Citation
Wonderland of wisdom, or, The boys library

Material Information

Title:
Wonderland of wisdom, or, The boys library Being a grand storehouse of natural history, biography, travels, discovery, thrilling adventures, remarkable animals and birds explorations in all parts of the world, Indian stories and exciting exploits on the frontier, sea yarns, riddles, conundrums, etc. ...
Portion of title:
Boy's library
Creator:
Field, Wynn ( Editor )
S. I. Bell & Co ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Philadelphia ;
Chicago
Publisher:
S.I. Bell & Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
322, [3] p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Biography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Frontier and pioneer life -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Seafaring life -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Children's stories ( lcsh )
Children's poetry ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1891 ( lcsh )
Children's poetry -- 1891 ( lcsh )
Riddles -- 1891 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1891
Genre:
Children's stories
Children's poetry
riddles (documents) ( aat )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Frontispiece and some full page illustration printed in blue.
Statement of Responsibility:
edited by Wynn Field ; over three hundred appropriate engravings.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026666814 ( ALEPH )
ALG5539 ( NOTIS )
191092006 ( OCLC )

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The Baldwin Library

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SS = =
erento ee

SCOTCH MAIDEN.



WONDERLAND ’:WISDOM; —

THE BOY'S LIBRARY.

BEING A GRAND STORE-HOUSE OF NATURAL HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY,
TRAVELS, DISCOVERY, THRILLING ADVENTURES, REMARKABLE
ANIMALS AND BIRDS, EXPLORATIONS IN ALL PARTS OF
THE WORLD, INDIAN STORIES AND EXCITING EX-

PLOITS ON THE FRONTIER, SEA YARNS,

RIDDLES, CONUNDRUMS, ETC.

_. The Most Complete and Fascinating Book for Boys ever Published.



eS —> | §
EDITED BY

WYNN FIELD,
AUTHOR OF “AUTUMN LEAVES,” “EVENINGS AT HOME,” ETC.

| Over Three Hundred Appropriate Fngravings.

ST BELL Co: |

PHILADELPHIA AND CHICAGO,





OOPYRIGHTED, 1891.
CG. W. STANTON.



"An Adventure with Panthers ..........

CONTENTS.



; ; PAGE
A Day with a Japanese Boy .......... 13
A Beautiful Sentiment... ......20... 14
A’ Braves Youths, evo tiat fur ao. Sea pce ines 18
AV CatiStory sua atsuee vee ye ats al Siete SANS 50
A Shark Story cetain aps Oherme Shs meets Megs Saad Foy at ce 57
Aladdin, or the Wonderful tae StU sao greets uc . . 62
A Cyclone or Whirlwind. . 2... 2... 89
About Snakes . 2... seb eerie eats IOI
An Encounter with Bears ........04.., 113
A Strange Bird. 2... 1. ieee elrez About Shells. 2... 1. slaseuatheoita- waco ane tects LAS
About Oysters toe Re eh ge) le OF Fee al ce per ye eh ce, a GQ
An Indian WLOLY a Fea rai corso eR eee ee 173
APVoung Hero eo enya eS ce atte. Wet } . 183
A Narrow Escape. 2. 2. 6 ee ee ee ee . 201
A Fearless: Heroines) 30/25) eas lta Mae lee 205
A Night on the Picket Line ........0.., 208
A Thanksgiving Dinner»... 2... ee 211
A Young Girl’s Adventure with a-Bear-. . . . . . 215
A Terrible Surprise... 2... 4; z 219

A Tale of the Greenland Seas . , Sse te erase :

A Sea-fowling Adventure 2... .....0...,
An Adventure in a Lighthouse eterehtlen te: va Meee rare
A Sea Yarn
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, ......2..,
Adventure with Pirates. .......
Abraham Lincoln. . . 2... eeeehaictny erie y eye OS 3
A Lie Sticks . 2... SONG. Salone As US GOO:
Aaron’s Rod Changed toa Serpent. .......
‘Be Thankful -

Barbara Freitchie . . . . .
Building of Babel... . 2.2.4.
Birth of Christ
Choosing Companions... ...,....... 8

Chinese Locomotion. . 2... ........4. 22
‘California Life . 2... ‘ ae Spee ees - 48
Glever Monkeys... 2 2... ee ee 122

‘Combat between a Shark and Sword Fish . . . .1 52

Crabs po eitiiias 8 ware, asset acs ge ory cee heed 2 167
Capturing his Own Father... 2... 0. 206
Duty Hirst se Scie Aaa, eat psa Rar SoM ace JO
Dragon Flies. . 2... tlreSSE ens CT eee 108
David Livingstone»... ......... .287
Daniel in the Lion’s Den... 2... 1, + + 320

Evangeline... 2... Seiad etteas kel me SAS
Eddie, the Drummer Boy . 2... 0. 196



PAGE
Early Life of Queen Victoria... 2... - 277
Eastern Shepherds... ......... 2. .318

Fingal’s Cave... . ee ee ee ee
GenéraliGrant ay) A te at haba dae ee eae - 291
His Heart In It... .. oveeiile; Rae eve Mgeremtas any T2
Horses that Like Petting. . 2... ......2.4 15
How Poor Boys Become Great ....%....., 33
How to Catch Monkeys ........... .721
Happy asa Lark .. 2... wale ne Rehaahig ood 42
Hunting Crocodiles - 2 154
How Harry and I Studied Astronomy ..... . 155
History of the Steam Engine +» 309
Indian Medicine Men .. 2... 0.4, . 177
Joan of Arc a gdh (ete dies Ai's) etna Weaver oie ae BOL
Jonah’s Disobedience... ......0.. + 315
LaunchingaShip............... 34°
Learning to be a Soldier... 2... 193
Musical Mountains . ages
My First Summer inthe Country... 2... 46

Murder of Thomas A’Becket ........., 165
Mrs, Mary A. Livermore. . . . . , eee ee . 1Q2
Mary, Queen of Scots... .....,., + + + 306
Napoleon Bonaparte... ........... 270
Out on Business... 2... ee ee ee ew ee. go
“Old Spectacles,” a War Story ........, 204
Poors Dick waist crac oo, Seay eel eas tard ea 45

Penn’s Treaty with the Indians . . , esate ns eZ)

Pride Goes Beforea Fall... 2... .. 0.4; 140
Pears wei cies Wak eI MMSE EY ects emi aoe 150
Playthings of Indian Children. . 2... 0. 180
Putnam’s Leap. lie ng, cone Be 193
Bizarro. jee eo Sasa ale bee aint ls eg 273
Peter: the: Gréaten, ahs singe a TSE ne ia ace 303
Paper and Printing . 2... . 0, 311
Ruth Gleaning in the Field of Boaz ......, 321
Send that BoytoMe ............, 9
Story of Susan Cooper. . 2... ....00, 31
Story of Little Hoe... 2... 39
Ship Ahoy! ebeagelissns ley Gay Wee he epee ey eaten a oe fate 51
Stories of Rivers in America . 2. 2... , 82
Sands Whirlwindsa.2.4" 2 cuir Wae oy ee oe 88
Spiders’, ht Ns wep eee re Me nae 100
Something about Frogs and Toads... 2... , 103
South American Indians... 2... 170
Swiss Family Robinson .:........,, 237
Story of Benjamin Franklin 2... ....020, 295
Sketch of Daniel Webster... ......,~, 298



CONTENTS.



PAGE PAGE
Mig er ae ea. Gee Secale va Mee ia Nie teen Ue Phe. Whale kone itis sAea outa ste eek soya ote cance 195
Theswindinill cic se sche aw ee ae 79 | The Little Sailors. . 6. 2. ee ee 202
PheoMippengese cree aeant a scnilh Gaius ear HesOn ls hekire bres sic chaste uns Wee Dee eee eee 2OO!
ThesBusy"Beeise. ook ote outa cole ek eee she Oe |Cbne) Cat andthe Fox fa iets kas sou teie eee vee ee LO
PENG HMTOSt ieee tesco teenee ral es soy eo teen oo eaten oe 94s eee he, OQUITrel Lunt aye eric Mao ieee trae nea 214
Phe: Camel vee ec Se ee «+ ee s+ + EES | The Princess Wonderful... .......- 2. .214
The Sea-side. . 2... Bspette (aesiceeae » «.. .16 | The Three Wishes ..... 1 rine Riite sh scene 3
The Flower Girl (2 2... 2... «+ + 124| The Disobedient Little Girl... . 2... Ske o2 52
The Miller’s Geese . . . . 1... 1 + « « + « 130] The Revolving Palace... .. Soe a Le cone Spr Oo
The Rulers of England .......... . .132| The Sailor Boy. ....... Sahat Suet oPeea Meg pees 260
hevsazy, Wades ce See ese oe a saehee steel gata vc she. Generous: Childet cass ierncriyesae weer erteneeeke ah e ZOD
shes cegMaideny s #ih. st Sie8 . SE ote alter eas 135 | The Selfish Boy. . ... steerage ensaiea tain Mean 20 5
The Parrot andthe Cat... eee eee . « . 138 | The Dolls’ Christmas Party... ....... . 264
The Owl and her Friends .........2.-. 143. |The little "Peddlers coe ores os gw ee 268
The Whooping Crane... 2... 4... +144] The Happy New Year. . 2. 2... ee eee 270
The Little Dairy Maid. 1 2... + « + -149 |} Underthe Sheaves ....... gateeeaiona tag taAL O.
(he: Swallows se Sie.coy Sete eal vie: tgth sates cat ua grad wes 150 | Valentine’s Morning. . . . 2... 1 ee ee 216
The Truants ..... lel ete ae ea ia ee AST | Wacation:Song. ie) ane a shite sheteteuctr oye Bi AZOT,
The Robin. ....... oe © ee ee © «© « 160 | Wish You Merry Christmas. . 2... 2.2.2... 39
The Wanderer’s Return .. 2... ee eee 165 | What Our Clothing is Made of ..... Ba eae R S
The Babes inthe Woods. ........... 167 | What Are the Wild Waves Saying. . .. . weed
The Sweet Soup ......... + +... . 168 | What a Little Girl Thought of Swearing . . . . . 183
The -PetsOwl isis arte ee a eile Ne le ve ee TOL: | Whatithe: Sunbeams ‘Saway isi ase 197:
ThesKitten:. cae cor Ai eet eed ser bad Teh 1925|-.You-aresWatched = Sip ecw elas oacete ver Tele? Sie eae
The: Globe #Pishe crac here a te Rees ST /194 | Whata Fairy Did. .... Baas helene veep eure ene 34
The Trunk Fish . 2... ....-. ‘+ es « . 195 | Winter Birds (Song). 2. 6 2 ee we we ee. 206





| by

FULL-PAGE

ILLUSTRATIONS.





=e > PAGE
Rrontis piece; gieh aotgee ico oi ee el Four Leaders—First Crusade... 2...
Send That Boy to Me Siok Teco toca SPN teseTSeBORS toes 11 | Murder of Thomas A’Becket. ......2..~.,
The Brave Boy... 2... Seng seiner tees 19 | Druids Offering a Sacrifice . 2... 1
““My Name was Captain Kidd® . 2.5... 26 | The Young Soldiers. (Ssori7)) Saiz Sree eG ae
~The Julia EEA fonts Bean ase Ceuta eae 37 | Blucher’s March to Waterloo ........~.
My Summer in the Country, .. 2... em 7a lel hes strugele sii ea rin citi eae eM
Spinning thei Varn: (Resi opens sen eee Oe 55 | Death of the Royal Tiger ..:.......2..,
Crossing the Steppes ieee ae Re aha cao au aie 73 | Tigress and her Cubs ...... ieee Sha eas Rone
. Declaration of Independence... 2... , Sry eTnenValcings: th, taint es tere try Senet Aare
Out of Business 1:0! 3 2 Ce aes 91 | Ship Lying on the Shore. . 2. 2...
TEOCUStS Srp R ORBAN age te are a Ae a 99 | Napoleon and Queen Louise .......,..,.,
Life and Metamorphosis of the Dragon Fly . . . . 107 | Doum Palms of Upper Egypt... 2... i eaedes
The Butterfly. . 2. , tHe ngiegiccs aa om eee akere en tte 109 | Mary Stuart Receiving her Death Sentence
Sledding: mio Me itee tata teas corde Ge aR SER ay 1253) -Goingsto: Schools spre bic vig sl oh aaa aia
The Village Blacksmith ........0.~., £127'|Bolding. thedslocks .0.i.dtg.ays) ssn ror
ene Jackdawec 2 NsHki aed se taunt aes sae te 145 | The Star of Bethlehem .........2...,
The Dog andthe Crabs... ..,.0..0.., 158



CHOOSING COMPANIONS.



X HE world judges us by the company we keep; judges all

Â¥ by the worst of the company. Nor is this so far from
_ wrong. There is more probability of our becoming bad.
= than of the worst becoming good. Aman owned a swear-
= ing parrot, and to reform him, kept him in the company of
another that never used bad language. It was not long
before both parrots became very profane. Vice works
more quickly than virtue, and sticks more closely.

The world not only judges us by the company we keep,
but is ready to treat us as the worst of our companions
deserve. Success or failure in life depends very much on
the company one keeps. What, then, must be done to
have good company? oes
Choose your companions, Do not take whoever may choose you, but

choose for yourself your own company.

Choose those whom you know. You would hardly trust strangers with
property; will you trust them with that which is worth far more—your com-
fort, your reputation, your life, your soul?

Choose such as you can trust. He who deceives or flatters others may.
flatter and deceive you. If he be unfaithful to another, what assurance can
you have of his faithfulness to you?

Choose such as tell you kindly, yet frankly, your faults. Only true friencs
will do that, “Faithful are the wounds of a friend.”

Choose those who respect their parents and are loved at home. Nowhere
is there such an opportunity given to study one’s character so closely studied,
as at home. Those who respect their parents will respect what is worthy and
good in you, and those whom the little ones of home love and trust you may
regard as worthy your confidence. Respect for parents and love and care for
little ones are rarely found in hearts that are very bad.

Choose true Christians. They live from principle, and believe that-God’s

eye is upon them. Being friends of God, they will bring you into the best
company; and they will be likely in their prayers to keep you before the mind
of the Almighty, so that you may share in their own blessings. Their friend-
ship will last. They are everlasting friends, for heaven—the place you hope
for—is their home. You never need say a last “ Good-bye” .to such friends.



“SEND THAT BOY TO ME.”



7... HE pay is forty dollars a month, and a good youth is
o f i That:is what the permanent men
sure Of promotion, at-1s what the p
at the railroad shops complain about; this place is now
vacant because the lad your partner sent us, and who
filled it worthily a year, is now placed where he gets
eighty dollars a month. So we trust you to choose his
successor. They may ask you a few questions about
the candidate for form’s sake, at the office, but your
man is sure to pass muster.”

The above was addressed by a busy railroad officer
to a city lawyer, who replied:

“There is my friend’s son, Urban Starr; his father
spoke to me about employment for him. To be sure,
Urban is rather above the place as to talent and
culture, but times are hard, and the young should climb
the low rounds of the ladder. [I'll see about proposing
him.” Te

“Thank you! T’ll be doubly obliged if you will take
your applicant up to the office and see him accepted.”
And the railroad man hurried away. ;

To this conversation there had been a deeply inter.
ested but sad-hearted listener—Theodore Young, the
faithful office boy, who longed with unspeakable
desire for some such place as the one described. He
was the eldest son of a widowed mother, whom he yearned to help, and who
was so poor that forty dollars a month seemed wealth to her boy. When the
railroad man left, the lawyer turned to Theo, saying:

“Here, Theo, though it isn’t your work, won’t you note the dates of these
letters and file them away in order, while I write a letter for you to take up
to Mr. Starr’s?” .

Theo attended carefully to the papers, and was waiting for the letter before
it was finished. A great desire was swelling in his throat till it ached, and
when the finished letter was handed to him, his request burst forth in trem-
bling eagerness:

“Do you think, sir, there is, or may be, any low place in the railroad shops
for which you would venture to recommend me? I would begin very low and
work very hard tg deserve promotion; perhaps in years I might come to such
a place as this for Urban Starr.” |



10 “SEND THAT BOY TO ME.”

“ How can we spare our good, trusty Theo? But I own, it is too bad to
keep you here. If Urban consents to apply, when I go with him you may go,
too, and I'll interview the parties about something for you.”

“Oh, thank you, sir,” cried Theo, and he was so-glad that he ran instead of
walking on his errand. A few hours later found Urban and Theo waiting in
the ante-room, while the lawyer made known his business about Urban to the
railroad officials, who said: —

“Oh, yes; thank you for bringing him. The last employé your firm sent
was a treasure, and we don’t need to ask questions about this one; yet there
is one essential thing I will mention. Of course you know this person, like
the last, to be strictly temperate—total abstinence pledged and practiced?”

“No, sir, I know nothing of the kind; but on the contrary, while my friend,
Mr. Starr, is temperate, he isn’t one of the total kind. There is wine for the
guests at New Year’s, and Urban takes his glass like the rest.”

“Excuse me, then, but he wont do for our employ. Total abstinence prin-
ciples and habits are our first requirements.”

“He is no drunkard. netneps if you see him you will think he has quali-
fications of great value to you.’

“Tt is teeless for us to even see him, since we desire one who has been
from boyhood voluntarily abstinent.”

“Very well; Urban Starr is above need of the place. Good-morning!
Oh, excuse me for having forgotten another matter; there is here a lad with
me—in fact, our own office boy—for whom I’ve promised to ask if you’ve any
kind of a place ever coming vacant into which you could put him with hope
of his future. We hate to lose him, for he is trusty, capable, willing, writes a
good hand, is quick at figures.”

“ How is he on his total abstinence ?”

“Oh, he is square on that. Signed the pledge when a child. Never took
a first glass. Regards a glass of wine with superstitious horror.”

“Send him in, if you please; we would like to talk with him.”

Theo came back to the lawyer’s office radiant with joy, exclaiming, “ They
say I’m just the one they want for the place you didn’t take for Urban. They
only laughed when I said I feared there was some mistake. Is it all Bent)
Don’t Urban want the situation? ”

“Tt is all right, Theo. Please ROMER when youre 2 railroad president
that you owe your success in life to me.’

This occurred (for this is true) several years ago, und Theo has nowa salary
of fifteen hundred dollars, with the love and confidence of all who know him,
while Urban is intemperate, out of employment, and agriet to his parents.











































































































































































































































































































































































































“SEND

THAT BOY TO ME.”



HIS HEART IN IT.

MANUFACTURER in Philadelphia lately id a friend the
story of one of his superintendents.

“Twelve years ago a boy applied to me for work. He was
employed at low wages. Two days later the awards of pre-
miums were made to manufactories at the Centennial Ex-
hibition. :

“Passing down Chestnut street early in the morning, I saw
Bob poring over the bulletin-board in front of a newspaper
office. Suddenly he jerked off his cap with a shout.

«« What is the matter?’ some one asked.

« «We have taken a medal for sheetings!’ he exclaimed.

“I said nothing, but kept my eye on Bob. The boy who
could identify himself in two days with my interests would be
of use to me hereafter.

“His work was to deliver packages. I found that he
took a real pride in it. His wagon must be cleaner, his horse
better fed, his orders filled more promptly than those of the
men belonging to any other firm. He was as zealous for the
house as though hé had been a partner in it. I have ad-
vanced him step by step. His fortune is made, and the firm
have added to their capital so much energy and force.”

“Never buy a draught horse,” says the Farmers’ Guide, “ which needs the
whip to make him pull? "

We find in a Southern newspaper a remark which points the same truth in
other circumstances. A Northern man with a small capital settled ten years
ago in a town in Georgia. He established a thriving business, started a
library, a lyceum, street-cars, and a hospital, and became one of the most
popular men in the town.

When he died, last summer, the leading journal said: “The secret of the
powerful influence which this stranger acquired among us was that he never
said, ‘I and mine,’ but ‘We and ours.’ And he meant tt.”









A DAY WITH A JAPANESE BOY.











IDEOSABE KUKU is

11 a Japanese boy of fifteen
years, who lives in the city
of Tukin, in Japan. He lives
in an old and handsome
-house built of solid timber;
it has only one story, and
this is divided into ten rooms.
by sliding .paper screens.
The floors are carpeted with
thick, soft mats, and it is well
there are so many because
Hideosabe wears only stock-
ings on his feet; his shoes, which are made of wood, are only worn in the street.
At breakfast, Hideosabe, with his father, mother and two little sisters, sits.
down on a thick mat spread before a low table. A servant brings in a large































































- bowl of cold boiled rice, and sets it before each person, and then.a dipper full

of steaming tea is brought in, and the rice saturated and heated by having
the tea poured over it. They eat this with two long, straight ivory sticks,
called chop-sticks. After the rice they have another course consisting of
slices of large pickled radishes ; these are followed by more tea, and the meal
is ended.

When it is time for Hideosabe to go to school he puts on his wooden shoes,
which are fastened by a leather strap across the instep. He wears a long
loose coat of dark blue silk, an evidence of wealth, and under this a pair of
very wide linen trousers. He carries a slate and copy-book wrapped in a
square of silk. Before he has gone far many friends join him; some are men
of twice his age.

The school-house is a long, low bamboo building with glass windows, and
rows of rough wooden benches. It has two doors, and“according to Japanese
etiquette, teachers and pupils must never enter the same door. Outside the
school-house is a building nearly as large. Two or thrée servants stand inside.
this door, and as Hideosabe enters, he takes of his clogs, and hands them to.
a servant, who gives him a check. Then he goes into the school-room. In
this room are fire-pots, looking like little charcoal stoves, ranged along the
wall, where the teachers and students light their pipes.



14 : A BEAUTIFUL SENTIMENT.



The school is called to order by taps of a metal hammer on a large bell
without a tongue. Whata strange country this is, where the cats have no
tails, the bells no tongues, and ne people take off their shoes instead of their
hats when théy enter ne house.

The school consists of several hundred apile and a half dozen masters,
and they all talk in low tones, smoke when they like, and occasionally take
little naps on the floor if the weather is hot. School hours are from nine to
three, the only recess being a short one for tiffin, or lunch of cold boiled rice.
Then there is a half Ronee: practice with the fencing-master, in which all take
part.

School being over r Hideosabe hires a sort of full- grown baby-carriage drawn
by a man, and goes to spend an hour with a fdend practicing gymnastics.
Some American visitors have made a pun on this vehicle, and called it a pull’
man-car.

Hideosabe goes home to dinner, which is more ceremonious than breakfast
or tiffin, A small black lacquered table, only four inches high, is laid with
chop-sticks, a pair for each member of the family, who take: their places on
the rugs, and are served by the neat maid who brings in little tubs of steaming
rice and pots of tea. Then follow fish, boiled eggs, lobsters and slices of
roast venison. After this is a warm drink called “sake,” made of fermented
rice. Now, the candles are brought in, and the pipe for the house-master.
While he smokes the mother tells stories in which they are all interested.

Later in the evening Hideosabe devotes an hour to his lessons, and then takes
a hot bath, without which no man, rich or poor, considers his day properly ended.

His bed consists of a quilt spread.on the floor, while the pillow is a wooden
box about eight inches high by four broad, and covered with a velvet cushion.
_ This contains all the toilet articles, a small paper lantern, and a secret drawer
for money. The neck of the sleeper is laid on the velvet cushion, and the
head rests on nothing. We say good-night to Hideosabe, feeling sure that
he will have as sweet sleep as we on our good beds.



308



A, BEAUTIFUL SENTIMENT.

HEN the Hindoo priest is about to baptize an infant, he utters the
following beautiful sentiment :—“ Little babe,,thou enterest the world
weeping while all around thee nic contrive to live that you may depart in
smiles while all around you weep.” :





HORSES THAT LIKE PETTING.

«A merciful man is merciful to his beast.”



N ambulance driver in New York tells the following about his horse:

“ About two years ago he was put before an ambulance for the first
time. He was a very young horse then, and of course very frisky and unruly.
Anything like an unnecessary noise seemed to excite him so that it was a
difficult matter to manage him at.all. When hurrying through the streets,
the noise of the gong had various effects on him. At one time, he would tear
along at a rate that threatened destruction to the ambulance and death to all
in it; and it seemed an utter impossibility to check him, At another time he
would stubbornly reftise to move faster than a walk, in spite of all the beating

+



16 HORSES THAT LIKE PETTING.

that we might give him. To find some cure for this unruliness became a
source of endless anxiety to us. We tried several plans, but each one proved
a signal failure.. Finally, we discovered an effective method by mere accident.
One day, we were about starting off to get an injured man, when I left Bill
for a moment standing near the curb-stone, in charge of my little boy. When
I came back, ready to go, Bill was quietly eating some oats that the little
fellow was feeding him from his hands. I waited and allowed him to finish
eating what the boy had, and then got in the ambulance and drove off. Well,
I had no trouble at all on that trip in getting Bill to go good. Of course, I
laid it all to the oats; but the rest of the fellows laughed at me when I told
them of it. Still, I was not to be discouraged in that way; so the next day I
tried feeding him just previous to starting. But Bill cut up as badly as ever,
and it was with difficulty that I got my patient safely to the hospital. After
this defeat, I thought nuch over the matter, and tried to devise some other
means ‘of conquering Bill of his bad habit. I liked the horse, and hated to
part with him; and yet things could not go on as they had been going, for I
was running a great risk every time I drove him. Soon after this, I stood
patting Bill on the neck and feeding him with my hands, when word came
that a man had been injured down town. I started immediately; and, strange
to say, I never drove a more docile horse. I then became convinced that |
Bill's good behavior and oats had some very intimate connection, but just
what that connection was I could not say. But, as I eventually discovered, it
depended simply on the manner in which you fed him. My boy had given
him his oats out of his own hands; but in my first trial, I had merely set them
before him in a measure. The second time I remembered, I had also fed him ~
with my hands. This led me to believe that he liked to be petted and thought
much of. Convinced of this, I made the trial of feeding him from my hand;
it worked to perfection, and we have obtained perfectly satisfactory work from
Bill ever since.”



305



I wap a little pony; Two. little blackbirds
They called him dapple gray, _ Sitting ona rail,

One named Jack,
The other named Jill.
Fly away, Jack!

: : Fly away, Jill!
She rode him through the mire; Come back, Jack!

I lent him to a lady,
To ride a mile away.
She whipped him, she slashed him,

I would not lend my pony now, Come back, jill!

for all the lady’s hire. [Played with pieces of paper stuck to fingers.]



THE NATIVE AUSTRALIANS.

HE native Australians live in
L.- hollow trees, made so by bor-
ing them out with fire. Ordinarily
their food consists of shell-fish
‘or bruised ants and grass, or they
would make a hook out of a piece
of oyster shell and fasten a line to
it and catch fish. They are filthy
beasts, and covered with lice,
They are the most degraded peo-
ple in the world. They are black,
and have frizzled hair like negroes,
and very lean arms and legs,
Their principal ornament is the
bone which they thrust through
the nose, which makes them look
very funny, and you can’t help
laughing every time you see one.
They also tattoo their skin with
all sorts of devices, and they have
a habit of inflicting gashes on
themselves, and then filling the cut
with wood-ashes which would
make nasty scars, causing ridges
to appear all over the body. A
gentleman, who spent many years
in Australia, said that he was present once when the tribe was mourning the
death of one of its members. They all sat in a circle around a fire perfectly
quiet. After a while one began moaning, and gradually they all joined in; |
then the one who first started the chorus began to strike himself all over the
body with a sharp instrument, and soon the entire party were shrieking and
making a terrible noise, and wounding themselves in the most fearful manner.
This continued a long while, till they were all exhausted. The next day they
dressed their wounds with mud, and went around as usual as if nothing had
happened. This old fellow in the picture looks quite peaceably disposed; but
you can’t tell what these wild people will do once they are aroused.





A BRAVE YOUTH.

S a little boy was row.
ing his father to
their home at Grand

Island, his father being
somewhat intoxicated, the
canoe got into the current
quite near the falls. The .
brave boy exerted himself
to the utmost, until he came
near to Iris Island, and the
canoe. was driven in be-
tween the little islands
called the Sisters. They
were in the greatest dan.
ger of going -over the
precipice which forms the
Horseshoe Fall. A dash
of the waves capsized the
canoe, and they were strug:
gling in the water. The boy caught his father by the coat-collar, and
dragged him to a place of safety. When they reached the shore the boy
fainted, and his father was completely sobered. The canoe was dashed to
pieces on the rocks,



NIAGARA FALLS.



70%



Rounp the wood, and round the Way is your shadow like a false
wood, and never goes into the wood ? | friend?—It follows you only in sun-
—A vine on a tree. shine,

Aut holes, full of holes, and yet Who is that lady whose visits no-





holds water ?—A sponge. body wishes ?—Miss. Fortune.
Lirrie Jack Horner sat in acorner, | Tom, Tom, the piper’s son,
Eating a Christmas pie ; - | Stole a pig and away he run;
He put in his thumb, and he took out | The pig was eat,
a plum, And Tom was beat,

And said, “ What a good boy am I!” | And Tom ran erying down the street,





THE BRAVE Boy.






Ours is a town of prairie dogs;
We dig our palaces in the ground;
And pop! we enter, like leaping frogs;
Beside each door a mound,
Where we can watch and bask in the sun,
Chatting together till day is done,
Neighborly, merry, every one.

The galloping Indian reins aside
From the pitfalls of the wish-ton-wish ;
Owls and rattlesnakes with us abide.
- (“Pretty kettle of fish!” )
Antelope feed on our grass dew-pearled,

Wild horses stampede with manes unfurled,

And hunted buffalo shake our world.

Ad

But a stranger thing has come at last, —
An iron horse, that would make you quail,
With fiery breath goes raging past,
All eyes along his tail.
I am a hero; I brave the train,
Bark at the monster with might and main,
And send him snorting over the plain.

M4 lee Tce a ales
bs an Ae eS GK) iss Av
oe Nay ee iy wy De

on 4



egy 3

wan
a

Se


ae Ay Pe



CHINESE LOCOMOTION.

N

We TF one could
gather to-
gether all the
different
means of trav-
el used in dif-
ferent parts
of the world,
what a curious
collection it
would be! In
Venice they
use boats call-
ed gondolas;
“in China, a
wheel-barrow,
consisting of
a single wheel,
with a person
on each side to balance it. Suppose one side were heavier than the other,
would it not be funny to see them tumble over? Sometimes they use a sail
to help push the wheel-barrow along. Just imagine sucha contrivance coming
down the main street! Would not the boys be out in full force to see what
the strange contrivance was? In Lapland, a part of Russia, Iceland, and the
northern part of America, the Esquimaux use dogs attached to a sled. They
use no reins, but direct the animals by using the whip and calling to them.

























THE JAPANESE.

HE Japanese are very much
like their neighbors, the Chi-
nese; but the resemblance is more
in the color of their skin and the
way they dress, It is only within
the last thirty years that Ameri-
cans and Englishmen have been
allowed to enter the Mikado’s
empire; but the people are very
quick to learn, and when General
Grant visited them, ten years ago,
he found railroads, telegraphs,
and everything. that you are ac-
-customed to seeing every day.
They are very fond of flowers,
and their country is called the
“flowery kingdom,”:on that ac-
count. One flower, that perhaps
you have often seen and know all
about, the Camelia, grows forty
feet high there.

Thirty-five years ago a vessel
visited one of their ports, and the
captain and part of his officers !
and crew went ashore; but they A ae Pe a Hi =s
took good care to stay near their
boat. ‘The Japanese, however,
treated them so nicely that they
were easily persuaded to visit the
castle the next day. The captain
and all his officers went to the
castle, when they were quickly
seized, and their hands, arms, legs
and feet tied; and they were put
in jail, and kept prisoners a long
while. .When Commodore Perry, of the United States Navy, visited that



JAPANESE LADY.



94 THE JAPANESE,

country a few years afterward, he was treated much better; but, whenever the
party approached a village, the women all scampered away. The interpreter,
when spoken to about it, lied, and said the women were modest and afraid.
But Perry told the interpreter that it wasn’t so. The guide laughed, because
to be able to lie and not be caught is considered something to be proud of.
The Japanese women are quite pretty, but very small, being less than five feet
high. They dress in silk and cotton. Their clothes are made like that in the
picture. They paint their faces, shave off their eyebrows, and blacken their
teeth ; ae think this makes them prettier. They are very social, and have
i in HH » tea-parties,
Kl SE Ae ul L [ i | where they have

Hn Th ae music, card-
playing, and do
pretty much as
we do. Their
furniture is very
scanty. They
spread mats on
the floor, and at
night bring out
pillows and bed-
covers, open
screens, which

divide the























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































partments, and
=3 lie on the floor
Me and sleep. In
JAPANESE FAMILY, ~ the mornin g
they put away their pillows and bedclothes, fold up their screens, sweep the
floor, and their housework is done. They are great readers, and the number
of novels printed each year is wonderful. They are printed from wooden
blocks, and they use one side only of the paper because it is so thin, as it is
made from the bark of a tree. The very poorest and commonest kind of
people there both read and write, which is more than can be said of a great
many other countries,
Their principal product is rice, which takes the place of bread. They also
grow oranges, lemons, peaches, plums, figs, chestnuts, apples, and something



room into com- ©



THE JAPANESE. . 25



else you all know about, which mother puts in your clothes to keep out the
moths. I hear you all say,“ Camphor.” Well, you are right; itis made from
the gum of an evergreen tree.

They have gold, silver and copper mines, and make steel and porcelain,
You will find there cats and dogs, sheep, goats, horses, oxen, hogs, etc.

The better classes of the Japanese wear wide trousers and swords. The
men are about five feet high, and the women between four and five feet.
Their walk is very funny, as they wear high-heeled clogs, and turn their toes
in, which makes them waddle.



30:



Why is a shoe-black like an editor ?—Because he polishes the understand-
ings of his patrons.





30:
Wuen did Moses sleep five in a bed >—When he slept with his forefathers.

o—————: 0:



Wuy is a man looking for a philosopher’s stone like Neptune ?—Because he
is sea-king what never was.



303:



"Way is the letter K like a pig’s tail?—Because it is the end of pork,





303:

Wuere can happiness always be found ?—In the Dictionary.





202

Wuat is the color of a grass-plat covered with snow ?—Invisible green.



303



STRICTLY speaking how many days are there in a year?—Three hundred
and twenty-five—forty are Lent, and never returned.





302

_ How many dog-days are there in a year?—Three hundred and sixty-five:
every dog has its day.



30%



Way does a miller wear a white hat >—To keep his head warm.





















































































































































































































































































































“My name was Robert Kidd, when I sailed.”

*



en

AN

THE VOYAGE OF ROBERT THE KID. !






I sailed,
My name was Robert Kidd, when I sailed,

My name was Robert Kidd, and so wickedly |
I did 7 :

a,
<4y Y name was Robert Kidd, when I sailed, when aN
f\ A

I should say so! Robert Kid might as well confess, }
since all the village was knowing to the caper he cut} ]#*
up. Our Robert was not Kidd the pirate, but a modern | Wi
kid, with a goat mother.

From his very babyhood he had a talent for breaking or undoing
his rope, and making off.

One day he got loose and ambléd off unseen down the steep
bank to the river-side. There a boat was hitched, and on a seat
of the boat. lay some clothing. Robert knew a garment when he
saw it. He had eaten one suit from our clothes-line, where
it was hung out to air.

Robert leaped into the boat, and began at the collar to devour IC
the coat. The canvas in the collar just suited his appetite.

By barely turning his head he could add to his feast a taste |
of old rope. That was the rope the boat was tied with, and it V
presently dropped apart. Robert was too busy with the clothes to | ‘ae
notice that the boat was cringe out « on the sed vee =o me sailed. |





Ne



28 THE VOYAGE OF ROBERT THE KID.

as he sailed, there was danger ahead. The mill-
dam was only a short distance below. Most
likely if he went over the falls he would be done
feeding on clothes and gnawing ropes. —
Then there went up a lusty shout: —
“Help! Help! Somebody come quick !”
A boy standing waist-deep in water, not far from where the
Y YW boat had started, wildly waved his arms, calling at the top
of his voice. He had discovered that Robert Kid had stolen
| Zg his clothes while # he was enjoying a bath. . \
SW Nobody seem- ing to hear his cries for assistance, the bather



4










“IR

A" , Struck out and , swam for the boat, which was now heading
q for the falls. 4 But the great matter was, that the robbery
| J Vi acitc left the boy nothing to put on.

He was a stout lad, and the best swimmer among
the boys of the village. It was well

esa he had not time to consider the risk
. * raul

he ran. The thought might have





“Igy § 1; ff struck him helpless from fright. The people
WALZ) from the near- x est houses did
x bh not come screaming to the
Sv ‘ shore a minute sooner, or

ak

he might have ~ i §

Cw caught the scare

LA and sunk like a piece of lead.

ay, “T was bound to have my clothes,”
\)



p

























was the lad’s reply to those who met
ys Y the boat as he brought it to land.

And there he sat, gripping the oars,
Sp with his recovered clothing wrapped
C YZ}, about him in a very odd fashion.
wi As the four-legged passenger skipped
ashore and made tracks for home, the boy sang out,— |
“Do that thing again, and, as sure as your name _
% is Robert Kid, I'll pitch you overboard.”
LAVINIA 8. GOODWIN.



, Box gS ft! ee | re is
A Toe ee Ly ae, ef *

GeO PRE, 22 <> CW Ri-sO x € i





MUSICAL MOUNTAINS,































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































a me

ITHIN the past few years accounts have been published of at least two
musical mountains: one in Colorado, the other in one of the western
territories ; but no one could explain the cause of the musical sounds.
_ The following description is given of a musical mountain located not far
from Mount Sinai: 4
“Jebel Nagus receives its name from certain curious sounds which proceed
from it, and which are supposed to resemble those of the wooden gong used
in Eastern churches in lieu of bells. The mountain is composed of white,
soft sandstone, and filling a large gully in the side facing west-south-west, is a
slope of fine drift-sand about three hundred and eighty feet in height, eighty ©



380 MUSICAL MOUNTAINS,

yards wide at the base, and tapering toward the top, where it branches off into
three or four narrow gullies. The sand lies at so high an angle to the
horizon, nearly thirty degrees, and is so fine and dry, as to be easily set in
motion from any point in the slope, or even by scraping away a portion from
its base. When this is done, the sand rolls down with a sluggish, viscous
motion, and it is then the sound begins—at first a low vibratory moan, but
gradually swelling out into a roar like thunder, and as_ gradually dying away
again, until the sand has ceased to roll. The sound seemed like air entering
the mouth of a large metal vessel, and I could produce an imitation of it ona
small scale, by turning my flask at a certain angle of the wind. We found
the heated surface much more sensitive to sound than the cooler layers
beneath, and that those parts of the slope which had laid long undisturbed
produced a much louder and more lasting sound than those which had re-
cently been set in motion, thus showing that the phenomenon is purely local
and superficial, and due in some manner to the combined effects of heat and
friction, A faint sound could also be produced by sweeping portions of the
sand rapidly forward with the arm; and this caused such a peculiar tingling
sensation in the operator’s arm, as to suggest that some electrical influence
was also at work, When a large quantity of the sand was set in motion, and
the sound was at its height, a powerful vibration was felt, and straws stuck
into the sand trembled visibly. The inclination of the slope is the ‘angle of
rest’ of the sand in its normal condition ; but excessive heat or drought, wind,
animals running over the slope, falling rocks and many other causes, might
act as a disturbing element. In any of these cases the sound would occur, and
its spontaneous production, which has caused so much speculation, may be
therefore easily accounted for. Besides the large slide there is a narrow slope
to the north; and part of this being in shade the whole day long during the
winter months, afforded us an opportunity of determining the comparative
sensitiveness of the heated and cool sand. We found that the sand on the
cool, shaded portion, at a temperature of sixty-two degrees, produced but a
very faint sound when set in motion; while that on the more exposed parts,
at a temperature of one hundred and three degrees, gave forth a loud and
often startling noise.”







STORY OF SUSAN COOPER.

FPHOMAS COOPER was a hun-
ter and trapper, and for many
years wandered about the country
in search of game. He married
at last a pretty young woman, and
settled near a squatter’s farm.
Tom remained at home for some
time, in order to make a com-
fortable home for his young wife;
but, becoming discontented, re-
sumed his old life, leaving old
Nero, a hound, to protect his wife.
One ‘cold morning Susan was
awakened by the loud barking of
Nero, and, hastily dressing, she
called the dog, which carried some-
thing heavy and dark in his mouth,
and on coming nearer she saw it
was a little Indian child which
Nero had killed. She examined the ground about the house, and found the
print of.a small foot with a moccasin on, and concluded that the mother was.
carrying her child when the dog attacked her. So she buried the body of
the child near the house.

Tom came home soon after, but only stayed a few days, and went away,
saying he might be gone a month or more. About two days after he had
gone Susan heard Nero scratching at the door, and opening it found the two
deerhounds her husband had taken with him. She ran as fast as she could
to the squatter’s cabin, and tried to persuade the man and his two sons to go:
in search of her husband, but they compelled her to wait until morning. She
was determined to go with them, and the party followed the trail. About
noon one of the hounds rushed into a thicket. They followed, and found the
dead body of his master, killed by an Indian arrow. They buried him, and
set out on the trail and came to the remains of a fire. They crossed a river,
and saw again the print of the small feet. They still followed the dog until
he stopped at the foot of a tree, which had a hollow about half way up. They
chopped it down, when a young’ squaw fell to the ground, They picked her





-39 THE SHEPHERD’S BRIDE,

up, and carried her to the river, and washed her wounds. Then they con-
tinued their journey, until they came to their hut. Susan begged them to
leave the Indian woman with her to nurse, and they consented. She was
delirious, and often frightened Susan with her wild ravings. She gradually
recovered, and one morning Susan missed her; she searched for her all
around, but could find nothing of her.

A few years passed away. Susan was awakened one night by a quick knock,
and called to ask who was there. A voice said: « Quick! Quick!” and she
knew the Indian woman she had nursed was there. She opened the door,
and the squaw dragged Susan out of the hut into the forest, which they had
no sooner reached when they heard the horrid yells of the Indians. She
stayed there several hours, and saw the flames of her dwelling above the
trees, and heard the “ whoops” of the Indians as they went away. The Indian
woman came back to her bringing a bag of money which Susan’s husband
had left, and waving her hand was out of sight among the trees.

Susan started for the squatter’s cabin, and, telling her story, the squatter
and his two sons went to the spot, where they found only ashes,

Susan lived with the Wiltons after this, and was like a daughter to the old
man and sister to the sons. :





THE SHEPHERD'S BRIDE.

« YNCE there was a young shepherd who wanted to marry, and though he

knew three sisters, all of them equally pretty, he did not know which to
choose. So he asked the advice of his mother, who told him to ask them all
to supper, and to give them cheese and see how they cut it. The oldest ate
tind and all; the next cut the rind off, but some good cheese with it; but ‘the
youngest pared the rind off carefully. So the young shepherd took the
youngest for his wife, and they lived contented and happy the rest of their
lives,



203



[THE following is a game played as follows: A string of boys and girls, each holding by his predecessor’s skirts,
approaches two others, who with joined and elevated hands form a double arch. After the dialogue, the line passes

through, and the last is caught by a sudden lowering of the arms—if possible.]

How many miles is it to Babylon?— | Yes, and back again |

Threescore miles and ten. If your heels are nimble and light,
Can I get there by candle-light >— You may get there by candle-light.



HOW POOR BOYS BECOME GREAT.

N° doubt many of you

have read how our
great men have been poor
boys, and after they were
grown, became tired of wear- |
ing poor clothes, and earning |
barely enough to live on, and |
determined to obtain an edu- :
cation and make something of : |
themselves, . :

You have heard how Abra- |
ham Lincoln when he was a
boy did the roughest kind of
farm-work, and when he was
older split rails.

General Garfield used to
drive horses or mules that
towed a canal boat, and it is
a singular fact that nearly all
our great men have come
from the country.

In this picture you see a
boy on his way to the village
store to exchange the products
of the garden for sugar and
other necessaries that they
cannot raise. What a bright happy face he has! It shows the firm deter-
mination of a lad who is bound to make his way in the world.

When Judge Chase was a boy, he was told to scald a hog that had just
been killed. Young Chase put the hog ina boiler full of hot water that sat
over the fire, and waited for the hairs to fall off; but, unfortunately, he allowed
the hog to remain in the water too long, and the hairs became set. What to
do he did not know; but, finally, he bethought him of his brother’s razor,
which he got, and set to work and shaved the hog. It is needless to say the
razor was fit for nothing else afterward. Judge Chase became Secretary of
the Treasury of the United States under President Lincoln.







34 LAUNCHING A SHIP.





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































LAUNCHING A SHIP.

PaPBee what are those great sheds for by the side of the
- river? See, there are great ships under them, only with-
out any masts.”

“Those are ships being built, my son, and the sheds are to
keep the wood from getting wet.”

“Why, that is taking useless trouble, for the ships are always
in the water after they are built.”

“True; but if the wood is put together when wet, it soon
becomes rotten.”

“But, father, how can they put those great ships in the
water ?”

“If you look, you will see that the ground on which they
stand is sloping.” .
“Yes; but how can a ship slide down a slope without up-



lO) eee ES BL OY CO

é
y





LAUNCHING A SHIP. 35

setting? The keel of a ship, you know, father, is quite narrow,
‘so how can they balance such a great thing on so narrow a
‘bottom ?” Ans at

“ When the ship is finished,” said his father, “ they contrive
to support it, not on the keel, but on a great frame of wood,
the top of which is fixed to each side of the ship, and the lower
part of the frame rests on long sloping pieces of timber, which
extend some distance into the water. This frame is called the
cradle of a ship, and the long pieces of timber the launch-ways.
The cradle rests upon the ways—but mind, it is not fastened
to them. The upper surface of the ways is well greased, so
that the cradle may slide easily along them. When it is wished

to put the ship into the water, the props and blocks of wood -

' which supported it while it was building are knocked away,
and then the ship rests upon the cradle, but is kept from slid-
ing down by a few props called dog-shores. At the appointed

hour these dog-shores are also knocked away and the ship slides §

gently into the water.”

“OQ, how I wish I could see a ship launched,” said George.

“It is, indeed, an interesting scene, and in ancient times was
regarded as a season of great mirth and festivity. But in late
times the launching of a ship has become a matter of so common
occurrence that it excites, in general, but very little attention.
People turn out, perhaps a thousand or two, just to see it, and
then return peaceably to their homes.”

** But tell me, father, how they used to show their mirth
at the launching of a ship ?”

“The sailors who were present at the launch were dressed
for the occasion and crowned with wreaths. The ship, too,
was bedecked with streamers and garlands. As soon as she

was fairly afloat she was purified, as the ceremony was called, ® Ws
by means of a lighted torch, an egg, and some brimstone. You
have observed that many vessels have on their prow, a carved |
image of a man or woman, called a figure-head. Among the VK
ancients it was customary to represent by the figure-head the ~ es
god they worshipped, and they usually consecrated the ship to ly fi

eee ee

ip as st 3" OBE. SC : oot Z =
2% TEs ws
e) ~" TE Ug OAS :











36 THE SHIP.

this god. Sometimes in our days, and especially in Europe,
they have great feasting and merriment; but instead of the
torch, the egg, and brimstone, the oldest sailor on board breaks
a bottle of some liquid—water among temperance folks—and
pours it over the head of the figure.”

“But is a vessel ready for sea as soon as launched 2” said
George.

“By no means. The hull of the vessel is completed, and
sometimes the masts are put in, but not always. After it is
launched it has to be rigged. When the ropes, and spars, and
sails, are all put up, and the ship spreads her canvas to the
breeze, she is one of the most graceful objects in the world.”





























































































































































































































































































































































THE SHIP.

Hoe” gloriously her gallant course she goes;
Her white wings flying never from her foes;
She walks the waters like a thing of life,

And seems to dare the elements to strife.






















THE JULIA.



STORY OF LITTLE JOE.

ITTLE Joe’s mother died during his babyhood, and his father, who was a
doctor, realized that the boy would most likely be whatever, by God’s
blessing, he chose to make him, which he hoped ultimately would be a

whole man; so he set conscientiously to work for that result.

Dr. Benner was sometimes called eccentric; but those who knew him con-
sidered him more sagacious than peculiar.

Joe had been trained to the saddle from a child; he also knew how to load
and discharge a gun, to row and manage a sail-boat, and was a capital swim-
mer ; he also knew the use of the saw and axe, and many other tools.

One fine morning in vacation, several of Joe’s playmates came for him to
go into the woods for a frolic; but Joe said: “Can’t; I must ride Black Harry
round the pasture till he is tired, and stops racing; then I must ride him along
the road as far as the post-office.”

“Well,” said Ben, one of the boys, “I’m sorry for a fellow who can’t have
his freedom such a glorious morning as this. Can’t you go to-morrow, if it’s
pleasant?”

“No, got to saw wood; but I can do whatever I like all the long afternoons.
Father thinks boys should learn to do all sorts of useful things.”

“Well, it’s too bad,” said the boys; “but we must be off, or the robins will
get the berries before we get there.” .

Black Harry was a splendid young horse, raised on the place, somewhat
strong-headed, but trustworthy, if judiciously handled.

Joe received the mail, and soon afterwards stood watching his father examin-
‘ing it. One missive proved to be a circular of bicycles.

Joe said: “Oh, father, how I do wish I could have a bicycle!”

“You may have one just as soon as you earn it,” his father replied.

Joe thought that rather discouraging, and said that Ben Low’s father was
going to give him a bicycle, and that Ben had all day to spend as he liked.

“And his father gives him no tasks?” asked the doctor.

“Well,” replied Joe, “Ben did say that he hid until his father left in the
morning, for fear he would give him a task.”

“ My son,” said Dr. Rennes “if for any reason I neglect to give you a task,
and you see anything you think ought to be done, Lwich to feel that I can
rely on you to do it.”

There was to be a convention of medical men in the city, thirty miles dis-
tant, on the third of July. Dr. Benner was to leave home on the third, and



40 STORY OF LITTLE JOE.









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































retufn on the afternoon of the Fourth of July; and the next day the doctor
had planned to take Black Harry to a cattle-show and horse-fair, band place
the beautiful animal on exhibition for the day.

He left no tasks for Joe, saying he could pass the time as he wished.

The boys planned a grand picnic, and had quite a nice feast prepared.

Joe ate his breakfast leisurely the next morning, packed his basket, and
started to meet the boys. He was running across the pasture, when a loud
whinnying caused him to stop. Black Harry came slowly up, and held up one
hoof, from which the shoe was hanging nearly off.

“Oh, dear!” exclaimed Joe; ‘ oiler made you show that to me nous I
can’t help you,-old boy, indeed I can’t.”

What could be done? John, the doctor’s man, had gone to make a little
visit, and the only other man—a farm hand—coul d “not'be. trusted with Harry;
and Joe knew it would be a great disappointment to his father should any-
thing prevent his taking his ee to the fair the next morning.

Tust then Ben Low and the rest of the boys rushed along, baskets in hand,
all ready to start. ;

Then flashed through Joe’s mind his father’s words the morning before.
There wasa short conflict. Then Joe said: “I can’t go, boys.” So ey. after
trying in vain to persuade him to go, left him.

Joe remembered that his father had said, that whoever"weént next to the









STORY OF LITTLE JOE. 41








SS 0

AT
. VLEs
YS

Ni

si

i
i
ES Lng (ina nt
oS \ Vee i
x \\" TEAS
AN i fr
Tye




KS

blacksmith’s should take the hatchet and have an edge put on it. He took it
with him, together with a small lunch, and rode Black Harry very carefully,
and at last reached the blacksmith’s, where there were many horses waiting
to be shod. 2 8

At four o’clock’in the afternoon Joe started for home. One topic of con-
versation he had heard during the day was about the long train which was, to
bring the doctors home. One man remarked that he hoped Ben Low would
keep his wits about him in signalling and switching. Joe noted this with an
uneasy sensation.

The switch-tender’s little station was still two miles further; but for Black
Harry, after standing still so long, it was the merest run, and in a short time
Joe came unexpectedly on the switch-tender himself, lying flat on the ground
in a heavy sleep. Joe shouted and called; but could not waken him. Hastily



42 STORY OF LITTLE JOE.



slipping from Black Harry’s back, and securing him, he shook Mr. Low by
the shoulder, and asked him about the switch, but could not get an intelligent
answer. He realized the situation, and knew the train must be stopped, and
there was not a minute to lose. For three minutes he thought, and then put
Black Harry to his utmost speed. A mile ahead was a large knoll, and he
knew, if he could only gain that, -he might rig up some kind of a signal and
warn them in time, his father among the rest.

He reached the spot, again fastened Black Harry, and climbed the first tree
he came to, grasped his hatchet in his hand, and chopped off a long, firm -
branch, .

Tearing off his checked blouse, he tied it firmly with his handkerchief to the
end of the long, willowy pole, and, mounting Black Harry, he waved his signal.
as the train came round the curve, only a quarter of a mile distant. In his
excitement, as the train swept by, he shouted at the top of his voice: “Stop!
Oh, stop! For Heaven’s sake, stop, say!” Then he heard the sharp whistle,
and saw the brakeman hastily twisting the metals, and raced after the train.

An hour later, when the danger was past, the grateful passengers tried to
force upon Joe a generous gift, but his father was not willing to have him
accept it; but the people would have their way, and went off leaving their gift
in Joe’s hands.

That night, after telling his father the events of the day, Joe added: “I sup-
pose I can use some of my present for a bicycle, can’t 1?”

“No, my son,” said Dr. Benner, “the bank will be the best place for that;
but I shall buy you a bicycle myself in a day or two, because I think you have »
earned one. You lost your holiday sport, but saved your honor as to trust-
worthiness,”



20%



Rive a cock-horse to Shrewsbury cross,

To buy little Johnnie a galloping horse:

It trots behind, and it ambles before,

And Johnny shall ride—till he can ride no more.





30%

Rive a cock-horse to Banbury cross,
To see what Tommy can buy;

A penny white loaf, and a penny white cake, __
And a two-penny apple pie. ay



EVANGELINE.







































a HE little village of Grand
= Se Pré lay in a beautiful
ee = valley, where were fields
Se === _jf flax, corn, and orchards. The
2 = s| houses of the inhabitants were
| built in a substantial manner
of oak and chestnut, with
thatched roofs. The farmers
lived peacefully together, and
neither locked their doors nor
barred their windows.

At some distance from the
village lived the wealthiest far-
mer, whose name was Benedict
Bellefontaine. He had only
one child, named Evangeline,
and all in the village loved her.
She had many suitors, but the
favored one was young Gabriel,
the son of Basil the blacksmith,
who had been a friend. of
Benedict from childhood. The
children had grown up like
brother and sister; they had
sung the hymns at church out
of the same book, and Father
Felician, who was priest and
teacher both, had taught them
their letters.

When the harvest was over
the winds whistled through the
forest, and all the signs fore-
told a long and severe winter. Bees had filled their hives with honey till
they had overflowed, and the Indian hunters marked the thick fur on the
foxes. As the season advanced the shepherds came from the sea-side with
the sheep, and the cattle came back to the homestead, and foremost came

































































































































































































= = =

2 LF
ye =
‘pig =





















































































































,



44 EVANGELINE.

Evangeline’s beautiful snow-white heifer, wearing a bell tied to her neck with
a ribbon. In the house, by the great fire-place, the farmer sat in his elbow-
chair watching the flames and smoke as they rolled gracefully up the chimney,
and smoking his pipe. Evangeline was seated near him spinning. As they
sat there they heard footsteps, and, lifting the wooden latch, Basil the black-
smith entered with his son Gabriel. After they were seated Basil spoke of
the English ships lying in the harbor, and of the cannon pointed towards the
village, and that the next day they were all commanded to meet at the church.
to hear the proclamation of the king. While they were talking the notary
entered with the contract for their children to be signed, and, when that was
over, he drunk their health in good home-brewed ale, and took his leave.

The evening passed pleasantly away, and the guests went to their homes.
The next morning was the feast of betrothal, and many came with fond wishes,
and to dance in the orchard to the music of old Michael the fiddler. About
noon the bell rung and a drum beat to summon them to the church, when an
officer from the vessel proclaimed that all their lands, their dwellings, and
cattle of all kinds were forfeited to the crown, and they themselves must be
transported to other lands as prisoners.

Four days later the women had gathered their household goods together
and driven them in wagons to the beach, where everything was in great confu-
sion. Towards evening the men were marched from the church, and taken on
board the ships. On looking back to bid farewell to their native village, they
saw it allin flames. Inthe excitement Benedict fell lifeless to the ground.
With the turn of the tide they were all hurried on board the vessels, and they
sailed out of the harbor.

Years passed away; the exiles wandered from city to city, and among them
was Evangeline, searching for Gabriel. She at last heard he had gone West,
and, accompanied by Father Felician, sailed with a band of exiles down the
Mississippi, and landed at a small town, where a horseman came to meet them,
and they found in him their old friend Basil, who took them to his home. He
told them that Gabriel had gone to the Ozark mountains to hunt for furs, and
they all started in search of him, and after some days stopped at the camp of
the Indian Mission, and learned that Gabriel had stopped there, but had gone
to the north, and would return in the autumn; so Evangeline remained there,
and Basil went home. A rumor came that Gabriel had gone to the lakes of
St. Lawrence; so Evangeline followed to the forests of Michigan, and found
the hunter’s lodge deserted. as

Long years went by, and at last she came to the city of Philadelphia,



EVANGELINE.—POOR DICK. 45





founded by William Penn, and lived as a Sister of Mercy, and went among the
sick day and night. Then a pestilence came, and one Sabbath she went to the
almshouse, and moved noiselessly among the sick and dying. Suddenly she
uttered a cry. An old gray-haired man lay before her, and she saw the
features of her long lost Gabriel, and knelt beside him. He tried to speak
her name, but was unable; and Evangeline kissed his dying lips and pressed
his lifeless head to her bosom. .



POOR DICK.

_ILLIE stood looking into the cage where a little bird
« lay dead. Little Dick had lived in the ivy that grew
over the house, but the gardener cut the ivy and had
Ph thrown the nest with three birds in it on the ground.
7 Two were killed, but Tillie’s nurse picked up little Dick
=. and put him in a cage, and fed him and gave him some
water.

They got chickweed for him, and gave him some
sugar, and he hopped about the cage. Nurse and
Tillie talked about birds and how they loved their little
ones, and made nests for them, and taught them how to
fly. When Tillie went to bed, she dreamed about birds
which flew about in a garden and sang to her. She
looked in the cage the first thing in the morning, but
Dick had died in the night. Then they put him in a
box, dug a grave in the garden, and buried poor Dick.
Wi. Tillie was almost inconsolable for the loss of her bird,
' and to comfort her her mother bought a beautiful little
yellow canary, which she grew quite fond of, and petted
it until it was so tame it would come out of its cage and ©
light on her shoulder. One day, when it was out, Kitty
: came slyly into the window, and before Tillie could pre-

VEN ‘vent her had caught the bird and killed it; so Tillie
determined she would never have any more pets. But she afterwards changed
her mind; and she had a handsome white rabbit which followed her all about,
and she thought even more of him than she had of her birds.

30%














2
is 5
i





My first is found in every country of the globe, my second is what we all
should be, my whole is the same as my first—Man-kind.



MY FIRST SUMMER IN THE COUNTRY.
\ \ JHEN I was a little girl, years and years ago, I lived in the city. My

home was a brick house three stories high, with white marble steps
and close white shutters to the windows of the first story. In front of the
house was a brick pavement, and two beautiful maple-trees shaded both house
and pavement. At the back of the house was a tiny yard about as large as a
good-sized bedroom, with a brick-paved path all around a little grass-plot the
size of a counterpane in the centre. And that back yard, with its grass-plot,
vines, and flower-pots, was all I knew of flower-gardens and fields, and that
shaded street gave me almost my onlyidea ofa grove. One summer mamma’s
health was very poor, and the doctor said she must go to the country for a
few months. It was of course understood if she went I must go, as I was an
only child. So papa engaged board for us ata farm-house not so far from
the city but that he could spend Sunday with us. I think that was the hap-
piest summer I ever passed. Mamma seemed to enjoy herself, too, and her
health improved wonderfully. got many a ride in the cart or wagon with
the farmer, whom I learned to respect very much in spite of his working-
clothes. I used to sit by the hour under the willow down in the meadow,
fishing in the clear stream that ran dancing along its banks, fringed with rushes
and forget-me-nots, But of all these pleasures I think I enjoyed apple-gather-
ing as much as anything. I would go out with the two young ladies of the
family, and we would find in the orchard a ladder and baskets all ready for
our use; one of us would mount the ladder, and sometimes climb up into the
tree itself, and hand down the fruit to the two below, who would place it care-
fully in the baskets. It was mounting the ladder and climbing the trees that
made this work so enjoyable to me. I soon learned to do it readily; I was so_
much smaller and lighter than the others that I could venture farther out on
the limbs to reach the fruit, besides my short skirts being less likely to get
entangled in the branches. It soon became a settled thing that I should do
the climbing. I have spent my summers in the country ever since. Now I
am a grown woman and have a home of my own, which is, of course, in the
country, and I live in it in the winter as well as in the summer. To be sure,
it is sometimes cold and blustering here in the winter, but then it cannot be
much better in the city at the same time, and it is so often damp, sloppy, and
disagreeable there. Besides, there are no birds in the city in the winter, while
here the snow-birds and chippys and robins and blue-birds and cedar-birds
keep us almost as lively during the winter as in the summer. *

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































MY SUMMER IN THE COUNTRY.



CALIFORNIA LIFE.

N California a horse can be purchased from the Indians for four or five
i dollars, and no one takes long walks but the hunter, and he is carried in
his canoe a long way before he gets to the forest, in which are found trees
of gigantic size, some of which have trunks of twenty feet or more in diameter,
which grow to the height of three hundred feet. There are ten groves of se-
quoia in the State, some of which are four hundred and fifty feet in height, and
one hundred and sixteen feet in circumference. The engraving shows how
large they are compared with the other trees, and how small the horse and
man appear beside them.

The Indians use a lasso made of bullock’s hide, or thongs twisted into a
small rope, with a noose formed by a: running-knot at the end. One end is











GIANT TREES OF CALIFORNIA.

fastened to the back of the saddle; the entire length is kept in a coil in the
right hand, and, if a traveller doesn’t look out, one of these may be thrown
over his head, pulled tight around his body, and he drawn off his horse into
the bush to be robbed.

A hunter was once going through a valley with a large pack of furs on his
back, his rifle in his hand, and two dogs by his side. He was joined by a
merchant, who was only armed with sword and pistols. They were hardly
out of the valley when a party of robbers appeared. There were four whites,
and two Indians with lassos. The hunter and his companion jumped into a
thicket behind some large trees. While they were doing this, several shots
were fired at them. The hunter fired his rifle, and an Indian dropped from
his horse. He fired again, and another fell. He still fired, until only one



CALIFORNIA LIFE.

49



robber was left, and he started off, when a pistol-ball from the merchant shot
the horse from under him. As soon as the robber could get from under his
horse, he took to his heels, and the hunter after him; and with one more shot
the last robber fell. On searching his pockets, he found money and valuables

taken from some other traveller,
bodies of the robbers to the wolves.



Why is a pig with a curly continua-
tion like the ghost of Hamlet’s father?
—Because he could a tale unfold.

Wuat is the newest thing in stock-
ings ?—The baby’s foot.

Wuy is a coward like a leaky bar-
rel ?>—They both run.

Wuen does a dog become larger
and smaller ?—When let out at night,
and taken in ia the morning.

Why are tallest people the laziest ?
—Because they are always longer in
bed than others.

Wry was Job always cold in bed ?
—Because he had such miserable
comforters.

Wuar soup would cannibals preter?
—The broth of a boy.

Wuar is the proper length for
ladies’ crinoline ?—A little above two
feet.

Why is a dyer’s life an enigma ?—
Because he lives when he dyes, and
dyes when he lives.

. Wuat is the greatest affair of the
heart known to science ?—The circu-
lation of the blood.

_ WHEN is a boy not a boy ?—When
he is a regular brick.

They mounted the horses, and left the



Wuo dares to sit before the Queen
with his hat on ?—The coachman.

Wuat relation is a door mat to a
doorstep ?-—A “step-farther.”

Way is a defeated army like wool?
—Because it is worsted,

Who was the first person in history
who had a bang on the forehead ?—

Goliath.

Wuy is a miss not as good as a
mile ?—Because a miss has only two
feet, and a mile 5280. —

Way is it right that B should come
before C ?—Because we must B before
we can C,

WuatT gives a cold, cures a cold,

and pays the doctor's bill?—A draft.

(Draught.)

Wuat is that which a rich man
wants, a poor man has, a miser
spends, a spendthrift saves, and we
all take it with us to the grave ?—

Nothing.

Wuat is the difference between
charity und a tailor?—One covers a
multitude of sins, the other a multi-
tude of sinners.

WHEN is a doctor most annoyed ?—
When he is out of patients,



A CAT STORY.

ONCE heard the following story about

a cat: One day she had kittens, and

they drowned them all but one. This one

soon died. But poor Puss found out
where there was another cat in the neigh-
borhood who had kittens, and went and
stole one.
It is not everybody who is fond of cats;
: but, in return, some people are very fond of
them, indeed. Every now and then we hear of some half-mad women who
seem to give up their whole time to making pets of cats. There have been
strange old women who have kept hundreds of them. But most men, and
even some women, dislike cats. They are very sly; they seem to us human
beings very cruel, and they are so persistent that we get angry with them.
A cat will spend half a day trying to get at a piece of fish, and when she wakes
up the next morning will begin trying for it again. Cats have very good
memories, especially for injuries. If you want to get rid of a cat, give her a
few smart taps, and she will avoid you.

_ You see, I have been saying she all along, and the fact is we are, most of
us, apt to call a cat she when it is a Jom. They are such sleek, quiet crea-
tures, and are so fond of the house.

It is a great mistake to suppose that cats stupefy, with a blow of the paw,
any bird or mouse they may catch. I have several times seen a cat playing
with a half-dead bird that she had caught. I have seen the bird struggle to
get away. I have seen it open its eyes, and heard it shriek with pain, the cat
seeming all the while to enjoy it. She would let the bird wriggle away for a
short distance, and then give it a dig with her paw.

It is a mistake to suppose that cats are not very clever. I can see no
difference in that respect between a cat anda dog, or, at all events, very little
difference. They seem just as quick to learn, and just as ingenious in help-
ing themselves. :





303



GooseEy, goosey, gander, whither shall I wander?
Up-stairs, and down-stairs, and in my lady’s chamber.
There I met an old man, who would not say his prayers;
I took him by the left leg, and threw him down-stairs,





SHIP AHOY!

“Sure ahoy! What ship’s that?”

“The Physalie.”

“ Whither bound ?”

“Wherever she pleases.”

“Under whose orders?”

“The King of Portugal.”

Look at the ship, children! You do not see her? There she is,
in the picture. She may not look exactly like the ships you are

accustomed to seeing; but for all that she is a ship of the line, all |

manned and Eanineed and ready for action.

She is a tight and trim vessel, and sails, I take it for granted,
under the orders of the King of Portugal; at least, she is always
called a Portuguese man-of-war. Very (ete she is, and very
compact, too, for you could hold -her in your hand, as far as her
size is concerned. If you should try to hold her in your hand,
however, you would very quickly find out one reason for her being
called a man-of-war, though perhaps iti is not the reason generally
given.

You see all those delicate curling threads ad tendrils that hang
from the beautiful shell-shaped bubble which floats so lightly on
the water? They are the crew of the good ship Physalie.

Instead of being different parts of one creature they are them-
selves creatures, distinct and separate, and yet all living together
in such perfect DAENODY 7 and peace that they seem to Geleny to
one body.

Each member of the crew has his place and his work. Some
spend their time in catching food, and eating it, without, I am













52 SHIP AHOY!































sorry to say, offering any to the others,
some of whom are busy making buds,
out of which in due time will come new
_ ships’ crews; while others again, with
long, streaming tentacles, sometimes
thirty feet long, are the moving power,
and, swimming along, carry the tiny
vessel through the water.

And now, how does this crew fight?
Where are their muskets, their cut-
lasses? Where are the ship’s guns?
They don’t seem to have any weapons
at all. No; the truth is, they have no
weapons, because they have no need
of any. They can fight a creature a
hundred times as big as themselves
and their ship put together, and come

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































off victorious, with flying colors. I will tell you a story which a
gentleman told me once, about his meeting a Portuguese man-of
war; then you will understand all about it. ae



Ks ; } (SYEN | KG ME eae
SHIP “AHOY i>





He was living at the time on one of the islands in the West
Indies, and used to go in bathing every morning. One morning
he had been swimming about for nearly an hour in the clear warm [&
water, watching all the strange and beautiful creatures which were
also taking a morning swim, and thinking how pleasant it must be
to be a fish. At last he floated on his back, and let a great,
curling, white-crested wave carry him-to the shore. Now, this
same wave was bringing a whole fleet of “galleys,” as the natives
call the Physalie, in from the open sea, and just as Mr. La Blond
touched the shore one of the galleys touched his arm, and instantly
grappled it, flinging round his shoulder its beautiful streamers of
crimson, pink, and pale blue. He felt a thousand sharp, darting
pains, so intense that he grew dizzy. Exerting all his strength, | |
he tore the Physalie off and flung it into the sea; but some of the ,
_thread-like tendrils remained glued to his arm, and he nearly
fainted away with the pain. He managed to get some oil, and
swallowed some, and rubbed his arm with the rest; but it was
some hours.before the pain left bim, and he was not well until the
next ee

time the little fishes must ae when they meet a fleet, or even a

single vessel! They just curl up their little tails and die in despair,

and the heartless crew of the galley make a meal of them.
LAURA E. RICHARDS.





THE DIVING-BELL.











HAT is the first thing
you think of when
you look at this picture?
Some poor ship that was
lost in a storm? . Were
you ever at sea when the
big waves that seemed to .
be as high as a house were
going faster than the ship 2
and breaking over the =
stern? This ship was =
evidently a man-of-war,
and most of it has been
hauled up. On one side ,
of the bell you will see a cannon going up, and on the other a barrel. There
must be, of course, a ship overhead. I wonder what sort of a boat it is,
whether a sailing vessel or a steamship? If you look at the picture again
you will see two men sitting in the bell, which has no bottom. The air in the
bell keeps the water out. One of the men holds a rubber-hose which is
fastened to the helmet of the diver or man who is lifting up the things, and
fastening them to the rope let down from the ship above. This tube carries
fresh air to the diver. The other man in the bell has a hose in his hand which
is attached to the barrel, and it contains compressed air, which passes into
the bell as fast as the men breathe the air in the bell, because the air breathed
out is heavier and occupies less room than pure air. The men would die if
they didn’t have fresh air. As soon as they have exhausted their Supp of
it they pull the rope, and they are hauled up.

Elsewhere in the book you will read about how they dive for pearls; but a
pearl-diver couldn’t stay down long enough, or dive deep enough to bring up
wreckage. The bell-diver wears weights attached to his feet, the same as the
boys put a lead-dipsy to their lines when they go fishing; but the diver can’t
go below a certain depth, or he would be crushed to death by the weight of the
water. The fish have a series of air-bladders, and in this way they can make
themselves heavier or lighter by sucking in air or forcing it out of their
bodies ; but a man’s lungs contain just so much air, and he can’t make them
hold any more,































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ay


























































































































i Nh PA r

Hi













Nh
|
i
| J ve
‘i \
a
= an i
. |
. aaah
i.
( \ /
A



SPINNING THE YARN.



®



A SHARK STORY. 57











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A SHARK STORY.

GAP Captain BARNACLE, as you insist upon it, I will tell you
a sea story. You must know that I was once sailing in
the ship Orient for China. We doubled the Cape of Good Hope,
and, running a little too far to northward, we came near the:
coast of Madagascar. The sea in this quarter is filled with
coral reefs. ‘The coral grows like forests, and the tops fre-
quently reach nearly to the surface. One day, while in this
dangerous region, we were becalmed; the ship lay like a log
on the water; the sea around was as smooth as a mirror.
“Tn looking down into the waves, I could see the coral groves,
‘and between them there were various fishes sauntering about,
quite at their leisure. Among the rest, I noticed an enormous
shark, of the most voracious kind. He was evidently seeking
whom he might devour. As I was looking at him, he turned
‘his eye upon me, and showed his white, hooked teeth, as much
as to say, ‘Come down here, Captain, and I will eat you.’
“T did not accept his invitation; but while I was standing
_by the side of the vessel, my gold watch, chain and all, was













itt i
i A

i Oe said the comin ie they found nothing but entrails!

58 A SHARK STORY,

































accidentally jerked into the sea. Down it went amongst the
branches and leaves of the coral. I could see nothing of it,
and when I looked for the shark, he was gone.

“There was no help for the accident. The next morning,
the breeze sprung up, and we went on our way. We spent
two months at Canton, and then set out on our return. When
we again arrived in the neighborhood of Madagascar, we were
again becalmed. Looking over the side of the ship, I saw a
shark, which seemed like the very fellow I had become ac-
quainted with on my outward passage. One of the sailors got
a large iron hook, to which a rope was attached; on the hook
he fastened a piece of salt pork, and threw it overboard. The
shark soon saw the bait, and immediately took it into his jaws,
hook and all. The sailor then gave a pull, and the monster —
was firmly drawn upon deck. He seemed to feel as if he had
fallen out of bed, for he made a terrible banging with his tail.
Well, the sailors went to work and cut him open; and what
do yon think they found?” ¢

“The gold watch,” said both the ladies at once.

Y?





! ‘| ZED zs rR os Sac Re





THE SPERM WHALE. . 59




























































































































































THE SPERM WHALE.

Wy THE Sperm Whale is a gregarious animal, and the herds
formed by it are of two kinds—the one consisting of
females, the other of young whales not fully grown.

These herds are called by whalers, “schools,” and occasion-
ally consist of great numbers; I have seen in one school as
many as five or six hundred. With each herd or school of
females, are always from one to three large bulls, the lords of
the herd, or, as they are called, the “school-masters.” The
full-grown, whales, or “large whales,” almost always go alone
in search of food ; and when they are seen in company, they
are supposed to be making passages, or migrating from one
“feeding-ground” to another. The largo whale is generally
very incautious, and if alone, he is without difficulty attacked,
and by expert whalers gencrally very easily killed; as fre.

Ze ee Gis

2 “aE BN SRN





60 THE SPERM WHALE.

quently, after receiving the first blow or plunge of the harpoon,
he appears hardly to feel it, but continues lying like a “log of
wood” in the water, before he rallies or makes any attempt to
escape from his enemies.

Large whales are, sometimes, remarkably cunning and full
of courage, when they will commit dreadful havoc with their
Jaws and tail; the jaw and head, however, appear to be their
principal offensive weapons.

The female breeds at all seasons, producing but one at a
time. The young when first born are said to be fourteen feet
long. The females are much smaller than the males. They
are very remarkable for their attachment to their young, which
they may be frequently seen urging and assisting to escape
from danger with the most unceasing care and fondness. They
are also not less remarkable for their strong feeling of sociality
or attachment to one another; and this is carried to so great
an extent, that when one female of a herd is attacked or
wounded, her faithful companions will remain around her to
the last moment, or till they are wounded themselves. This.
act of remaining by a wounded companion, is called “ heaving
to,” and whole “schools” have been destroyed by dexterous:
management, when several ships have been in company, wholly
from their possessing this remarkable disposition. The attach-
ment appears to be reciprocal on the part of the young whales,
which have been seen about the ship for hours after their parents.
| have been killed.

_ The young whales, or “ young bulls,” go in large schools,
but differ remarkably from the females in disposition, inasmuch
as they make an immediate and rapid retreat upon one of
their number being struck, who is left to take the best care he
can of himself. I never but once saw them “heave to,” and
in that case, it was only for a short time, and seemed rather to
arise from their confusion than affection for their wounded
companion. They are also very cunning and cautious, keep-
ing at all times a good look-out for danger. It is consequently
necessary for the whaler to be extremely cautious in his mode











THE SPERM WHALE. 61

of approaching them, so as, if possible, to escape being heard
or seen, for they have some mode of communication with one
another in an incredibly short space of time; the distance
between them sometimes amounting to five, or even seven
miles. The mode by which this is effected remains a curious

secret.
Tuomas Brae















































SS ee ty
Atak ~
a

,

>











ALADDIN, OR THE WONDERFUL LAMP.

Ae was the son of a very poor tailor in China, who took him into
his shop to learn the trade, but Aladdin loved play more than work,
which he neglected for the company of idle boys.

His father dying when he was quite young, he spent his whole time in the
streets, and his mother was compelled to spin cotton night and day to earn
the necessaries for their support. But she was willing to do this, for she
loved her son, and. promised herself that when he was older he would become
an industrious man and care for her. : .

One day, as Aladdin was playing with a troop of vagabonds, a stranger
passing stopped to observe him. The stranger was a famous African magi-
cian who needed an ignorant person to assist him, and thought Aladdin was
just the right one. He inquired his name and character, and calling him
said: “My lad, art thou not the son of Mustapha, the tailor?”

“Yes, sir,” said Aladdin, “but my father has been.dead many years,”

“Alas!” said the stranger, “how sad! Iam your father’s brother, and have
been many years in foreign countries, and now, when I expected to be happy
at home, I find him dead.”

Aladdin, who had never heard of any uncle, stood like one stupefied, till his.
pretended uncle gave him two pieces of gold, telling him to have his mother
get supper, as he was going to visit her. His mother was as surprised as he
had been, as she had only heard of one brother, who was also a tailor, and
had died before Aladdin was born. However, she cooked a nice supper, and
when the magician came, he was followed by a porter bringing all kinds of
fruits and sweetmeats.

He saluted his dear sister-in-law, as he called her, and they sat down to
supper; after which the magician said: “ My dear sister, I am grieved.to see
'somuch poverty. I hope my nephew does his duty to you. He is old enough
to get a great many comforts.”

Aladdin hung his head in shame. His mother replied: “Indeed, it almost
breaks my heart, but Aladdin, though fifteen years old, does nothing but play,
and all I can earn is hardly enough to get bread. If I should die, I know not
what would become of him.”

She burst into tears, and the magician said to Aladdin: “I am pained to hear
this. You must think of getting your own living. How would you like to
keep a shop?” Aladdin was much pleased, for he thought that would not
be very hard work. e *







BEAUTIFUL GARDENS.

The next morning the magician went out with Aladdin and fitted him out
with a nice suit. Then they walked through the town, and passed through
some beautiful gardens and meadows, the magician telling interesting stories,
until they came to the entrance of a narrow valley, bounded on all sides by
high mountains, ;

“ Dear uncle,” said Aladdin, “where are we going now? We have left all
the pretty gardens behind us a long way; pray let us hurry away from this
frightful place.” .

“No! No!” said the magician; “not at present. I will show you more
wonderful things than you have ever seen.”



64 ALADDIN ; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP,



Aladdin followed his uncle into the valley, until they had lost all view of
the country behind them. Suddenly the magician stopped, and roughly com-
manded Aladdin to gather some loose sticks for a fre. When he had done
so, the magician set them on fire. Presently the blaze rose high; the magi-
cian threw some powder into the fire, and pronounced some strange words,
which Aladdin could not understand. They were instantly surrounded by a
thick smoke, the mountain burst and exposed a broad stone with a large brass
ring fastened in the centre.

_ Aladdin was so frightened that he started to run, but the magician gave
him such a box on the ear that he knocked him down, Aladdin got up and
said: “Why do you use me so cruelly, uncle?”

“My child,” said the magician, “I did not mean to hurt you, but you must
not run away; I brought you here to do a service for you. Under this stone
are treasures that will make you richer than any king on earth, and I alone
know how to make you master.”

Aladdin forgot the box on the ear, and promised to do whatever he was
told.

“Come,” said the magician, “take hold of that brass ring and lift up the
stone.”

When the stone was lifted, there appeared a hollow cave and a narrow
flight of steps. “Go down, child,” said the magician, “into that cavern. At
the bottom of these steps you will find three great halls filled with gold and
silver. If you touch anything, you will meet with instant death. At the end
of the third hall you will see a fine garden; cross it by a path which will
bring you on a terrace, where you will see a lighted lamp in 4 niche. Take
the lamp down and put out the light; and when you have thrown away the
wick and poured out the oil, put the lamp in your bosom and bring it to me.”

Saying this, the magician drew a ring off his finger and, putting it on Alad-
din’s, told him that if he obeyed him nothing could harm him. “Go down
boldly, my son,” he said, “and we both shall be rich and happy the rest of our
lives.”

Aladdin went down the steps, and found the three halls as the magician had told
him. He went through these, crossed the garden, took down the lamp, threw
out the wick and the oil, and put the lamp in his bosom. As he came down
from the terrace, he saw, as he thought, the branches of the trees loaded with
beautiful pieces of glass of all colors, and could not help filling his pockets.

The magician was waiting very impatiently for him. | « «

’

“Pray, uncle,” said Aladdin, “give me your hand to help me out.”



ALADDIN ; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP, 65



“Give me the lamp first,” said the magician.

“TI cannot, dear uncle, until I am out,” replied Aladdin.

“Wretch, deliver it this instant,’ roared the magician. His eyes flashed
fire and, stretching out his arm to strike Aladdin, some powder he held dropped
into the fire, the rock shook, the stone moved to its place, and Aladdin was
buried alive in the cavern. He cried and wrung his hands; his cries could
not be heard, and he was left to die.

Aladdin remained without food two days, and on the third, he chanced to
press the ring on his finger, when an enormous geni rose out of the earth
_ and said: “I am ready to obey thy commands, I and the other slaves of that
ring.”

Aladdin, trembling, said: “I pray thee, deliver me from this place.”

He had no sooner spoken than the earth opened, and he was on the
very spot where the magician had brought him. He hurried home, and
when he reached there fainted away on the step of the door.

When he had recovered, and his mother had embraced him, he told her all
that had happened, and then begged her to bring him some food, as he was
almost starved. But she had neither food nor money, for she had spent her
time in looking for him.

“Well, mother,” said Aladdin, “never mind. Dry your tears, and hand me
the lamp I put on the shelf and I will go and sell it.”

The old woman thought it would bring more if it were cleaner, and began
to rub it with sand. Instantly a huge geni stood before her and said: “I am
ready to obey thy commands, I and the other slaves of that lamp.”

The woman fainted away, but Aladdin, who was less frightened, said:
“Bring me something to eat; I am hungry.”

The geni disappeared, but soon returned with twelve large plates of silver,
full of the nicest meats, six white loaves, two bottles of wine and two drinking
cups, and, after spreading them on the table, vanished.

Aladdin sprinkled water on his mother, and begged her to rise and eat of
the food. They made a hearty meal, and set aside enough to last two days
more. ,

The next morning Aladdin sold one of the silver plates to a Jew to
purchase a few necessaries that were wanting. He then went among the
merchants and shopkeepers, and improved himself by their discourse.

One day, while Aladdin was walking through the city, he heard a proclama-
‘tion commanding all the people to retire into their houses, as the beautiful
princess Balrondom, whom no one must look upon, was coming to the public



66 ALADDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP.
baths. Aladdin did not know where to go, but ran into a large hall and hid
behind a curtain. It happened that this hall was the entrance to the baths, —
and as soon as the princess passed the gate, she pulled off her vail, which
permitted Aladdin to see her. He was so impressed with her beauty, that he
could think of nothing else. At length he said: « Mother, I love the Princess
Balrondom, and you must demand her for me in marriage to the sultan.”

The old woman thought her son was mad, and bade him remember that he
was the son of a tailor,

“ Mother,” said Aladdin, “Iam not as poor as you imagine. I have learned
the value of those things I used to call glass; it is with them I intend to buy
the good-will of the sultan.”

Aladdin’s mother laughed, and refused to have anything to do with such
foolishness.

Aladdin pined almost to death, and his mother promised she would go to
the sultan if it would restore him to health, This so pleased Aladdin, that
he filled a large china dish-with his finest jewels, which he tied up in two
napkins. The old woman set out trembling for the sultan’s palace. She
placed herself opposite the throne, and when the court was nearly empty she
was bidden to approach. She fell on her knees and begged the sultan’s
pardon, and told the story of her son falling in love with the princess,

The sultan smiled, and asked what she had in her napkin. When the dish
was uncovered the sultan stared with surprise, having never seen jewels of
such size and lustre. .

“Your son,” said he, “can be no ordinary person, Bring him here, and if
he realizes my ideas I will bestow on him the hand of my daughter,”

Aladdin’s mother went home and told her son all that had passed, which
pleased him greatly.

Aladdin summoned the geni, who transported him to a bath of rose-water:
afterwards he was dressed in fine clothing. A horse was given him with
saddle of pure gold. A train of slaves were mounted, bearing magnificent
presents for the sultan.

Aladdin mounted his horse, and his appearance had so changed that no one
knew him, but thought he was some great prince. :

Aladdin would have thrown himself at the feet of the sultan, but was pre-
vented by the sultan’s embracing him and seating him at his right hand. The
sultan was so charmed with his good sense and modesty, that he proposed to
marry the young lovers that very evening. Aladdin objected, saying he
must build a palace to receive his princess, and asked that the piece of ground





ALADDIN ; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP, 67



opposite the royal palace should be given him, which was granted. Aladdin
went home to employ the geni of the lamp to build a palace, and the sultan
congratulated his daughter on the happiness in waiting for her.

When the sultan rose the next morning he was surprised to find a palace
opposite his own, and half the people in the city gathered there to see it.
He was informed that Aladdin wished to conduct him to see it.

The sultan was amazed; the walks were built of gold and silver, and the
ornaments were of the rarest and most beautiful precious stones. The treasury
was full of gold coin, the offices filled with domestics, the stables with the finest
horses and carriages, with grooms and equerries in splendid liveries. Aladdin
and the princess were married and lived happily.

At length the magician, who was in Africa, heard of all this magnificence,
and knew the cause. He was determined to get this lamp, and disguised his
person and travelled to China.

As he came to the city, he bought several beautiful lamps, and went under
the windows of the palace of the princess, crying, “ New lamps for old ones!”

The slaves all ran to the windows. “Oh!” said one of them, “there is an
‘ ugly old lamp in one of the halls; we will put a new one in its place.” The
princess agreed to this, and the magician gave them the best of his new ones.

As soon as night came he summoned the geni of the lamp, and commanded
him to transport him, the palace and the princess to the remotest corner of
Africa. He was instantly obeyed. — .

It is impossible to describe the surprise of the sultan the next morning to.
find the palace vanished, and his daughter lost. All the people were running
through the streets, and soldiers were sent in search of Aladdin, who was out
hunting.

Aladdin fainted away, and was dragged before the sultan, and would have
been beheaded but for fear of the people, who were all fond of him. He was.
sent away in disgrace, and was threatened with death unless he brought
tidings of the princess within forty days. .

Leaving the palace, he stopped at a brook to wash his eyes, that smarted
with tears. His foot slipped, and catching hold of a piece of rock he pressed
the magician’s ring, and the geni appeared, saying, “What would’st thou
have?” .

“Oh, geni!” cried Aladdin, “bring my palace back to where it stood
yesterday.”

“What you command,” said the geni, “is not within my power; I am only
the slave of the ring. The geni of the lamp alone can do that service.”



68 ALADDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP.

“Then I command thee,” said Aladdin, “to transport me to the palace
where it stands now.”

Instantly Aladdin found himself beside his own palace. The princess was
walking in her own chamber weeping for Aladdin. Happening to approach

Wwou



FATIMA ADMIRING HER JEWELS.
the window she saw him under it, and sent a slave to bring him in by a
private door.

Aladdin then went disguised into the city, and bought a powder which
would produce sleep, and the princess invited the magician to sup with her



ALADDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP. 69.



that evening. He was delighted with her kindness, and while at supper she
ordered wine which had been prepared, and on drinking it the magician fell
to the floor senseless.

Aladdin snatched the lamp from his bosom and, throwing the traitor on the
grass, summoned the geni, and the palace and all it contained were transported
to their original place.

When the sultan saw the palace he hastened to embrace his daughter, and
during a week grand entertainments were given in honor of their return.

Aladdin did not forget to carry the lamp always with him, and things went
well for some time.

But the magician, having slept off his potion, set out for China. When he
reached the end of his journey, he went to the cell of a holy woman named
Fatima, who was celebrated for her cure of the headache. He killed and
buried her; then, disguising himself in her garments, walked into the city,
where people followed him in crowds. The princess sent her slaves for
Fatima to come to the palace, where she was kindly entertained. Fatima.
persuaded her to have a roc’s egg hung in the middle of the dome.

The geni hearing this uttered a loud cry, which shook the palace. “What!”
said he, “after all I and my fellow-slaves have done for thee, dost thou com-
mand me to bring my master and hang him up in this dome? I would reduce
your palace into ashes, were you the author of this wish. The magician is.
now under your roof disguised as Fatima. Go, punish his crimes, or your
own destruction is sure.”

The geni vanished, leaving Aladdin much agitated. He went to his wife’s.
apartment, and complained of a severe headache. The princess exclaimed.
that the good Fatima was in the palace, and ran to bring her. The pretended
Fatima came with one hand raised as if to bless Aladdin, who, as he came
near him, stabbed him to the heart.

The princess was grieved to think her husband had killed the holy Fatima,
till Aladdin tore off the hood of the cloak, and showed the magician concealed
beneath. Shortly after, the sultan dying without a son, Aladdin and the
princess ascended the throne and reigned together many years.





Way is intending to pay a bill the I waven’T got it, I don’t want it, but
same as paying it?—Because it is | if 1 had it I wouldn’t take the world.
payment (meant). for it—A bald head.



DUTY FIRST.

We summer noonday sun shone broad-

ly and brightly over the hay-fields.
The birds sang in the trees; the rabbits ran
in and out of the hollows; the insects
hummed overhead; the merry little brook
went tumbling along; and the fish came
leaping out every now and then, their silver
sides flashing in the warm light. In the hay-
fields the mowers were busy, and borne on
the gentle wind, softened to a musical mur-
mur, came the voices of the men and the
sharpening of their scythes. Ben and his
little cousins, Jenny and Jake, were as happy
and light-hearted this bright summer’s day
as any three children could possibly be.
They were in the middle of an exciting game,
when Ben heard his mother calling him, and
ran to the house to see what she wanted.
“Ben dear,” she said, “it is your father’s
dinner-time, and I have made him some stew.
He is working in Farmer Rix’s hay-field, and I should be glad if you would
take him his dinner. Here it is, in this little pail. Be careful not to spill any
of it, my boy, for it is not often that I can afford to buy meat nowadays.” Ben
took the pail and started back, but on his way met some boys; setting the pot
down in a corner of the fence, he began to play with them. It was a good
two hours before he remembered the errand on which he had been sent. The
game had been so new and so full of fun that the thought of his poor father
working in the hot sun had quite escaped his memory. “Oh dear me!” he
cried’ suddenly, “how stupid I’ve been! I don’t know, what father will say at
being kept waiting so long, and the broth is all cold.” When he got to where
his father was at work, he saw him standing by the fence, talking to his mother ;
both looked anxious, but brightened up when they saw Ben. His father after
waiting some time for his dinner had gone home, and there heard that Ben
had started so long before with the dinner they feared he had got lost or hurt
in some way, and his mother had come back to help find kim. Mrs. Brown
felt very sad when she heard the truth, but thought that Ben’s sorrow was







punishment enough. Ben resolved then and there that he would always make
duty come before pleasure. We are happy to say that Ben kept his resolu-
tion, and through lite he found that the happiest as well as the safest motto
was, “ Duty first.”



































































NWS \ ‘ gin?
NY Welly
: SN r iN





THE STEPPES OF SIBERIA,

STEPPE means a vast plain in South-eastern Europe and Asia, gen-
A erally elevated and containing no trees, and is very similar to our
prairies. The picture shows travellers going in opposite directions on
one of these vast plains.
A traveller thus describes his experience in crossing it: “The vast Asiatic
plain stretched for more than 2,000 miles in length, and 1,200 miles wide.
Over this space the various tribes wander with their flocks and herds.. There
were no plants. All appeared scorched up by the sun. There was a lake,
twenty-five miles long and fifteen miles wide, with a belt of reeds two miles.
wide extending all around it. We entered upon a sandy waste, which was
like a sea of sand. For miles the sand was hard like a floor. Hours went
by without a particle of change; there wasn’t even a cloud in the air to cast
a shadow over us: all was glistening sand below and the fierce burning sun
overhead. At noon the guides wanted to stop. The horses were picketed,
but we could find neither grass nor water. I looked around with my glass, but
everything was alike, and we were making no progress at all, apparently
seeming to be where we started from. All around was red sand, called
‘Kézil Koom.’ We had ridden fourteen hours when night came on; the
guides found their way by the stars. At last one of the guides said we were
but two hours from grass and water, which the horses at last scented, and
pressed on with renewed vigor. Soon we heard the loud barking of dogs
and the shouting of men, and before long we were welcomed, when it was
‘found we were not enemies, and taken to the chief’s tent, where we soon fell
asleep, having been in the saddle eighteen hours. The next day the scene
was quite different. Great flocks of sheep, herds of camels, oxen and horses
were grazing on the rich grass. Antelopes sprang up within range of our
guns, gazing for a moment at us with their great black eyes, and then bound-
ing away, hardly touching the ground, 7
Here is seen the beautiful mirage, and the dreadful sand storms as well.
These are first seen at a vast distance, and when they are of moderate breadth,
they are easily avoided; but when, as is sometimes the case, they extend for
miles, there is real danger. A dense black cloud is seen rolling at a great
height over the plain, sweeping along with fearful rapidity. Instinct warns
animals of its approach, and they rush away at full speed. When such a
storm reaches the pastures the scene is fearful. A confused mass of thou-
sands of camels, horses and oxen is seen rushing madly in all directions.












































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SROSSING THE STEPPES.



THE ALAMO.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































EE this picture. Do you know what it represents? [I'll tell you. It is an
historical spot,as every man defending it was slaughtered. There is but
one other event in American history equal to it—the massacre of General

Custer by the Indians on our plains some years ago. For several years the
Americans, who had settled in Texas, had been trying to establish an inde-
pendent Republic, that they might govern themselves, and not be compelled
to remain under the dictation of Mexico, which country never lost an oppor-
tunity to insult them. In January, 1836, Santa Anna, the general-in-chief of
the Mexican army, afterwards President of Mexico, determined to drive the
Americans out of Texas, and declared every one of them pirates, giving his
generals orders to kill all who were taken prisoners, as Americans should no
longer live in that country. February 22d, Colonel Travis, with about 145
men, retreated into the Alamo, a large convent building in San Antonio,
surrounded by a strongly-built wall, that had been erected to protect the
‘convent and its people against the Indians. The next day they were besieged
by about 6,000 Mexicans under Santa Anna, who placed heavy cannon in
position all around them, and for eleven days bombarded them fiercely,



76 THE LAZY MAIDEN.

Colonel Travis sent for reinforcements, and succeeding in adding to his force
thirty-two men, making nearly 180 men inside of the Alamo. The Americans
had but very little ammunition, and were afraid to use it in reply to the heavy
cannonade of the Mexicans, wishing to save all they could for the final assault,
which these brave men knew must shortly follow. March 6th, which was on
Sunday, the whole Mexican army advanced upon the place, while the heroic
band of Americans poured such a fire of grape, canister, and musketry upon
them that, though 6,000 to 180, they were compelled to fall back in disorder
twice. Rallying again, they succeeded in entering the enclosure, and turned
their cannoh upon the convent, where some of the Americans had found refuge.
The slaughter was terrific. Colonel Travis, the commander, was killed ‘early
in the action, being shot through the head, though, after he was wounded, he
killed a Mexican who attempted to run him through with a spear. David
Crockett, whose history nearly all of our little friends are acquainted
with, as he was one of the well-known border men of those days, was found
dead, surrounded by nearly a score of Mexicans, whom he had succeeded in
killing before they overpowered him. Out of all this little band of heroes
not one escaped. A few, finding the contest useless, surrendered to the
Mexicans, but were immediately murdered by them. A colored man and
two ladies were spared, as they were not engaged in fighting. Think of this,
little friends. Do you wonder that Texans are proud of the Alamo, and show
it to all strangers who visit San Antonio to-day? The bones of these Ameri-
cans were collected the next year and buried with great military honors.

The Alamo is now occupied by the United States as a quarter-master’s
depot. Do not fail to see it, should you ever visit Texas, the “Lone Star
State.”



205

THE LAZY MAIDEN.

HERE was once a little maiden who was very pretty, but careless and
lazy. When she used to spin, if there was a knot in the thread, she
broke off along piece and threwit on the ground. She had a servant girl, who
used to pick up all the pieces, until she had enough to make a dress for herself.
A young man was in love with this lazy maiden, and the wedding day was
appointed. The evening before, the servant girl danced about in her new
dress, and the bride exclaimed: “How the girl does jump round, dressed in
my threads and leavings!” The bridegroom asked what she meant. She
told him the girl had made herself a dress from threads she had thrown away.
When he heard this he gave up the mistress and chose the maid for his wife.





THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON,























































































































































































































































































































































































































ERY many people confound the words Capital and Capitol. Capital
means the “head,” “chief;” for instance, you would say capital punish-
ment, meaning a person is punished by killing them, which formerly was done
by beheading ; now-a-days hanging is the method usually employed. Then we
speak of the capital city. Boston is the capital of Massachusetts, Albany of
New York, Richmond of Virginia, Washington of the United States; and
they are so called, not because they are the principal or chief cities, but
because the chiefs of the people—those who have charge of the government—
make the laws there, and issue the orders to have them carried into effect,
The house or building where the legislative bodies meet, whether State or
National, is called the cafitol, and the picture above shows the magnificent
building at Washington where Congress assembles, and makes laws to govern
you and me, and everybody who lives in the United States. You know the
city of Washington wasn’t always the capital. The government first had its
seat in Philadelphia, where the nation had its birth, and where the Declaration
of Independence was proclaimed. It was not until 1800 that Washington
became the capital, although the corner-stone of the capitol was laid, Septem-
ber 18, 1793, by General Washington himself. In 1811 the south wing was



78 THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON.



finished, but work was discontinued on account of the war with England; and
in August, 1814, the British, under General Ross and Admiral Cochrane,
defeated the Americans, entered Washington, set fire to and destroyed every
public building except the patent-office, and the beautiful but unfinished capi-
tol was left a mass of ruins. However, it was rebuilt, and completed by 1825. ©

It is composed of a main building, 325 feet, four inches long, and two wings
north and south, each 121 feet in length, making the entire structure 569 feet
long and 290 feet deep. The rotunda in the centre is ninety-six feet in
diameter. The roof is sixty-nine feet in height, and the dome extends 241
feet above, making it 310 feet above the terrace, which is eighty-six feet above
the street, giving a total height above the city of 396 feet. The building
covers 6,200 square feet, and is finished throughout in the most magnificent
manner. The walls and ceiling of the dome and rotunda are covered
with most beautiful frescos. The House of Representatives occupies the
south wing (right side of picture), and the Senate chamber is in the north
wing (left side of picture),



308







Pussy Cat Mole, Rocx-a-ByE, baby, thy cradle is
Jump’d over a coal, green ;
And in her best petticoat burnt ‘a Father’s a nobleman, mother’s a
great hole. | queen;
Poor Pussy’s weeping, she’ll have no And Betty’s a lady, and wears a
more milk, gold ring;
Until her best petticoat’s mended with.| And Johnny’s a drummer, and
silk, drums for the king.
1. Tuis little pig went to market. Hey DIDDLE DIpDLE, the cat and the
2. This little pig stayed at home. fiddle,
3. This little pig got roast beef, The cow jumped over the maon;
4. This little pig got none, The little dog laughed to see such
5. This little pig cried wee, wee, all sport,
the way home. 1 And the dish ran after the spoon.



305



_ Wry are bells the most obedient of inanimate things ?-—Because they make
a noise whenever they are tolled (told).



PENN’S TREATY WITH THE INDIANS.

ERY few people there are who haven’t heard a great deal about the
Indian wars with the first settlers of America; but there was one colony
where then oble Red man was the Paleface’s friend. William Penn, a

Quaker of England, secured a grant of a portion of America, now comprising
the state of Pennsylvania. But, with the stern sense of justice that is pecu-

























































EA Mgse We ew (4|





i



LE = B,

liar to the Friends, Penn was not satisfied till he had paid the possessors of
the soil what they thought their land was worth. In 1682 he had his agent
make a treaty with them, and the chiefs of all the tribes met together in Phila-
delphia, and exchanged words of peace. The tree under which the treaty
was made was still standing a few years ago, and was then blown down.



THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

ever occurred as the signing of the Declaration of Independence, seen in

the picture. Thirteen poor, weak, unaided colonies, who had acknowl-
edged themselves subjects of Great Britain ever since they were settled, had
risen and declared themselves free, thus rebelling against a power which had,
by force of arms on land and the greatest navy in the world, subdued all who
opposed it.

On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, offered this memorable
resolution before the assembled Congress in Philadelphia, which was bravely
seconded by John Adams, of Massachusetts :

“Resolved, That these United States ought to be free and independent.”

A committee was appointed to draught a Declaration of Independence. It
consisted of Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and Livingston, They
selected Thomas Jefferson and John Adams to draw it up.

Mr. Jefferson urged Mr. Adams to do so; and the friendly argument was
closed by Mr. Adams saying:

“T will not do it. You must. First, you are a Virginian; and Virginia
should lead in this business. Second, you can write ten times better than J]
can.”

Mr. Jefferson replied:

“If you insist upon it, I will do the best I can.’

And no American has ever regretted that he wrote this immortal document,

July 4, it was signed by each of the members of Congress, every man who
signed it defying the majestic power of Great Britain; many of them feeling at
the time, no doubt, that their necks would feel the British hangman’s rope
before many months should have passed over their heads.

From the thirteen rebellious colonies we have grown to be the strongest
power on earth. Well may we revere the very names of those who so bravely
perilled their lives and fortunes to release us from the oppression of the
tyrant.

oe no event of as great importance to the American Colonies .







DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE,





STORIES OF RIVERS IN AMERICA.

F you follow our rivers to their heads you will find they run from some little
stream in the mountains, and from lakes, and flow through woods and
meadows until they reach the sea.

The discoverer of the Mississippi was a Spaniard named De Soto, who had
killed thousands of Indians in battle, and went west through thick forests and
came to this great river, one mile in width. They dared not cross, for there
was a great body of Indians on the opposite bank; but marched down for
four miles, where they crossed with the few men who were left, the: greater
part of a large army having wasted away by starvation. De Soto himself
died soon afterwards and was buried in the middle of the river he ae dis-
covered, and which has since become so famous. ;

You all of you know of, and many of our readers have sailed on, the
beautiful Hudson, which has scenery along its banks unsurpassed by any in
Europe and America.

In the Revolutionary War General Arnold made arrangements to place
West Point in the hands of the British,and Major Andre was sent to complete
the arrangements. The vessel which took him up the Hudson was fired
upon, and | it dropped down the stream. Andre was unable to. reach his vessel,
was captured, tried, condemned as a spy, and hung at Tappan.”



THE RIVER NILE.

te. Sa is only within a few years that people knew anything about the

*% country along the Nile, in Egypt. The people are black, and
generally very poor, and live principally on a kind of Indian
corn and dates, those of Nubia being considered better than any
others; and the leaves of the palm-trees, from which dates are
grown, are finer and softer than any others.

There are interesting ruins in Nubia, those of the rock temple
being the most wonderful. The immense statues outside repre-
sent a former king of Egypt. Wild birds are numerous. One
species is called “Pharaoh’s hens,” which are a kind of small white vulture
that frequents the desert, as well as the neighborhood of the river.

Dongola is where the governor lives. There is a sandy desert on each
side of the river. No
fresh meat can be
bought here; it is all



ve

Ti eR
ce
INN Ne

brought up the river. mn
= : SIS at

On this part of the Nile
are great crocodiles and
and water-lizards,

The houses of the
better class are not well
furnished. The beds
are’ frames with strips
of buffalo-hide stretched
across, and mats are
laid on these. They
are used for seats in
the daytime. Wooden
bowls are used instead
of crockery, and drinking-vessels are made from gourds. The Nubian
woman’s dress is a piece of dark blue calico wrapped around her waist and
coming down to her ankles; her head and upper part of the body is covered
with a white scarf, with a red border, which can be drawn over the face. She
wears necklaces, bracelets, rings, earrings and anklets. The upper classes
keep themselves clean by rubbing the skin every night with a kind of. dough,
and then with a fragrant oil. This is called quite refreshing.





THE. TEMPLES “OF INDIA,

































































































































































































































































HE Hindoos, like the Chinese, are a singular people; they are very re-
ligious, and yet worship idols, which they think represent God. Their
priests are very learned men, and their land is full of temples. They have
three principal gods, Brahma, the creator; Vishnu, the preserver; and Siva,
the destroyer. They believe that, when Vishnu was a child (he was called
Kreshna), he swallowed some dirt, and his brothers ran and told their mother.
To see if they were telling the truth, she told him to open his mouth, and saw
three worlds there.

It is said that Hindoos have a great many inferior gods, among whom are
the Devas. They say that these Devas had a quarrel about the disposition
of the principal god. Oneof the Devas at last proposed to settle the matter;
so he went and kicked Siva. Siva became very angry, and spoiled millions

of worlds before he was pacified. The Deva then kicked Brahma. He



THE TEMPLES OF INDIA, 85



grumbled, but didn’t do anything. The Deva then kicked Vishnu, who was
asleep. He awoke at once. He caught the foot that had struck him, and
patting it said he hoped it wasn’t hurt, and that he had not given pain to or
offended the Deva.

Many stories have been told about the “Car of Juggernaut,” and people
being thrown under its wheels. All such tales are nonsense, because it isn’t
true. Juggernaut is one of the names Vishnu takes, and the worship of





























HINDOO GODS. ¥ }

Vishnu is associated with love. The mistake happened in this way: During
the car festival there are great crowds, and accidents sometimes occur; and,
in telling about it, people who saw it made the error of supposing their death
was intentional.
Many of the Hindoos of the upper castes. will undergo all sorts of self-
‘inflicted torture, thinking they are purifying their souls. They will hang by
one hand, or will allow their finger-nails to grow till they are several feet long.
Sometimes the nails penetrate the flesh. Then, again, they will hold one of
their arms or legs in one position so long that they lose the use of it entirely.
But no matter how good and pure a Hindoo may be he can only hope to
escape punishment, and his highest hope is to be absorbed into space and
become nothing ; otherwise his soul after he dies may enter a toad, a snake, a



86 THE SAGACITY OF A GULL.—AN INTELLIGENT SWALLOW.

-horse, or any living animal; and that is why they will not destroy the life of
,any animal, because in doing so he interferes with some poor soul’s progress
upward.
They have the greatest respect for and worship monkeys as a superior race ~
- of beings, and one town is thickly settled with these imps, who are a source
of the greatest annoyance. They also worship a white bull, that you have
sometimes seen in the menageries; it has two humps on its back, much like
the camel. But these people are fast learning to put aside all such vain delu-
sions, and receive and believe the truth,

~



THE SAGACITY OF A GULL.

ZX CURIOUS incident occurred recently on one of the bridges crossing

the river Limat, which flows through the city of Ziirich, illustrating
the sagacity of the gulls or terns frequenting some of the Swiss lakes. A
gentleman who, for ammusement, was in the habit of feeding these birds with
the refuse of meat, which they are fond of, had his hat knocked off into the
rapid current below by one of the more eager gulls hovering around. The
lookers-on laughed at the mishap; and a boat was about to be put out into
the stream to secure the trophy, when, to the surprise of every one, a gull
was noticed to dart down upon the hat, and, after several ineffectual attempts,
succeeded at last in rising with it in its beak, and flying toward the bridge, to
. astonishment of every one, dropped the well-soaked hat where the bystanders

at once secured it for its owner.





AN INTELLIGENT SWALLOW.

R. W. F. MORGAN, of Peagthesake Kan., communicates to Zhe Medical
Record a story which would indicate that swallows have considerable
surgical skill as well as intelligence. In a nest he found a young swallow
much weaker than its mate, which had one of its legs bandaged with horse-
hairs. Taking the hairs away he found that the bird’s lez was broken. The
next time he visited the nest, he found the leg again bandaged. He con-
tinued to observe “the case,” and in two weeks found that the bird was cau-
tiously removing the hairs, a few each day. - The cure was entirely successful,



FINGAL’S CAVE.





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































INGAL’S Cave, in the island of Staffa, on the west coast of Scotland, one

of nature’s wonders, is composed of immense columns of basalt, the color
of them being a bluish gray. They vary in thickness from one to five feet,
and are of very different heights. The sides of the cave are made of the
pillars, and the flooring is evermore the restless, surging sea, whose echoes
have given the cave its Gaelic name, “The Cave of Music.” The arch of
the roof is more than sixty feet above your boat. From side to side the
passage is forty-two feet; but in your boat, if the sea is calm, you may enjoy
the fairy scene, and confess to yourself its grandeur.



SAND WHIRLWINDS.

















‘N Summer we welcome the least breath of air, but there are times when
the wind makes terrible work. This picture shows the columns of sand
raised by the whirlwind in the sandy deserts of Asia and Africa. The people
who live in the desert think that some evil spirit who lives in the air takes
this way of making himself seen. You can see the horsemen and camel-riders
hurrying out of the way of the storm. How dreadful it must be to be placed
in such a locality! We ought to be thankful we are not there, too.



A CYCLONE, OR WHIRLWIND.



OU have all heard or read about the cyclones out West? Perhaps you
live near where these dreadful calamities have happened? The picture
above shows one of these dreaded visitants approaching a village, and the
mother and her two children flying for their lives into the house. See how
the lightning flashes, and look at the black cloud of dust and wind approach-
ing! Sometimes houses are lifted up and ground to pieces, or else let fall
quite a distance from where they were first put. In some parts of the coun-
try, where they have these wind-storms every year, they dig pits, and, when
a storm approaches, they go there and hide till the storm is over.



——— 10:

Wuten does a man appear to run a risk of being burned to death ?—When
he smckes.





90 OUT ON BUSINESS.

OUT ON BUSINESS.

Lo is a poor fox. “Savage creature!” says somebody;
“kill the wicked fellow!’ Stop a moment, neighbor, be-
fore you wantonly put that beautiful animal to a cruel death.
Perhaps he is a bloodthirsty fellow when he is on an expedition |
after meat for his children. Perhaps it would be unpleasant to
have his teeth in our flesh. But until he offers to molest us we
will do well to let him alone. Looking on it from the fox’s side,
"it is different from looking at the fox from our side. He has his
family affairs to see after. Mrs. Fox and the little foxes must be
provided with food. We provide for our families in our way,
and Mr. Fox has his ways of taking care of his home interests.
Between him and his wife and children, in the cave where they ~
live, there is a very warm bond of affection, even if the weather
is cold. The world is large, and if Mr. Fox can manage to keep
out of our way we ought not to grudge him his existence. The
same God who made us made him. That beautiful fur suit of
his is better than any garments we can buy in the fur-stores.
His sharp white teeth will do for models for careless boys and
girls who forget to use the toothbrush. Those nimble feet can
make far better speed than ours. If we mind our business as
well as Mr. Fox minds his, we may learn lessons from him
which will be even better than mangling him or putting him
to death. Itis plain he would like very much to get one of
these chickens to take home to Mrs. Fox and his little ones, but
they are so high up that it is not likely he can reach them. He
will probably have to look somewhere else for his supper.



FORGIVE, IF YOU WOULD BE FORGIVEN.

Nee Rev. John Wesley was on his voyage to Georgia
with General Oglethorpe, the general one day threatened
severe punishment upon an offending servant, saying, “I never
forgive.” “Then I hope, sir,” said Mr. Wesley, “ you never sin!”



































OUT ON BUSINESS.

CHAAS CEN nas








THE TEA-PLANT.

HINA is the home of the tea-plant, and the
greater part of the tea used is from that
country. Quantities are grown in Japan, Assam
and India. Itis an evergreen shrub, and the old
leaves remain until the new ones come. It is
not allowed to grow higher than four or five
feet, though it would grow as high as thirty.

The tea-shrub in China is cultivated in-small ,
plantations, and the leaves are picked by the
family, a leaf at a time, with gloved hands.
These are dropped in small rattan baskets hung
on the neck, which are emptied into larger ones,
and carried to the curing places. There are
several pickings. The first one is in April, when
the buds and very young leaves are gathered.
Soon the new leaves appear, and a second pick-
ing is made in May.. The third is about the middle of June, and the fourth
in August. The leaves of the first crop are the most valuable; the last are
old, and make an inferior tea. Both green and black tea are made from the
same leaves. When the leaves are dried quickly, they make green tea; but
‘dried slowly, they turn dark and make black tea. The leaves are first ‘dried
in shallow baskets in the sun, and then put,a few at a time, into-an iron or
copper pan and stirred until dry; they are then emptied on a table, and
rolled into rolls, dried again, sorted and packed.

When tea was first introduced into England a family had a present of a
small quantity. They boiled some in a pot, and tried to eat it; but, finding it
bitter, fried some. This was no better, and, after trying several other ways,
the tea was put away as good for nothing.







303

Wuy is a soldier like a vine?—Be- | Wuen should you avoid the edge
cause he is ’listed, trained, has ten | of a river?—-When the hedges are
drills (tendrils), and shoots. shooting and the bull-rushes out.

Wuicu is heavier, a half or a full Way is gooseberry jam like coun-

moon?—The half, because the full | terfeit money?—-Because it is not
moon is as light again. currant (current).



THE COFFEE PLANT.

(CEFEE is the seed in the berry of an ever-

green shrub which grows in hot countries.
The soil of the East and West Indies is best
suited to its growth. The plant is naturally
twenty or thirty feet high, but is cut down to five
or six feet, in order to reach the fruit and that it
may bear better. The leaves are a dark, glossy
green, and the star-like flowers either white, or a
delicate rose tint. The odor is like the flower
of the jasmine. When the berry is ripening it
is bright red, but changes toa deep purple. The
seeds have a tough husk around them. When
the berries are ripe they are spread in the sun
to dry till the pulp is shrivelled into a kind of
" pod, which is removed by hand.

The coffee beans are in a hard shell, which is
broken by wooden rollers, and the chaff sifted away, and the coffee is packed
in sacks and aes. In the isang of Sunil the natives dry the leaves
and rub them : :
into powder,
and use it as
we do tea; and
it is said to taste
‘like coffee and
tea together.

Coffee was
first carried
from the des-
erts of Africa
by a caravan to
Persia about a
thousand years
ago. The pic- CARAVAN IN THE DESERT.
ture shows a caravan crossing a desert, and by the wayside you will notice the
skeleton of a “Ship of the Desert,” as the camel is called, which tells the sad
tale of the sufferings endured by those who have to travel in these waste places,

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE FIRST SMOKE.

HEN I was a
boy, about
seven years old,
father and mother
went one day to
town to do some
shopping, and left
brother and me in
care of the girl, and
told us to be good
children; but you
know the old say-
ing, “When the
cat’s away the mice
will play.” Well,
no sooner were our
parents out of sight
than we began to
plan to see how
much fun we could
have before they
came home. The
first thing we did
was to run in to our
next neighbor’s, and
get another boy,
about our own age, to join us. We had some old scraps of iron and bones
that we had been saving, as country boys will, and sold them to a man who
came around once in a while and bought such things, and who very fortu-
nately came along that day. With this money we went to the store. For
my share I bought some currants and what were called half-Spanish cigars,
two of which were sold fora cent. The other boys bought clay pipes with
part of their money, as they had found some tobacco in the stable, used to
steep in water to destroy the lice on the animals. We then went fishing. It
was my first smoke; and between the currants and the cigar I was fearfully
sick, and lay all the afternoon in the worst sort of pain; so that, when mother





96 . BE’ THANKFUL.

and father came home, they were surprised to find me with a pale face and
unable to get up, and it was several days before I felt real well. The other
boy was almost as sick asI was. He tried it next day on his way to school,
and had to give it up; but my brother, who would run barefooted, was able to
smoke like a veteran. The smoke came out of his mouth in beautiful white
curls. From that day to this I have never been able to learn to smoke, and
I am sure I am all the better for it.





BE THANKFUL.

"| DON’T want any supper,” said Kate. “Nothing but bread and milk,
and some cake—just the same every night.”

“Would you like to take a walk?” asked mamma, not noticing Kate’s
remark. “Yes, mamma.”

Kate was pleased so long as their walk led through pleasant streets; but
when they came to narrow dirty ones, where the houses were old and poor,
she wanted to go home. “Please, mamma, don’t go any farther.”

“We will go in the corner house,” said mamma.

A man stood by the door with a sick-looking little girl in his arms; she was
crying, and looked sad and hungry.

Some rough-looking men were sitting.on the door-steps. Kate’ felt afraid,
and held tight to mamma’s hand; but on they went up the tottering steps to
the garret. So hot and close it was that they could scarcely breathe. On
a straw bed near the only window lay a young girl asleep, so pale and thin
and still, she looked as if she were dead.

Hearing footsteps, she opened her eyes. Mamma uncovered her basket,
and gave the girl a drink of milk,-and placed the bread and cake beside her.

Kate’s eyes filled with tears as she saw the girl eagerly eat her supper.
Not a mouthful had she tasted since early morning.

Her poor mother had been away all day working, aad now came home
wishing she had something nice to bring her sick child. When she found her
so well cared for, she could not thank mamma and Kate enough.

The supper seemed a feast to them. “If we can keep a roof over our
heads,” said she, “and get a crust to eat, we are thankful.” Kate never for-
got these words.



308



Wuart did the muffin say to the toasting-fork >“ You’re too pointed,”



‘TOBACCO. |
RiGuHT on the corner of the street Hard-hearted is this lassie brown,





Stands an image passing neat, Like many ladies in the town ;
A chunky squaw—not very fair— Though not of stone, ’tis just as good,
With dusky skin and raven hair, Her heart is made of seasoned wood,
Her lips, though mute, send forth the cry No pity in her breast is found,
To every one who passeth by, As she sings out to all around,

“‘ Tobacco, bacco, ’bacco, tobacco.”’ ** Tobacco, ‘bacco, ‘bacco, tobacco.”
Mid storms and blasts this maiden stands, ’Bacco thin, tobacco thick,
And holds within her brown-hued hands ‘‘Navy,’? ‘Flounder,’’ Killikinick,”’

' A leaf, a very noxious weed, Medium, mild, and strong cigars,

Upon which only men do feed, _ Prime snuff for noses, kept in jars.
Though deaf and dumb to all the crowd, And men will her tobacco buy,
She rings the words out clear and loud, Though o’er their graves this squaw will cry,

‘‘Tobacco, ’bacco, bacco, tobacco.”’ “¢ Tobacco, bacco, bacco, tobacco.’’

305
A BC FOR BOYS. THE PYRAMID OF INTEMPERANCE.

Attend well to your business. Climb up this pyramid, step by step, and
Be punctual in your payments. compare the cost of liquor with that of the
Consider well before you promise. other things mentioned.

Dare to do right.
Envy no man.
‘Faithfully perform your duty. Lome and Foreign











Go not in the path of vice. Misstons,
$5,500,000. .
Have respect for your character. - ,
Inspire friendliness in others, 3 7S ee
Judge not lest ye be judged. (SUE BID OO SS
K thyself. Education,
aaa Sia $91,000,000.

Lie not, for any consideration.

Meddle not with the affairs of others.
Never profess what you do not practise.
Occupy your time in usefulness.
Postpone nothing you can do now.
Quarrel not with your neighbor.
Recompense every man for his labor.
Save something against a day of trouble.
Treat everybody with kindness.

Use yourself in moderation.

Villify no person’s reputation.
Watchfully guard against idleness,
Xamine your conduct daily. Railroad receipts, $790,000,000.
Yield to superior judgment. [ Cost of liquor in one year, $900,000,000.
Zealously pursue the right path,

& never give up.

Boots and shoes,
$196,000,000.

Cotton goots, $210,000,000.



Woollen goods, $23'7,000,000.



Meat, $303,000,000,
Value of Church property,

$350,000,000.

Bread, $505 ,000,000.







THE LOCUST.

HE locust is about.
three inches long,
with a large head and pro-
jecting oval eyes. Its food
consists of leaves and green.
stalks of plants, and when
= locusts alight on any vege-
= tation that they fancy they
consume it entirely.

The terrible ravages. of
locusts are owing to the
vast numbers in which they
appear, filling the air and
darkening the sky so that
objects cast no shadow, and
advancing with a sound like
the rushing of chariots.
Locusts are found in almost
all parts of the world except the coldest regions, and are equally destructive
wherever they appear. .



























20:



Way is a field of grass like a person older than yourself ?—Because it is
past-your-age (Pasturage).



—"0:
Wuat is the best way to raise strawberries >—With a spoon.

30:





How can a man make his coat last ?>—Make his pants and vest first.





203

WHEN is a man duplicated >—When he is beside himself.



:0:——

IF you saw a house on fire, what three celebrated authoi's‘would you feel
disposed to name ?>—Dickens—Howitt—Burns.



Full Text











The Baldwin Library

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SS = =
erento ee

SCOTCH MAIDEN.
WONDERLAND ’:WISDOM; —

THE BOY'S LIBRARY.

BEING A GRAND STORE-HOUSE OF NATURAL HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY,
TRAVELS, DISCOVERY, THRILLING ADVENTURES, REMARKABLE
ANIMALS AND BIRDS, EXPLORATIONS IN ALL PARTS OF
THE WORLD, INDIAN STORIES AND EXCITING EX-

PLOITS ON THE FRONTIER, SEA YARNS,

RIDDLES, CONUNDRUMS, ETC.

_. The Most Complete and Fascinating Book for Boys ever Published.



eS —> | §
EDITED BY

WYNN FIELD,
AUTHOR OF “AUTUMN LEAVES,” “EVENINGS AT HOME,” ETC.

| Over Three Hundred Appropriate Fngravings.

ST BELL Co: |

PHILADELPHIA AND CHICAGO,


OOPYRIGHTED, 1891.
CG. W. STANTON.
"An Adventure with Panthers ..........

CONTENTS.



; ; PAGE
A Day with a Japanese Boy .......... 13
A Beautiful Sentiment... ......20... 14
A’ Braves Youths, evo tiat fur ao. Sea pce ines 18
AV CatiStory sua atsuee vee ye ats al Siete SANS 50
A Shark Story cetain aps Oherme Shs meets Megs Saad Foy at ce 57
Aladdin, or the Wonderful tae StU sao greets uc . . 62
A Cyclone or Whirlwind. . 2... 2... 89
About Snakes . 2... seb eerie eats IOI
An Encounter with Bears ........04.., 113
A Strange Bird. 2... 1. ieee elrez About Shells. 2... 1. slaseuatheoita- waco ane tects LAS
About Oysters toe Re eh ge) le OF Fee al ce per ye eh ce, a GQ
An Indian WLOLY a Fea rai corso eR eee ee 173
APVoung Hero eo enya eS ce atte. Wet } . 183
A Narrow Escape. 2. 2. 6 ee ee ee ee . 201
A Fearless: Heroines) 30/25) eas lta Mae lee 205
A Night on the Picket Line ........0.., 208
A Thanksgiving Dinner»... 2... ee 211
A Young Girl’s Adventure with a-Bear-. . . . . . 215
A Terrible Surprise... 2... 4; z 219

A Tale of the Greenland Seas . , Sse te erase :

A Sea-fowling Adventure 2... .....0...,
An Adventure in a Lighthouse eterehtlen te: va Meee rare
A Sea Yarn
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, ......2..,
Adventure with Pirates. .......
Abraham Lincoln. . . 2... eeeehaictny erie y eye OS 3
A Lie Sticks . 2... SONG. Salone As US GOO:
Aaron’s Rod Changed toa Serpent. .......
‘Be Thankful -

Barbara Freitchie . . . . .
Building of Babel... . 2.2.4.
Birth of Christ
Choosing Companions... ...,....... 8

Chinese Locomotion. . 2... ........4. 22
‘California Life . 2... ‘ ae Spee ees - 48
Glever Monkeys... 2 2... ee ee 122

‘Combat between a Shark and Sword Fish . . . .1 52

Crabs po eitiiias 8 ware, asset acs ge ory cee heed 2 167
Capturing his Own Father... 2... 0. 206
Duty Hirst se Scie Aaa, eat psa Rar SoM ace JO
Dragon Flies. . 2... tlreSSE ens CT eee 108
David Livingstone»... ......... .287
Daniel in the Lion’s Den... 2... 1, + + 320

Evangeline... 2... Seiad etteas kel me SAS
Eddie, the Drummer Boy . 2... 0. 196



PAGE
Early Life of Queen Victoria... 2... - 277
Eastern Shepherds... ......... 2. .318

Fingal’s Cave... . ee ee ee ee
GenéraliGrant ay) A te at haba dae ee eae - 291
His Heart In It... .. oveeiile; Rae eve Mgeremtas any T2
Horses that Like Petting. . 2... ......2.4 15
How Poor Boys Become Great ....%....., 33
How to Catch Monkeys ........... .721
Happy asa Lark .. 2... wale ne Rehaahig ood 42
Hunting Crocodiles - 2 154
How Harry and I Studied Astronomy ..... . 155
History of the Steam Engine +» 309
Indian Medicine Men .. 2... 0.4, . 177
Joan of Arc a gdh (ete dies Ai's) etna Weaver oie ae BOL
Jonah’s Disobedience... ......0.. + 315
LaunchingaShip............... 34°
Learning to be a Soldier... 2... 193
Musical Mountains . ages
My First Summer inthe Country... 2... 46

Murder of Thomas A’Becket ........., 165
Mrs, Mary A. Livermore. . . . . , eee ee . 1Q2
Mary, Queen of Scots... .....,., + + + 306
Napoleon Bonaparte... ........... 270
Out on Business... 2... ee ee ee ew ee. go
“Old Spectacles,” a War Story ........, 204
Poors Dick waist crac oo, Seay eel eas tard ea 45

Penn’s Treaty with the Indians . . , esate ns eZ)

Pride Goes Beforea Fall... 2... .. 0.4; 140
Pears wei cies Wak eI MMSE EY ects emi aoe 150
Playthings of Indian Children. . 2... 0. 180
Putnam’s Leap. lie ng, cone Be 193
Bizarro. jee eo Sasa ale bee aint ls eg 273
Peter: the: Gréaten, ahs singe a TSE ne ia ace 303
Paper and Printing . 2... . 0, 311
Ruth Gleaning in the Field of Boaz ......, 321
Send that BoytoMe ............, 9
Story of Susan Cooper. . 2... ....00, 31
Story of Little Hoe... 2... 39
Ship Ahoy! ebeagelissns ley Gay Wee he epee ey eaten a oe fate 51
Stories of Rivers in America . 2. 2... , 82
Sands Whirlwindsa.2.4" 2 cuir Wae oy ee oe 88
Spiders’, ht Ns wep eee re Me nae 100
Something about Frogs and Toads... 2... , 103
South American Indians... 2... 170
Swiss Family Robinson .:........,, 237
Story of Benjamin Franklin 2... ....020, 295
Sketch of Daniel Webster... ......,~, 298
CONTENTS.



PAGE PAGE
Mig er ae ea. Gee Secale va Mee ia Nie teen Ue Phe. Whale kone itis sAea outa ste eek soya ote cance 195
Theswindinill cic se sche aw ee ae 79 | The Little Sailors. . 6. 2. ee ee 202
PheoMippengese cree aeant a scnilh Gaius ear HesOn ls hekire bres sic chaste uns Wee Dee eee eee 2OO!
ThesBusy"Beeise. ook ote outa cole ek eee she Oe |Cbne) Cat andthe Fox fa iets kas sou teie eee vee ee LO
PENG HMTOSt ieee tesco teenee ral es soy eo teen oo eaten oe 94s eee he, OQUITrel Lunt aye eric Mao ieee trae nea 214
Phe: Camel vee ec Se ee «+ ee s+ + EES | The Princess Wonderful... .......- 2. .214
The Sea-side. . 2... Bspette (aesiceeae » «.. .16 | The Three Wishes ..... 1 rine Riite sh scene 3
The Flower Girl (2 2... 2... «+ + 124| The Disobedient Little Girl... . 2... Ske o2 52
The Miller’s Geese . . . . 1... 1 + « « + « 130] The Revolving Palace... .. Soe a Le cone Spr Oo
The Rulers of England .......... . .132| The Sailor Boy. ....... Sahat Suet oPeea Meg pees 260
hevsazy, Wades ce See ese oe a saehee steel gata vc she. Generous: Childet cass ierncriyesae weer erteneeeke ah e ZOD
shes cegMaideny s #ih. st Sie8 . SE ote alter eas 135 | The Selfish Boy. . ... steerage ensaiea tain Mean 20 5
The Parrot andthe Cat... eee eee . « . 138 | The Dolls’ Christmas Party... ....... . 264
The Owl and her Friends .........2.-. 143. |The little "Peddlers coe ores os gw ee 268
The Whooping Crane... 2... 4... +144] The Happy New Year. . 2. 2... ee eee 270
The Little Dairy Maid. 1 2... + « + -149 |} Underthe Sheaves ....... gateeeaiona tag taAL O.
(he: Swallows se Sie.coy Sete eal vie: tgth sates cat ua grad wes 150 | Valentine’s Morning. . . . 2... 1 ee ee 216
The Truants ..... lel ete ae ea ia ee AST | Wacation:Song. ie) ane a shite sheteteuctr oye Bi AZOT,
The Robin. ....... oe © ee ee © «© « 160 | Wish You Merry Christmas. . 2... 2.2.2... 39
The Wanderer’s Return .. 2... ee eee 165 | What Our Clothing is Made of ..... Ba eae R S
The Babes inthe Woods. ........... 167 | What Are the Wild Waves Saying. . .. . weed
The Sweet Soup ......... + +... . 168 | What a Little Girl Thought of Swearing . . . . . 183
The -PetsOwl isis arte ee a eile Ne le ve ee TOL: | Whatithe: Sunbeams ‘Saway isi ase 197:
ThesKitten:. cae cor Ai eet eed ser bad Teh 1925|-.You-aresWatched = Sip ecw elas oacete ver Tele? Sie eae
The: Globe #Pishe crac here a te Rees ST /194 | Whata Fairy Did. .... Baas helene veep eure ene 34
The Trunk Fish . 2... ....-. ‘+ es « . 195 | Winter Birds (Song). 2. 6 2 ee we we ee. 206


| by

FULL-PAGE

ILLUSTRATIONS.





=e > PAGE
Rrontis piece; gieh aotgee ico oi ee el Four Leaders—First Crusade... 2...
Send That Boy to Me Siok Teco toca SPN teseTSeBORS toes 11 | Murder of Thomas A’Becket. ......2..~.,
The Brave Boy... 2... Seng seiner tees 19 | Druids Offering a Sacrifice . 2... 1
““My Name was Captain Kidd® . 2.5... 26 | The Young Soldiers. (Ssori7)) Saiz Sree eG ae
~The Julia EEA fonts Bean ase Ceuta eae 37 | Blucher’s March to Waterloo ........~.
My Summer in the Country, .. 2... em 7a lel hes strugele sii ea rin citi eae eM
Spinning thei Varn: (Resi opens sen eee Oe 55 | Death of the Royal Tiger ..:.......2..,
Crossing the Steppes ieee ae Re aha cao au aie 73 | Tigress and her Cubs ...... ieee Sha eas Rone
. Declaration of Independence... 2... , Sry eTnenValcings: th, taint es tere try Senet Aare
Out of Business 1:0! 3 2 Ce aes 91 | Ship Lying on the Shore. . 2. 2...
TEOCUStS Srp R ORBAN age te are a Ae a 99 | Napoleon and Queen Louise .......,..,.,
Life and Metamorphosis of the Dragon Fly . . . . 107 | Doum Palms of Upper Egypt... 2... i eaedes
The Butterfly. . 2. , tHe ngiegiccs aa om eee akere en tte 109 | Mary Stuart Receiving her Death Sentence
Sledding: mio Me itee tata teas corde Ge aR SER ay 1253) -Goingsto: Schools spre bic vig sl oh aaa aia
The Village Blacksmith ........0.~., £127'|Bolding. thedslocks .0.i.dtg.ays) ssn ror
ene Jackdawec 2 NsHki aed se taunt aes sae te 145 | The Star of Bethlehem .........2...,
The Dog andthe Crabs... ..,.0..0.., 158
CHOOSING COMPANIONS.



X HE world judges us by the company we keep; judges all

Â¥ by the worst of the company. Nor is this so far from
_ wrong. There is more probability of our becoming bad.
= than of the worst becoming good. Aman owned a swear-
= ing parrot, and to reform him, kept him in the company of
another that never used bad language. It was not long
before both parrots became very profane. Vice works
more quickly than virtue, and sticks more closely.

The world not only judges us by the company we keep,
but is ready to treat us as the worst of our companions
deserve. Success or failure in life depends very much on
the company one keeps. What, then, must be done to
have good company? oes
Choose your companions, Do not take whoever may choose you, but

choose for yourself your own company.

Choose those whom you know. You would hardly trust strangers with
property; will you trust them with that which is worth far more—your com-
fort, your reputation, your life, your soul?

Choose such as you can trust. He who deceives or flatters others may.
flatter and deceive you. If he be unfaithful to another, what assurance can
you have of his faithfulness to you?

Choose such as tell you kindly, yet frankly, your faults. Only true friencs
will do that, “Faithful are the wounds of a friend.”

Choose those who respect their parents and are loved at home. Nowhere
is there such an opportunity given to study one’s character so closely studied,
as at home. Those who respect their parents will respect what is worthy and
good in you, and those whom the little ones of home love and trust you may
regard as worthy your confidence. Respect for parents and love and care for
little ones are rarely found in hearts that are very bad.

Choose true Christians. They live from principle, and believe that-God’s

eye is upon them. Being friends of God, they will bring you into the best
company; and they will be likely in their prayers to keep you before the mind
of the Almighty, so that you may share in their own blessings. Their friend-
ship will last. They are everlasting friends, for heaven—the place you hope
for—is their home. You never need say a last “ Good-bye” .to such friends.
“SEND THAT BOY TO ME.”



7... HE pay is forty dollars a month, and a good youth is
o f i That:is what the permanent men
sure Of promotion, at-1s what the p
at the railroad shops complain about; this place is now
vacant because the lad your partner sent us, and who
filled it worthily a year, is now placed where he gets
eighty dollars a month. So we trust you to choose his
successor. They may ask you a few questions about
the candidate for form’s sake, at the office, but your
man is sure to pass muster.”

The above was addressed by a busy railroad officer
to a city lawyer, who replied:

“There is my friend’s son, Urban Starr; his father
spoke to me about employment for him. To be sure,
Urban is rather above the place as to talent and
culture, but times are hard, and the young should climb
the low rounds of the ladder. [I'll see about proposing
him.” Te

“Thank you! T’ll be doubly obliged if you will take
your applicant up to the office and see him accepted.”
And the railroad man hurried away. ;

To this conversation there had been a deeply inter.
ested but sad-hearted listener—Theodore Young, the
faithful office boy, who longed with unspeakable
desire for some such place as the one described. He
was the eldest son of a widowed mother, whom he yearned to help, and who
was so poor that forty dollars a month seemed wealth to her boy. When the
railroad man left, the lawyer turned to Theo, saying:

“Here, Theo, though it isn’t your work, won’t you note the dates of these
letters and file them away in order, while I write a letter for you to take up
to Mr. Starr’s?” .

Theo attended carefully to the papers, and was waiting for the letter before
it was finished. A great desire was swelling in his throat till it ached, and
when the finished letter was handed to him, his request burst forth in trem-
bling eagerness:

“Do you think, sir, there is, or may be, any low place in the railroad shops
for which you would venture to recommend me? I would begin very low and
work very hard tg deserve promotion; perhaps in years I might come to such
a place as this for Urban Starr.” |
10 “SEND THAT BOY TO ME.”

“ How can we spare our good, trusty Theo? But I own, it is too bad to
keep you here. If Urban consents to apply, when I go with him you may go,
too, and I'll interview the parties about something for you.”

“Oh, thank you, sir,” cried Theo, and he was so-glad that he ran instead of
walking on his errand. A few hours later found Urban and Theo waiting in
the ante-room, while the lawyer made known his business about Urban to the
railroad officials, who said: —

“Oh, yes; thank you for bringing him. The last employé your firm sent
was a treasure, and we don’t need to ask questions about this one; yet there
is one essential thing I will mention. Of course you know this person, like
the last, to be strictly temperate—total abstinence pledged and practiced?”

“No, sir, I know nothing of the kind; but on the contrary, while my friend,
Mr. Starr, is temperate, he isn’t one of the total kind. There is wine for the
guests at New Year’s, and Urban takes his glass like the rest.”

“Excuse me, then, but he wont do for our employ. Total abstinence prin-
ciples and habits are our first requirements.”

“He is no drunkard. netneps if you see him you will think he has quali-
fications of great value to you.’

“Tt is teeless for us to even see him, since we desire one who has been
from boyhood voluntarily abstinent.”

“Very well; Urban Starr is above need of the place. Good-morning!
Oh, excuse me for having forgotten another matter; there is here a lad with
me—in fact, our own office boy—for whom I’ve promised to ask if you’ve any
kind of a place ever coming vacant into which you could put him with hope
of his future. We hate to lose him, for he is trusty, capable, willing, writes a
good hand, is quick at figures.”

“ How is he on his total abstinence ?”

“Oh, he is square on that. Signed the pledge when a child. Never took
a first glass. Regards a glass of wine with superstitious horror.”

“Send him in, if you please; we would like to talk with him.”

Theo came back to the lawyer’s office radiant with joy, exclaiming, “ They
say I’m just the one they want for the place you didn’t take for Urban. They
only laughed when I said I feared there was some mistake. Is it all Bent)
Don’t Urban want the situation? ”

“Tt is all right, Theo. Please ROMER when youre 2 railroad president
that you owe your success in life to me.’

This occurred (for this is true) several years ago, und Theo has nowa salary
of fifteen hundred dollars, with the love and confidence of all who know him,
while Urban is intemperate, out of employment, and agriet to his parents.








































































































































































































































































































































































































“SEND

THAT BOY TO ME.”
HIS HEART IN IT.

MANUFACTURER in Philadelphia lately id a friend the
story of one of his superintendents.

“Twelve years ago a boy applied to me for work. He was
employed at low wages. Two days later the awards of pre-
miums were made to manufactories at the Centennial Ex-
hibition. :

“Passing down Chestnut street early in the morning, I saw
Bob poring over the bulletin-board in front of a newspaper
office. Suddenly he jerked off his cap with a shout.

«« What is the matter?’ some one asked.

« «We have taken a medal for sheetings!’ he exclaimed.

“I said nothing, but kept my eye on Bob. The boy who
could identify himself in two days with my interests would be
of use to me hereafter.

“His work was to deliver packages. I found that he
took a real pride in it. His wagon must be cleaner, his horse
better fed, his orders filled more promptly than those of the
men belonging to any other firm. He was as zealous for the
house as though hé had been a partner in it. I have ad-
vanced him step by step. His fortune is made, and the firm
have added to their capital so much energy and force.”

“Never buy a draught horse,” says the Farmers’ Guide, “ which needs the
whip to make him pull? "

We find in a Southern newspaper a remark which points the same truth in
other circumstances. A Northern man with a small capital settled ten years
ago in a town in Georgia. He established a thriving business, started a
library, a lyceum, street-cars, and a hospital, and became one of the most
popular men in the town.

When he died, last summer, the leading journal said: “The secret of the
powerful influence which this stranger acquired among us was that he never
said, ‘I and mine,’ but ‘We and ours.’ And he meant tt.”






A DAY WITH A JAPANESE BOY.











IDEOSABE KUKU is

11 a Japanese boy of fifteen
years, who lives in the city
of Tukin, in Japan. He lives
in an old and handsome
-house built of solid timber;
it has only one story, and
this is divided into ten rooms.
by sliding .paper screens.
The floors are carpeted with
thick, soft mats, and it is well
there are so many because
Hideosabe wears only stock-
ings on his feet; his shoes, which are made of wood, are only worn in the street.
At breakfast, Hideosabe, with his father, mother and two little sisters, sits.
down on a thick mat spread before a low table. A servant brings in a large































































- bowl of cold boiled rice, and sets it before each person, and then.a dipper full

of steaming tea is brought in, and the rice saturated and heated by having
the tea poured over it. They eat this with two long, straight ivory sticks,
called chop-sticks. After the rice they have another course consisting of
slices of large pickled radishes ; these are followed by more tea, and the meal
is ended.

When it is time for Hideosabe to go to school he puts on his wooden shoes,
which are fastened by a leather strap across the instep. He wears a long
loose coat of dark blue silk, an evidence of wealth, and under this a pair of
very wide linen trousers. He carries a slate and copy-book wrapped in a
square of silk. Before he has gone far many friends join him; some are men
of twice his age.

The school-house is a long, low bamboo building with glass windows, and
rows of rough wooden benches. It has two doors, and“according to Japanese
etiquette, teachers and pupils must never enter the same door. Outside the
school-house is a building nearly as large. Two or thrée servants stand inside.
this door, and as Hideosabe enters, he takes of his clogs, and hands them to.
a servant, who gives him a check. Then he goes into the school-room. In
this room are fire-pots, looking like little charcoal stoves, ranged along the
wall, where the teachers and students light their pipes.
14 : A BEAUTIFUL SENTIMENT.



The school is called to order by taps of a metal hammer on a large bell
without a tongue. Whata strange country this is, where the cats have no
tails, the bells no tongues, and ne people take off their shoes instead of their
hats when théy enter ne house.

The school consists of several hundred apile and a half dozen masters,
and they all talk in low tones, smoke when they like, and occasionally take
little naps on the floor if the weather is hot. School hours are from nine to
three, the only recess being a short one for tiffin, or lunch of cold boiled rice.
Then there is a half Ronee: practice with the fencing-master, in which all take
part.

School being over r Hideosabe hires a sort of full- grown baby-carriage drawn
by a man, and goes to spend an hour with a fdend practicing gymnastics.
Some American visitors have made a pun on this vehicle, and called it a pull’
man-car.

Hideosabe goes home to dinner, which is more ceremonious than breakfast
or tiffin, A small black lacquered table, only four inches high, is laid with
chop-sticks, a pair for each member of the family, who take: their places on
the rugs, and are served by the neat maid who brings in little tubs of steaming
rice and pots of tea. Then follow fish, boiled eggs, lobsters and slices of
roast venison. After this is a warm drink called “sake,” made of fermented
rice. Now, the candles are brought in, and the pipe for the house-master.
While he smokes the mother tells stories in which they are all interested.

Later in the evening Hideosabe devotes an hour to his lessons, and then takes
a hot bath, without which no man, rich or poor, considers his day properly ended.

His bed consists of a quilt spread.on the floor, while the pillow is a wooden
box about eight inches high by four broad, and covered with a velvet cushion.
_ This contains all the toilet articles, a small paper lantern, and a secret drawer
for money. The neck of the sleeper is laid on the velvet cushion, and the
head rests on nothing. We say good-night to Hideosabe, feeling sure that
he will have as sweet sleep as we on our good beds.



308



A, BEAUTIFUL SENTIMENT.

HEN the Hindoo priest is about to baptize an infant, he utters the
following beautiful sentiment :—“ Little babe,,thou enterest the world
weeping while all around thee nic contrive to live that you may depart in
smiles while all around you weep.” :


HORSES THAT LIKE PETTING.

«A merciful man is merciful to his beast.”



N ambulance driver in New York tells the following about his horse:

“ About two years ago he was put before an ambulance for the first
time. He was a very young horse then, and of course very frisky and unruly.
Anything like an unnecessary noise seemed to excite him so that it was a
difficult matter to manage him at.all. When hurrying through the streets,
the noise of the gong had various effects on him. At one time, he would tear
along at a rate that threatened destruction to the ambulance and death to all
in it; and it seemed an utter impossibility to check him, At another time he
would stubbornly reftise to move faster than a walk, in spite of all the beating

+
16 HORSES THAT LIKE PETTING.

that we might give him. To find some cure for this unruliness became a
source of endless anxiety to us. We tried several plans, but each one proved
a signal failure.. Finally, we discovered an effective method by mere accident.
One day, we were about starting off to get an injured man, when I left Bill
for a moment standing near the curb-stone, in charge of my little boy. When
I came back, ready to go, Bill was quietly eating some oats that the little
fellow was feeding him from his hands. I waited and allowed him to finish
eating what the boy had, and then got in the ambulance and drove off. Well,
I had no trouble at all on that trip in getting Bill to go good. Of course, I
laid it all to the oats; but the rest of the fellows laughed at me when I told
them of it. Still, I was not to be discouraged in that way; so the next day I
tried feeding him just previous to starting. But Bill cut up as badly as ever,
and it was with difficulty that I got my patient safely to the hospital. After
this defeat, I thought nuch over the matter, and tried to devise some other
means ‘of conquering Bill of his bad habit. I liked the horse, and hated to
part with him; and yet things could not go on as they had been going, for I
was running a great risk every time I drove him. Soon after this, I stood
patting Bill on the neck and feeding him with my hands, when word came
that a man had been injured down town. I started immediately; and, strange
to say, I never drove a more docile horse. I then became convinced that |
Bill's good behavior and oats had some very intimate connection, but just
what that connection was I could not say. But, as I eventually discovered, it
depended simply on the manner in which you fed him. My boy had given
him his oats out of his own hands; but in my first trial, I had merely set them
before him in a measure. The second time I remembered, I had also fed him ~
with my hands. This led me to believe that he liked to be petted and thought
much of. Convinced of this, I made the trial of feeding him from my hand;
it worked to perfection, and we have obtained perfectly satisfactory work from
Bill ever since.”



305



I wap a little pony; Two. little blackbirds
They called him dapple gray, _ Sitting ona rail,

One named Jack,
The other named Jill.
Fly away, Jack!

: : Fly away, Jill!
She rode him through the mire; Come back, Jack!

I lent him to a lady,
To ride a mile away.
She whipped him, she slashed him,

I would not lend my pony now, Come back, jill!

for all the lady’s hire. [Played with pieces of paper stuck to fingers.]
THE NATIVE AUSTRALIANS.

HE native Australians live in
L.- hollow trees, made so by bor-
ing them out with fire. Ordinarily
their food consists of shell-fish
‘or bruised ants and grass, or they
would make a hook out of a piece
of oyster shell and fasten a line to
it and catch fish. They are filthy
beasts, and covered with lice,
They are the most degraded peo-
ple in the world. They are black,
and have frizzled hair like negroes,
and very lean arms and legs,
Their principal ornament is the
bone which they thrust through
the nose, which makes them look
very funny, and you can’t help
laughing every time you see one.
They also tattoo their skin with
all sorts of devices, and they have
a habit of inflicting gashes on
themselves, and then filling the cut
with wood-ashes which would
make nasty scars, causing ridges
to appear all over the body. A
gentleman, who spent many years
in Australia, said that he was present once when the tribe was mourning the
death of one of its members. They all sat in a circle around a fire perfectly
quiet. After a while one began moaning, and gradually they all joined in; |
then the one who first started the chorus began to strike himself all over the
body with a sharp instrument, and soon the entire party were shrieking and
making a terrible noise, and wounding themselves in the most fearful manner.
This continued a long while, till they were all exhausted. The next day they
dressed their wounds with mud, and went around as usual as if nothing had
happened. This old fellow in the picture looks quite peaceably disposed; but
you can’t tell what these wild people will do once they are aroused.


A BRAVE YOUTH.

S a little boy was row.
ing his father to
their home at Grand

Island, his father being
somewhat intoxicated, the
canoe got into the current
quite near the falls. The .
brave boy exerted himself
to the utmost, until he came
near to Iris Island, and the
canoe. was driven in be-
tween the little islands
called the Sisters. They
were in the greatest dan.
ger of going -over the
precipice which forms the
Horseshoe Fall. A dash
of the waves capsized the
canoe, and they were strug:
gling in the water. The boy caught his father by the coat-collar, and
dragged him to a place of safety. When they reached the shore the boy
fainted, and his father was completely sobered. The canoe was dashed to
pieces on the rocks,



NIAGARA FALLS.



70%



Rounp the wood, and round the Way is your shadow like a false
wood, and never goes into the wood ? | friend?—It follows you only in sun-
—A vine on a tree. shine,

Aut holes, full of holes, and yet Who is that lady whose visits no-





holds water ?—A sponge. body wishes ?—Miss. Fortune.
Lirrie Jack Horner sat in acorner, | Tom, Tom, the piper’s son,
Eating a Christmas pie ; - | Stole a pig and away he run;
He put in his thumb, and he took out | The pig was eat,
a plum, And Tom was beat,

And said, “ What a good boy am I!” | And Tom ran erying down the street,


THE BRAVE Boy.
Ours is a town of prairie dogs;
We dig our palaces in the ground;
And pop! we enter, like leaping frogs;
Beside each door a mound,
Where we can watch and bask in the sun,
Chatting together till day is done,
Neighborly, merry, every one.

The galloping Indian reins aside
From the pitfalls of the wish-ton-wish ;
Owls and rattlesnakes with us abide.
- (“Pretty kettle of fish!” )
Antelope feed on our grass dew-pearled,

Wild horses stampede with manes unfurled,

And hunted buffalo shake our world.

Ad

But a stranger thing has come at last, —
An iron horse, that would make you quail,
With fiery breath goes raging past,
All eyes along his tail.
I am a hero; I brave the train,
Bark at the monster with might and main,
And send him snorting over the plain.

M4 lee Tce a ales
bs an Ae eS GK) iss Av
oe Nay ee iy wy De

on 4



egy 3

wan
a

Se


ae Ay Pe
CHINESE LOCOMOTION.

N

We TF one could
gather to-
gether all the
different
means of trav-
el used in dif-
ferent parts
of the world,
what a curious
collection it
would be! In
Venice they
use boats call-
ed gondolas;
“in China, a
wheel-barrow,
consisting of
a single wheel,
with a person
on each side to balance it. Suppose one side were heavier than the other,
would it not be funny to see them tumble over? Sometimes they use a sail
to help push the wheel-barrow along. Just imagine sucha contrivance coming
down the main street! Would not the boys be out in full force to see what
the strange contrivance was? In Lapland, a part of Russia, Iceland, and the
northern part of America, the Esquimaux use dogs attached to a sled. They
use no reins, but direct the animals by using the whip and calling to them.






















THE JAPANESE.

HE Japanese are very much
like their neighbors, the Chi-
nese; but the resemblance is more
in the color of their skin and the
way they dress, It is only within
the last thirty years that Ameri-
cans and Englishmen have been
allowed to enter the Mikado’s
empire; but the people are very
quick to learn, and when General
Grant visited them, ten years ago,
he found railroads, telegraphs,
and everything. that you are ac-
-customed to seeing every day.
They are very fond of flowers,
and their country is called the
“flowery kingdom,”:on that ac-
count. One flower, that perhaps
you have often seen and know all
about, the Camelia, grows forty
feet high there.

Thirty-five years ago a vessel
visited one of their ports, and the
captain and part of his officers !
and crew went ashore; but they A ae Pe a Hi =s
took good care to stay near their
boat. ‘The Japanese, however,
treated them so nicely that they
were easily persuaded to visit the
castle the next day. The captain
and all his officers went to the
castle, when they were quickly
seized, and their hands, arms, legs
and feet tied; and they were put
in jail, and kept prisoners a long
while. .When Commodore Perry, of the United States Navy, visited that



JAPANESE LADY.
94 THE JAPANESE,

country a few years afterward, he was treated much better; but, whenever the
party approached a village, the women all scampered away. The interpreter,
when spoken to about it, lied, and said the women were modest and afraid.
But Perry told the interpreter that it wasn’t so. The guide laughed, because
to be able to lie and not be caught is considered something to be proud of.
The Japanese women are quite pretty, but very small, being less than five feet
high. They dress in silk and cotton. Their clothes are made like that in the
picture. They paint their faces, shave off their eyebrows, and blacken their
teeth ; ae think this makes them prettier. They are very social, and have
i in HH » tea-parties,
Kl SE Ae ul L [ i | where they have

Hn Th ae music, card-
playing, and do
pretty much as
we do. Their
furniture is very
scanty. They
spread mats on
the floor, and at
night bring out
pillows and bed-
covers, open
screens, which

divide the























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































partments, and
=3 lie on the floor
Me and sleep. In
JAPANESE FAMILY, ~ the mornin g
they put away their pillows and bedclothes, fold up their screens, sweep the
floor, and their housework is done. They are great readers, and the number
of novels printed each year is wonderful. They are printed from wooden
blocks, and they use one side only of the paper because it is so thin, as it is
made from the bark of a tree. The very poorest and commonest kind of
people there both read and write, which is more than can be said of a great
many other countries,
Their principal product is rice, which takes the place of bread. They also
grow oranges, lemons, peaches, plums, figs, chestnuts, apples, and something



room into com- ©
THE JAPANESE. . 25



else you all know about, which mother puts in your clothes to keep out the
moths. I hear you all say,“ Camphor.” Well, you are right; itis made from
the gum of an evergreen tree.

They have gold, silver and copper mines, and make steel and porcelain,
You will find there cats and dogs, sheep, goats, horses, oxen, hogs, etc.

The better classes of the Japanese wear wide trousers and swords. The
men are about five feet high, and the women between four and five feet.
Their walk is very funny, as they wear high-heeled clogs, and turn their toes
in, which makes them waddle.



30:



Why is a shoe-black like an editor ?—Because he polishes the understand-
ings of his patrons.





30:
Wuen did Moses sleep five in a bed >—When he slept with his forefathers.

o—————: 0:



Wuy is a man looking for a philosopher’s stone like Neptune ?—Because he
is sea-king what never was.



303:



"Way is the letter K like a pig’s tail?—Because it is the end of pork,





303:

Wuere can happiness always be found ?—In the Dictionary.





202

Wuat is the color of a grass-plat covered with snow ?—Invisible green.



303



STRICTLY speaking how many days are there in a year?—Three hundred
and twenty-five—forty are Lent, and never returned.





302

_ How many dog-days are there in a year?—Three hundred and sixty-five:
every dog has its day.



30%



Way does a miller wear a white hat >—To keep his head warm.


















































































































































































































































































































“My name was Robert Kidd, when I sailed.”

*
en

AN

THE VOYAGE OF ROBERT THE KID. !






I sailed,
My name was Robert Kidd, when I sailed,

My name was Robert Kidd, and so wickedly |
I did 7 :

a,
<4y Y name was Robert Kidd, when I sailed, when aN
f\ A

I should say so! Robert Kid might as well confess, }
since all the village was knowing to the caper he cut} ]#*
up. Our Robert was not Kidd the pirate, but a modern | Wi
kid, with a goat mother.

From his very babyhood he had a talent for breaking or undoing
his rope, and making off.

One day he got loose and ambléd off unseen down the steep
bank to the river-side. There a boat was hitched, and on a seat
of the boat. lay some clothing. Robert knew a garment when he
saw it. He had eaten one suit from our clothes-line, where
it was hung out to air.

Robert leaped into the boat, and began at the collar to devour IC
the coat. The canvas in the collar just suited his appetite.

By barely turning his head he could add to his feast a taste |
of old rope. That was the rope the boat was tied with, and it V
presently dropped apart. Robert was too busy with the clothes to | ‘ae
notice that the boat was cringe out « on the sed vee =o me sailed. |





Ne
28 THE VOYAGE OF ROBERT THE KID.

as he sailed, there was danger ahead. The mill-
dam was only a short distance below. Most
likely if he went over the falls he would be done
feeding on clothes and gnawing ropes. —
Then there went up a lusty shout: —
“Help! Help! Somebody come quick !”
A boy standing waist-deep in water, not far from where the
Y YW boat had started, wildly waved his arms, calling at the top
of his voice. He had discovered that Robert Kid had stolen
| Zg his clothes while # he was enjoying a bath. . \
SW Nobody seem- ing to hear his cries for assistance, the bather



4










“IR

A" , Struck out and , swam for the boat, which was now heading
q for the falls. 4 But the great matter was, that the robbery
| J Vi acitc left the boy nothing to put on.

He was a stout lad, and the best swimmer among
the boys of the village. It was well

esa he had not time to consider the risk
. * raul

he ran. The thought might have





“Igy § 1; ff struck him helpless from fright. The people
WALZ) from the near- x est houses did
x bh not come screaming to the
Sv ‘ shore a minute sooner, or

ak

he might have ~ i §

Cw caught the scare

LA and sunk like a piece of lead.

ay, “T was bound to have my clothes,”
\)



p

























was the lad’s reply to those who met
ys Y the boat as he brought it to land.

And there he sat, gripping the oars,
Sp with his recovered clothing wrapped
C YZ}, about him in a very odd fashion.
wi As the four-legged passenger skipped
ashore and made tracks for home, the boy sang out,— |
“Do that thing again, and, as sure as your name _
% is Robert Kid, I'll pitch you overboard.”
LAVINIA 8. GOODWIN.



, Box gS ft! ee | re is
A Toe ee Ly ae, ef *

GeO PRE, 22 <> CW Ri-sO x € i


MUSICAL MOUNTAINS,































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































a me

ITHIN the past few years accounts have been published of at least two
musical mountains: one in Colorado, the other in one of the western
territories ; but no one could explain the cause of the musical sounds.
_ The following description is given of a musical mountain located not far
from Mount Sinai: 4
“Jebel Nagus receives its name from certain curious sounds which proceed
from it, and which are supposed to resemble those of the wooden gong used
in Eastern churches in lieu of bells. The mountain is composed of white,
soft sandstone, and filling a large gully in the side facing west-south-west, is a
slope of fine drift-sand about three hundred and eighty feet in height, eighty ©
380 MUSICAL MOUNTAINS,

yards wide at the base, and tapering toward the top, where it branches off into
three or four narrow gullies. The sand lies at so high an angle to the
horizon, nearly thirty degrees, and is so fine and dry, as to be easily set in
motion from any point in the slope, or even by scraping away a portion from
its base. When this is done, the sand rolls down with a sluggish, viscous
motion, and it is then the sound begins—at first a low vibratory moan, but
gradually swelling out into a roar like thunder, and as_ gradually dying away
again, until the sand has ceased to roll. The sound seemed like air entering
the mouth of a large metal vessel, and I could produce an imitation of it ona
small scale, by turning my flask at a certain angle of the wind. We found
the heated surface much more sensitive to sound than the cooler layers
beneath, and that those parts of the slope which had laid long undisturbed
produced a much louder and more lasting sound than those which had re-
cently been set in motion, thus showing that the phenomenon is purely local
and superficial, and due in some manner to the combined effects of heat and
friction, A faint sound could also be produced by sweeping portions of the
sand rapidly forward with the arm; and this caused such a peculiar tingling
sensation in the operator’s arm, as to suggest that some electrical influence
was also at work, When a large quantity of the sand was set in motion, and
the sound was at its height, a powerful vibration was felt, and straws stuck
into the sand trembled visibly. The inclination of the slope is the ‘angle of
rest’ of the sand in its normal condition ; but excessive heat or drought, wind,
animals running over the slope, falling rocks and many other causes, might
act as a disturbing element. In any of these cases the sound would occur, and
its spontaneous production, which has caused so much speculation, may be
therefore easily accounted for. Besides the large slide there is a narrow slope
to the north; and part of this being in shade the whole day long during the
winter months, afforded us an opportunity of determining the comparative
sensitiveness of the heated and cool sand. We found that the sand on the
cool, shaded portion, at a temperature of sixty-two degrees, produced but a
very faint sound when set in motion; while that on the more exposed parts,
at a temperature of one hundred and three degrees, gave forth a loud and
often startling noise.”




STORY OF SUSAN COOPER.

FPHOMAS COOPER was a hun-
ter and trapper, and for many
years wandered about the country
in search of game. He married
at last a pretty young woman, and
settled near a squatter’s farm.
Tom remained at home for some
time, in order to make a com-
fortable home for his young wife;
but, becoming discontented, re-
sumed his old life, leaving old
Nero, a hound, to protect his wife.
One ‘cold morning Susan was
awakened by the loud barking of
Nero, and, hastily dressing, she
called the dog, which carried some-
thing heavy and dark in his mouth,
and on coming nearer she saw it
was a little Indian child which
Nero had killed. She examined the ground about the house, and found the
print of.a small foot with a moccasin on, and concluded that the mother was.
carrying her child when the dog attacked her. So she buried the body of
the child near the house.

Tom came home soon after, but only stayed a few days, and went away,
saying he might be gone a month or more. About two days after he had
gone Susan heard Nero scratching at the door, and opening it found the two
deerhounds her husband had taken with him. She ran as fast as she could
to the squatter’s cabin, and tried to persuade the man and his two sons to go:
in search of her husband, but they compelled her to wait until morning. She
was determined to go with them, and the party followed the trail. About
noon one of the hounds rushed into a thicket. They followed, and found the
dead body of his master, killed by an Indian arrow. They buried him, and
set out on the trail and came to the remains of a fire. They crossed a river,
and saw again the print of the small feet. They still followed the dog until
he stopped at the foot of a tree, which had a hollow about half way up. They
chopped it down, when a young’ squaw fell to the ground, They picked her


-39 THE SHEPHERD’S BRIDE,

up, and carried her to the river, and washed her wounds. Then they con-
tinued their journey, until they came to their hut. Susan begged them to
leave the Indian woman with her to nurse, and they consented. She was
delirious, and often frightened Susan with her wild ravings. She gradually
recovered, and one morning Susan missed her; she searched for her all
around, but could find nothing of her.

A few years passed away. Susan was awakened one night by a quick knock,
and called to ask who was there. A voice said: « Quick! Quick!” and she
knew the Indian woman she had nursed was there. She opened the door,
and the squaw dragged Susan out of the hut into the forest, which they had
no sooner reached when they heard the horrid yells of the Indians. She
stayed there several hours, and saw the flames of her dwelling above the
trees, and heard the “ whoops” of the Indians as they went away. The Indian
woman came back to her bringing a bag of money which Susan’s husband
had left, and waving her hand was out of sight among the trees.

Susan started for the squatter’s cabin, and, telling her story, the squatter
and his two sons went to the spot, where they found only ashes,

Susan lived with the Wiltons after this, and was like a daughter to the old
man and sister to the sons. :





THE SHEPHERD'S BRIDE.

« YNCE there was a young shepherd who wanted to marry, and though he

knew three sisters, all of them equally pretty, he did not know which to
choose. So he asked the advice of his mother, who told him to ask them all
to supper, and to give them cheese and see how they cut it. The oldest ate
tind and all; the next cut the rind off, but some good cheese with it; but ‘the
youngest pared the rind off carefully. So the young shepherd took the
youngest for his wife, and they lived contented and happy the rest of their
lives,



203



[THE following is a game played as follows: A string of boys and girls, each holding by his predecessor’s skirts,
approaches two others, who with joined and elevated hands form a double arch. After the dialogue, the line passes

through, and the last is caught by a sudden lowering of the arms—if possible.]

How many miles is it to Babylon?— | Yes, and back again |

Threescore miles and ten. If your heels are nimble and light,
Can I get there by candle-light >— You may get there by candle-light.
HOW POOR BOYS BECOME GREAT.

N° doubt many of you

have read how our
great men have been poor
boys, and after they were
grown, became tired of wear- |
ing poor clothes, and earning |
barely enough to live on, and |
determined to obtain an edu- :
cation and make something of : |
themselves, . :

You have heard how Abra- |
ham Lincoln when he was a
boy did the roughest kind of
farm-work, and when he was
older split rails.

General Garfield used to
drive horses or mules that
towed a canal boat, and it is
a singular fact that nearly all
our great men have come
from the country.

In this picture you see a
boy on his way to the village
store to exchange the products
of the garden for sugar and
other necessaries that they
cannot raise. What a bright happy face he has! It shows the firm deter-
mination of a lad who is bound to make his way in the world.

When Judge Chase was a boy, he was told to scald a hog that had just
been killed. Young Chase put the hog ina boiler full of hot water that sat
over the fire, and waited for the hairs to fall off; but, unfortunately, he allowed
the hog to remain in the water too long, and the hairs became set. What to
do he did not know; but, finally, he bethought him of his brother’s razor,
which he got, and set to work and shaved the hog. It is needless to say the
razor was fit for nothing else afterward. Judge Chase became Secretary of
the Treasury of the United States under President Lincoln.




34 LAUNCHING A SHIP.





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































LAUNCHING A SHIP.

PaPBee what are those great sheds for by the side of the
- river? See, there are great ships under them, only with-
out any masts.”

“Those are ships being built, my son, and the sheds are to
keep the wood from getting wet.”

“Why, that is taking useless trouble, for the ships are always
in the water after they are built.”

“True; but if the wood is put together when wet, it soon
becomes rotten.”

“But, father, how can they put those great ships in the
water ?”

“If you look, you will see that the ground on which they
stand is sloping.” .
“Yes; but how can a ship slide down a slope without up-



lO) eee ES BL OY CO

é
y


LAUNCHING A SHIP. 35

setting? The keel of a ship, you know, father, is quite narrow,
‘so how can they balance such a great thing on so narrow a
‘bottom ?” Ans at

“ When the ship is finished,” said his father, “ they contrive
to support it, not on the keel, but on a great frame of wood,
the top of which is fixed to each side of the ship, and the lower
part of the frame rests on long sloping pieces of timber, which
extend some distance into the water. This frame is called the
cradle of a ship, and the long pieces of timber the launch-ways.
The cradle rests upon the ways—but mind, it is not fastened
to them. The upper surface of the ways is well greased, so
that the cradle may slide easily along them. When it is wished

to put the ship into the water, the props and blocks of wood -

' which supported it while it was building are knocked away,
and then the ship rests upon the cradle, but is kept from slid-
ing down by a few props called dog-shores. At the appointed

hour these dog-shores are also knocked away and the ship slides §

gently into the water.”

“OQ, how I wish I could see a ship launched,” said George.

“It is, indeed, an interesting scene, and in ancient times was
regarded as a season of great mirth and festivity. But in late
times the launching of a ship has become a matter of so common
occurrence that it excites, in general, but very little attention.
People turn out, perhaps a thousand or two, just to see it, and
then return peaceably to their homes.”

** But tell me, father, how they used to show their mirth
at the launching of a ship ?”

“The sailors who were present at the launch were dressed
for the occasion and crowned with wreaths. The ship, too,
was bedecked with streamers and garlands. As soon as she

was fairly afloat she was purified, as the ceremony was called, ® Ws
by means of a lighted torch, an egg, and some brimstone. You
have observed that many vessels have on their prow, a carved |
image of a man or woman, called a figure-head. Among the VK
ancients it was customary to represent by the figure-head the ~ es
god they worshipped, and they usually consecrated the ship to ly fi

eee ee

ip as st 3" OBE. SC : oot Z =
2% TEs ws
e) ~" TE Ug OAS :








36 THE SHIP.

this god. Sometimes in our days, and especially in Europe,
they have great feasting and merriment; but instead of the
torch, the egg, and brimstone, the oldest sailor on board breaks
a bottle of some liquid—water among temperance folks—and
pours it over the head of the figure.”

“But is a vessel ready for sea as soon as launched 2” said
George.

“By no means. The hull of the vessel is completed, and
sometimes the masts are put in, but not always. After it is
launched it has to be rigged. When the ropes, and spars, and
sails, are all put up, and the ship spreads her canvas to the
breeze, she is one of the most graceful objects in the world.”





























































































































































































































































































































































THE SHIP.

Hoe” gloriously her gallant course she goes;
Her white wings flying never from her foes;
She walks the waters like a thing of life,

And seems to dare the elements to strife.
















THE JULIA.
STORY OF LITTLE JOE.

ITTLE Joe’s mother died during his babyhood, and his father, who was a
doctor, realized that the boy would most likely be whatever, by God’s
blessing, he chose to make him, which he hoped ultimately would be a

whole man; so he set conscientiously to work for that result.

Dr. Benner was sometimes called eccentric; but those who knew him con-
sidered him more sagacious than peculiar.

Joe had been trained to the saddle from a child; he also knew how to load
and discharge a gun, to row and manage a sail-boat, and was a capital swim-
mer ; he also knew the use of the saw and axe, and many other tools.

One fine morning in vacation, several of Joe’s playmates came for him to
go into the woods for a frolic; but Joe said: “Can’t; I must ride Black Harry
round the pasture till he is tired, and stops racing; then I must ride him along
the road as far as the post-office.”

“Well,” said Ben, one of the boys, “I’m sorry for a fellow who can’t have
his freedom such a glorious morning as this. Can’t you go to-morrow, if it’s
pleasant?”

“No, got to saw wood; but I can do whatever I like all the long afternoons.
Father thinks boys should learn to do all sorts of useful things.”

“Well, it’s too bad,” said the boys; “but we must be off, or the robins will
get the berries before we get there.” .

Black Harry was a splendid young horse, raised on the place, somewhat
strong-headed, but trustworthy, if judiciously handled.

Joe received the mail, and soon afterwards stood watching his father examin-
‘ing it. One missive proved to be a circular of bicycles.

Joe said: “Oh, father, how I do wish I could have a bicycle!”

“You may have one just as soon as you earn it,” his father replied.

Joe thought that rather discouraging, and said that Ben Low’s father was
going to give him a bicycle, and that Ben had all day to spend as he liked.

“And his father gives him no tasks?” asked the doctor.

“Well,” replied Joe, “Ben did say that he hid until his father left in the
morning, for fear he would give him a task.”

“ My son,” said Dr. Rennes “if for any reason I neglect to give you a task,
and you see anything you think ought to be done, Lwich to feel that I can
rely on you to do it.”

There was to be a convention of medical men in the city, thirty miles dis-
tant, on the third of July. Dr. Benner was to leave home on the third, and
40 STORY OF LITTLE JOE.









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































retufn on the afternoon of the Fourth of July; and the next day the doctor
had planned to take Black Harry to a cattle-show and horse-fair, band place
the beautiful animal on exhibition for the day.

He left no tasks for Joe, saying he could pass the time as he wished.

The boys planned a grand picnic, and had quite a nice feast prepared.

Joe ate his breakfast leisurely the next morning, packed his basket, and
started to meet the boys. He was running across the pasture, when a loud
whinnying caused him to stop. Black Harry came slowly up, and held up one
hoof, from which the shoe was hanging nearly off.

“Oh, dear!” exclaimed Joe; ‘ oiler made you show that to me nous I
can’t help you,-old boy, indeed I can’t.”

What could be done? John, the doctor’s man, had gone to make a little
visit, and the only other man—a farm hand—coul d “not'be. trusted with Harry;
and Joe knew it would be a great disappointment to his father should any-
thing prevent his taking his ee to the fair the next morning.

Tust then Ben Low and the rest of the boys rushed along, baskets in hand,
all ready to start. ;

Then flashed through Joe’s mind his father’s words the morning before.
There wasa short conflict. Then Joe said: “I can’t go, boys.” So ey. after
trying in vain to persuade him to go, left him.

Joe remembered that his father had said, that whoever"weént next to the






STORY OF LITTLE JOE. 41








SS 0

AT
. VLEs
YS

Ni

si

i
i
ES Lng (ina nt
oS \ Vee i
x \\" TEAS
AN i fr
Tye




KS

blacksmith’s should take the hatchet and have an edge put on it. He took it
with him, together with a small lunch, and rode Black Harry very carefully,
and at last reached the blacksmith’s, where there were many horses waiting
to be shod. 2 8

At four o’clock’in the afternoon Joe started for home. One topic of con-
versation he had heard during the day was about the long train which was, to
bring the doctors home. One man remarked that he hoped Ben Low would
keep his wits about him in signalling and switching. Joe noted this with an
uneasy sensation.

The switch-tender’s little station was still two miles further; but for Black
Harry, after standing still so long, it was the merest run, and in a short time
Joe came unexpectedly on the switch-tender himself, lying flat on the ground
in a heavy sleep. Joe shouted and called; but could not waken him. Hastily
42 STORY OF LITTLE JOE.



slipping from Black Harry’s back, and securing him, he shook Mr. Low by
the shoulder, and asked him about the switch, but could not get an intelligent
answer. He realized the situation, and knew the train must be stopped, and
there was not a minute to lose. For three minutes he thought, and then put
Black Harry to his utmost speed. A mile ahead was a large knoll, and he
knew, if he could only gain that, -he might rig up some kind of a signal and
warn them in time, his father among the rest.

He reached the spot, again fastened Black Harry, and climbed the first tree
he came to, grasped his hatchet in his hand, and chopped off a long, firm -
branch, .

Tearing off his checked blouse, he tied it firmly with his handkerchief to the
end of the long, willowy pole, and, mounting Black Harry, he waved his signal.
as the train came round the curve, only a quarter of a mile distant. In his
excitement, as the train swept by, he shouted at the top of his voice: “Stop!
Oh, stop! For Heaven’s sake, stop, say!” Then he heard the sharp whistle,
and saw the brakeman hastily twisting the metals, and raced after the train.

An hour later, when the danger was past, the grateful passengers tried to
force upon Joe a generous gift, but his father was not willing to have him
accept it; but the people would have their way, and went off leaving their gift
in Joe’s hands.

That night, after telling his father the events of the day, Joe added: “I sup-
pose I can use some of my present for a bicycle, can’t 1?”

“No, my son,” said Dr. Benner, “the bank will be the best place for that;
but I shall buy you a bicycle myself in a day or two, because I think you have »
earned one. You lost your holiday sport, but saved your honor as to trust-
worthiness,”



20%



Rive a cock-horse to Shrewsbury cross,

To buy little Johnnie a galloping horse:

It trots behind, and it ambles before,

And Johnny shall ride—till he can ride no more.





30%

Rive a cock-horse to Banbury cross,
To see what Tommy can buy;

A penny white loaf, and a penny white cake, __
And a two-penny apple pie. ay
EVANGELINE.







































a HE little village of Grand
= Se Pré lay in a beautiful
ee = valley, where were fields
Se === _jf flax, corn, and orchards. The
2 = s| houses of the inhabitants were
| built in a substantial manner
of oak and chestnut, with
thatched roofs. The farmers
lived peacefully together, and
neither locked their doors nor
barred their windows.

At some distance from the
village lived the wealthiest far-
mer, whose name was Benedict
Bellefontaine. He had only
one child, named Evangeline,
and all in the village loved her.
She had many suitors, but the
favored one was young Gabriel,
the son of Basil the blacksmith,
who had been a friend. of
Benedict from childhood. The
children had grown up like
brother and sister; they had
sung the hymns at church out
of the same book, and Father
Felician, who was priest and
teacher both, had taught them
their letters.

When the harvest was over
the winds whistled through the
forest, and all the signs fore-
told a long and severe winter. Bees had filled their hives with honey till
they had overflowed, and the Indian hunters marked the thick fur on the
foxes. As the season advanced the shepherds came from the sea-side with
the sheep, and the cattle came back to the homestead, and foremost came

































































































































































































= = =

2 LF
ye =
‘pig =





















































































































,
44 EVANGELINE.

Evangeline’s beautiful snow-white heifer, wearing a bell tied to her neck with
a ribbon. In the house, by the great fire-place, the farmer sat in his elbow-
chair watching the flames and smoke as they rolled gracefully up the chimney,
and smoking his pipe. Evangeline was seated near him spinning. As they
sat there they heard footsteps, and, lifting the wooden latch, Basil the black-
smith entered with his son Gabriel. After they were seated Basil spoke of
the English ships lying in the harbor, and of the cannon pointed towards the
village, and that the next day they were all commanded to meet at the church.
to hear the proclamation of the king. While they were talking the notary
entered with the contract for their children to be signed, and, when that was
over, he drunk their health in good home-brewed ale, and took his leave.

The evening passed pleasantly away, and the guests went to their homes.
The next morning was the feast of betrothal, and many came with fond wishes,
and to dance in the orchard to the music of old Michael the fiddler. About
noon the bell rung and a drum beat to summon them to the church, when an
officer from the vessel proclaimed that all their lands, their dwellings, and
cattle of all kinds were forfeited to the crown, and they themselves must be
transported to other lands as prisoners.

Four days later the women had gathered their household goods together
and driven them in wagons to the beach, where everything was in great confu-
sion. Towards evening the men were marched from the church, and taken on
board the ships. On looking back to bid farewell to their native village, they
saw it allin flames. Inthe excitement Benedict fell lifeless to the ground.
With the turn of the tide they were all hurried on board the vessels, and they
sailed out of the harbor.

Years passed away; the exiles wandered from city to city, and among them
was Evangeline, searching for Gabriel. She at last heard he had gone West,
and, accompanied by Father Felician, sailed with a band of exiles down the
Mississippi, and landed at a small town, where a horseman came to meet them,
and they found in him their old friend Basil, who took them to his home. He
told them that Gabriel had gone to the Ozark mountains to hunt for furs, and
they all started in search of him, and after some days stopped at the camp of
the Indian Mission, and learned that Gabriel had stopped there, but had gone
to the north, and would return in the autumn; so Evangeline remained there,
and Basil went home. A rumor came that Gabriel had gone to the lakes of
St. Lawrence; so Evangeline followed to the forests of Michigan, and found
the hunter’s lodge deserted. as

Long years went by, and at last she came to the city of Philadelphia,
EVANGELINE.—POOR DICK. 45





founded by William Penn, and lived as a Sister of Mercy, and went among the
sick day and night. Then a pestilence came, and one Sabbath she went to the
almshouse, and moved noiselessly among the sick and dying. Suddenly she
uttered a cry. An old gray-haired man lay before her, and she saw the
features of her long lost Gabriel, and knelt beside him. He tried to speak
her name, but was unable; and Evangeline kissed his dying lips and pressed
his lifeless head to her bosom. .



POOR DICK.

_ILLIE stood looking into the cage where a little bird
« lay dead. Little Dick had lived in the ivy that grew
over the house, but the gardener cut the ivy and had
Ph thrown the nest with three birds in it on the ground.
7 Two were killed, but Tillie’s nurse picked up little Dick
=. and put him in a cage, and fed him and gave him some
water.

They got chickweed for him, and gave him some
sugar, and he hopped about the cage. Nurse and
Tillie talked about birds and how they loved their little
ones, and made nests for them, and taught them how to
fly. When Tillie went to bed, she dreamed about birds
which flew about in a garden and sang to her. She
looked in the cage the first thing in the morning, but
Dick had died in the night. Then they put him in a
box, dug a grave in the garden, and buried poor Dick.
Wi. Tillie was almost inconsolable for the loss of her bird,
' and to comfort her her mother bought a beautiful little
yellow canary, which she grew quite fond of, and petted
it until it was so tame it would come out of its cage and ©
light on her shoulder. One day, when it was out, Kitty
: came slyly into the window, and before Tillie could pre-

VEN ‘vent her had caught the bird and killed it; so Tillie
determined she would never have any more pets. But she afterwards changed
her mind; and she had a handsome white rabbit which followed her all about,
and she thought even more of him than she had of her birds.

30%














2
is 5
i





My first is found in every country of the globe, my second is what we all
should be, my whole is the same as my first—Man-kind.
MY FIRST SUMMER IN THE COUNTRY.
\ \ JHEN I was a little girl, years and years ago, I lived in the city. My

home was a brick house three stories high, with white marble steps
and close white shutters to the windows of the first story. In front of the
house was a brick pavement, and two beautiful maple-trees shaded both house
and pavement. At the back of the house was a tiny yard about as large as a
good-sized bedroom, with a brick-paved path all around a little grass-plot the
size of a counterpane in the centre. And that back yard, with its grass-plot,
vines, and flower-pots, was all I knew of flower-gardens and fields, and that
shaded street gave me almost my onlyidea ofa grove. One summer mamma’s
health was very poor, and the doctor said she must go to the country for a
few months. It was of course understood if she went I must go, as I was an
only child. So papa engaged board for us ata farm-house not so far from
the city but that he could spend Sunday with us. I think that was the hap-
piest summer I ever passed. Mamma seemed to enjoy herself, too, and her
health improved wonderfully. got many a ride in the cart or wagon with
the farmer, whom I learned to respect very much in spite of his working-
clothes. I used to sit by the hour under the willow down in the meadow,
fishing in the clear stream that ran dancing along its banks, fringed with rushes
and forget-me-nots, But of all these pleasures I think I enjoyed apple-gather-
ing as much as anything. I would go out with the two young ladies of the
family, and we would find in the orchard a ladder and baskets all ready for
our use; one of us would mount the ladder, and sometimes climb up into the
tree itself, and hand down the fruit to the two below, who would place it care-
fully in the baskets. It was mounting the ladder and climbing the trees that
made this work so enjoyable to me. I soon learned to do it readily; I was so_
much smaller and lighter than the others that I could venture farther out on
the limbs to reach the fruit, besides my short skirts being less likely to get
entangled in the branches. It soon became a settled thing that I should do
the climbing. I have spent my summers in the country ever since. Now I
am a grown woman and have a home of my own, which is, of course, in the
country, and I live in it in the winter as well as in the summer. To be sure,
it is sometimes cold and blustering here in the winter, but then it cannot be
much better in the city at the same time, and it is so often damp, sloppy, and
disagreeable there. Besides, there are no birds in the city in the winter, while
here the snow-birds and chippys and robins and blue-birds and cedar-birds
keep us almost as lively during the winter as in the summer. *














































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































MY SUMMER IN THE COUNTRY.
CALIFORNIA LIFE.

N California a horse can be purchased from the Indians for four or five
i dollars, and no one takes long walks but the hunter, and he is carried in
his canoe a long way before he gets to the forest, in which are found trees
of gigantic size, some of which have trunks of twenty feet or more in diameter,
which grow to the height of three hundred feet. There are ten groves of se-
quoia in the State, some of which are four hundred and fifty feet in height, and
one hundred and sixteen feet in circumference. The engraving shows how
large they are compared with the other trees, and how small the horse and
man appear beside them.

The Indians use a lasso made of bullock’s hide, or thongs twisted into a
small rope, with a noose formed by a: running-knot at the end. One end is











GIANT TREES OF CALIFORNIA.

fastened to the back of the saddle; the entire length is kept in a coil in the
right hand, and, if a traveller doesn’t look out, one of these may be thrown
over his head, pulled tight around his body, and he drawn off his horse into
the bush to be robbed.

A hunter was once going through a valley with a large pack of furs on his
back, his rifle in his hand, and two dogs by his side. He was joined by a
merchant, who was only armed with sword and pistols. They were hardly
out of the valley when a party of robbers appeared. There were four whites,
and two Indians with lassos. The hunter and his companion jumped into a
thicket behind some large trees. While they were doing this, several shots
were fired at them. The hunter fired his rifle, and an Indian dropped from
his horse. He fired again, and another fell. He still fired, until only one
CALIFORNIA LIFE.

49



robber was left, and he started off, when a pistol-ball from the merchant shot
the horse from under him. As soon as the robber could get from under his
horse, he took to his heels, and the hunter after him; and with one more shot
the last robber fell. On searching his pockets, he found money and valuables

taken from some other traveller,
bodies of the robbers to the wolves.



Why is a pig with a curly continua-
tion like the ghost of Hamlet’s father?
—Because he could a tale unfold.

Wuat is the newest thing in stock-
ings ?—The baby’s foot.

Wuy is a coward like a leaky bar-
rel ?>—They both run.

Wuen does a dog become larger
and smaller ?—When let out at night,
and taken in ia the morning.

Why are tallest people the laziest ?
—Because they are always longer in
bed than others.

Wry was Job always cold in bed ?
—Because he had such miserable
comforters.

Wuar soup would cannibals preter?
—The broth of a boy.

Wuar is the proper length for
ladies’ crinoline ?—A little above two
feet.

Why is a dyer’s life an enigma ?—
Because he lives when he dyes, and
dyes when he lives.

. Wuat is the greatest affair of the
heart known to science ?—The circu-
lation of the blood.

_ WHEN is a boy not a boy ?—When
he is a regular brick.

They mounted the horses, and left the



Wuo dares to sit before the Queen
with his hat on ?—The coachman.

Wuat relation is a door mat to a
doorstep ?-—A “step-farther.”

Way is a defeated army like wool?
—Because it is worsted,

Who was the first person in history
who had a bang on the forehead ?—

Goliath.

Wuy is a miss not as good as a
mile ?—Because a miss has only two
feet, and a mile 5280. —

Way is it right that B should come
before C ?—Because we must B before
we can C,

WuatT gives a cold, cures a cold,

and pays the doctor's bill?—A draft.

(Draught.)

Wuat is that which a rich man
wants, a poor man has, a miser
spends, a spendthrift saves, and we
all take it with us to the grave ?—

Nothing.

Wuat is the difference between
charity und a tailor?—One covers a
multitude of sins, the other a multi-
tude of sinners.

WHEN is a doctor most annoyed ?—
When he is out of patients,
A CAT STORY.

ONCE heard the following story about

a cat: One day she had kittens, and

they drowned them all but one. This one

soon died. But poor Puss found out
where there was another cat in the neigh-
borhood who had kittens, and went and
stole one.
It is not everybody who is fond of cats;
: but, in return, some people are very fond of
them, indeed. Every now and then we hear of some half-mad women who
seem to give up their whole time to making pets of cats. There have been
strange old women who have kept hundreds of them. But most men, and
even some women, dislike cats. They are very sly; they seem to us human
beings very cruel, and they are so persistent that we get angry with them.
A cat will spend half a day trying to get at a piece of fish, and when she wakes
up the next morning will begin trying for it again. Cats have very good
memories, especially for injuries. If you want to get rid of a cat, give her a
few smart taps, and she will avoid you.

_ You see, I have been saying she all along, and the fact is we are, most of
us, apt to call a cat she when it is a Jom. They are such sleek, quiet crea-
tures, and are so fond of the house.

It is a great mistake to suppose that cats stupefy, with a blow of the paw,
any bird or mouse they may catch. I have several times seen a cat playing
with a half-dead bird that she had caught. I have seen the bird struggle to
get away. I have seen it open its eyes, and heard it shriek with pain, the cat
seeming all the while to enjoy it. She would let the bird wriggle away for a
short distance, and then give it a dig with her paw.

It is a mistake to suppose that cats are not very clever. I can see no
difference in that respect between a cat anda dog, or, at all events, very little
difference. They seem just as quick to learn, and just as ingenious in help-
ing themselves. :





303



GooseEy, goosey, gander, whither shall I wander?
Up-stairs, and down-stairs, and in my lady’s chamber.
There I met an old man, who would not say his prayers;
I took him by the left leg, and threw him down-stairs,


SHIP AHOY!

“Sure ahoy! What ship’s that?”

“The Physalie.”

“ Whither bound ?”

“Wherever she pleases.”

“Under whose orders?”

“The King of Portugal.”

Look at the ship, children! You do not see her? There she is,
in the picture. She may not look exactly like the ships you are

accustomed to seeing; but for all that she is a ship of the line, all |

manned and Eanineed and ready for action.

She is a tight and trim vessel, and sails, I take it for granted,
under the orders of the King of Portugal; at least, she is always
called a Portuguese man-of-war. Very (ete she is, and very
compact, too, for you could hold -her in your hand, as far as her
size is concerned. If you should try to hold her in your hand,
however, you would very quickly find out one reason for her being
called a man-of-war, though perhaps iti is not the reason generally
given.

You see all those delicate curling threads ad tendrils that hang
from the beautiful shell-shaped bubble which floats so lightly on
the water? They are the crew of the good ship Physalie.

Instead of being different parts of one creature they are them-
selves creatures, distinct and separate, and yet all living together
in such perfect DAENODY 7 and peace that they seem to Geleny to
one body.

Each member of the crew has his place and his work. Some
spend their time in catching food, and eating it, without, I am










52 SHIP AHOY!































sorry to say, offering any to the others,
some of whom are busy making buds,
out of which in due time will come new
_ ships’ crews; while others again, with
long, streaming tentacles, sometimes
thirty feet long, are the moving power,
and, swimming along, carry the tiny
vessel through the water.

And now, how does this crew fight?
Where are their muskets, their cut-
lasses? Where are the ship’s guns?
They don’t seem to have any weapons
at all. No; the truth is, they have no
weapons, because they have no need
of any. They can fight a creature a
hundred times as big as themselves
and their ship put together, and come

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































off victorious, with flying colors. I will tell you a story which a
gentleman told me once, about his meeting a Portuguese man-of
war; then you will understand all about it. ae
Ks ; } (SYEN | KG ME eae
SHIP “AHOY i>





He was living at the time on one of the islands in the West
Indies, and used to go in bathing every morning. One morning
he had been swimming about for nearly an hour in the clear warm [&
water, watching all the strange and beautiful creatures which were
also taking a morning swim, and thinking how pleasant it must be
to be a fish. At last he floated on his back, and let a great,
curling, white-crested wave carry him-to the shore. Now, this
same wave was bringing a whole fleet of “galleys,” as the natives
call the Physalie, in from the open sea, and just as Mr. La Blond
touched the shore one of the galleys touched his arm, and instantly
grappled it, flinging round his shoulder its beautiful streamers of
crimson, pink, and pale blue. He felt a thousand sharp, darting
pains, so intense that he grew dizzy. Exerting all his strength, | |
he tore the Physalie off and flung it into the sea; but some of the ,
_thread-like tendrils remained glued to his arm, and he nearly
fainted away with the pain. He managed to get some oil, and
swallowed some, and rubbed his arm with the rest; but it was
some hours.before the pain left bim, and he was not well until the
next ee

time the little fishes must ae when they meet a fleet, or even a

single vessel! They just curl up their little tails and die in despair,

and the heartless crew of the galley make a meal of them.
LAURA E. RICHARDS.


THE DIVING-BELL.











HAT is the first thing
you think of when
you look at this picture?
Some poor ship that was
lost in a storm? . Were
you ever at sea when the
big waves that seemed to .
be as high as a house were
going faster than the ship 2
and breaking over the =
stern? This ship was =
evidently a man-of-war,
and most of it has been
hauled up. On one side ,
of the bell you will see a cannon going up, and on the other a barrel. There
must be, of course, a ship overhead. I wonder what sort of a boat it is,
whether a sailing vessel or a steamship? If you look at the picture again
you will see two men sitting in the bell, which has no bottom. The air in the
bell keeps the water out. One of the men holds a rubber-hose which is
fastened to the helmet of the diver or man who is lifting up the things, and
fastening them to the rope let down from the ship above. This tube carries
fresh air to the diver. The other man in the bell has a hose in his hand which
is attached to the barrel, and it contains compressed air, which passes into
the bell as fast as the men breathe the air in the bell, because the air breathed
out is heavier and occupies less room than pure air. The men would die if
they didn’t have fresh air. As soon as they have exhausted their Supp of
it they pull the rope, and they are hauled up.

Elsewhere in the book you will read about how they dive for pearls; but a
pearl-diver couldn’t stay down long enough, or dive deep enough to bring up
wreckage. The bell-diver wears weights attached to his feet, the same as the
boys put a lead-dipsy to their lines when they go fishing; but the diver can’t
go below a certain depth, or he would be crushed to death by the weight of the
water. The fish have a series of air-bladders, and in this way they can make
themselves heavier or lighter by sucking in air or forcing it out of their
bodies ; but a man’s lungs contain just so much air, and he can’t make them
hold any more,































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ay























































































































i Nh PA r

Hi













Nh
|
i
| J ve
‘i \
a
= an i
. |
. aaah
i.
( \ /
A



SPINNING THE YARN.
®
A SHARK STORY. 57











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A SHARK STORY.

GAP Captain BARNACLE, as you insist upon it, I will tell you
a sea story. You must know that I was once sailing in
the ship Orient for China. We doubled the Cape of Good Hope,
and, running a little too far to northward, we came near the:
coast of Madagascar. The sea in this quarter is filled with
coral reefs. ‘The coral grows like forests, and the tops fre-
quently reach nearly to the surface. One day, while in this
dangerous region, we were becalmed; the ship lay like a log
on the water; the sea around was as smooth as a mirror.
“Tn looking down into the waves, I could see the coral groves,
‘and between them there were various fishes sauntering about,
quite at their leisure. Among the rest, I noticed an enormous
shark, of the most voracious kind. He was evidently seeking
whom he might devour. As I was looking at him, he turned
‘his eye upon me, and showed his white, hooked teeth, as much
as to say, ‘Come down here, Captain, and I will eat you.’
“T did not accept his invitation; but while I was standing
_by the side of the vessel, my gold watch, chain and all, was










itt i
i A

i Oe said the comin ie they found nothing but entrails!

58 A SHARK STORY,

































accidentally jerked into the sea. Down it went amongst the
branches and leaves of the coral. I could see nothing of it,
and when I looked for the shark, he was gone.

“There was no help for the accident. The next morning,
the breeze sprung up, and we went on our way. We spent
two months at Canton, and then set out on our return. When
we again arrived in the neighborhood of Madagascar, we were
again becalmed. Looking over the side of the ship, I saw a
shark, which seemed like the very fellow I had become ac-
quainted with on my outward passage. One of the sailors got
a large iron hook, to which a rope was attached; on the hook
he fastened a piece of salt pork, and threw it overboard. The
shark soon saw the bait, and immediately took it into his jaws,
hook and all. The sailor then gave a pull, and the monster —
was firmly drawn upon deck. He seemed to feel as if he had
fallen out of bed, for he made a terrible banging with his tail.
Well, the sailors went to work and cut him open; and what
do yon think they found?” ¢

“The gold watch,” said both the ladies at once.

Y?





! ‘| ZED zs rR os Sac Re


THE SPERM WHALE. . 59




























































































































































THE SPERM WHALE.

Wy THE Sperm Whale is a gregarious animal, and the herds
formed by it are of two kinds—the one consisting of
females, the other of young whales not fully grown.

These herds are called by whalers, “schools,” and occasion-
ally consist of great numbers; I have seen in one school as
many as five or six hundred. With each herd or school of
females, are always from one to three large bulls, the lords of
the herd, or, as they are called, the “school-masters.” The
full-grown, whales, or “large whales,” almost always go alone
in search of food ; and when they are seen in company, they
are supposed to be making passages, or migrating from one
“feeding-ground” to another. The largo whale is generally
very incautious, and if alone, he is without difficulty attacked,
and by expert whalers gencrally very easily killed; as fre.

Ze ee Gis

2 “aE BN SRN


60 THE SPERM WHALE.

quently, after receiving the first blow or plunge of the harpoon,
he appears hardly to feel it, but continues lying like a “log of
wood” in the water, before he rallies or makes any attempt to
escape from his enemies.

Large whales are, sometimes, remarkably cunning and full
of courage, when they will commit dreadful havoc with their
Jaws and tail; the jaw and head, however, appear to be their
principal offensive weapons.

The female breeds at all seasons, producing but one at a
time. The young when first born are said to be fourteen feet
long. The females are much smaller than the males. They
are very remarkable for their attachment to their young, which
they may be frequently seen urging and assisting to escape
from danger with the most unceasing care and fondness. They
are also not less remarkable for their strong feeling of sociality
or attachment to one another; and this is carried to so great
an extent, that when one female of a herd is attacked or
wounded, her faithful companions will remain around her to
the last moment, or till they are wounded themselves. This.
act of remaining by a wounded companion, is called “ heaving
to,” and whole “schools” have been destroyed by dexterous:
management, when several ships have been in company, wholly
from their possessing this remarkable disposition. The attach-
ment appears to be reciprocal on the part of the young whales,
which have been seen about the ship for hours after their parents.
| have been killed.

_ The young whales, or “ young bulls,” go in large schools,
but differ remarkably from the females in disposition, inasmuch
as they make an immediate and rapid retreat upon one of
their number being struck, who is left to take the best care he
can of himself. I never but once saw them “heave to,” and
in that case, it was only for a short time, and seemed rather to
arise from their confusion than affection for their wounded
companion. They are also very cunning and cautious, keep-
ing at all times a good look-out for danger. It is consequently
necessary for the whaler to be extremely cautious in his mode








THE SPERM WHALE. 61

of approaching them, so as, if possible, to escape being heard
or seen, for they have some mode of communication with one
another in an incredibly short space of time; the distance
between them sometimes amounting to five, or even seven
miles. The mode by which this is effected remains a curious

secret.
Tuomas Brae















































SS ee ty
Atak ~
a

,

>








ALADDIN, OR THE WONDERFUL LAMP.

Ae was the son of a very poor tailor in China, who took him into
his shop to learn the trade, but Aladdin loved play more than work,
which he neglected for the company of idle boys.

His father dying when he was quite young, he spent his whole time in the
streets, and his mother was compelled to spin cotton night and day to earn
the necessaries for their support. But she was willing to do this, for she
loved her son, and. promised herself that when he was older he would become
an industrious man and care for her. : .

One day, as Aladdin was playing with a troop of vagabonds, a stranger
passing stopped to observe him. The stranger was a famous African magi-
cian who needed an ignorant person to assist him, and thought Aladdin was
just the right one. He inquired his name and character, and calling him
said: “My lad, art thou not the son of Mustapha, the tailor?”

“Yes, sir,” said Aladdin, “but my father has been.dead many years,”

“Alas!” said the stranger, “how sad! Iam your father’s brother, and have
been many years in foreign countries, and now, when I expected to be happy
at home, I find him dead.”

Aladdin, who had never heard of any uncle, stood like one stupefied, till his.
pretended uncle gave him two pieces of gold, telling him to have his mother
get supper, as he was going to visit her. His mother was as surprised as he
had been, as she had only heard of one brother, who was also a tailor, and
had died before Aladdin was born. However, she cooked a nice supper, and
when the magician came, he was followed by a porter bringing all kinds of
fruits and sweetmeats.

He saluted his dear sister-in-law, as he called her, and they sat down to
supper; after which the magician said: “ My dear sister, I am grieved.to see
'somuch poverty. I hope my nephew does his duty to you. He is old enough
to get a great many comforts.”

Aladdin hung his head in shame. His mother replied: “Indeed, it almost
breaks my heart, but Aladdin, though fifteen years old, does nothing but play,
and all I can earn is hardly enough to get bread. If I should die, I know not
what would become of him.”

She burst into tears, and the magician said to Aladdin: “I am pained to hear
this. You must think of getting your own living. How would you like to
keep a shop?” Aladdin was much pleased, for he thought that would not
be very hard work. e *




BEAUTIFUL GARDENS.

The next morning the magician went out with Aladdin and fitted him out
with a nice suit. Then they walked through the town, and passed through
some beautiful gardens and meadows, the magician telling interesting stories,
until they came to the entrance of a narrow valley, bounded on all sides by
high mountains, ;

“ Dear uncle,” said Aladdin, “where are we going now? We have left all
the pretty gardens behind us a long way; pray let us hurry away from this
frightful place.” .

“No! No!” said the magician; “not at present. I will show you more
wonderful things than you have ever seen.”
64 ALADDIN ; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP,



Aladdin followed his uncle into the valley, until they had lost all view of
the country behind them. Suddenly the magician stopped, and roughly com-
manded Aladdin to gather some loose sticks for a fre. When he had done
so, the magician set them on fire. Presently the blaze rose high; the magi-
cian threw some powder into the fire, and pronounced some strange words,
which Aladdin could not understand. They were instantly surrounded by a
thick smoke, the mountain burst and exposed a broad stone with a large brass
ring fastened in the centre.

_ Aladdin was so frightened that he started to run, but the magician gave
him such a box on the ear that he knocked him down, Aladdin got up and
said: “Why do you use me so cruelly, uncle?”

“My child,” said the magician, “I did not mean to hurt you, but you must
not run away; I brought you here to do a service for you. Under this stone
are treasures that will make you richer than any king on earth, and I alone
know how to make you master.”

Aladdin forgot the box on the ear, and promised to do whatever he was
told.

“Come,” said the magician, “take hold of that brass ring and lift up the
stone.”

When the stone was lifted, there appeared a hollow cave and a narrow
flight of steps. “Go down, child,” said the magician, “into that cavern. At
the bottom of these steps you will find three great halls filled with gold and
silver. If you touch anything, you will meet with instant death. At the end
of the third hall you will see a fine garden; cross it by a path which will
bring you on a terrace, where you will see a lighted lamp in 4 niche. Take
the lamp down and put out the light; and when you have thrown away the
wick and poured out the oil, put the lamp in your bosom and bring it to me.”

Saying this, the magician drew a ring off his finger and, putting it on Alad-
din’s, told him that if he obeyed him nothing could harm him. “Go down
boldly, my son,” he said, “and we both shall be rich and happy the rest of our
lives.”

Aladdin went down the steps, and found the three halls as the magician had told
him. He went through these, crossed the garden, took down the lamp, threw
out the wick and the oil, and put the lamp in his bosom. As he came down
from the terrace, he saw, as he thought, the branches of the trees loaded with
beautiful pieces of glass of all colors, and could not help filling his pockets.

The magician was waiting very impatiently for him. | « «

’

“Pray, uncle,” said Aladdin, “give me your hand to help me out.”
ALADDIN ; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP, 65



“Give me the lamp first,” said the magician.

“TI cannot, dear uncle, until I am out,” replied Aladdin.

“Wretch, deliver it this instant,’ roared the magician. His eyes flashed
fire and, stretching out his arm to strike Aladdin, some powder he held dropped
into the fire, the rock shook, the stone moved to its place, and Aladdin was
buried alive in the cavern. He cried and wrung his hands; his cries could
not be heard, and he was left to die.

Aladdin remained without food two days, and on the third, he chanced to
press the ring on his finger, when an enormous geni rose out of the earth
_ and said: “I am ready to obey thy commands, I and the other slaves of that
ring.”

Aladdin, trembling, said: “I pray thee, deliver me from this place.”

He had no sooner spoken than the earth opened, and he was on the
very spot where the magician had brought him. He hurried home, and
when he reached there fainted away on the step of the door.

When he had recovered, and his mother had embraced him, he told her all
that had happened, and then begged her to bring him some food, as he was
almost starved. But she had neither food nor money, for she had spent her
time in looking for him.

“Well, mother,” said Aladdin, “never mind. Dry your tears, and hand me
the lamp I put on the shelf and I will go and sell it.”

The old woman thought it would bring more if it were cleaner, and began
to rub it with sand. Instantly a huge geni stood before her and said: “I am
ready to obey thy commands, I and the other slaves of that lamp.”

The woman fainted away, but Aladdin, who was less frightened, said:
“Bring me something to eat; I am hungry.”

The geni disappeared, but soon returned with twelve large plates of silver,
full of the nicest meats, six white loaves, two bottles of wine and two drinking
cups, and, after spreading them on the table, vanished.

Aladdin sprinkled water on his mother, and begged her to rise and eat of
the food. They made a hearty meal, and set aside enough to last two days
more. ,

The next morning Aladdin sold one of the silver plates to a Jew to
purchase a few necessaries that were wanting. He then went among the
merchants and shopkeepers, and improved himself by their discourse.

One day, while Aladdin was walking through the city, he heard a proclama-
‘tion commanding all the people to retire into their houses, as the beautiful
princess Balrondom, whom no one must look upon, was coming to the public
66 ALADDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP.
baths. Aladdin did not know where to go, but ran into a large hall and hid
behind a curtain. It happened that this hall was the entrance to the baths, —
and as soon as the princess passed the gate, she pulled off her vail, which
permitted Aladdin to see her. He was so impressed with her beauty, that he
could think of nothing else. At length he said: « Mother, I love the Princess
Balrondom, and you must demand her for me in marriage to the sultan.”

The old woman thought her son was mad, and bade him remember that he
was the son of a tailor,

“ Mother,” said Aladdin, “Iam not as poor as you imagine. I have learned
the value of those things I used to call glass; it is with them I intend to buy
the good-will of the sultan.”

Aladdin’s mother laughed, and refused to have anything to do with such
foolishness.

Aladdin pined almost to death, and his mother promised she would go to
the sultan if it would restore him to health, This so pleased Aladdin, that
he filled a large china dish-with his finest jewels, which he tied up in two
napkins. The old woman set out trembling for the sultan’s palace. She
placed herself opposite the throne, and when the court was nearly empty she
was bidden to approach. She fell on her knees and begged the sultan’s
pardon, and told the story of her son falling in love with the princess,

The sultan smiled, and asked what she had in her napkin. When the dish
was uncovered the sultan stared with surprise, having never seen jewels of
such size and lustre. .

“Your son,” said he, “can be no ordinary person, Bring him here, and if
he realizes my ideas I will bestow on him the hand of my daughter,”

Aladdin’s mother went home and told her son all that had passed, which
pleased him greatly.

Aladdin summoned the geni, who transported him to a bath of rose-water:
afterwards he was dressed in fine clothing. A horse was given him with
saddle of pure gold. A train of slaves were mounted, bearing magnificent
presents for the sultan.

Aladdin mounted his horse, and his appearance had so changed that no one
knew him, but thought he was some great prince. :

Aladdin would have thrown himself at the feet of the sultan, but was pre-
vented by the sultan’s embracing him and seating him at his right hand. The
sultan was so charmed with his good sense and modesty, that he proposed to
marry the young lovers that very evening. Aladdin objected, saying he
must build a palace to receive his princess, and asked that the piece of ground


ALADDIN ; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP, 67



opposite the royal palace should be given him, which was granted. Aladdin
went home to employ the geni of the lamp to build a palace, and the sultan
congratulated his daughter on the happiness in waiting for her.

When the sultan rose the next morning he was surprised to find a palace
opposite his own, and half the people in the city gathered there to see it.
He was informed that Aladdin wished to conduct him to see it.

The sultan was amazed; the walks were built of gold and silver, and the
ornaments were of the rarest and most beautiful precious stones. The treasury
was full of gold coin, the offices filled with domestics, the stables with the finest
horses and carriages, with grooms and equerries in splendid liveries. Aladdin
and the princess were married and lived happily.

At length the magician, who was in Africa, heard of all this magnificence,
and knew the cause. He was determined to get this lamp, and disguised his
person and travelled to China.

As he came to the city, he bought several beautiful lamps, and went under
the windows of the palace of the princess, crying, “ New lamps for old ones!”

The slaves all ran to the windows. “Oh!” said one of them, “there is an
‘ ugly old lamp in one of the halls; we will put a new one in its place.” The
princess agreed to this, and the magician gave them the best of his new ones.

As soon as night came he summoned the geni of the lamp, and commanded
him to transport him, the palace and the princess to the remotest corner of
Africa. He was instantly obeyed. — .

It is impossible to describe the surprise of the sultan the next morning to.
find the palace vanished, and his daughter lost. All the people were running
through the streets, and soldiers were sent in search of Aladdin, who was out
hunting.

Aladdin fainted away, and was dragged before the sultan, and would have
been beheaded but for fear of the people, who were all fond of him. He was.
sent away in disgrace, and was threatened with death unless he brought
tidings of the princess within forty days. .

Leaving the palace, he stopped at a brook to wash his eyes, that smarted
with tears. His foot slipped, and catching hold of a piece of rock he pressed
the magician’s ring, and the geni appeared, saying, “What would’st thou
have?” .

“Oh, geni!” cried Aladdin, “bring my palace back to where it stood
yesterday.”

“What you command,” said the geni, “is not within my power; I am only
the slave of the ring. The geni of the lamp alone can do that service.”
68 ALADDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP.

“Then I command thee,” said Aladdin, “to transport me to the palace
where it stands now.”

Instantly Aladdin found himself beside his own palace. The princess was
walking in her own chamber weeping for Aladdin. Happening to approach

Wwou



FATIMA ADMIRING HER JEWELS.
the window she saw him under it, and sent a slave to bring him in by a
private door.

Aladdin then went disguised into the city, and bought a powder which
would produce sleep, and the princess invited the magician to sup with her
ALADDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP. 69.



that evening. He was delighted with her kindness, and while at supper she
ordered wine which had been prepared, and on drinking it the magician fell
to the floor senseless.

Aladdin snatched the lamp from his bosom and, throwing the traitor on the
grass, summoned the geni, and the palace and all it contained were transported
to their original place.

When the sultan saw the palace he hastened to embrace his daughter, and
during a week grand entertainments were given in honor of their return.

Aladdin did not forget to carry the lamp always with him, and things went
well for some time.

But the magician, having slept off his potion, set out for China. When he
reached the end of his journey, he went to the cell of a holy woman named
Fatima, who was celebrated for her cure of the headache. He killed and
buried her; then, disguising himself in her garments, walked into the city,
where people followed him in crowds. The princess sent her slaves for
Fatima to come to the palace, where she was kindly entertained. Fatima.
persuaded her to have a roc’s egg hung in the middle of the dome.

The geni hearing this uttered a loud cry, which shook the palace. “What!”
said he, “after all I and my fellow-slaves have done for thee, dost thou com-
mand me to bring my master and hang him up in this dome? I would reduce
your palace into ashes, were you the author of this wish. The magician is.
now under your roof disguised as Fatima. Go, punish his crimes, or your
own destruction is sure.”

The geni vanished, leaving Aladdin much agitated. He went to his wife’s.
apartment, and complained of a severe headache. The princess exclaimed.
that the good Fatima was in the palace, and ran to bring her. The pretended
Fatima came with one hand raised as if to bless Aladdin, who, as he came
near him, stabbed him to the heart.

The princess was grieved to think her husband had killed the holy Fatima,
till Aladdin tore off the hood of the cloak, and showed the magician concealed
beneath. Shortly after, the sultan dying without a son, Aladdin and the
princess ascended the throne and reigned together many years.





Way is intending to pay a bill the I waven’T got it, I don’t want it, but
same as paying it?—Because it is | if 1 had it I wouldn’t take the world.
payment (meant). for it—A bald head.
DUTY FIRST.

We summer noonday sun shone broad-

ly and brightly over the hay-fields.
The birds sang in the trees; the rabbits ran
in and out of the hollows; the insects
hummed overhead; the merry little brook
went tumbling along; and the fish came
leaping out every now and then, their silver
sides flashing in the warm light. In the hay-
fields the mowers were busy, and borne on
the gentle wind, softened to a musical mur-
mur, came the voices of the men and the
sharpening of their scythes. Ben and his
little cousins, Jenny and Jake, were as happy
and light-hearted this bright summer’s day
as any three children could possibly be.
They were in the middle of an exciting game,
when Ben heard his mother calling him, and
ran to the house to see what she wanted.
“Ben dear,” she said, “it is your father’s
dinner-time, and I have made him some stew.
He is working in Farmer Rix’s hay-field, and I should be glad if you would
take him his dinner. Here it is, in this little pail. Be careful not to spill any
of it, my boy, for it is not often that I can afford to buy meat nowadays.” Ben
took the pail and started back, but on his way met some boys; setting the pot
down in a corner of the fence, he began to play with them. It was a good
two hours before he remembered the errand on which he had been sent. The
game had been so new and so full of fun that the thought of his poor father
working in the hot sun had quite escaped his memory. “Oh dear me!” he
cried’ suddenly, “how stupid I’ve been! I don’t know, what father will say at
being kept waiting so long, and the broth is all cold.” When he got to where
his father was at work, he saw him standing by the fence, talking to his mother ;
both looked anxious, but brightened up when they saw Ben. His father after
waiting some time for his dinner had gone home, and there heard that Ben
had started so long before with the dinner they feared he had got lost or hurt
in some way, and his mother had come back to help find kim. Mrs. Brown
felt very sad when she heard the truth, but thought that Ben’s sorrow was




punishment enough. Ben resolved then and there that he would always make
duty come before pleasure. We are happy to say that Ben kept his resolu-
tion, and through lite he found that the happiest as well as the safest motto
was, “ Duty first.”



































































NWS \ ‘ gin?
NY Welly
: SN r iN


THE STEPPES OF SIBERIA,

STEPPE means a vast plain in South-eastern Europe and Asia, gen-
A erally elevated and containing no trees, and is very similar to our
prairies. The picture shows travellers going in opposite directions on
one of these vast plains.
A traveller thus describes his experience in crossing it: “The vast Asiatic
plain stretched for more than 2,000 miles in length, and 1,200 miles wide.
Over this space the various tribes wander with their flocks and herds.. There
were no plants. All appeared scorched up by the sun. There was a lake,
twenty-five miles long and fifteen miles wide, with a belt of reeds two miles.
wide extending all around it. We entered upon a sandy waste, which was
like a sea of sand. For miles the sand was hard like a floor. Hours went
by without a particle of change; there wasn’t even a cloud in the air to cast
a shadow over us: all was glistening sand below and the fierce burning sun
overhead. At noon the guides wanted to stop. The horses were picketed,
but we could find neither grass nor water. I looked around with my glass, but
everything was alike, and we were making no progress at all, apparently
seeming to be where we started from. All around was red sand, called
‘Kézil Koom.’ We had ridden fourteen hours when night came on; the
guides found their way by the stars. At last one of the guides said we were
but two hours from grass and water, which the horses at last scented, and
pressed on with renewed vigor. Soon we heard the loud barking of dogs
and the shouting of men, and before long we were welcomed, when it was
‘found we were not enemies, and taken to the chief’s tent, where we soon fell
asleep, having been in the saddle eighteen hours. The next day the scene
was quite different. Great flocks of sheep, herds of camels, oxen and horses
were grazing on the rich grass. Antelopes sprang up within range of our
guns, gazing for a moment at us with their great black eyes, and then bound-
ing away, hardly touching the ground, 7
Here is seen the beautiful mirage, and the dreadful sand storms as well.
These are first seen at a vast distance, and when they are of moderate breadth,
they are easily avoided; but when, as is sometimes the case, they extend for
miles, there is real danger. A dense black cloud is seen rolling at a great
height over the plain, sweeping along with fearful rapidity. Instinct warns
animals of its approach, and they rush away at full speed. When such a
storm reaches the pastures the scene is fearful. A confused mass of thou-
sands of camels, horses and oxen is seen rushing madly in all directions.






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SROSSING THE STEPPES.
THE ALAMO.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































EE this picture. Do you know what it represents? [I'll tell you. It is an
historical spot,as every man defending it was slaughtered. There is but
one other event in American history equal to it—the massacre of General

Custer by the Indians on our plains some years ago. For several years the
Americans, who had settled in Texas, had been trying to establish an inde-
pendent Republic, that they might govern themselves, and not be compelled
to remain under the dictation of Mexico, which country never lost an oppor-
tunity to insult them. In January, 1836, Santa Anna, the general-in-chief of
the Mexican army, afterwards President of Mexico, determined to drive the
Americans out of Texas, and declared every one of them pirates, giving his
generals orders to kill all who were taken prisoners, as Americans should no
longer live in that country. February 22d, Colonel Travis, with about 145
men, retreated into the Alamo, a large convent building in San Antonio,
surrounded by a strongly-built wall, that had been erected to protect the
‘convent and its people against the Indians. The next day they were besieged
by about 6,000 Mexicans under Santa Anna, who placed heavy cannon in
position all around them, and for eleven days bombarded them fiercely,
76 THE LAZY MAIDEN.

Colonel Travis sent for reinforcements, and succeeding in adding to his force
thirty-two men, making nearly 180 men inside of the Alamo. The Americans
had but very little ammunition, and were afraid to use it in reply to the heavy
cannonade of the Mexicans, wishing to save all they could for the final assault,
which these brave men knew must shortly follow. March 6th, which was on
Sunday, the whole Mexican army advanced upon the place, while the heroic
band of Americans poured such a fire of grape, canister, and musketry upon
them that, though 6,000 to 180, they were compelled to fall back in disorder
twice. Rallying again, they succeeded in entering the enclosure, and turned
their cannoh upon the convent, where some of the Americans had found refuge.
The slaughter was terrific. Colonel Travis, the commander, was killed ‘early
in the action, being shot through the head, though, after he was wounded, he
killed a Mexican who attempted to run him through with a spear. David
Crockett, whose history nearly all of our little friends are acquainted
with, as he was one of the well-known border men of those days, was found
dead, surrounded by nearly a score of Mexicans, whom he had succeeded in
killing before they overpowered him. Out of all this little band of heroes
not one escaped. A few, finding the contest useless, surrendered to the
Mexicans, but were immediately murdered by them. A colored man and
two ladies were spared, as they were not engaged in fighting. Think of this,
little friends. Do you wonder that Texans are proud of the Alamo, and show
it to all strangers who visit San Antonio to-day? The bones of these Ameri-
cans were collected the next year and buried with great military honors.

The Alamo is now occupied by the United States as a quarter-master’s
depot. Do not fail to see it, should you ever visit Texas, the “Lone Star
State.”



205

THE LAZY MAIDEN.

HERE was once a little maiden who was very pretty, but careless and
lazy. When she used to spin, if there was a knot in the thread, she
broke off along piece and threwit on the ground. She had a servant girl, who
used to pick up all the pieces, until she had enough to make a dress for herself.
A young man was in love with this lazy maiden, and the wedding day was
appointed. The evening before, the servant girl danced about in her new
dress, and the bride exclaimed: “How the girl does jump round, dressed in
my threads and leavings!” The bridegroom asked what she meant. She
told him the girl had made herself a dress from threads she had thrown away.
When he heard this he gave up the mistress and chose the maid for his wife.


THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON,























































































































































































































































































































































































































ERY many people confound the words Capital and Capitol. Capital
means the “head,” “chief;” for instance, you would say capital punish-
ment, meaning a person is punished by killing them, which formerly was done
by beheading ; now-a-days hanging is the method usually employed. Then we
speak of the capital city. Boston is the capital of Massachusetts, Albany of
New York, Richmond of Virginia, Washington of the United States; and
they are so called, not because they are the principal or chief cities, but
because the chiefs of the people—those who have charge of the government—
make the laws there, and issue the orders to have them carried into effect,
The house or building where the legislative bodies meet, whether State or
National, is called the cafitol, and the picture above shows the magnificent
building at Washington where Congress assembles, and makes laws to govern
you and me, and everybody who lives in the United States. You know the
city of Washington wasn’t always the capital. The government first had its
seat in Philadelphia, where the nation had its birth, and where the Declaration
of Independence was proclaimed. It was not until 1800 that Washington
became the capital, although the corner-stone of the capitol was laid, Septem-
ber 18, 1793, by General Washington himself. In 1811 the south wing was
78 THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON.



finished, but work was discontinued on account of the war with England; and
in August, 1814, the British, under General Ross and Admiral Cochrane,
defeated the Americans, entered Washington, set fire to and destroyed every
public building except the patent-office, and the beautiful but unfinished capi-
tol was left a mass of ruins. However, it was rebuilt, and completed by 1825. ©

It is composed of a main building, 325 feet, four inches long, and two wings
north and south, each 121 feet in length, making the entire structure 569 feet
long and 290 feet deep. The rotunda in the centre is ninety-six feet in
diameter. The roof is sixty-nine feet in height, and the dome extends 241
feet above, making it 310 feet above the terrace, which is eighty-six feet above
the street, giving a total height above the city of 396 feet. The building
covers 6,200 square feet, and is finished throughout in the most magnificent
manner. The walls and ceiling of the dome and rotunda are covered
with most beautiful frescos. The House of Representatives occupies the
south wing (right side of picture), and the Senate chamber is in the north
wing (left side of picture),



308







Pussy Cat Mole, Rocx-a-ByE, baby, thy cradle is
Jump’d over a coal, green ;
And in her best petticoat burnt ‘a Father’s a nobleman, mother’s a
great hole. | queen;
Poor Pussy’s weeping, she’ll have no And Betty’s a lady, and wears a
more milk, gold ring;
Until her best petticoat’s mended with.| And Johnny’s a drummer, and
silk, drums for the king.
1. Tuis little pig went to market. Hey DIDDLE DIpDLE, the cat and the
2. This little pig stayed at home. fiddle,
3. This little pig got roast beef, The cow jumped over the maon;
4. This little pig got none, The little dog laughed to see such
5. This little pig cried wee, wee, all sport,
the way home. 1 And the dish ran after the spoon.



305



_ Wry are bells the most obedient of inanimate things ?-—Because they make
a noise whenever they are tolled (told).
PENN’S TREATY WITH THE INDIANS.

ERY few people there are who haven’t heard a great deal about the
Indian wars with the first settlers of America; but there was one colony
where then oble Red man was the Paleface’s friend. William Penn, a

Quaker of England, secured a grant of a portion of America, now comprising
the state of Pennsylvania. But, with the stern sense of justice that is pecu-

























































EA Mgse We ew (4|





i



LE = B,

liar to the Friends, Penn was not satisfied till he had paid the possessors of
the soil what they thought their land was worth. In 1682 he had his agent
make a treaty with them, and the chiefs of all the tribes met together in Phila-
delphia, and exchanged words of peace. The tree under which the treaty
was made was still standing a few years ago, and was then blown down.
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

ever occurred as the signing of the Declaration of Independence, seen in

the picture. Thirteen poor, weak, unaided colonies, who had acknowl-
edged themselves subjects of Great Britain ever since they were settled, had
risen and declared themselves free, thus rebelling against a power which had,
by force of arms on land and the greatest navy in the world, subdued all who
opposed it.

On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, offered this memorable
resolution before the assembled Congress in Philadelphia, which was bravely
seconded by John Adams, of Massachusetts :

“Resolved, That these United States ought to be free and independent.”

A committee was appointed to draught a Declaration of Independence. It
consisted of Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and Livingston, They
selected Thomas Jefferson and John Adams to draw it up.

Mr. Jefferson urged Mr. Adams to do so; and the friendly argument was
closed by Mr. Adams saying:

“T will not do it. You must. First, you are a Virginian; and Virginia
should lead in this business. Second, you can write ten times better than J]
can.”

Mr. Jefferson replied:

“If you insist upon it, I will do the best I can.’

And no American has ever regretted that he wrote this immortal document,

July 4, it was signed by each of the members of Congress, every man who
signed it defying the majestic power of Great Britain; many of them feeling at
the time, no doubt, that their necks would feel the British hangman’s rope
before many months should have passed over their heads.

From the thirteen rebellious colonies we have grown to be the strongest
power on earth. Well may we revere the very names of those who so bravely
perilled their lives and fortunes to release us from the oppression of the
tyrant.

oe no event of as great importance to the American Colonies .




DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE,


STORIES OF RIVERS IN AMERICA.

F you follow our rivers to their heads you will find they run from some little
stream in the mountains, and from lakes, and flow through woods and
meadows until they reach the sea.

The discoverer of the Mississippi was a Spaniard named De Soto, who had
killed thousands of Indians in battle, and went west through thick forests and
came to this great river, one mile in width. They dared not cross, for there
was a great body of Indians on the opposite bank; but marched down for
four miles, where they crossed with the few men who were left, the: greater
part of a large army having wasted away by starvation. De Soto himself
died soon afterwards and was buried in the middle of the river he ae dis-
covered, and which has since become so famous. ;

You all of you know of, and many of our readers have sailed on, the
beautiful Hudson, which has scenery along its banks unsurpassed by any in
Europe and America.

In the Revolutionary War General Arnold made arrangements to place
West Point in the hands of the British,and Major Andre was sent to complete
the arrangements. The vessel which took him up the Hudson was fired
upon, and | it dropped down the stream. Andre was unable to. reach his vessel,
was captured, tried, condemned as a spy, and hung at Tappan.”
THE RIVER NILE.

te. Sa is only within a few years that people knew anything about the

*% country along the Nile, in Egypt. The people are black, and
generally very poor, and live principally on a kind of Indian
corn and dates, those of Nubia being considered better than any
others; and the leaves of the palm-trees, from which dates are
grown, are finer and softer than any others.

There are interesting ruins in Nubia, those of the rock temple
being the most wonderful. The immense statues outside repre-
sent a former king of Egypt. Wild birds are numerous. One
species is called “Pharaoh’s hens,” which are a kind of small white vulture
that frequents the desert, as well as the neighborhood of the river.

Dongola is where the governor lives. There is a sandy desert on each
side of the river. No
fresh meat can be
bought here; it is all



ve

Ti eR
ce
INN Ne

brought up the river. mn
= : SIS at

On this part of the Nile
are great crocodiles and
and water-lizards,

The houses of the
better class are not well
furnished. The beds
are’ frames with strips
of buffalo-hide stretched
across, and mats are
laid on these. They
are used for seats in
the daytime. Wooden
bowls are used instead
of crockery, and drinking-vessels are made from gourds. The Nubian
woman’s dress is a piece of dark blue calico wrapped around her waist and
coming down to her ankles; her head and upper part of the body is covered
with a white scarf, with a red border, which can be drawn over the face. She
wears necklaces, bracelets, rings, earrings and anklets. The upper classes
keep themselves clean by rubbing the skin every night with a kind of. dough,
and then with a fragrant oil. This is called quite refreshing.


THE. TEMPLES “OF INDIA,

































































































































































































































































HE Hindoos, like the Chinese, are a singular people; they are very re-
ligious, and yet worship idols, which they think represent God. Their
priests are very learned men, and their land is full of temples. They have
three principal gods, Brahma, the creator; Vishnu, the preserver; and Siva,
the destroyer. They believe that, when Vishnu was a child (he was called
Kreshna), he swallowed some dirt, and his brothers ran and told their mother.
To see if they were telling the truth, she told him to open his mouth, and saw
three worlds there.

It is said that Hindoos have a great many inferior gods, among whom are
the Devas. They say that these Devas had a quarrel about the disposition
of the principal god. Oneof the Devas at last proposed to settle the matter;
so he went and kicked Siva. Siva became very angry, and spoiled millions

of worlds before he was pacified. The Deva then kicked Brahma. He
THE TEMPLES OF INDIA, 85



grumbled, but didn’t do anything. The Deva then kicked Vishnu, who was
asleep. He awoke at once. He caught the foot that had struck him, and
patting it said he hoped it wasn’t hurt, and that he had not given pain to or
offended the Deva.

Many stories have been told about the “Car of Juggernaut,” and people
being thrown under its wheels. All such tales are nonsense, because it isn’t
true. Juggernaut is one of the names Vishnu takes, and the worship of





























HINDOO GODS. ¥ }

Vishnu is associated with love. The mistake happened in this way: During
the car festival there are great crowds, and accidents sometimes occur; and,
in telling about it, people who saw it made the error of supposing their death
was intentional.
Many of the Hindoos of the upper castes. will undergo all sorts of self-
‘inflicted torture, thinking they are purifying their souls. They will hang by
one hand, or will allow their finger-nails to grow till they are several feet long.
Sometimes the nails penetrate the flesh. Then, again, they will hold one of
their arms or legs in one position so long that they lose the use of it entirely.
But no matter how good and pure a Hindoo may be he can only hope to
escape punishment, and his highest hope is to be absorbed into space and
become nothing ; otherwise his soul after he dies may enter a toad, a snake, a
86 THE SAGACITY OF A GULL.—AN INTELLIGENT SWALLOW.

-horse, or any living animal; and that is why they will not destroy the life of
,any animal, because in doing so he interferes with some poor soul’s progress
upward.
They have the greatest respect for and worship monkeys as a superior race ~
- of beings, and one town is thickly settled with these imps, who are a source
of the greatest annoyance. They also worship a white bull, that you have
sometimes seen in the menageries; it has two humps on its back, much like
the camel. But these people are fast learning to put aside all such vain delu-
sions, and receive and believe the truth,

~



THE SAGACITY OF A GULL.

ZX CURIOUS incident occurred recently on one of the bridges crossing

the river Limat, which flows through the city of Ziirich, illustrating
the sagacity of the gulls or terns frequenting some of the Swiss lakes. A
gentleman who, for ammusement, was in the habit of feeding these birds with
the refuse of meat, which they are fond of, had his hat knocked off into the
rapid current below by one of the more eager gulls hovering around. The
lookers-on laughed at the mishap; and a boat was about to be put out into
the stream to secure the trophy, when, to the surprise of every one, a gull
was noticed to dart down upon the hat, and, after several ineffectual attempts,
succeeded at last in rising with it in its beak, and flying toward the bridge, to
. astonishment of every one, dropped the well-soaked hat where the bystanders

at once secured it for its owner.





AN INTELLIGENT SWALLOW.

R. W. F. MORGAN, of Peagthesake Kan., communicates to Zhe Medical
Record a story which would indicate that swallows have considerable
surgical skill as well as intelligence. In a nest he found a young swallow
much weaker than its mate, which had one of its legs bandaged with horse-
hairs. Taking the hairs away he found that the bird’s lez was broken. The
next time he visited the nest, he found the leg again bandaged. He con-
tinued to observe “the case,” and in two weeks found that the bird was cau-
tiously removing the hairs, a few each day. - The cure was entirely successful,
FINGAL’S CAVE.





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































INGAL’S Cave, in the island of Staffa, on the west coast of Scotland, one

of nature’s wonders, is composed of immense columns of basalt, the color
of them being a bluish gray. They vary in thickness from one to five feet,
and are of very different heights. The sides of the cave are made of the
pillars, and the flooring is evermore the restless, surging sea, whose echoes
have given the cave its Gaelic name, “The Cave of Music.” The arch of
the roof is more than sixty feet above your boat. From side to side the
passage is forty-two feet; but in your boat, if the sea is calm, you may enjoy
the fairy scene, and confess to yourself its grandeur.
SAND WHIRLWINDS.

















‘N Summer we welcome the least breath of air, but there are times when
the wind makes terrible work. This picture shows the columns of sand
raised by the whirlwind in the sandy deserts of Asia and Africa. The people
who live in the desert think that some evil spirit who lives in the air takes
this way of making himself seen. You can see the horsemen and camel-riders
hurrying out of the way of the storm. How dreadful it must be to be placed
in such a locality! We ought to be thankful we are not there, too.
A CYCLONE, OR WHIRLWIND.



OU have all heard or read about the cyclones out West? Perhaps you
live near where these dreadful calamities have happened? The picture
above shows one of these dreaded visitants approaching a village, and the
mother and her two children flying for their lives into the house. See how
the lightning flashes, and look at the black cloud of dust and wind approach-
ing! Sometimes houses are lifted up and ground to pieces, or else let fall
quite a distance from where they were first put. In some parts of the coun-
try, where they have these wind-storms every year, they dig pits, and, when
a storm approaches, they go there and hide till the storm is over.



——— 10:

Wuten does a man appear to run a risk of being burned to death ?—When
he smckes.


90 OUT ON BUSINESS.

OUT ON BUSINESS.

Lo is a poor fox. “Savage creature!” says somebody;
“kill the wicked fellow!’ Stop a moment, neighbor, be-
fore you wantonly put that beautiful animal to a cruel death.
Perhaps he is a bloodthirsty fellow when he is on an expedition |
after meat for his children. Perhaps it would be unpleasant to
have his teeth in our flesh. But until he offers to molest us we
will do well to let him alone. Looking on it from the fox’s side,
"it is different from looking at the fox from our side. He has his
family affairs to see after. Mrs. Fox and the little foxes must be
provided with food. We provide for our families in our way,
and Mr. Fox has his ways of taking care of his home interests.
Between him and his wife and children, in the cave where they ~
live, there is a very warm bond of affection, even if the weather
is cold. The world is large, and if Mr. Fox can manage to keep
out of our way we ought not to grudge him his existence. The
same God who made us made him. That beautiful fur suit of
his is better than any garments we can buy in the fur-stores.
His sharp white teeth will do for models for careless boys and
girls who forget to use the toothbrush. Those nimble feet can
make far better speed than ours. If we mind our business as
well as Mr. Fox minds his, we may learn lessons from him
which will be even better than mangling him or putting him
to death. Itis plain he would like very much to get one of
these chickens to take home to Mrs. Fox and his little ones, but
they are so high up that it is not likely he can reach them. He
will probably have to look somewhere else for his supper.



FORGIVE, IF YOU WOULD BE FORGIVEN.

Nee Rev. John Wesley was on his voyage to Georgia
with General Oglethorpe, the general one day threatened
severe punishment upon an offending servant, saying, “I never
forgive.” “Then I hope, sir,” said Mr. Wesley, “ you never sin!”
































OUT ON BUSINESS.

CHAAS CEN nas


THE TEA-PLANT.

HINA is the home of the tea-plant, and the
greater part of the tea used is from that
country. Quantities are grown in Japan, Assam
and India. Itis an evergreen shrub, and the old
leaves remain until the new ones come. It is
not allowed to grow higher than four or five
feet, though it would grow as high as thirty.

The tea-shrub in China is cultivated in-small ,
plantations, and the leaves are picked by the
family, a leaf at a time, with gloved hands.
These are dropped in small rattan baskets hung
on the neck, which are emptied into larger ones,
and carried to the curing places. There are
several pickings. The first one is in April, when
the buds and very young leaves are gathered.
Soon the new leaves appear, and a second pick-
ing is made in May.. The third is about the middle of June, and the fourth
in August. The leaves of the first crop are the most valuable; the last are
old, and make an inferior tea. Both green and black tea are made from the
same leaves. When the leaves are dried quickly, they make green tea; but
‘dried slowly, they turn dark and make black tea. The leaves are first ‘dried
in shallow baskets in the sun, and then put,a few at a time, into-an iron or
copper pan and stirred until dry; they are then emptied on a table, and
rolled into rolls, dried again, sorted and packed.

When tea was first introduced into England a family had a present of a
small quantity. They boiled some in a pot, and tried to eat it; but, finding it
bitter, fried some. This was no better, and, after trying several other ways,
the tea was put away as good for nothing.







303

Wuy is a soldier like a vine?—Be- | Wuen should you avoid the edge
cause he is ’listed, trained, has ten | of a river?—-When the hedges are
drills (tendrils), and shoots. shooting and the bull-rushes out.

Wuicu is heavier, a half or a full Way is gooseberry jam like coun-

moon?—The half, because the full | terfeit money?—-Because it is not
moon is as light again. currant (current).
THE COFFEE PLANT.

(CEFEE is the seed in the berry of an ever-

green shrub which grows in hot countries.
The soil of the East and West Indies is best
suited to its growth. The plant is naturally
twenty or thirty feet high, but is cut down to five
or six feet, in order to reach the fruit and that it
may bear better. The leaves are a dark, glossy
green, and the star-like flowers either white, or a
delicate rose tint. The odor is like the flower
of the jasmine. When the berry is ripening it
is bright red, but changes toa deep purple. The
seeds have a tough husk around them. When
the berries are ripe they are spread in the sun
to dry till the pulp is shrivelled into a kind of
" pod, which is removed by hand.

The coffee beans are in a hard shell, which is
broken by wooden rollers, and the chaff sifted away, and the coffee is packed
in sacks and aes. In the isang of Sunil the natives dry the leaves
and rub them : :
into powder,
and use it as
we do tea; and
it is said to taste
‘like coffee and
tea together.

Coffee was
first carried
from the des-
erts of Africa
by a caravan to
Persia about a
thousand years
ago. The pic- CARAVAN IN THE DESERT.
ture shows a caravan crossing a desert, and by the wayside you will notice the
skeleton of a “Ship of the Desert,” as the camel is called, which tells the sad
tale of the sufferings endured by those who have to travel in these waste places,






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE FIRST SMOKE.

HEN I was a
boy, about
seven years old,
father and mother
went one day to
town to do some
shopping, and left
brother and me in
care of the girl, and
told us to be good
children; but you
know the old say-
ing, “When the
cat’s away the mice
will play.” Well,
no sooner were our
parents out of sight
than we began to
plan to see how
much fun we could
have before they
came home. The
first thing we did
was to run in to our
next neighbor’s, and
get another boy,
about our own age, to join us. We had some old scraps of iron and bones
that we had been saving, as country boys will, and sold them to a man who
came around once in a while and bought such things, and who very fortu-
nately came along that day. With this money we went to the store. For
my share I bought some currants and what were called half-Spanish cigars,
two of which were sold fora cent. The other boys bought clay pipes with
part of their money, as they had found some tobacco in the stable, used to
steep in water to destroy the lice on the animals. We then went fishing. It
was my first smoke; and between the currants and the cigar I was fearfully
sick, and lay all the afternoon in the worst sort of pain; so that, when mother


96 . BE’ THANKFUL.

and father came home, they were surprised to find me with a pale face and
unable to get up, and it was several days before I felt real well. The other
boy was almost as sick asI was. He tried it next day on his way to school,
and had to give it up; but my brother, who would run barefooted, was able to
smoke like a veteran. The smoke came out of his mouth in beautiful white
curls. From that day to this I have never been able to learn to smoke, and
I am sure I am all the better for it.





BE THANKFUL.

"| DON’T want any supper,” said Kate. “Nothing but bread and milk,
and some cake—just the same every night.”

“Would you like to take a walk?” asked mamma, not noticing Kate’s
remark. “Yes, mamma.”

Kate was pleased so long as their walk led through pleasant streets; but
when they came to narrow dirty ones, where the houses were old and poor,
she wanted to go home. “Please, mamma, don’t go any farther.”

“We will go in the corner house,” said mamma.

A man stood by the door with a sick-looking little girl in his arms; she was
crying, and looked sad and hungry.

Some rough-looking men were sitting.on the door-steps. Kate’ felt afraid,
and held tight to mamma’s hand; but on they went up the tottering steps to
the garret. So hot and close it was that they could scarcely breathe. On
a straw bed near the only window lay a young girl asleep, so pale and thin
and still, she looked as if she were dead.

Hearing footsteps, she opened her eyes. Mamma uncovered her basket,
and gave the girl a drink of milk,-and placed the bread and cake beside her.

Kate’s eyes filled with tears as she saw the girl eagerly eat her supper.
Not a mouthful had she tasted since early morning.

Her poor mother had been away all day working, aad now came home
wishing she had something nice to bring her sick child. When she found her
so well cared for, she could not thank mamma and Kate enough.

The supper seemed a feast to them. “If we can keep a roof over our
heads,” said she, “and get a crust to eat, we are thankful.” Kate never for-
got these words.



308



Wuart did the muffin say to the toasting-fork >“ You’re too pointed,”
‘TOBACCO. |
RiGuHT on the corner of the street Hard-hearted is this lassie brown,





Stands an image passing neat, Like many ladies in the town ;
A chunky squaw—not very fair— Though not of stone, ’tis just as good,
With dusky skin and raven hair, Her heart is made of seasoned wood,
Her lips, though mute, send forth the cry No pity in her breast is found,
To every one who passeth by, As she sings out to all around,

“‘ Tobacco, bacco, ’bacco, tobacco.”’ ** Tobacco, ‘bacco, ‘bacco, tobacco.”
Mid storms and blasts this maiden stands, ’Bacco thin, tobacco thick,
And holds within her brown-hued hands ‘‘Navy,’? ‘Flounder,’’ Killikinick,”’

' A leaf, a very noxious weed, Medium, mild, and strong cigars,

Upon which only men do feed, _ Prime snuff for noses, kept in jars.
Though deaf and dumb to all the crowd, And men will her tobacco buy,
She rings the words out clear and loud, Though o’er their graves this squaw will cry,

‘‘Tobacco, ’bacco, bacco, tobacco.”’ “¢ Tobacco, bacco, bacco, tobacco.’’

305
A BC FOR BOYS. THE PYRAMID OF INTEMPERANCE.

Attend well to your business. Climb up this pyramid, step by step, and
Be punctual in your payments. compare the cost of liquor with that of the
Consider well before you promise. other things mentioned.

Dare to do right.
Envy no man.
‘Faithfully perform your duty. Lome and Foreign











Go not in the path of vice. Misstons,
$5,500,000. .
Have respect for your character. - ,
Inspire friendliness in others, 3 7S ee
Judge not lest ye be judged. (SUE BID OO SS
K thyself. Education,
aaa Sia $91,000,000.

Lie not, for any consideration.

Meddle not with the affairs of others.
Never profess what you do not practise.
Occupy your time in usefulness.
Postpone nothing you can do now.
Quarrel not with your neighbor.
Recompense every man for his labor.
Save something against a day of trouble.
Treat everybody with kindness.

Use yourself in moderation.

Villify no person’s reputation.
Watchfully guard against idleness,
Xamine your conduct daily. Railroad receipts, $790,000,000.
Yield to superior judgment. [ Cost of liquor in one year, $900,000,000.
Zealously pursue the right path,

& never give up.

Boots and shoes,
$196,000,000.

Cotton goots, $210,000,000.



Woollen goods, $23'7,000,000.



Meat, $303,000,000,
Value of Church property,

$350,000,000.

Bread, $505 ,000,000.




THE LOCUST.

HE locust is about.
three inches long,
with a large head and pro-
jecting oval eyes. Its food
consists of leaves and green.
stalks of plants, and when
= locusts alight on any vege-
= tation that they fancy they
consume it entirely.

The terrible ravages. of
locusts are owing to the
vast numbers in which they
appear, filling the air and
darkening the sky so that
objects cast no shadow, and
advancing with a sound like
the rushing of chariots.
Locusts are found in almost
all parts of the world except the coldest regions, and are equally destructive
wherever they appear. .



























20:



Way is a field of grass like a person older than yourself ?—Because it is
past-your-age (Pasturage).



—"0:
Wuat is the best way to raise strawberries >—With a spoon.

30:





How can a man make his coat last ?>—Make his pants and vest first.





203

WHEN is a man duplicated >—When he is beside himself.



:0:——

IF you saw a house on fire, what three celebrated authoi's‘would you feel
disposed to name ?>—Dickens—Howitt—Burns.
LOCUSTS.


SPIDERS.

?

an
Wy

7

My)
ea



PIDERS are not only among the most poisonous of insects but they
are seemingly the most intelligent. There are very many varieties of
them. They have eight legs, and generally eight eyes. Some say they can
be educated. They display wonderful strategy in trapping and carrying off
their prey, and in building their nests. The silk they spin is formed by an
apparatus situated in the back p&rt of the under-surface of their bodies, which
consists of several bundles of vessels twisted together, and ending in very
little openings (so small they have to be seen with a microscope) at the end
of the tail, The gluey matter thrown out by these pores hardens in the air,
forming threads of the finest description. It takes many of these to forma
single strand of a spider’s web. Different spiders have different colored webs. '
A Mexican spider has a beautiful web of red, yellow and black threads. It
is said that 10,000 threads of a common garden spider would not be as thick
as a single human hair; while others form threads so strong they will catch ~
birds. Some form a web like in the picture; others a cup with a cover to it;
others live in the ground. One kind of spiders is called the “leapers,”
because they jump instead of run; others move sideways.
ABOUT SNAKES.



HERE are a great many different kinds of snakes that are found in
different parts of the world. They reach their largest size in the tropical
countries, and many stories are told of their size, strength and fierceness.

There is a species called the doa-constrictor, found in Africa, that boldly
attacks animals as large as a buffalo. They frequently wind themselves.
around deer and sheep, and swallow them whole.. They then lie down and
sleep till they have digested their big meal; this may take months. -

There is another kind of snake nearly as large, found in India, called the
anaconda, .

‘There is a snake that is found in America called the rattlesnake, which is
perhaps the largest snake found in this country. During the second year
there begins to develop a horny growth that circles around the tail, and there
as one circle for each year afterwards.

There are many stories told of the snake’s power of charming animals and
-birds; and in the picture above you will see the little bird that has been
frightened so that it has lost its power of flight. You can see the poor bird’s
mouth open as it vainly tries to cry out, but before long it will be swallowed
by the terrible monster. :
102 SEEING HIMSELF IN A LOOKING-GLASS.



Not long since a party of ladies and gentlemen were spending the summer
in the mountains, in the northern part of Pennsylvania. They were driving
along the roadside, when they saw a beautiful shining object, and one of the
ladies called the attention of the driver to it. To his dismay he found it was
a huge rattlesnake. He threw large stones on it, and finally succeeded in
killing it, and took fifteen rattles from its tail, which showed that it was in its _
seventeenth year. ea.

The rattlesnake is one of the deadliest snakes in existence; but it always
warns its prey by shaking its rattle before it strikes and fastens its fangs in
its victim. ; .



20%



SEEING HIMSELF IN A LOOKING-GLASS.

T is often curious to watch animals when they see themselves reflected in a
looking-glass. If the animal is bad-tempered, he will show anger and
make ready for a fight; if good-tempered and playful, he will exhibit pleasure.
A lady had two canaries, one bold and fearless, and the other timid and shy.
If a looking-glass was set before them, one would grow so angry that it was
hard to pacify him, while the other would begin to sing the moment he caught
a reflection of himself, and ruffle his feathers with delight.
A very pretty incident is related of a canary bird by a Georgia paper. The
door of the bird’s cage was occasionally left open, that he might enjoy the
freedom of the room. One day he happened to light upon the mantel-shelf,
where there was a mirror. Here was a new discovery of the most profound
interest. He gazed long and curiously at himself, and came to the conclusion
that he had found a mate. Going back to his cage, he selected a seed from
its box, and brought it in his bill as an offering to the stranger. In vain the
‘canary exerted himself to make his new-found friend partake; becoming
weary of that, he tried another tack. Stepping back a few inches from the
glass, he poured forth his sweetest notes, pausing now and then for a reply.
None came, and moody and dispirited he flew back to his perch, hanging his
head in shame and silence for the rest of the day, and refusing to come out
of his cage again.





Wuart is the best way to prevent My first is a color, my second a
water coming into your house ?— | vowel, my third humble, and my whole
Don’t pay your water-tax. an animal.—Buff-a-lo.
SOMETHING ABOUT FROGS AND TOADS.

ROGS are very curious creatures. I need hardly

tell you how they can live equally well on land
and water; nor how, when they are little, they are not
frogs at all, but tadpoles, with tails and without feet,
swimming about like fishes, and never venturing out
of the pond. Every little boy or girl knows about this

ee already, so I will leave out all descriptions of frogs,
which Iam sure you would skip as being too dry, and tell you some funny
stories about them. .

I would never think of taming a frog fora pet. But a gentleman once
took a fancy to a big bull-frog that he found sitting every day on the same
log when he was fishing ina lake. He gave him a daily breakfast of sunfish
for weeks, until the frog became quite tame, and would jump into the boat to
be fed, and at last permitted himself to be handled. The gentleman called
his frog Ralph, and he knew his name very well. This gentleman had a little
boy, who made a great pet of Mr. Frog; and one night he dreamed that, as
he was walking round the basin of the fountain, the frog stopped and talked
to him, and told of all the beautiful things he had in his palace under the
water.

Another sentenn alls a story of a frog that he had at home in . the
kitchen of his house, and for three years came out every day, particularly at
meal-time, to be fed. When winter came, instead of crawling down into the
mud and going to sleep until spring, as all frogs do, he came regularly every
evening and made directly for the hearth in front of a good kitchen fire, where
_ he would remain and enjoy himself in the warmth until the family retired.
An intimacy sprang up between him and the family cat. The frog would
nestle under the warm fur of the cat, while the latter was very careful about
disturbing his comfort and convenience.

Toads are found in every part of the temperate au torrid zones. Their
repulsive appearance and nocturnal habits have rendered them objects of
horror and superstition, although it is now well known that they are perfectly
harmless, and very useful creatures to the gardener and farmer.

Old tales and legends abound in stories of their poisonous qualities. A
jewel was formerly supposed to be in their head, and many have fallen victims
to this belief.

There are about seventy different species of toads, and the appearance and




104 SOMETHING ABOUT FROGS AND TOADS.

habits of some are very interesting, The snout is more blunt than that of the
frog, and their limbs much shorter; they have no teeth, and their tongue is
a most useful and delicate organ, being fastened in the front: portion oe the’
lower jaw; its free extremity is coiled in the back part of the mouth. When
Mr. Toad perceives an insect or slug (which forms his principal diet), it
approaches stealthily, and darts its tongue forth with such rapidity as to be
almost invisible. The insect is caught by a glutinous substance on its tip,
and carried to the back of the mouth, where it is quickly swallowed, and the
toad is sitting as calmly as if nothing had happened to disturb his equanimity.

-The skin is usually warty, and is cast off periodically; the reason that it is
never found, like that of snakes, is because it is invariably swallowed by its
owner.

Unlike its near relation, the frog, it is a poor jumper, which may be ac-
counted for by the shortness of its legs; neither are its feet webbed like those
of a frog, which in early life it greatly resembles, going through the state of a
tadpole, never leaving the water until fully matured, and then not returning
to it, except at the seasons of propagation,

In winter the toad goes into a crevice of rock or a hollow tree. Many
stories are told of deie great age, and how they are found in a living state in
solid wood or marble, where they must have been imprisoned for years with-
out food; but it is very likely that some small opening existed through which
enough minute insects were carried to supply them with food during their
semi-torpid condition. Recent experiment has shown that they will die in’
from one to two years, if kept in tight jars.

They are much more agreeable creatures than is generally supposed to be
the case, being comical-looking, and require the minimum of care to keep
them in health. All they need is a cool, damp spot with stones and moss, to
form a hiding-place, and the curious manner of taking their meals is a source
of constant amusement to the owner.





Tarry was a Welshman, Taffy was a thief,

Taffy came to my house and stole a piece of beef;
I went to Taffy’s house, Taffy wasn’t home,

Taffy came to my house and stole a marrow-bone;
I went to Taffy’s house, Taffy was in bed, e%
I took the marrow-bone, and beat about his head.
THE MOLE’S QUEER HOUSE.

Some animals have tools to dig with. The mole is one of them.
It ploughs and digs with its claws. They are heavy and strong, and are
worked by large muscles. The mole does great work with these dig-
ging and
ploughing
machines.
inmaking
tunnels.
and galle-
N ries under
Wy, ground.

ha W A mole’s

house is a.
very fun-
ny affair,
} —a sort of round room, with several passages. This is the way he.
makes it: he first heaps up a round hill, or mound, pressing the earth
so as to make it very hard and firm. Then he digs out his round room,
where he lives. By means of passages he has two galleries, one above:
the other. The round room is connected by no less than three of
these passages with the upper gallery. A deep passage out from.
it at the bottom opens from the lower gallery, and another leads in-
to the open
air. The use
of all these
winding pas-
sages is to
enable the
mole to keep
out of the
way of any
enemy.





p


















EE \g- (Wa 2
mw, Zt a EK S62
THE SILKWORM.







SN
AY, AV
\

ho of our silks, satins and our richest
a

a My, goods are made from the thread of a
ye) caterpillar called the silkworm, which has
is sixteen long legs.

When it is full-grown it covers itself up
in a yellowish shell, about the size of a
pigeon’s egg, called a cocoon, made of one
long thread of silk which the worm draws
out of its body, and winds around itself a
great many times. If this is not disturbed,
it becomes changed, and comes out a
winged-moth. This moth flies about, fast-
ening its small white eggs on the mulberry
tree, and in a few days out of these eggs
come the young caterpillars. As soon as
they are hatched they commence to eat the
leaves. In about two months they are

26 = SILK WORMS. full-grown, and are about two inches long
CRS #~ SOCOON- and a little larger thana lead pencil. They
do not eat any more, but commence to weave their cocoons. When these are
finished they are collected in baskets, and thrown into warm water to dissolve
the gum. Then they are taken out, the ends of the thread found, and the
silk wound on a reel. A single thread is extremely tender, and sometimes
twelve cocoons are reeled together and twisted into one thread. Under this
reel a charcoal fire is kept burning, in order to dry the threads as they go
over it. When this is done the skeins are cleaned, and packed in bales of
about one hundred pounds,




AN

eet it)
sal Me i) \
Ns







































































LIFE AND METAMORPHOSES OF THE DRAGON-FLY,
DRAGON-FLIES.

HAT a pesky nuisance the fly is, to be sure. In warm weather it rouses
W us from our sound slumbers by crawling over our faces, and on wet
days it annoys us by buzzing upon the window-panes trying to get out
when_ nobody asked it to come in. There are different kinds of flies: the
ordinary house-fly, which is the most common; the big horse-fly (and you no
doubt have heard some idiot ask you if you ever saw a horse-fly?); then
there is the blue-bottle fly, met with at the sea-shore, and he isn’t satisfied
by calling and leaving his respects, but leaves behind an unpleasant reminder
of his unwelcome visit by carrying off a good-sized piece of your flesh. But
there is another kind still, called in England the dragon-fly. In this country
it is known as the “devil’s darning-needle.” In some parts of England they
are known as the “horse-stingers.” They are perfectly innocent, though
when I was a boy we were almost afraid of them.’ But some of the larger
ones can make a fearfully large and painful bite with their powerful jaws.
The female drops her eggs in the water, when they at once fall to the bottom.
Sometimes it is said the females crawl down the stems of water-plants and
deposit their eggs. Some natural historians say there are two broods of
these flies, and others claim it takes as long as three years for them to attain
their full growth. The larvze of the dragon-fly, which you see in the picture
under the water, is a perfect tyrant, as its parent is in the air. It lives upon
all the other forms of insect-life under the water. When it attains full size
it crawls out of the water, climbs a tree for several feet, and fixes itself to the
bark. After a while its back splits, and the fly comes out. It is a most
beautiful color, being principally a brilliant bronze-colored green, blue or
black. They love the sunshine, and in wet weather they are lifeless and
easily captured. Many of the larger species will hang to a particular twig,
darting off after their prey, but returning to the same spot.

In the Malay Archipelago the natives use them as food, and catch them
with lime twigs. They are found in all parts of the world, except the polar
regions. There are 1,700 species. They have been found even in the beds
of slate in England along with other fossils, showing their existence millions
of years before the earth was inhabited. They have been found preserved in
amber, which you know is the resin of trees, supposed to be the pine that
existed before the deluge, and is found deposited like coal under the ground
in Switzerland and France. In the clay of Paris it is found mixed with coal.
It is also found in some of the clay-beds of England and the, United States,

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Sa TUFT’S LESSON.

HE dog belonged to
him, and he belonged

to nobody in particular.
|... - He had few other worldly
= possessions, unless, per-
47=s=. haps, you count an old
= broom for business pur-
poses, and the clothes

that barely covered his




poor body.

The dog was highly bred, as one could at once see. His master was only
a grimy little crossing-sweeper, but Tuft willingly consented to overlook the
difference in the matter of birth, and they thoroughly understood each other.

Charlie’s home was one-half of a dark little cellar: He shared it witha
friend of his—a dog-fancier—who one day told the boy that he was compelled
to leave the country. Extracting from his pocket a round bundle, he solemnly
presented it, saying, “He ain’t much to look at just now, but he'll be a real
beauty some day ”’—and he was.

At first he was a soft, wobbly, uncertain thing, whose legs slid in all direc-
tions when he was set on the floor to walk. Very soon, however, his minute
pink tongue learned to lap up the milk that was provided for him, Then his
weak legs became stronger; and every day he walked a little bit farther:
steadily, steadily, straight into Charlie’s heart. When he got there, Charlie
shut the door fast, and determined that he should never get outagain, Some-
‘times the boy went supperless to bed—the dog never.

But this all happened long ago—quite a year, at any rate—and now Tuft
and Charlie went regularly to business together. Now and then Tuft earned
a penny himself in this way. He had a beautiful bushy tail; and Charlie
taught him to pretend to sweep the crossing with it, then to sit up and beg on
the opposite pavement. Who could resist that? For two reasons this was
only resorted to when pennies were scarce: first, Tuft’s performance must not
be made too common; second, Tuft himself more than disliked it. He was
particularly proud of his tail, loving to carry it jauntily aloft, and loathing the
mean use he had sometimes to put it to.

I think he was a conceited dog, at any rate he had many airs and graces;
but these, to do him justice, were chiefly displayed when he was abroad, or in
112 TUFT’S LESSON.

the company of dogs less well-born. At home he was all loving humility, and
absurd, wistful deference to every wish of his little master.

It did not take much to make them happy, if only they were together—an
extra penny, or a scamper on a bit of fresh green grass, was quite enough.
They were doth puppies, you see.

A change came! One day Tuft disappeared. Charlie missed him during
the day, but thought little of it. So many things interested Tuft; he was
sometimes obliged to investigate them, and so he occasionally absented him-
self for an hour or more. This time, however, the day wore on; it was time
to go home, and Tuft had not returned. Charlie felt a little surprised, but
said to himself, “He'll be home before me;” and, quite unconsciously, the
rough, bare feet trotted along quicker and quicker, until they reached the
door—but still no Tuft.

The boy’s soft brown eyes grew misty and troubled. All night he listened
intently for the well-known pit-pat in the passage, the impatient, impertinent
bark at the door; but they never came!

At last the miserable certainty crept over him: “Tuft was stolen.” And
so it proved to be, for days passed into weeks, and the dog never returned,
Charlie could not speak of him: his eyes would swim and his poor lip would
droop if ever he tried to. His one idea was to make enough money to offer a
reward, Poor little soul! It would be many a long month before he could
save enough for that purpose, although he starved himself. He never left
his crossing now until quite late in the evening, and he never once went home
without the faint hope in his heart that his doggie might be waiting for him
there.

Weeks slipped into months, and every day found him at his post with a
heavier heart.

Spring had come, bringing fae, clear, cold weather. The east wind blew
right through his thin cledhes. The streets were quite clean, and there was
no need for Charlie’s brush, no prospect of business, no hope of supper, “no
nothing,” said he sadly to himself. He was tired, and cold, and cross, when
suddenly something came full tilt against him, He was startled, and kicked
out roughly with his foot.

Twas only a little dog that had jumped on him, and the force of the kick
sent it spinning right into the roadway. It picked itself up, looked round with
a ludicrous mixture of surprise and dignity, then limped wearily back to the
pavement,

“Serve him right,” said Charlie; “I can’t abide these mountebank dogs.”
\

‘AN ENCOUNTER WITH BEARS. 113

The creature was clipped and shaved, and all its poor ribs were plainly
visible, for it was cruelly thin. Round its neck was a collar of silky hair, and
a tiny bunch had been left to adorn the end of its shorn tail. It sat staring at
Charlie and shivering. Ve: :
_ “What makes him stay there? I’ll soon send him off,’ and out went the
foot again. This time the dog avoided it, seemed to ponder for an instant,
then jumped up, ran on to the crossing, keeping intent, sad eyes fixed on the
boy. He tried—quite ineffectually—to sweep the street with the halfa-dozen
hairs at the end of his absurd tail.

Poor Tuft! poor Charlie!

Where he had been, and what misery he had endured, he never told, nor
did he hint at the pain he must have felt when his master failed to recognize
him. It was plain that he had traveled far, for his feet were cut and swollen,
and he was weak, too, from want of food. He assured Charlie, by licking his
hand, that he had forgiven him, and showed by his conduct that he never meant
to roam again. He proved himself wiser than many men and women, for he
laid his lesson to heart and profited by it. He devoted himself entirely to
business, and saw other dogs as if he saw them not—however tramplingly
insolent, however charmingly enticing, this accomplished actor stared resolutely
at nothing whatever, until they had passed by. .

So Tuft learnt his lesson, and what may we learn from Tuft? -Many things,
I daresay, if we knew him better, but these two certainly of all others—Faith-
fulness and Forgiveness.



30%



AN ENCOUNTER WITH BEARS.

ee of the early settlers in the West were greatly troubled by the bears

coming near their dwellings, and eating their cattle. One of the men
named Job Hunter had set a trap, and being out in search of a yoke of oxen
one evening, saw a young bear caught in it, and three others near by, so that
he thought it best to make tracks without delay. When he reached the farm
he gave the alarm, and seizing an old sabre he was followed by Mr. Mark
Warner armed with a gun, and another man with an axe.

They went directly to the trap provided with a rope, and proposed taking
the bear alive. As it was-a short time after dark they could not see objects
distinctly, but on coming close a crashing among the leaves warned them that
the old bears were near. When they.were within a few feet they saw a dark
mass on the ground, and heard a loud growl, and the beast in the trap made
114 ADVENTURES OF SIMPLE SZâ„¢MON.



a spring on Job who
was in advance, and
catching him by the
legs wounded him
badly in the knee.
He drew his sword,
and the cub growled
and cried in a fear-
ful manner, when the
old she-bear rushed
on Hunter, attack-
ing him from be-
hind. Job turned
and soon chopped
off her fore-paws
with his sabre, and
cut her severely in her throat. He then set about putting an end to the cub.
During all this, war was going on nearér home. Mark Warner having slightly
wounded the other old bear it turned on him, and was met with a blow from
the but-end of the gun, but the stock flew in pieces and Mark turned to run,
but was followed closely by the bear until they reached a barn against which
a ladder was placed. Mark sprang up and climbed on the roof, and the bear
was close to his heels when a shot from a gun fired by another of the men
caused him to drop dead, and Mark was set at liberty, greatly to his relief.
Two old bears and a cub, all exceedingly fat, rewarded these brave backwoods-
men, and we are pleased to say that none of them received any serious injury.





203.

ADVENTURES OF SIMPLE SIMON.



Srvp_e SIMON met a pieman, Simple Simon went to see
Going to the fair; If plums grew on a thistle;

Said Simple Simon to the pieman, He pricked his fingers very much,
“Let me taste your ware.” Which made poor Simon whistle.

Said the pieman to Simple Simon, Simple Simon went a-fishing,
“Show me first your penny;” ° For to catch a whale,

Said Simple Simon to the pieman, And all the water he fished in

“Indeed, I haven’t any.” Was in his mother’s pail.
THE DOG OF SAINT BERNARD.

Le dog is a
- Magnificent
animal, and is found
only in the Alps of
Switzerland. The
passes over these
mountains are very
dangerous. Per-
haps on one side
of the road there is
a precipice many
hundreds of feet
deep, and on the
other a_ fearfully
high, straight wall
of rocks, and the
path slippery with
ice, which is some-
times covered with
snow. Very often, indeed, the overhanging rocks are suddenly relieved of
their load of snow, and it comes down in huge avalanches on the trav-
eller beneath. Should he escape this danger his path is completely hidden,
and he wanders about not knowing in which direction he shall go, and he
walks around the dreary solitude till night overtakes him, with every chance
of dying from exposure before morning. He feels the greatest inclination to
sleep. If he once yields, he is indeed lost.

On the top of Mount Saint Bernard, and near one of the most dangerous
passes, there was, years ago, a convent in which was preserved a breed of
dogs trained to search for and relieve travellers lost at night. On any
threatening or stormy night these faithful guardians were sent out, and by
their very fine sense of smell they could discover the unfortunate and snow-
covered travellers. Having succeeded so far, they would turn to and with
their huge paws soon clear away the snow, and, by continually uttering a deep
bark that would echo and re-echo through the mountains, the monks would
soon learn some poor soul was in danger, and hastening to the spot restore
the flickering life before it was too late, One of these dogs acquired almost

‘


116 THE FIRST BANK.
SD Sa ae A Re en es

a world-wide reputation, and always wore a medal around his neck, as a sign
of honorable distinction, because he had saved the lives of forty people.
Some forty years since a railroad was built over this pass, and travellers need
have no fear now of being lost in the snow in journeying into Italy. It was
through this pass that Napoleon marched into that country when he began his
memorable Italian campaign. Our picture represents one of these dogs with
its bottle of cordial around its neck, who has rescued a boy who was just
about falling asleep, and who knew enough to get on the noble dog’s back and
clasp his arms around his neck, when, as you see, he became unconscious.





THE FIRST BANK.

7 OU see bank-notes, and frequently hear of banks. A bank is an estab-
lishment for receiving and taking care of money, and paying it out
again as itis wanted. One man, or two or three men, establish an office for
this kind of business; and, as gold, silver and copper are heavy to pay large
sums with, bills or notes are issued, of different values, bearing the name of the
bankers or keepers of banks. Notes worth one dollar, twenty dollars and
five hundred dollars pass for coin, and trade is easily carried on.
The first -bank was established in Venice, in 1 157, which, at that time, was
a place of great trade. The bank of Venice was the only bank in Europe for
two centuries and a half. The next establishment of this kind was opened, in
1407, in Genoa, a city in Italy, also famous for its riches and commerce. Since
that period banks have been instituted in all parts of Europe, and at the
present time there is hardly a small town in England or the United States
that has not one or two banks.

—_—0!.



Why is an umbrella like a good
character ?—It defends us from the
storms of life.

Or what beverages did Julius
Cesar die?—Of Roman punches ad-
ministered by Brutus.

Wuicu is the best of the four sea-

sons for arithmetic ?—The summer.

Wuat is the meaning of Washing-
ton, D, C.?—Washington the Daddy
of his Country.

Way are handcuffs like guide-
books ?—Because they are made for
two wrists (tourists),

a 4
In what jars are there no sweets ?—
Family jars.
THE ZEBRA,

i very aaa times we find

mention made of an animal
which the Romans called the ©
hippotigris, as possessing at
once the shape and agility of
the horse and the ferocity and
the beauty of skin and color
which distinguish the tiger.
Bassianas Caracalla is said to
have killed in one day an ele-. .
phant, a rhinoceros, a tiger,
_ and a hippotigris. The ani-
mal was thus even then con-
sidered better fitted to furnish
a savage sport in the combat than to be rendered useful by domestication.
The same character still belongs to the zebra, which is doubtless the animal.
designated by the name hippotigris. It possesses some of the characteristics
of the horse—smaller in size, it strongly resembles it in the shape of its body,
its head, its limbs, and its hoofs. It moves in the ‘same paces, with a similar
activity and Swiftness. But it discovers none of that docility which has
rendered the services of the horse so invaluable to man. On the contrary,
it is proverbially untameable; it is ever the most wild even among those
ferocious animals which are ranged in the menagerie, and it preserves in its
countenance the resolute determination never to submit. So completely,
indeed, is this its character, that the few instances in which it has shown any-
thing like submission, are looked upon as the most extraordinary triumphs of
art over nature. Even in these cases the good nature which the animal
displays is partial, and not to be trusted. In the year 1803, General Dundas
brought a female zebra from the Cape of Good Hope, which was deposited
in the Tower of London, and there showed less than the usual impatience of
subordination. The person who had accompanied her home and attended
her there would sometimes spring on her back, and proceed thus for about
two hundred yards, when she would become restive, and oblige him to dis-
mount. She was very irritable, and would kick at her keeper; one day she
seized him with her teeth, threw him down, and ‘showed an intention to
destroy him, which he disappointed by rapidly getting loose. She generally


118 THE ZEBRA.





kicked in all directions with her feet, and hada propensity to seize with her
teeth whatever offended her. Strangers she would not allow to approach her
unless the keeper held her fast by the head, and even then she was very
prone to kick. Another which was kept at Kew showed the same savage
disposition, allowing no one to approach except his keeper. He was some-
times able to mount the back of the animal. It one day eat a quantity of
tobacco, and the paper that contained it; and was said even to eat flesh. The
most docile zebra on record was burnt at the Lyceum, near Exeter Change.
This animal allowed its keeper to use great familiarities with it—to put chil-
dren on its back without discovering any resentment. On one occasion a
person rode it from the Lyceum to Pimlico. It had been bred in Portugal,
and was the offspring of parents half reclaimed. At the Cape of Good Hope
many attempts have been made to train the zebra, but they have been all to
a great degree unsuccessful. A merchant, who had succeeded so far as to
be able to get them harnessed to his chariot, almost lost his life from the
ungovernable fury with which they rushed back to their stalls.

There are instances of mules having been obtained from the ass and zebra,.
but these in Europe do not exceed three, and they either died soon, or were
unserviceable. One which was bred in the menagerie at Paris, from a female.
zebra and Spanish ass, had a good deal of the form of its sire; but it had the
ungovernable and vicious temper of the zebra, and attacked with its teeth
every one who approached it.

There are two other animals of the horse kind, for the knowledge of which
we are indebted chiefly to the reports of travellers. These are the Dziggtai
and the Quagga, the former a native of Central Asia, the other ranging in
herds through the solitary deserts of Southern Africa. The former is a wild
animal, and is shot by the natives for the purposes of food; the latter is of a
disposition susceptible of domestication, and has been seen in London drawing.
a fashionable curricle. They have both been too little under the observation
of men to allow of an ‘interesting biography beyond the notices which have.
been given of them in the notes to Goldsmith,





A MAN of words and not of deeds, | | YxEow mussent sing a’ Sunday,
Is like a garden full of weeds; Becaze it is a sin;

For when the weeds begin to grow, But yeow may sing a’ Mordas.
Then doth the garden overflow. Till Sunday curhs agin.
THE GIRAFFE.

MAXy years ago a young Italian lad,
named Gordian, who had been pro-
claimed, when but fifteen years old, Em-
peror of Rome, gave the people of his
native city a splendid entertainment or
“triumph;” and among the many strange
and terrible beasts that passed in proces-
sion around the amphitheatre were ten
curious animals—long-necked, long-legged
and small headed, with tufted tails and
queer little horns, They were of a tawny
orange color, beautifully spotted and
marked, They were driven around the
arena in gilded chariots by their Ethiopian
drivers, and were such an odd combina-
tion of the body of a camel and spots of
a leopard that the people, who gazed upon
them in wonder and surprise, gave to the
strange beasts the name of “Camelo-
pardus,” or camel-leopard.

This singular animal, however, had
long been known to the Arabians, under the name of “ Xirapha,” or “ long-
necked.” And from this title comes our word “giraffe,” the popular name
now given to the odd-looking beast that the boy emperor exhibited in his
circus sixteen centuries ago.

It is indeed a curious animal. Its chief characteristics are jts length of
neck and its high forequarters. The head is sometimes seventeen feet from
the ground, and specimens have been found measuring over twenty feet from
hoof to nose. The apparent height of the forequarters is not due, as is
supposed, to a greater length of the forelegs, but to the extraordinary height
of the withers or shoulder bones. The tongue of the giraffe is long and pre-
hensile—that is, it is adapted to seize and entwine; it can be tapered so small
as to enter the ring of a small key. This long neck and prehensile tongue,
which are found in no other animal, enable this giant browser to feed with
ease upon the foliage and tender branches of trees.

The eyes of the giraffe are very large, soft, and beautiful, and one would










































120 : THE BLUE TITMOUSE.



suppose that their mild, imploring expression would restrain the hunters from
shooting down so attractive-looking and inoffensive a creature. But the same
wilful and cruel desire for what is wrongly called “sport,” that has extermi-
nated the buffalo of our western plains, is killing off the giraffe of Africa. Its
strong-tasting flesh is not enjoyable eating,and its hide is of little use. Its
capture alive is of no value to man, save as a gratification of curiosity; it
cannot, like the camel, be used as a beast of burden; nor does it, like the
ostrich or the elephant, provide either feathers or ivory for commerce. In fact,
this curious animal is of no practical use to man, and should be left to roam
the plains and forests of its African home, unmolested and unharmed, save
for the occasional capture of such living specimens as may help boys and girls
to study and admire one of the most singular and graceful of the creatures of
the earth.



















THE BLUE TITMOUSE.

HIS little bird is cele-

brated for the beautiful
blue color of its head, wings
and tail. It is very small in
size, and is never seen alone.
If you see one, you may be
very sure that the rest of the
band are not far away, and
will soon make their appear-
ance, .

It is a pleasure to watch their activity, the swiftness and variety of their
motions, They spring from bush to bush, or from branch to branch, clamber
along the bark, suspend themselves in all sorts of positions, sometimes with
head down, hanging by their little claws, to search under the leaves and in
all the small cracks for insects, worms, or eggs. All the time they keep up a
series of sharp, expressive cries. Suddenly one darts off like an arrow,
another follows, and soon the whole troop has disappeared.

This lively little bird may be easily tamed. We are told that a blue
titmouse, attracted by some flies that were walking over the glass of a window
that was partly open, boldly entered the room that it might explore all the
corners. It came a second and third time, and finally made regular visits to
pick up the crumbs that the children threw on the floor.


























































































































































































HOW TO CATCH MONKEYS.

Zs old, hard cocoanut is taken, and a hole is made in the shell. Fur-

nished with this and a pocketful of boiled rice, the sportsman sallies
into the forest and stops beneath a tree tenanted by monkeys. Within full
sight of these inquisitive spectators he first eats a little rice, and then putsa
quantity into the cocoanut, so as to attract as much attention as possible.
The nut is then laid upon the ground, and the hunter retires to a convenient
ambush. No sooner is the man out of sight than the monkeys race helter-



































































































THE BABOON.

skelter for the cocoanut. The first arrival peeps into it, and seeing the rice
inside, squeezes his hand through the hole and clutches a handful. Now, so
much more powerful is greed over every other feeling connected with monkey
nature that nothing will induce the creature to relinquish his hold. With his
hand thus clasped he can’t possibly get it out; but the thought that if he lets
go one of his brethren will obtain the feast, is overpowering. The sportsman
soon appears upon the scene; and he is easily captured.



305,

Wuat is it you must keep after giving it to another ?—Your word,

.
CLEVER MONKEYS.
FOUR monkeys sat under a

tree in an Indian forest. One
‘monkey was seen to busy him-
self in smearing one of the others
with red clay earth, When he
had succeeded in entirely cover-
ing their companion, the three
disappeared into the neighboring
wood, leaving the other a mass
of clay, but for two small holes
through which peered a pair of
cunning eyes. Then the be-
daubed monkey was seen to climb to the hollow of a tree where was a bee-
hive. The bees buzzed about the intruder, but all they could do was to leave
their stings in his clay coat. At last they swarmed away in despair, and the
clever monkey helped himself to the honeycomb. And then. the other
monkeys came out of their hiding-place, and proceeded to pick off the clay
covering from their brother. This done, they set to work at the honey-comb,
and finished it.



THE WILD BOAR.

HIS is the original from which all the

different kinds of the tame hog have
sprung. His color is dark grey, nearly black;
his snout is longer than that of the tame hog;
his ears short and pointed. He is found in “¥
different parts of Europe, Asia and Africa.
The skin is remarkably thick and strong and \\
difficult for any weapon to pierce through. eZ
The animals, being considered unclean, are
very little hunted. Boar-hunting used to be a favorite pastime for the nobility
of France. The best bristles used in brushes come from Russia, where the
boar is still hunted,






203



Wuy is an umbrella like salt-herring ?—It serves to keép*one dry.
THE REINDEER. . 128

coe
ore



ae

f 1"
in




ISS
iy Zi HY
(ee u












f f
iN

ee

” TP te

SS S



1
Mal




THE REINDEER.

The REINDEER is a native of the polar regions of both conti-
nents, and presents another of the many forcible examples of
the inseparable connection of animals with the wants of human
society, and of the goodness of God in providing for his creatures,
The Reindeer has been domesticated by the Laplanders from
the earliest ages, and has alone rendered the dreary region in
which this portion of mankind abides at all supportable. The
civilization of those extreme northern regions entirely depends
upon the Reindeer. The traveller from Sweden or Norway
may proceed with ease and safety even beyond the polar circle ;
but, when he enters Finmark, he cannot stir without the Rein-
deer. This animal alone connects two extremities of a
kingdom, and causes knowledge and civilization to be extended
a over countries which, during a great part of the vear, are cut

off from all other communigation with the rest of mankind.
y _As.Camels are the chief possessions of an Arab, sc the Reindeer

QV

Ww poe Hh. \ re Sef) wD Y x
7 } fi 4 § ‘ im> : : ‘ pes " bee Me e : Z

—_ 4} LA a eth % ei
124 THE REINDEER.

comprise all the wealth of a Laplander. The number of deer
belonging to a herd is from three to five hundred ; with these
a Laplander can do well and live in tolerable comfort. He can
make in summer a sufficient quantity of cheese for the year’s
consumption; and, during the winter season, can afford to kill
deer enough to supply him and his family pretty constantly
W (yy with venison. With two hundred deer a man, if his family
be but small, can manage to get on. If he have but one hun-
dred his subsistence is very precarious, as he cannot rely en-

WY tirely upon them for support.. Should he have but fifty he is
A \ no longer independent or able to keep a separate establishment.
a As the winter approaches the coat of the Reindeer begins to

thicken in the most remarkable manner, and assumes that
L lighter color which is the great peculiarity of polar quadrupeds.
During the summer the animal pastures upon the green herb-
age, and browses upon the shrubs which he finds in his march ;



We : "
f “GRY but in winter his sole food is the lichen or moss, which he in-
ia stinctively discovers under the snow.
Tal} Harnessed to a sledge, the Reindeer will draw about three

hundred pounds, though the Laplanders generally limit the
burden to two hundred and forty pounds. The trot of the
Reindeer is about ten miles an hour, and his power of endur-
ance is such, that journeys of one hundred and fifty miles in
nineteen hours are not uncommon. There is a portrait of 4
Reindeer in one of the palaces of Sweden, which is said ta
have drawn, upon an occasion of emergency,,an officer, with

1g
RK |

La)
Q

ao

Pe ots : ay
IN important despatches, the incredible distance of eight hundred
AMES English miles in forty-eight hours.
Sy The Reindeer requires considerable training to prepare hin

for drawing the sledge. Though ordinarily very easily broken,

still instances occur in which the animal, through bad manage.

ment, turns round, becomes furious, and rids himself of his bur.

@ den. Yet generally he toils patiently on, hour after hour, and

is content with a mouthful of snow, which he snatches from
@} the earth, as he passes along.

(OS ENN a
sp ew aes MEE, he & ge *
Rh : = BETS er Oe ED eS SS a.

Hey
eX

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SLEDDING,
THE HORSE.

HO does not love a horse? They are most intelligent animals, and

can be taught almost anything. They are affectionate and like very

much to be petted, fad will eat sugar ane apples out of a child’s hand without
biting it.

When they work or travel over a hard road, they have iron shoes nailed to
their hoofs, so that they will not be hurt by striking the stones. The hoofs
have no feeling on the outside, and it does not hurt the horse to have these
shoes nailed on. They grow like our nails and must be pared.once in a
while.

A little story is told of a poor stray kitten iicn found its way into a stable
and made its home there. It soon made friends with a lame chicken and the
three were never quite happy unless they were together. The kitten and the
chicken would stand close together on the broad hack of the horse, while he
would stand quite still so as not to disturb them.

“Billy” was a fine horse. The blacksmith who, put on his shoes lived a
long distance from Billy’s home, and he had never been over the road but
on the day he was shod.

A few weeks after the blacksmith saw Billy coming towards the shop.
Thinking he had runaway the blacksmith turned him around and threw stones
at him to make him go home.

The horse trotted ‘off; but the blacksmith had only fairly got to work again
when he heard a noise and there stood Billy.
This time, before driving him away, the blacksmith looked at his feet aa
found that Billy had lost a shoe. He put on a new one and waited to see_

what he would do.

The horse looked at the blacksmith as if asking whether he was done, then
pawed to see if the shoe was all right, and giving a neigh, started for home
on a brisk trot. His master knew nothing about it until the next day.

A gentleman when he wanted to catch his horse in the field was in the
habit ‘af giving it some oats ina measure, and would then throw the bridle
over his head. After he had deceived him several times by calling him when
there was no corn in the measure the horse began to suspect him, and on
coming up one day as usual he looked into the measure and finding it empty
turned round, reared up on his hind legs and killed his master on the spot.

The life of horses generally lasts about thirty years, but- they have been
known to live to the age of forty-seven.


{

Il

sy







THE VILLAGE BLACKSMITH,


»
THE RED DEER.

HIS is one of the most beautiful of Euro-

_ pean animals, owing to its majestic ant-
lers and its graceful bearing. It is about the
size of a small horse, and its coat changes
from light brown in summer to grayish in
winter. It is timid and gentle in disposition,
and flies at the approach of man. It loves
solitude, and confines itself during the whole
summer to thickets and woods, scarcely
coming forth, except at night in search of
sustenance. The favorite food is grass,
leaves, fruits and buds; but in winter it is
compelled to eat moss and lichens.

The young fawn is yellow, crossed with
white spots. At six months old their antlers
make their appearance. The stag has every
year a new head of horns, and its age is
indicated by them. Its sight is not very
keen; but its hearing is excellent, and its
smell acute. The wounds made by its horns
are very dangerous and difficult to cure.

Stag hunting has been considered for
centuries the most noble of pleasures. It requires a large pack of hounds.
The huntsman examines the soil, and finds its form and size, and the places
where he has lain down. If everything is satisfactory, a few old hounds are
put on the trail, and the hunt commences. The stag at first runs with assur-
ance, but as he begins to grow weak, he tries cunning to throw the hounds off
the track ; but, in spite of all his manceuvres, he rarely escapes, but prepares
to sell his life as dearly as possible. He deals furious blows with his antlers,
right and left, knocking over the dogs. After a while he becomes exhausted
and is pulled down, when he receives the fatal blow. The feet are kept by
the foremost hunter as a trophy.





Wuy does a dog gnaw a bone ?— Wuyv is a printer like a postman ?—
Because he cannot swallow it whole. | Because he distributes letters.
THE DYING DEER.

NCE upon a time a deer that lived far from an in-
habited country used to go in the winter to some low-
lands, where she found grass, and could find shelter
among the evergreen trees during storms. When
spring came she went. to a mountain, ‘where there
was a fine stream of water. She had been living this
way for a good many years until she commenced to be
weak from age, but did not know what was the mat-
ter, and thought that, if she could only have some water from the stream in
the mountains, she would be well again. So in the early days of spring she
started, and, after walking a little way, had to stop to rest. At last she
reached the top, and drank from the stream where she had quenched her
thirst so many summers; but it did not taste as it used to, nor refresh her so
much. She lay down to rest on some grass, and never rose again.





308



THE PUMA.











[HE puma inhabits the

whole of America, and
is greatly feared by the na-
tives. Itis about four feet
and a half in length, and has
the general appearance of a
lioness. Its color is gray.
The animal is very sly and
quick in all its movements,
and can ascend a tree twenty
feet at one bound. It is
; easily tamed, and fond of
being petted, and is not
considered dangerous when
at liberty. It makes fearful ravages among herds of cattle, and always kills
its victim before it commences to eat.

























Wuyisa liar like a person deeply in How does a boy look if you hurt
debt >—He has great /-abilities. him ?—It makes him yell, Oh! (yellow).
THE LION,

LION has, from the most ancient times, been
called the “ King of Beasts,” and his slowness of
carriage and dignity will entitle him to the name.
Some lions are as long as ten feet, but are gen-
erally not over seven feet. The female has no
mane, and a smaller head. Lions differ in size

according to the country they inhabit. Unless they are ex-

ceedingly hungry, they do not hunt during the day; but, when
twilight appears, he places himself near a pool of water, and
when an animal comes to quench its thirst he springs out, and
with one blow of its paw breaks its back. If he misses his aim, he goes back
into the bushes to wait for a new victim. When the animal is hungry, or





irritated, he shakes his mane and flogs his sides with his tail, and, if a traveller
encounters him at this time, he may know he is in great danger. When he is
not hungry, he takes flight at the sight of a man or child, and even runs at
the sound of human voices. ;

In the spring the lion seeks a mate, and they are themselves most devoted
to each other. Until the female has young she follows her lord everywhere.
' 182 THE LION.





She is very fond of her young, and will protect them at the risk of her life.
The male has a habit of devouring them, and the lioness takes great pains to:
conceal them. A new-born cub is about the size of a half-grown cat; at a
year old, it is as large as a Newfoundland dog. They do not walk until they
are two months old. They are yellow, striped with small brown bars, which
do not disappear until.they are fully grown, The mane commences to grow
on the male when he is three years old.

Some years ago, in the menagerie in the Tower of London, there were two:
young lions, a male and female, They had been obtained in India when only
a few days old, and a goat nursed them during the first months. They were
so gentle that they ran about the courtyard, and were caressed without fear:
by visitors. .

A lioness has been on exhibition in England which would allow her keeper
to get on her back, and even drag her about by the’ tail, and place his head:
between her teeth.

A wealthy farmer was one day walking over his land, armed with a gun,.
whensuddenly a lion appeared before him. Feeling sure of killing him, he
aimed, but the gun missed fire, and the man, being frightened, scampered off
as hard as he could go until he came to a little pile of stones, which he jumped
upon and turned round facing the lion, and threatened him with the but-end
of his gun. The animal stopped, and went back a short distance, and after-
nearly an hour went slowly away.



30%



THERE was an old woman who lived in a shoe,

She had so many children, she didn’t know what to do;
She gave them some broth without any bread,

She whipped them all round, and sent them to bed.



20:



Sinc a song of sixpence, a pocketful of rye;
Four and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie.
When the pie was opened the birds began to sing;
Was not that a dainty dish to set before the king?
' The king was in his counting-house counting out his money,
The queen was in the parlor eating bread and honey;
The maid was in the garden hanging out the clothes:
Down came a blackbird and pecked off her nose.
THE HIPPOPOTAMUS.

HE hippopotamus is an enormous animal. Its mouth reaches nearly from
eye to eye and, with its large and pointed teeth, has a frightful appear-
ance. The eyes are of medium size, but prominent. Its body is enormous,
-and its legs so short and fat, that its body reaches nearly to the ground,
These animals are quick and active in the water, and pass a good part of
the day in it. When swimming, their bodies are entirely under water, and
-only the upper part of their heads above it, so that they can breathe and hear
the slightest noise.
The hippopotamus feeds on young stalks of reeds, little boughs, small
shrubs and water-plants; Its disposition is mild, and is only vicious when

















attacked. There are different ways of hunting it: it is sometimes surprised
at night on leaving the water, or by day in the rivers, with harpoons or guns,
It tries to defend itself, and sometimes overturns the boat containing ‘its
enemies. Sometimes it gets desperate and tries to tear the boat to pieces,
Jt can cut through the middle of the body of a full-grown man with one bite.
The ivory from the tusks is valuable; its skin, which is thick, is used in various
‘instruments, and the flesh is delicate. Owing to the perfection to which fire-
arms are brought, hunting these animals is much easier than formerly, and
the probabilities are that they will become extinct.



203



WuEen is a boy like a bird When he has a vaven-ous appetite,
THE HYAENA.,

ipHe hyzena is both striped and

spotted, and is found in Africa as
well as Asia, and there are great num-
bers of them in Abyssinia. They live
in caves and rocky places, and come
out at night to seek for food. It will
feed on dead animals, or any living
thing that it dares to seize. It will
not attack a man unless he attacks it;
but in South Africa the hyzna will
creep into the huts of the natives and
carry off their sleeping babies, or ‘ter-



ribly bite and tear them to pieces. The hyzena is useful in clearing towns
and the country of the dead bodies of the larger beasts, which might other-
wise make the air unfit to breathe. They do not live in herds, but will gather
together to follow soldiers on their march, in order to feed on the dead bodies
of those killed in battle.

———— 30.



THE ANT-EATER.

HIS animal is an inhabitant of
South America. It has no
teeth, but it has a pointed muzzle
and narrow mouth, a long slender
tongue that stretches, but which is
moistened by a thick, sticky spit.
It also has strong feet armed by
sharp, cutting claws, with which it
tears down the buildings of the
white ants. It then protrudes its
long tongue in the sand, and brings
out large numbers of ants that are glued to it. The ant-eater is covered with
long, shaggy hair to protect it from the attacks of insects,


THE POLAR BEAR.

‘HE white or polar bear is said to be bold and greedy, and
the country it inhabits being barren, it is obliged to attack
animals to satisfy its appetite. It catches the walrus and seal
with ease, for it dives and swims with great skill. They also
feed on dead fish that are thrown on the beach by the sea,
In the summer time they go into the forests and attack native
animals, particularly reindeer. Mariners who have been frozen
in the ice in the polar seas, have had encounters with the
white bears, which have even pursued them into their vessels.

The animal is terrible in its attacks, and rushes on man
with great fury, and generally kills any one he attacks,
When in great distress from hunger, they often drift out to
sea on floating icebergs, and, not finding food, they attack and
drown one another.

The white bear cannot endure heat, and when in menageries, suffer so
much that it is impossible to keep them alive for any length of time. One



= SS



has, however, been known to live for fifteen years, owing to having from sixty
to eighty pails of water thrown over it daily. The animal never becomes
familiar with man, and always remains wild.

20%

Woo was the oldest settler in the West ?—The sun




THE TIGER.

= =.
——





ee tiger is justa giant

cat. Hehasno mane,
but his body is all covered
over with black stripes, as
you see in the picture. In
India there are vast tracts
of waste land, called jungle,
overgrown with tall, thick
bushes and reeds. It is
there chiefly that the tiger
has his haunts. Unlike the
lion, he runs so: swiftly that

























Be

SAK SSS the fleetest horse cannot

‘i

overtake him. He goes
over the ground at a fearful rate, by making bounds or springs, one after
another. By day, as well as by night, the tiger is on the watch for his prey.
When an army is marching near a jungle, it sometimes happens that a tiger
will spring out. With a frightful roar, he will seize a man, and carry him off
before anything can be done to save him. Have you ever thought of what
use whiskers are to cats? Lions have great whiskers, and so have tigers, and
all other animals of the cat tribe. Whenever you find an animal with whisk-
ers like the cat, you may be sure that that animal is meant to steal softly
among branches and thick bushes. By the slightest touch on the tiger’s
whiskers, he knows when there is anything in his path, and whether it would
make too much noise and alarm his prey as he creeps along through the jungle.

Some years ago a number of English officers went out to hunt. In return-
ing home after their day’s sport, they found in the jungle a little tiger kitten,
They took it with them, and tied it with a collar and chain to the pole of their
tent. It played about, to the delight of all who saw it. However, just as it
was growing dark, the people in the tent were checked in the midst of their
mirth. A sound was heard that caused the bravest among them to quail. It
was the roar of atiger! In an instant the little kitten strained at the chain
with all its baby strength, and tried to break loose. With a loud wail it
replied to the terrible voice outside. Suddenly there leaped into the middle
of the tent a huge tigress! She caught her kitten by the neck and snapped,
with one jerk, the chain which bound it. Then turning to the tent door, she.
dashed away at full speed to the jungle. One cannot be sorry that not a
gun was raised at the brave mother as she bore her young one off in triumph,

‘
THE PORCUPINE.

























































pee common porcupine is found in Africa, Tartary, Persia, India, and
some parts of Europe and Canada. It digs holes in the ground, and
only comes out at night to get food, which consists of vegetables and roots.
The quills are very strong, and when in danger he raises them and runs
backward against his enemy. The American Indians use the quills of the
Canada porcupine for ornamenting moccasins and different parts of their
dress. When the porcupine walks his quills, which are large and hollow, and
about fourteen inches long, make a rustling ,sound. Our readers may
remember having seen one in the travelling menagerie attached to the circus,





303

THERE was a little girl Where she stood on her head
And she had a little curl On the little trundle bed
Right in the middle of her forehead, And was falling out the winder.

And when she was good
She was very, very good,

But when she was bad she was horrid. Her mother heard the noise,

She thought it-was the boys
Playing in the empty attic,

She went up stairs So she went up-stairs

To say her prayers And caught her unawares,

With no one nigh to hinder, And spanked her most emphatic.
THE ELEPHANT.

N elephant weighs four or five
tons, and will eat about two
hundred pounds of food a day.
He is the largest of all land ani-
mals, and perhaps the most won-
derful. One of an elephant’s tusks
G . will weigh a hundred and fifty, or
=F two hundred, or even three hun-
dred pounds. In India elephants
= are trained to do a good deal of
hard work, and they do it with
great sense and good nature. An
elephant can lift up and carry off
upon its tusks a log of wood
weighing ten hundred-weight. An
elephant can do almost anything with its trunk, which is often seven or eight
feet long, and contains many thousands of muscles. An elephant takes up
both its solid food and its water with its trunk. The mouth of the trunk is
so made that it can be used like a- finger and thumb. With its trunk an
elephant can wrench down a great tree, or pick up one blade of grass, or fan
itself with the help of a leafy bough, or a hundred other things. These creat.
ures cuddle each other with their trunks, just as we shake hands, and perhaps
you have seen the mother elephant pinch its naughty young one till it squeaked
and ran away.

In catching wild elephants, tame elephants are often used as decoys, but
not always. There are men who make it a business to catch elephants, and
long practice makes them very clever at it. They fasten ropes round his
legs and body, and then let him kick and roll about till he is tired, and almost
dying for want of food. Sometimes two elephant-catchers will go out into
the woods alone to catch one, and will manage it between them: one of the
men draws off the attention of the big creature, while the other makes him
fast to trees, and ties up his legs so that he cannot get away. Then the men
have to stay and watch him for days and days before he is tame enough to |
be led away.

When he is once tamed the elephant is very patient and very clever. An
elephant who has had a bad swelling burnt with caustic, or cut with the


THE TAILOR BIRD. 189



-doctor’s lancet, has been known, having been sensible enough to feel that it
did him good, to come again to the doctor, and lie still while he was being cut,
though the tears were rolling down his cheeks with the pain.





as

\
oN
ay























































































THE TAILOR-BIRD.

[F you look at the picture you will see for yourself why this creature is
called the tailor-bird, for you will see how its nest is made. It takes a
couple of leaves at the end of a twig of a tree and sews the edges together,
so as to make a bag; or perhaps it takes one large leaf and makes a bag out
of it. It has a long spiked bill with which it makes the holes, and then it
fastens the edges together with the string-like parts of leaves. It then pads
the bag with fluff and cottony stuff, like the tops of thistles, and the nest
is made. The tailor-bird is a native of the East Indies and the Eastern

islands.
PRIDE GOES BEFORE A FALL.



SWALLOW flew near some high mountains, and finding a pit made by
some miners made her nest in it,

One day an eagle saw the little swallow coming out of her nest, and said,
“See how high I live above you with my little ones. You dare not fly above
the ground.” S

The swallow made no answer, but went back to her nest in the pit.

The day was very hot, and a violent storm came on; the thunder rolled,
trees were broken and hurled to the ground, and everything looked desolate.

The swallow heard nothing of the storm, and when she came out to look
for food she saw the nest of the eagle on the ground, and the little ones
scattered all about. One was dead, another had broken its wng, and the
mother was mourning, and said to the swallow: “If I had ‘been satisfied like
you, and not have been anxious to get above all the other birds, we should
have escaped all danger.”





Wuart kind of a pie can fly and Way is a railroad car like a bed-
cry >—Magpie. bug ?—-It runs on ‘Sleepers.
THE CONDOR.

WANE condor is the largest of
all birds. It is four feet
long from its beak to the tip of
its tail, and nine feet to four #
yards between its outstretched :
wings. Its head and neck are
perfectly bald. The color of the
feathers is usually black, except
a frill of white ones around the
neck. The female bird is smaller
than the male. This bird is
found only in the Andes moun-
tains, of South America. It feeds
on carrion, but sometimes attacks
sheep, goats and deer. They
sleep during the day, and hunt
for their food in the early morn-
ing and evening. They sleep
very deeply, and are thus easily captured, the hunters climbing the trees
where they roost, and have them noosed before they awaken. They have
been known to live forty days without food, and can fly higher than any other
bird, higher even than the eagle. Their favorite dwelling-place is in the
regions of perpetual snow. Humboldt saw one 23,000 feet above the earth,
and Darwin says he has watched one high in the air for half an hour, and it
didn’t move its wings once in all that while, but sailed right along.







0——

Wuy is a hive like a spectator at a show ?—Because it is a bee-holder.

Why is a pig the most extraordinary animal in creation ?>—Because you first
kill him, and then cure him.

Why is a proud woman like a music-box ?—Because she is full of airs.

Wuy is a woman mending her stockings deformed ?—Because her hands.
are where her feet belong.

Wuat is it that occurs twice in a moment, once’ in a minute, and not once.
in a thousand years ?—The letter M.
HAPPY AS A LARK.



AS any one ever told you that he was as “happy as a lark,” and have
H you stopped to think how happy a lark is?—its joyous flight up into
the sky, as high or higher than the sight of man can reach, singing
louder and louder, and more and more gayly the higher it ascends? When
the sweet hay-time comes on, and mowers are busy in the fields with their
great scythes, it is sometimes a dangerous season for larks, who make their
nests on the ground, Often the poor little nests must suffer; but only think
how ingenious their owners are, if they do. A mower once cut off the upper
part of a lark’s nest. The lark sitting in it was uninjured. The man was
very sorry for what he had done; but there was no help for it—at least so he
thought. The lark knew better, and soon afterward a beautiful dome was
found made of grass over the nest by the patient, brave-bird.
A SERANGE BIRD.

OU all know what a bat
is? If you don’t, you
will find a picture of one on
page 103. The animal, or.
bird, whichever you have a
mind to call it, shown in this :
picture, doesn’t look much
like a bat, 1 am sure; and yet
that is the bird the bat must
call its grandmother, It
lived before the flood, like
the animal from which the
lizard sprung. This pretty |
bird was really a reptile; but
it had a web-foot, the same
as all lizards, but its little toe
was spread out into a wing THE PTERODACTYL.
of flesh. It had no feathers. You will notice its head is like a duck. Just
suppose a flock of these queer things were flying overhead. They were
about the size of an alligator.













305



I HAVE a gray goose—she is of a large size—

Any man who buys her has need to be wise.

She has many feet on her, but walks upon none,

She goes far for her living, and seldom comes home.—A ship.

30:





Way is the Fourth of July like oysters ?—Because we can’t enjoy them
without crackers.

Wuy is a dog biting his own tail like a good nance ?—Because he makes
both ends. meet.

Wuicu travels slower, heat or cold ?—Cold, for you can catch it.

Wuen is coffee like the soil ?—When it is ground.

Why is a policeman like a rainbow ?—Because he rarely appears until the
storm is over.

Wuat is that which is invisible, yet never out of sight >The letter S.




144 THE JACKDAW.

THE JACKDAW.

eee jackdaw is a chattering, cunning, mischievous bird,
somewhat resembling the crow in appearance, though
smaller. It is active and restless, and, if tame, is almost always.
doing something it ought not to do. Here is a picture of one
who would carry away from the house everything he could lay
hold of which was not too heavy for him. Many things were
missed from the dwelling, disappearing mysteriously, and no
one was able to account for them till one day the jackdaw was
seen carrying off a spoon and hiding it out of sight; and on ex-
amination the family found there other spoons, napkin-rings,
and even a small candlestick, all of which were speedily re-

stored to their rightful place in the dwelling.

The jackdaw can be taught to speak some words, and hence
has been made to figure in a good many fables. The following

’ ig one of them:

A jackdaw one day observed a peacock spreading his magnifi-
cent tail in the sun, and, being greatly delighted with the sight, he
determined, if possible, to make a similar show of himself, that he
also might be the object of admiration. Accordingly, he gath-
ered up some cast-off feathers of the peacock’s, and, sticking them
in his tail, began strutting about in a very important and fantas-
tic manner. “What is the matter with you,” said one of his
neighbors, “that you seem so proud and self-conceited ?”—“ Mat-
ter !” said the jackdaw ; “‘ why don’t you see my splendid tail ?”—
“Oh ho!” said the other; and away he went and called the other
jackdaws ; and soon they all came, and such a laughing and jeer-
ing was never heard among them before. And soon came the
peacocks, and seeing what had been done, they all fell upon
him, and he not only lost his borrowed tail, but most of his own
feathers too, before they left him.

So it usually happens that he who would pass himself off for
what he is not, is not only laughed at and ridiculed, but is denied
the merit he might otherwise claim.

















































































THE JACKDAW.
THE VAMPIRE BAT.

























HE “Vampire”
is the name
given to a species
of bat found in South
America, which
“sucks the blood of
persons and beasts
when asleep.” It
was at one time the
popular idea that
these bats would
enter the sleeping
apartments of hu-
man beings, in the
warm climate of
Brazil, and, making
an incision with their sharp teeth in the reat toe of the sleeping victim, suck
his blood until full to repletion, meanwhile fanning the sleeper with their
wings to induce continued slumber. The idea has proved to be fallacious, at
least as far as the soothing fanning is concerned and the particular fancy for
the great toe only. They are not particular as to where they make the inci-
sion, if they only get the blood. pos

In some parts of South America vampires are very numerous, and domestic
animals suffer greatly from their nocturnal attacks. “They oe to take
advantage of an existing wound, but they can also make one.” In some
parts of Brazil the rearing of calves is impossible on account of these bats,
and there are districts, chiefly those where limestone rocks abound with nu-
merous caves, in which cattle cannot profitably be kept.

The vampire, according to an old superstition in various portions of Europe, .
particularly in Hungary, was supposed to be a dead person, returned in body
and soul from the other world, and wandering about the earth doing every
kind of mischief to the living.









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE VAMPIRE BAT.



303

THE LEARNED ESQUIMAU.



. ‘THERE is a certain Esquimau What did this knowing Esquimau
- Who much of knowledge knows, _ Who had the learned brain?
One day he found with grief and pain, He bound them to his feet of course,

He'd frozen off his toes. ; And froze them on again.


ABOUT SHELLS.

| the sea are many varieties
of shells, from the tiny
growth to that of the fountain
shell, which weighs as much as
five pounds. Although all these
‘ Sas are found in the ocean around the
PORCELAIN SHELL, WITH ANIMAL. West Indies, it would take a
whole book to tell of what can be said Seite the different sorts of shells, and
the animals that build them and use them for their houses. Some of them,
like the turtle, carry their shells around with them, only the turtle cannot get
rid of his shelly: it is icaretelly fastened to him, and the turtle appears to be the
Se connecting-link between the crocodile
and the fishes, The coral is one of
the lowest family of animal life, and
there are many who say it is a plant.
You know these have been dying
and leaving their shells piled upon
each other until they reach as high alist as the surface, beneath which they
are hid, and many vessels Mane
been wrecked on their treacherous
reefs, The fishing is carried on
by sailors, and is very tiresome.
The coral is cleaned from the
small shells and sea-weed and car-
ried to sea- apn where they are
pe sold to work-
ers in jew-
elry. Here
is a very
pretty cut of
the red coral,
whichis quite
scarce.
You will
: also see in
CORAL. this picture
the vessel from which the divers jump to hunt for pear!-oysters, shells and chiral:





MITRE.










ABOUT OYSTERS.
()YSTERS grow wherever there

is a sea-coast. The cut re-
Presents oysters of different ages
attached to a block of wood.

An amusing story is told of the
man who first ate an oyster. He
was walking by the sea-shore, when
he saw an old and ugly oyster-
shell, coated with sea-weed, He
kicked it with his foot, and the ani-
mal opened its mouth with indig-
nation. Seeing the cream-colored
layers within the shells, he lifted
the upper shell and inserted his
fingers, when the shell closed down
on his fingers, causing him con-
siderable pain. After releasing his
fingers, our gentleman put them im
his mouth. “Delightful!” he ex-
claimed. “What is this?” and
again sucked his fingers. Then he
found he had made a great dis-
covery, and made quite a feast,

Oysters are considered a great.
relish, and always in demand.
They can always be eaten without fear of indigestion. It is recorded of the
Emperor Napoleon that he always ate them when they could be procured
before any of his great battles. It is proved to a certainty that there is no
feast worthy of a master where oysters do not come to the front,

On our coast the oysters breed in large beds, to which quantities of young
oysters are conveyed and left untouched for two or three years. The oysters
are taken up by the dredge, a kind of small net fastened around an iron
frame. The part called the beard is really the breathing apparatus,






30:



Way do not the trees open their trunks in the Spring, when they change
their dress ?—Because they Zeave their Summer clothing out.
PEARLS.

ye all know what a pearlis. When perfect it

is one of the most precious of jewels; and the
Saviour, in one of his parables, compared a person
who had turned away from his evil deeds and wicked
life, and who had found the “peace which passeth
understanding,” to one who had found “the pearl of
great price,” because the pearl is so pure.

The pearl grows inside of an oyster which is found
- throughout the Pacific ocean. How many of you can

meinen oe tell me what countries have their shores washed by
. this ocean ?

Men, called pearl-divers, dive down in water that is clear and bring up these
oysters. Every oyster does not contain a pearl; and, even when they do,
they are not always perfect, any more than all boys and girls are good.
These divers can only stay under the water from fifty to eighty seconds.
There have been some who have stayed down as long as six minutes. The
dangers of this work are not only those of suffocation, but sharks and other
horrible monsters of the ocean often attack these people, who have to protect
themselves with spikes of iron-wood. Many times this is not sufficient. Just
think when you see a pearl next time that perhaps the man who brought it up
from the bottom of the ocean may have been
afterward eaten by a shark. The water is much
heavier than the air, and the result is, that all
the blood is forced into the head, and very often
the blood comes out of the mouth, eyes and ears.
They don’t live very long.

In Polynesia the women make better divers
than the men. In Australia they dredge for
pearls like we do for oysters eve, Pearls are
also found along the coast of California and oursipg of THE SHELL OF
Central America. PEARL, OFSTER

——— OE





One morning little Dora was busy at the ironing-table smoothing the towels
and stockings. “lIsn’t it hard work for the little arms?” Iasked. A look of
sunshine came into her face as she glanced towards her mother, who was
rocking the baby. “It isn’t hard work when I do it for mdmma,” she said, softly.
THE WHITE RAY.
(HIS fish bons === Se

to the same order
as the electric eel,
and like it can give an
electric shock. One
four feet long placed.
in a trough while a
tub was being made
for it killed four
mules which just
touched the water
where they were ca-
customed to drinking.
Indians drive horses
into marshy places
where these fish are
in order to get them.
There they can catch oe .
the fish, which usually attacks the belly of the horse. The horses fall as
though shot, and are frequently killed at the instant of discharging its battery.
With harpoons they throw cords around the fish, and by a sudden jerk haul
them out of the water. If the cords get wet they are apt to feel the power
of the fish.





















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hi
CE SEL Mae NL





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































————:0;



Wuy is the skeleton of a sermon a very unnatural object ?>—Because it has
several heads. . .

Why do policemen ride on the cars for nothing ?—Because you can’t get a
nickel out of a copper. .



305:



A 6 BY 9 RHYME,

A QUEER little boy who had been to school So when asked his age by a good old dame
And was up to all sorts of tricks, The comical youngster said,
Discovered that 9 when upside down I’m g when I stand on my feet like this,

Would pass for the figure 6. But 6 when I stand on my head.
COMBAT BETWEEN A SHARK AND A SAW-FISH.











































































‘A LONG some parts of the (=

African coast, sharks are £2
so plenty that they are often
washed on the beach. They are
caught with a large hook and a
strong rope. The hook is at-
tached to a chain two feet long,
so that the shark could not bite
the line in two if they swallowed
the bait. There are several
varieties, one having a blue-skin,
and they have seven rows of
ugly teeth. Another species is a
gray color, and is shorter and
thicker than the blue-skin; the
head is broader and the mouth wider, and it is more savage. This is the
most common, It will attack a man in shallow water, so that it is dangerous
to bathe in the sea.

A sailor was in a little boat and sawa great splashing in the water, and
going nearer saw an enormous saw-fish attack a large shark; both were
fighting desperately. Fearing they would attack his boat, he went off a little
distance. Each tooth of the saw was two inches long, and there were about
forty on each side, the saw was about five feet in length. At the last the saw-
fish gave the shark a terrible blow, so that his teeth went right through the
flesh. He gave several of these blows, and the shark soon lay upon his back
dead, with its body fearfully torn. The saw-fish swam away, leaving the
water stained with the blood of the shark.















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































0%

We'vE just come home from the seashore, We’ve found the most beautiful pebbles,
Been there since the first of July— We’ ve rolled in the jolliest sand,
And we’ve had lots of fun I can tell you, And I am as brown as a chestnut,

My dear Kitty, baby and I. And the baby is dreadfully tanned.
THE WHALE.

NUMBER of years ago a whale was bowling along in the North Pacific,
A when the cry came from aloft: “There she blows !” They all started,
and all was bustle and activity. The ship was headed after the huge
animal, the boats were manned, and the oarsmen pulled for two or three
hours before they reached the game. When the whale stopped for a rest, the
boat came alongside, and the harpoon was buried deep in the thick hide of
the whale. The rope was hissing from the boat, and after a long chase, the
huge animal was conquered, and preparations were made to haul it alongside
the ship.
This was almost accomplished, when the water was filled with small animals
resembling whales, which are called orcas, and may be described as the

a> + = —= =















































ae
= Ss



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































—— =

toothed whale. These are from fifteen to twenty feet in length, and abound
in nearly all seas. They form in schools and attack the great lips of the
whale, and with their powerful teeth tear out immense pieces of flesh. They
even tear out the tongue, and the whale, overcome with fear, lies quietly on
the water. The sailors were soon engaged trying to drive them off; but all
in vain, for the whale was killed and dragged off by these tigers of the sea.

The large whales are harmless: they have no teeth, and prey only upon
the smallest animals. The mouth is enormous, and so high that two men
could stand upright. The eyes are so small you can hardly see them, but
are very keen, The skin is strong, and so bright that it shines in the sun
like polished leather. When the whale breathes it can be heard at quite a
distance. The young whale is hardly born before it turns over and swims
around its mother, who has great love for it; she watches over it, and to save
its life would sacrifice her own.
HUNTING CROCODILES.

HE Negroes on the coast of Africa hunt the crocodile with guns and a
kind of harpoon. The best place to attack them is near the joint of
the fore-leg. The crocodile has not much meat on him, and is eaten

cooked in various ways, but is not called a great delicacy.

A party of travellers went out in canoes to hunt, and saw the crocodiles
swimming in all directions, and lying on the banks in the sun. They wanted
to shoot them; and they must do this on the shore, as they would be lost if
killed in the water. They soon saw a large one lying among some reeds on
the banks, and, going cautiously towards him, took aim and knocked him over.

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































He tried hard to get to the water, but his strength giving out he died, and
they found he was nearly twenty feet in length. They killed another which
measured eighteen feet. His jaws were large, and looked as if a man would
hardly be a mouthful. They put these great reptiles in another canoe, and
paddled them to the village. In the heat of the day the crocodiles lie among
the reeds, and in the morning and late in the afternoon they come out in
search of prey. They swim rapidly, but silently, and the motion of their paws
is over and over, like a dog. When they are swimming the head only is seen.
HOW HARRY AND I STUDIED ASTRONOMY.

INC’ I'm going to tell you a story
of what my brother and I did
when we were little,and you'll see what
naughty children we were, and how we
were punished in the end.
We had a dear, kind governess called
Miss Jarman, and one day this good
little woman took us into town to spend
the day with her sister, Mrs. Bronson,
who was very fond of children, and made
great pets of us, We got there early,
and Mrs. Bronson took us a drive, and
ac ane Sie renin showed us the toy-stores, and bought
TELESCOPIC VIEW OF THE MOON. us some candy, and then went with us
to the circus in the afternoon. About six o’clock it was all over, and we got
back to a fine tea, and had nearly an hour to play before Miss Jarman wanted
to go home. That was a happy day. Oh,I couldn’t tell you how we enjoyed
it! And if it had not led to
our disobeying, another day, I
think we might ‘safely have
reckoned it as one of the
great days of our little lives.
‘Miss Jarman and Mrs. Bron-
son wanted to talk alone, so
they went into the house and
left us to play in the garden,
telling us to stay near the
summer-house, where we had
taken tea. Now we were so
delighted that we forgot this
order altogether, and, almost
before Miss Jarman had left
us, we were skipping about. THE GREAT BEAR.
and running all over. Very soon a kind old gentleman, who lived next door,
popped his head over the wall, and began to talk to us. He was so nice,
such a dear old man; and when he asked us if we would like to see the pretty


















































































































































































































156 HOW HARRY AND I STUDIED ASTRONOMY.



things in his house, of course we both said “Yes.” Harry got a chair and
jumped over the wall, but I was frightened, and would not go. It seemed
such a long time before he came back, too; indeed, Miss Jarman appeared
before he did.

Now she was a very proper person, and, apart from our having done what
she had forbidden, she was doubly shocked at Harry going into a “strange
house.” However, the old gentleman came out again, and said, “Harry was
so pleased, perhaps the little girl and the ladies would come in too!” Poor
Miss Jarman seemed to forget we had disobeyed, and so in we all went. I
couldn’t tell all the lovely things we saw, they were too many to mention; but
one thing I shall never forget: “he showed us a telescope, and told us when we
grew big we should study astronomy, and it was trying to do this that got us
into all our trouble. We had lots of lessons then, so we put it off till the
holidays, by which time, 1 must tell you, Miss Jarman had actually prac!
the kind old gentleman, and gone to live beside 5 =
her sister. Of course we ‘had another gov-
erness; a disagreeable, bad-tempered woman,
whose very look frightened us. One day she
overheard us say we were going to watch the
stars that evening, and she instantly forbid us
to do so. Bed-time came, and we had not had
a chance to do it, much as we wanted to. When
Nurse put us to bed, she told us to go to sleep
quickly like good children, and not to move at
all. This we promised, but the minute she was ORION,
gone, up we got and off we crept, only partly dressed, to the school-room
window. This we opened to have a good look, and Harry was telling me
about the Great Bear, when, to our horror, our governess appeared and seized
us, one by each arm. First she slapped us, and then in her rage she pushed
us both out of the window on a rickety balcony, which we had been ordered
“not to touch.” Oh, how afraid we were! We dared not move for fear the
whole thing would fall, so we held on tight to the window and screamed. To
drown our voices that awful woman began to play the piano and sing. I think
soon we should have let go and fallen to the ground, or perhaps died of
fright, if Nurse had not come rushing to our help. She put us to bed, and
gave us hot milk, for we were chattering with the cold, for you see we had
been an hour outside without our clothes, All next day we were in bed, and
for many days afterwards,






CRABS.

@Rss are generally supposed to live

in the ocean, but there is one species
that lives on the land. It is foundon the
Island of Jamaica, in the West Indies. It
burrows in the sand, sometimes two or three
miles from the sea. It has two long claws.
In attacking an enemy it binds it with one
claw, which is then thrown off, and then
continues the fight with the free claw.
They stay in the ground during the day,
and hunt for their food at night. They
visit the ocean once a year to lay their eggs,
They travel by night, when they are caught in f
great numbers. There is another kind of
crab found in the Japanese waters measuring
ten feet between the tips of its nippers, e 3
which are five feet long. The crab found LAND CRAB.
on the coast of the United States is edible, and by many considered a luxury.





=O:
THE SEA-HORSE.
ee fish is found in the Atlantic Ocean,



around the coast of Spain; the south of
France, in the Mediterranean, and in the
Indian Ocean. They are very small, and
have been found often curled up in oyster-
shells. The head is much like that of a horse,
and the rings around the body and tail re-
=, semble those of some caterpillar. The habits
=. of this fish are singular and interesting, They
swim with a waving motion, and frequently
wind their tails around the weeds and rushes,
They have fins to sustain them in the water,
and even in the air. They live on worms,
fishes, eggs, and substances found in the bot-
tom of the sea.




















































































































—
HIPPOCAMPUS OR SEA-HORSE,


















































































































































































THE DOG AND THE CRAB.
THE CRUSADES.











THE CRUSADERS,

HE crusades were a series of wars carried on by men who wore on their
dress the sign of a cross as a pledge, binding themselves to rescue the
Holy Sepulchre of Christ from the unbelievers.

In the early centuries after Christ people from all parts of the world, where
Christianity had spread, began visiting His tomb and the places that were the
scenes of His eventful life. They could follow the Redeemer from the cave
where He was born, and where the wise men of the East laid before Him
_their royal offerings, to the Mount'of Calvary, where He was offered as a
sacrifice for the sins of the world. The Garden of Gethsemane and His
tomb were spots that were particularly sacred, and, when they discovered the
cross on which He was crucified, this feeling was greatly increased. At first,
it is said, they could not make out which of the three crosses was ‘the one.
They had the plate Pilate had engraved “ King of the Jews,” but did not know
which cross it had been attached to; so they touched a woman who was dying,
successively with two of them without effect, but as soon as her body came
in contact with the real cross she became immediately well, and there was no
longer any doubt about it.

Constantine the Great and his mother Helena built magnificent churches
over the cave at Bethlehem, and the Sepulchre at Jerusalem, which became
for the Christians what the sacred stone at Mecca was to the Mohammedans.

From almost every country in Europe wanderers took their way to Pales-
160 THE CRUSADES.



tine, believing that the shirts which they wore when they entered the holy city
would, if laid by and used as their winding sheet, carry them at once to
heaven. The pilgrims were uninterrupted in their journeys to and from the
sacred tomb till it was captured by the Persians in 611, when 90,000 Christians
were put to death and the true cross carried off to Persia.

In 628, the Mohammedans under Omar, who burned the library at Alex-
andria, beseiged and took Jerusalem, but gave Christians the privilege of
visiting and worshipping at the tomb of Christ, and for 400 years pilgrims
came and went unmolested. In 1010 the Sultan, then reigning, decided to
destroy the Christian sanctuary in Jerusalem; they even tried to destroy the
very cave in which Jesus’ body was supposed to have been laid. After this a
toll was levied on each pilgrim before he was allowed to enter the gates of
Jerusalem. About this time it was universally believed that the world was
coming to an end, and men of all ranks of life left their homes to offer prayer
at the tomb of Christ. Now it was that the Turks of Central Asia began
gradually advancing westward in constantly increasing numbers, and it wasn’t
long before these same Turks were masters of Jerusalem, and the pilgrim’s
lot was far from a happy one. Insults to the persons of the pilgrims were
accompanied by insults, still harder to bear, to the holy places and to those who
ministered in them. The number of pilgrims who went to Jerusalem was
far greater than of those who returned. These told such a terrible tale of their
sufferings, and the indignities they endured, that all Europe was aroused. At
this time a certain soldier laid aside his sword, and left his wife and home and
became a hermit. His name was Peter. He visited the Holy Sepulchre, and
he was so stirred with indignation at what he saw that he returned and roused
all with holy ardor to rescue the tomb where the Saviour had laid from the
infidels. The heads of the church joined in the movement, and soon armed
bodies of men were formed and on their way to Palestine.

Godfrey, of Bouillon, with about 100,000 soldiers, in 1096, laid seige to and
took Nice. Then Antioch fell, and finally Jerusalem was captured; and
Godfrey was chosen ruler of Palestine. He lived not quite a year, and he
was succeeded by other kings till 1187, when the great Saladin recaptured
Jerusalem, and it fell again under Mohammedan rule. Meanwhile, another
unsuccessful crusade had been made, in 1145, to recapture Antioch, which the
Turks had taken before the final overthrow of the holy city mentioned above.
The greatest crusade of all was the third, in which the kings of France and
Austria, the principal nobles of Europe and King Richard of England, called
the lion-hearted (Richard Coeur de Lion), took part.” It was made to wrest
























































































































































































































































































































































































































FOUR LEADERS—FIRST CRUSADE.
162 THE CRUSADES.



the Holy Sepulchre from Saladin and failed, as did all the subsequent attempts.
The crusades are remarkable, chiefly because during the first crusade the
knights-errant first came into existence, and in the third the troubadours first
began singing their tales of love, and telling the deeds of bravery performed
by the knights who helped the weak and defenceless. In England they were
called minstrels, and you are all familiar with the story of Richard, King of
England, being confined as a prisoner in Austria, and how his minstrel found
him by wandering from place to place and singing his favorite piece and
playing on his harp. The crusades marked.an epoch in the history of the
world because it gave the nations of Europe a common thing to work for, and |
brought them closer together, and made possible the advanced civilization of
to-day.



30%



Ir the descendants of the rooster Wuy do women like husbands
which crowed at Peter were to make | named William ?—So they can have
a noise every time a lie is.told what | a Will of their own.
would be the result?—There would Wuar did the pistol-ball say to the
be such a noise you couldn’t hear the | wounded duellist?—I hope I give |
hens cackle. satisfaction.

Wuicu has the hardest life of it, Wuy should the largest tree in a
coffee or tea ?—Tea, for while coffee | town be near the church?—There
can settle down, tea is compelled to | should be no bigger tree (bigotry)

draw. there.

Why are circus horses such slow Why is a baby like a sheaf of
goers ?—They are taught ’orses (tor- | wheat?—First it is cradled, then
toises). thrashed, and afterward becomes the

Wuy are pianos the noblest of | flower of the family.
manufactured articles?—They are

= ~ Wuat book might a man wish his
grand, upright, and square.

wife to resemble?—An almanac, for

Wuen is a lover like a tailor?— | then he could have a new one every
When he presses his suit. year.

Wuat boy’s game names the| + Wuew is silence likely to get wet? -
moving of a vessel in a storm ?— | —When it reigns.
Fitch and toss. Wuat is the worst weather for

Why is a flea like a long winter ?— | rats and mice ?—When it rains cats

It makes a backward spring. and dogs. 4 »




























































































































































































































OF THOMAS A BECKET.


MURDER OF THOMAS A’BECKET,

OW excited these people seem! And they have need to be, because
they have just discovered one of God’s ministers, who was foully mur-
dered at the altar and dragged where you see him lying. The story is a very
sad one indeed. The murdered man was the King of England’s most trusted
minister; but he would not make his church secondary to the power of the
king, but placed his high office, as Archbishop of Canterbury, first. This
made the king very angry, and the archbishop was compelled to flee from the
country. After two years the two were reconciled ; but he again offended his
king, because he had one very bad fault—he was very proud, and thought he
was as good as the king, and would not submit to the king. His subordinates,
whom he had excommunicated, appealed to the king, who was in France. He
was so vexed that he gave utterance to his displeasure; and four of his
knights thought they would render their master a welcome service, and so
they returned to England and ordered the archbishop to reinstate the dis-
missed bishops who had been excommunicated. He refused and defied them.
They retired, armed themselves, and, when the time for the evening service
was at hand, went into the church backed by their followers, and murdered
him before the altar. After his death he was made a saint, and for centuries
after people visited his tomb. This happened 700 years ago, A very inter-
esting story is told of his birth. It appears his father, Gilbert A’Becket, and
his servant Richard had been captured and made slaves to a wealthy emir,
whose daughter fell in love with Gilbert, and who offered to help him escape
if he would make her his wife. Gilbert escaped, but left the girl behind.

During the reign of the grandfather of the king whose soldiers had mur-
dered Thomas, the people of London were astonished one day to see a
maiden clothed in the dress of the Eastern nations wandering through the
streets, crying, “Gilbert!” Some sailors explained that she had prevailed
on them to take her on board at a port in the Holy Land by constantly
repeating the word “ London.”

The rude mob pursued her till she came to the front of a house occupied
by Gilbert A’Becket, who, with his servant, had just returned from a pil-
grimage to Palestine. Richard went out to the hunted maiden, who fainted
‘on seeing him. She had found the one she loved. Gilbert afterwards mar-
ried the girl when the story became known of her persistency and determina-
tion in finding him, and Thomas A’Becket was their child, who in after years
rose to one of the highest positions in the kingdom.
THE FOUNDING OF ROME.

To W_ENHERE are many accounts of the first build-

Ce ae TMT AT

ing of Rome. The one most generally
believed is by no means certain, although very
entertaining, A®neas was a prince ee Troy,
which is in Asia Minor. After the Trojan war,
which you. will read about in ancient history,
ZEneas fled from Troy, and, after many adven-
tures, landed with his little party on the coast of -
Italy, where he married, and built a city, and
reigned in it, and his sons after him.

Many years after his death a descendant of
his, Rhea Silvia, had twin sons. She was or-
dered to be buried alive, and her children thrown
into the river Tiber. The poor babes were put
in a basket and placed by the water, so that,
when the river rose, it might carry them away
and drown them. ‘The infants were so light that
the basket floated, and the children were saved.
They were said to have been nursed by a wolf;
but this seems incredible, for wolves, as you
know, are blood-thirsty and fierce.

The boys were called Romulus and Remus.
They grew strong and bold, and became shep-
herds, and were fond of hunting wild beasts.
At last they were told of their high birth, and
that, in the right of their mother, they should be
kings of the country. So they collected their friends, and fought their uncle,
who had caused their mother to be buried alive, and killed him; so that their
grandfather came again to the throne.

Romulus and Remus persuaded him to build.a new city. Cities in those
days were not what they are now, but consisted of a few low houses with mud
walls. The young men nearly quarrelled in deciding where the city should be
built, and they were advised to watch the flight of birds, a common custom in
those days when anything important was to be decided. They stationed
themselves on different hills. Remus saw six vultures; Romulus twice as
many. Remus said that, because he first saw the bird$, he was victorious ;
















































TIRED OF READING. 167



and Romulus insisted that, as he had seen the greatest number, he was the
conqueror. From words they came to blows, and Remus was killed by his
brother. Romulus was now master, and at eighteen years of age laid the
foundation of a city, which was named Rome after him. It was built in a
square form, and contained one thousand houses, It was built on seven hills.
They had priests to perform religious ceremonies. They had also an army
composed of horse and foot soldiers, and great numbers of men came to them
~ from the little towns near Rome, thus increasing the size of the city.

After bringing this city into a state of great power and comfort Romulus
died. It has been said by some that he was killed. and by others that he was
taken up alive to heaven.

——:0:



TIRED OF READING.
i WENTY pages more,” said Adelaide White, turning to the back of the

book to see how many leaves remained. Then she gaped, stretched
herself wearily, and looked out of the window for a minute or two. After this
she bent down over her book again and went on reading. Her mother, who
sat sewing in the room, noticed this.

“Haven’t you read long enough, daughter?” she asked.

“Tm ’most through. There are only twenty pages left,’ Adelaide replied.

“But if you are tired of reading, why not stop?”

“Oh, I’m bound to finish the book now,” said Adelaide. “I have set myself
so. many pages to read every day, and must go through to make up the
number.” “What have you been reading about for the last ten or fifteen
minutes?” asked Mrs, White. . ;

Adelaide turned back the leaves of her book, and began running her eyes
over the pages.

“Shut your book and tell me,” said her mother.

Adelaide closed her book and tried to remember, but was able to give only
a very confused idea of what she had been reading. .

“Why do you read?” inquired her mother. Adelaide was silent. “ You
read to know, do you not?” “Yes, ma’am.” “Not to see how many pages
you can go over ina given time. One pagea day, if remembered, is better
than a hundred if forgotten. Put away your book, dear, and go out into the
garden.” Adelaide shut her book and ran out into the garden, where she
spent half an hour. Then she came back with glowing cheeks, and a mind
fresh and cheerful. .
THE DRUIDS.

V HAT does this picture mean? It is intended to show how the people

who lived in England before even Christ was born worshipped. You
have read stories about the way the Hindoos and Chinese worship idols of
wood and stone, and the Bible tells how the Israelites made a golden calf, and
worshipped it, and offered sacrifices. It seems to be part of every religion to
make some kind of offering.

The Druids were the religious guides of the people, and were exempt from
paying taxes or working in the field. Those who refused to obey them were
punished most severely; but the thing most dreaded was being expelled.
In order to become a Druid it was necessary to go through a course of in-
struction that lasted sometimes twenty years, and the office was sought by the
noblest youths. All instruction was oral; but for certain’ purposes they had
books written in Greek. The head Druid was elected for life. Their belief
was that the soul was immortal. Their favorite studies were astrology (tell-
ing your fortune by the stars), geography, chemistry, natural philosophy,
astronomy and natural theology. They held the mistletoe in the highest
regard. Groves of oak were their favorite dwelling-places. Whatever grew
on that tree was thought to be a gift from heaven, particularly the mistletoe.
Whenever they found this it was cut with a golden knife by a priest clad in a
white robe, two white bulls being sacrificed on the spot. They called it “all
heal.” They had great faith in the virtues of two other herbs—selago and
samolus. But their most wonderful charm was a “snake’s egg.” It was
produced, so it was said, from the saliva and frothy sweat of a number of
snakes writhing in an entangled mass, and tossed in the air as soon as it forms.

The fortunate Druid who managed to catch it as it fell in his cloak rode off at

full speed on a horse that had been waiting for him, pursued by the serpents
till they were stopped by a running stream. This egg would float in the
water against the current, even if it was encased in gold. It was the size of a
large apple, had a rind, and was studded all over with little holes.

The Druids are said to have been the first to teach the soul’s immortality.
Hesus was the name they gave the Supreme Being, and the oak was his
symbol on earth. They sacrificed human beings, because they thought the
higher the victim the more complete the atonement offered God for the sins
of men.

The picture shows one of the Druid priests waiting for the two victims that
are about to be killed for the sacrifice.

2 ow






DRUIDS OFFERING A SACRIFICE.
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS,



HE Indians of South America are much different from those of the United
States. Their color is mahogany; their hair is black, straight and

thick ; forehead low, but broad; hands and feet very small; of medium height,
but thick-set. The picture represents four of them riding wildly over the
plains on horseback. As you will notice, they have no bridles nor saddles,
but sit upon their horses as if they were enjoying the freedom from the use of
such articles, Both horses and men seem to feel alike,” ” :
THE EARLY SETTLERS OF KENTUCKY.

UR little friends have heard a great

deal about Daniel Boone, one of the -
settlers of Kentucky, and the bravest of
that band of heroes who made their
homes in what is now one of the most.
beautiful parts of this great country.

Read this little story, and you will then’
see what great dangers he met almost
daily from the Indians, who were lurking
about for the purpose of making the
settlers prisoners, or taking their scalps.
Indians and whites met often, and one
was sure to die before the combat ended.

Late on a Sunday afternoon, in July,
1776, three little girls left Boonesbor-
ough, to amuse themselves with a canoe upon the river that flowed by the
fort; and, before they were aware of their danger, they were seized by sav-
ages, their canoe was drawn ashore, and they were hurried off toward the
Indian towns in Ohio. Their screams were heard at the fort, and the cause
well guessed. Two of the girls were daughters of Colonel Richard Calloway ;
the third, of Daniel Boone. Both fathers were away from home; but, as soon
as they returned, they organized parties to follow the Indians—Colonel
Calloway starting with a mounted party, to head them off, if possible, before
they could cross the Ohio river, or before the little girls should become
so tired that they could not go any further, and be tomahawked by their
captors.

Boone started on foot upon their trail, directly through the thickets and
canebrakes. His rule was never to ride if he could possibly walk; and he
always went in this way—his journeys, hunts, escapes and pursuits being on
foot. .

He had eight men with him, and the little reader can imagine how anxious
- he was to come upon the Indians and rescue his own child and those of his
friend and neighbor. Besides his anxiety, three of the party were lovers of
the girls; and their hearts beat very warmly when they thought of the terrible
sufferings those they loved might have to undergo. No wonder that they
were very active, and could not rest a moment until they had saved the girls.
You would feel just as anxious, were you placed in the same situation.



wit (Ee

AY Xy¢






172 THE EARLY SETTLERS OF KENTUCKY.



Betsey, the oldest of the girls, marked the trail, as the Indians hurried them
along, by breaking twigs and bending bushes, a trick she had learned from
the settlers; and, when threatened with the tomahawk if she did not stop, she
tore small pieces from her dress and dropped them, so that those who were
coming might know that this was the route that the Indians had taken.
Where the ground was soft, she would press her foot down hard so as to leave’
the print of it. The flight was in the best Indian method. The Indians
marched some yards apart, through the bushes and canebrakes, and compelled
their captives to do the same. When a creek was crossed, they would walk
into the middle of it, follow it up some distance, then cross to the other side;
so that all trace of them might be lost to those behind.

Boone and his men were not able to go far the first day, as it was soon
dark ; but he had fixed in his mind the course they had taken, and very early
in the morning started out again in hot pursuit. The chase was continued,
with all possible speed, for over thirty miles that day, till night came upon
them and compelled them to halt. In the morning they were after the
redskins, bright and early. It was but a short time before they discovered
smoke rising in the distance, showing them that the savages were cooking
their breakfast of buffalo meat; and the party approached cautiously, fearing
that the Indians might discover them, slay the girls, and escape.

Colonel John Ford, who was one of the party (afterwards killed by Indians),
thus describes the attack, and the rescue, in a letter written the next Sunday:

“Our study had been how to get the prisoners without giving the Indians
time to murder them after they discovered us. Four of us fired, and all of us
rushed on them, by which they were prevented from carrying anything away,
except one shot-gun without any ammunition, Colonel Boone and myself
had each a pretty fair shot as they began to move off. I shot one through
the body. The one he shot dropped his gun; mine had none. The place
was covered with thick cane; and, being so much pleased to recover the three
poor little heart-broken girls, we were prevented from making any further
search. We sent the Indians off almost naked, some without their moccasins,
and none of them with so much asa knife or tomahawk. After the girls
came to themselves sufficiently to speak, they told us there were five Indians;
they could speak good English, and said they should go to the Shawanese
towns. The war-club we got was like those I have seen of that nation, and
several words of their language, which the girls retained, were known to be
Shawanese.”
AN INDIAN STORY.
““XUESS we'd be mighty

snug here, Jim, if it
warn’t for them sneakin’ In-
juns.”

“That’s so, Bill. It's a
mighty likely place for ’em.
jist here; and I reckon”
(passing his big brown hand
over a huge shaggy mop of
red hair) “Ive got a scalp
that would bring any redskin
after me, if he once set eyes
on it.”

The speakers were two







ZW ;
ZS W\NN S = i
i> WW ENS sturdy American hunters,
a SSESSSRY who were sitting with their
SN as SS &

rifles across their knees be-
side a blazing fire, the glare
of which reddened the stems of the tall pines amid which their camp had been
pitched, and showed the figures of several other men outstretched on the.
ground, as if asleep. ,

The expedition to which the two veterans had attached themselves had

been sent out to look for a new route through a wild tract of hilly country in
the far west of North America. The party had just reached the most dan-

gerous point of their whole march, and the two sentinels sat with their loaded

rifles across their knees, and their ears strained to catch the slightest sound.

“T reckon, though, there’s oze man in the camp that has a finer show of ha’r
than you, Jim,” said Bill, after a pause.

“You mean the Dutch doctor yonder? Well, 4e has,” assented Jim, with a
jerk of his elbow toward a small round figure, which, seated a little way off,
with its back against a tree, seemed intent on something that lay in its lap.

The “ Dutch doctor” (better known to his friends as Professor Karl Buch-
mann) was a perpetual wonder, not only to the two backwoodsmen, but to all
the rest of their party. That he had “grit” (bravery) could not be denied,
for he had proved his courage in more than one awkward scrape; but his
passion for picking up weeds and roots, and pulling them about for hours
together, in the pursuit of his favorite study of botany, made his new com-
panions look upon him as a kind of harmless madman,

“WAR EAGLE.”
174 AN INDIAN STORY.

But the ‘most remarkable thing about our professor was his haiy. The
splendid crop of curls that crowned his broad forehead surpassed, as Bill had
said, every other head in the camp; and it was no wonder that the sly hints”
about Indians and scalping, which the two hunters kept constantly letting fall
in his presence, seemed to disturb Herr Buchmann very considerably.

“T reckon,” resumed Jim meditatively, “there’s a man not far from here
that ’ud like nothing better than to take that Dutchman's scalp; and if we
don’t see something of him ’fore we git through these hills, call Jim Barlow an
idiot.”

“I guess you mean War Eagle, the big chief of the ‘Crow Indians ?’”

“That’s him; did ye ever meet him?”

“ No—nor don’t want to, neither.”

“You're right thar, Bill; for when you do, you wont forget itin a hurry. Z
fell in with iia once, not far away from whar we are now; and here’s what he
gave me to remember him by.”

And, throwing back his deerskin hunting-shirt, the speaker displayed a
fearful scar on his left shoulder.

“That was a good lick, anyhow,” said Bill, eyeing the mark with not a little
professional appreciation.

“Yes! and if poor old Jack Harris (him that was killed on the Yellowstone
‘bout a year after that) hadn’t sent a bullet in his arm ’fore he could fetch me
another lick, I reckon I wouldn’t have been sittin’ here to-night.”

“Hollo!” cried Bill, springing to his feet, “ what’s that?”

The crack of his rifle was answered by a sharp howl of pain, which was
instantly drowned in the terrific yell of the Indian war-whoop, breaking out,
as it seemed, on every.side of them at once.

Then a swarm of dusky figures, hideous in fantastic war-paint, came bursting
out of the darkness right upon them.

Jim Barlow’s rifle cracked in its turn, and down went another of the enemy,
while the roused sleepers, leaping nimbly from the ground, stood to their arms
with the cool promptitude of men accustomed to danger. But the boldest of
them recoiled as a giant form bounded forward into the firelight, displaying
on his bare brown chest the rude outline of a d/ack eagle.

“War Eagle!” shouted Jim, darting toward him. “At last! [ve owed him
something thie long time, and now I’m just a goin’ to pay him.”

His hand was ise to strike, but before the blow could fall, he was him-
self grappled by a powerful Indian, and the two rolled on’ the ground together,
struggling furiously. The savage at length managed to draw his knife, and
AN INDIAN. STORY. ‘ 175



it would have gone hard with honest Jim had not his enemy been suddenly
knocked senseless by a tremendous blow from the but-end of Bill’s rifle.

“Saved your scalp this time, mate,” said the triumphant Bill, coolly ; “but
don’t do it again.”

“No, I wont,” answered Jim, staggering to his feet. “But wherever has
War Eagle gone?” :

“Yonder he goes,” cried Bill. “Look out, purfessor, or that scalp o’ yourn
wont be on hand when you want it!”

Poor Professor Buchmann—who, even with death staring him in the face,
had busied himself in putting safely away the “ specimens ” which he had been
sorting—had not even time to catch up his rifle before the enemy was upon
him. A sudden flare of the halfextinguished fire lighted up the grim face of
a dark figure that came rushing toward him, and Buchmann saw with dismay
that his assailant was no other than the dreaded “ War Eagle” himself.

The professor's magnificent head of hair had at once caught the keen
eye of the savage, who flew at him like a tiger, brandishing his toma-
hawk in one hand, while seizing with the other the hair which he already
counted his own in the form of a “scalp.” But instantly the whole mass of
hair (for it was only a wzg) came off in his grasp, and the Indian went sprawl-
ing on his back, the tomahawk flying out of his hand as he fell!

A moment more, and he would have been up again, more furious than ever,
but the professor was too quick for him, The instant he saw the Indian fall,
he pounced upon the tomahawk which the latter had let drop, and with one
good blow laid the terrible War Eagle senseless at his feet.

That blow decided the battle. The Indians, confounded by the double
wonder of the “movable scalp” and,the fall of their famous chief before a far
weaker man, gave way at once, while the white men rallied, and chased them
off the field helter-skelter.

Professor Buchmann recovered his wig, and although sorely vexed at this
. public revelation of his baldness, was somewhat comforted by finding himself
the hero of the whole party from that day forth.


THE INDIANS.

HE Indians of the presefit day are altogether different from those who

met the first settlers who landed on Plymouth Rock. While he is still

crafty and treacherous, the Red man of to-day is so degraded his grandfather

would not know him were he alive. He lives chiefly on a reservation near a
fort, and receives his allowance of food and clothing from the gowernment; —







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































INDIANS ON THE WAR-PATH.

but he is a lazy, good-for-nothing fellow, and gets drunk whenever he can get
any whiskey. He usually wears the cast-off garments of the soldiers, or he
trades his own property for whiskey the first chance he gets. However, there
are some wild Indians still left, and our picture shows a band of them in one
of the lava-beds of the Rocky mountains. Every once in a while some of
the tribes who live on a reservation—that is, a.section of the country set aside
for them to hunt in, will get mad because some bad white: men will encroach
on their property, and they put on their war-paint and go out on the war-path.


INDIAN MEDICINE MEN, 177





Then Uncle Sam sends his soldiers after them. You know General Custer
and his entire company of soldiers were all killed by the savages not many
years ago. We should all be thankful that we can go to bed at night, and
not be wakened by the wild war-whoop, and find big painted Indians dancing
arsund the house, setting fire to buildings, shooting and scalping your father
and mother, and dashing the baby’s brains out against a tree.



20:



Way is a clergyman like a locomotive >—Because you are to look out for
him when the bell rings.



0:



Wuar would be a good motto for a doctor ?—Patients and long suffering,



:O————

INDIAN MEDICINE MEN.

HE Indian tribes of North America

generally contain a few “medicine”
men, who are the laziest and at the same
time sharpest men in the tribe. They pro-
fess to be wizards, and to do all sorts of
impossible things; but, though called
“medicine” men, they have, as a rule,
nothing to do with healing, the doctors of
the tribe being usually some old women.
They are, however, expected to cure those
diseases which the old woman doctor has
givén up, and are supposed to be able to
cause rain to fall, to make fishes, or bea-
vers, or buffaloes plentiful, and to perform
other wonders. Indians being very superstitious people, these men—who are
neither more nor less than clever conjurers and rogues—get a good living by
{mposing upon the simple men and women. They dress in strange attire,
sometimes in a cloak of bird's feathers, or a bear-skin, with its head, legs, and
claws (as in the picture), or in a beaver’s skin; at other times they will put
on horrible masks, or paint their bodies with hideous designs. But when
a “medicine” man makes a mistake, or is found out in any of his tricks, he is
severely punished, and often killed.


THE BURNING OF DEERFIELD.

“OQ my young readers want an Indian story?
Well, you shall have a true one of the de-
struction of Deerfield, in what is known in
history as “King Phillip’s War.” Did you -
ever hear of “King Phillip,’ who was king
of a tribe of Indians, and made a great deal
of trouble in the Eastern States in early
times? He had his wigwam and those of
w, his tribe near Mt. Hope, Massachusetts, about the year 1670.
He had been at peace with the whites for nearly three years, and
had promised them he would not molest them; but, being fearful
that they were going to rob him of his lands and drive him from
his home, he decided to get rid of them by killing them, and had
- his warriors sharpen their tomahawks and get ready for the war-
- path.

: Just as everything was arranged, his plans were discovered,
a ry but he pretended to be friendly to the whites, and signed another
treaty for three years more; still he kept on his preparations,
until the 20th of June, 1675, when, without a moment's notice, he fell upon the
town of Swansee, Massachusetts, and burned every house in it, but killed no one.

A few days later he, with his warriors, attacked the people of that town
again, and killed a number of them, and scalped the rest. The colonists saw
they would all be killed, and raised a body of troops to capture King Phillip
and all his warriors. Again he was cunning, and hid in a swamp, where
he was not found for some time, when the soldiers attacked him, but he drove
them off and escaped. He was attacked once more, but, being too strong, the
whites retreated into a large building, which the savages danced around,
singing their scalp songs, and then set fire to a load of hemp and pushed it
against the building, intending to burn the soldiers out; but a hard rain came
and the settlers were saved.

King Phillip was desperate and determined not to stop until every white
man was killed, and on the 5th of September he fell upon them near Deerfield,
where both fought desperately and the Indians retreated.

A week ater they made another attack, which was more successful, and,
after killing nearly all the inhabitants, set fire to the town, and only one house
was wabuened,



THE BURNING OF DEERFIELD. 179



You will see in the picture how horribly the whites were treated, and for a
while they were downhearted; but the white men had come to stay, and
the Indians had to go.













































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































You will find a complete history of this great Indian king in the history
of the United States, and learn what became of him. It will interest you
greatly. .





Buow, wind, blow! and go, mill, go! Crap hands, clap hands!

That the miller may grind his corn ; Till father comes home;
That the baker may take it, For father’s got money,
And into rolls make it, But mother’s got none.

And send us some hot in the morn, Clap hands, ete.
PLAYTHINGS OF INDIAN CHILDREN.



ee \, My ERHAPS the following will interest the

Bey children in connection with the monthly
concert, as the Indians from the Home
Mission topic.

The Indian children, living in their
wigwams in the west of the United
States and Canada, love playthings as
well as other children.

The boys play with bows and arrows,
and the girls with dolls or substitutes for
them.

The dolls are made of rags, with faces
painted on them, and daubed with
streaks of red in a style admired by
them.

To these, however, they prefer a live plaything, or a “meat baby,” as the
little girl once said; so they make their pets of ravens, young eagles and
puppies. :

A young Indian girl is often seen with the wise head of one of these birds,
or the fat, round face of a puppy sticking out of her blanket behind.

They also imitate the life of their mothers, and rig an arrangement with two
‘poles crossed on the back of a dog, as the squaws do on the back of.a horse,
on which queer vehicle they carry jars of water or anything they choose.

The babies of the Indians, strapped into their cradles, play with the dang-
ling strings of beads or other articles which are hung before their faces to
make them squint, that being considered a great beauty.

The Esquimau children have toys in plenty, and they are twice as useful
as our toys, for making them entertains and occupies the parents, and playing
with them does the same with the children.

From ivory they carve the animals of their country—bears, wolves, foxes,
geese, gulls, walruses, seals and whales.

These are quite small—none three inches long, and some not more than
one inch—but so well carved that the animal is easily recognized.






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































- THE YOUNG SOLDIER,
A YOUNG HERO.

OT long before the battle of Gettysburg, which
y/ our little readers will find described in another part
of this book, a boy, not over sixteen years old and
very small, strolled into the camp of a Massachu-
setts regiment, and walking up to one of the ser-
geants begged to be given a musket, as he wanted
to become a soldier and fight for his country. The
sergeant took him to his captain, and laughingly
said: “Captain, here’s a recruit for you.” The
captain asked him several questions about his family,
why he wanted to join the army; and found the lad
so determined to enlist that he sent him to the colonel,
who soon found out that he was really in earnest, and
ordered arms to be given him. Though he could not
muster him into the United States service then, as the
rolls were in the rear of the army and could not be
reached, a complete uniform, musket, cartridges, etc.,
etc, were given him, and he took his place in the
ranks. The next day, July rst, a terrible battle was
fought, in which the young soldier behaved like a hero,
loading and firing his musket like an old veteran, as
coolly and calmly as though he was in no danger. He
_was twice wounded, and, as the Federal army fell back,
was left on the battle-field. The Confederates found him,
carried him to a hospital, and his company never saw him
after. ,
He got well of his wounds, as it was learned afterwards,
and, though not strong, joined a Maryland regiment, more
. determined than ever to do what he could for his country,
and served in it several months ; but finally dropped dead on one of the long
marches through Virginia, the exposure of the campaign having been too
- great for him. We hope that the same patriotic spirit will control our young
boys, so that when they arrive at manhood, should their country need their
services, they will not hesitate to give their lives, if necessary, to assist it.
There certainly is no other country equal to our own. Let us love and, if
necessary, fight for it, and so live that, when we grow to be men, it will find
us ready and willing to serve it.



THE WOMEN OF GETTYSBURG.

HE women of Gettysburg were faithful to the old flag
and devoted to the wounded in battle. We think one or
two incidents will interest you. Mrs. Jennie Wade lived
in the valley between Oak Ridge and Seminary Hill, and
in range of the guns from both armies. She was patriotic
and loyal, and on the third morning of the great battle she
was baking a large quantity of bread for the Union troops,
In the afternoon the deafening thunder frem two hundred
and fifty cannon shook her dwelling. She toiled on, though
repeatedly ordered to quit the premises. At length a
shot from the Confederate batteries struck her and killed
her instantly. A Confederate officer of high rank was
killed almost at the same moment, and the Confederate
troops hastily constructed a coffin, and were about placing him in it when a
Union column drove them from the ground, and placed Mrs. Wade in the
coffin, She was buried the next day, and was mourned by hundreds who
knew her kindness and courage. .







303

BARBARA FREITCHIE.
QQ cool morning in September, 1862,

when Lee’s Army was on its way
to Antietam, Stonewall Jackson’s corps
passed through Frederick.’ The inhabi-
tants, fearing they would provoke the
Confederates, and knowing they could
make no resistance, took down their fiags.
~ One old woman named Barbara Freitchie,
nearly eighty years of age, determined she would show that one heart was
loyal, took up one of the flags the men had taken down, and set it in the
window of her attic. The Confederates came marching on, with Stonewall
Jackson at their head. He glanced under his slouched hat from right to left,
until he saw the old flag, when he cried: “Halt!” The ranks stood still.
“Fire!” he cried. The balls shivered the window, and the banner was torn.
Quick as a flash Barbara snatched the flag and, leaning out on the window-
sill, waved it, shouting, “Shoot, if you must, this gray old head, but spare
your country’s flag.” A blush of shame came over the face of the leader,
and he said, “Touch but a hair of that gray head,,and you die like dogs.
March on.”


THE BURNING OF MOSCOW.

T is terrible to witness the burning of a great city at any
time; but when it is set on fire and destroyed by its own
people, to prevent its falling into the hands of its enemies,
there is something more terrible than when it is destroyed
by accident. Such was the fate of Moscow. The story
may interest our little friends. Napoleon Bonaparte, who
ruled France, and we may say nearly all of Europe except
England, from 1804 to 1815, was perhaps the greatest

‘soldier that modern times has produced. When twenty-
six years of age he defeated the most experienced generals
then living, conquering Italy, and later, Austria, Prussia
and all of the smaller kingdoms, making the French army a
terror, and Napoleon’s name equal toanarmy. There was one nation that was

“unwilling to be dictated to by him—Russia. In 1812 he declared war against
that power; organized the largest army that had ever been placed in the field
in modern times—about half a million of men—composed of French, Italians,
Austrians, Prussians and Poles; and crossed the Russian frontier, driving the

~ Russian army before him. His object was to reach Moscow, capture that old
city—the ancient capital of Russia, the home of her religion—containing about
300 churches, 1,500 palaces and the Kremlin, one of the largest buildings on
earth at that time, which for centuries had been used by the Czars as their

‘palace. Far and near Moscow was known as the “holy city,” and worshipped

_ by the Russian people. Napoleon thought, that once he got possession of it,
the Czar would sue for peace and accede to his demands, He was greatly
mistaken, as the result will show. After fighting scores of battles, in which the
Russians were defeated and the French victorious, the immense army reached
Moscow. To all appearance the war was ended, and the French entered the

city with shouts of joy, Napoleon taking up his head-quarters in the home of

the Czars—the Kremlin. All at once flames were seen to spring up in various
parts of the city. Immediate steps were taken to learn the cause of them,
and it was discovered that the people had, by order of the governor, set fire
to this magnificent city, hoping to destroy the army with the city. Fora time
it was partially subdued by the troops; but again burst forth with redoubled
fury, and spread with wonderful rapidity, until the Kremlin, was on fire, and

Napoleon and his marshals barely escaped with their lives, finding their way

out of the city over burning piles of timber and through streets ankle deep


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE BURNING OF MOSCOW,








THE FOX AND THE HORSE, 187



with cinders, and live coals in many places. The Czar would not listen to any
proposals of peace, and Napoleon was compelled to retreat, beginning his
“movement in October, just as the winter was coming on. Never had such a
winter been experienced in that country. It seemed that the Russians were
to be assisted by nature in their destruction of the French, and out of that
splendid army of half a million not over one-fifth ever reached France alive.
History records nothing more terrible than that long retreat. France was
humbled, and Russian armies dictated terms to Napoleon a few years later
within the walls of Paris.





THE FOX AND THE HORSE.

NCE upon a time a farmer had a horse which was too old to
work, and his master would not give him anything to eat, but
said to him: “You are of no use to me; but if you will bring
home a lion, I will reward you.” So he went into a forest,
where he met a fox, who asked why he looked so careworn.
The horse replied that his master had forgotten how hard
he had worked for so many years; and because he was
unable now to work, had driven him out of the stable, but
’ had told him that, if he would bring back a lion, he would
reward him. The fox told him to lie down and look as if
he was dead. The horse did as he was bid, and the fox
went to a lion, whose den was near, and said to him:
“ Here lies a dead horse. Come with me; he will make a
capital meal.” The lion went with him; and when they came to the horse the
fox said: “You can have this at your convenience. I will bind it to you by
the tail, and you can eat it at your leisure.” This pleased the lion, and he
stood with his back toward it. The fox tied the lion’s legs together with the
hairs of the horse’s tail, and cried, “Drag, my friend, drag!” So the horse
jumped up, and drew the lion to his master’s door. The master saw this
proof of his fidelity, and said, “ You shall stay with me now, and live at your
-ease.” So the horse had a good home the rest of his life.








Wuicu is the leading city in Amer- From what cape does one always
ica >-Boss-town (Boston). take ship for sea ?—Land’s End.
THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG,

PEARLY every boy who is able to read has heard
something about the battle of Gettysburg, and perhaps
would like to know more about it, why and how it was
fought, as it was one of the most decisive battles of
the great war between the North and South, from
1861 to 1865, which freed the slaves, and made this .
the greatest and most united people on earth.

First, let me tell you why Gettysburg was fought.
Open the map of the United States, and follow the
Mississippi river down towards its mouth, and you
will find a place called Vicksburg, in Mississippi. General Grant
was surrounding that place with a very large Northern army,
resisting every effort of the Confederates to break through
his lines, which were being drawn closer and closer around
them every day; and he determined that they should surrender
to him. Away up in Virginia was General Lee, in command
of the Southern army. He was satisfied that, if he could not
draw away some of General Grant’s troops, it would not be
long before Vicksburg would fall into the hands of that great
soldier; and he decided to move his army into the Northern
States, alarm the North, and compel the army around Vicksburg
to come to the assistance of the Federal troops opposing him.
Hurrying into Pennsylvania he destroyed Chambersburg, and moved as far
towards Philadelphia as Gettysburg, where, on the 1st day of July, 1863, the
battle that lasted three days began. Opening the first day with neither side
prepared for battle, yet the fight was a very severe one, and the Union army
was compelled to fall back to Cemetery Hill, which they had selected as a
rallying-point. General Lee felt sure that he could drive the Federals and
gain another victory, and attacked them the next day, at 3.30 in the afternoon.
From then till 8 in the evening the battle raged, with great loss of life on both
sides. Charges and counter-charges were made, and the dead lay in piles,
until night put a stop to the slaughter. This day was claimed as a victory for
the Confederates, and, as will be seen, was the cause of the most unwise move
for them that General Lee ever ordered. So certain was he—that with one
charge of the best troops of his command he could, break through their cen-
tre—that he selected a division, commanded by General Pickett, of about



THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG. 7 189



5,000 men; ordered them to prepare for the charge, and on the afternoon of
the third day, at 3.30, they moved out in grand style on one of the most use-
less attempts that can be conceived of—to break through the Federal line.
Musketry, grape, canister and shell were poured upon them as they advanced,
until every general officer was killed or wounded, and nearly every regimental
officer lay upon the field. Three-fourths of the soldiers fared the same, and the
division that went into battle a few minutes before, was reduced to a few hun-
dred men in less time than it is here told. They were compelled to fall back
and join their army, which took up its line of march for Virginia. Thousands





1
Hint

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““PICKETT’S CHARGE.”

of both armies lay dead upon the field, but the day was won; and General
Meade, who commanded the Federal army, became one of the great heroes
of the war. To-day Gettysburg is covered with monuments, erected by regi-
ments from all the Northern States that participated in that terrible fight.
The next day, 4th of July, Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant; so
that the move made by the Confederate commander for the purpose of reliev-
ing Vicksburg ended in the greatest victory of the war, relieved Pennsyivania
from her pressing danger, and the North from any further fear pf Southern
conquest. ;
THE SIEGE OF VICKSBURG. ’
BES 7M) UR little friends have perhaps read “The Battle of Gettys-

great Southern leader, General Lee, decided to take his
army into Pennsylvania. If you remember, it was that
he might compel General Grant to send a portion of his
army, then besieging Vicksburg, to the assistance of the
Northern troops. But it did not work. General Grant
kept all of his men and captured Vicksburg, and General Lee was beaten at
Gettysburg.

Would you like to know how General Grant besieged and finally took
Vicksburg, then one of the strongest places in the world, situated, as it was,
on a Hiph bluff on the Mississippi river, and covered with forts and earth-

works? Well, I will try and tell it in a short’ story. In April, 1863, a large
army, mostly of soldiers from the Western States, under General Grant,
attempted to surround Vicksburg, which was defended by a large Confederate
army and many guns, that were in positions that prevented the Union gun-
boats from passing up or down the river, though several barges and boats
loaded with provisions had run by, more than half attempting it being sunk.

No one can conceive of the obstacles that General Grant met with before
he succeeded in surrounding the place. His army was compelled to cross
bayous, lakes, deep ravines, and pass through dense forests and thickets, con-
stantly skirmishing and fighting, as the Confederates were very brave and
desperate; making heroic assaults upon him from the forts, while another
army was sent to attack him in the rear. Seven times he was compelled to
change his plans, fighting five severe battles in eighteen days; yet he was
more determined than ever, and, after struggles that are almost incompre-
hensible, closed in around the doomed city. On May 22d a regular siege
was established and the works completely surrounded, the Union line being
over fifteen miles long. Think of it, my little friends, over fifteen miles to
guard! You can see that it took a great many soldiers to doit. Admiral
Porter had command of the navy, and helped General Grant all he could.
Without him it never could have been taken, as the garrison would have
crossed the river and escaped. The Federals threw up earthworks as they
advanced, placing sand-bags on top of them, and leaving loopholes for their
muskets between them; then put large logs over the whole to protect the men
against sharpshooters, who were busy on both sides picking off every man



burg,” in another part of this book, and learned why the - ;


THE SIEGE OF VICKSBURG. 191



that showed, his head above the works. This continued for many days, the
armies being in some places but a few rods apart. The inhabitants of Vicks-
burg had due caves and holes in the sides of the hills, and were living in them,
where the shells could not reach and kill them. General Grant had 220 guns
in position, and was keeping up a steady firing nearly all of the time, and
Admiral Porter had nearly as many more on board of his ships. Escape was
impossible. Great tunnels were dug from inside the Federal lines under
those of the enemy, and filled with powder which was exploded. One old





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































CITY OF VICKSBURG.’

colored man, who was blown into the air, when asked how far up he went,
replied : : “Dunno, massa; but specs ’bout tree miles.” . After a while provis-
ions and ammunition began to grow short inside the works; all of the cattle
were killed and eaten, then the horses, and finally the’mules. Their com-
mander, seeing they would be starved if they held out much longer, sent Gen-
eral Brown, an old neighbor of General Grant’s before the war, witli a flag of
truce, to discuss the terms of surrender; and on the 4th of July thie place, with
all it contained, surrendered.
192 MRS. MARY A. LIVERMORE,



This was one of the most important events of the war, doing more to bring
it to an end than any other perhaps. But the country knows no North, South,
East or West now. We are all one people, stronger than ever; able to
defend ourselves against the world, if necessary.



20%

MRS. MARY A. LIVERMORE, .






fe" MONG the busy laborers during the war none were
~~ —s more widely or favorably known than Mrs. Livermore,

and her efforts were not relaxed while the need of them

existed.

Mrs. Livermore is ‘a native of Boston, where she
passed her girlhood. At seventeen years of age she
graduated from the Charlestown Female Seminary, and
became a teacher of Latin, French and Italian. She
afterwards married Rev. D. P. Livermore, who is an
editor of a paper published in Chicago, where they now reside. During the
year 1862 Mrs. Livermore visited the army at different points, organizing aid
societies among the women. She was accompanied by her friend, Mrs.
Hoge, and in December they were appointed by the Sanitary Commission to
represent them. They went to Washington, where Mrs. Livermore spent a
day at the camp for convalescents from the hospitals, called “Camp Misery,”
where the suffering from many causes was terrible. Early in the year she
made a tour of the hospitals and military posts along the Mississippi river,
where her receptions were always kind and respectful. It was Mrs. Liver-
more who planned the first fair, which realized almost $100,000 to the Sani-
tary Commission; and in the spring of 1865 she visited the Eastern cities to
obtain aid for another fair, in which she was successful. She visited Wash-
ington to invite President Lincoln and Mrs. Lincoln to the great fair, and was
received most kindly, and they promised to attend; but she never saw him
again alive.

Mrs. Livermore received many valuable presents from different sources;
but the gifts she prized most highly were the inexpensive ones from the
soldiers who had received kindnesses from her. She was the possessor of
fourteen photograph albums, each one containing a frontispiece of the soldier
who presented it. om
PUTNAM’S LEAP.

BOUT the middle of winter while General Putnam was on a visit to his
outpost at Herse-Neck, he found Governor Tryon advancing upon that
town with a corps of 1,500 men. To oppose these General Putnam had only
"150 men, and two iron field-pieces without horses or drag-ropes. However,
he planted his cannon on the high ground, and fired several times, until per-
ceiving the horse (supported by the infantry) about to charge, he ordered the
picket to provide for their safety by retiring to a swamp beyond the reach of
horses, and secured his own by plunging down the steep precipice on a full
trot. This precipice is so steep as to have artificial stairs of nearly one
hundred stone steps. The dragoons stopped, for they dared not follow; and,
before they could gain the valley by going around the hill, he was beyond »
their reach. He continued on to Stamford, where he strengthened his force,
came back, and pursued Governor Tryon. As he rode down the precipice
one ball of the many fired at him went through his beaver, but afterwards
Governor Tryon sent him, as a present, a complete suit of clothes.

20:





Who are the most obedient and most obliging men in the world ?—Auc-
tioneers, because they attend to every one’s bidding.



30%



Ir a man and his wife go to Europe together, what is the difference in their
mode of travelling?—He goes abroad, and she goes along.

——aee Oe

LEARNING TO BE A, SOLDIER.

-â„¢ O you would like to know, my little boys, lots of things about soldiers ?
Well, I cannot tell you everything about them, as you ask me to; but I
will try and tell you what has to be done by a soldier from the time he

joins the army until he is all ready to fight.

Cluster around me, Harry, Frank and Everett. Now you are all fixed
~ nicely, and I know are loaded with questions, which you can fire off at papa
just as fast as you please. ; 2

What does he do first? Well, we will say you are going to be a soldier.
First you sign a roll that the recruiting officer has; he fills out what are
called enlistment papers, and you promise to serve old Uncle Sam, honestly
and faithfully, for three years, or during the war. Then you go to camp,
194 LEARNING TO BE A SOLDIER.















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































where there are a lot of soldiers. The first few days they call you a “raw
recruit,” because you do not know how to do anything right; but you are
put in charge of a corporal, and he takes you out for drill every day until you
are placed in a larger squad, and the sergeant drills you, until you can go’
through the facings—that is, right-face, left-face, about-face; and he teaches
you how to march, keep step and carry yourself like a soldier. As soon as
there are men enough to form a company (say of cavalry, as I know you want
to be a cavalry soldier and ride horseback)—that is, 100, you have to be sworn
or mustered into the United States Army. Then you get your arms. Let
us see what they are: a sabre, carbine and revolver, with belts and cartridge
box. Besides all these, you get your horse; so you have a great deal to do
_to take care of them all, and keep them clean. But I know you will do it, as
you are proud, and want to have your captain say you are a good soldier.
What do you have to do then? Now listen carefully, for 1am going to keep
you very busy. At sunrise every morning the bugle (each company has
two) sounds very loud, so it will awaken every one in camp. F7rst call—and
you jump out of your blankets and get dressed, so as tc: be ready to fall into
line for vol call, when every soldier has to answer to his name, as the orderly-
LEARNING TO BE A SOLDIER. 195



sergeant calls it; and,:as soon as this is over, stable call sounds, and you have
to water, feed, and clean your horse, rubbing him with a curry-comb and
brush, until, when the captain comes and passes his hand over him with a
white glove on, it will not soil the glove; so you see it must be very clean.
Then breakfast call, Oh, how hungry you are! how good that sounds! You
march up in line to the cook’s quarters, with a tin nie in one hand and a tin
cup in the other, and get your coffee and pork, or corn beef or beans, with
the hard tack, that is so hard you sometimes have to break it with a stone.

Well, you can eat until fatzgue call, when part of the men, who have been
.detailed for that duty, have to clean up around camp. This is not pleasant;
and those who have not been good soldiers are often made to do it for pun-
ishment. About quarter of nine the first call for guard mount sounds, when
the old guard, who have protected the camp for twenty-four hours, is relieved
by a new one. You would like to see this, as it is a very pretty, ceremony.
As soon as it is over comes ayil/ call, and you are drilled on foot and taught
how to handle the sabre, carbine and revolver, or, as it is called, the “manual
of arms.” The sabre drill is very pretty, but makes your arm quite tired,
until you have become used to it. After a good long drill, you are marched
back to camp, break ranks, and can rest till noon; then feed and water the
horses again, and when dzzner call sounds, I know you will be on hand, ready
to eat. About 2.30 in the afternoon doots and saddles sounds, and you have to.
saddle your horse, put on your arms, and have mounted drill for about two
hours; then you can rest until time for dvess parade, when all turn out and
march in companies to the place appointed, form a line, and all the buglers of
the regiment march past it playing on their bugles; then the parade is dis-
missed, and your work is over for the day. At 9 o'clock dzaétoo sounds; another
roll-call; after that, ces, which means “ put out lights,” when every light has
to be extinguished, and all turn into their blankets.

Every Sunday forenoon there is “company inspection,” and you must look
very neat and clean. That ends the duties of camp life, and when you have
spent a few monthsat it you are all ready to go into battle, if necessary. No,
this is not all, boys; but all for to-night. Perhaps, one of these days, I will
tell you how one feels when he is in battle. Now, it’s time to go to bed, little
ones. I hope you will never have to be soldiers. You don’t want to be?
Well, Iam glad of it. Kiss Bee dcn’t forget to say your prayers. Good-
night, and happy dreams.

Ta ancient times the cavalry wore coats of mail, and were armed with a

lance, as you will see in the picture.
EDDIE, THE DRUMMER BOY.






a, URING the late war, a few days before one of our
regiments received orders to march, the drummer was-
taken sick and carried to the hospital. The next day
a negro came to the captain, and told him that he knew >
of a drummer he would like in his company, and he
was told to bring him early in the morning.

The next morning a middle-aged woman, leading
a bright-looking boy about twelve or thirteen years
“di old, came to the captain’s quarters. She said her husband had
been killed by the Confederates, and all their property destroyed;
and she thought if she could find something for her boy to do
she could get employment herself. The little fellow looked at
the captain, and said: “Don’t be afraid, captain, because I am
small; Ican drum.” A drum was brought. The fifer came and
played the “ Flowers of Edinboro’,” a difficult thing ; and the little
fellow followed, and showed himself master of the drum.

The captain took the boy, whose name was Edward Lee, and
in an hour after the company marched out of camp playing “The
Ctrl I Left Behind Me.” Eddie was a favorite with all the men,
and always shared in the peaches and melons that were brought
in after a foraging expedition, During a battle a part of the company were
ordered down a deep ravine, where a portion of the enemy were concealed,
and were soon engaged ina fight, in which the enemy were driven to the high
ground, A soldier heard a drum beat, and listening found it came from the
ravine, and knew from the sound that it was the little drummer:boy. The
officer of the guard came up, and he asked permission to go to his help; and,
following the sound, soon found him seated on the ground, his back leaning
against a tree, while his drum hung on a bush in front of him. As soon as
he saw the officer, he said: “ Oh, corporal, I'm so glad to see you. Give me
a drink.” The officer went for some water from a brook, and thinking he was
going to leave him Eddie commenced crying, and said: “Don’t leave me; I
can’t walk.” The officer came back, and found his feet had been shot away by
a cannon-ball. While he was telling him the particulars, a company of the
enemy came upon them, and they were taken prisoners. When they reached
the camp the little fellow was dead. -t) 2
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.

HE battle of Waterloo, which was fought, June 18, 1815, between the
allied armies of England and Germany on the one side, and the French
~ army on the other, was undoubtedly the most decisive battle of modern
times, as it placed in retirement for life the master-mind of all Europe (Napo-
leon), and proved to. the world that-no one man, however able and powerful,
could rule all the nations of Europe. The picture shows the march of
Blucher, commander of the Prussian forces, with his army on the way to the
battle-field. A short sketch of this great battle may prove of interest to our
little readers and hearers:

Napoleon, who had been banished to the Island of Elba the previous year
by the combined armies of Europe, had escaped from there, and taken the
government of France in his hands again with the hearty approval of the
French people, who received him with great joy, even carrying him into the
palace in Paris on their shoulders. All of the other European powers imme-
diately declared war, taking the most solemn oaths never to sheathe the sword
till Napoleon ceased to live or reign, thus forcing him to resort to arms how-
ever much he might desire peace. Determined to attack them before they
could enter and devastate France, an army of 120,000 men crossed the border
into Belgium, and, June 14, we find him facing an army of 223,000 men—Eng-
lish, Belgians and Prussians principally—commanded by Wellington and
Blucher, two of the most renowned soldiers of Europe. After thrée days’
manceuvring he succeeded in dividing their armies, that he might attack them
separately ; andthe morning of the 18th finds him in a position nearly between
the divided armies and facing that of Wellington, which he hoped to destroy
before they could unite again. At eleven o’clock in the forenoon the battle
began by a terrific assault of the French, which was met with the firmness
that is characteristic of the English soldier. Again and again this was
repeated; advantages being gained, then lost, by both armies; each suffering
terribly from the repeated infantry assaults, impetuous charges of cavalry, and
heavy artillery fire, losing some of their best and most gallant officers.

But the squares of the English and Dutch infantry could not be broken,
Though the French cavalry rushed down and down upon them like a series of
avalanches, they stood as solid as a rock defying their assailants. Thus the
day was spent, blood flowing like water over that vast plain, until it was evi-
. dent the English could not resist the French a great while longer, no matter
how brave they might be, as their ranks were being fearfully reduced. At
198 THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.



7.30 in the evening Napoleon determined to make one more general assault,
when he discovered the enemy were being reinforced by the Prussians, who
were pouring in like a torrent upon his right. Yet he didnot despair, though:
the combined armies now outnumbered him at least 50,000, and ordered a
charge of the “ Guard,” the flower of his army. Alas! they were driven back
with shattered columns, their gallant charges accomplishing nothing. At this
moment Wellington sees his opportunity, advances his whole line, and crushes
everything before him. The French army is in full retreat. Napoleon
remained with the Old Guard, until it was evident that he would be captured
if he stayed longer, when he was persuaded to leave the field. The rout was
complete ; 30,000 men and nearly all of the artillery were lost, and Napoleon .
returned to Paris, from where he was again banished for life to St. Helena.
Such was the battle of Waterloo. .

A few facts regarding the two cominanders who won the battle of Waterloo
may be of interest: The Duke of Wellington, or, as he was generally called,
“The Iron Duke,” was born in Ireland in 1769, the same year that Napoleon
was born. His first army service was in Holland. From there he was sent
to India, where he distinguished himself greatly. In 1809 he was given com-
mand of the English and Portuguese armies in Spain and Portugal ; won many
battles from the French; and was made Field-Marshal of England and Duke
of Wellington. His fighting abilities have been described in the above ac-
count of the battle of Waterloo. When Napoleon was sent to St. Helena he
was placed in command of the troops guarding Paris, remaining there for
three years; then returned to England, where he died in 1852. The British ©
nation honored him with many titles, and millions of dollars. Honorable,
upright, firm and sagacious, his devotion to duty made him a great man.

Field-Marshal Blucher was a German; twenty-seven years older than Wel-
lington or Napoleon; serving early in life in the army of “Frederick the
Great,” where his obstinacy and quarrelsome disposition kept him constantly.
in trouble. He resigned his commission, and became, like General Grant, a
farmer; but in 1793 he returned to a soldier’s life, and fought the French as
colonel of hussars. In 1806 he was made lieutenant-general, and was cap-
tured by Napoleon, exchanged shortly after, and became the leader of the
Prussian and Russian armies. He never admitted himself whipped, and,
though his army in several engagements was almost destroyed, the next day
saw him again in the field ready for fighting. He saved Wellington from
defeat at Waterloo. Rough and uneducated, he was the only German com-
mander who never feared Napoleon. —


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S MARCH TO WATERLOO.

BLUCHER’
A NARROW ESCAPE,



AMUEL CAMPBELL was taken prisoner by the In-
dians, during the Revolutionary War, near the white
settlements in one of the border counties of Pennsyl-
vania. He was marched through the wilderness to
the head-quarters of the savages near Fort Niagara,
where he was recognized as having escaped, with two
others, the year before, from his guard, five of whom
he killed in their sleep. When the savages made
this discovery their countenances became dark and

lowering, and he saw at once what his fate would be, but
tried to seem unconcerned.

The Indians went by themselves to decide how they should
put him to death. When they came back, a few went to
gathering wood, another selected a spot, and a fire was soon
kindled. Campbell saw all these preparations, and, though
his feelings were wrought up to the highest pitch, he ap-
peared calm and collected. At last two Indians began to
loosen the cords which bound him. The moment he was
loose he dashed the two Indians aside, knocking one down
with a blow of his fist, and started on a run towards the fort,
where he hoped to be protected by the British officers.
Tomahawks flew in the air after him, rifle-balls whistled around, but he flew
on. An Indian tried to intercept him, but he struck him in the breast with
his feet, which bore him to the earth. He started again for the woods, and,
as he was running for life, he soon gained on his enemies; and, as it was near
night, he made his escape, reached the fort, and was sent down the river to
Montreal.


















308

I came to a field, and couldn’t get through it;
So I went to school, and learned how to do it.—Fence.

I was made to be eaten, and not to be drank;

To be husked in a barn, not soaked in a tank.

I come as a blessing when put in a mill,

As a blight and a curse when run thro’ a still—Corn.
THE BATTLE OF THE WILDERNESS. -



fy Yl
Vig

‘ex the sth of May, 1864, General Grant, who had been preparing for a
move early in the spring, and had collected as fine an army of about
100,000 men as the world had ever seen, began his march across the Rapidan
river, in Virginia, into what is known as the Wilderness—a section so densely
wooded that one can see but a few feet from him in any direction. His object
was the taking of Richmond. General Lee, with an army of about 80,000
men, had been awaiting a movement of this kind. ‘They were full of courage,
thoroughly disciplined, and, like their opponents, as brave men as the sun
ever shone upon. The morning was a bright and cheerful one, just such a
day as our little friends love to go out into the woods and gather wild flowers,
when the two armies came in sight of each other, and almost immediately the
battle began. Corps, divisions, brigades and regiments charged each other
with a ferocity more like tigers than men. First the Federals were in full
retreat; but they soon recovered, and with the most desperate charges known
in history bounded down upon the Confederates, who could not stand their
assaults, and also retreated. Whole divisions of Federal troops were cut
off from their supports, and would have been captured entire had the enemy
‘been able to discover their position, but nothing could be seen in this dense


THE BATTLE OF THE WILDERNESS. 203



wilderness, All day long the battle raged in this manner till night ended the
conflict, and the exhausted soldiers lay upon their arms, after reforming their
line of battle for a renewal of the fight on the following day. General Grant
had given orders to attack at six o’clock in the morning; but General Lee
opened the battle even earlier, and the most terrific engagement of modern
times began. Artillery could not be used to advantage in this terrible wilder-
ness; it was a battle where muskets alone could be made to do the awful
work. The Confederates with a wild rush break through the Federal lines,
‘driving a whole division out of their breastworks, and occupying them for a
few moments; but heroes met on that fiercely-fought field, and once more the
Union army, with a wild yell, charge like demons, drive their opponents like
sheep out of their works, past their original line of battle, through their
breastworks, in wild confusion. General Longstreet, one of the bravest and
greatest of Lee’s veteran soldiers, was badly wounded by his own men, who
poured a volley upon him, thinking him to be a Union officer. Again and
again the troops on both sides were rallied, charged and counter-charged, and
the slaughter was so great that even now the ground over which this engage-
ment was fought is spoken of as the “Slaughter Pen.” About four in the
afternoon the woods caught fire, and thousands of wounded were burned to
death. The soldiers on both sides carried as many as possible of their
wounded off in blankets slung to their muskets, yet the number who escaped
in this manner was very small compared with those who were left to the fire.
Night came at last; neither side had gained a victory, and both armies fell
back into their entrenchments. This ended the battle of the Wilderness, as
nothing but skirmishing occurred the next day. Thirty thousand men were
killed, wounded and missing in this most terrific battle fought between the
North and South. All are united now, warmer and truer friends than ever
before,



30:



How many soft-boiled eggs could a Wuar proof have we that Adam
giant eat upon an empty stomach ?— | used sugar?—We know he raised
One only. cane (Cain).

Why is a poor singing society like Why is a dishonest bankrupt like
a popular amusement?—It is a “dass | an honest poor man?—Both fail to
bawl” club. ; get rich,

Wuart relation to its father is a A GENTLEMAN had five sons, and
child who is not its father’s son?— | each of them had a sister, how many
His daughter. children had he in all ?—Six.
“OLD SPECTACLES”—A WAR STORY.
a
WISH I could take my young readers back to the time
the following incident occurred, for they would enjoy it as
much as a whole regiment then did; but it was so long
before they were born, that by no possible effort of.
mine could they be carried back except in imagination.
The story may accomplish that. I hope it will. In
September, 1862, our regiment of cavalry, then leading
the advance of the army—which, with the exception of
é -a small force with us, was several miles in the rear—
was pounced upon by the Confederates as a hawk would pounce upon its.
prey, without a minute’s warning, but not with the success that usually attends
the hawk; for they did not carry us off, though it must be acknowledged that
they captured quite a number of our boys, who in return paid them, with
interest, by making one of the most vigorous charges that it has ever been
my fortune to witness; and, after getting them started, followed them some
distance, bringing down a great many horses, and in several instances the
poor fellow on the horse. The truth is, it was a matter of life and death, and
in war some one has to be killed, as you are aware. The amusing part of
the story now begins. We picked up a good many prisoners; in some in-
stances a single soldier bringing in five or six who had lost their arms, had
their horses killed, or were without ammunition. Noticing a sergeant about
running a sabre through a prisoner who had squatted on the ground, I called
him by name, and ordered him to desist. Riding up, I found an old man, with
a face and head resembling the patriarchs pictured in your family Bible,
wearing an enormous pair of spectacles, which seemed to have been made by
the blacksmith of his town, they were so large and clumsy. The sergeant
had taken him prisoner, but the moment he attempted to move him to the
rear he would drop on the ground, and declare that he would not go. As he
expressed it, “He was a Confederate, and wouldn’t move or run.” Calling
another soldier, I ordered them to catch him by the coat-collar, one on each
side, and start for the rear at a gallop. Raising the old fellow off the ground,
they started at full speed, he shouting at the top of his voice to drop him,
kicking in all directions like an army mule, as he swung back and forth
between the horses during the gallop. Reaching the regiment, which had
again formed in line, he was dropped on the ground like a sack of corn, still
crying at the top of his lung-power, which seemed'to be enormous, “Let me


A FEARLESS HEROINE, 905



alone; I wont be taken prisoner,” and keeping it up for several minutes.
Such a roar of laughter as went up along the line. I shall never forget it.

The appearance of the old man was ludicrous in the extreme: his hat was
gone; his coat had been pulled up over his head by his struggles, and twisted
in curious shapes; he was covered with dust and dirt, and his spectacles hung
like the broken hinges of a door. They had slipped down over his nose,
under his chin, and the heavy bows were still clinging to his great ears. The
soldiers named him “Old Spectacles.” If he is still living, he must surely
laugh at the remembrance of the antics he cut up on that day, whenever he
recalls them. None of my old comrades will ever forget it, nor would my
little readers, had they been there.





A FEARLESS HEROINE.





ee

% ab Harmon, a, pupil of Miss Shields, “lived with her
Cae ‘aunt about a mile west of the village, on Oak or
‘SHR Seminary Ridge. During the fighting the first day

their house was occupied by the Union sharp-
shooters, who fired upon the Confederates from it.

Reet
"2 a Confederates, whe ordered the family to leave it,
: # as they were about to burn it in consequence of
I" its having been used as a fort. Miss Harmon and her aunt pro-



rdiliveéye tested against this, explaining that it was not done with their
Py ecZesy S

A wy; consent. The young lady added that her mother was a Southern

mi a woman, and one of the Confederates approached her, and told


would see what could be done. “Never! Burn the house, if

“dh
z | wy you will! I will never do that while the Union, which has pro-
& 2) -’ tected me and my friends, exists.” “The Confederates fired upon
Oe the house, and the brave girl and her aunt ran the gauntlet -*

both armies, and reached the home of friends.



30:



Wnuat is the opposite to “love in a cottage ?”—-War in a “shantee.”
CAPTURING HIS OWN FATHER.



ANY incidents of the late war will be of great interest
to the sons and daughters of those who participated,
particularly when they realize that, in many instances,
father was fighting against son and brother against
brother ; not because there was any ill-feeling between
them, but simply because one had made his home in
the North, while the other had gone South, become
one of her people and believed in her institutions ; and
each was willing to fight for what he considered right.
A case of this kind came under the observation of

s the writer. A well-known Louisiana planter and con-

tractor, whose family originally came from Pennsylvania, had a son in that
State being educated in the town where he was born; he having been sent
there by his father when a boy, and remained until the war came on, The
feeling was intensely strong throughout the North that every young man
should serve his country. To him the North was home, and he enlisted in a
Pennsylvania regiment, served with it in the Army of the Potomac for about a
year, then found his way to New Orleans, where he was commissioned as a
first lieutenant in one of the Federal regiments. Often he would laughingly
remark: “One of these days I will bring my father in asa prisoner,” know-
ing that his father was serving in a Confederate regiment. The writer was.
absent one day on a foraging expedition, trying to secure corn for the horses,
when a mounted cavalryman approached him at a full run, saying the Confed-
erates were “about to attack the camp; hurry in with the wagons.” Imme-
diately the mules were started at full speed. Men were placed in the wagons
to throw out the corn, and had nearly emptied them when we came in sight
of camp. The enemy struck us as we had about half-loaded the wagons with
the property belonging to the several companies, and their drivers started for
the rear in as lively a manner as can be imagined. The Confederates came
down like an avalanche, making prisoners of two entire regiments of infantry.
The cavalry were formed in line of battle, and ordered to charge them, which
they did in good style. None was more conspicuous than our young Penn-
sylvania friend. Brave and daring, he was in the thickest of the fight. Half
an hour after the regiment was falling back into their old position bringing a
good number of prisoners, he among them hurrying forward a middle-aged

- Confederate soldier. Bringing him before the writer, he said: “I told you I
CAPTURING HIS OWN FATHER. 207

told you I would capture my father; here he is.” True enough, they had
come upon each other. Each had endeavored to shoot his opponent, until
the younger killed the elder’s horse, and, riding down upon him to shoot again
if he would not surrender, his father recognized him, and shouted: “Stop!
Stop! I am your father!” To make the story short, he was paroled, and
allowed to remain in our camp until exchanged. The son urged him to go
North and leave his Confederate comrades. He replied: “No, this is my
home;; I will do my duty, and you do yours.” When the time for leaving his
son arrived, he took the young man in his arms, and the scene was very
affecting, bringing tears to many eyes. ‘Good-bye, Tommy,” he said, “ good-
bye; do your duty; each of us thinks he is doing right. I hope to see you
when the war is over.” The son was wounded the following day, but recov-
ered, and may be alive to-day. This is but one of the many thousand inci-
dents, strange and interesting, that occurred during the terrible war which
made all free in our glorious country.





20:

LirrLe Robin Redbreast sat upon a tree—

Up went the Pussy Cat, and down went he;

Down came Pussy Cat, away Robin ran—

Says little Robin Redbreast—catch me if you can.
Little Robin Redbreast jumped upon a wall,

Pussy Cat jumped after him, and got a little fall.

Little Robin chirped and sung, and what did Pussy say ?

Pussy Cat said mew, mew, mew—and Robin flew away.





203

Why is your shadow like a false Way is the map of Europe like a
friend ?—It follows you only in sun- | Thanksgiving table?— There is a

shine. Turkey on it.



20;



[To be read rapidly.]

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper ;
A peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked ;
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper,
Where’s the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked?
A NIGHT ON THE PICKET-LINE,

Ee was an exceedingly dark, cold and disagreeable
night in October, 1863. The rain was pouring in
searching torrents, penetrating even our great rubber-
coats, finding its way down inside the collars that were
turned up to prevent it, and running in uncomfortable
little rivulets down our backs, until our feet were soaked
and our heavy cavalry-boots were filled to the tops,
gu chilling us through and through, Nota fire was allowed
ey along the entire line, to aid those who were not out on
duty in keeping dry and warm. How my bones ache
! now! and a shiver passes through me as I recall that
dismal, dreary night and that line of vedettes (which is,
‘ my little friends, the advance, or extreme rear-line of the
army, picketed or guarded by cavalrymen) extending ten
4 miles on the open plain, over which, as commander, it
was my duty to ride once in the daytime, shortly before
midnight, and again just before daybreak, making sixty
miles in the three rounds. Taking a squad of men in
charge of a sergeant, and starting at a sharp gallop, the
ground was soon gone over in the daylight; but on
such a night as this, when the hand passed before the
€ eyes could not be seen, yet note the position of every
' sentry on the line, see that he was attending to his duty,
i and was alert and watchful, was not an easy or pleas-
ant task, drenched as we were to the skin, and chilled to .
* the very marrow.
You are certainly a great deal more comfortable in
\ \ your warm beds; and we used often to think of happy
uo" childhood’s hours, and wish them back again, that we
might nestle under warm coverlids and hear the “ good- night” of boyhood, as
mothers left us. As the enemy’s picket-line was but a few hundred yards
distant, orders had been given to our men not to challenge (as is usual), but
to fire at any one approaching from the outside, thus making the ride ina
night so black over that long line extremely dangerous, as the story will show.
We had passed the entire length of the line, almost by instinct keeping inside
our vedettes, though nothing could possibly be seen of them until we were























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































H AAA
Mt HM MTN a
A NIGHT ON THE PICKET-LINE. . 209







close upon them, and had covered about one-half the distance on the return,
congratulating ourselves on finding some kind of shelter very soon, however
slight it might be, quite happy in the thought that nearly forty miles had been
ridden, and but twenty more remained before we should be relieved by another
regiment, when we were aroused from this pleasant frame of mind by a sharp
“ping,” and the sergeant’s horse dropped dead, dragging him to the ground
as he plunged, staggered, and fell. Halting an instant to assist him, we heard
him shout cheerfully through the dense blackness of the night: “All right;
only the horse killed,’ and in
another instant he had. jumped
upon the horse of acomrade. But"
we had hardly moved a rod when
“zip,” and another horse, the very
one carrying two, has been struck,
and is plunging to keep his feet,
then drops like a stone. Looking
in the direction of the discharge,
we find it is not the enemy who is
playing such havoc with our horses,
but our own vedette. We have
galloped outside of the line, and
he is obeying orders and firing at
everythi