or the family's standard
of living meant women would get
what they need. There is a misconcep-
tion that women will always reap the
benefits of increases in total family
income. They don't.
What is not well understood is that
household incomes are not necessarily
pooled. When a man earns money, he
may feel no obligation to spend it on
the basic needs of the family. This is a
hard thing for some people to accept,
but there is evidence of this phenom-
enon around the world.

Tinsley: This is a critical issue. In
many developing countries household
financial responsibilities are divided
between men and women. Education,


schoolbooks, medicine, usually fall
under the female list of financial
responsibilities. If a woman's own
income is inadequate, these basic
needs may be neglected.

Davies: Let me provide another
example having to do with household
income. This involves a project with a
goal of raising household incomes by
increasing production of small ani-
mals in a mountain village. When
the project was evaluated, the women
had succeeded in increasing produc-
tion, but weren't getting any of the
financial benefits from their work.
The men were responsible for market-
ing the product in the town. Unfortu-
nately, when they returned to the
village several days later, little
remained of the profits.
Another error in the design of this
project, stemming from a misunder-
standing of its social and economic
aspects, was that the project designers
had decided to organize a cooperative,
which is a very popular idea. But
having a cooperative meant all the
proceeds were divided equally among
the women, so not one woman could
say, "my husband didn't spend the
profits, so I have more money."
In analyzing that project, the
designers could say, "we met our
objective. We increased production,
and we made a profit." But, though
income was raised, it was never spent
on the household.

Goddard: One of our evaluations
looked at a project in East Africa,
where someone on the design team
had said, "you're going to have a
problem with women supplying their
labor to this project. There are going
to be other competing demands for
their labor and they're not going to
present themselves to this project to
work when you think they are." That
advice was disregarded.
When the project got under way
and the women's labor was needed, it
was not available. This was a costly
mistake in project design yet, unfor-
tunately, not atypical. The issues of
women's labor contribution and time

Analyses of the constraints on women's time, income needs, and labor provide a

strong foundation for projects.

allocation are frequently underesti-
mated and misunderstood.

Tinsley: This is not done out of malice,
but from a lack of understanding
women's income needs, women's
labor, and the constraints on their
time. If no one understands these, the
project designs are based on faulty

Goddard: The project designers base
projects on a homogeneous male
model for the community. The ques-
tion of sex differentiation, or the way
social organization divides by gender
roles isn't examined. There is an
assumption that the "male-head-of-

household" model fits all societies;
that the male is the breadwinner and
provides the income for the family.
What we've been emphasizing, espe-
cially since the approval of the policy
paper, is a more dynamic understand-
ing of the family as a basis for project
design. Gender roles are critical, and
in some cases form the basis of eco-
nomic organization in the household.

Tinsley: And the issue of female heads
of households, where there is no male
member present, is often ignored.

Davies: This means project designers
should not consider women's roles
only in the traditional sectors of


population, nutrition, and education,
but also in areas such as agriculture,
reforestation, and water management.

We've talked about the crucial role
women play in making some of these
projects successful. Why has it taken
so long for people to understand this and
to take it seriously? There seems to be
resistance to this.

Davies: Perhaps it is based somewhat
on our own expectations, or domestic
experience. At the period in our
history when we were beginning
development programs, the process
was dominated by men who had never
really had a reason to think about
women's roles. I think it was unin-

So, one of the achievements of the last 10
or 12 years has been to make gender
issues part of the mainstream of develop-
ment planning, as opposed to being a
special interest.

Goddard: Right. Women, as roughly
half of the population, are a resource
that needs to be maximized. And what
they do in their domestic work
amounts to a subsidy to the whole

At what level of awareness is the Agency
concerning the importance of these kinds
of issues?

Davies: Certainly if we start at the top,
we have a very strong understanding
of women's roles, and a commitment
to bringing them into the mainstream
of development. Selectively, as we go
through the entire Agency I think
there are certainly some desk officers,
certain missions and bureaus that may
be a little further ahead than others.
This is perhaps because they've had
some very innovative programs that
have proven successful. There are
other offices in the Agency where we
have to continue to prove the point.
But I think overall, in the few years
I've been in the Women in Develop-
ment Office, there has been a grow-
ing receptivity to these issues.


Li e-

Women in their resourcefulness are a vital economic resource.

But the problem for Third World
women, from what you are saying, is that
they are carrying an enormous economic
burden in a period where there seems to
be a universal breakdown of the family.
In many cases they are having to
shoulder this burden alone because of
the urban migration of men seeking

Goddard: That's right. It is important
to remember that development has its
socially dislocating outcomes. World-
wide labor migration is one of the
most important ones.

Tinsley: And in Latin America alone,
the figures are staggering in terms of
the number of children born outside
the family unit.

Davies: The traditional roles of women
are having to be enlarged to accom-
modate something totally new and dif-
ferent, such as wage labor, so they can
survive in the cash economy.

This presents a big challenge to the
entire development effort. As the pro-
portion of female-headed households

increases, the class that is most dis-
advantaged is also enlarged.

Davies: Yes, but we as a Western society
can't go in and demand, "let's have a
happy little family of four at home."
For example, we can't order an end to
urban migration by fiat.

Culturally, what do we need to watch out
for when attempting to promote the role
of women in certain societies?

Goddard: Women aren't the only
people affected by development. Men
are, too. It's interesting that the
question of culture is often raised as if
somehow we should hold back from
development and preserve traditions
that involve women. Cultural tradi-
tions are almost never raised as a
development issue until women come
into the picture.

Davies: Educating a male can be just as
culturally volatile. While skills train-
ing and education are commendable,
the man may abandon the rural
community for employment in the
urban areas. This relocation has its





W ---L

own series of cultural ramificati
including serious side effects for
household left behind, most of
comprise women and children.

Goddard: I think women are oft
underestimated. We even under
mate ourselves, in the sense tha
we believe in some sort of solid
among women which means tha
women think alike, or want the
kinds of things. There is as great
diversity of viewpoints among
as there is among men.
There are women who will ch
the fundamentalist road. Obvio
they are there in droves, in mill
around the globe. And there ar
women who will choose the rev
tionary model and go to the tre
for their beliefs. There isn't one
fied women's point of view.

AID then has launched, essentially
initiative to begin to gather the in
mation, to come to an understand
exactly what women's contribution
and what it can be.

Tinsley: As the policy paper say

Goddard: We have to be realistic.
We're dealing with poverty. We're
talking about poor people. We can be
satisfied that there is a genuine desire
in AID to do the job well, and there
is an openness in this Agency to the
kinds of new thinking that one has to
have continually to deal with these
kinds of complex issues.
We are basically an idealistic group
ons, of people at AID. Because of that, I'm
r the confident these gender issues will
whom continue to be considered important.
But the problems that we're facing are
enormous. The poverty that we're
en facing is overwhelming. So are the
resti- interlocking problems that create that
t poverty. The cycle of poverty is a long
rarity way from being resolved.
it all Poverty breeds poverty. Poor fami-
same lies have poor children. Half of them
it a die; most of the rest of them merely
vomen scrape by. A few of them get a boost
-M RMrw' "

e some

y, an
ing of

s, the

Intervening in a woman's life when she
is a young girl can help poor families
break the cycle of poverty.

very pace of development is de-
pendent on the degree to which we
include women's contributions. If that
pace is to accelerate, we've got to
include gender issues as part of the
overall development agenda.

What then is the next step for women in

Davies: The next stage is evaluation. It
has already started. We'll have to see
if we've been using the proper bench-
marks to measure the variables we've
been talking about.

some place and launch themselves,
but most of them continue in this
cycle of poverty. This is a key element
of why gender issues are important-
not to say that men have no role
breaking the cycle but women bear the
burdens for the family. If you can
break the cycle by intervening in the
woman's life, when she is a young girl,
you can have a tremendous impact. If
women can avoid having too many
children, maintain their health, obtain
employment, then they can break
themselves and their families out of
that cycle of poverty.
This reinforces the importance of
what we've discovered in the last 10 to
12 years about the dynamics of family
interaction. It almost recommends
making gender issues a centerpiece of
development strategy.
Not only are we no longer apologiz-
ing for focusing on these issues, but in
some respects we're saying that they
could be the key to solving some of the
most intractable problems of poverty.
Ten years ago people would have
laughed at us for saying that. I think
we've achieved a critical mass of
understanding on these issues, and
that gives us satisfaction. But we
haven't solved the problems.

Davies: I agree with Paula. And, I
might add, now that we have this
"critical mass of understanding," we
must continue to extend our commit-
ment into practice. From the Women
in Development Office's perspective,
we don't want to run interference;
instead, we want to offer support. We
want our office to be used as a
resource when needed. The responsi-
bility for linking gender factors with
development strategies and projects is
dependent upon the individual and
collective expertise of the Agency.
The Women in Development Office,
by itself, will have little impact. It
just doesn't have all the answers.
However, there is little doubt in my
mind that bringing women into the
mainstream of development can, and
will, be done. And, it will be accom-
plished by dedicated agency person-
nel, just as it should be. N


Will life for this young girl change
when she grows up?







Examining gender differences adds a new
dimension to the development process.

By Nadine R. Horenstein

n every society there are differ-
ences in gender roles. Depending
on cultural, political, and eco-
nomic factors, women and men may
undertake different tasks, face dif-
ferent constraints, and focus on differ-
ent concerns. These distinct gender
roles, so often overlooked or taken for
granted, influence all aspects of devel-
opment-agriculture, employment
and income generation, health, natural
and human resources, and institu-
tional development.
Focusing on gender differences-
using gender as an analytical tool -
adds a whole new dimension to the
project development process. It lends a



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unique perspective to analyses of
traditional issues such as labor needs,
income sources and uses, and access to
resources. By understanding the im-
plications of gender differences within
a given project context, we improve
our chances not only to enhance the
participation of both women and men,
but ultimately, to better contribute to
the development effort.
AID, in recognition of the impor-
tance of gender concerns, seeks to
ensure that women are integrated into
the development efforts of their coun-
tries. AID's Office of Women in
Development in the Bureau of Pro-
gram and Policy Coordination, to-


gether with the regional and other
central bureaus in the Agency, is
helping policy makers and project
designers understand the need to
address gender issues, and providing
the analytical tools to do so.
The development of AID's Policy
Paper on Women in Development,
published in October 1982, was a
significant step in recognizing the need
to incorporate gender into all facets of
the development process. The key
issue identified in the paper, and
which underlies the women in devel-
opment concept, is an economic one:
Misunderstanding gender differences in
the economics of the household structure
leads to inadequate planning and design-
ing of development projects, resulting in
diminished returns on investment.

The Conceptual Framework
Projects are the primary vehicles used
by national and international agencies
to channel resources to developing
countries. How do we address issues
within the project framework from the
perspective of gender? How can we
use gender as an analytical tool?
A conceptual framework that exam-
ines intra-household dynamics is key
to understanding and applying gender
issues to the project development
Cycle. The neoclassical model of the
household rests on a joint decision-
making unit which allocates resources
and spends income according to a
mutually agreed upon and similar set
of priorities. The intra-household
approach identifies the potentially
different and competing demands of
individual members within a house-
hold. The division of labor and
income, the resources that individuals
can command to carry out their activ-
ities, and the benefits which they
derive from them are all part of
this framework.
Close examination of intra-house-
hold dynamics has revealed that there
are sharp gender role variations. For
example, women and men may be
responsible for different agricultural
crops or activities, such as weeding and
clearing land. Family members may be
affected differently by general eco-

nomic conditions or socio-cultural
factors. These differences influence
how people respond to changes that
are introduced into their lives as part
of a development project.
For example, an analysis of a World
Bank project to increase irrigated rice
production in Cameroon suggests that
women's positions both within the
household and the wider economy in
part determine their access to and
control over resources such as land and
income.* Access to land and additional
income may influence women's incen-
tives to participate in a project. In the
Cameroon example, it was assumed
that "household" labor would be
available for irrigated rice production.
Not taken into consideration, how-
ever, were the traditional patterns of
production and distribution which
denied women access to rice fields of
their own and control over the
products of their labor. As a result,
conflicts within the household arose
over the amount of money given to
wives by their husbands in return for
their labor on the rice fields. The
conflicts reduced the women's incen-
tives to work on the rice production
project, and therefore reduced rice
output. Although women received
financial compensation from their
husbands for the labor they provided,
the remuneration was insufficient to
persuade them to cultivate additional
fields required to meet targeted out-
put levels.
A project in Kenya provides another
illustration of the impact of gender
differences on project results. In this
case, women were not given enough
land to grow household food crops.
They also had to work long hours in
the irrigated rice fields. Although cash
income rose, family nutritional levels
fell because women could not devote
time to cultivating their own crops.

*Christine W. Jones, "The Impact of
the Semry I Irrigated Rice Production
Project on the Organization of Produc-
tion and Consumption at the Intra-
Household Level," Harvard Univers-
ity, prepared for AID, Septem-
ber 1983.

These examples are not unique.
They epitomize what can happen when
gender differences are not taken into
account in the project development
process. Whether projects are initiated
and implemented by local institutions
or by donor agencies, similar issues
arise. The implications of this lack
of attention to gender differences go
well beyond a concern for the bene-
ficiaries and participants. Rather, they
indicate the project's potential eco-
nomic success.
Differences in gender roles affect the
way members of households and
society respond to incentives intro-

duced by a development project. They
also influence the degree to which a
stake is perceived in the outcome of a
particular project. Incentives may
differ for women and men and their
responses may also vary. This may be
particularly true where a pattern of
separate income and expenditures
exists within and among households.
In the Cameroon rice project, women
played a critical role in rice produc-
tion. Yet, because they did not have the
financial incentive-control over the
income derived from their labor-the
women limited their labor on the rice
fields. Therefore, it is necessary for

L." ',, I -C -
Potentially competing demands on household members' time can influence a proj-
ect's economic success.


planners to understand and respond to
these differences in a way that en-
courages the participation of both
women and men.

Considerations for Project Design
Gender issues-the economic activities
and resources of women and men-
need to be considered throughout the
project design process.
It is important to delineate from the
beginning the economic activities of
the population in the project area by
age and gender as well as by other
distinguishing characteristics such as
ethnicity or social class. For example,
poorer women may be compelled to
work in the fields in Moslem societies
where purdah (seclusion of women) is
practiced. Even if women remain
within their compound walls, they still
may be active in food processing.
Their young daughters often market
the processed food.
In addition, data on the location
and amount of time allocated to a
specific activity, such as a particular
household chore, can provide infor-
mation on potentially competing de-
mands on household members' time.
Tracking the flow of resources, such
as credit, training and education, and
technology, within and among house-
holds, is fundamental for linking
gender concerns with project imple-
mentation. Often, these resources will
be introduced as part of a development
project in order to achieve such
objectives as increasing agricultural
productivity or the availability of
trained manpower. In this context, it is
important to know what differences
may exist for women and men con-
cerning access to, and control over,
these resources. This knowledge can be
used to assess the potential impact of a
project on the various members of a
household and better define a proj-
ect's activities.
What does it mean to have different
access to and control over education
and training, technology, credit, and
land? It is generally agreed by devel-
opment professionals and researchers,
that educating women furthers human
capital development, labor force


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Agricultural technologies are likely to have more impact if the needs of women farmers are taken into account.

expansion, and agricultural produc-
tivity. Similarly, increasing women's
access to technical and industrial
training as well as management train-
ing can prepare them to enter or
upgrade profitable employment. Yet,
women are among the least educated
and literate groups of the developing
world. Social and economic factors
may limit their access to education. For
example, young girls tend to drop out
of school earlier than boys because of
their responsibilities in the household.
Training programs may also be less
accessible to women either because
they are located too far from the home,
are held at inconvenient times, or do
not seem to be appropriate for women.
Clearly, less access to education and
training will curtail women's integra-
tion into the development process.
A continuing stream of more pro-
ductive technologies and widespread

adoption of those technologies are
essential for rapid and sustained
growth of food and agricultural pro-
duction. By neglecting to examine the
roles of women as agricultural pro-
ducers, however, efforts to develop
and disseminate improved agricul-
tural technologies fall short of their
potential impact. In addition, provid-
ing household technologies such as
grinding mills can relieve labor con-
straints in labor-scarce environments.
Farming systems research provides a
tool for understanding the technology
needs of women farmers. It also helps
promote crop and animal research
relevant to women's needs. Increased
employment of women as on-farm
researchers and extension agents will
help to ensure appropriate technol-
ogies for women are developed and
used. This is important because
women may well constitute the


majority of food producers in sub-
Saharan Africa, and in many Third
World cultural settings men from
outside the household are not accepted
as extension agents.
Women's lack of access to credit also
is an important factor to consider in
the project design process. Although
small farmers in general often have
limited access to credit, women tend to
be among the most disadvantaged
because of their lack of membership in
formal farmers' associations and
cooperatives, or their lack of secure
title to land which is often required as
a primary form of collateral. Limited
access to credit can restrict women's
ability to purchase seeds, tools, or
fertilizers to increase productivity.

AID's On-Going Efforts
AID's Office of Women in Devel-
opment, together with other regional



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The economic contribution women make to their families, communities, and na-
tions cannot be ignored.

and central bureaus, strives to address
both policy- and project-level gender
concerns. The Office has sponsored a
series of training workshops which
help link the policy perspective with
the realities of project design and
implementation. The workshops offer
participants-AID senior staff and
representatives from universities, non-
governmental communities, and other
donor agencies-the opportunity to
study and apply the gender concept to
the project development process.
The Office of Women in Develop-
ment also seeks to leverage funds with
AID bureaus and missions to support
specific initiatives in major ongoing
projects. Innovative measures have
been developed to include women in a
credit and loan guaranty project, an
urban housing project, and a water
management project. At the bureau
level, both the Asia and the Latin
America and Caribbean bureaus have
formulated action plans for imple-
menting women in development issues
throughout their portfolios.
Experience has shown that insuf-
ficient attention to gender concerns at
the identification and design stages of
the project process can lead to unan-
ticipated results at the implementation
stage. Such unanticipated results, in
turn, may impede achieving project
The more we know about the roles
and responsibilities of women and men
and the incentive structure within
which they operate, the better able we
will be to contribute effectively to the
development process. We must seek to
identify women's roles in the context of
household, community, and societal
relationships, rather than isolate those
roles. We must further aim to assess the
effects on project activities. For what is
at stake is not only the outcome of
selected development projects, but also
the participation of both women and
men in a more sustainable and growth-
oriented development process. U

Nadine R. Horenstein is the economistfor
the Africa region in the Office of Women in
Development, Bureau for Program and
Policy Coordination.




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ow-income urban women con-
stitute one of the poorest seg-
ments of the population in
developing countries. Generally less
educated than their male counter-
parts, these women often hold poorly
paid jobs. In addition, they bear the
dual burden of earning an income and
managing the household. A large and
growing number of low-income urban
women are heads of households,
solely responsible for supporting their
AID and other assistance agencies
recognize these women could profit
from programs providing adequate
shelter and social services. However,
a lack of information on women and
housing limits efforts to integrate
women into urban development pro-
grams. The impact on women of
particular features of housing pro-
grams has not been adequately
The International Center for Re-

By asking the rigl

questions at the

right time,
the International
Center for Research

on Women

helped, put


within, reach of
low-income women.

By Mayra Buvinic and
Margaret Lycette

search on Women (ICRW), with a
$120,000 grant from AID, is providing
the necessary data through its expe-
riences with the Solanda Low-Income
Housing project in Quito, Ecuador.
The project, funded by a Housing
Guaranty loan from AID, provides
inexpensive housing, community
facilities, and planned social programs
for about 6,000 families in Quito.
The Fundacion Mariana de Jesus
(FMJ), a private non-profit Ecua-
dorean agency, donated land for the
project and spearheads the social
component. The Ecuadorean Housing
Bank and the Ecuadorean Housing
Boara, charged with overseeing the
construction of the units and dis-
bursing mortgages for the project,
coordinate activities with FMJ. Socio-
economic survey data provided the
basis for the social program design.
The International Center for Re-
search on Women is assisting the
Fundacion Mariana de Jesus to ana-


iL 7

lyze data on mortgage applicants.
ICRW prompted FMJ to collect valu-
able information on women applicants
that otherwise may have been over-
looked. For example, the survey
revealed nearly one-third of all
Solanda applicants were female heads
of household. Had this question not
been asked, it would have been
difficult to address the particular
needs of this substantial group.
Although information obtained
from all loan applicants is currently
being processed, ICRW conducted a
preliminary analysis of over 1,000
female heads of household. The anal-
ysis provided important insights for
the project designers.
The profile of the women applicants
showed they are relatively young.
Seventy percent are less than 44 years
old. Nearly half are single. As
expected, single women are younger
than the 30% who are separated or
divorced or the 12% who are widowed.
The remaining primary breadwinners
live with husbands or common law
partners. Single women are more
heavily concentrated in lower-paying
occupations. They tend to head
smaller households, in which fewer
people contribute to household in-
come. This results in significantly
lower average monthly incomes for
households headed by single women
than those headed by other women.
Most of these women would have
difficulty affording new homes. At the
time of the survey, a minimum
monthly income of roughly $100
qualified applicants for Solanda's least
costly housing option. In addition, a
15% down payment was originally
required in the project. Nearly 40%
of female heads of household had
monthly incomes which fell short of
the income mark. What's more, only
9% of these potential buyers had
sufficient savings to afford the down
The down payment was one of the
greatest obstacles to women's partici-
pation in the project. Female heads of
household earning the qualifying
income were willing to sacrifice a
great deal to raise the down payment,


according to a sampling by ICRW.
They were prepared to save more and
spend less, borrow money, use up
current savings, collect money owed,
and sell assets. Even assuming the
women sold half their assets to add to
savings, however, only 46% would
then be able to raise enough money
for the down payment.
Raising the balance of the down
payment would require borrowing
substantial amounts. Yet the women
had little experience in borrowing.
Furthermore, income-eligible women
lacked access to regular housing
finance channels because they were
self-employed or because their
incomes were too low.
AID's Mission in Ecuador acted on

Approximately 6,000 families will
benefit from the Solanda low-income
housing project, pictured in various
stages of construction. The units all
have sanitary facilities, floors, roofs,
and exterior walls. Families who will
take up residence in the units will
receive financial assistance to complete
their homes.

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the information provided by the
survey by seeking policy changes
allowing poorer families to obtain
adequate housing.
AID and the Ecuadorean Housing
Bank negotiated modifications of
the down payment policy and other
changes which would lower the cost of
the housing units. The negotiations
resulted in lowering the down pay-
ment from 15% to 5%. Also, a grad-

uated payment scheme was initiated,
and design standards were simplified
for the second phase of the project.
These modifications will benefit all
low-income households, including
those headed by women.
Most women now have access to the
project, but many will be able to
afford only the core housing units.
This will pose particular problems f6r
those women heading households,

since they generally have neither the
time nor the skills to complete the
necessary construction themselves.
They also do not have the money to
hire laborers to complete their units
for them. To solve this problem, it
may be necessary to provide the
women with access to credit needed
to complete work on their units.
The graduated repayment schedule
also presents the need for these women
to stabilize and ultimately increase
their incomes. AID is currently study-
ing options for increasing women's
access to formal credit, and for pro-
moting their participation in lending
programs for microentrepreneurs.
Furthermore, AID is helping the
Fundacion Mariana de Jesus imple-
ment an income-generation assistance
program for the low-income women
purchasing housing units in the
project. With AID support, FMJ will
sponsor a market survey to determine
local production and service employ-
ment opportunities for women living
at Solanda. FMJ will also provide
training in enterprise development,
vocational preparation, and skills up-
grading to increase the women's
income-generating capacity.
The Solanda project departs from
more typical development programs
for women in the region by seeking to
mainstream women in a large devel-
opment effort, rather than channeling
support for small, specific "women's"
projects. By taking into consideration
the needs of low-income women and
incorporating them into the initial
project design, it is expected that the
Solanda housing project will ulti-
mately have a much greater develop-
mental impact than previously
expected. Women who become home-
owners through the project will
have gained job skills and renewed
confidence in their ability to enter
the formal credit market, in addi-
tion to obtaining improved housing
for their families. E

Mayra Buvinic is the director of the
International Centerfor Research on
Women. Margaret Lycette is the Center's
deputy director.





The complexion of the
shanty town Kirillapone
is changing. New
houses are replacing
dilapidated shacks.

Muniammah and her six chil-
dren live in Kirillapone, a
shanty town on the outskirts
of Colombo, Sri Lanka's capital city.
Deserted by her husband, Muniam-
mah supports her family by helping
package rice and curry lunches. She
earns about 50 cents a day. She returns
home every afternoon from Colombo
to a shack made of boards, paper, tin
and a dirt floor. The shack's dampness
exacerbates her children's bouts with
tuberculosis, pneumonia and asthma,
as well as other diseases common to
the poor, such as scabies and diarrhea.
But the future is not as bleak as it
sounds for Muniammah and her

Women and men are
equal partners in
building a
community out of a
Sri Lankan slum.

By Sharon Isralow

family because Save the Children
Federation (SAVE), with assistance
from AID, is helping her build a new
home and making it possible for her
children to receive proper health care
and nutrition.
In 1979, SAVE, an AID-funded
U.S.-based private and voluntary
organization, started working in
Kirillapone to help improve the
living standards of the community
with the help of the residents them-
selves. SAVE's project emphasizes
health and sanitation, especially for
women and children, within a broad
community development program
context. It is part of a larger


community-based urban development
program providing assistance to three
urban slums in Colombo. The pro-
gram is based on the principle of
"Shramadana," or self-help, in which
communities participate in their own
Through sheer determination, the
women and men of Sri Lanka's Kiril-
lapone shanty town have changed
their lives and the future of their
community. Their remarkable success
in learning and applying new skills,
from managing finances to carpentry,
masonry, and bookbinding, offers an
encouraging example of the contribu-
tion women and men can make to
development everywhere.
Until five years ago, Kirillapone
was known as one of Colombo's
poorest shanty towns and squatter
settlements; a town plagued by crime,
prostitution, bootlegging and unem-
ployment. Slum dwellers shared only
poverty and a sewage canal that cut
through the town like an open wound.
Because Kirillapone's 3,800 inhabitants
lived in illegally erected shelters on
Crown lands, the Colombo Municipal
Council was not allowed to provide
services such as clean water and
sanitation without the approval of the
Urban Development Authority. SAVE
intervened on behalf of the residents
and speeded up the approval process.
Unlike a village where a shared
concern and sense of community exist,
"there was no cohesiveness among the
people," says Nagalingham Mahesan,
a program specialist at AID's Sri
Lanka mission. "At one time a woman
couldn't walk through this area be-
cause her life would be threatened,"
adds Mahes Candiah, SAVE's assistant
director for Women in Development.
Today, due to SAVE's efforts to
involve the residents in helping to
improve their living conditions, there
is a real sense of community in
Kirillapone. All activities are coor-
dinated with the community through
its Community Development Council.
The Council is a decision-making
body responsible for coordinating
activities of various self-help commu-
nity organizations. Representing the

diverse cultural, religious, and ethnic
backgrounds of the residents, the
council also manages a community
fund, which, among other functions,
is used to maintain common buildings
and infrastructures.
A matching grant for $182,000 from
AID's Office of Private and Voluntary
Cooperation in the Bureau for Food
for Peace and Voluntary Assistance
(FVA/PVC) was instrumental in get-
ting the project off the ground. The
project involves increasing employ-
ment opportunities, raising incomes,
assisting women in development and
promoting broad-based, self-sustaining
local development. SAVE currently
funds other activities in Kirillapone
ranging from public works to industry
and commerce through part of a
larger matching grant made in 1983
When SAVE's Shanty Town Up-
grading project started, the major
focus was on health as a result of a
1977-78 baseline survey taken by the
organization. The report showed that
without proper sanitation facilities
and better roofs and floors, health
conditions would not improve. The
first priority was putting the necessary
infrastructure-drains, roads, sewers,
latrines-in place.

After the initial focus on health and
sanitation, the next hurdle to overcome
was housing, explains Nihal Fernando,
SAVE's on-site acting housing man-
ager. "Without proper housing for the
children we couldn't improve their
health. Without good water, how
could we stop worm diseases and
diarrhea? Without roofs and floors,
how could we stop respiratory ill-
A housing subcommittee, an out-
growth of the Community Develop-
ment Council, advises SAVE's housing
team which integrates community ideas
with SAVE's ideas.
Residents are taught basic construc-
tion skills in carpentry, masonry, and
electrical work by SAVE staff members.
As part of the self-help effort, the
newly trained women and men, who
have already built their homes, assist
beginning home builders. As builders
gain experience, they teach other
community members new skills.
Home builders receive stipends while
learning the tools of the trade. Wom-
en earn the same wage as men.
Thus far, over 150 shacks have been
replaced by latrite or cinderblock
homes with tile roofs. Homes are
modeled on a standard low-cost
design, but families can modify them

With the help of neighbors, Muniammah has already ditg the foundation for her
new home which will be adjacent to this one-room shack she shares with her children.

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according to personal taste and means.
Neighbors in Kirillapone, like neigh-
bors anywhere, are more likely to
want better houses once they see a new
home sprout up next door. Built by
the women and men themselves, the
homes represent a new way of life for
Kirillapone with former indigents
now responsible members of society.
Construction costs are financed
through a revolving loan scheme
made possible by a $299,487 FVA/PVC
grant channeled to SAVE through
Private Agencies Collaborating
Together (PACT). FVA/PVC provides
collateral for loans made by local
banks. Residents make mortgage
payments directly to the local banks.
Loans also are provided for small-
business and income-generating acti-
vities approved by the Community
Development Council. Funding for
the scheme, begun in 1979, will
continue through 1985.
With the exception of six of the
poorest families, including

Muniammah's, residents unable or
unwilling to repay loans are provided
land but not monetary assistance for
houses. Lots for houses, donated by
the government of Sri Lanka, are
assigned to those registered in the
original baseline survey. With land at
a premium in Colombo, many less
severely disadvantaged people want to
"move in" to Kirillapone, but settle-
ment by "outsiders" is prohibited.
Newly trained residents are able to
find employment in construction and
repay loans. Repayments finance
further loans. Loan default, high
initially, was one of the obstacles the
community had to overcome. A SAVE
housing team explained to each
household the implications of default
on the future of the community. As a
result, the community became involved
in safeguarding their interests.
For example, initially repayments
were prompt. But by early 1984, the
default rate had shot up to 80%.
However, today, through the concerted

Young women learn how to bind books at a Kirillapone training center built
by residents. The books are sold to area schools.


effort of the People's Bank, the Urban
Development Authority, and peer
pressure of the community, the default
rate has dropped to 30%. According to
a SAVE progress report for the period
of January to June 1984, the delin-
quency rate is significantly lower than
most Sri Lankan government housing
credit schemes. AID's mission is
helping the government address this
problem on a country-wide basis.
When the marsh land on which
Kirillapone was settled was formally
acquired from the Urban Develop-
ment Authority, SAVE architect and
city planner, Ramalingam Sivapragasm
drew up a city plan. The plan made
use of an existing road and focused on
developing those areas requiring
minimum resettling.
"The community now has a waste
disposal system, septic tanks, and a
water source. We put up a main line,
supply and ring line, and more toilet
points," explains Sivapragasm. In
1979, there was one toilet for 160
people. In 1984, there was one for
every 90 persons. The community
assumes responsibility for maintaining
the water and sewage systems.
The provision of housing and
hygienic latrines and water systems
contributed largely toward improved
health and nutrition. SAVE has worked
with community residents to build on
the infrastructure by providing
instructions in preventive health care.
All 460 children under age five have
been immunized against tuberculosis;
and about 98% have received polio
and "triple"-diphtheria, pertussia
(whooping cough), and tetanus
toxoid -vaccines.
A Sri Lankan health worker, trained
by SAVE, measures children's weights
and heights to monitor improvements
in nutrition. Children are provided
supplemental feedings of thriposha, a
blend of U.S.-donated corn-soy-milk
(CSM) and locally produced cereal
grains. The Food for Peace program
donates the high-protein CSM, which,
in turn, is distributed to maternal
child health centers throughout Sri
Lanka by CARE, another U.S.-based
private and voluntary organization.



(~.: A

Children receive proper health care and nutrition at Kirillapone's day-care center while mothers learn better child care, nutrition,
and health practices.

Pregnant and lactating mothers receive
daily supplementary nourishment at
the community kitchen run by the
Community Development Council.
Cooking and food processing demon-
strations for mothers, sponsored by
Kirillapone community organizations,
also help combat malnutrition and
poor health practices.
Women are an integral part of
Kirillapone's development plan. A
community group for women provides
loans for income-generating purposes
and ensures loan repayment. SAVE-
sponsored training for women ranges
from carpentry to day-care teaching.
A day-care center at Kirillapone is
operated by community women.
Young women learn how to bind
books which are sold to area schools.
Over 90% of the school-aged children
in Kirillapone are enrolled in school.
Almost two-thirds of the enrollees
aged five to 16 attend classes more


than 18 days a month, while the
remaining one-third attend two weeks
or more each month. Every evening
no less than 50 youngsters can be
found at the village's new community
With an overall literacy rate of 86%
in Sri Lanka, this high attendance rate
is particularly important for children
who must later compete as literate
adults for limited jobs.
As part of SAVE's efforts to involve
Kirillapone residents in the life of
their community, community members
are assisted in creating organizations
to deal with a variety of needs. The
community organizations are made up
of groups of residents who plan and
carry out specific educational, social,
or other programs. Community
organizations operate the library, day
care center, and sales outlets for goods
produced in vocational training pro-
grams. They also organize sports

activities. Over 750 residents regularly
participate in the organizations or
community development workshops.
SAVE has successfully applied a
rural development strategy to an
urban setting. The private voluntary
agency started with common ground-
poverty-and from that base forged a
sense of community. Kirillapone is the
first of three slum upgrading projects
being carried out by SAVE in and
near Colombo. Lessons learned at
Kirillapone have been successfully
applied elsewhere. With assistance
provided by AID's mission in Sri
Lanka, SAVE also is helping members
of needy communities in Meegoda
and Wanathamulla work together to
develop the skills and institutions
necessary to ensure a better future
for all residents. U

Sharon Isralow is editor of Horizons.

; ~


~~ e4





f,- --,i-

Is '-~--
1<. 53c~
* Ir

BY Rnaia S.criabii

; $;

One of the world's

leading proponents

of self-employed

women says

organization is the

key to addressing

problems working

women encounter.

T he Self-Employed Women's
Association (SEWA) is a trade
union of more than 8,000 poor
women workers in Ahmedabad, India.
Established in 1972, SEWA works for
improved working conditions and higher
wages for its members. The union offers
further support through its women's bank,
skills training programs, various group
insurance programs, production and mar-
keting cooperatives, legal aid, and pro-
grams for developing trades. Members
include small entrepreneurs, home-based
producers, and manual laborers with
occupations ranging from selling old
clothes or vegetables, rolling incense sticks,
tending cattle, making brooms, pulling
carts filled with grain, or sewing garments.
SEWA's major goals focus on "economic
regeneration"-higher and regular wages
and improved production and market-
ing-and "social uplift"- building
women's self-confidence and ability to take
control of their environment.

Ela Ramesh Bhatt, one of SEWA's found-
ers, is the General Secretary of the
organization. She also is managing director
of SEWA's Cooperative Bank. She recently
spoke to Horizons.

Q. The UN Decade for Women is
coming to a close this year. The last 10
years have witnessed many changes in the
role of women in development. How
would you characterize some of these

A. I can tell you about the changes
in my country. Since 1975, there has
been a gradual but steady change in
the perception of our policy makers in
this area. There have been some
concrete changes at the highest level.
For example, the India Planning
Commission in 1975 entered a full
separate chapter (in the country's
current five-year plan) on women's
employment. That chapter included
various recommendations for women's
employment which have trickled
down to state and district levels. In
most of our states we now have
women's economic development cor-
porations. Some progress has been
made in legislation; the equal
remuneration act is one example.
Legislation on dowry also has been
tightened. In the recent election in
which Rajiv Gandhi came to power,
for the first time, the largest number
of women ever was elected to the
parliament. A separate ministry for
women in development has been
established on a national level. In my
own state, too, there is a separate
ministry of women in development.
Yet a large number of problems
affecting women still need to be
solved, problems such as obtaining
clean drinking water, fuelwood, sani-
tation, and adequate nutrition. In
addition, the issues of child labor and
education and training for girls need
to be addressed.

Q. What are the most effective ways in
the next 10 years to address these issues?

A. I'm a great believer in organiz-
ing. Unless poor women organize,
they will not get results. Organizing
is like a glass. You need a glass to
hold input. Organization provides

Q. What were your objectives in
creating SEWA?

A. Our first objective was to bring
the self-employed sector into the
mainstream of the labor movement.
While almost 89% of employment
generates from this sector, it is almost
totally by-passed by our present labor
movement. Self-employed women are
by-passed by our legal system, by
banks, as well as education and health
services. And it is sad that trade
unions also have not reached out to
them. Our prime objective was to
bring this unorganized sector into the
mainstream of the labor movement.
Our next objective was to bring the
women who are the rural poor into
the women's movement. Their prob-
lems, too, need to be discussed,
debated, and solved so that they will
have a better future.

Q. What impact has SEWA had on self-
employed women and their traditional

A. The problems of the self
employed and especially poor women,
have now become more visible. Those
women whose work includes, for
example, sewing garments in their
homes or collecting waste paper from
the streets, were always there but they
were not visible. Through organizing,
I think we have been able to make
them visible not only to the Planning
Commission but throughout the
nation. Economic conditions for
women connected with SEWA have
improved as well. I believe they now
have a sufficient amount to eat and
they have come out from under the
influence of moneylenders. Some
have become self employed in the real
sense and many who used to receive
very low wages are now able to get
minimum wages.
The process of organization also has
enabled women to become group
leaders and to take on other leader-
ship roles. Two things have happened
in this process, which I consider very
important. One is, for the first time,
women are perceived as participants
in economic development. Our society
has traditionally seen them as house-


wives, mothers, and homemakers. As a
result, our policy makers have also
viewed them in the same way. Our
policy makers have always considered
women as beneficiaries when, in fact,
women are participants in economic
development. Now for the first time,
women themselves are able to boost
their own self image as workers.
The second thing that has happened
is that women have been able to forget
differences of caste, religion, and
community because they interact as
workers with common concerns. In
India, most occupations are caste
based. One caste will not eat food
from the hands of another. Now when
one women's group is on strike,
another trade group provides back-
up-for example, child care for the
strikers. In this way, cross caste
integration takes place.

Q. What specific benefits do women
receive from SEWA?

A. Legal aid is one benefit. Slums
are often production centers. We
protect the habitation rights of slum
dwellers. We go to court on their
behalf and fight for their right to be in
the market.
We provide a group life insurance
scheme for all our members. In this
way the survivor of a member who
dies receives 1,000 rupees as insurance.
When somebody dies, the body has to
be cremated. This is costly, particu-
larly for poor families who need at
least 200 or 500 rupees in cash for
funeral expenses. Since they don't
have the money, they have to borrow
it at very high interest rates. All our
members are very keen for us to have
this kind of insurance scheme. We also
provide training in fields such as
management and accounting.
In the area of health, we have a
maternal protection scheme. Since life
insurance corporations generally have
not found poor women to be a
profitable proposition due to a very
high rate of maternal mortality, we
designed our own scheme for the
women. Our maternal protection plan
includes prenatal care, regular check-

Self-employed women are becoming more
visible. As a result, future generations of
the self-employed, such as this Punjabi
girl learning to do needlework, will re-
ceive more recognition.

ups, and vaccinations for children.
This has brought down the maternal
mortality rate significantly.

Q. Where do you see SEWA going in
the next 10 years?

A. It is difficult to speak about the
future. It depends on so many other
national and international factors. But
I can tell you about our priorities.
Our emphasis in the future will be
more in the rural area because one-
half of our members come from rural
areas. We will also look toward
implementation of such laws as mini-
mum wages.

Q. What lessons have you learned from
the SEWA experience about economic
development and women's roles?

A. We have learned from our
experience that organizing is a must.
There is no short cut to it. Women are
beginning to do so extensively all
over India, Bangladesh, and Sri
Another lesson we learned is that
when we are not covered by legisla-
tion, we need to have our own
cooperatives or our own production
units. We learned that what we need is
a movement-that action is a vital
part of development.

Q. An organization has to be based on
a philosophy. What are your personal
principles of organization?

A. We get a lot of strength and
guidance from Mahatma Gandhi's
thought. Personally I am a Gandhian.
Certain things Gandhi said are very
important for us. He was a feminist.
He never thought of any movements
for social change in the absence of
women. He put trust and confidence
in women. We get strength from that.
He always thought of the person at
the lowest rank of society. The human
being was always in the center of all
plans-the focal point of development
and progress. For him and for us, the
main thing is the process or the
method. I personally believe that to
reach a goal is not as important as the
process by which it is reached.
In the process of attaining our goal,
we have to be very pure. Our means
should be pure to achieve our goals.
And by pure I mean, non-violent. It is
the hard way, but we do not believe in
violence. I have learned that as soon
as you pick up a stone to throw against
your enemy, then at that very
moment, your cause is lost. Your
purpose is lost. Public opinion turns
against you. Without having public
credibility, you cannot have a public
movement. Then it becomes a ques-
tion of law and order. Non-violence is
the only way to reach a goal.

Q. As a woman who has done a lot to
enhance the role of women in the world,
what message do you have for women in
other countries?

A. I think that more and more
understanding is necessary. Every
woman in every country is trying to
create a better future for her daughter
in her own way. That is something
you have to respect. We need to
bridge gaps in understanding, not
make them. The gap between the
so-called different worlds, first, sec-
ond, and third is not helpful nor is the
division of the world into north and
south, east or west. We should have as
few of these gaps as possible. This can
only be done by understanding. U
Raisa Scriabine, Deputy Assistant
Administratorfor the Bureau for External
Affairs, interviewed Ela Bhatt.



Upgrading Women

in Yemen: A Matter

of Dollars and Sense
By Gary Nigel Howe
Ambiguity about women's roles
in development long has con-
founded efforts to position the
women in development issue on the
ladder of priorities for planning and
resource allocation. The confusion
not only appears to have offset efforts
to promote women in development
issues, but also to have slowed overall
economic progress for nations.
Too often, developing countries
have viewed women strictly as "con-
sumers" of development efforts; that
is, beneficiaries of projects specifi-
cally tailored to meet their needs.
Now, however, a greater understand-
ing of the development process
among host countries and donor
nations is prompting policy makers
to consider and recognize women as
"producers," integral players in the
overall development picture.
An innovative pilot project in the
Yemen Arab Republic, based on a
microcomputer simulation model of
women's roles in production has
revealed women's economic potential
in the national development of the
AID provided $85,000 to the
Futures Group, a consulting firm
based in Washington, DC, to develop
a computer simulation model to an-
alyze the current and potential role
of women in critical areas of produc-
tion. The project was based on a
request by Yemen's Central Planning
Office to AID's mission in Sanaa,
The computer simulation model
was designed to be used as a resource
for determining ways in which
women can increase Yemen's labor
potential and reduce the flow of
scarce foreign exchange. By pro-
viding estimates showing economic
outcomes of incorporating women in

These frames taken from the computer simulations show that by providing technol-
ogies that save women time otherwise spent collecting fuel and water, Yemen will
be better able to increase food production through the use of female labor.

the development formula, AID was
able to bring the issue to the policy
table. Once the issue was seen as
important, more detailed cost-benefit
analyses could be performed.
The computer simulations quanti-
fied the importance of women as
economic resources. The project
emphasized women as producers and
spotlighted economic development.
Based on estimates of the loss in
production that would occur if
women's work and economic contri-
butions continue to be ignored, the
data showed that women's production
has a direct impact on attaining
overall national development goals in
agriculture, education, employment,
and natural resource conservation.
In the education sector, for
example, the simulations provided
important insights for saving money
while advancing women into modern
sector, development-oriented activi-
ties by graphically illustrating what

could happen if women were trained
as primary school teachers. "Eighty-
five percent of Yemen's primary
school teachers are expatriates, creat-
ing an incredible drain on the coun-
try's foreign exchange reserves,"
explains John Hourihan, an anthro-
pologist in AID's Office of Women
in Development in the Bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination.
Simulations, based on government
statistics showing the growth in the
number of schools and the percen-
tage of student enrollment, clearly
projected the cost of maintaining that
level of expatriate teachers based on
the value of the Rial (Yemen's cur-
rency) at the time the simulations
were presented. These figures were
compared with projections which,
while maintaining the same percen-
tage level of teachers, reduced the
percentage of expatriate teachers
over a 30-year period and replaced
expatriates with Yemeni women. The


simulations demonstrated substantial
foreign exchange savings. "We're
able to show that training women to
teach in primary schools can help
Yemen retain large sums of money
and, at the same time, help move
Yemeni women, who do not ordinar-
ily teach, into this modern sector,"
according to Hourihan.
"Moving more girls and women
out of traditional roles into more
development-oriented activities,
could eliminate what promises to be
one of Yemen's most pressing prob-
lems-namely, a major shortfall of
labor by the year 2000," Hourihan
Charts and graphs that provide
information on Yemen's agricultural
performance projected a grim future
by the year 2000 if women's roles
are not targeted for development.
Insufficient agricultural production
has resulted in high levels of food
imports to meet growing domestic
demands. Heavy import investments
have undercut opportunities to
invest in modern technologies neces-
sary to boost local production.
In Yemen, as in most developing
countries, it is increasingly recog-
nized that women play a major role
in food production. Their role, in
part, is a result of a high percentage
of male laborers working abroad to
earn essential foreign exchange.
Because it is important for men to
continue to earn this revenue, any
future development of the food sector
inevitably will be based upon the
improved use of female labor.
There are, however, constraints to
expanding commercial agricultural
production by women. Local studies
on the amount of time necessary to
perform household tasks showed that
labor requirements in the home are a
major obstacle to expanding food
production. Field-based estimates
revealed it is possible to increase
female labor time available for
commercial agricultural production
by providing time-saving inputs for
the home such as improved water

By extending education and training
opportunities to women, Yemen can
increase its labor potential and reduce
the flow of foreign exchange out of
the country.

supplies and commercial fuels. The
new inputs would reduce the amount
of time women must spend produc-
ing for the household. The gains in
time saved could be applied to
agricultural production, thereby
reducing the crippling foreign
exchange burden from food imports.
"We were able to show that time
savings would enable girls and
women to participate in extension
services and education without the
country losing out on commercial
and domestic production," said
The government already provides
extension services to males and has
set a target for increased male par-
ticipation in schools. "The projec-
tions show Yemen can meet those
targets for male participation, and
set and meet quotas for female par-
ticipation without suffering a loss,"
Hourihan added.
The project's goal was to bring this
issue to the attention of policy makers

in Yemen. In March 1985 the model,
with its accompanying English and
Arabic booklets, was presented to an
audience of high-ranking Yemeni
government officials, including the
Prime Minister. It was also the
central topic of a government cabinet
meeting. Television coverage of the
cabinet meeting revealed supportive
discussions of the presentation book-
let and of women's potential role in
Yemeni development. A video ver-
sion, dubbed in Arabic, will be shown
this year on national television, esti-
mated to reach 85% of the population.
The Minister of Agriculture also has
requested that the presentation be
used as the basis for a seminar on
women's agricultural issues for his
ministry staff. A variety of other
follow-up actions by AID's mission
in Yemen and the Yemeni govern-
ment are now under way.
The extensive data as well as the
technology itself are important
means to incorporating women into
planning of the overall economic
structure. The data show the contri-
butions of women within an analyti-
cal long-term planning framework.
The basic numerical comparisons
reinforce the point of the analysis-
that integrating women into pro-
duction makes good economic sense.
As a technology, the computer-
driven graphic display is a successful
way to present quantitative data
The computer presentations have
proven to be an important tool for
fostering policy dialogue in Yemen.
The model has great potential for
helping other countries gain the
attention of decision makers and
connecting the issue of women in
production with overall economic
growth. U

Gary Nigel Howe, formerly a consultant
to AID's Office of Women in Develop-
ment, Bureau for Program and Policy
Coordination and to the Futures Group,
conceptualized the computer simulation


Analysis by Gender:

A Context for


The Nemow Case by Ingrid Palmer,
Sex Roles in the Nigerian Tiv Farm
Household by Mary E. Burfisher and
Nadine R. Horenstein, and Agricul-
tural Policy Implementation: A Case
Study from Western Kenya by
Kathleen Staudt, The Population
Council, Kumarian Press, West
Hartford, CT, 1985, vols. 1-3, $6.75
each (paper). Available from
Kumarian Press, 630 Oakwood Ave.,
Suite 119, West Hartford, CT 06119
A review of three case studies by Shubh
K. Kumar

Given the dearth of material
on women's roles and gen-
der differences in develop-
ment, detailed case studies on this
very subject, published by The
Population Council, are welcomed.
The case examples try to answer the
question, "Why should women's
roles be explicitly considered in
agricultural programs?" The three
cases, part of a series, raise a wide
range of issues on project design and
implementation, and address the
issues in the contexts of particular
Many of these lessons have a wider
applicability. The adoption of a
gender-blind planning approach
translated into implementation by
project officials with no prior experi-
ence of taking gender roles into
account is an all-too-familiar occur-
rence. As evidence on the impacts is
presented, the recurring questions
are: "Are the small farm families
better off if the additional labor
input of women was at the cost of
women and children's health and
nutrition? Are intra-household
inequities sharpened if technologies
for improving productivity are not
available to small-farm women?"


Other provocative questions stem-
ming from these observations are
whether short versus longer-term
consequences are different, and how
the experience in Africa would
contrast to that in Asia.



r A

The first of these
studies, The Nemow
Case by Ingrid
Palmer, is a unique
way of presenting
guidelines. It is set
up as a "hypotheti-
cal" experience in

the design, implementation, and
evaluation of an irrigation and reset-
tlement project. It combines the
observation of several different
agricultural projects. It is a
believable scenario of events in
project design, in priorities and
consequences of mid-stream finan-
cial problems, and in the limitation
of data access, baselines, and moni-
toring. However, the most signifi-
cant feature of this case is the
attempt made to disaggregate con-
sequences for different cross-sections
of the population. This is extremely
valuable as it eliminates the con-
fusion of mutually conflicting results
and allows them to be put in per-
spective. Even though these dif-
ferences would be much more
obvious in Asia than in Africa, this is
a frequently overlooked aspect.
In The Nemow Case, the majority
of landless and large landholders
in the irrigation and settlement
schemes are expected to have made
real welfare gains, that is, improve-
ments in areas such as health, educa-
tion, and nutrition. On the other hand,
the small farmers, those who have
minimal labor available but increased
need for household labor use, were
found to have lost in terms of welfare
though gained in terms of income.
The author traces this conclusion
to two factors: inadequate consid-
eration of labor-saving technologies
for women's tasks, and lack of access
to income by women that may enable

them to ease their work burden.
Both these observations, however,
pose dilemmas which may not be
easy to resolve by even the most
enlightened of projects. In terms of
labor-saving technologies, activities
requiring women's labor in small
farm households are precisely those
for which landless women laborers
are hired by the large farm house-
holds. If labor-saving technologies
for these tasks are made available to
small farmers, what prevents large
farmers from using them too?
The second problem-lack of
access to income by women-may
have more obvious solutions. These
include encouraging women's paral-
lel or related economic activity, and,
by improving their access to exten-
sion education, increasing their pro-
ductivity, economic contribution,
and possibly access to resources. In
practice, this too requires over-
coming many hurdles as is pointed
out in this and other case studies.
For those readers who are con-
vinced of the value of adopting a
gender-differentiated approach in
project monitoring and evaluation,
there is a brief methodological
appendix. The approach taken is
in-depth though qualitative. It can
be completed in less than a month of
extensive visits in the project area.

.-; -;.

-F' ...

The second case
study is Sex Roles in
the Nigerian Tiv
Farm Household by
Mary E. Burfisher
and Nadine R.
Horenstein. Its
major contribution

is in the documentation of women's
significant independent contribution
made in agriculture. In this area of
Nigeria, where a single though pro-
longed peak of rainfall occurs (eight
months and 55 inches), eight staple
crops are grown. The case notes
that women have a dominant labor
role in four crops, yams, sorghum,
cowpeas, and maize, and contribute


significantly to the others.
The picture that emerges is one of
markedly differentiated but com-
plementary roles of women and men
in agriculture. Within this context,
one important observation made is
the link between labor use and
decision making as well as access to
the fruits of labor. Is this a common
feature of household farming in
Africa, in contrast to Asia where
the bonded aspects of women's labor
is more pronounced? If so, agricul-
tural development experiences in
Asia may not be entirely applicable
for Africa.
A higher degree of management
independence by women requires a
much greater attention to their
access to extension and inputs as well
as resources from outputs to ensure
incentives for change.
Another contribution of this study
is that it shows the current diffi-
culties in predicting the consequences
of projects, even when detailed in-
formation on women's roles is

The third case is
S Agricultural Policy
I V-r'- Implementation: A
Case Study from
Western Kenya by
Kathleen Staudt. Its
focus is on the rea-
sons and conse-
quences of the inequities faced
by women in access to agricultural
services. It is an empirical study of
two locations of Kakamega District
in Western Kenya, with different
degrees of availability of agricultural
The locations have been classified
as high in agricultural potential,
with an annual rainfall of 70 inches
and two growing seasons. At the
same time, nearly 40% of agricul-
tural households are female-headed.
The brief description of women's
roles is illustrative both of their
activities and responsibilities in
basic maintenance of the family, as

well as their limited and declining
control over land. The body of the
paper deals with the experience of
female-managed farms with a range
of agricultural services.
Female and jointly managed farms
are compared for two types of agri-
cultural program strategies -
ordinary and intensive. Controlling
for farm size, the author examines a
number of activities for access and
use by female- and jointly managed
farms. These include extension ser-
vice, formal training programs, spe-
cialized information on hybrid maize
and other cash crops, production
loans, membership in cooperatives,
and high-tech services.
The stark inequity for female-
managed farms is evident in both
ordinary and intensive agricultural
programs. The case study shows that
by slighting female-managed farms,
the farm's productive potential is
shortchanged. The author also pro-
vides an interesting "inquiry into
factors" underlying gender differ-
ences in agricultural policy in
Overall, these cases provide a
sound introduction to the issues
involved in incorporating women's
production roles in agricultural
development programs. For those
highly empirically inclined, the case
studies might not offer as much
depth as one may desire.
Clearly, additional analyses of
completed projects are necessary
for more satisfactory preliminary
assessments. In particular, the dy-
namic nature of farming systems and
of women's roles needs to be better
documented with the processes of
agricultural change. Cross-sectional
comparisons modeled on the type
in the case study from Western
Kenya together with available infor-
mation collected over time would
be useful. U

Shubh K. Kumar is a research fellow at
the International Food Policy Research
Institute in Washington, DC.

Women's Roles in Water Supply
and Sanitation in Developing
Countries: A Four-Part Bibliography
by Author, Subject, Phase of
Development, and Country

Alice J. Smith
WASH Technical Report, No. 21
1984, 78 pp.

Paper copy $1.04
Microfiche $1.08

Women and Shelter

Margery Sorock, Hortense Dicker,
et al.
Resources for Action
1984, 24 pp.

Paper copy $3.12
Microfiche $1.08

Collaborative Research in the
International Agricultural Research
and Development Network: A Case
Study; Progress Report of the
Bean/Cowpea Collaborative
Research Support Program
Michigan State University, Center
for International Programs, East
Lansing, MI
1984, 157 pp.

Paper copy $20.41
Microfiche $ 2.16

Low-Income Housing: A Women's

Margaret A. Lycette and Cecilia
International Center for Research on
Women, Washington, DC
1984, 53 pp.

Paper copy $6.89
Microfiche $1.08



10-19 "Forum '85: A World Meeting for
Women," an independent non-govern-
mental organization activity tied to the 1985
World Conference of the UN Decade for
Women, Nairobi, Kenya. Contact: NGO
Planning Committee, 777 UN Plaza, 11th
Floor, New York, NY 10017

14-20 Mental Health 2000. The theme is
"Action Programs for a World in Crisis,"
sponsored by the National Association for
Mental Health, Sussex, U.K. Contact: Con-
ference Associates, MIND, 34 Stanford
Rd., London W8 5PZ U.K.

15-19 International Symposium on
Advances in Water Engineering, sponsored
by the University of Birmingham, Birming-
ham, U.K. Contact: T.H.Y. Tebbutt, Depart-
ment of Civil Engineering, University of
Birmingham, PO Box 363, Birmingham
B15 2TT, U.K.

15-26 1985 World Conference of the UN
Decade for Women, Nairobi, Kenya. Gov-
ernment delegates, representatives of inter-
governmental agencies, and official observ-
ers will review the UN Decade for Women
and make recommendations for action to
the UN General Assembly

22-26 Education in the Information Age:
The Impact on Teacher Education and
Teaching, sponsored by the International
Council on Education for Teaching, Van-
couver, British Columbia, Canada. Con-
tact: Dane Russo, ICET, One Dupont Circle,
Suite 616, Washington, DC 20036

29-Sep. 20 Workshop on Urban Land
Development and Planning, U.K. Contact:
Oxford Program of Development Work-
shops, c/o Department of Town Planning,
Oxford Polytechnic, Headington, Oxford

4-9 Workshop on Private and Voluntary
Organization Strategies for Tree-Planting
by Peasant Farmers, sponsored by the Pan
American Development Foundation and
the Council of Haitian Protestant Churches,
Haiti. Enrollment is limited. Contact: Glenn
Smucker, Director, Proje Pyebwa, BP
15574, Petionville, Haiti

4-31 Seminar on "The International
Financial System: Does It Work?" spon-
sored by The Institute of World Affairs and
the Universities Field Staff International.
Contact: William E. Schaufele Jr., Director,
Institute of World Affairs, Salisbury, CT

5-23 Management Issues in International
Health seminar, sponsored by Manage-
ment Sciences for Health. Contact: Eliza-
beth Dunford, Management Training, Man-
agement Sciences for Health, 165 Allen-
dale Rd., Boston, MA 02130; telephone
(617) 524-7799

5-Sep. 6 Workshop on Supervision and
Evaluation as Management Tools, spon-
sored by the Center for Development and
Population Activities, Washington, DC.
Contact: Joan Favor, CEDPA Director of
Administration, 1717 Massachusetts Ave.
NW, Suite 202, Washington, DC 20036;
telephone (202) 667-1142

5-Sep. 13 Course on Comprehensive
Vector Control, sponsored by the Univers-
ity of South Carolina. The course is offered
in Spanish. Contact: International Center
for Public Health Research, PO Box 699,
McClellanville, SC 29458

5-Sep. 27 Course on Plant Quarantine,
sponsored by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, DC. Contact:
David P. Winkelmann, Acting Director for
International Training, Room 4118, Audi-
tor's Building, Office of International
Cooperation and Development, USDA,
Washington, DC 20250

8-9 Joint Committee on Agricultural
Research and Development meeting,
sponsored by AID, Washington, DC. Con-
tact: John G. Stovall, Board for Inter-
national Food and Agricultural Develop-
ment, Room 5318, Washington, DC
20523; telephone (202) 632-8532

11-15 American Institute of Biological
Sciences annual meeting, sponsored by
the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Contact: Meetings Department, AIBS, 1401
Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209

11-16 World Congress on Computer-
Assisted Valuation, sponsored by the
Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cam-
bridge, MA. Contact: Lincoln Institute, 26
Trowbridge St., Cambridge, MA 02138

11-25 Short Course on Range
Management, sponsored by Utah State
University, Logan UT. Contact: Conference
and Institute Division, UMC 50A, Eccles
Conference Center, Utah State University,
Logan, UT 84322; telephone (801) 750-

12-16 Seventh International Conference
on the Global Impacts of Applied Micro-
biology, Helsinki, Finland. Contact: H.G.
Gyllenberg, Chairman GIAM VII Organiz-
ing Committee, Department of Microbio-
logy, University of Helsinki, SF-00710
Helsinki 71, Finland

18-24 U.S.-Korea Joint Seminar on
Urban/National Transportation Planning
Models and the Environment, sponsored
by the U.S. National Science Foundation
and the Korea Science and Engineering
Foundation, Seoul, Korea. Contact: Editor,
The Urban Edge, World Bank Publications,
PO Box 37525, Washington, DC 20013

26-30 Seminars on "Financial Manage-
ment for Health Programs," "Nutrition
Policy and Management," and "Policy
Issues in Managing Drug Supply," spon-
sored by Management Sciences for Health.
Contact: Elizabeth Dunford, Management
Training, Management Sciences for Health,
165 Allandale Rd., Boston, MA 02130;
telephone (617) 524-7799

1-6 Twelfth World Conference on Health
Education, sponsored by the International
Union for Health Education, Dublin, Ire-
land. The theme is "Health for All-Meeting
the Challenge." Contact: Mary D'Ardis,
Health Education Bureau, 34 Upper Mount
St., Dublin 2, Ireland

2-27 Short Course on the Epidemiology of
Aging, sponsored by the London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the
World Health Organization, London, U.K.
Contact: P. Hamilton, Head, Department of
Community Health, London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St.,
London WC1E 7HT U.K.

2-Oct. 2 Workshop on Shelter Provision
and Settlement Upgrading, Oxford, U.K.
Contact: Oxford Program of Development
Workshops, c/o Department of Town
Planning, Oxford Polytechnic, Headington,
Oxford OX3 OBP U.K.

2-Oct. 4 Course on Postharvest Loss
Reduction of Perishable Crops, sponsored
by the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, DC. Contact: David P. Winkel-
mann, Acting Director for International
Training, Room 4118, Auditor's Building,
Office of International Cooperation and
Development, USDA, Washington, DC

4 Board for International Food and
Agricultural Development (BIFAD) meet-
ing, sponsored by AID, Washington, DC.
Contact: John Rothberg, AID/BIFAD,
Room 5318, Washington, DC 20523;
telephone (202) 632-0228

Any additions or corrections should be sent
at least three months in advance of the
event to International Calendar, Horizons,
AID, Room 4890 NS, Washington, DC 20523
or telephone (202) 632-4330.





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