Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Birth of Napoleon - Brienne - Anecdotes...
 Corsica - Napoleon's politics -...
 Napoleon's arrest - Victories of...
 Napoleon as Commander-in-Chief...
 Josephine - Works of art - Bridge...
 Mantua - Venice - Insurrections...
 Alvinzi - Battle of Arcola - Austrian...
 Würmser's departure - His gratitude...
 Army of the Archduke Charles -...
 Preliminaries of Leoben - Insurrection...
 Napoleon in Milan - Montebello...
 Arrest of Pichegru - Count Cobenztel...
 Politics in Paris - Affairs of...
 Battle of the Pyramids - Entrance...
 Napoleon's expedition into Syria...
 Napoleon's return to Paris - Josephine...
 Siéyes and Ducos retire - Declaration...
 New coalition - Russia deserts...
 Plots against the life of the First...
 War with England - Battle of Copenhagen...
 Expedition to St. Domingo - Toussaint...
 Attitude of France and England...
 Conspiracy of Georges Cadoudal...
 Napoleon Emperor - Protest of Louis...
 Russia's hostile attitude towards...
 Battle of Trafalgar - Retreat of...
 Prussia treats for peace, but fails...
 Sweden - English expeditions -...
 Occupation of Spain by the French...
 Conference at Erfurt - Napoleon...
 Napoleon at Paris - Prussia declares...
 Invasion of France - Napoleon leaves...
 The allied sovereigns enter Paris...
 Napoleon in Elba - Napoleon leaves...
 Force and position of the allied...
 Napoleon returns to Paris - Provisional...
 St. Helena - Longwood - Restrictions...
 The second funeral in 1840
 Honors conferred by Napoleon
 Genealogical table of the Bonaparte...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Napoleon Bonaparte : soldier and statesman; emperor and exile ; a history for young people
Title: Napoleon Bonaparte
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00081086/00001
 Material Information
Title: Napoleon Bonaparte soldier and statesman; emperor and exile ; a history for young people
Physical Description: ii, 181, 2 p. : ill., ports. ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Craig, Hugh ( Author, Primary )
George Routledge and Sons ( Publisher )
Dalziel Brothers ( Engraver )
Publisher: George Routledge and Sons
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: c1891
Subject: Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Generals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Emperors -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Battles -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Exiles -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1891   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1891
Genre: Biographies   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
England -- London
England -- Manchester
Statement of Responsibility: compiled by Hugh Craig ; with several hundred illustrations.
General Note: Some illustrations engraved by the Dalziel Brothers.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00081086
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223331
notis - ALG3580
oclc - 191100922

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Birth of Napoleon - Brienne - Anecdotes - His early character - Paris - Gets his commission - His first love - Authorship
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Corsica - Napoleon's politics - The tenth of August - Promotion - Toulon - Little Gibraltar
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Napoleon's arrest - Victories of the French - The sections - Josephine-Napoleon's promotion and marriage
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Napoleon as Commander-in-Chief - State of the army - Proclamations - Colonel Rampon - Napoleon's victory at Monte Notte
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Josephine - Works of art - Bridge of Lodi - Napoleon's entry into Milan - Insurrection of Pavia - Kellermann - The "Guides"”
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Mantua - Venice - Insurrections - Naples - Leghorn - Citadel of Milan - Würmser - Battles of Salo, Lonato and Castiglione - Junot - Napoleon's danger - Flight of Würmser - Third blockade of Mantua
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Alvinzi - Battle of Arcola - Austrian retreat - Fifth army of Austria - Battle of Rivoli - Provera - Flight of the Austrians - Surrender of Mantua
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Würmser's departure - His gratitude - The Pope breaks the treaty - His army - Napoleon enters Romagna - Battle of the Senio - Napoleon's clemency - Ancona - Tolentino - The Pope submits - Treaty of Rome
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Army of the Archduke Charles - Passage of the Tagliamento - Austria solicits an armistice
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Preliminaries of Leoben - Insurrection of Venice - Massacre at Verona - Napoleon's return to Italy - Dissolution of the Venetian Senate
        Page 28
    Napoleon in Milan - Montebello - Josephine - Genoa - Protracted negotiations - Unsettled state of Paris - Cisalpine Republic
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Arrest of Pichegru - Count Cobenztel - Treaty of Campo Formio - Death of General Hoche - Napoleon at Mantua - Takes leave of the army at Milan - Departure - Rastadt - Arrives at Paris - Grand fêtes
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Politics in Paris - Affairs of Rome and Switzerland - Napoleon relinquishes the invasion of England - Egypt - Embarkation at Toulon - Surrender of Malta - Nelson - French army lands at Alexandria - The desert
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Battle of the Pyramids - Entrance into Cairo - Battle of the Nile - Change in the prospects of the expedition - Napoleon's arrangements - Revolt at Cairo - Napoleon at Suez
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Napoleon's expedition into Syria - March across the Desert - El-Arisch, Gaza, Rameh, and Jaffa taken - Turkish garrison put to death - Siege of St. Jean D'Acre - Sir Sydney Smith - Napoleon's retreat - Story of poisoning the sick - Arrival at Cairo - The battle of Aboukir - Napoleon departs from Egypt
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Napoleon's return to Paris - Josephine - The Directory - State of parties - Siéyes - Bernadotte - Lefevre - Moreau - Revolution of the 18th Brumaire - Napoleon first consul
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Siéyes and Ducos retire - Declaration of the Constitution of the year eight - Bonaparte, Cambacéres, and Lebrun, Consuls - Letter to the King of England - Napoleon resides in the Tuileries - Funeral honors to Washington
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    New coalition - Russia deserts it - The Emperor Paul - Napoleon prepares for war - Masséna in Genoa - Napoleon in Italy - Passage of the Alps - He enters Milan - Passes the Adda - Takes Bergamo and Cremona - Genoa capitulates to Austria - Battle of Montebello - Desaix joins the army - Affairs of Egypt - Battle of Marengo - Armistice - Restoration of the Cisalpine Republic - Victories of Moreau - Napoleon returns to Paris
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Plots against the life of the First Consul - Death of Kléber - England grants to Austria a loan of two millions - Austria rejects the treaty with France - Malta surrenders to England - Second letter of Louis XVIII. to the First Consul - His reply - Hostilities renewed - Battle of Hohenlinden - Armistice with Austria - Infernal machine - Arbitrary measures of the First Consu - Confederation of the North - Treaty of Luneville
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    War with England - Battle of Copenhagen - Death of Paul I - Preparations to invade England - Fulton's steamboat -The Concordat - Return of the emigrants - Mr. Pitt succeeded by Mr. Addington - Preliminaries of peace with England - Vigorous and beneficent internal government of France - Peace of Amiens - Legion of Honor - Napoleon Consul for life
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Expedition to St. Domingo - Toussaint L'Ouverture - Conquest by the French - The yellow fever attacks the French army - Toussaint seized and sent to France - Revolt of the negroes - Death of General Leclerc - Barbarities of Rochambeau - Death of Toussaint - The French fleet and army of St. Domingo surrender to England
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Attitude of France and England - England retains Malta - Splendor of Paris, and increasing state assumed by the First Consul - Napoleon and Lord Whitworth - England
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Conspiracy of Georges Cadoudal - Pichegru and Moreau - Conspirators arrested - The Duke D'Enghien seized, tried, and executed - Death of Fichegru - Trial of Georges and Moreau - Execution of Georges - Moreau banished - Protests of foreign courts
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Napoleon Emperor - Protest of Louis XVIII - The Emperor at the camp of Boulogne - Napoleon's new title recognized by the European powers, England, Russia, and Sweden excepted - Arrival of Pope Pius VII at Paris - Napoleon's coronation
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Russia's hostile attitude towards France - Letter of Napoleon to George III - Completion of the Civil Code - Napoleon crowned at Milan as King of Italy - Third coalition against France - French army advances on Austria - Capitulation of Ulm - Napoleon enters Vienna - Battle of Austerlitz - Retreat of the Emperor Alexander - An armistice granted to Austria
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Battle of Trafalgar - Retreat of Alexander - Affairs of Prussia, Naples, Sweden - Treaty of Presburg - Death of Pitt - Negotiations for peace between England and France - Napoleon creates new kingdoms and titles of nobility - Peace with Russia and Turkey - War with Prussia - Battles of Saalfield, Auerstadt, and Jena - Occupation of Prussia by the French
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Prussia treats for peace, but fails - Berlin decree - The Russians in Poland - French army crosses the Vistula - Napoleon at Warsaw - Battle of Eylau - Napoleon offers peace, but is refused - Battle of Friedland - Armistice - Treaty of Tilsit - Return to Paris
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Sweden - English expeditions - Bombardment of Copenhagen - France declares war on Portugal - Proclamation of Godoy - Treaty of Fontainebleau - Invasion of Portugal - Flight of the royal family - Junot enters Lisbon - Affairs of Spain
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Occupation of Spain by the French - Insurrection of Aranjuez - Abdication of Charles IV - Ferdinand VII - Ferdinand's journey to Bayonne - Insurrection of Madrid - Second abdication of Charles IV - Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain - Insurrection of Cadiz - Battle of Rio Seco - Murat King of Naples - Capitulation of Baylen - Joseph leaves Madrid - Sir Arthur Wellesley in Portugal - Battle of Vimiera - Convention of Cintra - The French evacuate Portugal
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Conference at Erfurt - Napoleon in Spain - Sir John Moore's retreat - Victories of the French armies
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Napoleon at Paris - Prussia declares war against France - Rapid movements of the Russian and Prussian armies - Napoleon at Dresden - Austria mediates - Battle of Bautzen - Death of Duroc - Armistice granted by Napoleon - Congress of Prague - Napoleon refuses the conditions of the allied sovereigns - Hostilities recommence - Austria declares war against France - Death of Poniatowski
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Invasion of France - Napoleon leaves Paris for the army - Quadruple alliance - The allies march on Paris - Capitulation of Paris
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    The allied sovereigns enter Paris - Provisional government - Conference at Fontainebleau - Napoleon abdicates unconditionally - Treaty of Fontainebleau - Napoleon lands in Elba
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Napoleon in Elba - Napoleon leaves Elba - Lands in France - Arrives at Fontainebleau - Enters Paris - Congress of Vienna
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Force and position of the allied armies - Wellington - Blücher - Napoleon takes command of his forces - Battles of Ligny, Quatre-Bras, and Waterloo
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    Napoleon returns to Paris - Provisional government appointed - Napoleon departs for Rochefort - Letter to the Prince Regent - He embarks in the Bellerophon, which sails for England - Departure for St. Helena
        Page 174
        Page 175
    St. Helena - Longwood - Restrictions on the Emperor - Failure of his health - O'Meara - Antommarchi - Death of Napoleon - The funeral
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    The second funeral in 1840
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Honors conferred by Napoleon
        Page 182
    Genealogical table of the Bonaparte family
        Page 183
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

,, ..
*^1 l'
*I~r t^:



Soldier and Statesman; Emperor and Exile


Author of "Great African Travellers," "Great Arctic Travellers," etc.




History of the United States.
History of England.
Great African Travellers.
Great Arctic Travellers.
Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Out-Door Sports for Boys (and
Each 160 pages, quarto. With numerous
illustrations. Boards, lithographed double
cover, each, 75 cents.



IN preparing the following sketch of the life of
Napoleon Bonaparte, an attempt has been made
to keep the reader's attention fixed on his re-
inarkable personality, and therefore all discus-
sion as to the policy or characters of the great
rulers or statesmen with whom he was in contact
has been omitted, and those campaigns or battles
in which he was not personally engaged are but
slightly mentioned.
The story of the life of the poor, obscure Corsican
boy who rose to the summit of earthly power and
who fell so suddenly from the most splendid of
thrones to die in lonely exile in an African island
will always be a fascinating page of history, per-
haps the most fascinating, as it is certainly the
most romantic. The great men with whose names
that of Napoleon will always be joined started
with great advantages. Neither Alexander, nor
Caesar, nor Charles the Great were so humble in
position, so stricken by poverty, so utterly thrown
on their own resources as he was, and perhaps no
one of the great has had such an influence on the
world. The influence of such men spreads in
ever-widening circles, and we are too near Na-
poleon's time to foretell what wide orbit his fame
may ultimately trace. Although it is only seventy
years since his death at Longwood in St. Helena,
public or critical opinion respecting him has swung,
pendulum-like, from extremity of the one to the
other, not only in foreign countries, but in France
itself. The reaction in his favor culminates in
Thiers' great work on the Consulate and the
Empire and the creation of the Second Empire,
while the repressive, profligate rule of Napo-
leon III. has again caused a reaction against the
founder of the family. The most remarkable
study of Napoleon, and one which sedulously at-
tempts to be impartial and to base itself on -facts
beyond dispute, is contained in the Modern Re4ime
of Taine. Napoleon Bonaparte, he declares, is the
maker of modern France: "never was an individ-
ual character so profoundly stamped on any col-

lective work." Napoleon was not only, writes M.
Taine, out of the common run, but there is no
standard of measurement for him; he is not a
Frenchman nor a man of the eighteenth century;
he is one of the three great minds of the Italian Re-
naissance, a posthumous brother of Michael Angelo
and Dante; he was-to quote Mme. de Stael-
" wholly unlike anybody else ; he was both more and
less than man; he neither hates nor loves-he exists
for himself alone." What characterizes him is the
perfection of his mental instrument. He has in his
brain three atlases-one military, containing all de-
tails of all forces on sea and land ; another civil,
comprising the statistics of the whole adminis-
trative, financial, judicial and ecclesiastical system;
the third a vast moral and biographical diction-
ary. All these are clearly impressed upon his
mind, and he can turn to every item at once. His
dominant passion, the inward abyss into which in-
stinct, education, reflection and theory plunge him,"
is his ambition, and his political work is the work of
egoism served by genius. "In his European struc-
ture as in his French structure, this sovereign
egoism has introduced a vice of construction."
In the European edifice this vice was apparent
from the first, and led to the revolution of 1830.
"In France it is equally serious but not so ap-
parent; only at the end of half a century, or even
a century, is it to be made clearly visible, but its
gradual and slow effects will be equally pernicious
and they are no less sure." It is the craving for
success, the crude egoism which Napoleon made
the main-spring of his power, which is the danger
to all who admire him blindly. The result was
summed up by an observer in the words: The
French have literally no idea of any duties which
they must voluntarily, without the prospect of
reward, undertake for their country. It never
enters their heads that a man may be responsible
for the neglect of those public duties for the
performance of which he receives no regular




Birth of Napoleon-Brienne-Aneedotes-His early charac-
ter-Paris-Gets his commission--His first love-
Authorship................. .................. .......... 1

Corsica-Napoleon's politics-The tenth of August-Promo-
tion-Toulon-Little Gibraltar .......................... 5

Napoleon's arrest-Victories of the French-The sections-
Josephine-Napoleon's promotion and marriage........ 9

Napoleon as Commander-in-Chief-State of the army-Proc-
lamations-Colonel Rampon-Napoleon's victory at
Monte Notte.............................................. 12

Josephine-Works of art-Bridge of Lodi-Napoleon's entry
into Milan-Insurrection of Pavia-Kellermann-The
"Guides ................................................ 14

Mantua -Venice-Insurrections-Naples-Leghorn-Citadel
of Milan-Wiirmser-Battles of Salo, Lonato and Castig-
lione-Junot-Napoleon's danger-Flight of Wiirmser-
Third blockade of Mantua .............................. 16

Alvinzi-Battle of Arcola-Austrian retreat-Fifth army of
Austria-Battle of Rivoli-Provera-Flight of the Aus-
trians-Surrender of Mantua ............................ 18

Wiirmser's departure-His gratitude-The Pope breaks the
treaty-His army-Napoleon enters Romagna-Battle
of the Senio-Napoleon's clemency-Ancona-Tolentino
-The Pope submits-Treaty of Rome.................. 24

Army of the Archduke Charles-Passage of the Tagliamento
-Austria solicits an armistice.......................... 26

Preliminaries of Leoben-Insurrection of Venice-Massacre
at Verona--Napoleon's return to Italy-Dissolution of
the Venetian Senate...................................28

Napoleon in Milan-Montebello-Josephine-Genoa-Pro-
tracted negotiations-Unsettled state of Paris-Cisal-
pine Republic............. ............................. 29

Arrest of Pichegru-Count Cobenztel-Treaty of Campo
Formio-Death of General Hoche-Napoleon at Mantua
-Takes leave of the army at Milan-Departure-Ras-
tadt-Arrives at Paris-Grand fetes.................... 31



Politics in Paris-Affairs of Rome and Switzerland-Napo-
leon relinquishes the invasion of England-Egypt-Em-
barkation at Toulon-Surrender of Malta-Nelson-
French army lands at Alexandria-The Desert ......... 34

Battle of the Pyramids-Entrance into Cairo-Battle of the
Nile-Change in the prospects of the expedition-Napo-
leon's arrangements-Revolt at Cairo-Napoleon at
Suez ........... ... ..... ...... .. .. .............. .. .. 38

Napoleon's expedition into Syria-March across the Desert
-El-Arisch, Gaza, Rameh, and Jaffa taken-Turkish
garrison put to death-Siege of St. Jean D'Acre-Sir
Sydney Smith-Napoleon's retreat-Story of poisoning
the sick-Arrival at Cairo-The battle of Aboukir-
Napoleon departs from Egypt............................. 43

Napoleon's return to Paris-Josephine-The Directory-
State of parties-Si6yes-Bernadotte-Lefevre-Moreau
-Revolution of the 18th Brumaire-Napoleon First
Consul..................................................... 4

Si6yes and Ducos retire-Declaration of the Constitution of
the year eight-Bonaparte, Cambac6res, and Lebrun,
Consuls-Letter to the King of England-Napoleon re-
sides in the Tuileries-Funeral honors to Washington ... 53

New coalition-Russia deserts it-The Emperor Paul-Napo-
leon prepares for war-Massena in Genoa-Napoleon in
Italy-Passage of the Alps-He enters Milan-Passes the
Adda-Takes Bergamo and Cremona-Genoa capitulates
to Austria-Battle of Montebello-Desaix joins the army.
-Affairs of Egypt--Battle of Marengo-Armistice-
Restoration of the Cisalpine Republic-Victories of Mo-
reau-Napoleon returns to Paris.......................... 57

Plots against the life of the First Consul-Death of Kl6ber
-England grants to Austria a loan of two millions-
Austria rejects the treaty with France-Malta surren-
ders to England-Second letter of Louis XVII. to the
First Consul-His reply-Hostilities renewed-Battle of
Hohenlinden -Armistice with Austria-Infernal ma-
chine-Arbitrary measures of the First Consul-Confed-
eration of the North-Treaty of Luneville................ 6(

War with England-Battle of Copenhagen-Death of Paul I.
-Preparations to invade England-Fulton's steamboat
-The Concordat-Return of the emigrants-Mr. Pitt
succeeded by Mr. Addington-Preliminaries of peace
with England-Vigorous and beneficent internal gov-
ernment of France-Peace of Amiens-Legion of Honor-
Napoleon Consul for life .................................. 68




fKpedition to St. Domingo-Toussaint L'Ouverture-Con-
quest by the French-The yellow fever attacks the
French army-Toussaint seized and sent to France-
Revolt of the negroes-Death of General Leclerc-Bar-
barities of Rochambeau Death of Toussaint- The
French fleet and army of St. Domingo surrender to
England........ ........................................... 71

Attitude of France and England-England retains Malta-
Splendor of Paris, and increasing state assumed by the
First Consul-Napoleon and Lord Whitworth-England
begins hostilities-Seizes Hanover-Occupies Naples-
Preparations in England against invasion............... 75

Conspiracy of Georges Cadoudal-Pichegru and Moreau-
Conspirators arrested-The Duke D'Enghien seized,
tried, and executed--Death of Fichegru Trial of
Georges and ;Moreau Execution of Georges IMoreau
banished-Protests of foreign courts..................... 79

Napoleon Emperor-Protest of Louis XVIII.-The Emperor
at the camp of Boulogne-Napoleon's new title recog-
nized by the European powers, England, Russia, and
Sweden excepted-Arrival of Pope Pius VII. at Paris-
Napoleon's coronation................................... 83

Russia's hostile attitude towards France-Letter of Napo-
leon to George III.-Completion of the Civil Code-Napo-
leon crowned at Milan as King of Italy-Third coalition
against France-French army advances on Austria-
Capitulation of Ulm-Napoleon enters Vienna-Battle of
Austerlitz- Retreat of the Emperor Alexander-An
armistice granted to Austria............................ 90

Battle of Trafalgar-Retreat of Alexander-Affairs of Prus-
sia, Naples, Sweden-Treaty of Presburg-Death of Pitt
-Negotiations for peace between England and France
-Napoleon creates new kingdoms and titles of nobility
-Peace with Russia and Turkey-War with Prussia-
Battles of Saalfield, Auerstadt, and Jena-Occupation
of Prussia by the French................................. 98

Prussia treats for peace, but fails-Berlin decree-The Rus-
Ssians in Poland -French army crosses the Vistula -
Napoleon at Warsaw-Battle of Eylau-Napoleon offers
peace, but is refused-Battle of Friedland-Armistice-
Treaty of Tilsit-Return to Paris....................... 108

Sweden-English expeditions-Bombardment of Copenha-
gen-France declares war on Portugal-Proclamation
of Godoy-Treaty of Fontainebleau-Invasion of Portu-
gal-Flight of the royal family-Junot enters Lisbon-
Affairs of Spain.......... .............. ........ ........ 116



Occupation of Spain by the French-Insurrection of Aran-
juez-Abdication of Charles IV.-Ferdinand,VII.-Ferdi-
nand's journey to Bayonne-Insurrection of Madrid-
Second abdication of Charles IV.-Joseph Bonaparte
King of Spain-Insurrection of Cadiz-Battle of Rio Seco
-Murat King of Naples-Capitulation of Baylen-Joseph
leaves Madrid-Sir Arthur Wellesley in Portugal-Battle
of Vimiera-Convention of Cintra-The French evacuate
Portugal .............................. ............... 118

Conference at Erfurt-Napoleon in Spain-Sir John Moore's
retreat-Victories of the French armies ................ 128

Napoleon at Paris-Prussia declares war against France-
Rapid movements of the Russian and Prussian armies
-Napoleon at Dresden-Austria mediates-Battle of
Bautzen-Death of Duroc-Armistice granted by Napo-
leon-Congress of Prague-Napoleon refuses the condi-
tions of the allied sovereigns-Hostilities recommence-
Austria declares war against France--eath of Ponia-
towski........................................ ..... .. ... 157

Invasion of France-Napoleon leaves Paris for the army-
Quadruple alliance-The allies march on Paris-Capitu-
lation of Paris............................................ 161

The allied sovereigns enter Paris-Provisional government
Conference at Fontainebleau -Napoleon abdicates
unconditionally- Treaty of Fontainebleau-Napoleon
lands in Elba............................................. 164

Napoleon in Elba-Napoleon leaves Elba-Lands in France
-Arrives at Fontainebleau-Enters Paris-Congre5 of
Vienna ................................................... 16

Force and position of the allied armies-Wellington-Bliicher
-Napoleon takes command of his forces-Battles of
Ligny, Quatre-Bras, and Waterloo...................... 16$

Napoleon returns to Paris-Provisional government appoint-
ed-Napoleon departs for Rochefort-Letter to the Prince
Regent-He embarks in the Bellerophon, which sails for
England-Departure for St. Helena ..................... 174

St. Helena-Longwood-Restrictions on the Emperor-Fail-
ure of his health-O'Meara-Antommarchi-Death of
Napoleon-The funeral.................................. 176

The second funeral in 1840.................................... 179

HONORS CONFERRED BY NAPOLEON.......................................................................................... 187

GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE BONAPARTE FAMILY ............................................................... 18




NAPOLEON BONAPARTE was born on the I5th of
August, 1769, at Ajaccio, in the island of Corsica.
His ancestors, on the mother's side, were Neapoli-
tans; on his father's they were members of certain
noble houses of San Miniato, in Tuscany. The
majority of his biographers endeavor to show that
his descent was illustrious, if not slightly tinged
with royalty. The name of Bonafarte stands high
among the senators in the Golden Book of Bo-
logna; but there is no proof that Napoleon was
lineally descended from that family.
Charles Bonaparte, the father of Napoleon, was
a man of good intellect and education-possessing
much eloquence, a dignified address, and unaffected
vivacity. He was an advocate in the Royal Court
of Assize. He manifested his patriotism and
energy in the struggle of the Corsicans under

Paoli against the barter of their country by
the Genoese to the French, through the dip-
lomatic manceuvre of the Duke de Choiseul.
To the scene of warfare in which he had
taken so prominent a part, he was accom-
panied by his wife, Letitia Ramolini, a lady
of superior mind and much beauty and cour-
age, who often shared his fatigues and dan-
The French won the battle of Ponte Nu-
Sovo, which decided the fate of the Cor-
sicans; and Letitia Ramolini, then enceinte,
was compelled to take refuge among the
mountains of Ronda, whence she regained
Ajaccio in safety. Here, being anxious to
attend mass at the celebration of the As-
sumption, she went forth at an imprudent
period; was overtaken with sudden pains,
returned home in haste, but was unaMle to
reach her chamber in time. The mother
and her offspring were found lying upon a
carpet in an adjacent room, Letitia Ramolini hav-
ing there given birth to a son. This child was
called Napoleon, after one of the Italian Bonaparte
family. A Saint Napoleone once existed in the
Romish calendar, but had fallen out by some acci-
dent or neglect. In after times the Pope restored
the saint to his former rank, in compliment to his
Many prognostics were made concerning Napo-
leon; some of which would certainly never have
come to light had he not accomplished the alleged
predictions, while others were evidently founded
on observation of his early character. Among the
former we may class the predictions said to have
been founded on the circumstances attending his
birth. M. de Las Cases, for instance, having dis-
covered that the carpet on which the future con-


queror first saw the light was covered with antique
figures, illustrative of certain fables or allegories,
suggests that they were, "perhaps," some of the
heroes of Homer's Iliad. Subsequent biographers,
overlooking the perhaps," have adopted this
fancy. Among the admissible class of these pre-
visions is the opinion delivered by his great-uncle,
the Archdeacon Lucien, when on his death-bed.
The archdeacon, who had been the preceptor and
adviser of his relations, always considered Napoleon
(the second son of Charles Bonaparte) as the head
of the family; and so convinced was he of the true
grounds of his impression, that he exhorted the
eloer brother, Joseph, never to forget that fact.
Alludingto his childhood, Napoleon said, I was
an obstinate and inquisitive child. I was extremely
headstrong; nothingoverawed me, nothing discon-
certed me. I made myself formidable to the whole
family. My brother Joseph was the one with


whom I was oftenest embroiled; he was bitten,
beaten, abused : I went to complain before he had
time to recover from his confusion." He displayed
a vivid intelligence; rapid comprehension; a keen,
and often a splenetic sensibility; wilfulness under
restraint; unbounded energy, and a violent tem-
per. Whether the aggressor or the aggrieved, he
generally gained his point. Nobody had any com-
mand over him except his mother, who found
means, by a mixture of tenderness, severity, and
strict justice, to make him love and respect her.
From her he learnt the virtue of obedience.
In 1779 Napoleon was admitted to the Military
School at Brienne, where he attracted notice by
his reserved manners, and the assiduity with which
be prosecuted his studies. He devoted himself
principally to history, mathematics, and geography.
He spoke only the Corsican dialect on first en-
tering the college, but speedily made progress in
the French language. He hated Latin. Bour-
rienne says, "During play-hours, he used to
withdraw to the library, where he read works of
history, particularly Polybius and Plutarch. I
often went off to play with my comrades, and
left him by himself in the library."
His poverty subjected him to mortifications
among his comrades, who also ridiculed him
on account of his country, and twitted him
with the obsolete saint whose name he bore.
They sometimes made insulting allusions to
his mother, which exasperated him beyond all
He was at this time a studious, reflecting, soli-
tary boy, whose premature development of
mind, without a corresponding clearness of pur-
pose, gave him a contempt for the companion-
ship of his fellows, without inducing satisfac-
tion in himself. Hence he was grave, moody,
brusque; and sometimes morose from disgust
with his masters, his mates, himself, and his
position. He felt a power within, but could
not see his way; and in spite of his devotion to
the exact sciences, the hot imagination of youth
got the better of his understanding.
The saturnine boy was not suffered to remain
unmolested in his solitary moods, as sundry
bickerings attest; but in general he withdrew
himself from all companionship in silent scorn.
If he revenged himself, he did it openly. He
had occasionally to superintend certain tasks
or duties. However he disliked his comrades,
he never reported their misdemeanors--con-
temptuously preferring to go to prison himself.


He and Bourrienne were once
placed as superintendents of some
duty, which being neglected, Na-
poleon persuaded the latter to ac-
company him to prison rather that
report the offenders. They re-
mained ten days in confinement.
The first impression he received
at Brienne was of an irritating na-
ture, though it originated in cir-
cumstances not commonly felt by
boys of ten years of age. He ob-
served a portrait of the Duke de
Choiseul hanging in the hall.
"The sight of this odious charac-
ter, who had sold my country," he
afterwards said, "extorted from
me an expression of bitterness."
For this he had to endure much
persecution. I let malevolence
take its course," proceeded he,
" and only applied more closely
than ever to study. I perceived
by this what human nature was."
At the same time that Bourri-
enne was Napoleon's fellow-stu-
dent, Pichegru was his tutor. He
made few friends among his mas-
ters or his schoolmates; but some
of the former entertained a high
opinion of his intellect, and he
possessed great influence with the
latter, notwithstanding their mu-
tual animosities. On one occa-
sion the cadets had been ordered
to confine themselves strictly within their own pre
cincts, during the annual fair held near Brienne
but, under the direction of Napoleon, they under
mined the wall of their exercising ground with s(
much skill and secrecy that, on the morning of th,
fair, a part of it accidentally fell, and through th,
breach they instantly sallied to the prohibit(
Many stories have been invented in order to shove
the atrocities of Napoleon's early youth. One o
these, generally believed in England, asserted tha
he fortified his garden against his comrades; and
watching an opportunity, fired a train of gun
powder, whereby many of them were seriously in
Bourrienne says: The fabrication probably origi
nated in the juvenile affair of the snow forts an
snowballs. In the winter of 1783-4, there wer


-immense falls of snow. Napoleon, being prevented
;from taking his solitary walks, proposed to his
-comrades that they should sweep and shovel up the
o snow in the great courtyard, and make hornworks,
e raise parapets, dig trenches, etc. 'This being
Donee' said he, 'we may divide ourselves into
d platoons, form a siege, and I will undertake to
direct the attacks.' The proposal, which was re-
v ceived with enthusiasm, was immediately put into
f execution. This little sham war was carried on for
t the space of a fortnight."
Napoleon made no very marvellous progress in
-the usual school routine. Some of his French
-biographers aver that the school was proud of him.
It does not appear that there were any scholastic
- reasons for this, though the school no doubt be-
d came proud of the association. He, however,
e attained sufficient mathematical knowledge to pass


his examination for admission to the Military
School of Paris.
On arriving there he found the whole establish-
ment on so expensive a footing that he addressed a
memorial to the Vice-Principal of Brienne, showing
that the plan of education was really pernicious,
and far from being calculated to fulfil the object
which every wise Government should have in view.
The result, he said, was to inspire the pupils, who
were all the sons of poor gentlemen, with a love of
ostentation, and sentiments of vanity and self-
sufficiency; so that instead of returning happy to
the bosom of their families, they were likely to be

M. de 1'Eguille, his instructor in history, is said to
have made the following note in his reports of the
scholars: "Napoleon: Corsican in character as
well as by birth; he will go far, if circumstances as-
sist him." He was as much distinguished for grave
and studious habits at Paris as at Brienne; but he
showed a disposition to detect and expose abuses
in the establishment, which perhaps shortened the
period of his residence at the college, for he re-
mained there not quite a year. He now began to
mingle in society, and attended the literary conver-
saziones of the Abb6 Raynal, under whom he read
a course on legislation and political science.



ashamed of their relations and to despise their
humble homes. Instead of the numerous attend-
ants by whom they were surrounded, their dinners
of two courses, and their horses and grooms, he
suggested that they should brush their own clothes
and clean their own boots and shoes; that they
should eat the coarse bread made for soldiers, etc.
Temperance and activity, he added, would render
them robust, enable them to bear the severity of
different seasons and climates, to brave the fatigues
of war, and to inspire the respect and obedience of
the soldiers under their command. Thus reasoned
Napoleon, at the age of sixteen, and time showed
that he never deviated from these principles. Of
this the establishment of the Military School at
Fontainebleau is a proof.

In August, 1785, he was examined by the cele-
brated mathematician La Place, and obtained the
brevet of a second lieutenant of artillery in the
regiment of La Fdre. In the beginning of this year
his father died.
The regiment of La Fere was stationed at Va-
lence, in Dauphind, where Napoleon was in gar-
rison. He was well received at the house of a lady
in the neighborhood, named Madame de Colom-
bier. He conceived an affection for her daughter;
and the young lady appears to have found pleasure
in his society, and to have favored him with sun-
dry promenades in the gardens-" where the happi-
ness of two lovers," as Napoleon used to relate,
"was limited to their eating cherries together."
Some disturbances at Lyons caused his removal

_7- -- ~ ----,


to that city with his regiment. While there, he
narrowly escaped being drowned in the Saone.
The cramp seized him while swimming, and after re-
peated ineffectual struggles, he sank; but the current
drifted him against a sand-bank, on which he was
found in a state of insensibility by his companions.
His regiment afterwards passed to Douay, in
Flanders, and to Auxonne, in Burgundy. While in
garrison at this place, he composed a brief history
of Corsica, and treated with M. Joly, a bookseller
at Dole, for its publication. This bookseller went
over to Auxonne to transact the business, and
found Napoleon lodging in a chamber with bare
walls, the only furniture in which was an indifferent
bed without curtains, two chairs, and a table stand-
ing in the recess of a window, covered with books


and papers; his brother, Louis, slept on a coarse
mattress in an adjoining room. They agreed about
the expense of the impression; but Napoleon was
expecting every moment an order to leave Aux-
onne, and nothing was settled. The order arrived
a few days after, and the work was never printed.
This was not his first literary effort. While at
Lyons he had gained a gold medal from the college
for a theme on "What are the sentiments most
proper to be cultivated, in order to render men
happy?" Both compositions are lost, but are
known to have abounded in sentiments of liberty,
in accordance with the spirit of the day. The
Revolution had broken out, and men's minds were
in a state of ferment. Napoleon had himself adopt-
ed extreme Republican opinions.



NAPOLEON'S first military enterprise was on the
part of the French Government, when he sailed
against Sardinia and was repulsed. The expedition
failed through the bad management of his su-
periors ; nevertheless, he brought his men back in
safety. He took a small fortress, called Torri di
q Capitello, but was so hotly besieged that, after a
gallant defence and holding out till the garrison
was compelled to eat horseflesh, he was obliged to
evacuate the fortress and retreat towards the sea.
While in Corsica, he was called to Paris to an-
swer some charge made against him by an old
enemy of his family. The accusation fell to the
During this visit Napoleon followed an infuriated
crowd, in order to watch their proceedings. He
saw the mass surround the Tuileries, bring the
king forth, and place a red cap upon his head.
Upon which, Napoleon exclaimed, How could
they suffer this gross mob to enter? They should
sweep down four or five hundred with the cannon,
and then the rest would run away! The scene was
not lost upon his mind ; and he shortly afterwards
wrote to his uncle Paravicini, Do not make
yourself at all uneasy about your nephews; they'll

help themselves to seats." The massacre of the
Swiss Guards, in the courts of the Tuileries, on the
ioth of August, was also witnessed by Napoleon.
Napoleon soon began to rise in the army, where
his genius only wanted an opportunity to display
itself. Among the pro-consuls of the Convention
was Salicetti, a native of Corsica, who took a strong
interest in the welfare of the Bonapartes. He
mentioned Napoleon to Barras, became a pledge of
his ardent zeal in the cause of the Republic, and
obtained his promotion in the artillery, and with
the rank of commandant he joined the army
besieging Toulon, then in the hands of the royalists,
on the 12th of September, 1793. Napoleon found
the army occupied in preparations to burn the al-
lied squadrons, and "take Toulon in three days"
according to orders from Paris.
The plan of attack was now the important point.
The promontory of Balagnier and L'Eguillette,
which commanded both harbors was the point.
The siege now commenced in earnest. Batteries
were raised against a fort named Little Gibraltar,
and another against Fort Malbosquet, nearer the
town. A sharp conflict ensued, in which the
English were at first successful, but eventually


obliged to retire into the town by Napoleon, who,
perceivinga long and rather deep ditch at the back
of the mount, overhung with bushes and willow-
trees, ordered one of the infantry regiments to
creep hastily along the bottom of the ditch, and

and sudden loss, retreated. Some desperate fight-
ing nevertheless occurred, during which Napoleon
received a thrust from a bayonet in his thigh, and
was caught in the arms of the gallant Captain
Muiron, who carried him out of the fray.


i ~ ~-
i--- ;


h' %?7

~--\V \


not discover themselves until close under the
enemy. Having accomplished this, they were
ascending the bank, when a single figure appeared
on the top. He was instantly made prisoner, and
proved to be the English commander, General
O'Hara. The English, disheartened by this strange

Napoleon now considered it absolutely necessary
to take Little Gibraltar. Napoleon called for Junot,
and commanded him to write on a placard in large
letters, "Batterie des Homnmes sans Peur !" and
erect it above the dreadful spot. All the artillery-
men rallied as if inspired. The combat was ter-




1-5= :_11 i

",-c";/--~-9.. CL~;~;;)


ously wounded; but his
men poured in close at
his heels, and Little Gib-
raltar was taken. The
......l e English and Spanish
gunners were killed at
S________their posts.
But when Lord Hood
e wm saw that the French had
taken possession of
these heights, he made
po signal to weigh anchor
and get out of the roads
___ ~without delay. He re-
paired to Toulon, to
wasmake known that the
fleet could no longer

ns Napoleoinstant, to make a des-
perate effort to retake
Little Gibraltar: it was
determined, however,
that Toulon must sur-
erender, and the garrison
bark immediately. The
rific on both sides, and lasted from December 14th plan of Napoleon was thus crowned with success,
till the night of the 17th; but the English fort and his promises to the Convention fulfilled.
remained unsubdued.
A general assault of
the whole French army .
upon Little Gibraltar
was fixed for the I8th of
December, at midnight,
and Napoleon despatch- 4!
ed his aide-de-camp, ,"
Captain Muiron, to as-
cend by the winding ls
paths leading to the .. ~ "
summit, and surprise the
fort. The perilous as- .,. .
cent, favored by dark- ...
ness and by his knowl-
edge of the ground, was >... .
accomplished bythegal-
lant Muiron without the
loss of a man; and rush-
ing through an embra-
sure, he was received by
the pike of an English


The reputation of Napoleon was established from
the day of the surrender of Toulon. He was made
brigadier-general of artillery, at the recommenda-
tion of Dugommier, who expressed his opinion in
these words: "Promote this young officer or he
will promote himself." With this new rank Napo-
leon was now appointed to the army of Italy, being
ordered to inspect the fortifications of the coast
previous to his departure.

Napoleon's character at this time is thus sum-
marized by himself in a letter to his friend Dan-
geais," written from before Toulon: I am per-
suaded that I alone can appreciate myself. This
conviction is one of my greatest satisfactions. Why
have I anything in common with other mortals ?
I would wish to be completely a man apart. I
possess, however, the sole approbation that I aspire
after-that is, my own."



THE army of Italy formed that portion of the
French force which was commissioned to defend
the southern frontier, and Napoleon joined General
Dumerbion at Nice, and originated some
plans of campaign, which, being proposed
to the Convention, were adopted, and the
French, in consequence, succeeded in dis-
lodging the Sardinians from the Col di Tend
-thus becoming masters of the higher Alps.
The commander-in-chief wrote to the Com-
mittee of War: I am indebted to the com-
prehensive talents of General Bonaparte for
the plans which have insured our victory."
Shortly after this, Napoleon was entrusted
by the representatives of the people with a
secret diplomatic mission to Genoa. On his
return he was arrested, suspended from his
command, and arraigned before the Com-
mittee of Public Safety. The cause assigned
was the very journey to Genoa which he had
performed by order of the Government.
He was considered as one of the "suspected."
He was a fortnight under arrest. Had he
been accused three weeks earlier, during the
summary proceedings of the Reign of Ter-
ror, his career might have ended on the
scaffold at the age of five-and-twenty.
Napoleon remained unemployed in Paris
throughout the conclusion of the year 1794
and till the autumn of 1795, hoping that
some new field of action might open to him.
He thought the East a fine field for glory,

and meditated entering the service of the Grand
Seignior; and was so much in earnest in this plan,
that he transmitted to the War Office a paper



which he had drawn up, in order to enforce upon
the Government the policy of increasing the mili-
tary power of Turkey as a check upon Russia,
offering his services to organize their artillery. No
notice was taken of this proposal. Occasionally,
as if tired with fruitless expectations, he turned
his thoughts to quiet pursuits. Hearing that his
brother Joseph had married Mademoiselle Clary,

Convention was the signal for open revolt. Out of
the forty-eight sections into which the National
Guard was divided, five only sided with the Con-
vention; forty-three formed themselves into armed
deliberative assemblies, rejected the decrees which
restricted the freedom of election, declared their
sittings permanent, proceeded to nominate electors
for choosing the new members, and presented a


sister to the lady he had himself so nearly married,
he exclaimed, "That Joseph is a lucky rogue!"
At another time, he thought of taking a house in
the Rue de Marais, and settling there with his un-
;le Fesch and an old schoolfellow. "With that
house over there," he said, "my friends in it, and
a cabriolet, I shall be the happiest fellow in the
world." But these quiet fancies did not last long.
The proclamation of the new Constitution by the

very formidable appearance to the Government.
The Section Lepelletier took the lead.
It now became imperative upon the Convention
to adopt vigorous measures and enforce its author-
ity. It accordingly called in the troops from the
camp at Sablons, and delegated its powers to a
committee of five, who were charged with the care
of the public safety. Napoleon, having agreed to
serve this Committee of Public Safety, boldly de-


dared that his authority must be unimpeded, and
that the contradictory counsels of the three repre-
sentatives of the people had been the chief cause
of previous failure.
The regular troops amounted to five thousand,
and with a body of fifteen hundred men, called the
Patriots of 1789, were the whole force at the com-
mand of the Convention. The sections of the Na-
tional Guard, on the other side, numbered f:rty
thousand men. The park of artillery, consisting f:
forty pieces of cannon, was five miles from ParLs,
and slightly guarded. At one o'clock in the morn-
ing the conference with the committee conclu.c,-d.
and Napoleon received authority to act. When he
left the committee he despatched a major of clis-.
seurs with three hundred horse to bring the artr.l-
lery to the Tuileries: this major was Murat. A Il.iw,
minutes would have made him too late; for, after
he had taken possession, he met a party of ihe
Section Lepelletier on the same mission. Upon ail
the bridges, at all the crossings of the streets:-- in
short, commanding all the avenues leading to itn .
Tuileries, the artillery was placed by Napol :.-.
who also sent about eight hundred muskets to i n,
the members of the Convention and their clerk; -
a corps de reserve. He then calmly awaited dih
The National Guards took up their positions, and
it was feared that they would seduce the troops
from their allegiance. About four in the afternoon
the expected attack was commenced by the Nation-
al Guard. The engagement lasted a very short time.
The artillery swept the streets, and the victory was
J M .



-- -


'" i -_ A.AS .



won by the troops of the Convention at an expense
of life wonderfully small considering the circum-
stances. Not more than seventy or eighty of the

people were killed, and between three and four
hundred wounded; the troops having loaded with
powder only after the two first discharges. With a


force of less than seven thousand men opposed to
forty thousand, nothing could more strikingly dem-
onstrate the force of forbearance and self-confi-
The important service which Napoleon had ren-
dered to the Convention was fully acknowledged,
and followed by his receiving the rank of Com-
mander-in-chief of the Army of the Interior, with
the command of Paris. At one of his levies,
shortly after these events, a boy of twelve or
thirteen years old presented himself to Napoleon,
and entreated that his father's sword might be
returned. He had been a general of the Republic,
executed a few days before the death of Robespierre.
"I was so touched by this affectionate request,"
he said, that I ordered it to be given to him. This
boy was Eugene Beauharnais. On seeing the sword
he burst into tears: I felt so affected by his conduct,
that I noticed and praised him much. A few days
afterwards, his mother came to return me a visit of
thanks: I was struck with her appearance, and still
more with her esprit."
The impression made by Madame de Beauharnais


at the first interview rapidly developed into a
stronger feeling. Almost every evening was now
spent with her; either at her own house, where
all the most brilliant society of Paris were accus-
tomed to meet, or at the apartments occupied by
Barras, as one of the Directory in the Luxembourg
Palace, in which luxury and splendor were fast
taking the place of republican simplicity. The
grace and fascination of manner possessed by
Madame de Beauharnais made her one of the
greatest attractions of these assemblies; while the
commanding station occupied by Napoleon, and
his striking talents and power of conversation,
caused his constant invitation. In March, 1796, he
married Madame de Beauharnais, so well known by
the name of Josephine. This union was the result
of affection on both sides, and productive of mutual
happiness throughout its duration. She was a few
years his senior, but posssessed a charm and grace
of manner which, added to considerable beauty,

never failed to inspire admiration in all who saw her.
A singular prediction was extant at the time. A
negress, who had the reputation of possessing the
gift of sorcery and prophecy, had told Josephine,
when a girl, that she should one day be more than
a queen, and yet outlive her dignity. This roman-
tic circumstance was known to Sir Walter Scott
long before its fulfilment. He was told of it by a
lady acquainted with Josephine, from whom she
herself had heard the story soon after her marriage
with Napoleon.
With the successful termination to the revolt of
the sections of Paris, the new Government of
France was established. The executive consisted
of a Directory of five persons: Barras, Reubel,
Latourneur de la Manche, Reveilliere Lepaux, and
Carnot, and one of its first acts was to confer the
chief command of the army of Italy upon Napoleon,
and he left Paris, three days after his marriage, to
join the troops.


NAPOLEON for the first time was chief in command;
and for the first time, the power within him was to
direct his actions, free from outward control. From
this moment a total change in his manner, conduct,
and language is to be dated; felt by his intimate
friends no less than by all who came in contact with
him. This conduct was the result of policy. He
had under his command men already distinguished
in war by success and bravery: Augereau, Mass6-
na, Serrurier, Joubert, Lannes, Murat, La Harpe,
Stengel, and Kilmaine, all served in the Italian
campaign under the general of six-and-twenty.
He reached Nice, the headquarters of the army,
on the 27th of March, 1796. The troops were in a
miserable condition: they were wretchedly clothed,
half starved, with pay in arrears, and no means of
transporting artillery. In numbers they amounted
to fifty thousand. To this force two armies were
opposed (one Austrian, the other Sardinian),

amounting together to eighty thousand men, in
fine condition, and in their own or a friendly coun-
Napoleon on first reviewing-the army, addressed
it in a speech which was received with enthusiastic
acclamations. Soldiers! he said, you are naked
and ill fed: the Republic owes you much, and can
give you nothing! The patience and courage you
have shown in the midst of these rocks are admi-
rable. But this gains you no renown: no glory
results from your endurance. I am come to lead
you in the most fertile plains in the world Rich
provinces and great cities will be in your power;
there you will find honor, glory, and wealth. Sol-
diers of Italy! will you be wanting in courage or
perseverance ?"
His plan of invasion was to penetrate into Italy
at the point of junction between the Alps and Ap-
ennines, where the country is most level, keeping


as close as possible to the shores of the Mediterra-
nean; and, rounding the southern extremity of the
Alps, to traverse the Genoese territory, which re-
mained neutral, by the narrow pass called Boc-
cheta. The van of the French army reached Voltri
on the Ioth of April, 1796, and was forced back upon
the main body by the attack of Beaulieu. D'Argen-
teau advanced on the same day, by way of Monte
Notte, to commence a general engagement. But
Colonel Rampon, the French officer who com-
manded the redoubts at Montelegino, stopped his
progress. With only fifteen hundred men, he de-
fended the redoubts against the centre of the Aus-
rian army during the whole of the next day. He
made his men swear either to defend their post or
die there; and continued to hold out till evening
came on, when D'Argenteau being thus baffled, was
obliged to withdraw, intending to renew the attack
in the morning.
But morning found him surrounded with ene-
mies. The van of the French army, which had re-
treated before Beaulieu, having joined La Harpe's
division, was now established behind the redoubts:
Augereau and Massina, advancing by different
passes, were on the flank and rear of his army. He
was obliged to extricate himself by a disastrous
retreat, leaving his colors and cannon, nearly a
thousand slain, and two thousand prisoners.
This was the battle of Monte Notte, the first of
Napoleon's victories, in which he displayed con-
summate skill and mathematical certainty of com-
bination. By suddenly accumulating his force on the
Austrian centre, he had destroyed it; while Colli on
the right, and Beaulieu on the left, did not know of
the action till it was lost. This victory enabled the
French to advance to Cairo, and placed them on that
side of the Alps which slopes towards Lombardy.
On the 13th, the day following the battle of
Monte Notte, a desperate attack was made upon
Colli, at Millesimo, by a division of the French
under Augereau. The outposts were forced, and a
gorge, by which they were defended, was taken.
Thus, two thousand men, under the Austrian Gen-
eral Provera, who occupied a detached eminence,
were separated from the rest of the army. Provera
took refuge in a ruined castle, which he defended
with great bravery, hoping to receive assistance
from Colli; but next day Colli was entirely de-
feated by Napoleon, and obliged to retreat towards
Ceva. Provera imitated the gallant example of
Colonel Rampon in his defence, but not with the
same success. He was compelled to surrender at

These victories opened to the French the two
great roads into Piedmont and Lombardy; cost
the enemy five or six thousand men, thirty pieces
of cannon, and a great quantity of baggage; and
entirely divided the Austrians and Sardinians-the
former now directing their efforts to prevent the
French from entering the Milanese territory, while
the latter strove to protect Turin, the capital of
Sardinia. This division Napoleon had foreseen.
Leaving a sufficient force to keep the Austrians
in check, he advanced towards Colli, who aban-
doned Ceva and retreated behind the Tanaro.


The victorious French arriving at the heights of
Monte Zemolo, now beheld the fertile plains of
Piedmont, watered by the Po, the Tanaro, and a
multitude of other rivers. The King of Sardinia
had no means of preserving his capital, or indeed
his existence on the continent, but through submis-
sion to the victor. He requested an armistice,
which was granted on condition of his giving up
Coni and Tortona, his two strongest fortresses, and
thus acknowledging that he surrendered at discre-
tion. Murat was sent to Paris, bearing the news of
this capitulation, and twenty-one stand of colors.
His arrival caused great joy in the capital. The
legislature had decreed, five times in the course


of a month, that the army of Italy deserved well of
its country. Commissioners were sent to the Di-
rectory to arrange the terms of peace.
It was at this period that a medal of Napoleon
was struck at Paris, as the conqueror of Monte
Notte. The face is extremely thin, with long and

straight hair. On the reverse a figure of Victory is
represented flying over the Alps, bearing a palm
branch, a wreath of laurel and a drawn sword. This
was the first of the splendid series designed by
Denon, to record the victories and honors of



WHILE the army of Italy followed with enthu-
siasm its youthful and victorious leader, their
countrymen at home celebrated their successes with
constant fetes at which Josephine, her daughter
Mademoiselle Beauharnais, and Madame Tallien,
shone conspicuous among the beauties of the time;
their high position and influential relations con-
tributing to render them objects of general interest.
Piedmont being lost, the sole object of Beaulieu
was now to protect Lombardy by covering Milan,
and preventing the French, if possible, from effect-
ing the passage of the river Po. By'? series of suc-
cessful feints, Napoleon so effectually deceived the
old general as to the point at which he intended to
make this difficult and dangerous attempt, that
while the Austrians lay in wait for him at Valenza,
he had marched fifty miles with amazing celerity,
and carried the whole of his troops across at Pla-
cenza in the common ferry-boats without the loss of
a man. Beaulieu advanced rapidly in hope of forc-
ing him to a battle under the disadvantage of
having a broad river in his rear; but Napoleon, who
was equally aware of the danger of such a position,
met him half-way, at Fombio, where the Austrians
were defeated with heavy loss, and compelled to re-
treat across the Adda, leaving all their cannon be-
hind. To oppose the passage of the Adda, Beau-
lieu stationed the main division of his army at Lodi,
through the ancient buildings and between the old
Gothic walls of which town the river flows. It is
crossed by a narrow wooden bridge five hundred
feet in length. Napoleon coming up on the Ioth
of May, easily drove the rear guard of the Austrian
army before him into the town, but found his fur-
ther progress threatened by the fire of thirty pieces

of cannon, stationed at the opposite end of the
bridge, so as to sweep it completely. The enemy's
infantry, drawn up in a dense line, supported this
disposition of the artillery.
An answering battery was instantly constructed
on the French side, Napoleon, in the thickest of the
fire, pointing two of the guns with his own hands.
This he effected in such a manner as to prevent the
possibility of any approach on the part of the enemy
to undermine or blow up the bridge. Observing,
meanwhile, that Beaulieu had removed his infantry
to a considerable distance rearwards, so as to be out
of range of the French battery, he instantly de-
tached his cavalry, with orders to gallop out of
sight, then ford the river, and coming suddenly
upon the enemy attack them in flank.
He next drew up a body of three thousand gren-
adiers in close column, under the shelter of the
houses, and bade them prepare to force a passage
across the narrow bridge, in the face of the enemy's
The cavalry of Napoleon had a difficult task to
perform in passing the river, and he waited with
anxiety for their appearance on the opposite bank.
A sudden movement in the ranks of the enemy
showed him that his cavalry had charged, and he
instantly gave the word. The head of the column
of grenadiers wheeled to the left, and was at once
upon the bridge, rushing forward with impetuosity,
and shouting, Vive la Refuiblique!" A hundred
bodies rolled dead, and the advancing column fal-
tered under the tempest of grape-shot. At this
critical moment Lannes, Napoleon, Berthier, and
L'Allemand hurried to the front, and, dashing on-
wards, were followed by the whole column in the

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L,1'1, LP LVlAU-J1,-L

very mouth of the artillery. They gained the op-
posite side: Lannes reached the guns first, and
Napoleon second. The artillerymen were killed;
their guns seized; and the infantry, which had been
removed too far back, not having time to come up
to support the artillery, the whole Austrian army
was put to flight. This "terrible passage of the

1iV .UIVA 'A .lti. 15

On the 14th of May Napoleon made his public
entry into Milan under a triumphal arch, amidst an
immense concourse of the population, and between
ranks of the National Guard of the city, clothed in
the three colors, green, red, and white. He took
up his residence in the palace, and the same eve-
ning gave a splendid entertainment, while the tree


bridge of Lodi, as Napoleon has himself styled it,
was effected with such rapidity that, notwithstand-
ing the heavy fire of the enemy, it cost the French
only two hundred men. It was justly styled one of
the most daring achievements on record. Upon
this occasion the soldiers conferred upon him the
honorary nick-name of the Corporal;" so flattered,
encouraged and delighted were they at his thus
fighting in the ranks, and placing himself foremost
upon so perilous an occasion,

of liberty was planted with great pomp in the prin-
cipal square.
During these events, uncertainty hung over the
future progress of the campaign, in consequence of
the timid policy of the Directory. Taking alarm at
the rapid success of their young general, they sent
him orders to share his command with Kellermann,
who was to proceed to Italy forthwith, and press the
siege of Mantua, while Napoleon, with his division,
should march to Rome and Naples. His answer to


an order which, by dividing the army, would cause
ruin, was the resignation of his command. Upon
this the Directory, sensible of their error, reinstated
him with undivided authority, and never afterwards
attempted to interfere with his proceedings.
Napoleon now established his headquarters at
Valeggio, the position occupied by Beaulieu before
the action; and a strange reverse of fortune near-
ly happened in consequence. Massina's division,
destined to protect the town, instead of passing the
bridge, remained behind cooking their dinner; the
rest of the army were in pursuit of the Austrians.
A small retinue only remained in Valeggio with the
commander-in-chief. During this state of fancied
security a division of the Austrian army, which had
not been engaged at Borghetto, and was ignorant
of the defeat, suddenly marched into the place.

Napoleon would inevitably have been made prisoner
had not some of his escort hastily barricaded the
gates of the house in which he had taken up his
quarters, and defended it with the most obstinate
courage, while he escaped by the garden and,
mounting his horse, galloped towards Massena's
division, which he reached in safety. The party
whom he left in such peril were quickly rescued by
the advance of their comrades, and the Austrians
put to flight.
This narrow escape was the cause of the formation
of the body of men called Guides;" whose duty it
was to remain always near the person of the com-
mander-in-chief, and were only brought into action
when important movements or desperate emergen-
cies required the utmost efforts. They were placed
under the command of Bessidres.


AUSTRIA had now lost all her Italian possessions
except the citadel of Milan, and the strong fortress
of Mantua, the natural position of which renders it
nearly impregnable. The occupation of Verona
was a necessary step, and by this the neutrality of
Venice was violated without scruple. "You are
too weak," Napoleon said to the Venetian envoy
Fescarelli, "to pretend to force neutrality with a
few hundred Sclavonians on two such nations as
France and Austria. The Austrians have not re-
spected your territory where it suited their purpose ;
and I must, in requital, occupy such part as falls
within the line of the Adige."
These preliminaries being accomplished, the
chief attention of Napoleon was fixed upon the
siege of Mantua. His troops rapidly seized four
out of the five causeways by which the communica-
tion is kept up with the main-land; the fifth was
defended by a strong citadel called La Favorita.
The possession of the four enabled the French
commander, with only eight thousand men, to keep
the Austrian garrison, amounting to ten thousand,
in check. Notwithstanding this success and all its

previous triumphs, the situation of the French
army was at this time critical. The whole train of
artillery at its command was employed in the attack
upon the citadel of Milan; and though there was
urgent necessity for despatch, the siege of Mantua
was, by compulsion, reduced to a blockade.
The siege of the citadel of Milan, rigorously
pressed, was at length successful. The garrison
capitulated on the 29th of June. By the i8th of
July one hundred and forty pieces of cannon
were before Mantua. After seeing the trenches
opened, Napoleon returned to Milan, and com-
pleted the ratification of treaties and the organiza-
tion of Lombardy. All Italy was now subdued, or
in alliance with the Republic, excepting Mantua.
The Austrian army, in three divisions, under the
command of Generals Davidowich, Quasdanowitch,
and Wiirmser himself, descended from the Tyrol
during the last days of July. Napoleon defeated one
division at Salo, and another at Lonato. At the
same time, Augereau and Massena, leaving a suf-
ficient number of men at their posts to maintain a
defence, marched upon the third division at Brescia;


but it had already fled in disorder towards the
Tyrol. The French generals instantly counter-
marched to the support of their rear guards, which
had been forced by the Austrians.
Wiirmser meanwhile had reached Mantua, where
he found the trenches abandoned, and no enemy
to oppose. Seriously alarmed for the fate of his
right wing, he despatched two divisions to force a
junction with it. These divisions, obtaining pos-
session of Lonato and Castiglione, were speedily
attacked, defeated and put to flight by Massena and
Detached parties of Austrian soldiers were wan-
dering about without method, and striving to rejoin
Wiirmser or any part of the army still in the field.
A body of four or five thousand of these stragglers,
receiving information from the peasantry that the
French had only left a garrison of twelve hundred
men in Lonato, determined to take possession of the
place, and their commander sent an officer to sum-
mon the garrison to surrender. The information as
to the smallness of the French force was correct,
and a prize little anticipated by the Austrians was
also within their grasp. Napoleon had just before
entered Lonato, attended only by his staff. Into his
presence the Austrian officer was brought blind-
folded, according to custom on such occasions.
With admirable presence of mind, Napoleon
averted this imminent danger. Collecting all the
officers of his staff around him, and assuming the
state of a commander-in-chief at the head of his
army, he ordered the officer's eyes to be unbandaged,
and addressed him in a tone of astonishment at
his audacity: Go and tell your general," he said,
"that I give him eight minutes to lay down his
arms: he is in the midst of the French army That
time passed, he has nothing to hope." The officer,
appalled at discovering in whose presence he stood,
returned to his comrades with this message. The
shortness of the time allowed prevented the truth
from being discovered, and they immediately sur-
rendered to a force about one-fourth of their own.
Wiirmser, whose fine army was thus being de-
stroyed in detail, had been revictualling Mantua.
It was on the night of the 31st of July that Napo-
leon had suddenly deserted the works at that place;
the victories we have described have only brought us
to the night of the 4th of August, when the army
was collected at Castiglione. Before the morning
of the 5th, General Fiorella, despatched by Napo-
leon with a body of men, suddenly appeared on the
left wing and flank of the Austrian army, which
was now, under Wiirmser himself, approaching the

French position at Castiglione, The assault took
him quite by surprise. Napoleon led the attack in
front. The Austrian forces were entirely routed;
Wiirmser was nearly taken prisoner, and pursued
into Trent and Roveredo, the positions from which
he so lately issued confident of victory.
On September 4, the Austrians were beaten at
the latter place, and Wiirmser, cut off from the
Tyrol, began to fight his way back to Mantua.
In one of the fierce skirmishes attending the
retreat of the gallant old Wiirmser, it chanced that
Napoleon, being separated from his staff in the


heat and confusion of the moment, and dashing
forwards to the support of a part of his advanced
guard which seemed likely to be cut into pieces,
became completely surrounded by the enemy. He
only escaped by reining aside his charger, and
spurring away at a furious rate. So rapid was the
whole occurrence that Wiirmser, who was aware of
the situation of Napoleon, instantly rode up and
ordered the soldiers to be sure to bring him in
Wiirmser himself would have been taken in at-
tempting to cross the Adige, but for the negligence
of the Governor of Legnago, who suffered him to
pass without opposition; and even then he would
have been stopped, had not the orders of Napoleon
to destroy the bridges of the Molinello been
neglected. The brave though discomfited vet-
eran reached Mantua in safety, and finding that,
including the garrison, he could muster twenty-five
thousand men, he once more attempted to make a
stand. He was, however, unable to maintain his
ground. This engagement, which was fought close
to the citadel of Mantua, is called the battle of St.


George. It was severely contested, and ended in
the flight of Wiirmser within the walls of the city,
three thousand of his men being made prisoners.
Still he was master of the Seraglio and the cause-
ways, and succeeded in re-victualling the place.
On the 25th he made a sally, hoping to obtain the
command of the Adige, but was repulsed with
severe loss. On the Ist of October General Kil-
maine regained the command of the communica-
tions to the Seraglio, and Wiirmser was strictly
blockaded within the citadel of Mantua.

Thus concluded the campaign: sixteen thousand
men shut up with Wiirmser, and ten thousand
dispersed in the Tyrol, were all that remained of
his army. He had lost seventy-five pieces of cannon,
thirty generals, and twenty-two stand of colors.
Marmont, one of Napoleon's aides-de-camp, was
sent with the trophies to the Directory at Paris,
Napoleon returned to Milan. His army being in
absolute need of repose, went into cantonments;
maintaining, nevertheless, the blockade of Mantua,
and protecting their various conquests.


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THE battle of St. George, and the strict blockade with an army of forty thousand men, commenced
of Wiirmser in Mantua, took place in the middle of his march in the beginning of October.
September, and a new Austrian general, Alvinzi, Napoleon instantly ordered Vaubois and Massena




to advance to the attack of Davidowich, in the looks. "Soldiers!" he said, I am not satisfied
Tyrol, before he could form a junction with Alvinzi. with you. You have shown neither discipline, con-
Both failed: Vaubois, after two days' fighting, was stancy, nor courage. You have allowed yourselves


defeated; lost Trent and Calliano; and was forced
to retreat to the positions of Corona and Rivoli:
Massdna, in consequence, had to effect a retreat;
and Alvinzi approaching fast gained possession of
all the country between the Brenta and the Adige,
and the command of the Tyrol. Napoleon retreated
to Verona. The positions of Gorona and Rivoli,
occupied by the division of Vaubois after its retreat,
were immediately visited by the commander-in-
chief. The troops came before him with dejected

to be driven from positions where a handful of
brave men might have arrested the progress of an
army. Let it be written on the colors, 'They are
not of the army of Italy.'" Tears and groans
answered his words. Several of the veteran gren-
adiers, who had obtained badges of distinction
called from the ranks, "General! we have been
misrepresented; place us in the van of the army,
and you shall then judge whether we do not belong
to the army of Italy."


The village of Arcola is surrounded by marshes,
intersected by a small stream; by ditches; and by
three causeways, or bridges, across which alone the
marshes are passable. Arcola, and the bridge lead-
ing to it, were defended by two battalions of Al-
vinzi's army and two pieces of cannon. The two
remaining causeways were unprotected. A French
column advanced ( 5th of November) on each of the
three causeways. The division of Augereau oc-
cupied the bridge of Arcola, which was swept by the
enemy's cannon, and assailed in flank by their bat-

..". .-


talions. Even the chosen grenadiers led by Auge-
reau fell back under the destructive fire. Napoleon,
who knew the moment was decisive, rushed to the
head of the column, seized the colors, and hur-
rying onwards planted them with his own hands
on the bridge, amidst a hail of balls from the
enemy's artillery and musketry. His soldiers rallied
at the sight, and again advanced; but even the
enthusiasm of the moment could not withstand
the devastating effects of the fire. Alvinzi, seeing
the attack, sent succors to his battalions. The
Austrians fought with fury, and the French were

unable to maintain their ground. Napoleon being
in front of the fight, was soon surrounded by
his faithful Guides, who bore him in their arms
through the dead and dying, as they were driven
backwards with horrible carnage. While thus
endeavoring to rescue their general, the group
was borne against one side of the bridge, and car-
ried over into the morass beneath. Napoleon
sank up to his middle and, being quite unable to
extricate himself, remained a mark for the Austrian
muskets. The enemy were now between him and
the French troops, so that he was completely cut
off from succor, and at the mercy of the first man
who happened to recognize him through the smoke.
At this frightful crisis, Lannes pressed forward
through the marsh, and reached him; as also did
the gallant Muiron. Almost at the same moment
a shot was fired at Napoleon. It was received by
Muiron, who died covering Napoleon's body with
his own. He had previously saved the life of Na-
poleon at the siege of Toulon. Still the French
general remained in the utmost peril; and now it
was that the love of his soldiers gave them power
to effect what example and heroism had failed to
accomplish. They bore madly onwards through all
opposition; one cry only was heard,-" Save the
general!" Nothing could resist them: Napoleon
was quickly extricated; again he was at their head;
a party of the French contrived to get across at an-
other place, and attack the Austrians in the rear;
and Arcola was taken. This fourth attempt of
Austria to conquer Napoleon ended in a manner
less disastrous to the empire than the former; but
it left him in possession of Lombardy. He returned
to Milan, and the army enjoyed four months of re-
In 1796 for the fifth time Austria prepared to
renew the contest, and early in January, 1797, the
Austrians advanced by Bassano. Experience had
no influence on their counsels, for again their
forces were divided. Alvinzi, who led the princi-
pal army, directed.his march upon Roveredo. Pro-
vera, already distinguished for his courage at the
battle of Millesimo, advanced with the other divis-
ion upon the lower Adige. 'His vanguard forced
a party of French to cross the river at Bevi l'Acqua.
From the eminence on which Napoleon stood, he
surveyed the bivouac of this new army, destined,
like the four which had preceded it, to be destroyed
by him. He ordered the attack at daybreak; and
it began by the French driving the Austrians from
the Chapel of St. Mark. The nearest Austrian
column endeavored to retake it, but was repulsed;

'I -- --

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4:~ 4414



the next came up, and the French were beaten
back. The affair became doubtful: Napoleon gal-
loped off for reinforcements: Massena's division
was the nearest; the men, tired with marching, had
lain down to sleep, but started up at his voice, and
repulsed the Austrian column. The third advanced,
and was in turn defeated. Quasdanowitch, who
commanded the fourth, observing the chapel on the
height of St. Mark abandoned by the French in
the pursuit, sent three battalions to retake it. His
design was frustrated: as the Austrians ascended
the hill on one side, the French ascended on the

K- -

*- '' _ __

Napoleon had remained during twelve hours in
the hottest of the fight; he had three horses killed
under him, and was exposed to imminent danger.
This victory, won by consummate skill, decided
the fate of Alvinzi's army, which fled in confusion,
closely pursued by the French, and never rallied
Napoleon then hastened to attack Provera, leav-
ing Massina, Joubert, and Murat to pursue the
remnants of Alvinzi's battalions.
Provera, with his division, effected the passage
of the Adige on the very day of the battle of Rivoli,
-'.* .*t -y'* .-i.i,,-.;-


other, and their superior activity bringing them
first to the top, they drove the Austrians down in
disastrous confusion. The French batteries made
havoc of the broken columns; the cavalry charged
repeatedly; four out of the five divisions were utter-
ly routed. The fifth now made its appearance in
the French rear, after bringing up the artillery and
baggage, according to the orders of the Austrian
general before the action. Had this movement
been made a little sooner, it might have turned the
fortune of the day; as it was, the French soldiers
only exclaimed, Here come further supplies to our
market! "-and the Austrians, exposed to a wither-
ing fire from the artillery, were .forced to lay down
their arms.

and advanced to Mantua, which he attempted to
relieve by stratagem. The suburb of St. George,
manned by fifteen hundred French under Miollis,
was defended only by a circumvallation. A regi-
ment of Austrian cavalry, disguised in white cloaks,
like the French hussars, presented themselves at
the barricades, and would have been admitted but
for an old sergeant, who observed that the cloaks
were too fresh and white, to belong to the hussars,
who had worn theirs in. many a rough day; he
instantly closed the barriers, and warned a drum-
mer who was near him of the danger. These two
gave the alarm, and the guns of the blockading
force were turned upon their pretended friends, who
were forced to retire. This attempt showed the-


necessity for constant vigilance; and Napoleon,
unable to rest, passed the night in visiting the dif-
ferent outposts. At one of these he discovered the
sentinel lying at the foot of a tree, fast asleep from
exhaustion. Napoleon took the soldier's musket
without waking him, and walked backwards and
forwards on guard during half an hour. Suddenly
the soldier started from his slumber, terrified at
what he had done. He fell on his knees. "My
friend," said the general mildly, "here is your
musket. You have fought hard and marched long,
and your exhaustion is excusable; but a moment's

fate. Abandoning one position after another, they
fled. Lavisio, Treviso, Bassano, and Trent once
more fell into the hands of the French, who there-
by regained the command of the Italian Tyrol.
This fifth and last attempt to drive the French
out of Lombardy cost Austria thirty thousand men,
of whom nineteen thousand were prisoners, more
than sixty pieces of cannon, and twenty-four stand
of colors.
Mantua was now without hope of relief. The
hospitals were crowded, the provisions exhausted;
but Wiirmser still held out. Napoleon informed


^. *)


inattention might endanger the whole army. I hap-
pened to be awake, and have held your post for
you: you will not again neglect your duty."
On Jan. 17, Wiirmser sallied from Mantua, but
was beaten back and again forced into the city
after a deadly struggle, in which Napoleon led a
renewed attack in person. Serrurier and Victor
then surrounded Provera, and the battle raged in
the suburb of St. George. Provera and his whole
force were compelled to lay down their arms. Not
more than two thousand men, who had been left
beyond the Adige, out of the whole of his division,
escaped. The army of Alvinzi experienced a similar

him of the rout and dispersion of the Austrian
army, and summoned him to surrender. The old
soldier proudly replied that "he had provisions for
a year;" but a few days afterwards he sent his
aide-de-camp, Klenau, to the headquarters of Ser-
rurier to treat for a surrender. On the 2d of
February, 1797, Wiirmser gave up the city of Man-
tua. Of his garrison of thirteen thousand men,
seven thousand were lying in the hospitals. Napo-
leon completed his generous conduct on this occa-
sion by leaving the place before the surrender, and
sparing the conquered veteran the mortification of
giving up his sword to so youthful a commander,




GENERAL SERRURIER received the surrender of
Mantua, and saw the brave old Austrian field-
,marshal file off with his staff. Napoleon was by
this time in Romagna: Wtirmser sent him a letter.
.acknowledging the gererosity and d:_l.-i\ :.- liin
conduct, and at the same timeapprisir, hn bi \ hi
.aide-de-camp, of a conspiracy to poison li, ,i il' tIr
.dominions of the Pope, with whom lie ;._s ti a..ut
to wage war. Before the end of Janui rl',r i.'-' I I
.army was in the field, Cardinal Busca h1-iirl:l ia it
head: it consisted of seven thousand :.l-dr'r;- .1ii1
.a multitude of peasants and monks.
The French Minister was recalled
from Rome, and an army of eight
thousand six hundred men, partly
French and partly Italian, was as- .
-sembled at Bologna, under General
Victor. Napoleon joined them, is-
-sued a manifesto, in which he ac-
,cused the Pope of having violated
his treaty, and published the inter- .
cepted letters in corroboration. On -'.:
the 2d of February his headquarters '-
were fixed at the bishop's palace, at -:'
Imola, belonging to Chiaramonte,
:afterwards Pius VII. On the 3d, the
French troops reached Castel Bo-
ognese, on the river Senio, behind

which Cardinal Busca, with his army, was en-
camped, intending to dispute the passage of the
bridge with eight pieces of cannon. The Cardinal
was speedily routed, Ancona occupied, and the
army was at Tolentino, within three days' march
of Rome, on the 13th of February. The Pope,
reduced to despair, was on the point of taking
flight and seeking refuge in Naples. The horses
were already put to the state carriages, when his
Holiness was induced to throw himself upon the
mercy of the French. Napoleon had communi-
cated with him through the superior of the monas-
tic order of Camalduli, and through Cardinal Mattei,
assuring him that no personal harm was intended
to him, and that he had only to change his Minis-
ters and send plenipotentiaries to Tolentino to ar-
range a peace with the Republic. Four Ministers
were accordingly sent to the headquarters of Napo-
leon, of whom Mattei was one, and the treaty was
soon concluded.


~5~T.. Bf~:
~:i~"~r, kn.J:



Illj B i!
.~ .1


, i




'_ .


UNCONQUERED by the defeat of their armies, un-
subdued by the slaughter of their best men, their
energies not destroyed by failures fivefold, with
strong invasion on the very threshold of their
power, the Austrian Government again raised an
army which prepared to advance towards the Ital-
ian frontier. Napoleon being now at the head of a
force probably amounting to nearly eighty thou-
sand men, determined to meet, instead of awaiting
the attack.
The Archduke Charles, who had rendered himself
famous as a general by his victories on the Rhine,
where he had defeated Jourdan and Moreau, was
now to be opposed to Napoleon. He led the Aus-
trian army, which amounted to fifty thousand men,
and was intended to form a junction with forty
thousand more who were advancing to meet him
from the army of the Rhine. On the 16th of March
the two armies, headed by Napoleon and the Arch-
duke Charles in person, were drawn up on opposite
sides of the Tagliamento. The Austrians were
posted admirably; their artillery, sharp-shooters,
and their fine cavalry so disposed as to make the
attempt to force the passage of the river extremely
hazardous. After some cannonading, the French,
who had marched all the previous night, retired to
the rear and bivouacked. The Archduke, knowing

they had performed this long march, concluded
that they declined to make the desperate attempt
of crossing the river in the face of his army, and
accordingly withdrew to his encampment. He had
scarcely done this, when the French army, which
had lain down in orderly ranks to rest a couple of
hours, suddenly sprang up, and was formed in two
lines. Napoleon marched them rapidly to the
river, threw the first line into columns which, being
supported on each flank by the cavalry, plunged into
the stream, and reached the opposite side before
the astonished Austrians could assume battle array.
They charged the French repeatedly with great
courage, but could not drive them back; and the
second line now coming up, the Archduke was
compelled to retreat, leaving eight pieces of cannon
and some prisoners behind.
The French now took possession of Trieste and
Fiume, the only seaports belonging to Austria;
seized the English merchandise; and made a prize
of quicksilver from the mines of Idia to the
amount of several millions of francs.
Still pressing onwards, the French army passed
the Drave at Villach, and advanced to Klagenfurth.
It had emerged from the passes of the Carnic and
Julian Alps, and penetrated into the valley of the
Drave in Germany. The language, manners, and
customs of the people were different from those of
Italy. Napoleon took pains to conciliate them.
He distributed a proclamation, in which he assured
them of good-will and protection, entreating them
to take no part in a war in which they had no con-
cern, and the blame of which he laid on English
gold and Austrian treachery. Let us be friends,"
he said, "in spite of England and the Court of
Vienna. The French Republic possesses the rights
of conquest over you: let these rights be cancelled
by a contract which shall be binding upon each of
us. Do not interfere in the wars of others." These
people must have been somewhat puzzled to com-
prehend the nice distinction whereby they were to
consider themselves as having no concern in a war
carried on in their own country. Napoleon also
invited them to supply his army, instea-. of paying
their taxes to the Emperor. This address had con-
siderable effect in calming their minds, though
"supplies were brought in with all the haste of


I ~
I' -, ~ ~




~l-~tG' "


fear. Napoleon also repaired and garrisoned the
fortifications of Klagenfurth, and, establishing
hospitals and magazines, took up his headquar-
ters there. He was now only sixty leagues from
On March 28 Joubert drove the Austrians from
Sterzing, and joined the main army, and, thus rein-
forced, Napoleon, after making proposals of peace
to the Archduke Charles, marched in a rapid ad-
vance towards Vienna. On the ist of April Mas-
sena entered Freisach, after an encounter with the
Austrian rear guard, whom he drove before him,
and pursued almost to Neumarck, where the Arch-
duke was stationed. Napoleon came up to the
attack, and an engagement ensued, in which the
Austrians were defeated with great loss. At night
the French troops entered Neumarck.
The Archduke now proposed a suspension of
arms for twenty-four hours, hoping that auxiliaries
would arrive in that time. But Napoleon allowed

him no such advantage. He continued to advance
through dangerous and difficult passes, while the
Archduke retreated on Vienna. On the 3d the
van had a furious and final engagement in the
defiles of Unzmarkt with the Austrians, who lost
many men and made no further resistance. On
the 4th and 5th Napoleon was at Scheiffling; on
the 7th he reached Leoben.
Generals Bellegarde and Merfeld, with a flag of
truce, now presented themselves at headquarters,
bringing a proposal from the Emperor for a sus-
pension of arms to the furtherance of a permanent
peace. The armistice was granted by Napoleon
for the term of five days; all the country as far as
Simering, together with the strong town and cit-
adel of Gratz, being surrendered to him and im-
mediately occupied by his army, which was now
concentrated by the junction of Joubert and Ber-
nadotte, who brought up their divisions about the
8th of April.



EARLY on the 13th of April, when the armistice
would have expired, the Marquis de Gallo, ambas-
sador from Naples to Vienna, accompanied by one
of the Emperor's general officers, arrived at Leoben
with full powers to negotiate and sign prelimi-
naries of peace. General Clarke had been fur-
nished by the Directory with full power to complete
the treaty; but as he was still at Turin, Napoleon
took the responsibility upon himself of signing on
the part of France on the g9th.
Reports were fast arriving of the disturbed state
of Venice. Napoleon had declared that if any
treachery were practised in his absence the Gov-
ernment of Venice should cease to exist. This
treachery had been manifested in the blackest
shape. The peasantry, to the number of thirty
thousand, had been secretly armed, and, excited by
the Government and the priesthood, had massacred
all the French in the Venetian territories. Napo-
leon set off for Italy immediately. In crossing the
Tagliamento, he was obliged to stop on an island

until a torrent, caused by a violent storm, subsided.
A courier presently appeared on the bank of the
river, and with some difficulty reached the island.
His despatches informed Napoleon that the armies
of the Rhine and of the Sambre and Meuse were in
motion, and had commenced hostilities on the very
day of his signature of the preliminaries. "It is
impossible," says Bourrienne, "to describe the
general's excitement on reading these despatches.
He had signed the preliminaries only because the
French Government had represented the co-opera-
tion of the armies of the Rhine as impracticable
at that moment; and shortly afterwards he was
informed that the co-operation was about to take
place. The agitation of his mind was so great that
he for a moment conceived the idea of passing to
the left bank of the Tagliamento, and breaking all
regagements under some pretext or other. He
persisted for a time in this resolution, which Ber-
thier and several other generals at length persuaded
him to forego."


Junot had been sent forward to Venice on hear-
ing of the insurrection, with a letter from Napoleon
to the Doge, giving him only twenty-four hours to
decide between war and peace, and, on his arrival,
was immediately admitted to the presence of the
Senate. He made the lofty walls resound with his
threats of speedy vengeance, till the members shook
on their ancient seats of power. On the 3d of
May war was declared on the part of France
against Venice. Napoleon issued the following
order of the day, dated at Palma Nuova:-" The
Commander-in-chief requires the French Minister
to leave Venice; orders the several agents of the
Republic of Venice to leave Lombardy and the
Venetian Terra Firma within four-and-twenty
hours! He orders the different generals of divis-
ions to treat the Venetian troops as enemies, and
to destroy the Lion of St. Mark in all the towns of
the Terra Firma."
The mere appearance of this manifesto was suffi-
cient. The Doge put off his crown; the Senate
dissolved itself; the inquisitors and the Council
of Three all laid down their absolute offices; and
the world seemed disposed to forget that such a
Government had ever existed. A French division
was called in to preserve the city from anarchy.
On the IIth of May a tricolored flag was hoisted in
the Place of St. Mark; a popular Constitution
declared, and a Provisional Government estab-
lished. The whole of the Terra Firma had already
declared itself free, and adopted the principles of
the French Revolution. The Venetian fleet was


manned and sent to Toulon. General Gentili pro-
ceeded to Corfu and took possession. Pesaro fled
to Vienna.



NAPOLEON repaired to Milan after settling the
affairs of Venice, and took up his abode in the
beautiful palace of Montebello. It was situated
five leagues from Milan, upon a sloping hill which
commands an extensive view of the rich plain of
Lombardy. The Marquis de Gallo, an Austrian
plenipotentiary, lived at the distance of half a
league, the negotiations for peace being still under
discussion. Napoleon was joined by Josephine.
She had visited him at Genoa in the December of

1796, travelling from France under the guardian-
ship of Junot. They now enjoyed an Italian
summer together, and this was, perhaps, the hap-
piest of their lives. Ladies of the highest rank,
and celebrated for beauty or accomplishments, vied
with each other in paying homage to Josephine,
who received them with an easy dignity and grace
not unbecoming that regal courtesy which she was
subsequently called upon to exercise.
Negotiations for peace proceeded amid gayety


and pleasure. The various Ministers and envoys
of Austria, the Pope, the Kings of Sardinia and
Naples, the Duke of Parma, the Swiss cantons, and
several of the Princes of Germany, throngs of
generals, and deputies of towns, with the daily
arrival and despatch of numerous courtiers, the
bustle of important business, mingled with fetes
and entertainments, balls and hunting parties, gave
the picture of a splendid Court, which Italians
called the Court of Montebello. Excursions were
made to the Lago Maggiore, to Lago di Como, to
the Borromean Islands, and the villas which sur-

Emperor, an offer of a sovereignty of two hundred
and fifty thousand souls in Germany, for himself
and family, at the conclusion of the peace; which
principality, it was hinted, "would place him
beyond the reach of Republican ingratitude."
Napoleon smiled, sent his thanks to the Emperor,
but said he wished for no greatness or wealth
unless conferred on him by the French people,
adding, and with that support, believe me, sir, my
ambition will be satisfied."
As the negotiations progressed, it became appar-
ent that the States of Venice were to be sacrificed

4 1-- -.
- : .


round those delicious regions were occupied at
pleasure. Every town, every village desired to dis-
tinguish itself by some peculiar mark of homage
.and respect to him whom they named the Liberator
of Italy.
The negotiations with the Austrian Government
were tediously protracted. The Emperor found
the whole proceeding extremely unpalatable, especi-
ally as he was aware that the firmness of Napoleon
was not to be shaken. While Napoleon was at
Gratz, he had received from the Marquis de Gallo a
copy of the preliminaries ratified by the Emperor.
It is said that he at the same time received from
one of the plenipotentiaries, authorized by the

in order to adjust all differences between the two
contending parties. The Directory insisted on one
article which Napoleon zealously enforced; the
liberation of La Fayette, Latour-Maubourg, and
Bureau de Puzy, who had been detained since 1792
in an Austrian State prison. They were liberated
in August, up to which month the treaty of peace
was still under deliberation. Napoleon became
heartily tired of these long delays. He had given
his ultimatum to the Marquis de Gallo, by whom
it was ratified, on the 24th of May; but the
Emperor, on the i9th of June, disavowed the con-
cessions made by the latter, and insisted on refer-
ring matters to a Congress at Berne. Napoleon


overruled this; but still nothing could be decided.
He was also exasperated at several attacks made
on his character and proceedings by the Directory.
He more than once tendered his resignation.
If only base men," he said in one of his letters
to the Directory, "who are dead to the feeling of
patriotism and national glory, had spoken of me
thus, I would not have complained. But I have a
right to complain of the degradation to which the
first magistrates of the Republic reduce those who
have aggrandized and carried the French name to
so high a pitch of glory. Citizen Directors! I
reiterate the demand I made for my dismissal. I
wish to live in tranquillity, if the poniards of
Clichy" (a Royalist club at Paris) "will allow me
to live. You have employed me in negotiations:
I am not very fit to conduct them." On the i4th
of July, the anniversary of the taking of the

Bastille, he prepared the army to expect an
approaching crisis. Let us swear," he said, "by
the manes of those heroes who have died for
liberty,-let us swear, too, on our standards,-war
to the enemies of the Republic and of the Consti-
tution of the year Three!" On the same day he
celebrated the federation of the new democracy,
which was now, under his auspices, consolidated in
Italy. The Transpadane and Cispadane Republics
were with the legations of Bologna and Ferrara
formed into one State, with the name of the Cisal-
pine Republic. He destined Mantua to be its bul-
wark. The keys of Milan and the fortresses were
delivered to the Cisalpine officers. From this
moment a striking change in Italian manners
may be dated. Public spirit and aspirations for
liberty rose with the creation of this independent


S the government of the
Directory showed it-
S self weak, and Piche-
S gru and other generals
had been intriguing
S- with the Royalists.
SNapoleon sent Au-
gereau to supersede
Hoche, who command-
ed the army in the
HOCHE. city, and that general
arrested Pichegru, and
reformed the Directory by the election of new mem-
bers in place of Rewbell and La Reveillere. The
overthrow of the Royalist plotters in September
strengthened the hands of Napoleon, and the effect
was quickly visible in the negotiations in Italy.
Count Cobentzel was sent from Austria to Napo-
leon before the end of September, furnished with
ample powers and bearing a letter from the Em-
peror in which he expressed to the French general

his desire to conclude a peace. Napoleon was in
Passeriano, and there the business at last pro-
gressed in earnest.
The Directory now heightened their tone. They
wanted to revolutionize all Italy. They insisted
that neither Mantua nor Venice should be given
up to Austria, yet that France should retain Belgium
and the boundary of the Rhine. At one period
the negotiations were nearly broken off, and waf
declared; at another Napoleon again tendered his
resignation, finding himself thwarted and surround-
ed by spies of the Government; but he was earnestly
requested to continue in their service. The month
of October arrived, and mountains seen covered
with snow decided the business. A winter cam-
paign was not to be risked. It is settled," he said
to Bourrienne: I will make peace. Venice shall
be exchanged for the boundary of the Rhine, and
thus be made to pay for the war: let the Directory
and the lawyers say what they like."
The principal articles of the peace were:-The
boundary of the Rhine, with Mayence, to be ceded



to France; Mantua to be ceded to the Cisalpine
Republic; Austria to acknowledge the Cisalpine
Republic as an independent State; part of the
Venetian territories and the Ionian Islands to
belong to France; Venice and the rest of her terri-
tories to Austria.
The treaty of peace was signed at Campo Formio
on Oct. 17. In taking the oath of allegiance to
Austria, the ex-Doge of Venice sank insensible on
the ground, and died a few days afterwards.

The treaty required that Mayence should be
given up at a Congress at Rastadt, since the Ger-
man confederation must become parties with the
Emperor in this important cession. Napoleon there-
fore made preparations to attend the Congress.
He returned first to Milan by way of Mantua. At
Mantua he was erecting a monument to the memory
of Virgil; and there also he celebrated a melancholy
solemnity, a military funeral in honor of General
Hoche, who had died suddenly at Mayence, in the



The peace was unsatisfactory to the Directory.
The partition of Venice is, no doubt, an infamous
transaction; but there seems to have been no
alternative between giving Venice to Austria and
beginning the war again in the end of autumn.
The English Government had sent Lord Malmes-
bury to Lisle to treat of peace during the negotia-
tions with Austria. There seemed no longer any
object of contention, and the terms were nearly
agreed upon, when the Directory, intoxicated by
their victory on the i8th of Fructidor, raised their
demands, and the conferences were in consequence
broken off.

flower of his age and reputation, not without sus-
picions of having been poisoned by the enemies of
Napoleon was greeted with enthusiasm during his
journey to Rastadt. On entering the Valteline, he
was met by three parties of young girls dressed in
the three colors of the national flag, who presented
him with a crown on which was inscribed the sen-
tence which had proclaimed the liberty of their
country,-" One nation cannot be subject to an-
other." At Geneva he was received with honors.
He remained a very short time at the Congress
of Rastadt, where disputes arose from the dissatis-


faction of the German princes, who loudly com-
plained of the surrender of Mayence. He left the
Congress as soon as the French troops were in
possession of that fortress, and repaired to Paris,
travelling incognito, and alighted at his small house
in the Chauss6e d'Antin, Rue Chantereine. The
name of the Rue de la Victoire was given to the
Rue Chantereine.
The arrival of Napoleon created a great sensation
in the capital. The streets were thronged with

people, and, wherever he was seen, the air was filled
with shouts of Long live the General of the army
of Italy!" The Directory honored their general,
" who had filled all Europe with the renown of his
arms, and given the first stunning blow to the
coalition," with a public reception in the great
court of the Luxembourg Palace, which was splen-
didly decorated for the occasion. The members
and officers of the Government were ranged in a
large amphitheatre at the farther end; the windows
were crowded with ladies; the court was thronged
with people. Opposite the principal entrance
with people. Opposite the principal entrance

stood the altar of the country, surrounded by the
statues of Liberty, Equality, and Peace; the whole
of the great court being roofed and canopied with
the standards taken in the Italian wars.
In the midst of this adulation, Napoleon lived in
the society only of his intimate friends. He went
frequently to the theatre, but sat concealed from
sight, and though the audience called for him,
which they were sure to do if they discovered he
was in the house, he never came forward. He sent

\\ \\


to the manager of the opera on one occasion,
requesting the representation of two of the best
pieces of the time, in which several popular per-
formers played, on the same night if possible."
The courtly manager promptly replied that noth-
ing that the conqueror of Italy wished for was
impossible, as he had long ago erased that word
from the dictionary." The honor which Napoleon
most esteemed was his nomination as a member of
the Institute. He frequently attended the meet-
ings in the costume worn by the members, sitting
beside his friend Monge.





--'-- --'- '


S-- "
v L -,, ,,

NAPOLEON began to long for action again, and to
feel his situation awkward and precarious. He
failed in an endeavor to get nominated one of the
Directory, as his age was below the legal time fixed.
His popularity did not gratify him. In answer to a
remark upon the pleasure he must feel at his fellow-
citizens so eagerly crowding to see him, he replied,
The people would crowd just as fast to see me if
I were going to the scaffold !" His thoughts again
turned to the East, and he began to persuade him-
self and the members of the Government that the
true point at which to attack England was Egypt.
He argued that, by the conversion of Egypt into a
French colony, the commerce of India would be
diverted from the circuitous route by the Cape of
Good Hope, and that France, instead of England,
would command the great market for the supply of
all Europe with the commodities of the East.
" The Mediterranean," he said, "will then become
a French lake."
The Directory, on the other hand, were restless,
from the necessity of finding employment for the
high-soaring and dangerous spirits called into ac-
tivity by the constant wars of the Republic; and
I ~ -~

among these they chiefly dreaded Napo-
leon. Their first scheme was to make a
descent upon England, and to place him
at the head of the invading army; their
counsels fluctuating between this project
*. and an Egyptian expedition. Meanwhile
they gave him no adequate reward for his
S services.
The Directory, before coming to a de-
cision as to further action, had marched
an army on Rome. General Duphot was
S-- killed in a popular tumult in that city, in
front of the palace of Joseph Bonaparte,
the French ambassador. This outrage,
- which called forth the indignation of the
Directory, gave them an opportunity of
depriving the Pope of his temporal power,
and remodelling the Roman Government
according to the standard of French re-
publicanism. About the same period they
interfered unjustifiably in the affairs of Switzerland,
where their rage for reducing all Governments to
their own idea of perfection produced resistance
and bloodshed. The old democratic cantons were
not ready to submit to innovations, and the spirit
roused by these unwarrantable measures broke
forth the moment the pressure of external force was'
removed, Napoleon saw the impolicy of these
proceedings, and endeavored in vain to prevent
Napoleon resolved to bring the question of the
invasion of England to a decision, by a personal
survey of the coast, and a calculation of the chances
of success with which the attempt might be made.
With Lannes, Sulkowsky, and Bourrienne, he
visited the different ports on the northern coast,
collecting all the necessary information, and closely
questioning the sailors, smugglers, and fishermen,
to whose answers he attentively listened. He was
absent only one week, but the time had been suffi-
cient to enable him to form a decided opinion. To
Bourrienne's question, on their return, he replied,
"It is too great a risk: I will not hazard it. I
would not thus sport with the fate of France,"


Napoleon returned to Paris entirely occupied
with the idea of Egypt. He compared Europe to a
" molehill,"-adding, there have never been great
empires or revolutions except in the East." Egypt
was now the inexhaustible subject of his conversa-
tion with his friends, amongst whom Monge was
his daily visitor, and encouraged his enthusiasm.
The Directory (rejoicing at the prospect of getting
rid of him) acceded to all Napoleon's plans, and
gave up to him the direction of all the preparations
for the projected expedition. He selected and

joined it: he harangued the troops in sight of the
ships which were to convey them from the shores
of France. He told them that he was about to lead
them into a country where they would find new
fields of glory, new dangers, and new triumphs;
promising that every soldier should be rewarded
with seven acres of ground. He was answered by
loud cheers, and cries of Long live the Republic!"
The wind being favorable, and the English
squadron driven off the coast by stress of weather,
the troops embarked, and all things were made


equipped the army, raised money, collected ships:
he was employed night and day in the organization
of the armament. The Directory converted his
wishes into decrees as the law required. If he
wanted an order signed, he frequently ran to the
Luxembourg with it himself. At the same time a
body of men distinguished in art, science, and
literature, to the number of one hundred, were
selected, under the direction of Monge, to accom-
pany the expedition.
The embarkation was to take place partly at
Civita Vecchia, but the main body was assembled
at Toulon. When all was in readiness Napoleon

ready for departure. Josephine had accompanied
Napoleon to Toulon, and remained with him till
the last moment on board the admiral's ship
L'Orient. At sunrise on the i9th of May, 1798, the
armament set sail, the ships and convoys forming a
semi-circle of six leagues in extent. On leaving
Toulon Josephine went to the waters of Plom-
On the 8th of June the convoys from Italy joined
the squadron at sea; on. the ioth the whole fleet
was assembled before Malta. The first object of
Napoleon was possession of that island. He had
already secured a secret party among the knights,

- i.. -I----J~..~--~--- ----1--


and a very slight demonstration of hostilities spread
consternation in La Valetta, and brought the whole
"Order" to terms. They were no longer the war-
rior priests, the defenders of Christendom, but a
set of idle voluptuaries, chiefly known by the balls
and f$tes which they gave in the seaports of Italy
with the revenues intended for the destruction of
the Turks. They opened their gates to the French
without delay. The Grand Master received six
hundred thousand francs from Napoleon, and re-
tired to Germany; nearly all the knights entered
the ranks of the French army. As the French
troops passed through the almost impregnable for-
tifications, Caffarelli drily remarked to Napoleon
that it was fortunate there was some one within
such walls to open the gates for them, otherwise
entrance would have been hard work.
Leaving a sufficient garrison in Malta, the French
squadron was again under sail on the I6th. No
man ever understood the value of time better than
Napoleon, and it might be said of him that his
"leisure was labor."
On the morning of the Ist of July, as the tops of
the minarets of Alexandria announced to Napoleon
that his point was gained-at the very moment all
danger seemed over-a signal was made that a
strange sail was in sight. Apprehension instantly
converted it nto an English frigate, the precursor
of Nelson's dreadful fleet. Fortune !" cried Na-
poleon, "wilt thou abandon me? I ask but six
hours." It was only a French frigate which rejoined
Napoleon ordered the immediate disembarka-
tion of the troops, notwithstanding the request of
Brueys for a little delay, as the wind blew almost a
hurricane. Napoleon, aware that Nelson's promp-
titude and daring resembled his own, and having
an apprehension of his coming down upon them
while disordered by their preparations to land,
would not wait an instant. A few soldiers missed
their footing or were pushed overboard in the
crowd, and drowned. At one o'clock in the morn-
ing of the 2d of July, Napoleon himself landed on
the soil of Egypt, at Marabout, three leagues west-
ward of Alexandria, and by three in the morning he
commenced his march upon Alexandria with three
divisions of his army.
When the French invasion took place, Egypt
was nominally a province of the Porte, and
governed by a Turkish pasha; but he was utterly
powerless; and the Turkish army, consisting of
only about a thousand old and infirm men, soon
joined the ranks of the French. The real rulers of

Egypt were the twenty-four beys, or chiefs of the
body of military slaves called Mamelukes, once the
servants of the Porte, but now masters of its prov-
ince. These men were all, as their beys once had
been, Georgian or Circassian slaves, bought in
childhood, and trained from the earliest age to war.
There were about eight thousand in all, splendidly
mounted, exercised, and armed, and of great cour-
age. The villages of Egypt were all fiefs belonging
to the beys, who were frequently at war amongst
themselves, and oppressed the inhabitants by every
species of tyranny and extortion. The people had,
besides, to pay a small tribute to the Porte. The
population was two million five hundred thousand,
the bulk of which was composed, as now, of the
descendants of the Arab conquerors of Egypt, the
followers of Mahommed; with the addition of the
Copts, the descendants of the ancient Egyptians,
mostly Christians; Jews, Turks, and Christians
from other countries. The mass of the population
was sunk in extreme ignorance and poverty.
The Turks attempted an ill-conducted resistance
from the ruinous walls of Alexandria, and the
French army lost nearly two hundred men in
making the assault; after which they discovered,
to their astonishment, that the great gate leading
to Damanhour was open and unguarded, and they
quickly made their entrance. General Kleber was
wounded on this occasion. On the 7th of July
Napoleon set forward with the army, and entered
upon the painful march across the desert, towards
Damanhour. The sufferings endured in this march
were excessive. The burning rays of a vertical sun,
undimmed by a single cloud; the absence of any
shade in the sandy waste; the myriads of torment-
ing insects; the scarcity of water, only to be found
in the wells which occurred at distant intervals
(and these often brackish, dirty, or purposely
choked with sand by the Arabs); the piercing cold
of the nights; and the frequent harassing attacks
of the wandering tribes of the desert,-altogether
produced an accumulation of ills which called 'or a
fortitude far beyond that possessed by the army so.
lately accustomed to the beautiful climate and
other luxuries of Italy. The illusion called the
mirage, which presents to the eye the appearance
of a vast sheet of water, and when approached
vanishes, leaving nothing real but the eternal
scorching sand, seemed to mock the torments of
the soldiers, who were half delirious with disgust
and despair, frequently and openly murmuring;
some of the generals even losing all command of
themselves. Lannes and Murat, in a fit of rage,


dashed their laced hats on the sands, and trampled
upon them in the presence of the soldiers. Napo-
leon, on one occasion, losing temper in his turn,
threw himself into the midst of a group of discon-
tented general officers, and singling out the most
prominent among them, exclaimed with vehemence,
"You have used mutinous language! Take care

that I do not fulfil my duty.
It is not your being six feet
high that should save you
from being shot in a couple of
hours! Nothing but the ex-
traordinary influence he pos-
sessed over the army could
have held it together. His
iron constitution and energy
of purpose enabled him to
go through hardships under
which others were sinking.
On July ioth the army
reached the Nile at Rahmanie.
Soldiers, officers, all rushed in-
to the river, regardless wheth-
er it was sufficiently shallow
to afford security from danger,
and only seeking to quench
their burning thirst. Not a
single soldier had stopped to
throw off his knapsack or
even lay down his musket.
The whole mass of men had
hurried on, insensible to all
around them, in the one ab-
sorbing desire for water; but
now, having time to look about
them, they found themselves
in the midst of fields full of
melons and all kinds of fruit,
delicious shade and verdure,
and saw the flotilla, which had
left Alexandria, at anchor in
the flowing river.
There was now abundance
of food within every one's
reach. The men complained

There was no difficulty in making bargains. The
harvest of every village was piled up in one heap for
general use outside the village; corn-lofts and
granaries were unknown; and the men found out
that the simple and ignorant people were more-
pleased to receive their buttons in exchange than




Neither wine nor bread was to be had; severe
privations to French soldiers. "We encamped,"
says Napoleon, "on immense quantities of wheat,
but there was neither milk nor oven in the country."
The men bruised the grain between stones, and
baked it in the ashes, or parched and boiled it;
still it was not bread. The utmost order was
observed, and no pillage whatever was permitted.

On the 13th the French army came up with the
Mamelukes, who were drawn out in battle array at
Chebreissa, under Mourad Bey, one of their most
powerful chiefs. When the battle commenced the
French flotilla was vigorously attacked by Turkish.
vessels. Each Mameluke, feeling in himself the
valor of a host, rushed against the opposing mass,
and with repeated charges endeavored to break the
solid squares of the French army. Even whem


stabbed or shot down, the wounded Mamelukes
dragged their dying bodies with bloody trail along
the ground, and swept their scimitars across the
knees of the foremost French ranks. They were at
length beaten back, with the loss of about three
hundred, and the Turkish flotilla retreated. After
the action of Chebreissa the French army con-
tinued to advance during eight days without oppo-
sition, except from hovering Arabs who lay in wait
for every straggler from the main column.
The order of march towards Cairo was system-

atically arranged. Each division of the army moved
forward in squares six men deep on each side; the
artillery was at the angles; and in the centre the
ammunition, the baggage, and the small body of
cavalry still remaining. Great losses had been sus-
tained among the horses. Napoleon himself al-
most always made use of a dromedary, though he
at first suffered a sensation resembling sea-sickness
from its peculiar motion. A considerable portion
of the baggage was also carried by dromedaries
and camels.




'I ir.i

_-- -:-- -= -,:_-- .. -.l i'. t

-- --_ - _2 -
---- .


ON the 19th of July the army first saw the sum-
inits of the pyramids on the distant horizon. It
was a sublime sight-these enduring monuments
of the death of ages, with all their men and kings!
Still advancing towards Cairo, the distant pyr-
amids swelling upon the eye at every step, the

army reached Embab6 on'the 21st, and there found
the Mamelukes in battle array to dispute their
farther progress. The French army advanced in
five grand squares. Their left rested on the Nile;
their right fronted the Mameluke left. Napoleon
headed the centre square. Before the battle com-


S, -' -



. :~;p -:T~i--.. .~L~
;-;- ~9''L~i

,.\. .


menced, he raised his hand with an air of inspira-
tion: "Soldiers!" he said, "from the summit of
those pyramids forty centuries look down upon
The first manceuvre of the French army discon-
certed the plans of the Mamelukes. Napoleon had
discovered that their cannon were immovable,
being iron pieces taken from the Turkish flotilla
which had retreated at Chebreissa. He therefore
ordered a movement of his whole army to the right,
thus passing out of the range of the enemy's guns,
and rendering their infantry, which would not
venture beyond the camp unsupported by artillery,
nearly useless. Mourad Bey, who foresaw with
the quick instinct of an experienced leader, the
fatal consequences to himself, instantly led an im-
petuous attack upon the French. The Mamelukes
rushed at full speed upon the immovable squares,
and perished in heaps around them as though
under the walls of so many fortresses. The places
of the dead and dying were instantly supplied by
new warriors, who fell in their turn. Still the
Mamelukes continued to charge. They daringly
penetrated even between the spaces occupied by
the squares commanded by Regnier and Desaix
(which, owing to the rapidity of the attack, had not
been able to complete their mancevures. and
"masked one another to the extent of several
yards), so that the desperate horsemen were ex-
posed to the incessant fire of both faces of the
divisions at the distance of fifty paces. Rendered
furious at being unable to break the ranks on
either side, they hurled their pistols and carbines
into the soldiers' faces. Many of the French fell
from each other's fire in the resistance to this act
of desperation. The Turkish cavaliers turned to
the right-about, and reining back their horses, act-
ually flung themselves backwards with them upon
the French bayonets, to force a passage; throwing
away their lives with utter indifference; while the
survivors, becoming frantic by their ineffectual
efforts, began to yell out that the French soldiers
were tied together. Napoleon now charged the
main body and divided one part from the other.
Mourad Bey, forced to abandon the field, retreated
in the direction of Gizeh, followed by about two
thousand of his Mamelukes,-all that escaped out
of the matchless body of men who, in such superb
array, bade defiance to the European invaders only
a few hours before.
By dawn Napoleon prepared to take forcible
possession of Cairo, but was spared all difficulties
by its unconditional surrender. A deputation, of

the sheiks and chief inhabitants waited upon him
at Gizeh, where he had taken up his quarters in
the country house of Mourad Bey, to implore his
clemency and submit to his power. He received
them with the greatest kindness, informing them
that his hostility was entirely confined to the Mam-
elukes. He wrote to the Turkish pasha, assur-
ing him of the friendly disposition of France to-
wards him. "I beg you toassure the Porte," he
concluded, "that she shall sustain no sort of loss,
and that I will secure to her the continuance of the
tribute hitherto paid. Cairo and its citadel were
immediately occupied by the French troops. On
the 24th of July Napoleon made his public entry
into the capital, amidst a great concourse of people,
who looked upon him with awe as the conqueror of
the terrible rulers whom they had considered invin-
cible. The rolling fire of the infantry, by which he
had achieved the victory, gained him among these
Eastern imaginations the appellation of Sultan
Kebir, or Kingof Fire.
The French flotilla had come up in safety, and was
moored before Gizeh. A fortnight had been suffi-
cient to complete the arrangements necessary for
the tranquillity of the country. Kleber remained
at Alexandria; the various divisions of the army
were so disposed as to protect the whole of lower
Egypt, now entirely in the possession of the French.
Napoleon then, leaving Desaix at Cairo until his
return, marched in pursuit of Ibrahim Bey, with
the intention of driving him into Syria, and defend-
ing the entrance into Egypt in that direction. He
overtook the Mameluke chief at Salahie, and after
a sharp action compelled him to retreat, and thus
accomplished the object of the pursuit. Ibrahim
ceased to molest the French from this time.
On his return from Salahi6 to Cairo, Napoleon
was met by a messenger who informed him of the
destruction of the French fleet by Nelson in the
roads of Aboukir; best known in England as the
Battle of the Nile. The news fell upon Napoleon
like a thunderbolt. He had been so anxious about
the fleet as to write twice to Admiral Brueys to
repeat the order that he should enter the harbor of
Alexandria, or sail for Corfu; he had also, previous
to leaving Cairo, despatched Julien, his aide-de-
camp, to enforce the order; but this unfortunate
officer was surrounded and killed, with his escort,
at a village on the Nile where he had landed to
obtain provisions.
The disaster was understood in its full extent
and consequences by Napoleon. He bore it, how-
ever, with great firmness, merely observing that


"to the army of France was decreed the victories
of the land; to England the sovereignty of the seas."
After the battle of the Nile Nelson had landed at
Alexandria all the crews and soldiers of the cap-
tured French vessels, to the number of seven or
eight thousand men, probably believing that he
thereby only added embarrassments to their com-
mander-in-chief, who was believed to be without
any resources. The artificers of all kinds amongst
them formed a valuable auxiliary to the works that
were going on; some of the men were added to the
different corps. The old sailors
were constructing and manning
a flotilla on the Nile. Mills and
ovens were now plentiful. Found-
ries and powder-mills were erect-
ed. Armorers, locksmiths, car-
penters, ropemakers, and workers
in various trades were in full em-
ployment. A French and Arabic
printing press was set to work, ,
The army was newly clothed in
thin blue cotton clothes and black
morocco caps, each man having
a cloak of the substantial flannel
of the country for night cover-
ing, Napoleon alone appeared in
his European uniform, buttoned *
up as he wore it in France; and
even under such disadvantages,
while every one else was nearly
fainting from the heat, he always ;
looked as cool and fresh as when
he was at Paris. His mind was
strung to a pitch of energy well
seconded by the marvellous con-
stitution of his body. "We will .
remain here," he had said, after
the disappointment of his first
projects, "or we will leave the country great, like
the ancients."
It being an essential point of his policy to con-
ciliate the inhabitants, he lost no opportunity of
encouraging their friendly feelings towards the
French. Immediately after his return from the
pursuit of Ibrahim Bey, he attended the super-
stitious ceremony of opening the dyke of the canal
of Cairo which receives the waters of the Nile
when the inundation has reached a certain height.
A few days afterwards Napoleon was present, by
invitation of a principal sheik, at the anniversary
festival of the birth of the prophet. These circum-
stances, and the respect he showed to all the rites

of the established religion of the country, have led
to the belief that he actually became a Mussulman.
The truth is, he regarded forms of religion as the
ordinances of men, and considered them simply as
political engines, to be encouraged or not accord-
ing to expediency. Consistently with this view of
established forms, he held many conferences with
the Imaums, or priests of Cairo, well knowing the
importance of making them believe he might pos-
sibly become a convert; and they offered up pray-
ers for him in the mosques in consequence. As to


his Turkish dress, on which so much has been
"embroidered," he only wore it once, among his
officers, as a joke. He made his appearance one
morning among them at breakfast in full Oriental
costume, with an imperturbable air of somniferous
gravity, and was received with a burst of laughter;
but he never resumed it.
In the midst of this apparent security Ibrahim
and Mourad Bey were continually inciting the
people to revolt. The former frequently addressed
the fierce assemblage of Arabs in tones and ges-
tures of wild eloquence and energy, followed by
yelling plaudits. Early on the morning of the 2ist
of October Napoleon was startled from sleep by the



news that Cairo was in a state of open rebellion.
General Dupuy, who held the post of command-
ant of the city, had fallen among the first victims
to the fury of the populace, and a general massacre
of the French commenced. Napoleon was on
horseback in an instant, and, accompanied by
thirty Guides, repaired to every threatened point
and restored confidence among the soldiers. The
armed inhabitants of Cairo, repulsed in all direc-
tions, took refuge in the great mosque, which was
speedily surrounded by French cannon and taken.
A scene of carnage ensued which struck terror
into the breasts of all malcontents in Egypt, and
made tenfold atonement for the French blood
already spilt. The Arabs attempted a hostile
entrance into Cairo on the same morning, but were
driven back; not, however, without some difficulty
and loss. Sulkowsky, the aide-de-camp of Napo-
leon, and much beloved by him, fell on this occa-
sion. Tranquillity was completely restored in three

days, but during that interval deadly
severities were practised by Napoleon.
Numerous prisoners were conducted
to the citadel, of whom twelve were
singled out for execution nightly.
Many women were included among
these victims, for what especial reason
is nowhere related. The twelve prin-
cipal chiefs of Cairo, who expected an
inevitable death and awaited it with
apparent indifference, were only de-
tained as hostages by Napoleon. Mor-
tars were ranged on all the heights
commanding the city, which was
placed under military government,
and a heavy contribution levied on
the inhabitants. The Arabs were ter-
rified into quietude by the miserable
fate of one of their tribes on whom
military execution had fallen, and the
French became once more masters of
Napoleon had need for vigilance.
The hostility of the Porte, encouraged
and assisted by England, implied im-
pending danger on two points,-the
approach of a Turkish army by Syria,
and the landing of another on the
coast of the Mediterranean, under the
protection of British ships. The ne-
cessity of forestalling their designs by
an expedition into Syria was becom-
ing apparent to Napoleon. In the
month of December he visited Suez, partly with
a view to the necessary preparations for such an
undertaking, partly from curiosity to explore the
remains of the canal which is said to have united
the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. A squadron
of Guides formed his only guards. The party
rapidly crossed the desert, a distance of five-and-
twenty leagues. They passed over the Red Sea at
the same point at which Moses conducted the
Hebrews out of the "land of bondage," carefully
choosing the time when the ebb tide left it almost
dry. Leaving his guards on the Asiatic shore of
the sea, Napoleon and his companions rested by
the spring called the Wells of Moses," and visited
the Cenobites of Mount Sinai, who obtained from
the French general exemption from duties for their
caravans in trading with Egypt. The party returned
to the shore the same evening, and undertook the
passage of the sea towards Suez. Night was com-
ing on and the tide about to rise, so that there was


not a moment to lose; but at this, perilous junc-
ture they lost their way, and in the increasing
darkness were uncertain whether they were advanc-
ing towards Asia, Africa, or the open sea. The
waves were rising, and the foremost riders cried
out that their horses were swimming. Napoleon
averted this imminent danger by one of those
promptly conceived expedients for which he was
remarkable. He made himself the centre of a cir-
cle, ranging the rest of the party around him in
several radii, each man at the distance of ten paces
from the man behind him, until the circle was com-
plete. He then ordered them all to move forward,

each man moving in a straight line from the point
at which he himself remained fixed. When the
leading horseman of any of these lines lost footing
and his horse began to swim, Napoleon made him
and his whole line of followers return towards the
centre, and move on in the direction of another
column, the leader of which was still on firm ground,
until that line only remained which advanced in
the direction where the water became shallower.
They gained Suez at two in the morning, the water
being already at the poitrels of their horses, for
the tide rises twenty-two feet on this part of the




NAPOLEON passed the rest of the year 1798 at
Cairo. Positive reports reached him before its
close that Turkey was making active preparations

for hostilities against him. In January, 1799, two
Turkish armies were assembled-one at Rhodes,
the other in Syria. The Pasha of Syria, surnamed
Djezzar, or the Butcher," from his horrible cruel-
ties, was at the head of the latter. Napoleon did
not wait to be attacked on both points at the same
time, but, according to his usual custom, deter-
mined to set forward and encounter his enemies
in detail. He resolved on an immediate expedition
into Syria.
The army he led consisted of about fifteen thou-
sand men: it presented one grotesque novelty,-a
regiment mounted on dromedaries. The great
desert which divides Egypt from Syria is seventy-
five leagues across. The march was made rapidly
and in good order, the men encountering their
fatigues and privations with fortitude. The French
army reached EI-Arisch on the 17th of February,
and driving the Turks out of the village, forced
them all to take refuge in the fort before which the
trenches were immediately opened. Meantime
General Regnier attacked the Pasha's cavalry,
about a league off, surrounded and seized their
camps and baggage, and made many prisoners.
El-Arisch surrendered the following day. Advanc-
ing from the captured town, the vanguard lost its

~ ~;:a


way in the desert, and suffered severely from want
of provisions and water. On February 24 they
passed the pillars marking the boundaries of Africa
and Asia. The following day they advanced upon
Gaza, and encountered a body of three or four
thousand of Djezzar's horse drawn up to oppose
them. Murat with the cavalry, and the divisions of
Lannes and Kl6ber, quickly put them to flight.
Gaza yielded, and its valuable stores became the
prize of the victors. Jaffa (the Joppa of Scripture)
was invested on the 4th of March, and taken by
storm on the 6th. The town was given up to pil-
lage for four-and-twenty hours, and all the horrors
of war in their most revolting shape took place.
Still the garrison refused to yield, beheaded the
messenger who was sent to them, and elevated his
head on a pole in sight or the French army. When
they were finally compelled to surrender, either all
or the greater part of them were shot by order of
Napoleon. Their numbers are variously stated
from one thousand or twelve hundred men to four
thousand. The horrible and remorseless manner in
which the soldiers did their duty" is thus re-
lated by an eye-witness:-
Many of the unfortunate creatures composing
the smaller division, which was fired on close to the
sea-coast at some distance from the other column,
succeeded in swimming to some reefs of rocks out


of the reach of musket shot. The soldiers rested
their muskets on the sand, and, to induce the pris-
oners to return, employed the Egyptian signs of
reconciliation in use in the country. They came
back; but as they advanced they were killed, and
disappeared among the waves."
The French army advanced from Jaffa to form
the siege of St. Jean d'Acre-a far more arduous
undertaking than any they had yet encountered in
Syria. Sir Sydney Smith, with two ships of war,
was cruising before the fort, and the garrison was as-
sisted by European science. Ph6lippeaux, an old
schoolfellow of Napoleon at Brienne, directed their
artillery. To add to the difficulties which threat-
ened Napoleon, his battering train, sent forward by
sea, was taken by the English, and now turned
against him from the walls. Accustomed to the
easy victories which he had obtained on every en-
counter with the Turkish forces in Syria, he was
not prepared to expect the determined resistance
by which his progress was now arrested. Acre is
surrounded by a wall flanked with towers, and was
further defended by a broad and deep ditch with
strong works. Napoleon having no regular siege
train, for a whole month conducted his operations
with field artillery; but what baffled him were
European skill and courage. The inexhaustible
activity and energy of Sir Sydney Smith and the
talents of Ph6lippeaux so directed the defence as to
defeat every effort he could make, and foil every
stratagem. Ammunition was scarce in the French
army; they contrived, however, by a ludicrous ruse
deguerre, to make Sir Sydney Smith supply them
with balls. A few horsemen or wagons were or-
dered from time to time to make some demonstra-
tion of activity on the beach; upon which the Eng-
lish commodore, who was always on the alert,
approached and fired a terrible broadside. The
French soldiers, who took care to keep out of danger
then ran forward on the beach amid shouts of
laughter and picked up the balls for which they re-
ceived five sous each. Sir Sydney Smith, in addi-
tion to the active hostilities which he directed
against Napoleon, dispersed proclamations among
the French troops with a view to shake their faith
in him. Napoleon, upon this, published an order
from which it might be inferred that, owing to the
heat of the climate and the excitement of war, the
British commodore had gone mad, and all commu-
nication with him was therefore prohibited! Some
days afterwards a lieutenant or midshipman, with a
flag of truce, brought a challenge from Sir Sydney
Smith to Napoleon, appointing a place of meeting


to fight a duel. I laughed at this," said Napoleon
to O'Meara, "and sent him back an intimation that
when he brought Marlborough to fight me I would
meet him. Notwithstanding, I like the character
of the man."
While this obstinate contest was raging in Syria,
occasional insurrections had taken place in Egypt;
but they were not of any consequence, and were
easily quelled. General Desaix was still in Upper
Egypt, engaged in perpetual conflicts with Mourad
Bey, who with undaunted courage rallied his fol-
lowers after every defeat. He made a desperate
stand at Sediman, and it was only by the deter-
mined bravery of Desaix, who himself led on his
soldiers with the cry of "Victory or death! that
he was driven back on this occasion. One more
defeat forced Mourad to evacuate Upper Egypt.
The situation of the French army now became
critical. Its losses had been heavy; provisions be-
gan to fail, and the plague was in the hospitals.
The inhabitants of the country constantly repaired
to the camp, and on their knees offered up prayers
for the success of the French and their own release
from their cruel Pasha. The people of Damascus
offered their keys to Napoleon. It was, however,
impossible to overcome the garrison. Fully appre-
ciating the importance of that which he relin-
quished, Napoleon raised the siege. The sick and
wounded had already been removed and sent in
the direction of Jaffa, towards which place the
whole army commenced a retreat on the night of
the 2oth of May. "The fate of the east lay in that
small town," said Napoleon, in relating these
events at St. Helena. Had St. Jean d'Acre fall-
en, I should have changed the face of the world."
Jaffa was now destined to be the scene of another
of those dreadful expediencies of war which have
been made a subject for dark accusations against
Napoleon, The French army reached Jaffa on the
24th of May, and remained there until the 28th,
when it became imperatively necessary to continue
the retreat. During the siege of Acre the military
hospitals had been established at Jaffa. Itwasnow
requisite to remove all the patients. Napoleon ex-
erted himself to encourage the unfortunate suffer-
ers to endure this agonizing necessity. He even
touched the plague patients to lessen the dread of
The painful task of emptying a hospital of its
patients was at length accomplished, and all the
sick were sent forward, with the exception of about
a dozen men in the last stage of the plague, whose
death was inevitable. The expedient of accelerat-


ing their death by opium was gravely deliberated.
With whom the idea originated is uncertain.
Napoleon distinctly avowed the intention and the
wish, and thus justified himself to O'rieara : Not
that I think it would have been a crime had opium
been administered; on the contrary, I think it
would have been a virtue. You have been among
the Turks and know what they are; I ask you now
to place yourself in the situation of one of those
sick men, and suppose that you were asked which
you should prefer, to be left to suffer the tortures
of those miscreants or to have opium administered
to you.'"
The French army re-entered Cairo on the 14th
of June, and enjoyed for a short period the luxury
of repose, till despatches came from General Mar-
mont, who commanded at Alexandria, informing
Bonaparte that a fleet of Turkish transports and
vessels of war, carrying troops, had appeared off
Aboukir, under the protection of two British ships
commanded by Sir Sydney Smith. By four the fol-
lowing morning he was on horseback, and with his
whole army in full march. The battle of Aboukir
began early on the morning of July 24. At the first


charge of the French cavalry, headed by Murat, the
whole line of the Turkish army, which had been
drawn up in battle array on the field, struck with a
sudden panic, rushed headlong into the sea. The
village of Aboukir, with the redoubt in its rear,
was next attacked by the French. The Turks
scarcely made any stand, but fled in confusion dur-
ing the first charge, and the village was carried with
dreadful slaughter. Three thousand of the Turks
shut up in the fort, who surrendered two days after-
wards, were all who escaped with life.


The Turkish fleet instantly set sail for Constan-
tinople, and no enemy remained to dispute posses-
sion of Egypt with Napoleon. He now sent a flag
of truce to Sir Sydney Smith, and an interchange
of civilities commenced between the English and
the French. This circumstance led to important
consequences. Among other things, a copy of a
French journal, dated the loth of June, 1799, was
sent ashore by Sir Sydney Smith. No news from
France had reached Egypt since the end of June,
1798. Napoleon seized the journal with eagerness
and its contents verified his worst fear. "My God !"

he exclaimed, "the imbeciles have lost Italy. All
the fruits of our victories are gone! I must leave
Egypt! He spent the whole night reading a file
of English newspapers. Here he found the ac-
counts of Suwarrow's victories over the French in
Italy, and of the disastrous internal state of France.
In the morning Admiral Gantheaume received or-
ders to prepare the two frigates, Muiron and Car-
rare, and two corvettes, for sea, with the utmost
secrecy and despatch, furnishing them with two
months' supply of provisions for five hundred men.
On the I8th a courier from Gantheaume
S brought information to Cairo that Sit Syd-
ney Smith had left the coast to take in water
at Cyprus. This was the signal for Napole-
on's departure. He reached Alexandria on
the 22d, and Gantheaume immediately left
the harbor, and stationed his small squadron
in the creek of Marabout, where, on the 2d
of July of the preceding year, Napoleon had
first landed in Egypt; and where he now
fixed a day and hour for the ships' boats to
take him and his suite on board. He em-
barked on the 23d of August, late in the
evening. The discovery of his departure in
Alexandria, where the most perfect ignorance
as to the recent events still prevailed, is thus
described by Savary:-" The horses of the es-
Scort had been left to run loose on the beach,
and all was perfect stillness in Alexandria,
when the advanced posts of the town were
alarmed by the wild galloping of horses,
which, from a natural instinct, were returning
to Alexandria through the desert. The picket
ran to arms on seeing horses ready saddled
and bridled which belonged to the regiment
of Guides. They at first thought that some
misfortune had happened to a detachment in
its pursuit of the Arabs. With these horses
came also those of the generals who had em-
barked with General Bonaparte; so that
Alexandria for a time was in considerable alarm.
The cavalry was ordered to proceed in all haste in
the direction whence the horses came, and every
one was giving himself up to the most gloomy con-
jectures, when the cavalry returned to the city with
the Turkish groom, who was bringing back Gen-
eral Bonaparte's horse to Alexandria."
It was dark when Napoleon and his suite em-
barked on board the Muiron, but by the light of
the stars they were able to discover a sight of evil
augury,-a corvette which appeared to be observing
them. For twenty-one days adverse winds, blow-

47 1


lj- '
I-; cr----~-
* rL
-i~3.: _i

r; r: j~~


ing from west or northwest, continually drove the
squadron on the Syrian coast or back towards
Alexandria. But at length the wind changed, and
the vessels made a prosperous voyage along the west
coast of Sardinia; but after passing the island, it
again blew violently from the west and obliged them
to enter the port of Ajaccio. Here they were
forced to remain from the Ist to the 7th of October,
a delay that increased the impatience of Napoleon
to the highest pitch. After leaving Ajaccio, the
voyage was made without obstruction. On the
second day, however, an English squadron of four-
teen sail hove in sight. The French frigates,
evidently observed, were suffered to pass on, and
night favored their escape. The signals of the
English fleet were heard throughout the night.
The anxiety on board the Muiron was of course
excessive; Gantheaume lost all presence of mind,
and was in a most painful state of agitation: he

wished to return to Corsica. "No, no!" cried
Napoleon imperiously. "No! spread allsail. Every
man at his post! To the northwest! To the
northwest!" He continued throughout the night
giving orders and directing the course. On the
8th of October the frigates entered the roads of
Frejus. Not knowing how to answer the signals,
the code of which had been altered, they were
fired on by the batteries; but their bold entry,
the crowd on their decks, and their signs of joy
soon banished distrust, and no soonerwas it known
that Napoleon was on board than the sea was cov-
ered with boats. Sounds of enthusiastic welcome
filled the air; the quarantine regulations were dis-
regarded; and Napoleon once more landed on the
shores of France, crowds pressing towards him
from all quarters, with shouts of "We prefer the
plague to the Austrians "


THE shout of welcome with which Napoleon was
hailed on landing was echoed by the whole popula-
tion of France. In the course of the rapid journey
which he made from Frejus to Paris, he was greet-
ed with raptures of joy. He entered Paris with-
out being known, and alighted quietly at his own
house in the Rue de la Victoire on the i6th of Oc-
tober. Josephine had hurried off to meet him the
moment that the telegraphic despatch announced
his landing, had missed him on the road in conse-
quence of his suddenly changing his route, and
had not yet returned. On her arrival he received
her with studied coldness, and continued for three
days to treat her with outward indifference, while
ideas of divorce were working in his mind. The
interval, exquisitely painful as it must have been
to Josephine, terminated in an entire reconciliation.
Napoleon's interview with the Directors at the
Luxembourg on the day after his arrival was cold,
and chiefly occupied in explanations as to the con-
dition and prospects of the army in Egypt and his
own reason for returning to France. The Directors

finished the conference by offering Napoleon the
choice of any army he would command. He plead-
ed the necessity of a short interval of leisure for .he
recovery of his health, and- speedily withdrew in
order to avoid any more such embarrassing offers.
He had by this time a very clear perception of the
course before him, and had made up his mind to
place himself in circumstances to confer high of-
fices and commands instead of accepting them.
While maturing his plans he lived in the same re-
tired manner which had marked his residence in
Paris after the Italian campaign. A grand public
dinner was given in his honor by the Council of
Five Hundred, which he attended, but retired very
early. He gave one toast in the course of the eve-
ning, sufficiently ominous, though not noticed at
the time:-" The union of all parties."
Napoleon quickly resolved to overturn the Direc-
torial Government and establish another, wherein
he should possess the power towards which he
aimed. He opened a negotiation with Sidyes, and
had no sooner convinced him that the project of


I, *

I -------_-__




overturning the Directorial Government was his
object, than he was regarded as the instrument
destined to give to France that systematic Con-
stitution so long desired.
A meeting took place between Napoleon and
Sieyes on the 6th of November, in which it was de-
termined that the revolution should be attempted
on the 9th. This day, called in the history of the
period the i8th Brumaire, was exactly one month
from the day of Napoleon's landing at Fr6jus. On
the 17th Napoleon sent to all the officers of the
forces about to be placed under his command, in-
viting them to a meeting at his house in the Rue
de la Victoire at six o'clock the following morning,
and appointing a grand review of the troops in the

,- "

Champs Elysees at seven ; accounting for these early
hours by feigning that he was about to set off on a
Early on the morning of the i8th Brumaire the
house of Napoleon was crowded with officers;
many were in the courtyard and entrances. Most
of these were devoted to him; a few were in the
secret; and all began to suspect that something
extraordinary was going forward. Bernadotte
alone appeared in plain clothes. How is this ?
you are not in uniform! Napoleon said, hastily.
" I never am on a morning when I am not on duty,"
replied Bernadotte. "You will be on duty pres-
ently," rejoined Napoleon. "I have not heard a
word of it: I should have received my orders
sooner," answered the impracticable Republican.
Napoleon now drew him aside, frankly disclosed
his views, invited him to take part with the new
movement, and follow to the Tuileries with the
rest. Bernadotte answered that "he would not
take part in a rebellion," and with some difficulty

made a half promise of neutrality. Napoleon now
only waited for the decrees of the Council of An-
cients. The moment they were brought to him he
came forward to the steps in front of his house,
read the documents which announced the removal
of the legislative body in order to deliberate with
greater security on the important measures required
by the state of the country, and his own nomina-
tion to the command of the troops. He then
invited all to follow him to the Tuileries. General
Lefevre, the Commandant of Paris, showed signs
of disapprobation; but Napoleon suddenly turned
towards him, demanding whether he would fol-
low him or return to the "lawyers;" and the
appeal was instantly successful. The whole as-
semblage held themselves in readiness to follow,
with the exception of Bernadotte, who, as the oth-
ers passed him in succession, quietly took his leave.
Napoleon now despatched the officers of the Nation-
al Guard to beat the general and proclaim the
new decrees in all the quarters of Paris; and then
mounting his horse, proceeded, in company with
Bournonville, Moreau, Macdonald, and all the other
generals and officers, to the Tuileries, where ten
thousand men under arms awaited his arrival. On
his way he attended at the bar of the Council of
Ancients, and, surrounded by his numerous staff,
promised to enforce the decrees just announced to
After a brilliant review, Napoleon delivered the
following address to the troops :-" Soldiers! the
extraordinary decree of the Council of Ancients,
which is conformable to Articles Nos. Io2 and 103
of the Constitution, has appointed me to the com-
mand of the city and army. I accept that appoint-
ment with the view of seconding the measures
which the Council is about to adopt, and which are
entirely favorable to the people. The Republic
has been badly governed for two years past. You
hoped that my return would put an end to the evil.
You have celebrated that return in a way which
imposes on me duties that I am ready to perform.
You will also perform your duty, and second your
General with the energy, firmness, and confidence
you have always manifested. Liberty, victory, and
peace will restore the French Republic to the rank
it has occupied in Europe, and which it could have
lost only by folly and treason "
The message of the Council of Ancients, intimat-
ing the removal of the legislative bodies to St.
Cloud, was received with considerable surprise in
the Council of Five Hundred. They had no choice,
however, but to comply with the laws, and ad-


journed till next day amidst shouts of Long live
the Republic and the Constitution The galleries
echoed the cry, and the zealous adherents of democ-
racy who were accustomed to attend the debates
determined to transfer themselves also to St. Cloud.
It was evident that the revolution would meet with
a determined opposition in this Council.

placed upon a volcano; let me tell you the truth
with the frankness of a soldier. Citizens! I was
living tranquil with my family when the commands
of the Council of Ancients called me to arms. I
collected my brave military companions: we are re-
warded with calumny: they compare me to Crom-
well-to Casar! I have had opportunities of usurp-


On the 19th the two Councils had to meet, but
Napoleon repaired to the hall where they were
assembled and walked rapidly up the narrow pass-
age which led to the centre of the hall, and fronted
Lemercier the President. He had now to endure
a series of rapid interrogations from the President,
and his answers were irritable, ambiguous, and con-
fused; much to the following effect:-" You are

ing the supreme authority before now, had I de-
sired it. I swear to you the country has not a
more disinterested patriot. We are surrounded by
dangers and by civil war. Let us not hazard the
loss of those advantages for which we have made
such sacrifices-liberty and equality A member
named Linglet interrupted him at these words by
exclaiming, You forget the Constitution! "


That he had made a wretched figure before the
chief legislative assembly of his country is evident,
and it is plain that the power of oratory which
Napoleon possessed was limited to his position of
command. In exhortation, denunciation, accusa-
tion, and attack, he was hardly to be surpassed or
withstood; but when denounced himself, his facul-
ties were confused and his eloquence deserted him.
The session of the Five Hundred, under the pres-
idency of Lucien Bonaparte, had commenced with
demonstrations of hostility to Napoleon which
made counter measures on his part imperatively
necessary. The proceedings were opened by a
speech from Gaudin (a member of the moderate


party, in the interest of Sieyes and Napoleon), who
moved that a committee of seven should be appoint-
ed to report upon the state of the Republic, and
that a communication should be opened with the
Council of Ancients. Exclamations arose on every
side. "The Constitution or death !-Down with
the dictatorship!" seemed to proceed from every
mouth. Gaudin was dragged from the tribune,
Lucien in vain endeavoring to preserve order. A
member proposed that all present should swear
to preserve the Constitution of the Year Three.
Amidst acclamations which silenced resistance
every member present was forced to take the oath.
The moderates, even Lucien himself, were hurried
on without the power of refusal. In the midst of
the excitement which followed Lucien read aloud a

letter from Barras resigning his office. The resig-
nation was received with contempt, as the act of a
soldier deserting his post at the moment of danger;
and the following passage renewed the violence
which had in some degree abated:-"The glory
which accompanies the return of the illustrious
warrior to whom I had the honor of opening the
path of glory; the striking marks of confidence
given him by the Legislative Body, and the decree
of the Council of Ancients, convince me that, to
whatever post he may be called, all dangers to lib-
erty will be averted, and the interests of the army
insured." The tumult occasioned by these words
was hushed by the clash of arms; bayonets, drawn
swords, plumed hats, and bearskin caps were seen
without; and Napoleon entered, attended by four
grenadiers of the Constitutional Guard of the
Councils. The soldiers remained near the door,
while he walked with deliberate steps and uncov-
ered up the hall. He had not advanced above one-
third of its length when all the Deputies rose.
" Down with the tyrant !-down with the Dictator !
- the sanctuary of the laws is violated resounded
from all sides; several members rushed towards
Napoleon. He attempted to speak, but his voice
was drowned by cries of The Republic forever !-
the Constitution forever! -Outlaw the Dictator! "
He was seized by the collar. At this sight the
grenadiers hurried forward exclaiming, Let us
save our general! and bore him from the assembly
almost insensible.
Meanwhile the commotion in the Council rose to
the highest pitch, and Lucien was called upon to
put the outlawry of his brother to the vote. Un-
able to obtain a hearing, he threw on his desk his
President's hat and scarf, and amidst a storm of
contention declared the sitting at an end, and re-
nounced his seat. At this moment a party of six
grenadiers, sent by Napoleon, entered the hall, sur-
rounded Lucien, and carried him off into the midst
of the soldiers. He mounted a horse, and raising
his powerful voice, addressed the troops as Presi-
dent of the Council of Five Hundred.
They, however, still hesitated to act against
the representatives of the people, till Lucien drew
his sword and vehemently exclaimed, I swear
that I will stab my own brother to the heart if he
ever attempt anything against the liberty of French-
men !" This dramatic effect kindled the enthusi-
asm of the excitable people before whom it was
acted. They were ready to obey any order from
Napoleon; and at a signal from him, Murat, at the
head of a body of grenadiers, entered the Orangery,




The Deputies were debating in a state of wild in-
decision and anxiety when the soldiers appeared.
Murat, as they moved slowly forward, notified to the
Council the order for its dispersion. A few of the
members retired, but the majority remained firm;
and one or two, amongst whom was General Jour-
dan, reminded the troops of the enormity of their
present proceeding. They appeared to waver for a
moment, when a reinforcement entered in close
column, headed by General Leclerc, who said loud-
ly, In the name of General Bonaparte the Legis-
lative Corps is dissolved ; let all good citizens retire.
Grenadiers, forward! The members' indignant
cries were drowned by the beating of drums. The
grenadiers advanced at the charge, with fixed bay-
onets, extending across the whole width of the
Orangery, and drove the legislative body before
them: the members fled on all sides, many jumping
from the windows, and leaving behind their official
caps, scarfs, and gowns. In a few minutes not
one remained. Finally, Sieyes, Ducos and Na-
poleon, as Provisional Consuls, were entrusted with
the executive power.

Napoleon entered his carriage to return to Paris
at three o'clock in the morning. "He was absorbed
in thought," says the secretary, and did not utter
a word during the journey. But when he arrived
at his house in the Rue de la Victoire, and had re-
assured Josephine, who was in a state of great
anxiety on account of his long absence, he re-
marked, Bourrienne, I said many ridiculous things.'
'Not so very bad, General.' I like better to speak
to soldiers than to lawyers. Those fellows confused
me. I have not been used to public assemblies;
but that will come in time.' Then he told Josephine
all the events of the day, speculating on things and
people. Josephine spoke of the interest she felt
in Gohier, the ex-Director, and his family. 'What
would you have, my dear ? said Napoleon ; I can-
not avert his misfortunes; he is a respectable
simpleton: I ought, perhaps, to have him banished.'
Bernadotte, Moreau, and others came under discus-
sion, the First Consul amusing himself with his
dexterous management of Moreau; at last ending
abruptly with Good night, Bourrienne. By the
way, we wil sleep in the Luxembourg to-morrow.' "


By the new Constitution as definitively settled
the whole executive power was placed in the hands
of three Consuls, who were elected for ten years
and declared eligible for re-election at the expira-
tion of that time. The First Consul alone had the
right of nominating to all offices, civil and military.
He was to propose all new laws and originate all
measures for the internal and external defence of
the country. He was commander of all the forces;
to superintend all the international relations, and
to coin the public money. The two supplementary
Consuls were to be the indispensable councillors of
the First Consul; but he was recognized as inde-
pendent of them, irresponsible, and his person in-
For the old system of two Chambers, the new
Constitution substituted four political bodies, viz.,

the Council of State, the Tribunate, the Legislative
Body, and the Senate. (i.) The duty of the Coun-
cil of State was to communicate any proposed law
to the Legislative Body, and there to justify the
proposal in the name of the Government. (2.) The
Tribunate was to support the popular interests. -(3.)
The business of the Legislative Body was to hear
and decide. Finally (4), the Senate was required to.
interpose when the Tribunate declared that the
Constitution was violated.
Napoleon's first measure was to direct Talleyrand,
Minister for Foreign Affairs, to open negotiations
with the Court of St. James's for peace, remarking:
" You see I have two great enemies. I will con-
clude peace with the one I find most easy to deal
with; that will enable me immediately to assail the
other. I frankly confess that I should like best to


be at peace with England. Nothing would then be
more easy than to crush Austria. She has no
money except what she gets through England." In
accordance with these expressions Napoleon wrote
the following letter to George III.:-
SBonaparte, First Consul of the Republic, to his MIajesty the King
of Great Britain and Ireland:
"Called by the wishes of the French nation to
occupy the first magistracy of the Republic, I have
thought proper, in commencing the discharge of

Whence is it that they do not feel peace to be the
first of wants as well as the first of glories ?
These sentiments cannot be new to the heart
of your Majesty, who rule over a free nation with
no other view than to render it happy.
Your Majesty will see in this overture only my
sincere desire to contribute effectually, for the
second time, to a general pacification by a prompt
step taken in confidence, and freed from those
forms which, however necessary to disguise the
apprehensions of feeble States, only serve to dis-


the duties of this office, to communicate the event
directly to your Majesty.
Must the war which for eight years has ravaged
the four quarters of the world be eternal ? Is there
no room for accommodation ?
How can the two most enlightened nations in
Europe, stronger and more powerful than is neces-
sary for their safety and independence, sacrifice
commercial advantages, internal prosperity, and
domestic happiness, to vain ideas of grandeur?

cover in those that are powerful a mutual wish to
France and England may, by the abuse of their
strength, long defer the period of its utter exhaus-
tion, unhappily for all nations. But I will venture
to say that the fate of all civilized nations is con-
cerned in the termination of a war the flames of
which are raging throughout the whole world.
I have the honor to be, etc.,


Doubtless Napoleon was perfectly sincere in this
negotiation. The Government of which he was
head required time to consolidate itself; France
was at war with all Europe and had lost Italy.
The reply of the British Cabinet to the overtures
of peace arrived early in January. It was couched
in the usual diplomatic form, being addressed by
Lord Grenville, Secretary of State for Foreign
Affairs, to the Minister of Foreign Relations at

levy of thirty thousand recruits, or conscripts as
they were termed.
But before the First Consul put his army in mo-
tion he received an overture from the House of
Bourbon in the shape of the following letter from
Louis XVIII., then in exile:
2oth February, 18oo.
SIR,-Whatever may be their apparent conduct,
men like you never inspire alarm. You have accept-


Paris, and contained a refusal on the part of his
Britannic Majesty to treat with the Consular
Government of France.
Napoleon in reply prepared for war. On the 7th
of Janu-ry, 18oo, three days after the date of Lord
Grenville's despatch, a Consular decree ordered the
formation of an army of reserve, to be composed of
all the veteran soldiers then unemployed; and a

ed an eminent station, and I thank you for having
done so. You know better than any one how much
strength and power are requisite to secure the hap-
piness of a great nation. Save France from her
own violence, and you will fulfil the first wish of my
heart. Restore her King to her, and future gen-
erations will bless your memory. You will always
be too necessary to the State for me ever to be able
to discharge by important appointments the debt
of my family and myself. LOUIS."


This letter, entirely in the handwriting of the
Bourbon Prince, produced some agitation in the
mind of Napoleon, though he never for a moment
entertained the idea of acting the part of Monk in
restoring the legitimate Sovereign. He hesitated
to reply, and the pressure of business prolonged his
delays. Meanwhile Josephine and her daughter
Hortense urged him to hold out hope to the King
without pledging himself." Josephine was anxious
that her husband should treat with Louis XVIII.,
in order to banish from his mind the thought of
making himself King, a prospect that always

collected to greet Napoleon. He went in procession,
but with no great splendor. Afterward, in com-
pany with the other Consuls, he received the mem-
bers of a diplomatic body. On this occasion some-
thing like the ceremonies of a Court were for the
first time introduced, and, in imitation of the an-
cient custom of waiting on the Queen after pres-
entation to the King,- official persons were pre-
sented to Josephine. Amongst the foreign ambassa-
dors the plenipotentiaries of the United States of
America were distinguished. The Consular Govern-
ment had just placed the relations between America

pr -- ___-.
i~ --


alarmed her. Napoleon returning no answer tothe
King's letter, he, after a lapse of several months,
received another, to which he did reply. He had
abolished the oath of hatred to Royalty," together
with the celebration of the 2Ist of January, the an-
niversary of the death of Louis XVI., and it is not
improbable that this circumstance had raised the
hopes of the Bourbons.
On the 19th of February, I80o, Napoleon took up
his residence in the Tuileries, the ancient palace of
the Kings of France, which he called the Palace
of the Government." A certain portion of it was
allotted to Lebrun. the Third Consul. Great crowds

and France on a footing of diplomatic and com-
mercial amity. On the eve of taking possession of
the Tuileries the First Consul had assisted at a
ceremony of a very different character. News of
the death of George Washington had just reached
France. He died on the 14th December, a private
citizen of the Great Republic, the liberties of which
he had secured by his abilities as a general and had
assisted to maintain by his talents as a legislator
and magistrate. Napoleon paid public homage to
the virtue which neither his character nor his in-
clinations enabled him to emulate. He celebrated
a grand funeral service to the memory of Washing-


ton in the council hall of the Invalides. The last
standards taken in Egypt were presented at the
same time. All the Ministers, Councillors of State,
and generals were present. The pillars and roof
were hung with the trophies of the Italian campaign.
The bust of Washington was placed under the
trophy comprising the flags taken at Aboukir. A

general order was issued that crape should be sus-
pended for ten days from all the flags and standards
of the Republic; and thus, in awarding funeral
honors to the memory of a pure patriot, did ambi-
tion bury its own conscience, and the memory of
that higher glory which outlasts the blaze of the
diadem and the trophies of victorious fields.



IN the beginning of the year 1800 a new coalition
against France was formed by England, Austria,
and Russia, who were speedily joined by Bavaria,
Sweden, Denmark, and Turkey. England block-
aded Malta, and assembled an army at Minorca,
under General Sir Ralph Abercromby, ready to act
with the Austrians in Italy. Melas, a veteran offi-
cer of high reputation, commanded the Austrian
army of over one hundred thousand men. With
this force, supported by the English fleet under
Lord Keith, it was proposed to reduce Genoa, cross
the Var, and invade France by Provence, where a
large body of Royalists was ready to take up arms
and act in concert with the English and Austrians.
General Willot an emigrant, and Pichegru, who had
escaped from Guiana, were to head this insurrec-
tion. The armies only awaited the approach of the
spring to commence operations. The French army
of Italy occupied the country between Genoa and
Var. It was in so disorganized a condition that its
numbers cannot be estimated: accounts vary from
five-and-twenty thousand to forty thousand men.
It was suffering great privations, being quartered
in a poor country, the coast of which was strictly
blockaded by the English fleet. General Kray and
the Archduke Ferdinand commanded the Austrian
army on the Rhine. This army was not so strong
in point of numbers as the force in Italy, for it was
in the latter country that Austria meditated the
decisive blow against France.
Discovering that a coolness existed between Aus-

tria and Russia (in consequence of some events
in the last campaign), and that a misunderstanding
had at the same time sprung up between England
and Russia, Napoleon adroitly seized the opportu-
nity to detach the great northern Power from the
coalition. Russia was governed by the Emperor
Paul, a man of eccentric and somewhat chivalrous
turn of mind, who had been offended by the re-
fusal of England to include seven thousand Rus-
sians in a cartel for the exchange of prisoners with
France. These men, taken prisoners of war in
Holland when acting in concert with the English
army, had been all suddenly set at liberty by Na-
poleon and sent back to their own country, the
officers having their swords returned and the men
receiving new uniforms. Paul was delighted with
this generosity. Shortly afterwards Napoleon
made him a present of the sword which Pope Leo
X. had given to L'Ile-Adam for having defended
Rhodes against the infidels. Letters now passed
between the Emperor and the First Consul.
Paul's first letter is very characteristic: "Citizen
First Consul, I do not write to you to discuss the
rights of men or citizens; every country governs
itself as it pleases. Wherever I see at the head of
a nation a man who knows how to rule and how to
fight, my heart is attracted towards him. I write
to acquaint you with my dissatisfaction with Eng-
land, who violates every article of the law of
nations, and has no guide but her egotism and her
interest. I wish to unite with you to put an end


to the unjust proceedings of that Government."
The Emperor Paul's enthusiastic admiration of the
First Consul increased, and their correspondence
was carried on almost daily. They consulted each
other on the most important affairs and concerted
their measures in confidence. Paul dismissed Lord
Whitworth, the English Ambassador in Russia,
seized the English ships in his ports, and prevailed
on Prussia to menace Hanover with his army.
His hatred soon grew to so extravagant and ridic-
ulous a pitch that he defied to single combat every
King who would not declare war against England.
The challenge was inserted, by authority, in the


St. PetersbuWr Court Gazette. Paul at first intend-
ed to print it on vellum, and send it to every King
in Europe. The challenge, however, was sufficient-
ly original in those days to find its own way with
speed to the royal parties in question, who all said
that the eccentric Emperor was mad. Under these
favorable auspices, a successful negotiation was
opened with Russia, in consequence of which she
influenced the Courts of Sweden and Denmark to
observe a strict neutrality. The morale of the
French army of Italy was restored by a single proc-
lamation of the First Consul, who called on the
soldiers to remember the confidence he had once
placed in them. Massena was despatched to take
the command.
Preparations for the new campaign in spring were

completed. Moreau was made commander-in-chief
of the army of the Rhine, one hundred and fifty
thousand strong. The plan of the campaign was
concerted between the First Consul and Carnot,
who had superseded Berthier as Minister of War.
The operations were conducted with the utmost
secrecy, and while all Europe imagined that the
multifarious concerns of the Government held the
First Consul at Paris, he was travelling at a rapid
rate towards Geneva, accompanied only by his
secretary. He left Paris on the 6th of May, at two
in the morning, leaving Cambac6rbs to preside un-
til his return, and ordering Fouch6 to announce
that he was about to review the army at Dijon, and
might possibly go as far as Geneva, but would re-
turn in a fortnight. Should anything happen,"
he significantly added, I shall be back like a thun-
derbolt." On the 8th, the First Consul arrived at
Geneva, where he had an interview with the cele-
brated Necker. Madame de Stail says that on this
occasion Napoleon made a very favorable impres-
sion on her father by the confidence with which he
spoke of his future projects. The impression was
not mutual, for Napoleon afterwards declared that
this interview confirmed his opinion that the
talents of Necker by no means accorded with his
On May 13 the First Consul reviewed the van-
guard of his army, commanded by General Lannes,
at Lausanne. The whole army consisted of nearly
seventy thousand men. Two columns, each of
about six thousand men, were put in motion, one
under Tureau, the other under Chabran to take the
routes of Mont Cenis and the Little St. Bernard.
A division consisting of fifteen thousand men, un-
der Moncey, detached from the army of the Rhine,
was to march by St. Gothard. Moreau kept the
Austrian army of the Rhine, under General Kray,
on the defensive before Ulm, and held himself in
readiness to cover the operations of the First Con-
sul in Italy. The main body of the French army,
in numbers about forty thousand, nominally com-
manded by Berthier but in fact by the First Consul
himself, marched on May 15 from Lausanne to the
village of St. Pierre, at the foot of the Great St.
Bernard, at which all trace of a practicable road en-
tirely ceased. General Marescot, the engineer who
had been sent forward from Geneva to reconnoitre,
reported the paths to be "barely passable." "Set
forward immediately!" wrote Napoleon. Field
forges were established at St. Pierre to dismount
the guns, the carriages and wheels were slung on
poles, and the ammunition-boxes carried by mules.


.~ L :':.

,~h~t- : ,E1C-


'I I



A number of trees were felled, then hollowed out,
and the pieces being jammed into these rough cases,
a hundred soldiers were attached to each and or-
dered to drag them up the steeps.
The view of the valley, emphatically called of
Desolation," where nothing is to be seen but snow
and sky, had no terrors for the First Consul and
his army. They advanced up paths hitherto only
traversed by hunters, or here and there a hardy
pedestrian, the infantry loaded with their arms and
in full military equipment, the cavalry leading their
horses. The bands played from time to time at the
head of the regiments, and in places of unusual
difficulty the drums beat a charge, as if to encour-
age the soldiers to encounter the opposition of
Nature herself. While one-half of the soldierswere
bringing forward the guns, the others carried the
muskets, cartridge-boxes, knapsacks, and provis-
ions of their comrades. Each man, thus loaded,
was computed to carry from sixty to seventy
pounds weight up icy precipices which a man with-
out encumbrance could ascend but slowly. The
most arduous task fell upon those who brought up
the rear. The men in front durst not halt to breathe,
because the least stoppage might have thrown the
column behind into confusion on the brink of
deadly precipices, and those in the rear had to
flounder knee-deep through snow and ice trampled
into sludge by the previous divisions. The whole
army had passed the summit by the 2oth of May.
Napoleon remained behind until the whole had set
forward; he then began the ascent, accompanied
only by Bourrienne and his guide. He maintained
during the whole time that air of calm self-posses-
sion for which he was remarkable under all circum-
stances of difficulty. He either walked or rode a
mule, wearing his gray great coat and three-cor-
nered hat, and carrying his riding-whip in his hand.
He was occasionally stopped by some temporary
halt of the artillery or baggage. He gave his
commands peremptorily on these occasions and
was instantly obeyed, his look seeming sufficient to
remove every objection.
On the Great St. Bernard, amidst the "everlast-
ing snows," stands the well-known Hospice which
affords succor to travellers in those pathless wastes.
Napoleon had taken the precaution to send for-
ward large supplies to the monks and warn them of
the approach of his army. The soldiers on their
arrival found tables ready spread in front of the
convent, and each man received as he passed a glass
of wine and some bread and cheese, the good fathers
serving the provisions with assiduity. The troops,

who had tasted no refreshment except biscuit
dipped in snow since they began to march, found
this aid most acceptable. Napoleon rested and
took a frugal repast at the convent, after which he
visited the chapel and the three little libraries, lin-
gering a short time to read a few pages of some old
book. He performed the descent on a sledge down
a glacier of nearly a hundred yards, almost perpen-
dicular. His guide was a robust young man of
two-and-twenty, who confided to him, in answer to
his questions, all his troubles, anxieties, and wishes.
On parting, Napoleon gave him a note to carry to
the superiors of the convent, and the next day the
man was surprised to find himself the possessor of
a house, a piece of ground, and everything for which
he had wished. Napoleon was liberal to his first
guide also, to whom, when shaking the rain-water
from his hat, he exclaimed, "There! see what I
have done in your mountains-spoiled my new hat!
Well, I will find another on the other side." This
was the only specimen of his conversation remem-
bered by his guide.
The French army advanced unopposed down to
Ivrea, which being without a garrison was easily oc-
cupied on May 23, while Lannes entered Romano.
Although the roads to Turin and Milan were open
to Napoleon, he halted at Ivrea four days. Mean-
while Tureau, advancing by Mont Cenis, had taken
the forts of Susa and La Brunetta. Confounded by
this sudden irruption of the French, and incredu-
lous of the report that they were commanded by
the First Consul in person, Melas was irresolute
what course to adopt. His artillery, equipage, and
provisions were all at the mercy of this unexpected
invader, who must have brought sufficient forces to
destroy the troops left to guard the frontier. Melas,
however, knew these to be both weak and divided,
and, persisting in his belief that the advancing army
was only about twenty thousand strong, and that
the object of its leader was the relief of Genoa, he,
instead of concentrating his forces, left Ott before
Genoa. Conceiving afterwards, from the advance
of Tureau by Susa and La Brunetta, that Turin
would be the point of attack, he removed his head-
quarters to that city. Napoleon straightway took
the road to Milan. The Sesia was crossed without
opposition; the passage of the Ticion was effected
after a sharp conflict with a body of Austrian
cavalry, who were put to flight; and on the 2d of
June the First Consul entered Milan, amidst the
enthusiastic acclamations of the people, who had
been taught to believe that he died in Egypt. He
was conducted in triumph to the ducal palace,


where he took up his residence. His first act was
to proclaim the re-establishment of the Cisalpine
The First Consul was prevented from marching on
Genoa by the despatches of an intercepted courier
from General Ott, announcing the surrender of
Massbna. Bourrienne took the despatch to him at
three o'clock in the morning. Napoleon was asleep,
and was with difficulty aroused. He was so con-
founded by the intelligence of Massina's surrender
that he doubted the accuracy of his secretary's
translation, "Bah! he said, "you do not under-
stand German." In less than four hours orders were
on the road countermanding the march of the troops
on the Scrivia, and the same day Napoleon ad-
vanced to Stradella, where he fixed headquarters.
On June 9th, Lannes, who led the vanguard of
the French army, attacked the Austrians at Monte-
bello and drove General Ott back on Tortona, and
on the 13th Napoleon crossed the Scrivia and
marched to St. Juliano in the plain of Marengo.
The advanced guard of the French, commanded
by Gardanne, occupied the hamlet of Padre Bona,
which fronted Marengo at a short distance. Victor
was stationed at Marengo, with the main body of
the first line, the right of which extended to Castle
Ceriola, nearly parallel with Marengo; a body of
cavalry under Kellermann supporting him at a little
distance to the rear. The second line, commanded
by Lannes, and supported by the cavalry of Cham-
peaux, was posted in rear of the first; while the
third, comprising the Consular Guard and the di-
vision of St. Cyr, and stationed behind Lannes and
Champeaux, was commanded by Napoleon in per-
son. The Austrians advanced to the attack in two
lines of heavy infantry, the first led by General
Haddick, the second by Melas and Zach. The cav-
alry, under General Elsnitz, was sent to turn Castle
The battle commenced at break of day on the
14th of June. The van under Gardanne was obliged
to fall back upon Victor. Victor held his position
during two hours against heavy odds. He was
obliged to evacuate Marengo, but retook it twice or
thrice. Napoleon ordered Lannes to the support
of Victor, but after a long and obstinate contest the
cavalry of Elsnitz suddenly outflanked the right of
Lannes, and both lines were compelled to retreat.
The Austrians fought admirably. Their infantry
opened an attack on every point of the French line
simultaneously, while the cavalry, debouching across
the bridge which the French had failed to destroy,
assailed the right of the Consular army with such

fury and rapidity that it was thrown into complete
disorder. The Austrians were successful every-
where: the French centre was penetrated, the left
routed, and another well-executed cavalry charge
would have terminated the battle. The order for
this was not given; nevertheless the retreating
French were still in utmost peril. Napoleon, who
had been collecting reserves between Garafolo and
Marengo, sent orders for a general retreat upon
these reserves, and to rally round his guard, which
he massed in rear of the village of Marengo, placing
himself at their head. The soldiers, who could see
the First Consul with his staff surrounded by two
hundred Grenadiers of the Guard in the midst of
the immense plain, were encouraged -their hopes
revived. The right wing under Lannes quickly


rallied; the centre, reinforced by such scattered
troops of the left as could be collected, recovered
its strength; but the left wing no longer existed -
its remains were flying in disorder, pursued by the
Austrians. The main body of the French army,
which still kept battle array, was continually though
very slowly retreating. The First Consul de-
spatched his aide-de-camp Bruyere to Desaix with
an urgent message to hasten to the field of battle.
Desaix had arrested his march upon Novi on hear-
ing the repeated discharges of distant artillery.
Halting, he, according to the orders of the First
Consul, despatched his aide-de-camp Savary with
fifty horses to ascertain at Novi the state of affairs,
while he kept his division fresh and ready for action.
Savary found all quiet at Novi, and returning to
Desaix in about two hours with this intelligence
was next sent to the First Consul at Marengo. He
spurred his horse across country in the direction of
the fire and smoke, and fortunately met Bruyere,


who was taking the same short-cut to Desaix.
Giving Bruyere the necessary directions, Savary
hastened to the First Consul. He found him in the
midst of his Guard, who stood their ground on the
field of battle, forming a solid body in face of the
enemy's fire, the grenadiers in front, the place of
each man who fell being supplied from the ranks
behind. Maps were spread open before Napoleon;
he was planning the movement which decided the
action. Savary made his report, and told him of
Desaix's position. "' At what hour did you leave
him ? said the First Consul, pulling out his watch.


Having been informed he continued, "Well, he
cannot be far off; go and tell him to form there"
(pointing with his hand to a particular spot): let
him quit the main road and make way for all those
wounded men, who would only embarrass him and
perhaps draw his own soldiers after them." It was
three o'clock in the afternoon. The aged Melas,
overcome with fatigue and supposing victory won,
had retired from the field, leaving General Zach to
follow up the pursuit. Desaix was quickly on the
field with his division, which he formed up to the
left of the centre. Approaching the First Consul,
the latter explained to him the manoeuvre he was
about to effect. Desaix apprehended, and gave the
necessary orders. The whole army changed front,
----_- ,'l

', 1 i W I '

":- -=

necessary orders. The whole army changed front,

its left centre bringing its right wing forward at the
double. By this evolution Napoleon turned all the
enemy's troops who were pursuing the broken left
wing, and removed his own right out of cannon
range from the bridge which had been so fatal to
him in the morning. The Artillery of the Guard
was reinforced by that of Desaix's division and
formed an overwhelming battery in the centre.
The Austrians made no effort to prevent this de-
cisive movement: they supposed the First Consul
was only covering his retreat. Their infantry in
close deep columns advanced rapidly, but when at a


I B--ATL OF~ -ARN .r-

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distance of a hundred paces they halted, on per-
ceiving Desaix's division of six thousand fresh
troops facing them.
At this moment Desaix sent an urgent request to
the First Consul to charge with infantry and cav-
alry. Napoleon rode up to give him the order to
attack, having despatched Savary with a command
to Kellermann, who was at the head of about six
hundred heavy cavalry, to charge the Austrian col-
umn in flank while Desaix charged it in front,
Both generals effected the movement rapidly and
successfully. The Austrian columns were utterly
broken, dispersed, and pursued to the Bormida.
Desaix fell mortally wounded as he gave the word
of command. The large masses of Austrian cavalry


who were pursuing the fugitives of the French left
wing no sooner witnessed the defeat of their in-
fantry than they fled in disorder towards the bridge
opposite Alessandria. The divisions of Lannes and
Victor- pressed forward to intercept them, but St.
Cyr's division being nearer the bridge than the
Austrians the carnage was dreadful. Thus in a
moment as it were the Austrian army was thrown
into irretrievable confusion, and the victory which
seemed their own at three o'clock was won by the

purchased by the death of Desaix, who was only
thirty-three, and in whom France lost a general of
great promise. Savary, who was much attached to
him, sought for his body, and found it completely
stripped of clothing lying among others in the
same condition. He wrapped him in a cloak, and
with the assistance of a hussar laid him across a
horse, which was led to Garafolo. Napoleon or-
dered the body to be carried to Milan for the pur-
pose of being embalmed.

Z-~ j2s

I v_


French at six. The pursuit continued far into the
night, the fighting and slaughter upon the dark
bridges being one confused and crowded horror,
while all the Austrians who remained on the left
bank were either taken prisoners or driven head-
long into the Bormida. The waters were red with
the blood of horses and men, presenting next day
in some parts a clotted surface of mangled remains.
Several entire battalions, however, surrendered at
discretion, and General Zach and all his staff were
made prisoners.
The triumph of this decisive victory was dearly

On the following morning Melas sent a flag of
truce to the First Consul while he was preparing to
pass the Bormida. The same evening a conven-
tion was signed at Alessandria, by which Genoa
and all the fortified places in Piedmont, Lombardy
and the Legations were given up to the French,
and the Austrian army obtained leave to retire be-
hind Mantua. France thus regained by one battle
everything that had been lost since the last peace,
with the single exception of Mantua. Marengo
has been extolled as one of Napoleon's greatest
victories; he himself was proud of it, and undoubt-


edly if his tactics were faulty and endangered de-
feat, it is equally certain that his splendid strategy
and skilful combinations insured victory. Admit-
ting his strategical ability and tactical promptitude,
it is but fair to assume that if Savary and Bruyere
had not met in their sort of steeple-chase across

of mind and readiness of resource in emergencies.
But luck must be evoked by genius, otherwise, as
in Napoleon's case, it deserts its old favorites.
The first Consul returned to Milan on the night
of June 17. He found the city illuminated, and
the roads and streets lined with people who greeted

Frenclh-Berthlier. Austrian-Me/as.

country, the reserve of Desaix would not have been
on the field till Napoleon had lost the battle. At
this time Napoleon was perhaps the most lucky
man in existence. He believed in "luck," and
there is no doubt that up to a certain point in his
career good luck invariably attended his presence

him with shouts of welcome. Draperies were hung
from the windows, crowded by women of the first
rank, who threw flowers into his carriage as he
passed. He set off for Paris on the 24th of June,
leaving Massena commander-in-chief of the army
of Italy.




Two parties in France, the Jacobins or the re-
mains of the old Republican party and the Royalists
aimed at Napoleon's downfall. Nor did these hos-
tile parties confine themselves to wishes and opin-
ions, but even formed schemes of assassination.
The first attempt was made by some discontent-
ed Italian patriots, one of whom was Arena, the
brother of that Deputy who was said to have aimed
a dagger at Napoleon in the Council of Five Hun-
dred. Another of them, a sculptor, who had been
a passionate admirer of Napoleon and had made a
statue of him, asked permission to model him, with
the intention of stabbing him in the course of his
work; but his heart failed when the time came.
They next plotted to assassinate him at the opera,
but were discovered by the police, and two of them
were seized behind the scenes armed with con-
cealed daggers. Chevalier and Veycer, men for-
merly belonging to the Terrorist faction, next con-
trived a machine, consisting of a barrel of gun-
powder stuck around with grape-shot and pieces of
old iron, and so constructed as to explode, by means
of a slow match, at the moment the First Consul
was passing through the streets. But they were so
extremely scientific in their scheme as to make a
preliminary experiment in the outskirts of Paris.
The explosion led to suspicions and the arrest of
the plotters, so that this plan came to nothing; but
it gave a hint to others, Napoleon made light of
all these conspiracies, and the suspected authors
were merely detained in prison, without any further
The armistice was fast drawing to a close, and
Austria, still delayed the ratification of the treaty
despatched from the field of Marengo. The First
Consul therefore actively prepared for war, while
the wants of France, which became daily more ap-
parent, made him earnestly wish for peace. Trade
and commerce were languishing under the pro-
tracted blockade by the English fleet of the chief
harbors, provisions were dear, and the people be-
ginning to murmur under the oppressive burdens
of war. The moment was, however, inauspicious

for peace with England. Malta was on the very
point of surrendering to her fleet, and Egypt more
than ever incapable of receiving supplies from
France or resisting a hostile invasion. The case
was very different with the Emperor of Austria,
who was menaced by three powerful armies -
Moreau on the Rhine: Brune, who had superseded
Massena, in Italy; and Macdonald in the Tyrol.
Mr. Pitt had exclaimed after Marengo, Shut up
the map of Europe; it will be useless to look into it



for twenty years." Yet at this moment he would
not relinquish the struggle. A loan of two millions
from England encouraged the Emperor to make
preparations for a new attempt against his formida-
ble enemy, and he protracted the negotiations ac-
cordingly. Meanwhile, on the 5th of September,
Malta surrendered to England, after a blockade of
two years.
At this period the Bourbon Princes renewed their
efforts to treat with Napoleon. A second letter
from Louis XVIII. was put into his hands in the
month of September. It was as follows:

"You must have long since been convinced,
General, that you possess my esteem. If you doubt


my gratitude, fix your reward and mark out the
fortunes of your friends. As to my principles, I am
a Frenchman merciful in character and also by the
dictates of reason. No; the conqueror of Lodi,
Castiglione, and Arcola, the conqueror of Egypt
and Italy, cannot prefer vain celebrity to real glory.
But you are losing precious time. We may insure
the glory of France. I say we, because I require
the aid of Bonaparte, and he can do nothing with-
out me. General, Europe observes you; glory
awaits you; and I am impatient to restore peace to
my people. Louis."
After a lapse of several weeks Napoleon replied
in the following terms:-
"SIR, I have received your letter, and I thank
you for the compliments you address to me. You
must not seek to return to France. To do so you
must trample over a hundred thousand dead bodies.
Sacrifice your interest to the repose and happiness
of France, and history will do you justice. I am
not insensible to the misfortunes of your family,
and I shall learn with pleasure that you are sur-
rounded with all that can contribute to the tran-
quillity of your retirement. NAPOLEON."
Preliminaries of peace had been signed at Paris,
between the Austrian General Saint Julian and the
French Government. Duroc was dispatched to the
Emperor to obtain his ratification of the articles ;
but having reached the headquarters of the army of
the Rhine, he was refused a pass to proceed on his
journey. Napoleon thereupon ordered Moreau to
recommence hostilities, unless the Emperor deliver-
ed up the fortresses of Ulm, Ingolstadt, and Philips-
burg. Austria accordingly purchased a further pro-
traction of the armistice at this heavy price, at the
same time offering to treat for peace on new grounds;
but delayed and equivocated until it became evi-
dent that the Emperor would make no peace sepa-
rate from England, which power was prepared to
support her ally. The First Cousul ordered his
armies to advance on all points on the 15th of
November; Moreau accordingly crossed the Iser;
Brune crossed the Mincio; and Augereau, at the
head of the Gallo-Batavian army, pressed forward
into Bohemia. The Archduke John was now at
the head of the Austrian army, which amounted to
seventy thousand men. The French army, if skil-
fully combined, might have numbered double that
force; but, on the ist of December, when the hos-
tile forces encountered at Haag, Moreau was con-
siderably inferior in numbers to his opponent, and
in a slight action which ensued experienced a check.
The Austrians not improving their advantage,
which had been obtained with great bravery and
skill, the French general, during the night of the
2d, brought up a sufficient force to make his army

equal in numbers that of the Archduke. Between
the Inn and the Iser, at the outskirts of the forest
of Hohenlinden, the two armies lay; the snow, so
deep on the ground as completely to hide all traces
of the roads, still fell thickly. At break of day the
Archduke advanced to the attack, and after a des-
perate and sanguinary battle sustained a complete
defeat from Moreau. Forced to retreat, he left ten
thousand men dead on the field, and seven thou-
sand prisoners, among whom were two generals.
He abandoned his whole park of artillery, amount-
ing to one hundred pieces of cannon. The loss
of the French was nearly ten thousand in killed,
wounded, and prisoners, since the first of Decem-
ber; but the victory of Hohenlinden decided the
fate of the campaign and insured peace. The Em-
peror of Austria immediately sued for a cessation
of arms, and sent Count Cobentzel to Paris with
the preliminaries of a treaty, from which England
was to be excluded. Joseph Bonaparte was de-
spatched to Luniville, where the negotiations were
carried on in good faith. Napoleon's conditions
were in the main, the same as those of the Treaty of
Campo Formio.
The news of the victory and the prospect of
peace spread joy throughout Paris. But what
seemed to consolidate the power of Napoleon
caused another attempt upon his life. The con-
spirators belonged to the Royalist party. A few
men, the principals of whom had been Chouans of
the band of Georges Cadoudal, constructed an en-
gine which has acquired the appropriate name of
" the infernal machine." The powder, grape-shot,
and iron being all inclosed in a barrel, were placed
in a water-carrier's cart. On the evening of the
24th of December, when Napoleon was expected to
attend the performance of Haydn's oratorio of
" The Creation," at the opera, two of the intended
assassins, named Carbon and St. Regent, drove this
cart to the corner of the Rue Nicaise, and there
waited the First Consul's arrival. It happened
this evening that Napoleon, overcome with fatigue,
had fallen asleep on a couch, and when Josephine
awoke him at the hour for going, he was excessively
unwilling to move. A whole party, however, who
were waiting to accompany him, consisting of
Madame Murat, Hortense, Bessidres, Rapp, and
one or two aides-de-camp, so pressed him not to
disappoint them-one running for his hat, another
for his sword-that he roused himself and got into
his carriage, accompanied by Bessidres and the
aide-de-camp on duty, but fell asleep again the
moment he was seated. Suddenly he dreamed of


passing the Tagliamento by torchlight, in a great
flood, which lifted up his carriage by its force.
The same moment he awoke, amidst noise and
flame, and exclaimed," We are blown up!" He
had escaped by a wonderful chance: the engine of
death had exploded two seconds too late, in conse-
quence of the furious driving of his coachman, who
was drunk, and who continued to drive on vigor-
ously, imagining that a salute had been fired as they
passed. The officers in the carriage made an effort
to stop him; but Napoleon, with greater presence of

people were killed in the streets or by the falling
of the adjacent houses, and upwards of fifty were
wounded, amongst whom was the incendiary St.
Regent. The audience in the opera-house, who
were impatiently waiting the arrival of the First
Consul, were ignorant of what had just occurred.
He entered and took his place with perfect com-
posure. Turning his head quicklyas Rapp entered
the box door, he said "Josephine? "-but, on her
appearing just behind, he dropped the intended in-
terrogation. and only said, the rascals wanted to

!i~.~g~ g~tW-: ii


mind, ordered him to drive on at the same rate to
the opera. Josephine's carriage was just far enough
behind to escape likewise, the machine exploding
between the two. Rapp afterwards remembered
that a little delay, occasioned by his remarking as
they set off that Josephine's shawl was not put on
with her usual grace, which made her playfully de-
sire him to adjust it for her like the Turkish ladies,
caused this interval between the carriages, the win-
dows of both of which were shattered by the tre-
mendous detonation. The horse of the last soldier
of Napoleon's escort was wounded, showing how
very narrow his escape had been. Nearly twenty

blow me up : get me a book of the opera." All this
time the audience were greeting him with the usual
enthusiasm. Suddenly a murmur ran through the
house-an appalled silence followed, succeeded by
an overwhelming burst of emotion. Every one rose
-every eye was directed upon him; and by the ex-
pressions of congratulation which surrounded him
on every side, it was clear that, whatever might be
the hostile intentions of a few individuals, he was
firmly established in the hearts of the populace,
The treaty of Lun6ville, between Austria and
France, was signed and ratified in February, 180r.
The news reached Paris on the 14th, at a time when


J;.d _- .i. 4 J


the people were all assembled at the carnival. The
popular amusements were forgotten in the joy ex-
cited by the auspicious event: splendid fties were
given by eminent individuals in Paris, amongst
whom Talleyrand particularly distinguished him-

self, while the people crowded the gardens of the
Tuileries, with shouts of "Long live Bonaparte!"
and gave way to their national gayety in dances un-
der his windows, the band of the Consular Guard
acting as orchestra.


BY the Treaty of Luneville Napoleon temporarily
effected the pacification of the continent. Of the
coalition which threatened France in 1800, England
alone (if we except Turkey, with which no arrange-
ment could be made until the affairs of Egypt were
settled) continued hostile in 1801. The English
ships scoured the seas, defying the nation which
their Government would not recognize; enforcing
that right of search which they claimed as exclu-
sively their own; always ready to attack every weak
point or distant settlement of their great enemy;
and maintaining unchecked the sovereignty of the
ocean. All the northern coast of Europe bristled
with batteries; troops were marched to different
stations to observe these formidable antagonists;
and every height which commanded the ocean was
put in a state of defence.
After the destruction of the Danish fleet at Co-
penhagen by the English fleet under Lord Nelson,
and after the death of the Emperor Paul of Russia,
the change in the political state of Europe led the
First Consul to plan an invasion of his arch-enemy's
territory from a French base on the other side of
the channel. He assembled a vast number of flat-
bottomed boats at Boulogne for the purpose of
crossing, and marched thither large bodies of
troops. The threatened attack was met by a cor-
respondingly vigorous resistance, while the great
objects of Napoleon's policy were obstructed by one
enemy alone, who, secure in an insular position and
an unconquerable navy, resolutely resisted him at
every point. It is curious to observe that he had
within his grasp the means of neutralizing all those
advantages, for at this very moment Fulton, the in-

ventor of steamboats, communicated his discovery
to the First Consul. A vast and not easily defi-
nable field of operation both at home and abroad
was thus opened to him. Let the conduct on this
occasion of one of the greatest practical men that
ever lived be a salutary warning to all. Scarcely
deigning to bestow a thought upon the .subject,
the First Consul treated the inventor as a "vision-
Two measures of great importance were origi-
nated this spring, and carried through before the
autumn. The first was the Concordat with the
Pope, by which the Roman Catholic faith was rec-
ognized as the established religion of France. At
the very commencement of the Consulate it was
decreed that "Conscience is not amenable to the
law, and that the right of the sovereign power ex-
tends no further than to the exaction of political
obedience and fidelity." The Concordat resulted
from the practical working of the former Consular
decree while departing from its principle. It was
found that the priests who had returned to France
were more lastingly imbued with the sense of the
injuries than of the benefits which they had re-
ceived. The one act which had permitted their
return to their country and friends was past and
forgotten; regrets for former riches and power were
always present. The priests accordingly proved, in
general, so many enemies. They became emissaries
in the hands of the emigrant bishops, who spread
disaffection among the mass of the people, over
whose associations they maintained a powerful
A conversation held by Napoleon on this subject


with one of the Councillors of State as they walked
together after dinner in the park at Malmaison ex-
plains his motives and shows the nature of the
treaty. After combating different systems of phi-
losophers on modes of worship, natural religion,
etc., all of which he designated as ideology, the
First Consul thus expressed his own views:-" I
was here last Sunday walking out in this solitude
in the silence of nature. The sound of the bells of
the church at Ruel suddenly struck my ear.
I was affected; so great is the power of early
habit and of education! I said to myself,
' Then, what an impression must it not make
on simple and credulous minds!' It will be
said I am a Papist. I am nothing. I was a
Mahometan in Egypt; I will be a Catholic
here, for the good of the people. I do not
belong to any religion. But the idea of a
God!" lifting his hands towards the heavens,
which were covered with stars: "who is it
that has made all that? Let your philoso-
phers, your metaphysicians, reply as they
may: a religion is necessary for the people.
It is also necessary that this religion should
be in the hands of the Government. Fifty ',T
emigrant bishops in the interest of the Bour- I
bons at present govern the French clergy as
they please. It is necessary to destroy this
influence; the authority of the Pope is re-
quired for the purpose. He displaces them
or makes them give in their resignation. It
is declared that the Catholic religion being
that of the majority of Frenchmen, it is
proper to regulate the exercise of it. The
First Consul nominates fifty bishops, the
Pope inducts them. They name the curates,
the State pays their salaries. They take the
oath; those who do not are banished. Such
of them as preach against the Government
are denounced to their superiors to be pun-
ished. JThe Pope confirms the sale of the
goods of the clergy : he consecrates the Re-
public. They will then chant 'Salvam fac
rem Gallicami.'"
The second measure was the decree permitting
the return of the emigrants, provided they returned
and took the oath to the Government within a
certain time.
While these measures evinced a desire for peace,
the preparations for invading England continued
unabated. England replied to them by placing
Nelson in command of the sea from Orfordness to
Beachy Head. Nelson was not satisfied with de-

fensive operations; but, appearing before Boulogne,
he bombarded the French fleet, and after destroy-
ing some small craft and gun-boats, proceeded to
attack the flotilla with the boats of his squadron.
The French made a desperate defence; their vessels,
moored close to the shore, were chained together
and filled with soldiers, and Nelson was obliged to
make sail without effecting anything. Meantime
Mr. Pitt went out of office in the course of the


summer, and was succeeded by Mr. Addington,
afterwards Lord Sidmouth. No change of political
principles was indicated by this measure, but Mr.
Pitt had so identified himself with the war that his
very name seemed a bar to its conclusion, and it
was not esteemed possible that peace could be con-
cluded under his auspices. The "gold of Pitt,"
and war, were almost synonymous ideas in France.
The two nations had now arrived at a relative



position which seemed very like a drawn game;
France being as supreme on the continent as Eng-
land was unconquerable on the ocean. Since the
Treaty of Lundville, M. Otto had been kept in Eng-
land by the French Government, ostensibly as agent
in behalf of the prisoners of war; but, in conform-
ity with his instructions, he had watched for oppor-
tunities of opening a pacific negotiation with the
English Ministry. The preliminaries were ratified
between the two countries on the loth of October,
i80o. The intelligence was communicated to Paris
by the firing of cannon, and caused general
rejoicing. General Lauriston carried the rati-
fied treaty from Paris to London, where the
horses were taken from his carriage and he
was drawn to his house by the people. It
was not however till five months afterwards
that the definitive treaty was signed at Ami-
ens on the 25th of March, 1802.
By this treaty the island of Malta was to be I
garrisoned by Neapolitan troops, and all the
great Powers of Europe guaranteed its neu-
trality, the Knights of St. John being once
more nominated as its sovereigns. The Eng-
lish Government refused to recognize the
Italian Republics and the new kingdom of
Etruria; but the French plenipotentiaries did
not insist upon this condition, and it was
omitted in the articles. France was now at


peace with all Europe, and the position and pros-
pects of the country were brilliant beyond those of
any period since the Revolution. By the Peace of
Amiens Napoleon had achieved the important and
once seemingly impracticable measure of bringing
England diplomatically to acknowledge the French
Republic. The English crowded to Paris, full of
curiosity, after so many years of exclusion, to see a
capital which had been the scene of unnumbered
events, and to catch a glimpse of the extraordinary
man who had raised himself to a height from which
he controlled the affairs of all Europe
Mr. Fox visited Paris soon after the treaty of
peace. He was received with enthusiasm. He
spent much of his time at the Tuileries on terms
of great confidence and intimacy, and inspired
Napoleon with feelings of friendship. Napoleon,
when at St. Helena, said, I soon found that Fox
possessed a noble character, a good heart, liberal,
generous, and enlightened views. I considered him
an ornament to mankind, and was very much at-
tached to him. We often conversed together upon
various topics without the least prejudice: when I
wished to engage in a little controversy I turned
the conversation upon the infernal machine, and
told him that his Ministers had attempted to mur-
der me. He would then oppose my opinion with
warmth, and invariably ended the conversation by
saying, in his bad French, First Consul, pray take
that out of your head.' "
During this summer the question of extending
the term of Napoleon's Consulate was agitated.
The Senate, in conformity with the popular wish
and with the concurrence of Napoleon, decreed an
extension of ten years. The First Consul accepted

I KU.T.U.Wt. A.L I X1L'!A1OJlDust&3SNT,


the offered prolongation on condition that the
opinion of the people should be consulted. The
question put to tlhe people was more complete.
Cambac6res and Lebrun framed the matter for de-
cision in the following words :-" Napoleon Bona-
parte-shall he be Consul for life ? Registers were
opened in all the the municipalities, and the an-
swer of the people qualified to vote was decisive.
Upwards of three million five hundred thousand
voted for the proposal; eight thousand three hun-


dred against it. The name of Carnot was among
the dissentients, and La Fayette made his vote
dependent on a declaration from the First Consul
that political liberty and the liberty of the press
should be granted to the nation. As Napoleon did
not answer this requisition, La Fayette was in the
list of opponents. In the month of August Napo-
leon was declared Consul for life. A decree of the
Senate immediately afterwards consolidated his
power by permitting him to appoint his successor.



ACCORDING to the terms of the Treaty of Lun6-
ville the First Consul was about to resume posses-
sion of the greater part of his colonies which had
been seized by England. But St. Domingo did not

belong to England; the negroes, once the slaves,
were now the masters in that beautiful island.
" Why, whilst England was renouncing the other
islands, should a set of miserable blacks be suffered
to retain possession of the richest among them all ?
Why, whilst the landholders of other colonies were
on the point of quietly resuming their property,
and once more enjoying their rich revenues, must
the planters of St. Domingo alone put up with their
losses? A multitude of families had been utterly
ruined. Why should their rich island, alone free in
the midst of slavery, be left exposed to the possible
alliance of England? France would thus not only
lose its chief colony, but actually see it fall into the
power of England." These were the reasoning by
which Napoleon suffered his better feelings to be
smothered. He was upwards of a month engaged
in collecting information respecting the island, from
all who had resided in the Antilles; all who could
throw some light on the subject were sent to him
at Malmaison. He would be closeted for hours
with inferior clerks in the Marine Department who
had been pointed out to him as possessed of infor-
mation respecting St. Domingo. Jealousy of Eng-
land at length turned the scale. St. Domingo,
originally called Hayti (which name it has now re-
sumed) when first discovered by Columbus was
chiefly peopled by a gentle and timid race of Red
Indians. These aborigines were nearly extermi-
nated by the Spanish adventurers who swarmed to
the newly-found regions in search of gold. The


Indians, unused to toil in their rich and lovely
island, perished under the ruthless hands of their
civilized tormentors. African negroes, a hardier
race, were next imported as slaves, to do the work
of the European lords of the soil.
Among the slaves of an estate called Breda was
one named Toussaint, about forty years of age.
He had originally tended cattle, but had been
raised from this employment to be coachman to the
bailiff. He had by some means learned to read and
write and was chiefly remarkable for thoughtful-

other under the victorious attacks of Toussaint.
The French commissioners said, This man makes
an opening (l'ouverture) everywhere." From this
saying he acquired his name of Toussaint l'Ouver-
ture. The war soon ended. The Spanish planters
laid down their arms and the blacks were free.
Toussaint saved the French general from an insur-
rection of the mulattoes and was appointed Lieu-
tenant of St. Domingo. The English abandoned
the island in 1798, tired of a war in which the
diseases of the climate destroyed their troops.


ness and a religious tendency. He joined the black
general, Jean Francois, and soon rose to be aide-de-
camp and colonel. In this war of the long-op-
pressed against their oppressors, horrors were
abundantly perpetrated; Toussaint, however, ob-
tained influence rather by the natural vigor of his
mind than by violence. On the 4th of February,
1794, the National Convention of France decreed
the liberty of all slaves and declared St. Domingo
an integral part of France. Toussaint marched
from his Spanish quarters to join the French Re-
publican commander, who made him general of
brigade. The Spanish posts fell one after an-

The English commander, accompanied only by
three attendants, held a conference with Toussaint
in the midst of his armed blacks, so great was the
confidence he had inspired, and a treaty was
concluded between them. Toussaint next con-
quered the mulattoes, and then admitted them to
a treaty of peace and equal rights. He was now
absolute ruler of the island, to the internal improve-
ment of which he began to devote himself. He
sent his two sons to be educated in France, writing
to the Directory in these terms:--"I guarantee,
under my personal responsibility, the submission
of my black brethren to order, and their fidelity


to France." His administration was vigorous, and
as watchful as might be expected from a man who
had been a slave and ruled over a nation lately
slaves. He never permitted the same secretary to
commence and conclude a despatch: after dic-
tating a certain portion, he always sent away the
person he had employed, to wait his orders at some
sixty or a hundred miles distance. The secretaries
were also forbidden, under pain of death, to
divulge what he had dictated, while numerous
spies enabled him to detect disobedience.

the spot at the head of a party of his horse-guards,
collected the negroes belonging to the plantation,
and surrounding them with his black cavalry, after
a brief inquiry gave orders to charge and cut them
to pieces.
The troops for the expedition were chosen by
Napoleon chiefly from the army of the Rhine, and
therefore some of the finest soldiers of France.
They amounted to about twenty thousand men.
General Leclerc, the husband of Pauline Bonaparte,
was appointed to the command and named Cap-


Toussaint adopted the wise policy of encourag-
ing both whites and mulattoes to remain in the
island by carefully protecting their persons and
property. The blacks, now free laborers, contin-
ued to cultivate the plantations; but the produce
was divided in certain proportions between the
proprietor and the cultivators. Order and industry
took the place of anarchy and licentiousness. The
waste lands were soon in full cultivation, and abun-
dance and confidence restored. Toussaint main-
tained the laws with unrelenting rigor. On one
occasion a white female, the owner of a plantation,
had been murdered by the negro laborers who had
formerly been her slaves. Toussaint marched to

tain-General of St. Domingo. Pauline was by
command of the First Consul unwillingly forced to
accompany him. The fleet which conveyed the
armament set sail on the 14th of December, 1801,
and reached Cape Frantais in St. Domingo on the
29th of January, 1802, its progress being jealously
watched the whole way by an English squadron.
Toussaint, warned of this hostile approach, had
ordered every post it was possible to maintain to
be defended to the last, and all others to be burnt.
The French signals to surrender were unanswered,
and a cutter carrying a letter for Toussaint from
the First Consul appointing him lieutenant to the
captain-general was fired upon with red-hot shot.


Leclerc next attempted to seduce from his alle-
giance Christophe (afterwards Emperor of Hayti),
Commander at Cape Frangais, but met with a posi-
tive refusal. In default of a pilot through the dan-
gerous rocks and shoals which surround St.
Domingo, the French seized the mulatto captain
commanding the port, and tried by every means to
make him direct their course, but in vain. They of-
fered him upwards of two thousand pounds; they
drew a cord round his neck; still he resolutely re-
fused. This circumstance affords a proof of the ex-
traordinary ascendancy of Toussaint over his
people. The French army succeeded in landing
west of Cape Francais. Christophe instantly fired
the town and fort, which were consumed with all
the magazines and stores. The whole island now
became a scene of carnage and conflagration. The
First Consul had sent back with the expedition
the two sons of Toussaint, with the principal of the
college in which they had been educated. They
were despatched by Leclerc with the letter before
mentioned to their father, who embraced his chil-
dren, and sent them back with a request for four
days' delay; but when they went again for his an-
swer they returned no more to the French. The
war therefore continued, but the troops of Toussaint
were unable to resist the discipline and courage of
the French. Dessalines, one of Toussaint's gen-
erals, notorious for his cruelty in this ferocious
struggle, was at last shut up in the fort of Crete A
Pierrot, which was taken by the French after a
long siege; but Dessalines and many of his men
cut their way through the French ranks and
escaped. One post after another surrendered, one
chief after another submitted, till at length Tous-
saint could hold out no longer. He repaired to
headquarters with his staff and company of Guides,
a fine body of black troops who remained faithful
to him to the last, and tendered his submission.
He replied by denials or by silence to all the re-
proaches of Leclerc on his revolt," and proudly
refused the rank of general in the French army
which was offered him, but requested permission
to retire to one of his estates in the interior, which
was granted under certain restrictions.
As the hot season approached, bringing with it
that fatal scourge of Europeans the yellow fever, a
change was observed in the manners of the blacks.
-Toussaint had been heard to say, I trust to Prov-
idence :" the great hospital of Cape Francais bore
this title. Parties of negroes who acquired the
name of Maroons collected in bands on the heights,
whence they watched the movements of the French.

As the season advanced and fever rapidly thinned
the French ranks these alarming symptoms in-
creased. Desertions from the black regiments,
many of which had been formed by General Leclerc,
became of daily occurrence. The mountains had
become depots of arms and provisions, where mul-
titudes of negroes lay concealed. Toussaint was
an object of suspicion to the French at this crisis.
He was directed by Leclerc to go in person and allay
the ferment among his countrymen, but instead of
complying he armed the negro cultivators of his
own estate, in order as he said to provide for his
safety. He was seized by order of Leclerc and car-
ried on board a French ship. The excitement
among the negroes was increased tenfold by the
sudden disappearance of their famous chief. The
standard of revolt was openly raised, and Chris-
tophe, Dessalines, and all the principal leaders of
the blacks placed themselves at their head. The
negro population was computed at four hundred
thousand; the French army was reduced by war
and disease to eight thousand. As the season ad-
vanced the ravages of the pestilence increased.
New detachments sent out from France were mown
down and reduced to mere skeletons. As a last
misfortune General Leclerc himself was smitten by
the infection and died on the Ist of November.
Toussaint after his seizure by General Leclerc
had been transported to France, and there he was
committed first to the Temple and then to the fort-
ress of Joux, near Besangon in Normandy. In a
damp dungeon of this northern climate did Napo-
leon suffer a man of whose fellowship he might
have been proud, to linger out the whole winter of
1802 and 1803, Toussaint dying after about ten
months' imprisonment. Dark rumors of poison
were afloat, but of such aid there was no need.
Cold, damp, inaction and mental suffering were
quite sufficient to extinguish the life of a native of
a tropical climate, whose bodily and metal energies
had been for years indefatigably employed, and
who had seen the work of his life apparently dashed
into ruins.
When in the spring of 1803 the short-lived Peace
of Amiens came to an end, a British squadron im-
mediately appeared before Cape Franqais, and be-
sieged the remains of the French army confined
within the walls of the town. Rochambeau, who
had succeeded Leclerc, surrendered at discretion;
and the English carried off the French fleet, the
miserable remnant of their fine army, and all the
white inhabitants of the island, which was entirely
left to the negroes. General Noailles, however,


Commandant of the Mole St. Nicholas, contrived
to elude the English ships, and with his whole gar-
rison and seven vessels escaped into a port in the
island of Cuba. Attempting after this to reach Ha-
vana on board an armed brig, he encountered an
English corvette, which he took after a desperate

fight, and carried under French colors into Havana,
where he only arrived in time to die of his wounds.
" The national glory, says Norvins, hastened to
gather up the last exploit, which escaped from the
great shipwreck of one of the bravest armies that
the Republic ever assembled under her flag."



TOWARDS the close of the year 1802 it became
evident that the Peace of Amiens was destined at
no distant period to be broken. The joy with which
the people of England- and France had welcomed
the news that war had ceased was fast changing
into mutual distrust, and open recrimination fol-
lowed. England had tardily given up possession of
the Cape and the other Batavian settlements, but
continued to retain Malta. The French Govern-
ment expostulated in vain, and the English Admin-

istration finally avowed its determination not to
relinquish that island.
The increasing dominion of Napoleon in Europe
was accompanied by a corresponding assumption of
outward dignity. The First Consul occupied St."
Cloud in addition to the Tuileries, Malmaison re-
maining his peaceful retreat from the cares of
government. Something of the external forms,
habits, and etiquette of sovereignty was perceptible
in his household. "Men," said he, "well deserve


the contempt with which they inspire me. I have
only to put some gold lace on the coats of my
virtuous Republicans, and they immediately become
just what I wish them." The Parisians flocked to
the brilliant reviews at the Carrousel, and saw with
admiration the rich liveries and emblazoned car-
riages of the English and Russians. Luxury rapidly
advanced among all the wealthy inhabitants; the
theatres were crowded, splendid fetes were frequent,
the Republican appellations of Citoyen and Cito-
yenne were giving place to Monsieur and Madame.

The gallery of the Louvre, enriched with the choicest
works of art in the world, was open to every one
without reserve. An air of prosperity was every-
where visible.
While the steady increase of Napoleon's power
and influence inspired his enemies with jealousy
and distrust, there was one person whom his rapid
approaches to sovereignty had always filled with
the most bitter dread. Josephine rightly associated
his assumption of the crown with a probable wish
for lineal descendants, and nervously listened to
every report of his intentions, expecting a divorce
from him as the consequence of the realization of

her fears. "One day," says Bourrienne, "Josephine
entered the cabinet without being announced,
approached Napoleon softly, seated herself on his
knee, passed her hand gently through his hair and
over his face, and thinking the moment favorable,
said to him, with a burst of tenderness, 'I entreat
of you, Bonaparte, do not make yourself a King!
It is Lucien who urges you to it. Do not listen to
him.' Napoleon replied without anger, and even
smiling, as he pronounced the last words : 'You are
mad, my poor Josephine: it is your old dowagers
of the Faubourg Saint-Germain, your Rochefou-
caulds, who tell you all these fables! Come, now,
you interrupt me-leave me alone.'" To gain a
friend among the brothers of Napoleon, Josephine
forced her daughter Hortense into an unwilling
marriage with Louis Bonaparte. It took place in
January, 1803. "The bride and bridegroom," says
Constant, "were exceedingly dull, and Mademoi-
selle Hortense wept during the whole of the cere-
mony. Josephine knowing that this union which
commenced so inauspiciously was her own work,
anxiously endeavored to establish a more cordial
feeling between her daughter and son-in-law. But
all her efforts were vain, and the marriage proved a
very unhappy one." Hortense was much attached
to Duroc, and Napoleon wished her to marry him.
The mutual grievances of which the English and
French complained increased as the winter of
1802-3 drew to a close, and in February, 1803,
Napoleon, irritated beyond further endurance by
the protracted negotiations which only left things
as they were, resolved to enter personally into con-
ference with the British Ambassador, Lord Whit-
worth. In the course of their interview the First
Consul openly stated his various causes of com-
plaint, and ended by peremptorily demanding the
full execution of the Treaty of Amiens; war being
the alternative. If war was inevitable it was Napo-
leon's interest to commence it at once. His lan-
guage in the interview he held with the English
Ambassador was sufficiently plain. No considera-
tion on earth," he said, shall make me consent to
your retention of Malta. I would as soon agree to
put you in possession of the Faubourg St. Antoine.
Every wind that blows from England brings noth-
ing but hatred and hostility towards me. An in-
vasion is the only measure of offence that I can
take against her, and I am determined to put my-
self at the head of the expedition. There are a
hundred chances to one against my success; but I
am not the less determined to attempt the descent,
if war must be the consequence of the present dis-


cussion." He attacked Lord Whitworth in vehe-
ment and excited language at a diplomatic meet-
ing at the Tuileries on March 13. "You are then
determined on war?" said the First Consul in con-
siderable agitation. The English Ambassador in
the courteous forms of diplomacy disclaimed the
accusation, but the First Consul would not hear his
reply. We have been at war for fifteen years,"
said he, interrupting the ambassador: "you are
determined on hostility for fifteen years more, and
you force me to it." He then turned to the Russian

Lord Whitworth, preserving his calmness, replied,
" We desire neither the one nor the other; we desire
to live with her on terms of good understanding."
"You must respect treaties then," said Napoleon
sternly: "woe to those by whom they are not
respected! They will be accountable for the con-
sequence to all Europe." Repeating the last words,
he rose and abruptly retired, leaving all present in
a state of considerable consternation.
The first hostile movement of Napoleon was upon
the continental dominions of George III. General


ambassador, and continued: The English wish for
war; but if they draw the sword first I will be the
last to return it to the scabbard. They do not
respect treaties, which henceforth we must cover
with black crape." He then again addressed Lord
Whitworth: "To what purpose are these arma-
ments ? Against whom do you take these measures
of precaution? I have not a single ship of the line
in any port in France. But if you arm, I too will
take up arms; if you fight, I will fight: you may
destroy France but you cannot intimidate her."

Mortier invaded the Electorate of Hanover with
fifteen thousand men. He was opposed by a con-
siderable force under the Duke of Cambridge and
General Walmoden, which withdrew at the ap-
proach of the French. The invasion of the Electorate
was a violation of the Germanic Constitution, but
the Continental Powers were too much overawed
to interfere, and Hanover left to its own resources
was unable to resist France. The Duke of Cam-
bridge threw up his command and returned home,
the Hanoverian army laid down their arms and


were disbanded, and the Electorate was occupied
by the French, into whose hands fell all the strong-
holds, depots of arms and ammunition, and revenues
of the State; and its fine breed of horses supplied
their cavalry. General Mortier noticed with con-
siderable feeling the emotion of the Hanoverian
Guards at delivering over their horses to his army.
Heavy contributions were levied by the French on
Hamburg, Bremen, and others of the Hanse Towns.
The Prince Royal of Denmark was the only con-
tinental sovereign who attempted to resist the
First Consul's proceedings. He raised an army of
thirty thousand men to oppose them; but, finding
himself unsupported, resumed a pacific attitude.
The second movement of the First Consul was
the occupation of Naples, preceded by the following
proclamation :- The King of England has refused
to execute the Treaty of Amiens. The French
army is obliged to occupy the positions which it
quitted in virtue of that treaty-positions which we
will maintain so long as England shall persist in
retaining Malta." No resistance was attempted,
and Tarentum was strongly fortified and garrisoned
by French troops, as were at the same time the
island of Elba and the coast of Tuscany. These
measures were all preparatory to Napoleon's deter-
mined plan to attempt the invasion of England.
He decided that as he had no means of grappling
with her power at sea, and as his fleet of men-of-
war afforded no chance of success, he would con-
struct some thousands of gun-boats, flat-bottomed
boats, and other small craft, as transports. The
larger towns had voted money for building men-of-
war, the less wealthy now voted it for these smaller
vessels. They were built on the banks of the navi-
gable rivers; floated down to the sea between Har-
fleur and Flushing; and then, collected in little
squadrons, they crept close along shore, protected
from the English ships by the batteries, to the place
of rendezvous at Boulogne. Meanwhile six divisions,
numbering one hundred and sixty thousand men,
assembled as the army of England in camps which

extended from Utrecht to the mouth of the Somme,
under Marmont, Mortier, Soult, Davoust, Ney, and
Junot. Augereau was placed at the head of another
army at Bayonne, destined to advance upon Portu-
gal, if that country did not renounce the English
These hostile preparations produced in England'
a spirit of unbounded energy. All her fleets were
put into requisition from the Baltic to the Tagus,
from the Tagus to the coasts of Sicily. Not a fish-
ing-boat but seemed to prepare for the conflict.
Five hundred ships of war, of various descrip-
tions and sizes, scoured the ocean in different
directions. English squadrons blockaded every
port in the Channel or Mediterranean, and her
cruisers were seen scudding over the waters like
sea-gulls dallying with their native element, or
stood in and insulted the enemy on his own shores,
cutting out his vessels, or dismantling his forts.
By land Britain armed from one end to the other
to repel the threatened invasion. Every hill had
its horseman, every bush its sharpshooter. Peti-
tions were put into the liturgy to deliver us from
an insolent and merciless foe," who is about to
swallow us up quick; nor was there a church door
in the remotest corner of Great Britain on which
was not posted a call on high and low, rich and
poor, to bestir themselves in the common defence,
which roused the hopes and fears of even the
meanest rustic into a flame of martial enthusiasm.
Camps formed on the English shore opposite
France were frequently visited by the King in per-
son. The regular army amounted to one hundred
thousand, the militia to eighty thousand, and three
hundred and fifty thousand volunteers were under
arms. The courage and resolution of these newly-
formed soldiers was put to the proof on several occa-
sions by the energy with which they marched to the
supposed point of attack, when the beacons on dif-
ferent hills were lighted under a false alarm. Had
Napoleon effected a landing he would have met with
an opposition far exceeding anything he anticipated.




THE beginning of 1804 was a period of dark in-
trigues against the life and Government of the First
Consul, which he unravelled more after the manner
of an inquisitor than the head of a great country;
leaving his name sullied with treachery and cruelty.
Napoleon had examined the lists of suspected per-
sons kept by the police, had caused several arrests,
and brought some to trial, who had been detained
in prison for months. Two of these were executed,
but would confess nothing. A clue was next ob-
tained to the existence of danger in another direc-
tion. A party of emigrants had lately settled in
the territory of Baden. It was ascertain that Mr.
Drake and Mr. Spencer Smith, the British residents
at the Courts of Munich and Stuttgard, maintained
a correspondence with these persons. The French
Government employed a spy named Meh6e de la

Touche, who returned with certain sums of
money given to him by the credulous English-
men to forward the Royalist cause, and with the
information that they kept up a correspondence
with the emigrants of Baden, as well as those of
the interior, in the hope of fomenting a Royalist
insurrection having for an auxiliary the Baroness
Van Reich, longknown as an active promoter of
anti-revolutionary plots. It is certain, however,
that no plans of assassination were entertained
by these gentlemen. Napoleon selected for trial
Querel, formerly a surgeon in the rebel army,
and arrested two months before. This man on
being led to execution declared he had confes-
sions to make which concerned the life of the
First Consul. Being promised a pardon, he de-
clared that he had been in Paris six months;
that he had come from England with Georges
Cadoudal and six other persons; that they were
landed at the cliff of B1ville, near Dieppe, by a
cutter of the British navy; that they had been
since joined by fourteen more, all landed in the
same way; and, finally, that another landing was
shortly to take place at the same spot. He de-
Sscribed the man who received them on landing,
the farmhouses at which they lodged, and de-
clared that all his companions in the adventure
were now in Paris. The whole of the party
were under the direction and ready to obey the
orders of Georges Cadoudal. Paris was surrounded
by a cordon of troops, and the barriers were shut
night and day.
Meanwhile fresh discoveries had been made in
Paris. An emigrant named Bouvet de Lozier hav-
ing been arrested, attempted suicide in prison, and
in the struggles of returning consciousness uttered
exclamations in the hearing of his jailers which
implicated Pichegru (who was supposed to be in
England) in the conspiracy, and raised suspicions
against Moreau. Pichegru, betrayed for a large
sum of money by the pretended friend at whose
house he lay concealed, was seized in the night
while in bed, but not without a desperate resistance.
All the rest of the persons implicated, to the num-
ber of forty, were taken soon afterwards. Amongst


them were the Marquess de Polignac and M. Jules
de Polignac (the confidant of the Count d'Artois),
Charles de Riviere, and other Royalists of distinc-
tion. Georges Cadoudal was stopped in a cabriolet
on the 9th of March by two agents of the police,
one of whom he shot dead, and wounded the other,
but was overpowered by the crowd before he could
escape. He had been traversing Paris in this man-
ner for several days, afraid to enter any house. A
large sum of money was found in his possession.
Finding resistance vain, he openly boasted of the
purpose for which he had come to Paris. By the
confessions of Georges'attendants it appeared that
this desperate Chouan had actually made more than
one attempt to assassinate Napoleon, having on one
occasion penetrated into the Tuileries disguised as
a domestic.
A scheme was in agitation for raising the Royal-
ists in the West, and the Duke de Berri was to make
a descent on the coast of Picardy to favor the in-
surrection. The Duke d'Enghien, son of the Duke
of Bourbon, and grandson of the Prince of Cond6,
fixed his residence, under the protection of the
Margrave of Baden, at the chateau of Ettenheim,
with the purpose of being ready to put himself at
the head of the Royalists in the east of France, or,
if occasion should offer, in Paris itself. Captain
Wright, the commander of a British brig of war,
put Pichegru and some of his companions ashore
on the coast of Morbihan. Georges saw the great-
est obstacle to their enterprise in the existence of
Bonaparte, and resolved to commence by his as-
sassination. Pichegru was constantly in company
with Georges, and could not be ignorant of this
purpose, although better befitting the fierce chief
of a band of Chouans than the conqueror of Hol-
Napoleon had retired to Malmaison when he re-
ceived the report returned by the emissary who had
been despatched to Ettenheim. There he called a
council, consisting of the two Consuls, the Grand
Judge, Talleyrand and Fouche, in which the seizure
of the Duke d'Enghien by force was discussed.
Cambac6r6s alone opposed this measure, but was
overruled byTalleyrand. The First Consul having
collected the voices which supported the proposi-
tion, went to his cabinet to dictate the order for
the arrest of the Duke d'Enghien. It was dated the
Ioth of March, 1804, and directed General Orden-
er to go secretly to Strasburg, to transport three
hundred dragoons and three or four brigades of
gendarmerie across the Rhine at Rhineau, to pro-
ceed to the residence of the Duke d'Enghien, take

him prisoner, and bring him to Paris. The order
also directed the seizure of all the papers belong-
ing to the Duke, and the arrest of the supposed
General Dumouriez.
The commands of Napoleon were expeditiously
obeyed. The Duke was seized in his bed on the
morning of the 15th of March, and together with
seven of his friends and three domestics was carried
to Strasburg, where he remained three days. It
was here ascertained that the supposed Dumouriez
was in fact General Thumery. The Duke was now
removed from all his companions with the excep-
tion of his aide-de-camp the Baron St. Jaques.
Early in the morning of the i8th he was ordered
to prepare for a journey. The linen he was per-
mitted to take amounted to two shirts only-
an ominous circumstance. He was conveyed with
secrecy and speed to Paris, where he arrived on the
20th, and was committed for a few hours to the
Temple; but before nightfall he was transferred to
the castle of Vincennes, an ancient Gothic fortress
about a mile beyond the walls of the city. The
Duke d'Enghien, overcome with fatigue, retired to
bed on his arrival at Vincennes, and was roused at
midnight to reply to the interrogatories of a mili-
tary commission.
At two o'clock in the morning the Duke was
summoned to appear before the court-martial. The
questions addressed to him, and his answers, were
the same in import as those at the previous inter-
rogatories, the only difference being a degree of
haughty defiance in the answers of the Duke, aris-
ing probably from a perception that his fate was
sealed. To his declaration that he had served
against France he now added "that he was ready
to take the field, and wished to serve in the new
war of England against France." To his avowal
that he received a pension from England he added
the amount,-" one hundred and fifty guineas a
month," and omitted the explanation that he
depended on this allowance to defray private ex-
penses. Being asked if he had anything to add to
his grounds of defence, he replied that he had
"nothing more to say."
The president now desired the prisoner to be
removed, and the court deliberated with closed
doors, and unanimously condemned him to death.
Two hours after the conclusion of the trial the
Duke d'Enghien was summoned to follow the Com-
mandant of Vincennes, M. Harel, and conducted
by him down the winding stairs which led to the
subterraneous part of the castle. As the cold and
damp air met him in his descent, the Duke,


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pressing the arm of Harel, said, "Am I to be
immured in a dungeon ? Harel was much affected
by the appeal, but answered nothing. The descent
terminated at a postern which opened into the
wide and spacious ditch of the fortress. The troops
were drawn up under arms; a party of gendarmes
d'dlite, under the command of Savary, being sta-
tioned as the executioners. It was now six o'clock
in the morning, and the sun had risen, but as a
heavy mist lay on the ground the yellow light of
torches was mingled with the gray and gloomy
atmosphere. The grave was already dug: the sen-
tence was now read to the victim. He demanded
a priest and was refused, upon which he knelt for
a few minutes absorbed in prayer, and then, rising,
quickly took his station. He would not permit his


eyes to be bandaged: the word was given, the
soldiers fired, and he fell. The body in its clothes
was hastily buried, the earth was closed over it,
the crowd of living men who had assembled to
compass the death of one bent their way into the
world 'again, and silence settled over the ancient
fortress and its new-made grave.
The Government was still collecting evidence for
the trial of Georges and his accomplices, and the
inquiries rendered it clear that the stranger whom
the servants of Georges had described as visiting
their master at intervals and whom the First Con-
sul had suspected to be the Duke d'Enghien, was
General Pichegru. The interviews between Piche-
gru and Moreau were also proved; but it appeared
that Moreau would not listen to plans of assassina-
tion nor conform to Royalist principles, having on
the contrary views of attaining to the Consular d.ig-

nity himself, and preserving the Republic. Georges
therefore delayed his blow from the fear lest he
might only despatch the First Consul for the bene-
fit of General Moreau.
General Pichegru was found dead in his prison
on the morning of the 7th of April. His black silk
cravat was tightly twisted round his throat, and to
increase the tightness a small piece of wood about
the length of a finger, which had been broken from a
fagot still in his fireplace, had been slipped between
his neck and cravat, and twisted round to act as a
mechanical power, until reason forsook him. His
head falling back had compressed the stick and pre-
vented the cravat from untwisting. The enemies
of the First Consul accused him of having caused
the assassination of Pichegru, but there is no
direct evidence in support of it; and at
St. Helena Napoleon indignantly denied
the accusation, and showed how useless
the death of Pichegru was to him. The
conviction of Pichegru was certain, and
his death prevented the proofs of Moreau's
guilt from being completely established.
Another death which happened in the
following year has also been ascribed to
Napoleon. Captain Wright, the com-
mander of the English cutter who had put
the conspirators ashore, was by a strange
fatality wrecked on the coast of France
and made prisoner. He was examined
S with the other prisoners, but refused to
answer any questions which might impli-
cate his Government. He remained in the
Temple as a prisoner of war, and towards
the end of 1805 was found dead in his cell
with his throat cut from ear to ear. Napoleon
was then in Austria.
The trial of Georges Cadoudal, General Moreau,
and the other prisoners to the number of forty-
nine, commenced on May 28, and created a great
ferment in Paris. It lasted fortwelve days. Georges
appeared with a miniature of Louis XVI. hung
around his neck, openly avowed that he had come
to Paris to assassinate Napoleon, and regretted his
captivity because it had prevented his purpose.
He was of course found guilty, and was condemned
to death, together with nineteen of his associates,
amongst whom were the Marquess de Polignac and
M. de Riviere. Moreau was found guilty and sen-
tenced to two years' imprisonment, which was
changed by Napoleon on the same night for per-
mission to retire to America. Great interest was
exerted by the families of the Polignacs and Rivi-


dres to save the lives of their relations: at length
Josephine introduced Madame de Polignac at St.
Cloud, who, throwing herself at the feet of Napo-
leon, obtained his pardon for both. He did not
confine his clemency to these great families. A
poor girl who contrived to reach his presence
gained for her brother the same grace which had
been extended to the beautiful Marchioness for her

husband. Six more of the conspirators obtained a
commutation of their sentence for exile or vary-
ing terms of imprisonment. Georges and all the
rest were executed on June 25, and died with the
utmost courage and without the slightest signs of
contrition. The Royalist party were silenced by
the issue of this conspiracy, which assisted to estab-
lish the power of Napoleon.



THE title of First Consul, by which Napoleon
had been distinguished for more than four years,
was exchanged, in May, 1804, for that of Emperor.
The idea of the empire was first publicly
broached in the Senate. On the occasion of fram-
ing the address of congratulation to the First Con-
sul on his escape from the late conspiracy, Fouch6
rose and said, that, in order to destroy the hopes
of the conspirators, and to secure the permanent
existence of the Government after the death of the
reigning chief, other institutions were indispensa-
ble." The motion was seconded and inserted in
the address. Napoleon answered the deputation
by saying, that the subject they had suggested re-
quired the greatest consideration; that for himself
he wanted nothing; but that it was his duty to
consider the lot of France, and what the future was
likely to produce; and, finally, that he would accept

no new title without submitting it to the sanction
of the people." Numerous addresses were pre-
sented from all parts of the country, and from the
army, echoing the suggestion of the Senate.
Napoleon now proposed the three following
questions to the Council of State for discussion in
his absence:-" Is the hereditary form of Govern-
ment preferable to the elective form ? Is it expedi-
ent to establish the hereditary form at this peculiar
juncture? In what manner ought the hereditary
form of Government to be established ? A very
long and sharp discussion, evincing great diversity
of opinion, ensued. A report was at length drawn
up, declaring-" That the principle of an hereditary
chief magistrate is consonant with the manners of
the nation, suitable to the population, and consist-
ent with the extent of its dominions. That the
proper moment for framing such an institution is


when great dangers threaten the country, menac-
ingthe person of the First Consul by assassins armed
against his life; and when various other evils,
springing out of the dangers of war, expose the head
of the State to imminent risk. That the nation ac-
cordingly are ready to declare for the hereditary
system, and at the same time to enter into a guar-
antee for security of all those institutions and
rights for which their armies have fought." So
many amendments to the report were proposed,
that the council withdrew it, and each member
presented his own separate answer direct to the
First Consul.
The Senate and Tribunate were called upon by
Napoleon to give their opinions, the legislative
body not being then in session. Whilst the debates
were thus protracted in the political bodies of the
State, so great was the impatience of the military,
that the garrison of Paris resolved to proclaim their


chief as Emperor at the first review; and Murat,
governor of the city, was obliged to assemble the
officers at his house and bind them by a promise to
restrain the troops. The spirit of the army at
Boulogne was manifested by their voting the erec-
tion of a colossal statue of Napoleon, in bronze,
to be placed in the midst of the camp. Every
soldier subscribed a portion of his pay for the pur-
pose; but there was a want of bronze. Soult, who
presided over the completion of the undertaking,
went, at the head of a deputation, to Napoleon,
and said, Sire, lend me the bronze, and I will re-
pay it in enemy's cannon at the first battle ;" and he
kept his word.
The motion "that the First Consul be invested
with hereditary power, under the title of Emperor,"
was brought forward in the Tribunate by M. Cur6e.
It was combated by five or six members, Carnot,
the grandfather of the present President of the
French Republic, in particular, mak-
-.- ing an eloquent speech against it,
concluding, though he opposed, on
grounds of conscience, the alteration
of Government which has been pro-
posed, he would nevertheless give it
his unlimited obedience, should it be
adopted by the nation." On May 18
the members of the Senate went in
a body from Paris to St. Cloud, to
present their address. Cambac6res,
as President of the Senate, read the
speech and declared the number of
votes registered by the people, name-
ly, 3,500,000 for, and 2000 votes against
the measure. Having concluded, he
proclaimed Napoleon Bonaparte Em-
peror of the French, the assembled
Senators responding with a simul-
taneous shout of Vive l'Emnereur "
Napoleon replied in a few words, that
he accepted the Empire in order that
-, he might labor for the happiness of
A the French." The Senate then pro-
S ceeded to the apartments of Josephine,
S' to congratulate her on her new digni-
ty. She was surrounded by the sis-
ters of Napoleon, whose looks were
expressive of satisfaction, mixed with
some embarrassment, at their sudden
elevation to royal rank. The natural
grace and dignity of Josephine never
failed her on any occasion, and they
now effectually concealed the sad



forebodings of an aching heart. The
sound of cannon announced the news
to the city of Paris. It created little
sensation; there were some illumina-
tions, some cavils, some caricatures
and lampoons, but nothing was mate-
rially altered by what had happened,
and the Parisians were tired of dis-
cussing abstract principles.
Louis XVIII. addressed a protest
to all the Sovereigns of Europe against
the usurpation of Napoleon. Fouch6,
who first heard of this document,
communicated the intelligence to the
Emperor with a view to prepare him
for giving timely orders to prevent
its circulation, but great was his sur-
prise on receiving directions to have
it inserted in the 'Moniteur of the fol-
lowing morning. This was all the no-
tice taken of the matter by Napoleon.
The 14th of July was celebrated
this year by a splendid ceremony.
The members of the Legion of Honor
took the oath prescribed by the new
Constitution, and the first distribu-
tion of crosses of the order was made
on that day in the Hotel of the In-.
valides, the Emperor and Empress
appearing in public for the first time
in regal pomp.
Two days afterwards the Emperor left Paris for
Boulogne, to preside over the same ceremony in the
army. The Emperor's tent was pitched on a rising
ground in the midst of a large plain, where a hun-
dred thousand men were drawn up. The standards
taken at Lodi, Arcola, Rivoli, the Pyramids,
Aboukir, and Marengo formed the background of
the tent; an immense crown of laurels surmounted
it. When Napoleon appeared two thousand drums
beat the charge. He pronounced the words of the
oath in a loud voice, and was answered by a simul-
taneous and deafening burst of acclamations from
the assembled multitude. The distribution of
crosses then took place. Many favorable omens
were also found or fancied by the soldiers. The
remains of a Roman encampment were discovered
on the spot whence the Emperor had addressed
them. Some medals of William the Conqueror
were also dug up, presaging a certain conquest of
At this period an adventure of two English sail-
ors became the universal talk of the camp. The


poor fellows had made their escape from the dep6t
for English prisoners of war at Verdun, and had
contrived to subsist at Boulogne till they had con-
structed a raft of small pieces of wood, put together
as well as they could manage with their knives. It
was about four foot wide, very little longer, and
covered with sailcloth. Seeing an English frigate
off the coast, they had perched themselves on their
frail float and put to sea, though nearly certain of
being shot if they were taken or of being drowned
if they got off. They had hardly gone a couple of
furlongs when they were perceived by the custom-
house officers, who brought them back. The Em-
peror, hearing of this extraordinary attempt, or-
dered the men and their boat-raft to be brought
before him. Is it possible," said he, looking at
the sort of a nutshell to which they had trusted
their lives, that you meant to cross the sea in
that ? If your Majesty doesn't believe it," said
one of them, only give us leave, and you shall soon
see us afloat." I will," said the Emperor. You
are bold, enterprising men. I admire courage




wherever I meet with it. But you shall not risk
your lives. You are at liberty, and I will have you
,conveyed on board an English ship. When you
return to London say how I esteem brave men, even
when they are my enemies." Napoleon not only

kept his word, but sent them off with several pieces
of gold in their pockets. Rapp and the aides-de-
camp standing round were not a little astonished
at the interest excited by two sailors, who would
otherwise have been-shot as spies.

K71 --


~5_~.__..... ~~~ ~S~L-


Not satisfied with placing himself on a par with
the legitimate sovereigns of Europe in titles and
dignities, Napoleon resolved to outstrip them all in
the solemnity of his coronation. He determined
that no less a dignitary than the Pope himself
should crown him; and instead of preparing to set
off for Rome for the purpose, as Charlemagne in his
day had done, he invited Pius VII. to visit Paris.
Apartments were appropriated to his Holiness in
the Tuileries, and the bed-chamber prepared for
him was fitted up precisely in the same manner as
his own in the palace of Monte-Cavallo at Rome.
On December 2, 1804, the coronation took place
in the cathedral of Notre Dame. The capital was
thronged with crowds of visitors from every part of
France. The people were represented at the cere-
mony by deputations of the presidents of the can-
tons, the presidents of the electoral colleges, and
the whole corps of the Legislative Body, which had
been convoked in the month of October; the army
by deputations from every regiment. By all these,
increased to a vast multitude of spectators of the
highest station in the country, the walls of the
splendid old cathedral were clothed with what a
spectator has described as "living tapestry," galler-
ies having been erected almost to the roof. The
Pope first left the Tuileries, and went in procession
to the cathedral, preceded, according to estab-
lished custom, by his chamberlain on a mule, which
novel sight excited the risibility of the Parisians.
The Emperor and Empress, in an open carriage,
traversed Paris through a great crowd of spectators,
who looked on that procession rather coldly. They
first seated themselves with their backs to the horses
by mistake, and though the error was instantly
rectified, it was observed, and said to be "an evil
omen." They and their whole retinue arrayed
themselves in splendid robes in the Archbishop's
palace, and with the long and gorgeous line of
courtiers, marshals, and dignitaries, in gold and
rich colors and waving plumes, gained the cathedral
by a long gallery erected for the purpose. At the
moment the Emperor appeared in the cathedral
there was one simultaneous shout of Vive l'Enm-
pereur/" Mass was said and the crown blessed by
the Pope; but not even the supreme pontiff was
permitted to place it upon the head of Napoleon.
It was placed there by his own hand; immediately
removed; and again by his own hand placed oL.
the head of Josephine; then laid on the cushion
where it had rested before.
The Emperor took his coronation oath with his
hand on the Scriptures. Te Deum was sung. The

heralds proclaimed that "the thrice glorious and
thrice august Napoleon, Emperor of the French,
was crowned and installed; and so ended the pa-
geant. On the same day Louis XVIII., then living
at Calmar, drew up a declaration to the French
people in which he swore "never to break the
sacred bond which united his destiny to theirs;
never to renounce the inheritance of his ancestors
or to relinquish his rights."
A singular incident occurred just before the cor-
onation. It proves that some of the earlier scenes
of Napoleon's life were then in his memory, excited
probably by the sight of Josephine, the object of
the ardent passion of his youth, now beside him in
the robes of an Empress. When Josephine ac-
cepted him as her husband he was very poor, neither
indeed was rich enough to keep a carriage, and they
frequently walked out together. They went one
day to the house of M. Raguideau, a lawyer in
whom Josephine placed great confidence, to ac-
quaint him of her intention to marry the young
general of artillery, Napoleon waiting for her in an
outer room. The lawyer strongly dissuaded Ma-
dame de Beauharnais from her imprudent marriage.
" You are going to take a very wrong step," said he,
"and you will be sorry for it. Can you be so mad
as to marry a young man who has nothing but his
cloak and his sword ?" The door of the anteroom
was imperfectly closed and the words reached Na-
poleon, who never told Josephine that he had heard
this advice given her; nor did she ever mention it
to him. Her astonishment was therefore great
when, after putting on the imperial robes, as they
were on the point of leaving the Archbishop's pal-
ace to proceed in state to the cathedral to assume
the crown, Napoleon desired that M. Raguideau
should be sent for. Still more was she surprised
when the low-bowing lawyer appeared, and the
Emperor addressing him with humorous gravity
said, "Well, Raguideau, have I nothing but my
cloak and my sword now?"
The grand ceremony of distributing to the army
the imperial eagles in lieu of the national colors
took place the day after the coronation .on the
Champ de Mars, where Napoleon was seated on a
throne erected in front of the military school, the
scene of his boyhood. At a signal the columns
closed and approached him. He then rose, gave
orders for the distribution of the eagles, and then
addressed the troops:-" Soldiers, behold your col-
ors! these eagles will always be your rallying-point.
They will always be where your Emperor may think
them necessary for the defence of his throne and




his people. Swear to sacrifice your lives to defend
them, and by your courage to keep them constantly
in the path of victory,-swear! On that day Mr.
Pitt signed the Treaty of Stockholm and paid a
subsidy to Sweden to commence hostilities against
France. This was the first step of a new conti-
nental war. The Emperor, foreseeing his own ab-
sence from Paris in the impending war, and think-
ing it necessary to preserve the public tranquillity

and detect any cabals in favor of the Bourbons, re-
established the Ministry of Police, Fouch6 again
receiving the appointment.
The year 1804 terminated with the opening of
the Legislative Body; the Emperor presided and
was warmly applauded when he energetically de-
clared, My object is not to extend the territory
of France but to maintain that territory inviol-



IN January, 1805, the Emperor Alexander plainly
showed that his refusal to recognize the new title
of Napoleon was to be followed by active hostilities
against France. Russian ships menaced Italy,

landed troops on the Ionian Islands,
and appeared to be acting in con-
cert with the English; others passed
the Sound and the Dardanelles.
Sweden had already manifested ill-
will towards Napoleon; Turkey, in-
..'. fluenced by Russia, also refused to
acknowledge him. The French am-
S bassadors were recalled from the
Courts of Constantinople and St.
At this moment, when the coming
storm darkened over Europe, Napo-
leon addressed the King of England
in a letter proposing peace. The
time he chose was so far favorable
to the chance of success, that in
consequence of the Spanish alli-
ance his navy was greatly increased,
and with it the probability of at-
tempting the long-meditated inva-
sion of England; a peace therefore
which would have relieved England
from the necessity of standing per-
petually on its guard, might under
ordinary circumstances have ap-
peared desirable. But it is scarcely
possible that after all the events of
the last war and the short peace Napoleon expected
any amicable result from the overture. He com-
menced, Sir, my brother; a salutation sufficient
of itself to irritate a King who had refused to


acknowledge his title. France and England," he
continued, "abuse their prosperity. They may
struggle for ages. But will their Governments thus
fulfil the most sacred of their duties? And so
much blood uselessly spilt, will it not rise up in
accusation against them ? I attach no dishonor

by an official despatch from Lord Mulgrave, Secre-
tary of State for Foreign Affairs, to Talleyrand
acknowledging the receipt by his Majesty of a
letter addressed to him by the head of the French
Government," and declaring that Great Britain
could not make a precise reply to the proposal of

-- .- .....I .

--- -----


to taking the first step in this matter. I have
sufficiently, I think, proved to the world that I
fear none of the chances of war." He concluded
with, "May your Majesty believe in the sincerity
of the sentiments I have expressed and my desire
to give proofs of this sincerity." He was answered

peace intimated in Napoleon's letter without a
previous communication with her allies, and in
particular the Emperor of Russia. War was there-
fore at hand.
Simultaneously with these events a well-deserved
public honor was rendered to Napoleon in com-


memoration of the completion of his Great Civil
Code. His statue, executed by Chaudet, was
placed in the hall of the Legislative Body on the
14th of January with circumstances of great mag-
nificence and solemnity, at which he was himself
present, together with the Empress, the Imperial
Family, and all the dignitaries of the State.
Napoleon was now about to assume a second
crown. A deputation from the Italian Republic
waited on him, on March 17, and intimated to him
by Melzi, their vice-president, the desire of their
countrymen that he, the founder of their Republic,
should become their Monarch. Napoleon accepted
the new dignity, declaring, however, that the two
crowns of France and Italy should never, except in
the present instance, devolve upon the same per-
son; and also that he himself would only wear that
of Italy until the assured safety of his new subjects
should permit him to place it on a younger head.
After making the necessary communication to the
Senate, Napoleon set out for Milan, to go through
the ceremony of coronation.
The Emperor, accompanied by the Empress, left
Paris for Milan on April 2. On arriving at Troyes,
attended only by two or three officers, he visited
Brienne. Here, among the scenes of his boyhood,
he forgot for twenty-four hours the empire of
France and the kingdom of Italy. He went over
every place and remembered every one connected
with the military school, even to the old servants.
Since Napoleon had become general of the army
of Italy changes in his personal appearance had
taken place, but not so much in figure or face as in
expression. To the cool self-possession and settled
purpose of look and bearing for which he had been
remarkable was added the ease, no less than the air
of habitual and unquestionable authority of one
who had ceased to lend his hand, except on ex-
traordinary occasions, to the details of war, or open
his mind to share its councils. But without any
essential change in physiognomicaland general ex-
ternal appearance, a considerable difference was
presented by Napoleon during the campaign in
Egypt. Up to this time he had worn his hair long
and in careless waves, but the terrible heat of the
climate quickly warned him of the discomfort (be-
sides the danger of brain fever) of long locks, which
were forthwith cut close to his head. He ever after-
wards wore his hair very short; its subsequent thin
quantity, indeed, would lead us to conjecture that
the influence of the climate of Egypt had rendered
his appearance in this respect involuntary. Napo-
leon was extremely spare-bodied and sinewy up to

the age of about five or six and thirty; but after
attaining the imperial dignity his presentiment as
to corpulency began to be realized. Notwith-
standing this tendency, however, no less unfavora-
ble to symmetry than health, his person was greatly
admired by artists as displaying many fine propor-
tions, especially in the beauty of the hands and the
legs and feet. Of the classical character of his
head and features little need be said: there can be
no doubt of the truth of the statements of several
who were long accustomed to be near him under
many extraordinary no less than ordinary circum-
stances, that of the rapid versatility and marked
characters of expression no painter or sculptor
could convey any adequate idea. But of his power
under peculiar circumstances of "discharging all
expression from his face," and thus presenting
a pale and solemn blank to the scrutinizer, as
of something fast, an unknown" sculpture from
the antique would perhaps be the best compari-
son; while of his habitual fixed calm amidst great
tumults, the mask taken from his face after his
death may give a tolerably correct impression, and
one-by its countless associations no less than its
isolated fact-not easily to be forgotten.
The coronation took place in the cathedral ot
Milan on May 26, Cardinal Caprara officiating, as
the Emperor did not think fit to exact another act
of condescension from the Pope, to whom the near
neighborhood of so powerful a Sovereign could not
be a matter of gratulation. The iron crown of the
Lombard Kings was used on this occasion. Napo-
leon, as he had done in Paris, took it with his own
hand from the altar, and placing it on his head,
uttered the appointed form of words with which it
was always assumed by its ancient owners :-" God
has given it me. Let him beware who would touch
it." The Order of the Iron Crown, with these
words for its motto, arose out of this ceremony.
The din of war succeeded the fles and splendors
of Italy. Napoleon visited the camp at Boulogne,
on his return to France, and though he well knew
the pressing need of his army on the continent,
practised his troops in all the evolutions of a de-
scent on England. While still at Boulogne he re-
ceived intelligence that the French admiral, Ville-
neuve, had utterly failed to bring his fleet round to
the Channel and was blockaded by the English in
a port of Spain, and that an Austrian army of
eighty thousand men had invaded the neutral ter-
ritory of Bavaria and compelled the Electoral
Court to leave Munich and take refuge at Wurtz-
burg. Napoleon was not prepared for the sudden


assumption of arms by Austria without any dec-
laration of war, which Austria justified by refer-
ring to the encroachments of France in Italy. A
third coalition was formed against Napoleon.
England paid a large subsidy to Russia, while Rus-
sia raised four great armies, consisting in all of
one hundred and fifty thousand men. Of these,
eighty thousand were to march into Germany
to co-operate with the Austrians ; a smaller divis-
ion. then in Corfu, was to land in Naples and ad-
vance for the purpose of acting in concert with the
Archduke Charles; another, in con-
junction with the Swedish army, was
to retake Hanover; and the fourth, to
observe Prussia, enforcing its neutrali-
ty, or, if possible, insisting on its active
hostility against France. The Austrian
army which had invaded Bavaria was
commanded by General Mack; the
Archduke Charles was marching upon -
the Adige. 1
The forces of the allies might be
computed at about two hundred and
fifty thousand men; the disposable
force of France then under arms con-
sisted of two hundred and seventy-five
thousand men,-one hundred and eigh-
ty thousand of whom, composing the
.great army collected on the coast, was
destined to be commanded by the Em-
peror in person, and were divided into
:seven corps, under Bernadotte, Davoust,
Ney, Soult, Lannes, Augereau, Mar-
mont, and the cavalry under Murat;
Mass6na occupied the north of Italy
with fifty thousand men, and Gouvion
St. Cyr the kingdom of Naples with
five-and-twenty thousand.
The "army of England was re-
christened the" grand army," the camp
was broken up, and the several divis-
ions were in full march towards the Rhine. Duroc
was sent to Berlin to negotiate the continued
neutrality of Prussia.
The Emperor returned to Paris, laid before the
Senate the state of the army, and announced the
commencement of hostilities. The Senate immedi-
ately voted a levy of eighty thousand conscripts from
the class of 1806 and the organization of the Nation-
al Guards for active service. The mission of Duroc
proved successful. The King of Prussia main-
tained an army of one hundred thousand men to
preserve his neutrality, but the continuance of this

neutrality depended on the events of the war.
The Emperor began a series of manceuvres and
partial actions, showing consummate skill, with a
view to the destruction of the Austrian army under
General Mack. The precipitation with which the
Austrians opened the campaign, deceived, perhaps,
by the apparent intention of Napoleon to attempt
the invasion of England, enabled him to operate
against them before the possibility of junction with
the Russian army, now marching towards Germany
under the Emperor Alexander. Napoleon entirely


succeeded in deceiving Mack as to the point at
which he meant to enter Germany. Supposing
that the advance of the French was to be made by
the defiles of the Black Forest, the Austrian gen-
eral left Bavaria in his rear, and fortified himself
with great care in Ulm, Memingen, and behind the
line of the Iller and Danube. While Mack thus
expected the attack upon his front, Napoleon passed
all the divisions of the French army across the
Rhine to the north of his position, and turning his
flank, occupied Bavaria and planted himself be-
tween the Austrian army and Vienna.

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