Citation
The pictorial cabinet of marvels

Material Information

Title:
The pictorial cabinet of marvels comprising marvels of natural phenomena; wonders of art; daring deeds by land and sea; marvellous discoveries and inventions; wonders and curiosities of natural history; remarkable men; personal adventures in field and flood; and a variety of other interesting reading
Creator:
Weir, Harrison, 1824-1906 ( Illustrator )
Frederick Warne and Co ( Publisher )
Butler and Tanner ( Printer )
Selwood Printing Works ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London ;
New York
Publisher:
Frederick Warne & Co.
Manufacturer:
Butler and Tanner ; Selwood Printing Works
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
508 p., [8] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Curiosities and wonders -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
World history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Science -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Physical sciences -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Geography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Discoveries in science -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Discoveries in geography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Inventions -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Biography -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) -- England -- 1891 ( rbbin )
Prize books (Provenance) -- 1891 ( rbprov )
Bldn -- 1891
Genre:
Pictorial cloth bindings (Binding) ( rbbin )
Prize books (Provenance) ( rbprov )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
England -- Frome
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
"History, science, discovery, travel and adventure, natural history, invention"--Half-title page.
Statement of Responsibility:
embellished with upwards of one hundred and twenty first-class wood engravings, by eminent English and foreign artists; and a series of natural history plates, beautifully printed in oil colours, from paintings by Harrison Weir.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026646450 ( ALEPH )
ALG4714 ( NOTIS )
191100926 ( OCLC )

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Full Text








INTERIOR OF



ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL.





















j a
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YORK:
NDON AND NEW
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INT



See paye 347

D CO.
ARNE AN
EDERICK WARN
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30

bone of this same animal was exhumed,
and found to measure a little over four feet.
A part of the femur of another animal has
been found, measuring six feet, but some-
what lighter than the others. The vertebra
are three feet six inches in elevation, show-
ing a very tall but not so heavy a brute as
the Camarasuras. When found, it was
lying on the right side, with vertebree and

of Bapiad surrounded on
three sides by the sea, stands
a rough, rugged promontory,
about eighty miles in length,
whose extreme western ter-
minus is appropiately named
Land’s End. Stretching
along the western coast of
Land’s End for three or four
eh miles, is the mining district of
oe St. Just, long celebrated for
the peculiar position of its mines, among per-
pendicular rocks, and extending far beneath
the sea. The village of St. Just is about
seven miles from Penzance—a town of
note in Cornwall—and commands a fine
view of the British Channel. All around,
the land is barren and the scenery wild ;
and towards the cliffs of Botallack it grows
wilder and more barren. Here, on a shore
exposed to the full fury of the ocean, and
among steep granite cliffs, towering to a
height of more than sixty feet above the
water, is the famous Botallack Mine—per-
haps the most wonderful in all the world.
Looking up from the sea, upon the very
summit of the craggy cliff, you catch
glimpses of various apparatus, almost over-
hanging the restless waters. The gloomy
precipices of slate and granite, which have
successfully defied the ocean waves, are cut
into winding pathways, broken up by mining
tools, and dotted with all manner of com-





THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

ribs of that side in place, the ribs measur-
ing over six feet in length, and the prongs
where they join the back fifteen inches
in width. Many of the bones of the Cama-
rasuras are misplaced and broken up,
quite a pile being found at the spot where
several of the teeth of the trihedrodon were
discovered, thus indicating the preying of
the other.

plicated machinery. Smoking chimneys and
puffing engines indicate a hidden power;
chains and pulleys lead to unknown depths;
on one side of the cliffs, tall ladders enable
the miners to ascend—and a sure foot and
a strong head must be needful to tread those
ladders, round by round, with the roaring
sea beneath! ‘The entrance to the Botal-
lack mine is near the foot of one of the
lofty, jutting cliffs ; but it is no easy matter
from the heights, to gain even the mouth of
the shaft; and to descend perpendicularly
into the dark abyss, hundreds of feet below
the level of the sea, and horizontally thou-
sands of feet beneath the bottom of the
ocean, requires not a little firmness of nerve
and power of endurance.

The workings of the Botallack Mine—
long famous for its tin ores, more recently
for copper—are extended between one and
two thousand feet below the ocean level,
and from the depths of the land, galleries
have been carried out under the depths of
the sea not less than 2,300 feet. Such
submarine burrowing is wonderful and
romantic. That men can labour in dark
caverns, under the rolling ocean, digging
mineral wealth from rocks above which
waves are dashing in storm-driven fury, is
marvellous. Even in fine weather, the
rattling of pebbles with the swell of the
ocean can be heard in the caverns of the
mine, with greater distinctness than on the
beach itself; and during heavy storms the













30 | THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



headed figure, eighteen feet high, represent-
ing the Hindoo Trinity above mentioned—
z¢., Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Pre-
server, and Shiva the Destroyer. To the
right. and left are the small caves, where
are various sculptures and representations
of Shiva: such as his marriage, the deity in
his double character of male and female, as
the Destroyer, as the Ascetic, etc., besides
numerous other sculptured illustrations of.
Hindoo mythology. One design bears so
great an affinity to the story of Solomon’s
judgment, that we are half tempted to
believe it records that most Oriental deci-
sion: a not very improbable conjecture,
either, when we remember how deeply his
memory is still reverenced in the East, as
the chief of. magicians and hero of all
miraculous deeds.

In addition to this there are several other,
but less important, caves on the island. In
the course of his trip to India, the Prince







¢ 5 moncst the greatest curio-
e\( \ sities of the American Con-
\/ tinent are the gigantic trees
ie found in the Mariposa Valley
& in the State of California.
A recent traveller graphi-
cally describes his visit to
them :—
“The road led through a
vast forest, with a dense
3 undergrowth of flowering
é shrubs which made the air
heavy with their fragrance. The pines
and redwood, which had been increasing
in size ever since we left the plain, now
assumed gigantic proportions. Again and
again as I approached some forest giant,
I asked, ‘Is that one of the big trees?’
But it- was only a redwood, attaining not
more than the contemptible height of two
hundred feet! At length the grove was
reached, and -all that I had heard of these







of Wales paid a visit to this remarkable
spot. After inspecting the interior of the
largest cave, which was lighted with pyra
mids of oil lamps arranged in three lines,
and various chandeliers, the Prince dined
at a table placed just beneath the bust of
the huge three-headed idol, upon whom the
sacrilegious hands of unbelievers had fixed
innumerable lamps. Notwithstanding the
thousands of lights, a dim religious gloom
pervaded the cave, and the effect is de-
scribed as grimly theatrical. After viewing.
the two smaller caves by the light of green
and red fires, the Prince left the temple and
re-embarked. Outside was a blaze of light;.
on the top of the hill gleamed a huge
bonfire and fireworks, lines of white, red,
blue, and green lamps led down the sides,
while the ships in the harbour were illumi
nated from stem to stern, and saluted the
royal steamer as she passed with portfires
and thousands of rockets,

WONDERFUL TREES.

monarchs of the forest fell short of the
reality. For their size I was prepared, but
their beauty took me by surprise. The
lines of the trunk reminded me of those of
the modern lighthouses,—a broad base,.
from which rises an exquisitely tapering.
shaft, perfectly smooth and straight, to a
height of two hundred or two hundred and
fifty feet, when a vast crown of .branches is
thrown out, many of which are as big as
an ordinary tree. Unlike the redwood, to.
which they are allied, they only grow in
detached clumps or groves. Their Aadztat
is on terraces varying from five to seven
thousand feet above the level of the sea.
The scientific name by which these trees.
have been known in England is Wellingtonia
gigantea, This, however, seems to have
been given in mistake, under the errqneous
idea that they formed anew species. Really
they are a variety of the redwood or Seguota,

| which grows abundantly and attains an



WONDERFUL TREES, 3?

immense height on the mountain ranges of

California. :
“The most important of the trees are

mamed and numbered,—the Mother of the.

Forest, the Three Graces, Maid of Honour,
Daniel Webster, Richard Cobden, Henry
Ward Beecher, and so on. One, which has
fallen and lies pointing to the south, is
called after Andrew Johnson, the late ex-
President of the United States, on account
of his southern. proclivities.” The tallest
tree actually measured is the Keystone
State, which is three hundred and _ twenty-
five feet high. One tree, numbered three
hundred and thirty, was originally over one
hundred feet in circumference at the base.
Another, though one ‘side has been burnt
away, still measures ninety-three feet round
the base. A calculation of the age of the
trees, by counting the annual rings, was
‘made by the Geological Survey. Having
selected one which was deemed suitable
for the purpose, it was felled by means of
augers and wedges, a task which occupied
five men for twenty-two days. The stump,
at six. feet from the ground, had a circum-
ference of about ninety feet. A very care-
ful counting of the rings, gave its probable
age as one thousand years. As this tree
was in full vigour, it may be fairly assumed
that those which show signs of decay are
much older.”

The following is the account of another
traveller who came upon these monsters of
the forest more suddenly :—

“Sure enough there stood a red-barked
monster dwarfing the large trunks among
which it grew, as a full-grown tree does a
crowd of saplings. Where were our pines,
with their eighteen feet girth, by the side of
2 giant some one hundred feet round, breast
high! Of course, the great size of the ordinary
forest timber in which these huge growths are
found, takes off from their immense propor-



would show like the Eddystone Lighthouse.
It was hard to realize that what we saw were
trees. Their trunks, when we stood close
to them, had almost the appearance of
artificial structures. One that had fallen
was hollow, and had been broken by its
fall. We rode into the break, and through
the prostrate fragments, as if it had been a
tunnel. We climbed upon the trunk of
another, also fallen, and when I had step-
ped fifty-five yards along it, I measured its
circumference, and found it to be over
twenty-five feet. Thus, with its bark on,—
it had been stripped,—it would have been
at least some thirty feet in girth, at a height
of one hundred and seventy feet from the
ground, But these were not the largest
that we saw. The bark of these trees is
red, and nearly a foot thick. . It lies on the
trunk, in rough longitudinal ridges like
huge muscles, but so soft that with my
pocket-knife I cut off two great trunks
from a portion which had been detached
and lay upon the ground. The branches
are short, and spring mainly from the upper
part of the tree. The foliage is scant in
proportion to the trunk, and the cones no
bigger than plovers’ eggs. The tree itself
is said to be a species of cedar; but it
spends its strength in growing more wood
than leaves. There are about six hundred
of these cedars, of different sizes, some
being comparatively small, in the Mariposa
groups. I do not know the greatest height
reached by any one of these, but in another
grove, the altitude of one is found to be
three hundred and thirty-five feet ; and there
also, a fallen trunk can be ridden through
on horseback for a distance of twenty-five
yards.”

It is only necessary to add that as these
trees are now carefully protected by the
United States Government, they are likely
to remain for ages to gratify the curiosity

tions ; but if one were set upon a plain, it | of the traveller.



38

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





divine,” nature sometimes
makes sad mistakes. Occa-
sionally two persons are so
united in bodily structure as
to be inseparable. The most
remarkable instance of’ this
peculiarity is in the case of
the well-known Siamese Twins.
These men, named respective-
ly Chang and Eng, were born
in May, 1811. They were of
short stature, Eng being 5 ft. 24 ins. high ;
Chang being about an inch shorter. They
had excellent health throughout life, and



possessed good muscular development. The |

band that united them sprang originally
from the lower portion of each breastbone,
and kept them face to face ; but their efforts
during childhood to attain a more con-

vertient position, produced some bending |

of the structures concerned, so that they
stood shoulder to shoulder, in which posi-
tion they usually crossed their adjacent
arms behind each other’s backs. When
necessary, however, as at meals, they could
bring both arms forward without inconveni-
ence. The band itself was about four inches
in length, and more than seven inches in
circumference in the centre, and rather
more than three inches deep at its junction
with each body. The nerves of each brother
passed a little beyond the middle of the
band, so that a touch was felt by both over
a central portion about an inch in width,
beyond that portion only by the brother
who was touched. The blood vessels in like
manner communicated, but there was no
interchange of blood between the two ; and
experiments showed that chemical agents
introduced into one body had no appre-
ciable effects upon the other. The hearts
of the two brothers were distinct, and even

|



CURIOUS FREAKS Of NATURE.
THE SIAMESE TWINS.

N fashioning the “ human form | somewhat unlike, and the respiration was

wholly independent of each other. Their
mental operations were entirely distinct too,
and in playing chess against an adversary,
they consulted one another about the next
move. ‘Their original resemblance, the
necessities of their position, and the fact
that their experiences must have been
absolutely identical through life, combined
to bring them into an extraordinary degree
of concord in thought and action ; but into
no greater degree than may be thus ac-
counted for. It was plainly their study,
and became their second nature, to act in
harmony in all things. They moved as if
by one impulse and without verbal com-
munication, and rarely talked to each other.
But each would feel the other’s impulse to-
move before a bystander could detect it.
They took pleasure in all sports that could
be pursued in concord. They took no
pleasure in sports that would place them
in opposition, as in playing games of chance
or skill against each other, although per-
fectly capable of playing such if they cared .
for them. ‘These interesting twins died a
few years ago, within an hour of each other.

Among the most remarkable twins united
after the fashion of the Siamese, and who
have survived their birth, were two girls
described by Dr. Berry, who lived to be
seven years old. The drawing which he
gives of them shows them to have been
healthy, good-looking, and active. Food
taken by the one, nourished the other ; but
they were different in character, and one
sometimes woke while the other slept.

Of twins who have lived united back to
back, the best known instance is that of two
Hungarian sisters, Helen and Judith; they
were born in 1701, and died at Presburg,
in 1723, aged twenty-three. Some disorders
they had separately ; others, as measles or



SUREF-RIDING

IN HAWATI. 39



small-pox, together. Judith sank under dis-
ease of the head and chest. Helen, who
preserved her health well till the last, felt
her own strength suddenly fail, and after a
brief struggle, she died also. Sir James
Simpson saw, in 1856, two female children,
Amelia and Christina, then five years old,

united exactly as Helen and Judith. They
were born in South Carolina. Although

united back to back and completely fused,
they were very different in disposition.
When they quarrelledmore bitterly than
usual, they backed at each other with their
elbows. They ran and walked with facility,
one backwards and the other forwards ;
and, notwithstanding their partial com-
munity of body, one was sometimes seen
to eat while the other was almost asleep.





2. ue Hawaiian’s wonderful feat
of surfriding has become

swim, sometimes before he
can walk, he is a perfectly
amphibious creature. The
children play for hours at a
time in the surf ; indeed, it is
difficult to say how long a
Hawaiian could remain in the
water. On the papa-hee-nalu,
or surfboard, the native will
surmount billow after billow with wonderful
dexterity ; standing, sitting, or lying at full
length on a plank (about six feet long and
two feet wide, with rounded corners) he
rides old Ocean’s huge billows as easily as
the jockey rides his horse.

The harbour of Hilo is well adapted for
the sport. Its beach is a mile and a half
long, and lies in a semi-circle ; upon it the
breakers’ roar is deafening, and in a storm,
the waves pound upon it with appalling fury.

Taking definite shape far from land, they
sweep across the bay, leaping as they fly,
and tossing spray from their crests. No
craft nor human being could live a moment
in such a sea, one would say; and yet it
was with just such a sea running that all
Hilo turned out to see the surf-riders, for
the rougher the sea the finer the sport.
Depositing their clothing upon the sand-
bank, the bathers plunged into the surf.
For the privilege of coming in upon a wave,

SURF-RIDING



IN) HAWAII.

they must swim far out beyond the line of
breakers, and this a native dces with
the utmost ease by simply diving under
each wave. A wave never retards his out-
ward progress nor gives him an unexpected
slap in the face.

We watched the heads appear and dis-
appear with every approaching roller, and
the rapidity with which the natives swam
out against the incoming sea was wonderful.
It seemed no effort whatever; and yet the
wind was blowing a gale, and ships in the
harbour could hardly hold their anchorage.

At from half a mile to two miles away
the surfriders turned their faces shoreward
and “ lay-to.” One after another enormous
billows came plunging along, under which
the swimmer disappeared only to reappear
and wait for a larger; for only the largest
and most turbulent wave gives one a fair
start and carries its passenger to the shore.

And now comes a “comber,” tearing
through the water like an infuriated animal.
Atashort distance the native sees it, and
instantly he is transfigured: every fibre of
his being is alive with the intensity of the
moment. He is like a cat watching its
prey, for he must. make as instantaneous
a spring, to be caught and borne along by
that ingoing swell : one second too late and
it will drop him behind. Just as it begins
to curl above his head and he feels its lift-
ing force, there is a motion, quick as light-
ning, and our surf-rider is lying full-length



40 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS,



on his board, head downward, in front of
the wave, and travelling at the rate of forty
miles an hour. Wh inconceivable dexte-
rity he keeps his papa-hee-nalu in position ;
always in front of the wave, and pointed
well downward, he is propelled by the
pressure upon the underside of the board.
The wave in its progress picks up passen-
ger after passenger, and as it approaches the
shore, fairly hurling its daring riders forward,
the wild enthusiasm of the spectators breaks
forth in ringing huzzahs; the shouts almost
drown the roar of the surf; and how the
wild scene makes one’s blood tingle! The
uninitiated grow breathless with suspense,



for they expect to see the natives dashed
upon the beach by the breaking wave, more
dead than alive. Not at all! The latter
seem to know by instinct when the billow will
topple over, and that moment they bring
their papa-hee-nalus into a horizontal posi-
tion and drop behind it, and when the’
mountain of “cruel, crawling foam” has
spent itself at your feet, the surf-riders are
several yards out to sea again. If in need
of rest, they take it in the water, coming ta
land when the day’s sport is over. They
land high and dry with an incoming wave—
always without accident, though completely
submerged by the breaker.





HE gorges in the
= mountains of the
eastern states of
Americaare called
cafions, and some
of them are of
2 immense propor-

tions. One of these, the “ Royal
Gore ” of the Grand Cafion of
the river Arkansas, in Colorado,
is thus described :



pereades the scene—the height is so great
that the water below one is as polished
metal, and as stationary as the mighty walls
which look down upon them from such a
fearful eminence. Fairly awed into a bra-
vado as reckless as it is strange to us, we
crawl out upon tottering ledges to peer into
sheer depths of untold ruggedness ; we grasp
with death-like clutch some over-hanging
limb, and swing out upon a promontory be-
side which the apex of the highest cathedral
spire in the world would be a sapling in
height. If our first experience upon the
brink of the Grand Cajion was startling, this is
absolutely terrifying, and the bravest at the
one point become most abject of cowards
in comparison at the other. At the first

“The solemn stillness of death.



A WONDERFUL PRECIPICE.

point of observation, the walls, though
frightfully steep, are nevertheless sloping to
more or less extent; here at the Royal
Gorge they are sheer precipices, as perpen-
dicular as the tallest house, as straight as if
built by line. So narrow is the gorge that
one would think the throwing of a stone
from side to side the easiest of accomplish-
ments, yet no living man has ever done it,
or succeeded in throwing any object so that
it would fall into the water below. Many
tourists are content with the appalling view
from the main walls, but. others more ven-
turesome work their way six hundred toa
thousand feet down the ragged edges of a
mountain that has parted and actually slid
into the chasm; and as we have come to
see it all, the clamber down must be accom-
plished. For some distance we scramble
over and between monstrous boulders, and
reach the narrow and almost absolutely
petpendicular crevice of a gigantic mass
of rock, down which we must let ourselves
a hundred feet or more. As we reach the
shelf or ledge of rock upon which the great
rock has fallen and been sundered, we
glance back, but only for a second—the
thought of our daring making us grow sick
and dizzy. But.a step or two more, and



THE CITY OF

THE SULTANS. At



the descent just made sinks into utter insig-
nificance compared to what is before us.
Then we had the huge walls of the parted
rock as the rails of a staircase; now we
have nought but the smooth, rounded sur-
face of the storm-washed boulders to cling
to, and, on either side of our narrow way,
depths at the bottom of which a man’s body
could never be discovered with human eye.
Behind us, the precipitous rocks over and
through which we came ; ahead of us, the
slender barrier of rock overhanging the
appalling chasm, and all there exists be-
tween us and it. Few dare to look more
than once, and one glance suffices for a
comprehension of the meaning of the word
“depth” never before even dreamed of, and
Hever afterwards forgotten. The gorge is
2,000 feet sheer depth, the most precipitous
and sublime in its proportions of any chasm

ELE ea TY





HERE is no love
lier, few so lovely,
scenes on earth as
that which unfolds
itself to the tra-
veller as he ap-
proaches Constan-
tinople from the sea; above
all, on one of those days of
early summer when the bitter
blasts from the Euxine have
ceased to blow, and the south
wind, warm from Syrian deserts, tempered
in its course by the snows of Olympus,
"chases the last few fleecy clouds away from
the bright blue sky. Before him, as the
anchor drops in the still depths of the
Golden Horn, rise on the southern side of
the long inlet the seven low hills of old
Byzantium—a maze of domes and minarets,
- masses of cypress groves and clusters of
tumble-down old houses, Ottoman mosques
and old Byzantine towers and pillars, still

Lie

onthe continent. The opposite wall towers
hundreds of feet above us, and if it were
possible to imagine anything more terrifying
than the position on this side, that upor
the other would be, were its brink safe to
approach. Overhanging crags, black and
blasted at their summits, or bristling with
stark and gnarled pine’, reach up into pro-
foundly dizzy heights, while lower down
monstrous rocks threatened to topple and
carry to destruction any foolhardy climber
who would venture upon them. The canon,
except in the dead of winter, is approach-
able only from the top, the walls below
being so precipitous and the river sucha
torrent as to defy all access. When frozen,
as the waters are for brief periods during the
coldest months, the way up the cafion may
be accomplished, but only at the risk of



personal comfort and not a little danger.”

OF THE SULTANS.

girdled round by the same ancient walls
albeit sadly dilapidated now, which in the
days of archers and Greek fire so often
baffled the repeated attacks of Goth and
Bulgar, Persian and Arab, and even the all-
conquering Osmanli himself.

~ On the northern bank, above the crowded
buildings and Genoese Tower of old Galata,
appear the heights of Europeanised Pera,
gay with official residences of ambassadors
and chargés d@’affairés, the home of rumour,
speculation, and intrigue. Facing the city,
on the Adriatic shore, are Scutari, with its
groves of tombs, the largest, the most beau-
tiful, the best beloved of all the cemeteries
of the capital, and Kadi-Keui, now a little
village, once known to fame as Chalcedon,
“city of the blind.” Whilst onwards to
where the Castles of Europe and of Asia
frown at one another across the narrowest
part of the Straits, and the expanse of the
gloomy Euxine is divined rather than seen



beyond, stretch eastwards—beginning with



42 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





TURKISH LADY, IN OUTDOOR DRESS.

Tophaneh, the site of the Imperial cannon-
foundry and artillery barracks, and the
Palace of Dolma Bagtche, a little farther
on—suburb after suburb, bright with the
summer residences of Ambassadors
and Pashas, and faced again on the
Asiatic side by answering villages and
kiosques.

Nor is the scene less animated on
water than on land. Great iron-clads,
flying Turkish colours, yet with a look
about them that tells of shipyards on
the Thames ; stately passenger steamers
of Lloyds and the P. and O.; bluft
corn-ships from Odessa or the Danube
lie side by side with graceful Greek
feluccas, Italian brigs, and Turkish
coasting craft; while, like dragon-flies,
along the waters flit here and there the
caique of the Moslem water-man and
the private barge of the rich effendi.

It is a truism to say that nowhere
else in Europe can we encounter such
a variety of costumes and figures as in
Constantinople. Turks, Armenians,
Jews, Greeks, Franks, and natives of
the East, jostle each other in the streets.
What Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

wrote a century ago is true at present.
“T live in a place,” she observes, “ that
very well represents the Tower of Babel.
In Pera they speak Turkish, Greek,
Hebrew, Armenian, Arabic, Persian,
Russian, Sclavonian, Wallachian, Ger-
man, Dutch, Italian, French, Hungarian,
English ; and, what is worse, there are
ten of these languages spoken in my
own family! My grooms are Arabs ;
my footmen French, English, and Ger-
mans; my nurse an Armenian; my
‘ housemaids Russians; half a dozen
other servants Greeks, my steward an
Italian ; my janissaries Turks.”

Our pictures represent a few of the
more familiar types of the street life.
The useful personage, whose back, bent
crescent shape from constant loads, will
catry up the steepest lane in Galata,
with the aid of straps over brow
and breast, a burden for which in
England we should send a horse and cart,
is an old member of the confraternity of
Hammals, or Porters—Armenian probably
by descent, water-drinker and vegetarian





























THE HAMMAL OR PORTER,



THE CITY OF THE SULTANS.

43























and crowned by massive mosques and
graceful white minarets, with here and
there a pile of ancient ruin, offers a
sky-line always changing as the behold-
er moves, but always beautiful. Then
no city has such a sea—a sea deep to
its very margin, intensely clear, in-
tensely blue, penetrating everywhere,
till you can hardly recognise its arms;
a sea that narrows to a river in the
Golden Horn and Bosphorus, and
spreads into a shoreless expanse in the
broad Propontis, studded with shining
isles, The central spot of every view
is the spot where these three waters
meet: Seraglio Point, where the first
Greek colonists built their Byzantium,













where afterwards stood the palace of























THE CAKE SELLER.

almost beyond doubt. The street-seller of
those hard, flat ginger-bread cakes, which
seem to possess a mysterious attraction for
the sweet-toothed Oriental ; the barber, so
dexterously removing, with the most primi-
tive of razors, the superfluous hairs from
the brow and skull of the true believer;
the Turkish lady, whose yashmak
is no longer a disguise, but the thin-
nest of veils, adding, in fact, an ad-
ditional charm to faces whose regular
features. and dark eyes are often
coupled with an unhealthy pallor, will,
meet us again and again on our way to
the bazaars, a

Constantinople has two glories: the
glory of the mountains, and the glory
of the sea. In every landscape the
background is formed by the bold
heights of Scutari and the more distant
Mysian Olympus, with its snowy sum-
mit cutting the clear air like mother-
ofpearl. In the city itself there is
scarcely a yard of level ground. Old
Stamboul is built on along ridge rising
some two hundred feet above the
waters that lave it on either hand, a
ridge whose top, indented by hollows





the Eastern Czesars, and where now
stands the ruin of the fortress palace
of the Ottoman sultans; a. wilder-
ness of broken walls and towers, with cypress
groves between, and the dome of St. Sophia
rising behind. There is no spot on earth
that has seen so much history and so much
crime as this, where dynasties of tyrants
have reigned for sixteen weary centuries.



44 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.






E2\\

©).
O fc)
ENO
ae T is now a good many years
OS KO x ago since I paid my first visit
NG «\ to the charming town of
J X@\S4) Dresden, the Florence of the

\ Ne Elbe. After having thorough-
kK lox ly enjayed the beauties of the
surrounding scenery, especially of the Saxon
Switzerland, I devoted my time to the real
object of my journey, which was the in-
spection of the galleries and works of art
in the Saxon capital.

If I had not already formed the intention
of profiting by the teaching of an eminent
artist residing there, my first look on the
wonderful paintings would have determined
me to follow my calling, and to endeavour
to tread as faithfully as possible in the foot-
steps of the Old Masters. I did not ask
myself whether I could ever paint a picture
similar to those I saw there; I only knew
that I must strive to do it with all the
energy of my life.

However, my longing to receive per-
mission to copy from the paintings in the
gallery was not to be satisfied all at once.
Only after nine months’ persevering industry
in the studio of my worthy master I
obtained the consent of the director of the
gallery, and when in the following spring
the doors of the building were thrown open
to the disciples of art, 1 was among the
nrst who profaned the classic halls with the
presence of paint-brushes and boxes.

With a boldness I still wonder at, I
attempted the copy of Titian’s celebrated
“ Zinsgroschen.” As the picture hangs in
a place where people are apt to crowd the

passage, I had it taken down and put in’

the outer room of the Italian school, where
Thad better light and more quiet. With
eager zeal I commenced my interesting
task, and soon forgot myself in ,the con-
templation of the splendid colourings, and
in wonder at the soul breathed into them
by the great painter. The hours flew



A STARTLING ADVENTURE. :

rapidly by, and nothing was more hateful
to me at that time than the sound of the
overseer’s bell commanding rest from work
for the day.

“Miss M.,” said that functionary, a good
old man, who favoured me, as he approach-

‘ed one day with the obnoxious instrument,

“Miss M., if you are not careful you will
get locked in here some day.”

“Well, and if Iam?” said I, half vexed
and half amused. “I could paint on then
to my heart’s content ; it would be perfectly
delightful.” a

The old man shook his head and looked
at me gravely, almost reproachfully, but
he had not the least idea how soon his
warning words would prove true.

The month of May of the year 18— was
anything but a pleasant one, and the never-
to-be-forgotten day of my story distinguished
itself by an unusual gloom. A drizzling,
penetrating rain had spread itself over the
town and its lovely surrounding country
with a grey monotony, which caused even
the brightest picture to appear as though it
were covered with cobweb. This tempo-
rary interruption to the sunny spring weather
did not affect my spirits, and I found
myself rejoicing mischievously at the small
number of visitors to the gallery, and
enjoyed unusual peace and quietude in the
nearly empty rooms.

Many of my fellow-artists’ places re-
mained also unoccupied ; not one of them
could boast of as good a seat as I had, there-
fore I was not surprised when a young
industrious painter approached me and
asked permission to share the more favour-
able light in my corner. Both too
preoccupied, we only exchanged a few
polite words, and then relapsed into com-
plete silence. Nota sound was heard, not
even from the outside, world. The hours
came and went imperceptibly. I was
astonished to see my companion start up



A STARTLING ADVENTURE. 45



suddenly, gather up his paints and brushes,
and with a questioning glance at me anda
hasty bow, rushfromthe room. ‘ Funny!”
I thought, as I went on with my work.

I believe it was the perfect stillness all
around which began to rouse meat last ; for
the first time I found myself listening in-
tently for the well-known signal. But no
bell was to be heard! A certain rest-
lessness took possession of me, and caused
the tips of my fingers to tingle. I laid
down my brush, then took it up again,
while the lurking malicious face of the
Pharisee on the canvas’ appeared. to be
watching all my movements. I seated my-
self once more in position, and mixed a
fresh colour, but only to lay down brush
and palette as before, and to determine to
pack up my things for the night.

The gallery should ‘witness for once the
curious spectacle to see me among the first
to go home so hoping that the immortal
spirit of Titian would forgive my human
weakness, I walked rapidly through several
rooms, rather astonished to find them empty,
and reached the inner corridor, from which
exit is gained through the porter’s small
anteroom,

“ How tiresome !” I exclaimed angrily, as
I did not succeed in opening the door. I
tapped loudly, believing that he would come
and let me out. But no, only the echo of
my knocking came back to me; no other
sound reached my ears. The man had left,
and the door was firmly locked. “He can-
not be far off as yet,” I thought, and called
him loudly by his name; my voice sounded
strange and hollow through the lofty cham-
bers, and a slight shiver passed over me as

I felt what the old man had prophesied »

had come to pass—I was locked in for the
night.

It was but too true. I had again omitted
hearing the bell, and a less careful man
- than my aged friend had been on duty that
night, and neglected to go the round of
the gallery before retiring from his post.
It was not to be wondered at that all had
been anxious to reach their sheltering roofs
on that miserable wet day, even I had not







been able to withstand a certain longing to
gethome as the evening drew near. And
now they had all gone, my kind old friend
tco; and I? I was the only living thing
among thousands of inanimate ones.

To be fully aware how I was situated,
you must know that none of the officials re-
side in the building, and that the latter stands
isolated in a large open space which is very
little frequented at that time of day and in
such weather. If assistance had been near
at hand, the well closed double-windows
would have defied any attempt on my part
to open them; the same or rather more so
with the doors. Therefore no prospect of
release! I must submit to the inevitable,
and I tried to do so. -

Returning to my old place, I took out
my things, only just neatly packed together,
and prepared anew for my work. What
more did I want? Now I could paint,
paint, paint in peace, and to my heart’s
content, untroubled by the warning of the
detested bell! And I painted on, leaving
out the head of the lurking tempter; and
forgetting myself in the holy grandeur of
the Saviour’s features, painted on till the
darkening twilight would no longer permit
me to distinguish the colours.

But now the feeling of utter loneliness
came over me in its full force, and with it
the question, “What shallI do?” ‘Make
the best of it,” my reason told me, and with
this praiseworthy intention my adventure
appeared to me ina new light. What more
interesting thing could a young genius
think of than a night’s quarters in such @
place? Hada professed enthusiast petition
ed for permission to sleep there, he would
not have received it. £was probably the
first and the last person whom chance thus
favoured.

Involuntarily I still hoped for release;
sometimes I fancied I. heard a door open,
or a voice call to me. At every distant
sound of wheels, at every angry blast of
wind, I started up, only to sink back into
my seat with a heightened feeling of dis-
appointment. Staring vacantly at the win-
dow, I saw how the raindrops ran like





46 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

tears down the dust-covered panes, and
listened to their monotonous “ drip, drip,”
while a pale sickly reflection from the
evening sky lighted up the silent company
round the walls.

While it cast a supernatural splendour
upon the head of Christ, it seemed, on the
other hand, to invest the eyes of the
Pharisee with a , diabolical expression.
euickly I placed the picture against the
walland quitted the room with a “ good-
night” to its inhabitants as hastily as
though I feared that my loudly-expressed
wish might be returned in the same man-
ner. With regained composure, and the
practical determination to seek a comfort-

able resting place, I began to promenade.

through the rooms, evading, however, the
one containing Brenghel’s “Hell,” “The
Murder of the Innocents,” and other similar
ones. Iam sure many of you have noticed
that in a dim uncertain light, strange life
seems to stir in paintings. Even some with
which we are familiar in our own homes,
assume something peculiar, and often fear-
ful, in the pale twilight of evening or
morning; how much more so a whole
collection of pictures in a wide and other-
wise empty space! Putting aside such sad
representations as death-beds, scenes from
the lives of tortured martyrs, and others of
the same class, simple and homely subjects
even look often ghastly enough under the
influence. of struggling light and shade.
Raised arms seem to drop, lifted hands to
fall powerless, an advanced foot appears to
move forth from its frame, calm features
look rigid, agitated ones distorted. Full of
such unpleasant thoughts, I wandered on to
the outer or Old German room, without re-
membering that here I should step “ out of
the frying-pan into the fire.” The first glance
‘showed me that the soft and touching figures
painted by Durer, Kronach, and others ap-
peared like a veritable company of ghosts,
over whom Adam and Eve seemed to
preside.

Retracing my steps speedily, I sought

protection with Holbein’s “Madonna,” but
even she did not inspire me with the usual



admiration. There was a painful reality
about the suffering Child in hér arms, and
the forms at her feet raised their stiff arms
threateningly to keep me off. I could not re-
main here, so I turned back to my Italians, to
the cheerful Albano, the sweet Carlo Dolce,
to Raphael’s * La Belle Jardinitre,” and the
“ Banquet” of Veronese. From Correggio’s
“Holy Night ” astream of light passed into
my agitated heart, and I wondered why I
had not stayed near it from the first.

But a few steps brought me into the snug
little cabinet memorable to all who have
visited the Dresden Gallery. Here I felt
quiet and at rest as I stood before Raphael’s
“Madonna.” I placed my trembling hands
on the railing enclosing it, and forgot all
else for the time, as I gazed on her calm,
heavenly face.

Those who have seen the “ Madonna di
Sisto” may remember the red sofa which
stands opposite to this painting. Many
have been seated there lost in contempla-
tion of its grand beauty. Many may have
dreamt there with eyes open, but I trust
none have been overcome by sleep im reality.
I stood stroking the velvet bolsters on the
couch, as though in apology for seeking
rest there, and, if possible, sleep, in place of
enthusiastic and ardent admiration.

According to my reckoning, for I did not
carry a watch, it was then about nine o’clock.
Thelight from the windows had grown so
faint that I could barely distinguish the
outlines of the figures on the canvas. When
these had also disappeared, I could think
of nothing better than to lay my head on
the soft cushions and endeavour to sleep.
This resolution was more easily formed
than carried out. Unpleasant thoughts and
feelings increased, and my heart beat
wildly.

I applied the remedies of childhood, such
as counting, repeating poetry, etc., to calm
my_agitated nerves. In vain! JI was too
painfully conscious of my situation to forget
it for an instant, and if minutes appeared
like hours already, to what fearful length
would the dark, dreary night stretch itself?
Who has not experienced how acute the



A STARTLING ADVENTURE. 4T



sense of hearing grows during the still
watches of the night, especially when we
are labouring under violent inward disquie-
tude? I fancied, sometimes, that I heard
a distant rustling, then again something
creeping nearer and nearer from the farther
rooms, then a breathing or whispering.

I began to believe the most incredible
might prove credible, the most impossible
possible, and I know that at one time I sat
erect staring with wide-open eyes at the
opposite door, expecting to see nothing less
than Herodias entering with the head of St.
John the Baptist on a charger.

From that moment I took the utmost
pains to quiet my excited imagination. I
thought of the daily cares of life, and called
the past.and future to my assistance; then
I told myself how safe and comfortable I
was compared to many thousands, resting
there on downy cushions, protected from
inclement weather, secure from burglars
and murderers. But again my thoughts
wandered helplessly from my cosy corner
to the adjoining chambers, and pictured to
themselves dread scenes between gods and
goddesses, saints and martyrs, until my
brain whirled tumultuously. I felt feverish
and full of pity for myself, when I thought
of my distant home and family. I had no
anxiety on my landlady’s account, for I had
-on several occasions stayed overnight with
my friends when the weather was unfavour-
able, therefore I knew she would not expect
me. I was really getting calmer when
something occurred which threw me out of
my hard-gained composure.

I started up from my seat, then lost my

consciousness for an instant, in spite of my
good. resolutions. What was that fearful
‘crash! Like thunder it rolled on and on
through the lower and upper rooms, and
now all was as still as before. Slowly my
senses returned, but my blood, which
seemed frozen a moment before, now
‘throbbed fiercely in all my veins.

My face pressed into the cushion, I
listened with breathless suspense, and—yes,
‘something stirred in the house; there wasa

creeping, shuffling movement on the stairs |

; keys.



and along the corridors. Strange sounds
I heard, and awful was the echo they
awakened. From all corners of the vast
building, steps seemed approaching nearer
and nearer, doors creaked on their hinges,
and I heard distinctly the rattling of large
“Tap, tap, tap!” it came on through
the first room, through the second, nearer
and nearer to my hiding-place.

I sat motionless, unable to move a finger.
I was only conscious that I should see
something go through some awful scene—
but what? I dared not think ofthat. I
closed my eyes to shut out the sight of the
dread thing that came towards me with
such fearful certainty.

I remained but a few seconds in this
agonising suspense, though at that time it
seemed to me—oh, how long! A faint
streak of light fell upon my closed eyelids,
and caused them to open mechanically.
Like one in a dream, I gazed on the
apparition standing in the doorway in strong
relief from the darkness beyond. It wasa
figure cast in Rembrandt’s light and shade,
stepped forth, as it were, from an antique
frame, and the lantern which the old man
held up high towards me threw a red, glow-
ing reflection on a wrinkled brow, fringed
by long silvery hair, and on a pair of dark
piercing eyes, which were riveted on mine,
as mine were on them.

“Tt is you after all!” exclaimed the old
man, after this silent mutual greeting.
“ After all! I thought so. If any one had
been shut in, it must be you. How glad—
ah, how glad I am that I have come; poor
lady !”

“ But how did you know, how could you
guess?” I asked, with a voice trembling in
spite of myself, after my late agitation, and
when I rose my knees shook violently.

Instead of replying, my deliverer, who
was no other than my kind old friend who
had warned me, merely shook his head.
“By-and-by,” he said, as he hurried me
through the dismal apartments. I need
not tell you that this time I left the gallery
without regret. When I saw how carefully,
though hastily, my guide fastened each doa



48

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



with bolts and bars, I realized fully how
securely I had been imprisoned. I scarcely
ventured to look back, and shuddered to
think of the agonising fear I had undergone,
when I had first heard the creaking and
slamminy of the doors re-echo through the
lofty chambers. I was not far enough from
the scene of my sufferings to be able to
laugh at them, and involuntarily kept close
to the side of my conductor. |

The old man did not speak a word, and
only stopped when we reached the cloak-
room, where I took my hat from the peg,
and wrapped myself up in my shawl, for I
felt coldand shivery. In the lower corridor
I found my goloshes in their accustomed
corner, and here my friend broke the silence
by saying, as he pointed to them, “ Your
thanks are due to them, lady—next to the
Madonna,” he added, crossing himself de-
voutly.

“And to you,” I replied, trying to take
his hand, which he withdrew, however,
hastily, as if feeling ashamed.

I will not try to describe the delight with
which I imbibed the night air, damp and
chill though it was, when the last door of
my huge black prison was closed behind
me. The old man accompanied me to my
lodgings, telling me on the way the cause
of his unexpected appearance.

He had been on duty below that day,
and after his colleague had assured him
that all was in order in the upper rooms, he
had commenced locking up for the night.
He went on to say, that often a trifling
thing, which we scarcely notice in passing,’
recurs to our mind with great distinctness
after some time, and so it happened that
while eating his evening soup he had recol-
lected seeing a pair of goloshes in the passage
below before closing the outer door. This
had certainly occurred before, and he told
himself as much; but the more he reflected
the more he became convinced that no
Jady—and a lady’s goloshes they certainly
were—would leave the building without
them on such a miserably wet day. Arrived
at this conclusion, he had imparted his
anxiety to his wife; but she, good old soul, |



like the best of women, had thought too
much of him and too little of the rest of
the world, and had besought him not to
venture near the haunted place at that time
of night. “What else could I do,” con-
tinued the old man, “but wait patiently
until the hour arrived in which I am
accustomed to smoke my nightly pipe in
company with my colleagues at a quiet
house close at hand—where I have done
that to-night, you know, lady?”

He smiled, but I could find no words to
express my gratitude, feeling ill and ex-
hausted ; but I am sure he understood me,
for he took my hand and shook it heartily
as we reached my door, saying that he
hoped I should sleep as well as he intended
todo. “And now,” he added, “my hour
for smoking is past, and I must hurry
home; my good wife must not know where
I have been, else she would not rest all
night.”

“Why so?” I asked.

“ Oh, never mind,” he replied; ‘‘it’s but
old women’s talk—don’t you believe what
people may tell you; at the same time,
you had better attend to the signal, and not
get locked in again.”

With these words he rang my bell, which
sounded loud and shrill through the silent
house, and when soon after my landlady
appeared in person to let me in, he left me
with a hearty “‘Good-night !”

My hostess was greatly surprised to see
me.

“Dear me, miss, what weather to come
home in, and how wet you are!” she ex-
claimed. She had not expected me, and
was just preparing to goto bed. On her
asking me whether I had spent the evening
with my friends I simply nodded, for I was
too weary to tell her of what I had gone
through, therefore, leaving her to go to rest,
I sought my own room.

The next day being Saturday, on which
we were not permitted to paint in the
gallery, I found plenty of time to recover
from my excitement. My landlady noticed
my unusually pale looks, and not being able
to evade her sympathetic questions, I im:



A STARTLING ADVENTURE.

49



parted to her my adventure of the previous
day. During the first part of my narrative
she interrupted me frequently with expres-
sions of horror and surprise, but as I went
on she grew silent and looked at me, her
face deadly pale. It was some time before
she recovered herself, and when she did,
told me something that I was glad not to

_ have known twenty-four hours previously.

The first part of her story was not new
to me; I had heard from my friends in
what danger the richest treasure of Dresden,
the picture gallery, had been in the days of

_ the revolution, and that its preservation was

mainly owing to the courage of an architect.
In the streets the combat raged fiercely, the
air reverberated with the approaching tramp
of rebellious multitudes : a human sea which
flooded all obstacles and threatened destruc-
tion to everything in its blind fury. All
order had vanished, nothing sacred was
spared, and every hour the danger which
threatened the gallery grew more imminent.
Night fell, but it brought no rest !

Here and there a cannon-ball had already
pierced the walls and shattered the window-
panes. Pale and anxious, the few men on
guard who had not fled walked to and fro
in the darkening rooms, lighted up ever
and anon by a sudden gleam of fire raging
without. Forlorn hope was to be read in
their agitated features, when all at once the
man to whom we owe the preservation of
so irreparable a treasure rushed into the
building. His presence of mind and exam-
ple worked wonders. What had appeared
impossible was carried out. Next morning’s
rising sun looked down on the most fearful

devastation, on the broken windows and

blackened walls of the gallery, but its
precious contents were well packed and
unharmed in safe places.

My hostess did not dwell long on

‘the merits of this courageous act, but

took pains to describe the horrors of that
night in all its details. This is not the
place to give further particulars of the
political events during those days; it is
sufficient to add that after a temporary

_ banishment in wooden cases, the works of



art adorned the old walls again in their usual
splendour.

It was in the month of May, in the year
following the revolution. The sentinel in
front of the gallery was walking leisurely up
and down, whistling softly to himself, when
the clock of the nearest-steeple chimed the
midnight hour. Dead silence reigned in
the streets, myriads of stars glittered in the
deep blue sky.

“Strange !” he muttered, as he stood still,
gazing intently upwards. Behind the well-
secured windows he saw flashes of a blue
light, coming and going fitfully, and casting
their rays on the path below.

“Strange!” he repeated, and his first
thought being naturally of thieves, he
hurried to the principal entrance, which he
found, however, fastened as usual. Peeping
through the keyhole into the interior, he
could see nothing ; the corridors were wrapt
in utter darkness, but on placing his ear to
a crevice he heard distinctly a loud noise

proceeding from the upper rooms. Was it
the packers busy at work P
The sentinel knew his instructions.

With a loud cry, ‘Thieves! thieves!” he
knocked at the door of the nearest official.
In the course of afew moments the latter
made his appearance with a dark lantern
and the necessary keys, but on looking at
the light at the windows, and listening to
the noise from within, he declared that he
could not act on his own responsibility,
and ran off to rouse his superior from his
first sweet slumber.

“What can you want?” asked that
worthy. ‘How are thieves to get into
the place?”

“ And. suppose—they were not—thieves,
sir?”

“ Well, surely you don’t believe they are
ghosts? You coward ! I'll come, were it only
to drive a cat from the premises.

“ Bah ! it’s the reflection of the glittering
stars,” he exclaimed, disdainfully, on seeing
the light in the windows. Without hesita-
ting further he pushed the huge key noisily
into the lock, and took the lantern to light

the way, his trembling subordinate following
E



50 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



on tiptoe. Yes! he heard the same nvise as
the others did, but his face expressed neither
fear nor hesitation, simply curiosity.
Suddenly he halted half-way up the stairs,
listening intently, and his companions saw
that he became pale and grave.

Plainly they heard what seemed the mov-
ing of heavy pictures and cases, and hollow
strokes with many hammers. The nearer
they approached the inner doors the more
distinctly the sound of many voices whis-
pering hurriedly and anxiously reached their
ears.

“Forward !” cried the inspector, recover-
ing himself, and opening one door after
another in quick succession.

“Villains!” he roared with an angry
voice, holding the lantern above his head.

Dead silence and utter darkness sur-
rounded him. Motionless hung the pic-
tures around the walls, and hundreds of eyes
looked down from them, as it were, with
silent reproof at the nightly intruders.

As it was in the first room, so it seemed
in all the rest; everything in its wonted
order. If anything ghost-like was to be
seen, it was the white face of the scared
subordinate ; even the inspector could not
help shaking his head at what he termed “a
strange delusion.” .

After another fruitless search of all the
chambers, they turned to go, but scarcely
was the first door closed behind them, when
the man laid his finger on his quivering lip,
turning his ashy countenance towards his
‘superior. The same knocking and hammer-
ing, the same hurried whispering as before,
was heard with alarming distinctness. The
inspector stamping his foot, and without
another word or look, retraced his steps,





undaunted and alone. After a quarter of
an hour had elapsed, during which the
man awaiting his return had heard the weird
noise without intermission, he appeared.

“Tt is nothing!” he said, with a firm,
hard voice, his face of aleaden hue. “ Let
us go home.”

“Nota word did he ever utter on the
subject,” continued my hostess; “the
knowledge of what he saw he has taken
with him into the grave, to which they
carried him soon after. So much is certain,
however, that no one has since ventured at
night-time into the gallery, and that the
same noise proceeds from the rooms yearly
on that day.

“ And that day,” she concluded, tooking
hard at me—“ that day was—yesterday !”

I could not help shuddering at this un
expected communication, and although I
tried to think that the old inspector had seen
nothing, consequently had nothing to relate,
yet I felt grateful to my goloshes for having
spared me a personal experience in the
matter. My enthusiasm was too genuine
to suffer from this event. I visited the
gallery as before, it grew more and more
home, but for the nights I gave preference
to the humble roof and hearth of my kind
landlady, in whose estimation I had risen
visibly since my narrow escape from contact
with the spiritual world.

I painted and studied with eagerness and
perseverance, and used every hour granted
to the students in the gallery, but ‘“ the busy
bee,” as some ironically called me, never
missed the signal again—never forgot her-
self again in one or the other sweet in-
toxicating flowers of art—Adbridged from
the “ Leisure Hour,”





SZLAVE-CATCHING IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. 1











































SECTION OF DHOW, SHOWING MODE OF STOWING SLAVES.

SLAVE-CATCHING IN

orE than half a
SKY century ago, the
\ great powers of
Europe united
in a solemn con-
demnation and
proscription of
: the slave-trade; and England,
os with some other nations, has
since endeavoured to give
NO effect to this verdict of the
\ civilized world. But the slave-
‘trade has not been extinguished, though in
some quarters where it once flourished it
mow languishes. It annually consumes, it
is calculated, the lives of half a million of
wretched Africans, According to Consul
Churchill, the number of slaves who passed
‘through Zanzibar during the five years end-
ang September, 1867, would not be less than
115,000—and this at one port alone! Nor
‘do these figures represent the full extent of






THE INDIAN OCEAN.

the horrible traffic. Besides those actually
captured, thousands are killed or die of
their wounds and famine, driven from the
villages by the slave-trade ; thousands in
internecine war, waged for slaves, with their
own clansmen and neighbours, slain by the
lust for gain, which is stimulated by the
slave purchasers. The many skeletons seen
amongst rocks and woods, by the little
pools, and along the paths of the wilderness,
attest the awful sacrifice of human life,
which must be attributed, directly or indi-
rectly, to this trade of hell. The reports of
the commanders of Her Majesty’s cruisers
amply justify all that has ever been stated
of the horrors of the traffic in human beings.
Writing on September 12, 1875, Captain
Ward, of the Zfetis, says,—“ On the 9th
inst. we were standing leisurely across to
Madagascar, under sail, having put our fires
out, when a sail was reported from the
masthead standing the same way as our-











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































‘\

\ : .
: \ \ yp































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SLAVE-CATCHING IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. 53



selves. We did not come up with her until
about 5.30, when the first lieutenant boarded
her in one of the cutters, and immediately
after we had the satisfaction of seeing
him take her in tow to bring her to the
ship. There was no necessity to ask for
papers, for a momentary inspection was
sufficient to satisfy the boarding officer that
the dhow was a full slaver; so we at once
set to work to bring the human cargo on
board.

“Tt was a long business, and by no

means an agreeable one—upwards of 300
souls being taken from the hold. Out of
this number about sixty were Arabs and
crew, and the remainder slaves. She had
oniy been three days out, and therefore it
may be supposed that the cargo was in
comparatively good condition. Still, many
of thern were in a very emaciated state, and
three have died since we received them on
board. One pyor old woman, whom I
found lying on her back in the hold, was at
first thought to be dead, but on her being
lifted up she commenced screaming vio-
lently, and struggling with the men who were
carrying her out of this pest-house. She is
now quite well, and in her right mind.

The slaves were stowed on two tempo-
rary decks, each about three feet high, the
upper one being roofed over with cocoa-nut

_ leaves. Of course the poor creatures could
not move from the place where they squatted,
and the stench in the lower tier was of such
a nature as to make one wonder how any
human being could live there for an hour,

. and it would probably have been a full

“week before they were released, had they
not fallen in with the Zhefis. After clear-
ing her out and taking as much of her pro-
visions as we thought necessary, we set her
on fire in several places and put twelve
pounds of powder in the lower part of her
hold. Ina few minutes we had the satis-
faction of seeing this explode, shortly after
which this vile craft went to the bottom,
never again to carry a living freight.”

The following harrowing details of the
capture of an Arab slave-dhow are related
by an officer of H.M.S. Vidture:— “We



were steaming into Majunga, a port on the
east coast of Madagascar, when a large
dhow was made out inshore of the ship.
When the Vulture was near enough, a boat,
in charge of a young officer, was sent on
board the Arab, whose true character and
the nature of his cargo were soon made
known. On going below, the men found a
framework of bamboo constructed on each
side of the hold, ranging fore and aft, in
which two hundred and thirty-eight human
beings were packed, tier upon tier, like
bottles ina rack. The occupants of each
tier were placed in the closest personal con-
tact with each other,—so much so, in fact,
that, to use the men’s homely phrase, they
really ‘were stowed away like herrings in a
cask.’ When taken out and placed upon
the deck, their limbs were useless; they
were seized with vertigo, and fell from sheer
inability to stand. Some were found in a
truly shocking condition. One or two
young children were discovered crushed to
death. The lower tier had been laid upon
the sand ballast, and washalf buried. One '
poor woman really was buried, with the
exception of her face ; her mouth was full
of sand, and when taken out she was on
the point of suffocation, The mortality
among a batch of negroes must be some-
times frightful, not only on board the dhows,
but also during the journey-down from the
interior. There was a woman among this
lot, who, if her statement is to be credited,
was the only survivor of a numerous band.
Six months since she roamed as free as air
in her native village in the middle of Africa.
The Arabs went with fire and sword; the
village was burnt, and the greater number
of the women and children were made pri-
soners. ‘Then commenced a weary march
of four months’ duration. Fresh accessions
of slaves were made as they passed along
on their way to the coast. Manacled
women fell by the wayside, and being un-
able to travel, were left to die in the jungle.
Young children withered like plucked
leaves, and the Arabs, to these more mer-
ciful, struck off their heads and threw them
aside. The woman has survived them all,

>



54

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



but she is alone. Of all the band captured
with her, she states that she is the only one
left alive to tell the sickening tale.”
Lieutenant Henn also describes the cap-
ture of a dhow, and the mode of stowing of
the poor creatures. ‘The dhow, on seeing
us, lowered her sail, and a few minutes
afterwards she was brought alongside with
one hundred and fifty-six slaves in her:
forty-eight men, fifty-three women, and fifty-
five children. The deplorable condition of
these wretched negroes, crammed into a
small dhow, surpasses all description. In
the bottom of the dhow was a pile of stones

as ballast, and on these stones, without even |

a mat, twenty-three women were huddled
together, one or two with infants in their
arms. These women were literally doubled
up, there being no room to sit erect. On

KRUPP AND

HE Germans are justly proud

of Alfred Krupp, the owner
or BP and creator of probably the
largest, and certainly the
most famous foundry in the
world. Nor is their boast a
false one, that Krupp’s guns
are well-known in every
quarter of the globe, and are
appreciated and sought for
with just as much zeal by the
Chinese and Japanese as by the Russians
and Turks, and even the very name of
Krupp’s business place, Essen, is far-famed
because of this one man’s exertions.

Alfred Krupp was born on April r1th, in
the year 1811, at Essen, in Prussia, where
his father, Frederick Krupp, had a small
steel foundry. In 1826 the elder Krupp




died without leaving any considerable for- |

tune to his widow, who, with the assist-
ance of her son, carried on the business
until 1848, when she retired in favour of
her assistant.

a bamboo deck, about three feet above
them, were forty-eight men crowded to-
gether in the same way; and on the upper
bamboo deck there were fifty-three children.
Some of the slaves were in the last stages
of dysentery and starvation. On getting
the vessel alongside and clearing her out,
a woman came up, having an infant about
a month old in her arms, with one side of
its forehead smashed in. On asking how it
was done, she told us that just before our
boat came alongside the dhow, the child
began to cry, and one of the Arabs, fearing
the English would hear it, took up a stone
| and smashed it. A few hours after this
! the poor thing died, and the woman was
; too weak and ill to point out the monster
who had done it from amongst the ten or
dozen Arabs on board.”

HIS FOUNDRY.

Herr Krupp continued to make great
progress with his foundry, but without
attaining any international reputation until
the Great Exhibition of 1851, when he
attracted attention by sending to London
a single block of steel weighing 1,500
kilogrammes. An English firm, however,
produced a still heavier block, and was
considered to have defeated its German
‘opponent, when, to the astonishment of the
mercantile world, a second block, weighing
2,500 kilogrammes, was sent over from
Essen, and Herr Krupp remained the victor.
This peaceable contest created no little stir,
and by it the German founder’s reputation,
if not fortune, was made. The verdict of
the Exhibition adjudicators was, that ‘‘ F.
Krupp’s foundry in Essen had produced the
best cast steel in the whole Exhibition,”
and that this manufactory had been “the
first to make cast steel in such large and
uniform pieces,” etc. Again, in the 1862
Exhibition, Krupp, was a most successful
| exhibitor, showing, among other samples of





KRUPP AND HIS FOUNDRY. 55

3



his skill, a cast steel block of 100 cwt.,which,
being broken into halves by a steam ham-
mer of 1,000 cwt., was found to be per-
fectly pure and free from flaws.

The many other marvels of his skill,
especially in portions of machinery for rail-
way locomotives and steamships, space will
not permit allusion to. One speciality of
Krupp’s exhibit in 1851 must not, however,
be passed by without mention, and thatis his
cast steel guns. The attention of the French
Government was particularly attracted to
this artillery, and the experiments it made
with it afforded convincing proofs of the
practical value of the Essen manufactory.
These guns at that time were of very small
calibre, but Krupp was continually experi-
menting with them, until he finally suc-
ceeded in producing those gigantic pieces
of artillery which are now world-famous.
-Indeed, it is asserted that upwards
of 15,000 cast steel guns have, up to the
present time, been made by the Essen
establishment, and disposed of in various
quarters of the globe. In the Philadelphia
Exhibition of 1876 Krupp exhibited many
wonders that startled even the Americans,
accustomed as they are to all kinds of
mechanical marvels. It is impossible here
tc attempt any description of the various
apparatus which was sent from the Essen
foundry, and which not only included field
and mountain artillery, axles, wheels, etc.,
for locomotives and railway carriages, but
even steel plates, springs, and such smaller
articles.

Turning towards the establishment where
all these marvels are manufactured, fresh
causes for astonishment are discovered,
Krupp’s busy little town rivalling even Salt-
aire in area and activity. Altogether, the
establishment covers a superficial area of
1,000 acres ; about 190 of which are covered
with buildings. Whichever way the sight
is directed on Essen, the eye encounters
smoke-grimed chimneys, extensive walls
within which busy smiths are hard at work,
and foundries in which the liquid metal
glows and bubbles, whilst all around is
heard the noise of hammers wielded by



thousands of workmen. In the year 5877,
the Krupp foundry possessed 1,648 various
kinds of furnaces, 298 steam boilers, 77
steam hammers, 294 steam engines, ranging
from two to one-thousand horse-power, or
altogether 11,000 horse-power, and 1,063
other kinds ofmachines. These figures will
afford some idea of the amount of skill and
supervision required to maintain everything
in order, and one is scarcely surprised to
learn that last year 8,500 workmen were
employed in the cast steel factories alone,
whilst between 4,000 and 5,000 workpeople
were engaged upon other duties connected
with the establishment. By means of this
army of men Krupp is enabled to turn out a
monthly supply of 250 field pieces, thirty
small and twenty-four large cannons, besides
an enormous quantity of articles for peaceful
purposes.

To keep all these foundries employed,
Krupp possesses several mines in various
parts of Germany, and even at Bilbao, in
Spain, whence the metal is brought by a
regular line of steamers to the mouth of the
Rhine, and thence conveyed by rail to the
furnace. Altogether the number of people
employed by Krupp in the performance of
these various labours is little short of 15,000,
who ail work together under their employer’s
skilful direction with the regularity of a
machine. The daily consumption of coal
by this large army of workers is about 2,200
tons.

The creature comforts and requirements
of his people are carefully provided for by
Herr Krupp. He has had 3,277 dwell-
ings erected for his clerks and workmen,
in which everything needful has been
thought of, whilst all their “from home”
wants are supplied by an hotel, eight public-
houses (for teetotalers are unknown in Ger-
many), a mineral-water factory, asteam mill,
a bakery, a slaughter-house, and twenty-two
establishments for the sale of furniture,
meat, shoes, and indeed, every sort of
native and foreign produce. 195,000 kilo-
grammes of bread, of an excellent quality,
are produced daily by the bakery, and sold
at a low price to the workpeople. Fire and



56 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



life insurances, invalid and pension societies,
hospital, bathing establishment, four people’s
schools, besides an industrial school for girls
and work-school for women, all proclaim
the thoughtfulness of Herr Krupp, their
founder and benefactor.

But it is impossible to recount all the




\\HoMAS Epwarp, the Scotch
4 naturalist, was the son of
NHISS a private in the Fifeshire
: Militia, and was born at
Gosport on Christmas Day,
1814. After the Battle of
Waterloo had brought the
war to a close, the militia
regiments were relieved from
the duty of guarding our sea-
coast towns, and young Ed-
ward’s parents went home to
Aberdeen, where his father worked as a
hand-loom weaver.

Here Thomas was in his glory. The
Green, where the Aberdeen Railway Sta-
tion now stands, was then really a green,
and close by were the “Inches,” near the
mouth of the Dee, over which the tide
flowed daily. The boy was always in the

- open air searching for and appropriating
every living thing which he could lay his
hands on. He was constantly bringing
home “beasties,” such as tadpoles, horse-
leeches, beetles, frogs, caterpillars, rats,
hedgehogs, moles, and birds, which, for
want of proper receptacles, escaped and
overran the house, and sometimes invaded
the dwellings of the neighbours, who com-
plained greatly of the annoyance caused by
the “ venomous beasts.” ‘Tom was scolded
and flogged, deprived of his clothes, and
tied up to the table, but nothing could keep

him at home: once he slipped out with |



wonders—wonders far surpassing the fabled
deeds of the Arabian Aladdin—this truly
great man has produced in his little West-
phalian birthplace ; it suffices to say, there-
fore, that he himself resides in a newly-
erected and almost magnificent castle on
the banks of the Ruhr at Werden.

v THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE.
AP

THOMAS EDWARD.

and, paddling about in the “Inches,”
caught a chill, which resulted in a fever
and laid him up for some time.

But no sooner had he recovered than he
took to his old ways, one of his chief feats
being the capture of a wasp’s nest, which
he carried home wrapped up in his shirt,
and which his parents plunged into boiling
water to render it harmless to the rest of
the family; on another occasion he caught
an adder, which he sold for fourpence to a
chemist in the town, whose shop-window
contained many specimens of Tommy’s
collecting. At the age of five he was sent
to school, principally to keep him out of
harm’s way; but he was a sore plague to
the teachers, for when he was not playing
truant, he was sure to bring some “ beast”
with him to the school. From his first
school he was dismissed because a jack-
daw which he had with him joined in the
the prayers with a loud “caw ;” from the
second he was expelled because his horse-
leeches, getting hungry, had crept out of
their bottle, and began to feed upon the
legs of his fellow-pupils; and from the
third he was also expelled because he was
accused of bringing in a centipede which
was found upon a desk, besides getting a
severe beating for denying the false charge.

After this he wandered about the
“Tnches” for a time, and at the age of
six years went to work at a tobacco factory,
about two miles from Aberdeen, where

nothing but an old petticoat around him, | he first saw the kingfisher and the sedge:



THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE, 57



warbler. It was a happy time for the boy, | brutal fellow, as well as a hard taskmaster.
but it was not to last. After two years his | He had no love for animals, and rythlessly
parents apprenticed him to a shoemaker, | destroyed the pet sparrows, moles, and
who seems to have been a drunken and | other “beasts,” which Edward took home.

















TIIOMAS EDWARD.





The indentures were for six yeas; but at | returned after a week with sixpence in his
the end of three Edward ran away, and set | pocket, which he had saved out of eighteen-
off on a wonderful journey of roo miles to | pence given to him by his uncle, and re-
visit his uncle at Kettle, in Fifeshire. He | sumed work with his old master, still



58 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

occupying his leisure hours, which were few
and far between, with his favourite pursuits.

In 1831 he enlisted in the Aberdeen-
shire Militia, and on one occasion narrowly
escaped punishmert for insubordination,
having left the ranks while on drill to chase
a rare butterfly which had attracted his
attention. At the age of twenty he re-
moved to Banff, where he fell in love with
a Huntly lass, whom, after three years’
courtship, he married ; and the couple not
only lived happily together, but managed
to bring up a family of eleven children on
an income of gs. or ros. per week. Ed-
ward would work from six am. to nine

p.m. at his shoemaking, and then spend.

half the night in seeking for new natural
history specimens to add to his collections.
Somebody once remarked to his wife that
it must have been rather hard upon her to
have had her husband so much away, be-
sides the torn clothes and the “rubbish”
he brought with him when he did come
back; but she replied, “Weel, I didna com-
plain of his interest in the beasties. Shoe-
makers were often drunken, but his beasties
kept him frae them. My man’s been a
sober man, and never negleckit his work.
So I let him bide.” She was a wise woman.
And a wise man was Thomas Edward too,
for, with all his night wanderings and his
exposure to the cold, he xever touched a
drop of whiskey. ‘1 believe,” he said
himself, ‘that if I had indulged in drink,
or even taken it at all, I never could have
resisted the weather as I did. As to my
food, it merely consisted of oatmeal cakes
washed down by water from the nearest
spring. Now and then, as a luxury, my
wife would boil me an egg or two; but I
never drank anything but water.”

Some of his adventures were really of
a thrilling character. He was often bitten
while endeavouring to capture rabbits,
squirrels, or weasels; on one occasion he
was tripped up and stunned during a
scuffle with a trio of full-grown badgers ;
and at another time he was attacked while
sleeping by a polecat, which, after two
hours’ struggle, he only succeeded in over-



coming by the aid of some chloroform,
which he luckily had about him. The only
weapon which he carried was an old gun,
which had cost him 4s. 6¢., and which was
so ricketty that stock and barrel had to be
tied together with string ; a cow’s horn sery-
ing him as a powder-flask, and the bowl of a
tobacco-pipe as a measure for the powder.

During these night wanderings Edward
acquired an immense store of information
respecting the habits of all kinds of animals,
and after eight years’ labour (Sundays ex-
cepted, for he was a strict observer of the
Sabbath), he succeeded in accumulating
2,000 specimens of creatures found in the
neighbourhood of Banff. These, arranged
in 300 cases, he exhibited at St. Brandon’s
Fair, Banff, but the receipts hardly covered
his expenses ; added to which misfortune a
collection of about 2,000 plants which he had
made were destroyed by some rats, which
got into the box where they were stored. He
afterward took this collection to Aberdeen,
but there, too, it was a financial failure,
and the disappointed enthusiast sold it for
420 tos., and returned to his lapstone and
hammer at Banff, and for a short time gave
up his collecting in despair. ‘The old pas-
sion, however, soon reasserted itself, and
Edward turned again to his old pursuits
with greater zeal than ever.

About this time he became acquainted
with the Rev. James Smith, who lent him
some works on natural history, which he
devoured with avidity, and having by this
time learnt to write as well. as read, he
began to send descriptive articles to the
local papers. He subsequently contributed
some papers on Natural History to the Zoo-
Jogist and the MWaturalist, and becoming
better known, carried on a large corre-
spondence with various people who took
an interest in such subjects. He is now
sixty-three years old, and up to a very
short time ago, when by Her Majesty’s
special desire, a pension of #50 a year
was granted to him, he was obliged to earn
a living at his old trade. The sketch of
his life given by Mr. Smiles, abounds with
incident and instructive lessons.



A RAILWAY IN THE CLOUDS. - 54



A RAILWAY IN THE CLOUDS.

HE following Is an
account of aride
in one of the rail-
ways which thread
their way among
the peaks of the
Colorado moun-
tains in America:

“Between Veta mountain
and the Peaks nestle the
quaint cluster of houses con-
stituting Veta Station. Recall-
ing the eye from the distant to the
immediate, it falls with horrified stare
upon the precipice which upon our left
plunges headlong down amony the scattered
rocks and blasted trees to the very bottom
of the gorge that but a few moments before
appeared the loveliest of little valleys. As
we draw closer to the car window with that
sense of danger which increases the subli-
mity of the scene, it seems as if we were
hanging over the very verge of the chasm,
so narrow the ledge upon which we are
passing up, up, ever upward! Fainter and
fainter grows the line of the road beneath
us, and upon Veta Mountain, directly oppo-
site, we distinguish a freight train apparently
going in the same direction we are, but in
fact headed exactly the other way, and upon
an incline so steep as to look almost as if
in the act of falling over upon itself Still
we climb, and every second the scene grows
more terrific in its character. Great streams
of loose stones fall away from the line of
track, poured out as if by superhuman hand
all along down the mountain-sides. Here
we breathe freer, thinking that if aught
should happen to the train, its mad plunge





over the rocky wall would be stopped by
the mighty trees that stand stalwart upon the
brink. Another sudden turn, and there is
nought but the sheer declivity between us
and the track nearly eight hundred feet in
the dim distance below. Nearing Inspira-
tion Point, the wildness of the ride, the
terror-inspiring abruptness of the precipice,
the stone-stayed track-bed, and the hoarse
mutterings of the locomotive, tend to an
excitement that few can control, and for a
moment the fact of being actually above the
clouds upon a railroad train is not heeded.
Nevertheless it is true, for below us wreathe
the snowy fleeces like softly-fallen snow,
out from which the peaks rise in sublime
magnificence, and appear to fairly double
their towering height. As if intensely im-
pressed with the utter solemnity and majesty
of the scene, the ponderous engine length-
ens its sonorous breathings, more slowly
strides along its steel-bound way, and passes
the dizzy depths with motian so stately
as to suggest new thoughts of nature’s
wondrous influences.

We steadily watch until the last ray is
lost in the twilight haze, and the last tint
faded into the wondrously clear blue of the
night ; then over the mountain-sides ; upon
the sharp-cut faces of the peaks, down into
the moss-carpeted valleys, into the car
windows until the lighted lamps look like
dusky sparks of smouldering fire, shines the
evening star. Those who have seen the
Alps, have enjoyed to the fullest the glo-
rious vistas of Switzerland, and have since
crossed the Sangre de Cristo range ovez
Veta Pass by starlight, declare there is
nothing in all Europe to equal it.”



60 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

ee

MONGST the most
wonderful of natural
phenomena are the
Geysers of Iceland.
These are hot-water
fountains, which, from
& & some wel, cause find an

K outlet in the surface of the earth,

) and hurl hot water and steam

1 to an immense height. These

\ springs of hot water are not con-

fined to Iceland; in some parts of
America they are also to be found on an
enormous scale. The Iceland Geysers
are thus described by an appreciative
writer, —

“About ten minutes past five we were
roused by the roaring of Stockr, which blew
up a great quantity of steam ; and when my
watch stood at the full quarter, a crash as
if the earth had burst, which was instan-
taneously succeeded by jets of water and
spray rising in a perpendicular column to
the height of sixty feet.

As the sun happened to be behind a
cloud, we had no expectation of witnessing
anything more sublime than we had already
seen; but Stockr had not been in action
above twenty minutes, when the Great
seyser, apparently jealous of her reputa-
tion, and indignant at our bestowing so
much of our time and applause on her
rival, began to thunder tremendously, and
emitted such quantities of water and steam,
that we could not be satisfied with a dis-
tant view, but hastened to the mound with
as much curiosity as if it had been the
first eruption we had beheld.

However, if she was more interesting in
point of magnitude, she gave the less
satisfaction in point of duration, having
again become tranquil in the course of five
minutes; whereas her less gaudy but
more steady companion continued to play
till within four minutes of six o’clock.





GEYSERS.

Our attenticn was so much taken up with
these two principal fountains, that we had
little time or inclination to watch the
minutiae of the numerous inferior shafts
and cavities with which the track abounds.
The Little Geyser erupted perhaps twelve
times in the twenty-four hours; but none
of its jets rose higher than eighteen or
twenty feet, and generally they were about
ten or twelve. The pipe of this spring
opens into a beautiful circular basin about
twenty feet in diameter, the surface of
which exhibits incrustations equally beauti-
ful with those of the Great Geyser. At the
depth of a few feet, the pipe, which is
scarcely three feet wide, becomes very
irregular, yet its depth has been ascertained
to be thirty-eight feet. There is a large
steam-hole at a short distance to the north-
west of the Little Geyser, which roars and
becomes quiescent with the operations of
that spring. A little farther down the
track are numerous apertures, some of
which are very large, and being full of clear
boiling water, they discover to the spec-
tator the perilous scaffolding on which he
stands. When approaching the brink of
many of them, he walks over a dome of
petrified morass, hardly a foot in thickness,
below which is a vast boiling abyss, and
even this thin dome is prevented from
gaining a due consistence by the humidity
and heat to which it is exposed. Near the
centre of these holes is situated the Little
Stockr, a wonderfully amusing little foun-
tain, which deals its waters in numerous
diagonal columns with great regularity every
quarter of an hour.

Nor is it in this direction alone that ori-
fices and cavities abound. Ina small gully
close to the Geyser are a number of holes
with boiling water ; to the south of which
rises a bank of ancient depositions, con-
taining apertures of a much larger size than
the rest. One of these is filled with



beautifully clear water, and discovers to a
great depth various groups of incrustations
which are very tempting to the eye of the
beholder. The depth of this reservoir is
not less than fifty feet. On the brow of
the hill, at the height of nearly two hundred
feet above the level of the Great Geyser,
are several holes of boiling clay ; some of
produce sulphur and the efflo-
rescence of alum; and at the base of the
hill on the opposite side are not less than
twenty springs, which prove that its foun-
dations are entirely perforated with veins
and cavities of hot water.

‘On my return this way from the north,
I again pitched my tent for two days
beside these celebrated fountains, and
found their operations still more mag-
uificent and interesting than they were
before. The Great Geyser continued to
erupt every six hours in a most imposing
manner. In some of the eruptions the
jets seemed to be thrown much higher
than they were in the preceding year,
several of them reaching an elevation of
not less than a hundred and fifty feet.

What rendered my second visit to the
Geysers peculiarly interesting, was my
discovery of the key to Stockr, by the
application of which I could make that
beautiful spring play when I had a mind,
and throw its water to nearly double the
height observable in its natural eruptions.
The morning after my arrival I was
awakened by its explosion about twenty
minutes past four o’clock ; and hastening
to the crater, stood nearly half an hour
contemplating its jet, and the steady and un-
interrupted emission of the column of spray
which followed, and which was projected
at least a hundred feet into the air. After
this, it gradually sank into the pipe, as it
had done the year before, and I did not
expect to see another eruption till the

which



THE GEYSERS. 61

following morning. However, about five
o’clock in the afternoon, after a great
quantity of the largest stones that could
be found about the place had been put into
the spring, I observed it begin to roar with
more violence than usual; and approaching
the brink of the crater, I had scarcely time
to look down to the surface of the water,
which was greatly agitated, when the erup-
tion commenced, and the boiling water
rushed up in a moment, within an inch or
two of my face, and continued its course
with inconceivable velocity into the atmo-
sphere. Having made a speedy retreat, I
now took my station on the windward side,
and was astonished to observe the elevation
of the jets, some of them rising higher than
two hundred feet; many of the fragments
of stone were thrown much higher, and
some of considerable size were raised to an
invisible height.

For some ‘time, every succeeding jet
seemed to surpass the preceding, till the
quantity of water in the subterraneous
caverns being spent, they gave place to
the column of steam, which continued to
rush up with a deafening roar for nearly an
hour.

The periodical evacuation of Stockr
having been deranged by the violent
experiment, no symptoms whatever of a
fresh eruption appeared the following
morning. As I wished, however, to see it
play once more before I bade an everlasting
farewell to these wonders of nature, and
especially being anxious t9 ascertain the
reality of my discovery, I got my servant
to assist me, about eight o’clock, in casting
all the loose stones we could find into the
spring. We had not ceased five minutes
when the wished-for phenomena recom-
menced, and the jets were carried to a
height little inferior to what* they had
gained on the preceding evening,”

ayy



























































































































































































































































































































































































































































ii

\ | fh il

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=a

























































































































































































































































































































































THE SVEZ CANAL, 93






oi)






journeys the Arab
dealers sometimes
Ve require to cross
We the lakes and rivers
eN which are so fre-
quent in Central

For this purpose they

¢ enerally use a pirogue, a
pe bufee eek most ingeniously
contrived out of the trunk of a
tree. Sometimes the pirogue

Africa.

ww
me
23 =f
(io
E: Mediterranean is separated

from the Red Sea by astrip of
sandy desert very Hale more



only which prevents Africa
from being an island, and pre-
vents ships from sailing from
Europe to India by way of the
Red Sea. Hence, from very
early times, ingenious men
have formed plans for cutting
a ship canal across this barrier. The nar-
rowest part is from Tineh on the Mediter-
ranean to Suez on the Red Sea; but as
this is a barren region of sand, sandstone,
and salt swamps, a route was sought for
which would avoid a certain elevated tract of
sandstone country. The surveyors found
a peculiar depression or level, not much
above the sea-level, marked in different
places by the Bitter Lakes, Lake Temsah,
the Karash salt-marshes, Lake Bellah,
Lake Menzaleh, and the plain of Pelusium ;
this, though a wretched country for a
settlement, offered a favourable route for
a canal. The Egyptians under Pharaoh-
Necho commenced such a work as early
as twenty-five centuries ago ; indeed, some
authorities believe that the canal was









PIROGUE.

b Gas “w their slave- -buying |

consists of a double boat, being two trunks
joined together. This, from its construc-
tion, it is almost impossible to upset, and
it is consequently much in favour where
the passage is dangerous. On smooth
waters, however, the pirogue represented
in our engraving is generally used ; and,
propelled by stalwart paddlers, makes

‘rapid progress through the water. In

South America, a particular kind of vessel,
with two masts and a sail, is also called a
pirogue,

THE SUEZ CANAL.

actually finished, and applied to the pur-
poses of trade ; that it was from 108 to 168
feet wide, and from 15 to 30 feet deep.
But be that as it may, the canal became
choked with sand. Traces of it are still
visible along the depressed line of route
(about 90 miles long) above adverted to.
The Greeks and the Romans, the Saracens
under the Calif Omar, the Genoese and
the Venetians, all in turn contemplated
the possible restoration of the old Egyptian
canal; indeed, the emperor Trajan really
restored it in the second century a.D., and
the Calif Omar in the seventh century ;
but the shifting sands had in every case
hitherto conquered the engineers, by gra-
dually choking up that which had been
excavated. The celebrated Robert Ste-
phenson, who was engaged with French
and Italian engineers in surveying the
isthmus at various times between 1847 and
1853, came to a conclusion that a really
practical and permanent ship canal cannot
be formed in that region ; instead of this
he constructed a railway for the Pasha of
Egypt, from Alexandria on the Mediter-
ranean shore to Suez on the Red Sea
shore; and this railway has ever since
rendered excellent service. It was left for



&y THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



M. Lesseps, a Frenchman, to accomplish
this marvel of engineering.

Beginning at the northern or Mediter-
ranean end of the canal, there is the new
town. of Port Said, built on a strip of sand
which separates the sea from Lake Men-
zaleh. Although so recently formed, it has
a population of several thousand inhabitants,
with streets, docks, basins, and quays.

The Mediterranean being at this part very ©

shallow, depth for a harbour could only
be obtained by constructing two piers or
moles, the one a mile and a half and the
other a mile and a quarter long, formed of

huge blocks of concrete or artificial stone..

The enclosed area, 500 acres in extent, has
been dredged out to a depth sufficient for
large merchant-ships. Basins and docks
are connected with this harbour; and then
begins the canal itself, just roo miles long.
For four-fifths of the distance, this canal is
327 feet wide at the surface of the water,
72 feet wide at the bottom, and 26 feet
deep. ‘The remaining one-fifth is 196 feet
wide at the water surface, with the same
bottom-width and maximum depth as the
other. The great surface-width has been
adopted to render the banks very. gradual
in their slope or shelving, as a precau-
tion against washing away. No less than
96,000,000 cubic yards of stone, sand, and
earth have been excavated to form a canal
of such large dimensions ; and an immense
amount of manual labour, aided by dredg-
ing machinery of unprecedented magnitude
and power, has been needed in the work,
The part of the sloping banks a little above
and below the water-level is protected by
rough stone pitching, to resist the action of
waves caused by passing steamers.

From Port Said the canal crosses several
miles of Lake Menzaleh, a kind of shallow
swamp, which requires an embankment to
mark and confine the two banks. Then
comes the Kantara cutting, three miles
through hillocks of sand. This ends at
Lake Bellah, a kind of salt marsh, through
which the canal runs about nine miles,
with side embankments. Next to this
comes a portion of plateau eight miles



long, in some parts of which, near El Guisr,
the canal had to be dug to the vast depth
of 90 feet in hard sandstone—an immense
labour, where the width of the canal is so
great, -Then we come to the central part
of the canal, Lake Temsah, where, just
about 50 miles from each end, is the new
and flourishing. town of Ismailia, provided
with streets, roads, merchants’ offices,
banks, hotels, cafés, villas, a Roman Catholic
chapel for the French inhabitants, a Mo-
hammedan mosque for the Egyptian and
Arab population, a theatre, a hospital, a
railway station, a telegraph station, an
abattoir, a bazaar, and quays and repairing-
docks for shipping. This town is one of
the most remarkable of M. Lesseps’ cre-
ations. The canal then passes through
nine miles of dry land, where the Serapeum
cutting has called for a vast amount of
excavation. To this succeeds a passage of
23 miles through the Bitter Lake, which has
for ages been a dry salt depression, but
which is now filled with sea-water from the
Mediterranean and the Red Sea; the canal
itself being marked out by lofty and broad
embankments. No less than 10,000,000
cubic yards of water have been admitted to
fill up this great depression. A further
portion of 17 miles, through dry land and
shallow dried-up lakes, carries the canal to
Suez, involving extensive blasting at the
Chalouf cutting. At the junction with the
Red Sea at Suez, all the necessary piers,
docks, and quays, have been constructed.

A. subsidiary work, without which this
great ship canal could not have been con-
structed, is the Sweet Water Canal. This
is about 4o feet wide by 9 feet deep. It
brings the fresh water'of the Nile, .from_a
point a little below Cairo,.to Ismailia and
Suez, and by means of large iron pipes to
Port Said. This minor canal is literally in-
valuable, seeing that it supplied fresh watér
for the thousands of men employed in the
works, and is gradually fertilising what was
before a sandy desert. The really grand
Suez Canal was opened for traffic in
November 1869, and ships of large burden
now pass through it.



65



THE ELECTRIC EEL.

<{ ISTINGUISHED for majestic size,
. great power of vision, strength
of wing, rapid flight, indomitable
courage, and almost resistless
> powers of attack, the eagle is
justly considered the king of
birds, and is often introduced as an apposite
symbol of human royalty in sacred and
secular literature. On the monuments of
Nineveh the head and wings frequently
occur as the emblems of kingly power;
and in the pages of inspired prophecy the
noble bird is repeatedly employed to repre-
sent Oriental sovereignties for the time over-
powering and triumphant. The eagle soars
loftily, and builds its platform nest in high
places, upon the brow of tall cliffs, or on
the uppermost branches of the towering
cedar-tree, itself flourishing far up the slope

of a mountain chain, The prophet Ezekiel



water fishes of South America
is the Gymnotus electricus, or
electrical eel. Its singular
properties enable it to arrest
suddenly the pursuit of an
enemy or the flight of its prey,
to suspend on the instant
every movement of its victim,
and subdue it by an invisible
& power. Even the fishermen
themselves are suddenly paralysed at the
moment of seizing it, while nothing external
betrays the mysterious power possessed by
this creature.
The French astronomer Richer was the
first to make known the singular properties
of this American fish. ‘I



was much
|



THE GOLDEN EAGLE.

writes of the king of Babylon as “a great
eagle with great wings, long-winged, full
of feathers,” which “came unto Leban-
on, and took the highest branch of the
cedar.”

The parent birds show tender solicitude
for their young, and provide liberally for the
wants of the helpless brood. The quantity
of food collected for them is so ample that
several instances are on record of poor
families obtaining sufficient subsistence in
straitened times by daily visiting the nests
for spoil, As soon as the eaglets are able
to cater for themselves, they are roused
to exertion by their natural guardians, con.
strained to quit the nest, incited to ply their
wings, instructed by example how use them,
and aided in their early attempts, till with
confidence and courage they can cleave
the air like their parents.



eG ee Le

1 astonished,” he says, “to see a fish some
three or four feet in length, resembling aneel,
deprive of all sensation the arm and neigh-
bouring parts which touched it. I was not
only an ocular witness of the effect produced
by its touch, but I have myself felt it, on
touching one of these fishes still living,
though wounded by a hook, by means of
which some Indians had drawn it from the
water. They could not tell what it was
called, but they assured me that it struck
other fishes with its tail in order to stupefy
them and devour them afterwards, which is
very probable when we consider the effect
of its touch upon a man.”

When full-grown the gymnotus measures
between five and six feet in length ; its
colour varies with age, and the nature of the

Ir





66 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



water in which it dwells. Generally it is
of an olive-green, with the under part of the
head of a yellow tint mingled with red;
and a double row of small excretory open-
ings in the skin, from the head to the tail,
are thus coloured; these openings appear to
belong to mucous glands, which secrete the
slimy fluid with which the skin is lubricated.
The mouth is wide, and the interior, as far
as the gullet, is furnished with little teeth
disposed in rows, and very closely set; the
tongue is fleshy, and covered with papille.
The apparatus which gives to this eel its
terrible powers, and renders it capable of
discharging an electric shock of such vio-
lence as to throw down horse and man,
occupies the under parts of the tail, .or
terminal portion of the body. It consists



nervous system is thus shocked violently at
thesame moment.” It is scarcely necessary
to say, that in the pools, lakes, or meres,
tenanted by this formidable fish it reigns
supreme: what, indeed, can withstand its
assaults? It comes not upon its foe with
teeth, nor the common weapons of its race,
for then force might be opposed to force ;
but it deals destruction by the agency of
means against which strength and courage
are of little avail.

On the nerves with which these creatures
are furnished depend their electric power ;
but how or in what manner the accumulation
of electric fluid takes place, the means which
the animal has of discharging it or not,
at pleasure, or in what direction it pleases,
and the theory of its production—these



of four longitudinal a
masses; two large
above, two small be-
low, each being com-
posed of a vast
number of membran-
ous lamine, or thin
plates, closely set to-
gether, and nearly
horizontal. These
plates have their ex-
ternal margins affixed
to the skin, and they





points are all enve-
loped in mystery.
We are presented
with nerves, and a
large laminated appa-
ratus; and we find
that these nerves and
this apparatus of
plates constitute, in
some mysterious
manner, an _ electro-
galvanic battery, go-
verned as to its use





rise to a level with the vertebral column ;
they are, besides, united to each other by
an infinite number of transverse small verti-
cal laminee, and thus are formed a multitude
of transverse cells, or minute prismatic
canals, filled with jelly-like matter, and
abundantly supplied with nerves.

“I never remember,” says Humboldt,
“to have experienced a more terrible blow’
from the discharge of a Leyden jar of great
size, than one which I received on putting
my two feet on a gymnotus which was
dragged out of the water. During the rest
of the day, I felt great pain in the knees,
and in almost every joint of the body. A
blow on the stomach, a stone falling on the
head, a tremendous electric explosion, pro-
duce in an instant the same effects: nothing
is distinguished, all is vague, when the whole



by volition: but we know no more. How
soon are we stopped by impassable barriers
in the progress of our investigations among
the wonders with which the great field
of creation teems! How soon do we
discover the limitation of our minds and
their inadequacy to grasp a part, a small ’
part, of the ways and workings of the
Almighty !

The sketch on the opposite page repre-
sents a section of the terminal portion of
its body, containing the electrical apparatus,
and serves to convey a clear idea of the
arrangement of its plates, and the relative
magnitude of the upper and lower double
series. @, the upper and larger pair of
electric organs. 4, the lower pair. «¢ ex:
ternal lateral muscles. d, eight dorsal
muscles, imbedded in fat and cellular tissue.



THE ELECTRIC EEL. 67



and having a concentrically laminated |

structure. ¢, the spinal column. 7, the
swimming-bladder, which is of an elongated
form and of great length, measuring from
two to nearly three feet.

The mode of capturing the electrical eel
is described by a naturalist, Bonpland, who
stopped at Calabozo, on the Orinoco, in
order to witnessit. ‘ While our hosts were
explaining to us this strange mode of fishing,
a troop of about thirty halfwild horses and

_mules had arrived, and
the Indians had made
a sort of circle, press-
ing the horses on all
sides, and forcing them
into the marsh. The
Indians, armed with
long canes and_har-
poons, had placed

‘ themselves round the
basin, some of them
mounting the trees, the
branches of which hung
over the water, and by
their cries, and still
more by their canes,
preventing the horses
from landing again.
The eels, stunned by
the noise, defended
themselves byrepeated
discharges of their
batteries.: For a long
time it seemed as if
they would be victor-

lous over the horses.
Some of the mules
especially, being almost stifled by the fre-
quency and force of the shocks, disappeared
under water ; and some of the horses, in spite
of the watchfulness of the Indians, regained
the bank, where, overcome by the shocks they
had undergone, they stretched themselves at
their whole length. The picture presented
was now indescribable. Groups of Indians
surrounded the basin, the horses with
bristling manes, terror and grief in their
eyes, trying to escape from the storm which
had surprised them; the eels, yellow and







W Li) = Si

Us;





livid, looking like great aquatic serpents
swimming on the surface of the water, and
chasing their enemies, were objects at once
appalling and picturesque. In less than five
minutes two horses were drowned. An eel,
more than five feet long, glided under one
horse, and discharged its apparatus through
its whole extent, attacking at once the
heart and viscera, probably benumbing and
finally drowning it.

When the struggle had endured a quarter
of an hour, the mules
and horses appeared
less frightened, their
manes became more
erect, their eyes ex-
pressed less terror, the
eels shunned in place
of attacking them, at
the same time ap-
proaching the bank,
when they were easily
taken by throwing
little harpoons at them
attached to long cords,
the harpoon sometimes
hooking two at a time,
being landed by means

fthe long cord. They
were then drawnashore
without being able to
communicate any
shock.”

Several of these won-
derful fish have been
brought to England in
a living state. A fine
gymnotus was kept for
many years at the Polytechnic Institution in
London. Numbers of experimenters were ac-
customed daily to test its powers; and the
fatal, or at all events the numbing power of
the stroke was evident when the creature was —
supplied with fish. Though blind, it was
accustomed to turn its head towards the
spot when a fish was dropped into the
water, when it would curve itself slightly
stiffen its muscles, and the victim turned
over on its back, struck as if dead by the
violence of the shock.



D 2



68 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





\\ NE of the most interesting
il relics of Regal Rome is the
old Mamertine Prison, con-
structed byAncus Martius, and
described by Livy and Sallust.
Walls builtof enormous blocks
of stone form a cell, cold and
dark and damp. But in the
floor is asmall opening lead-
ing down into a yet more
horrible dungeon. Sallust
speaks of it as “a place about
ten feet deep, surrounded by walls, with a
vaulted roof of stone above it. The filth
and darkness and stench make it indeed
terrible.” Here the African king Jugurtha
was starved to death, the accomplices of
Catiline were strangled, and Sejanus, the
son-in-law of Tiberius, was executed. Tra-
dition affirms that yet more illustrious
sufferers were confined here. In this state
prison it is said that the apostles Peter and
Paul were immured. Of this, however,
there is no evidence; but the papal le-
gends which so often invest even a probable
tradition with incredible marvels, are not
wanting here. An indentation in the wall
of the staircase is pointed out as having
been made by the head of St. Peter when
forcibly struck against it by the inhuman
gaoler ; and a spring of water which rises
from the floor is declared to have burst
miraculously from the rock for the baptism
of his two guards, Processus and Martinia-
nus, though, unfortunately for this tradition,
the fountain is described by Plutarch as exist-
ing in the time of Jugurtha’s imprisonment.
Indeed there is every reason to believe
that this chamber was originally a well-
house or a subterranean cistern for collect-
ing water at the foot of the Capitol, from
which circumstance it derived its name of
Tullianum, from 7¢wd/éus, the old Etruscan
word for spring, and not from Servius Tul-
lius, who was erroneously supposed to have

THE OLDEST PRISON





IN: THE WORLD.

built it. The whole chamber in primitive
times was filled with water, and the hole in
the roof was used for drawing it out. Not
withstanding its sacred reputation, the water
tastes very much like ordinary water, being
very cool and fresh, with a slight medicinai
taste. A rugged hollow in the wall of the
staircase is pointed out as the print of St.
Peter’s head in the hard stone, said to have
been produced as he stumbled and fell
against it coming down the stair a chained
prisoner. It requires no small amount of
devotional credulity to recognise the like.
ness, or to believe the story.

But there is no need for having recourse
to such ecclesiastical legends in order to
produce a solemn impression in this cham-
ber. Its classical associations are sufficient
of themselves to powerfully affect .the
imagination. There is no reason to doubt
the common belief that this is the identical
cell in which the famous Jugurtha was
starved to death. The romantic history ot
this African king is familiar to all readers
of Sallust, who gives a masterly account
of the Jugurthine war. When finally defeat
ed, after having long defied the Roman
army, his person was taken possession of by
treachery, and carried in chains to Rome,
where he adorned the triumphal procession
of his conqueror Marius, and was finally
cast into this cell, perishing there of cold
and hunger. What a terrible ending to the
career of a fierce, free soldier, who had
spent his life on horseback in the boundless
sultry deserts of Western Africa! The tem-
perature of the place is exceedingly damp
and chill. Jugurtha himself, when stripped
of his clothes by the greedy executioners,
and let down into it from the hole in the
roof, exclaimed with grim humour, “By
Hercules, how cold your bath is !”

A more hideous and heart-breaking dur-
geon it is impossible to imagine, Not 4
ray of light can penetrate the profound



THE OLDEST PRISON IN THE WORLD. 69



darkness of this living tomb. Sallust spoke
of the appearance of it in-his day, from the
filth, the gloom, and the smell, as simply
terrific.

The height of the vault is about sixteen
feet, its length thirty feet, and its breadth
twenty-two feet. It is cased with huge
masses of volcanic stone, arranged in
courses, converging towards the roof, not
on the principle of the arch, but extending
horizontally to the centre, as we see in
some of the Etruscantombs. This peculiar
style of construction proves the very high
antiquity of the chamber. It is especially
interesting, to use the words of Freeman,
“as showing that men were at this time
making various attempts to bring stones, so
as to overlap and support one another ; but
the perfect arch, with its stones poised in
mid-air by a law of mutual mechanical sup-
port, had not yet rewarded their efforts.”

Besides Jugurtha, several other notable
prisoners were confined in this cell. It
played the same part in Roman history
which the Tower of London has done in
our own. Here, by the orders of Cicero,
were strangled Lentulus, Cetheeus, and one
or two more of the accomplices of Catiline
in his famous conspiracy. Here was
murdered, under circumstances of great
baseness, Vercingetorix, the young and
gallant chief of the Gauls, whose bravery
called forth the highest qualities of Julius
Cesar’s military genius, and who, when
success abandoned his arms, boldly gave
himself up as an offering to appease the
anger of the Romans.

“From the Tullianum, or Prison of St,
Peter,” says Dr. Macmillan, who recently
visited the ruins in the Forum, “we were led
through a tortuous subterraneous passage of
Etruscan character, a hundred yards long,
cut out of the rock. It was so low that we
had to stoop all the way, and in some
places almost to creep, and so narrow that a
very stout person would have some difficulty
in forcing himself through. The floor was
here and there wet with the overflowing of
neighbouring drains, which exhaled a noi-
some stench ; and we had to pick our steps



carefully through thick greasy mud, which
on the slopes was very slippery and dis-
agreeable. We followed each other in
Indian file, stooping low, each with a wax
taper burning dimly in the damp atmos-
phere, and presenting a most picturesque
appearance. This passage was discovered
only a few years ago. Numerous passages
of a similar nature are said to penetrate the
volcanic rock on which the Capitol stands,
in every direction, like the galleries of an
ant’s nest. Some of these have been ex-
posed, and others walled up. They con-
nected the prison with the Cloaca, (which
had its outlet in the river Tiber), and
doubtless furnished means by which the
bodies of criminals who had been executed
might be secretly disposed of. The passage
in question brought us to four other cham-
bers, each darker and more dismal than the
other, and partially filled with heaps of
rubbish and masses of stone that had fallen
from their own roofs and sides. At the top
of each vault there was a man-hole for let-
ting a prisoner down with cords into it.

A visit to these six vaults of the Mamer-
tine Prison gives one an idea that can never
be forgotten of the cruelty and tyranny which
underlay all the gorgeous despotism ot
Rome, alike in the kingly, republican, and
imperial periods. Some of the remains may
still be seen of the Scalaa Gemone, the
‘steps of sighs,’ down which the bodies ot
those who were executed were thrown, to
be exposed to the insults of the populace.
The only circumstance that relieves the in-
tolerable gloom of the associations of the
prison is, that Neevius is said to have
written two of his plays while he was con-
fined in it for his attacks on the aristocracy:
a circumstance which links it to the Tower
of London, which has also its literary remi-
niscences.

After having been immured so long in
such disagreeable physical darkness,—ap-
propriate emblems of the deeds of horror
committed in it, —we were truly glad to catch
at last a faint glimmer of daylight shimmer-
ing into the uppermost passage, and to
emerge into the open sunshine.”



Q
4
S
¢
ea

THE









WEIR.

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FROM A PAINTING BY HARRISO





















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5 a va

aetitt rian
oe







































CAPTAIN BOYTON’S LIFE DRESS.

FEW years ago a statement went | tioned that the adventurer was equipped
the round of the papers, to the | with a life-saving apparatus, the statemen!
effect that an. American had | taxed the credulity of most people who
jumped overboard from the Na- | know what the sea isin astorm. The fact,
tional Liner steamship Qzcen, | however, was well authenticated that Cap:
some miles from the Irish coast, | tain Paul Boyton, of the New Jersey Lit
and had succeeded in gaining the | Saving Service, Atlantic City, did so quit
shore safe, warm, and dry, a violent storm | the vessel, and after remaining in the se
notwithstanding. Although it was men- | for seven hours, and drifting some miles





CAPTAIN BOYTON’S LIFE DRESS.

1
along the coast, he was at length cast ashore
5 ? a

high and dry at Trefaska Bight, on the
Skibbereen coast, and the next day made
his way to Cork, where he rejoined his
anxious friends on board the Queen.

Captain Boyton soon became better known
to the people of England, and his experi-
ments excited great curiosity. He crossed
the Channel, went up the Thames and
other rivers, and proved in every way the
value of his invention, and his name and
achievements are now familiar round the
world.

The aquatic feats with which Captain
Boyton astonished the good people of
England were accomplished by means of a
dress which, though known by his name, is
really the invention of a Mr. C. S. Merriman,
of New York; Captain Boyton, a man of
great pluck and resolution, having been
commissioned to introduce it into Europe.
This life-preserving garment is made of solid
india-rubber, and is in two parts, the lower
being the pantaloons, to which boots are
attached, and the upper the tunic, with
sleeves, gloves, and helmet connected to it.
The pantaloons are formed with a waistbelt
or hoop of steel, which is elastic and has a
rib of india-rubber running round the out-
side. The tunic has a similar rib of rubber
around the inside of the waist, which is
drawn over and contracts under the rib on
the pantaloon belt, and by its elasticity,
gripping in tightly, forms a water-tight joint.
This joint is further secured by an outer
belt of rubber fastened with a buckle.
Having put on this suit in the order indica-
ted in our description, the operator next
proceeds to inflate it, which he does by
blowing in turn through five tubes, fitted
with stop valves, each tube communicating
with an air-chamber. Of these chambers
there are two in the pantaloons, two in the
tunic, and one in the helmet. In the front
of the helmet an aperture is left large
enough to show the eyes, nose, and mouth



71

of the operator, and the act of inflating the
helmet brings the edges of the rubber in
close contact with the face, so that there are
only a few square inches of exposed surface.
The suit weighs r5lb., and when fully in-
flated is stated to be capable of sustaining a
weigh of 300lb., which allows for the weight
of a person saved by the wearer from
drowning ; besides which, the inventor has
provided for the contingency: of damage to
any one of the air-chambers. The suit
when out of use is packed away in an india-
rubber bag weighing about 2lb. This bag
has a compartment round the mouth in
which three gallons of water may be stowed
away. In the bottom of the bag are placed
provisions, signal lights, etc., and air is
blown into the water compartment, which
expands the mouth of the bag inwards and
so closes the opening, which can further be
strapped tight. Equipped in this dress,
and thus provisioned and provided with
a paddle, the voyager is unsinkable, and,
apart from danger from sharks or from con-
cussion with rocks, there is no reason why
he should not remain in the water for an
indefinite period. As the dress fits loosely
and is put on over the ordinary clothing,
the temperature of the body is equally
maintained. With a little practice, it can
be put on and inflated in two minutes.
Captain Boyton’s first attempt to cross the
English Channel, from Dover to Boulogne,
was frustrated only by want of knowledge
of its conflicting currents, and the refusal of
the French pilot to take any responsibility
after nightfall’ ‘His second attempt was
made under more favourable conditions, and
crowned with complete success, his voyage
having occupied the twenty-four hours all
but twenty-two minutes. Since that adven-
ture, the dress has been successfully tried
by others, and there can be no question
that Captain Boyton has added a most
wonderfully efficient means to those already
in existence for the saving of life at sea.



~T
nN

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVETS.



NGINEERING science,
and the skill dis-
played in overcom-
ing physical diffi-
culties, have been
wonderfully deve-
loped during the

present century. instance of this is found in the
Thames Tunnel, begun by Sir
Mark Isambard Brunel in
1825, continued by his son, and
completedin 1843. This work, though now
applied to a use of which its originator
little dreamed, is still the most important
subaqueous tunnel in existence, and appears
likely to remain so, at least till the railway
tunnel between England and France has
become an accomplished fact.

More than three-quarters of a century
ago, the idea of connecting the shores of
the Thames by a subway was proposed.
This was by Mr. Ralph Dodd, an engineer
well known in his time. The attempt was
made, several miles lower down the river
than the present tunnel, and was a signal
failure. Dodd’s tunnel fell in, and has long
been abandoned to the water. The idea,
however, took root, and in 1805, the year
of Trafalgar, a company was incorporated
by Act of Parliament, under the name of
the “ Thames Archway Company,” with the
object of forming an archway or tunnel
beneath the bed of the river at Limehouse,
sufficiently capacious to allow of the transit
of vehicles through it. Under Mr. Vazie
and Mr. Trevithick, great progress was made
with the work. But in 1808, when a drift-
way had been carried to within 200 feet of
the opposite shore, the river broke in upon
the works, and finally destroyed the whole
undertaking. As early as 1814 the atten-
tion of Mr. Brunel was directed to the
subject ; and in 1823, backed up by the





THE THAMES TUNNEL.

to the public a plan for the construction of a
tunnel. Mr. Brunel had been engaged in
constructing a small tunnel at Chatham,
and passing one day through the yard,
he observed a piece of wood which was
perforated by the borings of a well-known
sea-worm called the Zeredo navalis, or
Calamitas navium, as Linneeus named it.
The thought occurred to him that a ma-
chine might be constructed, protected ina
similar manner to the hard cylindrical shell
of this worm, and which would tunnel with
great rapidity. The idea was elaborately
worked out, and though afterwards mate-
rially altered, was substantially the mode in
which this great undertaking was completed.

The Act incorporating the company re-
ceived the royal assent in June, 1824 ; but
in consequence of a dispute relative to the
site of the property required for the Rother-
hithe shaft, the works were not actually
commenced till February 16, 1825. A brick
cylinder was first built on the Surrey side,
42 feet high, 150 feet in circumference, and
150 feet distant from the river. In the
inside of this cylinder the excavators worked,
cutting away the earth and supplying its
place with brickwork, till they had reached
a depth of 65 feet ; another shaft was then
sunk lower for experimental purposes, when,
at a depth of 80 feet, the ground suddenly
gave way, and sand and water were blown
up with great violence. From this shaft
the tunnel itself was begun, at a depth of
63 feet. Mr. Brunel proposed to make his
tunnel 38 feet broad and 223 feet high,
leaving room within for two archways each
15 feet high, and each wide enough fora
single carriage and a footpath. The men
worked in a frame which Mr. Brunel called
a shield, which was pushed forward from
time to time by means of large horizontal
screws, which abutted on the brickwork of
the arch at the top, and against the in-

Duke of Wellington, he seriously submitted | verted arch at the bottom. This shield was



THE THAMES TUNNEL.

divided in a very ingenious manner into
cells, each of which was capable of being
moved separately. “As the miners were at
work at one end of the cells, the bricklayers
at the back were as busy as bees in forming
the brick walls of the tunnel top, sides, and
bottom, the crushing earth above being
fended off by the top of the shield till the
bricklayers had finished. Following the
shield was a rolling stage in each archway,
for the assistance of the men in the upper
cells.” The work proceeded slowly, but
without any serious interruption, to the 26th
January, 1826, when water burst in; but,
after some difficulty in stopping the leak,
the water was pumped out, and the work
was resumed, and continued without further
interruption till early in September.

The arrangements not proving entirely
effective, it was suggested to extend the
action of the frames. To this Brunel was
opposed, but circumstances combined to
overrule his judgment, and to induce him
to sanction what his first mechanical con-
ceptions and his subsequent experience
condemned. The extraordinary energy,
ability, and enthusiasm of his son, Mr.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who had been
appointed resident engineer, seemed to
offer to Brunel compensation for almost any
departure from his original plan. The
necessity for increased supervision, however,
became more and more pressing. On the
morning of Friday, September 8, 1826,
water was observed to drop from the tails
of some of the frames ; this was checked by
a stuffing of oakum. In two hours diluted
silt made its appearance, and during the
night it burst in with considerable force,
So great as to require the united efforts of
their men to retain the necessary stuffing in
its place. The utmost vigilance was re-
quired for several days to keep the men at
their post. On Monday, the rth, the
contest had again to be renewed; water
and silt occasionally bursting from the back
of the frames when any attempt was made
to move on. ‘Timbers were now introduced
in front, where the ground was more solid,
and, capped with clay, were forced up by



73

powerful screw-jacks. While this operation
was going on in front, gravel and pieces of
yellow mottled clay forced themselves in
behind. Upon an effort being made to
move forward the contiguous frames, water
appeared in front in such abundance as
to threaten destruction to the faces. To
relieve the ground, borings were made
through the brickwork of the centre pier,
and pipes inserted at the back of the frames.
After considerable labour, at ten o’clock
onthe night of the xzzth, the object was
attained, and the water flowed with great
velocity, promising to relieve the pressure
and to prevent the further dilution of the
silt and clay. All was now in full activity ;
the din of workmen and the plashing of
water, broken in its descent of twenty-two
feet by the iron floor plates, was deafening,
when suddenly the water ceased to flow;
the workmen ceased their labour, and not a
sound relieved the intensity of the silence.
“We gazed on one another,” said a narrator
of the scene, who was present, ‘‘ with a
feeling not to be described. On every
countenance astonishment, awe, perhaps,
was depicted, but not fear. I saw that
each man—with his eyes upon Isambard
Brunel, the resident engineer, and then
only twenty years of age—stood firmly pre-
pared to execute his orders with resolution
and intrepidity. In a few moments—
moments like hours—a rumbling, gurgling
sound was heard above ; the water resumed
its course, the awful stillness was broken,
life and activity once more prevailed, and
the works proceeded without further
material interruption.” The threatened
catastrophe had passed over, and the work
had now so far advanced that permission
was given to strangers to visit the works;
a shillmg was charged, and they were
allowed to proceed down the western arch-
way about 300 feet. In May, 1827, how-
ever, came the long-expected disaster. Two
vessels had anchored just above the head
of the tunnel, and a great quantity of soil
had been washed away from above the
shields.

Mr. Beamish,



the resident assistant



74

ZLZHE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



engineer, in his “ Life of Brunel,” thus
describes the occurrence :—

“As the water rose with the tide it
increased in the frames very considerably
between Nos. 5 and 6, forcing its way at
the front, then at the back; Ball and
Compton (the occupants) most active.
About a quarter before six o’clock, No. 11
(division) went forward. Clay appeared at
the back. Had it closed up immediately.
While this was going forward my attention
was again drawn to No. 6, where I found
the gravel forcing itself with the water.
It was with the utmost difficulty that Ball
could keep anything against the opening.
Fearing that the pumpers would now be-
come alarmed, as they had been once or
twice before, and leave their post, I went
upon the east stage to encourage them, and
to choose more shoring for Ball. Goodwin,
who was engaged at No. 11, where indica-
tions of a run appeared, called to Rogers,
who was in the act of working down No. 9,
to come to his assistance. But Rogers,
having his second poling-board down,
could not. Goodwin again called. I then
said to Rogers, ‘ Don’t you hear?’ Upon
which he left his poling for the purpose
of assisting Goodwin ; but before he could
get to him, and before I could get fairly
into the frames, there poured such an over-
whelming volume of water and sludge as to
force them out of the frames. William
Carps, a bricklayer, who had gone to Good-
win’s assistance, was knocked down and
literally rolled out of the frames on the
stage, as though he had come through a mill
sluice, and would undoubtedly have fallen
off the stage had I not caught hold of him,
and with Rogers’ assistance helped him down
the ladder. JI again made an attempt to get
into the frames, calling upon the miners to
follow ; but all was dark (the lights at the
frames and stage being all blown out), and I
was only atiswered by the hoarse and angry
sounds of Father Thames’s roarings. Rogers
(an old sergeant of the Guards), the only
man left upon the stage, now caught my
arm, and gently drawing me from the
frames, said, ‘Come away, pray, sir; come



away ;’tis no use, the water is rising fast,’
I turned once more; but hearing an in.
creased rush at No. 6, and finding the
column of water at Nos. 11 and 12 to be
augmenting, I reluctantly descended. The
cement casks, compo-boxes, and pieces of
timber were floating around me. I turned
into the west arch, where the enemy had
not yet advanced so rapidly, and again
looked towards the frames, lest some one
might have been overtaken ; but the cement
casks, etc., striking my legs, threatened
seriously to obstruct my retreat, and it was
with some difficulty I’ reached the visitors’
bar (a bar so placed as to keep the visitors
from the unfinished works), where Mayo,
Bertram, and others were anxiously waiting
toreceiveme. . . . Iwasglad of their
assistance ; indeed, Mayo fairly dragged me
over it. Not bearing the idea of so pre-
cipitate a retreat, I turned once more ; but
vain was the hope! The wave rolled on-
ward and onward ; the men retreated, and I
followed. Met Gravatt coming down.
Short was the question, and brief was the
answer. As we approached I met I.
[Isambard] Brunel. We turned round : the
effect was splendid beyond description.
The water as it rose became more and
more vivid, from the reflected lights of
the gas. As we reached the staircase a
crash was heard, and then a rush of air at
once extinguished all the lights.
Now it was that I experienced ‘something
like dread. I looked up the shaft, and saw
both stairs crowded ; I looked below, and
beheld the overwhelming wave appearing
to move with accumulated velocity.
Dreading the effect of the reaction of
this wave from the back of the shaft upon
our staircase, I exclaimed to Mr. Gravatt,
‘The staircase will blow up!’ I. Brunel
ordered the men to get up with all expe
dition; and our feet were scarcely off
the bottom stairs when the first flight,
which we had just left, was swept away.
Upon our reaching the top, a bustling noise
assailed our ears, some calling for a raft,
others for a boat, and others again a rope;
from which it was evident that some unior-



THE THAMES TUNNEL. 75



tunate individual was in the water. I.
Brunel instantly, with that presence of mind
to which I have been more than once wit-
ness, slid down one of the iron ties, and
after him Mr. Gravatt, each making a rope
fast to old Tillet’s waist, who, having been
looking after the packing of the pumps
below the shaft, was overtaken by the flood.
He was soon placed out of danger. The
roll was immediately called—wot one absent.”
Fortunately, no lives were lost; but this
irruption was only the forerunner of
another, attended with the most melan-
choly results, and which was preceded by
an accident which troubled Mr. Brunel even
more than the influx of water. On June
27, 1827, two of the directors, having
expressed a wish to obtain a view of the
shield, embarked in a small boat. for that
purpose, which was unfortunately overload-
ed and upset, and one of the party, a miner,
was drowned. One of the most striking
characteristics of Brunel's inventions was
the means he provided for the protection of
life, and, notwithstanding all the difficulties
by which the operations of the tunnel were

beset, no life had yet been sacrificed when |

the necessary care had been taken.

By January, 1828, the shield had ad-
vanced to the middle of the river. Mr. I.
K. Brunel, the son of the great engineer,
judging that a more rapid rate of progress
would also be more safe, and calculating
on the tried skill, courage, and physical
power of some of the men coming on in the
morning shift on January 12, 1828, ven-
tured at high-water, or when the tide was
still rising, to make an important advance ;
but the shield was not, as was afterwards
proved, thoroughly well secured. In a
short time a column of ground, eight or ten
inches in diameter, was forced in, and this
was immediately followed by the over-
‘whelming torrent, So rapid was the influx
of water, that had not the workmen quitted
the stage immediately, they must have been
swept off; a rush of air suddenly extin-
guished the gas lights, and they were left to
struggle in utter darkness. Five men were
drowned, and the tunnel was again filled



with water. One of the great advantages.
which Brunel believed the shield possessed
was the security it afforded to life; but,
unhappily, the confidence which that sup-
posed security inspired supplied a tempta-
tion to incur risks against which no protec-
tion would avail. In aletter to the directors
Mr. Brunel, jun., described the scene as
follows :—“I had been in the frames with
the workmen throughout the whole night,
having taken my station there at ten o’clock.
During the workings through the night no
symptoms of insecurity appeared. At six
o'clock in the morning (the usual time for
shifting the men) a fresh set came on to work.
We began to work the ground at the west top
corner of the frame. The tide had just
then begun to flow, and finding the ground
tolerably quiet, we proceeded by beginning
at the top, and had worked about a foot
downwards, when, on exposing the next
six inches, the ground swelled suddenly,
and alarge quantity burst through the open-
ing thus made, This was followed instantly
by a large body of water. The rush was so
violent as to force the man on the spot
where the burst took place out of the frame
(or cell) on to the timber stage behind the
frames. I was in the frame with the man ;
but upon the rush of the water I went into
the next box, in order to command a better
view of the irruption ; and seeing there was
no possibility of their opposing the water, I
ordered all the men in the frames to retire.
All were retiring except the three men who
were with me, and they retreated with me,
I did not leave the stage until those three
men were down the ladder of the frames,
when they and I proceeded about twenty
feet along the west arch of the tunnel. At
this moment the agitation of the air by the
rush of the water was such as to extinguish
all the lights, and the water had gained the
height of the middle of our waists. I was
at that moment giving directions to the
three men, in what manner they ought to
proceed in the dark to effect their escape,
when they and I were knocked down and
covered by apart of the timber stage. I
struggled under water for some time, and at



76 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



length extricated myself from the stage ; and
by swimming and being forced by the water,
I gained the eastern arch, where I got a
better footing, and was enabled, by laying
hold of the railway rope, to pause a little,
in the hope of encouraging the men who
had been knocked down at the same time
with myself. ‘This I endeavoured to do by
calling to them. Before I reached the
shaft the water had risen so rapidly that I
was out of my depth, and therefore swam to
the visitors’ stairs, the stairs of the workmen
being occupied by those who had so far
escaped. My knee was so injured by the
timber stage that I could scarcely swim or
get up the stairs, but the rush of the water
carried me up the shaft. The three men
who had been knocked down with me were
unable to extricate themselves, and I grieve
to say they are lost, and, I believe, also
two old men and one young man in other
parts of the work.” To fill up the hole and
regain the frames, Brunel resorted to the
means which had proved so successful after
the former irruption, and about 4,500 tons
of clay and gravel were absorbed by the
hole. The same alarms, anxieties, and
fatigues were, again experienced, pressing
only more heavily in consequence of being
deprived of the active superintendence of
Isambard Brunel, who had been severely
injured in the late accident. The next
irruption was in November, 1837, and
the last in April, 1840, about eight in the
morning, it being low water at the time.
During a movement of the poling-boards in
the shield, a quantity of gravel and water
tushed into the frame.: “The ground
rushed in immediately, and knocked the
men out of their cells, and they fled in
a panic; but finding the water did not
follow, they returned, and by great exer-
tions succeeded in stopping the run when
upwards of 6,000 cubic feet of ground had
fallen into the tunnel. The fall was atten-
ded with a noise like thunder, and the
extinguishing of all the lights. At the
same time,'to the horror of Wapping, part
of the shore in that place sank, over an
area of upwards of 700 feet, leaving a cavity



on the shore of about thirty feet in diameter
and thirteen feet in depth. Had this
taken place at high water, the tunnel would
have been filled ; as it was, men were sent
over with bags of clay and gravel, and
everything was rendered secure by the re-
turn of the tide. Sometimes sand, nearly
fluid, would ooze through minute cracks
between the small poling-boards of the
shield, and leave large cavities in the
ground in front. On one of these occasions
the sand poured in all night, and filled the
bottora of the shield. In the morning, on
opening one of the faces, a hollow was dis-
covered, eighteen feet long, six feet high,
and six feet deep. This cavity was filled
up with brickbats and lumps of clay. One
of the miners was compelled to lay himself
down in this cavity, for the purpose of build-
ing up the further end, though at the risk
of being buried alive.”

While all this was taking place, the funds
of the company had become exhausted, and
an appeal was made to the country. A
public meeting was held, attended by the
Duke of Cambridge, the Duke of Welling-
ton, and many other noblemen and gentle-
men of distinction. The Duke of Welling-
ton proposed a series of résolutions express-
ing his confidence that the great work
would be crowned with success. “Of my
own knowledge,” said his Grace, “I can
speak of the interest excited in foreign na-
tions for the welfare and success of this
great undertaking. They look upon it as
the greatest work of art ever undertaken.”
The result of this meeting was that £418,500
was at once subscribed, but the scheme to
raise money on debentures completely
failed. Up to that time the company had
raised and expended a total of £170,000,
and the public rightly. thought the security
for a further outlay was very uncertain.
The water having been cleared out of the
tunnel, a mirror was placed at the end of
the visitors’ arch, and which, having been
stuccoed and lighted with gas, continued
to be an object of great attraction to visit-
ors from ‘all parts of the world. At last
Government consented to make a loan of



A NATURAL TEMPLE.

77



£246,000 to the Tunnel Company, under -

the condition that the money ‘‘should be
solely applied in carrying on the tunnel it-
self, and that no advance should be applied
to the defraying of any other expense until
that part of the undertaking which is most
hazardous shall be secured.” Isambard
Brunel was then too much engaged in rail-
way undertakings to permit his giving assist-
ance to his father, and Mr. Beamish suc-
ceeded him in that office, and had the
honour of completing the tunnel. ° The
work was continued, with varying fortunes,
till March 25, 1843, when it was opened to
the public.

The total length of the tunnel is 1,200

i



feet ; its cost from first to last was about
4450,000, of which £180,000 was sub-
scribed or lent, and the remainder advanced
by Government. “The carriage ways were
originally intended to consist of an im-
mense spiral road, winding twice round
a circular excavation 57 feet deep, in
order to reach the proper level. The
extreme diameter of this spiral road was to
be no less than 200 feet. The road itself
was to have been 4o feet wide, and the de-
scent very moderate ;” but as the work pro-
ceeded, the plans were very much modified.
The tunnel now forms part of the East
London Railway, between Wapping and
Rotherhithe stations,





SAG
Pp fi \ 4°)
ey
gh \/ I.

| ITHIN the state of California
there is a perfect natural
theatre, almost as symmetri-
cal in arrangement as if it
had been artificially erected. It is at a
place called Temple Canon, some four and
a half miles from Canon City, and was
discovered but a year or two ago. The
climb is not steep, though rather rough,
especially to effect an entrance into the
temple proper, which can only be accom-
plished by clambering over several huge
boulders, which, if removed, would ren-
der the illusion of a temple and stairway
all the more striking. Once passing in
through the great rifts of rock, for all the
world like the stairway to some grand place
of amusement, the body of the temple is
reached, and to the tourist’s astonishment,
before him is a stage with overhanging arch,
with “ flats” and “ flies,” with dressing-rooms
on either side, and a scene already set as
if for some grand tableau. If so intensely
realistic from the parquet, as the broad
circling floor might aptly be termed, or
from the parquet or dress-circles, as the
higher ledges would suggest, the clamber
up to the stage itself renders it all the more




=O:





A NATURAL TEMPLE,

so, for there is found ample room for a full
dramatic or operatic company to disport
upon, while in the perpendicular ledges
and caves on either side twenty-five or
thirty people might retire and not be ob-
served from the body of the hall. The
Stage is at the least thirty feet deep, and
some sixty to seventy broad; the arch
above fully one hundred feet from the floor
of the canon, the stage itself being about
forty feet above the floor. ‘The arch is
almost as smooth and perfectly proportioned
as if fashioned by the hand of man, and
during the wet season the water from a
stream above falls in a great broad sheet
over its face to the floor of the canon
below. At such times the effects from the
stage of the temple is, as can be imagined,
exceedingly fascinating, for there, entirely
protected from the water, one looks through
the silvery sheen out upon the scene be
low. Upon the rear wall of the stage quite
an aperture has been hewn out by some
action, and the shape it is left in is peculiarly
suggestive of tableaux preparation. All is
bleak, bare, and towering walls, and a more
weird spot to visit cannot possibly be
imagined.



78 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



naturalist, was a
man of wonderful
courage. When
he had once made
up his mind to a
certain course, no
obstacles or dangers could
deter him from carrying it out.
He had formed a wish to add
a large snake to his collection,
but had long been disappointed
in catching one. At last he was told by
an old negro that a huge serpent was lying
amongst some mouldering trunks, Ac-
companied by two negroes and a little
dog, he immediately started to capture it.
How he succeeded will be best told in his
own words, merely premising that the snake
was of a rare kind called a coulacanara ;
that it was about fourteen feet in length,
and strong enough to crush a single man to
death. He confessed that when he first
saw this monster he was alarmed.

“But I had been in search, of a large
serpent for years, and now, having come
up with one it did not become me to
turn soft; so, taking a cutlass from one
of the negroes, and ranging both the sable
slaves behind me, I told them to follow me,
and threatened I would cut them down
if they offered to fly. I smiled as I said
this, but they shook their heads in silence,
and seemed to have a bad heart of it. |

When we got up to the place, the
serpent had not stirred, but I could see
nothing of his head, and judged by the
folds of his body that it must be at the
farthest side of his den. A species of
woodbine had formed a complete mantle
over the branches of a fallen tree, almost
impervious to the rain or the rays of the
sun. Probably it had resorted to this
sequestered place for a length of time, as
it bore marks of an ancient settlement,








CAPTURE.

I now took my knife, determining to
cut away the woodbine and break the twigs
in the gentlest manner possible, till I could
get a view of his head. One negro stood
guard close behind me with a lance, and
near him the other with a cutlass. The
cutlass which I had taken from the first
negro was on the ground close by me in
case of need. After working in dead
silence for a quarter of an hour, with one
knee all the time on the ground, I had
cleared away enough to see his head. It
appeared coming out between the first and
second coil of his body, and was flat on
the ground. This was the very position
I wished it to be in.

I’ rose in silence, and retreated very
slowly, making a sign to the negroes to do
the same. The dog was sitting at a dis-
tance in mute observation. I could now
read in the faces of the negroes that they
considered this a very unpleasant affair,
and they made another attempt to persuade
me to let them go for a gun. I smiled in
a good-natured manner, and made a feint
to cut them down with the weapon I had
in my hand. This was all the answer I
made to their request, and they looked
very uneasy. It must be observed we
were now about twenty yards from the
snake’s den. I now ranged the negroes
behind me, and told him who stood next
to me to lay hold of the lance the moment
I struck the snake, and that the other must
attend my movements. It now only re-
mained to take their cutlasses from them,
for I was sure, if I did not disarm them,
they would be tempted to strike the snake
in time of danger, and thus for ever spoil
his skin. On taking their cutlasses from
them, if I might judge from their physio-
gnomy, they seemed to consider it a most
intolerable act of tyrannyin me. Probably
nothing kept them from bolting but the
consolation that I was between them and



A SNAKE

CAPTURE. 19



the snake. Indeed, my own heart, in spite
of all I could do, beat quicker than usual ;
and I felt ‘those sensations which one has
on board a merchant vessel in war-time,
when the captain orders all hands on deck
to prepare for action, while a strange
vessel is coming down upon us under
suspicious colours.

We went slowly on in silence, without
rnoving our arms or heads, in order to pre-
vent all alarm as much as possible, lest the
snake should glide off or attack us in self-
defence. I carried the lance perpendicu-
larly before me, with the point a foot from
the ground. The snake had not moved,
and on getting up to him, I struck him
with the lance on the near side, just behind
the neck, and pinned him to the ground.
That moment the negro next to me seized
» the lance, and held it firm in its place,

while I dashed head foremost into the den
to grapple with the snake, and took hold
of his tail before he could do any mischief.

On pinning him to the ground with the

lance, he gave a tremendous loud hiss, and
the dog ran away, howling as he went.
We had a sharp fray in the den, the rotten
sticks flying on all sides, and each party
struggling for superiority. I called out to
the second negro to throw himself upon
me, as I found I was not heavy enough ;
he did so, and the additional weight. was
of great service. I had now got firm hold
of his tail; and after a violent struggle or
- two, he gave in, finding himself over-
powered. This was the moment to secure
him; so, while the first negro continued
to hold the lance firm to the ground, and
the other was helping me, I contrived to
unloose my braces, and tied-up the snake’s
mouth. é

The snake, now finding himself in an
unpleasant situation, tried to better him-
self, and set resolutely to work; but we
overpowered him. We contrived to make
him twist himself round the shaft of the
lance, and then prepared to convey him
out of the forest. I stood at his head, and



supported the belly, and the other the tail.
In this order we began moving slowly
towards home, and reached it after resting
ten times, for the snake was too heavy for
us to support him without stopping to
recruit our strength. As we proceeded on-
wards with him, he fought hard for
freedom, but it was all in vain. The day
was now too far spent to think of dissecting
him. Had I killed him, a partial putre-
faction would have taken place before
morning. I had brought up with me into
the forest a strong bag, large enough to
contain any animal that I should want to
dissect. I considered this the best mode
of keeping live animals when I am pressed
for daylight, for as the bag yielded in every
direction to their efforts, they would have
nothing solid or fixed to work upon, and
thus would be prevented from making a
hole through it. I say fixed, for the mouth
of the bag was closed; the bag itself was
not fastened or tied to anything, but moved
about wherever the animal itself caused it
to roll. After securing afresh the mouth
of the coulacanara, so that he could not
open it, he was forced into the bag, and
left to his fate till morning.

I cannot say he allowed me to have a
quiet night. My hammock was in the loft
just above him, and the floor between us
half gone to decay, so that in parts of it
no boards intervened betwixt his lodging-
room and mine. He was very restless and
fretful, and had Medusa been my wife,
there could not have been more continued
or disagreeable hissing in the bed-chamber
that night. At daybreak I sent to borrow
ten of the negroes who were cutting wood
at a distance. I could have done with half
that number, but judged it prudent to have
a good force in case he should try to escape
from the house when we opened the bag.
However, nothing serious occurred. We
untied the mouth of the bag, kept him
down by main force, and then I cut his
throat. He bled like an ox. By six
o'clock the same evening he was com-

held it firmly under my arm; one negro | pletely dissected.”





80 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS,



THE PALM AND

oS
wp



“3 which the palm tree may be
found! Some on mountain
tops, almost in the range of
perpetual snow; others rise
S2|\A\G from the edge of coral reefs,

with their roots beneath the

oS

1 ow various are the localities in



at so7 +



4
!
f

ay
(2)
ov

oS.

level of tropical seas. Some

eM : ra
ft GV) , tuxuriate in’ swamps, or
| Co flourish by the banks of pe-
SO rennial streams ; others grow
; §
in the midst of arid sand, and

amidst pathless deserts. In habit some are
solitary, others gregarious. No order of
plants, in short, is so varied in circum-
stances of growth, and so little reducible in
this respect to rules and generalisations.
More remarkable still are the palms in
their economic uses to man. In some parts
of the world the inhabitants would be almost
incapable of existing without them. They
afford food, clothing, furniture, weapons,
and every implement and appliance that
raises man above the purest savage state.
Here are some of the multitudinous uses of
the cocoa-nut tree:—The heart, or very
young leaves, called the “cabbage,” is an ex-
cellent vegetable, either cooked or dressed
in stews, hashes, or ragouts. The Cin-
galese use the dried, old leaves as torches,
both for themselves during the dark nights
and to carry before the carriages and palan-
quins of Europeans; they also use the
spathe for a similar purpose, as well as for
fuel; and at Rotuma and other Polynesian
islands it is also adopted for alike purpose.
At Tongatabu, one of the Friendly Islands,
combs are made of the midrib of the seg-
ments, the upper part being beautifully
worked with the fibre of the husk, or duly.
“These combs, from their neat appearance,
were,” says Bennett, “‘in great requisition
during the time I visited that island, and all
the women were busily employed during
our-stay in making them, to exchange with



ITS USES.

the papalang? (foreign) officers and crew for
trifling articles. The combs were stained
by the bark of the koko-tree of a dark red-
dish colour, intended as a rude imitation of
tortoiseshell. ”

The washermen of Ceylon burn the foli-
age for the sake ofits alkaline ashes. The '
midribs of the leaves, when tied together,
form brooms for the decks of ships. The
Cingalese use the unexpanded leaves in
forming ornaments on the occasion of any
festival, decorating arches, etc., in various
picturesque forms of crowns, flowers, etc.

There is one portion of the tree which
much attracts the attention of the observer,
—it is a kind of network at the base of the
petiole, which when very young is delicate,
beautifully white, and transparent, but when
having attained maturity becomes coarse
and tough, and changes to a brown colour.
It is stripped off in large pieces, which are
used in Ceylon as strainers, particularly for
the toddy, which is usually full of impurities
when first taken from the tree, as its sweet:
ness attracts innumerable insects. At
Tahiti it is called 4a; and besides being
used as sieves for straining arrowroot, cocoa:
nut oil, etc., the natives, when engaged in
such occupations as digging, fishing, etc., in
order to save their bark-cloth, join several
portions of this network together, and hav-
ing a hole in the centre, in a manner similat
to their mat garment called Ziabuta, wearit
as an article of apparel, merely for the time
in which they may be so engaged. It is
certainly a garment neither to be admired
for its flexibility or firmness, but well adap-
ted for fishermen, or those occupied in the
water, as it is not easily injured by wet,
whereas bark-cloth would be utterly
destroyed in the water, its substance
resembling paper both in strength and ap-
pearance.

A tree produces several bunches of nuts;
and from twelve to twenty large nuts, be-



















































































































































































See
VII



















82 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



sides several small unproductive ones, may
be seen on each bunch. In good situations
the fruit is gathered four or five times in the
course of the year. It is most used as an
article of food, both meat and drink, when
green or young (ova of the Tahitians,
koroomba of the Cingalese); in that state
it yields an abundance of a delicious
cooling beverage, to which Madeira wine,
brandy, etc., is sometimes added. .

Passing over “toddy,” arrack, omejar,
jaggery (coarse sugar), and other secondary
products, the rind or husk of the cocoa-nut
is very fibrous, and when ripe is the veya or
coir of commerce, now so extensively used
in Europe and North America for matting,
brushes, hats, etc. It is prepared by being
soaked for some months in water, washed,
beaten to pieces, and then laid in the sun
to dry. This being effected, itis again well
beaten, until the fibres are so separated as
to allow of their being worked up like hemp,
similar to which it is made up in ropes of
any size, from the smallest cord to the
largest cable, but it will not receive tar; it
is rough to handle, and has not so neat an
appearance about the rigging of shipping as
that made from hemp, but surpasses the
latter in lightness and elasticity, and even,
it is said, durability; more so if wetted
frequently by salt water. From its elas-
ticity it is valuable for cables, enabling a
ship to ride easier than with a hemp or chain
cable. Bennett remarks that he was once
on board a ship, in a severe gale, when
chain and hemp cables gave way; and
the vessel at last, most unexpectedly, rode
out the gale with a small coir cable.
Among the Polynesian Islands, where this
tree grows, the coir is used in the manufac-
ture of sennit, some of which is beautifully
braided, and devoted to a variety of pur-
poses. At Tonga, one of the Friendly
Islands, the natives dye the sennit, called
“kafa,” of various colours, using it in tying
the rafters of the huts, etc. The rope for
their canoes is all manufactured from this
substance. The husk from which the
fibrous substance has not been separated



brushes for the floor; and brooms, mats,
and bags are also manufactured from it.

Another valuable production of the cocoa-
nut is the oil, which is an article of exporta-
tion from Ceylon and other parts of India,
Polynesia, etc. It is used in various articles
of domestic economy; besides being an
excellent burning oil (for which it is most
admired, giving out neither smoke not
smell when burning, and having a clear
bright flame), it has since had an additional
value and more extended use in Europe,
by the discovery ofits capability of being
manufactured into candles, rivalling wax or
spermaceti, at the same time without being
much higher in price than those of tallow,
Soap has also been manufactured from it;
and it is lavished by the Asiatics, Polyne-
sians, and other intertropical natives over
their persons ; and at Tongatabu and others
of the Polynesian Islands is used scented
with sandal-wood, which gives a delightful
fragrance to the flowing tresses and elegant
persons of the dark beauties of those fas-
cinating islands. In cold weather this oil
(like most of the vegetable oils) becomes
very hard, and requires to be melted before
it can be used for burning.

The date palm is largely distributed over
Eastern lands, especially Egypt, Barbary,
and Arabia. Itis the most conspicuous ob-
ject of the oases in the great African desert.
It shoots up its straight and tapering stem
to the height of fifty to sixty feet. The stem
is marked by numerous ring-like ridges.
The bright green leaves are on the top, and
drop their feathery shapes like a canopy.
Alarge group of flowers appears in what
is called a spathe, one of which-contains
12,000 blossoms ; and three such Clusters
are found on each tree. One species of the
palm is said to exhibit the great number of
200,000 flowerets in a single spathe.

This tree produces its fruit under its
leaves. It begins to bear at about six
years of age, and is fruitful for upwards of.
two hundred years. Each bunch of fruit
weighs about twenty-five pounds, and one
tree yields about a hundredweight every

is used in Ceylon in lieu of scrubbing- | season. Dates are a principal article of



BICYCLES AND VELOCIPEDES.

food in many parts of the East. They are
eaten green, dried, or beaten into meal, and
serve for food at all seasons of the year.
The Arabs have a saying that “a good
‘housewife may furnish her husband every
day for a month with a dish of dates
tlifferently prepared.” They also boast of
its medicinal virtues. From the leaves
they make couches, baskets, bags, mats,

BICYCLES AND



~ URING the last few years
the use of bicycles has
become very popular. They

are simply a development of
the old “rantoon,” or three-
wheeled velocipede. These
old-fashioned vehicles some-
times did good work. In
1862 two men came from
Bristol on one velocipede to
London, on a visit to the
International Exhibition, ac-
complishing the journey in twenty-one
hours, and returning easily in eighteen.
The two-wheeled variety, however, has
far outstripped this, and it is by no means
unusual for eighteen miles an hour to be
accomplished by it. Paris is all alive with
this machine. In the Bois de Boulogne,
and on the suburban roads near the capital,
such races are conducted under all sorts
ofconditions. Asa skilful bicyclist can easily
do his twelve or fourteen miles an hour, and
can continue this for four or five hours at a
stretch, there is certainly a potentiality of
contesting a rather formidable race. In
one instance a Frenchman accomplished 123
miles right off. When the velocipede first
made its appearance in England, which was
nearly half a century ago, the “dandy
horse” was the suggestive designation
bestowed on it.
that now extinct biped the dandy flourished.
Then it was that the class who now form
the “fast men” about town made most

That was the period when !



83
and brushes; from the branches, cages
for their poultry; from the fibres of the
boughs, thread and rope; from the sap,
a cooling drink; the body ofthe tree serves
for fuel; and their camels are fed on the
date-stones. Indecd, among the many use-
ful trees given by the kind providence of
God to the eastern people, there is not one
more serviceable or more prized.

VELOCIPEDES.

characteristic demonstrations in the matter
of dress. They wore black velvet stocks,
six inches in width, in lieu of neckties, and
carried their shirt collars up to the level of
their eyebrows. The rest of their attire was
in keeping with the extravagant neck-gear ;
huge high-crowned cylinders, all but guiltless
of rims, covered the head; a full-breasted frill
seemed bursting like a pigeon’s crop from
the feeble embrace of a scanty vest of light
buff; the dress-coat of blue cloth, with its
burnished yellow buttons, hung down behind
in a point like a pheasant’s tail; the waist
was compressed with stays tightly laced in
to the narrowest dimensions, and contrasted
with a pair of balloon-shaped pants, full-
blown at the hips, and growing small by
degrees and beautifully less until they ter-
minated in high-heeled Wellingtons armed
with solid iron tips which made an incessant
clatter on the pavements. This ¢ouwt ensemble
was accounted “the thing ”—and whoever
desires to contemplate it in its picturesque
proportions has only to refer to the carica-
tures of the period.

Who was the inventor of the new toy we
have not been able to learn, nor is it by any
means certain whether it was really invented
at the above date, or was simply a restora-
tion of an old hobby. It began to be
popular in the west of England about the
close of the year 1820, and during the
general excitement on the subject of the trial
of Queen Caroline was made the medium of
sundry political jokes of a very doubtful



84

kind, with which the names of Brougham,
Majocchi (my jockey), and others were
whimsically connected.

The machine consists of two wheels, each
about three-fourths of a yard in diameter,
placed in the same line, one exactly following
the other, their axles turning in strong iron
frames fixed to a long wooden shaft above
them, and parallel with their line of revolu-
tion. The shaft, which curved upwards in
front and downwards in the centre, was
fitted with a cushion or pad on which the
rider rested his arms, and bore a saddle in
the centre which he bestrode. ‘The front
wheel turned easily, like that of a modern
permbulator, and its motions were regulated
by means of a handle so placed that it
could be grasped by both hands, while the
arms rested on the pad, the width of which
pad was about eighteen inches, The feet
of the rider touched the ground, the height
of his horse being so adjusted as to enable
him to walk freely with it between his legs.
There were no treadles, or any other mode
of propulsion than by “punting” the ground,
as it were, with the feet ; and as the rider
had to balance himself as he went along—
for the horse would fall prostrate if unsup-
ported—it was no easy matter for a novice
to keep the saddle. But the difficulty was
got over by perseverance: if the horsé was
falling to one side a pressure on the pad on
the opposite side would restore the equili-
brium ; or if that failed, a rapid turn of the
guiding wheel in the direction of gravitation
would effect the desired object. It was the
eustom to let the machines out to hire for
the benefit of the young fellows who emula-
ted each other in their displays of equita-
tion during the long summer evenings.
Broken heads, bruised elbows, scarified shins
and other small casualties usually resulted
from these displays, and now and then an
ambitious aspirant, more plucky than pru-
dent, would have to be borne off the ground
and led home to be doctored.

As the management of the machine
became better understcod, its real capabili-
ties began to be tested, and accomplished
equestrians boldly undertook long journeys,



THE PICTORAL CABINET OF MARVELS,

and performed them, too, in a manner more
or less satisfactory. One young gentleman,
we remember, travelled to a town fifty miles
distant in a single day ; but it was noticed
that he did not make the return journey by
the same conveyance, but came back inglo-
riously on the top of the stage-coach. The
truth was, that the common roads of that
day were not at all adapted for such a mode
of progress, especially when speed was an
object; the dandy horse had no springs,
and as a consequence the roughness of the
roads was apt to register itself in a series of
bodily bruises and contusions not at all
pleasant to endure.

To excel in this species of equitation it
was necessary that the rider should possess
a tall and slender figure and a convenient
length of leg. Performers were not wanting
who were qualified by nature in these re-
spects, and it was really an agreeable sight to
watch their graceful evolutions, connected,
as they sometimes were, with feats of no
small risk and daring. In some measure
the performers, when seen in action on
ground suited to the purpose, might be
compared to skaters on a field of ice. A
really clever rider, like the accomplished
skater, could disport himself gracefully and
rapidly upon a very small area—cutting
figures on the pavement, and tying knots, as
it were, by his swift and whirling movements.
There was a young artist residing in Bath,
whose exhibitions of skill in this way were
marvellous to witness, and who generally
made his appearance on the flagstones o!
the North Parade about sundown in sum

mer, where a numerous circle of admirers -

would await his coming. * Now and thena
race would come off between a number of
competitors—-the course generally chosen
being a very slight incline of a mile and a
half—the riders starting up, and returning
down the hill. It was rather heavy punting to

getrapidly up the ascent, but no effort was:

needed to come down, as the rider had
only to sit still and preserve an even balance
with his feet on the axletree of the front
wheel, and allow the machine to take its
course. Butinarace, the racer would of



BICYCLES AND VELOCIPEDES. 85



course resort to punting even in going down,
in order to distance his fellows ; and herein
lay the danger, for if the foot struck the
ground with any force while going ten or
twelve miles an hour, the shock was likely
to pitch the rider from the saddle, to divorce
him from his steed, and perhaps do serious
damage to both.

The pleasure of this exercise depended
very much upon the progress the rider had
made in the art of managing his uncon-
scious nag. Hundreds of persons who began
experiments with the expectation of doing
wonders threw them up in disgust after
a few trials, and hundreds more, after
persevering for weeks and months without
sufficiently mastering the art, were fain to
abandon it. On level ground most persons
could do pretty well after a few lessons, but
there was very little enjoyment to be got
out of a level run unless the ground was
perfectly hard and smooth, and the rider had
learned by experience how to economise
his powers. In ascents at all steep the
punting was sheer hard work, and if the
incline was steep and long the best plan was
to alight from the saddle and push the horse
up the hill. This was compared by the
critics to a man’s carrying his own horse
instead of being carried by him—but in fact
it was far easier to walk up the hill with
the horse than without it, as by leaning on
the pad most of your weight was transferred
to the wheels. But whatever might be the
trouble of the ascent, there was ample
compensation in coming down again, when
_ you had nothing to do but sit still and be
whirled onwards. One precaution, how-
ever, was necessary, and that was to be sure,
in the first instance, that the hill you were
to descend was not too steep.

It happened on a certain afternoon that
one of the best riders in the town where
the writer was then living set out for a
village about four miles distant, and seated
at the summit of an ascent above a mile in
length. He had no trouble in reaching his
destination, and after resting awhile set out
on his return. Suspecting no danger, he
began the down-hill roll, and ere a couple



ot minutes had elapsed found himself
thundering along at a frightful pace. He
had no means of stopping or even of retard-
ing his career, as to have put foot to the
ground would have been to be thrown, and
all he could do was to guide himself over
the smoothest part of the ground and keep
clear of obstacles. But the momentum
added every instant to the velocity of his
flight, while the level ground yet lay far in
advance. Still, by careful piloting and
balancing he kept his seat, though now
advancing in bounds with the ground sink-
ing under him. He would probably have
escaped with a whole skin, had it not been
that the road took a sudden turn to the
left just at the foot of the hill; but by the
time he had reached the turn his pace had
become so furious that the guiding wheel
had lost its hold of the ground, and could
not avail to turn him in his course. The
consequence was that the machine dashed
right on ahead, flew up a little grassy bank,
and crashed through the drawing-room
window of a gentleman’s house, carrying
away the sash, scattering the glass in ten
thousand fragments, and depositing the
unexpected visitor, bruised, bleeding, and
bewildered, in the centre of a small tea-
party. Had he missed the window, and
encountered the stone walls, he had most
likely been killed on the spot; fortunately,
however, he came off without any very
serious injury. This man was one of the
most accomplished riders of the day ; one of
his exploits, which bore the look of extreme
peril, though it was really less dangerous to
the rider than to the machine, was to kneel
upon the saddle, and then to stand upright
upon it, while going at a quick pace down
a gentle declivity, balancing himself without
the aid of the pad, and guiding his course
by means of cords attached to the handle
of the driving wheel.

Such was the velocipede of our boyhood.
Ifit did not decline as rapidly as it came
into fashion, it yet disappeared gradually,
and, as to its original form, had vanished
in the course ofa few years. There were
several causes that had a share in setting it



86 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



aside. In the first place, as it grew com-
mon it became a nuisance to pedestrians ;
it could only be used advantageously on
smooth and firm ground, and the riders
therefore made choice of the flat flagstones
of the foot-pavements or the gravel walks
of the parks and suburbs. This led to
complaints ,but too well founded from the
promenading gentry, and then to inter-
ference by the municipal authorities, who
dealt a fatal blow to the dandy horse by
sweeping it summarily from the footways,
and limiting its exercitations to certain
specified localities. Another cause of de-
clension was the injurious effects of such
riding as we have described upon the bodily
health. Severe cases of rupture and many
other painful disorders were proved to have
thus originated, and the verdict of medical
men was unanimous in condemning the
pastime.

The two-wheeled velocipede had hardly
subsided, when the three-wheeler made its
appearance. It was constructed on a
different plan entirely—the driving wheel
being turned by the action of treadles, the
saddle replaced by a comfortable seat—the
feet of the rider being always clear of the
ground. But it was, and is (for it still
exists), but a meek and tame affair com-
pared with the two-wheeler, being capable
neither of the high speed nor the elegant
evolutions of the original invention. For
full forty years past this machine has been
seen at intervals in the suburbs of London ;
it is generally an article of home manufac-
ture, being constructed for the most part
by the rider, who has produced it for his
own gratification, and has added some
modifications or improvements of his own
contrivance. Commonly it carries but a
single person, who is given to stopping at
suburban public-houses in order to recruit
his driving power by a glass of ale; but
sometimes it carries double, the. riders
relieving each other at the treadmill. Some
few years back we encountered in the Green
Lanes near Stoke Newington, a huge family
velocipede, having two driving wheels, each
six feet in height; between the tall wheels



sat paterfamilias and his biggest. boy, work.
ing most energetically, not treadles, but
manuals—while materfamilias and a goodly
nest of little ones of various ages enjoyed
themselves luxuriously in an open car at
the rear.

In the Hyde Park Exhibition of 1851, a
three-wheeled velocipede was forwarded
from the town of Bedford: it was the only
representative of its class in that tremen-
dous gathering of industrial labours; and
what is more remarkable, the only contribu-
tion sent by the flourishing town of Bedford
to the World’s Fair.

The modern bicycle, however, which has
been carried to such perfection of late years,
is a marvel of workmanship and finish.
The machines used in racing sometimes
weigh only 25 lbs., with a 50 to 54-inch
driving wheel, and the ordinary roadsters of
the same size from 40 to 60 lbs. It is cal-
culated that there are now more than
100,000 bicycles in the United Kingdom,
and at the Hampton Court meet of London
clubs held in this year, nearly two thousand
riders of the silent “iron steed” appeared
in the chestnut avenue of Bushey Park, and
the long ranks of their bright machines,
glinting in the sunshine, made up what spec-
tators pronounced to be a very pretty sight.

With respect to the pleasure to be de-
rived from riding these machines, there can
be but one opinion, and their ever-increas-
ing popularity will sufficiently attest it. Al-
ready tourists have penetrated into every
nook and corner of old England, gathering
stores of health from their exertions, and
some have even penetrated France, Ger
many, Italy, and Switzerland. There is a
great charm to a good rider in feeling so
entirely independent to go wherever he
may choose, and be able to cover, without
much fatigue, a distance of too miles a day,
and have a good view of the country
through which he is passing from his ele-
vated position.

In racing, one mile has been covered in
2m. 438., and ina road race from Bath to
London the winner performed the distance
of 105 miles in 8h, 23 m.



THE PERILS OF DIVING. 87

(a



OR THE PERILS OF DIVING.






HE occupation of
a diver is ne-
cessarily a very
dangerous one.
Many stories are
told of the hair-
breadth escapes

bers of this class. Besides the
risk of accidents from damage
to the water-tight clothing, or
to the machinery above, there
is the danger of falling into crevices in the
ground, and in some waters from voracious
fish. Sharks are usually the aggressors in
these cases; though, as will be seen from
the following anecdote, told by a diver at
Concepcion, in South America, not in-
variably.

In the bays and seaports of South
America may generally be seen playing
among the shipping the animal called the
“bottle-nosed” whale. Never being med-
dled with, they are very numerous. Once
or twice these huge animals had annoyed
this diver, and even endangered his life, in
the following singular manner, told in his
own words :—

“Once I was caulking the side of a
schooner I had been stopping a leak in.
I was sitting comfortably enough on my
stage hard at work, when a shadow fell on
me, and on looking round I saw a mon-
strous object, like the submerged hull of
another vessel, rounding her stern close to
me. Antonio, that’s the man who pumps
the air down—was in his boat, but could do
nothing. Slowly the huge creature’s head
approached, and I was in hopes it would
proceed on. But, apparently struck by the
sight of my helmet, and a red flannel over-
all shirt I was wearing, it stopped and
stared at me as if trying to make out what
‘on earth—or rather under water—I was
doing there. I was not at all pleased with



this visit, for the play of its huge fins—or
paddles, rather—caused a great swirling in
the water, and I was terrified lest they
should draw and catch the air tubing and
break it, for presently it came closer still,
and it was with difficulty I kept my balance,
so strong were the currents made by their
motion. The men on board were in a
fright, and at first did not obey my signal
to haul up quickly. At last they complied,
and my visitor made off.

Once, however, I did not escape so
easily. I have seen them pass near me
hundreds of times, but they very seldom
come so close as that. Sometimes, how-
ever, they will almost touch the ship’s side,
though I never myself knew them to do
what a Russian captain witnessed. I was
a boy when Kotzebue visited this country,
and he told me that in Concepcion Bay
one rested against his brig for fully three
minutes, perhaps mistaking her hull for
another whale. You may see the occur-
rence mentioned in his book.

One day, however, I saw one almost
do the same thing, for he came alongside
and remained stationary, and so close that
I was afraid he would compress the air-
tubing between his body and the hull. He
was within my reach, and I took up from
the stage where it lay an auger I had been
working with, and let drive into him with
all the force in my power. It would have
been wiser, however, if I had been more
gentle, for the sudden start, and the whisk
he gave with his flukes as they rushed past,
upset me off the stage. Most fortunately
the affair only occupied a few seconds, else
it would have been allup with me. I had
a rope round me, and was quickly hauled
to the surface, but I was half dead when
they got me on deck.”

Mackerel, it is well known, are very in-
quisitive fish, and singularly enough can-
not resist the sight of red. This peculiarity



88 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



once led to an adventure that might have
ended tragically :—

“ Another day I was attacked in a very
extraordinary manner. I said just now that
I once had on a red shirt, which I put on
over al]. I take care never to wear one
now. I was busy with an auger boring a
hole, when I felt a tug at my arm, and
before I could well realise what was the
matter, I felt a dozen similar tugs in differ-
ent parts of my body. I was attacked by
a shoal of mackerel—it seems that red
is a colour that always attracts them—and
before I could count ten I had as many of
these fish clinging and biting furiously at
me as could by any possibility find a spot
to get hold of. J happened to be standing
on a kind of ladder, and so powerfully did
they drag at me, and so encumbered was I
by the multitudes which hung from every
part, that I had quite a job to mount it.
Itach fish here weighs a couple or three
pounds, so you may fancy the pull when
hundreds at once were at me.”

The vocation of the diver, however, is
attended with greater perils than these.
Once, when replacing some worn sheets of
copper on the bottom of a whaling brig
which had anchored in the bay for a few
days, this man was visited by two mon-
strous sharks, who, however, kept at a
respectful distance from his stage, awed
perhaps by his strange figure and the noise
of his blows on the metal. They had ac-
companied the brig for weeks, and followed
her into harbour.

A very expert diver had been employed
to recover the treasure from the Peninsular
and Oriental Company’s ship Ava, wrecked
some years ago on the coast of Ceylon.
Having, in a gutta percha dress made his
way into the saloon, he was busy searching
for the builion, when to his horror, he saw
a huge ground shark come sailing in at the
door. With great presence of mind he lay
motionless on the locker, and watched it
silently and grimly cruising about. One
can well imagine his feelings when he saw
its cold, green eyes fixed upon him, and
felt it pushing against the leaden soles of



his boots and rubbing against his dress,
the slightest puncture in which would have
been certain destruction. After ten min-
utes of suspense, which must have seemed
an age, during which the monster came back
twice or thrice to have another look at him,
his courage and coolness were rewarded by
seeing him steering his way back as he
came. Afterwards he always armed him-
self with a large dagger when he went
down to the wreck, from which he re.
covered altogether £220,000, having spent
850 hours under water.

Those who have read Victor Hugo’s
“Les Misérables” will remember his fear-
fully vivid description of a combat with the
pléeuvre, or cuttle-fish. Such things some-
times occur in reality to divers, when en-
gaged in exploring the broken ground
which this creature particularly frequents.

“The only time,” said the diver who
told the story, “that I was ever really
frightened—really in great danger—was
once up in the north of Peru, where I had
gone to recover a case of valuable ore and
silver in bars, which has been iost some
years before while being hoisted into the
vessel, It was two days before I found it.
It lay on a broad, flat-topped rock, in about
three fathoms of water, and the wood was
so rotted that I had to return for more
hide ropes to lash round it before I could
trust it to the chain and hooks. When I
went up for these, the agent of the company
to whom the ore belonged advised me to
defer the job, as a norther had been long
brewing, and the place was very exposed to
swells ; but after taking a good look at the
weather, knowing that these northerly gales
often last a week, and being anxious to
finish the job—knowing, too, that it would
not take long to do so—I resolved on
descending. So over the boat’s stern and
down my ladder I went, and in a few
minutes had the case securely lashed, after
which I rolled and pushed it to the edge
of the rock under the chain and hooks
hanging from the boat’s bows, slipped the
hooks into the hide loops I had made, and
then hastened to get off the rock (which



THE PERILS OF DIVING. 8&9



was only three feet or so in height) to go |

to my ladder ; and it was high time to do
so, for I felt that a heavy swell was now
setting in, so that I could hardly keep my
footing on the bottom. Perhaps you can
imagine my feelings when I tell you that I
had no sooner put my legs over the side of
the rock—my feet had barely touched the
ground—when I felt both ankles seized
and held with irresistible power. I had
been grasped by the tentacles, or arms, of a
cuttle-fish, which had its lurking-place there.

Now you must know that I have an in-
stinctive loathing of these creatures. I had
seen them often enough, and generally they

darted off the moment they caught sight of
my figure. But this one had not been
aware of my presence until my legs suddenly
presented themselves before his eyes.

After the first few fruitless plunges I
made to free myself, I turned almost faint
with fear and a kind of horror and disgust ;
but this did not last long, for I soon got
‘mad,’ as the Yankees say, at the idea of
being noosed, lassoed, and held prisoner
there by such a puny creature as that. Al-
though I had heard wonderful stories as to
its extraordinary strength and ferocity when
meddled with, I could not but think I
should soon free myself, and again and
again I tugged and strained, and pulled
and pushed, but all in vain. Strong man
as I am, I was powerless. I could not
drag the creature from its holdfast on the
rock, and I knew well that if I ventured
my hands near, they too would be seized
in that frightful grip, and I should be
bound, hand and foot, like a poor boy in
the south I had heard of, who, when gather-
ing shellfish, was thus seized and held ina
stooping position till the tide overwhelmed
and drowned him.

Meantime most urgent signais were
being made to me from above to hurry ;
and when I at last paused, breathless, after
a long, frantic effort, I gave way to utter
despair. But my faculties were still awake,
and I observed that the creature would not
loosen its hold by straight pushing or pull-



ing, and therefore determined to try and
screw it off the rock. You see it was human
intellect against superhuman strength.

I held on to the case, and with its aid
tried, but soon found I could not manage it
that way. The projecting edge of the rock
hindered me. I therefore hit on another
way. I pulled down some more of the
chain out of the boat (I was sitting on
the rock, you must remember), and then
taking the case up on my knees, I let it
down in front of me, and then tilted it
over till it was at a proper distance, and then
I left the rock and sat on the case. I was
now opposite the beast, and could see that
it held on by three of its tentacles, the
other -five being round my legs. These
tentacles were not more than two feet long,
and the creature’s body was not bigger than
my fist. Its eyes glared when it saw me,
and it tried hard to bite, but the boots and
thick stockings beat it.

Well, to make my story short, I turned
and twisted, but I doubt if I should have
got him to let go in time by that means
alone. But I could now see it, and tried
to crush and bruise the creature with my
boots as well, but its tenacity was amazing.
It was not till I picked up a long piece of
slate stone off the bottom, and began in
desperation to saw at its tentacles, that it
at lastlet go. But it did so only to fasten
all its suckers on me, and try more furiously
than ever to bite me with its parrot-shaped
bill. I succeeded, however, in keeping my
hands and arms free, and I instantly made
the signal to ‘hoist away.’ I kept tight
hold of the chain, and was hoisted with
the case, and very glad, though much as-
tonished, they all were to see me ascend
that way. I hastily explained what had
happened, and they pulled me in, and
while all haste was made by the rest to
get ashore (for the first blast of the norther
struck the boat as I got to the surface),
Jacques (that’s my man) cut the cuttle-fish
away piecemeal, for pulling it off was out
of the question, so tenaciously did it cling
to the very last.”



go THE PICTORIAL

CABINET OF MARVELS.











TE eS

a



SHES

ewes

fe





















PIGEON HOUSE OF THE MILITARY PIGEON-POST, PARIS.

FLYING POSTMEN.

the domesticated pigeon has been
celebrated for its love of home,
as well as for the remarkable cer-
tainty with which it made its way
tack from long distances to the
spot where it was bred or kept.
Even as far back as the middle ages, and



in ancient times, the pigeon post was known.
The historian Diodorus Siculus, above two
thousand years ago, speaks of pigeons as
being employed for this purpose; and about
five hundred years since, relays of carriet
pigeons formed part of a telegraph system
adopted by the Turks, —

It is recorded that the Crusaders would



Full Text












































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































INTERIOR OF



ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL.


















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See paye 347

D CO.
ARNE AN
EDERICK WARN
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30

bone of this same animal was exhumed,
and found to measure a little over four feet.
A part of the femur of another animal has
been found, measuring six feet, but some-
what lighter than the others. The vertebra
are three feet six inches in elevation, show-
ing a very tall but not so heavy a brute as
the Camarasuras. When found, it was
lying on the right side, with vertebree and

of Bapiad surrounded on
three sides by the sea, stands
a rough, rugged promontory,
about eighty miles in length,
whose extreme western ter-
minus is appropiately named
Land’s End. Stretching
along the western coast of
Land’s End for three or four
eh miles, is the mining district of
oe St. Just, long celebrated for
the peculiar position of its mines, among per-
pendicular rocks, and extending far beneath
the sea. The village of St. Just is about
seven miles from Penzance—a town of
note in Cornwall—and commands a fine
view of the British Channel. All around,
the land is barren and the scenery wild ;
and towards the cliffs of Botallack it grows
wilder and more barren. Here, on a shore
exposed to the full fury of the ocean, and
among steep granite cliffs, towering to a
height of more than sixty feet above the
water, is the famous Botallack Mine—per-
haps the most wonderful in all the world.
Looking up from the sea, upon the very
summit of the craggy cliff, you catch
glimpses of various apparatus, almost over-
hanging the restless waters. The gloomy
precipices of slate and granite, which have
successfully defied the ocean waves, are cut
into winding pathways, broken up by mining
tools, and dotted with all manner of com-





THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

ribs of that side in place, the ribs measur-
ing over six feet in length, and the prongs
where they join the back fifteen inches
in width. Many of the bones of the Cama-
rasuras are misplaced and broken up,
quite a pile being found at the spot where
several of the teeth of the trihedrodon were
discovered, thus indicating the preying of
the other.

plicated machinery. Smoking chimneys and
puffing engines indicate a hidden power;
chains and pulleys lead to unknown depths;
on one side of the cliffs, tall ladders enable
the miners to ascend—and a sure foot and
a strong head must be needful to tread those
ladders, round by round, with the roaring
sea beneath! ‘The entrance to the Botal-
lack mine is near the foot of one of the
lofty, jutting cliffs ; but it is no easy matter
from the heights, to gain even the mouth of
the shaft; and to descend perpendicularly
into the dark abyss, hundreds of feet below
the level of the sea, and horizontally thou-
sands of feet beneath the bottom of the
ocean, requires not a little firmness of nerve
and power of endurance.

The workings of the Botallack Mine—
long famous for its tin ores, more recently
for copper—are extended between one and
two thousand feet below the ocean level,
and from the depths of the land, galleries
have been carried out under the depths of
the sea not less than 2,300 feet. Such
submarine burrowing is wonderful and
romantic. That men can labour in dark
caverns, under the rolling ocean, digging
mineral wealth from rocks above which
waves are dashing in storm-driven fury, is
marvellous. Even in fine weather, the
rattling of pebbles with the swell of the
ocean can be heard in the caverns of the
mine, with greater distinctness than on the
beach itself; and during heavy storms the
30 | THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



headed figure, eighteen feet high, represent-
ing the Hindoo Trinity above mentioned—
z¢., Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Pre-
server, and Shiva the Destroyer. To the
right. and left are the small caves, where
are various sculptures and representations
of Shiva: such as his marriage, the deity in
his double character of male and female, as
the Destroyer, as the Ascetic, etc., besides
numerous other sculptured illustrations of.
Hindoo mythology. One design bears so
great an affinity to the story of Solomon’s
judgment, that we are half tempted to
believe it records that most Oriental deci-
sion: a not very improbable conjecture,
either, when we remember how deeply his
memory is still reverenced in the East, as
the chief of. magicians and hero of all
miraculous deeds.

In addition to this there are several other,
but less important, caves on the island. In
the course of his trip to India, the Prince







¢ 5 moncst the greatest curio-
e\( \ sities of the American Con-
\/ tinent are the gigantic trees
ie found in the Mariposa Valley
& in the State of California.
A recent traveller graphi-
cally describes his visit to
them :—
“The road led through a
vast forest, with a dense
3 undergrowth of flowering
é shrubs which made the air
heavy with their fragrance. The pines
and redwood, which had been increasing
in size ever since we left the plain, now
assumed gigantic proportions. Again and
again as I approached some forest giant,
I asked, ‘Is that one of the big trees?’
But it- was only a redwood, attaining not
more than the contemptible height of two
hundred feet! At length the grove was
reached, and -all that I had heard of these







of Wales paid a visit to this remarkable
spot. After inspecting the interior of the
largest cave, which was lighted with pyra
mids of oil lamps arranged in three lines,
and various chandeliers, the Prince dined
at a table placed just beneath the bust of
the huge three-headed idol, upon whom the
sacrilegious hands of unbelievers had fixed
innumerable lamps. Notwithstanding the
thousands of lights, a dim religious gloom
pervaded the cave, and the effect is de-
scribed as grimly theatrical. After viewing.
the two smaller caves by the light of green
and red fires, the Prince left the temple and
re-embarked. Outside was a blaze of light;.
on the top of the hill gleamed a huge
bonfire and fireworks, lines of white, red,
blue, and green lamps led down the sides,
while the ships in the harbour were illumi
nated from stem to stern, and saluted the
royal steamer as she passed with portfires
and thousands of rockets,

WONDERFUL TREES.

monarchs of the forest fell short of the
reality. For their size I was prepared, but
their beauty took me by surprise. The
lines of the trunk reminded me of those of
the modern lighthouses,—a broad base,.
from which rises an exquisitely tapering.
shaft, perfectly smooth and straight, to a
height of two hundred or two hundred and
fifty feet, when a vast crown of .branches is
thrown out, many of which are as big as
an ordinary tree. Unlike the redwood, to.
which they are allied, they only grow in
detached clumps or groves. Their Aadztat
is on terraces varying from five to seven
thousand feet above the level of the sea.
The scientific name by which these trees.
have been known in England is Wellingtonia
gigantea, This, however, seems to have
been given in mistake, under the errqneous
idea that they formed anew species. Really
they are a variety of the redwood or Seguota,

| which grows abundantly and attains an
WONDERFUL TREES, 3?

immense height on the mountain ranges of

California. :
“The most important of the trees are

mamed and numbered,—the Mother of the.

Forest, the Three Graces, Maid of Honour,
Daniel Webster, Richard Cobden, Henry
Ward Beecher, and so on. One, which has
fallen and lies pointing to the south, is
called after Andrew Johnson, the late ex-
President of the United States, on account
of his southern. proclivities.” The tallest
tree actually measured is the Keystone
State, which is three hundred and _ twenty-
five feet high. One tree, numbered three
hundred and thirty, was originally over one
hundred feet in circumference at the base.
Another, though one ‘side has been burnt
away, still measures ninety-three feet round
the base. A calculation of the age of the
trees, by counting the annual rings, was
‘made by the Geological Survey. Having
selected one which was deemed suitable
for the purpose, it was felled by means of
augers and wedges, a task which occupied
five men for twenty-two days. The stump,
at six. feet from the ground, had a circum-
ference of about ninety feet. A very care-
ful counting of the rings, gave its probable
age as one thousand years. As this tree
was in full vigour, it may be fairly assumed
that those which show signs of decay are
much older.”

The following is the account of another
traveller who came upon these monsters of
the forest more suddenly :—

“Sure enough there stood a red-barked
monster dwarfing the large trunks among
which it grew, as a full-grown tree does a
crowd of saplings. Where were our pines,
with their eighteen feet girth, by the side of
2 giant some one hundred feet round, breast
high! Of course, the great size of the ordinary
forest timber in which these huge growths are
found, takes off from their immense propor-



would show like the Eddystone Lighthouse.
It was hard to realize that what we saw were
trees. Their trunks, when we stood close
to them, had almost the appearance of
artificial structures. One that had fallen
was hollow, and had been broken by its
fall. We rode into the break, and through
the prostrate fragments, as if it had been a
tunnel. We climbed upon the trunk of
another, also fallen, and when I had step-
ped fifty-five yards along it, I measured its
circumference, and found it to be over
twenty-five feet. Thus, with its bark on,—
it had been stripped,—it would have been
at least some thirty feet in girth, at a height
of one hundred and seventy feet from the
ground, But these were not the largest
that we saw. The bark of these trees is
red, and nearly a foot thick. . It lies on the
trunk, in rough longitudinal ridges like
huge muscles, but so soft that with my
pocket-knife I cut off two great trunks
from a portion which had been detached
and lay upon the ground. The branches
are short, and spring mainly from the upper
part of the tree. The foliage is scant in
proportion to the trunk, and the cones no
bigger than plovers’ eggs. The tree itself
is said to be a species of cedar; but it
spends its strength in growing more wood
than leaves. There are about six hundred
of these cedars, of different sizes, some
being comparatively small, in the Mariposa
groups. I do not know the greatest height
reached by any one of these, but in another
grove, the altitude of one is found to be
three hundred and thirty-five feet ; and there
also, a fallen trunk can be ridden through
on horseback for a distance of twenty-five
yards.”

It is only necessary to add that as these
trees are now carefully protected by the
United States Government, they are likely
to remain for ages to gratify the curiosity

tions ; but if one were set upon a plain, it | of the traveller.
38

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





divine,” nature sometimes
makes sad mistakes. Occa-
sionally two persons are so
united in bodily structure as
to be inseparable. The most
remarkable instance of’ this
peculiarity is in the case of
the well-known Siamese Twins.
These men, named respective-
ly Chang and Eng, were born
in May, 1811. They were of
short stature, Eng being 5 ft. 24 ins. high ;
Chang being about an inch shorter. They
had excellent health throughout life, and



possessed good muscular development. The |

band that united them sprang originally
from the lower portion of each breastbone,
and kept them face to face ; but their efforts
during childhood to attain a more con-

vertient position, produced some bending |

of the structures concerned, so that they
stood shoulder to shoulder, in which posi-
tion they usually crossed their adjacent
arms behind each other’s backs. When
necessary, however, as at meals, they could
bring both arms forward without inconveni-
ence. The band itself was about four inches
in length, and more than seven inches in
circumference in the centre, and rather
more than three inches deep at its junction
with each body. The nerves of each brother
passed a little beyond the middle of the
band, so that a touch was felt by both over
a central portion about an inch in width,
beyond that portion only by the brother
who was touched. The blood vessels in like
manner communicated, but there was no
interchange of blood between the two ; and
experiments showed that chemical agents
introduced into one body had no appre-
ciable effects upon the other. The hearts
of the two brothers were distinct, and even

|



CURIOUS FREAKS Of NATURE.
THE SIAMESE TWINS.

N fashioning the “ human form | somewhat unlike, and the respiration was

wholly independent of each other. Their
mental operations were entirely distinct too,
and in playing chess against an adversary,
they consulted one another about the next
move. ‘Their original resemblance, the
necessities of their position, and the fact
that their experiences must have been
absolutely identical through life, combined
to bring them into an extraordinary degree
of concord in thought and action ; but into
no greater degree than may be thus ac-
counted for. It was plainly their study,
and became their second nature, to act in
harmony in all things. They moved as if
by one impulse and without verbal com-
munication, and rarely talked to each other.
But each would feel the other’s impulse to-
move before a bystander could detect it.
They took pleasure in all sports that could
be pursued in concord. They took no
pleasure in sports that would place them
in opposition, as in playing games of chance
or skill against each other, although per-
fectly capable of playing such if they cared .
for them. ‘These interesting twins died a
few years ago, within an hour of each other.

Among the most remarkable twins united
after the fashion of the Siamese, and who
have survived their birth, were two girls
described by Dr. Berry, who lived to be
seven years old. The drawing which he
gives of them shows them to have been
healthy, good-looking, and active. Food
taken by the one, nourished the other ; but
they were different in character, and one
sometimes woke while the other slept.

Of twins who have lived united back to
back, the best known instance is that of two
Hungarian sisters, Helen and Judith; they
were born in 1701, and died at Presburg,
in 1723, aged twenty-three. Some disorders
they had separately ; others, as measles or
SUREF-RIDING

IN HAWATI. 39



small-pox, together. Judith sank under dis-
ease of the head and chest. Helen, who
preserved her health well till the last, felt
her own strength suddenly fail, and after a
brief struggle, she died also. Sir James
Simpson saw, in 1856, two female children,
Amelia and Christina, then five years old,

united exactly as Helen and Judith. They
were born in South Carolina. Although

united back to back and completely fused,
they were very different in disposition.
When they quarrelledmore bitterly than
usual, they backed at each other with their
elbows. They ran and walked with facility,
one backwards and the other forwards ;
and, notwithstanding their partial com-
munity of body, one was sometimes seen
to eat while the other was almost asleep.





2. ue Hawaiian’s wonderful feat
of surfriding has become

swim, sometimes before he
can walk, he is a perfectly
amphibious creature. The
children play for hours at a
time in the surf ; indeed, it is
difficult to say how long a
Hawaiian could remain in the
water. On the papa-hee-nalu,
or surfboard, the native will
surmount billow after billow with wonderful
dexterity ; standing, sitting, or lying at full
length on a plank (about six feet long and
two feet wide, with rounded corners) he
rides old Ocean’s huge billows as easily as
the jockey rides his horse.

The harbour of Hilo is well adapted for
the sport. Its beach is a mile and a half
long, and lies in a semi-circle ; upon it the
breakers’ roar is deafening, and in a storm,
the waves pound upon it with appalling fury.

Taking definite shape far from land, they
sweep across the bay, leaping as they fly,
and tossing spray from their crests. No
craft nor human being could live a moment
in such a sea, one would say; and yet it
was with just such a sea running that all
Hilo turned out to see the surf-riders, for
the rougher the sea the finer the sport.
Depositing their clothing upon the sand-
bank, the bathers plunged into the surf.
For the privilege of coming in upon a wave,

SURF-RIDING



IN) HAWAII.

they must swim far out beyond the line of
breakers, and this a native dces with
the utmost ease by simply diving under
each wave. A wave never retards his out-
ward progress nor gives him an unexpected
slap in the face.

We watched the heads appear and dis-
appear with every approaching roller, and
the rapidity with which the natives swam
out against the incoming sea was wonderful.
It seemed no effort whatever; and yet the
wind was blowing a gale, and ships in the
harbour could hardly hold their anchorage.

At from half a mile to two miles away
the surfriders turned their faces shoreward
and “ lay-to.” One after another enormous
billows came plunging along, under which
the swimmer disappeared only to reappear
and wait for a larger; for only the largest
and most turbulent wave gives one a fair
start and carries its passenger to the shore.

And now comes a “comber,” tearing
through the water like an infuriated animal.
Atashort distance the native sees it, and
instantly he is transfigured: every fibre of
his being is alive with the intensity of the
moment. He is like a cat watching its
prey, for he must. make as instantaneous
a spring, to be caught and borne along by
that ingoing swell : one second too late and
it will drop him behind. Just as it begins
to curl above his head and he feels its lift-
ing force, there is a motion, quick as light-
ning, and our surf-rider is lying full-length
40 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS,



on his board, head downward, in front of
the wave, and travelling at the rate of forty
miles an hour. Wh inconceivable dexte-
rity he keeps his papa-hee-nalu in position ;
always in front of the wave, and pointed
well downward, he is propelled by the
pressure upon the underside of the board.
The wave in its progress picks up passen-
ger after passenger, and as it approaches the
shore, fairly hurling its daring riders forward,
the wild enthusiasm of the spectators breaks
forth in ringing huzzahs; the shouts almost
drown the roar of the surf; and how the
wild scene makes one’s blood tingle! The
uninitiated grow breathless with suspense,



for they expect to see the natives dashed
upon the beach by the breaking wave, more
dead than alive. Not at all! The latter
seem to know by instinct when the billow will
topple over, and that moment they bring
their papa-hee-nalus into a horizontal posi-
tion and drop behind it, and when the’
mountain of “cruel, crawling foam” has
spent itself at your feet, the surf-riders are
several yards out to sea again. If in need
of rest, they take it in the water, coming ta
land when the day’s sport is over. They
land high and dry with an incoming wave—
always without accident, though completely
submerged by the breaker.





HE gorges in the
= mountains of the
eastern states of
Americaare called
cafions, and some
of them are of
2 immense propor-

tions. One of these, the “ Royal
Gore ” of the Grand Cafion of
the river Arkansas, in Colorado,
is thus described :



pereades the scene—the height is so great
that the water below one is as polished
metal, and as stationary as the mighty walls
which look down upon them from such a
fearful eminence. Fairly awed into a bra-
vado as reckless as it is strange to us, we
crawl out upon tottering ledges to peer into
sheer depths of untold ruggedness ; we grasp
with death-like clutch some over-hanging
limb, and swing out upon a promontory be-
side which the apex of the highest cathedral
spire in the world would be a sapling in
height. If our first experience upon the
brink of the Grand Cajion was startling, this is
absolutely terrifying, and the bravest at the
one point become most abject of cowards
in comparison at the other. At the first

“The solemn stillness of death.



A WONDERFUL PRECIPICE.

point of observation, the walls, though
frightfully steep, are nevertheless sloping to
more or less extent; here at the Royal
Gorge they are sheer precipices, as perpen-
dicular as the tallest house, as straight as if
built by line. So narrow is the gorge that
one would think the throwing of a stone
from side to side the easiest of accomplish-
ments, yet no living man has ever done it,
or succeeded in throwing any object so that
it would fall into the water below. Many
tourists are content with the appalling view
from the main walls, but. others more ven-
turesome work their way six hundred toa
thousand feet down the ragged edges of a
mountain that has parted and actually slid
into the chasm; and as we have come to
see it all, the clamber down must be accom-
plished. For some distance we scramble
over and between monstrous boulders, and
reach the narrow and almost absolutely
petpendicular crevice of a gigantic mass
of rock, down which we must let ourselves
a hundred feet or more. As we reach the
shelf or ledge of rock upon which the great
rock has fallen and been sundered, we
glance back, but only for a second—the
thought of our daring making us grow sick
and dizzy. But.a step or two more, and
THE CITY OF

THE SULTANS. At



the descent just made sinks into utter insig-
nificance compared to what is before us.
Then we had the huge walls of the parted
rock as the rails of a staircase; now we
have nought but the smooth, rounded sur-
face of the storm-washed boulders to cling
to, and, on either side of our narrow way,
depths at the bottom of which a man’s body
could never be discovered with human eye.
Behind us, the precipitous rocks over and
through which we came ; ahead of us, the
slender barrier of rock overhanging the
appalling chasm, and all there exists be-
tween us and it. Few dare to look more
than once, and one glance suffices for a
comprehension of the meaning of the word
“depth” never before even dreamed of, and
Hever afterwards forgotten. The gorge is
2,000 feet sheer depth, the most precipitous
and sublime in its proportions of any chasm

ELE ea TY





HERE is no love
lier, few so lovely,
scenes on earth as
that which unfolds
itself to the tra-
veller as he ap-
proaches Constan-
tinople from the sea; above
all, on one of those days of
early summer when the bitter
blasts from the Euxine have
ceased to blow, and the south
wind, warm from Syrian deserts, tempered
in its course by the snows of Olympus,
"chases the last few fleecy clouds away from
the bright blue sky. Before him, as the
anchor drops in the still depths of the
Golden Horn, rise on the southern side of
the long inlet the seven low hills of old
Byzantium—a maze of domes and minarets,
- masses of cypress groves and clusters of
tumble-down old houses, Ottoman mosques
and old Byzantine towers and pillars, still

Lie

onthe continent. The opposite wall towers
hundreds of feet above us, and if it were
possible to imagine anything more terrifying
than the position on this side, that upor
the other would be, were its brink safe to
approach. Overhanging crags, black and
blasted at their summits, or bristling with
stark and gnarled pine’, reach up into pro-
foundly dizzy heights, while lower down
monstrous rocks threatened to topple and
carry to destruction any foolhardy climber
who would venture upon them. The canon,
except in the dead of winter, is approach-
able only from the top, the walls below
being so precipitous and the river sucha
torrent as to defy all access. When frozen,
as the waters are for brief periods during the
coldest months, the way up the cafion may
be accomplished, but only at the risk of



personal comfort and not a little danger.”

OF THE SULTANS.

girdled round by the same ancient walls
albeit sadly dilapidated now, which in the
days of archers and Greek fire so often
baffled the repeated attacks of Goth and
Bulgar, Persian and Arab, and even the all-
conquering Osmanli himself.

~ On the northern bank, above the crowded
buildings and Genoese Tower of old Galata,
appear the heights of Europeanised Pera,
gay with official residences of ambassadors
and chargés d@’affairés, the home of rumour,
speculation, and intrigue. Facing the city,
on the Adriatic shore, are Scutari, with its
groves of tombs, the largest, the most beau-
tiful, the best beloved of all the cemeteries
of the capital, and Kadi-Keui, now a little
village, once known to fame as Chalcedon,
“city of the blind.” Whilst onwards to
where the Castles of Europe and of Asia
frown at one another across the narrowest
part of the Straits, and the expanse of the
gloomy Euxine is divined rather than seen



beyond, stretch eastwards—beginning with
42 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





TURKISH LADY, IN OUTDOOR DRESS.

Tophaneh, the site of the Imperial cannon-
foundry and artillery barracks, and the
Palace of Dolma Bagtche, a little farther
on—suburb after suburb, bright with the
summer residences of Ambassadors
and Pashas, and faced again on the
Asiatic side by answering villages and
kiosques.

Nor is the scene less animated on
water than on land. Great iron-clads,
flying Turkish colours, yet with a look
about them that tells of shipyards on
the Thames ; stately passenger steamers
of Lloyds and the P. and O.; bluft
corn-ships from Odessa or the Danube
lie side by side with graceful Greek
feluccas, Italian brigs, and Turkish
coasting craft; while, like dragon-flies,
along the waters flit here and there the
caique of the Moslem water-man and
the private barge of the rich effendi.

It is a truism to say that nowhere
else in Europe can we encounter such
a variety of costumes and figures as in
Constantinople. Turks, Armenians,
Jews, Greeks, Franks, and natives of
the East, jostle each other in the streets.
What Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

wrote a century ago is true at present.
“T live in a place,” she observes, “ that
very well represents the Tower of Babel.
In Pera they speak Turkish, Greek,
Hebrew, Armenian, Arabic, Persian,
Russian, Sclavonian, Wallachian, Ger-
man, Dutch, Italian, French, Hungarian,
English ; and, what is worse, there are
ten of these languages spoken in my
own family! My grooms are Arabs ;
my footmen French, English, and Ger-
mans; my nurse an Armenian; my
‘ housemaids Russians; half a dozen
other servants Greeks, my steward an
Italian ; my janissaries Turks.”

Our pictures represent a few of the
more familiar types of the street life.
The useful personage, whose back, bent
crescent shape from constant loads, will
catry up the steepest lane in Galata,
with the aid of straps over brow
and breast, a burden for which in
England we should send a horse and cart,
is an old member of the confraternity of
Hammals, or Porters—Armenian probably
by descent, water-drinker and vegetarian





























THE HAMMAL OR PORTER,
THE CITY OF THE SULTANS.

43























and crowned by massive mosques and
graceful white minarets, with here and
there a pile of ancient ruin, offers a
sky-line always changing as the behold-
er moves, but always beautiful. Then
no city has such a sea—a sea deep to
its very margin, intensely clear, in-
tensely blue, penetrating everywhere,
till you can hardly recognise its arms;
a sea that narrows to a river in the
Golden Horn and Bosphorus, and
spreads into a shoreless expanse in the
broad Propontis, studded with shining
isles, The central spot of every view
is the spot where these three waters
meet: Seraglio Point, where the first
Greek colonists built their Byzantium,













where afterwards stood the palace of























THE CAKE SELLER.

almost beyond doubt. The street-seller of
those hard, flat ginger-bread cakes, which
seem to possess a mysterious attraction for
the sweet-toothed Oriental ; the barber, so
dexterously removing, with the most primi-
tive of razors, the superfluous hairs from
the brow and skull of the true believer;
the Turkish lady, whose yashmak
is no longer a disguise, but the thin-
nest of veils, adding, in fact, an ad-
ditional charm to faces whose regular
features. and dark eyes are often
coupled with an unhealthy pallor, will,
meet us again and again on our way to
the bazaars, a

Constantinople has two glories: the
glory of the mountains, and the glory
of the sea. In every landscape the
background is formed by the bold
heights of Scutari and the more distant
Mysian Olympus, with its snowy sum-
mit cutting the clear air like mother-
ofpearl. In the city itself there is
scarcely a yard of level ground. Old
Stamboul is built on along ridge rising
some two hundred feet above the
waters that lave it on either hand, a
ridge whose top, indented by hollows





the Eastern Czesars, and where now
stands the ruin of the fortress palace
of the Ottoman sultans; a. wilder-
ness of broken walls and towers, with cypress
groves between, and the dome of St. Sophia
rising behind. There is no spot on earth
that has seen so much history and so much
crime as this, where dynasties of tyrants
have reigned for sixteen weary centuries.
44 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.






E2\\

©).
O fc)
ENO
ae T is now a good many years
OS KO x ago since I paid my first visit
NG «\ to the charming town of
J X@\S4) Dresden, the Florence of the

\ Ne Elbe. After having thorough-
kK lox ly enjayed the beauties of the
surrounding scenery, especially of the Saxon
Switzerland, I devoted my time to the real
object of my journey, which was the in-
spection of the galleries and works of art
in the Saxon capital.

If I had not already formed the intention
of profiting by the teaching of an eminent
artist residing there, my first look on the
wonderful paintings would have determined
me to follow my calling, and to endeavour
to tread as faithfully as possible in the foot-
steps of the Old Masters. I did not ask
myself whether I could ever paint a picture
similar to those I saw there; I only knew
that I must strive to do it with all the
energy of my life.

However, my longing to receive per-
mission to copy from the paintings in the
gallery was not to be satisfied all at once.
Only after nine months’ persevering industry
in the studio of my worthy master I
obtained the consent of the director of the
gallery, and when in the following spring
the doors of the building were thrown open
to the disciples of art, 1 was among the
nrst who profaned the classic halls with the
presence of paint-brushes and boxes.

With a boldness I still wonder at, I
attempted the copy of Titian’s celebrated
“ Zinsgroschen.” As the picture hangs in
a place where people are apt to crowd the

passage, I had it taken down and put in’

the outer room of the Italian school, where
Thad better light and more quiet. With
eager zeal I commenced my interesting
task, and soon forgot myself in ,the con-
templation of the splendid colourings, and
in wonder at the soul breathed into them
by the great painter. The hours flew



A STARTLING ADVENTURE. :

rapidly by, and nothing was more hateful
to me at that time than the sound of the
overseer’s bell commanding rest from work
for the day.

“Miss M.,” said that functionary, a good
old man, who favoured me, as he approach-

‘ed one day with the obnoxious instrument,

“Miss M., if you are not careful you will
get locked in here some day.”

“Well, and if Iam?” said I, half vexed
and half amused. “I could paint on then
to my heart’s content ; it would be perfectly
delightful.” a

The old man shook his head and looked
at me gravely, almost reproachfully, but
he had not the least idea how soon his
warning words would prove true.

The month of May of the year 18— was
anything but a pleasant one, and the never-
to-be-forgotten day of my story distinguished
itself by an unusual gloom. A drizzling,
penetrating rain had spread itself over the
town and its lovely surrounding country
with a grey monotony, which caused even
the brightest picture to appear as though it
were covered with cobweb. This tempo-
rary interruption to the sunny spring weather
did not affect my spirits, and I found
myself rejoicing mischievously at the small
number of visitors to the gallery, and
enjoyed unusual peace and quietude in the
nearly empty rooms.

Many of my fellow-artists’ places re-
mained also unoccupied ; not one of them
could boast of as good a seat as I had, there-
fore I was not surprised when a young
industrious painter approached me and
asked permission to share the more favour-
able light in my corner. Both too
preoccupied, we only exchanged a few
polite words, and then relapsed into com-
plete silence. Nota sound was heard, not
even from the outside, world. The hours
came and went imperceptibly. I was
astonished to see my companion start up
A STARTLING ADVENTURE. 45



suddenly, gather up his paints and brushes,
and with a questioning glance at me anda
hasty bow, rushfromthe room. ‘ Funny!”
I thought, as I went on with my work.

I believe it was the perfect stillness all
around which began to rouse meat last ; for
the first time I found myself listening in-
tently for the well-known signal. But no
bell was to be heard! A certain rest-
lessness took possession of me, and caused
the tips of my fingers to tingle. I laid
down my brush, then took it up again,
while the lurking malicious face of the
Pharisee on the canvas’ appeared. to be
watching all my movements. I seated my-
self once more in position, and mixed a
fresh colour, but only to lay down brush
and palette as before, and to determine to
pack up my things for the night.

The gallery should ‘witness for once the
curious spectacle to see me among the first
to go home so hoping that the immortal
spirit of Titian would forgive my human
weakness, I walked rapidly through several
rooms, rather astonished to find them empty,
and reached the inner corridor, from which
exit is gained through the porter’s small
anteroom,

“ How tiresome !” I exclaimed angrily, as
I did not succeed in opening the door. I
tapped loudly, believing that he would come
and let me out. But no, only the echo of
my knocking came back to me; no other
sound reached my ears. The man had left,
and the door was firmly locked. “He can-
not be far off as yet,” I thought, and called
him loudly by his name; my voice sounded
strange and hollow through the lofty cham-
bers, and a slight shiver passed over me as

I felt what the old man had prophesied »

had come to pass—I was locked in for the
night.

It was but too true. I had again omitted
hearing the bell, and a less careful man
- than my aged friend had been on duty that
night, and neglected to go the round of
the gallery before retiring from his post.
It was not to be wondered at that all had
been anxious to reach their sheltering roofs
on that miserable wet day, even I had not







been able to withstand a certain longing to
gethome as the evening drew near. And
now they had all gone, my kind old friend
tco; and I? I was the only living thing
among thousands of inanimate ones.

To be fully aware how I was situated,
you must know that none of the officials re-
side in the building, and that the latter stands
isolated in a large open space which is very
little frequented at that time of day and in
such weather. If assistance had been near
at hand, the well closed double-windows
would have defied any attempt on my part
to open them; the same or rather more so
with the doors. Therefore no prospect of
release! I must submit to the inevitable,
and I tried to do so. -

Returning to my old place, I took out
my things, only just neatly packed together,
and prepared anew for my work. What
more did I want? Now I could paint,
paint, paint in peace, and to my heart’s
content, untroubled by the warning of the
detested bell! And I painted on, leaving
out the head of the lurking tempter; and
forgetting myself in the holy grandeur of
the Saviour’s features, painted on till the
darkening twilight would no longer permit
me to distinguish the colours.

But now the feeling of utter loneliness
came over me in its full force, and with it
the question, “What shallI do?” ‘Make
the best of it,” my reason told me, and with
this praiseworthy intention my adventure
appeared to me ina new light. What more
interesting thing could a young genius
think of than a night’s quarters in such @
place? Hada professed enthusiast petition
ed for permission to sleep there, he would
not have received it. £was probably the
first and the last person whom chance thus
favoured.

Involuntarily I still hoped for release;
sometimes I fancied I. heard a door open,
or a voice call to me. At every distant
sound of wheels, at every angry blast of
wind, I started up, only to sink back into
my seat with a heightened feeling of dis-
appointment. Staring vacantly at the win-
dow, I saw how the raindrops ran like


46 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

tears down the dust-covered panes, and
listened to their monotonous “ drip, drip,”
while a pale sickly reflection from the
evening sky lighted up the silent company
round the walls.

While it cast a supernatural splendour
upon the head of Christ, it seemed, on the
other hand, to invest the eyes of the
Pharisee with a , diabolical expression.
euickly I placed the picture against the
walland quitted the room with a “ good-
night” to its inhabitants as hastily as
though I feared that my loudly-expressed
wish might be returned in the same man-
ner. With regained composure, and the
practical determination to seek a comfort-

able resting place, I began to promenade.

through the rooms, evading, however, the
one containing Brenghel’s “Hell,” “The
Murder of the Innocents,” and other similar
ones. Iam sure many of you have noticed
that in a dim uncertain light, strange life
seems to stir in paintings. Even some with
which we are familiar in our own homes,
assume something peculiar, and often fear-
ful, in the pale twilight of evening or
morning; how much more so a whole
collection of pictures in a wide and other-
wise empty space! Putting aside such sad
representations as death-beds, scenes from
the lives of tortured martyrs, and others of
the same class, simple and homely subjects
even look often ghastly enough under the
influence. of struggling light and shade.
Raised arms seem to drop, lifted hands to
fall powerless, an advanced foot appears to
move forth from its frame, calm features
look rigid, agitated ones distorted. Full of
such unpleasant thoughts, I wandered on to
the outer or Old German room, without re-
membering that here I should step “ out of
the frying-pan into the fire.” The first glance
‘showed me that the soft and touching figures
painted by Durer, Kronach, and others ap-
peared like a veritable company of ghosts,
over whom Adam and Eve seemed to
preside.

Retracing my steps speedily, I sought

protection with Holbein’s “Madonna,” but
even she did not inspire me with the usual



admiration. There was a painful reality
about the suffering Child in hér arms, and
the forms at her feet raised their stiff arms
threateningly to keep me off. I could not re-
main here, so I turned back to my Italians, to
the cheerful Albano, the sweet Carlo Dolce,
to Raphael’s * La Belle Jardinitre,” and the
“ Banquet” of Veronese. From Correggio’s
“Holy Night ” astream of light passed into
my agitated heart, and I wondered why I
had not stayed near it from the first.

But a few steps brought me into the snug
little cabinet memorable to all who have
visited the Dresden Gallery. Here I felt
quiet and at rest as I stood before Raphael’s
“Madonna.” I placed my trembling hands
on the railing enclosing it, and forgot all
else for the time, as I gazed on her calm,
heavenly face.

Those who have seen the “ Madonna di
Sisto” may remember the red sofa which
stands opposite to this painting. Many
have been seated there lost in contempla-
tion of its grand beauty. Many may have
dreamt there with eyes open, but I trust
none have been overcome by sleep im reality.
I stood stroking the velvet bolsters on the
couch, as though in apology for seeking
rest there, and, if possible, sleep, in place of
enthusiastic and ardent admiration.

According to my reckoning, for I did not
carry a watch, it was then about nine o’clock.
Thelight from the windows had grown so
faint that I could barely distinguish the
outlines of the figures on the canvas. When
these had also disappeared, I could think
of nothing better than to lay my head on
the soft cushions and endeavour to sleep.
This resolution was more easily formed
than carried out. Unpleasant thoughts and
feelings increased, and my heart beat
wildly.

I applied the remedies of childhood, such
as counting, repeating poetry, etc., to calm
my_agitated nerves. In vain! JI was too
painfully conscious of my situation to forget
it for an instant, and if minutes appeared
like hours already, to what fearful length
would the dark, dreary night stretch itself?
Who has not experienced how acute the
A STARTLING ADVENTURE. 4T



sense of hearing grows during the still
watches of the night, especially when we
are labouring under violent inward disquie-
tude? I fancied, sometimes, that I heard
a distant rustling, then again something
creeping nearer and nearer from the farther
rooms, then a breathing or whispering.

I began to believe the most incredible
might prove credible, the most impossible
possible, and I know that at one time I sat
erect staring with wide-open eyes at the
opposite door, expecting to see nothing less
than Herodias entering with the head of St.
John the Baptist on a charger.

From that moment I took the utmost
pains to quiet my excited imagination. I
thought of the daily cares of life, and called
the past.and future to my assistance; then
I told myself how safe and comfortable I
was compared to many thousands, resting
there on downy cushions, protected from
inclement weather, secure from burglars
and murderers. But again my thoughts
wandered helplessly from my cosy corner
to the adjoining chambers, and pictured to
themselves dread scenes between gods and
goddesses, saints and martyrs, until my
brain whirled tumultuously. I felt feverish
and full of pity for myself, when I thought
of my distant home and family. I had no
anxiety on my landlady’s account, for I had
-on several occasions stayed overnight with
my friends when the weather was unfavour-
able, therefore I knew she would not expect
me. I was really getting calmer when
something occurred which threw me out of
my hard-gained composure.

I started up from my seat, then lost my

consciousness for an instant, in spite of my
good. resolutions. What was that fearful
‘crash! Like thunder it rolled on and on
through the lower and upper rooms, and
now all was as still as before. Slowly my
senses returned, but my blood, which
seemed frozen a moment before, now
‘throbbed fiercely in all my veins.

My face pressed into the cushion, I
listened with breathless suspense, and—yes,
‘something stirred in the house; there wasa

creeping, shuffling movement on the stairs |

; keys.



and along the corridors. Strange sounds
I heard, and awful was the echo they
awakened. From all corners of the vast
building, steps seemed approaching nearer
and nearer, doors creaked on their hinges,
and I heard distinctly the rattling of large
“Tap, tap, tap!” it came on through
the first room, through the second, nearer
and nearer to my hiding-place.

I sat motionless, unable to move a finger.
I was only conscious that I should see
something go through some awful scene—
but what? I dared not think ofthat. I
closed my eyes to shut out the sight of the
dread thing that came towards me with
such fearful certainty.

I remained but a few seconds in this
agonising suspense, though at that time it
seemed to me—oh, how long! A faint
streak of light fell upon my closed eyelids,
and caused them to open mechanically.
Like one in a dream, I gazed on the
apparition standing in the doorway in strong
relief from the darkness beyond. It wasa
figure cast in Rembrandt’s light and shade,
stepped forth, as it were, from an antique
frame, and the lantern which the old man
held up high towards me threw a red, glow-
ing reflection on a wrinkled brow, fringed
by long silvery hair, and on a pair of dark
piercing eyes, which were riveted on mine,
as mine were on them.

“Tt is you after all!” exclaimed the old
man, after this silent mutual greeting.
“ After all! I thought so. If any one had
been shut in, it must be you. How glad—
ah, how glad I am that I have come; poor
lady !”

“ But how did you know, how could you
guess?” I asked, with a voice trembling in
spite of myself, after my late agitation, and
when I rose my knees shook violently.

Instead of replying, my deliverer, who
was no other than my kind old friend who
had warned me, merely shook his head.
“By-and-by,” he said, as he hurried me
through the dismal apartments. I need
not tell you that this time I left the gallery
without regret. When I saw how carefully,
though hastily, my guide fastened each doa
48

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



with bolts and bars, I realized fully how
securely I had been imprisoned. I scarcely
ventured to look back, and shuddered to
think of the agonising fear I had undergone,
when I had first heard the creaking and
slamminy of the doors re-echo through the
lofty chambers. I was not far enough from
the scene of my sufferings to be able to
laugh at them, and involuntarily kept close
to the side of my conductor. |

The old man did not speak a word, and
only stopped when we reached the cloak-
room, where I took my hat from the peg,
and wrapped myself up in my shawl, for I
felt coldand shivery. In the lower corridor
I found my goloshes in their accustomed
corner, and here my friend broke the silence
by saying, as he pointed to them, “ Your
thanks are due to them, lady—next to the
Madonna,” he added, crossing himself de-
voutly.

“And to you,” I replied, trying to take
his hand, which he withdrew, however,
hastily, as if feeling ashamed.

I will not try to describe the delight with
which I imbibed the night air, damp and
chill though it was, when the last door of
my huge black prison was closed behind
me. The old man accompanied me to my
lodgings, telling me on the way the cause
of his unexpected appearance.

He had been on duty below that day,
and after his colleague had assured him
that all was in order in the upper rooms, he
had commenced locking up for the night.
He went on to say, that often a trifling
thing, which we scarcely notice in passing,’
recurs to our mind with great distinctness
after some time, and so it happened that
while eating his evening soup he had recol-
lected seeing a pair of goloshes in the passage
below before closing the outer door. This
had certainly occurred before, and he told
himself as much; but the more he reflected
the more he became convinced that no
Jady—and a lady’s goloshes they certainly
were—would leave the building without
them on such a miserably wet day. Arrived
at this conclusion, he had imparted his
anxiety to his wife; but she, good old soul, |



like the best of women, had thought too
much of him and too little of the rest of
the world, and had besought him not to
venture near the haunted place at that time
of night. “What else could I do,” con-
tinued the old man, “but wait patiently
until the hour arrived in which I am
accustomed to smoke my nightly pipe in
company with my colleagues at a quiet
house close at hand—where I have done
that to-night, you know, lady?”

He smiled, but I could find no words to
express my gratitude, feeling ill and ex-
hausted ; but I am sure he understood me,
for he took my hand and shook it heartily
as we reached my door, saying that he
hoped I should sleep as well as he intended
todo. “And now,” he added, “my hour
for smoking is past, and I must hurry
home; my good wife must not know where
I have been, else she would not rest all
night.”

“Why so?” I asked.

“ Oh, never mind,” he replied; ‘‘it’s but
old women’s talk—don’t you believe what
people may tell you; at the same time,
you had better attend to the signal, and not
get locked in again.”

With these words he rang my bell, which
sounded loud and shrill through the silent
house, and when soon after my landlady
appeared in person to let me in, he left me
with a hearty “‘Good-night !”

My hostess was greatly surprised to see
me.

“Dear me, miss, what weather to come
home in, and how wet you are!” she ex-
claimed. She had not expected me, and
was just preparing to goto bed. On her
asking me whether I had spent the evening
with my friends I simply nodded, for I was
too weary to tell her of what I had gone
through, therefore, leaving her to go to rest,
I sought my own room.

The next day being Saturday, on which
we were not permitted to paint in the
gallery, I found plenty of time to recover
from my excitement. My landlady noticed
my unusually pale looks, and not being able
to evade her sympathetic questions, I im:
A STARTLING ADVENTURE.

49



parted to her my adventure of the previous
day. During the first part of my narrative
she interrupted me frequently with expres-
sions of horror and surprise, but as I went
on she grew silent and looked at me, her
face deadly pale. It was some time before
she recovered herself, and when she did,
told me something that I was glad not to

_ have known twenty-four hours previously.

The first part of her story was not new
to me; I had heard from my friends in
what danger the richest treasure of Dresden,
the picture gallery, had been in the days of

_ the revolution, and that its preservation was

mainly owing to the courage of an architect.
In the streets the combat raged fiercely, the
air reverberated with the approaching tramp
of rebellious multitudes : a human sea which
flooded all obstacles and threatened destruc-
tion to everything in its blind fury. All
order had vanished, nothing sacred was
spared, and every hour the danger which
threatened the gallery grew more imminent.
Night fell, but it brought no rest !

Here and there a cannon-ball had already
pierced the walls and shattered the window-
panes. Pale and anxious, the few men on
guard who had not fled walked to and fro
in the darkening rooms, lighted up ever
and anon by a sudden gleam of fire raging
without. Forlorn hope was to be read in
their agitated features, when all at once the
man to whom we owe the preservation of
so irreparable a treasure rushed into the
building. His presence of mind and exam-
ple worked wonders. What had appeared
impossible was carried out. Next morning’s
rising sun looked down on the most fearful

devastation, on the broken windows and

blackened walls of the gallery, but its
precious contents were well packed and
unharmed in safe places.

My hostess did not dwell long on

‘the merits of this courageous act, but

took pains to describe the horrors of that
night in all its details. This is not the
place to give further particulars of the
political events during those days; it is
sufficient to add that after a temporary

_ banishment in wooden cases, the works of



art adorned the old walls again in their usual
splendour.

It was in the month of May, in the year
following the revolution. The sentinel in
front of the gallery was walking leisurely up
and down, whistling softly to himself, when
the clock of the nearest-steeple chimed the
midnight hour. Dead silence reigned in
the streets, myriads of stars glittered in the
deep blue sky.

“Strange !” he muttered, as he stood still,
gazing intently upwards. Behind the well-
secured windows he saw flashes of a blue
light, coming and going fitfully, and casting
their rays on the path below.

“Strange!” he repeated, and his first
thought being naturally of thieves, he
hurried to the principal entrance, which he
found, however, fastened as usual. Peeping
through the keyhole into the interior, he
could see nothing ; the corridors were wrapt
in utter darkness, but on placing his ear to
a crevice he heard distinctly a loud noise

proceeding from the upper rooms. Was it
the packers busy at work P
The sentinel knew his instructions.

With a loud cry, ‘Thieves! thieves!” he
knocked at the door of the nearest official.
In the course of afew moments the latter
made his appearance with a dark lantern
and the necessary keys, but on looking at
the light at the windows, and listening to
the noise from within, he declared that he
could not act on his own responsibility,
and ran off to rouse his superior from his
first sweet slumber.

“What can you want?” asked that
worthy. ‘How are thieves to get into
the place?”

“ And. suppose—they were not—thieves,
sir?”

“ Well, surely you don’t believe they are
ghosts? You coward ! I'll come, were it only
to drive a cat from the premises.

“ Bah ! it’s the reflection of the glittering
stars,” he exclaimed, disdainfully, on seeing
the light in the windows. Without hesita-
ting further he pushed the huge key noisily
into the lock, and took the lantern to light

the way, his trembling subordinate following
E
50 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



on tiptoe. Yes! he heard the same nvise as
the others did, but his face expressed neither
fear nor hesitation, simply curiosity.
Suddenly he halted half-way up the stairs,
listening intently, and his companions saw
that he became pale and grave.

Plainly they heard what seemed the mov-
ing of heavy pictures and cases, and hollow
strokes with many hammers. The nearer
they approached the inner doors the more
distinctly the sound of many voices whis-
pering hurriedly and anxiously reached their
ears.

“Forward !” cried the inspector, recover-
ing himself, and opening one door after
another in quick succession.

“Villains!” he roared with an angry
voice, holding the lantern above his head.

Dead silence and utter darkness sur-
rounded him. Motionless hung the pic-
tures around the walls, and hundreds of eyes
looked down from them, as it were, with
silent reproof at the nightly intruders.

As it was in the first room, so it seemed
in all the rest; everything in its wonted
order. If anything ghost-like was to be
seen, it was the white face of the scared
subordinate ; even the inspector could not
help shaking his head at what he termed “a
strange delusion.” .

After another fruitless search of all the
chambers, they turned to go, but scarcely
was the first door closed behind them, when
the man laid his finger on his quivering lip,
turning his ashy countenance towards his
‘superior. The same knocking and hammer-
ing, the same hurried whispering as before,
was heard with alarming distinctness. The
inspector stamping his foot, and without
another word or look, retraced his steps,





undaunted and alone. After a quarter of
an hour had elapsed, during which the
man awaiting his return had heard the weird
noise without intermission, he appeared.

“Tt is nothing!” he said, with a firm,
hard voice, his face of aleaden hue. “ Let
us go home.”

“Nota word did he ever utter on the
subject,” continued my hostess; “the
knowledge of what he saw he has taken
with him into the grave, to which they
carried him soon after. So much is certain,
however, that no one has since ventured at
night-time into the gallery, and that the
same noise proceeds from the rooms yearly
on that day.

“ And that day,” she concluded, tooking
hard at me—“ that day was—yesterday !”

I could not help shuddering at this un
expected communication, and although I
tried to think that the old inspector had seen
nothing, consequently had nothing to relate,
yet I felt grateful to my goloshes for having
spared me a personal experience in the
matter. My enthusiasm was too genuine
to suffer from this event. I visited the
gallery as before, it grew more and more
home, but for the nights I gave preference
to the humble roof and hearth of my kind
landlady, in whose estimation I had risen
visibly since my narrow escape from contact
with the spiritual world.

I painted and studied with eagerness and
perseverance, and used every hour granted
to the students in the gallery, but ‘“ the busy
bee,” as some ironically called me, never
missed the signal again—never forgot her-
self again in one or the other sweet in-
toxicating flowers of art—Adbridged from
the “ Leisure Hour,”


SZLAVE-CATCHING IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. 1











































SECTION OF DHOW, SHOWING MODE OF STOWING SLAVES.

SLAVE-CATCHING IN

orE than half a
SKY century ago, the
\ great powers of
Europe united
in a solemn con-
demnation and
proscription of
: the slave-trade; and England,
os with some other nations, has
since endeavoured to give
NO effect to this verdict of the
\ civilized world. But the slave-
‘trade has not been extinguished, though in
some quarters where it once flourished it
mow languishes. It annually consumes, it
is calculated, the lives of half a million of
wretched Africans, According to Consul
Churchill, the number of slaves who passed
‘through Zanzibar during the five years end-
ang September, 1867, would not be less than
115,000—and this at one port alone! Nor
‘do these figures represent the full extent of






THE INDIAN OCEAN.

the horrible traffic. Besides those actually
captured, thousands are killed or die of
their wounds and famine, driven from the
villages by the slave-trade ; thousands in
internecine war, waged for slaves, with their
own clansmen and neighbours, slain by the
lust for gain, which is stimulated by the
slave purchasers. The many skeletons seen
amongst rocks and woods, by the little
pools, and along the paths of the wilderness,
attest the awful sacrifice of human life,
which must be attributed, directly or indi-
rectly, to this trade of hell. The reports of
the commanders of Her Majesty’s cruisers
amply justify all that has ever been stated
of the horrors of the traffic in human beings.
Writing on September 12, 1875, Captain
Ward, of the Zfetis, says,—“ On the 9th
inst. we were standing leisurely across to
Madagascar, under sail, having put our fires
out, when a sail was reported from the
masthead standing the same way as our-








































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































‘\

\ : .
: \ \ yp




























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SLAVE-CATCHING IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. 53



selves. We did not come up with her until
about 5.30, when the first lieutenant boarded
her in one of the cutters, and immediately
after we had the satisfaction of seeing
him take her in tow to bring her to the
ship. There was no necessity to ask for
papers, for a momentary inspection was
sufficient to satisfy the boarding officer that
the dhow was a full slaver; so we at once
set to work to bring the human cargo on
board.

“Tt was a long business, and by no

means an agreeable one—upwards of 300
souls being taken from the hold. Out of
this number about sixty were Arabs and
crew, and the remainder slaves. She had
oniy been three days out, and therefore it
may be supposed that the cargo was in
comparatively good condition. Still, many
of thern were in a very emaciated state, and
three have died since we received them on
board. One pyor old woman, whom I
found lying on her back in the hold, was at
first thought to be dead, but on her being
lifted up she commenced screaming vio-
lently, and struggling with the men who were
carrying her out of this pest-house. She is
now quite well, and in her right mind.

The slaves were stowed on two tempo-
rary decks, each about three feet high, the
upper one being roofed over with cocoa-nut

_ leaves. Of course the poor creatures could
not move from the place where they squatted,
and the stench in the lower tier was of such
a nature as to make one wonder how any
human being could live there for an hour,

. and it would probably have been a full

“week before they were released, had they
not fallen in with the Zhefis. After clear-
ing her out and taking as much of her pro-
visions as we thought necessary, we set her
on fire in several places and put twelve
pounds of powder in the lower part of her
hold. Ina few minutes we had the satis-
faction of seeing this explode, shortly after
which this vile craft went to the bottom,
never again to carry a living freight.”

The following harrowing details of the
capture of an Arab slave-dhow are related
by an officer of H.M.S. Vidture:— “We



were steaming into Majunga, a port on the
east coast of Madagascar, when a large
dhow was made out inshore of the ship.
When the Vulture was near enough, a boat,
in charge of a young officer, was sent on
board the Arab, whose true character and
the nature of his cargo were soon made
known. On going below, the men found a
framework of bamboo constructed on each
side of the hold, ranging fore and aft, in
which two hundred and thirty-eight human
beings were packed, tier upon tier, like
bottles ina rack. The occupants of each
tier were placed in the closest personal con-
tact with each other,—so much so, in fact,
that, to use the men’s homely phrase, they
really ‘were stowed away like herrings in a
cask.’ When taken out and placed upon
the deck, their limbs were useless; they
were seized with vertigo, and fell from sheer
inability to stand. Some were found in a
truly shocking condition. One or two
young children were discovered crushed to
death. The lower tier had been laid upon
the sand ballast, and washalf buried. One '
poor woman really was buried, with the
exception of her face ; her mouth was full
of sand, and when taken out she was on
the point of suffocation, The mortality
among a batch of negroes must be some-
times frightful, not only on board the dhows,
but also during the journey-down from the
interior. There was a woman among this
lot, who, if her statement is to be credited,
was the only survivor of a numerous band.
Six months since she roamed as free as air
in her native village in the middle of Africa.
The Arabs went with fire and sword; the
village was burnt, and the greater number
of the women and children were made pri-
soners. ‘Then commenced a weary march
of four months’ duration. Fresh accessions
of slaves were made as they passed along
on their way to the coast. Manacled
women fell by the wayside, and being un-
able to travel, were left to die in the jungle.
Young children withered like plucked
leaves, and the Arabs, to these more mer-
ciful, struck off their heads and threw them
aside. The woman has survived them all,

>
54

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



but she is alone. Of all the band captured
with her, she states that she is the only one
left alive to tell the sickening tale.”
Lieutenant Henn also describes the cap-
ture of a dhow, and the mode of stowing of
the poor creatures. ‘The dhow, on seeing
us, lowered her sail, and a few minutes
afterwards she was brought alongside with
one hundred and fifty-six slaves in her:
forty-eight men, fifty-three women, and fifty-
five children. The deplorable condition of
these wretched negroes, crammed into a
small dhow, surpasses all description. In
the bottom of the dhow was a pile of stones

as ballast, and on these stones, without even |

a mat, twenty-three women were huddled
together, one or two with infants in their
arms. These women were literally doubled
up, there being no room to sit erect. On

KRUPP AND

HE Germans are justly proud

of Alfred Krupp, the owner
or BP and creator of probably the
largest, and certainly the
most famous foundry in the
world. Nor is their boast a
false one, that Krupp’s guns
are well-known in every
quarter of the globe, and are
appreciated and sought for
with just as much zeal by the
Chinese and Japanese as by the Russians
and Turks, and even the very name of
Krupp’s business place, Essen, is far-famed
because of this one man’s exertions.

Alfred Krupp was born on April r1th, in
the year 1811, at Essen, in Prussia, where
his father, Frederick Krupp, had a small
steel foundry. In 1826 the elder Krupp




died without leaving any considerable for- |

tune to his widow, who, with the assist-
ance of her son, carried on the business
until 1848, when she retired in favour of
her assistant.

a bamboo deck, about three feet above
them, were forty-eight men crowded to-
gether in the same way; and on the upper
bamboo deck there were fifty-three children.
Some of the slaves were in the last stages
of dysentery and starvation. On getting
the vessel alongside and clearing her out,
a woman came up, having an infant about
a month old in her arms, with one side of
its forehead smashed in. On asking how it
was done, she told us that just before our
boat came alongside the dhow, the child
began to cry, and one of the Arabs, fearing
the English would hear it, took up a stone
| and smashed it. A few hours after this
! the poor thing died, and the woman was
; too weak and ill to point out the monster
who had done it from amongst the ten or
dozen Arabs on board.”

HIS FOUNDRY.

Herr Krupp continued to make great
progress with his foundry, but without
attaining any international reputation until
the Great Exhibition of 1851, when he
attracted attention by sending to London
a single block of steel weighing 1,500
kilogrammes. An English firm, however,
produced a still heavier block, and was
considered to have defeated its German
‘opponent, when, to the astonishment of the
mercantile world, a second block, weighing
2,500 kilogrammes, was sent over from
Essen, and Herr Krupp remained the victor.
This peaceable contest created no little stir,
and by it the German founder’s reputation,
if not fortune, was made. The verdict of
the Exhibition adjudicators was, that ‘‘ F.
Krupp’s foundry in Essen had produced the
best cast steel in the whole Exhibition,”
and that this manufactory had been “the
first to make cast steel in such large and
uniform pieces,” etc. Again, in the 1862
Exhibition, Krupp, was a most successful
| exhibitor, showing, among other samples of


KRUPP AND HIS FOUNDRY. 55

3



his skill, a cast steel block of 100 cwt.,which,
being broken into halves by a steam ham-
mer of 1,000 cwt., was found to be per-
fectly pure and free from flaws.

The many other marvels of his skill,
especially in portions of machinery for rail-
way locomotives and steamships, space will
not permit allusion to. One speciality of
Krupp’s exhibit in 1851 must not, however,
be passed by without mention, and thatis his
cast steel guns. The attention of the French
Government was particularly attracted to
this artillery, and the experiments it made
with it afforded convincing proofs of the
practical value of the Essen manufactory.
These guns at that time were of very small
calibre, but Krupp was continually experi-
menting with them, until he finally suc-
ceeded in producing those gigantic pieces
of artillery which are now world-famous.
-Indeed, it is asserted that upwards
of 15,000 cast steel guns have, up to the
present time, been made by the Essen
establishment, and disposed of in various
quarters of the globe. In the Philadelphia
Exhibition of 1876 Krupp exhibited many
wonders that startled even the Americans,
accustomed as they are to all kinds of
mechanical marvels. It is impossible here
tc attempt any description of the various
apparatus which was sent from the Essen
foundry, and which not only included field
and mountain artillery, axles, wheels, etc.,
for locomotives and railway carriages, but
even steel plates, springs, and such smaller
articles.

Turning towards the establishment where
all these marvels are manufactured, fresh
causes for astonishment are discovered,
Krupp’s busy little town rivalling even Salt-
aire in area and activity. Altogether, the
establishment covers a superficial area of
1,000 acres ; about 190 of which are covered
with buildings. Whichever way the sight
is directed on Essen, the eye encounters
smoke-grimed chimneys, extensive walls
within which busy smiths are hard at work,
and foundries in which the liquid metal
glows and bubbles, whilst all around is
heard the noise of hammers wielded by



thousands of workmen. In the year 5877,
the Krupp foundry possessed 1,648 various
kinds of furnaces, 298 steam boilers, 77
steam hammers, 294 steam engines, ranging
from two to one-thousand horse-power, or
altogether 11,000 horse-power, and 1,063
other kinds ofmachines. These figures will
afford some idea of the amount of skill and
supervision required to maintain everything
in order, and one is scarcely surprised to
learn that last year 8,500 workmen were
employed in the cast steel factories alone,
whilst between 4,000 and 5,000 workpeople
were engaged upon other duties connected
with the establishment. By means of this
army of men Krupp is enabled to turn out a
monthly supply of 250 field pieces, thirty
small and twenty-four large cannons, besides
an enormous quantity of articles for peaceful
purposes.

To keep all these foundries employed,
Krupp possesses several mines in various
parts of Germany, and even at Bilbao, in
Spain, whence the metal is brought by a
regular line of steamers to the mouth of the
Rhine, and thence conveyed by rail to the
furnace. Altogether the number of people
employed by Krupp in the performance of
these various labours is little short of 15,000,
who ail work together under their employer’s
skilful direction with the regularity of a
machine. The daily consumption of coal
by this large army of workers is about 2,200
tons.

The creature comforts and requirements
of his people are carefully provided for by
Herr Krupp. He has had 3,277 dwell-
ings erected for his clerks and workmen,
in which everything needful has been
thought of, whilst all their “from home”
wants are supplied by an hotel, eight public-
houses (for teetotalers are unknown in Ger-
many), a mineral-water factory, asteam mill,
a bakery, a slaughter-house, and twenty-two
establishments for the sale of furniture,
meat, shoes, and indeed, every sort of
native and foreign produce. 195,000 kilo-
grammes of bread, of an excellent quality,
are produced daily by the bakery, and sold
at a low price to the workpeople. Fire and
56 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



life insurances, invalid and pension societies,
hospital, bathing establishment, four people’s
schools, besides an industrial school for girls
and work-school for women, all proclaim
the thoughtfulness of Herr Krupp, their
founder and benefactor.

But it is impossible to recount all the




\\HoMAS Epwarp, the Scotch
4 naturalist, was the son of
NHISS a private in the Fifeshire
: Militia, and was born at
Gosport on Christmas Day,
1814. After the Battle of
Waterloo had brought the
war to a close, the militia
regiments were relieved from
the duty of guarding our sea-
coast towns, and young Ed-
ward’s parents went home to
Aberdeen, where his father worked as a
hand-loom weaver.

Here Thomas was in his glory. The
Green, where the Aberdeen Railway Sta-
tion now stands, was then really a green,
and close by were the “Inches,” near the
mouth of the Dee, over which the tide
flowed daily. The boy was always in the

- open air searching for and appropriating
every living thing which he could lay his
hands on. He was constantly bringing
home “beasties,” such as tadpoles, horse-
leeches, beetles, frogs, caterpillars, rats,
hedgehogs, moles, and birds, which, for
want of proper receptacles, escaped and
overran the house, and sometimes invaded
the dwellings of the neighbours, who com-
plained greatly of the annoyance caused by
the “ venomous beasts.” ‘Tom was scolded
and flogged, deprived of his clothes, and
tied up to the table, but nothing could keep

him at home: once he slipped out with |



wonders—wonders far surpassing the fabled
deeds of the Arabian Aladdin—this truly
great man has produced in his little West-
phalian birthplace ; it suffices to say, there-
fore, that he himself resides in a newly-
erected and almost magnificent castle on
the banks of the Ruhr at Werden.

v THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE.
AP

THOMAS EDWARD.

and, paddling about in the “Inches,”
caught a chill, which resulted in a fever
and laid him up for some time.

But no sooner had he recovered than he
took to his old ways, one of his chief feats
being the capture of a wasp’s nest, which
he carried home wrapped up in his shirt,
and which his parents plunged into boiling
water to render it harmless to the rest of
the family; on another occasion he caught
an adder, which he sold for fourpence to a
chemist in the town, whose shop-window
contained many specimens of Tommy’s
collecting. At the age of five he was sent
to school, principally to keep him out of
harm’s way; but he was a sore plague to
the teachers, for when he was not playing
truant, he was sure to bring some “ beast”
with him to the school. From his first
school he was dismissed because a jack-
daw which he had with him joined in the
the prayers with a loud “caw ;” from the
second he was expelled because his horse-
leeches, getting hungry, had crept out of
their bottle, and began to feed upon the
legs of his fellow-pupils; and from the
third he was also expelled because he was
accused of bringing in a centipede which
was found upon a desk, besides getting a
severe beating for denying the false charge.

After this he wandered about the
“Tnches” for a time, and at the age of
six years went to work at a tobacco factory,
about two miles from Aberdeen, where

nothing but an old petticoat around him, | he first saw the kingfisher and the sedge:
THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE, 57



warbler. It was a happy time for the boy, | brutal fellow, as well as a hard taskmaster.
but it was not to last. After two years his | He had no love for animals, and rythlessly
parents apprenticed him to a shoemaker, | destroyed the pet sparrows, moles, and
who seems to have been a drunken and | other “beasts,” which Edward took home.

















TIIOMAS EDWARD.





The indentures were for six yeas; but at | returned after a week with sixpence in his
the end of three Edward ran away, and set | pocket, which he had saved out of eighteen-
off on a wonderful journey of roo miles to | pence given to him by his uncle, and re-
visit his uncle at Kettle, in Fifeshire. He | sumed work with his old master, still
58 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

occupying his leisure hours, which were few
and far between, with his favourite pursuits.

In 1831 he enlisted in the Aberdeen-
shire Militia, and on one occasion narrowly
escaped punishmert for insubordination,
having left the ranks while on drill to chase
a rare butterfly which had attracted his
attention. At the age of twenty he re-
moved to Banff, where he fell in love with
a Huntly lass, whom, after three years’
courtship, he married ; and the couple not
only lived happily together, but managed
to bring up a family of eleven children on
an income of gs. or ros. per week. Ed-
ward would work from six am. to nine

p.m. at his shoemaking, and then spend.

half the night in seeking for new natural
history specimens to add to his collections.
Somebody once remarked to his wife that
it must have been rather hard upon her to
have had her husband so much away, be-
sides the torn clothes and the “rubbish”
he brought with him when he did come
back; but she replied, “Weel, I didna com-
plain of his interest in the beasties. Shoe-
makers were often drunken, but his beasties
kept him frae them. My man’s been a
sober man, and never negleckit his work.
So I let him bide.” She was a wise woman.
And a wise man was Thomas Edward too,
for, with all his night wanderings and his
exposure to the cold, he xever touched a
drop of whiskey. ‘1 believe,” he said
himself, ‘that if I had indulged in drink,
or even taken it at all, I never could have
resisted the weather as I did. As to my
food, it merely consisted of oatmeal cakes
washed down by water from the nearest
spring. Now and then, as a luxury, my
wife would boil me an egg or two; but I
never drank anything but water.”

Some of his adventures were really of
a thrilling character. He was often bitten
while endeavouring to capture rabbits,
squirrels, or weasels; on one occasion he
was tripped up and stunned during a
scuffle with a trio of full-grown badgers ;
and at another time he was attacked while
sleeping by a polecat, which, after two
hours’ struggle, he only succeeded in over-



coming by the aid of some chloroform,
which he luckily had about him. The only
weapon which he carried was an old gun,
which had cost him 4s. 6¢., and which was
so ricketty that stock and barrel had to be
tied together with string ; a cow’s horn sery-
ing him as a powder-flask, and the bowl of a
tobacco-pipe as a measure for the powder.

During these night wanderings Edward
acquired an immense store of information
respecting the habits of all kinds of animals,
and after eight years’ labour (Sundays ex-
cepted, for he was a strict observer of the
Sabbath), he succeeded in accumulating
2,000 specimens of creatures found in the
neighbourhood of Banff. These, arranged
in 300 cases, he exhibited at St. Brandon’s
Fair, Banff, but the receipts hardly covered
his expenses ; added to which misfortune a
collection of about 2,000 plants which he had
made were destroyed by some rats, which
got into the box where they were stored. He
afterward took this collection to Aberdeen,
but there, too, it was a financial failure,
and the disappointed enthusiast sold it for
420 tos., and returned to his lapstone and
hammer at Banff, and for a short time gave
up his collecting in despair. ‘The old pas-
sion, however, soon reasserted itself, and
Edward turned again to his old pursuits
with greater zeal than ever.

About this time he became acquainted
with the Rev. James Smith, who lent him
some works on natural history, which he
devoured with avidity, and having by this
time learnt to write as well. as read, he
began to send descriptive articles to the
local papers. He subsequently contributed
some papers on Natural History to the Zoo-
Jogist and the MWaturalist, and becoming
better known, carried on a large corre-
spondence with various people who took
an interest in such subjects. He is now
sixty-three years old, and up to a very
short time ago, when by Her Majesty’s
special desire, a pension of #50 a year
was granted to him, he was obliged to earn
a living at his old trade. The sketch of
his life given by Mr. Smiles, abounds with
incident and instructive lessons.
A RAILWAY IN THE CLOUDS. - 54



A RAILWAY IN THE CLOUDS.

HE following Is an
account of aride
in one of the rail-
ways which thread
their way among
the peaks of the
Colorado moun-
tains in America:

“Between Veta mountain
and the Peaks nestle the
quaint cluster of houses con-
stituting Veta Station. Recall-
ing the eye from the distant to the
immediate, it falls with horrified stare
upon the precipice which upon our left
plunges headlong down amony the scattered
rocks and blasted trees to the very bottom
of the gorge that but a few moments before
appeared the loveliest of little valleys. As
we draw closer to the car window with that
sense of danger which increases the subli-
mity of the scene, it seems as if we were
hanging over the very verge of the chasm,
so narrow the ledge upon which we are
passing up, up, ever upward! Fainter and
fainter grows the line of the road beneath
us, and upon Veta Mountain, directly oppo-
site, we distinguish a freight train apparently
going in the same direction we are, but in
fact headed exactly the other way, and upon
an incline so steep as to look almost as if
in the act of falling over upon itself Still
we climb, and every second the scene grows
more terrific in its character. Great streams
of loose stones fall away from the line of
track, poured out as if by superhuman hand
all along down the mountain-sides. Here
we breathe freer, thinking that if aught
should happen to the train, its mad plunge





over the rocky wall would be stopped by
the mighty trees that stand stalwart upon the
brink. Another sudden turn, and there is
nought but the sheer declivity between us
and the track nearly eight hundred feet in
the dim distance below. Nearing Inspira-
tion Point, the wildness of the ride, the
terror-inspiring abruptness of the precipice,
the stone-stayed track-bed, and the hoarse
mutterings of the locomotive, tend to an
excitement that few can control, and for a
moment the fact of being actually above the
clouds upon a railroad train is not heeded.
Nevertheless it is true, for below us wreathe
the snowy fleeces like softly-fallen snow,
out from which the peaks rise in sublime
magnificence, and appear to fairly double
their towering height. As if intensely im-
pressed with the utter solemnity and majesty
of the scene, the ponderous engine length-
ens its sonorous breathings, more slowly
strides along its steel-bound way, and passes
the dizzy depths with motian so stately
as to suggest new thoughts of nature’s
wondrous influences.

We steadily watch until the last ray is
lost in the twilight haze, and the last tint
faded into the wondrously clear blue of the
night ; then over the mountain-sides ; upon
the sharp-cut faces of the peaks, down into
the moss-carpeted valleys, into the car
windows until the lighted lamps look like
dusky sparks of smouldering fire, shines the
evening star. Those who have seen the
Alps, have enjoyed to the fullest the glo-
rious vistas of Switzerland, and have since
crossed the Sangre de Cristo range ovez
Veta Pass by starlight, declare there is
nothing in all Europe to equal it.”
60 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

ee

MONGST the most
wonderful of natural
phenomena are the
Geysers of Iceland.
These are hot-water
fountains, which, from
& & some wel, cause find an

K outlet in the surface of the earth,

) and hurl hot water and steam

1 to an immense height. These

\ springs of hot water are not con-

fined to Iceland; in some parts of
America they are also to be found on an
enormous scale. The Iceland Geysers
are thus described by an appreciative
writer, —

“About ten minutes past five we were
roused by the roaring of Stockr, which blew
up a great quantity of steam ; and when my
watch stood at the full quarter, a crash as
if the earth had burst, which was instan-
taneously succeeded by jets of water and
spray rising in a perpendicular column to
the height of sixty feet.

As the sun happened to be behind a
cloud, we had no expectation of witnessing
anything more sublime than we had already
seen; but Stockr had not been in action
above twenty minutes, when the Great
seyser, apparently jealous of her reputa-
tion, and indignant at our bestowing so
much of our time and applause on her
rival, began to thunder tremendously, and
emitted such quantities of water and steam,
that we could not be satisfied with a dis-
tant view, but hastened to the mound with
as much curiosity as if it had been the
first eruption we had beheld.

However, if she was more interesting in
point of magnitude, she gave the less
satisfaction in point of duration, having
again become tranquil in the course of five
minutes; whereas her less gaudy but
more steady companion continued to play
till within four minutes of six o’clock.





GEYSERS.

Our attenticn was so much taken up with
these two principal fountains, that we had
little time or inclination to watch the
minutiae of the numerous inferior shafts
and cavities with which the track abounds.
The Little Geyser erupted perhaps twelve
times in the twenty-four hours; but none
of its jets rose higher than eighteen or
twenty feet, and generally they were about
ten or twelve. The pipe of this spring
opens into a beautiful circular basin about
twenty feet in diameter, the surface of
which exhibits incrustations equally beauti-
ful with those of the Great Geyser. At the
depth of a few feet, the pipe, which is
scarcely three feet wide, becomes very
irregular, yet its depth has been ascertained
to be thirty-eight feet. There is a large
steam-hole at a short distance to the north-
west of the Little Geyser, which roars and
becomes quiescent with the operations of
that spring. A little farther down the
track are numerous apertures, some of
which are very large, and being full of clear
boiling water, they discover to the spec-
tator the perilous scaffolding on which he
stands. When approaching the brink of
many of them, he walks over a dome of
petrified morass, hardly a foot in thickness,
below which is a vast boiling abyss, and
even this thin dome is prevented from
gaining a due consistence by the humidity
and heat to which it is exposed. Near the
centre of these holes is situated the Little
Stockr, a wonderfully amusing little foun-
tain, which deals its waters in numerous
diagonal columns with great regularity every
quarter of an hour.

Nor is it in this direction alone that ori-
fices and cavities abound. Ina small gully
close to the Geyser are a number of holes
with boiling water ; to the south of which
rises a bank of ancient depositions, con-
taining apertures of a much larger size than
the rest. One of these is filled with
beautifully clear water, and discovers to a
great depth various groups of incrustations
which are very tempting to the eye of the
beholder. The depth of this reservoir is
not less than fifty feet. On the brow of
the hill, at the height of nearly two hundred
feet above the level of the Great Geyser,
are several holes of boiling clay ; some of
produce sulphur and the efflo-
rescence of alum; and at the base of the
hill on the opposite side are not less than
twenty springs, which prove that its foun-
dations are entirely perforated with veins
and cavities of hot water.

‘On my return this way from the north,
I again pitched my tent for two days
beside these celebrated fountains, and
found their operations still more mag-
uificent and interesting than they were
before. The Great Geyser continued to
erupt every six hours in a most imposing
manner. In some of the eruptions the
jets seemed to be thrown much higher
than they were in the preceding year,
several of them reaching an elevation of
not less than a hundred and fifty feet.

What rendered my second visit to the
Geysers peculiarly interesting, was my
discovery of the key to Stockr, by the
application of which I could make that
beautiful spring play when I had a mind,
and throw its water to nearly double the
height observable in its natural eruptions.
The morning after my arrival I was
awakened by its explosion about twenty
minutes past four o’clock ; and hastening
to the crater, stood nearly half an hour
contemplating its jet, and the steady and un-
interrupted emission of the column of spray
which followed, and which was projected
at least a hundred feet into the air. After
this, it gradually sank into the pipe, as it
had done the year before, and I did not
expect to see another eruption till the

which



THE GEYSERS. 61

following morning. However, about five
o’clock in the afternoon, after a great
quantity of the largest stones that could
be found about the place had been put into
the spring, I observed it begin to roar with
more violence than usual; and approaching
the brink of the crater, I had scarcely time
to look down to the surface of the water,
which was greatly agitated, when the erup-
tion commenced, and the boiling water
rushed up in a moment, within an inch or
two of my face, and continued its course
with inconceivable velocity into the atmo-
sphere. Having made a speedy retreat, I
now took my station on the windward side,
and was astonished to observe the elevation
of the jets, some of them rising higher than
two hundred feet; many of the fragments
of stone were thrown much higher, and
some of considerable size were raised to an
invisible height.

For some ‘time, every succeeding jet
seemed to surpass the preceding, till the
quantity of water in the subterraneous
caverns being spent, they gave place to
the column of steam, which continued to
rush up with a deafening roar for nearly an
hour.

The periodical evacuation of Stockr
having been deranged by the violent
experiment, no symptoms whatever of a
fresh eruption appeared the following
morning. As I wished, however, to see it
play once more before I bade an everlasting
farewell to these wonders of nature, and
especially being anxious t9 ascertain the
reality of my discovery, I got my servant
to assist me, about eight o’clock, in casting
all the loose stones we could find into the
spring. We had not ceased five minutes
when the wished-for phenomena recom-
menced, and the jets were carried to a
height little inferior to what* they had
gained on the preceding evening,”

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THE SVEZ CANAL, 93






oi)






journeys the Arab
dealers sometimes
Ve require to cross
We the lakes and rivers
eN which are so fre-
quent in Central

For this purpose they

¢ enerally use a pirogue, a
pe bufee eek most ingeniously
contrived out of the trunk of a
tree. Sometimes the pirogue

Africa.

ww
me
23 =f
(io
E: Mediterranean is separated

from the Red Sea by astrip of
sandy desert very Hale more



only which prevents Africa
from being an island, and pre-
vents ships from sailing from
Europe to India by way of the
Red Sea. Hence, from very
early times, ingenious men
have formed plans for cutting
a ship canal across this barrier. The nar-
rowest part is from Tineh on the Mediter-
ranean to Suez on the Red Sea; but as
this is a barren region of sand, sandstone,
and salt swamps, a route was sought for
which would avoid a certain elevated tract of
sandstone country. The surveyors found
a peculiar depression or level, not much
above the sea-level, marked in different
places by the Bitter Lakes, Lake Temsah,
the Karash salt-marshes, Lake Bellah,
Lake Menzaleh, and the plain of Pelusium ;
this, though a wretched country for a
settlement, offered a favourable route for
a canal. The Egyptians under Pharaoh-
Necho commenced such a work as early
as twenty-five centuries ago ; indeed, some
authorities believe that the canal was









PIROGUE.

b Gas “w their slave- -buying |

consists of a double boat, being two trunks
joined together. This, from its construc-
tion, it is almost impossible to upset, and
it is consequently much in favour where
the passage is dangerous. On smooth
waters, however, the pirogue represented
in our engraving is generally used ; and,
propelled by stalwart paddlers, makes

‘rapid progress through the water. In

South America, a particular kind of vessel,
with two masts and a sail, is also called a
pirogue,

THE SUEZ CANAL.

actually finished, and applied to the pur-
poses of trade ; that it was from 108 to 168
feet wide, and from 15 to 30 feet deep.
But be that as it may, the canal became
choked with sand. Traces of it are still
visible along the depressed line of route
(about 90 miles long) above adverted to.
The Greeks and the Romans, the Saracens
under the Calif Omar, the Genoese and
the Venetians, all in turn contemplated
the possible restoration of the old Egyptian
canal; indeed, the emperor Trajan really
restored it in the second century a.D., and
the Calif Omar in the seventh century ;
but the shifting sands had in every case
hitherto conquered the engineers, by gra-
dually choking up that which had been
excavated. The celebrated Robert Ste-
phenson, who was engaged with French
and Italian engineers in surveying the
isthmus at various times between 1847 and
1853, came to a conclusion that a really
practical and permanent ship canal cannot
be formed in that region ; instead of this
he constructed a railway for the Pasha of
Egypt, from Alexandria on the Mediter-
ranean shore to Suez on the Red Sea
shore; and this railway has ever since
rendered excellent service. It was left for
&y THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



M. Lesseps, a Frenchman, to accomplish
this marvel of engineering.

Beginning at the northern or Mediter-
ranean end of the canal, there is the new
town. of Port Said, built on a strip of sand
which separates the sea from Lake Men-
zaleh. Although so recently formed, it has
a population of several thousand inhabitants,
with streets, docks, basins, and quays.

The Mediterranean being at this part very ©

shallow, depth for a harbour could only
be obtained by constructing two piers or
moles, the one a mile and a half and the
other a mile and a quarter long, formed of

huge blocks of concrete or artificial stone..

The enclosed area, 500 acres in extent, has
been dredged out to a depth sufficient for
large merchant-ships. Basins and docks
are connected with this harbour; and then
begins the canal itself, just roo miles long.
For four-fifths of the distance, this canal is
327 feet wide at the surface of the water,
72 feet wide at the bottom, and 26 feet
deep. ‘The remaining one-fifth is 196 feet
wide at the water surface, with the same
bottom-width and maximum depth as the
other. The great surface-width has been
adopted to render the banks very. gradual
in their slope or shelving, as a precau-
tion against washing away. No less than
96,000,000 cubic yards of stone, sand, and
earth have been excavated to form a canal
of such large dimensions ; and an immense
amount of manual labour, aided by dredg-
ing machinery of unprecedented magnitude
and power, has been needed in the work,
The part of the sloping banks a little above
and below the water-level is protected by
rough stone pitching, to resist the action of
waves caused by passing steamers.

From Port Said the canal crosses several
miles of Lake Menzaleh, a kind of shallow
swamp, which requires an embankment to
mark and confine the two banks. Then
comes the Kantara cutting, three miles
through hillocks of sand. This ends at
Lake Bellah, a kind of salt marsh, through
which the canal runs about nine miles,
with side embankments. Next to this
comes a portion of plateau eight miles



long, in some parts of which, near El Guisr,
the canal had to be dug to the vast depth
of 90 feet in hard sandstone—an immense
labour, where the width of the canal is so
great, -Then we come to the central part
of the canal, Lake Temsah, where, just
about 50 miles from each end, is the new
and flourishing. town of Ismailia, provided
with streets, roads, merchants’ offices,
banks, hotels, cafés, villas, a Roman Catholic
chapel for the French inhabitants, a Mo-
hammedan mosque for the Egyptian and
Arab population, a theatre, a hospital, a
railway station, a telegraph station, an
abattoir, a bazaar, and quays and repairing-
docks for shipping. This town is one of
the most remarkable of M. Lesseps’ cre-
ations. The canal then passes through
nine miles of dry land, where the Serapeum
cutting has called for a vast amount of
excavation. To this succeeds a passage of
23 miles through the Bitter Lake, which has
for ages been a dry salt depression, but
which is now filled with sea-water from the
Mediterranean and the Red Sea; the canal
itself being marked out by lofty and broad
embankments. No less than 10,000,000
cubic yards of water have been admitted to
fill up this great depression. A further
portion of 17 miles, through dry land and
shallow dried-up lakes, carries the canal to
Suez, involving extensive blasting at the
Chalouf cutting. At the junction with the
Red Sea at Suez, all the necessary piers,
docks, and quays, have been constructed.

A. subsidiary work, without which this
great ship canal could not have been con-
structed, is the Sweet Water Canal. This
is about 4o feet wide by 9 feet deep. It
brings the fresh water'of the Nile, .from_a
point a little below Cairo,.to Ismailia and
Suez, and by means of large iron pipes to
Port Said. This minor canal is literally in-
valuable, seeing that it supplied fresh watér
for the thousands of men employed in the
works, and is gradually fertilising what was
before a sandy desert. The really grand
Suez Canal was opened for traffic in
November 1869, and ships of large burden
now pass through it.
65



THE ELECTRIC EEL.

<{ ISTINGUISHED for majestic size,
. great power of vision, strength
of wing, rapid flight, indomitable
courage, and almost resistless
> powers of attack, the eagle is
justly considered the king of
birds, and is often introduced as an apposite
symbol of human royalty in sacred and
secular literature. On the monuments of
Nineveh the head and wings frequently
occur as the emblems of kingly power;
and in the pages of inspired prophecy the
noble bird is repeatedly employed to repre-
sent Oriental sovereignties for the time over-
powering and triumphant. The eagle soars
loftily, and builds its platform nest in high
places, upon the brow of tall cliffs, or on
the uppermost branches of the towering
cedar-tree, itself flourishing far up the slope

of a mountain chain, The prophet Ezekiel



water fishes of South America
is the Gymnotus electricus, or
electrical eel. Its singular
properties enable it to arrest
suddenly the pursuit of an
enemy or the flight of its prey,
to suspend on the instant
every movement of its victim,
and subdue it by an invisible
& power. Even the fishermen
themselves are suddenly paralysed at the
moment of seizing it, while nothing external
betrays the mysterious power possessed by
this creature.
The French astronomer Richer was the
first to make known the singular properties
of this American fish. ‘I



was much
|



THE GOLDEN EAGLE.

writes of the king of Babylon as “a great
eagle with great wings, long-winged, full
of feathers,” which “came unto Leban-
on, and took the highest branch of the
cedar.”

The parent birds show tender solicitude
for their young, and provide liberally for the
wants of the helpless brood. The quantity
of food collected for them is so ample that
several instances are on record of poor
families obtaining sufficient subsistence in
straitened times by daily visiting the nests
for spoil, As soon as the eaglets are able
to cater for themselves, they are roused
to exertion by their natural guardians, con.
strained to quit the nest, incited to ply their
wings, instructed by example how use them,
and aided in their early attempts, till with
confidence and courage they can cleave
the air like their parents.



eG ee Le

1 astonished,” he says, “to see a fish some
three or four feet in length, resembling aneel,
deprive of all sensation the arm and neigh-
bouring parts which touched it. I was not
only an ocular witness of the effect produced
by its touch, but I have myself felt it, on
touching one of these fishes still living,
though wounded by a hook, by means of
which some Indians had drawn it from the
water. They could not tell what it was
called, but they assured me that it struck
other fishes with its tail in order to stupefy
them and devour them afterwards, which is
very probable when we consider the effect
of its touch upon a man.”

When full-grown the gymnotus measures
between five and six feet in length ; its
colour varies with age, and the nature of the

Ir


66 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



water in which it dwells. Generally it is
of an olive-green, with the under part of the
head of a yellow tint mingled with red;
and a double row of small excretory open-
ings in the skin, from the head to the tail,
are thus coloured; these openings appear to
belong to mucous glands, which secrete the
slimy fluid with which the skin is lubricated.
The mouth is wide, and the interior, as far
as the gullet, is furnished with little teeth
disposed in rows, and very closely set; the
tongue is fleshy, and covered with papille.
The apparatus which gives to this eel its
terrible powers, and renders it capable of
discharging an electric shock of such vio-
lence as to throw down horse and man,
occupies the under parts of the tail, .or
terminal portion of the body. It consists



nervous system is thus shocked violently at
thesame moment.” It is scarcely necessary
to say, that in the pools, lakes, or meres,
tenanted by this formidable fish it reigns
supreme: what, indeed, can withstand its
assaults? It comes not upon its foe with
teeth, nor the common weapons of its race,
for then force might be opposed to force ;
but it deals destruction by the agency of
means against which strength and courage
are of little avail.

On the nerves with which these creatures
are furnished depend their electric power ;
but how or in what manner the accumulation
of electric fluid takes place, the means which
the animal has of discharging it or not,
at pleasure, or in what direction it pleases,
and the theory of its production—these



of four longitudinal a
masses; two large
above, two small be-
low, each being com-
posed of a vast
number of membran-
ous lamine, or thin
plates, closely set to-
gether, and nearly
horizontal. These
plates have their ex-
ternal margins affixed
to the skin, and they





points are all enve-
loped in mystery.
We are presented
with nerves, and a
large laminated appa-
ratus; and we find
that these nerves and
this apparatus of
plates constitute, in
some mysterious
manner, an _ electro-
galvanic battery, go-
verned as to its use





rise to a level with the vertebral column ;
they are, besides, united to each other by
an infinite number of transverse small verti-
cal laminee, and thus are formed a multitude
of transverse cells, or minute prismatic
canals, filled with jelly-like matter, and
abundantly supplied with nerves.

“I never remember,” says Humboldt,
“to have experienced a more terrible blow’
from the discharge of a Leyden jar of great
size, than one which I received on putting
my two feet on a gymnotus which was
dragged out of the water. During the rest
of the day, I felt great pain in the knees,
and in almost every joint of the body. A
blow on the stomach, a stone falling on the
head, a tremendous electric explosion, pro-
duce in an instant the same effects: nothing
is distinguished, all is vague, when the whole



by volition: but we know no more. How
soon are we stopped by impassable barriers
in the progress of our investigations among
the wonders with which the great field
of creation teems! How soon do we
discover the limitation of our minds and
their inadequacy to grasp a part, a small ’
part, of the ways and workings of the
Almighty !

The sketch on the opposite page repre-
sents a section of the terminal portion of
its body, containing the electrical apparatus,
and serves to convey a clear idea of the
arrangement of its plates, and the relative
magnitude of the upper and lower double
series. @, the upper and larger pair of
electric organs. 4, the lower pair. «¢ ex:
ternal lateral muscles. d, eight dorsal
muscles, imbedded in fat and cellular tissue.
THE ELECTRIC EEL. 67



and having a concentrically laminated |

structure. ¢, the spinal column. 7, the
swimming-bladder, which is of an elongated
form and of great length, measuring from
two to nearly three feet.

The mode of capturing the electrical eel
is described by a naturalist, Bonpland, who
stopped at Calabozo, on the Orinoco, in
order to witnessit. ‘ While our hosts were
explaining to us this strange mode of fishing,
a troop of about thirty halfwild horses and

_mules had arrived, and
the Indians had made
a sort of circle, press-
ing the horses on all
sides, and forcing them
into the marsh. The
Indians, armed with
long canes and_har-
poons, had placed

‘ themselves round the
basin, some of them
mounting the trees, the
branches of which hung
over the water, and by
their cries, and still
more by their canes,
preventing the horses
from landing again.
The eels, stunned by
the noise, defended
themselves byrepeated
discharges of their
batteries.: For a long
time it seemed as if
they would be victor-

lous over the horses.
Some of the mules
especially, being almost stifled by the fre-
quency and force of the shocks, disappeared
under water ; and some of the horses, in spite
of the watchfulness of the Indians, regained
the bank, where, overcome by the shocks they
had undergone, they stretched themselves at
their whole length. The picture presented
was now indescribable. Groups of Indians
surrounded the basin, the horses with
bristling manes, terror and grief in their
eyes, trying to escape from the storm which
had surprised them; the eels, yellow and







W Li) = Si

Us;





livid, looking like great aquatic serpents
swimming on the surface of the water, and
chasing their enemies, were objects at once
appalling and picturesque. In less than five
minutes two horses were drowned. An eel,
more than five feet long, glided under one
horse, and discharged its apparatus through
its whole extent, attacking at once the
heart and viscera, probably benumbing and
finally drowning it.

When the struggle had endured a quarter
of an hour, the mules
and horses appeared
less frightened, their
manes became more
erect, their eyes ex-
pressed less terror, the
eels shunned in place
of attacking them, at
the same time ap-
proaching the bank,
when they were easily
taken by throwing
little harpoons at them
attached to long cords,
the harpoon sometimes
hooking two at a time,
being landed by means

fthe long cord. They
were then drawnashore
without being able to
communicate any
shock.”

Several of these won-
derful fish have been
brought to England in
a living state. A fine
gymnotus was kept for
many years at the Polytechnic Institution in
London. Numbers of experimenters were ac-
customed daily to test its powers; and the
fatal, or at all events the numbing power of
the stroke was evident when the creature was —
supplied with fish. Though blind, it was
accustomed to turn its head towards the
spot when a fish was dropped into the
water, when it would curve itself slightly
stiffen its muscles, and the victim turned
over on its back, struck as if dead by the
violence of the shock.



D 2
68 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





\\ NE of the most interesting
il relics of Regal Rome is the
old Mamertine Prison, con-
structed byAncus Martius, and
described by Livy and Sallust.
Walls builtof enormous blocks
of stone form a cell, cold and
dark and damp. But in the
floor is asmall opening lead-
ing down into a yet more
horrible dungeon. Sallust
speaks of it as “a place about
ten feet deep, surrounded by walls, with a
vaulted roof of stone above it. The filth
and darkness and stench make it indeed
terrible.” Here the African king Jugurtha
was starved to death, the accomplices of
Catiline were strangled, and Sejanus, the
son-in-law of Tiberius, was executed. Tra-
dition affirms that yet more illustrious
sufferers were confined here. In this state
prison it is said that the apostles Peter and
Paul were immured. Of this, however,
there is no evidence; but the papal le-
gends which so often invest even a probable
tradition with incredible marvels, are not
wanting here. An indentation in the wall
of the staircase is pointed out as having
been made by the head of St. Peter when
forcibly struck against it by the inhuman
gaoler ; and a spring of water which rises
from the floor is declared to have burst
miraculously from the rock for the baptism
of his two guards, Processus and Martinia-
nus, though, unfortunately for this tradition,
the fountain is described by Plutarch as exist-
ing in the time of Jugurtha’s imprisonment.
Indeed there is every reason to believe
that this chamber was originally a well-
house or a subterranean cistern for collect-
ing water at the foot of the Capitol, from
which circumstance it derived its name of
Tullianum, from 7¢wd/éus, the old Etruscan
word for spring, and not from Servius Tul-
lius, who was erroneously supposed to have

THE OLDEST PRISON





IN: THE WORLD.

built it. The whole chamber in primitive
times was filled with water, and the hole in
the roof was used for drawing it out. Not
withstanding its sacred reputation, the water
tastes very much like ordinary water, being
very cool and fresh, with a slight medicinai
taste. A rugged hollow in the wall of the
staircase is pointed out as the print of St.
Peter’s head in the hard stone, said to have
been produced as he stumbled and fell
against it coming down the stair a chained
prisoner. It requires no small amount of
devotional credulity to recognise the like.
ness, or to believe the story.

But there is no need for having recourse
to such ecclesiastical legends in order to
produce a solemn impression in this cham-
ber. Its classical associations are sufficient
of themselves to powerfully affect .the
imagination. There is no reason to doubt
the common belief that this is the identical
cell in which the famous Jugurtha was
starved to death. The romantic history ot
this African king is familiar to all readers
of Sallust, who gives a masterly account
of the Jugurthine war. When finally defeat
ed, after having long defied the Roman
army, his person was taken possession of by
treachery, and carried in chains to Rome,
where he adorned the triumphal procession
of his conqueror Marius, and was finally
cast into this cell, perishing there of cold
and hunger. What a terrible ending to the
career of a fierce, free soldier, who had
spent his life on horseback in the boundless
sultry deserts of Western Africa! The tem-
perature of the place is exceedingly damp
and chill. Jugurtha himself, when stripped
of his clothes by the greedy executioners,
and let down into it from the hole in the
roof, exclaimed with grim humour, “By
Hercules, how cold your bath is !”

A more hideous and heart-breaking dur-
geon it is impossible to imagine, Not 4
ray of light can penetrate the profound
THE OLDEST PRISON IN THE WORLD. 69



darkness of this living tomb. Sallust spoke
of the appearance of it in-his day, from the
filth, the gloom, and the smell, as simply
terrific.

The height of the vault is about sixteen
feet, its length thirty feet, and its breadth
twenty-two feet. It is cased with huge
masses of volcanic stone, arranged in
courses, converging towards the roof, not
on the principle of the arch, but extending
horizontally to the centre, as we see in
some of the Etruscantombs. This peculiar
style of construction proves the very high
antiquity of the chamber. It is especially
interesting, to use the words of Freeman,
“as showing that men were at this time
making various attempts to bring stones, so
as to overlap and support one another ; but
the perfect arch, with its stones poised in
mid-air by a law of mutual mechanical sup-
port, had not yet rewarded their efforts.”

Besides Jugurtha, several other notable
prisoners were confined in this cell. It
played the same part in Roman history
which the Tower of London has done in
our own. Here, by the orders of Cicero,
were strangled Lentulus, Cetheeus, and one
or two more of the accomplices of Catiline
in his famous conspiracy. Here was
murdered, under circumstances of great
baseness, Vercingetorix, the young and
gallant chief of the Gauls, whose bravery
called forth the highest qualities of Julius
Cesar’s military genius, and who, when
success abandoned his arms, boldly gave
himself up as an offering to appease the
anger of the Romans.

“From the Tullianum, or Prison of St,
Peter,” says Dr. Macmillan, who recently
visited the ruins in the Forum, “we were led
through a tortuous subterraneous passage of
Etruscan character, a hundred yards long,
cut out of the rock. It was so low that we
had to stoop all the way, and in some
places almost to creep, and so narrow that a
very stout person would have some difficulty
in forcing himself through. The floor was
here and there wet with the overflowing of
neighbouring drains, which exhaled a noi-
some stench ; and we had to pick our steps



carefully through thick greasy mud, which
on the slopes was very slippery and dis-
agreeable. We followed each other in
Indian file, stooping low, each with a wax
taper burning dimly in the damp atmos-
phere, and presenting a most picturesque
appearance. This passage was discovered
only a few years ago. Numerous passages
of a similar nature are said to penetrate the
volcanic rock on which the Capitol stands,
in every direction, like the galleries of an
ant’s nest. Some of these have been ex-
posed, and others walled up. They con-
nected the prison with the Cloaca, (which
had its outlet in the river Tiber), and
doubtless furnished means by which the
bodies of criminals who had been executed
might be secretly disposed of. The passage
in question brought us to four other cham-
bers, each darker and more dismal than the
other, and partially filled with heaps of
rubbish and masses of stone that had fallen
from their own roofs and sides. At the top
of each vault there was a man-hole for let-
ting a prisoner down with cords into it.

A visit to these six vaults of the Mamer-
tine Prison gives one an idea that can never
be forgotten of the cruelty and tyranny which
underlay all the gorgeous despotism ot
Rome, alike in the kingly, republican, and
imperial periods. Some of the remains may
still be seen of the Scalaa Gemone, the
‘steps of sighs,’ down which the bodies ot
those who were executed were thrown, to
be exposed to the insults of the populace.
The only circumstance that relieves the in-
tolerable gloom of the associations of the
prison is, that Neevius is said to have
written two of his plays while he was con-
fined in it for his attacks on the aristocracy:
a circumstance which links it to the Tower
of London, which has also its literary remi-
niscences.

After having been immured so long in
such disagreeable physical darkness,—ap-
propriate emblems of the deeds of horror
committed in it, —we were truly glad to catch
at last a faint glimmer of daylight shimmer-
ing into the uppermost passage, and to
emerge into the open sunshine.”
Q
4
S
¢
ea

THE









WEIR.

N

FROM A PAINTING BY HARRISO


















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5 a va

aetitt rian
oe







































CAPTAIN BOYTON’S LIFE DRESS.

FEW years ago a statement went | tioned that the adventurer was equipped
the round of the papers, to the | with a life-saving apparatus, the statemen!
effect that an. American had | taxed the credulity of most people who
jumped overboard from the Na- | know what the sea isin astorm. The fact,
tional Liner steamship Qzcen, | however, was well authenticated that Cap:
some miles from the Irish coast, | tain Paul Boyton, of the New Jersey Lit
and had succeeded in gaining the | Saving Service, Atlantic City, did so quit
shore safe, warm, and dry, a violent storm | the vessel, and after remaining in the se
notwithstanding. Although it was men- | for seven hours, and drifting some miles


CAPTAIN BOYTON’S LIFE DRESS.

1
along the coast, he was at length cast ashore
5 ? a

high and dry at Trefaska Bight, on the
Skibbereen coast, and the next day made
his way to Cork, where he rejoined his
anxious friends on board the Queen.

Captain Boyton soon became better known
to the people of England, and his experi-
ments excited great curiosity. He crossed
the Channel, went up the Thames and
other rivers, and proved in every way the
value of his invention, and his name and
achievements are now familiar round the
world.

The aquatic feats with which Captain
Boyton astonished the good people of
England were accomplished by means of a
dress which, though known by his name, is
really the invention of a Mr. C. S. Merriman,
of New York; Captain Boyton, a man of
great pluck and resolution, having been
commissioned to introduce it into Europe.
This life-preserving garment is made of solid
india-rubber, and is in two parts, the lower
being the pantaloons, to which boots are
attached, and the upper the tunic, with
sleeves, gloves, and helmet connected to it.
The pantaloons are formed with a waistbelt
or hoop of steel, which is elastic and has a
rib of india-rubber running round the out-
side. The tunic has a similar rib of rubber
around the inside of the waist, which is
drawn over and contracts under the rib on
the pantaloon belt, and by its elasticity,
gripping in tightly, forms a water-tight joint.
This joint is further secured by an outer
belt of rubber fastened with a buckle.
Having put on this suit in the order indica-
ted in our description, the operator next
proceeds to inflate it, which he does by
blowing in turn through five tubes, fitted
with stop valves, each tube communicating
with an air-chamber. Of these chambers
there are two in the pantaloons, two in the
tunic, and one in the helmet. In the front
of the helmet an aperture is left large
enough to show the eyes, nose, and mouth



71

of the operator, and the act of inflating the
helmet brings the edges of the rubber in
close contact with the face, so that there are
only a few square inches of exposed surface.
The suit weighs r5lb., and when fully in-
flated is stated to be capable of sustaining a
weigh of 300lb., which allows for the weight
of a person saved by the wearer from
drowning ; besides which, the inventor has
provided for the contingency: of damage to
any one of the air-chambers. The suit
when out of use is packed away in an india-
rubber bag weighing about 2lb. This bag
has a compartment round the mouth in
which three gallons of water may be stowed
away. In the bottom of the bag are placed
provisions, signal lights, etc., and air is
blown into the water compartment, which
expands the mouth of the bag inwards and
so closes the opening, which can further be
strapped tight. Equipped in this dress,
and thus provisioned and provided with
a paddle, the voyager is unsinkable, and,
apart from danger from sharks or from con-
cussion with rocks, there is no reason why
he should not remain in the water for an
indefinite period. As the dress fits loosely
and is put on over the ordinary clothing,
the temperature of the body is equally
maintained. With a little practice, it can
be put on and inflated in two minutes.
Captain Boyton’s first attempt to cross the
English Channel, from Dover to Boulogne,
was frustrated only by want of knowledge
of its conflicting currents, and the refusal of
the French pilot to take any responsibility
after nightfall’ ‘His second attempt was
made under more favourable conditions, and
crowned with complete success, his voyage
having occupied the twenty-four hours all
but twenty-two minutes. Since that adven-
ture, the dress has been successfully tried
by others, and there can be no question
that Captain Boyton has added a most
wonderfully efficient means to those already
in existence for the saving of life at sea.
~T
nN

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVETS.



NGINEERING science,
and the skill dis-
played in overcom-
ing physical diffi-
culties, have been
wonderfully deve-
loped during the

present century. instance of this is found in the
Thames Tunnel, begun by Sir
Mark Isambard Brunel in
1825, continued by his son, and
completedin 1843. This work, though now
applied to a use of which its originator
little dreamed, is still the most important
subaqueous tunnel in existence, and appears
likely to remain so, at least till the railway
tunnel between England and France has
become an accomplished fact.

More than three-quarters of a century
ago, the idea of connecting the shores of
the Thames by a subway was proposed.
This was by Mr. Ralph Dodd, an engineer
well known in his time. The attempt was
made, several miles lower down the river
than the present tunnel, and was a signal
failure. Dodd’s tunnel fell in, and has long
been abandoned to the water. The idea,
however, took root, and in 1805, the year
of Trafalgar, a company was incorporated
by Act of Parliament, under the name of
the “ Thames Archway Company,” with the
object of forming an archway or tunnel
beneath the bed of the river at Limehouse,
sufficiently capacious to allow of the transit
of vehicles through it. Under Mr. Vazie
and Mr. Trevithick, great progress was made
with the work. But in 1808, when a drift-
way had been carried to within 200 feet of
the opposite shore, the river broke in upon
the works, and finally destroyed the whole
undertaking. As early as 1814 the atten-
tion of Mr. Brunel was directed to the
subject ; and in 1823, backed up by the





THE THAMES TUNNEL.

to the public a plan for the construction of a
tunnel. Mr. Brunel had been engaged in
constructing a small tunnel at Chatham,
and passing one day through the yard,
he observed a piece of wood which was
perforated by the borings of a well-known
sea-worm called the Zeredo navalis, or
Calamitas navium, as Linneeus named it.
The thought occurred to him that a ma-
chine might be constructed, protected ina
similar manner to the hard cylindrical shell
of this worm, and which would tunnel with
great rapidity. The idea was elaborately
worked out, and though afterwards mate-
rially altered, was substantially the mode in
which this great undertaking was completed.

The Act incorporating the company re-
ceived the royal assent in June, 1824 ; but
in consequence of a dispute relative to the
site of the property required for the Rother-
hithe shaft, the works were not actually
commenced till February 16, 1825. A brick
cylinder was first built on the Surrey side,
42 feet high, 150 feet in circumference, and
150 feet distant from the river. In the
inside of this cylinder the excavators worked,
cutting away the earth and supplying its
place with brickwork, till they had reached
a depth of 65 feet ; another shaft was then
sunk lower for experimental purposes, when,
at a depth of 80 feet, the ground suddenly
gave way, and sand and water were blown
up with great violence. From this shaft
the tunnel itself was begun, at a depth of
63 feet. Mr. Brunel proposed to make his
tunnel 38 feet broad and 223 feet high,
leaving room within for two archways each
15 feet high, and each wide enough fora
single carriage and a footpath. The men
worked in a frame which Mr. Brunel called
a shield, which was pushed forward from
time to time by means of large horizontal
screws, which abutted on the brickwork of
the arch at the top, and against the in-

Duke of Wellington, he seriously submitted | verted arch at the bottom. This shield was
THE THAMES TUNNEL.

divided in a very ingenious manner into
cells, each of which was capable of being
moved separately. “As the miners were at
work at one end of the cells, the bricklayers
at the back were as busy as bees in forming
the brick walls of the tunnel top, sides, and
bottom, the crushing earth above being
fended off by the top of the shield till the
bricklayers had finished. Following the
shield was a rolling stage in each archway,
for the assistance of the men in the upper
cells.” The work proceeded slowly, but
without any serious interruption, to the 26th
January, 1826, when water burst in; but,
after some difficulty in stopping the leak,
the water was pumped out, and the work
was resumed, and continued without further
interruption till early in September.

The arrangements not proving entirely
effective, it was suggested to extend the
action of the frames. To this Brunel was
opposed, but circumstances combined to
overrule his judgment, and to induce him
to sanction what his first mechanical con-
ceptions and his subsequent experience
condemned. The extraordinary energy,
ability, and enthusiasm of his son, Mr.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who had been
appointed resident engineer, seemed to
offer to Brunel compensation for almost any
departure from his original plan. The
necessity for increased supervision, however,
became more and more pressing. On the
morning of Friday, September 8, 1826,
water was observed to drop from the tails
of some of the frames ; this was checked by
a stuffing of oakum. In two hours diluted
silt made its appearance, and during the
night it burst in with considerable force,
So great as to require the united efforts of
their men to retain the necessary stuffing in
its place. The utmost vigilance was re-
quired for several days to keep the men at
their post. On Monday, the rth, the
contest had again to be renewed; water
and silt occasionally bursting from the back
of the frames when any attempt was made
to move on. ‘Timbers were now introduced
in front, where the ground was more solid,
and, capped with clay, were forced up by



73

powerful screw-jacks. While this operation
was going on in front, gravel and pieces of
yellow mottled clay forced themselves in
behind. Upon an effort being made to
move forward the contiguous frames, water
appeared in front in such abundance as
to threaten destruction to the faces. To
relieve the ground, borings were made
through the brickwork of the centre pier,
and pipes inserted at the back of the frames.
After considerable labour, at ten o’clock
onthe night of the xzzth, the object was
attained, and the water flowed with great
velocity, promising to relieve the pressure
and to prevent the further dilution of the
silt and clay. All was now in full activity ;
the din of workmen and the plashing of
water, broken in its descent of twenty-two
feet by the iron floor plates, was deafening,
when suddenly the water ceased to flow;
the workmen ceased their labour, and not a
sound relieved the intensity of the silence.
“We gazed on one another,” said a narrator
of the scene, who was present, ‘‘ with a
feeling not to be described. On every
countenance astonishment, awe, perhaps,
was depicted, but not fear. I saw that
each man—with his eyes upon Isambard
Brunel, the resident engineer, and then
only twenty years of age—stood firmly pre-
pared to execute his orders with resolution
and intrepidity. In a few moments—
moments like hours—a rumbling, gurgling
sound was heard above ; the water resumed
its course, the awful stillness was broken,
life and activity once more prevailed, and
the works proceeded without further
material interruption.” The threatened
catastrophe had passed over, and the work
had now so far advanced that permission
was given to strangers to visit the works;
a shillmg was charged, and they were
allowed to proceed down the western arch-
way about 300 feet. In May, 1827, how-
ever, came the long-expected disaster. Two
vessels had anchored just above the head
of the tunnel, and a great quantity of soil
had been washed away from above the
shields.

Mr. Beamish,



the resident assistant
74

ZLZHE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



engineer, in his “ Life of Brunel,” thus
describes the occurrence :—

“As the water rose with the tide it
increased in the frames very considerably
between Nos. 5 and 6, forcing its way at
the front, then at the back; Ball and
Compton (the occupants) most active.
About a quarter before six o’clock, No. 11
(division) went forward. Clay appeared at
the back. Had it closed up immediately.
While this was going forward my attention
was again drawn to No. 6, where I found
the gravel forcing itself with the water.
It was with the utmost difficulty that Ball
could keep anything against the opening.
Fearing that the pumpers would now be-
come alarmed, as they had been once or
twice before, and leave their post, I went
upon the east stage to encourage them, and
to choose more shoring for Ball. Goodwin,
who was engaged at No. 11, where indica-
tions of a run appeared, called to Rogers,
who was in the act of working down No. 9,
to come to his assistance. But Rogers,
having his second poling-board down,
could not. Goodwin again called. I then
said to Rogers, ‘ Don’t you hear?’ Upon
which he left his poling for the purpose
of assisting Goodwin ; but before he could
get to him, and before I could get fairly
into the frames, there poured such an over-
whelming volume of water and sludge as to
force them out of the frames. William
Carps, a bricklayer, who had gone to Good-
win’s assistance, was knocked down and
literally rolled out of the frames on the
stage, as though he had come through a mill
sluice, and would undoubtedly have fallen
off the stage had I not caught hold of him,
and with Rogers’ assistance helped him down
the ladder. JI again made an attempt to get
into the frames, calling upon the miners to
follow ; but all was dark (the lights at the
frames and stage being all blown out), and I
was only atiswered by the hoarse and angry
sounds of Father Thames’s roarings. Rogers
(an old sergeant of the Guards), the only
man left upon the stage, now caught my
arm, and gently drawing me from the
frames, said, ‘Come away, pray, sir; come



away ;’tis no use, the water is rising fast,’
I turned once more; but hearing an in.
creased rush at No. 6, and finding the
column of water at Nos. 11 and 12 to be
augmenting, I reluctantly descended. The
cement casks, compo-boxes, and pieces of
timber were floating around me. I turned
into the west arch, where the enemy had
not yet advanced so rapidly, and again
looked towards the frames, lest some one
might have been overtaken ; but the cement
casks, etc., striking my legs, threatened
seriously to obstruct my retreat, and it was
with some difficulty I’ reached the visitors’
bar (a bar so placed as to keep the visitors
from the unfinished works), where Mayo,
Bertram, and others were anxiously waiting
toreceiveme. . . . Iwasglad of their
assistance ; indeed, Mayo fairly dragged me
over it. Not bearing the idea of so pre-
cipitate a retreat, I turned once more ; but
vain was the hope! The wave rolled on-
ward and onward ; the men retreated, and I
followed. Met Gravatt coming down.
Short was the question, and brief was the
answer. As we approached I met I.
[Isambard] Brunel. We turned round : the
effect was splendid beyond description.
The water as it rose became more and
more vivid, from the reflected lights of
the gas. As we reached the staircase a
crash was heard, and then a rush of air at
once extinguished all the lights.
Now it was that I experienced ‘something
like dread. I looked up the shaft, and saw
both stairs crowded ; I looked below, and
beheld the overwhelming wave appearing
to move with accumulated velocity.
Dreading the effect of the reaction of
this wave from the back of the shaft upon
our staircase, I exclaimed to Mr. Gravatt,
‘The staircase will blow up!’ I. Brunel
ordered the men to get up with all expe
dition; and our feet were scarcely off
the bottom stairs when the first flight,
which we had just left, was swept away.
Upon our reaching the top, a bustling noise
assailed our ears, some calling for a raft,
others for a boat, and others again a rope;
from which it was evident that some unior-
THE THAMES TUNNEL. 75



tunate individual was in the water. I.
Brunel instantly, with that presence of mind
to which I have been more than once wit-
ness, slid down one of the iron ties, and
after him Mr. Gravatt, each making a rope
fast to old Tillet’s waist, who, having been
looking after the packing of the pumps
below the shaft, was overtaken by the flood.
He was soon placed out of danger. The
roll was immediately called—wot one absent.”
Fortunately, no lives were lost; but this
irruption was only the forerunner of
another, attended with the most melan-
choly results, and which was preceded by
an accident which troubled Mr. Brunel even
more than the influx of water. On June
27, 1827, two of the directors, having
expressed a wish to obtain a view of the
shield, embarked in a small boat. for that
purpose, which was unfortunately overload-
ed and upset, and one of the party, a miner,
was drowned. One of the most striking
characteristics of Brunel's inventions was
the means he provided for the protection of
life, and, notwithstanding all the difficulties
by which the operations of the tunnel were

beset, no life had yet been sacrificed when |

the necessary care had been taken.

By January, 1828, the shield had ad-
vanced to the middle of the river. Mr. I.
K. Brunel, the son of the great engineer,
judging that a more rapid rate of progress
would also be more safe, and calculating
on the tried skill, courage, and physical
power of some of the men coming on in the
morning shift on January 12, 1828, ven-
tured at high-water, or when the tide was
still rising, to make an important advance ;
but the shield was not, as was afterwards
proved, thoroughly well secured. In a
short time a column of ground, eight or ten
inches in diameter, was forced in, and this
was immediately followed by the over-
‘whelming torrent, So rapid was the influx
of water, that had not the workmen quitted
the stage immediately, they must have been
swept off; a rush of air suddenly extin-
guished the gas lights, and they were left to
struggle in utter darkness. Five men were
drowned, and the tunnel was again filled



with water. One of the great advantages.
which Brunel believed the shield possessed
was the security it afforded to life; but,
unhappily, the confidence which that sup-
posed security inspired supplied a tempta-
tion to incur risks against which no protec-
tion would avail. In aletter to the directors
Mr. Brunel, jun., described the scene as
follows :—“I had been in the frames with
the workmen throughout the whole night,
having taken my station there at ten o’clock.
During the workings through the night no
symptoms of insecurity appeared. At six
o'clock in the morning (the usual time for
shifting the men) a fresh set came on to work.
We began to work the ground at the west top
corner of the frame. The tide had just
then begun to flow, and finding the ground
tolerably quiet, we proceeded by beginning
at the top, and had worked about a foot
downwards, when, on exposing the next
six inches, the ground swelled suddenly,
and alarge quantity burst through the open-
ing thus made, This was followed instantly
by a large body of water. The rush was so
violent as to force the man on the spot
where the burst took place out of the frame
(or cell) on to the timber stage behind the
frames. I was in the frame with the man ;
but upon the rush of the water I went into
the next box, in order to command a better
view of the irruption ; and seeing there was
no possibility of their opposing the water, I
ordered all the men in the frames to retire.
All were retiring except the three men who
were with me, and they retreated with me,
I did not leave the stage until those three
men were down the ladder of the frames,
when they and I proceeded about twenty
feet along the west arch of the tunnel. At
this moment the agitation of the air by the
rush of the water was such as to extinguish
all the lights, and the water had gained the
height of the middle of our waists. I was
at that moment giving directions to the
three men, in what manner they ought to
proceed in the dark to effect their escape,
when they and I were knocked down and
covered by apart of the timber stage. I
struggled under water for some time, and at
76 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



length extricated myself from the stage ; and
by swimming and being forced by the water,
I gained the eastern arch, where I got a
better footing, and was enabled, by laying
hold of the railway rope, to pause a little,
in the hope of encouraging the men who
had been knocked down at the same time
with myself. ‘This I endeavoured to do by
calling to them. Before I reached the
shaft the water had risen so rapidly that I
was out of my depth, and therefore swam to
the visitors’ stairs, the stairs of the workmen
being occupied by those who had so far
escaped. My knee was so injured by the
timber stage that I could scarcely swim or
get up the stairs, but the rush of the water
carried me up the shaft. The three men
who had been knocked down with me were
unable to extricate themselves, and I grieve
to say they are lost, and, I believe, also
two old men and one young man in other
parts of the work.” To fill up the hole and
regain the frames, Brunel resorted to the
means which had proved so successful after
the former irruption, and about 4,500 tons
of clay and gravel were absorbed by the
hole. The same alarms, anxieties, and
fatigues were, again experienced, pressing
only more heavily in consequence of being
deprived of the active superintendence of
Isambard Brunel, who had been severely
injured in the late accident. The next
irruption was in November, 1837, and
the last in April, 1840, about eight in the
morning, it being low water at the time.
During a movement of the poling-boards in
the shield, a quantity of gravel and water
tushed into the frame.: “The ground
rushed in immediately, and knocked the
men out of their cells, and they fled in
a panic; but finding the water did not
follow, they returned, and by great exer-
tions succeeded in stopping the run when
upwards of 6,000 cubic feet of ground had
fallen into the tunnel. The fall was atten-
ded with a noise like thunder, and the
extinguishing of all the lights. At the
same time,'to the horror of Wapping, part
of the shore in that place sank, over an
area of upwards of 700 feet, leaving a cavity



on the shore of about thirty feet in diameter
and thirteen feet in depth. Had this
taken place at high water, the tunnel would
have been filled ; as it was, men were sent
over with bags of clay and gravel, and
everything was rendered secure by the re-
turn of the tide. Sometimes sand, nearly
fluid, would ooze through minute cracks
between the small poling-boards of the
shield, and leave large cavities in the
ground in front. On one of these occasions
the sand poured in all night, and filled the
bottora of the shield. In the morning, on
opening one of the faces, a hollow was dis-
covered, eighteen feet long, six feet high,
and six feet deep. This cavity was filled
up with brickbats and lumps of clay. One
of the miners was compelled to lay himself
down in this cavity, for the purpose of build-
ing up the further end, though at the risk
of being buried alive.”

While all this was taking place, the funds
of the company had become exhausted, and
an appeal was made to the country. A
public meeting was held, attended by the
Duke of Cambridge, the Duke of Welling-
ton, and many other noblemen and gentle-
men of distinction. The Duke of Welling-
ton proposed a series of résolutions express-
ing his confidence that the great work
would be crowned with success. “Of my
own knowledge,” said his Grace, “I can
speak of the interest excited in foreign na-
tions for the welfare and success of this
great undertaking. They look upon it as
the greatest work of art ever undertaken.”
The result of this meeting was that £418,500
was at once subscribed, but the scheme to
raise money on debentures completely
failed. Up to that time the company had
raised and expended a total of £170,000,
and the public rightly. thought the security
for a further outlay was very uncertain.
The water having been cleared out of the
tunnel, a mirror was placed at the end of
the visitors’ arch, and which, having been
stuccoed and lighted with gas, continued
to be an object of great attraction to visit-
ors from ‘all parts of the world. At last
Government consented to make a loan of
A NATURAL TEMPLE.

77



£246,000 to the Tunnel Company, under -

the condition that the money ‘‘should be
solely applied in carrying on the tunnel it-
self, and that no advance should be applied
to the defraying of any other expense until
that part of the undertaking which is most
hazardous shall be secured.” Isambard
Brunel was then too much engaged in rail-
way undertakings to permit his giving assist-
ance to his father, and Mr. Beamish suc-
ceeded him in that office, and had the
honour of completing the tunnel. ° The
work was continued, with varying fortunes,
till March 25, 1843, when it was opened to
the public.

The total length of the tunnel is 1,200

i



feet ; its cost from first to last was about
4450,000, of which £180,000 was sub-
scribed or lent, and the remainder advanced
by Government. “The carriage ways were
originally intended to consist of an im-
mense spiral road, winding twice round
a circular excavation 57 feet deep, in
order to reach the proper level. The
extreme diameter of this spiral road was to
be no less than 200 feet. The road itself
was to have been 4o feet wide, and the de-
scent very moderate ;” but as the work pro-
ceeded, the plans were very much modified.
The tunnel now forms part of the East
London Railway, between Wapping and
Rotherhithe stations,





SAG
Pp fi \ 4°)
ey
gh \/ I.

| ITHIN the state of California
there is a perfect natural
theatre, almost as symmetri-
cal in arrangement as if it
had been artificially erected. It is at a
place called Temple Canon, some four and
a half miles from Canon City, and was
discovered but a year or two ago. The
climb is not steep, though rather rough,
especially to effect an entrance into the
temple proper, which can only be accom-
plished by clambering over several huge
boulders, which, if removed, would ren-
der the illusion of a temple and stairway
all the more striking. Once passing in
through the great rifts of rock, for all the
world like the stairway to some grand place
of amusement, the body of the temple is
reached, and to the tourist’s astonishment,
before him is a stage with overhanging arch,
with “ flats” and “ flies,” with dressing-rooms
on either side, and a scene already set as
if for some grand tableau. If so intensely
realistic from the parquet, as the broad
circling floor might aptly be termed, or
from the parquet or dress-circles, as the
higher ledges would suggest, the clamber
up to the stage itself renders it all the more




=O:





A NATURAL TEMPLE,

so, for there is found ample room for a full
dramatic or operatic company to disport
upon, while in the perpendicular ledges
and caves on either side twenty-five or
thirty people might retire and not be ob-
served from the body of the hall. The
Stage is at the least thirty feet deep, and
some sixty to seventy broad; the arch
above fully one hundred feet from the floor
of the canon, the stage itself being about
forty feet above the floor. ‘The arch is
almost as smooth and perfectly proportioned
as if fashioned by the hand of man, and
during the wet season the water from a
stream above falls in a great broad sheet
over its face to the floor of the canon
below. At such times the effects from the
stage of the temple is, as can be imagined,
exceedingly fascinating, for there, entirely
protected from the water, one looks through
the silvery sheen out upon the scene be
low. Upon the rear wall of the stage quite
an aperture has been hewn out by some
action, and the shape it is left in is peculiarly
suggestive of tableaux preparation. All is
bleak, bare, and towering walls, and a more
weird spot to visit cannot possibly be
imagined.
78 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



naturalist, was a
man of wonderful
courage. When
he had once made
up his mind to a
certain course, no
obstacles or dangers could
deter him from carrying it out.
He had formed a wish to add
a large snake to his collection,
but had long been disappointed
in catching one. At last he was told by
an old negro that a huge serpent was lying
amongst some mouldering trunks, Ac-
companied by two negroes and a little
dog, he immediately started to capture it.
How he succeeded will be best told in his
own words, merely premising that the snake
was of a rare kind called a coulacanara ;
that it was about fourteen feet in length,
and strong enough to crush a single man to
death. He confessed that when he first
saw this monster he was alarmed.

“But I had been in search, of a large
serpent for years, and now, having come
up with one it did not become me to
turn soft; so, taking a cutlass from one
of the negroes, and ranging both the sable
slaves behind me, I told them to follow me,
and threatened I would cut them down
if they offered to fly. I smiled as I said
this, but they shook their heads in silence,
and seemed to have a bad heart of it. |

When we got up to the place, the
serpent had not stirred, but I could see
nothing of his head, and judged by the
folds of his body that it must be at the
farthest side of his den. A species of
woodbine had formed a complete mantle
over the branches of a fallen tree, almost
impervious to the rain or the rays of the
sun. Probably it had resorted to this
sequestered place for a length of time, as
it bore marks of an ancient settlement,








CAPTURE.

I now took my knife, determining to
cut away the woodbine and break the twigs
in the gentlest manner possible, till I could
get a view of his head. One negro stood
guard close behind me with a lance, and
near him the other with a cutlass. The
cutlass which I had taken from the first
negro was on the ground close by me in
case of need. After working in dead
silence for a quarter of an hour, with one
knee all the time on the ground, I had
cleared away enough to see his head. It
appeared coming out between the first and
second coil of his body, and was flat on
the ground. This was the very position
I wished it to be in.

I’ rose in silence, and retreated very
slowly, making a sign to the negroes to do
the same. The dog was sitting at a dis-
tance in mute observation. I could now
read in the faces of the negroes that they
considered this a very unpleasant affair,
and they made another attempt to persuade
me to let them go for a gun. I smiled in
a good-natured manner, and made a feint
to cut them down with the weapon I had
in my hand. This was all the answer I
made to their request, and they looked
very uneasy. It must be observed we
were now about twenty yards from the
snake’s den. I now ranged the negroes
behind me, and told him who stood next
to me to lay hold of the lance the moment
I struck the snake, and that the other must
attend my movements. It now only re-
mained to take their cutlasses from them,
for I was sure, if I did not disarm them,
they would be tempted to strike the snake
in time of danger, and thus for ever spoil
his skin. On taking their cutlasses from
them, if I might judge from their physio-
gnomy, they seemed to consider it a most
intolerable act of tyrannyin me. Probably
nothing kept them from bolting but the
consolation that I was between them and
A SNAKE

CAPTURE. 19



the snake. Indeed, my own heart, in spite
of all I could do, beat quicker than usual ;
and I felt ‘those sensations which one has
on board a merchant vessel in war-time,
when the captain orders all hands on deck
to prepare for action, while a strange
vessel is coming down upon us under
suspicious colours.

We went slowly on in silence, without
rnoving our arms or heads, in order to pre-
vent all alarm as much as possible, lest the
snake should glide off or attack us in self-
defence. I carried the lance perpendicu-
larly before me, with the point a foot from
the ground. The snake had not moved,
and on getting up to him, I struck him
with the lance on the near side, just behind
the neck, and pinned him to the ground.
That moment the negro next to me seized
» the lance, and held it firm in its place,

while I dashed head foremost into the den
to grapple with the snake, and took hold
of his tail before he could do any mischief.

On pinning him to the ground with the

lance, he gave a tremendous loud hiss, and
the dog ran away, howling as he went.
We had a sharp fray in the den, the rotten
sticks flying on all sides, and each party
struggling for superiority. I called out to
the second negro to throw himself upon
me, as I found I was not heavy enough ;
he did so, and the additional weight. was
of great service. I had now got firm hold
of his tail; and after a violent struggle or
- two, he gave in, finding himself over-
powered. This was the moment to secure
him; so, while the first negro continued
to hold the lance firm to the ground, and
the other was helping me, I contrived to
unloose my braces, and tied-up the snake’s
mouth. é

The snake, now finding himself in an
unpleasant situation, tried to better him-
self, and set resolutely to work; but we
overpowered him. We contrived to make
him twist himself round the shaft of the
lance, and then prepared to convey him
out of the forest. I stood at his head, and



supported the belly, and the other the tail.
In this order we began moving slowly
towards home, and reached it after resting
ten times, for the snake was too heavy for
us to support him without stopping to
recruit our strength. As we proceeded on-
wards with him, he fought hard for
freedom, but it was all in vain. The day
was now too far spent to think of dissecting
him. Had I killed him, a partial putre-
faction would have taken place before
morning. I had brought up with me into
the forest a strong bag, large enough to
contain any animal that I should want to
dissect. I considered this the best mode
of keeping live animals when I am pressed
for daylight, for as the bag yielded in every
direction to their efforts, they would have
nothing solid or fixed to work upon, and
thus would be prevented from making a
hole through it. I say fixed, for the mouth
of the bag was closed; the bag itself was
not fastened or tied to anything, but moved
about wherever the animal itself caused it
to roll. After securing afresh the mouth
of the coulacanara, so that he could not
open it, he was forced into the bag, and
left to his fate till morning.

I cannot say he allowed me to have a
quiet night. My hammock was in the loft
just above him, and the floor between us
half gone to decay, so that in parts of it
no boards intervened betwixt his lodging-
room and mine. He was very restless and
fretful, and had Medusa been my wife,
there could not have been more continued
or disagreeable hissing in the bed-chamber
that night. At daybreak I sent to borrow
ten of the negroes who were cutting wood
at a distance. I could have done with half
that number, but judged it prudent to have
a good force in case he should try to escape
from the house when we opened the bag.
However, nothing serious occurred. We
untied the mouth of the bag, kept him
down by main force, and then I cut his
throat. He bled like an ox. By six
o'clock the same evening he was com-

held it firmly under my arm; one negro | pletely dissected.”


80 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS,



THE PALM AND

oS
wp



“3 which the palm tree may be
found! Some on mountain
tops, almost in the range of
perpetual snow; others rise
S2|\A\G from the edge of coral reefs,

with their roots beneath the

oS

1 ow various are the localities in



at so7 +



4
!
f

ay
(2)
ov

oS.

level of tropical seas. Some

eM : ra
ft GV) , tuxuriate in’ swamps, or
| Co flourish by the banks of pe-
SO rennial streams ; others grow
; §
in the midst of arid sand, and

amidst pathless deserts. In habit some are
solitary, others gregarious. No order of
plants, in short, is so varied in circum-
stances of growth, and so little reducible in
this respect to rules and generalisations.
More remarkable still are the palms in
their economic uses to man. In some parts
of the world the inhabitants would be almost
incapable of existing without them. They
afford food, clothing, furniture, weapons,
and every implement and appliance that
raises man above the purest savage state.
Here are some of the multitudinous uses of
the cocoa-nut tree:—The heart, or very
young leaves, called the “cabbage,” is an ex-
cellent vegetable, either cooked or dressed
in stews, hashes, or ragouts. The Cin-
galese use the dried, old leaves as torches,
both for themselves during the dark nights
and to carry before the carriages and palan-
quins of Europeans; they also use the
spathe for a similar purpose, as well as for
fuel; and at Rotuma and other Polynesian
islands it is also adopted for alike purpose.
At Tongatabu, one of the Friendly Islands,
combs are made of the midrib of the seg-
ments, the upper part being beautifully
worked with the fibre of the husk, or duly.
“These combs, from their neat appearance,
were,” says Bennett, “‘in great requisition
during the time I visited that island, and all
the women were busily employed during
our-stay in making them, to exchange with



ITS USES.

the papalang? (foreign) officers and crew for
trifling articles. The combs were stained
by the bark of the koko-tree of a dark red-
dish colour, intended as a rude imitation of
tortoiseshell. ”

The washermen of Ceylon burn the foli-
age for the sake ofits alkaline ashes. The '
midribs of the leaves, when tied together,
form brooms for the decks of ships. The
Cingalese use the unexpanded leaves in
forming ornaments on the occasion of any
festival, decorating arches, etc., in various
picturesque forms of crowns, flowers, etc.

There is one portion of the tree which
much attracts the attention of the observer,
—it is a kind of network at the base of the
petiole, which when very young is delicate,
beautifully white, and transparent, but when
having attained maturity becomes coarse
and tough, and changes to a brown colour.
It is stripped off in large pieces, which are
used in Ceylon as strainers, particularly for
the toddy, which is usually full of impurities
when first taken from the tree, as its sweet:
ness attracts innumerable insects. At
Tahiti it is called 4a; and besides being
used as sieves for straining arrowroot, cocoa:
nut oil, etc., the natives, when engaged in
such occupations as digging, fishing, etc., in
order to save their bark-cloth, join several
portions of this network together, and hav-
ing a hole in the centre, in a manner similat
to their mat garment called Ziabuta, wearit
as an article of apparel, merely for the time
in which they may be so engaged. It is
certainly a garment neither to be admired
for its flexibility or firmness, but well adap-
ted for fishermen, or those occupied in the
water, as it is not easily injured by wet,
whereas bark-cloth would be utterly
destroyed in the water, its substance
resembling paper both in strength and ap-
pearance.

A tree produces several bunches of nuts;
and from twelve to twenty large nuts, be-
















































































































































































See
VII
















82 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



sides several small unproductive ones, may
be seen on each bunch. In good situations
the fruit is gathered four or five times in the
course of the year. It is most used as an
article of food, both meat and drink, when
green or young (ova of the Tahitians,
koroomba of the Cingalese); in that state
it yields an abundance of a delicious
cooling beverage, to which Madeira wine,
brandy, etc., is sometimes added. .

Passing over “toddy,” arrack, omejar,
jaggery (coarse sugar), and other secondary
products, the rind or husk of the cocoa-nut
is very fibrous, and when ripe is the veya or
coir of commerce, now so extensively used
in Europe and North America for matting,
brushes, hats, etc. It is prepared by being
soaked for some months in water, washed,
beaten to pieces, and then laid in the sun
to dry. This being effected, itis again well
beaten, until the fibres are so separated as
to allow of their being worked up like hemp,
similar to which it is made up in ropes of
any size, from the smallest cord to the
largest cable, but it will not receive tar; it
is rough to handle, and has not so neat an
appearance about the rigging of shipping as
that made from hemp, but surpasses the
latter in lightness and elasticity, and even,
it is said, durability; more so if wetted
frequently by salt water. From its elas-
ticity it is valuable for cables, enabling a
ship to ride easier than with a hemp or chain
cable. Bennett remarks that he was once
on board a ship, in a severe gale, when
chain and hemp cables gave way; and
the vessel at last, most unexpectedly, rode
out the gale with a small coir cable.
Among the Polynesian Islands, where this
tree grows, the coir is used in the manufac-
ture of sennit, some of which is beautifully
braided, and devoted to a variety of pur-
poses. At Tonga, one of the Friendly
Islands, the natives dye the sennit, called
“kafa,” of various colours, using it in tying
the rafters of the huts, etc. The rope for
their canoes is all manufactured from this
substance. The husk from which the
fibrous substance has not been separated



brushes for the floor; and brooms, mats,
and bags are also manufactured from it.

Another valuable production of the cocoa-
nut is the oil, which is an article of exporta-
tion from Ceylon and other parts of India,
Polynesia, etc. It is used in various articles
of domestic economy; besides being an
excellent burning oil (for which it is most
admired, giving out neither smoke not
smell when burning, and having a clear
bright flame), it has since had an additional
value and more extended use in Europe,
by the discovery ofits capability of being
manufactured into candles, rivalling wax or
spermaceti, at the same time without being
much higher in price than those of tallow,
Soap has also been manufactured from it;
and it is lavished by the Asiatics, Polyne-
sians, and other intertropical natives over
their persons ; and at Tongatabu and others
of the Polynesian Islands is used scented
with sandal-wood, which gives a delightful
fragrance to the flowing tresses and elegant
persons of the dark beauties of those fas-
cinating islands. In cold weather this oil
(like most of the vegetable oils) becomes
very hard, and requires to be melted before
it can be used for burning.

The date palm is largely distributed over
Eastern lands, especially Egypt, Barbary,
and Arabia. Itis the most conspicuous ob-
ject of the oases in the great African desert.
It shoots up its straight and tapering stem
to the height of fifty to sixty feet. The stem
is marked by numerous ring-like ridges.
The bright green leaves are on the top, and
drop their feathery shapes like a canopy.
Alarge group of flowers appears in what
is called a spathe, one of which-contains
12,000 blossoms ; and three such Clusters
are found on each tree. One species of the
palm is said to exhibit the great number of
200,000 flowerets in a single spathe.

This tree produces its fruit under its
leaves. It begins to bear at about six
years of age, and is fruitful for upwards of.
two hundred years. Each bunch of fruit
weighs about twenty-five pounds, and one
tree yields about a hundredweight every

is used in Ceylon in lieu of scrubbing- | season. Dates are a principal article of
BICYCLES AND VELOCIPEDES.

food in many parts of the East. They are
eaten green, dried, or beaten into meal, and
serve for food at all seasons of the year.
The Arabs have a saying that “a good
‘housewife may furnish her husband every
day for a month with a dish of dates
tlifferently prepared.” They also boast of
its medicinal virtues. From the leaves
they make couches, baskets, bags, mats,

BICYCLES AND



~ URING the last few years
the use of bicycles has
become very popular. They

are simply a development of
the old “rantoon,” or three-
wheeled velocipede. These
old-fashioned vehicles some-
times did good work. In
1862 two men came from
Bristol on one velocipede to
London, on a visit to the
International Exhibition, ac-
complishing the journey in twenty-one
hours, and returning easily in eighteen.
The two-wheeled variety, however, has
far outstripped this, and it is by no means
unusual for eighteen miles an hour to be
accomplished by it. Paris is all alive with
this machine. In the Bois de Boulogne,
and on the suburban roads near the capital,
such races are conducted under all sorts
ofconditions. Asa skilful bicyclist can easily
do his twelve or fourteen miles an hour, and
can continue this for four or five hours at a
stretch, there is certainly a potentiality of
contesting a rather formidable race. In
one instance a Frenchman accomplished 123
miles right off. When the velocipede first
made its appearance in England, which was
nearly half a century ago, the “dandy
horse” was the suggestive designation
bestowed on it.
that now extinct biped the dandy flourished.
Then it was that the class who now form
the “fast men” about town made most

That was the period when !



83
and brushes; from the branches, cages
for their poultry; from the fibres of the
boughs, thread and rope; from the sap,
a cooling drink; the body ofthe tree serves
for fuel; and their camels are fed on the
date-stones. Indecd, among the many use-
ful trees given by the kind providence of
God to the eastern people, there is not one
more serviceable or more prized.

VELOCIPEDES.

characteristic demonstrations in the matter
of dress. They wore black velvet stocks,
six inches in width, in lieu of neckties, and
carried their shirt collars up to the level of
their eyebrows. The rest of their attire was
in keeping with the extravagant neck-gear ;
huge high-crowned cylinders, all but guiltless
of rims, covered the head; a full-breasted frill
seemed bursting like a pigeon’s crop from
the feeble embrace of a scanty vest of light
buff; the dress-coat of blue cloth, with its
burnished yellow buttons, hung down behind
in a point like a pheasant’s tail; the waist
was compressed with stays tightly laced in
to the narrowest dimensions, and contrasted
with a pair of balloon-shaped pants, full-
blown at the hips, and growing small by
degrees and beautifully less until they ter-
minated in high-heeled Wellingtons armed
with solid iron tips which made an incessant
clatter on the pavements. This ¢ouwt ensemble
was accounted “the thing ”—and whoever
desires to contemplate it in its picturesque
proportions has only to refer to the carica-
tures of the period.

Who was the inventor of the new toy we
have not been able to learn, nor is it by any
means certain whether it was really invented
at the above date, or was simply a restora-
tion of an old hobby. It began to be
popular in the west of England about the
close of the year 1820, and during the
general excitement on the subject of the trial
of Queen Caroline was made the medium of
sundry political jokes of a very doubtful
84

kind, with which the names of Brougham,
Majocchi (my jockey), and others were
whimsically connected.

The machine consists of two wheels, each
about three-fourths of a yard in diameter,
placed in the same line, one exactly following
the other, their axles turning in strong iron
frames fixed to a long wooden shaft above
them, and parallel with their line of revolu-
tion. The shaft, which curved upwards in
front and downwards in the centre, was
fitted with a cushion or pad on which the
rider rested his arms, and bore a saddle in
the centre which he bestrode. ‘The front
wheel turned easily, like that of a modern
permbulator, and its motions were regulated
by means of a handle so placed that it
could be grasped by both hands, while the
arms rested on the pad, the width of which
pad was about eighteen inches, The feet
of the rider touched the ground, the height
of his horse being so adjusted as to enable
him to walk freely with it between his legs.
There were no treadles, or any other mode
of propulsion than by “punting” the ground,
as it were, with the feet ; and as the rider
had to balance himself as he went along—
for the horse would fall prostrate if unsup-
ported—it was no easy matter for a novice
to keep the saddle. But the difficulty was
got over by perseverance: if the horsé was
falling to one side a pressure on the pad on
the opposite side would restore the equili-
brium ; or if that failed, a rapid turn of the
guiding wheel in the direction of gravitation
would effect the desired object. It was the
eustom to let the machines out to hire for
the benefit of the young fellows who emula-
ted each other in their displays of equita-
tion during the long summer evenings.
Broken heads, bruised elbows, scarified shins
and other small casualties usually resulted
from these displays, and now and then an
ambitious aspirant, more plucky than pru-
dent, would have to be borne off the ground
and led home to be doctored.

As the management of the machine
became better understcod, its real capabili-
ties began to be tested, and accomplished
equestrians boldly undertook long journeys,



THE PICTORAL CABINET OF MARVELS,

and performed them, too, in a manner more
or less satisfactory. One young gentleman,
we remember, travelled to a town fifty miles
distant in a single day ; but it was noticed
that he did not make the return journey by
the same conveyance, but came back inglo-
riously on the top of the stage-coach. The
truth was, that the common roads of that
day were not at all adapted for such a mode
of progress, especially when speed was an
object; the dandy horse had no springs,
and as a consequence the roughness of the
roads was apt to register itself in a series of
bodily bruises and contusions not at all
pleasant to endure.

To excel in this species of equitation it
was necessary that the rider should possess
a tall and slender figure and a convenient
length of leg. Performers were not wanting
who were qualified by nature in these re-
spects, and it was really an agreeable sight to
watch their graceful evolutions, connected,
as they sometimes were, with feats of no
small risk and daring. In some measure
the performers, when seen in action on
ground suited to the purpose, might be
compared to skaters on a field of ice. A
really clever rider, like the accomplished
skater, could disport himself gracefully and
rapidly upon a very small area—cutting
figures on the pavement, and tying knots, as
it were, by his swift and whirling movements.
There was a young artist residing in Bath,
whose exhibitions of skill in this way were
marvellous to witness, and who generally
made his appearance on the flagstones o!
the North Parade about sundown in sum

mer, where a numerous circle of admirers -

would await his coming. * Now and thena
race would come off between a number of
competitors—-the course generally chosen
being a very slight incline of a mile and a
half—the riders starting up, and returning
down the hill. It was rather heavy punting to

getrapidly up the ascent, but no effort was:

needed to come down, as the rider had
only to sit still and preserve an even balance
with his feet on the axletree of the front
wheel, and allow the machine to take its
course. Butinarace, the racer would of
BICYCLES AND VELOCIPEDES. 85



course resort to punting even in going down,
in order to distance his fellows ; and herein
lay the danger, for if the foot struck the
ground with any force while going ten or
twelve miles an hour, the shock was likely
to pitch the rider from the saddle, to divorce
him from his steed, and perhaps do serious
damage to both.

The pleasure of this exercise depended
very much upon the progress the rider had
made in the art of managing his uncon-
scious nag. Hundreds of persons who began
experiments with the expectation of doing
wonders threw them up in disgust after
a few trials, and hundreds more, after
persevering for weeks and months without
sufficiently mastering the art, were fain to
abandon it. On level ground most persons
could do pretty well after a few lessons, but
there was very little enjoyment to be got
out of a level run unless the ground was
perfectly hard and smooth, and the rider had
learned by experience how to economise
his powers. In ascents at all steep the
punting was sheer hard work, and if the
incline was steep and long the best plan was
to alight from the saddle and push the horse
up the hill. This was compared by the
critics to a man’s carrying his own horse
instead of being carried by him—but in fact
it was far easier to walk up the hill with
the horse than without it, as by leaning on
the pad most of your weight was transferred
to the wheels. But whatever might be the
trouble of the ascent, there was ample
compensation in coming down again, when
_ you had nothing to do but sit still and be
whirled onwards. One precaution, how-
ever, was necessary, and that was to be sure,
in the first instance, that the hill you were
to descend was not too steep.

It happened on a certain afternoon that
one of the best riders in the town where
the writer was then living set out for a
village about four miles distant, and seated
at the summit of an ascent above a mile in
length. He had no trouble in reaching his
destination, and after resting awhile set out
on his return. Suspecting no danger, he
began the down-hill roll, and ere a couple



ot minutes had elapsed found himself
thundering along at a frightful pace. He
had no means of stopping or even of retard-
ing his career, as to have put foot to the
ground would have been to be thrown, and
all he could do was to guide himself over
the smoothest part of the ground and keep
clear of obstacles. But the momentum
added every instant to the velocity of his
flight, while the level ground yet lay far in
advance. Still, by careful piloting and
balancing he kept his seat, though now
advancing in bounds with the ground sink-
ing under him. He would probably have
escaped with a whole skin, had it not been
that the road took a sudden turn to the
left just at the foot of the hill; but by the
time he had reached the turn his pace had
become so furious that the guiding wheel
had lost its hold of the ground, and could
not avail to turn him in his course. The
consequence was that the machine dashed
right on ahead, flew up a little grassy bank,
and crashed through the drawing-room
window of a gentleman’s house, carrying
away the sash, scattering the glass in ten
thousand fragments, and depositing the
unexpected visitor, bruised, bleeding, and
bewildered, in the centre of a small tea-
party. Had he missed the window, and
encountered the stone walls, he had most
likely been killed on the spot; fortunately,
however, he came off without any very
serious injury. This man was one of the
most accomplished riders of the day ; one of
his exploits, which bore the look of extreme
peril, though it was really less dangerous to
the rider than to the machine, was to kneel
upon the saddle, and then to stand upright
upon it, while going at a quick pace down
a gentle declivity, balancing himself without
the aid of the pad, and guiding his course
by means of cords attached to the handle
of the driving wheel.

Such was the velocipede of our boyhood.
Ifit did not decline as rapidly as it came
into fashion, it yet disappeared gradually,
and, as to its original form, had vanished
in the course ofa few years. There were
several causes that had a share in setting it
86 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



aside. In the first place, as it grew com-
mon it became a nuisance to pedestrians ;
it could only be used advantageously on
smooth and firm ground, and the riders
therefore made choice of the flat flagstones
of the foot-pavements or the gravel walks
of the parks and suburbs. This led to
complaints ,but too well founded from the
promenading gentry, and then to inter-
ference by the municipal authorities, who
dealt a fatal blow to the dandy horse by
sweeping it summarily from the footways,
and limiting its exercitations to certain
specified localities. Another cause of de-
clension was the injurious effects of such
riding as we have described upon the bodily
health. Severe cases of rupture and many
other painful disorders were proved to have
thus originated, and the verdict of medical
men was unanimous in condemning the
pastime.

The two-wheeled velocipede had hardly
subsided, when the three-wheeler made its
appearance. It was constructed on a
different plan entirely—the driving wheel
being turned by the action of treadles, the
saddle replaced by a comfortable seat—the
feet of the rider being always clear of the
ground. But it was, and is (for it still
exists), but a meek and tame affair com-
pared with the two-wheeler, being capable
neither of the high speed nor the elegant
evolutions of the original invention. For
full forty years past this machine has been
seen at intervals in the suburbs of London ;
it is generally an article of home manufac-
ture, being constructed for the most part
by the rider, who has produced it for his
own gratification, and has added some
modifications or improvements of his own
contrivance. Commonly it carries but a
single person, who is given to stopping at
suburban public-houses in order to recruit
his driving power by a glass of ale; but
sometimes it carries double, the. riders
relieving each other at the treadmill. Some
few years back we encountered in the Green
Lanes near Stoke Newington, a huge family
velocipede, having two driving wheels, each
six feet in height; between the tall wheels



sat paterfamilias and his biggest. boy, work.
ing most energetically, not treadles, but
manuals—while materfamilias and a goodly
nest of little ones of various ages enjoyed
themselves luxuriously in an open car at
the rear.

In the Hyde Park Exhibition of 1851, a
three-wheeled velocipede was forwarded
from the town of Bedford: it was the only
representative of its class in that tremen-
dous gathering of industrial labours; and
what is more remarkable, the only contribu-
tion sent by the flourishing town of Bedford
to the World’s Fair.

The modern bicycle, however, which has
been carried to such perfection of late years,
is a marvel of workmanship and finish.
The machines used in racing sometimes
weigh only 25 lbs., with a 50 to 54-inch
driving wheel, and the ordinary roadsters of
the same size from 40 to 60 lbs. It is cal-
culated that there are now more than
100,000 bicycles in the United Kingdom,
and at the Hampton Court meet of London
clubs held in this year, nearly two thousand
riders of the silent “iron steed” appeared
in the chestnut avenue of Bushey Park, and
the long ranks of their bright machines,
glinting in the sunshine, made up what spec-
tators pronounced to be a very pretty sight.

With respect to the pleasure to be de-
rived from riding these machines, there can
be but one opinion, and their ever-increas-
ing popularity will sufficiently attest it. Al-
ready tourists have penetrated into every
nook and corner of old England, gathering
stores of health from their exertions, and
some have even penetrated France, Ger
many, Italy, and Switzerland. There is a
great charm to a good rider in feeling so
entirely independent to go wherever he
may choose, and be able to cover, without
much fatigue, a distance of too miles a day,
and have a good view of the country
through which he is passing from his ele-
vated position.

In racing, one mile has been covered in
2m. 438., and ina road race from Bath to
London the winner performed the distance
of 105 miles in 8h, 23 m.
THE PERILS OF DIVING. 87

(a



OR THE PERILS OF DIVING.






HE occupation of
a diver is ne-
cessarily a very
dangerous one.
Many stories are
told of the hair-
breadth escapes

bers of this class. Besides the
risk of accidents from damage
to the water-tight clothing, or
to the machinery above, there
is the danger of falling into crevices in the
ground, and in some waters from voracious
fish. Sharks are usually the aggressors in
these cases; though, as will be seen from
the following anecdote, told by a diver at
Concepcion, in South America, not in-
variably.

In the bays and seaports of South
America may generally be seen playing
among the shipping the animal called the
“bottle-nosed” whale. Never being med-
dled with, they are very numerous. Once
or twice these huge animals had annoyed
this diver, and even endangered his life, in
the following singular manner, told in his
own words :—

“Once I was caulking the side of a
schooner I had been stopping a leak in.
I was sitting comfortably enough on my
stage hard at work, when a shadow fell on
me, and on looking round I saw a mon-
strous object, like the submerged hull of
another vessel, rounding her stern close to
me. Antonio, that’s the man who pumps
the air down—was in his boat, but could do
nothing. Slowly the huge creature’s head
approached, and I was in hopes it would
proceed on. But, apparently struck by the
sight of my helmet, and a red flannel over-
all shirt I was wearing, it stopped and
stared at me as if trying to make out what
‘on earth—or rather under water—I was
doing there. I was not at all pleased with



this visit, for the play of its huge fins—or
paddles, rather—caused a great swirling in
the water, and I was terrified lest they
should draw and catch the air tubing and
break it, for presently it came closer still,
and it was with difficulty I kept my balance,
so strong were the currents made by their
motion. The men on board were in a
fright, and at first did not obey my signal
to haul up quickly. At last they complied,
and my visitor made off.

Once, however, I did not escape so
easily. I have seen them pass near me
hundreds of times, but they very seldom
come so close as that. Sometimes, how-
ever, they will almost touch the ship’s side,
though I never myself knew them to do
what a Russian captain witnessed. I was
a boy when Kotzebue visited this country,
and he told me that in Concepcion Bay
one rested against his brig for fully three
minutes, perhaps mistaking her hull for
another whale. You may see the occur-
rence mentioned in his book.

One day, however, I saw one almost
do the same thing, for he came alongside
and remained stationary, and so close that
I was afraid he would compress the air-
tubing between his body and the hull. He
was within my reach, and I took up from
the stage where it lay an auger I had been
working with, and let drive into him with
all the force in my power. It would have
been wiser, however, if I had been more
gentle, for the sudden start, and the whisk
he gave with his flukes as they rushed past,
upset me off the stage. Most fortunately
the affair only occupied a few seconds, else
it would have been allup with me. I had
a rope round me, and was quickly hauled
to the surface, but I was half dead when
they got me on deck.”

Mackerel, it is well known, are very in-
quisitive fish, and singularly enough can-
not resist the sight of red. This peculiarity
88 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



once led to an adventure that might have
ended tragically :—

“ Another day I was attacked in a very
extraordinary manner. I said just now that
I once had on a red shirt, which I put on
over al]. I take care never to wear one
now. I was busy with an auger boring a
hole, when I felt a tug at my arm, and
before I could well realise what was the
matter, I felt a dozen similar tugs in differ-
ent parts of my body. I was attacked by
a shoal of mackerel—it seems that red
is a colour that always attracts them—and
before I could count ten I had as many of
these fish clinging and biting furiously at
me as could by any possibility find a spot
to get hold of. J happened to be standing
on a kind of ladder, and so powerfully did
they drag at me, and so encumbered was I
by the multitudes which hung from every
part, that I had quite a job to mount it.
Itach fish here weighs a couple or three
pounds, so you may fancy the pull when
hundreds at once were at me.”

The vocation of the diver, however, is
attended with greater perils than these.
Once, when replacing some worn sheets of
copper on the bottom of a whaling brig
which had anchored in the bay for a few
days, this man was visited by two mon-
strous sharks, who, however, kept at a
respectful distance from his stage, awed
perhaps by his strange figure and the noise
of his blows on the metal. They had ac-
companied the brig for weeks, and followed
her into harbour.

A very expert diver had been employed
to recover the treasure from the Peninsular
and Oriental Company’s ship Ava, wrecked
some years ago on the coast of Ceylon.
Having, in a gutta percha dress made his
way into the saloon, he was busy searching
for the builion, when to his horror, he saw
a huge ground shark come sailing in at the
door. With great presence of mind he lay
motionless on the locker, and watched it
silently and grimly cruising about. One
can well imagine his feelings when he saw
its cold, green eyes fixed upon him, and
felt it pushing against the leaden soles of



his boots and rubbing against his dress,
the slightest puncture in which would have
been certain destruction. After ten min-
utes of suspense, which must have seemed
an age, during which the monster came back
twice or thrice to have another look at him,
his courage and coolness were rewarded by
seeing him steering his way back as he
came. Afterwards he always armed him-
self with a large dagger when he went
down to the wreck, from which he re.
covered altogether £220,000, having spent
850 hours under water.

Those who have read Victor Hugo’s
“Les Misérables” will remember his fear-
fully vivid description of a combat with the
pléeuvre, or cuttle-fish. Such things some-
times occur in reality to divers, when en-
gaged in exploring the broken ground
which this creature particularly frequents.

“The only time,” said the diver who
told the story, “that I was ever really
frightened—really in great danger—was
once up in the north of Peru, where I had
gone to recover a case of valuable ore and
silver in bars, which has been iost some
years before while being hoisted into the
vessel, It was two days before I found it.
It lay on a broad, flat-topped rock, in about
three fathoms of water, and the wood was
so rotted that I had to return for more
hide ropes to lash round it before I could
trust it to the chain and hooks. When I
went up for these, the agent of the company
to whom the ore belonged advised me to
defer the job, as a norther had been long
brewing, and the place was very exposed to
swells ; but after taking a good look at the
weather, knowing that these northerly gales
often last a week, and being anxious to
finish the job—knowing, too, that it would
not take long to do so—I resolved on
descending. So over the boat’s stern and
down my ladder I went, and in a few
minutes had the case securely lashed, after
which I rolled and pushed it to the edge
of the rock under the chain and hooks
hanging from the boat’s bows, slipped the
hooks into the hide loops I had made, and
then hastened to get off the rock (which
THE PERILS OF DIVING. 8&9



was only three feet or so in height) to go |

to my ladder ; and it was high time to do
so, for I felt that a heavy swell was now
setting in, so that I could hardly keep my
footing on the bottom. Perhaps you can
imagine my feelings when I tell you that I
had no sooner put my legs over the side of
the rock—my feet had barely touched the
ground—when I felt both ankles seized
and held with irresistible power. I had
been grasped by the tentacles, or arms, of a
cuttle-fish, which had its lurking-place there.

Now you must know that I have an in-
stinctive loathing of these creatures. I had
seen them often enough, and generally they

darted off the moment they caught sight of
my figure. But this one had not been
aware of my presence until my legs suddenly
presented themselves before his eyes.

After the first few fruitless plunges I
made to free myself, I turned almost faint
with fear and a kind of horror and disgust ;
but this did not last long, for I soon got
‘mad,’ as the Yankees say, at the idea of
being noosed, lassoed, and held prisoner
there by such a puny creature as that. Al-
though I had heard wonderful stories as to
its extraordinary strength and ferocity when
meddled with, I could not but think I
should soon free myself, and again and
again I tugged and strained, and pulled
and pushed, but all in vain. Strong man
as I am, I was powerless. I could not
drag the creature from its holdfast on the
rock, and I knew well that if I ventured
my hands near, they too would be seized
in that frightful grip, and I should be
bound, hand and foot, like a poor boy in
the south I had heard of, who, when gather-
ing shellfish, was thus seized and held ina
stooping position till the tide overwhelmed
and drowned him.

Meantime most urgent signais were
being made to me from above to hurry ;
and when I at last paused, breathless, after
a long, frantic effort, I gave way to utter
despair. But my faculties were still awake,
and I observed that the creature would not
loosen its hold by straight pushing or pull-



ing, and therefore determined to try and
screw it off the rock. You see it was human
intellect against superhuman strength.

I held on to the case, and with its aid
tried, but soon found I could not manage it
that way. The projecting edge of the rock
hindered me. I therefore hit on another
way. I pulled down some more of the
chain out of the boat (I was sitting on
the rock, you must remember), and then
taking the case up on my knees, I let it
down in front of me, and then tilted it
over till it was at a proper distance, and then
I left the rock and sat on the case. I was
now opposite the beast, and could see that
it held on by three of its tentacles, the
other -five being round my legs. These
tentacles were not more than two feet long,
and the creature’s body was not bigger than
my fist. Its eyes glared when it saw me,
and it tried hard to bite, but the boots and
thick stockings beat it.

Well, to make my story short, I turned
and twisted, but I doubt if I should have
got him to let go in time by that means
alone. But I could now see it, and tried
to crush and bruise the creature with my
boots as well, but its tenacity was amazing.
It was not till I picked up a long piece of
slate stone off the bottom, and began in
desperation to saw at its tentacles, that it
at lastlet go. But it did so only to fasten
all its suckers on me, and try more furiously
than ever to bite me with its parrot-shaped
bill. I succeeded, however, in keeping my
hands and arms free, and I instantly made
the signal to ‘hoist away.’ I kept tight
hold of the chain, and was hoisted with
the case, and very glad, though much as-
tonished, they all were to see me ascend
that way. I hastily explained what had
happened, and they pulled me in, and
while all haste was made by the rest to
get ashore (for the first blast of the norther
struck the boat as I got to the surface),
Jacques (that’s my man) cut the cuttle-fish
away piecemeal, for pulling it off was out
of the question, so tenaciously did it cling
to the very last.”
go THE PICTORIAL

CABINET OF MARVELS.











TE eS

a



SHES

ewes

fe





















PIGEON HOUSE OF THE MILITARY PIGEON-POST, PARIS.

FLYING POSTMEN.

the domesticated pigeon has been
celebrated for its love of home,
as well as for the remarkable cer-
tainty with which it made its way
tack from long distances to the
spot where it was bred or kept.
Even as far back as the middle ages, and



in ancient times, the pigeon post was known.
The historian Diodorus Siculus, above two
thousand years ago, speaks of pigeons as
being employed for this purpose; and about
five hundred years since, relays of carriet
pigeons formed part of a telegraph system
adopted by the Turks, —

It is recorded that the Crusaders would
FLYING POSTMEN, ar

7



have failed to take the hotly-besieged city
of Jerusalem had not a pigeon, which was
sent to bring news to the besieged that the
King of Persia was hastening to their help,
fallen into their hands, and so led them to
press on the siege before the Persian army
arrived.
Many examples of power and speed in
these birds, and of the certainty with which
they return from incredible distances to the
' place where they were bred, are on record.
These wonderful powers have been made
use of both in war and commerce. The
most extraordinary instance we know of is
that of a carrier pigeon despatched by Cap-
tain Sir John Ross from his Arctic winter
quarters in 1850, which reached its home
near Ayr, in Scotland, in five days. Sir
John took with him four of these pigeons,
belonging to a lady residing in Ayrshire, in-
tending to liberate two of them when he
should go into winter quarters, and the other
two when he should have discovered Sir
John Franklin. A pigeon made its appear-
ance at the dovecote in Ayrshire, which the
‘lady recognised by marks that left no doubt
of its identity. It bore no billet, but there
were indications of one having been torn
away.
Some years ago the idea originated in
Ceylon of employing carrier pigeons to bear
despatches from the port of Galle, at which
the steamers touched, to Colombo, the
capital, seventy-two miles up the country,
. For many years these messengers continued
to perform the duty. The road being almost

a straight line, the birds usually accom-

plished the passage of the seventy-two miles
’ (well laden with manuscript and printed
slips) in from one to two hours. As soon
as they arrived, a special flag was hoisted to
announce the event, and every one hastened
to the office to hear the overland news.
During the Crimean war, it may be well
supposed that intelligence had been most
eagerly awaited ; and when the despatch
announcing tre details of the fall of Sebas-
topol—so full of joy and grief for multitudes
—teached the capital of the distant colony:
of Ceylon, great was the excitement. Orders

» motion.



were immediately issued by the commander
in-chief for a royal salute to be fired in
honour of the event, which was done
accordingly on the faith of intelligence trans-
mitted by no more regular channel than the
carrier pigeon.

The Antwerp birds are considered the
best for the purpose of carrying messages.
The feathers of the wings are firm and broad,
while the flight feathers so overlap that great
resistance is offered to the air in rapid
All the pigeons employed as
letter-carriers undergo a careful system of
training. Their owners take the young
birds, short distances at first, from their
homes, to let them return, the direction
being constantly varied. Any one much
about London may often see men or boys
with pigeons either carried in the hand or
in paper bags or a basket, perhaps upon
London Bridge, by St. Paul’s, or other
marked spot. The birds are thrown up into
the air, when, circling round a few times,
they make for home. These birds are
mostly birds being trained for “ homing
birds.” A good Antwerp, so it is stated,
when fully grown and in good condition,
will, under favourable conditions of wind
and weather, travel about five hundred
miles in twelve hours.

There is an account given of a race or
match with pigeons which took place in the
year 1865. The starting-point was Liver-
pool, the winning-point Ghent ; the distance
to be traversed, traced in a straight line,
was just 500 miles. Thirty birds were
started at halfpast five in the morning.
Some of the birds reached Ghent that samé
evening, having accomplished the distance
in something like twelve hours and twenty
minutes, or at a rough average of forty miles
an hour. Others arrived about an hour
after the first batch, and eight of the thirty
were lost altogether.

During the siege of Paris a regular service
of message-carrying by pigeons was organized
between the closely-beleaguered capital and
the temporary seat of government at Tours.
By the aid of the microscope and photo-
graphy, an immense number of messages
a2 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

may be readily carried by a single pigeon.
A letter from Paris (January 11) says,—
“The pigeon which arrived last Sunday
brought in an immense mass of matter, and
it has taken nearly two days to decipher
all its messages. It brought in despatches
for the Government, which, when printed,
filled three or four columns of the news-
papers ; and, in addition, it has been the
bearer of no less than 15,000 messages for
private individuals! All this vast array of
news has been reduced to microscopic size,
and conveyed in avery small quill delicately
attached to one of the bird’s feathers.
Never has a pigeon entered into a town
bringing glad tidings to more people than
the one which arrived on Sunday.”
Another mode of securing these photo-
graphic despatches was by rolling the paper
round the middle feather of the tail, and
neatly and securely fastening it. This
feather was wisely chosen, because when the
tail is spread during flight, the middle
feather remains stationary, and is generally
partly covered. Itis only in alighting ona





tree that the tail is at all so extended that a
gap occurs. On other feathers the number
of the bird, place of its departure, and other
notices, were stamped.

ackers a Mercadier, 103 rue de Grenelle.





ae ane ae
Service dé depéches des pigeon-voyageurs—Steen- rn







We give a diagram, the exact size of the
original, of one of the pigeon-post des-
patches. Each space contained a complete
missive. The letter was written in the
ordinary way, and then reduced by photo-
graphy to the size of one of the spaces. On
arriving at its destination the despatch was
enlarged and thrown upon a sheet by the
aid of a magic-lantern, and the letters
copied off by a staff of clerks.





DAYLIGHT.

RESIDENT in Yokohama de-
scribes a marvellous display
of daylight fireworks with
which the Mikado’s birth-
day, on November 3rd, was
celebrated.

“The day cleared up beau-
tifully bright and clear. In
the distance, Fusiyama, with
its snow-capped crater, stood
out sharp and distinct, and
the whole was like a fairy
I was wholly unprepared for the
agreeable surprise I experienced. On
arrival at the public gardens in the rear of
the settlement, I found a small inclosure
screened off, and in this were placed the
mottars, which deserve a special descrip-
tion. In Europe, these are usually made of
copper or iron tubes, with a loose chamber



scene.



FIREWORKS.

breech-piece of hard wood, forming a sub-
stantial base or bed; but here they were
made of coopered staves, hooked with
twisted bamboo rings, driven closely up
from the breech to the muzzle in a regular
taper, the entire construction being of
wood.

There were half a dozen from 6 ft. to 9 ft.
long and of corresponding calibre. The
shells were of very different shapes and
sizes: some globular, others cylindrical, and
of different lengths, from roin. to 2 ft. The
mortar being carefully vented and sponged,
the maitre d’ artifice took a shell, and passing
a line through two loops, one on each side
of its upper part, held one end firm in his
left hand while he carefully lowered it with
his right. When the shell with its charge
touched the base, he lifted it alittle to make
certain that it was ‘home,’ and withdrew
DAVLIGHT FIREWORKS. . 93

the line on his right hand. A match was
inserted in the vent, and a portfire applied.

After watching several discharges, I found
that in order to see the effect I must retire
to some distance, and I now give you my
recollections to the best of my ability.

Red and blue clouds—A report from-the
mortar, and nothing visible for some
seconds; when a shell bursts at an enor-
mous altitude, spreading out two tufts of
smoke, which enlarge and drift away in
company : one bright red, and the other pale
blue. The sun lights them up, and they
pass away exactly like two real clouds.
This was afterwards repeated with three,
four, and five colours at once.

Cock-and-ffen—The shell bursts and dis-
closes two balloons in the form of cock and
hen, which circle round and round each
other and drift away with the wind.

The fiery Dragon.—This was very
peculiar, and had a tail of smoke from some
kind of a-rocket which gave a snake-like
motion to the figure. Streamers of enor-
mous length and different colours unrolled
themselves and drifted away.

The Flight of Herons.—This was with-
out exception the most extraordinary thing
I have ever seen, On the shell bursting
there appeared something like the tail of a
kite, but as the wind blew it out it assumed
a perfect representation of a flock of wild
fowl numbering some hundred or more,
commencing with single file and near the
end a V, As the wind was fresh, and
moved the line in regular undulations, I
could not tell with a good glass but what
it was actually a flock of fowl going away
down with the wind.

There were all kinds of birds, beasts,
fishes, snakes, and men even came out of
these shells. One of the most effective and
difficult to describe was repeated several
times. It consisted in a number of balls of
quicksilver, shining bright in the sun like
soap bubbles, which almost instantaneously
disappeared. The shell burst, and nothing



was seen for an instant, when there ap-
peared in a large circle, at perfectly equal
distances apart, these silver balls, which
vanished almost like electricity. It, would,
take a very long letter to describe each
shell in a display that lasted three hours,
but I think some of these ‘fireworks’
might be introduced at our summer vs at
home with advantage, more especially so if
the bright, clear atmosphere of Japan would
follow too.

With the evening’s display I was some-
what disapppointed. It was needlessly
spun out for more than five hours, several
minutes elapsing between each discharge.
The most effective was a large shell which
burst with gold rain ; a second, with a train
of fire following, burst near the ground,
and formed an enormous tree in gold fire.
Another shell formed a large ball of fire,
shooting stars in every direction until it fell
near the ground. Shells which burst and
distributed fifteen or twenty other shells
with gold and silver rain, serpents, crackers,
caduceas, etc., all were shot to an immense
altitude, the ‘fuzes’ were splendidly timed,
and there were no failures or accidents. A
number of the fire brigade were in readiness
in the event of any of the native houses
taking fire. There were no magnesium
parachutes, as at the Crystal Palace, and
the coloured stars were poor ; but, on the
other hand, nothing that I have ever seen
in Europe could compare with the regularity
of distribution; each shell formed a star,
palm-tree, or some kind of device; and
when a number were scattered from one,
the fuzes were exactly timed to form a
pattern.

The crowd was large and orderly. As at
home, there were vast numbers of women
with babies, only here they carry them on
their backs instead of in their arms. One
little urchin of six years, or so, I lifted up to
see a set piece ; and he thanked me in good
English, and told me he had learnt it
at school.”




04 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



D iwDOSTAN numbers among its
cemeteries the Five Towers of
Silence. These towers are
the burial places of a very
peculiar people—the Parsees,
or fire-worshippers, a sect
founded by a prophet who
lived before the Moses of our
Bible. They are of Persian
descent, and are a rich and
prosperous class of people,
even though they do worship
the sun, and believe that the earth represents
God, and is too sacred to be their resting-
place. Eating anything cooked by a person
of another religion is contrary to their faith,
and they object to beef and pork. Marri-
ages can only be contracted with persons of
their own caste or creed, and polygamy is
forbidden. Long association with Europeans
has, however, borne fruit lately in a very
serious schism in the Parsee community.
One party having become more liberal in
their ideas, wish to make sundry innovations
in their religion, which is still the worship
of fire in much the same manner as it was
observed by the first followers of Zoroaster,
2,500 year ago. These innovators are, how-
ever, stoutly resisted by the conservative
section. Their mode of burial illustrates
one of the peculiarities of their religion.
The Towers of Silence, or burial-places of
‘the Parsees, are walled enclosures, contain-
ing one or more square towers built of grey
stone. In the top of these towers is a
spacious grating upon which the naked



corpse is placed and left to be devoured by.

the crows and vultures and other birds of
prey, who are in consequence attracted to
this locality, and are always to be seen, in
various stages of repletion, on the branches
of the trees surrounding the cemetery.
There are five of these strange black
granite towers just outside Bombay. They

are tall columns, twelve or fifteen feet high



THE TOWERS OF SILENCE.

and forty feet wide, of solid stone, inclosing
a deep well. Of course this leaves a large
stone platform all around the mouth of
the well. But I will let a recent traveller
describe it:—

“Compartments, radiating like the spokes
of a wheel from the well in the middle, are
arranged on this platform in three rings or
circles of open stone coffins. In the outer-
most circle are placed the bodies of men, in
the middle those of women, and in the
inner and smaller circle, nearest the wall,
those of children.

The parapet of each tower has an ex
traordinary coping, formed, not of dead
stone, but of living vultures. These birds,
on the occasion of my visit, had settled
themselves side by side in perfect order,
and in a complete circle around the para-
pets of the towers, with their heads pointed
inwards; and so lazily did they sit there,
and so motionless were they, that, except
for their colour, they might have been carved
out of the stonework. Presently a sudden
stir among the vultures made us raise our
heads. At least a hundred birds collected
round one of the towers began to show
symptoms of excitement, ‘while others
swooped down from-‘neighbouring _ trees.
The cause of this soon revealed itself. A
funeral was seen to be approaching.

You know that vultures live on the flesh
of the dead, and the wonderful instinct
which God has given them made them aware
of the near approach of that on which they
love to feed. These terrible birds have
watched many a funeral to that lonely spot.

All the bodies of the Parsees are buried
in the Towers of Silence. When a Parsee
dies, the body is wrapped in a white sheet,
and carried by bearers, dressed in pure
white garments, to the garden, the friends
following at some distance. The bearers
then unlock the door of one of the towers
and lay the body, uncovered, in one of the
EARTHOUAKES.

95



' open stone coffins, and then the vultures
swoop down. A very short time suffices
for these ravenous creatures to entomb the
fleshy parts in their capacious maws, and
the bones either fall, or are pushed through
the grating, to join the other relics of
mortality in the vault below.

It is said to be the custom for the mourn-
ing relatives and friends of the deceased to
watch most anxiously the dispersion of the
remains, to enable them to foretell, accord-
ing to the order in which the several parts
are disposed of, the future state of the soul
now escaped from its earthly tenement.
Great is the delight of the mourners if they





IRE, air, and water

have been named
by various people as
the different causes



nomena. For aught
may be produced by the union
of allthree. Their effects have
been most terrible. Not to
mention others, more than
100,000 lives were lost by an
earthquake in Sicily in 1693, and similar
numbers have perished in single outbreaks
in China and Japan. Even our own
country is not entirely free from these
convulsions, though, so far as we know,
no loss of life has resulted from them.
Mrs. Somerville computes that 255 earth-
quakes have occurred in the British Isles,
all slight,
effects of a shock predicted by a madman,
thousands of persons passed the night in
Hyde Park. The earthquake at Lisbon, in
1755, 18 perhaps the best known of these
tragedies ; but we have full details of an
occurrence of this kind at Aleppo, in Syria,



confined in the earth j

of these fearful phe- |

we know to the contrary, they |

On April 8, 1750, to avoid the |

observe that the right eye is consumed
before its fellow, as this is the best augury
for complete happiness in the next world.
In about. three weeks the bearers return
and remove the skeleton to the well, where
the bones find their last resting-place.

This mode of disposal of the dead is, to
my mind, a revolting custom, discreditable
alike to the enlightened ideas of the
Parsees, and to the Government that per-
mits it. But owing to the policy we have
hitherto pursued in India, to interfere as
little as possible with the religious obser-
vances of the inhabitants, no check has been
placed upon the practice.”

EARTHQUAKES.

| in 1822, which we give in the words of an
eye-witness :—

“T was, at that time, asleep on the ter-
race of a particular friend, who, by the help
of the Almighty, was mercifully saved, with
all his family. About half an hour previous
to the great shock, a light one was felt, when
I took the precaution to draw my bed from
under a very high wall, where it was placed.
Iwas soon awakened by the fall of that wall
on the very spot where my bed had stood.
I sprang from my couch, and. without wait=
ing to dress myself, fled into the house,
which I found falling on all sides.

To remain in the house, or to take
flight through the streets amidst falling
houses, appeared equally dangerous. I
commended my soul to God, and em-
braced the latter resolution. In conse-
quence, I descended the back stairs of the
house, by the Almighty’s guidance, for the
front staircase fell at the same time.

The darkness of the night and the
clouds of dust prevented me from perceiv-
, ing the stones and rubbish on the stairs
which had fallen from a part of the house ;
I stumbled, and was precipitated into the



courtyard, and fell on a dead body. How
96 THE LICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



could I express my feelings at the moment,
ignorant on what body I had fallen. I
afterwards learnt that it was a faithful ser-
vant, who an instant before had descended
those stairs, when some stone of an adjoin-
ing house fell on him and killed him.

Like a man deprived of his senses, I
ran amidst the falling walls to the gate of
the town, which was at some distance. On
my way among the narrow streets, I wit-
nessed the most horrible scenes. The
lights of the houses, whose sides had fallen,
exposed to view men and women clinging
to the ruined walls of their houses, hold-
ing their children in their arms; mangled
bodies lying under my feet, and piercing
cries of half-buried people assailing my
ears; Christians, Jews, and Turks were
imploring the Almighty’s mercy in their
respective tongues, who, a minute before,
perhaps, did not even acknowledge Him.

After great exertions,. I arrived at the
gate of the city, the earthquake still con-
tinuing. Naked and cold, and dreadfully
bruised and cut in my body and feet, I fell

on my knees, among a crowd of people, to

thank the Almighty for my happy deliver-
ance from the jaws of death. But the gate
of the city was shut, and no one dared to
risk his life under its arch, to open it.
After commending my soul again to my
Creator, I threw myself on the gate. I
felt in the dark, and perceived that it
was not locked; but the great iron bars
that went across the folding-doors were
bent by the earthquake, and the little
strength I retained was not sufficient to
‘force them. I went in quest of the guards,
but they were no more.

I fell again on my knees before the
Almighty, who alone could save me from
the immediate perils of being crushed to
death. I did not forget in my prayers the
miserable creatures around me. While I
was thus engaged, four or five Turks came
near me, and joined hands to pray, in their
accustomed way, calling out ‘Alla! Alla!’
I entreated them to help me to open the
gate, in order to save the lives of those who
were in danger of perishing,



The Lord inspired them with courage;
and providing themselves with large stones,
according to my instructions, in a little time
they forced the bars and opened the gates.
No sooner had I passed it, than a strong
shock of anearthquake crumbled it to pieces,
and several Jews were killed by its fall.

A new and affecting scene was now
exhibited. A great crowd of people rushed
out, and with one accord fell on their knees
to render thanks to the Almighty for their
preservation ; but when the first transports
of joy were over, the thought of having left
their friends and relations buried in the
city made them pour forth such piercing
lamentations that the most hard-hearted
person would have been penetrated with
grief. I crept, as well as I could, about
twenty yards, to a place where I saw a
group of people who had saved themselves
from the suburbs, where no gates prevented
their quitting the town; there I fell, half-
dead with cold and with the pain from my
sores,

Two or three people, who recognised
me in that fearful condition, immediately
gave me acloak and brought me a little
water. When I recovered mysenses, I began
to feel new sufferings, thinking of the affect-
ing loss of my friends in the city, and the
melancholy objects around me; people
wounded, other lamenting the death of their
relations ; others having before them their
dying children taken from under the ruins ;
so that it was impossible to give any ade-
quate idea of my feelings, I spent the
whole night in prayer and anxiety. Early
the next morning I was conveyed to the
nearest garden, to profit by the shade of
the trees. I did not remain long before
the French dragoman joined me, and gave
me the agreeable news that all the Euro-
pean Christians, excepting a little boy, had
been saved, but many, like myself were
greatly bruised.

I remained four days without being able
to move, owing to my bruises and sores,
having only a sheet to screen me from the
scorching rays of the sun. JI then began to
walk again, but with great pain.”
THE LIFE BRIGADE. 97































































































































































































































































































Sh

ne































































































THE BLIP BRIGADE,

5 OLUNTEER associations for war- | by the exertions of Captain Coulson, an old
like purposes abound in these | resident in that busy and prosperous sea-
days, and itis pleasant to hear | port town, the Life Brigade has expanded
of similar organizations for the | until it has become a most important and
salvation of life instead of its | efficient aid in the preservation of life. Its
destruction. Of this beneficent | object is as noble as it is simple. The
order is the Volunteer Life | members band themselves together to assist
Brigade, of which a strong corps exists at | in the rescue of crews shipwrecked in the
Sunderland-on-the-Wear. Originally founded | neighbourhood of the port For this pur-
H


98 THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





pose they are supplied with the requisite
apparatus by the Board of Trade; and, by
regular monthly drills, the members have
become very efficient.

As will be seen, the method adopted by
the Brigade for making a communication
with a stranded ship is the rocket system.
A tripod is erected on the ground, under

which is suspended a stout hawser, the
means depended upon to bring the ship-
wrecked mento the shore. From under
this tripod a rocket is fired, which, on its
course, carries with it a line, by which the
hawser is drawn to the wreck. Should the
rocket be skilfully fired, and the line reach
the ship, the crew draw the hawser on













board and attach it, as sailors know so well
how, to some suitable portion of the wreck.
On this hawser, in a manner which will be
rendered perfectly plain by a glance at the
picture, is suspended the “‘ breeches buoy,”
on the proper action of which depends the
life or death of the shipwrecked sailors.
This is drawn along the hawser to the shore;
by means of the “whip,” or side line.
The shore end of the ;-—

the approach of a storm or thick, dan-
gerous weather upon the coast the gear
and small stores are mustered and’ put in
order, the cart examined, the lamps trimmed,
and general preparations made for service.
A sharp look-out is meanwhile kept sea-
wards. ;

A wreck is at last announced, and great
is the activity amongst the members of the



hawser is of course to
be attached to a rock
or some other firm
object.

It is obvious that in
such a proceeding the
saving of every moment
is a most important
element. A twisted or
“kinked” line, a badly
adjusted hawser, or dirty
gear, and human life
would pay the penalty.
Accordingly, a system
of drill has been estab-
lished, most minute in
its regulations, but ad-
mirably adapted to
secure its object. Upon







_ Life Brigade. At the
| word of command the
party run swiftly, but
with military precision,
to some convenient
spot opposite the scene
of the wreck. All the
party are numbered,
and each has his re-
spective duty assigned
to him. Thus No. 1,
to whom the import-
ant task of firing the
rocket is entrusted,
deftly places the rocket
frame, attaches the line,
and applies the port-fire
to the fuse. The others
meanwhile, each in his
own sphere, render as-


THE LIFE BRIGADE. 99





sistance, Nos. 2 and f
3, for instance, at-
tend to the lines,
and take charge of
the “whip,” which is
to draw the stranded
men on shore. ‘To

time taken to per-
form the various
manceuvres, to “res-
cue” the man from
the south pier, and
to land him safely
amongst his rejoic-



Nos. 5 and 6 is con-
4ded the charge of
the hawser. No. 7
attends to signals,
under the direction
of the officer. No.
8 takes charge of
the life-belts, and
looks after the res-
cued men when
landed. The re-
maining “numbers”
are all this time busy in various ways.
The “auxiliaries” assist in carrying the
stores from the cart to the point of action,
or are told off to keep the ground clear of
the crowd.

In our large illustration is represented
one of the drills. The “breeches buoy” is
here seen
In success-
ful opera-
tion. The
south pier
for the
nonce was
taken to re-
present a
wreck; and
the five
companies
composing
the brigade,
to the num-
ber of sev-
enty men,
mustered
on the
north pier,
where the
rocket ap-
paratus was
fixed. The







- Sunderland



ing comrades on the
other side of the
gulf, was only seven
minutes and forty
seconds—the quick-
est time for rocket
apparatus practice
on record.

It would seem al-
most inconceivable
that the whole of the
evolutions should be
gone through in that short space of time, so
many and so various are the duties. It is,
however, but an example of what can be
effected by the combination of strong arms
and willing hearts.

It is to be hoped that the example of
in establishing a Volunteer





Life Bri-
gade willbe |
followed in
other sea-
ports. Ex-
tensive as
are the
operations
of the Na-
tional Life-
boat Insti-
tution, and
widely as
the Coast-
guard, with
its various
means of
saving life,
are distri-
buted
round our
coasts,
there is yet z





room for raany such life brigades.
£390

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



cv was,a lovely day
early in the month
of February, and
the ship was bowl-
ing along “close
hauled,” with a
splendid breeze.
We were nearing the line, and
had lost the north-east mon-
soon, which blows with varying
force all the year round north
of the equator, and were fortunate in having
fallen in with a good steady south-easterly
wind, that promised to last some time, and
carry us perhaps into southern latitudes ;
for we had experienced a long run of bad
weather in the ‘‘chops of the Channel.”
The winter had been unusually severe, and
the gales during the months of November
and December very frequent. After a
great deal of knocking about we felt the
more pleased with the change. As I was
saying, there was a fine spanking breeze—
what is called by sailors a “ topgallant
breeze ;” that is, when a ship can just carry
well her topgallant sails. The beautiful
morning had given place to as beautiful an
afternoon ; the sea was smooth, with a long
swell; and the dancing waves, with their
crests just ruffled by the wind and tipped
with foam, came tumbling one over the
other in a joyous way, as if running a race
to meet the ship; but, on encountering the
apposition of the bows, these “white
horses” speedily succumbed, and, after an
angry buffet against the stern, disappeared
in the black depths under her bilge.

The Amphitrite was a new ship, marked
A 1 at Lloyd’s, of 1800 tons burden, and
this was her first voyage; she was clipper-
built, and the fastest vessel I ever sailed in.
We never looked out for ships astern, but,
whenever a sail was sighted, it was always
ahead, and before night fell we were cer-
tain to leave her hopelessly behind. Many
a storm and gale have I experienced on





A MYSTERIOUS COLLISION.

board her, and right nobly she always
behaved in them, riding over the waves tg
spite of the immense weight aloft of the
heaviest and squarest spars ever fitted to a
ship of her size. Once in a hurricane,
when we were lying to quite snugly, a large
China trader went down.before our eyes.
On the roth of February, the day of which
I am writing, the Amphitrite was sailing
with her yards “braced sharp up” on the
port tack, and every stitch of canvas was
drawing, she having all “plain sail” set.
The passengers (myself among the number)
were all standing on the poop, talking and
joking, and looking forward to doing justice
to a good dinner, for which this pleasant
sea breeze gave us an appetite. Ona long
sea-voyage dinner is the great event of the
day, to which every one looks forward as
breaking the tedious monotony in an
agreeable manner. The heat of the day
had been great, although tempered by a
double awning spread over the poop, under
which we had placed our easy-chairs, and,
with our books in our hands as a make-
believe, we enjoyed the sweets of the dolce
far. niente. Conversation naturally turned
on crossing the Line and its attendant
ceremonies, which were pretty generally
spoken of as follies, especially by some
young cadets going out to join the army,
who were looking forward, half with feelings
of curiosity and half of dread, to the
advent of Neptune with his motley crew
and bucket of slush. Of all senseless
customs and traditions, this Line folly is
about the most unreasonable. There can
be no harm in the sailors’ dressing up and
blundering through a performance, but the
manner in which passengers are often ill-
used is monstrous. This nuisance is now
considerably abated, and it is hoped will
soon entirely cease to disgrace the mercan-
tile marine. Few respectable merchant-
captains allow their passengers to be thus

| insulted. The practical joking is frequently
A MYSTERIOUS COLLISION.

151



used as a means of extorting money from
timid people, who would pay anything
rather than be subjected to ill-treatment.

Three or four of the cadets had expressed
their determination to join together for the
purpose of resisting any attempt to make
merry at their expense, when suddenly the
look-out man on the foreyard sang out,
“ Sail ho !”

“Where away?” was the query from the
officer of the watch on the quarter-deck.

“On the port bow,” was the rejoinder.

The mate then asked what he made her
out to be; and the reply was that she
looked like a full-rigged ship, but as she
was coming down before the wind, he
could not make out for certain what her rig
was. The captain, being informed of this,
soon came upon deck, with his long glass,
and tried to find her. We, all of us who
possessed telescopes, went on the forecastle,
and swept the horizon forward, but could
see nothing; but this was to be accounted
for from the fact of her not having yet
appeared above the horizon. However, in
a few minutes we made the white sail out,
like a speck in the far distance. _

The breeze was freshening, and soon we
were gratified by a nearer inspection of the
stranger. We found that she was a square-
rigged ship, with all sail set, royals -and
studding sails below and aloft and on both
sides.

‘© She walked the waters like a thing of life,”
and came down before the wind like a race-
horse, with the foam curling away from her
bows. There are few more beautiful sights
than a fine ship heeling over under full sail,
with the copper on her weather-side show-
ing, and every stitch of canvas bellying out
to catch the favouring breeze. The ladies
were admiring her beautiful proportions,
and the fine effect of the setting sun as it lit

- up her sails and glistened along her sides,
painted black, but relieved with white ports.

All hands now crowded up as the word
was passed that the strange ship wished to
speak; for she appeared as steering to
intercept us. Nearer she came and nearer ;
and, now that we could see her so well, the



passengers retired to the poop, there to be
out of the way, and the better to hear all
that was said. The captain sent his boy
down to his cabin for the speaking-trumpet,
and we began speculating as to her nation-
ality, for we could not see any flag flying.
Some of the young cadets, having probably
more money than they knew what to do
with, began laying bets as to whether she
was English or Swedish; for the quarter-
master, an old salt, said she was a Swedish-
built ship. To induce her to show her
colours, we hoisted the ensign, and then
eagerly watched for the response. But no
“bit of bunting” fluttered up to her mizen
peak ; and one of our number, the doctor,
who was rather romantically inclined, con-
jectured she might be a ‘‘rover free.”

The wind was now blowing freshly ; but
the ship still carried her royals and studding
sails, and still came bearing down on us.
We altered our course a point, just to see
whether she really did wish to speak, and
the stranger appeared to follow suit. This
seemed to decide the captain as to the
ship’s intention of communicating with us,
but yet she persisted in not showing her
colours—a most unusual thing on the high
seas, where common courtesy dictates an
exchange of flags; and, what was still
more strange, we could see no indication of
life on her decks, for there were no heads
peeping above. the bulwark or the rail of
her forecastle. The look-out man, who
had a bird’s-eye view of her, on being
hailed, said he could see no one on_ board.

There is a “law of the road” at sea, as
there is on shore among drivers of vehicles ;
and it is this: ships on the port tack,
sailing near the wind, give way to vessels
on the starboard ; and ships running before
the wind yield the pride of place to any
they may encounter close-hauled on either
tack. Now, we being “full and by,” that
is, close-hauled, it was the duty of the
stranger, in case of an accident, and to
avoid a collision, to put her helm a-port and
get out of our way. I mention this to
exculpate us from all blame as to what
followed. We, not expecting anything, but
102

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



being still under the impression that she had
something to communicate, kept on our
course; but it soon became evident that
her captain intended passing almost too
near us for safety. Ifhe had his ship well
in hand, however, he might with ease
prevent any disaster arising from our proxi-
mity. Some dark clouds were rising up,
the wind blew now strong and in gusts, and
we could not imagine how the other skipper
could be so insane as to keep his topgallant
studding sails set.

Being soon within hailing distance, our
captain raised the speaking-trumpet to his
mouth, and shouted out, in a stentorian
voice, “Ship ahoy! What ship’s that?”
No answer. “Ship ahoy !” again rang over
the waters. Still no reply to the summons.

““What does this mean?” said the captain
to the first mate and a knot of passengers,
myself among the number, standing by him
on the break of the poop. We all looked
at one another, and then at the ship
anxiously. What indeed could be intended
by this silence? Was it a ruse to carry out
some diabolical purpose? It was dusk,
and stories that I had read, when at school,
of the Flying Dutchman and other old
sea-legends, involuntarily recurred to me
and raced unbidden through my brain.
Not a soul could be seen on her decks,
which were now distinctly visible. “Ship
ahoy!” for the third time Captain Harvey
bellowed out, and then ran off the poop on
co the quarter-deck ; for it was now awfully
certain there must be a collision.

“Put the helm hard up!” he shouted
out to the quartermaster as he descended
the ladder ; but it was too late.

I saw how it was to be, and caught hold
of the cross-jack lists to steady myself.
Like lightning the huge mass of wood and
tall spars and towering canvas struck us
full on the port bow, a blow that caused
every timber and plank in the vessel to
creak and groan with the concussion. So
terrific was the shock that our ship seemed
absolutely to stand still as if aghast; the
masts and yards shook and reeled like a
forest of trees when blown by the passing



gale; and the sails for an instant were
thrown flat aback, in spite of the fresh breeze
that was bellying them out and stretching
the canvas to its utmost tension.

I saw that several of the crew and pas-
sengers were thrown down; and, as is usual
on such occasions, the ladies fainted right
and left. Some only wrung their hands,
and screamed in an agony ef terror; but
the gentlemen hurried them all down indis-
criminately into the cuddy—not a very safe
place, certainly, if we were going to founder;
but there was confusion enough on deck
without its being “ worse confounded” by
the persons of insensible ladies, young and
old.

When the ship struck us on the port bow
her bowsprit was right over our decks. At
the last moment, when it was too late to be
of much service, our helm had been put
“hard up,” thereby paying the Amphitrite’s
head off. Instead, therefore, of the stranger
steering alongside of us, she carried on her
way, with her huge bower anchor, the flukes
of which were hanging over the side, tearing
all along our bulwarks, carrying away
“dead-eyes” and “lanyards,” and laying
the ship’s side open. Up aloft matters were
much worse ; for the yards, and studding-
sail booms, and all the gear were caught in
inextricable confusion, and came rattling
about our ears; most of the spars,
fortunately for the safety of those below,
falling overboard. The noise of the creak-
ing timber and tumbling booms and yards
was terrific. Nothing could be done; for
the two ships had each great way on them,
and it was evident they would soon clear
each other, even if all the masts were to go
“by the board” in the struggle. Three ot
our men were seriously injured by the fall-
ing débris, and had to be carried below;
one poor fellow with both legs broken.

In the meantime, how had our opponent
fared through all this business? One of
her studding-sail yards fell on the poop with
its sail, and the spar, falling “end on,”
dashed a hole through the deck, nearly
knocking my brains out at the same time.
Her foretopmast went like a reed, carrying
A MYSTERIOUS COLLISION.

- 103



; !
with it the maintop-gallant mast and the

jibboom ; but all this luckily fell clear of us
into the water. The most singular thing of
all, however, was the fact that not a soul
could be seen anywhere on board her—
neither on the look-out, nor on the decks,
nor on the poop; and, what was incompre-
hensible, there was no one at the wheel.
She seemed like a ship of the dead. Had
we chosen, we could have jumped on board
her with ease as, in her mad career, she
tore along our whole length, from the
“cathead” to the “boomkin,” where was
fitted the “ pennant” of the main brace, and
which, as a parting salute, she broke short
off like a carrot. Everybody seemed for
the moment paralyzed, and took shelter
until the storm of falling wreck and blocks
had subsided.

The stranger presently dropped astern,
after having done us all this mischief; and
we could then see that she was a large ship
of about tooo tons burden, of English
build, and deeply laden. She looked a
perfect wreck, with her rigging all hanging
about, and her ‘‘ top hamper” trailing in the
water, mixed up with gear and sails. All
this happened in much less time than I
take to narrate it, and in a few seconds a
fine ship was reduced to this pitiable con-
dition. However, our thoughts were chiefly
centred on our own safety; and the first
thing to discover was whether we were in
a sinking state or no. The captain im-
mediately ordered the carpenter to sound
the well. On doing so he reported that there
were eight inches of water ; and, as this was
only an addition of two inches above the
usual amount, we were much relieved. A
party was told off to the pumps, and all
watched with anxiety to see whether the
water gained on us. The boatswain piped
“Tands clear wreck!” and up aloft
streamed the topmen to send down the
stumps of the shattered masts and clear the
tangled ropes.

It was fast getting dark, and now that our
immediate safety was assured, we turned
our thoughts to the stranger. When she
first sheered off us all her sails were flat



aback, and she was evidently without guid-
ance, and just “forging” ahead slowly
through the water; but she soon fell off
before the wind, and ploughed along her
watery way as before.

We could see the ship a long way astern,
and, as we passengers. were talking and
discussing the collision, suddenly one of our
number exclaimed, “Hullo! I can’t make
her out now.” We looked, and she was
gone. The spot she occupied a moment
before was vacant. We strained our eyes,
but in vain: nothing could we see but the
rising waves, and the clouds overhead now
threatening an approaching gale. We went
to the captain, and informed him of the
sudden disappearance of the strange ship;
but he answered he had quite enough on his
hands to occupy himself and all his crew,
without lowering a boat and sending her,
he did not know how far astern, on such a
Quixotic errand. He said it was getting
dark, and looked like bad weather ahead,
and he must make all snug aloft before the
gale came on. Besides, said he, to put an
end to our remonstrances, it must have been
all a mistake ; it was so dusk that we had
lost sight of her position; and she was
probably all right, and we, no doubt, all
wrong in our conjectures as to her having
foundered. It was of no use arguing with
him. We were firmly convinced that the
unfortunate ship had gone down, as all of
us were looking in her direction and saw
her distinctly only a few. seconds before her
disappeararice. The quartermaster on duty,
whose attention was in no way taken up
with the refitting of the wreck, afterwards
corroborated our statements and ideas as to
the end-of the unlucky vessel. He ex-
pressed no opinion then, for he did not
feel himself called to express a different
view of the question from the captain.
Every one agreed that there was not a
creature on the decks anywhere when the
two ships were in collision, with one ex-
ception, and that was the above-mentioned
petty officer, who declared that he saw,
just before she dropped so far astern as to
render her wheel invisible, a man running
Tog

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



up on deck from below to the after-part.
If this were so, it would account for her
sails filling again.

The whole affair was shrouded in mystery,
and we never discovered anything about
her. ‘T'o this day I know not what was her
name, her country, or whither she was
bound, and probably never shall. When
we arrived in the East Indies, two months
after this affair, the captain made no in-

quiries respecting the fate of the ship, and, |
I subsequently discovered, forbade his |

officers speaking about her to any one
ashore or afloat. He could not stop our
tongues, however, and for a long time this
strange occurrence was the fruitful source of
conversation.
Imaginative young ladies launched out
into all manner of romantic notions
with respect to her. There was much
ground for speculation and discussion, al-
though we could learn nothing fresh there-
by. Had the ship, having sprung a leak,
been deserted by the crew while becalmed
on the Line, and then the unfortunate sea-
men, considering they had no time “to
shorten sail,” abandoned her with all sail

After the first. shock, the |

{



set? and had a breeze subsequently sprung
up and driven her in wild, unguided career
over the trackless sea, until she fell athwart
our hawse and so met her destruction?
Was it so? or had the crew risen in mutiny
against the-captain and officers, and, after
binding or murdering them, abandoned
themselves down between decks to
drunken dissipation, and, revelling in un-
wonted freedom from control, left the ship
to take care of herself? If what the quar-
termaster stated he saw really took place,
the last was the more probable supposition.
But whether this was the case, or whether
the fresh water had given out and the ship’s
company had taken to the boats, as I have
stated, we never discovered.

The captain was right as to the weather ;
for it soon came on to blow a gale of wind,
and we were under double-reefed topsails
before midnight. Although much strained,
the Amphitrite made little water, and we
repaired our damages aloft, and were soon all
right again.

On arriving in port the ship had her “ top-
sides” looked to and repaired, and all signs
of the “collision at sea” were effaced.



\NE of the most perilous bal-
loon voyages ever made was
that of M. Duruof and his
wife from Calais, in Sep-
tember, 1874. Several
fruitless attempts had been
made, tillat length the people
of Calais became so disap-
pointed at the postponement
of the ascent that they jeered
Duruof, and taunted him with
cowardice. After bearing this for some time,
Duruof decided to go up, and accordingly,
after much protestation from his friends,
he got away, tlfe balloon leaving Calais,
and going for a short distance northward,





A BALLOON CHASE AT SEA.

and thence right out to sea. Night came
on, and the aeronauts, who were but
thinly clad and had no provisions, suffered
terribly from cold and thirst. They
drifted about the whole night, and when
daylight came they found they were over
the North Sea, and M. Duruof, not know-
ing how far he was from land, manoeuvred
to descend in order to get picked up
by some vessel. They had been ten hours
in the air, and were now doomed to be
dragged two hours through the water, for
though they were seen and chased by a
fishing smack, it was quite that time before
they were overtaken. The balloon, dragging
with the car half under water, was every








































































































i

Ht

th i ‘
aT

























































































































Til START FROM CALATS.

SE




















106

moment in danger of bursting, as the heavy
seas broke over it, but at last the gallant
captain and mate of the Grand Charge came
up, and managed with great difficulty to
get them into the boat. The balloon went
off at a great speed towards Norway, and
the half-dead aeronauts were taken on board
the Grand Charge, where they were care-
fully nursed and tended. As soon as the
smack reached Grimsby, the news of the
rescue was quickly spread by telegraph.
Whatever one may think of the rash conduct
of M. and Madame Duruof in risking their
lives upon such a purposeless excursion,
there can be but one opinion respecting the
behaviour of the gallant English sailors,
William Oxley and James Buscome, who
at the risk of their own lives rescued them
from a watery grave.

It is said that, in 1804, a Spanish noble-
man, accompanied by two friends, went
up from Boulogne and was cast away
in the Adriatic, being even less fortunate
than Duruof, as the first vessels which



THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

sighted the balloon fled in terror at the
strange monster. He was, however, ulti-
mately saved. In 1846 a Frenchman went
up from Trieste on the ring of a balloon,
the car being cut away as too heavy; he
was also picked up in the Adriatic. The late
General Money once ascended from Nor-
wich, volunteering to supply the piace of an
aeronaut who had turned coward. Not
understanding the working of the valve, he
cut aslit in the balloon with his sword in
order to descend, and came down at sea,
off Yarmouth, where he remained all night,
and was discovered by a fishing-boat next
morning. The fact of a Dutch vessel
passing close to him without offering any
aid, aroused much indignation, and the
following lines, written apropos of the occur-
rence, became very popular :—

Beneath the sun there’s nothing that’s new,
Though Solomon says it, the maxim’s not true;

A Dutchman, for instance, was heretofore known
On lucre intent and on lucre alone :

Mynheer’s now grown honest, retreats from his prey,
Won’t pick up even Money that drops in his way.



BOW =O OM ACKE: MoD sN MEY:

URING the great war

the gold and silver,
and even the copper
coinage, were very
scarce. To meet the
strain upon the national re-



f wv sources, the Government issued
NS an immense amount of paper
a bills, or bank-notes, each from
i a few cents to several dollars

in nominal value.

There are several large companies in
New York who thus manufacture money,
not only for the United States, but also for
the South American Republics, for Japan,
and for several European Governments.

in the United States,



AMERICAN BANK-NOTES.

In addition to the bank-notes and bonds,
there are other forms of paper money, such
as postage-stamps and internal revenue
stamps of various kinds, and of all values,
from one cent (a halfpenny) upwards.
The National Bank-note Company, which
prints all the postage-stamps for the United
States, prints 500,000,000 in a year, and
sometimes sends off as many as 13,000,000
in a single day—a large wagon-load!
Compared with the English, many of the
American bank-notes are elaborate works
of art, giving little vignettes of landscapes,
historical scenes, portraits, etc., all engraved
with the utmost minuteness, and beautifully
printed on specially-made paper. This
paper, on which all the money of the
HOW TO MAKE MONEY.

107



United States is printed, is made only at
one mill near Philadelphia, and it is a
penal offence for any one else to make it.
By means of an automatic machine a
register is kept of every sheet made, and
for which the mill proprietors have to
account.

The first safeguard in the printing opera-
tions against counterfeiting is the portrait.
There are no artists in their profession
superior to those who are employed in the
designing and engraving of bank-notes.
‘By the side of these genuine artists the
counterfeiters are blunderers. In a good
bill the portrait is always an accurate like-
ness. To secure it, a daguerreotype is
first obtained. This gives a picture on a
metallic plate. The features are then
drawn lightly on the plate with a sharp-
pointed instrument by an artist, who
follows accurately the outlines of the
portrait. From this outline an impression
is printed. The operation of printing from
what is little more than the scratch of a
pin is a delicate one, as may be well
imagined. The impression thus obtained
is transferred by a chemical process to a
steel-plate, which is covered with a pre-
paration of wax, the better to receive the
impression. The artist then has before
him a steel-plate covered with wax, on
which the outlines of the portrait which he
is to engrave have been mechanically trans-
ferred from the sun’s own painting. These
outlines are then traced on the steel
beneath by a sharp tool; the wax is re-
moved, and the face is still presented in
outline on the steel. The shading is then
completed by the workman, who, to
accomplish his task successfully, must
possess at once the artistic skill of a
draughtsman and the patient mechanical
skill of a perfect engraver.

This work of engraving is one which
requires the utmost accuracy of eye and
steadiness of touch, and very diverse kinds

‘of skill One artist has success with
portraits, another with buildings, a third
with lettering in fne ornamental characters.
No one artist ever engraves an entire note ;



several different artists are alvays employed
on each bill. The processes by which
their various operations are combined in
one constitute, perhaps, the most curious
and interesting of all the varivuus operations
in the manufacture of paper currency.

The process of making the steel-plates is
as follows: After the design of a bank-note
is fixed upon, it is given out in separate
pieces to separate artists. There lies be-
fore us, as we write, a two-dollar treasury-
note; on it is a portrait of Jefferson, a
picture of the Capitol at Washington, the
printed lettering, “United States will pay
to bearer two dollars,” the signatures, the
large figure 2 in one corner, and a great
quantity of twos printed in very fine
lettering all around the margin of this note,
and an elaborate ornamentation in various
parts of the bill. One man probably
engraved the portrait of Jefferson on one
piece of steel; another, working at a
separate desk, engraved, on a separate
piece of steel, the printed letters; a third
the signatures; others the view of the
Capitol building ; and still others engraved
the small letters on its margin ; while still
another probably engraved the large figure
2, and one or two more did the ornamental
work. Each of these bits of pictures and
lettering was engraved, the reader will
understand, on a separate piece of steel.
Sometimes as many as thirty steel-plates are
combined in a single note. It is the pro-
cess by which this combination is effected
that is so extraordinary.

The reader must not imagine steel to be
necessarily a hard piece of metal. Hard
and soft are but relative terms, and the
steel of the engraver is made hard or soft,
according to his desire. Steel rollers are
prepared. They are softer than the steel-
plates on which the separate fragments of
the bank-note lines are engraved by the
separate artists. By a powerful pressure
the various pictures which the artists have
engraved are impressed on these steel
rollers. The work of the’ artist is, of
course, reversed, and the picture, or rather
the fragment of the picture, appears en the
£08

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



roller in a legible form, as it will subse-
quently appear on the note.

The artist now has his bank-note on
separate rollers instead of on flat plates.
These rollers are now hardened by the
action of fire, and thus prepared for the
transferring machine, In this machine a
flat plate of soft steel is placed, the roller
containing some fragment; the portrait,
for example, is adjusted by the work-

man. in its proper place over and upon

the steel-plate, and a pressure of from
fifteen to twenty tons is brought to bear
upon it. This pressure transfers the
portrait to the steel-plate below. The
roller is then taken out, and the next
roller put in its place. This is adjusted
so as to bring it in its proper place, and
the pressure is again applied. The roller
itself is moved gently back and forth by
the hand of the operator, so as to distribute
the pressure equally on all parts of the
picture. Thus one roller after another is
introduced, the operator depending on his
skill of eye and hand to adjust perfectly
the various fragments of the complete
design to each other until the whole bank-
note is impressed upon the soft steel-plate.
The utmost skill and accuracy are required
in this operation. The most powerful
magnifying-glass brought to bear upon the
bank-bill fails to show where the various
parts of the completed picture have been
joined.

This plate is now to be prepared for the
press by being hardened. For this purpose
it is taken to the furnace and there immersed
in a fire-proof box containing carbon, and
plunged into the furnace. When the re-
quisite heat has been obtained, it is taken
out and dipped quickly into oil or brine,
or transferred to a vice, which screws its
surface hard upon a plate of lead, where
it is left to cool. This operation is one
requiring great judgment and dexterity.
The heat must be of just the required
amount, neither too much nor too little,
and when the heated plate is ready to be
taken from the fire, it must be transferred
so instantly from the carbon-box to the



plate of lead or liquid that the air shall
have no opportunity to perceptibly cool ita
surface. ‘This annealing being completed,
the plate is ready for the printer.

We ought not to pass the engraver’s
operations by without mentioning the
geometric lathe. The reader will observe
on many of the bank-notes a series of very
intricate and involved lines, running to and
fro in involutions which defy imitation. In
the bank-note before us, as we write, the
figure 2 is printed on a background formed
by these snaky lines. This is done by
means of the geometric lathe—an instru-
ment which, by a singular combination of
wheels, can be set to marking out almost
any conceivable combination of curved
lines. The number of combinations is
practically without limit. The machine is
an expensive one, and can only be made
by machinery ; the counterfeiters are not
able to imitate successfully its work. To
the casual observer the portrait is the best
test of a counterfeit bill; to the detective
the lathe work under a magnifying-glass
affords the final test.

We have left but a word to speak of the
printing process. Two persons work the
press together. The first inks the plate,
and so prepares it for the press, adjusts it
in its place, and by a turn of the wheel
applies the pressure; a second cleans the
plate off, and prepares it for a second
printing. This is done, first by wiping off
the remaining ink with a cloth, and then
polishing the plate with whiting, rubbed on
with the palm of the hand. Long ex-
perience has demonstrated that there is
no such polisher as the human hand ; but
it gets dreadfully dirty in the operation.
A register is connected with every machine,
which thus records every impression taken.
This register is locked, and the key is in
the possession of the superintendent, who
thus has a means of proving that no money
has been abstracted from the printing-room.
In the printing-room at the Treasury De-
partment eighty of these presses are in
simultaneous operation; in one of the
printing-rooms of the National Bank-note
THE CRYSTAL GROTTO.

Company of New York there were one
hundred and sixteen. The men are paid
by the piece, and work with marvellous
rapidity, and the room presents a very
siriking picture of busy activity. It can
hardly be credited, but it is the fact, that
the wiping of the plate by the hand
sensibly wears away the steel, and the
difference in value of different workmen
is measured by the skill with which they
succeed in polishing the surface with the
least wear—producing the greatest cleanli-
ness and the least attrition of the plate.
The money is now substantially ready
for the market. It only remains to print
upon it the seal of the United States—a
red stamp; to add the number, which is
changed with every printing by an inge-
nious contrivance, giving to every note its



THE GCRYST

\s EALOUS must be the travellers
who visit the Balearic
Islands, on the east coast
of Spain. Indeed, few
English people ever hear
of or think about them.
Yet they contain much that
is beautiful. They have
magnificent mountains, fine
towns, splendid gardens, and
an active, intelligent people ;
but they are all shrouded in
Popish darkness, and this is one reason
why we hear so little about them.

At one time these islands formed a
kingdom called Mallorca, comprising the
five islands, Majorca, Minorca, Iviza,
Formentera, and Cabrea, but they now
belong to Spain. The soil is fruitful—
vines, olives, figs, oranges, and other
tropical fruits, flourish luxuriantly. The
oil harvest is very considerable, averaging
700,000 gallons yearly. Saffron is also
largely cultivated. Most of the people are



199
own number, and finally to divide the
notes, which are printed six or eight on a
single sheet. The money is then packed
in boxes, and stowed away in vaults, ready
for use.

The most wonderful thing concerning
these operations remains to be told—the
accuracy with which they are conducted.
A single sentence from the report of the
chief of the department sums up the results
of this painstaking care :

“Tt affords me great pleasure to state
that, in the engraving, printing, and finish-
ing, of 890,483,995 dollars, notes, bonds,
and other securities, and 104,140,286
stamps, during the year (1871), not one

| note or sheet of paper, or any portion of

a note or sheet of paper, has been lost to
the Government.”

AL GROTTO.

employed in agriculture, but they also make
good woollen and linen cloths, and they
are celebrated for their cabinet work and
pottery ware.

A traveller who recently visited these
islands thus describes what he saw :—

“We landed upon the island of Majorca.
The capital is Palma, a very pretty town.
The cathedral towers above the ramparts,
and inside of it there is a wondrous scene
of beauty and a wondrous mass of trash.
The beauty is in the pillars, the windows,
and the carving; the trash is in the relics
of old bones and paintings. The grandest
architecture may enshrine the most abject
superstition.

We hired a horse and cart to make a
tour of the island, which took us several
days. The driver sat on a sheepskin, with
his legs on each side of the horse’s flanks.
The strange dialect this man spoke made
it very difficult to converse with him; but
his excessive desire to hear of England,
and England’s religion, and England’s laws,
fro

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



seemed to force us to speak, and enable
him to understand.

We stopped a night at Monaco, in the
house of a worthy wine-presser, and the
next morning started for a trip to the
farthest end of the island to see the far-
famed Cave of Arta, which is reputed to be
the most splendid specimen of a crystal
grotto in the world.

Three hours of smart walking brought
us over a rocky country to the bold cliffs
breasting the sea, where a cave’s mouth
yawns broadly in a mountain’s side. We
lighted some pine brands, and descended to
the darkness. Sometimes the cavern is
illuminated by Bengal lights. It is indeed
a noble cavern. The floor is of rocks
heaped over each other in wild confusion.
The roof is like that of a cathedral, with a
hundred aisles and ten thousand pillars.
For more than three hours we wandered
among lofty columns, glittering with
crystals, drooping in graceful pendants,
clustered in massive groups, arching here
over endless ways of darkness, and encircling
there the cool, bright waters of a quiet
spring. Some of the pillars have hung for
ages without any support from the ground;
others are reared on high in peaks and
points that are still too short to reach the
lofty ceiling. Some are pink, or grey, or
white, in colour, and far too many are
blackened with thesmoke fromthe pine-wood



torches. Others give solemn musical notes
when struck, and the echo makes them
sound like an organ. In one part, until
lately, you had to be lowered into the depth
by a rope, while you climb the steep sides to
reach still farther caves in other directions.”

And how has all this been formed?
Has it been worked by generations of
artists? Hasit been hewn out by a sudden
convulsion of nature? Was it created thus
with the world itself, and called info being
at once with all its million crystals? Not
one of these. Like many of God’s most
wondrous works, it has been ages in finish-
ing, and this grand mass of underground
architecture has all been formed and
beautified by little drops of water, singly .
adding each its particular atoms to the
whole. The water oozes through the roof,
and brings with it from the mountain above
invisible particles of limestone. ‘The little
drop, like a bead of dew, lingers before its .
fall, and while it hesitates there is deposited
above a small grain of crystal, and then the
drop leaps down and deposits an otherlittle
crystal below. And thus millions of drops
in thousands of years do each their allotted
work, every one bringing the top and
bottom of the pillar they form still nearer
and nearer to each other, until the parts at
last meet and bind together, and remain a
lasting monument far more beautiful than
the richest work of human art.








5 Se HILE, an island
which lies just above
* the first cataract of
3 the Nile, was sacred

Y to Osiris, the most
LA important figure in
> the Egyptian my-
We" thological system. The
island is covered with temples,
but ue of them are older than the era of
the Ptolemies. The original edifices were
destroyed by Persian iconoclasts. and very








THE. TEMPLE OP” PHIL,

few traces of them can be discovered ; it is
difficult now to determine the general plan
of the buildings. 4
The most conspicuous building on the
island is an hypeethral hall, near the landing-
place, vulgarly. known as Pharaoh’s Bed.
It is detached from the main temple, and its
builder and purpose are alike unknown.
It can hardly have been a temple, and may
possibly have been erected merely as an
architectural feature. The most probable
view is, that.1t was a comparatively modern
THE TEMPLE OF PHILA. V1}

erection over the assumed grave of Osiris.
Its situation is very striking, and it
harmonises well with the surrounding
scenery. My. Fairhclt pronounces it ‘the
most exquisite in its effect of any in Egypt.”

The great temple of Isis was approached
by a quay and a flight of steps leading up
from the river at the southern end of the
island. The visitor then passed between a
pair of obelisks, of which only one is now
standing, and along an avenue of Isis-
headed columns to the great propylon. A
peristyle court and a small temple sacred to
Horus are then entered. Another smaller



propylon succeeds, and we reach the grand
portico of the temple of Isis, its columns
glowing with colour, their capitals delicately
and exquisitely designed from lotus, acacia,
and palm leaves. This general plan, how-
ever, fails to give any idea of the bewildering
mazes of corridors, halls, and shrines, which
succeed one another. Perhaps the most
interesting portion of the building is asmall

‘chapel constructed upon the roof of one

of the terraces. The sculptures in this
chamber represent the history of Ositis.
We see the mangled remains of the slain
monarch brought together, women are





























































































































































































































































































































































































weeping round his bier, whilst the symbol

of the soul hovers over the corpse.
Gradually the signs of returning life are
indicated. Winged figures, like the che-
subim of Scripture, stand around over-
shadowing and guarding the body with
their wings. The mystic legend unfolds
itself step by step, till Osiris is seen robed,
crowned, seated upon his throne, bearing
in his hands, which are crossed upon his
breast, the insignia of empire, and he is
installed as the mighty and beneficent ruler
of the invisible world.





On the downfall of the Egyptian my-
thology, Phile became an important Christ-
ian colony. The monks who settled here
like those at Beni Hassan, defaced the
symbols of the old faith and substituted
those of Christianity. Some of these are
very curious. We have not only the cross of
the ordinary form, with the familiar addition
of the palm branch of victory, or inclosed
within. a circle of amaranth symbolising
eternity ; but we find strange combinations
of unusual forms with fanciful additions, of
which it is difficult to discover the meaning.
TIE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





eee
WBA W/E witnessed some years ago
\ the taming of a magnificent
Spanish steed, by an Indian
horse-tamer belonging to the
warlike tribe of the Coman-
ches. The horse belonged
to the Spanish minister to the
Republic of , and, hay-
ing injured several grooms,
and finally having destroyed
the life of one the previous
day, he was doomed to be





shot, unless the Indian could subdue his
hitherto untameable spirit.

A ring was measured and fenced with
high barricades, behind which, at a respect-
ful distance, were placed the seats of the

spectators. These seats were thronged,
and expectation was excited to the utter-
most. At the time appointed, a slight, wiry
Indian, in a hunting suit of hide, glided
into the ring, and was followed by two
grooms, leading the refractory steed. Bit,
rider, and shoes, he had never submitted to,
‘nnd on this occasion his halter had been
exchanged for two iron “ twitches” with
long handles, the clasps confining each
nostril. As he advanced, spurning the
earth in his pride, there was a murmur
of admiration. He stood seventeen hands
high, his colour was coal black, his neck
was arched and crested, his head tapered
to 2 point, and his dilating eyes were flash-
ing fire. The Indian advanced to within
six yards of him, and signalled to the
arsoms to let go and retire. His Spanish
owner remonstrated, and said it would be
certain death; but the man persisted, and
the grooms removed the twitches and
vaulted precipitately over the barricades.
The Indian stood with his arms folded, and
the horse stood on the other side of the
ring. He glanced once round the audience,
and then, perceiving his supposed victim,



2, HORSE-TAMING EXTRAORDINARY.

uttered a scream of rage, and rushed blindly,
madly upon him. The man stepped lightly
aside, and the discomfited horse struck the
barrier with so much force that the spec-
tators sprang up to the higher benches.

In a moment the horse collected himself
for another spring ; but the Indian fixed his
eyes steadily on the infuriated animal, and
slowly advanced towards him. The horse
was now on his hind legs, squealing and
snorting, but he did not advance one step.
The Indian came nearer, and as he
approached the horse settled into a quad-
ruped position, and his rage changed into a
look strongly resembling fear. The tamer
was now within two feet of him, and in this
position the man and the horse remained
during a breathless silence of half an hour.
At first he seemed restive under this steady
gaze, and tossed his head and glanced
uneasily around; but gradually the head
began to droop, the tail, which had been
lashed incessantly and furiously, hung
motionless, the flanks began to quiver, and,
finally, beads of foam stood upon the beau-
tiful neck. The Indian now approached,
still looking steadily, and laid his hands
upon that head which none had ever
approached without a muzzle or a twitch,
except the groom who had been killed on
the day before. He next took the head be-
tween his hands, and for several minutes
breathed into the nostrils. During this pro-
cess the horse became covered with sweat
and foam, and trembled all over, so that it
was no surprise when he followed his
conqueror round the ring as gently as a
favourite pony. A snaffle bridle and a
saddle were brought, and he submitted
quietly to both, and was not the least dis-
concerted when the tamer mounted him,
and amidst rounds of applause rode him
round the ring. Whatever the secret was,
the conquest was complete; the horse was
HORSE-TAMING EXTRAORDINARY.

113



shod the same day, and three weeks after-
wards his owner rode him at a review.

This mode of taming horses is very com-
monly practised by the conjurors of the
Indian tribes; aud some years ago an Irish-
man of the name of Sullivan, known as
“the Whisperer,” pursued a plan which was
supposed to be somewhat similar ; but his
operations, whatever they were, were con-
ducted in solitude, and his secret died with
him. To Mr. Rarey justly belongs the
honour of having introduced into this
country a system of subduing vicious horses,
certain, humane, and safe, and equally far
from jugglery and mystery. We trust that
it will ultimately supersede all the clumsy
tackling and needless cruelties of the horse-
breaker ; but we should hardly advise any
one not possessed of strong nerves and
unusual patience to attempt it as an
amateur. °

Some time ago Mr. Rarey explained and
illustrated his system in the Birmingham
Circus, to an audience evidently interested
practically in horses. From a peculiarly
knowing look, the cut of their coats, and
their mode of walking, it was obvious that
nine-tenths of the people present were
versed in the mysteries of horsemanship.
When Mr. Rarey entered, he was received
with a burst of applause, a repetition of
which demonstration he earnestly depre-
cated, as likely to affect the nerves of his
pupils. This horse-tamer was far more like
an English officer than a horse-breaker. He
was a small, slight man, with good features,
light hair and moustache, and a remarkably
intellectual, gentlemanly expression of coun-
tenance. He was dressed in a dark morn-
ing suit, and his appearance and manner
were equally superior. He began by
describing the manner in which he had

learned by experience the nature of the.

horse—a dear-bought experience, in which
every bone had been broken except his right
arm. He said that all the vice of the horse
was learned from man, and that, if he were
only treated properly, and indications of
what he is to do made to his intellect,
cleverly and gently, instead of hastily and



harshly, he would be the willing servant and
the attached friend of man. He explained his
process upon a quiet horse, and afterwards
subdued two which were decidedly vicious.

The first horse was a beautiful, bright bay,
nearly thorough-bred, with a small head and
bright, timid eyes. He seemed alarmed at
first, and restless ; but a little fondling and
a few quiet words reassured him, and he
followed Mr, Rarey likea dog. After some
explanatory remarks, Mr. Rarey showed
his audience how to approach a horse, how
to handle him, how to examine his feet, and,
finally, how to mount him. He deprecated

the use of powerful bits and curbs in

general, as tending to rouse the spirit of
resistance, and mentioned that the light
snaffle is the only bit used in America. He
severely criticised the way in which English
gentlemen mount their horses, leaning
heavily in the stirrup, grasping mane and
saddle, and not infrequently pulling the
latter almost round—a method of mount-
ing, as he explained, very aggravating to the
horse, and not always effectual till after two
or three attempts have been made. He
then removed the girths of the saddle, and,
placing one foot in the stirrup, sprang
lightly on the horse’s back. He next
stood in the stirrup, balancing himself over
the saddle, and politely hinted that no man
was a perfect equestrian who could not
mount as gracefully, and then, dismount-
ing, vaulted lightly into the saddle without
the aid of stirrups at all, implying by his
language that the stirrup was only an inven-
tion for old age. After going through the
well-known process of strapping up the fore
legs, throwing the horse down, beating a
drum on his back, etc., which we were sorry
to see tried upon the gentle thorough-bred,
Mr. Rarey tamed an unbroken cart colt,
evidently too sulky to turn out well, and.
neither spirited nor vicious enough to afford
much interest to the spectators.

The crowning feature of the lecture. was
the introduction of a huge, powerful black
dray-horse, eighteen hands high, which -
could never be shod, and could only be
approached, when unmuzzled, by one man,
{14
who always carried a short, stout stick. The
expected advent of this animal created as
much buzz and excitement as the entrance
of a savage bull into the arena at Madrid,
and sundry sounds heard during the previous
halfhour had only quickened expectation.
After a short interval Mr. Rarey entered
the ring, looking as cool as if no contest
awaited him, followed speedily by two
grooms leading the equine monster, whose
huge muzzle, heavy-cut bridle, and cruel bit,
causing blood to drop from his- mouth,
added to the ferocity of his appearance. Mr.
Rarey slowly stepped up to the animal and
removed the muzzle, a kindness which he
requited by making a savage plunge with
intent to bite—an intent only frustrated by
the agility of the American. Mr, Rarey
then succeeded in getting close to the left
shoulder, although the horse struck out most
savagely with his fore legs, and, passing his
right arm over the animal, by means of the
bridle, dragged the head so much to the
right as to secure himself from being bitten,
and diminish the facility of striking out. In
this position the horse, squealing, kicking,
and plunging as much as he could, dragged
Mr. Rarey ten times round the ring, and
once so far succeeded in extricating himself
as to make a desperate plunge at the barri-
cades, which sent the occupants of the
lower seats panic-stricken to the galleries.
It seemed doubtful whether man or horse
would conquer, when Mr. Rarey, taking
advantage of a moment’s pause, strapped
up the hitherto unapproachable fore leg,
and the infuriated horse, uttering a sound
between bellowing and squealing, plunged
round the ring on three legs.

Another strap was now passed round the
pastern of the right leg, the end of which
Mr. Rarey retained in his hand, and as the
horse plunged, he was pulled down on his
knees. The after-contest was most exciting,
for the horse, rendered desperate, turned
upon his fancied tormentor with his teeth,

his only remaining weapons, and plunged °

upon him for nearly a quarter of an hour, so
that it was only by great agility that he



THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

animal’s ponderous weigat. Although the
horse was on his knees, the hind legs were
in their natural position, which gave him a
most helpless appearance. At last science
prevailed over brute force, and the horse,
now nearly covered with foam,and very much
exhausted, fell over on his side with a heavy
groan, and lay stretched upon the straw.
His temper being apparently overcome,
the heavy bit was replaced by a light
snaffle, and he was caressed and fondled.
Mr. Rarey then jumped backwards and for-
wards across him, and proceeded to stroke
his hind legs. This roused the yet untamed
spirit, and he struck out so savagely with
his huge hoofs as to injure himself as well
as alarm the audience. He raised himself
on his knees, and made savage attempts to
bite, but was again thrown down, and this
time submitted to be stroked and have his
hoofs rapped together. The fore legs were
now unstrapped, and Mr. Rarey gave several
sentences of his lecture while sitting on the
horse’s side. He was then. allowed to rise ;
but as soon as Mr. Rarey attempted to mount
him, he became very savage, and plunged
several times round the ring as at first.
The whole process was re-performed, and
the second time with success; but Mr.
Rarey vaulted on the horse’s back simul-
taneously with his rise from the ground, and
never attempted either to saddle him or beat
the drum. It was so evident that he was
exhausted rather than subjugated that Mr.
Rarey informed the audience that three more
lessons would be required for the purpose.
The cardinal points of Mr. Rarey’s
system are—first, never to let the horse
know his strength; and, second, to make
him man’s friend by patient and gentle
treatment ; and, for his success in improv-
ing the condition of this faithful and noble
servant of man, he richly deserves the
medal presented to him by the Society for
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. We
trust that his system will be universally
practised, and that the whips, spurs, Mame-
luke bits, head-straps, and surcingles, of the
horse-breaker, with the rest of his barbarous

escaped being bitten, or crushed by the ; apparatus, will be banished for ever.
WATERSPOUTS.





vessel, for the West Indies,
and reached the vicinity of
that latitude which bears the
name of the Tropic of Cancer,
It would be difficult to con-
ceive a more perfect calm.
Not a cloud marred the soft
even tone of the vast blue
firmament, mellowed and en-
riched with a glowing tinge by the warm
settled flood of light that permeated the
arch above and around us; not a breath
disturbed the unruffled surface of the deep :
when suddenly the smooth surface of the
waters was roused into action, and with
our yards braced up we were again driving
through the breaking billows with an ad-
verse wind.

But it was not to last. A growing gloom
was now spreading itself around us, save
only where, at intervals, the solar rays
pierced through the rifts in the clouds. The
sails collapsed and swelled alternately,
flapping the masts. In the meantime the
sea had changed its hue from a pure trans-
lucent blue to a greenish murky cast. Its
crested and graceful undulations had also



broken into a cross unequal action, as ifin |

the throes of hopeless impotency. The
sails hung heavily from the yards, while the
brief, half-whispered remarks among the
crew, who stood gazing around, imparted a
livelier sense of the silence they disturbed.
It was a solemn scene, and yet how beauti-
ful!—beautiful, and, it might be, fearful.
Above, below, around the circling expanse,
all seemed spell-bound in a breathless pause.
All was dark and murky, except to the
eastward, where a long streak of the blue
ether still appeared beneath a rugged arch,
formed by the straggling edges of the wide-
spreading vapours which had so suddenly
conspired to shroud the face of heaven from
our view.



WATERSPOUTS.

But the central point of the gloomy mass,
which had appeared settling immediately
above our heads, had imperceptibly moved
more to the westward, and now hung lower,
with a bulging curve towards the waters, as
if sustaining some ponderous weight, or, re-
plete with the material of storm, was about
to burst its bounds and scatter desolation
around it.

“Stand by your topsail and top-gallant
halliards! See your top-gallant sheets all
clear there !” exclaimed the captain.

“ All clear, sir!” was the brief reply ; and
the order and response alone disturbed the
prevailing silence, and, for a moment, di-
verted fixed attention from the threatening
point of attraction which was now palpably
in motion. Still,no breath of air moved
the sails, or raised a ripple upon the
smooth dark waters, or even disturbed the
light feathers that formed the dog-vane.
Still, we gazed intently upon the moving
mass—black, compact, and ponderous—
that now within a hundred yards, in one
vast convoluted heap, gravitated towards
us, and threatened to eject its mighty bur-
den into the sea beneath. :

But look, look to the eastward! The
arch has increased its span; its jagged
edges are breaking and rolling into fantas-
tic fragments, and in patches it is slowly
scudding across the mottled area of the
gloom above. Above, below, around the
circling expanse, all now seems gliding into
motion, and yet all is silent and breathless ;
and the gloom itself, as if rallying its
strength, concentrates with an increasing
intensity of blackness above and round the
rolling mass upon which our glances in-
stinctively settle. See, see! its curving
outline is now protruding toa point below;
now, like some monster’s limb, thrusting out
the integument that conceals the mighty
conflict within it. Look! the sea beneath
is now agitated into a ripple ; now rises
119

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



into a pointed hillock; and now, jetting
slowing upward, meets and interfuses with
the descending vapour.

“Look sharp there, Mr. Tompion,” vo-
ciferates the captain, “and have a gun
ready !”

“ Ay, ay, sir.” See how the volume in-
creases! Upward, in a concentric body,
now rush the whirling waters, while far
around the base the eddying tide obeys the
impulse, gurgling and rippling in its course.
The vessel gently heels and rolls to the
rising swell ; some secret influence appears
to penetrate the deep, and suddenly. to
rouse its teeming inmates into sudden ac-
tivity. Albicores and bonettas and dol-
phins, in wild confusion, appear and
disappear in constant and quick succession ;
yonder, with a whizzing and seething sound,
a shoal of porpoises, like a herd of black
swine, disport upon the waters; and the
dorsal fin and pointed tail of the prowling
shark betrays with a long trailing ripple
its discursive course. Above, below, around
the circling expanse, all is now in motion :
instinct with life, the waters ripple, gleam,
and glitter.

“ Be quick, there, with that gun, before
the breeze takes us!” again shouts the cap-
tain ; “‘ brace round the yards—let go your
starboard braces—bowlines there forward—
hurrah! my lads,—away with the larboard
braces—round with them !”

Upwards still the waters whirl from their
base; and now a thick connected pillar
form, with the funnel-shaped volume of roll-
ing clouds above, and with the lowering
superincumbent mass, a mighty barrier
seems to form in defiance of the advancing
breeze. Onward it comes, with myriad
billows dancing in its track! Thicker and
thicker the column expands; around its
gurgling pedestal the bosom of the waters
heaves and undulates, and the vessel, heel-
ing to and fro, is yielding to its treacherous
indraught.

‘All ready with the gun, sir!” exclaims
a voice.

“Fire, then ; fire!” responds the captain.
Bang goes the gun; the welkin reverbe-



rates the report, and the rolling smoke in
fantastic forms contrasts its whiteness with
the impending gloom. The unwieldy mass
trembles with the concussion ; the pillar, for
a moment, leans obliquely, then breaks, and
now down, down in one long precipitate
heap the waters splash and whirl, and foam
upon the sea beneath; while far around, as
through a vast sieve, in scattered streams
they fall, drenching the sails and decks, and
rousing the smooth surface of the deep into
violent ebullition.

Havoc-stricken, the vaporous fabric rolls
and breaks, and now the sun spears with
his golden beams the severed fragments as
they fly before the upper currents of the
freshening breeze. Onward it comes!
How like the serried phalanx of a martial
host, the dark blue waves with feathered
crests advance !

“Stand by your top-gallant halliards—
mind your weather helm, there!” See, see,
it catches the topmost vanes; now shakes
the lighter sails. ‘ Hard-up with the helm!”
the captain cries; and now, descending in
its full career, the vessel heels, the billows
break, and the noble vessel starts into
buoyant life, Far, far away the vapours,
now coridensed, and melting into filmy
haze, with scudding rain, are sweeping to-
wards the west, whilst the refulgent sun,
‘*Not as in northern climes, obscurely bright,

But one unclouded blaze of living light,

O’er the wide deep his yellow beams he throws,
Gilds the blue wave that trembles as it glows.”

Our picture represents one of Her Ma
jesty’s cruisers off the Gold Coast on the
edge of a tornado, while on a passage from
the Palmas to Cape Coast Castle. This
coast, which usually enjoys fair weather, is
occasionally visited by violent revolving
storms, luckily of short duration, which are
very dangerous. On this occasion several
waterspouts formed around our vessel, the
Boxer. The ship was under all plain sail,
when the weather began to assume a threat-
ening appearance, and waterspouts were
seen forming in all directions, revolving and
travelling at a high rate of speed. One or
them appeared to be coming straight for
























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































HER MAJESTY’S SHIP ‘‘ BOXER” SURROUNDED BY WATERSPOUTS.
THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



118
the ship. ‘Hands, shorten sail! Clear
away the bow gun!” were the orders. Ina

very short time the little craft was under
bare poles, and the gun ready with a blank
charge; but the column took a sudden
curve, the water at the base roaring in a
very unpleasant manner, and was soon seen
dissolving with the others, rendering the fire

of the bow gun unnecessary, a blank charge
from which would have been sufficient to
have broken any waterspout coming too
close ; but, happily, they all passed clear.
Then a perfect calm ensued ; steam was
soon got up, amidst a perfect deluge of
rain, which lasted about an hour, and the
little ship steamed away on her passage.



REMARKABLE

“ EHOLD how great a matter

x i a little fire kindleth.” Wit-
y ) ness the unextinguished
embers left by many a
camping - party in nature’s
wilds. Fanned by the
breeze, and wafted a few
yards to dry grass or stub-
ble, a conflagration has been
sent roaring over leagues of
prairie ground, consuming
miles of forest, driving the
wild animals away in terror, and the smoke
of the country has gone up like the smoke
of a furnace. The overheating of a baker’s
oven once set London in a blaze, and re-
duced half the metropolis to ashes, from
the Tower to Temple Bar. This event,
the Great Fire of our annals, occurred in
the year after the Great Plague. It broke
out early in the morning of Sunday, Sep-
tember 2, 1666, close to the present Monu-
ment, and raged for four days and four
nights with unabated fury. Everything
favoured the progress of the devouring
element. The dwellings were generally of
wood pitched on the outside; the roofs
were thatched ; the streets were narrow, the
upper stories of the houses on opposite
sides projected so as nearly to touch each
other; the woodwork was dry and com-
bustible, owing to the heat and drought of
the preceding month; and at the same
time the wind blew furiously from the east.
Thus aided, the Fire King marched victori-





CONFLAGRATIONS.

ously from east to west, and took posses-
sion of more than four hundred acres of
ground. He made his meal of four hundred
streets and lanes, thirteen thousand houses,
eighty churches, besides chapels and public
buildings, and gormandized over from ten
to fifteen millions’ worth of private property.
His course was only arrested on the fol-
lowing Thursday, when the wind abated,
and an immense gap was made by the
blowing up of the buildings in the path of
the flames.

There are several contemporary accounts
of this terrible catastrophe, but none more

| real and striking than that by John Evelyn.

“Oh,” remarks he, “the miserable and
calamitous spectacle! such as happily the
world hath not seen since the foundation
of it, nor can be outdone till the universal
conflagration thereof. All the sky was of.
fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven,
and the light seen above forty miles round
about. God grant mine eyes may never
behold the like! The noise, crackling, and
thunder of the impetuous flames, the shriek-
ing of women, the hurry of people, the fall
of towers, houses, and churches, was like a
hideous storm, and the air all about was so
hot and inflamed that at last one was not
able to approach it,so that they were forced
to stand still and let the flames burn on,
which they did for near two miles in length
and one in breadth. The clouds also of
smoke were dismal, and reached upon com-
putation near fifty miles in length. Thus I
REMARKABLE CONFLAGRATIONS.,

‘left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance
of Sodom, or the last day.”

Though few lives were lost, yet the suf
fering was immense, from want of food and
necessary exposure in the open fields.
Evelyn tells us that he went “towards
Islington and Highgate, where one might
have seen 200,000 of all ranks and degrees
dispersed and lying along by their heaps of
what they had saved from the fire.” But
while a great immediate evil, an immense
advantage was the final result, as better
dwellings and broader streets took the
place of the filthy dens and narrow lanes
where plague and pestilence had been nur-
tured.

Of all cities of the modern epoch, and
perhaps of ancient times, Moscow has suf
fered the most fearfully from fires. In
1536, it was nearly consumed, and two
thousand persons perished. But this cala-
mity was trifling to the dismal catastrophe
of 1571, when beleaguered by the Tartars.
They fired the suburbs, and a furious wind
carried the flames into the heart of the
capital, which the inhabitants could not quit
except to die by the sword. A Dutch mer-
chant who was present at the scene, and
whose account is preserved in the Harleian
MSS., speaks of the event as like a storm
of fire, owing not only to the wind, but to
the streets being “paved with great fir
trees set close together, oily and resinous,”
while the houses were of the same material.
Thousands of the country people had taken
refuge in the city from the public enemy.
The poor creatures ran into the market-
place, and were ‘all roasted there, in such
sort that the tallest man seemed but a
child, so much had the fire contracted their
limbs—a thing more hideous and frightful
than any can imagine.” “ The persons,” he
adds, “that were burnt in this fire were
above two hundred thousand”—an exag-
geration, doubtless, but an indication of a
horrible incident.

A. still more stupendous conflagration
was the burning of Moscow in 1812, owing
to its increased extent. If attended with
fewer horrors, they were sufficiently rife,





TI9

for all who could not fly—the sick, infirm,
and wounded—inevitably perished. Upon
the approach of the French invaders, and
the loss of the great battle of Borodino, it
was determined to abandon the old capi-
tal of the Czars; and on Sunday, Septem
ber 13th, its three hundred thousand in-
habitants were suddenly aroused from a
sense of security by a peremptory order to
quit their houses, while the Russian army of
defence filed through the midst of them in
full retreat. On the morrow, the officers of
the government and the police withdrew;
the prisons were thrown open; and none
were left but the incapable, and those who
remained to execute the secret orders of
the authorities. Towards evening the ad-
vanced guard of the enemy arrived, and
before midnight Napoleon was in the
Kremlin. The city, with its churches and
palaces of semi-Asiatic architecture, rising
above an immense mass of private dwell-
ings, must have presented a strange, solemn,
and even awful spectacle to the new comers.
Not a Moscovite was to be seen; not a
chimney smoked ; not a sound was heard
An unclouded moon illuminated those de-
serted streets, vacant hotels, and empty
palaces. “How does the city sit solitary
that was full oi people.”

Scarcely were the French established in
their new quarters, when smoke and flames
were observed issuing from houses closely
shut up in different districts. By Tuesday
evening, the 15th, the fires had assumed a
menacing aspect, distracting by their num-
ber the efforts made to quench them, while
a high wind rapidly connected them with
each other, and wrapped Moscow in a vast
sheet of flame. Midnight was rendered as
bright as day, for at that hour, at the dis-
tance of nearly a league, Dumas could read
the despatches forwarded to him by the
light of the burning metropolis. Thirty
thousand houses, seven thousand principal
edifices, and fourteen thousand inferior
structures, were reduced to ashes. The
private loss is supposed to have exceeded
thirty millions sterling. “Palaces and
temples,” writes Karamsin. the Russian
120
historian, “monuments of art and miracles
of luxury; the remains of past ages, and
those which had been the creation of yes-
terday; the tombs of ancestors and the
nursery cradles of the present generation,
were indiscriminately destroyed.” Napoleon
shuddered at the sight as ominous of a
series of disasters, and was compelled to
decamp precipitately. Much mystery has
been affected with reference to this trans-
action. But there can be little doubt
that as it was intended to dislodge the
French, it was the work of Rostopschin
the governor, carefully prepared for, with.
the full consent of the cabinet of St. Peters-
burg. He was observed to bring along
with him, on joining the army, a number of
fire-engines. On being asked why he had
brought such things, he replied that he had
“good reasons for doing so. Neverthe-
less,” he added, “as regards myself, I have
only brought the horse I ride, and the
clothes I wear.”
“ By their own hands their much-loved homes were
fired,
By their own hands their thousand fanes expired ;
Fierce burn the flames, that waft to yonder skies
The incense of the patriot sacrifice.
The wide bazaar, within whose stately walls
A kingdom’s ransom filled the golden halls,
Rich ag the fabled Phcenix’ funeral bed,
In one full blaze of perfumed flame had fled ;
Tower kindles tower, and fires on fires arise ;
To aid the dreadful death the tempest flies,
Speeds with the swiftness of the mountain storm,
To where the Kremlin rears his iron form ;
With wreathéd flames his regal towers are crowned,
While hollow whirlwinds dance and moan around.”

It is a curious fact that, the year after the

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.

fire, seedling aspen plants sprang up every-
where among the ruins of the city. That
tree is very abundant in Russia, particularly
in the woods around Moscow. The seeds
had been wafted by the winds; and if the
inhabitants had not returned to the site, it
would speedily have becorme one immense
forest.

A prominent place belongs to Constanti-
nople in the list of firedoomed cities.
In 1729, a conflagration which raged three
days consumed twelve thousand houses, and
no less than seven thousand persons ; ano-
ther, in 1745, of five days’ duration, proved
fatal to six thousand ; a third, in 1751, cost
a thousand lives; a fourth, in 1756, de-
stroyed two thousand ; a fifth, in 1791, the
most destructive of all, swept away thirty
thousand dwellings, and nearly eight thou-
sand of their inmates. The Danish capital
comes next to the City of the Sultan. Three
times in the last century was Copenhagen
burnt almost to the ground; and during
the bombardment of 1807, a fire broke out
which lasted three days, when four thousand
persons perished. Gothenburg in Sweden,
Flushing in Holland, Gabel in Bohemia,
Gera in Saxony, and Geneva, may be added
to the dismal catalogue. But no calamity
of this nature, in the present century, has
yet equalled that which befel the old city
of Hamburg, in 1842, as to the value of the
property destroyed, estimated at more than
eight millions sterling, when the lives of
three hundred persons are supposed to
have been sacrificed, and most of the im-
portant public buildings were laid in ruins,










LL travellers in the Western
\, States speak of the amazing

fertility of the boundless
: prairies. Better land than
that of Illinois for cereal crops the world’s
‘Surface probably cannot show. Enormous
prairies stretch across the State, into which

(CASES

aes ee I
Sy, THE WHEAT-F

ELD OF THE WORLD.

the plough can be put at once. The earth

| is rich with the vegetation of thousands of

years, and the farmer’s return is given to
him without delay. The land bursts with
its own produce, and the plenty is such
that it creates wasteful carelessness in the
| gathering of the crop. ‘Up in Minnesota,”
THE WHEAT-FIELD OF THE WORLD.

I2t



says Mr. Trollope, “I had been grieved
by the loose manner in which wheat was
treated. I have seen bags of it upset and
left upon the ground ; the labour of collect-
ing it was more than it was worth. There
wheat is the chief crop, and as the lands
become cleared and cultivation spreads
itself, the amount coming down the Mis-
sissippi will be increased almost to infinity.
Wheat and corn are sown by the thousand
acres in a piece. I heard of one farmer
who had 10,000 acres of corn.”

In the San Joaquin Valley, California,
there are three wheat farms, with areas
respectively of 36,000, 23,000, and 17,000
acres. On the largest of these farms
the wheat crop last year averaged 40
bushels to the acre, the yield running up
on some parts of the farm to 60 bushels.
The product of this farm tor the year was
1,440,000 bushels. The boundary on one
side of the farm is about seventeen miles
long. At the season of ploughing ten four-
horse teams were attached to ten gang-
ploughs, each gang having four ploughs—
or forty horses with as many ploughs were
started at the same time, the teams following
in close succession. Lunch or dinner was
served at a midway station, and supper at
the terminus of the field, seventeen miles
distant from the starting-point. The teams
returned on the following day. The wheat
in this immense field was cut with twenty
of the largest reapers. It would require
over forty ships of medium size to transport
the wheat raised here to a foreign market.

Thirty years ago grain and flour were
sent westward out of the State of New
York to supply the wants of those who had
emigrated into the prairies, and now we
find that it will be the destiny of these
prairies to feed the universe. “ Chicago
is the main point of exportation north-
westward from Illinois, and sends out from
its granaries more cereal produce than any
other town in the world. I went down to
the granaries, and climbed up‘into the
- elevators. I saw the wheat running in
rivers from one vessel into another, and
fom the railroad vans up into the huge



bins on the top stores of the warehouses—
for these rivers of food run up-hill as easily
as they do down. I saw the corn measured
by the forty-bushel measure with as much
ease as we measure an ounce of cheese,
and with greater rapidity. I ascertained
that the work went on day and night
incessantly, rivers of wheat and rivers of
maize ever running. I saw the men bathed
in corn as they distributed it in its flow. I
saw bins by the score laden with wheat, in
each of which bins there was space for a
comfortable residence. I breathed the
flour, and drank the flour, and felt myself
to be enveloped in a world of breadstuff.
And then I believed, understood, and
brought it home to myself as a fact, that
here in the corn islands of Michigan, and
amidst the bluffs of Wisconsin, and on the
high table plains of Minnesota, and the
prairies of Illinois, had God prepared the |
food for the increasing millions of the
eastern world, as also for the coming
millions of the western.”

We must now give a description of the
grain elevator; that is, the machinery by
which the grain is transferred from the
canal barge to the ocean-going vessel. To
make it clear, it should be explained that
the grain is carried loose in bulk: sacks or
bags are never used.

The floating elevator resembles in appear-
ance the body of a huge windmill. Its
apparatus consists, in the centre, of the
steam-engine by which the elevator is
revolved, and a weighing machine which
contains about forty bushels. On the left
side is an endless band, carrying a series of
iron scoops, similar to those used in the
river-dredging machines. On the right of
the elevator is a covered shoot, leading
down to the hold of the ship.

We will suppose the elevator to have
been fairly fixed in its position. between
the two vessels—the hold of the canal barge
to be opened, and the feeding-shaft of the
elevator placed in working order. The
endless band, with its fifty iron scoops (each
holding a bushel or a bushel and a half), is
set in motion, and the grain is carried up
I22

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



to the level of the elevator, each scoop
successively emptying its contents into the
square box in the centre, which serves, at
one and the same time, to measure and
weigh. When the square box (which holds
forty bushels) is filled, the clock-work
arrangement attached to the machine is
set in motion, the motion of the feeding-
shaft is suspended, and the trap-bottom of
the weigher being released, the grain is
precipitated into the shoot on the other
side of the elevator. This operation is
continued until the barge is entirely un-
loaded, when another takes its place.
this means a load of 10,000 tons can be
cleared in four hours, and the “school” of
150 barges, with the aid of three or four
elevators, be released for the homeward
trip in about four days.

A popular writer has graphically described
this interesting operation: “An elevator
is as ugly a monster as has been yet pro-
duced. In uncouthness of form it outdoes
those obsolete old brutes who used to roam
about the semi-aqueous world, and live a
most uncomfortable life with their great
hungering stomachs and huge unsatisfied
maws. The elevator itself consists of a
big moveable trunk,—moveable as is that
of an elephant, but not pliable, and less
graceful even than an elephant’s. This is
attached to a huge granary or barn; but
in order to give dltitude within the barn
for the necessary moving up and down of
this trunk—seeing that it cannot be curled
gracefully to its purposes as the elephant’s
is curled—there is an awkward box erected
on the roof of the barn, giving some twenty
feet of additional height, up into which the
elevator can be thrust.

It will be understood, then, that this big
moveable trunk, the head of which, when
it is at rest, is thrust up into the box on
the roof, is made to slant down in an
oblique direction from the building to the
river. For the elevator is an amphibious
institution, and flourishes best on the banks
of navigable waters. When its head is
ensconced within its box, and the beast
of prey is thus nearly hidden within the

By.





building, the unsuspicious vessel is brought
up within reach of the creature’s trunk, and
down it comes, like a mosquito’s proboscis,
right through the deck, in at the open aper-
ture of the hold, and so into the very vitals
and bowels of the ship. When there, it
goes to work upon its food with a greed
and an avidity that is disgusting to a be-

| holder of any taste or imagination.

And now I must explain the anatomical
arrangement by which the elevator still
devours and continues to devour, till the
corn within its reach has all been swallowed,
masticated, and digested. Its long trunk,
as seen slanting down from out of the
building across the wharf and into the ship, is
amere wooden pipe ; but this pipe is divided
within. It has two compartments; and as
the grain-bearing troughs pass up the one on
a pliable band, they pass empty down the
other. The system therefore is that of an
ordinary dredging machine ; only that corn,
and not mud, is taken away, and that the
buckets or scoops are hidden from sight.
Below, within the stomach of the poor bark,
three or four labourers are at work, helping
tofeed the elevator. They shovel the corn
up towards its maw, so that at every swallow
he should take in all that he could hold.
Thus the scoops, as they ascend, are kept
full, and when they reach the upper building
they empty themselves into a shoot, over
which a porter stands guard, moderating
the shoot by a trap-door, which the weight
of his finger can open and close. Through
this doorway the corn runs into a measure,
andis weighed. By measures of forty bushels
each the tale is kept. There stands the
apparatus, with the figures plainly marked,
over against the porter’s eye; and as the
sum mounts nearly up to forty bushels he
closes the door till the grains run thinly
through, hardly a handful at a time, so that
the balance is exactly struck. Then the

-teller standing by marks down his figure,

and the record is made. The exact porter
touches the string of another door, and the
forty bushels of corn run out at the bottom
of the measure, disappear down a shoot,
and deposit themselves in the canal-boat.”
HATR-DRESSING EXTRAORDINARY.

123





HAIR-DRESSING EXTRAORDINARY.

RAVELLERS have de-
scribed the curious
and fantastic modes
of dressing the hair
adopted by
the natives of
Africa. Some
of them were
= very singu-
= lar. At Lon-
a ae da the fa-
shions of the natives reminded Livingstone
of the ancient Egyptians. Some of the ladies
adopt thecurious custom of attaching the hair
to a hoop which encircles the head, giving
it somewhat the appearance of the glory
round the head of the Virgin. The hair
is taken in single locks, stretched out to
its greatest length, and fastened by the
ends to the hoop which is held in
place by strong wires, and its edge
ornamented with shells. By means
of gum-arabic and ashes the hair is
retained in a variety of odd shapes till ©
after some years it keeps the desired
shape of itself. Sometimes it is like
a cock’s comb, and sometimes like a
fan. One will have his hair done up
in rolls over the head like ridges on
a melon, while another trains his to
stand out like the rays of the-sun,
as usually represented in pictures.
Others wear an ornament of woven
hair and hide adorned with beads,
-and some weave it into the form of
buffalo horns. Among the Obbos,
when a man’s relative dies, his suc-
cessor cuts off his hair and adds it to
his own, so that their wigs sometimes
attain a huge size. Some plaita fillet
two inches wide, of the inner bark of
trees, shave the wool off the lower
part of the head to an inch above the
ear, tie this fillet on, having rubbed
it and the wool which is left with red

.






Aa



ochre mixed in oil. It gives them the
appearance of having on a neat forage cap.

The Gallas dress up their heads in very
fantastic fashions; sometimes shaving off
the hair in the front, but leaving it on the
crown, and plaiting that down in a circular
plait, or training it into the form of a flat-
crowned cap.

But most of the elaborate hair-dressing
is on the heads of the men. The women

frequently wear’ their hair in the simplest
manner, perhaps for the reason that the
wife does the cooking, cultivates the land,
adorns the body of her husband with paint,
tattoes him in wonderful patterns, and dresses
his hair, which must be pretty well enough
to keep her time fully occupied.


124

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





HOW SEWING-MACHINES. ARE MADE,

Nr, HE inventor of the
first working sew-
ing-machine was
a poor mechanic
named Elias
Howe, a native
of Massachusetts,

a8 in America. Like James Har-
~ greaves, the inventor of the
spinning-jenny, it was whilst




\



\

ey



observing the weary labour of his wife and’

other poor women that Howe conceived
the idea of a machine that should lighten
their work. After incessant labour, during
the latter part of which he and his family
were indebted to a friend for the means of
subsistence, he took out a patent for his
sewing-machine. This wasin the year 1841.
His invention, however, did not meet with
the encouragement it deserved, and Howe
came to England, and after patenting it sold
it toa London firm. On returning to his
own country he found his patent pirated by
a wealthy company; he, however, clearly
established his rights, and in the course of
a few years he became a wealthy man.

Many and various are the improvements
that have been made in this invention since
Howe first brought it into use. There are
several rival companies, each claiming the
superiority for its own machines. The fol-
lowing description of a walk through the
extensive works of the Wheeler and Wilson
Company, in Bridgeport, Connecticut, will
interest our readers :—

The works of this manufactory cover
about seven acres of ground, and for some
time past have turned out fifty machines an
hour. Their business employs in its various
connections, as mechanics, salesmen, and
agents, from six to seven thousand men and
women, If we estimate, as is usually done,
four persons to each family represented, we
have a population of nearly or quite thirty



thousand, a good-sized inland city, it will
be perceived, supported directly by this
industry. There is a post-office in the
establishment, and a very pleasant sight it
is to see the men at noon gathering here for
their letters and papers.

The work is carried on in a manner which
may not be unusual, but which was novel to
us. All tools and materials are furnished
at a certain price to subordinates, who are
jobbers or contractors, and who furnish the
finished article, or, to speak more accu-
rately, the article finished up to a certain
point, at a definite sum per piece. The
company reserve the right to accept or
reject work, and also the right to discharge
any workman, though employed by a con-
tractor. Thus they keep control of their
great establishment and yet give to their
employés a share in the profits and an interest
in its progress.

We follow our conductor out of the office,
through a short passage-way into the large
machine-room, Whew! what a change
from absolute quietness to this ceaseless
racket! It isa long room, and is full of
machines, drilling, planing, turning, cutting,
polishing away with indefatigable and tireless
energy, every one busier than that traditional
emblem of industry the bee: busier and
buzzier, too, for never did any hive so hum
and buzz with activity as this great hall.

The room is composed of two halls of
unequal length, at right angles to each
other. We ask our conductor how many
machines he has at work here. He
does not know. We count in one row
twenty-eight, and there are five or six rows.
We abandon in despair all attempt at mak-
ing an estimate of the entire number. They
are for the most part lathes and drills,
Every conceivable and inconceivable kind
of turning and boring is performed here.
Oil, oil, oil everywhere ; the whole room is
FiOW SEWING-MACHINES ARE MADE.

125



soaked in oii. And yet, despite its super-
abundance, the iron and steel in certain of
these manifold operations smoke with the
heat of the friction. This is the room where
the bobbin and hook, the centre and heart
of the sewing-machine, are made, or rather
finished.

The operation of the hook and bobbin is
exceedingly simple when seen at work, but
very difficult to describe. In the Wheeler
and Wilson machines the needle plays up
and down from above, forming one thread
of the stitch, while the hook catches it from
below and locks it into the other thread,
forming what is termed the “lock-stitch.”
The bobbin is the spool which furnishes the
lower thread; it lies in the machine close
against the hook.

The work involved in the manufacture
of the sewing-machine is apparent from the
statement that the bobbin alone has to go
through seven distinct machines before it is
completed and ready for use, and that the
glass plate in the pressure-foot goes through
from eighteen to twenty-five distinct opera-
tions. It is perhaps better illustrated in
an adjoining apartment—the furnace-room.
Here we trace the first step in the manu-
facture of the hook. A furnace and a
stamping-machine stand side by side. The
stamping-machine is operated on a prin:
ciple somewhat analogous to that of a
pile-driver. An immense weight is lifted
up by machinery till it reaches the
desired height, then falls with a clang on
the rod. The machine is four-sided, and
the rod, heated in the adjoining furnace,
goes from one side to the other till it has
completed the circuit. The hook (wheel and
shaft)is made from one solid piece of metal—
an improvement on the old method. Thence
it goes into the lathe-room to be turned
into its final form—“ the rotating hook.”

4m even more striking illustration of the
complicated operations required is afforded
by the history of the needle, which. enters
the needle-room a long coil of wire and
issues from it ready for the sewing-machine.
In the course of this circuit it goes through
ten distinct operations.

The most picturesque operation in the
whole factory is that of tempering the
springs. ‘The capacious and lofty hall, with
its smoke-begrimed walls and dusty atmo-
sphere, filled with stalwart workmen, their
faces and brawny arms lighted with the glare
from the many forges, and the banging and
clanging of hammers large and small, all
form accessories to the grand illumination
from the burning oil. The springs, though
a seemingly small partof the sewing-machine,
perform a very important function : on their
perfection largely depend the accuracy and
smoothness of the working of the whole.
The tempering of these springs, therefore, is
a work requiring very great care and accuracy
in the workman. An assistant arranges a
number of them on a sort of frame so that
they present the appearance of a wicker-
basket. The workman then heats them to
an intense heat in his furnace, determining
the heat by the colour, and then plunges
them into a pail of oil, which is itself kept
cool by being immersed in a large tub of
water. : The oil blazes up instantly, lighting
the spot with a peculiar lurid glare, but goes
out when the springs are withdrawn. The
oil quickly burns off from them, the work-
man meanwhile revolving them slowly in
the air. Everything in this operation
depends upon his skill and judgment. It
sometimes seems as though there were
nothing which machinery could not do ; but
it can never do the work of brains ; it can
never exercise judgment.

Then there is the polishing-room, where
the emery-wheels are revolving with incal-
culable speed, lighting up the face of the
operator with a shower of sparks; there
is the carpenter’s shop, where the cases for
these machines, themselves of various forms
and patterns, are in process of manufacture;
there is the casting-room, where the cast-
ings are made; there is the great engine-
room, which supplies all the “ power”;
there is the finishing-room, where the
various parts of the machine, made by so
many different hands, are put together and
adjusted; and the trying-room, where a
hundred or so of sewing-machines, in a row,
(26

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.





are busily at work doing nothing, driven by
steam in a profitless industry, the office of
which is to see that they are really ready for
the market.

In an article on sewing-machines, the
Times says, “The majority of sewing-
machines make what is called- the lock-
stitch, by far the most durable method of
sewing. In order to accomplish this, a loop
of thread is thrust by the eye-pointed needle
through the material to be sewn. This loop
is threaded by a shuttle, and by this means
is made to interlock within its substance—a |
very important feature, inasmuch as the
fastening of the thread is protected from the
friction of wear in washing. All machines

used in trades where strength of sewing is :

required make this stitch; indeed, cloth

| loop-stitch which is apt to unravel.



and leather work would not bear the loop-

stitch fastening, which is made outside of
the material sewn, and forms a ridge very
liable to be worn away. The Wheeler and
Wilson machine, which is the one best cal-
culated for household work, makes the lock-
stitch by means of a rotating hook, which
interlaces the thread on the under side and
does away with the necessity for the shuttle,
which is unnecessarily noisy. There are
other machines which substitute a looper
for the shuttle, and make a single-thread
Some
of these sewing-machines are very extrava-
gant in the use of thread, one making a
double loop-chain, using five yards of thread
to one of sewing. ‘This is a serious matter
looked upon in a manufacturer’s point of
view, where the great and all-important aim
is to economise the material.”



DAMMING OUT



\\; ESIDE the most marvellous
<< results of human labour and
yj |\ perseverance may be placed
the dikes and “ polders” of
Holland. In that country
eight of the provinces are
below the level of the sea, |
which is only kept out by
enormous dikes, The Water-
staat, or department of the
Government which has the
superintendence of these
works, is, therefore, of great importance,
and is invested with almost unlimited power.
Any person may be summoned at its com-
mand to resist that most formidable enemy
of the State, water.

Holland itself is merely the natural
estuary of the Rhine, the Meuse, the |
Scheldt, the Waal, the I.eck, and the Yssel.
It is but a delta, formed from the soil
brought down by these rivers from Central
Europe; and if nature had her way we
should see “great rivers wandering about





THE OCEAN.

among their towns and villages in search of
new outlets to the sea.” Asit is, no human
foresight can always avail to guard against
catastrophes, for if the wind heaps up the
waters of the German Ocean against the
coast, thus preventing the discharge of the
rivers, and if, at the same time, these rivers
are swollen by the breaking up of the ice
or a heavy rainfall, the waters overflow the
dikes and spread over the country.

At various times fearful inundations have
happened, and many thousands of persons
have perished. Enormous amounts have,
therefore, been spent upon the dikes.
Three hundred millions sterling have been
spent by the Waterstaat within the tract

| of country lying between the Dollart and

the Scheldt, hardly as large as Wales and
Yorkshire put together. Three hundred
miles of dikes protect the islands of Zeeland
frem the outer and inner waters. Some of
them have a foundation one hundred and
fifty feet in width, and are forty feet high,
with a granite facing, being thatched with
DAMMING OUT THE OCEAN.

127



turf, and surmounted by a carriage-road,
lined with trees. Their maintenance is so
expensive (says Chambers’s Journal) that
had they been originally made of copper
they would have been less costly.

It is interesting to notice what has been
effected in the way of reclamation of the
inland waters. Haarlem Meer is the most
signal example. Until the sixteenth cen-
tury it was of insignificant dimensions ;
but the wind, driving its waters forward,
united with it five neighbouring lakes. Every
storm further extended it, and the con-
version of North Holland into an island
was seriously threatened. Its area was
about seventy square miles, and it required

four or five thousand pounds per annum to.

keep up its banks. Its reclamation was
proposed as early as 1640 by Leeghwater—
a celebrated engineer, who had recovered
eighteen thousand acres in North Holland,
known as the Beemster Polder, and who
possessed the singular accomplishment of
being able to remain for a considerable time
under water, and there eat, write, or play
on musical instruments. It was not, how-
ever, till 1840 that the work was under-
taken, one of the monster pumping-engines
being appropriately named the Leeghwater ;
and it was completed in 1852. The cost
was nearly a million, but the sale of forty-
two thousand acres covered the outlay.

It must be remembered that a polder, or
drained lake, has not only to be pumped
dry, but to be kept dry—a task which has
not to be encountered in other countries.
The excess of rainfall over evaporation and
the probable amount of spring or ooze-
water have, therefore, to be. considered,
and, above all, the height to which the water
has to be lifted, for on this mainly hinges
the question of profit. Such enterprises
are commonly in the hands of private com-
panies; but extensive schemes, such as
Haarlem Meer, are undertaken by the
Waterstaat. When a lake is drained, the
srea is divided into parallelograms, often
not much exceeding an acre in size; and
these are separated by what are called
primary canals. A certain number, perhaps

“water.





a dozen, of them are grouped together ; and
their superfluous water is pumped into trans-
verse canals ofa higher level, communicating
with the main outlets to the sea. In the
case of the Beemster there are four canal
systems, of different levels ; and every drop
must pass through each of them in its pas-
sage to the ring-dike which surrounds the
polder. This ring is always constructed in
duplicate, and windmills are erected on its
banks. Steam-power has not at present
been much used. Poldered land is usually
exempt from taxation for twenty years.
Residence upon it is not found unhealthy,
nor is it difficult to get rid of superfluous
When, however, the wind blows
continuously from the sea it becomes neces-
sary to close the sluices in order to prevent
the ingress of the ocean ; and if this happens
during the rainy season, the basins into
which the polders are drained become
brimful, the land is flooded, and all agricul-
tural operations are suspended until the
wind changes. The reclamation of the
Zuider Zee is confidently looked forward
to; andit is partly in view of this that the
North Holland Canal is being constructed,
to give Amsterdam direct access to the
North Sea and avoid the dangerous and
circuitous route by the Texel. Its width
will allow of two men-of-war passing one
another at any point.

Most of the polders were once bogs, and
became lakes through the removal of layers
of turf for the purposes of fuel. Peat, in-
deed, is one of the chief productions of the
country. Its ashes make a good manure,
its soot cleans pots and pans, and its smoke
preserves smoke and fish. The removal of
the peat frequently lays bare rich alluvial
land, and sometimes carries cultivation
twenty feet below the original surface. This
process has been going on for many cen-
turies, for Tacitus describes the Belgz as
burning their ground for want of fuel and
drying it by the sun. The consent of the
Waterstaat is now requisite before the
ground-level may be reduced. Floating
islands were once not uncommon, and strips
of them might be cut off and floated down
128

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



to market. Many a farmer was obliged to
tether his fields to prevent their floating
away ; and when it was desirable to keep
flocks and herds separate these fields have
been pushed off from the shore and anchored
ata distance. Then perhaps a storm has
suddenly arisen, the fields have dragged
their anchors and floated out to sea. But
such curious incidents are now rare.

If the Dutch have thus a constant battle
with the elements they have the satisfaction
of thinking that to their precarious situation
they owe their independence. It was by
the piercing of the dikes that the siege of

Leyden was raised; and it was the amphi-

bious fishermen of Zeeland—who took as

their motto, “Rather Turks than Papists,’—:



i who offered the stoutest resistance to Spanish

tyranny. Even peat has played a part in
its annals. A huge canal-boat, apparently
laden with peat, was unsuspectingly taken
by the Spaniards into Breda; and eighty
armed men, issuing from it at dead of night,
admitted Prince Maurice and his army into
the town. Moreover, in 1593, a causeway,
traversing some bogs, having been obstructed
by trees being laid across it, the Spaniards
set them on fire ; and, the flames seizing on
the causeway and surrounding turbaries,
they were obliged to raise the siege of an
important fortress.

It is said that Philip IL, on hearing of
this incident, declared that since Holland

| was combustible it should be burnt to ashes.



ee



\ ROUPED together in one
“sacred corner” are the
remains of the ancient glories
of Pisa. The Cathedral, the
Baptistery, the Leaning
Tower, the Campo Santo,
a form combination of build-
ings scarcely surpassed. in
interest and beauty by any in
the world. The cathedral,
erected to commemorate the
victory of the Pisans over the Saracens
in Sicily in 1063, is one of the most regular,
beautiful, and lightsome pieces of Gothic
architecture to be seen in Europe. The
choir is of the finest marble, and the roof
is supported by eighty columns of the same
stone, each of one solid piece. The pave-

ament is of tesselated marble ; and the gates,
which are of brass, are exquisitely wrought
with the history of our Saviour’s' birth; life,
and passion. The most celebrated portion,
however, is the campanile, or leaning-tower,
which stands detached. This erection is of
a round form, and 190 feet high, entirely
built of white marble. It was begun in
1174, but was not completed till about the



(, THE LEANING TOWER OF PISA, |

middle of the fourteenth century. It is
ascended by 230 steps, has several galleries
on the outside, and is open in the interior.
From the summit a magnificent view is
gained, extending, on-the one side, far over
the Mediterranean, to Gorgona or even
Corsica.

The tower stands not less than 15 feet
out of the perpendicular. Some conceive
this reclining position, which produces a
very singular effect on the traveller, to be
occasioned by a sinking of the foundation
on one side, and others, to the ancient
builders: aiming at eccentricity in erecting
this remarkable tower ; but, as the observa-
tory and baptistery, which stand in the
same square, have also a slight inclination,
there can be little doubt that the former is
the correct opinion.

The only other lofty structure known to
incline so much from a_ perpendicular
position is the leaning-tower of Saragossa,
in Spain, which was erected in 1503. It is
built entirely of brick, and stands in the
centre of the square of San Felippo, in
solitary grandeur, insulated and lofty, being
ascended by a stair of 284 steps.












































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































PISA.

NG TOWER,

NI

ND LEA

A

RAL,

ED

PTISTERY, CATH

TA
THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



© give below a very inter-
esting account of one of the
greatest natural wonders of
the world. A young English
traveller thus records his im-
pressions of this sublime
spectacle :—

“T reached Niagara in the
grey. morning. Stepping
from the train, all seemed
cold and cheerless; and I
hurried off to the hotel to



‘A

A
refresh myself and rest till breakfast time. .

The dull, unceasing roar from the cataract
was plainly heard, though it was more than
two rniles off. It is said that in the still,
calm nights of summer it can be heard at
Toronto—a distance of thirty miles! Cross-
ing the railway bridge connecting the United
States with Canada, I walked for half an
hour along the high bank of the river, till,
turning a bend in the road, I came suddenly
in view of the world-famed Falls.

Some travellers have expressed disap-
pointment at their first view of the Niagara,
as not coming up-to the expectation their
imaginations had formed of it. This was
not my case. I had pictured to myself a
very grand scene; but the reality far sur-
passed it, for no one can imagine the
sublimity of the dull, thundering sound
from the falling mass of water. Approach-
ing the table-like ledge from which it is
precipitated, I stood in silent awe. The
rapids above, with the water wildly
careering on its rocky bed, the toppling
over of the immense mass, twenty feet
deep on the brink of the chasm, and the
white spray, rising like a cloud from the
boiling cauldron below, left an ineffaceable
impression on my mind; and then to
think that this has been continually going
on, night and day, summer and winter, for
thousands of years! I cannot conceive
how any one can be disappointed on first
heholding this majestic spectacle.



UNDER NIAGARA FALLS.

Niagara is the outlet for the waters of
Lake Erie, which pass on through Niagara
River to Lake Ontario. The grand chain
of inland seas which forms its reservoir
comprises Lake Superior, 30,000 square
miles in area; Lake Michigan, 22,600 ,
Lake Huron, 21,000; Lake Clair, 700;
and Lake Erie, 6,000. These, with their
tributaries, cover a surface of 150,000
square miles, and, by a careful calculation,
contain about one-half of all the fresh
water of the globe. Below the Falls the
river runs for miles through a ravine, the
sides of which are as steep as those of a
grave. Through this long gorge, silent
and awful, rolls the deep flood, carrying
masses of froth on its whirling and boiling
surface. In its narrowest part, a short
distance below the Suspension Bridge, the
current runs with such velocity as to rise up
in the middle from ten to fifteen feet above
the sides! and in turning a sharp bend in
the river causes a complete whirlpool. The
impression made upon my mind, as I
walked up to the Falls from the bridge,
was that the bed of the river had suddenly
sunk down from 200 to 300 feet below its
former level.

One of the best views is obtained from
the Canadian side, where the Horseshoe
Fall, 160 feet in height, sweeps round in a
noble curve of nearly 2,000 feet to Goat
Island; from this point to the southern
shore it is called the American Fall, rather
less than 1,000 feet in width. The mass of
water thrown over the Falls is estimated at
193 millions of cubic feet per minute!
The water is gradually cutting away the
rock over which it tumbles. It is said that
the Falls are receding at the rate of fifty
feet in forty years. But as at this rate it is
computed that the operation will take at
least 35,000 years, visitors may ‘calkilate’
on enjoying the sight of this magnificent
cataract a while longer.

Just beside the Horseshoe Fall is erected
UNDER NIAGARA FALLS.

A3tr



a winding staircase, leading from the top of
the bank down to the level of the rocks
below. Paying the usual fee, and clad in
a waterproof suit, I made one of a party,
under the guidance of a negro, and went
down behind the mass of water. It was a
fearful sight. ‘The ground trembled with
the weight of the watery avalanche. On
our right the wall of rock, the overhanging
ledge’ above, black and wet with the spray,
the volume of water on the left forming a
semi-transparent wall, and the deafening
tumult of the seething gulf, all combined to
test the firmness of one’snerves. I was not
sorry when the other members of our little
party considered that they had had their
money’s worth. It is said that there are
twenty feet of water above the ledge at this
point; it is certain that the Defroit, a ship
drawing eighteen feet of water, passed over
without touching the rock.

Many fatal accidents have occurred here.
There is an affecting legend of an Indian,
who was unwittingly caught in the treache-
rous current above the Falls,and who, finding
that escape was hopeless, with the com-
posure of his race, sat quietly in his canoe,
and, singing the death-song of his people,
was borne -into eternity with the mournful
sounds lingering on his lips. The Indians,
as a nation, have long been driven from this
part of the country; the few who are left
inhabit the village of Tuscarora, eight miles
from the Falls, and are chiefly employed as
tillers of the soil, ‘Those I saw were by no
means favourable representatives of ‘the
noble savage.’”

Professor Tyndall gives the following
vivid description of his visit to Niagara :—

“On the first evening of my visit, I met
the guide to the Cave of the Winds. He
was in the prime of manhood—large, well
built, firm and pleasant in. mouth and eye.
My interest in the scene stirred up his, and
made him communicative. Turning to a
photograph, he described, by reference to
it, a feat which he had accomplished some
time previously, and which had brought
him almost under the green water of the
Horseshoe Fall. ‘Can you lead me there





to-morrow?’ I asked. He eyed me in-
quiringly, weighing, perhaps, the chances of
aman of light build, and with grey in his
whiskers, in such an undertaking. ‘I wish,’
I added, ‘to see as much of the Fall as
can be seen, and where you lead I will
endeavour to follow. His scrutiny relaxed
into a smile, and he said, ‘ Very well; I
shall be ready for you to-morrow.’

On the morrow, accordingly, I came.
In the hut at the head of Biddle’s Stair I
stripped wholly, and re-dressed according
to instructions,—drawing on two pairs of
woollen pantaloons, three woollen jackets,
two pairs of socks, and a pair of felt shoes.
Even if wet, my guide urged that the
clothes would keep me from being chilled,
and he was right. A suit and hood of
yellow oil-cloth covered me well. Most
laudable precautions were taken by the
young assistant of the guide to keep the
water out, but his devices broke down
immediately when severely tested.

We descended the stair, the handle of a
pitchfork doing in my case the duty of an
alpenstock. At the bottom my guide in-
quired whether we should go first to the
Cave of the Winds, or to the Horseshoe,
remarking that the latter would try us most.
I decided to get the roughest done first,
and he turned to the left over the stones.
They were sharp and trying. The base of
the first portion of the cataract is covered
with huge boulders, obviously the ruins of
the limestone ledge above. The water
does not distribute itself uniformly among
these, but seeks for itself channels through
which it pours torrentially. We passed
some of these with wetted feet, but without
difficulty. At length we came to the side
of a more formidable current. My guide
walked along its edge until he reached its
least turbulent portion. Halting, he said,
‘This is our greatest difficulty ; if we can
cross here, we shall get far towards the
Horseshoe.’

- He waded in. It evidently required all
his strength to steady him. The water
rose above his loins, and it foamed still
higher. He had to search for footing, amid


132

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



unseen boulders, against which the torrent
rose violently. He struggled and swayed,
but he struggled successfully, and finally
reached the shallower water at the other
side. Stretching out his arms, he said to
me, ‘Now come on.’ I looked down the
torrent as it rushed to the river below,
which was seething with the tumult of the
cataract.

Considering the possibility of an acci-
dent, I entered the water. Even where it
was not more than knee-deep, its power
was manifest. As it rose around me, I
sought to split the torrent by presenting a
side to it; but the insecurity of the footing
enabled it to grasp the loins, twist me fairly
round, and bring its impetus to bear upon
the back. Further struggle was impossible ;
and, feeling my balance hopelessly gone, I
turned, flung myself towards the bank I
had just quitted, and was instantly swept
into shallower water.

The oil-cloth covering was a great en-
cumbrance—it had been made for a much
stouter man; and, standing upright after
my submersion, my legs occupied the
centres of two bags of water. My guide
exhorted me to try again. Prudence was
at my elbow, whispering dissuasion; but,
taking everything into account, it appeared
more immoral to retreat than to proceed.
Instructed by the first misadventure, I once
more entered the stream. Had the alpen-
stock been of iron, it might have helped
me; but, as it was, the tendency of the
water to sweep it out of my hands rendered
it worse than useless. I, however, clung
to it by habit. Again the torrent rose, and
again I wavered ; but, by keeping the left
hip well against it, [remained upright, and
at length grasped the hand of my leader at
the other side. He laughed pleasantly.
The first victory was gained, and he en-
joyed it. ‘No traveller, he said, ‘was
ever here before.’ Soon afterwards, by
trusting to a piece of driftwood which
seemed firm, I was again taken off my
feet, but was immediately caught by
a protruding rock.

We clambered over the boulders towards



a

the thickest spray, which soon became so
weighty as to cause us to stagger under its
shock. For the most part nothing could
be seen; we were in the midst of be-
wildering tumult, lashed by the water,
which sounded at times like the cracking
of innumerable whips. Underneath this
was the deep, resonant roar of the cataract.
I tried to shield my eyes with my hands,
and look upwards; but the defence was
useless. My guide continued to move on,
but at a certain place he halted, and de-.
sired me to take shelter in his lee and
observe the cataract. The spray did not
come so much from the upper ledge as
from the. rebound of the shattered water
when it struck the bottom. Hence the eyes
could be protected from the blinding shock
of the spray, while the line of vision to the
upper ledges remained to some extent
clear. On looking upwards over the
guide’s shoulder, I could see the water
bending over the ledge, while the Terrapin
Tower loomed fitfully through the inter-
mittent spray gusts. We were right under
the tower. A little farther on, the cataract,
after its first plunge, hit a protuberance
some way down, and flew from it in a
prodigious burst of spray; through this we
staggered. We rounded the promontory
on which the Terrapin Tower stands, and
pushed, ‘amidst the wildest commotion,
along the arm of the Horseshoe, until the
boulders failed us, and the cataract fell
into the profound gorge of the Niagara
River.

Here my guide sheltered me again, and
desired me tolook up; I did so, and could
see, as before, the green gleam of the
mighty curve sweeping over the upper
ledge, and the fitful plunge of the water as
the spray between us and it alternately
gathered and disappeared.

We returned, clambering at intervals up
and down, so as to catch glimpses of the
most impressive portions of the cataract,
We passed under ledges formed by tabular
masses of limestone, and through some
curious openings formed by the falling to-
gether of the summits of tke rocks, At
A MAN AND TIGER FIGHT.

133



length we found ourselves beside our
enemy of the morning. My guide halted
for a minute or two, scanning the torrent
thoughtfully. I said that, as a guide, he
ought to have a rope in such a place; but
he retorted that, as no traveller had ever
thought of coming there, he did not see the
necessity of keeping a rope.

He slowly but firmly waded in. The
struggle to keep himself erect was evident
enough ; he swayed, but recovered himself
again and. again, At length he slipped,
gave way, did as [had done, threw himself
flat in the water towards the bank, and was
swept into the shallows. Standing in the
stream near its edge, he stretched his arm
towards me. I retained the pitchfork
handle, for it had been useful among the
boulders. By wading some way in, the
staff could be made to reach him, and I
proposed his seizing it. ‘Ifyou are sure,’
he replied, ‘that, in case of giving way,



you can maintain your grasp, then I will
certainly hold you.’

Accordingly I waded in, and stretched
the staff to my companion. It was firmly
grasped by both of us. Thus helped,
though its onset was strong, I moved
safely across the torrent.

All danger ended here. We afterwards
roamed sociably among the torrents and
boulders below the Cave of the Winds.
The rocks were covered with organic slime,
which could not have been walked over
with bare feet, but the felt shoes effectually
prevented slipping. We reached the cave,
and entered. it, first by a wooden way
carried over the boulders, and then along a
narrow ledge to the point eaten deepest
into the shale. When the wind is from the
south, the falling water, I am told, can be
seen tranquilly from the spot; but when
we were there a blinding hurricane of spray
was whirled against us.”






acter are delighted in by
most eastern princes. At
entertainments given in
honour of distinguished visit-
ors, nothing is more common
than to pit a tiger against an
elephant or a buffalo, or to
worry a bull by ferocious
dogs. Occasionally, how-
ever, these modes of cruelty

\ are refined upon, and human
beings are made to fight for their lives with
wild beasts. The following is a graphic
account of one of these terrible combats,
in which, as will be seen, the man came
off victorious :—

“ The next scene was of a more awful cha-
racter. A man entered the arena armed
only with along knife, and clothed in short
trousers, which extended only halfway



Ger. ok Gael.

he wielded in his right hand was a heavy
blade, something like the coulter of a plough,
about two feet long, and fully three inches
wide, gradually diminishing towards the
handle, with which it formed a right angle.
This knife is used with great dexterity by
the Coorgs, being swung round in the hand
before the blow is inflicted, and then
brought into contact with the object in-
tended to be struck, with a force and effect
truly astonishing.

The champion who now presented him-
self before the rajah was about to be op-
posed to a tiger, which he volunteered to
encounter almost naked, and armed only
with the weapon which I have just described.
He was rather tall, with a slight figure, but
his chest was deep, and his arms were long
and muscular. His legs were thin, yet the
action of the muscles was perceptible with
every movement, while the freedom of his

down the thighs. The instrument which | gait and the few contortions he performed
134

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



preparatory to the hazardous enterprise in
which he was about to engage, showed that
he possessed uncommon activity, combined
with no ordinary degree of strength. The
expression of his countenance was abso-
tutely sublime, when he gave the signal for
the tiger to be let loose; it was the very
concentration of moral energy, the index of
a high and settled resolution. His body
glistened with the oil that had been well
tubbed over it to promote the elasticity of
his limbs.

He raised his arm for some moments above
nis head when he made the signal to admit
his enemy into the arena. The bars of a
large iron cage were instantly lifted from
above; a huge royal tiger sprang forward
and stood before the Coorg, waving his
tail slowly backward and forward, erecting
the hair upon it, and uttering a suppressed
howl.

The animal looked first at the man, then
at the gallery where the rajah and his court
were seated to see the sports, but did not
appear easy in its present state of free-
dom, and was evidently confounded at the
novelty of its position. After a short sur-
vey, it turned suddenly round and bounded
into its cage, from which the keepers, who
stood above, beyond the reach of mischief,
tried to force it, but in vain. The bars were
then dropped, and several crackers fastened
to its tail, which projected through one of
the intervals.

A lighted match was hastily put into
the hand of the Coorg, the bars were again
raised, and the crackers ignited. ‘The tiger
now darted into the arena with a terrible
yell, and while the crackers were exploding,
it leaped, turned, and writhed as if in a
state of frantic excitement. It at length
crouched in a corner, snarling as a cat does
when alarmed. Meanwhile its retreat had
been cut off by securing the cage. During

-the explosion of the crackers the Coorg
stood watching his enemy, and at length
advanced towards it with a slow but firm



step. The tiger roused itself and retreated,
the fur on its back being erect, and its tail
apparently dilated to twice its usual size.
It was not at all disposed to commence
hostilities, but its resolute foe was not to be
evaded. Fixing his eyes intently on the
fierce animal, he advanced with the same
deliberate and measured step, the tiger
retreating as before, but still presenting
its front to its enemy.

The Coorg now stopped suddenly ; then,
moving slowly backwards, the tiger raised
itself to its full height, curved its back for a
spring, and lashed its tail, evidently medi-
tating mischief. Theman continued toretire, -
and as soon as he was at so great a distance
that the fixed expression of his eye was no
longer distinguishable, the ferocious brute
suddenly bounded forward, crouched, and
sprang with a short, sharp growl. Its ad-
versary, fully prepared for this, leaped
actively on’ one side, and, as the tiger
reached the ground, swung round his heavy
knife, and brought it with irresistible force
upon the animal’s hind leg, just above the
joint. The bone was instantly severed, and
the tiger effectually prevented from making
a second spring. The wounded beast
roared ; but, turning on the Coorg, who had
by this time retired several yards, advanced
fiercely upon him, his wounded leg hang-
ing loose in the skin, showing that it was
broken.

The tiger, now excited to a pitch of reck- ~
less rage; rushed forward upon its three legs
towards its adversary, who stood, with his
heavy knife upraised, awaiting the encoun-
ter. As soon as the savage creature came
within his reach, he brought down the
ponderous weapon upon its head with a
force which nothing could resist, laid open
the skull from ear to ear, and the van-
quished foe fell dead at his feet. He then
coolly wiped the knife on the animal’s hide,
made a dignified salaam to the rajah, and
retired amid the loud acclamations of the
spectators.”




PELICANS AND STORKS,
FROM A PAINTING BY HARRISON WEIR.


PELICANS AND FLAMINGOES.

135



‘uw
mM
we





"oN .
= ELIABLE authorities
; saul tell us that the
<< pelican has an
“ANS appetite so insa-
ie tiable, and a
SN stomach so capa-
x es in cious, that in one
(Nee \" day it devours as much food
ashy as would satisfy six men,
‘The Egyptians have nick-

named it the “river camel,”
because it can imbibe at once
Certainly

more than twenty pints of water.
it only makes
two meals a day 3
but, oh, what
meals they are !

Pelicans often
travel in con-
siderable flocks,
visiting the
mouths of rivers
or favourite re-
treats on the sea-
coast. When
they have made
choice of a suit-
ablefishing-place
they arrange
themselves in a







ICANS AND FLAMINGOES.

his well-lined pouch, and spreads in front of
him all the fish that it contains, in order te
feed upon them at leisure. This pouch,
which plays so important a part in the peli-
can’s life, is composed of two skins, the outer
one being a prolongation of the skin of the
neck ; the inner one is contiguous to the
coating of the cesophagus.

The pelican is more common in tropical
regions than in temperate climates. It is
rarely seen more than twenty leagues from
land. Levaillant describes one of those
wonderful ornithological scenes which only
occur in unin-
habited regions.
At the entrance
of Saldanha Bay,
on the south-
west coast of
Africa, after
wading through
the surf and
clambering up
the rocks, “all
ofa sudden there
arose from the
surface of the
island of Dassen-
Eyland an im-
-' penetrablecloud,





wide circle, and begin to beat the water
with extended wing, so as to drive the fish
before them, gradually diminishing the circle
as they approach the shore or some inlet on
the coast. In this manner they get all the
fish together into a small space, when the
common feast begins. After gorging them-
selves they retire to the shore, where the
process of digestion follows. Some rest
with the neck over the back ; others busily
dress and smooth their plumage, waiting
patiently until returning appetite invites
them to fresh exertions, When thus quies-
cent, occasionally one of these birds empties



which formed at the distance of forty feet
above our heads an immense canopy com-
posed entirely of aquatic birds—cormorants,
sea-gulls, sea-swallows, pelicans, etc. I be-
lieve the whole winged tribes of this part of
Africa were here assembled. Their voices,
harsh and discordant, formed a noise so
unmusical that I was every moment com-
pelled to cover my head in order to relieve
my ears. The alarm we created was so
much the more general, inasmuch as the
birds disturbed were chiefly sitting females.
They had nests, eggs, and young to
defend.
Flamingoes inhabit the margins of lakes | following stratagem:—Placing their long
and ponds, more rarely the sea shore. |} neck and head in such a position that the
They feed on worms, molluscs, and the | upper mandible oftheir billis the lowest, they
spaws of fishes, which they capture by the | stir the mud about in every direction, they







Re
So.

Rn BE 2 na

OIG Ne

LS Eee:



oo aos,
28367

A TROPICAL SCENE.



thus easily succeed in disturbing the small | ing the ooze and detaching the fry and
fish which have settled in it, and capturing | spawn, to which they are partial. They
them while blended with the thick sedi- | love company and live in flocks, which
ment. They also use their feet for work- | are subject to strict discipline. When they
A SWIMMING ISLAND. 137



are fishing they draw themselves up into
long, straight, and regular files, protected
by sentinels whose office is to give a signal
of alarm onthe approach of danger. If any
cause for uneasiness should arise, the scout
birds give a piercing cry, not unlike the note
of a trumpet, and the whole flock would
immediately wing their way to a place of
security. Some authors have asserted that
the flamingo makes use of its long neck as
a third leg, walking with its head resting on
the ground like a foot. The fact that has
doubtless given rise to this supposition is
the position of the neck, necessitated by its
peculiar method of seeking food. We are
told about a flamingo reared in captivity,
which, being accidentally deprived of one of
its limbs, found out a remedy for its infirmity
by walking on one leg and helping itself
along by means of its bill, using the latter
asacrutch. ‘The master of the bird noticing
this, fitted it with a wooden leg, which it

os
ae 9)
CA

)

NWP





OME distance to the -south-
east of Riga, in the province
of Livonia, lies the Ilsing
lake. It is noteworthy fora
remarkable swimming island,
which has annually arisen,
since time immemorial, out
of the depths of the lake.
The time of its appearance
is usually in July. During
a month or two it becomes
thinly covered with a little

scanty grass, and in September or October,

with the earliest frost, sinks again to the
bottom to hold its winter sleep until the
following year. In warm seasons the island
rises earlier than in cold years ; it happened
once, indeed, one especially inclement,
rainy summer, that it never made its appear-
ance at all. As if to atone for this want of
punctuality, a casealsohasbeen known when,
the summer heats being unusually fervent





used with the greatest success. But this
story, which applies very well to a domesti-
cated bird, which was maimed and conse-
quently under peculiar conditions, in no way
invalidates our former observations.

The flamingo makes itself a nest which
is as Original as its own personal appearance.
It consists of a truncated cone about twenty
inches in height, and formed of mud dried
in the sun. At the summit of this little
hillock it hollows out a shallow cavity in
which the female lays two eggs, rather elon-
gated in shape, and of a dead white colour.
When she is incubating she sits astride on
this novel description of throne with her
legs hanging down on each side. The
young ones run about very soon after they
are hatched, but it is some time before they
are able to fly, not indeed until they are
clothed with their full plumage. At two
years old they assume the more brilliant
colours of the adult bird.

A SWIMMING ISLAND.

and of long continuance, the island remained
longer than customary upon the surface ;
severe frost suddenly set in and took the
laggard prisoner, but as soon as a thaw
occurred in spring, it hastened to disappear
until the following July.

The oldest people in the neighbourhood
remember the periodical visits of this phe-
nomenon from their earliest youth, and
testify to its invariable reappearance in the
same place. It is spoken of by a Livonian
writer in 1780, and has been described in
geographical accounts of the province ; but
hitherto no reliable explanation of its origin
has been made known. During my tour I
visited the spot, in company with a friend
acquainted with chemistry, and after some
examination we succeeded in penetrating
the cause of the mystery.

The island is situated some hundred
fathoms from the north-western shore of the
Ilsing lake, and rises about eight inches
138

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



abovethe surface. In calmweather, when no
wavelets arise to wash away the upper earthy
crust, it possesses a superficies of fifteen
to twenty yards, allowing of several persons
moving about with ease. The entire fabric
consists of a species of peat or interwoven
rootlets of various plants, including moss
and aquatic growths of many feet in length.
The network does not rest upon the bottom
of the lake, but swims freely upon the surface,
so that a pole can be moved about with ease
in various directions underneath. Upon
one side it inclines downwards, and is here
firmly attached to the peaty substance
forming the bed of the lake. Owing to this
circumstance it constantly reappears at the

same spot.
The periodical disappearance of the
island admits of simple explanation.

Among the semi-carbonised plant-roots of
which it principally consists, light carbon-
etted hydrogen is present in most unusual
quantity. -The slightest touch develops the
gas in millions of tiny bubbles from between
the roots. By means of a small portable
apparatus, we collected a portion of gas,
which, being lighted, kindled immediately
witha strong yellowish flame. The extra-
ordinary amount of gas was in itself sur-
prising ; for although inflammable air of
this character can generally be found in
stagnant pools, swamps, and morasses, its
occurrence in such volume is exceedingly
rare. G

As soon as the heat of the sun raises the
temperature of the lake, this light gas is
developed from the peat; the network of
roots is filled with innumerable little shining
bubbles. The island is thereby rendered
light, and finally rises like a sort of half-
opened bladder to the surface of the lake.
As also during winter mud and earth collect
upon the top, forming a kind of humus or
soil, this rises with the rest, and affords the





means of the island becoming covered with
a light growth of grass and aquatic plants.
In warm summers of long continuance the
place is more densely clothed than in colder
seasons. At such times it frequently appeats
as early as June, and does not vanish until
late in October. As soon as the water
grows cold and the first night frosts occur,
the development of gas naturally ceases ;
the great bladder grows heavy, closes, and
sinks once more to the bed of the lake,
in order, as the country folks say, to go
to sleep for the winter.

A glance tells what has been the course
of formation of the Ilsing lake. A large
peat moor formerly occupied the spot,
through the middle of which flowed a little
brook. Long years ago a water-mill was set
up, to procure the power of which the brook
was dammed, and the entire moor thereby
laid under water. The banks of the lake
consist of sand, of which the stratum
beneath the peat upon the bed of the lake
is also probably composed. The island,
therefore, when lifted by the development
of the gas, separates from the sandy bottom,
and rises to the surface.

Some such peculiar conjunction of favour-
able circumstances as the above is indispens-
able to the production of this remarkable
phenomenon. Easy and simple of explan-
tion though it be, it is believed, with good
reason, that no similar appearance is to be
found throughout the whole of Russia,
although an island not very unlike it in
character is said to exist in Holstein.

Whoever wishes to visit the spot should
be careful to select the month of July,
when he will be sure to find that the island
has awoke from its winter sleep, and is
already upon the surface. The sight which
it will then be found to present is that of a
large dark body, as it does not assume
its verdant dress until a later period.


THE POSTAL TELEGRAPH SERVICE.

139



THE

Xe

ag M@ POSTAL TELEGRAPH SERVICE.

REAT development
of the telegraphic
business of the

felt since the ac-
NS quisition of the
ietegraphs by the State, and the
department has become a
prominent institution. Some
little account, therefore, of the
manner in which this system is
worked may be interesting.

The Central Telegraph Station is located
in the new Post-office building, a vast
structure, which has completely put its
elder brother on the other side of the
road out of countenance, On entering
(says a recent visitor) a magnificent officer,
all gorgeous in scarlet and gold, graciously
condescends, on behalf of Her Majesty
Queen Victoria, to examine our credentials,
and to give us such directions as our be-
nighted ignorance seems to him to require.

In a mysterious chamber beneath the
entrance-hall is the “ battery-room,” where
is generated the electric currents for which
all the wires are so many pathways, and all
the instruments in the rooms we are about
to visit but so many contrivances for di-
recting and controlling. It extends right
across the basement, a silent and rather
gloomy-looking chamber, fitted up with
tiers of shelves, on which the “Daniel”
batterles—merely small earthenware jars,
containing acids and slips of metal—are
ranged. There are 24,000 of these small
jars, or “cells,” as they are termed, and
the shelves on which they stand are nearly
three miles in length. The rooms would
afford accommodation for nearly 40,000
“cells.”

Passing in from the entrance-hall, we
find ourselves in a spacious corridor ex-
tending all round the building, and com-










municating with similar corridors on the
floors above by a noble staircase at each
end of the pile. On our left hand are the
different offices; on the right are windows
looking into a small open quadrangle, in
the centre of which is a chimney-stack
towering up to the height of a hundred
and thirty feet. Down in this quadrangle
there are two steami-engines, designed chiefly
for pumping water from an artesian well,
which is at present unfinished, though it
has already reached a depth of four hun-
dred feet. This well is intended to supply
hydrants for the extinction of fire all over
the building, as well as to meet the require-
ments of the establishment in all other
ways, including the supply of four large
boilers beneath the engines, fed by “ me-
chanical stokers.” The loads of coal are
shot from the street into bunkers under-
neath the building, and from these recep-
tacles it is forced along a large tube by
means of a screw, and so brought to the
furnace mouths, where the mechanical fire-
men take itin hand, and so nicely adjust
the supply to the requirements of the fire
that scarcely any of it is allowed to escape
in the wasteful form of smoke.

All this time we are laboriously climbing
a broad stone staircase, winding by short
flights round a central well, over which is a
lantern, designed at once to afford a light
to the staircase and thorough ventilation to
one-half the entire building. If we had
only been small enough we might have
popped into one of the iron pneumatic
tubes to be seen here and there about the
corridors, and have shot up like a pea ina
pea-shooter,. or, more correctly perhaps,
might have been sucked up just as water
is sucked into a water squirt. On another
page we give an account of this useful
adjunct of the telegraphic service.

It is rather a bewildering place for a
140

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



stranger to find himself in, Imagine a
floor which would require about a mile
and a quarter of carpet a yard wide to
cover it, and: on which there is nearly a
mile of tables, bristling with complicated
instruments, some of them sending mes-
sages, some receiving messages, and some
doing both at once. This “ duplex, tele-
graphy” is now an accomplished fact, and
is regularly carried on in this room, a
message being sent simultaneously from
both ends of a single wire. It is reported
that on the Madras railway telegraph even
this has been surpassed, and a system of
quadruplex telegraphy has been devised,
two messages
direction from each end of a line eighty
miles long, and that the extension of the
system to lines of greater length is simply
a question of additional condensers and
battery power. Our readers may perhaps
be disposed to think that one message at
a time is quite enough for the compre-
hension of ordinary mortals, and we will
therefore turn our attention more particu-
larly to the achievements of the most
advanced of the single-message instruments.
There is one near the door by which we
have entered. This is a “ Wheatstone
Automatic,” and as we come up to it is
merrily chatting with some distant part of
the country at the rate of 120 words a
minute, or as fast as a tolerably rapid
lecturer will speak.

The electricity, as we have seen, is
generated in those earthenware “cells.”
From these, two wires extend, one leading
down into the earth here in London, and
the other running right away and connect-
ing with the earth at Newcastle. These
wires and the path form what is called a
“circuit”—a pathway round which the
electric current can freely circulate, and
around which it zoz// freely circulate unless
interrupted. Along this road, however,
are two turnpike gates—the transmitting
instrument here in London, and the re-
ceiving instrument in Newcastle. ‘The
first is merely an apparatus for breaking
up the current into little pieces, so to

being sent in the same



speak—for breaking it into dots and
dashes; and the second is an apparatus
for making these little dots and dashes
represent themselves on paper. If the
“transmitter” be set working without a
strip of paper, the electric current will flow
through continuously. If a strip of paper
without holes in it be passed through, the
current will be entirely broken off; but if
a perforated strip be passed through, the
holes will form so many little vents through
which the current will escape in sections,
and will of course reach Newcastle in
sections precisely corresponding.

There are a great many different kinds
of instruments at work here, and amongst
them is an instrument which, without any
previous preparation of the telegram, will
send, perhaps, thirty words a minute, so
that in the same time four operators could
send 120 words. By the first instrument
it would also take three or four operators
to send 120 words a minute, two or three
to punch out the sentences, and one to
transmit them. Notwithstanding this, there
is an advantage in the instrument first
noticed, because, although three or four
persons would be required to keep up a
speed of 120 words, only oze wire would
be requisite, while in this case it would
take two wires, as well as two operators.
This of course is a very important con-
sideration, though as “duplex” .and
“ quadruplex” systems of telegraphy be-
come developed, the cost of a line of wire
will obviously become less in proportion to
the work that can be performed by it. © It
seems possible, indeed, that even quadruplex
telegraphy is by no means the final triumph
of telegraphic science. While we write
there comes the rumour of an invention, or
rather discovery, which will entirely dis-
pense with wires, and permit of signals being
sent by the conductive power of the earth
alone. What degree of truth there may be
in the rumour we are unable to say, though
it seems to have attracted some attention.

The “instrument galleries” may be
roughly described as consisting of two long
rooms united by a large square central
space, the whole forming one great apart-

ment, the various parts of which are devoted
to the different sections of the telegraphic
service. Thus the central square is set
apart for circuits extending into various
parts of England and Wales; the north-
east and south-east wings are for the
suburbs of London; the north-west for
Scotland and Ireland, and so on. In all
these divisions together there are, during
the busiest part of the day, nearly a
thousand clerks employed, male and female,
working together. Under no circumstances,
it should be said, however, are females
employed between 8 p.m. and 8am. Dur-
ing the night there are 300 male clerks
employed here, including a special staff
for newspaper work, between 5 p.m. and
za.m. This news staff consists of operators
' selected from among the most rapid and
experienced in the service. What amount
of work they can achieve under pressure
may be given in the words of a report of the
Postmaster-General :—‘‘ On one occasion,
when an important debate took place in
Parliament, and when in addition there
were an unusual number of iateresting oc-
currences in different parts of the country,
nearly 440,000 words—equal to about 220
columns of the TZzmes newspaper—were
transmitted from the central station in
London ina single night.”

To give an idea of the work
passes through this office, it may be stated
that the total number of telegraph offices
open at the end of the year 1876 was about
7,000, and the staff of officers engaged
exclusively on telegraph duties numbered
over 10,000 persons. We cannot conclude
this paper without saying just a word in
reference to that large body of the tele-
graph service, the telegraph messengers.
These youths, when eligible, are drafted

which

THE POSTAL TELEGRAPH SERVICE.



141

into the postal department proper, as letter-
carriers. They undergo a sort of military
drill, and those belonging to the London
district are drilled regularly. The organi-
zation of the force was carried out by
Colonel Du Plat Taylor. It was very
obvious that careful organization was re-
quired, and with this object in view Colonel
Taylor aimed at subjecting the force of
messengers to military regulations and drill.
Thus there has been created the rank of
“lance corporal,” the messenger holding
this position being, as a rule, one of
superior age, and is placed in charge of
a division of boy-messengers. That some
such organisation was really necessary is
to be inferred from the following humorous
remarks of Mr. Scudamore upon the sub-
ject: “It would be of little use for the
department to employ the best available
means for carrying a message over a dis-
tance of 500 miles at the rate of forty
words a minute, if when it left the wire it
were to be delayed while the messenger
played at marbles or jumped over posts.
And, again, it is obviously of importance
that special pains should be taken to make
the messengers who, as boys, would of
course rather be dirty than clean, keep
themselves and their clothes in a creditable
state.” With a view to effect these objects
a paper of instructions to the boys as to
conduct and as to delivery was prepared
by Colonel Taylor, and it has evidently
had the desired effect. Mr. Scudamore
states that although some of the mes-
sengers have been mischievous, and “have
amused themselves by putting blacking
into the tea of other boys, or by putting
mice into the pneumatic tubes,” still, as
a whole, the force, considering their num-
ber and their youth, behave very well, and,
indeed, much better than he expected.
142

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



GEORGE §T





| HE present gt
“ gantic system of
railway communi-

owing to the efforts
of two men—
James Watt and
Stephenson. The

of the steam-engine, brought
it into practical use; the
latter adapted it to locomo-
tive purposes. The result of their joint
labours we see in the network of railways
which intersects our land.

George Stephenson was born on June
gth, 1781. His father was a fireman at a
coal-pit, where he had charge of a pumping
engine. The cottage in which George first
saw the light is situated about eight miles
from Newcastle, in a village called Wylam.
Like other colliery cottages, it was un-
plastered, had a clay floor, and was open
to the rafters. “Old Bob,” as Robert
Stephenson was called, was much respected
amongst his neighbours. His mother, too,
was held in high esteem as a “rale canny
body.” ‘Old Bob” worked at the Wylam
Colliery, and for his services he received
the munificent sum of twelve shillings per
week, upon which he had to keep the eight
members of his family. Schooling for
George and his brothers was therefore out
of the question; but the father taught his
children himself as well as he was able,
and his lessons were never forgotten.

When George was about eight years of
age, his father removed to another colliery
at Dewley Burn, where he was engaged in
shovelling in coal to a furnace which kept
a steam-engine going. Here George him-
self was set to work. His first employ-
ment was to carry his father’s dinner to him,

former, by his improvements.



EPHENSON,

THE RAILWAY PROJECTOR.

and to keep the children off the tramway
which ran in front of the house. He was
also left in charge of some cows, and was
commissioned to close the gates after the
wagons had passed through. For this he
received twopence per day. The spare time
which these occupations left him, he de-
voted to modelling engines in clay, and
making imaginary steam-pipes from reeds.
When he grew older he was set to lead the
horses in ploughing and to hoe turnips at
the advanced wages of fourpence a day.
But at last he became a fireman, being
appointed assistant to his father at Dewley.
Here his duty consisted in attending to the
furnace of one of those gigantic steam-
engines which pumped water from a coal-
pit. From Dewley he went to Mid Mill,
and after that to the colliery of Throckley
Bridge, at which his wages were twelve
shillings aweek. He felt he was getting on.
It was a proud moment for him when one
Saturday evening he got his first twelve
shillings. ‘“ Now,” said he enthusiastically,
“T am a made man for life.” THis next rise
was to the position of plugman, while his
father worked under him as fireman, From
looking after a furnace, he had now to
attend to the working of a steam-engine,
and to watch that the pumps were kept
properly working. It was a post of re-
sponsibility, and not without trouble. If
the pumps went wrong, he had to descend
the pit, and do his best to rectify them by
stuffing any hole or crevice to make them
draw; and if the defect was beyond his
power of remedy, his duty was to report it
to the chief engineer. He was now in his
element: could handle and scour, and
work about among pistons, cylinders, wheels,
levers, pumps, and other mechanical con-
trivances. About this period, too, he
learned to read and write. In order to
GEORGE STEPHENSON, THE RAILWAY PROJECTOR.

143



increase his earnings he learned to make
and mend the shoes of his fellow-workmen ;
and his greatest triumph was when he had
soled the shoes of his sweetheart and future
wife, Fanny Henderson. He was so de-
lighted with the capital job he made of
them, that he carried them about to show
his friends. His first guinea was saved
from shoemaking, and his marriage to
Fanny Henderson took place in 1802, when
the pair betook themselves to Willington,
about six miles from Newcastle. “Settling
down as a married man, George continued
to devote leisure hours to study or to some
handicraft employment. From making and
mending shoes, he proceeded to mend
clocks, and became known among his
neighbours as a wonderfully clever clock-
doctor. It is said that he was led into this
kind of employment by an accident. His
chimney having caught fire, the neigh-
bours in putting it out deluged the house
with water, and damaged the eight-day
clock. Handy at machinery, and wishing
to save money, George determined to set
the clock to rights. He took it to pieces,
cleaned it, reorganized it, and madeit go as
well as ever. There was a triumph! After
this, he was often employed as a repairer
of clocks, by which he added a little to
his income.” On 16th December, 1803, was
born his only son Robert, who lived to be
at the head of the railway engineering pro-
fession. As a brakesman, George had
charge of the coallifting machinery at
Willington, and subsequently at Killing-
worth. In 1804 he suffered a dreadful
blow by the loss of his wife, while his son
was still aninfant. Three years afterwards
his small savings were again swept away.
He was drawn for the militia, and every
shilling he had saved was paid away for a
substitute. This was a dismal period in
his life. Referring to it many years after-
wards, he said, ‘Well do I remember the
beginning of my career as an engineer, and
the great perseverance that was required of
me to get on. Not having served an ap-
prenticeship, I had made up my mind to
go to America, considering that no one in



England would trust me to act as an engi-
neer. However, I was trusted in some
small matters, and succeeded in giving
satisfaction. Greater trusts were reposed
in me, in which I also succeeded. Soon
after, I commenced making the locomotive
engine ; and the results of my perseverance
you have this day witnessed.”

In 1810 occurred George Stephenson’s
great opportunity. Killingworth High Pit would not work
one engineer after another tried to set it
to rights, but failed ; and at last they were
glad to let ‘Geordie’ try his hand, though
they scarcely expected him to succeed. He
took the engine to pieces, rearranged it
skilfully, and set it to work in the most
effectual manner. -Besides receiving a
present of “410 for this useful service, he
was placed on the footing of a regular
engineer, and afterwards consulted in cases
of defective pumping apparatus.

By 1812 Stephenson had risen to the
position of a colliery engineer and planner
of machinery for working pits and wheel-
ing off coal. Referring to this period,
when in 1835 he gave evidence before a
select committee of the House of Commons
on accidents in mines, he said: “ After
making some improvements in the steam-
engines above ground, I was requested by
the manager of the colliery to go under-
ground along with him to see if any im-
provements could be made in the mines
by employing machinery as a substitute for
manual labour and horse-power in bringing
the coals out of the deeper workings of the
mine, On my first going down the Killing-
worth pit, there was a steam-engine under-
ground for the purpose of drawing water
from a pit that was sunk at some distance
from the first shaft. The Killingworth
coal-field is considerably dislocated. After
the colliery was opened, at a very short
distance from the shaft they met with one
of those dislocations, or dikes, as they are
called. The coal was thrown down about
forty yards [or abruptly lay at that much
lower level]. Considerable time was spent
in sinking another pit to this depth. And
144

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



on my going down to examine the work, I
proposed making the engine, which had
been erected some time previously, to draw
the coals up an inclined plane, which de-
scended immediately from the place where
it was fixed. A considerable change was
accordingly made in the mode of working
the colliery, not only in applying the ma-
chinery, but employing putters instead of
horses in bringing the coals from the
hewers ; and by those changes the number
of horses in the pit was reduced from about
‘roo to 15 or 16. During the time I was
engaged in making these important alter-
ations, I went round the workings in the
pit with the viewer almost every time that
he went into the mine—not only at Killing-
worth, but at Mountmoor, Derwentcrook
Southmoor, all which collieries belonged to
Lord Ravensworth and his partners ; and,
the whole of the machinery in all these
sollieries was put under my charge.” While
at Killingworth, George went to Wylam,
and saw the engines which were working
on the tramway there. After seeing one
at work, he said, he “could make a better
one go upon legs.” He saw at a glance its
defects. “The furnace wanted draught,
which he gave by sending the waste steam
into the chimney ; and at once by increased
evolution of steam, the power of the engine
was doubled or trebled. In 1815 he had
anew locomotive at work, combining this
and some minor improvements.

The locomotive engine was now fairly
at work, but much had yet to be done
before it was to arrive at the pitch of per-
fection at which we now witness it. The
cost of working was considerable ; the rails
and machinery were not so highly finished as
they now are, and the running was conse-
quently rough. Step by step, however, all
this ultimately was brought to pass. When
the Stockton and Darlington Railway was
projected, George offered his services to
the directors, and was appointed engineer
at a salary of £300 per annum. ‘The
work was all laid out by himself, and: in
some respects became a model for railway
works—the gauge of four feet eight anda





half inches, which is now usually followed,
having here been adopted in a regular
manner in imitation of the old tramways. A
manufactory of engines was set up at New-
castle, in which Stephenson was a partner,
and three locomotives were ordered from
this establishment by the directors of the
railway ; for in their act of parliament they
had taken power to employ steam in the
traction of goods and passengers. The
opening of this, the first public railway,
took place on September 27th, 1825, in
presence of an immense concourse of
spectators. A local newspaper records the
event as follows: “The signal being given,
the -engine started off with this immense
train of carriages, and such was its velocity,
that in some parts the speed was frequently
twelve miles an hour; and at that time the
number of passengers was counted to be
450, which, together with the coals, mer-
chandise, and carriages, would amount to
near ninety tons. The engine, with its
load, arrived at Darlington, a distance of
eight and three-quarter miles, in sixty-five
minutes. The six wagons loaded with coals,
intended for Darlington, were then left
behind; and obtaining a fresh supply of
water, and arranging the procession to ac-
commodate a band of music and numerous
passengers from Darlington, the engine
set off again, and arrived at Stockton in
three hours and seven minutes, including
stoppages, the distance being nearly twelve
miles.”

The drawing of about 600 passengers, as
there appear to have been in the train, at
the rate of four miles an hour, was thought
very marvellous. “A month later, a regular
passenger-coach, called the Zaperement, was
placed on the line; it was drawn by a horse
in two hours. The haulage of coal only
was effected by the locomotive. It was
evident that the making of engines was still
in its infancy. Stephenson, at his manu-
factory, continued to carry out improve-
ments, in which he was assisted by his son
on his return from South America in 1827.”

The next important work which George
undertook was the surveying of the Man-
GEORGE STEPHENSON, THE RAILWAY PROJECTOR.



chester and Liverpool Railway. This was
a work of considerable difficulty, owing to
the opposition of the landowners. But the
survey was made. in support of the bili,
he had to attend as a witness before the
committee of the House of Commons,
where his assertion that it would not be
difficult to make a locomotive travel fifteen
or even twenty miles an hour, provoked one
of the members to reply, that the engineer
could only be fit for a lunatic asylum. In
face of the opposition it was deemed
desirable to withdraw the bill; but the
directors ordered a fresh survey, and the



Ww
1 = Hl i i
ce

GEORGE STEPHENSON’S ‘* LOCOMOTION.”
At Darlington,

Hackworth’s “ Sanspareil,” and Braith-
waite and Ericson’s “Novelty.” The test
assigned was to run a distance of thirty
miles at not less than ten miles an hour,
backwards and forwards along a two-mile
level near Rainhill, with a load three times
the weight of the engine. The “Novelty,”
after running twice along the level, was
disabled by failure of the boiler-plates, and
withdrawn. The “Sanspareil,” traversed
eight times at a speed of nearly fifteen miles
an hour, when it was stopped by derange-
ment of the machinery. The “ Rocket”



Iq5

bill this time passed. George received the
appointment of chief engineer of the works,
at a salary of £1000 per annum. His great
difficulty was Chat Moss, but this was ulti-
mately completed, to the astonishment of
the most eminent engineers. During the
progress of the work the directors offered a
prize of £500 for the best locomotive to
go at the rate of ten miles an hour!
Stephenson determined to compete, and
built an engine called the “ Rocket”
for the purpose. The trial came off on
October 8th, 1829, when three engines were
brought forward :- Stephenson’s “Rocket,”



os

aN
ao Te

ACHE

nips aetna:



was the only one to stand the test and
satisfy the conditions. It travelled over
the stipulated thirty miles in two hours
and seven minutes nearly, with a speed,
at times, of twenty-nine miles an hour,
and at the lowest nearly twelve; in the
latter case exceeding the advertised maxi-
mum ; in the former tripling it. The prize
was at once awarded to the makers of the
“Rocket.” “This engine,” as is well re-
marked, “was not only remarkable for its
speed, but also for the contrivances by

which that speed was attained. Most im-
i


146

THE PICTORIAL CABINET OF MARVELS.



portant among them was the introduction
of tubes passing from end to end of the
boiler, by means of which so great an
additional surface was exposed to the radi-
ant heat of the fire, that steam was gene-
rated much more rapidly, and a higher
temperature maintained, at a smaller ex-
penditure of fuel than usual. The tubular
boiler was indeed the grand fact of the
experiment. Without tubes, steam could
never have been produced with the rapidity
and heat essential to quick locomotion.”
In more senses than one, the trial of the
three locomotives, in October, 1829, marks
anepoch. By burning coke instead of coal,
the stipulated suppression of smoke was
effected; the quantity consumed by the
“Rocket” during the experiment was half
aton. The coke and water were carried in
a tender attached to the engine.

At last, on September 15th, 1830, the
Liverpool and Manchester Railway was
opened. Great public excitement was
caused by this event ; several members of
the Government, and distinguished indi-
viduals from various quarters, were invited
to be present.at the opening. On the
memorabie day, a train was formed of eight
locomotives and twenty-eight carriages, in
which were seated the eminent visitors and
other persons present on the occasion, to
the number of 600. The “ Northumbrian,”
one of the most powerful of the engines,
took the lead, and business commenced
regularly the next day. The opening was
clouded by a sad accident, by which the
Prime Minister, Mr. Huskisson, lost his
life. “Of the thirty stage coaches which
had plied between the two towns, all but
one went off the road very soon after the
opening, and their 500 passengers multi-
plied at once into tooo, In December
commenced the transport of goods and
merchandise, when a loaded train weighing
eighty tons was drawn by the ‘ Planet’
at from twelve to sixteen miles an hour.
In February, 1831, the ‘Samson’ accom-
plished a greater feat, having conveyed



164% tons from Liverpool to. Manchester
in two hours and a half, including stop-
pages, as much work as could have been
accomplished by seventy horses.” This
line now forms part of the London and
North-Western Railway.

With the assistance of his son, Stephen-
son further perfected the locomotive,
which he lived to see running at forty
miles an hour. In 1840 he retired from
active life to a residence near Chesterfield,
called Tapton Hall, with the intention of
enjoying that love of nature which he
always manifested. “At home, in the close
of his days, George Stephenson occupied
himself with his birds and other animals,
for which he had a great fondness ; nor did
he take less pleasure in his garden and the
rearing of flowers and vegetables. Occasion-
ally, he visited the scenes of his youth
among the collieries about Newcastle, at
all times taking an interest in the welfare
of the workmen, and never feeling ashamed
of recognising old acquaintances. Though
often invited to the houses of persons of
distinction, he acknowledged he had no
wish to figure in what he called fine com-
pany. Itis said that he was besét by pro-
jectors of all kinds for the sake of his
advice; and that the young likewise be-
sought his counsel as to their proposed
professional career, which he gave always
cheerfully, except when these youthful
aspirants were affectedly dressed, and put
on airs contrary to George’s notions of
propriety.” To a young applicant of this
stamp his candour was probably not very
agreeable, but may have been salutary : “I
hope you will excuse me; I am a plain-
spoken person, and I am sorry to see a
nice-looking and rather clever young man
like you disfigured with that fine-patterned
waistcoat, and all these chains and fang-
dangs. If I,-sir, had bothered my head
with such things when at ycur age, I should
not have been where I am now.”

George Stephenson closed his useful
career August, rath, 1848. . ;




THE PEARL FISHERY.






“fy his account of
Ceylon, Mr. Per-
ceval says, “ There
is no spectacle
the island affords
AEN: more striking to a
AN ay European than the
; Bay of Condatchy during the
season of the pearl fishery.
This desert and barren spot
% is at that time converted into
a scene which exceeds in novelty and
variety almost anything I ever witnessed—
several thousands of people of different
colours, countries, castes, and occupa-
tions, continually passing and re-passing
in a busy crowd; the vast numbers of
small tents and huts erected on the shore,
with the bazaar or market-place before
each; the multitude of boats returning in
the afternoon from the pearl-banks, some
of them laden with riches; the anxious,
expectant countenances of the boat-owners
while the boats are approaching the shore,
and the eagerness and avidity with which
they run to them when arrived, in hopes of
a rich cargo; the vast number of jewellers,
brokers, merchants, of all colours and all
descriptions, both natives and foreigners,
" who are occupied in some way or other with
the pearls, some separating and assorting
them, others weighing and ascertaining their
number and value, while others are hawking
them about, or drilling and boring them for
future use: all these. circumstances tend to
impress the mind with the value and im-
portance of that object which can of itself
create this scene.”

The principal oyster-bank is situated
opposite Condatchy, and is about twenty
miles from the shore ; and the best fishing
is said to be found in from six to eight
fathoms water. ‘There are fourteen banks,
but not all equally productive ; and before
the fishing commences, these banks are
surveyed. The state of the oysters is thus



147



THE, PEARL: FISHERY.

ascertained, and a report is then made to
Government. If it is found that the quantity
is sufficient, and that the oysters have
arrived at a proper degree of maturity, the
particular banks to be fished that year are
put up for sale to the highest bidder, or are
kept in the hands of Government, to be
fished on its cwn account. The pearl-
oyster, it may be stated, is supposed
to reach its maturity in about from seven
to nine years ; and it is said that after that
period the pearl becomes disagreeably large
to the fish, and is then vomited out of the
shell. The Dutch, with inconsiderate ava-
rice, had nearly exhausted the banks ; but
since the island of Ceylon has come into
our hands, a different policy has been
adopted, to prevent such an accident
happening again. The banks are divided
into several portions, and not more than
two or three can be fished in one season.
These different portions are leased annually
in succession, so that now a sufficient time
is given for the oysters to increase in size
and numbers. Moreover, the period during
which the fishing is permitted to be carried
on is only about six weeks or two months
at the most, commencing in February, and
ending about the beginning of April ; and
so numerous are the holidays amongst the
divers that the number of fishing-days in
each season seldom exceeds thirty. During
the season, the boats regularly sail and return
together. A signal-gun is fired at the station
Arippo about ten at night, when the whole
fleet sets sail with the land-breeze. They
reach the banks before daybreak, and at sun-
rise they commence fishing. In this they
continue busily occupied till about noon,
when the sea-breeze sets in, and warns
them to return. When the boats come in