Citation
The Knockabout club on the Spanish main

Material Information

Title:
The Knockabout club on the Spanish main
Series Title:
Knockabout club series
Creator:
Ober, Frederick A ( Frederick Albion ), 1849-1913 ( Author, Primary )
Estes & Lauriat ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Boston
Publisher:
Estes and Lauriat
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1891
Language:
English
Physical Description:
239 p. incl. illus. ; 22 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Children's stories ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Venezuela ( lcsh )
Juvenile fiction -- Spanish Main ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1891 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1891 ( rbgenr )
Baldwin -- 1891
Boys, Stories for -- 1891
Genre:
Juvenile literature ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston

Notes

Bibliography:
Portrait of author and biography: p. [viii]-x.
General Note:
Includes publisher's catalog.
Statement of Responsibility:
By Fred. A. Ober, author of "Travels in Mexico," "The Knockabout club in the Everglads," etc. ; fully illustrated.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
024009831 ( ALEPH )
00612497 ( OCLC )
AHM9127 ( NOTIS )
02015701 ( LCCN )

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THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.







THE

KNOCKABOUT CLUB SERIES.



BY C. A. STEPHENS.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE WOODS.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ALONGSHORE.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE TROPICS

BY FRED. A. OBER.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE EVER-
GLADES.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE ANTILLES.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN SPAIN.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN NORTA AFRICA.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH
MAIN.



ESTES AND LAURIAT, Publishers,

BOSTON, MASS.







































































































































































































































































































































AN ARMY OF TURTLES ON THE ORINOCO.



bls

KNOCKABOUT CLUB

SPANISH MAIN.

ON THE



BY

FRED. A. OBER,

AUTHOR OF
“TRAVELS IN MEXICO,” “THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE EVERGLADES,” ETC..

FULLY ILLUSTRATED.

BOSTON:
ESTES AND LAURIAT,
PUBLISHERS.



Copyright, 1891,
By Estes AnD LAURIAT.



All Rights Reserved.

Aniversity WBress:
JoHN WILSON AND SON, CAMBRIDGE.







Soke





BIOGRAPHY.



PAR. FREDERICK ALBION OBER was born in Beverly,
Mass. The public schools gave him his early training,



and he received no other assistance from schools, save



one year in the Agricultural College. At fourteen he
learned the shoemaker’s trade, at eighteen was working
in a drug store, at twenty-one was in business with his
father. He is a lineal descendant of Richard Ober, — the first American of
that name who came from England to Beverly in 1664. He imbibed
early a fondness for field sports and natural. history; and while working
at his trades, rising early and laboring late at night, he taught himself taxi-
dermy and collected and classified nearly all the birds of New England.

Audubon and Wilson were his favorite authors; and at last, yielding to a |
desire to tread in their footsteps, he abandoned business and went to Florida,
in 1872 and 1874. Here he hunted to his heart’s content, lived with the
Seminoles, camped with a grandson of Osceola, and explored Lake Okeechobee
to the Everglades. To accomplish the exploration of Lake Okeechobee, Mr.
Ober carried two boats to Florida, sailed down Mosquito Lagoon and Indian
River, and hauled his boats across to the Kissimmee River, by which his party
reached the lake, being gone over a month, and encountering many strange
adventures, which were published in “Forest and Stream” and Appleton’s
“Journal.” In 1876 and 1880 he went to the West Indies for the Smithson
Institution, exploring the Caribbee Islands from Porto Rico to Trinidad, and
discovering twenty-two birds till then unknown to scientists. Two of them



x BIOGRAPHY.

were named by the naturalists in his honor. His adventures there with the
Indians and half-wild negroes were published ten years ago, in a book that
gave him a wide-spread reputation. In 1881 he turned his attention to Mexico,
allured by the fascinating story of the conquest as told by Bernal Diaz, one of
the conquerors. On his way thither he touched at Cuba and afterward visited
the wonderful ruined cities of mysterious Yucatan.. Arrived at the city of
Mexico, he ferreted out the remains of early civilization, climbed to the peak
off Popocatepetl, three miles above the sea-level, rode a thousand miles on
horseback, and then returned home after seven months’ absence. In 1883
and 1885 he again visited Mexico, penetrating to little-known portions of the
country. In 1887 he was again in the West Indies, in 1888 in’ Spain and
North Africa, and in 1890 in Venezuela and the Spanish Main. The exploration
of these various fields has consumed a dozen years and more. The thrilling
incidents connected therewith have been given to the world in his books and
lectures, with which many thousands are familiar. Although at first travelling
for the sake of adventure and rare birds, latterly Mr. Ober has drifted away
from the study of natural history, and has shaped his journeys with a view to
the exposition of the early history of America. Hence it is that Spain and
Spanish America have absorbed his time and talents. In recognition of his
endeavors in this field, he has been appointed special commissioner by our
Government to the West Indies and Spain in connection with the approaching
Columbian Exposition. As many of our readers may have surmised, he himself
is the “Knockabout Club,” or the “ Historian,’ the “Professor,” and the
“Doctor” in one individual; and nearly all the adventures narrated are his
own, while his descriptions are from his own observation and can be relied
upon as authentic. It is his constant aim to instruct as well as amuse, and to
convey interesting information without a sacrifice of the truth.



CHAPTER

I.

1G
III.
IV.
Vv.
Vi.
VIL.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII,
XIII.
XIV.

XVI.
/ XVII.
XVIII.

CONTENTS.



Wanrep: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE ...

THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA
ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA .
SomME DoINcs ON SHIPBOARD
Curacoa,— A Lirrte DurcH PaRapisE .
Tur MysTeRIouS CONTINENT . .. .

A JOURNEY INTO THE Corree REGION .

LAND OF THE LIBERATOR. - . . . « e

FROM THE Coasr TO Caracas . .

In VENEZUELA’S CAPITAL. . . . .
Wuat WE FOUND IN THE MuSEUM
SOMETHING TO EAT, IN THE TROPICS ... .
PEARLS OF THE SPANISH Main . .
Wir CoLuMBUS AND Sir WALTER RALEIGH
Up anp Down THE ORINOCO

PIRATES AND BUCCANEERS . . . . .
CorRO AND THE PARAGUANA

MaracaIBo AND THE Last LAKE-DWELLERS

PAGE

T5
22
36
44
51
65
79

168
177
189
204

220



“O land of wonders! full of all that’s fair,
Sublime, and beautiful, in earth and air,

As thus, thou new-found world! from main to main,
We sweep, with Fancy's eye, vast hill and plain,
On every side still countless ruins start,

To trace whose grandeur mocks the poet's art.
From far Magellan's Straits to rich Peru,

Where Cuzco's palaces the desert strew ;

Along the Andes piled, where modern man

ffath rarely climbed the awful scenes to scan}
From Amazon's and Plata’s sun-bright streams,

Lo northern woods where scarcely daylight gleams ;
Thence to the western lakes and mountain peaks,
Where in his cloud-rocked home the eagle shrieks ;
Relics of men unknown and times of old,

Raising our awe, our wonder, we behold.”



IEE USTRATILONS.

et eed Ua
Pace Pace
An Army of Turtles on the Orinoco “The Rockets began toascend”. . . 80
Frontispiece | All Nationalities . . . . 2... . 82
Portrait of the Author . . Sud-Frontispiece PropicalePlantsetee aie enue Nay a8 e
“The Prettiest Spot on the Lake” . . 17 | Fruit-Sellerof Valencia. . . . . . 86
The Professor at Work . . . . + + 19| House of Civilized Indians. . . . . 87
Our Tropical Hammock. . . . + + 21 | Natural Tunnel on the Coast of Vene-
A Glimpse of Florida . ... . + + 23 BUS lava eer ee eet Orechee naanahan OT
Passing the Light'Ship . . . . - - 25) LaGuayra . . 1... 1 1 1.) 96
Nassau Harbor ... - - + + - 26] Sunset on the Venezuelan Coast. . . 101
Heaving the Log . . - . - + + + 31 | “Each Photograph wasa Gem”. . . 107
Kingston Harbor Jamgica 1) 53 |The Hotel Portal . 2 | Ho
A Thatched Hut... . - 39] Climbing a Coco-Tree . . . . . . 112
“Tn the Pleasant Wgets of Richmond * 40 | Old Mission near Caracas . . . . . 113
“The Doctorscame” . . . . + - 42] Ancient House in Caracas . . . . . I20
“Our Monkey’s Skeleton” . . . . 42] A Youthful Beggar of Caracas . . . 122
A Half-Breed . . - . . . . . . 52 Statue of Bolivar, Caracas . . . . . 126
Water Front, Inner Harbor, Curagoa . 55} Grand Opera House, Caracas. . . . 128
A Well-to-do Negro . . . . . . - 56} ADonkey Car... .-.... . 129
Diving for Coins . . . - 58 | Statue of Washington, Caracas . . . 131
“The Vegetation has a Tropical C Cast” 59 | A Vagrant Violinist . . . . . 1. . 134
Bolivar . . . . . . . . . . - 66] Maconshi Indians preparing Wourali
AniindiangPRortetpsacystsce eae OT, Poison. . . eT ALOO
A Spanish Girl . . . . . . . . 68] The Professor after a Baby Lizard . . I4!
hesbastVioyaccotsDrakewa mnie ess 670 AN OU nt aye ntea dataa Cee or iewieceys pear
AnInca. . . .. .. . . . . 92} Overturn of a Boat by Caymen on the
Church and Street in Puerto Cabello . 74 @ Tinoco pear erie ey nee mie cmne STAC
A Native Trader . . . . . . . . 96 Fruit-Dealer of Caracas. . . . . « 149
Tindiang Grl@ecemec mtr retmmr ater ne el erent 77)



An Indian Hutinthe Interior. . . . I51



14

Scene in the Market, Caracas .

Columbus, the First Discoverer

A Giant of the Venezuelan Forest

In a Gum Swamp . Si

Landing of Columbus at Trinidad

Sir Walter Raleigh

Execution of Raleigh

The Delta of the Orinoco

The Orinoco at Caicara .

On an Orinoco River Steamer

Drake’s Lieutenant on a Piratical Cruise

Sir Francis Drake . :

« A Spanish Ship laden with Silver”

“The People made a Desperate Resist-
ance”

Morgan’s Men in Camp .

PAGE

ILLUSTRATIONS.

153 | An Expedition in Search of Secreted

160

163
166
169

173 |

175
179

183 |

187
190
Igl
193

197 |.
201



Treasure é

“ They would stare at us with Admiring
Eyes” es

A Coffee-Planter’s House

A Cactus-Covered Plain

A Scavenger iealal ees ae

A Guajiro Village, Lake Maracaibo .

Belle of a Guajiro Village

Pirates revisiting the Scenes of their
Depredations .

Houses of the Guajiros . §

oe ead of a Maracaibo Baby :

“ The Fire-Ship feli afoul of the Admiral’s

Vessel”

Pace



THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB

ON THE SPANISH MAIN.



CHAPTER I.

WANTED: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE.

A Quiet LITTLE Spot.—“Ler us Camp.’?— We Buy Lanp.—- Woops, BEACH, AND
Boats. —A CaNoE AND A HAmMMOCK.— WRITING UP OUR LasT CRUISE. — THE
PROFESSOR CONTENTED. — OuR LATCH-STRING ALWAYS OUT.— THE SUMMER HOME
OF THE KNOCKABOUTERS. }

AHE summer succeeding our journey into Africa, the
events of which are set forth in our last book, the
Professor and the Historian — namely, the writer —
rested in the country of their birth. We had been
“knockabouting” so much that we had collected
more material than we could readily digest while
on the wing, so we looked around for a quiet spot at which to spend
the season. We sadly needed some particular abiding-place, where
we could deposit the numerous trophies of travel we had accumulated
in our various expeditions, and where we could study, and arrange the
data for our books and lectures. Owing to the fact that our plan for
some years to come was to travel a portion of each year at least, we
did not wish to “settle down” and buy a house in which to dwell.
And that was the problem we set ourselves to solve, — how to live by
ourselves for the summer, and still not be committed to permanent







16 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN,

housekeeping. The Professor was greatly exercised, because he
wanted to locate at once, and begin the arrangement and cataloguing
of his botanical, mineralogical, and historical collections. He gave the
subject the profound attention that such a great mind as his, con-
stantly occupied in pondering weighty questions, might be expected to
bestow. :

I, the Historian, knew that something was about to be evolved, and
so held my peace. At last it came.’ Solemnly removing his spec-
tacles, and carefully polishing the glasses on the red and yellow silk
bandana he always carried in his coat-tail pocket, he gazed at me in
an absent manner, and opened his mouth. He uttered but three
words, but those words at once shaped our course for the next six
months.

“ Let us camp,” said the Professor; then he placed his spectacles
astride his nose again, replaced the red and yellow silk bandana in
his coat-tail pocket, and resumed the book he had been reading. A
moment later he was perfectly oblivious of my presence and had already
forgotten the matter under discussion. He had delivered himself of
his opinion, and that. was the end of it. It was a very good sugges-
tion, without doubt; but it was very easy to say, “Let us camp,”
though not quite so easy to carry out the suggestion. Knowing the
Professor as I did, having travelled thousands of miles in his company,
over sea, through forest, in various lands, I very well knew that having
indicated what we ought to do, he would leave it for me to do; and
so I did it. That very week I departed into the country-in search of
a place to camp. It was early in June, and the country was dressed
in its very best garb. All the summer flowers were nodding their
pretty heads; all the birds were singing their finest songs; and Nature
was at the very top notch of her best performance. I thought I knew
just where to go, and immediately went there. A new railroad, along
the southern shore of one of the largest and most beautiful lakes in
New England, had just made accessible a tract of country very little





WANTED: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE. 17

known. It was almost by instinct, as it were, that I found out the
prettiest spot on the lake, and there decided we should pitch our
camp. |
The next thing in order was to find the owner of the land, and, if
possible, purchase it. He proved to be a young farmer, who hada
large acreage of pasture-land bordering the lake, and who was anxious
to convert some of it into cash by a process more direct than the feed-































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“THE PRETTIEST SPOT ON THE LAKE.”

ing of its scanty herbage to a herd of cows. But as he had conceived
the idea that this lake-land was very valuable, though really it had
little value except such as the Professor and I could create by our
improvements, it was some time before we could comé to an agree-
ment. There was nothing tangible to base an estimate of value on,
you see. If we assumed it from what the land produced, it would be
very low indeed, because the hillside portion, which only could be
pastured, was covered chiefly with sweet-fern and blackberry vines,
and the beach portion had no grass on it at all. But although the
farmer could not perceive it of his own vision, the place had an

2



18 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

esthetic value; and as this was an unknown quantity and hard to
measure, the farmer, on his part, exaggerated it, while I, in my own
interest, tried to keep it within bounds.

Ah, but it was a beautiful spot, —this little acre I was anxious to
secure! First, it was situated at the extremity of a deep bay, at either
end of which was a high hill, and between them a curving beach of
white sand, a mile in length. Behind the beach was a deep belt of
pines and maples, with smiling farm-lands beyond, and ranges of high
hills overtopping all. I think it must have been this very bay, with
its waters of clear and sparkling blue, that suggested, many years ago,
to the red Indian, the aboriginal name of the lake, —the “Smile of
the Great Spirit.”

There, dear reader of these “ Knockabouts,” you now know just
where the Professor and I decided to pass our summer; and you will
know, I hope, where to seek us out when you desire to become
- acquainted with us in the flesh.

Well, as I was saying, it was just where the crescent sand-beach
met the western hill-slope that this spot was found. The hill came
down to the water, green with sweet fern and sweeter clover, with
great gray rocks protruding from a: tangle of blackberry vines, and
plunged its feet into the lake with a protecting fringe of maples, elms,
-and alder-bushes. Back of this was a bit of wood, with a dozen dif-
ferent kinds of trees in it, but hardly large enough to conceal one
from the country road that bounded this property on one side. The
beauty of the place was the beach of pure white sand, soft and spark-
ling, which here curved like a cimeter and made a perfect landing-
place for boats and canoes. The pine-trees came down almost to the
beach-rim, and sweet-scented bayberry-bushes fringed it; and this was
the most charming place in the world for a bath, where you could
enjoy a plunge, or a run along the beach for several hundred yards.

On the level lawn, between the bit of wood and the beach, stood
an old house, that had been built there some years ago by winter









WANTED: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE. 19
i

fishermen. These men were master-workmen in a car-shop, five
miles away, and they had constructed the house as though it had been
a fine residence, although it was but a little shanty, and had only two
rooms anda stable. This house, I concluded, would do for our sum-
mer residence, if I could secure it; but it did not belong to the owner



THE PROFESSOR AT WORK.

of the land, and would require a separate negotiation. It was perfectly
equipped for housekeeping, having a stove in it, beds in the chamber,
chairs, table, crockery, —%in fact, everything we should need. Only
the necessary provisions, clean linen, etc., would have to be brought
here, to make it available for our stay.

At last, after much adjusting of differences, the young farmer and
I came to an agreement; a surveyor was brought up to measure the
land the very next day; a deed was drawn up; and the Professor and I



20° THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

had a place we could call our own. I lost no time in concluding an
arrangement with the gentlemen who owned the house, whereby we
could occupy it during the summer and they might use it in winter-
time, then hastened back to Boston, to bring up my friend.

It was a very great labor to mové him and his collections to the
place, as the camp is half a mile distant from the railroad station and
the nearest house; but that once done, everything moved on pleas-
antly and happily. .

The Professor was more than delighted; he expressed his ap-
proval of my purchase in fitting terms, condescended to look over the
ground once in a general survey, and then he selected the most
comfortable corner of the house for his own, and the pleasantest nook
on the beach for his workshop out-of-doors.

After that he was wrapped up in himself and in his pursuits, pay-
ing no attention to outside affairs except at meal-times, when he
would rather impatiently inquire the cause of any delay in providing
nourishment at the proper time. He seemed to think that sustenance
might be obtained from the trees or the rocks, evidently without
labor, as he never gave a thought to providing any. All. this work
fell on me; but as I was only too glad to have my friend with me,
‘and willing to pay the price for his company, I did it without a
murmur. —

Now, this long introductory is put in merely to tell our friends
where we passed the time since we last met, and how it was we came
to write this present volume.

We had been off on a cruise for new adventure and information,
and having garnered in as much as we could carry, we retired to this
secluded nook to work it up into shape, —in other words, to make the
book you, dear reader, are about to peruse.

We are perfectly contented with our bit of Paradise, at its only
drawback is its loneliness. Being human and (we hope) sympathetic,
we feel rather regretful that so much loveliness should be monopolized



WANTED: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE. 21

by ourselves alone. I never have anything of the kind that all human-
ity would enjoy, without wishing all my friends to share in it. So,
dear knockabouts, take this as an invitation; bring your tents and
camping things along, and help us to your company. You may not
find us extremely sociable, but you will find a welcome; we have
boats and a canoe, hammocks, provisions, half a mile of beach to sport
on, and hundreds of square miles of water in front of us, dotted with
islands and said to be swarming with fish.



OUR TROPICAL HAMMOCK.



CHAPTER I.
THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA.

SUDDEN RISE IN THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER IN THE GULF STREAM. — FLOATING
GuLF-WEED. -— THE FLyinc-FisH. — THE Tropic Birp.— SIGHT oF TROPIC ISLES.

country in which to wear away the wire edge of
winter, we were much “put to it” to find one
measurably accessible and yet sufficiently attrac-
tive. For consider that this was not our first



voyage in search of the sunbeams that Winter
stores away somewhere in the South. And it was understood that
we did not wish to get too far away,—not so far but that we
could get back again, perchance, when the trees put forth their
blossoms and the bobolinks arrived. Anybody, perhaps, may journey
into the tropics; but only once a year do the apple-trees blossom
and the bobolinks pour forth their ravishing melody; so indeed
it must be a country of surpassing attractions that would woo us
from prospective delights like these.
Professor La Vaca, my intimate friend and travelling-companion,
had visited, with me, most of the Spanish-speaking peoples of the
New World. We had been wrecked on the reefs of the Bermudas,
had sailed the seas of the Bahamas, circumnavigated Cuba, explored
Mexico, and gained a glimpse of South America. Ten years ago,
at the mouth of the Orinoco, we had been obliged to turn back from















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A GLIMPSE OF FLORIDA.







THE VOVAGE TO VENEZUELA. 25

a journey into that mysterious continent. Ever since, whenever the
season for travel came around, we had cast anxious glances in that
direction. But South America is a far country, and the voyage
thither expensive to the individual so unfortunate as to have to
labor half the year for the wherewithal to exist during the other
half. - At least, it seemed so when we received replies to the letters
sent the great steamship lines running to Brazil and Panama. It
_ would need a small fortune in order to accomplish Chili, the Argen-

DISC ARDED-
fe



PASSING THE LIGHT-SHIP.

tine, or Brazil, since two or three steam-lines have the monopoly of
travel and traffic. But the Professor, who is more persistent than I
am, discovered a way to reach the continent, to “sample” a republic
or two pertaining to our South American sister, and to fill ourselves
up with caloric for the winter to.come. He it was, I will confess,
who brought to my notice the fact that a real American line ran
straight down to the land of our desires, without a stop by the way.
I had heard of it before, to be sure, but had given it scant attention,
thinking it devoted more space and care to freight than passengers.



26 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

But in this I was mistaken; for the “Red D” Line, I found, ran
ith special view to the comfort of passengers,
mised the Professor and myself

half a dozen steamers Ww













































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































NASSAU HARBOR.

enough of our winter earnings remaining for the seaside and moun-
tains of New England on our return. In a word, the regular rate to
Venezuela and back, including excellent fare and lodging en route,
hardly exceeds five dollars per day. We had often paid this at the
seaside, and all we got for our money was but tolerable fare and a





THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA. 27

. monotonous, even irksome, existence. In this case, superadded to the
* comforts of life was the fact that we should be all the time travelling
onward, with changing scene and new objects for contemplation.

The steamers of the “ Red D” fleet range all the way from sixteen
hundred to twenty-eight hundred tons, the smallest being the “ Valencia”
_ and the largest the “ Venezuela.” We would have chosen the largest,
of course, had her day of departure coincided with ours, but com-
promised on the “ Philadelphia,” a stanch steamer of twenty-one
hundred tons, and with a record for comfort and safety. The
“Philadelphia” was the steamer particularly mentioned also in our
: guidebook as that on which the writer of that excellent pamphlet
had taken passage.

: It did seem rather ungrateful to leave New England just when
“the first signs of spring were in the air. Spring, in our country, as
ca certain well-known author has written, is a maiden hard to woo,
4 and proves to be backward in coming forward; but like our own true
Yankee girls, she is well worth having when once you get her. There





is a bit of acerbity in her temper, perhaps, that our maidens lack, — at
"least, all those that I know, — and a certain coldness, with which she
_ masks her real intentions; but when with a hop-skip-and-a-jump, she
_ plumps herself into your arms, — why, all the world could not take her
from you! That is the way you feel —or ought to feel— when the
May mornings come around. Well, as I was saying, the signs of
spring were appearing even the week before we left: the wild geese
_were tracking the skies, the crow-blackbirds flocking in the taller
trees, a robin or two hopping about the fields, and one morning
a blackbird’s note was heard on the still air. )

From all these harbingers of better days we tore ourselves away ;
from what sweeter charms we will not venture to state, lest one might
think we expected to sail direct to Paradise.

Now, who can describe a sea voyage and make it interesting?
Washington Irving did, you will say; but that was when sea voyages











28 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

were events; and, again, he had the field all-to himself. I have made
voyages enough in sailing-vessels to learn to abhor them; life is too
short for one to spend it on the wave. I always wanted to “duck”
the author of “Life on the Ocean Wave,” and do hope that if he
ever made a voyage (which I doubt) he was seasick all the time.
The good Lord made dry land enough for all the inhabitants thereof,
and He meant for man to stay there, 1am sure. But man is a roving
animal, and will continue to be to the end of the chapter.

There were not many passengers on the “ Philadelphia,” which |
attribute to the fact that the travelling world is not yet aware of
“Red D” attractions. Be that as it may, the Professor and I had
no friends to see us off, while the few other passengers had quite a
cabin full. They had friends thoughtful enough to send last messages
to be read in the outer’ harbor also; while we had no such mementos |
of living beings ashore who considered our departure or our return
as of any moment whatever. We possessed ourselves in stoical,
perhaps cynical, calmness, at these signs of affection (in others, be- —
stowed upon others); and even when one of the gentlemen from Con-
necticut pulled a love-note from his wife out of the pocket of a shirt
he donned, the second day out, we were not greatly affected thereby. |
Man, having been created gregarious, — that is, with an inherent hank- ©
ering to “flock” with his fellow-man, —and having, moreover, vanity bo
enough to cause him to desire to be loved (whatever sentiment fe _
may entertain in return), is naturally envious of others more favorably _
regarded than himself. Hence (in a purely impersonal way), the _
Professor and I may have been a trifle envious; but as we care
for nobody else more than we care for each other, and are convinced
that there are greater treasures to seek than we have yet acquired, —
why, we yield to the others their joys, real or imaginary, and go
our way. :

The statue of Liberty waved us a last farewell as the pilot
stepped over the side (his pocket full of letters for the “dear ones”.

























THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA. . 29

pertaining to the Four-Men-from-Connecticut), and New York grew
dim in the distance. Then we were alone upon the briny deep;
our voyage had begun.

The 26th of March, 1890, was as fair a day as ever old March
begot. The 27th was still fair, but the sea was heavy and the wind
ahead. On the second day out, at noon, we entered the Gulf Stream,
striking its northern edge, and left it toward the next morning. At
this point it is about one hundred miles across; and its temperature
varies considerably. The highest recorded this trip in mid-stream
was 76°, though it sometimes runs up to 80°, even as high as 82° and
84°. It is interesting to note the rapid leap in the thermometric scale
as the Gulf Stream is reached. The water will register forty-five, fifty,
fifty-two, then suddenly jump to sixty-six, seventy, and seventy-five.
Our course was almost due south, a little eastwardly, — as straight
a course as sailor ever steered. The third and fourth days appeared
‘the gulf-weed, at first in sprays and spangles, then in drifts and
-windrows. Finally, and especially during the fourth day’s voyaging,
the sea was brightened with great sheets of golden brown. « So blue
was the water, so golden-bronze the drifts, that we would fain be
artists, that we might transfer the beautiful colors to canvas.

These drifts of weed were seemingly alive, and little fish leaped
out as we sailed by. We know, of course, that many investigators
have examined the gulf-weed, and their findings have long.since been
published to the world. The floating weed 2s all alive with multitu-
'dinous forms of life.

The fourth and the fifth days showed us those angels of air and
sea, the flying-fish, at first singly, and rarely seen, then increasing in
number hour by hour, until the sixth day, the water was alive with them.
I think it has long been settled that’ they cannot sustain prolonged
flight without at least dipping their fins in the briny wave. Many
and many a time I have watched the flying-fish; and I really believe
that there is no more beautiful sight at sea than a flock of them skim-



20 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.
3

ming the waves, with silver wings extended wide. They can change
their course at will apparently, but seem to steer by means of the tail
and ventral fins, just touching the water with the tip of the tail, and
then swerving off at a tangent. Many take an undulatory flight, sail-
ing along for hundreds of yards, but at no great height above the
waves. Now and then they will dash through the seas, reappearing
beyond a billow, alternately in air and water. A strong, well-sustained
flight by a large fish rejoicing in its strength, is a beautiful sight
indeed; but more attractive is a little flock of young ones, twenty or
thirty in number, darting out of the water in a body, like a sudden
discharge of silvery arrows from Neptune’s bow. One night, coming
out of the cabin after dinner, I found our captain groping about the
deck in the dusk. He was “fishing for flyers,” he said, and had found
several dead upon the deck.

During the day it had been very rough, great seas sweeping upon
us, and now and then spilling across the rail; and it was probably
during the advent of one of these seas that the fish came aboard. |
have often found them on the deck of a sailing-vessel, heavily laden,
within a few feet of the water; but unless aided by the seas, these
fish must have leaped quite fifteen feet above the level of the water.
They fly with great force. The head of one of them was torn com-
pletely off, and one striking you in the face would certainly have
given you a black eye. Those the captain caught were fried next
morning and given to one of our passengers, who had been the
victim of an April joke.

The flying-fish is seldom found north of the Gulf Stream’s inner
edge, and may well be termed a peculiar product of the tropics. An-
other denizen of the warm zone toward which we were hastening,
we saw the fourth day out, sailing the air, the tropic bird (Phethon
ethereus), called by the sailors the boatswain, from its loud, whistling
cry. It is a most shapely bird, built to cleave the air and breast the
hurricane. The one we saw must have been at least three hundred



THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA. 31

miles from land. We were then in the region of the Horse Lati-
tudes, called by some the “ Doldrums,” because of the variable under-
tides and currents. I shall not merit, perhaps, the name of a tropic
traveller, if Ido not make mention of the Sargasso Sea, the outer edge
of which we skirted or crossed, and the source, it is said, of the vast
floats of gulf-weed. But I have crossed these waters so often that it
seems to me like an old story. Had I not, at some time previous,
done so, I should call your attention to the fact that this is the sea
Columbus crossed, on his way to the Bahamas, Cuba, and San











HEAVING THE LOG.

Domingo. A venturesome voyage we feel it to have been, in those
frail cavavelas, scarcely larger than a fishing-boat, as we, in our great.
steamer, are tossed by the rough waves mercilessly about.

Perhaps I ought to add a word or two anent the steamer, — our
floating home for nearly a month to come. The Professor and J
were agreeably surprised to find such comfort, cleanliness, and SYS-
tem aboard this boat. We both have crossed the Atlantic in the
great English steamers, and we both declare that in no whit, save in
size, do they surpass these of the Venezuelan line. The staterooms
are quite as large as in many of those, the service prompt, and the crew



32 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

and officers efficient. The menu is nearly as complete as the best of
the transatlantics, while our steward has a reputation of his own for
elegant catering. At the head of our table sat the burly and genial
Captain Chambers, who treated us with the cordiality of a father, and
beamed upon us at every meal save lunch. To say that he is a
native of the State of Maine, born on land and bred on the sea, is
enough, at present, in his honor.

The second day out, just at the time and place predicted by our
captain, we sighted the crack steamship of the line, the “ Venezuela,”
on her way to New York, flying the American flag, and the great red
“T)” conspicuous on her smoke-stacks. Her sister ship, the “ Caracas,”
we expected to meet at Curacoa, and by her send back our first letter
to the “States.” As I write these lines in my notebook, land is in
sight, the heights of Cura¢oa, while we sighted the first landfall, Buen
Ayer, three hours before, at twelve o'clock, noon.

The first land of the southward trip was Mona Island. This lies
directly between San Domingo and Puerto Rico, and appeared: to us
as a bluff headland, standing up bravely in the morning light. It is
said to be about six miles long, with water and coco-trees on its
other side, but is uninhabited.

How many misty memories arise, of man’s inhumanity ‘to man,
as these islands, San Domingo and Puerto Rico, are brought before
us! The eastern province of San Domingo belonged to a famous
Indian princess, at the time of the coming of the Spaniards, and
Puerto Rico to a race of Indians distinguished for their many fine
qualities. Thousands of peaceful people dwelt there then; now it is |
centuries since the last of them perished, driven to swift death by the
murderous Spaniards.

Ten years ago, in March, 1880, I sailed around Puerto Rico, and
many visions of beauty arise, as I recall its beautiful hills and harbors.
It is a thirty-six-hours’ sail across the Caribbean Sea from Mona to
Curacoa. We cannot distinguish any difference between the waters





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































KINGSTON HARBOR, JAMAICA.



a

ee







|
|

THE VOVAGE TO VENEZUELA. eel

of the Caribbean and the Atlantic, except that we met rougher treat-
ment here than there. This was the reverse of what I had expected,
remembering my many sails on the waters of this sea, and the long
smooth track of the sun as I used to watch it set from my camp in
the Caribbean Mountains.

The fourth and fifth days we were in the latitude of those isles of
calm in which I camped for twenty months a dozen years ago. Their
memory comes back to me like the visions of one’s long-past youth ;
for I was young then, full of adventure and spirit, with a heart for
any exploit. Not that the fire has died away, or is in any wise
dimmed even; but that my work as an explorer is done. Then [
discovered a score of birds, unknown even to science, the skins of

_ which are in our National Museum, and which might have been ~

fluttering in the forests to-day, unknown and undiscovered, but for
me. Ah, . the world was new then; the forest spirits beckoned
to me to come and woo them, and I went. The world is just as
bright and enjoyable now as then, but enjoyment takes other forms,
and as for adventure—I have had my fill!



CHAPTER iia

ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA.

ADVENTURES OF THE Past. — DEVIL-BIRDS OF THE MouNTAINS. — THE ISLES THAT LIE
BEYOND ouR KEex.— A MonoLoGue oN Monkeys. —AN ORIGINAL POEM BY AN AB-
SENT FRIEND. i :

deck the first evening succedding our entrance
into the Caribbean Sea, while yet Mona Island
lay dimly outlined astern, I found my old friend,
the Professor, gazing eastward with a far-away
look on his face.

“ Away over there, out of sight,” he said, as |
joined him, “lie the islands we hunted through
twelve years ago.

“What glorious adventures we had then, amdgo
mio! Shall we ever have the like again? Shall
we find new birds awaiting us in the forests

ahead of us now, or Carib Indians to guide us through the wilds,
and entertain us in their huts of palm-leaves?

“I am thinking of the life we led, and the joyful existence of that
happy period of our lives. Ah, me! if we could only be always young,
and eagerly looking forward to new adventures!”

This was a long speech for the Professor; but I knew that he was
strangely stirred by these reminiscences of our earlier explorations.
Above us the bright stars were shining, and the celestial luminaries
were reflected in the waters of the deep. There is one star I always











ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA. ay

seek when far away from home,— one that invariably reminds me of
/ home scenes and the dear ones it shines above. This is the North ©
Star, its position unerringly indicated by the pointers of the Dipper.

- Down here, on the verge of the Caribbean, it is much nearer the hori-
| zon than with us in the North, and it crouches lower and lower, the
farther south we go, while almost exactly opposite rises higher and
higher the Southern Cross. This constellation rises on our vision in
the latitude of the Bahamas, and becomes brighter and larger as
| the coast of South America is approached, while the North Star sinks
| finally nearly out of sight. This is the same starry cross Paul and Vir-
-ginia saw in the other hemisphere, lying slantwise in the Southern sky.
| The heavens everywhere declare the glory of God, be it North
or South, in limpid tropic sky or frosted dome of Northern night,
ablaze with the celestial lamps of the thither world!

| A strange cry interrupted our meditations, a wild, piercing, mourn-
| ful shriek, coming to us from the darkness in front of the ship. It
was startling and weird; and half the passengers came running to the
| rail, thinking probably some one was being strangled and cast into the
; sea,

I myself was surprised into an exclamation; but the Professor
| reassured me by remarking, “That is the dadlotin; don’t you
} remember it?”

| The diadlotin, or devil-bird, of the Caribbean Sea had been the
| mystery of this region until we had found out all about its habits.
| When we began our researches, we thought it must be a mythical.
: bird. Everybody who professed to have seen it said it was long ago,
| so long ago that he could hardly tell whether it was like a duck or a
| sea-bird. As near as we could ascertain, it was like a duck in shape,
: with a bill like a gull’s, in color black and white. Every one agreed
| that it lived in the tops of the highest mountains, and that it burrowed
| a hole just beneath the surface of the earth six feet deep, at the end of
| which it laid its eggs. It could only be found at home while nesting,



38 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE. SPANISH MALN.

during the daytime, being nocturnal in its habits, and prowling about |
the sea at night. The opinion among the mountaineers of the islands
was that the manacon (a species of opossum) had killed all the dadc-
tins; but we believed that a bird so far-flying as this could not be
killed by a local disturber like the manacon, and we think we brought |
it to light, ten years ago, in the Island of Saba.

About two hundred years ago, an old French priest voyaged to |
these islands, and he makes the first mention of the devil-bird: “We
were now in the season for certain birds called azadles, or diablotens |
(little devils), that are said to live and breed in the islands of Domin- |
ica and Guadaloupe. This bird is nearly the size of a fowl, and is
sometimes called the pullet; its plumage is black, its wings long and
strong, the legs rather short, the feet like those of a duck, but fur- |
nished with long and strong claws; its beak is a good inch and a haif |
in length, curved, pointed, extremely hard and strong; the eyes are
large and even with the head, and serve admirably during the night, |
but are useless during the day, so that when surprised out of its retreat,
it dashes against everything in its way, and at last falls to the earth.

“ These birds live on the fish which they catch in the sea by night.
After they have finished fishing, they return to the mountains, where
they live in holes like rabbits, and do not come out again till the |
return of night, to go to the sea.

“ They cry out to one another as they skim the surface of the sea,
calling and replying.”

These cries, uttered by the devil-birds as they hunted along the
waves, were what awoke us from our reveries and brought surging
over us another flood of reminiscence.

“Do you remember,” said the Professor, “our exciting monkey-
hunt in the mountains of Granada? The island must lie directly east
of us now, and cannot be more than two hundred miles away.

“T recall the glimpses I got from the mountain-forest above Rich-
mond, where we entered the monkeys’ stronghold. First, the blue

percep









ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA. 39

water hazy in the east, foaming as it approaches a wide bay formed of
a long point of land called the Telescope, and a long island on the
' other side with breakers beyond, caused by the coral reefs. The vil-
lage of La Baye is formed of huts clustered beneath rows and groups
of palms. Above it are
bowl-shaped valleys gold-
en-green with sugar-cane,
dotted with thatched huts
and red-roofed sugar =

buildings beneath bread- Mg
fruitand mango trees. A |
white-spired church is
perched conspicuously on
a long knoll, with its pe eee 28 Vigut* ees

chapel-of-ease close by, a), ays AV A oc ua\t\ \ WS 4





































































































ARR UH a
oy en

h

ringed round with low
trees and overtopped by
tall cabbage palms. Co-
co-trees cluster thickly in |
ranks and confined masses"
in’ the upper valleys; [=
palms are outlined against
the black mountains,
which enclose this valley |Â¥Z=
of valleys within a valley, i
and of hills enclosing
hills. A noise near me A THATCHED HUT.

causes me to start; and I

withdraw my gaze from the wide-spread view below, and see close at
my elbow a little ‘sugar-bird,’ in plumage of black and yellow, tug-
ging away at the dead leaves of a éa/zszz, or wild plantain. It car-
ries the dry material to its nest near by, which it defends with great
spirit, and attacks any bird, no matter how large, coming near it.







‘

THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

4o .
Now and then it robs another nest, nearly completed, of its materials,
making a lively squabble with its owner.













































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































“IN THE PLEASANT WOODS OF RICHMOND.”

“Another bird, the grzve, or thrush, flies by on silent wing, and
occasionally alights overhead. It is easily attracted by a noise, and
approaches very near my face whenever I call it to me.









i
|
t
t
}
i
‘
}





ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA. - Al

“ The stream below me makes sweet music, which mingles with the
murmur of the forest in soothing melody. These were some of the
scenes and sounds that greeted me as I waited patiently the coming
of the monkeys —that did not come after all —in the pleasant woods
of Richmond. i

“Late in the evening I saw at a distance a monkey leaping from
tree to tree, nearly a mile away; and from the agitation of the tree-
tops I judged there must have been quite a flock of monkeys in that
bit of woods. You remember, Histrix, our monkey hunt later on,
when we did get a monkey, and were so ashamed of ourselves that we
never told of it?”

“Ves, and I remember also the poem our eccentric friend, the
Doctor, wrote about the skull we brought him from the woods.”

The passengers had gathered about us by this time, and seemed
greatly interested in our description of the life we once enjoyed in the
Caribbean Islands. At the mention of the poem they all demanded
that we should produce it ; and as I had it in my scrapbook, I complied.
with their desire, and read them then and there the Doctor’s —

AN ODE TO A MONKEY,
SUGGESTED BY HIS SKULL.

There is no brain within this hollow shell,
Neither is there a nose wherewith to smell ;
But time was when this skull was animate,
Instinct with life, and formed a monkey’s pate.
Among the trees its owner frisked and played,
And cut up antics in a way not staid,

Stood on this selfsame head, hung by its paws,
And chased the parrots and the gay macaws,
Did everything, in fact, a monkey could,
Performed all tricks an honest monkey should,
Excepting one: it never ceased to fail
Whene’er it tried suspension by its tail.



42 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

For if he had tried it, he’d have come to grief ;

Though perhaps it surpasses all belief,

But that tail of his he could n’t entwine

About any branch, or limb, or a vine.
*"T was the only failing the monkey had ;
But this was the ailing that made him sad.
And he often said to himself, said he,
“Oh, for a more flexible vertebre !
What would I give to see myself toddle
About the woods with a mighty caudal
Appendage, that in a prehensile grasp
The limb of a forest monarch could clasp.”

No wonder this monkey was feeling sad ;

That he fell from grace, and went to the bad ;
That his eyes sank in, and his cheek grew pale,
When those eyes aforesaid lit on his tail.



This is but a “ figurative expression,”
A sort of “ poetical concession.”
And now, to relieve the reader’s suspense,
And also the monkey’s — still on the fence —
In a single sentence let me relate
Why it was this monkey grew so sedate ;
Why it was he could n’t hang by the tail,
Cool his heated brain in the perfumed gale.
Here, then, without any pretence to style,
Is the reason why that this “ animile ”
Grew morose and thin, and so full of bile
That his victuals hurt him at every trial,
Though the doctors came from many a mile
And placed him outside of many a phial
Of ipecac pills and castor “ ile.”
They seemed not to soothe, but only to rile ;
In his favorite haunt he lingered a while,
Then gave up the ghost, with a sickly smile. “OUR MONKEY’S SKELETON.”
When a monkey dies they do not bury

His last remains in a cemetery ;

With tenacious tail he clings to a limb,

And when he lets go, there ’s an end to him.

A naturalist to his grave did come,

“THE DOCTORS CAME.”





ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA. 43

A man who dwelt in a museum,

Where of monkeys and reptiles they had some
Ten thousand or more, all pickled in rum;
And as luck would have it, he stumbled on
The remains of our monkey’s skeleton ;

And he jumped for joy, and he said, said he,
“ Why, this is a famous discovery !

These are bones of the Cercopithecus,

To be precise, the true Callitricus,

A monkey rare, with non-prehensile tail—”
The very fact our monkey did bewail.

There was but one opinion among the passengers, and that was
that the merit of the poem was ahout equal to the subject that inspired
it. But they all agreed that it was the best poem they had ever heard
on that subject — never having heard any other before!

“Poor Doctor!” said the Professor, - “I wonder where he is now!
The last we saw of him, you know, he was sitting under a palm-tree,
at Biskra, on the borders of the desert, pulling out the molars of a
wild Bedouin Arab.

“I think the Arab intended to kill him after the operation was
over; but he would have to be a very smart Arab to get ahead of the
Doctor. He said he would rejoin our caravan; but it is a year now
since we heard from him, and I’m half afraid the desert sands cover
him.”



CHAPTER IV.

SOME DOINGS ON. SHIPBOARD.

COMFORTABLE TRAVELLING. SOME THINGS WE HAD TO EAT.— A MURDERER OF
ENGLISH. — OUR GRAND ENTERTAINMENT. — How To sTUDY SPANISH. — THE Lan-
GUAGE OF THE FUTURE. — LAND IN SIGHT.

VAT seems to me that we have at last reached the ideal
method of travel; and the Professor agrees with
me. It is this: To occupy a commodious room on
the deck of a large steamer, all by yourself; to have
electric communication with the pantry and the re-
freshment counter; to be waited on by attentive
servants; to have trained officers in charge of your floating hotel;
and to move along without a thought or care for your safety and
locomotion. Is not this the perfection of travel?

We went down, as I have said, on the “ Philadelphia,” but before
we returned we lived aboard various steamers of the Line, and aboard
them all found the same unvarying courtesy from commanders, pursers,
stewards; and all united to make us contented and happy.

Altogether, it was one vast pleasure trip, with smooth seas (in the
main), and magnificent steamers, strange sights, tropical scenery, and
tropical experiences. That our “inner men” were not neglected, let
the following menu, selected at random, testify : —





SOME DOINGS ON SAHIPBOARD. 45

STEAMSHIP “ VENEZUELA.” — APRIL 390, 1890.
DINNER.
Soup:
Consommé. Noodle.
Eutrée:

Queen Fritters.
Chicken 4 ’Espagnole.
Corned Beef and Cabbage.

Roast:

Ribs of Beef.
Baked Ham with Wine Sauce.

Vegetables :

Boiled and Mashed Potatoes.
Asparagus. String Beans. Onions.
Pastry:

Rice Custard Pudding. Lemon Sauce.
Apple and Strawberry Pies.

Wine Jelly. Small Pastry.
Dessert +
Pineapple Sherbet.

Nuts. Raisins. ‘ Oranges. Bananas.

Cheese. Coffee and Tea.

The “ Venezuela” was the steamship we sailed in on our return
voyage. But I must not anticipate, for we have not yet reached the
Spanish Main, and have not yet finished with the Southern Sea we
were sailing on in the last chapter. First let me mention some of the
passengers we have on board.

Only six of us are Americans; two are French engineers on their
way to build a railroad inland from Lake Maracaibo; and two are
Venezuelans. Travel hitherward is light at this season; but the re-
turn ‘trips will be crowded with the best of Venezuela’s citizens, seek-
ing a northern clime to summer in. I am brushing up my Spanish,
and slowly the words and phrases are coming back to me. It is but
an indifferent Spanish I speak, I am afraid; but when our French



46 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

companions proceed to murder our mother English, I am encouraged..
One of them makes praiseworthy attempts to master our language,
and neglects no opportunity to exhibit his proficiency of speech.

' We were cosmopolitan, and we were altogether a jolly crowd;
even the Professor was occasionally excited to hilarity, and often con-
tributed his share of the conversation. A day or two before our
southward voyage was to end, there was a great stir among the pas-
sengers. We were few in number, but we determined to give an en-
tertainment, even though our only auditors were the officials of-the
ship. They said it was a grand success. On the pages following is
our programme, drawn in pen-and-ink by our own special artist.

Every passenger on board was expected to contribute something
to the entertainment, and after it was over we had our customary so-
cial chat. This time the conversation turned upon language, and es-
pecially the language spoken in the country we were sailing to, — the
Spanish. It is spoken, as the readers of this book well know, in the
greater portion of the country lying south of the United States, —in
Mexico, Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, partially in several other
islands of the West Indies, and in all South America except the em-
pire of Brazil. It is destined to be of great use in the near future to
our American people; and it will well repay our young Americans to
learn this language, spoken by nearly fifty millions of people living on
this hemisphere where we dwell.

The Professor and I had tried several “systems” of teaching a
foreign tongue, and had finally adopted the latest, the “ Meisterschaft,”
as that which gave us the most immediate grasp of the language, that
enabled us to converse in the vernacular with the people who spoke
it. We found, in an older system, some very good advice on study
and the acquiring of a foreign tongue, —so good that I wish to repeat
some of it here. “Divide and conquer,” the author says; repeat, re- |
read ; read easy words at first, but vead/ The order to be followed
in the study of a foreign language is: reading, hearing, speaking,





GRAND CO arm oe 3

- off MONA ISLAND.

Corus “rag STAR eee Bauer

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SONG. “ROCKED «GROVE or DEER”














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RECITAL 4 tig | AR HAWN?

“A URELIAS UNFORTUNATE YOUNG-MAN:~
AAR SNAZELLE.

Re
SONGS hicw ce aan a oa GONDUGCTORs.

+ AT THE PIANO.



THE-FINE OLD ENGLISH: GENTLEMAN § } ar
ieee ea MS SNAZELLE
SORG~ i . ”
“TIS*KNOWR ALONE TO THEE.
MEGUNRING.

L& PYerw.” avcnadcnna HHO AO ee

L =
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- AAS SNAZELLE.
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“MY ObD FRIEND JOHN-

MB SNAZELLE ~
*“EULD Lang Syret
gon0 % G CHORUS) Mee Hawkins & GHORUS- oe

Bs -GOD: SAVE: THE: QUEEN:









SOME DOINGS ON SHIPBOARD. 49

writing; acquire, then, the art of reading, of hearing, of speaking, and
of writing.

“Tt is by translating that young people learn best of all the art of
writing. If you wish to be one day translated, begin yourself by trans-
lating. .. . The prevailing notion that we must be taught everything
is a great evil. ‘The most extensive education, given by the most skil-
ful masters, often produces but inferior characters; that alone which
we give to ourselves elevates us above mediocrity.

“The eminence attained by great men is always the result of self-
imposed labors. . . . He who attempts composition without first laying
in a large provision of knowledge will at best deal out none but
commonplace ideas, and conceal poverty of thought under pomp of
phraseology.

“ But a second language presents an inexhaustible source of interest-
ing compositions, which, while they serve as models for the manner of
treating a subject, afford by translation the best means of practising
the art of writing. . . . The best mode of imitation in foreign composi-
tion is douéée translation, which consists in translating the foreign text
into the national idiom, and then endeavoring to reproduce that text by »
translating the version back into the original. . . . Those who express
themselves best in their own language owe their superiority far more
to their own reflections than to the precepts of the grammarians.
There was no methodical treatise or grammar at the time Shakspeare,
Milton, Dryden, Addison, Pope, and Johnson formed their style of
writing; and the same holds good with regard to Cicero, Virgil,
Horace, La Fontaine, Dante, Petrarch, and many other celebrated
writers, who, so far from having learned anything from grammarians,
supplied them with materials from which they inferred their rules.”

Says Voltaire: “ The assiduous reading of good writings will be
more useful for the formation of a pure and correct style than the
study of our grammars. We soon acquire the habit of speaking well
from the frequent reading of those who have written well.”

4



50 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

There! You will find some words of wisdom in the above, which it
will repay you to commit to memory; to supplement this I add a good
bit of advice from that excellent book, “ The Intellectual Life,” Diyala
G. Hamerton: “Much time is saved by following pursuits which
help each other. To have one main pursuit and several auxiliaries is
the true principle of arrangement. . . . And whatever is to be mastered
ought to be mastered so thoroughly that we shall not have to come
back to it, when we ought to be carrying the war far into the enemy’s
country.”

One thing at a time, and that well done! I will close these quota-
tions by one of Martial’s epigrams, written more than eighteen hun-
dred years ago, aimed at the critics of his verses : —

“ The readers and the hearers like my books ;
And yet some writers cannot them digest.
But what care 1? for when I make a feast
I would my guests should praise it, —not the cooks!”

But through the window of my stateroom, right abeam, I can
see the jagged outline of Curacoa. The man at the wheel has just
tolled six bells, and at four o’clock we expect to toss our mail aboard |
the outward-bound “Caracas.” Two days here, and then — on, to the
coast of the mysterious continent! oe



CHAPTER V.

CURACOA, —A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE.

MOUNTAINS OF PHOSPHATE OF LIME WHICH HAVE YIELDED FoRTUNES. — WILHELM-
STADT AND SCHATTEGAT LAGOON.—DUTCH ARCHITECTURE.—-A CHARMING CLI-

MATE.— THE MARKET GIRLS.













































































The Island of
oysters, purchased from the natives, enriched many a Spaniard and



In the olden times, when sea pirates
and buccaneers sailed the Carib-
bean, and made it lively for the
coast settlements of Cuba, Florida,

and the West Indies, the “ Spanish

Main” was a name of mysterious
and terrible import. It was applied
to the stretch of coast lying be-
tween the Island of Trinidad and
the Darien. The third voyage of
the great navigator, Columbus, first
brought this region to the attention
of civilized man, and in the year
succeeding, in 1499, Amerigo Ves-
pucci made a successful trading
voyage to this country of savages

‘and precious products.
Margarita was discovered; and the pearls of sea



52 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN,

caused Columbus much trouble. For by the king’s patent Columbus
was entitled to a tithe of everything discovered; and as he sailed
directly past and over the pearl-producing oyster-beds, leaving them
to be exploited by petty adventurers, little gain had he for his pains.
This, we know, is the fate of pioneers,—to plough land and sea, to
sow seeds and soundings, merely that others may follow and gather
the fruits thereof. .

Amerigo Vespucci, it has long been held, gave his name to the
newly discovered continent, but there are some recently who hold
that the name “ America” pre-existed in the aboriginal tongue. Who
can fail to note the resemblance between Americapan, the ancient
name of this coast region, and that of America? Be that as it may,
the name of the country best known on the northern border of South
America, Venezuela, was bestowed by the Spaniards. Sailing into the
great lake, Maracaibo, i in 1499, they found Indians dwelling in huts
built over the water, a long distance from
the land. They were the first of the kind
they had seen; and these lake dwellings so
forcibly reminded them of the mistress of
the Adriatic that they called the country
Venezuela, or the little Venice. A far stretch
of the imagination, perhaps, but the name
clung to the country. As yet, the descend-
ants of those aboriginal lake dwellers cling

A HALF-BREED. ' to their primitive dwellings on the shore of
the great Maracaibo.

No longer a name merely, pregnant with vague terror, the Spanish
Main is open and accessible. Where once the slow-sailing caravels
crawled from headland to headland, and painfully performed their voy-
ages, swift steamers give their passengers the delights of a pleasure
trip. A voyage of six days direct brings to our view the mountains
that guard the portals to the mysterious continent.





CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE. 53

The year 1499 was one of the most eventful in the last decade of
that century so pregnant with momentous events. Not the least re-
markable of the Spanish voyagers to the New World was Alonzo
de Ojeda, who had with him, as adventurer, Americus Vespucius,
whose claim to distinction everybody is familiar with. Whether or
not he was entitled to the peerless place the cosmographers assigned
him, or whether, indeed, his was the name bestowed upon our conti-
nents, I will not argue; but his was the most richly rewarded of any
voyage of that period. Coasting the’ country now known as the
“Spanish Main,” with many strange adventures and frequent deten-
tions from the friendly natives, Ojeda and his crew finally sighted an
island bearing the aboriginal name of Curacoa. The Indians inhabit-
ing here were of great stature, but not so large nor so numerous that
they were not soon exterminated, sharing the fate of all the islanders
of the Caribbean Sea, .

Curagoa, this island thus discovered in the last year of the fifteenth
century, is about forty miles in length, with a varying breadth of from

three to seven miles. It lies some forty miles off the coast of Vene- .

zuela, the blue mountains of that portion of derra firma known as the
Paraguana being in plain sight, on every clear day, from the hills
above the harbor. From the sea, as the voyager approaches, Curagoa
appears like a volcanic fragment, rent from the mainland of South
America, or tossed up from beneath the waves. Its coast is every-
where rugged, with deep fissures, as harbors, leading to extensive in-
land lagoons. The hills are not high, but abruptly broken off and
sharply cleft. It would seem that the island is one vast deposit of
phosphate of lime, that there are mountains of it, for more phosphate
is mined here than the markets will carry. The highest hill on the
coast that the arriving steamer skirts —a hill that might well be digni-
fied by the name of mountain—consists of ninety-seven per cent of
phosphate. Fortunes have been realized here, and fortunes yet await
the owners of this vast deposit. The works of the mining company form



54 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

a little settlement isolated from the others of the island, and the
treasure they guard is jealously kept from the view of prying visitors.

Traditions are afloat of the strange doings of the company in posses-

sion of Cura¢oa’s only treasure trove, — that no one can penetrate the

charmed circle they have drawn about their wealth; that the visitor is

' hospitably received and royally entertained, the finest fruits and meats

and choicest wines being set before him, but that no blandishment can

open the inner portal. It is a question whether or not all these pre-_
cautions be necessary, but the company is said to pay the Dutch Gov-

ernment over two hundred thousand dollars each, and every year the

mines are worked. Phosphate was first found here by a poor Cornish

miner, who first secured the refusal of this otherwise waste land, the

Dutch being ignorant of any value attached to it, and then leaped

suddenly into affluence.

As we sail the southern shore of the island, a bright lagoon opens
out to view below the phosphate region, called the Spanish Water,
and a castle of Spanish times commands it from a beetling cliff.
Spanish possession of Curacoa extended from 1499 to 1634. The
Dutch then acquired it, and have held it ever since, except for a few
years’ occupation by the English. And to-day, though Spanish in
nearly everything save its government and its architecture, Curagoa
still pertains to the people who wrested it from the marauding
Spaniards. The barren hills that form the backbone of the island
are rent apart at about its centre, and give ingress into the safest
and most securely landlocked harbor in these seas, perhaps in the
world. It is so narrow that the sentries of the two forts guarding
it, one each side the entrance, can hail each other from their respec-
tive stations. One of these forts is called Fort Riff, and the other
Fort Amsterdam. They are old, and their cannon are obsolete, while
their garrisons of funny Dutch soldiers are enough to make a mummy
smile. The inlet is deep and straight, and heads into a capacious
harbor, of perhaps half a mile in length, beyond which is a great

a



CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE. 55

lagoon, called the Schattegat. A pontoon bridge spans the harbor
just inside the forts, and this has to be opened, of course, every time
a vessel of any kind seeks entrance. As our steamer draws opposite



| 4

“a
A til 2
; mu
i ole an i
Sr a Al









the inlet, she whistles
warningly, and in a
moment there comes back tous _-—->
an answering whistle in a mi Sere ee ree lara eee Pu RACOn
nor key. Then, as the pilot

takes the wheel, and the bow is pointed toward the lagoon, we see one
end of the bridge slowly crawling ‘toward the opposite side of the
harbor, its propelling force being a very diminutive steam-launch.
The strip of blue water grows wider and wider, and at last, when the
bridge of boats lies parallel with the shore, the little steami-launch
toots again, and it is safe to enter. The steamer sails superbly in,
giving us views of forts and houses so close that we could toss a bis-
cuit into them, standing on the deck. Once inside, the bridge is
swung back into position, and the interrupted traffic between the
Opposite sides resumes its placid flow.









56 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

The lagoon, of which the harbor proper forms a part, consists of
three sections, like a clover-leaf. There are two lagoons lying parallel
to the shore, with a coral strand only separating them from the ocean,
and the stem and central leaf pushing straight into the island. It is
about the centre and the right-hand
clover-leaves that the town is built.
The finest houses line the main har-
bor, and they are eminently respect-
able as well as picturesque. As I
have said, the architecture is Dutch,
only modified to suit the exigencies
of a tropical climate. Nowhere in
the West Indies will you find such
substantial, such comfortable housés.
They are as solidly built as any struc-
ture along the Zuyder Zee, with stone
and mortar walls, bricked courtyards,
and tiled roofs. They are exceeding
quaint, even to the height of pictu-
resqueness, and so suggestive of com-
fort and homelike attractions that
many a Spanish-American sighs and

A WELL-TO-DO NEGRO. shivers when he recalls the barren, |

cheerless casas of the Latin peoples ‘
on the Main. The windows are broad and open, with glass instead of
gratings, though balconies and corridors are shielded by green 7alow-
szes. Aside from their shapes and contours, these houses attract by
their rich and various colors. The tiles that cover their roofs are red,
their walls are yellow and pink, picked out with colors that please and
harmonize. As seen from the sea or from the cactus-covered hills that
rise inland, a prettier picture than this little Dutch paradise would be
difficult to present. The town or city of Wilhelmstadt is divided into.





CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE. 57

Pietermaay and Schardo, on the right of the harbor as you enter,
while the “other side” is literally rendered in the name Otrabanda.
In these names we see the curious mingling of Dutch and Spanish
that forms the prevailing speech of the island, called Papiamento.
Two or three of the streets are quite broad; all are well paved; and
indeed the roads throughout the island are very nearly perfect.
Most interesting, however, are the narrow lanes that intersect
Pietermaay, where the sun only reaches the pavements at midday,
where the balconies on either side nearly meet, and where the evil
odors that prevail are most startling in their strength and variety.
Here you may see the offspring of African, Africo-Dutch, Africo-
Hispano, Dutch, etc., sporting themselves in the unadorned garb of
Eden. This is a costume in great favor with all the juvenile por-
tion of the population, up to the age of eight or ten, without
regard to sex. It is always of the same cut, but there is infinite
variety of color.

Says the ancient historian, Hakluyt: “One of the marueylous
things that God useth in the composition of man is colour; and
doubtlesse cannot bie considered without great admiration, in hold-
ing one to be white, and another blacke, being colours utterly con-
trary; some likewise to be yellow, which is between blacke and white,
and other of other colours, as it were of diuers liveries, and as
these colours are to be marveled at, even so is it to be consid-
_ ered howe they differ one from another, as it were by degrees,
forasmuch as some men are white, often diuers sorts of white-
nesse; yellowe, often diuers sortes of yellow, and blacke, after diuers
sortes of blacknesse, and howe from white they goe to yellowe
by discolouring to browne and redde, and to blacke by ashy colour,
and murry, somewhat lighter than blacke, and tauny, like unto the
West Indians, whiche are altogether in generall either purple or
tauny like unto sodd Quinces, or of the colour of chesnuttes or
olines, which color is to them natural, and not by their going naked,



58 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

as many haue thought; albeit their nakednesse have somewhat
helped thereto.”

The old historian reasoned well: “Color is to them natural,
and not by their going naked;” and this is proven by the fact
that the little Dutch youngsters who toddle about are naked as
Adam before the fig-leaf was invented, and retain in later years the
flaxen hair and pink and white complexions. “It is to them
natural” also to speak the barbarous dialect of the island, called
Papiamento,—a patois more barbarous than any I have heard any-
where else in the West Indies. The Papiamento is structurally
Spanish, with an intrusion
of Dutch, a little English
and African, moulded in the
j-— mouths of ignorant negroes.
For instance: One day I
was out hunting with a na-
tive of the island and asked,
among other things, the
name of a pretty plant.
He answered: “ Eso se llama

DIVING FOR COINS. Barba de Yoong Man”

(“They call that Young

Man’s Beard”). It was, by the way, well named, the flower having
a soft silken fringe, reminding one of the pubescent adornment
of a young man’s chin, of which he is at first so proud and
afterward so ashamed. Papiamento is a comparatively recent in-
vention; that is, it came into use a long time after the confu-
sion of Babel. It has nothing to do with Hebrew, Greek, Sanscrit,
or with Latin, except through the Spanish. It is, of course, ex-
tremely difficult to construct a grammar of patois; to seize the
fleeting, subtle forms that emanate from the brain of primitive
people, and mould them into permanent shape. From the very





















CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE. 59

nature of the dialect, spoken as it is by people unable to read
or write, it must ever remain plastic, as it were. Yet the Papia-
mento has been somewhat crystallized, and a grammar has been

published, so that the phi-
lologist may now study
at least one language in

its nascent state; that is,

if we admit this hybrid
to the dignity of a “lan-
guage.” Any one speak-
ing Spanish may easily
understand Papiamento ;
but it is detrimental to
his Castilian in a high
degree. Years ago I
found that those who
spoke the French patois
in the Caribbees could
not speak but with effort
the Parisian; more than
this, even, that good
French scholars soon sac-
rificed their purity of
speech to the demands of
the virile patois. Let me
instance some differences

between the Castilian.

and the Papiamento, for
the numerals. The Span-



“THE VEGETATION HAS A TROPICAL CAST.”

ish uzs is uaz; dos and tres are the same; cuatro is cuater; cinco is
cimcu ; sets, the same; szefe is chetle; ocho, natye, and adtez are un-
changed, but once is yesum, doce is yesdos, trece is yestres, etc. But



60 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

enough has ‘been given to show the Spanish character of the Papia-
mento, and yet its distinctiveness as a dialect. All speech not un-
derstood seems ‘gibberish, and these Curaconians confuse us with
their jargon. Fortunately, most of the business men speak Eng-
lish, and the only persons we are in a measure dependent upon
are the negro boatmen who compete with the bridge between the
opposite towns. There are, it is said, one hundred and fifty of
them. Their charge for ferriage is only five coppers, Dutch, equal
to about two cents, American; but they are said to be unable
to make change (when it is to their advantage not to), and get
many a silver piece they would otherwise lose. The toll on the
bridge is two Dutch cents, for “quality” people; but if you go
barefoot, the charge is but one cent. This bridge, by the way,
was built and is owned by a Yankee from Maine, the American
consul, Captain Smith. This enterprising gentleman also owns the
only ice-houses that are replenished with crystal Kennebec, brought
in American schooners to this land of heat and sunshine. Cap-
tain Smith has lived here for I don’t know how many years; he came
here an invalid, but is now a witness to the all-healing climatic
properties of Curacoa. The residents claim that their island is
singularly exempt from disease; and certainly there seemed to
be none, except universal poverty. Many years ago the negro
slaves were freed, and since then they have had to shift for them-
selves, so that labor now is very cheap, barely supplying these
simple folk with food and raiment. The slave owners received
eighty dollars for every emancipated slave. about twenty-seven years
ago, but the value ef these erstwhile bondsmen has depreciated,
and doubtless you could buy one for half that money, if you would
only stipulate to find him in food and clothing. An English
shilling per day is a fair average wage earned by laborers, while
skilled labor does not receive much more than double that amount.
A master mason or carpenter receives but sixty cents per day;







CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE, 61

yet there are no troublesome strikes, for the laborers know — if
they know anything —they would be futile. The fact is there
are more negroes than the island can care for, more even than
it can feed.

All the steamers of the great “Red D” Line, which make the
Island of Curacoa their rendezvous, rely upon the natives to load their
ships, and even ship them as common sailors for their voyages. They
are honest and faithful, and work for less than the laborers of the
Venezuelan mainland. On the arrival of every steamer a crew of
Curacoa laborers is taken aboard for service throughout the round
trip to Venezuela, vza the ports of Puerto Cabello and La Guayra.
There may be about twenty thousand negroes and “colored” people
on this island. The land is poor, mainly sterile, even bananas and
plantains having to be brought from the mainland to be found in the
market in quantities. The phosphatic hills are rich in the elements
of fertility for other and distant lands, but are not capable them-
selves of producing a crop of cane or corn. The valleys of compara-
tively fertile land are too few to be considered, and the poor laborer is
even worse off than he of Barbadoes, where the land is rich, though
devoted almost exclusively to sugar-cane. The vegetation, such as it
is, has a tropical cast, and in the gardens you will find all the members
of the citrus family, pineapples, paw-paws, custard apples, soursops,
mangoes, guavas, casbera-apples, and many other fruits and vegetables.
The island is celebrated for its xzspevos, or sapadillos. The sapa-
didlo is rarely seen in the north, never found in our market, and is
only brought to us by the officers of the steamers running to the West
Indies. It requires careful handling, will not keep well, and has a
flavor that requires an acquired taste to appreciate it. It resembles
somewhat a russet apple, and has a taste, many declare, like a rotten
pear. The tree grows vigorously in the stony soil of Curagoa, its
green bulk resembling the mango, and is a refreshing sight against the
dry and blistered hills. There are no streams at all, either above



62 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

ground or below, and the people depend upon the heavens for their
supply of water, storing it up in great cisterns and doling it out care-
fully. Sometimes, they say, they have no rain for years, and again
they will have months of pluvial discharges, so that the greatest
wisdom must be exercised in its distribution. The fields and hills are
dry, covered with cactus and prickly pear, but they have a beauty of
their own. There is a comfortable, inviting look about them that
(unless you stick a prickly-pear spine into your shin) entices you to
wander abroad.

A party of us one day set out on a hunting expedition to a distant
plantation. We rowed up the lagoon some miles, and landed at a
wharf on a mangrove-fringed shore, where the herons perched, the
lizards and iguanas basked in the sun, and the fiddler-crabs crawled by .
thousands over the mud. This great lagoon is called the Schattegat,
and is deep enough and large enough to float the entire Dutch navy.
It is completely land-locked, and is protected by a most picturesque
fortress, perched on a cliff, and used now as a signal station. Behind
this towering cliff the pirates of the Spanish Main used to lie in wait
for their prey, their masters watching from the rock, their masts com-
pletely hidden from sight. Through the narrow passage to the sea
they used to slip out warily, spread their sails, and bear down upon the
richly freighted galleons bound with treasure to Spain. Many a ship’s
crew has been murdered within sight of these gray cliffs, and many a
million of treasure here divided. Pirates and buccaneers have long
since passed into the unknown, and the blue waters of the peaceful
lagoon are rarely vexed by any keel whatever, of any size. We had a
delightful tramp that day over the old plantation, but the only “game”
consisted in ground and turtle doves, wild rabbits, troupials, curlew,
herons and humming-birds. The little green-crested hummers flitted
from acacia to cactus, and lit up the dark green zzsperos; the turtle-
doves cooed innocently; the golden troupials flashed by on shining
wings ; and the shade of the cezdas, or silk-cottons, was most refresh-



CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE, 63.

ing. With water only, and plenty of it, this little parched island
might be made a perfect garden of delights, for its climate is perfect.

I fear I have not made out this tropical island to be the happy
haven of rest I myself have found it; but I describe it as it appears,
without exaggeration of its merits or defects. Perhaps its charm lies
in the climate, the air is so cool in the morning, though so hot at
noon, but delicious and refreshing at evening-time. There is here a
perpetual invitation to rest, and the twenty-seven thousand composing
its population have not disregarded it. The government, as I have
said, is Dutch, paternal and beneficent in so far as it can be; and one
should visit the old fortress church, the fort, and the government build-
ing, to see specimens of Holland architecture modified to suit climatic
conditions. This is a free port, Curacoa. The shops are many, and
the goods are cheap. Most of the business seems to be in the hands
of the Jews, although the Dutch hold the wholesale trade. There is an
immense 4bverza, or bookstore, here, — that of Bitancourt, whose prin-
cipal trade is in Venezuela. Communication is maintained between
various parts of the island by means of excellent roads, and around
the lagoon of Schearlo runs a tramway. I may be accused of adopt-
ing an English term instead of an American, in calling this a tramway,
and not a horse-car line. But the truth is the car is drawn by a.
donkey. The car itself is not over large, and perhaps nine people
can secure transportation at one and the same time; while the donkey
is hardly as big as a billy-goat. It may not always be the same
donkey that draws it, but if it is not, there is a strong family resem-
" blance, especially as to size. One day a party of three ladies went on
shore from a newly arrived steamer, and seeing the car standing there,
boarded it. As it was rear end on, they did not see the donkey, and
when it began to move they were filled with wonder. They made the
trip around the lagoon and back, alighted, and went aboard the
steamer delighted. “ How lovely it was! And what a charming ride

that was on the electric car!”



64. THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN,

« And all de time,” said the old Dutchman who told me the story,
“ der was a man on der vront seat, und dey didn’t see der yackass!”

The “sights” of Curacoa are peculiarly West Indian, and the
people, especially the blacks, objects of never-ceasing interest. Every-
where, squatted against the walls along the streets, one sees groups of
aged negresses and young girls, their rags scarce hiding their skins,
keeping guard over small heaps of fruits and vegetables. Exceeding
the market-women in interest, the washerwomen attract the first atten-
tion of the stranger. They board the steamer (when the officers will
let them) and solicit the linen of passengers; but woe to him who
intrusts his garments to their care! Before you decide to do this,
walk over to the beach and look at the spectacle of half-naked
washerwomen lining the shore, dipping the clothing in the sea and
mauling it with a club! After they have worried the life out of a
garment,—a shirt, for instance,— smashed all the buttons off and
punched it full of holes, they spread it out on a cactus-bush to dry, or
fasten it down on a rock with jagged fragments of coral. Witnessing
such a sight makes the average man unhappy; and it is small wonder
that many of the natives seek to drown their sorrows in the flowing
bowl. Their favorite tipple is that delicious drink bearing the name
of the island, Curacoa, which is made in Holland, but receives its
flavor from a peculiar orange peel exported hence to the land of dikes.
Gin also, being very cheap, about thirty cents a bottle, is much ap-
proved. And so, revelling in the luxuries a free port invites to
their doors, blest with a delightful climate, secure in their environment
of sea, and imbibing the golden nectar of the gods, these exotic Dutch-
men abide in perfect peace and contentment.

2



CHAPTER VI.
THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT.

From CuRAGOA To PUERTO CABELLO.— CASTLE OF THE LIBERATOR. — BURIAL-PLACE
OF DRAKE. — COCO-PALMS AND TROPIC-TREES. — PHOTOGRAPHING THE NATIVES. —
How WE FRIGHTENED A. NEGRO Boy.

CALL it mysterious, for South America yet contains
vast regions unexplored, rivers whose windings have
never been traced, and mountain valleys never yet
seen by white men. Let us imagine ourselves, then,
entering the harbor of Puerto Cabello on a cool
May morning, the purple mountains half hidden in
mist, the white-walled city lying quiet as a churchyard, without a
breeze to sway the long leaves of the palms, whose green crowns rise
above the roofs. But as we round the island castle that guards the
harbor mouth, a gun booms out a welcome, and as by magic, the city
is astir. People move early here in the tropics.

A short gun-shot away rose a square old fortress, of gray and
yellow stone, low and massive, with crenellated parapet and ornate,
bell-top sentry-boxes; a survival of buccaneer times, this gray old
Spaniard, when Morgan and Drake and pirates from Curacoa
pounced upon the Main. A guard of dirty and dismal soldiers while
away their time within its walls, and parade the narrow limits of their
island. They are brown and black, and their tattered uniforms pro-
claim their miserable condition. In the morning early they come
out and fire a gun, and spend a great portion of their waking hours in
5





66 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

blowing horns and bugles, showing that they have some energy, even
if confined inactive within the narrow compass of a fort.

A few hundred yards away rises a square, four-storied lighthouse,
on a narrow island by itself with apparently only just space enough



BOLIVAR.

for foundation-stones between the lagoon and the sea, the waves of
which can be seen above the beach; and their roar can be heard
throughout the day. This lighthouse mounts a flashlight, red and
white alternate, visible ten or fifteen miles at sea. The old fort guards
effectively the narrow entrance to the harbor of Puerto Cabello, and



THE MYSTERIOVS CONTINENT, 67

is now known as e¢ Castillo del Libertador, — Castle of the Liberator;
for we are now in Venezuela, land of the Liberator, the great and only
Bolivar. Between us and the lighthouse, on a shoal of the Castle
Island, lies the hull of a
steamer, its machinery stick-
ing up suggestively above |
the water, — an old blockade-
runner, with a history, dur-
ing our late war between
North and South. Farther
up the lagoon a great “ mud-
digger” is moored, an ex-
pensive purchase by one of |
the numerous “ Govern- |
ments” of Venezuela, and |
which was intended to
dredge the harbor, but
which, beyond a merely pre-
liminary exhibition, never
scooped a shovelful. A lit-
tle beyond, a great iron
steamer lies inactive, rusting
to pieces at her moorings.
The Government paid ten
thousand dollars to have her
taken away from one of the POS ENE ERT
revolutionary generals a few
years ago. The “general” himself is now commander-in-chief of Ven-
ezuela's forces ; but the gallant tar who saved her to the Government
still whistles for his reward.

High hills rise behind Puerto Cabello, clothed in green to their
crests, and guard.a broad plain between their bases and the sea, and

>





68 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

here the city itself is built. The streets are straight, some broad,
some narrow, with several A/zzuelas here and there, planted with palms
and tropical shrubs. The plaza-park occupies a point of land just
astern our steamer and opposite the castle. Between park and castle
is the channel, narrow but
deep, giving entrance to the

‘finest harbor on this coast.
The great lagoon be-
yond is crowded along its
shores with mangroves, isles,
and islets, among which
there should be excellent
shooting, unless appear-
ances deceive. Ihavea gun
aboard, but as yet have not
\) taken it from its case, and
am reserving it for use in
Lake Maracaibo. Of birds
generally considered gamey
1 have seen very few thus
far; only pelicans, herons,
gulls, and terns, aside from
the numerous song and plu-
A SPANISH GIRL. mage birds met with in the

plazas and gardens.

The fargue, with its contiguity to the sea, and swept by cool
breezes all day long, is an extremely attractive spot. Tall palms,



called here aguaranas, probably oleraczas, rise above and guard the
gates, and encircle a fantastic fountain in the centre. Many of the
great gray stems of these palms are perforated,—holes from half an
inch to two inches in diameter, — which remind us of one of the revo-
lutions that took place here. Crowds of people were gathered here



THE MEVSTERIOUS CONTINENT. § 69

and were fired into by the fort opposite, and many slaughtered.
These holes in the palm-trunks are yearly growing larger, and may
eventually cause the destruction of these glorious trees.

To mention the other plants and trees of this pleasure garden
would be to enumerate a goodly portion of the flora of the tropics.

I sat down one afternoon beneath the shade of a sapote-tree, and
watched the birds playing in the shrubbery, while I amused myself
trying to, call them about me, as I used to do in the Antilles. They
were nearly all strange to me; but I think I recognized a little “ hum-
mer,’ that buzzed about a bush with great red flowers, as the green-
throated humming-bird of the West Indies. In the palms, crying
noisily among the spathes covering the flower-clusters, was a species
of fly-catcher very much resembling a new one I discovered in
Dominica thirteen years ago, called by the natives there the “ sunset-
bird,” and named by Professor Lawrence the Mytarchus Obert in
honor of its discoverer. The one in the palm-tree, the little boys in
the garden told me, was known as Zio Fuan, or Uncle John.

I have often wondered whether I did science a service or no, in
bringing to the ornithological lights the twenty and more new birds
I discovered in the West Indies. Since the beginning of creation,
perhaps, at least since these islands rose from the wave and were
blessed with bird-life, these birds had existed unknown save to the
native negroes and Indians, and by them only half recognized by cry
or flight. Civilized man first made their acquaintance through my
- introduction, and that was only brought about by searching out and
killing the birds; for one can rarely tell to a certainty when he holds
a new species in his hand. The animal must be skinned and stuffed,
must be measured, and his life-colors, cries, and habits noted; then its
skin is sent to the museum, where it is compared with others there
collected, and with all known species; and perhaps it must even be
sent to Europe to be compared with others.

One humming-bird that I sent to our museum at Washington



7O THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

made two voyages across the Atlantic before its identity was deter.
mined. There exists a class of “closet naturalists,’— men who know
nothing of field or forest, but who spend their lives in examining dead
and dried specimens of animated nature. They have perhaps their
use; but they do a great deal of damage and prolong the quarrels that
are constantly going on between real naturalists over the classification
of bird and beast. What constitutes a species? It is, I think, a
question not yet determined,— one class being prone to make a
species out of a mere variety, and another insisting upon reducing the
number already existing.

But I did not intend to wander into those fascinating fields again,
where I passed so many months of my youth. Already, I fear, they
have consumed too much of my life. To come back to Puerto Ca-
bello and its plazas. I often queried what was the signification of this
strange name: Puerto Cabello, — the “ Port of the Hair.” But the
other day one of our vice-consuls here explained that it was a per-
petual boast of its excellence; a vessel might be moored here dy @
hair, and not break away from her moorings.

Off the castle, our mate tells us, lies anchored that redoubtable
pirate of England, Sir Francis Drake; at least it is said that he was
buried here, so many leagues off the Castle of Puerto Cabello,’ and so
many fathoms deep. This was the great “stamping-ground” of the
late Sir Francis; and perhaps the enormous old cannon in Caracas
were a pair of the very pieces used against him when he stormed
La Guayra.

The last voyage of Drake was made in company with the scarcely
less celebrated Sir John Hawkins. It was most unfortunate to all
concerned. Hawkins died off the eastern end of Puerto Rico.. Not
long after, Drake died and was buried at sea off Puerto Bello, in a
leaden coffin.

1 We think the mate mistaken, and that Drake was buried off Puerto Bello, not off Puerto
Cabello.



THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT. 71

‘The following lines perpetuate this event : —

“* Where Drake first found, there last he lost his name,
And for a tomb left nothing but his fame.
His body’s buried under some great wave,
The sea that was his glory is his grave ;
On whom an epitaph none now can make;
For who can say, ‘ Here lies Sir Francis Drake’?”

Here forts, castles, cannon, habitations, all carry us back to the
times of Drake and Raleigh; and if it were not for the enterprising





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE LAST VOYAGE OF DRAKE.

North, Venezuela might perhaps still be dreaming of times when
Charles the Fifth first inscribed péws ultra upon his arms, Only
yesterday I saw a doubloon of Charles the Third, bearing date 1791.

\



72 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

Gold is not so scarce here as it is in Spain to-day. I remember how
eagerly a certain old antiquarian in Granada seized upon a gold-piece
I had, and refused to give it up again when I wanted it back. Once
was the time that the golden flood poured into Spain from the
Americas, from Mexico,
the West Indies, and
Peru. But’ where is it
now? Where are the
pearls that Cubagua and
the Spanish Main sent to
Spain? Long years since,
the tide turned the other
way, and the treasures of
the Occident have been
brought back from the
East, though in a shape
different from that in
which they went out.
Montezuma’s and the In-



AN INCA. cas’ treasures excited un-

: bounded wonder. They

were the accumulation of centuries, those vessels of gold, wheels,

suns, and golden gods. Not so much has been found since, though

doubtless there are mines untouched and river-sands unwashed that
will yet yield gold.

The houses here are allin the Oriental style; that is, of southern
Spain, — low, square, massive, all built of stone, with flat roofs and
enclosed padzos. There are few here of more than one story, and the
active city is hidden from the steamer’s deck by the custom-house,
that towers above all else. This custom-house is said to be due to
the enterprise of an American, our consul here. In truth, almost all
works of any magnitude are the product of foreign capital, and are



THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT. 73

of foreign inception. As in Mexico, the Lnglish and Americans have
kindly provided the people with railroads to all important points, so
here English and Americans are working the great enterprises that
‘give these people quick communication between important points,
secure harbors and connection with foreign ports. Of these I
shall write more particularly after I have had opportunity for ex-
amination and comparison.

A certain writer on Algiers has declared that no two Orientals
will walk down a street side by side, unless the colors of their cos-
tumes harmonize,— color and contrasts of colors being felt every-
where. As to costume, the people here seem to have little regard for
their appearance, with reference to harmony of colors; but as to their
dwellings, they make them most attractive. Instead of whitewashing
these massive walls and making them glaring white, as the Ber-
mudians do with their houses, making them look like surface-
croppings of coral rock, these South Americans give them a great
variety of pleasing colors. Blue, pink, and yellow predominate; and
the combined effect, though not premeditated, is fine. Cover these
walls with tiles, curving over one another in undulating lines, and of
richest browns and terra-cottas, with a background of deep-green
hills; over all a sky of clearest blue, — and there is harmony in color
that would satisfy the soul of an artist hard to please.

I cannot learn that Puerto Cabello has ever suffered from earth-
quakes, nor been often devastated by hurricanes; but the houses
crouch low upon the ground, as though fearful of some elemental
convulsion.

In such a country as this—indeed, in any country whatever —
we always find the lower classes the most picturesque, both in habit
and habitation. Their surroundings also are in keeping with their
immediate environment, for they always occupy the outlying districts
where gardens bloom fruitfully and coco-palms wave invitingly their
golden leaves. Such are the suburbs of Puerto Cabello. The city



74. THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

itself may be half a mile across; solidly built, from sea-wall to lagoon,
where the water penetrates to the streets, and boats and bridges are
as necessary as sidewalks. One little island here is occupied by a
shanty and its scant soil covered by a garden, apparently a summer



CHURCH AND STREET IN PUERTO CABELLO.

resort, and this insular possession is called La /sle Misteriosa, — the
Mysterious Island. But the attractive portion of the city lies hidden
among the coco-palms.

The palm groves can be seen from the steamer’s deck, filling the
valley between the city and the hills, and bordering the sea-beach for
miles. and miles. How the coco-palm clings to the sea! It never
strays far away from the sea-beach, never leaves the sound of the sea-
waves behind, — the waves that first brought the coco-nut to these
shores. Other palms replace it in the hills and mountains; but if



THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT. 75

you are coming to the coast from a point far inland, you may be sure
of the end of your journey being near when you first see the coco-
palm.

They say in the islands that the coco-palm ministers to their
wants in a hundred different ways. Speaking of the palm, I found
once something quite interesting relating to it in an old book pub-
lished in London, 1613, called “ A Plain Description of the Barmodas,
now called Summer Islands, with the Manner of their Discouerie.”
It says: “ The Head of the Palmito Tree is verie good Meate, either
raw or sodden; it yieldeth a Head which weigheth about twentie
Pounds, and is farre better Meate than any Cabbidge.” The author
was probably writing of the cabbage-palm, though that variety is now
scarce in Bermuda.

There are thousands of these coco-palms in the place I have men-
tioned on the outskirts of Puerto Cabello, tossing their graceful heads
aloft in wild abandon. They lean lovingly over the lowly huts of
cane and hang their stems across the roads and lanes. Great clusters
of coco-nuts hang invitingly just out of reach, — green-gold nuts, half
shaded by green-gold leaves.

Here are the gardens of the poor, rich in everything prodigal
Nature can bestow. The ground is covered with sheets of purple
flowers and clumps of shrubs bearing white spikes of flowers with a
fragrance like our “spice-bush.” The air is sweet, and the senses are
delighted, in spite of the filth and squalor of the people who live here.
Clumps of sugar-cane grow here and there, reminding me, by their
size, of a story I.once heard anent a man of Tobago. He told of
cane so large in that island that while one man is cutting one down
with a cutlass, another is stationed a little way off to warn him in case
it seems likely to fall upon and crush him. The narrator of this yarn
had a spy-glass so powerful (he said) that he could see through it the
washerwomen spreading their clothes to dry on the walls of Fort
Charlotte, St. Vincent, seventy-five miles away.



76 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

It is a fact of history, by the way, that the English name for
tobacco was derived from that of the island Tobago, where it was first
found by Englishmen. But to return to our coco-palms.

— Some one, perhaps, may object to
my spelling of “coco,” preferring it



“cocoa.” But I beg to inform any one
disposed to be critical that “ cocoa” is
wrong. The coco is the cocos mucz-
Sera ; the cacao may be called “ cocoa,”
if you like, coming from the Aztec
(Mexican) word, cacahuatl, Here
they call it ca-c4-o, and apply the term
“cocos ” to the coco-trees.

Having photographed the city
streets and the parks, I hied me out
one morning to secure some of the
dwellers in the coco grove. I had
a companion, and we each had a
camera. Mine was an old affair
perched on a tripod, and had done
good service already. The lens I
purchased of old Darlot himself in
Paris, and I know just what it can
do. My companion had a new-fan-
gled invention with an outlandish
name, in the shape of a box filled
with “films” for sixty photographs.
He was no photographer, but le went’

A NATIVE TRADER. according to printed directions, which

he consulted before every exposure.

These directions were: (1) To unplug the end of the box; (2) Pull a
string ; (3) Turn acrank; (4) Press a button. Also to be careful in



THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT. 77

estimating the distance between the machine and the victim intended
for sacrifice. It was to be pointed exactly at the centre of the object
to be photographed, and if said object were small, then the operator
must crouch a little. Thus armed, — “loaded for bear,” as it were, —
we went hunting for game. A fine group of cocos claimed my atten-
tion at once, and I pitched my camera at a street-corner, and was
at once surrounded by a curious crowd. They were curious, but not
offensive; and so, finding that these people would take it in good
part, we proceeded to secure several groups of them. There was one
hut especially fine in its barbaric completeness, —a hut of reeds,
wattled and plastered and thatched. Between the reeds the spaces
were stuffed with coco-husks. The interior was dark and filthy, with-
out table or chairs, and a little naked in-
fant crouched in one corner. Out of sur-
rounding huts poured the people like flies
- from the bung-hole of an empty molasses
barrel. There were women clad in che-
mise and skirt, bearing babies astride their
hips, — babies stark naked and brown.
Youngsters of all ages, up to eight or ten,
stalked about without a rag on them, while
the older ones wore hardly anything but
rags. They were rather coy at first; but
a few words of explanation from me set all
right, and they allowed us to include as INDIAN GIRL.
many as we wanted in our grouping. I
told them, for instance, that we were Americans (Americanos) from
the North, and that we did not have any coco-palms and beautiful
houses of palm-leaves, nor such lovely babies, chzguztetos, and pretty
sehovitas; and these simple people believed it all, and said they
would be glad to let the Norte-Americanos see photographs of all
these things, since they did not have any of their own. So they laugh-





78 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN,

ingly grouped themselves, only begging that they might have a peep
through the machine after I had taken the photograph.

The camera, perched on its tripod, they could understand and
were familiar with, but were afraid of the black box with its omi-~
nous muzzle, carried by my friend. When that was pointed at them
all the youngsters trembled and cried, while the older ones were
rather dubious, though I managed to reassure them. Just as we had
concluded, I spied a better subject coming than any we had taken.
A little negro black as night, with an old straw hat on his head
and straw sandals on his feet, came down the path, leading by the
hand a smaller mite of humanity the hue of mahogany. Both were
naked, except for the hat and sandals of the older one; but they
marched along as grave as judges and apparently as happy.

I had used up my plates, but I said to my friend, “ There is your
chance;” and he at once started on the trail. As the little chaps
were small, he had to crouch (according to direction); and when
those black babies saw the strange man after them, creeping stealth-
ily and pointing a long black box, as though to shoot, they set up
a howl, and fled precipitately. The old straw hat fell off; the san-
dals flew into the air; and the photographer lost his picture.



CHAPTER iV Ik:
A JOURNEY INTO THE COFFEE REGION.

VENEZUELAN POLITICIANS. — FIREWORKS BY DAYLIGHT.— LOADING COFFEE AT PUERTO:
CABELLO. — A RAILROAD ON STILTS.— THE CITY OF VALENCIA.—FRom COAST TO
MountTAIN-LAND. — BREAD-FRUITS AND TRUMPET-TREES.— WHAT A WISE INDIAN.
sAipD.— A RuMOR-OF CANNIBALS.

NE night we came over Curacoa, leaving at sunset



and arriving at sunrise; going to rest with memories
of roseate hills and sunset clouds, awaking with a
vision before us of cloud-capped mountains, green
hills coming down to the sea and enclosing a city
curious and quaint. Coming up from La Guayra
the other night, as the distance is short, one boiler only was used,
and the motion was hardly perceptible. We had a crowd of Spanish-
Americans, and among them several distinguished Venezuelans,
attendant upon the last ex-President, Doctor Paulo. To pronounce
the name of this distinguished gentleman you must make it Pow-
o6-lo, and then the chances are you won’t place stress enough upon
the oo. We departed amid music and fireworks, and arrived at
Puerto Cabello with a welcome of music and fireworks. It was
scarce daylight when we arrived opposite the castle, yet the rockets
began to ascend and explode, while the band kept up such a din
that it almost drowned the’ voice of our captain as he gave his
orders from the bridge. The channel is narrow, and a big Spanish



80 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

steamer lay at our berth; and it required great skill and seamanship
to put our steamer up to the wharf. Through it all—confusion of
noises such as tooting of whistles, exploding of rockets, and braying
of horns—the multitude assembled on the wharf applauded vocifer-
ously. I scanned the faces carefully, and came to the conclusion
that it was a good-natured multitude, an easily-led-by-the-nose mul- |
, titude, with great respect for a man who could
Y hold office a year in this country and leave a
respectable sum in the treasury. For that is
what they say Paulo did, a month or two ago,
when he retired to make way for his successor;
but some also assert that the surplus afore-
mentioned was suddenly reduced, and Paulo’s
pockets as quickly filled. Be that as it may,
Paulo is not an evil-looking man; he looks hon-
est and kindly. He is past middle age, dark
and cadaverous, dresses plainly, and has an un-
assuming manner. His wife is also dark, but
quite large, and the diamonds she wore were the
envy of all the ladies on board.
They had their nieces with them,— two plump
and beautiful brunettes, who played our piano
with skill, and were the objects of unwearied
attention from the young men in attendance.



“cue rockets pecan to How long they continued their promenades on
ASCEND. deck that night, I cannot tell, for I retired early;
but I know that I awoke now and then through the night, and
heard snatches of music and laughter, and caught glimpses of the.
moon-lit mountains of Venezuela, as we glided over the sea.
One is struck by the prevailing complexion of the people, so
generally dark, even swarthy. I noticed this particularly the day be-
fore as I glanced over the crowd on the wharf. Nearly all (as one man



A JOURNEY INTO THE COFFEE REGION. 81

put it) were black-and-tan, the only difference being a little more or
less of one or the other. The Indians have mostly disappeared, but
they have left their mark, though the Spaniard has more than held
his own. During the entire day “ El Doctor,” as he is termed, held
a levee with the people, on deck and in the cabin. Although he
‘no longer held office, yet people seemed to think he “had the pull,”
and he was constantly besieged. He was going to Curacoa with us for
his health; and some of the young ladies with us were also going
there to attend the famous convent school. After the doctor had
in a measure satisfied the curiosity of the people, they began to
depart; but the rocketeers remained till the last, sending up their
sticks. The Spaniards and the: Spanish-Americans have a great
inclination for sending off fireworks by daylight. They make very
good fireworks here, and send them off in good style, but oftener
make their displays by day than by night, evidently having a
greater relish for the noise than the illumination. All this occurred,
or most of it, before six o’clock in the morning; for the people here
are “early to bed and early to rise;” as to whether or no they
are “healthy, wealthy, and wise,” I cannot tell, but do not think
many of them are.

The legal hours for labor here are from six to ten o’clock in the
morning, then a two hours’ siesta, and from twelve o'clock, noon, till
four o’clock in the afternoon. Everything is regulated by the cus-
toms officials; they charge twenty-five cents an hour for the labor-
ers, and are said to pay. them twenty. This may not be a paternal
government, but it exercises pretty strong control over the lower
classes. The officers of the ship have to make their bargains with
the officials, who undertake to supply the number of men wanted
and who specify their hours of labor and their employment. This
operates to make the laborers very saucy and independent, and
takes their control out of the hands of those most concerned in the
faithful discharge of their duties. The customs regulations are

6



82 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

eccentric; but there is hardly any impediment placed in the way
of the traveller. No passport is demanded, and only a superficial
examination is made of one’s luggage.

As I said, the lading of the ship began at about six o’clock,
and a din of a different sort began. Great and brawny negroes,
stripped to the waist, handled the sacks of coffee with great rapidity
and dexterity. A line was
constantly passing and re-
passing,— each one with a
sack of coffee on his head,
which he dexterously
dumped across the rope on
which the sacks were slung,
ten at a time, and hoisted
by the steam-winch into the
hold. It seemed like a pan- -
demonium of noise and con-
fusion ; but everything
moved steadily on, and: by

ALL NATIONALITIES. breakfast-time, orten o'clock,

the great pile of coffee

sacks was diminished; and by three o’clock the work was done, the

negroes and donkeys departed, the wharf was swept off, and the

late scene of bustle, noise, and strife was quiet, and nobody was
left there, except a few fireproof darkies slumbering in the sun.

All this coffee comes from the interior; and until recently. it
was brought down to the coast on the backs of donkeys and mules.
The plantation, a long way off, of course was at a great disadvantage,
there being no long-and-short haul clause in their contracts with
the arrzevos and . donkey drivers.

_A few years ago a railroad was inaugurated, from Puerto Cabello
into the interior. It was completed in 1888 as far as Valencia,





A FOURNEY INTO THE COFFEE REGION. 83

a city of some forty thousand inhabitants, the capital of the State
of Carabobo. This railroad line is, as far as Valencia, fifty-four
kilometers (or about thirty-five miles) long. It carried sixty-two
thousand passengers the first year of its completion. As one of
the railroads aiming to penetrate this great and mysterious con-
tinent of South America, which presents a mountain barrier almost
the entire length of the Caribbean coast, this road deserves exami-
nation. It was built with English capital, and is owned and run
by Englishmen; the rolling-stock is thoroughly English also, and
presents to the American many obsolescent features that our coun-
try has long since buried, but to which Johnny Bull still clings
tenaciously, or else England used these new countries as a sort
of dumping-ground for her cast-off and antiquated carriages. Let us
hope, for her sake, the latter. But the road-bed is magnificent,
and the viaducts just such as we find on that other English road
running through similar country, in Mexico, from Vera Cruz to the
capital.

Over this road in Venezuela come the products of the inte-
rior, — coffee, cacao, deer and goat skins, hides, cotton, copper, and
dye-woods, amounting to some five million dollars during the year
1888,

This city of Valencia, of which we heard so much, we desired to
see; and so we set forth one morning by the train. Consulting the
history of Venezuela, we found the town to be sufficiently ancient to
have a suggestion of interest, having been founded so long ago as the
middle of the sixteenth century, by Alonzo Diaz Moreno. It occu-
pies a beautiful plain, or elevated valley, mountain-surrounded, with
temperate climate and within sight of Lake Tacarigua, famous for
its beautiful shores: and islands. Beyond this city, the railroad
- will connect with another line, which is to establish communica-
tion between Valencia and Caracas.

A party of us took the train at eight eoteee in the morning



+

84 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

seeking the station in a dirty suburb of Puerto Cabello. The
fare is two dollars and a half — first-class —for the thirty-five miles,
Although the railroad station is in a location altogether uninviting,
yet within a few minutes after pulling out, the train passes through
the beautiful coco grove which I mentioned before, and thence-
forward the scenery presents a constant succession of surprises.
Leaving the vast coco plantation, embowered in which are thé
huts of favored dwellers, we come out upon a long curving beach,
where the waves tumble heavily upon the sands, and the wind
whistles through the palm-branehes. Taking our departure from
the coast at this point, our course hence is along the banks of
a river.

From the very beginning, this river treats us to the choicest
bits of Nature’s production in the way of tropical and semi-tropical
scenery. Curving in and out, first on one bank, then on the other,
the road steadily ascends the steep hills and penetrates a suc-
cession of valleys, each higher than the other, and each showing
a slight difference in the vegetation. Along the coast of course
the coco-palms grow, in thinner and thinner groups, then more
isolated, until the last one is left behind, growing on the seaward
side of a hill. Then the bananas and plantains, zzsferos and bread-
fruit. This last has a character of its own, and is distinctive
even in this tropical wealth of vegetation. The leaves are deeply
cleft with seven to nine lobes. The fruit is green, spherical, with
a very rough surface. Under the skin, or rind, we find the pulp,
or “bread” portion, of the fruit, which nourishes so many people
here as well as in the islands of Oceanica. A tree resembling
this at first glance is the trumpet-tree, though it bears no edible
fruit, and its leaves have silver linings which, like poplar-leaves,
show bright in every breeze.

Then came silk-cottons (cezbas) and sand-box-trees. The former
are now in delicate green leaf, and are not hung with the pods of



A FOURNEV INTO THE COFFEE REGION. 85

silk-cotton, which give these trees their specific name. As to the
sand-box-trees, their twigs are topped with the round tomato-shaped
seed-boxes that have such a curious appearance. If collected and
carefully dried, they make
fine paper-weights, etc. But
there is a knack in the dry-
ing of them that I do not
understand. I remember
that I carried some home in
my trunk at one time, in-
tending to show them to my
friends. When I came to
“overhaul” my trunk, how-
ever, I found nosand-boxes at
all, —at which I marvelled
much, —and only some
strange seeds I had never
seen before. It was a long f
time before I discovered
that the boxes had _ burst ‘
and scattered their con- |
tents throughout the trunk.
The railroad is steep as
far as a station called Las
Trincheras ; but beyond this
_the grade is such that a dif- TROPICAL PLANTS.
ferent engine is substituted
for the one we started with, which works with a cog or cam in a
similar manner to the one up Mount Washington, in New Hampshire.
Only it is claimed that this system is superior, being adapted to
heavy trains, and having a larger and different kind of engine.
We run parallel to the old mule road from the coast, and note
that the trains of donkeys are not yet discontinued. Now and then






86 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

the river is spanned by a rude semi-suspension bridge, almost as
primitive as the grape-vine bridges I have seen in South Mexico.
The hills and mountains rise far above us and hem us in; but at last
we burst the barrier and see before us a far-stretching plain.

Just here, the train is halted,
while I am given time to photo-
graph a fine fall of water, called
| Aqua Linda. It drops over a
cliff, between masses of trees and
vines, and forms a lovely pool ere





























































































































































































_| it runs away to the river. The hills
and mountains on either side of us
are gaunt and bare, of rich red
hues. The air is clear and pure,
and we are now in a temperate
region, perhaps fifteen hundred
feet above the sea. Beyond Aqua
Linda is a station called Maegua-
nagua, or, as it was explained to
me, the Two Waters. After a two
hours’ ride, the station of Valencia
is reached, which, like néarly all
Spanish and Spanish-American sta-

FRUIT-SELLER OF VALENCIA. tions, is a long way from the cen-

tre of the city.

To the surprise of most of our party, we were met here by the
superintendent and assistant superintendent of the railroad, and the
chief of the electric plant,—two Englishmen and an American, —
and during the rest of the day were in their charge. Suffice it to say
that they cared for us royally, took us all about the city in carriages,
to every point of interest, and ended with a dinner of the best Valen-
cia afforded. The day was Good Friday, so that everybody was in
holiday attire, and flocking to the church.































































































































HOUSE OF CIVILIZED INDIANS.







A FOURNEY INTO THE COFFEE REGION. 89

We visited, among other places, the waterworks and Calvario, or
Calvary, the highest point in the city, where it all lay spread out at
our feet; and beyond the many-colored houses sparkled the waters of
the lake. On the highest part of Calvario, Guzman Blanco, with
becoming modesty, had erected his statue; but the people pulled it
down months ago, and not even a fragment remains.

Were it possible, I should like to describe the unbounded hospi-
tality of our friends and show my readers what generous deeds some
men are capable of; but I confess I cannot. The city is lighted by
electric lights, the public buildings are fine, and in the principal plaza
is a beautiful bronze statue of Bolivar.

The Professor and I, as our readers well know, are very much
interested in the history of America; and as it was upon this very
coast of South America that some of the most notable events took
place, we cannot let the opportunity pass without reference to them.
We found a queer old book called, “ The General History of the Vast
Continent and Islands of America, commonly called the West Indies,”
written by Antonio de Herrera three hundred years ago, and trans-
lated into English in 1740.

From this very valuable work we shall now and then make
extracts; the following is one: —

“In the other hemisphere [America] there were no dogs, asses,
sheep, goats, swine, cats, horses, mules, camels, nor elephants. They
had no orange, lemon, pomegranate, fig, quince, olive, melons, wines
nor sugar, wheat nor rice. They knew not the use of iron, knew
nothing of firearms, printing, or learning. Their navigation extended
not beyond their sight; their government and politics were barbar-
ous. Their mountains and vast woods were not habitable. An In-
dian of good natural parts being asked what was the best they had
got by the Spaniards, answered: The hen’s eggs, as being laid new
every day; the hen herself must be either boiled or roasted, and does
not always prove tender, while the egg is good every way. Then he



go THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

added: The horse and artificial light, because the first carries men
with ease and bears his burdens, and by means of the latter (the
Indians having learned to make wax and tallow candles and oil), there-
fore, they ved some part of the night! and this he thought to be the
most valuable acquisition from the white people.” A wise old Indian
that! There are many Indians in Venezuela yet in savage state, and
in the neighboring republic of C@fombia there are said to be canni-
bals. Not long ago reports came down to the coast of a massacre
and cannibal feast which took place on the Putumayo, — one of many
rivers which run from the eastern slope of the Colombian Andes,
and about which little is known. Rising in the mountainous districts
of the upper altitudes of Pasto, in the State of Cauca, this river runs
nearly one thousand miles, receiving in its course the tributary waters
of more than thirty streams.

Within the past few years adventurous residents in Pasto have
endeavored to turn the riches of the river to account. Some time
ago a young merchant of Barcacoas, named Portes, with some friends,
established himself on the banks of the Putumayo. They were soon
visited by a number of Jevenetos Indians, who came ostensibly to
trade. The Indians were well received and were apparently satisfied,
but suddenly they attacked and killed the Colombians, and afterward
cooked and ate them. The Indians had never visited the Putumayo
before, and no one had ever fallen in with them on the Amazon.
Other tribes have also made their appearance in different places, and
it is believed that some more powerful tribes are driving the weaker
ones from the heart of the unknown forest regions, or that they are
voluntary emigrants who will murder and plunder wltenever oppor-
tunity offers. Residents on the frontier also suggest that they may
have been driven from their homes, wherever these may be, by the
slavers, whose vessels ascended several of the tributaries of the Amazon
a few years ago in search of slaves and produce. Indians are captured
on all the interior rivers and carried off to out-of-the-way regions.



ie
i | ir

(











































































NATURAL TUNNEL ON THE OF VENEZUELA.









CHAPTER VIII.
LAND OF THE LIBERATOR.

SIGHT OF SouTH AMERICA’S MouNTAINS. — A FORMIDABLE Line. —— A MISERABLE
PEOPLE. — THE VIOLENT SEA.— RED AND GREEN HILLS.— ONE DOLLAR FOR LAND-
ING, AND A FEE FoR LeEavinG. — BoLivar’s ARMy.— POETRY BY A CONSUL. — REV-

. ENUES AND EXPORTS OF VENEZUELA. — A FLOCK OF FIREFLIES.

OUTH AMERICA, as we first approach it on the
Venezuelan coast, presents a discouraging bulwark
of defence in its mountains, which guard the interior
well. Beyond these mountain-barriers it seems im-
possible to penetrate; they stand up so high and
frowning without an apparent opening in their
serried ranks. Half the night through, in going from Puerto Cabello
to La Guayra, as we walked the decks we were treated to occasional
glimpses of misty mountains. It was a glorious night, moonlit and
clear; the stars sparkled brightly, and the Southern Cross hung slant-
wise above the purple mountains, having mysteriously made its ap-
pearance about nine o'clock in the evening. The sea was smooth ;
and as the distance between the two ports is only half a night’s run,
we glided along almost imperceptibly, with no motion of the big
steamer felt except the regular pulsations of the engine. We reached
La Guayra at daylight; and as we sought the deck after a refreshing
night’s sleep, we saw our friends, the mountains, right before us, their
higher steeps frowning directly upon and overtopping us, as we lay





94 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

tossing upon the waves. The roadstead is open and exposed, and the
waves roll in from outside, tossing the steamers and the smaller craft
about like chips. The distance from Curacoa is a ten hours’ run, and
from Puerto Cabello five or six, going at easy speed.

Great cloud-masses hang lowering over the mountains, while silver
cloudlets sport along their sides. Though the heights are green, the
bases are bare and brown, scarred and gashed. There are no signs of
habitation above five hundred feet or so, but one of the shoulders of a
hill is cut out to receive a cosey little fort, upon the stone walls of
which is a signal station, —a delightful post of observation, command-
ing a wide sweep of ocean and coastwise view.

The bull-ring is just below the fort, and immediately beneath, the
best part of the town, which is here compactly built, but straggles
along the shore to the right and left. It lies under the steep hills,
composed of houses of stone and clay.

A hotter place apparently could not be found anywhere than this
La Guayra occupies, with the. hills behind and above it, and exposed
to the blaze of the sun three-fourths of the day. Above the narrow
line of houses along shore, tracks and footpaths zigzag up the hills,
leading to humble dwellings, mere mud-boxes, perched on the hill-
sides. They are but earthy excrescences of the hills, as brown and
sun-baked as the slopes around them. Yet mean and small as these
huts are, they are swarming with people, — with creatures whom it
were high honor to call brothers through Adam. I am sure Adani
did not expect such degeneracy as one sees here on the north coast
of South America. | ;

To get ashore at La Guayra costs one dollar. It is the first port
at which we have touched where there is anything like a desire to
make money out of visitors; so that this mild attempt at extortion
is taken in good part, and is soon forgotten as new scenes claim
attention.

It was on a holiday that we arrived at La Guayra, and the regular





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Zs et
es



LA GUAYRA.







LAND OF THE LIBERATOR. 97

“lighters” were not making their trips to the shore. These great
boats, built of ironwood and lignum vite, are said to cost above one
thousand dollars each; and though they are but clumsy, misshapen
“gundalous,” yet they land their freightage in good condition, and
their passengers with dry feet. Our boatman was very importunate
for his fee, and we could hardly avoid paying him the dollar each that
he demanded. But it was well that we “stood him off,” because when
we reached the custom-house, a ticket was presented to each of us for
which we had to pay the dollar.

The customs department regulates the landing and leaving of
passengers, and no one is allowed to do either here without its
sanction. My ticket was numbered 9,756, and read as follows: —



Corporacion del Puerto de la Guayra,
Pasage
Con 50 kilos de equipaje
B 5.



We did not have the stipulated fifty kilos of baggage, as we had but
one trunk between us; and that may have been the reason our lug-
gage passed through without examination. But these customs officials,
like their cousins in New York, know well enough when a man intends
to smuggle, and never go to any unnecessary trouble in searching.
The landing-fee was demanded ostensibly for the building of the
breakwater, —a magnificent work which is progressing as fast as the
rough northerly winds and seas will permit. It is an English conces-
sion, I believe, and when completed will make this open roadstead a
tolerably secure place of anchorage. The work proceeds but slowly,
owing to the heavy seas, and not long ago a great breach was made
in the wall during a hurricane, when thousands of dollars’ worth of
material was swept away in less than half an hour. It is being built
of great blocks of concrete, or cement, this cement being enclosed in

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THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.




THE

KNOCKABOUT CLUB SERIES.



BY C. A. STEPHENS.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE WOODS.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ALONGSHORE.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE TROPICS

BY FRED. A. OBER.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE EVER-
GLADES.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE ANTILLES.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN SPAIN.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN NORTA AFRICA.
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH
MAIN.



ESTES AND LAURIAT, Publishers,

BOSTON, MASS.

































































































































































































































































































































AN ARMY OF TURTLES ON THE ORINOCO.
bls

KNOCKABOUT CLUB

SPANISH MAIN.

ON THE



BY

FRED. A. OBER,

AUTHOR OF
“TRAVELS IN MEXICO,” “THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE EVERGLADES,” ETC..

FULLY ILLUSTRATED.

BOSTON:
ESTES AND LAURIAT,
PUBLISHERS.
Copyright, 1891,
By Estes AnD LAURIAT.



All Rights Reserved.

Aniversity WBress:
JoHN WILSON AND SON, CAMBRIDGE.

Soke


BIOGRAPHY.



PAR. FREDERICK ALBION OBER was born in Beverly,
Mass. The public schools gave him his early training,



and he received no other assistance from schools, save



one year in the Agricultural College. At fourteen he
learned the shoemaker’s trade, at eighteen was working
in a drug store, at twenty-one was in business with his
father. He is a lineal descendant of Richard Ober, — the first American of
that name who came from England to Beverly in 1664. He imbibed
early a fondness for field sports and natural. history; and while working
at his trades, rising early and laboring late at night, he taught himself taxi-
dermy and collected and classified nearly all the birds of New England.

Audubon and Wilson were his favorite authors; and at last, yielding to a |
desire to tread in their footsteps, he abandoned business and went to Florida,
in 1872 and 1874. Here he hunted to his heart’s content, lived with the
Seminoles, camped with a grandson of Osceola, and explored Lake Okeechobee
to the Everglades. To accomplish the exploration of Lake Okeechobee, Mr.
Ober carried two boats to Florida, sailed down Mosquito Lagoon and Indian
River, and hauled his boats across to the Kissimmee River, by which his party
reached the lake, being gone over a month, and encountering many strange
adventures, which were published in “Forest and Stream” and Appleton’s
“Journal.” In 1876 and 1880 he went to the West Indies for the Smithson
Institution, exploring the Caribbee Islands from Porto Rico to Trinidad, and
discovering twenty-two birds till then unknown to scientists. Two of them
x BIOGRAPHY.

were named by the naturalists in his honor. His adventures there with the
Indians and half-wild negroes were published ten years ago, in a book that
gave him a wide-spread reputation. In 1881 he turned his attention to Mexico,
allured by the fascinating story of the conquest as told by Bernal Diaz, one of
the conquerors. On his way thither he touched at Cuba and afterward visited
the wonderful ruined cities of mysterious Yucatan.. Arrived at the city of
Mexico, he ferreted out the remains of early civilization, climbed to the peak
off Popocatepetl, three miles above the sea-level, rode a thousand miles on
horseback, and then returned home after seven months’ absence. In 1883
and 1885 he again visited Mexico, penetrating to little-known portions of the
country. In 1887 he was again in the West Indies, in 1888 in’ Spain and
North Africa, and in 1890 in Venezuela and the Spanish Main. The exploration
of these various fields has consumed a dozen years and more. The thrilling
incidents connected therewith have been given to the world in his books and
lectures, with which many thousands are familiar. Although at first travelling
for the sake of adventure and rare birds, latterly Mr. Ober has drifted away
from the study of natural history, and has shaped his journeys with a view to
the exposition of the early history of America. Hence it is that Spain and
Spanish America have absorbed his time and talents. In recognition of his
endeavors in this field, he has been appointed special commissioner by our
Government to the West Indies and Spain in connection with the approaching
Columbian Exposition. As many of our readers may have surmised, he himself
is the “Knockabout Club,” or the “ Historian,’ the “Professor,” and the
“Doctor” in one individual; and nearly all the adventures narrated are his
own, while his descriptions are from his own observation and can be relied
upon as authentic. It is his constant aim to instruct as well as amuse, and to
convey interesting information without a sacrifice of the truth.
CHAPTER

I.

1G
III.
IV.
Vv.
Vi.
VIL.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII,
XIII.
XIV.

XVI.
/ XVII.
XVIII.

CONTENTS.



Wanrep: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE ...

THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA
ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA .
SomME DoINcs ON SHIPBOARD
Curacoa,— A Lirrte DurcH PaRapisE .
Tur MysTeRIouS CONTINENT . .. .

A JOURNEY INTO THE Corree REGION .

LAND OF THE LIBERATOR. - . . . « e

FROM THE Coasr TO Caracas . .

In VENEZUELA’S CAPITAL. . . . .
Wuat WE FOUND IN THE MuSEUM
SOMETHING TO EAT, IN THE TROPICS ... .
PEARLS OF THE SPANISH Main . .
Wir CoLuMBUS AND Sir WALTER RALEIGH
Up anp Down THE ORINOCO

PIRATES AND BUCCANEERS . . . . .
CorRO AND THE PARAGUANA

MaracaIBo AND THE Last LAKE-DWELLERS

PAGE

T5
22
36
44
51
65
79

168
177
189
204

220
“O land of wonders! full of all that’s fair,
Sublime, and beautiful, in earth and air,

As thus, thou new-found world! from main to main,
We sweep, with Fancy's eye, vast hill and plain,
On every side still countless ruins start,

To trace whose grandeur mocks the poet's art.
From far Magellan's Straits to rich Peru,

Where Cuzco's palaces the desert strew ;

Along the Andes piled, where modern man

ffath rarely climbed the awful scenes to scan}
From Amazon's and Plata’s sun-bright streams,

Lo northern woods where scarcely daylight gleams ;
Thence to the western lakes and mountain peaks,
Where in his cloud-rocked home the eagle shrieks ;
Relics of men unknown and times of old,

Raising our awe, our wonder, we behold.”
IEE USTRATILONS.

et eed Ua
Pace Pace
An Army of Turtles on the Orinoco “The Rockets began toascend”. . . 80
Frontispiece | All Nationalities . . . . 2... . 82
Portrait of the Author . . Sud-Frontispiece PropicalePlantsetee aie enue Nay a8 e
“The Prettiest Spot on the Lake” . . 17 | Fruit-Sellerof Valencia. . . . . . 86
The Professor at Work . . . . + + 19| House of Civilized Indians. . . . . 87
Our Tropical Hammock. . . . + + 21 | Natural Tunnel on the Coast of Vene-
A Glimpse of Florida . ... . + + 23 BUS lava eer ee eet Orechee naanahan OT
Passing the Light'Ship . . . . - - 25) LaGuayra . . 1... 1 1 1.) 96
Nassau Harbor ... - - + + - 26] Sunset on the Venezuelan Coast. . . 101
Heaving the Log . . - . - + + + 31 | “Each Photograph wasa Gem”. . . 107
Kingston Harbor Jamgica 1) 53 |The Hotel Portal . 2 | Ho
A Thatched Hut... . - 39] Climbing a Coco-Tree . . . . . . 112
“Tn the Pleasant Wgets of Richmond * 40 | Old Mission near Caracas . . . . . 113
“The Doctorscame” . . . . + - 42] Ancient House in Caracas . . . . . I20
“Our Monkey’s Skeleton” . . . . 42] A Youthful Beggar of Caracas . . . 122
A Half-Breed . . - . . . . . . 52 Statue of Bolivar, Caracas . . . . . 126
Water Front, Inner Harbor, Curagoa . 55} Grand Opera House, Caracas. . . . 128
A Well-to-do Negro . . . . . . - 56} ADonkey Car... .-.... . 129
Diving for Coins . . . - 58 | Statue of Washington, Caracas . . . 131
“The Vegetation has a Tropical C Cast” 59 | A Vagrant Violinist . . . . . 1. . 134
Bolivar . . . . . . . . . . - 66] Maconshi Indians preparing Wourali
AniindiangPRortetpsacystsce eae OT, Poison. . . eT ALOO
A Spanish Girl . . . . . . . . 68] The Professor after a Baby Lizard . . I4!
hesbastVioyaccotsDrakewa mnie ess 670 AN OU nt aye ntea dataa Cee or iewieceys pear
AnInca. . . .. .. . . . . 92} Overturn of a Boat by Caymen on the
Church and Street in Puerto Cabello . 74 @ Tinoco pear erie ey nee mie cmne STAC
A Native Trader . . . . . . . . 96 Fruit-Dealer of Caracas. . . . . « 149
Tindiang Grl@ecemec mtr retmmr ater ne el erent 77)



An Indian Hutinthe Interior. . . . I51
14

Scene in the Market, Caracas .

Columbus, the First Discoverer

A Giant of the Venezuelan Forest

In a Gum Swamp . Si

Landing of Columbus at Trinidad

Sir Walter Raleigh

Execution of Raleigh

The Delta of the Orinoco

The Orinoco at Caicara .

On an Orinoco River Steamer

Drake’s Lieutenant on a Piratical Cruise

Sir Francis Drake . :

« A Spanish Ship laden with Silver”

“The People made a Desperate Resist-
ance”

Morgan’s Men in Camp .

PAGE

ILLUSTRATIONS.

153 | An Expedition in Search of Secreted

160

163
166
169

173 |

175
179

183 |

187
190
Igl
193

197 |.
201



Treasure é

“ They would stare at us with Admiring
Eyes” es

A Coffee-Planter’s House

A Cactus-Covered Plain

A Scavenger iealal ees ae

A Guajiro Village, Lake Maracaibo .

Belle of a Guajiro Village

Pirates revisiting the Scenes of their
Depredations .

Houses of the Guajiros . §

oe ead of a Maracaibo Baby :

“ The Fire-Ship feli afoul of the Admiral’s

Vessel”

Pace
THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB

ON THE SPANISH MAIN.



CHAPTER I.

WANTED: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE.

A Quiet LITTLE Spot.—“Ler us Camp.’?— We Buy Lanp.—- Woops, BEACH, AND
Boats. —A CaNoE AND A HAmMMOCK.— WRITING UP OUR LasT CRUISE. — THE
PROFESSOR CONTENTED. — OuR LATCH-STRING ALWAYS OUT.— THE SUMMER HOME
OF THE KNOCKABOUTERS. }

AHE summer succeeding our journey into Africa, the
events of which are set forth in our last book, the
Professor and the Historian — namely, the writer —
rested in the country of their birth. We had been
“knockabouting” so much that we had collected
more material than we could readily digest while
on the wing, so we looked around for a quiet spot at which to spend
the season. We sadly needed some particular abiding-place, where
we could deposit the numerous trophies of travel we had accumulated
in our various expeditions, and where we could study, and arrange the
data for our books and lectures. Owing to the fact that our plan for
some years to come was to travel a portion of each year at least, we
did not wish to “settle down” and buy a house in which to dwell.
And that was the problem we set ourselves to solve, — how to live by
ourselves for the summer, and still not be committed to permanent




16 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN,

housekeeping. The Professor was greatly exercised, because he
wanted to locate at once, and begin the arrangement and cataloguing
of his botanical, mineralogical, and historical collections. He gave the
subject the profound attention that such a great mind as his, con-
stantly occupied in pondering weighty questions, might be expected to
bestow. :

I, the Historian, knew that something was about to be evolved, and
so held my peace. At last it came.’ Solemnly removing his spec-
tacles, and carefully polishing the glasses on the red and yellow silk
bandana he always carried in his coat-tail pocket, he gazed at me in
an absent manner, and opened his mouth. He uttered but three
words, but those words at once shaped our course for the next six
months.

“ Let us camp,” said the Professor; then he placed his spectacles
astride his nose again, replaced the red and yellow silk bandana in
his coat-tail pocket, and resumed the book he had been reading. A
moment later he was perfectly oblivious of my presence and had already
forgotten the matter under discussion. He had delivered himself of
his opinion, and that. was the end of it. It was a very good sugges-
tion, without doubt; but it was very easy to say, “Let us camp,”
though not quite so easy to carry out the suggestion. Knowing the
Professor as I did, having travelled thousands of miles in his company,
over sea, through forest, in various lands, I very well knew that having
indicated what we ought to do, he would leave it for me to do; and
so I did it. That very week I departed into the country-in search of
a place to camp. It was early in June, and the country was dressed
in its very best garb. All the summer flowers were nodding their
pretty heads; all the birds were singing their finest songs; and Nature
was at the very top notch of her best performance. I thought I knew
just where to go, and immediately went there. A new railroad, along
the southern shore of one of the largest and most beautiful lakes in
New England, had just made accessible a tract of country very little


WANTED: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE. 17

known. It was almost by instinct, as it were, that I found out the
prettiest spot on the lake, and there decided we should pitch our
camp. |
The next thing in order was to find the owner of the land, and, if
possible, purchase it. He proved to be a young farmer, who hada
large acreage of pasture-land bordering the lake, and who was anxious
to convert some of it into cash by a process more direct than the feed-































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“THE PRETTIEST SPOT ON THE LAKE.”

ing of its scanty herbage to a herd of cows. But as he had conceived
the idea that this lake-land was very valuable, though really it had
little value except such as the Professor and I could create by our
improvements, it was some time before we could comé to an agree-
ment. There was nothing tangible to base an estimate of value on,
you see. If we assumed it from what the land produced, it would be
very low indeed, because the hillside portion, which only could be
pastured, was covered chiefly with sweet-fern and blackberry vines,
and the beach portion had no grass on it at all. But although the
farmer could not perceive it of his own vision, the place had an

2
18 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

esthetic value; and as this was an unknown quantity and hard to
measure, the farmer, on his part, exaggerated it, while I, in my own
interest, tried to keep it within bounds.

Ah, but it was a beautiful spot, —this little acre I was anxious to
secure! First, it was situated at the extremity of a deep bay, at either
end of which was a high hill, and between them a curving beach of
white sand, a mile in length. Behind the beach was a deep belt of
pines and maples, with smiling farm-lands beyond, and ranges of high
hills overtopping all. I think it must have been this very bay, with
its waters of clear and sparkling blue, that suggested, many years ago,
to the red Indian, the aboriginal name of the lake, —the “Smile of
the Great Spirit.”

There, dear reader of these “ Knockabouts,” you now know just
where the Professor and I decided to pass our summer; and you will
know, I hope, where to seek us out when you desire to become
- acquainted with us in the flesh.

Well, as I was saying, it was just where the crescent sand-beach
met the western hill-slope that this spot was found. The hill came
down to the water, green with sweet fern and sweeter clover, with
great gray rocks protruding from a: tangle of blackberry vines, and
plunged its feet into the lake with a protecting fringe of maples, elms,
-and alder-bushes. Back of this was a bit of wood, with a dozen dif-
ferent kinds of trees in it, but hardly large enough to conceal one
from the country road that bounded this property on one side. The
beauty of the place was the beach of pure white sand, soft and spark-
ling, which here curved like a cimeter and made a perfect landing-
place for boats and canoes. The pine-trees came down almost to the
beach-rim, and sweet-scented bayberry-bushes fringed it; and this was
the most charming place in the world for a bath, where you could
enjoy a plunge, or a run along the beach for several hundred yards.

On the level lawn, between the bit of wood and the beach, stood
an old house, that had been built there some years ago by winter






WANTED: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE. 19
i

fishermen. These men were master-workmen in a car-shop, five
miles away, and they had constructed the house as though it had been
a fine residence, although it was but a little shanty, and had only two
rooms anda stable. This house, I concluded, would do for our sum-
mer residence, if I could secure it; but it did not belong to the owner



THE PROFESSOR AT WORK.

of the land, and would require a separate negotiation. It was perfectly
equipped for housekeeping, having a stove in it, beds in the chamber,
chairs, table, crockery, —%in fact, everything we should need. Only
the necessary provisions, clean linen, etc., would have to be brought
here, to make it available for our stay.

At last, after much adjusting of differences, the young farmer and
I came to an agreement; a surveyor was brought up to measure the
land the very next day; a deed was drawn up; and the Professor and I
20° THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

had a place we could call our own. I lost no time in concluding an
arrangement with the gentlemen who owned the house, whereby we
could occupy it during the summer and they might use it in winter-
time, then hastened back to Boston, to bring up my friend.

It was a very great labor to mové him and his collections to the
place, as the camp is half a mile distant from the railroad station and
the nearest house; but that once done, everything moved on pleas-
antly and happily. .

The Professor was more than delighted; he expressed his ap-
proval of my purchase in fitting terms, condescended to look over the
ground once in a general survey, and then he selected the most
comfortable corner of the house for his own, and the pleasantest nook
on the beach for his workshop out-of-doors.

After that he was wrapped up in himself and in his pursuits, pay-
ing no attention to outside affairs except at meal-times, when he
would rather impatiently inquire the cause of any delay in providing
nourishment at the proper time. He seemed to think that sustenance
might be obtained from the trees or the rocks, evidently without
labor, as he never gave a thought to providing any. All. this work
fell on me; but as I was only too glad to have my friend with me,
‘and willing to pay the price for his company, I did it without a
murmur. —

Now, this long introductory is put in merely to tell our friends
where we passed the time since we last met, and how it was we came
to write this present volume.

We had been off on a cruise for new adventure and information,
and having garnered in as much as we could carry, we retired to this
secluded nook to work it up into shape, —in other words, to make the
book you, dear reader, are about to peruse.

We are perfectly contented with our bit of Paradise, at its only
drawback is its loneliness. Being human and (we hope) sympathetic,
we feel rather regretful that so much loveliness should be monopolized
WANTED: A COUNTRY TO EXPLORE. 21

by ourselves alone. I never have anything of the kind that all human-
ity would enjoy, without wishing all my friends to share in it. So,
dear knockabouts, take this as an invitation; bring your tents and
camping things along, and help us to your company. You may not
find us extremely sociable, but you will find a welcome; we have
boats and a canoe, hammocks, provisions, half a mile of beach to sport
on, and hundreds of square miles of water in front of us, dotted with
islands and said to be swarming with fish.



OUR TROPICAL HAMMOCK.
CHAPTER I.
THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA.

SUDDEN RISE IN THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER IN THE GULF STREAM. — FLOATING
GuLF-WEED. -— THE FLyinc-FisH. — THE Tropic Birp.— SIGHT oF TROPIC ISLES.

country in which to wear away the wire edge of
winter, we were much “put to it” to find one
measurably accessible and yet sufficiently attrac-
tive. For consider that this was not our first



voyage in search of the sunbeams that Winter
stores away somewhere in the South. And it was understood that
we did not wish to get too far away,—not so far but that we
could get back again, perchance, when the trees put forth their
blossoms and the bobolinks arrived. Anybody, perhaps, may journey
into the tropics; but only once a year do the apple-trees blossom
and the bobolinks pour forth their ravishing melody; so indeed
it must be a country of surpassing attractions that would woo us
from prospective delights like these.
Professor La Vaca, my intimate friend and travelling-companion,
had visited, with me, most of the Spanish-speaking peoples of the
New World. We had been wrecked on the reefs of the Bermudas,
had sailed the seas of the Bahamas, circumnavigated Cuba, explored
Mexico, and gained a glimpse of South America. Ten years ago,
at the mouth of the Orinoco, we had been obliged to turn back from












































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A GLIMPSE OF FLORIDA.

THE VOVAGE TO VENEZUELA. 25

a journey into that mysterious continent. Ever since, whenever the
season for travel came around, we had cast anxious glances in that
direction. But South America is a far country, and the voyage
thither expensive to the individual so unfortunate as to have to
labor half the year for the wherewithal to exist during the other
half. - At least, it seemed so when we received replies to the letters
sent the great steamship lines running to Brazil and Panama. It
_ would need a small fortune in order to accomplish Chili, the Argen-

DISC ARDED-
fe



PASSING THE LIGHT-SHIP.

tine, or Brazil, since two or three steam-lines have the monopoly of
travel and traffic. But the Professor, who is more persistent than I
am, discovered a way to reach the continent, to “sample” a republic
or two pertaining to our South American sister, and to fill ourselves
up with caloric for the winter to.come. He it was, I will confess,
who brought to my notice the fact that a real American line ran
straight down to the land of our desires, without a stop by the way.
I had heard of it before, to be sure, but had given it scant attention,
thinking it devoted more space and care to freight than passengers.
26 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

But in this I was mistaken; for the “Red D” Line, I found, ran
ith special view to the comfort of passengers,
mised the Professor and myself

half a dozen steamers Ww













































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































NASSAU HARBOR.

enough of our winter earnings remaining for the seaside and moun-
tains of New England on our return. In a word, the regular rate to
Venezuela and back, including excellent fare and lodging en route,
hardly exceeds five dollars per day. We had often paid this at the
seaside, and all we got for our money was but tolerable fare and a


THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA. 27

. monotonous, even irksome, existence. In this case, superadded to the
* comforts of life was the fact that we should be all the time travelling
onward, with changing scene and new objects for contemplation.

The steamers of the “ Red D” fleet range all the way from sixteen
hundred to twenty-eight hundred tons, the smallest being the “ Valencia”
_ and the largest the “ Venezuela.” We would have chosen the largest,
of course, had her day of departure coincided with ours, but com-
promised on the “ Philadelphia,” a stanch steamer of twenty-one
hundred tons, and with a record for comfort and safety. The
“Philadelphia” was the steamer particularly mentioned also in our
: guidebook as that on which the writer of that excellent pamphlet
had taken passage.

: It did seem rather ungrateful to leave New England just when
“the first signs of spring were in the air. Spring, in our country, as
ca certain well-known author has written, is a maiden hard to woo,
4 and proves to be backward in coming forward; but like our own true
Yankee girls, she is well worth having when once you get her. There





is a bit of acerbity in her temper, perhaps, that our maidens lack, — at
"least, all those that I know, — and a certain coldness, with which she
_ masks her real intentions; but when with a hop-skip-and-a-jump, she
_ plumps herself into your arms, — why, all the world could not take her
from you! That is the way you feel —or ought to feel— when the
May mornings come around. Well, as I was saying, the signs of
spring were appearing even the week before we left: the wild geese
_were tracking the skies, the crow-blackbirds flocking in the taller
trees, a robin or two hopping about the fields, and one morning
a blackbird’s note was heard on the still air. )

From all these harbingers of better days we tore ourselves away ;
from what sweeter charms we will not venture to state, lest one might
think we expected to sail direct to Paradise.

Now, who can describe a sea voyage and make it interesting?
Washington Irving did, you will say; but that was when sea voyages








28 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

were events; and, again, he had the field all-to himself. I have made
voyages enough in sailing-vessels to learn to abhor them; life is too
short for one to spend it on the wave. I always wanted to “duck”
the author of “Life on the Ocean Wave,” and do hope that if he
ever made a voyage (which I doubt) he was seasick all the time.
The good Lord made dry land enough for all the inhabitants thereof,
and He meant for man to stay there, 1am sure. But man is a roving
animal, and will continue to be to the end of the chapter.

There were not many passengers on the “ Philadelphia,” which |
attribute to the fact that the travelling world is not yet aware of
“Red D” attractions. Be that as it may, the Professor and I had
no friends to see us off, while the few other passengers had quite a
cabin full. They had friends thoughtful enough to send last messages
to be read in the outer’ harbor also; while we had no such mementos |
of living beings ashore who considered our departure or our return
as of any moment whatever. We possessed ourselves in stoical,
perhaps cynical, calmness, at these signs of affection (in others, be- —
stowed upon others); and even when one of the gentlemen from Con-
necticut pulled a love-note from his wife out of the pocket of a shirt
he donned, the second day out, we were not greatly affected thereby. |
Man, having been created gregarious, — that is, with an inherent hank- ©
ering to “flock” with his fellow-man, —and having, moreover, vanity bo
enough to cause him to desire to be loved (whatever sentiment fe _
may entertain in return), is naturally envious of others more favorably _
regarded than himself. Hence (in a purely impersonal way), the _
Professor and I may have been a trifle envious; but as we care
for nobody else more than we care for each other, and are convinced
that there are greater treasures to seek than we have yet acquired, —
why, we yield to the others their joys, real or imaginary, and go
our way. :

The statue of Liberty waved us a last farewell as the pilot
stepped over the side (his pocket full of letters for the “dear ones”.






















THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA. . 29

pertaining to the Four-Men-from-Connecticut), and New York grew
dim in the distance. Then we were alone upon the briny deep;
our voyage had begun.

The 26th of March, 1890, was as fair a day as ever old March
begot. The 27th was still fair, but the sea was heavy and the wind
ahead. On the second day out, at noon, we entered the Gulf Stream,
striking its northern edge, and left it toward the next morning. At
this point it is about one hundred miles across; and its temperature
varies considerably. The highest recorded this trip in mid-stream
was 76°, though it sometimes runs up to 80°, even as high as 82° and
84°. It is interesting to note the rapid leap in the thermometric scale
as the Gulf Stream is reached. The water will register forty-five, fifty,
fifty-two, then suddenly jump to sixty-six, seventy, and seventy-five.
Our course was almost due south, a little eastwardly, — as straight
a course as sailor ever steered. The third and fourth days appeared
‘the gulf-weed, at first in sprays and spangles, then in drifts and
-windrows. Finally, and especially during the fourth day’s voyaging,
the sea was brightened with great sheets of golden brown. « So blue
was the water, so golden-bronze the drifts, that we would fain be
artists, that we might transfer the beautiful colors to canvas.

These drifts of weed were seemingly alive, and little fish leaped
out as we sailed by. We know, of course, that many investigators
have examined the gulf-weed, and their findings have long.since been
published to the world. The floating weed 2s all alive with multitu-
'dinous forms of life.

The fourth and the fifth days showed us those angels of air and
sea, the flying-fish, at first singly, and rarely seen, then increasing in
number hour by hour, until the sixth day, the water was alive with them.
I think it has long been settled that’ they cannot sustain prolonged
flight without at least dipping their fins in the briny wave. Many
and many a time I have watched the flying-fish; and I really believe
that there is no more beautiful sight at sea than a flock of them skim-
20 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.
3

ming the waves, with silver wings extended wide. They can change
their course at will apparently, but seem to steer by means of the tail
and ventral fins, just touching the water with the tip of the tail, and
then swerving off at a tangent. Many take an undulatory flight, sail-
ing along for hundreds of yards, but at no great height above the
waves. Now and then they will dash through the seas, reappearing
beyond a billow, alternately in air and water. A strong, well-sustained
flight by a large fish rejoicing in its strength, is a beautiful sight
indeed; but more attractive is a little flock of young ones, twenty or
thirty in number, darting out of the water in a body, like a sudden
discharge of silvery arrows from Neptune’s bow. One night, coming
out of the cabin after dinner, I found our captain groping about the
deck in the dusk. He was “fishing for flyers,” he said, and had found
several dead upon the deck.

During the day it had been very rough, great seas sweeping upon
us, and now and then spilling across the rail; and it was probably
during the advent of one of these seas that the fish came aboard. |
have often found them on the deck of a sailing-vessel, heavily laden,
within a few feet of the water; but unless aided by the seas, these
fish must have leaped quite fifteen feet above the level of the water.
They fly with great force. The head of one of them was torn com-
pletely off, and one striking you in the face would certainly have
given you a black eye. Those the captain caught were fried next
morning and given to one of our passengers, who had been the
victim of an April joke.

The flying-fish is seldom found north of the Gulf Stream’s inner
edge, and may well be termed a peculiar product of the tropics. An-
other denizen of the warm zone toward which we were hastening,
we saw the fourth day out, sailing the air, the tropic bird (Phethon
ethereus), called by the sailors the boatswain, from its loud, whistling
cry. It is a most shapely bird, built to cleave the air and breast the
hurricane. The one we saw must have been at least three hundred
THE VOYAGE TO VENEZUELA. 31

miles from land. We were then in the region of the Horse Lati-
tudes, called by some the “ Doldrums,” because of the variable under-
tides and currents. I shall not merit, perhaps, the name of a tropic
traveller, if Ido not make mention of the Sargasso Sea, the outer edge
of which we skirted or crossed, and the source, it is said, of the vast
floats of gulf-weed. But I have crossed these waters so often that it
seems to me like an old story. Had I not, at some time previous,
done so, I should call your attention to the fact that this is the sea
Columbus crossed, on his way to the Bahamas, Cuba, and San











HEAVING THE LOG.

Domingo. A venturesome voyage we feel it to have been, in those
frail cavavelas, scarcely larger than a fishing-boat, as we, in our great.
steamer, are tossed by the rough waves mercilessly about.

Perhaps I ought to add a word or two anent the steamer, — our
floating home for nearly a month to come. The Professor and J
were agreeably surprised to find such comfort, cleanliness, and SYS-
tem aboard this boat. We both have crossed the Atlantic in the
great English steamers, and we both declare that in no whit, save in
size, do they surpass these of the Venezuelan line. The staterooms
are quite as large as in many of those, the service prompt, and the crew
32 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

and officers efficient. The menu is nearly as complete as the best of
the transatlantics, while our steward has a reputation of his own for
elegant catering. At the head of our table sat the burly and genial
Captain Chambers, who treated us with the cordiality of a father, and
beamed upon us at every meal save lunch. To say that he is a
native of the State of Maine, born on land and bred on the sea, is
enough, at present, in his honor.

The second day out, just at the time and place predicted by our
captain, we sighted the crack steamship of the line, the “ Venezuela,”
on her way to New York, flying the American flag, and the great red
“T)” conspicuous on her smoke-stacks. Her sister ship, the “ Caracas,”
we expected to meet at Curacoa, and by her send back our first letter
to the “States.” As I write these lines in my notebook, land is in
sight, the heights of Cura¢oa, while we sighted the first landfall, Buen
Ayer, three hours before, at twelve o'clock, noon.

The first land of the southward trip was Mona Island. This lies
directly between San Domingo and Puerto Rico, and appeared: to us
as a bluff headland, standing up bravely in the morning light. It is
said to be about six miles long, with water and coco-trees on its
other side, but is uninhabited.

How many misty memories arise, of man’s inhumanity ‘to man,
as these islands, San Domingo and Puerto Rico, are brought before
us! The eastern province of San Domingo belonged to a famous
Indian princess, at the time of the coming of the Spaniards, and
Puerto Rico to a race of Indians distinguished for their many fine
qualities. Thousands of peaceful people dwelt there then; now it is |
centuries since the last of them perished, driven to swift death by the
murderous Spaniards.

Ten years ago, in March, 1880, I sailed around Puerto Rico, and
many visions of beauty arise, as I recall its beautiful hills and harbors.
It is a thirty-six-hours’ sail across the Caribbean Sea from Mona to
Curacoa. We cannot distinguish any difference between the waters


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































KINGSTON HARBOR, JAMAICA.
a

ee




|
|

THE VOVAGE TO VENEZUELA. eel

of the Caribbean and the Atlantic, except that we met rougher treat-
ment here than there. This was the reverse of what I had expected,
remembering my many sails on the waters of this sea, and the long
smooth track of the sun as I used to watch it set from my camp in
the Caribbean Mountains.

The fourth and fifth days we were in the latitude of those isles of
calm in which I camped for twenty months a dozen years ago. Their
memory comes back to me like the visions of one’s long-past youth ;
for I was young then, full of adventure and spirit, with a heart for
any exploit. Not that the fire has died away, or is in any wise
dimmed even; but that my work as an explorer is done. Then [
discovered a score of birds, unknown even to science, the skins of

_ which are in our National Museum, and which might have been ~

fluttering in the forests to-day, unknown and undiscovered, but for
me. Ah, . the world was new then; the forest spirits beckoned
to me to come and woo them, and I went. The world is just as
bright and enjoyable now as then, but enjoyment takes other forms,
and as for adventure—I have had my fill!
CHAPTER iia

ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA.

ADVENTURES OF THE Past. — DEVIL-BIRDS OF THE MouNTAINS. — THE ISLES THAT LIE
BEYOND ouR KEex.— A MonoLoGue oN Monkeys. —AN ORIGINAL POEM BY AN AB-
SENT FRIEND. i :

deck the first evening succedding our entrance
into the Caribbean Sea, while yet Mona Island
lay dimly outlined astern, I found my old friend,
the Professor, gazing eastward with a far-away
look on his face.

“ Away over there, out of sight,” he said, as |
joined him, “lie the islands we hunted through
twelve years ago.

“What glorious adventures we had then, amdgo
mio! Shall we ever have the like again? Shall
we find new birds awaiting us in the forests

ahead of us now, or Carib Indians to guide us through the wilds,
and entertain us in their huts of palm-leaves?

“I am thinking of the life we led, and the joyful existence of that
happy period of our lives. Ah, me! if we could only be always young,
and eagerly looking forward to new adventures!”

This was a long speech for the Professor; but I knew that he was
strangely stirred by these reminiscences of our earlier explorations.
Above us the bright stars were shining, and the celestial luminaries
were reflected in the waters of the deep. There is one star I always








ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA. ay

seek when far away from home,— one that invariably reminds me of
/ home scenes and the dear ones it shines above. This is the North ©
Star, its position unerringly indicated by the pointers of the Dipper.

- Down here, on the verge of the Caribbean, it is much nearer the hori-
| zon than with us in the North, and it crouches lower and lower, the
farther south we go, while almost exactly opposite rises higher and
higher the Southern Cross. This constellation rises on our vision in
the latitude of the Bahamas, and becomes brighter and larger as
| the coast of South America is approached, while the North Star sinks
| finally nearly out of sight. This is the same starry cross Paul and Vir-
-ginia saw in the other hemisphere, lying slantwise in the Southern sky.
| The heavens everywhere declare the glory of God, be it North
or South, in limpid tropic sky or frosted dome of Northern night,
ablaze with the celestial lamps of the thither world!

| A strange cry interrupted our meditations, a wild, piercing, mourn-
| ful shriek, coming to us from the darkness in front of the ship. It
was startling and weird; and half the passengers came running to the
| rail, thinking probably some one was being strangled and cast into the
; sea,

I myself was surprised into an exclamation; but the Professor
| reassured me by remarking, “That is the dadlotin; don’t you
} remember it?”

| The diadlotin, or devil-bird, of the Caribbean Sea had been the
| mystery of this region until we had found out all about its habits.
| When we began our researches, we thought it must be a mythical.
: bird. Everybody who professed to have seen it said it was long ago,
| so long ago that he could hardly tell whether it was like a duck or a
| sea-bird. As near as we could ascertain, it was like a duck in shape,
: with a bill like a gull’s, in color black and white. Every one agreed
| that it lived in the tops of the highest mountains, and that it burrowed
| a hole just beneath the surface of the earth six feet deep, at the end of
| which it laid its eggs. It could only be found at home while nesting,
38 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE. SPANISH MALN.

during the daytime, being nocturnal in its habits, and prowling about |
the sea at night. The opinion among the mountaineers of the islands
was that the manacon (a species of opossum) had killed all the dadc-
tins; but we believed that a bird so far-flying as this could not be
killed by a local disturber like the manacon, and we think we brought |
it to light, ten years ago, in the Island of Saba.

About two hundred years ago, an old French priest voyaged to |
these islands, and he makes the first mention of the devil-bird: “We
were now in the season for certain birds called azadles, or diablotens |
(little devils), that are said to live and breed in the islands of Domin- |
ica and Guadaloupe. This bird is nearly the size of a fowl, and is
sometimes called the pullet; its plumage is black, its wings long and
strong, the legs rather short, the feet like those of a duck, but fur- |
nished with long and strong claws; its beak is a good inch and a haif |
in length, curved, pointed, extremely hard and strong; the eyes are
large and even with the head, and serve admirably during the night, |
but are useless during the day, so that when surprised out of its retreat,
it dashes against everything in its way, and at last falls to the earth.

“ These birds live on the fish which they catch in the sea by night.
After they have finished fishing, they return to the mountains, where
they live in holes like rabbits, and do not come out again till the |
return of night, to go to the sea.

“ They cry out to one another as they skim the surface of the sea,
calling and replying.”

These cries, uttered by the devil-birds as they hunted along the
waves, were what awoke us from our reveries and brought surging
over us another flood of reminiscence.

“Do you remember,” said the Professor, “our exciting monkey-
hunt in the mountains of Granada? The island must lie directly east
of us now, and cannot be more than two hundred miles away.

“T recall the glimpses I got from the mountain-forest above Rich-
mond, where we entered the monkeys’ stronghold. First, the blue

percep






ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA. 39

water hazy in the east, foaming as it approaches a wide bay formed of
a long point of land called the Telescope, and a long island on the
' other side with breakers beyond, caused by the coral reefs. The vil-
lage of La Baye is formed of huts clustered beneath rows and groups
of palms. Above it are
bowl-shaped valleys gold-
en-green with sugar-cane,
dotted with thatched huts
and red-roofed sugar =

buildings beneath bread- Mg
fruitand mango trees. A |
white-spired church is
perched conspicuously on
a long knoll, with its pe eee 28 Vigut* ees

chapel-of-ease close by, a), ays AV A oc ua\t\ \ WS 4





































































































ARR UH a
oy en

h

ringed round with low
trees and overtopped by
tall cabbage palms. Co-
co-trees cluster thickly in |
ranks and confined masses"
in’ the upper valleys; [=
palms are outlined against
the black mountains,
which enclose this valley |Â¥Z=
of valleys within a valley, i
and of hills enclosing
hills. A noise near me A THATCHED HUT.

causes me to start; and I

withdraw my gaze from the wide-spread view below, and see close at
my elbow a little ‘sugar-bird,’ in plumage of black and yellow, tug-
ging away at the dead leaves of a éa/zszz, or wild plantain. It car-
ries the dry material to its nest near by, which it defends with great
spirit, and attacks any bird, no matter how large, coming near it.




‘

THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

4o .
Now and then it robs another nest, nearly completed, of its materials,
making a lively squabble with its owner.













































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































“IN THE PLEASANT WOODS OF RICHMOND.”

“Another bird, the grzve, or thrush, flies by on silent wing, and
occasionally alights overhead. It is easily attracted by a noise, and
approaches very near my face whenever I call it to me.









i
|
t
t
}
i
‘
}


ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA. - Al

“ The stream below me makes sweet music, which mingles with the
murmur of the forest in soothing melody. These were some of the
scenes and sounds that greeted me as I waited patiently the coming
of the monkeys —that did not come after all —in the pleasant woods
of Richmond. i

“Late in the evening I saw at a distance a monkey leaping from
tree to tree, nearly a mile away; and from the agitation of the tree-
tops I judged there must have been quite a flock of monkeys in that
bit of woods. You remember, Histrix, our monkey hunt later on,
when we did get a monkey, and were so ashamed of ourselves that we
never told of it?”

“Ves, and I remember also the poem our eccentric friend, the
Doctor, wrote about the skull we brought him from the woods.”

The passengers had gathered about us by this time, and seemed
greatly interested in our description of the life we once enjoyed in the
Caribbean Islands. At the mention of the poem they all demanded
that we should produce it ; and as I had it in my scrapbook, I complied.
with their desire, and read them then and there the Doctor’s —

AN ODE TO A MONKEY,
SUGGESTED BY HIS SKULL.

There is no brain within this hollow shell,
Neither is there a nose wherewith to smell ;
But time was when this skull was animate,
Instinct with life, and formed a monkey’s pate.
Among the trees its owner frisked and played,
And cut up antics in a way not staid,

Stood on this selfsame head, hung by its paws,
And chased the parrots and the gay macaws,
Did everything, in fact, a monkey could,
Performed all tricks an honest monkey should,
Excepting one: it never ceased to fail
Whene’er it tried suspension by its tail.
42 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

For if he had tried it, he’d have come to grief ;

Though perhaps it surpasses all belief,

But that tail of his he could n’t entwine

About any branch, or limb, or a vine.
*"T was the only failing the monkey had ;
But this was the ailing that made him sad.
And he often said to himself, said he,
“Oh, for a more flexible vertebre !
What would I give to see myself toddle
About the woods with a mighty caudal
Appendage, that in a prehensile grasp
The limb of a forest monarch could clasp.”

No wonder this monkey was feeling sad ;

That he fell from grace, and went to the bad ;
That his eyes sank in, and his cheek grew pale,
When those eyes aforesaid lit on his tail.



This is but a “ figurative expression,”
A sort of “ poetical concession.”
And now, to relieve the reader’s suspense,
And also the monkey’s — still on the fence —
In a single sentence let me relate
Why it was this monkey grew so sedate ;
Why it was he could n’t hang by the tail,
Cool his heated brain in the perfumed gale.
Here, then, without any pretence to style,
Is the reason why that this “ animile ”
Grew morose and thin, and so full of bile
That his victuals hurt him at every trial,
Though the doctors came from many a mile
And placed him outside of many a phial
Of ipecac pills and castor “ ile.”
They seemed not to soothe, but only to rile ;
In his favorite haunt he lingered a while,
Then gave up the ghost, with a sickly smile. “OUR MONKEY’S SKELETON.”
When a monkey dies they do not bury

His last remains in a cemetery ;

With tenacious tail he clings to a limb,

And when he lets go, there ’s an end to him.

A naturalist to his grave did come,

“THE DOCTORS CAME.”


ACROSS THE CARIBBEAN SEA. 43

A man who dwelt in a museum,

Where of monkeys and reptiles they had some
Ten thousand or more, all pickled in rum;
And as luck would have it, he stumbled on
The remains of our monkey’s skeleton ;

And he jumped for joy, and he said, said he,
“ Why, this is a famous discovery !

These are bones of the Cercopithecus,

To be precise, the true Callitricus,

A monkey rare, with non-prehensile tail—”
The very fact our monkey did bewail.

There was but one opinion among the passengers, and that was
that the merit of the poem was ahout equal to the subject that inspired
it. But they all agreed that it was the best poem they had ever heard
on that subject — never having heard any other before!

“Poor Doctor!” said the Professor, - “I wonder where he is now!
The last we saw of him, you know, he was sitting under a palm-tree,
at Biskra, on the borders of the desert, pulling out the molars of a
wild Bedouin Arab.

“I think the Arab intended to kill him after the operation was
over; but he would have to be a very smart Arab to get ahead of the
Doctor. He said he would rejoin our caravan; but it is a year now
since we heard from him, and I’m half afraid the desert sands cover
him.”
CHAPTER IV.

SOME DOINGS ON. SHIPBOARD.

COMFORTABLE TRAVELLING. SOME THINGS WE HAD TO EAT.— A MURDERER OF
ENGLISH. — OUR GRAND ENTERTAINMENT. — How To sTUDY SPANISH. — THE Lan-
GUAGE OF THE FUTURE. — LAND IN SIGHT.

VAT seems to me that we have at last reached the ideal
method of travel; and the Professor agrees with
me. It is this: To occupy a commodious room on
the deck of a large steamer, all by yourself; to have
electric communication with the pantry and the re-
freshment counter; to be waited on by attentive
servants; to have trained officers in charge of your floating hotel;
and to move along without a thought or care for your safety and
locomotion. Is not this the perfection of travel?

We went down, as I have said, on the “ Philadelphia,” but before
we returned we lived aboard various steamers of the Line, and aboard
them all found the same unvarying courtesy from commanders, pursers,
stewards; and all united to make us contented and happy.

Altogether, it was one vast pleasure trip, with smooth seas (in the
main), and magnificent steamers, strange sights, tropical scenery, and
tropical experiences. That our “inner men” were not neglected, let
the following menu, selected at random, testify : —


SOME DOINGS ON SAHIPBOARD. 45

STEAMSHIP “ VENEZUELA.” — APRIL 390, 1890.
DINNER.
Soup:
Consommé. Noodle.
Eutrée:

Queen Fritters.
Chicken 4 ’Espagnole.
Corned Beef and Cabbage.

Roast:

Ribs of Beef.
Baked Ham with Wine Sauce.

Vegetables :

Boiled and Mashed Potatoes.
Asparagus. String Beans. Onions.
Pastry:

Rice Custard Pudding. Lemon Sauce.
Apple and Strawberry Pies.

Wine Jelly. Small Pastry.
Dessert +
Pineapple Sherbet.

Nuts. Raisins. ‘ Oranges. Bananas.

Cheese. Coffee and Tea.

The “ Venezuela” was the steamship we sailed in on our return
voyage. But I must not anticipate, for we have not yet reached the
Spanish Main, and have not yet finished with the Southern Sea we
were sailing on in the last chapter. First let me mention some of the
passengers we have on board.

Only six of us are Americans; two are French engineers on their
way to build a railroad inland from Lake Maracaibo; and two are
Venezuelans. Travel hitherward is light at this season; but the re-
turn ‘trips will be crowded with the best of Venezuela’s citizens, seek-
ing a northern clime to summer in. I am brushing up my Spanish,
and slowly the words and phrases are coming back to me. It is but
an indifferent Spanish I speak, I am afraid; but when our French
46 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

companions proceed to murder our mother English, I am encouraged..
One of them makes praiseworthy attempts to master our language,
and neglects no opportunity to exhibit his proficiency of speech.

' We were cosmopolitan, and we were altogether a jolly crowd;
even the Professor was occasionally excited to hilarity, and often con-
tributed his share of the conversation. A day or two before our
southward voyage was to end, there was a great stir among the pas-
sengers. We were few in number, but we determined to give an en-
tertainment, even though our only auditors were the officials of-the
ship. They said it was a grand success. On the pages following is
our programme, drawn in pen-and-ink by our own special artist.

Every passenger on board was expected to contribute something
to the entertainment, and after it was over we had our customary so-
cial chat. This time the conversation turned upon language, and es-
pecially the language spoken in the country we were sailing to, — the
Spanish. It is spoken, as the readers of this book well know, in the
greater portion of the country lying south of the United States, —in
Mexico, Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, partially in several other
islands of the West Indies, and in all South America except the em-
pire of Brazil. It is destined to be of great use in the near future to
our American people; and it will well repay our young Americans to
learn this language, spoken by nearly fifty millions of people living on
this hemisphere where we dwell.

The Professor and I had tried several “systems” of teaching a
foreign tongue, and had finally adopted the latest, the “ Meisterschaft,”
as that which gave us the most immediate grasp of the language, that
enabled us to converse in the vernacular with the people who spoke
it. We found, in an older system, some very good advice on study
and the acquiring of a foreign tongue, —so good that I wish to repeat
some of it here. “Divide and conquer,” the author says; repeat, re- |
read ; read easy words at first, but vead/ The order to be followed
in the study of a foreign language is: reading, hearing, speaking,


GRAND CO arm oe 3

- off MONA ISLAND.

Corus “rag STAR eee Bauer

uSen ae

SONG. “ROCKED «GROVE or DEER”














MR Sitazeuue. 7
ibe) ¥e eee cron TEA RMADA
Sona. STRancers Yer” REV. DRY BACON.

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D& WEBSTER,
Wiub PRESIDE

Gera west SALECTION. MS BEKKER.

RECITAL 4 tig | AR HAWN?

“A URELIAS UNFORTUNATE YOUNG-MAN:~
AAR SNAZELLE.

Re
SONGS hicw ce aan a oa GONDUGCTORs.

+ AT THE PIANO.



THE-FINE OLD ENGLISH: GENTLEMAN § } ar
ieee ea MS SNAZELLE
SORG~ i . ”
“TIS*KNOWR ALONE TO THEE.
MEGUNRING.

L& PYerw.” avcnadcnna HHO AO ee

L =
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- AAS SNAZELLE.
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“MY ObD FRIEND JOHN-

MB SNAZELLE ~
*“EULD Lang Syret
gon0 % G CHORUS) Mee Hawkins & GHORUS- oe

Bs -GOD: SAVE: THE: QUEEN:



SOME DOINGS ON SHIPBOARD. 49

writing; acquire, then, the art of reading, of hearing, of speaking, and
of writing.

“Tt is by translating that young people learn best of all the art of
writing. If you wish to be one day translated, begin yourself by trans-
lating. .. . The prevailing notion that we must be taught everything
is a great evil. ‘The most extensive education, given by the most skil-
ful masters, often produces but inferior characters; that alone which
we give to ourselves elevates us above mediocrity.

“The eminence attained by great men is always the result of self-
imposed labors. . . . He who attempts composition without first laying
in a large provision of knowledge will at best deal out none but
commonplace ideas, and conceal poverty of thought under pomp of
phraseology.

“ But a second language presents an inexhaustible source of interest-
ing compositions, which, while they serve as models for the manner of
treating a subject, afford by translation the best means of practising
the art of writing. . . . The best mode of imitation in foreign composi-
tion is douéée translation, which consists in translating the foreign text
into the national idiom, and then endeavoring to reproduce that text by »
translating the version back into the original. . . . Those who express
themselves best in their own language owe their superiority far more
to their own reflections than to the precepts of the grammarians.
There was no methodical treatise or grammar at the time Shakspeare,
Milton, Dryden, Addison, Pope, and Johnson formed their style of
writing; and the same holds good with regard to Cicero, Virgil,
Horace, La Fontaine, Dante, Petrarch, and many other celebrated
writers, who, so far from having learned anything from grammarians,
supplied them with materials from which they inferred their rules.”

Says Voltaire: “ The assiduous reading of good writings will be
more useful for the formation of a pure and correct style than the
study of our grammars. We soon acquire the habit of speaking well
from the frequent reading of those who have written well.”

4
50 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

There! You will find some words of wisdom in the above, which it
will repay you to commit to memory; to supplement this I add a good
bit of advice from that excellent book, “ The Intellectual Life,” Diyala
G. Hamerton: “Much time is saved by following pursuits which
help each other. To have one main pursuit and several auxiliaries is
the true principle of arrangement. . . . And whatever is to be mastered
ought to be mastered so thoroughly that we shall not have to come
back to it, when we ought to be carrying the war far into the enemy’s
country.”

One thing at a time, and that well done! I will close these quota-
tions by one of Martial’s epigrams, written more than eighteen hun-
dred years ago, aimed at the critics of his verses : —

“ The readers and the hearers like my books ;
And yet some writers cannot them digest.
But what care 1? for when I make a feast
I would my guests should praise it, —not the cooks!”

But through the window of my stateroom, right abeam, I can
see the jagged outline of Curacoa. The man at the wheel has just
tolled six bells, and at four o’clock we expect to toss our mail aboard |
the outward-bound “Caracas.” Two days here, and then — on, to the
coast of the mysterious continent! oe
CHAPTER V.

CURACOA, —A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE.

MOUNTAINS OF PHOSPHATE OF LIME WHICH HAVE YIELDED FoRTUNES. — WILHELM-
STADT AND SCHATTEGAT LAGOON.—DUTCH ARCHITECTURE.—-A CHARMING CLI-

MATE.— THE MARKET GIRLS.













































































The Island of
oysters, purchased from the natives, enriched many a Spaniard and



In the olden times, when sea pirates
and buccaneers sailed the Carib-
bean, and made it lively for the
coast settlements of Cuba, Florida,

and the West Indies, the “ Spanish

Main” was a name of mysterious
and terrible import. It was applied
to the stretch of coast lying be-
tween the Island of Trinidad and
the Darien. The third voyage of
the great navigator, Columbus, first
brought this region to the attention
of civilized man, and in the year
succeeding, in 1499, Amerigo Ves-
pucci made a successful trading
voyage to this country of savages

‘and precious products.
Margarita was discovered; and the pearls of sea
52 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN,

caused Columbus much trouble. For by the king’s patent Columbus
was entitled to a tithe of everything discovered; and as he sailed
directly past and over the pearl-producing oyster-beds, leaving them
to be exploited by petty adventurers, little gain had he for his pains.
This, we know, is the fate of pioneers,—to plough land and sea, to
sow seeds and soundings, merely that others may follow and gather
the fruits thereof. .

Amerigo Vespucci, it has long been held, gave his name to the
newly discovered continent, but there are some recently who hold
that the name “ America” pre-existed in the aboriginal tongue. Who
can fail to note the resemblance between Americapan, the ancient
name of this coast region, and that of America? Be that as it may,
the name of the country best known on the northern border of South
America, Venezuela, was bestowed by the Spaniards. Sailing into the
great lake, Maracaibo, i in 1499, they found Indians dwelling in huts
built over the water, a long distance from
the land. They were the first of the kind
they had seen; and these lake dwellings so
forcibly reminded them of the mistress of
the Adriatic that they called the country
Venezuela, or the little Venice. A far stretch
of the imagination, perhaps, but the name
clung to the country. As yet, the descend-
ants of those aboriginal lake dwellers cling

A HALF-BREED. ' to their primitive dwellings on the shore of
the great Maracaibo.

No longer a name merely, pregnant with vague terror, the Spanish
Main is open and accessible. Where once the slow-sailing caravels
crawled from headland to headland, and painfully performed their voy-
ages, swift steamers give their passengers the delights of a pleasure
trip. A voyage of six days direct brings to our view the mountains
that guard the portals to the mysterious continent.


CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE. 53

The year 1499 was one of the most eventful in the last decade of
that century so pregnant with momentous events. Not the least re-
markable of the Spanish voyagers to the New World was Alonzo
de Ojeda, who had with him, as adventurer, Americus Vespucius,
whose claim to distinction everybody is familiar with. Whether or
not he was entitled to the peerless place the cosmographers assigned
him, or whether, indeed, his was the name bestowed upon our conti-
nents, I will not argue; but his was the most richly rewarded of any
voyage of that period. Coasting the’ country now known as the
“Spanish Main,” with many strange adventures and frequent deten-
tions from the friendly natives, Ojeda and his crew finally sighted an
island bearing the aboriginal name of Curacoa. The Indians inhabit-
ing here were of great stature, but not so large nor so numerous that
they were not soon exterminated, sharing the fate of all the islanders
of the Caribbean Sea, .

Curagoa, this island thus discovered in the last year of the fifteenth
century, is about forty miles in length, with a varying breadth of from

three to seven miles. It lies some forty miles off the coast of Vene- .

zuela, the blue mountains of that portion of derra firma known as the
Paraguana being in plain sight, on every clear day, from the hills
above the harbor. From the sea, as the voyager approaches, Curagoa
appears like a volcanic fragment, rent from the mainland of South
America, or tossed up from beneath the waves. Its coast is every-
where rugged, with deep fissures, as harbors, leading to extensive in-
land lagoons. The hills are not high, but abruptly broken off and
sharply cleft. It would seem that the island is one vast deposit of
phosphate of lime, that there are mountains of it, for more phosphate
is mined here than the markets will carry. The highest hill on the
coast that the arriving steamer skirts —a hill that might well be digni-
fied by the name of mountain—consists of ninety-seven per cent of
phosphate. Fortunes have been realized here, and fortunes yet await
the owners of this vast deposit. The works of the mining company form
54 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

a little settlement isolated from the others of the island, and the
treasure they guard is jealously kept from the view of prying visitors.

Traditions are afloat of the strange doings of the company in posses-

sion of Cura¢oa’s only treasure trove, — that no one can penetrate the

charmed circle they have drawn about their wealth; that the visitor is

' hospitably received and royally entertained, the finest fruits and meats

and choicest wines being set before him, but that no blandishment can

open the inner portal. It is a question whether or not all these pre-_
cautions be necessary, but the company is said to pay the Dutch Gov-

ernment over two hundred thousand dollars each, and every year the

mines are worked. Phosphate was first found here by a poor Cornish

miner, who first secured the refusal of this otherwise waste land, the

Dutch being ignorant of any value attached to it, and then leaped

suddenly into affluence.

As we sail the southern shore of the island, a bright lagoon opens
out to view below the phosphate region, called the Spanish Water,
and a castle of Spanish times commands it from a beetling cliff.
Spanish possession of Curacoa extended from 1499 to 1634. The
Dutch then acquired it, and have held it ever since, except for a few
years’ occupation by the English. And to-day, though Spanish in
nearly everything save its government and its architecture, Curagoa
still pertains to the people who wrested it from the marauding
Spaniards. The barren hills that form the backbone of the island
are rent apart at about its centre, and give ingress into the safest
and most securely landlocked harbor in these seas, perhaps in the
world. It is so narrow that the sentries of the two forts guarding
it, one each side the entrance, can hail each other from their respec-
tive stations. One of these forts is called Fort Riff, and the other
Fort Amsterdam. They are old, and their cannon are obsolete, while
their garrisons of funny Dutch soldiers are enough to make a mummy
smile. The inlet is deep and straight, and heads into a capacious
harbor, of perhaps half a mile in length, beyond which is a great

a
CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE. 55

lagoon, called the Schattegat. A pontoon bridge spans the harbor
just inside the forts, and this has to be opened, of course, every time
a vessel of any kind seeks entrance. As our steamer draws opposite



| 4

“a
A til 2
; mu
i ole an i
Sr a Al









the inlet, she whistles
warningly, and in a
moment there comes back tous _-—->
an answering whistle in a mi Sere ee ree lara eee Pu RACOn
nor key. Then, as the pilot

takes the wheel, and the bow is pointed toward the lagoon, we see one
end of the bridge slowly crawling ‘toward the opposite side of the
harbor, its propelling force being a very diminutive steam-launch.
The strip of blue water grows wider and wider, and at last, when the
bridge of boats lies parallel with the shore, the little steami-launch
toots again, and it is safe to enter. The steamer sails superbly in,
giving us views of forts and houses so close that we could toss a bis-
cuit into them, standing on the deck. Once inside, the bridge is
swung back into position, and the interrupted traffic between the
Opposite sides resumes its placid flow.






56 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

The lagoon, of which the harbor proper forms a part, consists of
three sections, like a clover-leaf. There are two lagoons lying parallel
to the shore, with a coral strand only separating them from the ocean,
and the stem and central leaf pushing straight into the island. It is
about the centre and the right-hand
clover-leaves that the town is built.
The finest houses line the main har-
bor, and they are eminently respect-
able as well as picturesque. As I
have said, the architecture is Dutch,
only modified to suit the exigencies
of a tropical climate. Nowhere in
the West Indies will you find such
substantial, such comfortable housés.
They are as solidly built as any struc-
ture along the Zuyder Zee, with stone
and mortar walls, bricked courtyards,
and tiled roofs. They are exceeding
quaint, even to the height of pictu-
resqueness, and so suggestive of com-
fort and homelike attractions that
many a Spanish-American sighs and

A WELL-TO-DO NEGRO. shivers when he recalls the barren, |

cheerless casas of the Latin peoples ‘
on the Main. The windows are broad and open, with glass instead of
gratings, though balconies and corridors are shielded by green 7alow-
szes. Aside from their shapes and contours, these houses attract by
their rich and various colors. The tiles that cover their roofs are red,
their walls are yellow and pink, picked out with colors that please and
harmonize. As seen from the sea or from the cactus-covered hills that
rise inland, a prettier picture than this little Dutch paradise would be
difficult to present. The town or city of Wilhelmstadt is divided into.


CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE. 57

Pietermaay and Schardo, on the right of the harbor as you enter,
while the “other side” is literally rendered in the name Otrabanda.
In these names we see the curious mingling of Dutch and Spanish
that forms the prevailing speech of the island, called Papiamento.
Two or three of the streets are quite broad; all are well paved; and
indeed the roads throughout the island are very nearly perfect.
Most interesting, however, are the narrow lanes that intersect
Pietermaay, where the sun only reaches the pavements at midday,
where the balconies on either side nearly meet, and where the evil
odors that prevail are most startling in their strength and variety.
Here you may see the offspring of African, Africo-Dutch, Africo-
Hispano, Dutch, etc., sporting themselves in the unadorned garb of
Eden. This is a costume in great favor with all the juvenile por-
tion of the population, up to the age of eight or ten, without
regard to sex. It is always of the same cut, but there is infinite
variety of color.

Says the ancient historian, Hakluyt: “One of the marueylous
things that God useth in the composition of man is colour; and
doubtlesse cannot bie considered without great admiration, in hold-
ing one to be white, and another blacke, being colours utterly con-
trary; some likewise to be yellow, which is between blacke and white,
and other of other colours, as it were of diuers liveries, and as
these colours are to be marveled at, even so is it to be consid-
_ ered howe they differ one from another, as it were by degrees,
forasmuch as some men are white, often diuers sorts of white-
nesse; yellowe, often diuers sortes of yellow, and blacke, after diuers
sortes of blacknesse, and howe from white they goe to yellowe
by discolouring to browne and redde, and to blacke by ashy colour,
and murry, somewhat lighter than blacke, and tauny, like unto the
West Indians, whiche are altogether in generall either purple or
tauny like unto sodd Quinces, or of the colour of chesnuttes or
olines, which color is to them natural, and not by their going naked,
58 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

as many haue thought; albeit their nakednesse have somewhat
helped thereto.”

The old historian reasoned well: “Color is to them natural,
and not by their going naked;” and this is proven by the fact
that the little Dutch youngsters who toddle about are naked as
Adam before the fig-leaf was invented, and retain in later years the
flaxen hair and pink and white complexions. “It is to them
natural” also to speak the barbarous dialect of the island, called
Papiamento,—a patois more barbarous than any I have heard any-
where else in the West Indies. The Papiamento is structurally
Spanish, with an intrusion
of Dutch, a little English
and African, moulded in the
j-— mouths of ignorant negroes.
For instance: One day I
was out hunting with a na-
tive of the island and asked,
among other things, the
name of a pretty plant.
He answered: “ Eso se llama

DIVING FOR COINS. Barba de Yoong Man”

(“They call that Young

Man’s Beard”). It was, by the way, well named, the flower having
a soft silken fringe, reminding one of the pubescent adornment
of a young man’s chin, of which he is at first so proud and
afterward so ashamed. Papiamento is a comparatively recent in-
vention; that is, it came into use a long time after the confu-
sion of Babel. It has nothing to do with Hebrew, Greek, Sanscrit,
or with Latin, except through the Spanish. It is, of course, ex-
tremely difficult to construct a grammar of patois; to seize the
fleeting, subtle forms that emanate from the brain of primitive
people, and mould them into permanent shape. From the very


















CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE. 59

nature of the dialect, spoken as it is by people unable to read
or write, it must ever remain plastic, as it were. Yet the Papia-
mento has been somewhat crystallized, and a grammar has been

published, so that the phi-
lologist may now study
at least one language in

its nascent state; that is,

if we admit this hybrid
to the dignity of a “lan-
guage.” Any one speak-
ing Spanish may easily
understand Papiamento ;
but it is detrimental to
his Castilian in a high
degree. Years ago I
found that those who
spoke the French patois
in the Caribbees could
not speak but with effort
the Parisian; more than
this, even, that good
French scholars soon sac-
rificed their purity of
speech to the demands of
the virile patois. Let me
instance some differences

between the Castilian.

and the Papiamento, for
the numerals. The Span-



“THE VEGETATION HAS A TROPICAL CAST.”

ish uzs is uaz; dos and tres are the same; cuatro is cuater; cinco is
cimcu ; sets, the same; szefe is chetle; ocho, natye, and adtez are un-
changed, but once is yesum, doce is yesdos, trece is yestres, etc. But
60 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

enough has ‘been given to show the Spanish character of the Papia-
mento, and yet its distinctiveness as a dialect. All speech not un-
derstood seems ‘gibberish, and these Curaconians confuse us with
their jargon. Fortunately, most of the business men speak Eng-
lish, and the only persons we are in a measure dependent upon
are the negro boatmen who compete with the bridge between the
opposite towns. There are, it is said, one hundred and fifty of
them. Their charge for ferriage is only five coppers, Dutch, equal
to about two cents, American; but they are said to be unable
to make change (when it is to their advantage not to), and get
many a silver piece they would otherwise lose. The toll on the
bridge is two Dutch cents, for “quality” people; but if you go
barefoot, the charge is but one cent. This bridge, by the way,
was built and is owned by a Yankee from Maine, the American
consul, Captain Smith. This enterprising gentleman also owns the
only ice-houses that are replenished with crystal Kennebec, brought
in American schooners to this land of heat and sunshine. Cap-
tain Smith has lived here for I don’t know how many years; he came
here an invalid, but is now a witness to the all-healing climatic
properties of Curacoa. The residents claim that their island is
singularly exempt from disease; and certainly there seemed to
be none, except universal poverty. Many years ago the negro
slaves were freed, and since then they have had to shift for them-
selves, so that labor now is very cheap, barely supplying these
simple folk with food and raiment. The slave owners received
eighty dollars for every emancipated slave. about twenty-seven years
ago, but the value ef these erstwhile bondsmen has depreciated,
and doubtless you could buy one for half that money, if you would
only stipulate to find him in food and clothing. An English
shilling per day is a fair average wage earned by laborers, while
skilled labor does not receive much more than double that amount.
A master mason or carpenter receives but sixty cents per day;




CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE, 61

yet there are no troublesome strikes, for the laborers know — if
they know anything —they would be futile. The fact is there
are more negroes than the island can care for, more even than
it can feed.

All the steamers of the great “Red D” Line, which make the
Island of Curacoa their rendezvous, rely upon the natives to load their
ships, and even ship them as common sailors for their voyages. They
are honest and faithful, and work for less than the laborers of the
Venezuelan mainland. On the arrival of every steamer a crew of
Curacoa laborers is taken aboard for service throughout the round
trip to Venezuela, vza the ports of Puerto Cabello and La Guayra.
There may be about twenty thousand negroes and “colored” people
on this island. The land is poor, mainly sterile, even bananas and
plantains having to be brought from the mainland to be found in the
market in quantities. The phosphatic hills are rich in the elements
of fertility for other and distant lands, but are not capable them-
selves of producing a crop of cane or corn. The valleys of compara-
tively fertile land are too few to be considered, and the poor laborer is
even worse off than he of Barbadoes, where the land is rich, though
devoted almost exclusively to sugar-cane. The vegetation, such as it
is, has a tropical cast, and in the gardens you will find all the members
of the citrus family, pineapples, paw-paws, custard apples, soursops,
mangoes, guavas, casbera-apples, and many other fruits and vegetables.
The island is celebrated for its xzspevos, or sapadillos. The sapa-
didlo is rarely seen in the north, never found in our market, and is
only brought to us by the officers of the steamers running to the West
Indies. It requires careful handling, will not keep well, and has a
flavor that requires an acquired taste to appreciate it. It resembles
somewhat a russet apple, and has a taste, many declare, like a rotten
pear. The tree grows vigorously in the stony soil of Curagoa, its
green bulk resembling the mango, and is a refreshing sight against the
dry and blistered hills. There are no streams at all, either above
62 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

ground or below, and the people depend upon the heavens for their
supply of water, storing it up in great cisterns and doling it out care-
fully. Sometimes, they say, they have no rain for years, and again
they will have months of pluvial discharges, so that the greatest
wisdom must be exercised in its distribution. The fields and hills are
dry, covered with cactus and prickly pear, but they have a beauty of
their own. There is a comfortable, inviting look about them that
(unless you stick a prickly-pear spine into your shin) entices you to
wander abroad.

A party of us one day set out on a hunting expedition to a distant
plantation. We rowed up the lagoon some miles, and landed at a
wharf on a mangrove-fringed shore, where the herons perched, the
lizards and iguanas basked in the sun, and the fiddler-crabs crawled by .
thousands over the mud. This great lagoon is called the Schattegat,
and is deep enough and large enough to float the entire Dutch navy.
It is completely land-locked, and is protected by a most picturesque
fortress, perched on a cliff, and used now as a signal station. Behind
this towering cliff the pirates of the Spanish Main used to lie in wait
for their prey, their masters watching from the rock, their masts com-
pletely hidden from sight. Through the narrow passage to the sea
they used to slip out warily, spread their sails, and bear down upon the
richly freighted galleons bound with treasure to Spain. Many a ship’s
crew has been murdered within sight of these gray cliffs, and many a
million of treasure here divided. Pirates and buccaneers have long
since passed into the unknown, and the blue waters of the peaceful
lagoon are rarely vexed by any keel whatever, of any size. We had a
delightful tramp that day over the old plantation, but the only “game”
consisted in ground and turtle doves, wild rabbits, troupials, curlew,
herons and humming-birds. The little green-crested hummers flitted
from acacia to cactus, and lit up the dark green zzsperos; the turtle-
doves cooed innocently; the golden troupials flashed by on shining
wings ; and the shade of the cezdas, or silk-cottons, was most refresh-
CURACOA,—A LITTLE DUTCH PARADISE, 63.

ing. With water only, and plenty of it, this little parched island
might be made a perfect garden of delights, for its climate is perfect.

I fear I have not made out this tropical island to be the happy
haven of rest I myself have found it; but I describe it as it appears,
without exaggeration of its merits or defects. Perhaps its charm lies
in the climate, the air is so cool in the morning, though so hot at
noon, but delicious and refreshing at evening-time. There is here a
perpetual invitation to rest, and the twenty-seven thousand composing
its population have not disregarded it. The government, as I have
said, is Dutch, paternal and beneficent in so far as it can be; and one
should visit the old fortress church, the fort, and the government build-
ing, to see specimens of Holland architecture modified to suit climatic
conditions. This is a free port, Curacoa. The shops are many, and
the goods are cheap. Most of the business seems to be in the hands
of the Jews, although the Dutch hold the wholesale trade. There is an
immense 4bverza, or bookstore, here, — that of Bitancourt, whose prin-
cipal trade is in Venezuela. Communication is maintained between
various parts of the island by means of excellent roads, and around
the lagoon of Schearlo runs a tramway. I may be accused of adopt-
ing an English term instead of an American, in calling this a tramway,
and not a horse-car line. But the truth is the car is drawn by a.
donkey. The car itself is not over large, and perhaps nine people
can secure transportation at one and the same time; while the donkey
is hardly as big as a billy-goat. It may not always be the same
donkey that draws it, but if it is not, there is a strong family resem-
" blance, especially as to size. One day a party of three ladies went on
shore from a newly arrived steamer, and seeing the car standing there,
boarded it. As it was rear end on, they did not see the donkey, and
when it began to move they were filled with wonder. They made the
trip around the lagoon and back, alighted, and went aboard the
steamer delighted. “ How lovely it was! And what a charming ride

that was on the electric car!”
64. THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN,

« And all de time,” said the old Dutchman who told me the story,
“ der was a man on der vront seat, und dey didn’t see der yackass!”

The “sights” of Curacoa are peculiarly West Indian, and the
people, especially the blacks, objects of never-ceasing interest. Every-
where, squatted against the walls along the streets, one sees groups of
aged negresses and young girls, their rags scarce hiding their skins,
keeping guard over small heaps of fruits and vegetables. Exceeding
the market-women in interest, the washerwomen attract the first atten-
tion of the stranger. They board the steamer (when the officers will
let them) and solicit the linen of passengers; but woe to him who
intrusts his garments to their care! Before you decide to do this,
walk over to the beach and look at the spectacle of half-naked
washerwomen lining the shore, dipping the clothing in the sea and
mauling it with a club! After they have worried the life out of a
garment,—a shirt, for instance,— smashed all the buttons off and
punched it full of holes, they spread it out on a cactus-bush to dry, or
fasten it down on a rock with jagged fragments of coral. Witnessing
such a sight makes the average man unhappy; and it is small wonder
that many of the natives seek to drown their sorrows in the flowing
bowl. Their favorite tipple is that delicious drink bearing the name
of the island, Curacoa, which is made in Holland, but receives its
flavor from a peculiar orange peel exported hence to the land of dikes.
Gin also, being very cheap, about thirty cents a bottle, is much ap-
proved. And so, revelling in the luxuries a free port invites to
their doors, blest with a delightful climate, secure in their environment
of sea, and imbibing the golden nectar of the gods, these exotic Dutch-
men abide in perfect peace and contentment.

2
CHAPTER VI.
THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT.

From CuRAGOA To PUERTO CABELLO.— CASTLE OF THE LIBERATOR. — BURIAL-PLACE
OF DRAKE. — COCO-PALMS AND TROPIC-TREES. — PHOTOGRAPHING THE NATIVES. —
How WE FRIGHTENED A. NEGRO Boy.

CALL it mysterious, for South America yet contains
vast regions unexplored, rivers whose windings have
never been traced, and mountain valleys never yet
seen by white men. Let us imagine ourselves, then,
entering the harbor of Puerto Cabello on a cool
May morning, the purple mountains half hidden in
mist, the white-walled city lying quiet as a churchyard, without a
breeze to sway the long leaves of the palms, whose green crowns rise
above the roofs. But as we round the island castle that guards the
harbor mouth, a gun booms out a welcome, and as by magic, the city
is astir. People move early here in the tropics.

A short gun-shot away rose a square old fortress, of gray and
yellow stone, low and massive, with crenellated parapet and ornate,
bell-top sentry-boxes; a survival of buccaneer times, this gray old
Spaniard, when Morgan and Drake and pirates from Curacoa
pounced upon the Main. A guard of dirty and dismal soldiers while
away their time within its walls, and parade the narrow limits of their
island. They are brown and black, and their tattered uniforms pro-
claim their miserable condition. In the morning early they come
out and fire a gun, and spend a great portion of their waking hours in
5


66 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

blowing horns and bugles, showing that they have some energy, even
if confined inactive within the narrow compass of a fort.

A few hundred yards away rises a square, four-storied lighthouse,
on a narrow island by itself with apparently only just space enough



BOLIVAR.

for foundation-stones between the lagoon and the sea, the waves of
which can be seen above the beach; and their roar can be heard
throughout the day. This lighthouse mounts a flashlight, red and
white alternate, visible ten or fifteen miles at sea. The old fort guards
effectively the narrow entrance to the harbor of Puerto Cabello, and
THE MYSTERIOVS CONTINENT, 67

is now known as e¢ Castillo del Libertador, — Castle of the Liberator;
for we are now in Venezuela, land of the Liberator, the great and only
Bolivar. Between us and the lighthouse, on a shoal of the Castle
Island, lies the hull of a
steamer, its machinery stick-
ing up suggestively above |
the water, — an old blockade-
runner, with a history, dur-
ing our late war between
North and South. Farther
up the lagoon a great “ mud-
digger” is moored, an ex-
pensive purchase by one of |
the numerous “ Govern- |
ments” of Venezuela, and |
which was intended to
dredge the harbor, but
which, beyond a merely pre-
liminary exhibition, never
scooped a shovelful. A lit-
tle beyond, a great iron
steamer lies inactive, rusting
to pieces at her moorings.
The Government paid ten
thousand dollars to have her
taken away from one of the POS ENE ERT
revolutionary generals a few
years ago. The “general” himself is now commander-in-chief of Ven-
ezuela's forces ; but the gallant tar who saved her to the Government
still whistles for his reward.

High hills rise behind Puerto Cabello, clothed in green to their
crests, and guard.a broad plain between their bases and the sea, and

>


68 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

here the city itself is built. The streets are straight, some broad,
some narrow, with several A/zzuelas here and there, planted with palms
and tropical shrubs. The plaza-park occupies a point of land just
astern our steamer and opposite the castle. Between park and castle
is the channel, narrow but
deep, giving entrance to the

‘finest harbor on this coast.
The great lagoon be-
yond is crowded along its
shores with mangroves, isles,
and islets, among which
there should be excellent
shooting, unless appear-
ances deceive. Ihavea gun
aboard, but as yet have not
\) taken it from its case, and
am reserving it for use in
Lake Maracaibo. Of birds
generally considered gamey
1 have seen very few thus
far; only pelicans, herons,
gulls, and terns, aside from
the numerous song and plu-
A SPANISH GIRL. mage birds met with in the

plazas and gardens.

The fargue, with its contiguity to the sea, and swept by cool
breezes all day long, is an extremely attractive spot. Tall palms,



called here aguaranas, probably oleraczas, rise above and guard the
gates, and encircle a fantastic fountain in the centre. Many of the
great gray stems of these palms are perforated,—holes from half an
inch to two inches in diameter, — which remind us of one of the revo-
lutions that took place here. Crowds of people were gathered here
THE MEVSTERIOUS CONTINENT. § 69

and were fired into by the fort opposite, and many slaughtered.
These holes in the palm-trunks are yearly growing larger, and may
eventually cause the destruction of these glorious trees.

To mention the other plants and trees of this pleasure garden
would be to enumerate a goodly portion of the flora of the tropics.

I sat down one afternoon beneath the shade of a sapote-tree, and
watched the birds playing in the shrubbery, while I amused myself
trying to, call them about me, as I used to do in the Antilles. They
were nearly all strange to me; but I think I recognized a little “ hum-
mer,’ that buzzed about a bush with great red flowers, as the green-
throated humming-bird of the West Indies. In the palms, crying
noisily among the spathes covering the flower-clusters, was a species
of fly-catcher very much resembling a new one I discovered in
Dominica thirteen years ago, called by the natives there the “ sunset-
bird,” and named by Professor Lawrence the Mytarchus Obert in
honor of its discoverer. The one in the palm-tree, the little boys in
the garden told me, was known as Zio Fuan, or Uncle John.

I have often wondered whether I did science a service or no, in
bringing to the ornithological lights the twenty and more new birds
I discovered in the West Indies. Since the beginning of creation,
perhaps, at least since these islands rose from the wave and were
blessed with bird-life, these birds had existed unknown save to the
native negroes and Indians, and by them only half recognized by cry
or flight. Civilized man first made their acquaintance through my
- introduction, and that was only brought about by searching out and
killing the birds; for one can rarely tell to a certainty when he holds
a new species in his hand. The animal must be skinned and stuffed,
must be measured, and his life-colors, cries, and habits noted; then its
skin is sent to the museum, where it is compared with others there
collected, and with all known species; and perhaps it must even be
sent to Europe to be compared with others.

One humming-bird that I sent to our museum at Washington
7O THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

made two voyages across the Atlantic before its identity was deter.
mined. There exists a class of “closet naturalists,’— men who know
nothing of field or forest, but who spend their lives in examining dead
and dried specimens of animated nature. They have perhaps their
use; but they do a great deal of damage and prolong the quarrels that
are constantly going on between real naturalists over the classification
of bird and beast. What constitutes a species? It is, I think, a
question not yet determined,— one class being prone to make a
species out of a mere variety, and another insisting upon reducing the
number already existing.

But I did not intend to wander into those fascinating fields again,
where I passed so many months of my youth. Already, I fear, they
have consumed too much of my life. To come back to Puerto Ca-
bello and its plazas. I often queried what was the signification of this
strange name: Puerto Cabello, — the “ Port of the Hair.” But the
other day one of our vice-consuls here explained that it was a per-
petual boast of its excellence; a vessel might be moored here dy @
hair, and not break away from her moorings.

Off the castle, our mate tells us, lies anchored that redoubtable
pirate of England, Sir Francis Drake; at least it is said that he was
buried here, so many leagues off the Castle of Puerto Cabello,’ and so
many fathoms deep. This was the great “stamping-ground” of the
late Sir Francis; and perhaps the enormous old cannon in Caracas
were a pair of the very pieces used against him when he stormed
La Guayra.

The last voyage of Drake was made in company with the scarcely
less celebrated Sir John Hawkins. It was most unfortunate to all
concerned. Hawkins died off the eastern end of Puerto Rico.. Not
long after, Drake died and was buried at sea off Puerto Bello, in a
leaden coffin.

1 We think the mate mistaken, and that Drake was buried off Puerto Bello, not off Puerto
Cabello.
THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT. 71

‘The following lines perpetuate this event : —

“* Where Drake first found, there last he lost his name,
And for a tomb left nothing but his fame.
His body’s buried under some great wave,
The sea that was his glory is his grave ;
On whom an epitaph none now can make;
For who can say, ‘ Here lies Sir Francis Drake’?”

Here forts, castles, cannon, habitations, all carry us back to the
times of Drake and Raleigh; and if it were not for the enterprising





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE LAST VOYAGE OF DRAKE.

North, Venezuela might perhaps still be dreaming of times when
Charles the Fifth first inscribed péws ultra upon his arms, Only
yesterday I saw a doubloon of Charles the Third, bearing date 1791.

\
72 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

Gold is not so scarce here as it is in Spain to-day. I remember how
eagerly a certain old antiquarian in Granada seized upon a gold-piece
I had, and refused to give it up again when I wanted it back. Once
was the time that the golden flood poured into Spain from the
Americas, from Mexico,
the West Indies, and
Peru. But’ where is it
now? Where are the
pearls that Cubagua and
the Spanish Main sent to
Spain? Long years since,
the tide turned the other
way, and the treasures of
the Occident have been
brought back from the
East, though in a shape
different from that in
which they went out.
Montezuma’s and the In-



AN INCA. cas’ treasures excited un-

: bounded wonder. They

were the accumulation of centuries, those vessels of gold, wheels,

suns, and golden gods. Not so much has been found since, though

doubtless there are mines untouched and river-sands unwashed that
will yet yield gold.

The houses here are allin the Oriental style; that is, of southern
Spain, — low, square, massive, all built of stone, with flat roofs and
enclosed padzos. There are few here of more than one story, and the
active city is hidden from the steamer’s deck by the custom-house,
that towers above all else. This custom-house is said to be due to
the enterprise of an American, our consul here. In truth, almost all
works of any magnitude are the product of foreign capital, and are
THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT. 73

of foreign inception. As in Mexico, the Lnglish and Americans have
kindly provided the people with railroads to all important points, so
here English and Americans are working the great enterprises that
‘give these people quick communication between important points,
secure harbors and connection with foreign ports. Of these I
shall write more particularly after I have had opportunity for ex-
amination and comparison.

A certain writer on Algiers has declared that no two Orientals
will walk down a street side by side, unless the colors of their cos-
tumes harmonize,— color and contrasts of colors being felt every-
where. As to costume, the people here seem to have little regard for
their appearance, with reference to harmony of colors; but as to their
dwellings, they make them most attractive. Instead of whitewashing
these massive walls and making them glaring white, as the Ber-
mudians do with their houses, making them look like surface-
croppings of coral rock, these South Americans give them a great
variety of pleasing colors. Blue, pink, and yellow predominate; and
the combined effect, though not premeditated, is fine. Cover these
walls with tiles, curving over one another in undulating lines, and of
richest browns and terra-cottas, with a background of deep-green
hills; over all a sky of clearest blue, — and there is harmony in color
that would satisfy the soul of an artist hard to please.

I cannot learn that Puerto Cabello has ever suffered from earth-
quakes, nor been often devastated by hurricanes; but the houses
crouch low upon the ground, as though fearful of some elemental
convulsion.

In such a country as this—indeed, in any country whatever —
we always find the lower classes the most picturesque, both in habit
and habitation. Their surroundings also are in keeping with their
immediate environment, for they always occupy the outlying districts
where gardens bloom fruitfully and coco-palms wave invitingly their
golden leaves. Such are the suburbs of Puerto Cabello. The city
74. THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

itself may be half a mile across; solidly built, from sea-wall to lagoon,
where the water penetrates to the streets, and boats and bridges are
as necessary as sidewalks. One little island here is occupied by a
shanty and its scant soil covered by a garden, apparently a summer



CHURCH AND STREET IN PUERTO CABELLO.

resort, and this insular possession is called La /sle Misteriosa, — the
Mysterious Island. But the attractive portion of the city lies hidden
among the coco-palms.

The palm groves can be seen from the steamer’s deck, filling the
valley between the city and the hills, and bordering the sea-beach for
miles. and miles. How the coco-palm clings to the sea! It never
strays far away from the sea-beach, never leaves the sound of the sea-
waves behind, — the waves that first brought the coco-nut to these
shores. Other palms replace it in the hills and mountains; but if
THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT. 75

you are coming to the coast from a point far inland, you may be sure
of the end of your journey being near when you first see the coco-
palm.

They say in the islands that the coco-palm ministers to their
wants in a hundred different ways. Speaking of the palm, I found
once something quite interesting relating to it in an old book pub-
lished in London, 1613, called “ A Plain Description of the Barmodas,
now called Summer Islands, with the Manner of their Discouerie.”
It says: “ The Head of the Palmito Tree is verie good Meate, either
raw or sodden; it yieldeth a Head which weigheth about twentie
Pounds, and is farre better Meate than any Cabbidge.” The author
was probably writing of the cabbage-palm, though that variety is now
scarce in Bermuda.

There are thousands of these coco-palms in the place I have men-
tioned on the outskirts of Puerto Cabello, tossing their graceful heads
aloft in wild abandon. They lean lovingly over the lowly huts of
cane and hang their stems across the roads and lanes. Great clusters
of coco-nuts hang invitingly just out of reach, — green-gold nuts, half
shaded by green-gold leaves.

Here are the gardens of the poor, rich in everything prodigal
Nature can bestow. The ground is covered with sheets of purple
flowers and clumps of shrubs bearing white spikes of flowers with a
fragrance like our “spice-bush.” The air is sweet, and the senses are
delighted, in spite of the filth and squalor of the people who live here.
Clumps of sugar-cane grow here and there, reminding me, by their
size, of a story I.once heard anent a man of Tobago. He told of
cane so large in that island that while one man is cutting one down
with a cutlass, another is stationed a little way off to warn him in case
it seems likely to fall upon and crush him. The narrator of this yarn
had a spy-glass so powerful (he said) that he could see through it the
washerwomen spreading their clothes to dry on the walls of Fort
Charlotte, St. Vincent, seventy-five miles away.
76 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

It is a fact of history, by the way, that the English name for
tobacco was derived from that of the island Tobago, where it was first
found by Englishmen. But to return to our coco-palms.

— Some one, perhaps, may object to
my spelling of “coco,” preferring it



“cocoa.” But I beg to inform any one
disposed to be critical that “ cocoa” is
wrong. The coco is the cocos mucz-
Sera ; the cacao may be called “ cocoa,”
if you like, coming from the Aztec
(Mexican) word, cacahuatl, Here
they call it ca-c4-o, and apply the term
“cocos ” to the coco-trees.

Having photographed the city
streets and the parks, I hied me out
one morning to secure some of the
dwellers in the coco grove. I had
a companion, and we each had a
camera. Mine was an old affair
perched on a tripod, and had done
good service already. The lens I
purchased of old Darlot himself in
Paris, and I know just what it can
do. My companion had a new-fan-
gled invention with an outlandish
name, in the shape of a box filled
with “films” for sixty photographs.
He was no photographer, but le went’

A NATIVE TRADER. according to printed directions, which

he consulted before every exposure.

These directions were: (1) To unplug the end of the box; (2) Pull a
string ; (3) Turn acrank; (4) Press a button. Also to be careful in
THE MYSTERIOUS CONTINENT. 77

estimating the distance between the machine and the victim intended
for sacrifice. It was to be pointed exactly at the centre of the object
to be photographed, and if said object were small, then the operator
must crouch a little. Thus armed, — “loaded for bear,” as it were, —
we went hunting for game. A fine group of cocos claimed my atten-
tion at once, and I pitched my camera at a street-corner, and was
at once surrounded by a curious crowd. They were curious, but not
offensive; and so, finding that these people would take it in good
part, we proceeded to secure several groups of them. There was one
hut especially fine in its barbaric completeness, —a hut of reeds,
wattled and plastered and thatched. Between the reeds the spaces
were stuffed with coco-husks. The interior was dark and filthy, with-
out table or chairs, and a little naked in-
fant crouched in one corner. Out of sur-
rounding huts poured the people like flies
- from the bung-hole of an empty molasses
barrel. There were women clad in che-
mise and skirt, bearing babies astride their
hips, — babies stark naked and brown.
Youngsters of all ages, up to eight or ten,
stalked about without a rag on them, while
the older ones wore hardly anything but
rags. They were rather coy at first; but
a few words of explanation from me set all
right, and they allowed us to include as INDIAN GIRL.
many as we wanted in our grouping. I
told them, for instance, that we were Americans (Americanos) from
the North, and that we did not have any coco-palms and beautiful
houses of palm-leaves, nor such lovely babies, chzguztetos, and pretty
sehovitas; and these simple people believed it all, and said they
would be glad to let the Norte-Americanos see photographs of all
these things, since they did not have any of their own. So they laugh-


78 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN,

ingly grouped themselves, only begging that they might have a peep
through the machine after I had taken the photograph.

The camera, perched on its tripod, they could understand and
were familiar with, but were afraid of the black box with its omi-~
nous muzzle, carried by my friend. When that was pointed at them
all the youngsters trembled and cried, while the older ones were
rather dubious, though I managed to reassure them. Just as we had
concluded, I spied a better subject coming than any we had taken.
A little negro black as night, with an old straw hat on his head
and straw sandals on his feet, came down the path, leading by the
hand a smaller mite of humanity the hue of mahogany. Both were
naked, except for the hat and sandals of the older one; but they
marched along as grave as judges and apparently as happy.

I had used up my plates, but I said to my friend, “ There is your
chance;” and he at once started on the trail. As the little chaps
were small, he had to crouch (according to direction); and when
those black babies saw the strange man after them, creeping stealth-
ily and pointing a long black box, as though to shoot, they set up
a howl, and fled precipitately. The old straw hat fell off; the san-
dals flew into the air; and the photographer lost his picture.
CHAPTER iV Ik:
A JOURNEY INTO THE COFFEE REGION.

VENEZUELAN POLITICIANS. — FIREWORKS BY DAYLIGHT.— LOADING COFFEE AT PUERTO:
CABELLO. — A RAILROAD ON STILTS.— THE CITY OF VALENCIA.—FRom COAST TO
MountTAIN-LAND. — BREAD-FRUITS AND TRUMPET-TREES.— WHAT A WISE INDIAN.
sAipD.— A RuMOR-OF CANNIBALS.

NE night we came over Curacoa, leaving at sunset



and arriving at sunrise; going to rest with memories
of roseate hills and sunset clouds, awaking with a
vision before us of cloud-capped mountains, green
hills coming down to the sea and enclosing a city
curious and quaint. Coming up from La Guayra
the other night, as the distance is short, one boiler only was used,
and the motion was hardly perceptible. We had a crowd of Spanish-
Americans, and among them several distinguished Venezuelans,
attendant upon the last ex-President, Doctor Paulo. To pronounce
the name of this distinguished gentleman you must make it Pow-
o6-lo, and then the chances are you won’t place stress enough upon
the oo. We departed amid music and fireworks, and arrived at
Puerto Cabello with a welcome of music and fireworks. It was
scarce daylight when we arrived opposite the castle, yet the rockets
began to ascend and explode, while the band kept up such a din
that it almost drowned the’ voice of our captain as he gave his
orders from the bridge. The channel is narrow, and a big Spanish
80 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

steamer lay at our berth; and it required great skill and seamanship
to put our steamer up to the wharf. Through it all—confusion of
noises such as tooting of whistles, exploding of rockets, and braying
of horns—the multitude assembled on the wharf applauded vocifer-
ously. I scanned the faces carefully, and came to the conclusion
that it was a good-natured multitude, an easily-led-by-the-nose mul- |
, titude, with great respect for a man who could
Y hold office a year in this country and leave a
respectable sum in the treasury. For that is
what they say Paulo did, a month or two ago,
when he retired to make way for his successor;
but some also assert that the surplus afore-
mentioned was suddenly reduced, and Paulo’s
pockets as quickly filled. Be that as it may,
Paulo is not an evil-looking man; he looks hon-
est and kindly. He is past middle age, dark
and cadaverous, dresses plainly, and has an un-
assuming manner. His wife is also dark, but
quite large, and the diamonds she wore were the
envy of all the ladies on board.
They had their nieces with them,— two plump
and beautiful brunettes, who played our piano
with skill, and were the objects of unwearied
attention from the young men in attendance.



“cue rockets pecan to How long they continued their promenades on
ASCEND. deck that night, I cannot tell, for I retired early;
but I know that I awoke now and then through the night, and
heard snatches of music and laughter, and caught glimpses of the.
moon-lit mountains of Venezuela, as we glided over the sea.
One is struck by the prevailing complexion of the people, so
generally dark, even swarthy. I noticed this particularly the day be-
fore as I glanced over the crowd on the wharf. Nearly all (as one man
A JOURNEY INTO THE COFFEE REGION. 81

put it) were black-and-tan, the only difference being a little more or
less of one or the other. The Indians have mostly disappeared, but
they have left their mark, though the Spaniard has more than held
his own. During the entire day “ El Doctor,” as he is termed, held
a levee with the people, on deck and in the cabin. Although he
‘no longer held office, yet people seemed to think he “had the pull,”
and he was constantly besieged. He was going to Curacoa with us for
his health; and some of the young ladies with us were also going
there to attend the famous convent school. After the doctor had
in a measure satisfied the curiosity of the people, they began to
depart; but the rocketeers remained till the last, sending up their
sticks. The Spaniards and the: Spanish-Americans have a great
inclination for sending off fireworks by daylight. They make very
good fireworks here, and send them off in good style, but oftener
make their displays by day than by night, evidently having a
greater relish for the noise than the illumination. All this occurred,
or most of it, before six o’clock in the morning; for the people here
are “early to bed and early to rise;” as to whether or no they
are “healthy, wealthy, and wise,” I cannot tell, but do not think
many of them are.

The legal hours for labor here are from six to ten o’clock in the
morning, then a two hours’ siesta, and from twelve o'clock, noon, till
four o’clock in the afternoon. Everything is regulated by the cus-
toms officials; they charge twenty-five cents an hour for the labor-
ers, and are said to pay. them twenty. This may not be a paternal
government, but it exercises pretty strong control over the lower
classes. The officers of the ship have to make their bargains with
the officials, who undertake to supply the number of men wanted
and who specify their hours of labor and their employment. This
operates to make the laborers very saucy and independent, and
takes their control out of the hands of those most concerned in the
faithful discharge of their duties. The customs regulations are

6
82 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

eccentric; but there is hardly any impediment placed in the way
of the traveller. No passport is demanded, and only a superficial
examination is made of one’s luggage.

As I said, the lading of the ship began at about six o’clock,
and a din of a different sort began. Great and brawny negroes,
stripped to the waist, handled the sacks of coffee with great rapidity
and dexterity. A line was
constantly passing and re-
passing,— each one with a
sack of coffee on his head,
which he dexterously
dumped across the rope on
which the sacks were slung,
ten at a time, and hoisted
by the steam-winch into the
hold. It seemed like a pan- -
demonium of noise and con-
fusion ; but everything
moved steadily on, and: by

ALL NATIONALITIES. breakfast-time, orten o'clock,

the great pile of coffee

sacks was diminished; and by three o’clock the work was done, the

negroes and donkeys departed, the wharf was swept off, and the

late scene of bustle, noise, and strife was quiet, and nobody was
left there, except a few fireproof darkies slumbering in the sun.

All this coffee comes from the interior; and until recently. it
was brought down to the coast on the backs of donkeys and mules.
The plantation, a long way off, of course was at a great disadvantage,
there being no long-and-short haul clause in their contracts with
the arrzevos and . donkey drivers.

_A few years ago a railroad was inaugurated, from Puerto Cabello
into the interior. It was completed in 1888 as far as Valencia,


A FOURNEY INTO THE COFFEE REGION. 83

a city of some forty thousand inhabitants, the capital of the State
of Carabobo. This railroad line is, as far as Valencia, fifty-four
kilometers (or about thirty-five miles) long. It carried sixty-two
thousand passengers the first year of its completion. As one of
the railroads aiming to penetrate this great and mysterious con-
tinent of South America, which presents a mountain barrier almost
the entire length of the Caribbean coast, this road deserves exami-
nation. It was built with English capital, and is owned and run
by Englishmen; the rolling-stock is thoroughly English also, and
presents to the American many obsolescent features that our coun-
try has long since buried, but to which Johnny Bull still clings
tenaciously, or else England used these new countries as a sort
of dumping-ground for her cast-off and antiquated carriages. Let us
hope, for her sake, the latter. But the road-bed is magnificent,
and the viaducts just such as we find on that other English road
running through similar country, in Mexico, from Vera Cruz to the
capital.

Over this road in Venezuela come the products of the inte-
rior, — coffee, cacao, deer and goat skins, hides, cotton, copper, and
dye-woods, amounting to some five million dollars during the year
1888,

This city of Valencia, of which we heard so much, we desired to
see; and so we set forth one morning by the train. Consulting the
history of Venezuela, we found the town to be sufficiently ancient to
have a suggestion of interest, having been founded so long ago as the
middle of the sixteenth century, by Alonzo Diaz Moreno. It occu-
pies a beautiful plain, or elevated valley, mountain-surrounded, with
temperate climate and within sight of Lake Tacarigua, famous for
its beautiful shores: and islands. Beyond this city, the railroad
- will connect with another line, which is to establish communica-
tion between Valencia and Caracas.

A party of us took the train at eight eoteee in the morning
+

84 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

seeking the station in a dirty suburb of Puerto Cabello. The
fare is two dollars and a half — first-class —for the thirty-five miles,
Although the railroad station is in a location altogether uninviting,
yet within a few minutes after pulling out, the train passes through
the beautiful coco grove which I mentioned before, and thence-
forward the scenery presents a constant succession of surprises.
Leaving the vast coco plantation, embowered in which are thé
huts of favored dwellers, we come out upon a long curving beach,
where the waves tumble heavily upon the sands, and the wind
whistles through the palm-branehes. Taking our departure from
the coast at this point, our course hence is along the banks of
a river.

From the very beginning, this river treats us to the choicest
bits of Nature’s production in the way of tropical and semi-tropical
scenery. Curving in and out, first on one bank, then on the other,
the road steadily ascends the steep hills and penetrates a suc-
cession of valleys, each higher than the other, and each showing
a slight difference in the vegetation. Along the coast of course
the coco-palms grow, in thinner and thinner groups, then more
isolated, until the last one is left behind, growing on the seaward
side of a hill. Then the bananas and plantains, zzsferos and bread-
fruit. This last has a character of its own, and is distinctive
even in this tropical wealth of vegetation. The leaves are deeply
cleft with seven to nine lobes. The fruit is green, spherical, with
a very rough surface. Under the skin, or rind, we find the pulp,
or “bread” portion, of the fruit, which nourishes so many people
here as well as in the islands of Oceanica. A tree resembling
this at first glance is the trumpet-tree, though it bears no edible
fruit, and its leaves have silver linings which, like poplar-leaves,
show bright in every breeze.

Then came silk-cottons (cezbas) and sand-box-trees. The former
are now in delicate green leaf, and are not hung with the pods of
A FOURNEV INTO THE COFFEE REGION. 85

silk-cotton, which give these trees their specific name. As to the
sand-box-trees, their twigs are topped with the round tomato-shaped
seed-boxes that have such a curious appearance. If collected and
carefully dried, they make
fine paper-weights, etc. But
there is a knack in the dry-
ing of them that I do not
understand. I remember
that I carried some home in
my trunk at one time, in-
tending to show them to my
friends. When I came to
“overhaul” my trunk, how-
ever, I found nosand-boxes at
all, —at which I marvelled
much, —and only some
strange seeds I had never
seen before. It was a long f
time before I discovered
that the boxes had _ burst ‘
and scattered their con- |
tents throughout the trunk.
The railroad is steep as
far as a station called Las
Trincheras ; but beyond this
_the grade is such that a dif- TROPICAL PLANTS.
ferent engine is substituted
for the one we started with, which works with a cog or cam in a
similar manner to the one up Mount Washington, in New Hampshire.
Only it is claimed that this system is superior, being adapted to
heavy trains, and having a larger and different kind of engine.
We run parallel to the old mule road from the coast, and note
that the trains of donkeys are not yet discontinued. Now and then



86 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

the river is spanned by a rude semi-suspension bridge, almost as
primitive as the grape-vine bridges I have seen in South Mexico.
The hills and mountains rise far above us and hem us in; but at last
we burst the barrier and see before us a far-stretching plain.

Just here, the train is halted,
while I am given time to photo-
graph a fine fall of water, called
| Aqua Linda. It drops over a
cliff, between masses of trees and
vines, and forms a lovely pool ere





























































































































































































_| it runs away to the river. The hills
and mountains on either side of us
are gaunt and bare, of rich red
hues. The air is clear and pure,
and we are now in a temperate
region, perhaps fifteen hundred
feet above the sea. Beyond Aqua
Linda is a station called Maegua-
nagua, or, as it was explained to
me, the Two Waters. After a two
hours’ ride, the station of Valencia
is reached, which, like néarly all
Spanish and Spanish-American sta-

FRUIT-SELLER OF VALENCIA. tions, is a long way from the cen-

tre of the city.

To the surprise of most of our party, we were met here by the
superintendent and assistant superintendent of the railroad, and the
chief of the electric plant,—two Englishmen and an American, —
and during the rest of the day were in their charge. Suffice it to say
that they cared for us royally, took us all about the city in carriages,
to every point of interest, and ended with a dinner of the best Valen-
cia afforded. The day was Good Friday, so that everybody was in
holiday attire, and flocking to the church.




























































































































HOUSE OF CIVILIZED INDIANS.

A FOURNEY INTO THE COFFEE REGION. 89

We visited, among other places, the waterworks and Calvario, or
Calvary, the highest point in the city, where it all lay spread out at
our feet; and beyond the many-colored houses sparkled the waters of
the lake. On the highest part of Calvario, Guzman Blanco, with
becoming modesty, had erected his statue; but the people pulled it
down months ago, and not even a fragment remains.

Were it possible, I should like to describe the unbounded hospi-
tality of our friends and show my readers what generous deeds some
men are capable of; but I confess I cannot. The city is lighted by
electric lights, the public buildings are fine, and in the principal plaza
is a beautiful bronze statue of Bolivar.

The Professor and I, as our readers well know, are very much
interested in the history of America; and as it was upon this very
coast of South America that some of the most notable events took
place, we cannot let the opportunity pass without reference to them.
We found a queer old book called, “ The General History of the Vast
Continent and Islands of America, commonly called the West Indies,”
written by Antonio de Herrera three hundred years ago, and trans-
lated into English in 1740.

From this very valuable work we shall now and then make
extracts; the following is one: —

“In the other hemisphere [America] there were no dogs, asses,
sheep, goats, swine, cats, horses, mules, camels, nor elephants. They
had no orange, lemon, pomegranate, fig, quince, olive, melons, wines
nor sugar, wheat nor rice. They knew not the use of iron, knew
nothing of firearms, printing, or learning. Their navigation extended
not beyond their sight; their government and politics were barbar-
ous. Their mountains and vast woods were not habitable. An In-
dian of good natural parts being asked what was the best they had
got by the Spaniards, answered: The hen’s eggs, as being laid new
every day; the hen herself must be either boiled or roasted, and does
not always prove tender, while the egg is good every way. Then he
go THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

added: The horse and artificial light, because the first carries men
with ease and bears his burdens, and by means of the latter (the
Indians having learned to make wax and tallow candles and oil), there-
fore, they ved some part of the night! and this he thought to be the
most valuable acquisition from the white people.” A wise old Indian
that! There are many Indians in Venezuela yet in savage state, and
in the neighboring republic of C@fombia there are said to be canni-
bals. Not long ago reports came down to the coast of a massacre
and cannibal feast which took place on the Putumayo, — one of many
rivers which run from the eastern slope of the Colombian Andes,
and about which little is known. Rising in the mountainous districts
of the upper altitudes of Pasto, in the State of Cauca, this river runs
nearly one thousand miles, receiving in its course the tributary waters
of more than thirty streams.

Within the past few years adventurous residents in Pasto have
endeavored to turn the riches of the river to account. Some time
ago a young merchant of Barcacoas, named Portes, with some friends,
established himself on the banks of the Putumayo. They were soon
visited by a number of Jevenetos Indians, who came ostensibly to
trade. The Indians were well received and were apparently satisfied,
but suddenly they attacked and killed the Colombians, and afterward
cooked and ate them. The Indians had never visited the Putumayo
before, and no one had ever fallen in with them on the Amazon.
Other tribes have also made their appearance in different places, and
it is believed that some more powerful tribes are driving the weaker
ones from the heart of the unknown forest regions, or that they are
voluntary emigrants who will murder and plunder wltenever oppor-
tunity offers. Residents on the frontier also suggest that they may
have been driven from their homes, wherever these may be, by the
slavers, whose vessels ascended several of the tributaries of the Amazon
a few years ago in search of slaves and produce. Indians are captured
on all the interior rivers and carried off to out-of-the-way regions.
ie
i | ir

(











































































NATURAL TUNNEL ON THE OF VENEZUELA.



CHAPTER VIII.
LAND OF THE LIBERATOR.

SIGHT OF SouTH AMERICA’S MouNTAINS. — A FORMIDABLE Line. —— A MISERABLE
PEOPLE. — THE VIOLENT SEA.— RED AND GREEN HILLS.— ONE DOLLAR FOR LAND-
ING, AND A FEE FoR LeEavinG. — BoLivar’s ARMy.— POETRY BY A CONSUL. — REV-

. ENUES AND EXPORTS OF VENEZUELA. — A FLOCK OF FIREFLIES.

OUTH AMERICA, as we first approach it on the
Venezuelan coast, presents a discouraging bulwark
of defence in its mountains, which guard the interior
well. Beyond these mountain-barriers it seems im-
possible to penetrate; they stand up so high and
frowning without an apparent opening in their
serried ranks. Half the night through, in going from Puerto Cabello
to La Guayra, as we walked the decks we were treated to occasional
glimpses of misty mountains. It was a glorious night, moonlit and
clear; the stars sparkled brightly, and the Southern Cross hung slant-
wise above the purple mountains, having mysteriously made its ap-
pearance about nine o'clock in the evening. The sea was smooth ;
and as the distance between the two ports is only half a night’s run,
we glided along almost imperceptibly, with no motion of the big
steamer felt except the regular pulsations of the engine. We reached
La Guayra at daylight; and as we sought the deck after a refreshing
night’s sleep, we saw our friends, the mountains, right before us, their
higher steeps frowning directly upon and overtopping us, as we lay


94 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

tossing upon the waves. The roadstead is open and exposed, and the
waves roll in from outside, tossing the steamers and the smaller craft
about like chips. The distance from Curacoa is a ten hours’ run, and
from Puerto Cabello five or six, going at easy speed.

Great cloud-masses hang lowering over the mountains, while silver
cloudlets sport along their sides. Though the heights are green, the
bases are bare and brown, scarred and gashed. There are no signs of
habitation above five hundred feet or so, but one of the shoulders of a
hill is cut out to receive a cosey little fort, upon the stone walls of
which is a signal station, —a delightful post of observation, command-
ing a wide sweep of ocean and coastwise view.

The bull-ring is just below the fort, and immediately beneath, the
best part of the town, which is here compactly built, but straggles
along the shore to the right and left. It lies under the steep hills,
composed of houses of stone and clay.

A hotter place apparently could not be found anywhere than this
La Guayra occupies, with the. hills behind and above it, and exposed
to the blaze of the sun three-fourths of the day. Above the narrow
line of houses along shore, tracks and footpaths zigzag up the hills,
leading to humble dwellings, mere mud-boxes, perched on the hill-
sides. They are but earthy excrescences of the hills, as brown and
sun-baked as the slopes around them. Yet mean and small as these
huts are, they are swarming with people, — with creatures whom it
were high honor to call brothers through Adam. I am sure Adani
did not expect such degeneracy as one sees here on the north coast
of South America. | ;

To get ashore at La Guayra costs one dollar. It is the first port
at which we have touched where there is anything like a desire to
make money out of visitors; so that this mild attempt at extortion
is taken in good part, and is soon forgotten as new scenes claim
attention.

It was on a holiday that we arrived at La Guayra, and the regular


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Zs et
es



LA GUAYRA.

LAND OF THE LIBERATOR. 97

“lighters” were not making their trips to the shore. These great
boats, built of ironwood and lignum vite, are said to cost above one
thousand dollars each; and though they are but clumsy, misshapen
“gundalous,” yet they land their freightage in good condition, and
their passengers with dry feet. Our boatman was very importunate
for his fee, and we could hardly avoid paying him the dollar each that
he demanded. But it was well that we “stood him off,” because when
we reached the custom-house, a ticket was presented to each of us for
which we had to pay the dollar.

The customs department regulates the landing and leaving of
passengers, and no one is allowed to do either here without its
sanction. My ticket was numbered 9,756, and read as follows: —



Corporacion del Puerto de la Guayra,
Pasage
Con 50 kilos de equipaje
B 5.



We did not have the stipulated fifty kilos of baggage, as we had but
one trunk between us; and that may have been the reason our lug-
gage passed through without examination. But these customs officials,
like their cousins in New York, know well enough when a man intends
to smuggle, and never go to any unnecessary trouble in searching.
The landing-fee was demanded ostensibly for the building of the
breakwater, —a magnificent work which is progressing as fast as the
rough northerly winds and seas will permit. It is an English conces-
sion, I believe, and when completed will make this open roadstead a
tolerably secure place of anchorage. The work proceeds but slowly,
owing to the heavy seas, and not long ago a great breach was made
in the wall during a hurricane, when thousands of dollars’ worth of
material was swept away in less than half an hour. It is being built
of great blocks of concrete, or cement, this cement being enclosed in

7
~ 98 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

immense sacks, carried out to the end of the pier in lighters, the bot-
toms of which drop out and deposit the sack in place, after which it is
left to harden, and the structure is carried out above.

A picturesque port is this of La Guayra, with its curving shore,
its stone and adobe houses, and its immediate background of red and
verdant hills. To the eye taking in its beautiful contours and bright
colors from the ship in the bay, it presents an attractive picture.

Not only did I have to pay for permission to land, but when I took
leave I had to secure a permit to get away. This cost twenty cents
for a stamp, and another twenty (a bolivar) for the official who secured
it forme. This ticket was worded as follows: — .



El Sr. F, A. Ober es pasajero
por el Vapor Americano,
Philadelphia.

La Guayra, May to, 1890.
‘pr. H. L. Boulton & Co..



Upon this was affixed a revenue stamp of fifty centimos, and
also the official stamps of the chief of the custom-house and of
the chief of police.

The customs officials were pretty well dressed, and bore them-.
selves with an air of superiority; but the soldiers on guard reminded
me of a description I once read of Venezuelan patriots of ove ayy
years ago :—

“ Bolivar’s army wore literally what they ak get. “Some were to
be seen in every corps with Spanish uniforms, either with or without
broad-brimmed straw hats; but these few were so far from improving
the appearance of the line that they made it resemble a rabble, and
displayed to greater advantage the miserable clothing of their com-
rades. Many were nearly stark naked; but the greater part wore
small ragged blankets and pieces of carpet, with holes cut in them for
LAND OF THE LIBERATOR. 99

the head to pass through. Straw hats were in general use, but some
colonels had partially introduced into their corps a kind of nondescript
schakos, tnaade of raw cowhide of various colors. The firearms too of
this devoted army were all old and in very bad condition. Some mus-
kets were absolutely without locks, and were apparently carried for
show, until the fall of a few friends or foes should give their owners
an opportunity for exchanging them for more effective weapons.
Many had only lances or bayonets on poles; and the Indians were
armed with bows and arrows.”

Being more or less under the protecting care of the agents of the
Line, the American passenger does not suffer many annoyances. Of
course we make the agency our headquarters, when ashore, and go to
it for information, even on matters having no relevancy to the business
of the Line. All are treated with courtesy, however, and made to feel
that there is one spot where the American flag floats not in vain. In
a double sense, the American feels the security of home at the office of .
the Line, because here also is the headquarters of the American Consul.
I found him in an upper apartment overlooking the picturesque patio —
of the old building, a courteous, educated gentleman, willing to give
information about the country, and anxious to be of service to those
who approached him in the proper spirit.

It was a rambling old corridor in which his office was held, with
bare beams and rafters overhead and great piles of coffee sacks against .
the wall. Everything was dusty and somewhat musty, and the busy
spider had not neglected such glorious opportunities for connecting
widely separated rafters with its silken webs. Pigeons cooed on the
tiles, and smaller birds darted in and out, while the spiders aforemen-
tioned, some of them of enormous size, kept unacclimated visitors in “a
state of mind.” The Consul has been here some years, and is thor-
oughly conversant with the things of Venezuela as well as with the
people who reside here. Perhaps I cannot better convey this senti-
ment than by making public some verses he wrote upon —
100 _LHE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

LA GUAYRA.

I.

O tranquil arazso, nestled near the placid (?) sea,

La Guayra, mz guerida, 1 must bid adieu to thee!

My boat is tossing in the surf; the twilight settles down;
Asi pues, mi despedida, — adios, my dear old town !

O gorgeous, cloud-kissed mountains that majestically arise,
Far up into the azure of the lovely tropic skies,

Frown never, but forever with the smile of pity greet

The home of mzs recuerdos sweetly sleeping at your feet.

The restless and resistless o/as that with ceaseless roar
And sheets of white esfuza dash upon the rocky shore,
Beat lightly and break brightly, with thy changeless melody
On the beautiful ovzZ/as of this haven by the sea.

And thou too, gentle Mother Earth, in moments of unrest,
Trembling with hollow thunders that re-echo in thy breast,
In pity spare La Guayra a recurrence of her woes,
The death and desolation of the ¢ervezoto throes.

With fondest recollections and with heart sincere and true,
Guatreiios gueridistmos, receive my last adieu !

May God, coz mado muna, ever graciously extend

To you the favor you have shown to your departing friend!

This is very fine, as everybody will surely admit, and the sen-
‘timent was undoubtedly received with applause by the Gwuazvenos
gueridisimos,—the most dearly beloved Guayra friends; and had
the worthy Consul stopped here, all would have been well, and
perhaps he might ere this have been secure of a niche in the
saintly pantheon after his death. But when he once had left
La Guayra, and was safe aboard the Yankee “ Vapor,” his lines,
though not lacking in truth and expression, are strangely at variance
with the foregoing. In very truth, they convey the impression we
all received, and may be accepted as authoritative, coming from
such a source :—
































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































SUNSET ON THE VENEZUELAN COAST.

LAND OF THE LIBERATOR. 103

LA GUAYRA.

Il.

Adios to thee, La Guayra! city of the dark-eyed gente,
Land of mucha calor and of dolce far niente,
Home of the wailing durro and the all-abounding flea ;
Mafana, gracias & Dios! 1 bid adieu to thee.

Farewell, ye gloomy casas, mejor dicho prison cells,

Ye narrow, crooked cad/es, reeking with assorted smells,
Ye dirty little coffee-shops and filthy pulpertas,
Stinking stable, dingy Jatios, and fetid canerias,

Where beggars ride on horseback, like Spanish cavaliers,

And vagabonds perambulate like jolly gamboliers,

Where the Zevanderas,wash your ropa — when they feel inclined,
And hotel waiters strut about with shirt hung out behind.

Good-by, ye Latin greasers! Sw atento servidor,

Que vaya bien, pues adios! My boat is on the shore;
O dirty people, dirty houses, despicable spot,
Departing I salute you, in your dirtiness and rot.

There you have La Guayra, and many another Spanish-American
city in a nut-shell. Its streets are narrow and dirty, the houses
old and damp, the people — those you most come in contact with
—disagreeable and unattractive. Yet even in dirt and squalor
there is attractiveness, and we should not let minor faults cause
us to overlook the merits of La Guayra—as a picture seen from
the sea. ey

One would hardly expect our Consul to dismount from his
Pegasus, when his steed ambles so beautifully amid the palm groves
and calles; but he does, now and then, and sends to our, Gov-
ernment “reports” abounding in statistics made of the sternest
stuff. We all know that La Guayra is the chief port of Venezuela,
from which comes a vast shipment of coffee every year. It is
said that there is an average annual exportation of coffee amounting
to twenty-five millions of pounds.


104. THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

The revenues are derived mainly from imports, the natural pro-
ducts of the country not being subject to export duty. If one
might believe reports, half the population live on the customs,
either directly or indirectly. One of our sailors stated the con-
dition of things very emphatically when he said that all Spaniards
and Spanish-Americans, as peoples, are robbers, preying upon the
products of superior intelligence. Like vampires, they suck the
life-blood out of commerce; like leeches, they apply themselves
to every healthy subject that sets foot within their waters. From
the first dawn of Spanish-American history, these Latin peoples
who settled Mexico, West Indies, and South America have played
the part of robbers, pirates, and buccaneers. Gold has been their
god; and to procure it they have never hesitated to exterminate
peaceful people, murdering them in the fields and suffocating them
in the mines. In a more peaceful way, in recent years, they have
applied themselves to squeezing the golden eggs out of the geese
that flocked to their shores. They manufacture next to nothing;
they export nothing’ but the fruits of the soil. An ungrateful
people possess this bountiful country; and it is one of the mys-
teries of a Divine Providence that they have been allowed to
cumber the earth so long.

According to the “ Statistical Annuary” for 1889, the imports for
1886-87 amounted to 73,191,880 bolivars. A bolivar has a value
of about twenty cents; and the duties amounted to 23,203,459 boli-
vars, or about one-third of the total cost. In 1887-88 the total
value of imports was 78,963,288 bolivars, with a total duty of
29,728,817 bolivars. Of the imports, Great Britain sent the greatest
amount, equal to 23,510,113 bolivars, and the United States of
America 19,743,824 bolivars.

The chief exports in 1887-88, consisting of cotton, : cacao,
coffee, copper, hides, deer and goat skins, dzv-divz, timber, dye-
woods, gold, tonka beans, and sundries, went to the United States,
LAND OF THE LIBERATOR. 105

—more than half the grand total, or 45,615,500 bolivars. Of the
vessels employed in the carrying trade between Venezuela and
other countries, the United States had the greatest number of
steamers, and Great Britain the largest number of sailing-vessels.
The most direct serviee between Venezuela and the United States
is by the American Line, six days from La Guayra to New York.

This city is certainly important in a commercial sense, but far
from desirable as a place of residence. It has two beautiful suburban
towns, called Macato and Maiquetia. The former is some four miles
distant, and there one finds surf-bathing, fresh and salt water baths,
and good hotels; in fact, there is the germ here of a delightful water-
ing-place. A railroad runs out there, and coaches can be hired to
take one to Macato, as well as to the nearer suburb. This latter,
Maiquetia, is completely embowered in coco-palms, through which
gleam the white church and the red-roofed houses.

Through this village, and through the palm grove, runs the rail-
road that connects La Guayra with Caracas. Its devious course may
be traced from the ship in the harbor by its trail along the hills.

We were now in the country of fireflies, the moctz/ucas, that so as-
tonished the Spaniards when they first saw them. The old historian
shares in this astonishment, and this is the way he speaks of them:
“In Hispaniola they found a sort of Vermin, like great Beetles, some-
what smaller than Sparrows, having two Stars close by their Eyes,
and two more under their Wings, which gave so great a Light that
by it they could Spin, Weave, Write, and Paint; and the Spaniards
went by Night to hunt the Vas, or little Rabbits of that Country;
and also afishing, carrying those Animals tyed to their great Toes, or
Thumbs, and they call’d them Locuyos. They took them in the Night,
with Firebrands, because they made to the Light, and came when call’d
by their Name; and the Men, stroaking their Faces and Hands with a
sort of Moisture that is in these Stars, seem’d to be afire.”
CHAPTER IX.

FROM THE COAST TO CARACAS.

SUNSET CoLorRS.— PALMS AND PARADISE. — SOME SoUTH AMERICAN HOTELS. — WASH-
ERWOMEN AT THE Brook. — CLimBInG a Coco-PaLm.— A WoNDERFUL RAILROAD.
— SWARMS oF Locusts.— WHaT HuMBOLDT WROTE. — THE CLIMB TO CARACAS.

A GUAYRA lies on a narrow shelf cut out of the
hills that here come directly down to the sea. It
is “bound to be” hot; it swarms with a swarthy
population; it is only attractive at a distance. The
farther away you are, provided you be not too far to
lose details sufficient for a picture, the more you are
inclined to like La Guayra. My most beautiful photographs were
obtained just as we were steaming out of the port, and they were
some “snap-shots” at great banks of sunset clouds, massed above a
promontory crowned with palms. Crimson and gold in color, the
sun only peering through rents in the radiant meshwork, these clouds
attracted us all to the rail, and kept us there, even though the gong
had sounded for dinner, and we were hungry to a degree. For nearly
an hour the sun’s influence was observable upon the clouds, that lay
piled upon one another in fantastic shapes. At last the crimson faded
to pink, the gold to salmon tints, and the cloud-ranks dispersed them-
selves over the sky, the flow of which was a lovely robin’s-egg blue.
I took three photographs of this fleeting picture, before the clouds
had lost their distinctive shapes. Each was a gem, and needs only


FROM THE COAST TO CARACAS. 107

to be carefully copied into a lantern slide, and colored after my de-
scription by a “lantern artist,” to make a vision of tropical splendor,
when projected by the stereopticon, that even Turner might envy.
In the last photograph, sweeping my camera more inland, I secured
a Venezuelan man-of-war, brought out distinctly against the crimson

background. The low black
hull, the masts and _ spars,
and every rope of the rig-
ging, are drawn in silhouette
against this wonderful sky.

The water is dimpled and _____.

crinkled, and a path of
golden glory leads from the
fortress held by the sun to
the immediate foreground
of the picture. The moun-
tains beyond lay half re-
vealed, the clouds covering
‘their flanks and summits,
while the ranks of palms
were lighted with a gleam
celestial. Beyond these
palms, where the distance

















































“ RACH PHOTOGRAPH WAS A GEM.”

was lost in mist of gold, one might well believe the pathway would
be found to the portals of Paradise.

For Paradise will surely be found in the tropics, provided poetical
fancies and the visions of holy men be taken as truth; they oftener
paint it as abounding in palms and tropical vegetation than as the

home of the pine and maple-tree.

To my mind, the pine is in some respects preferable to the palm ;
‘but I should not like my particular Eden to be given over to the one
or the other. Take it all in all, I prefer the pine-tree, with its sturdy

\
108 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

growth, its shining needles, its fragrant breath. And I have enjoyed
the delights of life in a palm grove; I have swung my hammock be-
neath its rustling leaves, have watched the bird and insect life that
plays about its honeyed blossoms, and have drawn the coco-water from
the ivory-lined cell of the coco-nut. The sun, from each, distils a
nectar; but the breath of the gods pervades the pine grove in summer-
time. .

Speaking of palms, the little town beyond La Guayra, Maiquetia,
is surrounded with them, and they lie dozens deep between it and the
shore. I did not have time to investigate this grove on my upward
journey to Caracas, but a day to spare on my return to the ship gave
me the desired opportunity. I had “spotted” the places worthy to be
photographed in going up, and.when the day came I hastened thither
with my camera.

The train from Caracas having been delayed by land-slips, it was
late in the evening when I reached La Guayra. But I had no dif-
ficulty in finding my way to the best hotel, which, by universal con-
sent, was pronounced to be the Neptune,— 27 Neptuno. To reach
it, you require-a guide, unless you have been previously directed ;
and you enter a dingy courtyard, a atzo, encumbered with refuse, and
rank with Venezuelan odors. This was the court into which I was
guided, but there is a‘ neater entrance on another street. Around
this adéo a rambling structure is built. In our country, the wisdom
of enlightened architects has pointed out that it is best to first take
heed to sanitary conveniences. We should consult, first, health and
safety; second, comfort; third, beauty of location and elaboration.
But these Spanish-Americans rarely regard health and cleanliness as
factors. Like the corporal who captured a dozen prisoners, they form
themselves into a hollow square, and proceed to surround it. The
patio is the first essential; having got that, they surround it with
apartments, which on the first floor open only into this court, which
again is only open to the sky. There are the store-rooms, the ser-
fROM THE COAST TO CARACAS. IO9Q

vants’ quarters, ‘and the stables. Yes, the noble steed and the patient
jackass occupy the same building with their owner usually, even
though he may be a millionnaire. The apartments in the second tier
are used as reception-rooms, dining-hall, and dormitories. The kitchen
is near by, either on the ground-floor or in the second story. You do
not need to be told where it is located, for you have only to follow
your nose.

But don’t you do it! Don’t allow yourself to look into that
kitchen as you value your peace of mind and your appetite. Our
Southern kitchens, with their ebony cooks, grease, and curry, are as
sweet-smelling refectories when compared to these. I have inspected
some of them; but then I am seasoned by long residence in Mexico
and the West Indies. Nothing can be more wretched than the
kitchens, unless it may be their system for sanitation. Sufficient to
say that you need ask no disagreeable questions, — your nose will
guide you! Fortunately for the traveller here, he may have the ship
he came in as a home, except when in La Guayra or at Caracas.
With the steamers to fall back to as havens of refuge, the tourist
willingly endures a few days of discomfort for the sake of what he
may see and hear. It is no great. amount of discomfort after all; but
I would only remark that if cleanliness is here considered next to god-
liness, there is little doubt that these people need missionaries.

As things go here, E] Neptuno was tolerably clean. The bedroom
was merely a bare box of an apartment, with a wooden table and
wash-stand, a chair, and a cot-bed with canvas bottom and a strip of
calico in lieu of a sheet. A cracked pitcher, a grimy wash-bowl, and
a slop-pail half full of fermenting pineapple parings completed the
equipment of furniture. I retired in some trepidation, as there was
merely a grated opening for a window, and the partitions between my
room and the others adjoining were only just high enough to prevent
a person from looking over. A well-conditioned burglar might easily
have scaled it; and any one so inclined could easily take a shot at me
IIO THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

through the grating. These were my reflections as I retired; but the
next morning found me safe and whole, yet perfectly willing to vacate



THE HOTEL PORTAL. ‘

the apartment. The table at the Neptuno was bountifully spread,
many courses being served by active waiters. From the balcony
FROM THE COAST TO C4RACAS. III

facing the sea, a very fine view is spread out of the curving shore, the
city, and the hills beyond.

As I was emerging into the street, a little black boy accosted me
in English, wishing to carry my camera for me. Feeling that his re-
cognition of me as an American savored something of familiarity, I
answered him in Spanish; yet I allowed him to take the instrument, and
took him on the train with me to Maiquetia. He was black as night —
a night without a star—and saucy as the British-born negro always.
is; for he came from Jamaica. We wandered through the streets, and
at last came to a palm avenue, where the coco-palms grew in regular
ranks, and shaded a path to the sea. At my request, the little black
fellow climbed the stem of a coco, and hung there while I photographed
the scene. -

Nearing the shore, we came to a stream where, in the shade of
the cocos and grape-fruit trees, several washerwomen were washing
clothes. I wanted to photograph them, but was afraid they would
resent it; though when I made known my desire, they were only too
eager to have their pictures taken. Indeed, they had abandoned their
picturesque attitudes and occupation and came and stood stiffly in front:
ofmy camera. There was one graceful maiden who possessed the shape-
liest form of them all,—a girl of perhaps sixteen, clad only in a loose
muslin that was drawn up and knotted gracefully over one shoulder.
One arm and shoulder. were bare, and so were her lower limbs, yet she
walked and splashed about in the brook apparently unconscious of any
observers with curious eyes. She was a very pretty picture, and noth-
-ing could be more admirable than her air of zzsouczance as she waded
through the stream, picked up a fire-brand on the bank, and leaned
over to light a cigarette. These davanderas were clubbing the clothes
vigorously after the manner they have here, making havoc with fine
linen and garments with buttons. Some were semi-nude, while the
children were entirely so, disporting themselves in the water with an
abandon only possible to a child unencumbered by the habiliments of
Ii2 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

civilization. Above us, in the shade of an odoriferous hedge, a fair
woman was bathing, crouching in the shallow stream and pouring
water over herself with a calabash.

As we rambled on through the coco grove, we came upon the
owner, who assured me that there were so many trees in his cocotal
that he could not tell their number. One of his laborers was then up
a tree cutting off coco-nuts. He climbed
the smooth, straight stem, perhaps sixty
feet high, to the crown of leaves by the
aid of a peculiar sling. In the West
Indies I have seen the little negroes
walk up a coco-tree by placing a rope
around them that encircled both them-
selves and the tree; but this man had
a noose around the tree and one foot
in aloop. Pushing up the noose as he
advanced, and clinging to the trunk, he
rapidly climbed up to the coronal of
leaves arching overhead. Then with
his cutlass he chopped off great clus-
ters of nuts, which fell to the ground.
One of them he sharpened to a point,

CLIMBING A COCO-TREE. then cut off this point, leaving a hole in
the shell the size of a cent, and through
this I drank the refreshing coco-water.

‘But I was to describe the ascent of the mountain, by rail, to Ca-
racas. It is a great work, this scaling of the steep mountain-side, and
it has been successfully done; but I saw something as I walked along
the track that day that would have made an American engineer laugh
outright. As we reached a curve where the railroad crossed the cart-
road, a freight engine came along, tugging a train of cars heavily laden.
Perched upon the cowcatcher was a native, with a sack of sand. The


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































EAR CARACAS.

MISSION N

OLD
FROM THE COAST TO CARACAS, I15

native dipped his hand into the sack and scattered the sand along one
rail, then crawled over to the other side and sprinkled that one. I
could not at first understand this operation; but at last it occurred to
me that he was sanding the track by hand. This illustrates the rather
slow process of working and the primitive methods of the English en-
gineer. Imagine a human sand-sprinkler attached to an engine in the
United States!

This railway leading from La Guayra to Caracas is twenty-four
miles long; yet it connects two places only seven miles apart. But in
those seven miles it climbs three thousand feet perpendicularly. The
cars, the track, the engines, the management, are English. The
coaches are the same as used between Puerto Cabello and Valencia,
pertaining to a past generation.

After a great deal of screaming and tooting, our engine pulled us
out of the station, past the shore, through the shady palm groves of
Maiquetia, and then the climb began. A wide-sweeping curve carried
us above the tile-covered houses, and into a ravine, where a river ran
through beautiful groves. Higher and higher we climbed, steadily
rising on the incline without a stop till the halfway station was reached,
at the Zigzag. The speed was about twelve miles an hour; the time
between points is two hours and a half; and the first-class fare is
$2.50.

It was a grand and even awe-inspiring journey. From the deck of
our steamer the track had been pointed out to me, scarring the hills,
zigzagging along the sides, until lost to sight in the distance. From
the very start to the finish, there was something to attract and keep the
attention fixed. First, the beautiful palms of the shore, the wooded
ravines, the impending cliffs, and steep slopes, green and brown.
Comparing this road with the similar one in Mexico, I should award
this the palm, even though there are not the broad plains and the
snow-covered mountains of the Mexican route. The chief charm of
this Venezuelan road lies in its immediate uplift from the sea, bringing
116 “THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

within the compass of vision the purely tropical vegetation of the
coast, the palm-fringed beaches, the exquisitely, graceful contours of
the coast line, and the broad bosom of the Caribbean with its far-
distant horizon. For an hour perhaps, we had views of La Guayra
and glimpses of the coast, the breakwater, and the ships at anchor
appearing like toys afloat upon a burnished séa of silver. Winding
beneath us, as we ascended, we saw the old mule track, — the road be-
tween the port and Caracas, along which, even to-day, toil trains of
patient donkeys, and the leather-clad muleteers. Houses were scarce,
and there were few stations along the line.

About halfway up, our train was invaded by thousands of locusts
that swarmed by millions and millions over a certain tract along the
railroad. ‘They seem confined to this particular section just now, and
to inflict their presence upon every train-load of passengers that
passes through; but Venezuela and the valley of Caracas have often
suffered severely from their ravages. These locusts are very large,
bold, and ravenous; they have even stopped the trains at different
times by covering the rails with their oily carcasses. .

I should not forget that the great Humboldt came over the road
between La Guayra and Caracas just ninety years ago. He first
landed at Cumanda, in company with his distinguished friend Bon-
pland; and after some months they took a coasting vessel for La
Guayra, where they landed after many disagreeable misadventures.
Humboldt’s opinion of the climate of this port is not a favorable one:
“A stagnant air engulfed in a hollow of the mountains in contact
with a mass of barren rocks acts differently from air equally hot in
open country.”

But he is profuse in admiration of the beautiful situation of Ca-
racas. The great naturalist first slept at Caracas, “in a house on a
little hill above the village of Maiquetia.” I wonder if that house
still stands on the little hill above that lovely village embowered in its
golden-green coco-palms. I am no hero worshipper; but I would
FROM THE COAST TO CARACAS. 117

have given an hour or two to that little house in which Humboldt
slept. In the city of Mexico, in a certain cal/e, you may find the
house in which Humboldt tarried when he was there, with an inscrip-
tion to that effect over the doorway. Venezuelans yet relate that
Humboldt came here; but more than that I think they do not
record. .

He too admired the wide-extended horizon that seemed to climb
higher and higher as we ascended the mountain, until it appeared
almost as high as the mountain itself. From La Venta, Humboldt
says, “ You discover an horizon of more than twenty-two leagues’
radius; the white and barren shore reflects a dazzling mass of light;
you see at your feet Cape Blanco, the village of Maiquetia with its
coco-trees. ... The road from La Guayra to Caracas is ay
finer than that from Guayaquil to Quito.”

Of the mountain valley the great philosopher aad world-famed
observer writes, “The height of Caracas is but a third of that of
Mexico, Quito, and Santa Fé de Bogota; yet amongst all the capitals
of Spanish America which enjoy a cool and delicious climate in the
midst of the torrid zone, Caracas stands nearest to the coast.”

About halfway between sea-port and capital the up and down
trains meet. We could see the down-coming train a long while be-
fore it reached us, and we finally drew in at the station together. ’
There was a cantina here, a drinking-place, a little shed with open
front; and toward this all the male passengers made a violent rush.
They fairly fought for the privilege of buying flat, sour beer, brandy,
insipid lemonade, and stale sandwiches. By no means backward in
securing their drinks and rations were two portly priests, as I can
show in a snap-photograph I made of the crowd in its mad rush upon
the cantina.

Then we crawled on again; the inner man being satisfied, the
outer could the more calmly contemplate the beauties around, above,
and below. The tropical vegetation is out of sight, and barren-
118 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

looking hills stretch away on every side. We scale them, hill after
hill, and run along the brinks of ravines and gorges that it thrills one
to look into. At one point, as the train sweeps around a curve, we
are eighteen hundred feet above the bottom of the gorge, into which
we can peer from the car window. Were this the first time the as-
cent had been made, we should shudder with fear; but we feel that
there is no danger, and have confidence in our engineers.

Plunging in and out of numerous tunnels, we at last come out
into an upland plain, bounded by distant mountains. Farms are
passed; signs of cultivation increase; houses grow numerous; a
church stands high above us on a bluff. The whistle sounds shrilly ;
we are at Caracas.


CHAPTER xX.

IN VENEZUELA’S CAPITAL.

PoEts, DocTors, AND GENERALS. — THE DESAYUNO. — TERRIBLE EARTHQUAKES. — CAL-
VARIO AND CATHEDRAL. — BOLIVAR AND HIS BATTLES. — STATUES WITH MOVABLE
Heaps. — A STATUE OF WASHINGTON. — PLOUGHING WITH A STICK. — TELEPHONES
AND ELectTric LigHTs.— CANNON OF Lone AGO. —A BULL-FIGHT BY NIGHT.



a native hotel.

THERE was quite a mob at the station when the
morning train from La Guayra arrived at Ca-
racas, and it was with difficulty that the Professor
and myself secured a cab. The fare to a hotel
was only thirty cents each, or a bolivar and a
half, but the cochero waited till the cab was filled
before he started. Once arrived at the region
of hotels, we found them full, to our great an-
noyance. There are several hotels of the (so-
called) first class, and their prices are not so very
high, being from two to three dollars per day.
I finally secured part of a room at Los Andes, :
Whether or not this lofty name was bestowed

on account of its high class or its high prices, neither was very
lofty, and we had no quarrel with the proprietor on their account.
The chuno explained that he only took me out of pity, seeing
that I had no other place to sleep, and so I carefully avoided
expressing the disgust I felt at my situation. As in La Guayra,
120 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

it is well to avoid an inspection of the cuesine and the comun.
Nearly all Spanish and Spanish-American hotels are alike in their
culinary and un-sanitary arrangements. Every room on the ground-
floor was occupied by a “general,” except one, and that was held
by a “doctor.” You are always safe in addressing a man in Ca-







ANCIENT HOUSE IN CARACAS.

racas by the one title or the other, for the army turns out one
class and the university the other faster than they can be used.
The “doctor” is generally the one who has a hankering after
literary fame, and who writes lines for the “poet’s corner” of the
city papers. They are good to the poets in Spanish America,
giving them more than a “corner” of each issue; in fact, they
. generally have a whole broadside, and control a “corner” in space.
They have no “patent insides” here, except such as Nature has
IN VENEZUELA’S CAPITAL. 121

endowed them with, and so the numerous lucubrations of the poets
come in quite handy. These effusions are generally addressed to
the eyes or the feet or the hands or the soul or the handker-
chief, or to some property or attribute of a fair se#orzta called
Clara, Maria, Angelita divina, or something equally sweet and
“fetching.” The particular “doctor” who occupied the guarto next
to mine was a small-skulled, goggle-eyed, under-sized, brown-skinned
Mestizo. He did not look as though he could “count one;” but
when I, one day, asked an English companion, in the doctor's
presence, who that insignificant specimen belonged to, he whispered
to me to be careful, as he could speak English, and understand it,
with fatal facility.

I have often noticed, in a coco grove, that the biggest coco-nuts.
did not always contain the most milk.

According to the Spanish style, the desayuno, or light, very
light repast, opens the day here, — consisting of coffee or chocolate,
a roll, and sometimes fruit, served anywhere from daybreak till
seven or eight o’clock in the morning. Breakfast, or admuerzo, is
served about noon, or from eleven to one. It consists of half
a dozen courses, and the comzda, or regular dinner, at about six
P. M., generally has a couple more. As a rule, the meals are bet-
ter than the rooms, the food being rich and varied, even if not
cooked to suit the fastidious Americans. Wine is always served,
and is usually included in the price charged for board. The
servants are attentive, and though their ideas of cleanliness may
be at variance with yours, will serve you with alacrity. Owing to
the mild climate in this favored region, the tables are often spread
in a corridor at one side of the fazzo, and the eye is refreshed with
the sight of flowers and birds, while the air is cool and pure.

According to the latest available information, Caracas lies at
an elevation above the sea of 2,880 feet, and south-southeast from
La Guayra. Its climate is considered temperate and healthy,
122 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

though I could not but notice that many people were afflicted
_ with “colds.” The mean temperature is about 72° Fahrenheit in
the hot season, and 66° in the cool. According to the large
thermometers, which the Caracanians have erected in their every
public square, whenever I consulted them they registered
65° in the shade. It is not every city or State that
would place thermometers in public
places, in order to advertise the
equability of its climate. Fancy
Hartford or (more particularly) Bos-
ton, giving prominence to such a
feature in a list of “attractions.”
We are only too glad to disguise ‘¢
the nature of our climate, and. j




















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thermometric a

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PROUGLOL 1b TISml nm ye Thee: On eee
certainly our A YOUTHFUL BEGGAR OF CARACAS.

climate. But
in Venezuela things are different.

The valley of Caracas is said to be subject to earthquakes, and
everybody remembers that terrible cerremoto of 1812, when twelve
thousand persons perished in the ruins of the city. I find a curious
reference to this great earthquake in Waterton’s “ Wanderings. in
South America.” This great naturalist was then in the wilds of
Guiana, and had reached a remote frontier post of the Portuguese.
For days and weeks his only companions had been wild Indians; but
at last, sick and weary, he had reached a temporary haven of rest.
LN VENEZUELA'S CAPITAL. 123

“As the canoe was proceeding slowly down the river toward the
fort, the commander asked with much concern where was I on the
night of the 1st of May [1812]? On telling him that I was at an
Indian settlement a little below the great fall of Demerara, and that
a strange and sudden noise had alarmed all the Indians, he said the
same astonishing noise had roused every man in Fort St. Joachim, and
that they had remained under arms till morning. He observed that
he had been quite at a loss to form any idea what could have caused
the noise; but now, learning that the same noise had been heard at
the same time far away from the Rio Branco, it struck him there
must have been an earthquake somewhere or other.” Later, on reach-
ing. the confines of civilization, he “ learned that an eruption had taken
place at St. Vincentis, and thus the noise heard in the night of the
ist of May, which had caused such terror among the Indians, and
made the garrison at Fort St. Joachim remain under arms the rest
of the night, is accounted for.” The eruption of the volcano in the
West Indian Island of St. Vincent was almost simultaneous with the
earthquake at Caracas. It was caused, of course, by the’ same seismic
convulsion. The entire top of the volcano was blown away, a new
crater was formed, and the whole island covered with ashes. Not this
alone, but ashes fell in clouds upon Barbadoes, xemety-five mezles to
windward! That is, the cloud of ashes was shot up above the pre- |
vailing current of the trade-wind, which is always from the east and
northeast, and was carried by that upper current a hundred miles
and more away. The souffrzére, or volcano (Sulphur-mountain), of
St. Vincent stands to-day quiescent. Until that day in 1812 when it
blew its head off without warning, it had been at rest from time
immemorial. It may take another period of rest, extending through
centuries of time, and then suddenly extinguish itself and the beauti-
ful island, and sink beneath the waves. .

A dozen years ago I climbed to the brim of its dead crater, and
camped in a cave for a week — my only companion an old negro —
124 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

in search of a mysterious bird. It was not a comfortable place, and I
got a fever that kept me confined a month; but / got the bird, and
had the satisfaction of proving it a species new to the world. It was
named in honor of my friend, Mr. N. H. Bishop of Lake George, New
York, the adventurous canoe-voyager, who performed the journey
between the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Gulf of Mexico in a paper
canoe. |

This much for a roundabout journey, suggested to me by the great
tragedy at Caracas nearly eighty years ago. It was declared by the
priests at that time that the earthquake was a divine manifestation
against the (then) recent declaration of Venezuelan independence ;
and many believed it. It greatly retarded the progress of the cause.
But judging from the atrocities of the Spaniards during the struggle
for independence and previously, committed upon the inoffensive
- Indians, Providence must have taken a distorted view of things; for
a really humane being would much rather have been on the other side.
The god of the Spaniards, like the deity of every race or nation, very
much resembles his creator; he is sanguinary, revengeful, a god of
hate and lust, yearning for a chance to spoil the heathen and rend
them limb from limb.

The great Cathedral of Caracas stands to-day on one side the
main plaza,—a plain structure, two hundred and fifty feet long
by seventy-five wide, supported inside by twenty-four pillars. It
does not compare favorably with the cathedrals of other Spanish
capitals, neither do the churches with others of their kind. Above
the city rises the hill of Calvario, the scene of a battle between the
patriots and the Spaniards in 1821. The valley is separated from
the La Guayra coast by the hill, Cervo de Avila, and two miles east
is the great double-crested mountain called the Sia (Saddle) of
Caracas, rising to an altitude of eight thousand feet.

In the list of cities, Caracas ranks first, with respect to wealth,
influence, and population. Capital of the Republic, here reside the
IN VENEZUELA'S CAPITAL. 125

President and the high officials. Besides the city proper, there are
six suburban boroughs, Antinamo, Mecarao, La Vega, El Valle, El
Recreo, and Macuto. The estimated population of the city is about
fifty-six thousand, or including the suburb, seventy thousand. The
valley in which it is situated rejoices in a temperate climate; the
soil is fertile, producing nearly everything desired by man; and
several brooks and streams add beauty to the scenes and _ fertility
to the summer gardens.

Founded over three hundred.and fifty years ago, in 1567, by a
Spanish captain, Caracas remained in Spanish hands two hundred
and fifty years. It is the focal point of all South American repub-
licans, since here had birth the republican idea. As the birth:
place of Bolivar, the great “liberator,” it has more than local fame.
There stands in the centre of the great plaza a fine equestrian statue
of Bolivar, in bronze. The only other equestrian statue was one of
Guzman Blanco, ‘and that was recently destroyed by an incensed
and outraged people. Bolivar, the “Washington of Venezuela,” was
born here July 24, 1783. He was educated in Europe, residing
some time in Madrid, where he married, losing his wife by yellow
fever on the voyage back to Venezuela. In the year 1809, he
passed through the United States, joined the Venezuelan revolution-
ists in 1810, and Venezuela declared its independence 1811. Boli-
var was compelled to flee to Curagoa in 1812, though he operated
along the Magdalena River the same year. He returned, organized
an army, and took Caracas from the Spaniards in 1813, but lost
it to them the following year, in July. The same year, however, he
rescues Bogota for the patriots, but is later defeated and flees to
Jamaica, where he narrowly escapes assassination, his secretary
being murdered. The year 1816 finds him in Hayti, where he
reaches the Main, raises an army, but is defeated; but the next
year he inflicts defeat upon the Spaniards and fixes his headquarters
at Angostura, on the Orinoco. By July, 1819, he had freed New
126 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

Granada from the Spaniards, and crushingly defeated the Spaniards
at Carabobo, Venezuela, driving them to retreat to Puerto Cabello,
which they held for two years, the last place in Spanish possession.
In 1821, Colombia, Venezuela, and New Granada adopted a consti-
tution. In 1822, Bolivar invaded Peru, freeing it from Spanish rule,
and in 1825, Upper Peru was set off and named Bolivia in his





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Ti






STATUE OF BOLIVAR, CARACAS.

honor. This great man, who at one time “had unlimited control
over the revenue of three countries, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, yet
died without a penny of public money in his possession.” He died
in 1830, at San Pedro, near Santa Martha.

Very few of his successors to the executive have followed his
example of disinterested patriotism. This is what an English writer
says about it: “How a country gifted with one of the best codes
IN VENEZUELA’S CAPITAL. 127

of law in existence could, through the utter depravity, greed, and
cruelty of successive chiefs, have fallen into its present state seems
incredible. Enough that from its liberation to the present, every suc-
cessive President seems to have been employed, during his short lease
of power, in trying to enrich himself and his adherents, without the
least consideration for his unfortunate country. On paper, all laws
are perfect, and the Constitution is all that could be desired; but
experience has shown that the influence of the executive power is
able to subdue and absorb every other power, legislative and judicial.”

About the numerous Venezuelan generals, the same writer says,
“These worthies, it is said, are the only people allowed to wear
swords in public. A major of an English regiment, being out in
Venezuela in the interior one morning, being about to pay a visit
to the governor, asked his servant for his sword, intending to put
it on, with his uniform. His servant gravely asked his rank in the
army, and on being told, observed that officers of that rank when
not on duty were not allowed to wear swords; but that he, the
servant, deg a general, could wear it, and hand it over to his
master if it was wanted for use.

“Tt is customary to erect a bronze statue to every successful
general, when he is in power; but this is usually pulled down by
his successor. A cute Yankee, therefore, hit upon the novel idea
of having statues with movable heads, keeping the heads of prominent
men in stock, and screwing on the latest President at a moment’s
notice.” a

There stands on one side of the Plaza de Bolivar a plain
structure, massive in its construction, but unattractive either out-
side or in. In the centre of this plaza is the beautiful bronze statue
of the liberator Bolivar, mounted upon a gallant steed,



a figure
impressive and heroic, — erected in 1874. Very near the plaza are
the government buildings, fine Corinthian structures, and opposite
them the university.
128 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

There are ten chief squares in the city, each with a statue of
some important personage. The only foreigner that I can recall
as being thus honored is our own Washington, who has a fine statue
in a square bearing his name. The buildings of importance are the
national Capitol, consisting of two parts,—the legislative and the
federal executive; the Yellow House (Casa Amaritlo), the residence











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GRAND OPERA HOUSE, CARACAS.

of the President; the university; the exhibition building and mu-
seum; the great theatre; the Cathedral; the Church of San Francisco,
the monument to Bolivar; and the Pantheon. West of the city, and
above the grand promenade of Calvario, lies a great reservoir, which
supplies the city.

It is a lovely spot, Calvario, filled with palms, vines, and roses, with
a bordering of aloe and feathery bamboo, through which you look out
upon the city of Caracas, three hundred feet below. Seriated moun-
IN VENEZUELA'S CAPITAL. 129

tains surround this valley, in the centre of which lies the capital city
of this rich land of Venezuela. The area of red-tiled roofs is broken
by comparatively few buildings of great prominence, such as the
Cathedral, the grand opera, the shabby bull-ring, the Pantheon, and
two or three churches. Very few trees thrust themselves up above
the expanse of stone and mortar, but these few are mainly the royal









Lc

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A DONKEY CAR.

palms, called here the aguavanas. A most attractive avenue of these
beautiful palms is to be seen a mile or so distant from the opera.
They are at least one hundred feet in height, straight as a ship’s
mast, with glorious coronals of feathery leaves. One morning, stroll-
ing in that direction, I saw two men ploughing with a yoke of oxen
hitched to a wooden plough, — merely a crooked stick, — and it struck
me as a very curious sight.

9
130 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

To view the city of Caracas in its entirety, to gain a-;comprehen-
sive idea of this capital with its fifty-six thousand population, and to
see all its architectural attractions at a glance, you should climb the
hill above the great iron bridge. The highest natural elevation near
any Spanish or Spanish-American city is usually crowned by a cross,
and called Calvario. To such sacred use, I believe, was devoted this
beautiful hill,—at least, it is called Calvario; but Guzman Blanco, in
the plenitude of his power as President, some time ago erected a statue
of himself in place of the cross of Christ, and thus offered the people
another object for worship. In the opinion of Guzman Blanco (and
in the slang of this period) there appeared to be no flies on Guzman
Blanco. Yet after his flight from the country, the outraged people
rose in their wrath and rent his statue limb from limb, leaving not the
minutest fragment to remind us of his glory. -As the redoubtable
Guzman, by a strict attention to business during his various terms of
office, saved some thirty odd millions of dollars and now lives in luxury
abroad, he may view with complacency this desecration of Calvario.

It is said that Caracas contains forty bridges. Some of them are
excellent structures of iron and of masonry. Near the large iron
bridge east.of the city is a very beautiful avenue, a double row of
royal palms. It is called in Caracas the Yaguaranas.

More than forty papers are published in the city. Most of them
are political; but literature itself is at a low ebb. The Government
also owns and runs a large and well-equipped printing and lithograph-
ing establishment, which has sent out among other things an edition
of one hundred thousand copies of its “Statistical Annuary,” each
copy containing a lithographed map in several colors. The city is
traversed by two tramway lines, which render excellent. service, and is
also well supplied with coaches. It is now the centre of four rail-
ways, —that from La Guayra, already completed ; another to the town
of Petare; one to El Valle; and another to Antinuano. Soon, it. is
expected, at least one line will be completed, connecting Caracas with
IN VENEZUELA'S CAPITAL. 131

Valencia and thus indirectly with Puerto Cabello. This line runs
through a fertile and picturesque district, though not densely popu-
lated enough to make the venture a great success.

Two telephone companies, with their headquarters here, are profit-
ably patronized. The city is lighted with gas, and an electric-light
plant is in operation, though not apparently so successfully as those
at Valencia and Maracaibo. Fuel is scarce, and the price excessive,

Gi











‘i a s WL ka
: VAR ee

B | ‘ ah é

fl Fa ey fal Os > ® iH ‘lity :
t Zu i aa

= == = Se —
a a er eae
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a

STATUE OF WASHINGTON, CARACAS.

by
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which will always operate against electric lighting in Venezuela. Of
hospitals and the institutions of charity, Caracas has several, a na-
tional museum, and a library of thirty thousand volumes.

The Venezuelan Academy is corresponderit of the Royal Spanish,
and history is represented by the National Academy, created a few
years ago.

I must confess to a feeling of satisfaction and a more tender
regard for the Venezuelans, as I came one morning upon the statue
132 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

of our greatest American. The square in which it stands is called
the Plaza de Washington, and the statue is a faithful likeness of
Washington, with epaulets on his shoulders, a cocked hat in his left
hand, and one arm commandingly extended. In one of the courts of
the university is a memento of ancient Spanish times, in the shape of
a noble old cannon, some fifteen feet in length, bearing a date on its
breech of two hundred and sixty years ago. The old and new so
crowd each other here! Of their own volition the Venezuelans do
next to nothing to keep pace with the times, but they allow the for-
eigner to put them in touch with the mighty genius of the present.
Thus the telephone here is doing a great and profitable business,
tram-cars reach out to the suburbs, and electric lights are already
aglow in their streets. They take readily to the electric light, —/z
luz electrica, —and we find it to-day in the inland city of Valencia
and sparkling along the lake-front of far-distant Maracaibo. I recall,
however, a night that threatened with disaster the electric plant of
Caracas, and I do not know yet if it has recovered its prestige. It
was on the occasion of the greatest bull-fight of the season, — yes,
even of the century, if it had been carried out according to pro-
gramme. Not content with the Sunday fight, in which eight bulls
had been neatly killed and several men put in peril of their lives, all
Caracas flocked to see the crowning event, in a grand bull-fight by
electric light. It was the first of the kind attempted, and — well, it
went off very well, till the lights went out on the fifth bull, and then
ensued pandemonium. After venting their rage in wrecking the
amphitheatre, the male portion of the rabble made for the electric-
light works, and when I left they were searching for rocks and beams
with which to batter down the doors. |
CHAPTER XI.
WHAT WE FOUND IN THE MUSEUM.

SIpE-PEEPS AT NaTURAL HisToRY.—- OLD CARIBS AND THEIR COOKERY. — CURIOUS
PARROTS. -- WOURALI Porson. — Bie LizaRpDs. - ANACONDAS FirTy FEET Lone. —
ALLIGATOR’S APPETITE.

“ A naturalist to this place did come,
A man who dwelt in a mu-se-um,
Where of spiders and reptiles there were some
Ten thousand or more, all pickled in rum.”

ARACAS has been pretty well described, by numer-
ous writers, in the ninety years or so since the great
earthquake elevated it into notice.

In looking about for some object worthy the
distinguished attention of readers of this “Knock-



about,” we recall nothing that impressed us as did
the museum, contained in two or three rooms in the university build-
ing. Not that it is much of a museum, for the collections there
comprised are most wretched, both in preparation and arrangement.
But notwithstanding the neglect and ignorance apparent on every
side, there are here many things that remind us of Venezuela’s riches
to be observed in field and forest. And so if the reader will pardon
this departure from descriptive writing, we will proceed to record our
impressions and go on a “paper” hunt into Venezuelan wilds.

If we were to write of Venezuelan history, we would like to make
mention of the first arrival of Columbus on the coast of Paria. He
134 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

first sighted, on that third voyage of his, in 1498, the mountains of
Trinidad, — which island, indeed, received its name from its maple:
crowned summit: La Trinidad, the Trinity.

We have already described, in “ The Antilles,” this beautiful island,
with its unsurpassed attractions, — the finest botanic garden in the
world, and the wonderful Pitch —
Lake. One comes also to the
Orinoco River and the gold mines
of Bolivar. It was from a very
quaint and ancient volume that
we took the following account
of the discovery of the South
American mainland : —

“ We vnderstoode by the signs
-and poyntings of the Indians
that this Region was called Pa-
via, and that it was very large.
The Admirall [Columbus], there-
_ fore, taking into his shippe foure
men of that lande, searched the
West partes of the same. By
the temperature of the ayer, the
‘pleasantness of the ground, and
the multitude of people which

A VAGRANT VIOLINIST. they saw dayly more and more

as they sayled, they conjectured

that these things portended some great matter. Here they found
great multitudes of people. There came certaine messengers from
their Caczez (that is, the kings of the country) to desire the Admi-
rall to come to the palaces. Innumerable people met them, hav-
ing chaynes about their necks and bracelettes on their arms of
pearles. of India. Being asked where they gathered them, they


WHAT WE FOUND IN THE MUSEUM. 135
poynted to the next shore by the sea-banke. They signified also, by
certayne -scornefull gestures, that they nothing esteemed pearles.
Taking also baskets in their handes they made signes that the same
might be filled with them in shorte space.

“But Columbus (because of the corne wherewith his shippe was
laden to be caryed into Hispaniola had taken hurt, by reason of the
salt water) he determined to defer this marte to a more convenient
tyme.”

Alas and alack for Columbus! While he was engaged in other
adventures, and before that “convenient tyme” came about, along
sailed Amerigo Vespucci and some other Spaniards, and made such
a haul of pearls (from the very islands Columbus had sighted) that all
Spain “ marvelled greatly thereat.” The courses of that early history
would lead. us into many pleasant ports and along many a golden
strand; but as we have hinted already, it is forbidden ground. If it
were not, we should be tempted to extract further from that musty old
edition of “ Hakluyt’s Voyages,” and describe divers other things of
interest. As it is, we cannot forbear presenting you with this account
of the discovery of the Indian cannibals : —

“The third day of the ides of October (1493), departing from
Ferria, and from the coastes of Spaine, with a Nauie of seventeene
shippes, they sayled X XI daies before they came to any lande, and
arrived first at the Iandes of the Canzbales, or Carzbes, of which only
the fame was known to our men. Among these, they chaunced first
upon one so beset with trees that they could not see so much as an
elle space of bare earth or stonie ground; this they called Domenica,
because they found it on the Sunday.”:

In the island called Guadalupus they found the dwellings of the
Caribs : —

“Our men found in their houses all kindes of earthen vessels,
not much unlike unto ours. They founde also in their kytchens
mans flesh, duckes flesh, and goose flesh, all in one pot, and other on
136 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

the spits ready to be layd to the fire. When they perceived the
coming of our men, they fledde. This island is the chief habitation
of the Canzbales. They brought from this iland VII Popindayes
bigger than Phesantes, having their backes, bustes, and bellies of
purple colour.”

These “ Popiniayes,” I think, were the island parrots. At present,
the species pertaining to Guadalupe is extinct; but it is a strange
fact that each large island of the Caribbees has, or had, a species of
parrot peculiar to itself. In Dominica, only thirty miles south of
Guadalupe, is a most beautiful parrot, called the “Cicero” (the
Chrysotis augusta), the largest true parrot known. “ brought the
first specimen home to our National Museum, and had most exciting
times in procuring it. Martinique, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent, each
has a peculiar species of this magnificent Chrysotes. And the strik-
ing fact that these islands, separated by water, — channels only thirty
miles wide, —should contain different species of the same genus. of
bird, without a specimen of the same species, has been alluded to by
Wallace in his remarkable “Island Life.”

A Frenchman of long ago, in the year 1656, describes a fight
between his countrymen and the Caribs near the Caribbee island of
Dominica: “While we were occupied in saving the wounded, the
old savage Carib captain, all wounded as he was, came towards us,
and raising his body half out of the water, like a Triton, holding two
arrows on the string of his bow, fired them into the barque, and dived
immediately into the water; he returned thus bravely unto the charge,
and his strength failing him before his courage, we saw him fall back-
ward and sink to the bottom.” That period, the seventeenth century,
was a terrible time for Indians and negro slaves, for their lives were
held worthless. In 1657, in Martinique, a woman was burned to
death for witchcraft. A priest presided at her trial; the report of
the trial states that she would not sink in water, but floated like a
balloon, until a needle was stuck in her haty, when she sank like lead,
WHAT WE FOUND IN THE MUSEUM. 137

but came up thirsty. She was then condemned to death, and was
burned by the priest so that she died that night.

In 1658, there was a great massacre of the Caribs at Martinique.
To-day not one of them remains alive in that island. In 1660, the
Caribs, by treaty, were given possession of the islands of Dominica
and St. Vincent, where a few of their descendants may be found liv-
ing now.

To return to the museum at Caracas. There you will find speci-

mens, though crudely prepared, of the most remarkable animals in
Venezuela’s fauna. I was pained to see there specimens of the beau-
_ tiful and celebrated campanero, or bell-bird, so horribly mounted as to
present a caricature of this bird with the melancholy cry. There are
also specimens of Indian handiwork, in their bows, arrows, war-
clubs, cooking utensils, and even their canoes. I was particularly in-
terested in a cluster of poisoned arrows, from the wild Indians of the
interior.
Many of my readers have heard of Waterton, the eccentric natural.
ist who achieved fame by his adventures in Guiana,—a region then
pertaining to Venezuela, and the dividing line between which and the
latter country is still a matter of dispute.

Waterton made three voyages to Guiana, the first in 1812, his
principal object being to collect some of the wourvah poison, with
which the Guiana Indians poisoned their arrows. Waterton was pos-
sessed with the idea that it was incumbent upon him to secure that
poison, whatever the consequences of journeys by strange rivers and
through the wildest forests. He was finally successful; but I cannot
find that the drug was ever of any use to man. The naturalist’s ac-
count of his discovery, and the adventures he had by the way, are
worth reading, as is also his description of the manner in which the
Indians prepare the poison : —

“ A day or two before the Maconshi Indian prepares his poison,
he goes into the forest in quest of the ingredients. A vine grows in
138 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

these wilds which is called wouvalz. It is from this that the poison takes
its name, and it is the principal ingredient. When he has procured
enough of this, he digs up a root ofa very bitter taste, ties them together,
and then looks about for two kinds of bulbous plants which contain
a green and glutinous juice. He fills a little guake which he carries
on his back with the stalks of these, and lastly ranges up and down
till he finds two species of ants. One of them is very large and
black, and so venomous that its sting produces a fever; the other is a
little red ant which stings like a nettle. After obtaining these, he has
no more need to range the forest.

“ A quantity of strongest Indian pepper is used; but this he has
already planted around his hut. The pounded fangs of the Labarri
snake and those of the Conanaconchi are also used. These he com-
monly has in store, for when he kills a snake he generally extracts the
fangs and keeps them by him. Having thus found the necessary in-
gredients, he scrapes the wourak vine and bitter root into thin shav-
ings and puts them into a kind of colander made of leaves; this he
holds over an earthen pot, and pours water on the shavings, the liquor
that comes through having the appearance of coffee. Then the shavy-
ings are thrown aside, and the juice of the bulbous stalks is squeezed
into the pot. Lastly the snakes’ fangs, ants, and pepper are bruised
and thrown into it.

“Tt is then placed on a slow fire, and as it boils; more of the
woural juice is added; the scum is taken off with a leaf; and it re-
mains on the fire until reduced to a thick syrup of a deep brown color.
Arrived at this state, a few arrows are poisoned with it to try its
strength. If satisfactory, it is poured out into a calabash, carefully
covered over with leaves and a piece of deerskin, and kept in the
driest part of the hut.

“The making of the wourak poison is considered a gloomy and
mysterious operation, and many precautions are taken. The Indian
secludes himself; he fasts all the day the poison is prepared; and


NG ‘WOURALI POISON.

SHI INDIANS PREPARI

MACON

WHAT WE FOUND IN THE MUSEUM. I4lI

women and young girls are not allowed to be present, lest the
- Labahon, or evil spirit, should do them harm.”

_ The arrows dipped in. the wowvah mixture carry death into what-
ever creature they penetrate. A fowl, wounded with one, died in
five minutes, an ox in twenty-five. “In passing overland from the
Essequibo to the Demerara, we fell in with a herd of wild hogs.

<=
eI



ON
As he ewe Xp pr ‘i

ver,

THE PROFESSOR AFTER A BABY LIZARD.

Though encumbered with baggage, and fatigued with a hard day’s
walk, an. Indian got his bow ready and let fly an arrow that entered
the cheek of one of the hogs and broke off. This wild hog was
found quite dead about one hundred and seventy paces from the place
where he had been shot. He afforded us an excellent and wholesome
supper.”

It is very strange that the woural poison does not injure the flesh
T42 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

in any way. Like the poison of the rattlesnake, it may be taken into
the system in the natural way without harm. I cannot learn that this
powerful poison has yet been used in Venezuela by any but the
Indians, or that it has proved of service in the phearigec ee: Be-
sides the poi-
-- soned arrows,
one may see
in the museum
specimens of the
poison itself, look-
ing like the inspis-
sated juice of the
POppy- :
If I were asked
to mention the
most hideous occupant of
this museum, I should
think at once of the igu-
ana. This big lizard, often
sought after by the Pro-
: 4 fessor, is not by any means a beauty when in life,
but here all its monstrosities are exaggerated by
the ignorant taxidermist. Iguana-flesh is sold in
Venezuelan markets, and I myself have tasted it.
As the reptile feeds on leaves, its flesh should not
be rejected, I am sure. In the old book referred to, mention is
made of — ,

“Serpentes also, of that kinde esteemed among them as most
delicate meat & like unto crocodile, saving in bignesse. These
serpentes they call /zaunzas. The Indians prepare them after this
manner: First, taking out their bowelles, even from the throte to
the thyghes, they washe and rubbe their bodies verie cleane, both





—


WHAT WE FOUND IN THE MUSEUM. 143,

within & without, then rolling them together in a circle, involved after
the manner of a sleeping snake, they thrust them into a pot, putting
a little water unto them, with a portion of the Iland pepper, they
seethe them with a soft fire of sweet wood and such as maketh
no great smoake.

“They say also that there is no meat to be compared to the
egges of these serpentes, which they use to seethe by themselves;.
they are good to be eaten as soon as they are sodde, and may
also be reserved many dayes after. This much of their entertayne-
ment and dayntie fare; which our men learned late to soy eotate
by reason of this horrible deformity and loathsomenese.”

Coiled about the trunk of a tree was the stuffed skin of an.
enormous serpent.

In the Orinoco district of Venezuela the serpents attain to great
size, says a writer of adventures in that region : —

“At a place called El Enayaval (or the guava-wood), where our —
party halted, the men discovered in the morning a very large water-
snake of the species called by the Indians camondz, which they
resolved to kill. It was dangerous to approach it, for on being
disturbed, it had raised its head out of the marsh to the full height
of a man, and appeared ready to dart on the first person that
should -venture within its reach. The soldiers, however, advancing
cautiously, threw a /zzo round its throat, with which, the end being
fastened to a horse’s tail, they dragged it by slow degrees from
its hiding-place. Its struggles were at first violent; but as the
horse. kept a constant tight strain upon the /zzo, the snake was.
unable to extricate itself or approach the horse. On getting weaker
by strangulation, it was dragged along the plain about half a league,
until it was.so far rendered incapable of resistance that one of
the men dismounted and cut off its head with several blows of
the machete.

“We found it to be fully twenty-five feet long and thick in pro-
I44 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN,

portion. The belly appearing preternaturally distended, we opened
it out of curiosity, and found it to contain a young calf, which
did not appear to have been long swallowed. This sufficiently
accounted for the ease with which the reptile was killed, as snakes
lose their activity for some time after having obtained a hearty
meal. My Léanéros assured me that camondzs have been killed
on the marshy banks of the river Cunavichi, measuring eighteen
lengths of a machete, or over fifty feet.”

While certain forest districts swarm with snakes, the banks of
rivers are alive with alligators, or caymens. In Florida the alli-
gator is comparatively harmless; but in Venezuela, according to
some writers, the cayman aneys a true crocodile) is extremely
dangerous.

It has often been asserted, and many times denied, that the
cayman, or caiman, the alligator of the South-American rivers, will
pursue and devour man. Here is the testimony of the author of
“Campaigns and Cruises in Venezuela”

“When an Indian has occasion to swim across any pass of
a river known to be the haunt of a dangerous alligator, he pro-
vides himself with a stout stick about eighteen inches in length,
sharpened at both ends. Should he be attacked by one while in
the water, he presents the stick to the expanded jaws, and as the
cayman endeavors ravenously to seize him, the sharp points of the
stick pierce the roof of the mouth and under-jaw in such a manner
as to render it incapable of extricating itself. The Indian may
then with safety kill it, or leave it to drown. . .

“The Llanéros, or inhabitants of the plains bordering on the
rivers where these animals abound, take great delight in catching
the cayman by means of a éazo of tough bull-hide. This noose'
they throw dexterously over its head while it is floating near the
bank, and drag it on shore by the united strength of ten or twelve
men. Its rage and consternation on finding itself captive are ex-














OVERTURN OF A BOAT BY CAYMEN ON THE ORINOCO.

WHAT WE FOUND IN THE MUSEUM. 147

cessive; but after the first violent struggles to effect its escape,
it remains perfectly motionless, with the upper jaw raised in readi-
ness for an attack, giving occasional proof of the immense strength
of its jaws by the ease with which it splinters between its teeth
the thigh-bones and skulls of bullocks thrown to it by its captors.

“One of our lancers lost his life while we were swimming a
lagoon. When he was nearly halfway across, we saw a large cayman,
which was known to infest this pass, issuing from under the man-
grove-trees. We instantly warned our companion of his danger,
but it was too late for him to turn back. When the alligator
was so close as to be on the point of seizing him, he threw his
saddle at it. The ravenous reptile instantly caught the whole bundle
in its jaws and disappeared for a few minutes, but soon discov-
ered its mistake and rose in front of the horse, which, then seeing
it for the first time, reared and threw its rider. He was an ex-
cellent swimmer, and had nearly escaped, but was finally caught
by the middle and drowned before our eyes, the alligator afterwards
dragging the body out upon a sand-bank and there devouring it.”

The reader cannot fail to bring to mind in this connection
Waterton’s account of his capture of a cayman in Guiana, at about
the same time this was written.

We must confess that Waterton’s story of riding an alligator,
which was copied into all the school “readers” and story-books of
half a century ago, has always seemed to us an exaggeration. After
all, what did it matter whether or not he mounted the captive cayman
and rode astride him, while his negroes pulled him to the shore?

We did not ‘intend to confine ourselves to making extracts from
books when we began; but at least, we have followed Emerson’s
advice, — to read no book less than twenty years old. Besides, there
is more “meat” in them than in anything we can now write from

personal observation.
CHAPTER XII.

SOMETHING TO EAT, IN THE TROPICS.



SOME VENEZUELAN PRODUCTS. — FRUITS AND VEGETABLES OF THE TROPICS. — SOAP-
BERRY AND POISON-TREE.

HE question oftenest asked us after returning from a
tropical trip is, “ What do the people eat?” It seems
to be a prevailing impression that residents in the
“torrid zone have great difficulty in obtaining wholesome
food. This impression of course is wholly erroneous.
Although there is not the great variety of vegetables
i and small fruits that we have in the North, yet there is

(7 sufficient to give a varied menu. There is no country
like our own New England for fruits and vegetables, especially small
fruits and berries. We have, I think, more berries growing wild in
our fields, woods, and pastures, more delicious fruits in our gardens,
than any other equal extent of contiguous territory on the globe.
Any one who will go into the fields late in the spring can be con-
vinced of this.



\

\

Ys GAG

But tropic dwellers are not without their solace, having several
peculiar products of their own, as we all know. I need not mention
such noted sub-tropical fruits as the pineapple, orange, lime, lemon,
soursop, custard-apple, mango, guava, banana, plantain. I have often
been asked the difference between the banana (AZusa sapientum) and
the plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Perhaps the best answer that can
SOMETHING TO EAT, IN THE TROPICS. I49

be given is that the first may be eaten raw, while the plantain must
be cooked. As seen growing in the plantations, the casual observer
would ‘hardly distinguish a difference; but while the banana attains
to the luscious fruit we all have eaten, the plantain is dry and almost
tasteless.



FRUIT-DEALER OF CARACAS.

There is perhaps no more beautiful object in Nature than the
banana, or plantain, as seen growing in tropical Juxuriance in the
West Indian mountains. A wild plant, that we find in climbing
through the “high woods,” called the daészn, or wild plantain, has
leaves that faintly resemble the musa, but it belongs to an entirely
different family.

Of vegetables, the tropic-dwellers have a supply in the yam
(Dioscorea sativa) and alata, the sweet potato, the cassava (Yatropha
150 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

manthot), and the sweet cassava (Fatropha anipha), the tamer and the
eddoe. Of them all, the cassava seems to be the most useful.
The root is grated and baked into thin cakes. In its natural state
the cassava is very poisonous; but this poisonous quality is wholly in
the juice, which is expressed by means of a long tube of basket-
work, the grated root being packed into it and pressure applied by
hitching a stone to the lower end. The heat of baking dissipates
the remaining juice, and the bread is quite palatable. The juice
itself is used in making that famous West Indian compound called
“pepper-pot,” or cassareep, which is usually so hot with red-pepper
that a novice cannot even approach it.

The vegetables of the Northern zone do not take kindly to the
tropical climate, and there is no great variety offered.

Venezuela yields to no other country within the tropics in its
range of fruits, vegetables, and woods. I have already mentioned the
coco-nut, cacao, and bread-fruit. The above are the main retinue for
the table, so far as spontaneous natural products go. In supplying
their tables with meat, the Venezuelans are not so fortunate. The
quantity, quality, and variety are limited. Beef is poor and dry,
mutton the same, and the omnivorous goat forms the basis of supply.
Now and then the people treat themselves to a change by substi-
tuting a kid for the tough and bellicose “ Billy-goat.”

Of wild animals the country at large affords quite a number. In
the forests, the peccary lives, though at a long distance from the set-
tlements. Deer are found in abundance in some sections, rabbits
everywhere, and armadillos. The armadillo, though protected by
its shell, does not enjoy immunity from danger. It is constantly
sought, and forms a staple article in the local market. Its habits are ©
somewhat like those of our native woodchuck. It has a hole all
to itself; and when its retreat is invaded, it will extend that hole at
one end about as fast as two smart men and a boy can open it at
the other. It takes sometimes half a day to resurrect an armadillo,
SOMETHING TO EAT, IN THE TROPICS. I5r

and when once you have got him in hand you have then to “shuck”
him out of his shell, by a process as difficult to the operator as it is
painful to the armadillo. Its native name is cachicémo, —a name also
by which it was known here four hundred years ago, and which must

be aboriginal. In the West Indies I found it called by the negroes,



flag-in-amah, which I then took to mean a “hog in armor,” but
which may have been a corruption of its Venezuelan appellation.
Only a short time ago, the steward of the steamer I was in served
us a cachicémo for breakfast. It resembled the finest veal, and had

t

a delicious flavor.all its own.



AN INDIAN HUT IN THE INTERIOR.

Raleigh calls the pineapple “the princesse of fruits. [the Pizzas]
that grow under the sun;” and he describes well the poison used
by the Indians on their arrows. The ourard (Strychnos toxifera),
says Schomburgh, is only known to grow in three or four situations
in Guiana. It is a bush-rope, or ligneous climber, which kind of
plants are called by the French ane, and by the Spaniards dejuco.
I cannot forbear quoting a few things this great man and born
explorer says about the animals of Venezuela. At this moment, in
looking over my notes, I find something quaint he says about the
armadillo : —
152 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

“One of the Indians gave me a beaste called by the Spaniards
Armadilla, and which they call Cassacam, which seemeth to be all
barred over with small plates, somewhat like unto a Rexocero, with
a white horne growing in his hinder partes, as big as a greate hunt-
ing horne, which they use to winde [blow] instead of a trumpet.
Monardus writeth that a little of the powder of that horne, put
into the eare, cureth deafness.”

And afterward: “We feasted ourselves with that beaste which is
called Armadilla.” That was ata feast where he found the Indians
“all drunke as beggers, and the pottes walking from one to another
without rest.” In one of the lagoons he saw the manatee, or Manzitz,
“as big as a wine pipe, which they call A/anz¢z, and is most excellent
and holsome meate;” and, “One of our guides kindled a fire with
two sticks.”

Referring to the peccary, he says, “I fedd on the porck of that
country.” His “pig” is represented (says Schomburgh) by the pec-
cary, the hare by the agutée,— Dasyprocta aguti,—the lion by the puma,
and the tiger by the jaguar.

Leaving the animal for the vegetable kingdom again, I feel con-
strained to mention two or three productions of Venezuela seldom
used outside the country. One of these is the voucon, or amatto, —
a plant cultivated by the Caribs at the period of their discovery, and
still to be found growing in the negro and Indian gardens. Raleigh
says of it, —

“ These be divers berries that dye the most perfect crimson and
carnation; and for painting, all France, Italy, or the East Indies
yield none such. For the more the skin is washed, the fayrer the
cullour appeareth, and with which e’en those brown and tannie women
spot themselves and cullour their cheeks.”

The Carib warriors, as wel] as the women, delighted to adorn
themselves with voucon.

I once found mention of one of these warriors, at the time Guada-
SOMETHING TO EAT, IN THE TROPICS. 153

lupe was first settled, who made a friendly visit to a white settler.
The noble Carib was clad solely in a rich coat of voucon. Arrived
at the settler’s hut, he espied a nice new canvas hammock, white and
clean, and into this comfortable bed he plunged himself without cere-
mony. The settler’s wife, seeing the red and naked Indian
appropriate her best ham- mock, gave a cry of dismay, at
which the child of the forest, comprehending that he was not
wanted, arose and fled, but left the greater part of his gar-
ment clinging to the ham- mock !

The most com-
mon things attract
our attention far
from home. What
more beautiful, for
instance, than a field







of waving Indian corn!
“Comparatively few even of those
to whom corn is one of the most com-
mon of all objects, and who are in the
habit of handling more or less of that
noble grain every day, know how ro-
mantic a history it has. While there is
no question as to its antiquity, there is
much doubt about the place of its ori- SCENE IN THE MARKET, CARACAS.
gin. It has been found in the tombs
and ruins of South America, in the caves of Arizona, and in the
mounds of Utah. The Smithsonian Institute has an ear of corn
found in the tomb of a mummy, near Ariquipi, Peru; and Dar-
win mentions the head of a stalk found imbedded in a sea-drift
eighty-five feet above the level of the sea. Petrified stalks and ears
were found, perfect in appearance, in working a stone quarry near
La Prairie, in Illinois. In a neat and useful little manual, issued by
154 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

J. C. Vaughan, it is said that those who claim Asia for the original .
home of maize, point to the representation of the plant found in an
ancient Chinese book in the Royal Library in Paris, and tell of the
grain being found in cellars of ancient houses in Athens. Rifaud
speaks of finding the grain and ear of maize within the tomb of a
mummy at Thebes in 1819. Some, like Corbett, claim that it is the
corn of Scripture, and in support of the claim quote the following:
‘And it came to pass that He went through the cornfields on the
Sabbath day; and His disciples, as they went, began to pluck the
ears of the corn. Again, from Lev. 1. 14: ‘And if thou offer a
meat offering of thy firstfruits unto the Lord, thou shalt offer for
the meat offering of thy firstfruits green ears of corn dried by the fire,
even corn beaten out of full ears.’ Lev. xxiii. 14: ‘And ye shall eat
neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame
day that ye have brought an offering unto your God.’ Gen. xli. 5
(concerning Pharaoh’s second dream): ‘And he slept and dreamed
the second time; and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one
stalk, rank and good’ Job xxiv. 24 says the wicked are ‘cut off as
the tops of the ears of corn.’

“ An unimpeachable history of Indian corn can never be written, as
the subject is full of counterfacts, contradictions, and speculations.
Learned authorities, both early and late, have differed as to its origin,
~— some claiming it a native of Asia, others of America.”

There is little doubt, the Professor thinks, that Indian corn, so-
called, is indigenous to America. It was found growing here by the
Spanish adventurers, and taken by them to Europe and the East.

Now, before I leave this subject of fruits and vegetables found
in the tropics, let me allude to another tropical production. It is
the cacao (Aztec cacahuatl), the Theobroma cacao, or “food for gods.”
It is certainly an indigenous plant of Mexico, mentioned by all the
early writers upon that country as of great service to the Mexican
nobility. Like maize and the native turkey, it found its way into
SOMETHING TO EAT, IN THE TROPICS, 155

Europe soon after the conquest of Mexico, and is now raised in all the
South American States, in Africa, and in Asia. It is not so beautiful
an object in the vegetable world as the banana, but doubtless its fruit
is of more wide-spread utility and more highly appreciated by the
residents of Northern climes far from its habitat.

The tree attains a height of about twenty feet, being in full bear-
ing in six years, and yielding large crops of beans (chocolate) for two
decades or more. The bean from which chocolate is made is con-
tained in a large pod surrounded by a white, sweetish pulp. The
native mode of preparation, after the bean is separated from its enclos-
ing pulp and dried, is to grind it, generally upon a flat stone after
roasting, so as to convert it into a perfectly smooth paste. It is
then mixed with a little vanilla, or flavored with other aromatic spices
found in the forests growing wild. At the present time it forms the
favorite beverage of Yucatan and the warmer portions of Mexico,
where also the cacao-seeds are even now used as currency. The first
mention of this peculiar coin is in 1502, when Columbus first descried
the coast of Yucatan; a boat came off laden with the products of the
country, and among them those.

Cortes, in one of his letters to his sovereign, describing a plan-
tation then being prepared for the king at Malinaltepec, says, “ These
Indians planted sixty fazagas of maize and ten of beans, together with
two thousand cacao-trees, which bear a fruit resembling an almond,
and is held in such estimation that it is used as money throughout
the country and employed in purchase in the markets and elsewhere.”
I myself have seen the cacao-beans used as currency in Yucatan, and
have drunk the delicious chocolate as prepared at the hands of the
native cooks.

A French traveller, remarking on this strange medium of exchange,
says, “ The medio (six cents) is not sufficiéntly small to meet the
wants of petty trade, so they cut it in halves and quarters; the first is
called cuartzlas, and the latter chzcas. After the chzcas, the grains of
156 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

cacao come in to balance exchanges in the proportion of from eighty
to one hundred and sixty grains to the medzo, according to the crop.”
. Cacao, although cultivated in many districts throughout the republic,
finds in the State of Tobasco a soil and climate especially adapted to
its growth, and is there raised in large quantities. Certain portions
of the States of Vera Cruz, Guerrero, Michoacan, Colima, Oaxaca,
and Chiapas are favorable to its cultivation; and the cacao of Socon-
usco, in the last State, is much sought after. From the cacao-seeds
the ancient Aztecs prepared chocolate (in their language chocolat/).
They mixed with it, says Humboldt, a little corn flour, vanilla (¢/Zvo-
chitl) and a species of spice (mecaxochitl); they also possessed the art
of reducing the chocolate to cakes, which they sold in their markets.

_ Another peculiar tropical product is the soap-berry, with which
the people sometimes wash their clothes. On the bank of the river
of Cariaco, says Humboldt, “We saw the Indian women washing
their linen with the fruit of the Sapzndus saponaria, or soap-berry, an
operation said to be very injurious to the linen. The bark of the tree
produces a strong lather, and the fruit is so elastic that if thrown on a
stone it rebounds three or four times to the height of seven or eight
feet. Being of a spherical form, it is employed in making rosaries.”
There are two sorts of trees in the islands and along the coast that
serve the people with a substitute for soap. The one furnishes it in
its fruit, and the other in its bark.

It is along the coast that the poisonous manchzneel is found, —a
veritable upas-tree, for whosoever sleeps beneath its shade will be dread-
fully poisoned. I recall many a beach of snowy sand, overshadowed
by the green-leaved sanchineel, where the shade seemed so invitingly
cool that I have been half tempted to recline beneath it. The sand
beneath the manchzneels is strewn with yellow fruit, tempting to the
sight, but deadly to the taste. I have mentioned one style of fishing
said to have been in vogue here in ancient times; another is prevalent
On these coasts. Finding a manchineel tree near good fishing ground,
SOMETHING TO EAT, IN THE TROPICS. 157

say a small pond or stream, if you break off the branches and throw
them into the water, it will not be long before the fish therein will
come to the surface, gasping for breath. They can then be captured;
but it must be done quickly, as they soon recover sufficiently to disap-
pear. The natives say that the manchineel “burns” the fish; others
that it deoxygenates the water, at least temporarily.

Our readers have had much to pardon us for in this rambling
chapter; but it has seemed to us that all these things are interesting,
If* not, then that is an error of ours; we beg your pardon, gentle
reader, and ask you to turn over a new leaf and peruse the Professor's

paper on pearls.


CHAPTER XIII.

PEARLS OF THE SPANISH MAIN.

THE PROFESSOR ‘‘ REFLECTS.” — FATE OF SPANISH EXPLORERS. — AMERICUS VESPUCIUS.
— PEARLS BY THE POUND.— THE PEARL-FISHER’S PERILS. —A STRANGE SPANIARD.
— NAMES OF THE DEITY. s

WAS reflecting,” said the Professor to me, one
day, “upon the tragic ending of the lives of most
of the Spanish leaders who contributed toward the
discovery of America: Columbus sent home in
chains, at the end of his third voyage, and finally
dying in poverty; Cortez, conqueror of Mexico,

who, although he had a victorious career, died in obscurity; Vasco

Nufiez de Balboa, who saw, first of all Europeans, from the mountains

of Darien, the Pacific, the great southern sea, but who was afterward

beheaded by an unworthy rival; Pizarro, assassinated in his own pal-
ace by his associates, — we cannot say but that he deserved his fate;

De Soto, explorer of Florida, buried at deep of night in the bosom of

the Mississippi, for fear that the outraged Indians would discover and |

mutilate his body; and many others of lesser fame perished miserably



and by violence.”
It was even so, and could we but follow out our friend’s sugges-

tion, we should find that the Spaniards individually reaped small re-
ward for their arduous labors.
PEARLS OF THE SPANISH MAIN. 159

“The old historian says that they all combined in speaking ill of
the Indies, because they had not found gold laid up for them to plun-
der, in chests, or growing on trees.

It was in the year 1499, as I have already mentioned, that Alonzo
de Ojeda and Americus Vespucius made their famous voyage along
the: coast of Venezuela; and then “every Indian thought himself
- happy, when they came to ford rivers, if he could carry a Spaniard
over on his shoulders; and he that oftenest carried any over looked
upon himself as most fortunate.” Regarding the manner in which the
name “America” came to be bestowed upon our continent, the royal
historiographer says, —

“When King Ferdinand returned to Spain, in 1507, he ordered
Juan Diaz de Solis, Vincencio Yafiez Pinzon, John de la Cosa, and
Americus Vespucius to come to court, and while some of them were
sent on voyages of discovery, Vespucius was retained with a good
salary, to make sea-charts, with the title of chief pilot. Whence the
Indies took the name of America, whereas they should have had it
from Columbus, who was the first discoverer.”

We left Caracas one morning and took the steamer for Trinidad,
purposing to tarry, if possible, at the pearl islands, Margarita and
Cubagua. They no longer produce those precious oysters that con-
tain the beautiful pearls; but when the Spaniards first came here, in
1499, they obtained vast quantities of them, and it was many years
before the oyster beds were exhausted.

The great Humboldt says: “The situations which since the
discovery of the new continent have furnished the greatest abundance
of pearls to the Spaniards are the following: the arm of the sea
between the islands of Cubagua and Coche and Cumanda (on the
Spanish Main), the mouth of the Rio de la Hacha, the Gulf of
Panama, near the Islas de las Perlas, and the eastern coast of
California.”

In 1587, three hundred and sixteen kilograms of pearls were

i
160 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

imported into Spain, among which were five kilos of the greatest

beauty, destined for. King Philip II. 4
The pearl fisheries of Cubagua (Venezuela) and Rio Hacha have

been very productive, but of short duration. After the beginning





COLUMBUS, THE FIRST DISCOVERER.

of the seventeenth century, the pearls of California began to rival

those of Panama. The California pearls are of a very beautiful water,

and large, but they are frequently of an irregular figure. The most

valuable in the possession of the court of Spain were found in 1615_
and 1655.
PEARLS OF THE SPANISH MAIN. 161 -

In recent years, more pearls have been found in the Gulf of
California than anywhere else in America.

On the coast of Lower California an important industry has been
developed by the pearl fisheries of that remote region. Five mer-
chants and a thousand daring divers are wearing out their lives in
supplying the markets of Paris, London, and New York with the rare
and costly black pearl, which is found in a state of great perfection in
the deep waters off La Paz. The latitude is a little south of Key West,
in Florida, and not far north of Havana. Since the recent Mexican
fever began, an increasing public interest has been taken in the
resources of the ancient empire of the Montezumas, and the gold and
silver and other precious products of that land are exciting much
curiosity among American capitalists. As the pearl fisheries of
Lower California belong to Mexico, they will of course rank among
the other natural riches of that country. Chief Engineer Magee of
the United States Navy, who has lately returned from the Gulf of
California, was found at the Fifth Avenue Hotel recently, in company
with one of the principal pearl merchants of Mexico, who. had just
arrived from Paris, whither he had been on a mission to dispose of his
annual harvest of precious stones. This merchant, while hoping to
see his country developed and American capital, industry, and
machinery encouraged for this purpose, did not think that the present
condition of the pearl fisheries of the Gulf of California would warrant
the investment of more capital or labor.

The following facts were given during the interview: pearl oysters
are found from one to six miles from shore in from eight to twenty-
one fathoms of water. The one thousand divers who are engaged in
searching for them are generally employed under the contract system,
as they make greater efforts to discover the pearls than they do when
hired by the day. Boats, diving apparatus, and money for provisions
and outfits are supplied by the merchant on condition that all the
pearls discovered shall be sold to him at such prices as may be agreed

T3T i aoa
162 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

upon, — in other words, that he may have the refusal of all the pearls
found. Sail-boats of five tons’ burden and containing six men each
are fitted up with sleeping and cooking accommodations, and _ six
months are devoted to pearl-diving up and down the coast, from May
until October and November.

The total product of a year’s work is estimated at about five
hundred thousand dollars, — that is, valuing the pearls at the first cost
price. The United States is a very poor place to sell pearls of any
kind, and black pearls, which are most valuable, are bought exclu-
sively by wealthy and titled people in Europe. St. Petersburg ranks
next to Paris as a good market for them, while in the United States
there is a great demand for diamonds of extraordinary value. Of the
entire yield of Mexican pearls, ten per cent are white, forty per cent
blue, and fifteen per cent. black. The blue stones are of little value.
The oyster in which the pearl is found has the shape of a large clam,
or saddle-rock oyster, but it is smooth and brilliant, with all the colors
of the rainbow. The shells which are known as the mother-of-pearl
are carried once a year, in ships of two thousand tons, around Cape
Horn to Hamburg, where they are sold to German merchants and
manufacturers for sawing into buttons, knife-handles, paper-cutters, and
a thousand other ornaments for boudoir and studio. Americans are
beginning to use this material, and it is thought that there will be a
large demand for pearl-shells in a few years. They are worth from
four hundred to five hundred dollars per ton. Boston buys more of
them than any other city in the United States.

The value of pearls depends entirely upon their size, shape, and
color,and perfect condition. There can never be an arbitrary schedule
of prices agreed upon, since for what one man may be willing to pay
one thousand dollars, another man would not give a tenth part of that
sum. The Russian nobles are especially fond of rich black pearls,
which would scarcely find sale in the United States, except as a matter |
of speculation to send abroad. The uncertainties of the fisheries are


Meat

ha ato



A GIANT OF THE VENEZUELAN FOREST.

PEARLS OF THE SPANISH MAIN. 165

great. Sometimes it is weeks and even months before a hundred.

dollars’ worth of stones are discovered. The choicest pearls found
during a season are worth from one thousand to five thousand dollars
apiece.

The cheapest pearls are sold by weight. Generally pearls are
about the size of bullets and found in the soft oyster near the place
where it joins the shell. Then again, just at the close of a long and
unprofitable season, an experienced diver may find a few pearls worth
a fortune. Strange things happen down in the wild solitudes of those

distant fisheries. Poor men sometimes find pearls that a king might.

envy, and if the divers were frugal they could often rise above the
obscurity of poor pearl fishermen; but such successes are generally
followed by dissipation, which soon leaves the man as penniless as he
was before.

The Mexican divers of the Gulf of California are said to be the
most expert in the world. They go down into deep water and remain
below fora long time. In former times many men were lost in this
perilous pursuit after submarine treasures. English diving-suits are
said to be the safest and most satisfactory, and superior to the cele-
brated French armor, but American hose-pipes are unsurpassed.
Several years ago a large number of divers lost their lives in one
season because of the defective English hose-tubing. Since then there
have not been many serious accidents. The loss of life caused by the
exposure and hardships of pearl-fishing is considerable, and the men
generally retire after a few years of active service to spend the rest of
their wretched days in trying to find relief for a rheumatic paralysis
which generally closes a pearl-fisher’s life. The lower currents of the
sea, at a depth of eighteen or twenty fathoms, are very cold, even in
the tropics, while the pressure is oppressive. The blood grows cold
and thick, so that the joints stiffen, the muscles contract, and only
the strongest constitutions can long survive the hardships of pearl-
fishing.

rt
166 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

The divers see a great many sharks, but as a rule, they do
- not fear them, although they sometimes cut or break the pipes
which supply the men with air from the atmosphere above. The
danger most dreaded by the brave fishermen is the celebrated devil-
fish. “They are all we fear,” said a merchant. “They lie near
to the bottom of the sea. At first sight they seem insignificant
and harmless, but if a diver or the air-pipes come within their
reach, their long, shadowy tentacles or fingers suddenly clutch the
object with a powerful, tightening grasp, until the man is crushed
to death or the hose-pipes cut in twain. ee :

xi Dai bs
Many a man has lost his life through ie











‘ LeNY "g

the wickedness of these devil-fish.” nae ge. ne

Some extraordinary pearls have oe ee te
lately been found near La oe Hy (pe ne < iS
Paz, in Lower California. — gi@@yie w= My
Probably the largest pearl ee BT
on record, weighing seventy-five carats, 4A Sen W
was found but a few years ago. The fisherman sold it on the spot for four- IN A GUM SWAMP.

teen thousand dollars, which, however,

was an insignificant sum compared with its real value. Since then
two gems, one valued at five thousand dollars and the other at
three thousand dollars, have been found.

The steamer passed Cubagua in the night, and hence we could
not land; but we were assured by those on board that we should
not have found anything there at present that our readers would:
care about. Some of the Indians of the mainland, we were told,
still burned incense to their gods, using the native gum, copal.
This was used also by the natives of Mexico, and derives its name
from the Mexican cofaliz. . It was in extensive use on the arrival
of the Spaniards, and had been probably for centuries, as incense,
before the idols in the temples. There are said to be ten varieties
PEARLS OF THE SPANISH MAIN. 167

of the tree producing this gum, which was used, not only in the
temples, but in fumigating strangers, and especially ambassadors.

A strange man, evidently a Spaniard, attracted our attention
by his eccentric behavior on board. He was poorly dressed, but
evidently had a well-stored mind, though what it contained was in
a somewhat disordered state. He surprised us one day by convers-
ing with three different men in as many different languages, and when
we expressed ourselves to that effect he said, “ Oh, that is nothing; I
can speak a dozen dialects, and understand portions of a dozen more.
Now, for instance, I can give you the name of God, the Creator, in
four dozen different dialects.” Below, as he gave it to us, we append
the list, and we think it is in the main quite reliable.

Tue Name or Gop In Forty-E1GHT LANGUAGES.

Hebrew, — Elohim or Eloah. French, — Dieu. Slavic, — Buch.

Chaldaic, — Elah.
. Assyrian, — Ellah.
Syriac and Turkish, — Alah.
Malay, — Alla.
Arabic, — Allah.

Language of the Magi, — Orsi.

Old Egyptian, — Tuet.
Armenian, — Teuti.
Modern Egyptian, — Tenn.
Greek, — Theos.

Cretan, — Thias.

Zolian and Doric, — Hos.
Latin, — Deus.

Low Latin, — Diex.

Celtic and Old Gallic, — Diu.

Spanish, — Dios.
Portuguese, — Deos.
Old German, — Diet.
Provengal, — Diou.
Low Breton, — Doue.
Italian, — Dio.

Trish, — Die.

Olala tongue, — Deu.
German, — Gott.
Flemish, — Goed.
Dutch, — Godt.

English and Old Saxon, — God.

Teutonic, — Goth.
Danish and Swedish, — Gut.
Norwegian, — Gud.

Polish, — Bog.

Polaca, — Bung.

Lapp, — Jubinal.
Finnish, — Jumala.
Runic, — As.
Pannonian, — Istu.
Zemblian, — Fetizo.
Hindostanee, — Rain.
Coromandel, — Brama.
Tartar, — Magatal.
Persian, — Sire.
Chinese, — Prussa.
Japanese, — Goezur.
Madagascar, — Zannar.
Peruvian, — Puchocamae.

“Whatever language it may be in which we address Him,” said
the Professor, “our prayers, I trust, will not be in vain.

“¢T know not what the future hath

Of marvel or surprise,

Assured alone that life and death

His mercy underlies.’ ”
CHAPTER XIV.

WITH COLUMBUS AND SIR WALTER RALEIGH,

MovutH oF THE ORINOCO.— THE SERPENT’S MoutH.— THE GOLDEN MOUNTAINS. — SIR
WALTER RALEIGH. — EL Dorado THE GOLDEN. — Lost ROANOKE. — OYSTERS GROW-
ING ON TREES.— ALLIGATORS AND SERPENTS. — THE GREYHOUND OF THE SEA.

‘«‘ Where down the purple slope that slants
Across the hills, the sunrays glance
With hot stare through the coco-trees,
And wine-palms tent beside the seas,
There Port-of-Spain, long leagues away,
Glows in the mellow mist of day.”



vA sailed into the harbor of Trinidad’s capital, Port-
| of-Spain, just as the sun sank behind the purpling
mountains. Perhaps some of our readers may re-
member that we once touched here several years .
ago. You will remember too that the island
Trinidad was -discovered by Columbus on_ his



third voyage.

On the last day of July, 1498, two months from the day the Span-
ish fleet had sailed from Cadiz, the mountains of Trinidad were
sighted. We may distrust the statement of Columbus that he had
previously concluded to honor the first land discovered on this voyage
with the name of the Trinity, in view of the fact that the mountains
first seen were three in number, and naturally suggested the name,
La Trinidad.

#
WITH COLUMBUS AND SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 169

Columbus, as we are aware, was much given to the setting forth
of coincidences showing him one under special guidance of the Lord,
However, it was a harmless vanity, and this name, like most of those
bestowed by the admiral, was fitting and suggestive.

i





























































































































































































































































































































































































































= SSS EE ee SS SE ee WV ATN 2-3















LANDING OF COLUMBUS AT TRINIDAD.

Coasting the island, he entered a narrow pass where the waters
met and clashed so furiously that even his high courage was shaken,
and he called this the Serpent’s Mouth (Za Boca del Szerpe). He
passed out of it in safety and anchored in the smooth water of the
great Gulf of Paria, and on the inner coast of Trinidad. Crossing the
gulf, he emerged into the Caribbean Sea through another dangerous
passage which he called La Boca del Draco, the Mouth of the
170 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

Dragon. Before venturing upon this terrible passage he coasted the
Gulf of Paria, discovering there a fine race of people, tall, straight,
shapely, the men with loin-cloths in various colors, the women entirely
naked. They were frank and hospitable, and dwelt in a rich and
generous country, their dwellings in beautiful gardens, where the
birds and flowers vied in abundance and brilliancy of color.

They .possessed little gold and that of inferior quality, but they
wore strings of pearls that made the Spaniards’ fingers itch and burn
with strong desire. Finding that the pearls were obtained off the
north coast of Paria, Columbus at last ventured to brave the dangers
of the Dragon’s Mouth, through which the waters of the Orinoco and
other South American rivers rushed with frightful velocity. He
escaped through the warring breakers and found smoother seas be-
yond. He found also the seat of the pearl fishery, though he was
then ignorant of its value or extent, and discovered the islands, Mar-
garita and Cubagua, so celebrated in later years for their beds of
pearls. The Spaniards did not stop to fish, but obtained a large
number of pearls by traffic with the Indians, in exchange for bits of
porcelain and bells of brass. Sufficient were obtained, in fact, to
tempt the cupidity of other Spaniards, and to attract attention to this
region of riches, now for the first time brought to the view of the
world. © AS

Although the indications were promising and the north coast of
the continent stretched invitingly away, with mountains reared against
the clouds and islands fringing the coast, yet the navigator was sore
pressed by disease, and his stores were failing, so the fleet set sail for
the fair Island of Hispaniola.

Of the people here discovered, the ancient historian writes
quaintly, “ They are white even as our men are, saving such as are
much conversant with the sun. They are also very gentle and full of
humanitie towards strangers. There was fewe or none that had not
eyther a collar, a chayne, or a bracelette of golde and pearles, and
WITH COLUMBUS AND SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 171

many had all. Other than these ornaments, except for a breech-cloth
of cotton, they were naked... . The regions being in the large pro-
vince of Paria, for the space of CCXX myles, are called of the inhabi-
tants Cumana & Mancapana.”

Reflecting upon the divers species of man, the old _ historian,
Hakluyt, thus delivers himself, “ The Aethiopian thinketh the blacke
colour to be fairer. than white, and the white man thinketh otherwise.
Hee that is polled thinketh himself more amaiable than hee that
weareth long hayre, and the bearded man supposeth himself more
comely than hee that wanteth a beard. As appetite therefore moueth,
and not as reason persuadeth, do men run into these vanities.”

It was on the voyage preceding this that Columbus had made the
acquaintance of the cannibals, the Caribs of the Caribbee Islands, and
had heard of Amazons. From the coast of Paria he stood north-
wardly toward Hispaniola. “ By the way, there appeared from the
north a great Iland, which the captives that were taken off Hispaniola
called Madinino [now known as Montserrat], affirming it to be in-
habitéd only with women.”

It was on his return voyage to Spain that Columbus carried cap-
tive the King of the Golden Mountains, Caonabo, “ who dyed on the
voyage, for very pensivenesse and anguish of minde.” Then also he
encountered one of those dreadful tempests called hurricanes: “ These
tempests of the ayre, which the Grecians called 77phones, — that is,
whirlewindes, —the Indians called Furacanes.”

I did not intend to digress; but whatever I have cited is in a
measure cognate to our subject. Christopher Columbus, on that
eventful third voyage to America, drew nearer to the Equator than
before; and filled with the belief that he was penetrating a region of
fire and drought, he was astonished to find verdurous vegetation,
plentiful showers, and habitable islands. Learned theorists had as-
sured him that in the tropical area everything would be found subli-
mated to the last degree.
172 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

Hence, it would be productive of pearls and precious stones, espe-
cially emeralds and diamonds, sublimated in telluric crucibles. He
was not, then, astonished at the abundance of pearls. Was it not the
wise Pliny who taught that pearls were the product of oysters, into
whose mouths the dews of heaven fell at night? Even so; and the
‘great navigator found oysters so numerous that he saw them clinging
to the roots and branches of trees. And we may find them to-day in
these same waters, — oysters growing on trees; but they are not the
bivalves that yield the precious pearls.

Nearly one hundred years later than Columbus, another voyager,
also world-iamous now, came to this Island of Trinidad. This was
Sir Walter Raleigh, who, leaving England Feb. 6, 1595, arrived at
Trinidad the 22d of March, in the same year. The record of his
adventures is styled, “ The Discoverie of the large, rich, and beautiful
Empire of Guiana, with a relation of the Great and Golden City of
Manoa, which the Spaniards called El Dorado, performed in the year
1595, by Sir Walter Ralegh, Knight.”

Now, the first English vessels that visited the West Indies after
their discovery were two ships of war, under Sebastian Cabot and
Sir Thomas Pert, in 1516 or 1517. Two years afterward the first
English trading vessel arrived at Puerto Rico. Capt. John Hawkins
followed in 1565, and Capt. Francis Drake in 1572; but neither
attempted to form a settlement. “This was reserved for Sir Walter
Raleigh, to whom belongs the honor of founding England’s colonial
empire.” Raleigh’s first expedition to the New World was in 1584,
landing on the coast of North Carolina. In 1585 the settlement was -
formed at Roanoke, but next year the settlers were taken off by Sir
Francis Drake in a destitute condition, and carried to England. In
1587 one hundred and twenty colonists were left at Roanoke; the
governor returned to England for supplies, but the apprehensions in
England regarding the coming of the Spanish Armada prevented
relief being sent, and when finally a vessel reached Roanoke, in 15809,

\
WITH COLUMBUS AND SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 173

it was too late. Nevermore were seen by white men those lost colo-
nists of Roanoke! But to return to Sir Walter’s expedition to South
America: He was in search of El Dorado, the gold-covered capital of
which was said to be built upon a vast lake, surrounded by mountains



SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

glistening with gold. And it was ruled by a prince also covered with
gold, “ powdered from head to foot, so that he resembled a golden god,
worked by the hands of a skillful artist.” Raleigh captured a canoe,
or canoa, laden with great store of bread made from the cassava. They
landed upon “a faire sand, where we found thousands of Tortugas’
[turtles’] eggs, which are very wholesome meat and very restoring.”
174 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

Raleigh’s observations prove him to have been accurate and pains-
taking, and it was a loss to posterity that he did not carry out his
great scheme of conquest and colonization. You will perhaps recall
_his famous excuse for not penetrating farther into the interior of
Guiana: “Considering that to enter Guiana by small boats, to depart
four or five hundred miles from my ships, and to leave a garrison [Span-
ish] interested in the same enterprise, who also daily expected supplies
out of Spaine, I should have savoured very much of the Asse!”

He discovered, in the oo of Paria, oysters growing on trees, as
follows : —

“In the way between were divers little brooks of fresh water, and
one of salt, that had store of oisters upon the branches of the trees,
and were very salt and well tasted. All their oisters grow upon those
boughs and spraies, and not on the ground.”

Referring to alligators, he says, —

“There were thousands of those uglie cenpente: I had a Negro,
a very proper young fellow, that, leaping out of the galley to swim in
the river, was, in all our sights, taken and devoured with one of those
Largatos.”

The products of. the sea yield the coast-dwellers of Venezuela a
better living than the earth products to the dweller in the interior.
The numerous fish, oysters, and turtles supply all the tables.

I wonder if any of my readers ever heard of the process of setting
a fish to catch a fish? It was in use several hundred years ago, and
I take the account from the old book to which I have referred:

“ Nowe shall you heare a newe kinde of fishing. Like as wee with
Greyhoundes doe hunt Hares in the playne fieldes, so doo they, as it
were with a hunting fishe, take other fishes. This fish was of shape
or fourme vnknown to vs, but the body thereof not vnlike a great
yeele, hanging on the hinder parte of the head a very tough skinne,
like vnto a great bagge or purse. This fish is tyed by the side of the
boat with a corde, let down so farre into the water that the fish may
WITH COLUMBUS AND SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 175

lie close by the keel or bottome of the same, for shee may in no case
abide the sight of the ayre. Thus when they espie any great fish or
Tortoyse, they let the corde at length, and when she feeleth herself
loosed, shee invadeth the fish or Tortoyse as swiftly as an arrow, and
when she hath once fas- =
tened her hold, she cast-
eth the purse of skinne,
and by drawing the
same together, so grasp-
eth her pray that no
man’s strength is suf-
ficient to unloose the
same, except by little
and little drawing the
lyne, she bee lifted
somewhat above the
brimme of the water,
where, as soon as she
seeth the brightnesse of
the ayre, she letteth go
her holde.”

The whole coast of
Guiana, at that time, be-
tween the Amazon and
the Orinoco was called







Caribanta, or the wild FXECUTION OF RALFIGH.
coast, and is supposed
to have received its name from being the chief residence of the
Caribs. The Spaniards did everything in their power to annoy and
even to exterminate the poor Indians; but Sir Walter treated them
humanely. He says in his defence, —

“J protest, before the majesty of the living God, that I neither
176 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN. ©

know nor believe that any of our companie, one or other, did violence
to the Indian women; and yet we saw many hundreds, and had many
in our power, and of these very young and excellently favored, which
came among us without deceit. Nothing got us more love among
them than this usage, for I suffered not any man to take from anie
of the natives so much as a Pzza, or a Potato root, without giving
them contentment.” Poor Sir Walter! Returning to England not
long after, he met his doom at the hands of the executioner, and his
schemes of conquest came to nought.

te AFETMA AMO ge oat tin gi Va,
iy, il i a iy li!


CHAPTER XV.
UP AND DOWN THE ORINOCO.

BOUNDARIES OF VENEZUELA.— MOONRISE ON THE SEA. — TREE-DWELLING INDIANS. —
An OLD CACIQUE.— CATLIN, THE INDIAN’S FRIEND. — CITy oF BOoLIvar.— WILD
BIRDS OF THE ESTEROS. — THE CARIB FisH. — ELECTRIC EELS AND WaAGON-BIRDS.

ar I might be permitted to drop into statistics a little,
I might tell the reader what no doubt he already
knows, that Venezuela is bounded on the north by
the Caribbean Sea, on the south by the Empire of
Brazil, east by British Guiana, and west by the
Republic of Colombia. Its situation, between 1°
40’ south and 12° 26’ north, brings it within the tropics. The
Venezuelan divides the entire territory into zones: the farming zone,
the cattle-breeding, and the uncultivated, —the last being as exten-
sive as both the others, and the whole giving an area of 1,552,741
square kilometers. The country is mainly drained by one great river,
the Orinoco, and its tributaries, —the only isolated section being that
draining into the great Lake Maracaibo. It is of the Lower Orinoco
that this chapter will treat, a river whose source no white man has
yet discovered.

At the Port-of-Spain, the steamers of the Orinoco meet and con-
nect with those that cruise along the Spanish Main. We lay in the
harbor through several days, but at last, one hot and sweltering
afternoon, we changed from the coast to the river steamer. And
what a glorious night succeeded to that long hot afternoon! Just

at sunset, as the belt of crimson cloud lay girdling the horizon, I
12


178 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

caught my first sight of the new moon of May (or of April, as you may
choose to call it). It was just the faintest crescentic line of silver, drawn
against the blushing sky,—a hint of argent only on the roseate field.
It might have been the maiden moon of the universe, so pure it
looked, so chaste, and almost sferztuelle. Below it, at an angle,
gleamed goldenly a lustrous planet, beneath which yet again a silver
star. A great bank of crimson clouds formed beneath them that
spread wider and wider, and reached out its arms till it nearly encir-
cled the horizon, all the time losing its color, becoming paler and
paler, till of a sudden I noticed that the cloud-bank was purple, and_
the sky above was deepening into blue. Then the purple cloud-bank
advanced upon the silver star, and swallowed it; it moved yet farther, »
toward the golden planet, which hung tremblingly on its brink awhile,
then disappeared; and at last the virgin moon gave up the effort to
illumine the night, and hid her face behind the cloud.

The Orinoco, as you know, is over fifteen hundred miles in
length and drains over three hundred square miles of territory. It is
navigable over eight hundred miles, although comparatively little is the
commerce of this great river. Its broad delta reaches out its numerous
fingers opposite and south of the island Trinidad, and up one of the
northern branches the steamer takes its course. The scenery is dreary
and uninteresting, and there is little to reward the traveller, unless he
has the courage and the time to penetrate to the Upper Orinoco, |
where the great forests are. It is said to have been ascended for the
first time by white men by Diego de Ordaz, in the year 1535. Sir
Walter Raleigh sailed up some distance, and his descriptions ‘yet hold
good, for nothing changes here. His attention was particularly called
to the tree-dwelling Indians, whose frail shelters are built aloft to avoid
the rising floods. In the winter, he says, “they dwell upon the trees,
where they have very artificial townes and villages, for between May
and September the river Orenoke riseth thirtie foote upright; and for
this cause they are forced to live in this manner.” They must have




























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Bigg ee



THE DELTA OF THE ORINOCO.

UP AND DOWN THE ORINOCO. 181

pretty hard times in securing food enough to eat, and are said to sub-
sist mainly upon the tops of the padmzstes, or cabbage-palms.

Raleigh heard also of Indians with eyes in their shoulders and
mouths in their breasts; and of course stories were brought him of
the fierce Amazons, or fighting women of the Upper Orinoco and the
river Amazon; but he himself did not see either the monsters
or the fierce females. He speaks of meeting a fine old Indian, a
cacigue, or chief, who elicited his admiration by his quaint speech:
“He desired leave to depart, saying that he had far to go, that he was
old and weak, and was every day called for by death.”

Sir Walter speaks of an animal I have mentioned, the cachzcémo,
or armadillo. I suppose the Venezuelan or Guianian name of the arma-
dillo may have been carried to the islands of the West Indies, by the
Arawaak Indians, who once occupied those islands and were driven out
by the Caribs. They call themselves Aru, or Aruwa (says the travel-
ler, Schomburgh), which is the name of the American tiger or jaguar.

“The Arawaak Indian is fairer than either the Carib or Warau, and
the females, taken as atribe, are the handsomest of all the Guianians.”

The famous traveller and artist, Mr. Catlin, makes mention of some
very attractive Indians he once met far in the interior of South
America, the Zurumatis of the Upper Amazon: —

“They had no clothing whatever on them, but wishing to appear
in full dress, they had very curiously and beautifully painted their
round and pretty limbs with vermilion and other bright colors,
and encircled their waists with kilts of long and sweet-scented
grass, in beautiful braids, which also ornamented their ankles, wrists,
and necks. Tastefully arranged wreaths of evergreen encircled their
heads and waists, bright with orchids and other wild blossoms of
the richest bloom and odors; while their long and glossy black
hair, which is generally kept in braids, was loosened and spread
in lovely waves over their naked breasts and shoulders. Gayety,
modesty, and pride were imprinted on every ome of their faces
182 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

and evinced in all their movements, which were natural and ex-
ceedingly graceful.” . /

_ This remarkable man, Catlin, who made an immense collection
of paintings of Indians, and who studied them all his life, was
their most enthusiastic friend. The American Indians, he says,
“made the white man always welcome to the best they had. Honest
without laws, with no jails or poorhouses,.free from religious ani-
mosities, in their natural state they rarely steal, never swear, nor
take the name of God in vain. They don’t live for money; they
keep their own without locks and keys. They never fought a battle
with white men except on their own ground. All may mourn
when these people are swept from the earth; and the artists of
future ages may look in vain for another race so picturesque in
their costume, their weapons, colors, manly games, and the chase..
The native grace, simplicity, and dignity of these natural people
so much resemble the ancient sculptures that we are irresistibly
led to believe that the Grecian sculptors had similar models to
study from; the toga, tunic, bow, shield, lance, similar to those
of ancient times, convince us that a second and strictly classic
era is now passing from the world.”

Breasting the turbid flood, our steamer forced her way to the
chief town on the river Ciudad Bolivar, formerly known as Angostura.
It was founded in 1764, and now contains about twelve thousand
inhabitants. This place is the outlet of the famous gold mines
of Suruari, where a great deal of English capital has been spent.
Gold has been found here in great quantities, but it has cost the
lives of thousands of miners. These mines, doubtless known to
the Indians in ancient times, furnished the gold that gave rise to
the stories of the mythical city, El Dorado the Golden. All the
great countty back of Bolivar sends its products here, — gold, cacao,
coffee, hides, goat and deer skins, tonka-beans, oils, and drugs, which
are carried away by the steamers to the coast. A very profitable






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE ORINOCO AT CAICARA.

UP AND DOWN THE ORINOCO. 185

traffic is that in stuffed birds; probably millions of beautiful birds
are slaughtered in the forests, brought here and then sent out to
supply the demands of the world of fashion.

Barbaric Indians, with shot-guns and blow-guns, hunt down these
lovely creatures merely that frivolous women may wear their plumage
on their hats. We can hardly blame the Indian, because he gains
subsistence by the cruel trade; but the women who wear these
skins are supposed to be civilized, yet they deck themselves out
in feathers like their more ignorant Indian sisters.

Trinidad Island used to be the headquarters of the bird traffic,
but the Government has recently forbidden the slaughter of the
innocents, and the aerial visitors are again haunting the woods.
Bolivar is hot and unhealthy, and not at all interesting, so we
did not tarry any longer than the steamer did. If there had been
time, and if we had thought it possible to include the head-waters
of the Orinoco and the Amazons in this book, we should have
pushed on; but we are already rather beyond the limits assigned
us, and must soon return to the Spanish Main.

Higher up the Orinoco begin the perennial meadows of Venezuela,
called £steros, to which resort hosts of water-fowl, such as ducks,
herons, storks, ibises, and the wild jabiru,—a bird with long javelin-
like bill and soldierlike bearing, tall and stately. Animals of all kinds
are found here, many of which come to prey upon the birds; and
exceedingly abundant in the streams and pools are the alligators,
enormous anacondas, and electric eels.

The most horrible pests of the streams are the carzds, of about
the size, shape, and color of a gold-fish. They swarm in myriads,
and are so voracious that they attack nearly everything living that
enters the water where they dwell. . They may be called sharks in
miniature, having a mouth enormously large in proportion to their
size, which opens like a steel trap. It is set about with sharp teeth;
and when they close them together, a piece of flesh is always torn out
186 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

of their victim. The taste of blood seems to enrage them, and the
spread of it attracts thousands immediately, so that in a very short
time they will strip the flesh entirely from the bones of man or beast.

It is said that even the alligators, with their scaly armor, are
not safe from these little monsters, for when in their fights blood
is drawn from one of them, the cavzés speed to the source of it
and tear open the wound with their teeth. Their jaws are so strong
and their teeth so sharp that they can bite a strong fish-hook in
two with the greatest ease. It was a funny scene we one day
witnessed out on the plain. A herd of cows had been driven
up to one of the Lé/axéros’ huts, and two men went out to milk.
They did not seem to expect much, for they carried a small vessel
for it; nor did the cows look as though they could yield much.

One of the men threw a lasso over the horns of a cow and dragged
her up toa tree. Passing the lasso over a limb, the men hoisted the
cow bodily until her hind-feet hardly touched the ground. It was a
barbarous proceeding, but the ranchmen said that was the only way
to make a cow give down her milk. Then they proceeded to milk
the poor beast, letting her down occasionally to rest, but hoisting
her up again whenever she refused to allow the milk to flow.

We might speak of the electric eels, that inhabit the shallow
ponds where cattle and horses come down to drink, and some-
times administer terrible shocks. These of course have been so
often described that we could give nothing new about them.
There was noticed a curious bird, called the canctero, or. wagon-
bird, because the male and female, one with a hoarse quack and
the other with a shrill cry, imitate the rattling and squeaking of
cart-wheels.

But we must bring this sketchy and imperfect account of our Ori-
noco journey to a close, and hasten back to the coast, where we will in
the next chapter pursue the ghosts of dead and departed buccaneers.
aah
ame fi
| HA Hci RATAN AA
ae eg A

nied Ca a

Se Pits

Nt
Nt
ie i

Hi
Ht

:



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iis if
PAT
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ae «
; 4 a | i





ON AN ORINOCO RIVER STEAMER,

CHAPTER XVI.
PIRATES AND BUCCANEERS.

THE ORIGIN OF THE BUCCANEERS AND FREEBOOTERS. — GOLD-LADEN GALLEONS. — THE
GOLDEN CRAB.— SEA-ROVERS OF JAMAICA. — TORTUGA, THE PIRATES’ PARADISE.—
PETER THE GREAT.— No PREY, No Pay.—SHARE AND SHARE ALIKE. — FIENDS LET
LOOSE. — THE SACK OF Maracaino. — LOLONoIS. — HENRY MORGAN. — CAPTURE OF
PanamMa.—A Dret oF LEATHER. — HORRIBLE CRUELTY.

fea) [ is now many, many years since the last pirate sailed
along the Spanish Main, but two hundred years ago
this coast was the resort of the most bloodthirsty
crews that ever cut a sailor’s throat. It might hurt
the English pride to call the great Sir Francis
Drake a pirate; but the Spaniards, who suffered
from his depredations, styled him nothing less. His
great field of operations was on the coasts of the Caribbean Sea, and
especially the Spanish Main. Hawkins and Davis were also engaged in
piratical warfare upon the cities and commerce of the King of Spain.
But we will not put these old worthies in the pillory now, for after
them ‘came a class of pirates that made this region more infamous
than any of their exploits. The buccaneers, who had their origin and
their dens in the islands of the Caribbean Sea, will be the subject of
this chapter. They had their origin about the year 1630, when the
English and French settlers of the island of St. Kitts were dis-
persed by the Spaniard, Don Frederic of Toledo, on his way to
Brazil. In 1665 a French company purchased St. Kitts, St. Cruz,


190 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

and St. Barts from the Knights of Malta. But the dispersed islanders
had joined together long before, and formed a piratical colony on the
Island of Tortuga. Some Dutch refugees here joined them, and they
styled themselves the “ Brethren of the Sea,” and considered the Span-
iards as their common enemy. Tortuga was a relatively small island,





swAIN sof

DRAKE’S LIEUTENANT: ON A PIRATICAL CRUISE.

not far distant from Hayti, or Hispaniola. As the latter island
swarmed with wild cattle, and was thinly inhabited by Spanish settlers,
part of the “brethren ” invaded Hayti and hunted the cattle for their
hides and meat. Another portion of the pirate company waylaid
merchant vessels in the narrow channels between Hayti, Cuba, and
Puerto Rico, 5
PIRATES AND BUCCANEERS. Ig!

They: were very poor at first, and made their excursions in little
boats, from which fact they were called “ freebooters,” from the Dutch
word frezboteros, or little boats. Their more common name, bucca-
neers, is derived from Jdoucanzerve, a corruption of Jéoucan, which
means to cook meat in the barbarous manner peculiar to the Caribs in
their cannibal feasts. They at first had no houses, only frail huts
called afoupas, the Indian word for
lodge, or camp. In the year 1638
the Spaniards destroyed their set-
tlement, but it was soon rebuilt.

At that time the Spaniards
traded between their own country,
Spain, and their colonies by means
of great fleets of galleons, or im-
mense three or four decker ships,
each carrying about fifty guns.
Seville, in Spain, was the port from
which the /Zo¢a, or merchant fleet,
sailed every year until the river
Guadalquivir filled up, and then it
sailed from Cadiz. After 1732,
they sent out register ships. The
annual fleet from Cadiz was com-—
posed of sixteen merchantmen of from five hundred to six hundred
tons’ burden, and convoyed by three men-of-war.

It was about 1540 that the prosperity of San Domingo, or Hayti,
began to decline and the gold mines to fail. It was in 1586 that
Drake was sent out by Queen Elizabeth to do all the harm he could |
to Spanish shipping. In the year 1655 Oliver Cromwell’s general,
Penn, met with repulse at San Domingo. The defeat was aided by
an army of crabs, their clattering claws in the darkness being mis-
taken by the soldiers for the hoof-beats of advancing cavalry. It is



SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.
192 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

said that the thankful Dominicans carried a gold crab in one of their
religious processions after that, in token of their indebtedness.

One of the first piratical expeditions that met with rich reward was
to the Gulf of Florida. One of the Spanish galleons laden with silver
from South America was sunk ina storm. Two years later the Span-
iards of Havana in Cuba; sent divers to the wreck and recovered some
millions of dollars. This they took to Havana; but a party of sea-
rovers sailed from Jamaica in two ships and three sloops, and captured
about three hundred and fifty thousand dollars which had been left
under guard of sixty soldiers. The sea-rovers came to anchor, and
landing three hundred men on the little island where the treasure was
stored, they attacked the guard, seized the silver, and made off with it
toward Jamaica. On their way they met with a Spanish ship laden
with cochineal, indigo, and silver to the amount of sixty thousand
dollars, and all this they appropriated, letting the vessel go. There
was peace between England and Spain at that time; and as Jamaica
was an English island, the Governor of Cuba demanded restitution.
This the Governor of Jamaica could not deny, and so the freebooters
put to sea, turning pirates in good earnest and pillaging evENy vessel
they caught.

The Island of Tortuga lies to the north of Hayti, and was so called
by the Spaniards because in general shape it resembles a great sea-
‘tortoise, called by them TZortuga-de-mer. It is mountainous and
wooded, and owing to the difficulty of great ships getting into its
harbors, was selected by the buccaneers as their rendezvous. Some
of them cultivated the scanty soil and went hunting, but the greater.
part secured their riches by plundering passing ships. At one time
it swarmed with wild dogs, descendants of the fierce bloodhounds
brought by the Spaniards years before to hunt the Indians. In 1668
the governor of the island tried to poison them, but could not succeed
in exterminating them, and gave up the attempt. The first pirate of
Tortuga was called Peter the Great, a native of France. With one
































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































“4 SPANISH SHIP LADEN WITH SILVER.”


PIRATES AND BUCCANEERS. 195

boat and twenty-eight men, he took the great ship of the vice-admiral
of the Spanish fleet. They crept up to the sides of the ship in the
dark, and while the men were making ready to board her, the pirates’
surgeon was boring holes in their own boat so that they could not by
any means escape.

With a pistol in one hand and a sword in the other, they climbed
up the sides of the ship and ran all together into the great cabin, where
they found the captain and companions playing cards. Here they
put a pistol to his breast and commanded him to deliver up the ship.

The Spaniards, surprised to see the pirates, as if they had come
out of the sea, exclaimed, “ Heaven help us! are these devils, or what
are they?” Some of them took possession of the arms and gun-room,
killed all who opposed them, and soon had the ship at their mercy.

This rich prize, taken so easily, set the planters of Tortuga all afire,
and nearly all turned pirates at once, going out in their canoes and
capturing such vessels as came in their way.

It was the custom with the pirates of Tortuga, when on the eve of
an expedition, to send notice to all concerned to assemble at the place
of embarkation and bring as much powder and ball as they could.
Then they stole all the pork they could lay hands on, dried the flesh
of cattle, and salted down tortoise-meat for the voyage.

Before the vessel left the harbor, it was settled just what proportion
of the prospective spoils each member of the crew was to have.
Their motto was, “No prey, no pay!” Having secured the prey, it
was to be divided as follows:—

The captain’s share first, then the carpenter, or shipwright, and
the surgeon, afterward the common crew. They mutually agreed
also what each one should be entitled to for loss of limb, or wounds.
For the loss of a right arm, six hundred pieces of eight, or six slaves;
for the left arm, five hundred ; for right leg, five hundred; left leg, four
hundred; for an eye, one hundred, or one slave, and fora finger the
same. These damages were promptly paid out of the first of their
196 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

ill-gotten gains. They sometimes secured rich prizes, and made
money enough from a single voyage to keep them in comfort the rest
of their lives; but ‘they always squandered it as soon as their vessel
returned to port. Their time ashore was spent in the most revolting
debauchery. Some of them would throw away thousands of dollars in
a single night, and in the morning not have enough to buy one of
them a shirt. One of the pirates, landing at Jamaica from a success-
ful expedition, bought a barrel of wine and placed it in the middle of
the street, compelling every passer-by to drink.

One of the most bloodthirsty of the Tortuga cut-throats was
Francis Lolonois, who had narrow escapes from death on the coasts
of Cuba and Campeche, and who, being condemned to death by the
authorities of a place, escaped, and soon captured the very men
who had sentenced him, cutting their heads off, every one.

Casting about for a place to sack and ruin, he concluded upon
Maracaibo, the city of Venezuela to which we ourselves will go in one
of the chapters following.

Maracaibo was defended by a castle, near the entrance of the
great lake on which it is situated, but this was quickly taken by
Lolonois and his desperate crew, who then marched upon the city.
All the inhabitants fled to the forests, for they had had dealings with
‘pirates before; but the pirates captured several of them and hacked
one of them to pieces before the rest, promising to serve them all the
same way unless they revealed where they had hidden their treasures.
But they got so little that they sailed up the lake to a city called
Gibraltar, where the people made such desperate resistance that when
the pirates overcame them they murdered nearly all. Most of their
prisoners they shut up in a church and left them there to die of
starvation.

At last the pirates sailed away, leaving behind them suffering and
misery, hundreds of murdered people and ruined homes. It may
be considered a righteous retribution that Lolonois and nearly all


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































PIRATES AND BUCCANEERS. 199

the miserable crew that went with him were massacred on the coast
of Nicaragua.

Retributive justice, it seems, did not always overtake these scoun-
drels in this world, though their horrible acts of cruelty certainly
called for the extremest penalties. The pirate who excelled all the
rest in deeds of blood, and who robbed and murdered thousands of
innocent people, instead of being punished, was in the end rewarded.
We refer to Morgan, the buccaneer leader. He was an Englishman
by birth, the son of a Welsh farmer. He had no desire to pursue the
peaceful calling of his father, but when quite young, shipped on board
a vessel bound for Barbadoes. Living there some time, he at last
reached Jamaica, where, being unemployed and in poverty, he joined a
pirate-ship.

After three or four voyages his profits were so great that he joined
a company, and they bought a ship of their own. Their first cruise,
along the coast of Campeche, was a success, and they brought several
rich prizes into Jamaica.

Another pirate, named Mansvelt, was then Mane out a fleet of
piratical craft, and he became so much impressed with Morgan’s fit-
ness as commander that he appointed him vice-admiral, with a fleet of
fifteen ships and five hundred men. They ravaged a portion of
the coast and sacked a city of Cuba, treating the inhabitants with
extreme cruelty.

The next object of the pirates’ greed was the city of Puerto Bello,
near the Gulf of Darien. It was strongly fortified, and the garrison
made a desperate defence, but finally the city fell, through fire and
sword. The governor shut himself up in a castle, and repulsed every
attempt of the pirates to get possession, until finally the wretches
compelled the nuns and priests of a convent to lead the way with
- scaling-ladders which they placed against the walls. Many of these
innocent people were killed in this attempt, but that mattered little to
the pirates, who, after the castle was taken and the governor killed,
200 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

gave themselves up to every variety of horrible debauchery. Not find-
ing all the treasure they had expected, the pirates put many citizens
to the torture, so that many died on the rack. At last they sailed
away to Jamaica with their rich spoil, and there wasted in a few days
what they had taken such great trouble to procure. It was notylong
after that a vessel containing over three hundred of these pirates was
blown up by accident in the harbor of Port Royal; thus were avenged
the poor people of Puerto Bello.

Perhaps the greatest of Morgan’s deeds was the taking of the
famous city of Panama, where the bravery and determination of his
ferocious followers received such reward as few fighterS obtain in a
better cause. Before setting out on the long march over the isthmus,
Morgan assaulted and captured the castles defending the coast on the
Atlantic side. He took the castle of Chagres after heavy fighting,
and it is said that its capture was only consummated by an accident.
One of the pirates was shot through by an arrow, that went in at his
back and came out at his breast. Pulling it out, he wound some
cotton about it and rammed it into his musket and fired it back at
the castle. Now it so happened that the cotton about the arrow took
fire from the powder and kindled the thatch of some houses, whence —
the blaze extended to a magazine of powder, and blew up part of the
fort.

It was in August, 1670, that Morgan left the castle of Chagres,
with twelve hundred men, in five boats and thirty-two canoes, deter-
mined upon the capture of Panama. The Spaniards of the country
got wind of their coming, and left not a particle of food on their line
of march, so that the miserable pirates nearly starved, only saving
themselves by devouring some leather sacks they found, and leather
boots. They even fought one another for bits of leather to eat. One
of them describes the manner of preparing this harsh food. First
they sliced the leather in pieces, then beat it‘between two stones and
rubbed it, often dipping it in water to make it supple and tender;
ig
Ti,















































MORGAN’S MEN IN CAMP,
PIRATES AND BUCCANEERS. 203

lastly, they scraped off the hair, and broiled it. Being thus cooked,
they cut it into small morsels and ate it, qos it down with frequent
gulps of water.

Almost the only resistance they encountered by the way was from
the wild Indians, armed only with arrows, who would let fly at them
from the rocks, crying out, Az perros! a la saxana! a la saxana!
(“ Ha, dogs! go to the plain, go to the plain!”), meaning by this that
when the pirates should reach the plain on which Panama was built
they would find the Spaniards prepared for them. The ninth day of
this terrible march they were rejoiced at.the view of the Pacific, and
the city of their desires, beyond the plain. Descending into the plain,
the famished wretches killed cattle and donkeys, and feasted on
their flesh, and the next day they were sufficiently recovered from
their sufferings to attack the Spanish force drawn up to receive
them.

Even the fearless buccaneers were filled with apprehension at sight
of the large army drawn up before the city; but they attacked with
their usual ferocity and put the Spaniards to rout, notwithstanding the
latter so outnumbered them. Even a great troop of wild bulls that
the Spaniards tried to drive against the pirates turned upon their
former masters and helped to win the day for the sea monsters. But
history has given us the result, and told of the destruction of this great
city of the South Sea, with its houses lined with cedar-wood and its
vast wealth. Not satisfied with its plunder and the torturing of its
inhabitants, Morgan set fire to the city.

The plunder was vast, and the pirates plunged into every sort of
debauchery and wickedness. But though they obtained great treasure,
they were much grieved to learn that during the time they were
drunken with wine and lust, a galleon escaped the city, and sailed away,
richly laden with all the king’s plate and jewels. On board this
galleon also were the religious women of the nunnery, with all the
rich ornaments of their church, and gold and silver plate of great
204. THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

value. Morgan was so enraged at the escape of this galleon with
its precious freight that he raved like a madman, and repeatedly
despatched boats in its pursuit. Finally, after committing every sort
of cruelty and indulging every bestial appetite, these human fiends
departed for Chagres, where a division of the spoil left most of them
with almost nothing, as Morgan fled to Jamaica with the rich bulk of
the booty.

It is well known that Morgan was never punished for his mis-
deeds, but instead was rewarded, being made Governor of Jamaica
and knighted. As Sir Henry Morgan, gallant knight and gentleman,
he is now known to history! With this the greatest of the buccaneers,
we will conclude our chapter, only halting to apologize to the smaller
fry of pirates and freebooters that we have not time and space to give
_ them all a fitting biography in these pages.






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































AN EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SECRETED TREASURE.
CHAPTER XVII.
CORO AND THE PARAGUANA.

THE MYSTERIOUS PENINSULA. —— Mup Huts anp Muppy ComPpLexions.— A WILD SEA
AND A STORMY NIGHT. — SOME ALLUSIONS TO MORGAN’S GOLD. — TREASURE-SEEKERS
oF To-Day. '




N immense tract of land, called the Penin-
sula of Paraguana, projects northward
from the main coast line of Venezuela,
and forms a portion of the eastern
boundary of the great Gulf of Mara-
caibo. It is little known, almost un-
inhabited, and connected with the
A= mainland by a long and narrow isthmus, known as
}- el Isthmo de los Medanos, and rightly called the Sand-

hills. The stretch of wind-swept sand gleams bright,
curving around from the land, and finally becoming
lost in the distance. Beyond, out of the clouds, rise the misty moun-
tains, two in number, of the Paraguana.

While we are approaching the Peninsula of the Paraguana, let us
again recur to the old sea-rovers, whose exploits we have alluded to.
There has always been a belief that the successful pirates left large
deposits of buried treasure somewhere along the Spanish Main, and
quite recently we found an account of an expedition in search of the
gold supposed to have been buried by Morgan himself. Here is the
notice, as we found it:—
208 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MALIN.

“Captain Robert Annett, an old mariner of many shipwrecks and thrilling
adventures of the sea, is arranging for another expedition to the Island of Santa
Catalina, in the Caribbean Sea, which was formerly the headquarters of the no-
torious Captain Morgan, the buccaneer. In 1877 Captain Annett was pilot and
interpreter of an expedition on the schooner ‘ Maria,’ in search of the pirate’s
hidden gold. The yacht ‘ Maria’ reached the island in November, 1877, and
the expedition remained there for three weeks without making any discovery.
Permission was obtained to visit the island for the purpose of hunting, but
the real nature of the expedition having been discovered, a Spanish man-of-
war was sent to investigate. The ‘Maria’ sailed away from one side of the
island while the man-of-war was approaching the other. The ‘Maria’ pro-
ceeded to Balize, and then spent three months searching for the phantom
treasures on Turnefeccas in the Bay of Honduras. The machinery gave out,
and the expedition headed for New York. Five days after leaving Balize, the
schooner sprung a leak, and the crew were rescued one hour before the vessel
sunk,

‘The island is a mile in circumference, mountainous, and a complete net-
work of caverns. Buccaneer Morgan, after killing all the crew of every vessel he
captured, would secrete the booty on the Island of Catalina, according to tradi-
tion. Captain Annett says he has two men who have found treasure on the
island. One of these is John Curry of Kingston, Ja., who discovered in a cave
ten thousand dollars in Spanish doubloons. Curry told Captain Annett that
he landed on the island from a Spanish vessel in search of wood and water.
While there, he chased an iguana, which ran in a hole near one of the forts.
Curry put his hand in the hole after the animal, and says it came in contact
with masonry. He pulled out two or three stones and discovered that the
masonry concealed the entrance to a large cave. Curry entered the cave and
built a fire to give him light, and was astonished at what he beheld.

“There were in the cave nine earthen jars, filled to the top with Spanish
doubloons, and cases filled with jewels, while gold and silver ware were
strewn around. Curry took away as much as he could conveniently carry
without exciting the suspicion of the men on the vessel, who he feared would
murder him if his secret was discovered. He went to Jamaica and spent his
fortune in a few years. After his treasure was exhausted he returned to the
island and was arrested there by the Indians of Old Providence and taken
to Aspinwall, where he was imprisoned. Mr. Compton, the British consul at
Aspinwall, interfered in Curry’s behalf, and he was released. His story in-
duced Compton to invest in an expedition to the island, and he secured the
services of a British man-of-war.. Curry was with the expedition, but refused




CORO AND THE PARAGUANA. 209

to disclose the treasure cave. He said he was afraid he would not get any of
the find. Curry was threatened with lynching, and Mr. Compton committed
suicide by blowing his brains out as a result of the expedition.

“ Alexander Archibald of Old Providence, while digging a well on Santa
Catalina, struck an earthen jar with his spade. Thinking he had made a
discovery, he sent his assistants back to Old Providence and pursued his
investigations alone. When the jar was removed, Archibald found it to con-
tain fifteen thousand dollars in Spanish doubloons. Captain Annett’s new
expedition will sail in the spring. Concessions have been obtained from the
Government of Honduras for this expedition, and it will not be molested. It
pays ten per cent to the Government and fifteen per cent to the Balize Produce
Company of Honduras on all treasure found, for the privilege of prosecuting
the search.”

It is more than doubtful if any treasure is found; but the searchers
will some day be richer by an experience, and waste time and money
in the search. These allusions to concealed treasure are constantly
appearing in the public prints, and here is another, that we copy from
the “New York Herald”: — |

“News reached the Island of Tortola on the fifteenth ult. that while an
excavation was being made on Norman’s Island a large amount of Spanish
coin was found. Two small anchors marked the spot, and were undoubtedly
intended for its future identification. It was expected that on digging further
more money would be discovered. The latest advices from Venezuela state
that eight revolutionists landed on the coast between Puerto Cabello and
La Guayra. They said they came from Curagoa in a Dutch vessel. They were
immediately arrested. One of the party took refuge in a high tree, and having
fired down upon his captors, he was shot.”

It will be noticed that nobody yet has seen this golden store in
any quantity; and we may well assume that they never will. But
history records a few notable “finds” of sunken silver and gold, the
most famous being that of Sir William Phipps, who located and ex-
ploited a sunken galleon, in the West Indies, and. thereby enriched
himself and his king.

All that time we are supposed to be steaming toward the open

14
210 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

sea, at midnight reaching the tempestuous part, where the Caribbean
current meets and wars with the waters of Maracaibo. Before day-
light the rolling of the ship had ceased; we had almost circumnavi-
gated the Paraguana, and its blue mountains lay to the west of us
instead of to the east. We anchored in a great bay, open to the east,
with the land about two miles away. The water in this bay is shal-
low, and in times of storm the waves are high and angry. Abreast us
stretched the isthmus, its medanos rosy in the sun of morning, a
scant growth of green covering their crests, and only one clump of
trees, of coco-palms, growing in their hollows. To the south, a
brown-and-yellow beach was pointed out as the Vela of Coro. It is
a most miserable apology for a town, consisting mostly of mud boxes
for houses, with perhaps a dozen respectable buildings. The roofs of
tiles and the medanos harmonize well with the landscape; and the
white church tower, though short, is a pleasing feature.

The largest and most important building here is the aduana, or
custom-house, as it is in every port in Venezuela. Next to it is the
guard-house, where live the ragged soldiers who enforce the authority
of the comandante. These idle soldiers are clad in cotton shirt and
pantaloons, cap and sandals, all very much the worse for wear. Their
guns are muzzle-loaders, old-fashioned, of course, but objects of great
‘solicitude apparently, as they carry them about wherever they go.

Things “go slow” here. Official red-tape is awful. Our captain
wished to obtain a rock from the beach, with which to anchor the
mooring-buoy. First, he had to get permission from the comandante
to take the rock, and then a ragged negro was detailed to go with us,
to see that we took but one rock, and nothing else. This fellow’s feet
were bare, his trousers dirty, and he was bare-headed, while his old
musket (the muzzle plugged with a cob) he handled like an Irishman
with a crowbar. We got the rock from near the lighthouse; and this
structure, by the way, is nothing more than the stump of a tree with
a battered old lantern perched about twenty feet from the ground, and
CORO AND THE PARAGUANA., 211

reached by a rickety ladder.. A score of boys accompanied us, the
ragamuffins having nothing else to do, and they stuck by us a full
hour, dodging us through all the streets, not from any ill-will, but out
of mere curiosity. We had with us the captain’s big dog, Princesse,
who attracted more attention even than we did. At nearly every hut
and house the women and children would rush to door and window
and stare at us with admiring eyes.
Many of the children ran into the neigh-
bors’ huts and solicited them to come
out and see the biggest dog they had
ever seen in their lives. Que perra!
(“What a dog!”) and Zan grande esta
perra! (*“What.a great dog!”) were the
exclamations that greeted us at every
corner.

Innocent people and ignorant are Hu Y
these coast dwellers of Venezuela, and Wy 1] j
the simplest things excite their admira- Li
tion. There are about a thousand of
them living in and about this Vela de
Coro, living with apparent content in



; “THEY WOULD STARE AT US WITH
their huts of adobe. ADMIRING EVES.”

I have long since noticed that there
is a certain correspondence between the people of any country and
their immediate environment. Here the land is parched and dry,
brown and sterile. The houses, being made mostly of unbaked brick,
or cakes of mud, are of course the color of the earth. The peo-
ple, living in these mud huts, also have acquired this color, and
their complexion is as nearly that of an unbaked brick of red earth,
or clay, as it is possible to be. The children here go about naked
up to a certain (or uncertain) age; they sit and roll and sleep and
eat on the warm, naked lap of Mother Earth. As the children of


212 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

Cape Cod are said to be pretty gritty until they get their wisdom
teeth cut, and never lack sand in their craws, so these mud-dwellers
must be well plastered, outside and in. As I was about to remark,
Nature may be kinder to these children of the Earth, so earthy, than































































































































































































































































































Pe ork

A COFFEE-PLANTER’S HOUSE.

we take into account; for being so near the color of earth, they are
less liable to be seen and shot, in this land of frequent revolutions.
But whether this protective color ever does avail them in time of
war, I have no datato prove. The negro, at night, it is hard to detect,
except for the whites of his eyes; and these people are exceedingly
well fitted, by their soft earth-tints, for nocturnal prowlers. I do not
think they do go about much though, here in the Vela, — for there is






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A CACTUS-COVERED PLAIN.

CORO AND THE PARAGUANA. 215

nothing to be gained by it; nothing to steal except a goat or a
jackass, the loss of which the whole town would be cognizant of by
the next sunrise.

Behind the Vela is a range of hills, very dry and sterile, cov-
ered with cactus and divz-dzvz scrub, worthless for cultivation; but
back a mile or two is another, higher range, which is greener, more
pleasing to the eye, and where the varying shades of verdure pro-
claim cultivation, as well as the spaces of golden-brown earth. For
there is a rich country behind all this, whence the coffee comes
that loads this steamer every week, as well as her companion, the
“Maracaibo.” The other freight obtained here consists principally
of goat-skins, the wearers of which once sported joyously on the
— cactus-covered hills before us.

The captain and I concluded to visit Coro, the city of which
the Vela is merely the port. Three ieagues, or about eight miles, -
they reckon the distance, and it is all of that. Nearly every pound
of freight for the steamers comes from Coro, drawn in carts, or
on the backs of duvros. There are but twelve carts in all Coro,
and we met those twelve on the plain, each cart containing about
one thousand pounds of coffee, and conducted by a driver, a black-
and-tan Venezuelan, wearing cotton shirt and drawers, old straw
hat and hempen sandals. These teams make two trips ‘daily, and
are constantly engaged in carrying hides and coffee to Vela. The
comandante graciously permitted me to land with my cainera. Without
his permit I should have been liable to arrest when I returned;
for everything coming into the country is taxed. Our agent, Don
Jullio, secured us a coche, drawn by two horses and guided by a
boy with the prevailing complexion. It was a very shaky old coche,
an old rattletrap on wheels, full of cracks and holes, and it rattled
fearfully as our Jehu applied the whip to the horses. The har-
ness was composed of leather lines and bits of rope, in about equal
proportions, and it seemed as though our wiry equine skeletons

4
216 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

would jump through the whole affair at every application of the
whip. But it was a complicated arrangement, and it was impos-
sible for the horses to free themselves.

The cart-track to Coro straggles over an immense flat, covered
with cactus and avz-dévz bush. Here the goats and kids find con-
genial retreats, and seem to thrive on the thorny and spiny fruit
and leaves of the candelabrum cactus and prickly pear. No other
animals are observed to haunt here, except the pachydermatous
burro; and even the birds seem to have abandoned a spot so
accursed with thorns and traps for unwary feet.

No, I must not forget to mention the mocking-birds, now and
then seen among the acacia-trees, nor the gay-colored troupials, look-
ing like great and beautiful “golden robins;” nor the queer birds, a
species of fly-catchers, almost as large as cuckoos, with dove-colored
breasts and black markings, that cried shrilly from the tops of the
cacti. Ground-doves, in all their innocence, walked and fluttered
over the ground under the scrub; and we saw a small bevy of
curious quail.

After all, there must have been a good deal of animated life
in that cactus-covered plain; and doubtless it would have repaid
investigation, Another bird we saw there was
the vulture, sailing the air in circles; but the
vulture is omnipresent in these tropical regions,
and his presence must be taken for granted..
A rarer species, and one more nearly resembling,
an eagle than the vulture, we saw hopping along.
by the roadside, and that was the Caracas eagle.
It is a true vulture, though much cleaner in its’



A SCAVENGER. habit, I think, than the other species, and from
its more alert and noble appearance seems to be

as much a hawk or an eagle as a member of the vulture family.
Infrequently, forlorn mud-houses claimed our attention, each a
CORO AND THE PARAGUANA. 217

box of mud with a hole for a doorway and another for a window,
with black-and-tan children playing about them, and slatternly, low-
browed women looking listlessly out of them. The few men we
saw were dark and sullen, either sitting about doing nothing, or
training fighting-cocks. A few pedestrians, mostly women, were
scuffing through the dust, their faces half-hidden in their shawls.
The women here thrust their feet into the forward halves of shoes.
and jam down the heels, wearing them like Moorish slippers, which
“have no heels at all. Thus they scuff along the streets, and where
the streets are paved, you may hear the “ click-clack, click-clack,”
all day long and far into the night. They wear no stockings,
these women comprising the common classes, and very little apparel,
not visible at a casual glance. They sit and roll in the mud and
dust during childhood, and push those slipshod feet through dust
and mud in womanhood; and it may be imagined what attractive
creatures of clay these women are. Yet, there are to be found men
who consort with them, apparently love (at least, tolerate) them,
and join with them in raising progeny just as black and dirty as.
themselves.

Coro, the city, lies flat upon a plain, without a redeeming feature
of beauty or attractiveness. It is said to be the oldest city in Vene-
zuela, and they point out to you to-day, in one of the squares, the
veritable cross planted here at the celebrating of the first Mass, in
1527. Near by it is an old church, date of erection 1530. I ques-
tioned the inhabitants as to the reasons that the first Spaniards.
had for settling here, and they themselves could not imagine any,
except that there was an Indian settlement here previously, and the
conquerors occupied it. This may be true, for those old Spanish
robbers were prone to take from the Indian whatever they found him
in possession of; and they would seize and occupy his town if only
out of pure devilishness, merely that the aborigine should not have
“it to himself.
218 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

There is no nearer harbor than the Vela, three leagues away, and
it has no natural advantages, though it is now the outlet of a vast
interior country, rich in coffee, tropical fruits and woods. Everything
has to be carted to the Vela for shipment; and it is not unlikely that
a concession for a railroad or a tramway might prove profitable to
some American. The land between Coro and the Vela is perfectly
flat, and is rarely overflowed. Here is a city of twelve thousand, with
another thousand at the port, and an unlimited country around to
draw upon. I am not so sure but that it might be made a paying
investment; for there may not be so much poverty here as appears
upon the surface.

Quien sabe? Let some American, capable of such things, come
out here and investigate. Venezuelans are always willing you should
spend money in their country. As to how much they are willing one
should take away, ask such men as Guzman Blanco, who now lives
abroad with millions, it is said, that the Venezuelans badly need.
However listless the natives may be in the matter of invested capital,
they cannot be accused of lack of energy in taxing it, nor of neglect-
ing any opportunity for giving the stranger a chance to leave some
behind him. But I did not intend to digress.

The agent of the steamer at Coro received us hospitably, and —
insisted on our staying to breakfast. His family consisted of himself,
his charming mother and sister, and three brothers; and we break-
fasted delightfully in the corridor, with a perfumed ato (perfumed
by flowers) at one side.

One of the brothers went about with me, pointing out the objects
of historic interest, which he lamented were so few, and explaining
to the curious inhabitants that 1 was an kéistoriador from North
America, who had heard of Coro, and wished to present its attrac-
tions to a waiting world.

Few, indeed, are the things ancient and interesting in Coro. I
photographed the cross, the old church, the Palacio Gobierno (con-
CORO AND THE PARAGUAWNA. 219

verted to its present use after serving as a nunnery), and a quaint old
building called the Casa de las Ventanas de Hierro, or House with
the Iron Windows.

After this ramble through the hot streets, and a short siesta after
breakfast, the time came for us to leave; the coche was driven around
to the door; and we said adieu to our hospitable hosts. But one
thing mars the memory of this pleasant visit. The agent promised
to get us off in two days, and then sent word the next day that some
of the merchants objected. So we lay a day and a night in the open
roadstead of the Vela, while half a gale was blowing, and the sea
rolling in, in great windrows that threatened to engulf any approach-
ing boat. As the promised cargo those merchants were to send
amounted to a paltry boatload of skins and coffee, and as there
was a prospect that our “papers” would not be sent aboard under
another twenty-four hours, we were all far from amiable. The tumul-
tuous seas came in, chasing one another rapidly, seeming to revolve
upon the bottom of the sea and break on all sides of us, angry and
foaming white. The sun went down in a sky of brilliant yellow; but
elsewhere than above his resting-place it was overcast and gloomy.
CHAPTER XVIII.
MARACAIBO AND THE LAST LAKE-DWELLERS.

A CRuIsE TO LAKE Maracalpo. — THE SLEEPY BUT CHARMING OLD Dutcu Porr
OF CuRACcOA, — MARACAIBO, ITS HARBORS, LAKE, SANDY STREETS, FLEAS, AND
Babies. — Lake-DweELuine InpIans.—A PROMISE FoR ANOTHER YEAR.





1, HAT was a perilous passage which the mate of our
steamer made to the ship in the Vela of Coro,
As I wrote in my notebook, the boat of our
mate, who was sent with a message ashore, was a
dancing speck upon the waves, tossed hither and
thither, but enn returning to the charge and
breasting them masterfully.

Writing yet an hour later, I recorded that the little boat reached
the ship, the two sturdy negroes at the oars pulling manfully, the mate
with one hand at the tiller, unceasingly bailing out the water the great —







waves poured over her. They reached our side,a rope was thrown, and
missed them; then another, which the bowman caught. To me, look-
ing upon this scene as a “ land-lubber,” it seemed pregnant with peril.
Soon as the rope tautened and the boat’s motion was arrested, the seas
rushed upon and over her, she was dashed against the landing-stage
and half buried in water, just as the mate succeeded in handing up the
mail-bag and the captain’s box of “papers.” Before he himself had a
chance to seize the lines, another deluge swept the boat from stern to
stern, completely filling it; but as it was lifted upon the next wave, the
mate scrambled quickly upon the steps and thence upon the deck.
















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A GUAJIRO VILLAGE, LAKE MARACAIBO.



MARACAIBO AND THE LAST LAKE-DWELLERS. 223

The blocks. were hanging from the davits, and watching their time,
the two boatmen hooked on and shouted loudly, “ Haul her up!” A
dozen pairs of black and brawny hands were at the ropes, and soon
the boat and its contents were safe, beyond the reach of the cruel
waves that leaped up angrily as though enraged at being baffled thus.
As a “land-lubber,” I say, I thought this was perilous; but the sailors
laugh at it, as an event common enough, and which may take place
on any one of their voyages. Still, regarding this episode from a
landsman’s point of view, I will stick to my opinion and declare that-
I would rather be in a place where I could go on shore at will than
afloat ina small boat on these terrible seas. Just this very minute, a
sea broke on our quarter that shook the steamer like a leaf, and made
a report like thunder. Others may like it, but I will confess that I do
not, — banging the seas in a stormy night with but a few feet of water
under the ship’s keel and a lee shore but a little over a mile away.

But we escaped the perils of Coro, and steamed away for the dis-
tant port of Maracaibo. It is of my visit to this lake and the city on
its bank that I would write about. One hardly knows where to begin
or what to present, when there come crowding upon him the incidents
of a whole voyage, and the varied pictures of half a dozen different
ports. -He cannot “keep up with the procession,” unless he writes
incessantly and despatches a two-column letter home by every mail.
To recapitulate a little: —

After a five nights’ run from paene Cabello, Curacgoa lay before
us, “all jagged and uneven,” cool and sweet in the early morning, and
tly an aspect restful and inviting.

As we reached the entrance to its magnificent harbor, the old
pilot came off to us and took his place on the bridge. Not that we
needed a pilot, for our captain had entered port so many times that
the pilot was entirely superfluous; but it relieves the owners of the
steamers of a risk, and is a strict regulation of the island Government.
Unlike, however, the pilots of most countries, this one is paid a, stated
224 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

salary by the Government, and does not exact extortionate fees for
imaginary services.

There was with us, as a passenger, the captain of a small vessel
just wrecked on the Island of Aves, and he was seeking reparation for
injuries sustained at the hands of the Venezuelans. As these Vene-
zuelans suffer no opportunity to pass for robbing a mariner, they had
laid claim to the vessel and her cargo, because the wreck occurred on
Venezuelan soil—or rather, rocks. How the persecuted master es-
caped I do not know, but I can well imagine that he was not suffered
to depart until he had paid the uttermost farthing.

Under the guidance of the pilot we entered, for the second time,
the land-locked harbor of Curacoa, the finest in these seas and the
prettiest. . .

There is not much room to sparé between the old stone forts that
guard the entrance; and the harbor is crossed by a pontoon bridge that
slowly swings to one side as our steamer sails grandly in. Houses old
and quaint, and unmistakably Dutch in design, line the lagoon on
either side, and spread along the sea-front for a mile orso, north and
south. One feels a sense of security here; not only protection from
storm and hurricane, but from the rapacity of the robbers of the main-
land of South America, which lies behind a misty cloud-mountain
forty miles away. I would. gladly linger here and rest among the
placid people that inhabit charming Curacoa; but it is my purpose
to push farther on and visit distant Maracaibo. It is a province so
isolated that it would appear to belong to Colombia, rather than to
Venezuela; yet it is within a day’s easy sail of Curacoa. The Amer-
ican line there connects with two subsidiary steamers, named respec-
tively the “ Merida” and the “Maracaibo.” Each is commanded by
an able master, and each is a stanch and comfortable steamer.

At the Curacoa docks, as we entered, we found these steamers in
waiting, and they moved out to give us room, then steamed alongside,
in turn, one to receive freight for Coro and the Paraguana, and the
MARACAIBO AND THE LAST LAKE-DWELLERS. 225

other to deliver its cargo of hides and coffee. Transferring my trunk
from the“ Philadelphia” to the “ Merida,” — an easy matter, as the rails

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BELLE OF A GUAJIRO VILLAGE.

of both were close together, —I soon found myself occupying a deck

stateroom, with almost the entire steamer at my command. Travel be-

tween Curacoa and Maracaibo is very light, as the country itself seems
15,
226 | THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

outside the ordinary line of travel; and the steamers were built more
for freight than with a view to passenger accommodation. But the lat-
ter is better than for any other line plying between the ports of Vene-
zuela and other ports, and maintains the reputation of the American
steamers in these waters. The captain was the personification of
kindness; the steward was Mr. John Thomas, who is a well-known
caterer to sea-faring epicures. Our consul had adjured me to make
the acquaintance of Mr. John Thomas, not only because he had the
‘reputation of making a cocktail that would ward off malarious attacks,
but also because he was better informed than many others regarding
certain matters of importance. As a consequence, having sought the
acquaintance of Mr. John Thomas, I fared sumptuously every day,
and the Maracaibo malaria passed me by. This gentleman had
travelled these seas many years, and with the present captain of the
“Merida” had made numerous voyages as steward. He was the col-
ored chef of the culinary department, and it was his strident voice
that woke me every morning, accelerating the pace of his slow-
going assistants, Jill and Josey.

“ Here, you sah! step lively, now. Take up de gen’lemun’s coffee.
Wha’ you loafin’ about there for?” He claimed to be an old man,
but he was more active than the boys, and set them an example of —
celerity and neatness. His cooking was excellent, his native dishes
things to be remembered, and in preparing the armadillo, he excelled.
The first bit of armadillo I ever ate was at his table; it was delicious,
rich, and tender. The shell, out of which Mr. John Thomas had
unceremoniously “shucked” the animal, he saved for me, and I
brought it home curled about an earthen water-cooler.

But why should I attempt to enumerate the many virtues of Mr.
John Thomas, when perhaps none of my readers will ever make his
acquaintance? Why, indeed? Simply that it is every one’s duty
to mention a good thing when he sees it; and a good cook and
steward deserves the praise of every right-minded traveller.
























Wal
i

t
i

| yy
A hi

PIRATES REVISITING THE SCENES OF THEIR DEPREDATIONS.



MARACAIBO AND THE LAST LAKE-DWELLERS. 229

Rumor reached us of fevers along the coast, and obstructions to
travel in the interior; but these did not deter us. At noon of the
second day we sighted Fort San Carlos, — a low stone structure, with
a little dependent village jutting out from the mainland, with which it
is connected by a narrow strip of sand. This fort commands the
channel leading into Lake Maracaibo. It is a dreary coast, with
scrubby trees, and a distant backing of forest. All the water used
here comes from little holes in the sand a mile or more distant, and is
brought to the fort in small kegs, on the backs of soldiers, There is
good hunting along this coast, and the few people living here are so
hospitable that they will not let you pass their doors without halting
for food and drink.

An hour previous to reaching San Carlos we crossed the bar,
piloted by a brown and shrivelled old man, who came aboard from a
little sloop hovering a respectable distance away. This bar across the
only channel of Lake Maracaibo prevents the entrance of large
steamers, and'it is constantly shifting.

The commerce of Maracaibo is now mainly with the United
States, and carried on through the medium of American steamers;
but ten years ago, according to the Consular Reports, it was chiefly
foreign. Of the amount shipped that year, $4,188,677, nearly
$4,000,000 was shipped in British bottoms.

The great Lake Maracaibo is over one hundred miles in length.
Its chief settlement and only port is the city of Maracaibo, which lies
beyond the brackish waters of mingled lake and sea, on the shore of
the lake itself. We steamed past Fort San Carlos, and in three hours
were off the city, in an immense bay, crescent-shaped, bordered with
palms.

We came to anchor about a mile from shore, and were soon
surrounded by the boats of the customs officers, who swarmed like
rats over the gangway and upon the deck. I had thought the ofh-
cials of La Guayra as impudent and exacting as any I had ever
230 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

met, but these exceeded them. They would not allow a passenger
to land unless he went direct to his house or to a hotel. No one
was allowed to go on shore while nominally living on board ship,
except the captain and the steward. No article of any kind could
be taken ashore unless examined and passed by an official. The
captain secured special permission for me to take my camera with
me and to return to the ship, though the jefe (chief) was slow in
granting it, and reluctantly said-that he really ought not, but if I
brought it with me he would try not to see it. I had no trouble
during the time I was there, and photographed all I pleased. The
authority of the chief having been recognized, there was no inter-
ference from the civil authorities.

The houses of Maracaibo are poorly constructed of rubble and_
concrete, with small wooden beams to give strength. They are
plastered on the outside and painted in gay colors; and from the
steamer’s deck the city seems filled with substantial and pretentious
buildings. There are few structures of importance, even the cathe-
dral being of mean appearance. The streets are beds of sand, with
high sidewalks on either side, between which, in the rainy season,
torrents of water flow to the bay. When the sand is dry (which is
nearly all the time), it is the abiding-place of uncounted millions of
fleas and thousands of naked babies, while the surplus is whirled
about by the winds in the shape of blinding clouds of dust. The
babies are so numerous that it is open to question if they be not a
product of the sand, like the fleas. It is positively dangerous to ride
through a street after dark, for the naked youngsters lie about in every
direction, and they are so nearly a dirt-color that it is difficult to distin-
guish them in the gloom.

It is said that some of the population of Maracaibo have traces
of the blood of the first conquerors; but most of them are an inju-
dicious mixture of Indian and Spanish. They constitute the Raza
Indio Latino,—the Indio-Latin race, which is the dominant race in


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































HOUSES OF THE GUAJIROS.














i




MARACAIBO AND THE LAST LAKE-DWELLERS. — 233

South America. The dress of the men is the same as throughout
Venezuela; -the ladies wear a head-dress called the aévzg0, made of
lace; sometimes the seductora, a gaudily colored vedoza worn over the
shoulder.

Maracaibo seems to have been an especial subject for the pirates’
prey, for it was several times sacked. The pirate Morgan, following



HOBBY-HORSE OF A MARACAIBO BABY.

the example of the buccaneer Lolonois, sailed into that inland sea,
Lake Maracaibo. The fort that guarded its entrance the pirates
found deserted; but the Spaniards left a train of powder behind
them with a lighted slow-match near it, which Morgan discovered
just in time to save being blown into the air, with all his men, who
had swarmed into the fort. As soon as the pirates entered Mara-
caibo, they “searched every corner to see if they could find any
persons hidden, for everybody had fled the place and buried them-
selves in the forest. Not finding anybody, every party, as they came
out of their ships, chose what houses they pleased to live in. Next
day they sent a troop of one hundred men to seek the inhabitants
234 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

and their goods; these returned next day, bringing with them thirty
persons—men, women, and children — and fifty mules laden with good
merchandise. All these miserable people were put to the rack, to
make them confess where their treasure was. Among other tortures,
one was to stretch their limbs with cords, and then to beat them with
sticks. Others had burning matches placed betwixt their fingers and
were burned alive. Others had cords twisted about their heads till
their eyes burst out. Thus all inhuman cruelties were practised on
these innocent people. Those who would not confess, or who had
nothing to declare, died under the hands of these villains. These
tortures and racks continued for three whole weeks, in which time
they sent out daily parties to seek for more people to torment and
rob, they never returning without new victims and riches.”

Then, having got together all the riches he could extort from the
miserable people, Morgan sailed up the lake toward Gibraltar, which
city likewise he found deserted. Only one poor half-witted man they
found here, and him they tortured to death, tying him upon the rack,
hanging him up with great weights suspended at his feet, and then
burning him alive with palm-leaves.

Upon returning to Maracaibo, the pirates learned that the en-
trance to the lake was blockaded by three Spanish ships. The
admiral had retaken and garrisoned the fort, and felt quite certain
(as well he might have done) that he had the pirates at his mercy.

He despatched them a bombastic letter, offering them pardon if
they would surrender their prisoners and plunder, but death if they
defied him. The buccaneers were in consternation, but they would
not think of surrender. They prepared a great fire-ship, made to
look like an ordinary vessel, with wooden men at the port-holes and
on deck, and this they set adrift as they neared the Spanish fleet.
All the prisoners the pirates put into one great boat, and in another
they placed all the women, plate, and other rich things, while the
fighting men went ahead, with the great fire-ship in front of them.















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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ZENS AN
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“THE FIRE-SHIP FELL AFOUL OF THE ADMIRAL’S VESSEL.”

*

MARACAIBO AND THE LAST LAKE-DWELLERS. 237

Sad to relate, everything turned out to the pirates’ desires, for the
fire-ship fell afoul of the admiral’s vessel and burned it to the water’s
edge, another Spanish ship ran aground, and the third surrendered.
The crews of the sunken ships gathered in the forts, and as they had
plenty of ammunition, prevented Morgan from sailing past it to the
open sea. At last, by stratagem, the wily pirate slipped by, and finally
made his way to Jamaica, his piratical stronghold.

The most interesting of the inhabitants are the donkey boys,
especially those who carry water about the streets. They may be
seen everywhere, going to the lake shore and returning. Lach little
donkey has thrown over his back a light iron framework, supporting
a large water jar on either side. Between the jars, and astride the
donkey, sits the boy, usually a small one, with a fluttering shirt in
rags as his only drapery. |

By pairs and by dozens these lively water-venders canter down
the street and ride into the lake till the water is level with the don-
key’s back, then they swing the jars off the frame into the water and
back again, and prance off, seeking customers.

The lake water is brackish and unfit for drinking, yet I suspect
the poorer people use it entirely. At all times of the day they may
be seen bathing in it, and carrying it away for use in their huts. For
a pair of jars filled with lake water the boys charge three cents, and
they must drive a lively business with the people of the back streets;
yet they always appear half naked and poverty-stricken, though jolly,
and full of mischief.

We should not fail to mention that the beauty of Maracaibo lies
in its bordering fringe of palms, which sweep around the bay over-
hanging the shore; and here the summer seats and retreats of the
better classes are built, as well as the humble huts of the poorer.
All tropical fruits grow here, though the soil is poor; and northern
vegetables do not flourish. .

The bay of Maracaibo is magnificent, and with its belt of electric
238 THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

lights at night gleaming through and over the palms, is beautiful.
But the yellow fever lurks always beneath the palms; in the summer
season the lake is covered with a green scum that breeds disease, and
the heat is wellnigh intolerable.

Commerce with the interior is carried on by means of flat-bottom
paddle-wheel steamers that ascend some of the rivers, such as the
Catatumbo and Escalente, reaching the little-known province of Co-
lombia and interior Venezuela. Many of the products.of Colombia
come down to the sea by these river steamers, which connect with
other boats, called bongoes, that are propelled by poles.

The markets of Maracaibo are pretty well supplied, as game is
plentiful. Many strange things may be observed here hung up for
sale to epicures, such as the iguana, the armadillo, etc. Numerous
“tiger” skins are brought here, beautiful specimens being offered at
about ten dollars each. For game and for adventure, the country
reached through this Indian city, Maracaibo, holds out fascinating
promises.

Having reached this distant province, it seemed to us our journey
had just begun; but here we had to turn back with one of the portals
to the mysterious continent invitingly open to us. It is a region not
yet thoroughly explored,—that to the north of Maracaibo, — but

- would require several weeks or months at a different season of the

year than that in which we were there.

Ten miles below Maracaibo, the city, is a ection: of strange
people, the Lake-Dwellers, who live in thatched huts over the water.
Their houses are rude structures erected on piles driven into the
sand in about two feet of water, and about a quarter of a mile from
the land.

They were discovered here nearly four hundred years ago, by the
great Amerigo Vespucci, and here they live to-day just the same as
their ancestors did in 1499, when the Spaniards first discovered them.

We spent a day with them, photographed their huts, inspected
MARACAIBO AND THE LAST LAKE-DWELLERS. 239

their hammocks and apartments, and came away with very pleasant
memories of the last of the historic Lake-Dwellers. Here they have
lived for many generations in the same primitive huts, happy and con-
tented, yet poor and neglected. They remind us of those other Lake-
Dwellers of Switzerland, in their manner of life and dwellings, though
those of Europe have long been extinct.

Here, friendly readers of the “ Knockabouts,” we will take our
leave, promising to conduct you next year through a country more
interesting than even that of the Spanish Main. And as for adven-
ture, my word for it, you shall have your fill.

THE END.
CELEBRATED WAR STORIES.

THE BOYS OF ’61.

Or Four Years or FIGHTING. A record of personal observation with the Army and Navy
from the battle of Bull Run to the fall of Richmond. By CHarLEes CARLETON COFFIN,
author of “The Boys of ’76,” “Our New Way ’Round the World,” “The Story of Liberty, ”
“ Winning His Way,” “ Old Times in the Colonies, ” etc. With numerous illustrations.

1 vol., 8vo, chromo-lithographed board covers and linings g : : : : a bigs

1 vol., 8vo, cloth, gilt i 2 , Z 3 3 . A Fi ‘ 3 : : 2.50

THE SAILOR BOYS OF ’61.

By Prof. J. RussELL Souey, author of
“The Boys of 1812,” etc. This volume
contains an accurate and vivid account
of the naval engagements of the great
Civil War, and the deeds of its heroes. | &
Elaborately and beautifully illustrated | %






from original drawings. Pall | hes
1 vol., 8vo, chromo-lithographed board fas,
covers, . ee: j $1.75 { lithy Ake
I vol., 8vo, cloth gilt, 4 5 2.50 ivr if ii
=. AAA eet}
THE BOYS OF 1812. Bae Wt

By Prof. J. RusszLL Sotry, author of
“ Blockaders and Cruisers,” “The Sai-
lor Boys of ’61,” etc., etc. This “most
successful war book for the young,
issued last year,” is now made boards
with an illustrated cover designed by
Barnes. :

I vol., 8vo, chromo-lithographed board
covers : z 2 : $1.75
1 vol., 8vo, cloth gilt, : i 2.50

f

“ Prof. SoLgy’s books should be read by every
American boy, who cares for the honor of his coun-
try.” — Boston Beacon. :

‘He must be a dull boy who can read such
records of heroism without a quickening of the pul-
ses.’ — Sanz Francisco Chronicle.

‘We are in no danger of cultivating too much
patriotism, and such a book as this is an excellent
educator along an excellent line of thought.’? —
Chicago Daily Inter-Ocean.

The Sixth Mass. Regiment passing through Baltimore.

MY DAYS AND NIGHTS ON THE BATTLEFIELD.
By CHARLES CARLETON COFFIN. With eighteen full-page plates. Small quarto. Bound in

illuminated board covers.

FOLLOWING THE FLAG.

By CHARLES CARLETON COFFIN. With eighteen full-page plates. Small quarto. Bound in
illuminated board covers, 7 : : : 5 2 . ; ; . . . $1.25

WINNING HIS WAY.

By CHARLES CARLETON COFFIN. With twenty-one full-page plates Small quarto. Bound in
illuminated board covers, Aer 5 : F - : i $1.25

THE CARLETON SERIES OF JUVENILES,
CONSISTING OF

$1.25,

WINNING HIS WAY. FOLLOWING THE FLAG.
MY DAYS AND NIGHTS ON THE BATTLEFIELD.

3 vols., 16mo, cloth, in a box, : ‘ 7% ; 3 : . ni : . ‘ $3.75
Any volume sold separately, : ; I 1.25

ESTES &.LAURIAT, Publishers, Boston, Mass.
THE FOUR GREAT ANNUALS.
CHATTERBOX FOR 1891,

This name, a household word in every home in the land, has become endeared in the hearts of
two generations, and the readers of the early volumes are now men and women, who know that no
books will delight their children more, or instruct them to a greater extent, than these dear old
> annual volumes, whose sales have long since mounted above the million mark.

This authorized reprint from duplicates of the original English plates, contains a large amount
of copyright American matter, which cannot be reprinted by any other firm.

The Genuine Chatterbox contains a great variety of original stories, sketches and poems for
the young, and every illustration which appears in it is expressly designed for this work, by the
most eminent English artists. It has over 200 full-page original illustrations.

This year, to add to the enormous sales, no expense or trouble have been spared in securing
a paper that would do entire justice to this royal juvenile, and make the illustrations appear to their
best advantage, and if possible, bring the book nearer the zenith of juvenile perfection.

rt vol., quarto, illuminated board covers, : f BL.25
I vol, quarto, cloth, black and gold stamps, 4 5 ; 3 : 1.75
I vol., quarto, cloth, extra, chromo, gilt side and edges, . g 2 ‘ ; 4 2.25

LITTLE ONES ANNUAL,

Illustrated Stories and Poems for the
Little Ones Edited by W1LLIAM T. ADAMS
(Oliver Optic). This beautiful volume con-
sists of original stories and poems by the
very best writers of juvenile literature, care-
fully selected and edited. It is embellished
with 370 entirely original illustrations, drawn
expressly for the work by the most cele-
brated book illustrators in America, and
engraved on wood in the highest style, under
the superintendence of George T. Andrew.

I vol., quarto, illuminated board

covers, : 5 : $1.75

i vol., quarto, cloth and ite 5 oy r2225,








“Tittle Ones Annual is by all odds the best thing of
the season for children a five to ten years old,.”—
Boston Journal,

THE NURSERY —T.

For 26 years the. Nursery has been welcomed in thousands of families as the favorite picture
book for our little folks, and the best of it is it improves in quality every year. It is now enlarged
in size and crowded with charming stories and SS artistic illustrations. Edited by OLIVER Orric

1 vol., royal octavo, illuminated covers, . : - 0. $L.25

OLIVER OPTIC'S ANNUAL, 1891,

A volume edited by OLIVER Opric appeals at once to the heart of every boy and girl, with all
of whom his name is a synonym for everything bright and entertaining in juvenile literature.

This is the leading book of its kind of the year, with original illustrations.

1 vol., quarto, illuminated board covers and frontispiece, : : 3 5 : : $1.50

ESTES & LAURIAT, Publishers, Boston, Mass


ENTERTAINING JUVENILES.

‘SCHOOLBOYS OF ROOKESBURY;

Or, The Boys of the Fourth Form. An entertaining story of the mishaps and adventures of several boys during a term
at an English school. Edited by Lawrence H. Francis, Fully illustrated with original drawings,

1 vol., small quarto, illuminated board cover . : , r 7 Z a , . : 7 A $1.25
QUEEN HILDEGARDE ;
ERE ALS EL IRE TT TS

By Laura E. Ricuarps, author of “‘ Four Feet, Two Feet, and No Feet.” A new edition of this popular girl’s
book, —a second “ Little Women, ’? — containing nineteen illustrations from new and original drawings.
1 vol., small quarto, illuminated board covers . a 5 : 5 » $1.50

“ We should like to see the sensible, heroine. loving girl in her early teens who would not like this book. Not to lke
at would simply argue a screw loose somewhere.” .— Boston Post.

THE DAYS OF CHIVALRY;

Or, Page, Squire and Knight. A highly interesting and instructive, historical romance of the Middle Ages. Edited by
W. H. Davenport Adams, author of “ Success in Life,” ‘The Land of the Incas,’’ etc. Thoroughly illustrated
with 113 drawings. ,

x vol., small quarto, illuminated board covers , 6 fs : f 8 , . F 7 2 - Br.g0

THE RED MOUNTAIN OF ALASKA.

By Wixuis Boyp AtLEN. Aa exciting narrative of a trip through this most interesting but little known country, with
accurate description of the same. - Full of adventures, vividly portrayed by choice, original illustrations, by F. T.
Merrill and others, ; .

x vol., 8vo, cloth, gilt, e i D . $2.50

“ Tt throws ‘ Robinson Crusoe’, the ‘Swiss Family Robinson’, and all those fascinating phantasies, hopelessly
pale the shade, and will hold many a boy spellbound, through many an evening, of many a winter,” — CHICAGO
'RIBUNE.

HUNTING IN THE JUNGLE

WitH Gun AND Guipg. From Les Animaux Sauvages, by WARREN F. Kettocc. An exciting and amusing series
of adventures in search of large game— gorillas, elephants, tigers and lions — fullv illustrated with over a hundred
original drawings by celebrated artists, engraved on wood by the best modern book illustrators. F

x vol., 8vo, chromo-lithographed board covers D , . : . : . 7 : n : . $1.75

1 vol., 8vo, cloth, gilt, . 3 P z : 3 3 Z : ' ; - 2 7 2.50

OUR NEW WAY ’ROUND THE WORLD.

By Cuarves CarLeton Corrin, author of ‘‘ The Story of Liberty,” ‘The Boys of 61, ’? “ Following the Flag,”
‘©The Boys of ’76,” ‘‘ Winning His Way, ” ‘‘ My Days and Nichts on the Battlefield,” etc., etc. A new REVISED
edition of this standard book of travel, which is interesting and useful to young and old; with a large number of addi-
tional illustrations. :

x vol., 8vo, chroms-lithographed board covers, é . . 5 5 4 f : . ' . 3 . $1.75

x vol., 8vo, cloth, gilt, es d : . ; c . . 4 é : : r 2.50

TRAVELS IN MEXICO. 5
By F. A. Opgr. A brilliant record of a remarkable journey from Yucatan to the Rio Grande Historic ruins, tropic
wilds, silver hills are described with eloquence. No country possesses’so rich a field for the historian, antiquarian,
fortune-hunter, and traveller. ;
x vol., 8vo, chromo-lithographed board covers , . ‘ , . 7 5 : % ‘ : ; . $1.78

x vol , 8vo, cloth, gilt, . 6 F " , é . 3 5 2 50
DICKENS’S CHILD’S HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

Holiday edition, with 100 fine illustrations, by De Neuville, Emile Bayard, F. Lix, and others,

1 vol., 8vo chromo-lithographed board covers ; , é A 5 a : . . 3 g $1.75

xr vol., 8vo, cloth, gilt, : ; . a i i 2.50

THE YOUNG MOOSE HUNTERS.
By C. A. STEPHENS, author of the ‘‘ Knockabout Club in the Tropics, ” etc,, etc, With numerous full-page original
illustrations made expressly for this edition. An exciting account of a hunting trip through the Maine woods.
x vol., sma!l quarto, illuminated board covers - , b P - . o . . 6 ; . $1.50

SIX GIRLS.

By Fanny Bete Irvinc. A charming story of every-day home life, pure in sentiment and healthy iu tone. A beau-
tiful book for girls. Fully illustrated from original designs.

x vol., small quarto, illuminated board covers and linings, Yow «

HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN’S FAIRY’ TALES.

The standard authorized edition. A new translation from the original Danish edition, complete and unabridged, fully
illustrated with engravings made from the original drawings, with an appropriate cover designed by L. S. Ipsen.

xr vol., quarto, cloth, $2.25

FEATHERS, FURS AND FINS;
Or Stories oF ANIMAL LirE ror Curtpren, A collection of the most fascinating stories about birds, fishes and
animals, both wild and domestic, with illustrations drawn by the best artists, and engraved in the finest possible style

‘vy Andrew. :
1 vol., quarto, chromo-lithographed board covers, f 3 , 9 qj ‘ . : , , R 5 $..75
x vol., quarto, cloth and gilt, 2.30

ESTES & LAURIAT, Publishers, BosTON, Mass.

2 a 3 ‘ 5 . $r.50


THE FAMOUS ZIGZAG SERIES.

The Most Entertaining and Instructive, the Most Successful and Universaily Popular ‘Series
of Books for the Young Ever Issued in America.

Over Three Hundred Thousand Volumes of the Series have already been sold in this Country alone.

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Zigzag Journeys in Australia;

Or, a Visit to the Ocean World. Describing the wonderful
resources and natural advantages of the fifth continent,
giving an insight into the social relations of the people and
containing stories of gold discoveries and of the animals
peculiar to this fascinating country.
x vol., small quarto, illuminated board covers and
linings, - - - - ca - - -
1 vol,, small quarte, cloth, bevelled and gilt, -

$1.75
2.25

Uniform in style and price with the above, the other
volumes of the series can be had as follows:

Zigzag Journeys in the Great North-West;
Or, a Trip to the American Switzerland. Giving an
account of the marvelous growth of our Western Em-_
pire, with legendary tales of the early explorers. Full of
interesting, instructive and entertaining stories of the New
Northwest, the country of the future.

Zigzag Journeys in the British Isles.
With excursions among the lakes of. Ireland and the hills
of Scotland. Replete with legend and romance. Over
100 illustrations.

Zigzag Journeys in the Antipodes.
‘Lhis volume takes the reader to Siam, and with delightful
illustration and anecdote, tells him of the interesting ani-
mal worship of the country. Ninety-six illustrations.

Zigzag Journeys in India;
Or, the Antipodes of the Far East. A collection of Zenana
Tales, With nearly 100 fine original illustrations,

Zigzag Journeys in the Sunny South.
In which the Zigzag Club visits the Southern States and
the Isthmus of Panama. . With ‘romantic stories of early
voyagers and discoverers of the American continent.
Seventy-two illustrations.

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Zigzag’ Journeys-in the Levant.
An account of a tour of the Zigzag Club through Egypt
aud the Holy land, including a trip up the Nile, and visit
to the ruins of Thebes, Memphis, etc. 114 illustrations.

Zigzag Journeys in Acadia & New France.

Tiwhich the Zigzag Club visits Nova Scotia and Acadia —
“‘the Land of Evangeline,” —New Brunswick, Canada,
the St. Lawrence, Montreal, Quebec, etc., with romantic
stories and traditions connected with the early history of
the country... 102 illustrations.

_“igzag Journeys in Northern Lands.

From the Rhine to the Arctic Circle. Zigzag Club in
Holland, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Norway, and
Sweden, with picturesque views, entertaining stories, etc.
119 illustrations.

Zigzag Journeys in the Occident.

A trip of the Zigzag Club from Boston to the Golden
Gate; including visits to the wheat-fields of Dakota, the
wonders of the Yellowstone and Yosemite. 148 illustra-

_ tions.

Zigzag Journeys in the Orient.
A journey of the Zigzag Club from Vienna to the Golden ~
Horn, the Euxine, Moscow, and St. Petersburg; contain-
ing a description of the Great Fairat Nijui-Novgorod, etc.
147 illustrations.

Zigzag Journeys in Classic Lands;
Or, Tommy Toby’s Trip to Parnassus. An account of a
tour of the Zigzag Club in France, Italy, Greece, Spain -
and Portugal. 124 illustrations. ;

Zigzag Journeys in Europe;
Or, Vacation Rambles in Historic Lands. In which the
Zigzag Club travels through England, Scotland, Belgium,
and. France; with interesting stories and legends. 126
illustrations. :

ESTES & LAURIAT, Publishers, Boston, Mass.
THE FAMOUS VASSAR GIRL SERIES.

(> “ Mrs. Champney’s fame as the authoress of the delightful series of travels by the ‘Lhree Vassar Girls,
has extended throughout the English-speaking world.”



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Three Vassar Girls in the Tyrol.

An entertaining description of the travels of our Vassar
friends through this well-known country, giving an inter-
esting account of the Passion Play at Ober Ammergau.
Illustrated by ‘‘ Champ” and others.
‘z vol, small quarto, illuminated board covers and
linings, - - - - pea are re $1.50
1 vol., small quarto, cloth, bevelled and gilt, - 2.00

Uniform in style and price with the above, the other
volumes of the series can be had as follows:

Three Vassar Girls in Switzerland.
By Exizasern W. Cuampnzy. An exceedingly inter-
esting story interwoven with bits of Swiss life, historic
incidents, and accounts of happenings at Geneva, Lu-
cerne, and the Great St. Bernard. [Illustrated by
“Champ”? and others. ;

Three Vassar Girls in Russia and Turkey,
During the exciting scenes and events of the late Turko-
Russian war, with many adventures, both serious and
comic. Profusely illustrated from original designs, by
“Cyamp”? and others. y

Three Vassar Girls in France.
A story ef the siege of Paris. A thrilling account of ad-
ventures when Germany and France were engaged in
their terrible struggle. Ninety-seven illustrations by
“Cuamp,” DetTatLre, and Dz Nevuvitte,.

Three Vassar Girls at Home.
Travels through some of our own States and'Territories,
with many interesting adventures. Ninety-seven illus-
trations by “‘ Cuamp.”

Three Vassar Girls on the Rhine.
Full of amusing incideuts of the voyage and historic
stories of the castles andtowns along the route. 128 illus-
trations by ‘‘Cuamp”’ and others,

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Three Vassar Girls in Italy.
Travels through the vineyards of Italy, visiting all the
large cities, and passing some time in Rome, in the Vati-
can, the Catacombs, ete. 107 illustrations.

Three Vassar Girls in South America.

A trip through the heart of South America, up the Ama-
zon, across the Andes, and along the Pacific coast to
Panama, 112 illustrations.

Three Vassat Girls in England.

Sunny: memories of a holiday excursion of three college
girls in the mother country, with visits to historic scenes
and notable places. Ninety-eight illustrations.

Three Vassar Girls Abroad.

The vacation rambles of three college girls on a European
trip for amusement and instruction, with their haps and
mishaps. Ninety-two illustrations.

THE NEW SERIES,
Great Grandmother’s Girls in New Mexico.

By EvizapetH W. Cuampney. This is the second vol-
ume of this delightful series describing incidents in the
life of a quaint little maiden who lived in the time of the
Spanish adventurers. Illustrated by ‘‘ CHamp.”

x vol., vo, chromo-lithographed board covers =~

x vol., 8vo, cloth, gilt - - - = -

Great Grandmother's Girls in France.
By ExizasetH W. Cuameney. A charming volume for
girls, consisting of romantic stories of the heroines in the
early colonial days—their privations and courage.

x vol., 8vo, chromo-lithographed board covers - = $1.75

1 vol., 8vo, cloth, gilt, . See ee 2.50
** § beautiful volume and one that cannot fail to arouse
intense interest.” — Toledo Blade.
“ An excellent present for a boy or girl."—Boston Tran-
script.

$1.75
- 2.50

ESTES & LAURIAT, Publishers, Boston, MAss.
THE FAMOUS “KNOCKABOUT CLUB” SERIES.

‘Delightful and wholesome books of stirring out-door adventure for healthy American
. boys; books whose steadily increasing popularity is but a well-earned recognition of intrinsic
merit.” ;



THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ON THE SPANISH MAIN.

By Frep A. OBER. In which the Knockabout Club visits Caracas, La Guayra, Lake Maracaibo,
etc. Containing stories of the exploits of the pirates of the Spanish Main. Fully illustrated.
x vol., small quarto, illuminated board covers and linings, 3 - - - $1.50
1 vol., small quarto, cloth, bevelled and gilt, - - - - - - $2.00

Uniform in style and price with the ahove, the other volumes of the series can be had as follows:

THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN NORTH AFRICA.

By Frep A. OBER. An account of atrip along the coast of the Dark Continent, caravan
journeys, and a visit to a pirate city, with stories of lion hunting and life among the Moors.
Fully illustrated.

THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN SPAIN.
By Frep A. OBER. A panorama of Seville, the Guadalquivir, the Palaces of the Moors, the
Alhambra, Madrid, Bull-fights, etc. Full of original illustrations, many full-page.

THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE ANTILLES.
By Frep A. Oper. A visit to the delightful islands that extend in a graceful line from Florida
to South America, accompanied by a ‘‘ Special Artist.” 78 illustrations.

THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE EVERGLADES.

By FRED A. OBER. A visit to Florida for the purpose ef exploring Lake Okechobee, on which
trip the boys encounter various obstacles and adventures with alligators, etc. 55 illustrations.

THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE TROPICS..

By C. A. STEPHENS, From the ice-fields of the North to the plains of New Mexico, thence
through the “ Land of the Aztecs,” and the wonderful ruins of Central America, to the “Queen
of the Antilles.” 105 illustrations.

THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB ALONGSHORE.

By C. A. STEPHENS. A journey alongshore from Boston to Greenland, with descriptions of
seal-fishing, Arctic Scenery, and stories of the ancient Northmen. 137 illustrations.

THE KNOCKABOUT CLUB IN THE WOODS.

By C. A. STEPHENS. A boy’s book of anecdotes and adventures in the wilds of Maine and
Canada. An account of a vacation spent in healthy amusement, fascinating adventure, and
instructive entertainment. 117 illustrations. :

ESTES & LAURIAT, Publishers, Boston, MAss.
YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORIES

YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF THE NETHERLANDS.

A concise history of Holland and Belgium, from the earliest times, in which the author goes over the ground
covered by Motley in his standard histories: of these most interesting countries, and brings the narrative down te
the present time. By ALEXANDER YouNG. 150 illustrations. :

YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF AMERICA.

Â¥rom the earliest times to the present. A new edition. With a chapter and additional illustrations on the Life and
Death of President Garfield. Edited by H. Burrerwortx, author of ‘Zigzag Journeys.” With 157 illustra~
tions. Over 10,000 copies sold in one year. ’ :

YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF MEXICO.

Comprising the principle events from the sixth century to the present time By Frep. A. Oper, author of “Camps
in the Caribbees.’’? With 100 illustrations.

The intimate relations of our country with Mexico, which the railroads and mines are developing, make this volume
one of the most important in the entire series.

YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF RUSSIA.

By Natuan Haskeit Vote. With rro illustrations.

THE GREAT CITIES OF THE WORLD.
YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF LONDON.

With graphic stories of its historic landmarks. By W. H. Rrpginc, With roo illustrations.

YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF BOSTON.

By H. Burrerwortu, author of ‘Zigzag Journeys,” etc, With r4o illustrations.

CHARLOTTE M. YONGE. YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORIES,

YOUNG FOLKS’ BIBLE HISTORY. With 132 illustrations. —

YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF ENGLAND. With 60 illustrations by De Neuville, E. Bayard and others.
YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF FRANCE. With 84 illustrations by A. De Neuville, E. Bayard and others.
YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF ROME. With rrq illustrations.
YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF GREECE. With 5: illustrations,
YOUNG FOLKS' HISTORY OF GERMANY. With 82 illustrations.

_ YOUNG FOLKS’ EPOCHS OF HISTORY.
YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR.

A concise and impartial account of the late war, for young people, from the best authorities both North and South,
By Mrs. C. Emma Cueney. Illustrated with roo engravings, maps and plans.

YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION.

In Germany, France, ENGLAND AND OTHER Countries By Frep H, Atven. A graphic account of the men
and the movements by which the great religious revolution which resulted in the establishment of Protestantism
was carried on, from the early centuries of Christianity to the end of the Reformation. Fully illustrated.

YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF THE QUEENS OF SCOTLAND.
These valuable books are condensed from Strickland’s Queens of Scotland by Rosatiz Kaurman, and are at once
reliable and entertaining to both old and young folks. Fully illustrated. 2 vols., 16mo, cloth. 2 e $3.00.

YOUNG FOLKS’ HISTORY OF THE QUEENS OF ENGLAND.

From the Norman Conquest. Founded on Strickland’s Queens of England. Abridged, adapted and continued to
the present time. By Rosarre Kaurman. With nearly 300 illustrations. 3 vols., 16mo, cloth e $4.50.

LIBRARY OF ENTERTAINING HISTORY.
Edited by Arthur Gilman, M. A.

INDIA. By Fannie Roper Fevpce. With x00 illustrations, . 3 3 . e : $1.50
EGYPT. By Mrs. Clara Erskine Clement. With 308 illustrations, , ; : nes 5.50
SPAIN. By Prof. James HersertT Harrison. With rrz illustrations, ; : : : 1.50
SWITZERLAND. By Miss Harrier D. S. Mackenzre. With 100 illustrations, P i 3.50

HISTORY OF AMERICAN PEOPLE. with 175 illustrations, ite Nat
. All the above volumes are published as 16mos, in cloth, at $4.50.

ESTES & LAURIAT, PUBLISHERS,
BOSTON, MASS.

1.50
HOUSEHOLD NECESSITIES.

AVERY CRAMER

SOCIAL CUSTOMS.

New edition, REDUCED IN PRICE. Complete Manual of American Etiquette. By FLORENCE.
Howe Hatt, daughter of Mrs. Julia Ward Howe. Handsomely printed, and neatly bound in
extra cloth, gilt top, uncut. Small 8vo. Sy tzce AGE - an ieee” “ca et. Noes $1.75

Do you ALWAYS KNOW JUST WHAT TO DO? Do you know how to encourage Mrs. D. Light-
ful, accept and return her courtesies, as they deserve; and politely but firmly avoid and defeat
Mrs. Bore in her inroads on your privacy and more agreeable engagements? If you do not, let us
recommend for EVERY SOCIAL QUESTION the above entertaining and instructive book, or its new
baby relative, ;‘‘ THE CorrEecr THING,” mentioned below, for with these two books, one can
make no mistake in life, as every possible question may be answered from their combined
wisdom. They are comprehensive, practical, reliable and authoritative.

THH CORRECT THING.

By FLorEncE Hower Hatt, author of “Sotial Customs.” 18mo. Very neatly bound in
extra cloth, gilttop, - - 5 Paty Diem a eee on Sal Aes $0.75
Same, Bound in full flexible morocco, gilt. edges (in a box). : - - s 95 $1.25
This new manual is neatly printed in a size'not too large to be slipped into the pocker, and
is arranged so that one page reminds the reader that “Ir Is THE CORRECT THING’? to da this,
while per contra the opposite page tells him that ‘‘Ir Is NOT THE CORRECT THING” to do that.
Its conciseness recommends it to many who would not take the time to master any more compre-
hensive manual.
“Tt is, indeed, a treasure of good counsel, and, like most advice, it has the merit of not
being expensive.”—Montreal Gazette.

PARLOA’S KITGHEN COMPANION.

A GUIDE FoR ALL WHO WOULD BE GooD HOUSEKEEPERS.

Handsomely printed, and very fully illustrated. Large 8vo. (nearly 1000 pages). Neatly
bound in extra cloth or in waterproof binding. - - - - - - - - ‘$2.50

%@> It is thoroughly practical; it is perfectly reliable; it is marvellously comprehensive;
it is copiously illustrated. Jt is, in short, overflowing with good qualities, and is just the book
that all housekeepers need to guide them. ;

Miss Parloa’s new book has proved a remarkable success, and it could hardly have been
otherwise. Exhaustive in its treatment of a subject of the highest importance to all, the result
of years of conscientious study and labor upon the part of one who has been called ‘‘ the apostle
of the renaissance in domestic service,” it could not be otherwise than
=—=— welcome to every intelligent housekeeper in the land.



“This is the most comprehensive volume that Miss Parloa has
ever prepared, and, as a trusty companion and guide for all who are
travelling on the road to good housekeeping, it must soon become a
necessity. . . . . No amount of commendation seems to do justice
to it.’—Good Housekeeper.

PARLOA’S NEW COOK BOOK AND MARKET
ING GUIDE,
yazmo. Clothe - - - - - = - + = $1.50

This is one of the most popular Cook Books ever printed, con-
taining 1724 receipts and items of instruction. The directions are clear
and concise, and the chapters on marketing and kitchen furnishing
very useful.



AWE

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describe
'4109732' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNYT' 'sip-files00011.tif'
c64526668cef3b837f16ef9194dd18cf
baed584456ca58ae3d8e963a5d66ed1727848886
describe
'1264' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNYU' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
6d2e84cc24adf38c189d3b70c21f2629
cf2d4b3c4e0b0791699b68fb892736179839f9c7
'2011-12-12T20:01:39-05:00'
describe
'511532' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNYV' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
c1c1020441b5790c3b954ee340bd1f33
133c8cd30734dfc4d4100c1f056afeca65e08237
'2011-12-12T20:00:07-05:00'
describe
'147729' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNYW' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
052dbb3eb081d7a999cdda53daa8e37e
c562f1d32567899626bfd24e7b09f360f923a777
'2011-12-12T20:02:06-05:00'
describe
'785' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNYX' 'sip-files00012.pro'
09a8758d6172f3bf386e4d364010c85c
18ea964e99b4c31c72cca78a980b31909914d362
'2011-12-12T20:03:10-05:00'
describe
'33026' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNYY' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
b8b83a1c08cb571794027f68ec0528fd
98170b2057df260686493cbbdeecd082544d44a7
'2011-12-12T20:04:52-05:00'
describe
'4112876' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNYZ' 'sip-files00012.tif'
006bfaa33baadbca811f36eff88e308f
d98f8b2a42a2ad3fdf85959e15a71eb075b22aed
'2011-12-12T20:01:18-05:00'
describe
'40' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZA' 'sip-files00012.txt'
61a29108fa5c82e2668a58372d868b8f
088c5b095c029323395c94491c1649c6a70e4eae
describe
Invalid character
'7474' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZB' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
fe503fc3eeb5b645544fb2b52771d519
a557bcb8105ad7d0b50a063821967af08ca9cb09
describe
'511338' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZC' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
7dd96090d4602f9a288066c28353e942
d59ce1c6e96ec74d5078d6b9f7da22cd80119d1a
'2011-12-12T20:01:55-05:00'
describe
'125628' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZD' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
43b0d1c498c56f00de955a24a635885b
5f24d11c12eb85dcb4b483e7d4a3ca1e077a384f
'2011-12-12T20:01:07-05:00'
describe
'41866' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZE' 'sip-files00013.pro'
36ebc8226a46b08fb39aef3182868edc
4c75d4f10162895c861c8d1f4009b5a23d690b42
'2011-12-12T20:06:25-05:00'
describe
'36630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZF' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
e4fdb216f92d99c02568868dcc8507c6
fc2c26a8726c32fb4b37b929701644be157758e5
'2011-12-12T20:01:27-05:00'
describe
'4114240' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZG' 'sip-files00013.tif'
8accf807cc278a125ab0b2cce3ad6576
d07de06e7e947d9b49b2a200e7505df3c2c668bd
'2011-12-12T20:03:50-05:00'
describe
'1800' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZH' 'sip-files00013.txt'
10a7744999c7af22d85467ff925c914f
23ae010e9eb135bd50204d93a8e8016680c40690
describe
'8457' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZI' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
32964ad8592c7b9513e23395e8572753
660b5351fa7f8462573a1928a3b8b02ecb570dbe
'2011-12-12T20:06:21-05:00'
describe
'511446' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZJ' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
34e358084776f8f15e756072d8674fbf
02527c621a47b2f7eb95b2e4da8f02f48524ced7
describe
'147166' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZK' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
c80c091cc89910c90544108122d63dd2
9b1a12b0c6924873dd4b6f69d71853787c2a623e
describe
'53276' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZL' 'sip-files00014.pro'
bab6ecfca7102f82facc154e2af6501e
add6a7eaff1f729f176344729c35f8339d52a275
'2011-12-12T20:04:32-05:00'
describe
'40712' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZM' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
bd73d604d73339830c65575f35c732e0
13cc46be86c4411332c4e4ad4a1fbd9061a082be
'2011-12-12T20:05:27-05:00'
describe
'4114004' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZN' 'sip-files00014.tif'
35e14241a4f2c8562af4c70f0f64b379
a2127f4d9d833cfbd1200334f823c239d25fcff3
describe
'2088' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZO' 'sip-files00014.txt'
3037b23830d691ae462a68adc5f98393
95cce2333df2f6ec0a55d1cabda5355335c1f5ce
'2011-12-12T20:01:45-05:00'
describe
'8813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZP' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
d8d84a0bdee43393413236e63daefdae
dbd158d573e8102ac81b82227af23cab0b1ad2f6
'2011-12-12T20:02:33-05:00'
describe
'511375' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZQ' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
47521504be2acc9a851290baa7a37270
0a8ff07c646233f06d104cb43b643ece193f8c66
'2011-12-12T20:03:43-05:00'
describe
'86816' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZR' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
cea6df5e65c5fec7bc99663bcde3607e
719f281ce7e37e415d45f8d828c1a3a47bcdc94b
'2011-12-12T20:05:02-05:00'
describe
'31753' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZS' 'sip-files00015.pro'
d3318ab10cbb0fd00b6d9b626c820f10
180f6138aceee19021bfbe9daf96853e8bad1f7e
'2011-12-12T20:05:45-05:00'
describe
'24125' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZT' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
ac52f9a63cd680c8c17894b5b6361da1
17723087ae02bc02f5c95b5aa5ebab2ffeb8161c
'2011-12-12T20:05:20-05:00'
describe
'4112160' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZU' 'sip-files00015.tif'
afa1545b699ae7ee6c141c141c451616
77545cf85b3e7000f5d0660c27f0c547bb2895d5
describe
'1538' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZV' 'sip-files00015.txt'
30dc7cda1e3cff2ccc35b494d2d466db
36d482b47e57297e9e3ffa8a7d5ab4ffb7b00358
'2011-12-12T20:00:11-05:00'
describe
'5181' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZW' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
947ec603d99daf9fe3df6ab14eed39f4
2c14fd726638a65252014576319b32ec9ed3b62e
'2011-12-12T20:04:39-05:00'
describe
'511511' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZX' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
c2a6a5012b575d1a0b7b8784972d7dbc
398072006c806722c68c5a44c86eafd8ffb837a3
'2011-12-12T20:01:02-05:00'
describe
'77463' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZY' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
9f042b85d39b29100e2b00b10a849b03
58628f16ca4b8dd34a70b01a71c384ec1a626d01
'2011-12-12T20:01:24-05:00'
describe
'19124' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABNZZ' 'sip-files00016.pro'
4e173f8ceeff468b3c38de66275f0823
87fb021224622a12b7abfde00226a106daffc832
'2011-12-12T20:02:01-05:00'
describe
'18813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAA' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
984e8a7a1cd63ca98d2151e0f2be0c51
e21f959a9c6fb631673455e12c726ac9035293fc
'2011-12-12T20:03:46-05:00'
describe
'4111472' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAB' 'sip-files00016.tif'
e7b2404d28fb23b001c1f62a57009326
8a40dc2bdf1d8f83b70e40ddf6fabe1b00832430
'2011-12-12T20:04:54-05:00'
describe
'770' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAC' 'sip-files00016.txt'
57236640b59992e1f44efa2672c54d1c
b123f35bdeba1bf1255aa8dc01cbdb273df6ce20
'2011-12-12T20:01:58-05:00'
describe
'4190' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAD' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
b98ae3b8ee9083d621b2679f3b773ad6
6d0923d3740223adddf65d42beba1ee9069dfd35
'2011-12-12T20:00:02-05:00'
describe
'511436' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAE' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
cc57a43718b4d44f32371ded9518db38
22b292d0a4fa243208ca42280f3aab64ae42e725
'2011-12-12T20:04:15-05:00'
describe
'113981' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAF' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
8cc8d5fd7a877a9914cc31938f8ce87f
9c4c92a7bf6c5c38634bf9e4b92e283895e48cbc
'2011-12-12T20:01:47-05:00'
describe
'49121' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAG' 'sip-files00017.pro'
bde931e6500e5f7df10c87637bb14816
8726f0dc9d9e400310a60014efd0d9c72cedeb11
'2011-12-12T20:05:15-05:00'
describe
'33121' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAH' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
4dbc44d2e95ed34d17a84348a0597d51
10302cb5dd09f08c8e850641dfdfd1f7c5128a12
'2011-12-12T20:04:34-05:00'
describe
'4113760' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAI' 'sip-files00017.tif'
f2ba6a7e4a436d3dcfd514721a41b9c9
e03f3fbe6103140bd06013eb9bb1b037b78e1997
describe
'2116' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAJ' 'sip-files00017.txt'
c5a680aeec03f6606b579e8d5c344273
916fee1048f5449078704015bc1987b705e818ca
'2011-12-12T20:05:50-05:00'
describe
'7471' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAK' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
3015a7ac251ca439f477630efd170914
2d029ff4860399d4beb8de3ad5717ebb735c9b1f
'2011-12-12T20:00:27-05:00'
describe
'511313' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAL' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
95efa488bddfa0e1e88918a1ef44c166
dc68b6b31ca8ad8a105fab7ed1cd37514b4a72ab
'2011-12-12T20:01:46-05:00'
describe
'78363' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAM' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
363664e27914a406015b63ba92ac85eb
12928dad7815c0a8ef5bee94513b1776b0e6cf80
'2011-12-12T20:04:27-05:00'
describe
'28594' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAN' 'sip-files00018.pro'
e92139bed433e3381057470c029b4a40
9e5a6714f960696008a3a402bf2faa04374eb715
'2011-12-12T20:05:05-05:00'
describe
'19967' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAO' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
c74b5ac58ccbfdc63961ce9ca84513bb
811979291d4d5aa81f33c4adf389dc68175be311
'2011-12-12T20:00:47-05:00'
describe
'4111592' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAP' 'sip-files00018.tif'
9c4b84582425af235698e5e4dd356119
54840d434332dd0937f77635a31d305d5829cb9d
'2011-12-12T20:04:08-05:00'
describe
'1268' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAQ' 'sip-files00018.txt'
ba07abd98f7ec8470f9fa4d70e294506
cd889007ea069969d5cec6ca8b1fd9da9b3e5583
'2011-12-12T20:03:05-05:00'
describe
'4357' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAR' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
064f17851fe3d1d9b70d296947d4ad09
2df73eb5c4b8a99cf3d0b8f23c8aad61915d90f2
'2011-12-12T20:00:43-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAS' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
bf0285ac027bc5ba82b39b253e9ce44c
0d491a762f655391f73d475337d4fb465c33fed1
'2011-12-12T20:02:18-05:00'
describe
'123180' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAT' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
ac349afaeacf84edc02f082ddedb0a44
b9345e79a96fc0bab9259f0c49acc3d60ae4fb80
'2011-12-12T20:06:23-05:00'
describe
'31970' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAU' 'sip-files00019.pro'
783a105326f1d19b862fe8343de044ba
e34f157c1da7810a5273be0e272d57de60bd5cd9
'2011-12-12T20:01:48-05:00'
describe
'34859' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAV' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
85b94f84d386094519773e41841dd437
04da487e2df4b7d7b8ccfd185e07ac2557a987c0
'2011-12-12T20:04:59-05:00'
describe
'4114400' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAW' 'sip-files00019.tif'
28203a82971b1ff1c410598bac521667
7cc67bd1017328ae35ed5aaf0d158bf3f55b804e
'2011-12-12T20:01:04-05:00'
describe
'1438' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAX' 'sip-files00019.txt'
eba926bfeb2ecf009db66484fc525294
68c865057b6e48693a5f9c6735daf0aee8bf6de8
'2011-12-12T20:06:06-05:00'
describe
'8305' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAY' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
c29a1ee845f12ccf6efaa7bc68d16044
408412721cd73d9807d10feabdbeeabaf33a499d
'2011-12-12T20:00:33-05:00'
describe
'511522' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOAZ' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
75b41ad53c5b0bb28920cabc5767bfc7
9f01eae3a6d00a9f8c1abdfbe4af37f566af7622
'2011-12-12T20:00:41-05:00'
describe
'165228' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBA' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
b5527e7021f2300296b6b601915a9b77
4ec4e18a368e524014e0b890d53d280aad84e0ce
'2011-12-12T20:03:00-05:00'
describe
'54793' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBB' 'sip-files00020.pro'
9c9554859c9917739dd40d42ea9a876c
0800048d9753fa9264e44d1ce793aa573e4345cc
'2011-12-12T20:05:14-05:00'
describe
'49819' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBC' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
c8b62abc037998bef195690b3abd54ad
0a0c6c20707151efe09deaea11bbb3ecef1d05ff
'2011-12-12T20:05:33-05:00'
describe
'4115532' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBD' 'sip-files00020.tif'
99f00ac08a248f344aa4cef5329e1142
c0eed09804719309dc94cec0b7a61b91553f3034
describe
'2152' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBE' 'sip-files00020.txt'
b1761a56ab62d4b1c9859411028597c8
5f50dc61b51bed0984ffb9325f56e626be6d99d1
'2011-12-12T20:02:59-05:00'
describe
'11337' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBF' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
f77a644ba0b2f331e218e178a549ac2d
e0070d062d226b3f845ebb26648e5d1845edcf7a
'2011-12-12T20:06:07-05:00'
describe
'511536' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBG' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
29c9f854d70144776255eadb8ff028dd
4ee05af1fc3adbdb1df5a02a77ff8efdff24f6c1
describe
'152958' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBH' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
5ac96636047ff72a31e511035a37c088
14a11d6e9f371729cd1ce5e68f4ebce0651c9c4e
describe
'31811' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBI' 'sip-files00021.pro'
650a5626c1f687351032ba8ccdf43122
436f6e61a5f3e26803decd0795dfdad4c182a839
'2011-12-12T20:05:46-05:00'
describe
'41756' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBJ' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
db332cd39c85ebd6333508d0ce42f54a
414803f6fdd7bf001efe8312631721598f5bec5d
'2011-12-12T20:04:12-05:00'
describe
'4115148' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBK' 'sip-files00021.tif'
9a264eeac764792714cd05ad8db829ce
47e937f78859790ae447bf0a57ea418eddbf776d
'2011-12-12T20:02:43-05:00'
describe
'1346' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBL' 'sip-files00021.txt'
1f9124e0d4f5b7fee38474aceed4ff11
7766b684e76c8d8d4a16b1d066080d518ab1ebed
'2011-12-12T20:03:03-05:00'
describe
'10166' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBM' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
78f1ebaa89f02fb4b9d9bdeec4af01eb
918de05117cf193c4fe71e7c3097f47f065d6bf6
'2011-12-12T20:02:14-05:00'
describe
'511514' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBN' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
36d7f2d236dd078ea46a86e08d0462a2
63d55a6e6b99a3b0e348893b1aa25a72d50caf80
describe
'162691' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBO' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
77cf9c4a40680c9c3dda06b38dfb161e
09a1a3403b1243d1bbbe9b4ab284200257c0a32e
'2011-12-12T20:05:26-05:00'
describe
'54697' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBP' 'sip-files00022.pro'
49b1065e6b99ea04e3204243d90ef6f4
8650ce5db6720bec2a6b3d322b365b64608f0d6c
'2011-12-12T20:00:24-05:00'
describe
'48067' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBQ' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
a442c08bce10957f16d32575e06d7cee
0d97fa80fb716467963f0d35f785e10f94bd43de
'2011-12-12T20:01:52-05:00'
describe
'4115364' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBR' 'sip-files00022.tif'
3adbdef94f0a66f8d8b142eb30a8e9a8
edb2981f816e5a5f1ad93139e9343d2484da8d0c
'2011-12-12T20:05:29-05:00'
describe
'2159' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBS' 'sip-files00022.txt'
4635e7257c8c35a58817150e5c64608e
8dbaa750a415f79a820b34e2f08c0bd852e15ad4
'2011-12-12T20:00:40-05:00'
describe
'10623' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBT' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
56f85ba5121da39146f448a71b04581f
436fb561ebfb1ab006c1c79c2607753cfbd6001a
describe
'511540' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBU' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
d41303afa0610a8316ad9b4b9f113f7a
17471be18db702cb75a3837f52e870c02c7b8f6b
'2011-12-12T20:06:17-05:00'
describe
'129310' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBV' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
acc0780e0898c9d4e564a24d41ef7916
e9b694c006976cff7eff7b9985f49d4688c5ad5a
'2011-12-12T20:06:26-05:00'
describe
'24262' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBW' 'sip-files00023.pro'
a6501e4676ff7858008f0f91b9638e66
9db671b838a388d7d5218cf7d724f12c555bb683
'2011-12-12T20:03:09-05:00'
describe
'35072' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBX' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
70c6720e419419d76bffcbdeb0a50061
1e4c5565c4d985a95ad126f22eb3e7756a23b0ef
'2011-12-12T20:06:10-05:00'
describe
'4114160' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBY' 'sip-files00023.tif'
b9351a8cbb0f50b85ad54511750e713d
e38e4cd659f3578f62898ce54be094573626062d
'2011-12-12T20:02:44-05:00'
describe
'964' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOBZ' 'sip-files00023.txt'
a98f3c1eb6c14810ae0bb5e1c0af423c
1703f9e95a0b8a605b1f6413951a3799ca876936
'2011-12-12T20:00:57-05:00'
describe
'8292' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCA' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
9403ac1a63392610fc367f142283c087
4321ba88d5d4edf12fe709107e365a35a56932bc
describe
'511527' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCB' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
37837988e163aa1dfe043053f15d2e8b
03f8e4cba2c2d6fa29ba96ab314322754d907047
'2011-12-12T20:02:28-05:00'
describe
'163249' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCC' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
6b3a21a31d0bf2d52456ddfb8a3b808a
5b205dcb50545acf3a70f13b52dd8e5f0f0084c4
'2011-12-12T20:00:42-05:00'
describe
'51818' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCD' 'sip-files00024.pro'
b7427901d1d8d643851c9aa304e97316
fee11ea71b6d1225409b6bababa87bfa862611b6
'2011-12-12T20:06:15-05:00'
describe
'47680' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCE' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
d8f11e5235f4384e2596bfe841cde929
4fe4b7ccb1b8f39f2fb71841939c5c97a5712e05
describe
'4115324' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCF' 'sip-files00024.tif'
d036ee733e250732628c04c8d049b700
52ecc70eb77e5679c13acc25af5ec66913943a9e
'2011-12-12T20:04:36-05:00'
describe
'2049' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCG' 'sip-files00024.txt'
d148db848761a4cf1fb88d40b554d318
56f642baf1805948d78aaa988fbbab857c0f64a3
'2011-12-12T20:03:25-05:00'
describe
'10964' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCH' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
87c81eedaa77b3dfcef7b643b67a65ad
3b6a221fc62c5518aa0ddcaaaa20abacfff25e2f
'2011-12-12T20:01:38-05:00'
describe
'511500' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCI' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
6c0e4d4bd315d4df3dc1c8e668f38b27
865b9d194c2a23f02aea88811a8049c55ff1a644
describe
'87752' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCJ' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
2101623527fd2832f6599793e2c2e0ee
2ea218fafee039a0e26a54a70e8cc797bbe2e292
'2011-12-12T20:04:26-05:00'
describe
'15477' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCK' 'sip-files00025.pro'
65126cb5638cb5d403f7ddbda71186e4
a881859361cffac6a19df92425fca5bbe6baf954
'2011-12-12T20:00:13-05:00'
describe
'22211' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCL' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
4e6cea8c83caad79ec6a138bccb43fac
6f333d037a6fbf310f4a8959037081260fa59410
'2011-12-12T20:04:11-05:00'
describe
'4111968' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCM' 'sip-files00025.tif'
f625c627627136208ee6a477ece6fa5b
58cd00b1fa0eced8ecc820c410a0efea3a0f2334
'2011-12-12T20:03:28-05:00'
describe
'617' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCN' 'sip-files00025.txt'
8a75c6b180a28570c547dfdc66d5924b
bb18c2bd748fe78fd06d30d2bc73acd3e1287afc
describe
'5278' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCO' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
adc422463d3076e2b88ef5dbf4b77b6a
eacd828e4d7157dd7436f04a1c549ef79a2ab000
'2011-12-12T20:03:47-05:00'
describe
'511512' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCP' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
f01d05982bf7729a9538d5e5e57a8e72
59419ea3dcf37808a6782cc82875006b7d0f10cc
'2011-12-12T20:01:06-05:00'
describe
'124775' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCQ' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
7d6cf784c41e3b622221f24917c4d909
cad4e1064791a3c239bacadf1c51d982cce7f297
'2011-12-12T20:05:42-05:00'
describe
'36898' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCR' 'sip-files00026.pro'
26a63657e01b960862fd8e0c50f39537
401ed75811e67a53abeb42c2c0542b4b62a5b284
describe
'34021' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCS' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
f4b2d68cb7b0502edc80a0aa9cefd7dc
df3124b02e3cefe247d3492c0ee6d9bbe7f52908
describe
'4113524' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCT' 'sip-files00026.tif'
320d1aec4841a4c4b6ebd8ae347c021c
dfbece2026980d92362ee00459c9be6b359c0934
'2011-12-12T20:06:34-05:00'
describe
'1520' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCU' 'sip-files00026.txt'
1b1d5b580537ea9449b02f7c9916e5ba
54ba9564a05c0aba6d4d6106492d0ce3309657d4
'2011-12-12T20:05:56-05:00'
describe
'7594' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCV' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
069d7388fb7eb1b678096b9e2ac28aeb
c783cd29df7c924698b0aef9d474261cc4f842f2
'2011-12-12T20:00:46-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCW' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
00a10535c43dfc418095dc882b208f3e
eca8c89868134013b7ad687fdf436352f354664a
'2011-12-12T20:04:55-05:00'
describe
'196488' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCX' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
9078b5c5565fa8903563408acb5d8bb1
9a3bd145e985840f681f70a55790ade5aa5f3039
'2011-12-12T20:00:52-05:00'
describe
'3657' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCY' 'sip-files00027.pro'
25acf5db674c21af0677101dc3ef7848
7f9dec6119ca1e858e94343ae83436ef5470aaaf
describe
'47193' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOCZ' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
40dafe786e2c5c84adb5d3203b4746d7
812ed6336b051b134c2ecdb0a6c1e2a740a44c5c
'2011-12-12T20:04:10-05:00'
describe
'4115812' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODA' 'sip-files00027.tif'
81438ae72b3accd0844cc1fafdeaae6e
3e9b24155773067481c77526f29c52a8108df3aa
'2011-12-12T20:04:22-05:00'
describe
'199' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODB' 'sip-files00027.txt'
d975c0b6b4cdde8612f72fab5019db14
66dba1ea6c9ba204072b93f399788cb86f5eeb61
'2011-12-12T20:06:03-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'11026' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODC' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
6a17e34f4d71c6d93a653e2449a2a8e4
5ea9ec1aba435666e7c2ef668d4b3f6c739993bb
'2011-12-12T20:06:28-05:00'
describe
'511298' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODD' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
e592b07a0c8bdbf98afedb645491ff3b
047804c9b76b7526cc579c01643d8d585da6b7e6
'2011-12-12T20:04:18-05:00'
describe
'39067' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODE' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
215479afce782200d5aa7201754f38ce
b8cb6daaf70b2215402cb58c26805a8a9a30c4de
'2011-12-12T20:01:15-05:00'
describe
'6896' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODF' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
b197e5d93d69209b62f7fb401f8e8e45
a7f45e05c8a5f39d8d15416cf33c08f28f847392
'2011-12-12T20:01:37-05:00'
describe
'4109844' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODG' 'sip-files00028.tif'
451faa3536242ab48e03d2608c579a48
5d3ab31c4882604ea98ea96652b1d5a01be92e34
describe
'1560' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODH' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
b84a01e431b842f3c1e321b07457e3b8
436a1644d97d10c2312dda772601aa8d231a4b12
'2011-12-12T20:02:45-05:00'
describe
'511529' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODI' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
0597053e2bf124c0d7e7cf18eb548ed5
bd85b512f1ecc7d3071ebef7ba6717a784ef9b15
describe
'134821' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODJ' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
5fa1a8442e8c896afcb883f6ceaacab7
b9589f57bf3c3fff7e58ffeb6faa51419f8a7e4f
'2011-12-12T20:02:46-05:00'
describe
'31740' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODK' 'sip-files00029.pro'
18faa05d1f50e4dfc47fb233e6585bbf
9b22b59898d04ac9dd1362d6a622faf8728a4e31
'2011-12-12T20:04:50-05:00'
describe
'39863' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODL' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
ea7a6c4c4cc82d500595fc662e887286
fc5131f0dfc8ee85ab592dfa4378855b2e093d34
describe
'4114744' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODM' 'sip-files00029.tif'
8617c26e3950b8dab38c5c074ad622c5
501e0c9ece4b87f2f77e8002bd4489ce9d36ce23
'2011-12-12T20:00:23-05:00'
describe
'1339' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODN' 'sip-files00029.txt'
340bf1297a75fdd27dd97f43ea7b211d
c8f37d8fa9f8bfd2bc88499371bac5c53a389a01
describe
'9612' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODO' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
13b54a53d763c33136c8fc643ed5c08d
3e402773578299a68976e0aa24c50b3ec68de95c
'2011-12-12T20:03:19-05:00'
describe
'511481' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODP' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
b056daef78ee424cca7caf1602d29835
d9491425652ebe916553864af1aaefa76c915e4c
'2011-12-12T20:03:29-05:00'
describe
'156275' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODQ' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
6df2235ece6d26ff23a490ebcb8c33de
81825662f1e3872904ee9ab08942e6728f60a7ad
'2011-12-12T20:05:08-05:00'
describe
'16863' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODR' 'sip-files00030.pro'
0edee10e5c4546f22403005bf43ca322
770386ee439e7b38480bf02bbbea5a47100c947b
describe
'38065' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODS' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
906d6f3aa8f123c6de896f7b0aa67344
ef27ba60fc1e878c5021acd7591024a95c15f975
'2011-12-12T20:01:28-05:00'
describe
'4114200' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODT' 'sip-files00030.tif'
b9428b2330e30f173394467dc067233e
5d177b0b76ea1bc96f7be4bcd4d548743ef7949d
'2011-12-12T20:01:21-05:00'
describe
'717' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODU' 'sip-files00030.txt'
74dfbf6a563c6b072139c61a93e03546
4a3e6a2a6b3ebcd4747745b890a8425a8cc6e11b
describe
Invalid character
'8540' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODV' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
3a238d312408e16aadda1442fa504cdb
63a01ba3c1561adc16140ebd0feb5becfdc457e3
'2011-12-12T20:02:37-05:00'
describe
'511530' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODW' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
cd1daf503f224fefbb956d1cd1011496
c902b4a8ffb653d88b89e01556e1cf2c9997dcee
describe
'163126' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODX' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
82a4d2246b7d71865abacc1fbf821663
1963270c086253e20ef0f65dff9a3f324c90ad87
'2011-12-12T20:00:53-05:00'
describe
'54269' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODY' 'sip-files00031.pro'
5873e1f9f42ec1ad9fbd14149a38b613
fb1665ff5b24e0a17795ed452ae7e46c2a375210
describe
'47305' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABODZ' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
cb66df044b1040c780f6189e13031328
7e342953e26b02d38dd3bb87be7c559271139daf
describe
'4115172' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEA' 'sip-files00031.tif'
15163d037b65f695e5805e449d9155ab
e539d5aba0da33cde5699004c67fdb6ebbf11e8a
'2011-12-12T20:03:15-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEB' 'sip-files00031.txt'
b7380ea72a028370574a21a55c7c936f
476be11770510541e2d61e30564a0abff1d84940
'2011-12-12T20:05:34-05:00'
describe
'10683' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEC' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
74219881e3856f2bda9657b0ce39cdef
8dd224c41b41a988f9802105000473b89bc62467
describe
'502596' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOED' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
ac42ea6e1200f6ab8c3c05032f77a709
6ce611282dd8fc33035b62153b8f56d5d820ebde
describe
'163100' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEE' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
10de347bdbd1d49aef04e1c461141e6a
cda4d2804be172aa2a3359f11ffa07e6f6c6128a
'2011-12-12T20:00:56-05:00'
describe
'55656' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEF' 'sip-files00032.pro'
f3bf9ff7b3eb49b55629eaa74559df0b
35f44d927a0f49581d935b3d723ae553a06f0aff
'2011-12-12T20:04:25-05:00'
describe
'47734' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEG' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
fbb0d297949d4a1b4646e81aeba17791
4f8e5f47175e1eff999b36657407d62c674637ac
describe
'4044220' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEH' 'sip-files00032.tif'
68c20774a2416db70e0bb95175ae6630
55a7231460eb3037736b0e69aeed6427df8d01b3
'2011-12-12T20:06:08-05:00'
describe
'2184' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEI' 'sip-files00032.txt'
69a589541968aaa0ca674c415a97bf8a
5444a31a391a8871685acdde6e57da21d4e574ff
'2011-12-12T20:02:52-05:00'
describe
'10500' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEJ' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
e7d5b0ecbf64ae0948e691bdcc69f6d1
1f33e41a7f68a6e884ab83467cb2b45495c755e3
'2011-12-12T20:03:44-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEK' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
d201e45462f3dabc964d092e3d6ebc3b
2fe8c6f9355cce72359e56d3f3c19eae0b9b0ce7
'2011-12-12T20:01:00-05:00'
describe
'161696' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEL' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
a7fd4ed4ea6b776e035ef3932456c1c6
282c844098c9db826904fe2930a0d1a78425992a
'2011-12-12T20:00:14-05:00'
describe
'56325' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEM' 'sip-files00033.pro'
114d53cf35865a444c20f59bfcfac1ad
dd30a9a70914c977ccbeb6d0c3845b837c758821
'2011-12-12T20:05:58-05:00'
describe
'49214' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEN' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
4673de6d4169fdf53baa16cf8d522707
4ad66e48cf2207ae047188a179ad06fea0df8909
'2011-12-12T20:02:47-05:00'
describe
'4115676' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEO' 'sip-files00033.tif'
deebc42cd0758ab6371c5b6f0d879451
c4623f609f316d32b3a4139b7917163a3c329524
'2011-12-12T20:00:36-05:00'
describe
'2326' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEP' 'sip-files00033.txt'
f47eb084fd9c7a66dec05a18fbcdd736
f1d70a114b8cf5dc87af70484b4ad90ab6d4f2b8
'2011-12-12T20:02:58-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'10952' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEQ' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
ecfd3ede28c0499d842c682591107fd9
8ab933b7f326f31137e2a814b894b7b1cdc7312c
describe
'504301' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOER' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
24ce3999a61e20d6e2050ea043b494e5
10659e3e2e06ae05172808c6b7690001370ca199
'2011-12-12T20:00:38-05:00'
describe
'166822' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOES' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
1233b80b0d3201a99cebe9044cae33ef
29ccf01c9e2e60f0bb6c7bc837e5923a2234f46a
'2011-12-12T20:00:05-05:00'
describe
'55868' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOET' 'sip-files00034.pro'
9cff18ca5b05b68f746ce7b0d29c3840
18866283cbdd8f1f6924270591adb77b54aac8a5
describe
'48441' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEU' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
0bbf84606a7e57d44be234d8ad5c9d95
7f4e3e097106e72912847fbc27d2d24d8ee850e9
'2011-12-12T20:03:33-05:00'
describe
'4057172' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEV' 'sip-files00034.tif'
36fb446e545362ac5fdf45bf1fb82a27
1011bee5bcec638b55346ca9ef6d94d312c6aa2a
describe
'2192' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEW' 'sip-files00034.txt'
eb4e3b9c4f7b54b2e14668929a835fdb
de1c6589e91bef6bd5ebc38c79abcb32ccc4e5df
describe
'10737' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEX' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
22110c7df445e15ab579f4d13f72b2a0
025e6c944aec5335f34988f7c74ab32a2cc3f8a3
describe
'503895' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEY' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
07358c4d774966ddaed075eda3c44085
d3be08710db9764cac33a48bb43b59e4c586a09a
describe
'149318' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOEZ' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
c410ec45500f7dd8e7ba2e689e20d54f
d73abba550f85e1edf8f78410570f080552c1f61
'2011-12-12T20:04:43-05:00'
describe
'35420' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFA' 'sip-files00035.pro'
92bc910480dde67bf62e1cf29ba5eaad
f3e2b56fec94a4b5ac16a69cec5d4d070f7d9f1f
'2011-12-12T20:02:03-05:00'
describe
'42825' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFB' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
a521ec0a1044f0e4defeb12305691164
41d138d2adf93e70be68749a65330e5f6fb1a229
'2011-12-12T20:00:59-05:00'
describe
'4054100' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFC' 'sip-files00035.tif'
5d1561bc8e34a61f63bf2a62a58ab9a4
9b91b176f0c956f983bcf428e7388bcb989f6ed5
describe
'1459' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFD' 'sip-files00035.txt'
50eea1c9d3b7bf39ae7ef8c837a971f3
63c5817baa6d6f3063150ee5d315a124775be276
describe
'10055' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFE' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
9399a48fe0d4dce7b71e4cb0c42d8eb6
eaa3d96a0a5f41bd2cb01c09f047e926b921f646
describe
'511539' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFF' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
e8d797a9d63ca6f9f23ca82ac61ab3b2
89bc6d2d97252b213154624d7b5dca6428ef7da2
describe
'161636' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFG' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
14cf945770281c535d71bba3d61d8d42
f293682194fc79a708bf79f930cc0d202880d668
'2011-12-12T20:00:45-05:00'
describe
'54242' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFH' 'sip-files00036.pro'
d97412621b1ab10112881b5506b51fdb
7bb1a6a1c0413db5485d5cbd5879999ee4aa0352
describe
'46702' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFI' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
8de0cb72989c7b1ca9575d2b4a5de697
0c8cd8b5528f94dbbd6e4c7f8966c1422e37d636
describe
'4115192' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFJ' 'sip-files00036.tif'
7f58cb06f17a52b1095fb92e7f2c6e05
5ed03e69307871db098a0f2ac30f9060dbbfce05
'2011-12-12T20:02:17-05:00'
describe
'2132' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFK' 'sip-files00036.txt'
0b520c257e00e646ef79134dbb32f817
08b917e146790cf9a33c50c441497145d2b47d51
'2011-12-12T20:06:39-05:00'
describe
'10510' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFL' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
20dce9850bb4bb3cafa971003073289b
3c71f1a0704fcd10f3241fd1378c10dd035954ab
describe
'502496' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFM' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
9c6eb66391de93497b6e3177d860ec7f
d68621983e2434df5635ea8e900867003282003d
describe
'131022' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFN' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
ad0fcd7e5680f8c15e4f2d4a50dd68f4
ad32f32aff1594e193b57a1e118931b6980c67db
describe
'1853' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFO' 'sip-files00037.pro'
710768582bd146f2f14f124212a1f9cc
5754f55dbfa6a8447535742069b44754e646128b
'2011-12-12T20:05:01-05:00'
describe
'30670' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFP' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
2590d9c0fe903eeca2c090e5428cc3c6
7bb2f13879e5e0c8ee34257dcc76fc4bf0de2063
describe
'4045188' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFQ' 'sip-files00037.tif'
2270acb9bbf90c4b1b053ed3c1f52e51
fde4e796914b718abebd334dfadcf25e46b70425
'2011-12-12T20:06:14-05:00'
describe
'283' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFR' 'sip-files00037.txt'
c5066a2f7384b9035cc5570efe2d5e7b
4fd61715bf4b9603758f5a39cb1eedff0ab88ebf
'2011-12-12T20:02:04-05:00'
describe
'6897' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFS' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
6f93443ec24afd50ae5353c79d7b6faf
575ca1e20370912edbadb3cceeea314c88144005
describe
'511454' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFT' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
13fd381c7f53389102c4a68b16e2f6dc
5ccc1d44befb5ae3e0397e8976690abca12fd799
'2011-12-12T20:04:57-05:00'
describe
'36308' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFU' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
630e09d9f4c07a8431311cacc62decb4
c7a928c5b6d08482f86ab5b7c9c2bb17d77f9f36
'2011-12-12T20:00:22-05:00'
describe
'6073' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFV' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
31cea94c224c6dca719489d95b5b50b8
9906dd2454cbfc5fc8c53db142811a495aa99606
'2011-12-12T20:05:19-05:00'
describe
'4109792' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFW' 'sip-files00038.tif'
6976a95780bc71d87ca9053b788d0c6f
61f0faeb4b0a886e0d5e7c31f4497000b996b90e
'2011-12-12T20:00:39-05:00'
describe
'1377' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFX' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
d9899bb038fcf25917a4c7343aad0c7b
8f09b0df06a89b0a8adcf3f0f877f4a8825ab580
describe
'511393' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFY' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
8a65407fa86ccbbf9cf11b444abee7a0
65cecfbdc74194206865e4083687ef18062aa240
'2011-12-12T20:01:10-05:00'
describe
'98661' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOFZ' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
e5197ea5593d48dc136fe9b5fef8d957
77bcac54f92f0599c76addc7260d8489230bfecb
'2011-12-12T20:02:05-05:00'
describe
'29775' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGA' 'sip-files00039.pro'
a4f6dcfa58fbd0f09cdeb2619aea1a0f
15fa40bc94e75d73afdeff0253ac1ddfdaa6205a
'2011-12-12T20:05:11-05:00'
describe
'30044' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGB' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
71394ba355ebc3a521bacbd1a157eecf
669ab409c507b3a5acd220178952604e3cf8e254
describe
'4113308' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGC' 'sip-files00039.tif'
c763654e648faa9a3d2bf2545a4b2504
6fb29989ba47e17f95b1e14a66f001a9f5448a6a
'2011-12-12T20:01:54-05:00'
describe
'1175' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGD' 'sip-files00039.txt'
d738b158a49efbba8938c182f9bdb87e
7f5c2b0c1e173a7c134028a9ee1c544b68c242fb
describe
'7190' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGE' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
96f0e72c443c4f4e5916c2fdd80de836
48fe6f1072dbe3e94d4a7904ac7e1be5f0263e6e
'2011-12-12T20:01:34-05:00'
describe
'511467' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGF' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
beed21abccd47fe05e9ef70360f1a22b
7207037d99e26b8d2f80615d22427151f1cf7d30
'2011-12-12T20:01:12-05:00'
describe
'121692' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGG' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
843c42c759d3f9f84c7e8deb4f756fd8
a444001d36af9e1c819cbca73ec9f74467ee5f8a
'2011-12-12T20:05:38-05:00'
describe
'33610' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGH' 'sip-files00040.pro'
d331f027efcd67535a8e38433bb64673
3905fad15f42048d700e4912f99d8f4c5e9f6d72
'2011-12-12T20:01:49-05:00'
describe
'34279' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGI' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
14a927cd59579935119eeec0cfc1ebfb
cc3d338aadc0730ab800bc2a4a44d28d7d3a3133
describe
'4113832' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGJ' 'sip-files00040.tif'
d6ab100170004e0285f20f28056ee7c5
bf5b0279c743c5166aaae22e98da080338bcff6f
'2011-12-12T20:00:21-05:00'
describe
'1545' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGK' 'sip-files00040.txt'
05e96f85f967f54b296b09b14d134ffe
e3589471d4683db25571a524591b6b4beb8248f3
'2011-12-12T20:02:13-05:00'
describe
'8141' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGL' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
be129d9d0a72acf3e8565d5549140474
edc3c1d2834fc4be3d39a34be238d9cf593323e9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGM' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
c1ae0382db5518f5bce9bb68e89576c9
4b811925ae1546d2de42559e4a66838d8002b2ee
'2011-12-12T20:02:38-05:00'
describe
'161676' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGN' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
4e4d9625649b82810befc652f88878df
aba3295ca536e895a60cd6854f5052a40fc1a2f8
describe
'53934' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGO' 'sip-files00041.pro'
0ee2f0868c251c0b5188dffebf82be88
bfffbd130149732275cbda4dc9e3699879abad55
describe
'47307' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGP' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
815145d9bf40fe847425ed26e97638b8
d415fb776f5437ac91267f9f73936552cb6597a4
describe
'4115300' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGQ' 'sip-files00041.tif'
26d61051786c788d29dd7659fad0d857
165653166b95d0fd2bb093fc73cf06484be72694
describe
'2127' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGR' 'sip-files00041.txt'
df13a93ca2b120ad60b353f6d3330789
cb4b0f7183a88f99693d01b77a25b6839cd10c57
describe
'10394' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGS' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
cc6914125882c4bceaa4ea2377f40a58
eb23776d536fdba70f72c657b20ae30a75099647
'2011-12-12T20:06:04-05:00'
describe
'511541' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGT' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
188b975f7bbd746d77c7a4b00364a137
e0ddacd6360fee366d8d48b7f41038ab68cfe1f8
'2011-12-12T20:02:41-05:00'
describe
'167051' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGU' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
6bce65ad7e03eded1a7a067650366045
6b124a82413d133604e684f75745eba361d1dc0f
'2011-12-12T20:05:31-05:00'
describe
'55113' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGV' 'sip-files00042.pro'
620c8d8e621064ba1c7823d2f26ac361
2db7bfe582c650e801aa1ed4bb3a2dfe5a822177
describe
'48854' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGW' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
1aa6a6481a5aa363710e6f196b2396af
32137ebf7c9de4434a90fd0a72f74f5751e95818
'2011-12-12T20:02:39-05:00'
describe
'4115564' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGX' 'sip-files00042.tif'
cfc089ace47f9192f4e5f1b710b728cb
e37acc19c6e62636b80af2c33652624213393703
'2011-12-12T20:00:49-05:00'
describe
'2165' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGY' 'sip-files00042.txt'
8cd182f1a1be6feace6de9f8db7237f3
b8b9098535cee6843ba8f9e238f497cb901d106d
describe
'10849' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOGZ' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
41a5c661cd78384936b4f3d4f0044164
0be736bf071beb4cb62f731dcd0eae54089e3e7e
'2011-12-12T20:06:33-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHA' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
50fe97695ac641fcdd9dadff0763c078
ca49b90b879b5a4efbdf310db027a8b045b1f0ae
describe
'193228' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHB' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
db1d4db4efcad90f016efab40c0c8514
d8059a114ea529773bd3e64cbb5a6292cfb08360
describe
'33488' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHC' 'sip-files00043.pro'
04f2983ff7baf2fcfb65fb2bf1c0c4f1
35b25993066898537b1876301c9e64ae06dd50a8
describe
'52701' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHD' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
896766560f60497d3a1905934455718e
f868c167ff46e130e461e4bffd10a87bd0698db2
describe
'4116600' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHE' 'sip-files00043.tif'
bc817d8c5e7173ef38a8a21d8a240287
38ab5e66abefcfb30879c26e87100105881bc8e0
describe
'1361' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHF' 'sip-files00043.txt'
bdb9bdc4f0723e1751b4c7c142e40d89
c0013e2e3dc75546a022113ed60ef88838773c50
'2011-12-12T20:03:26-05:00'
describe
'12310' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHG' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
1c46f12e974724b3cd86f6d46592209e
5833cbfcbd6756c8e20a07f5e1347ec09d447e69
describe
'511409' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHH' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
c5e9e2a74ff358e5430ff3554ed708b4
21d487bb3c1e0ac4e9d4d8c167f36b4d6eeeb904
describe
'161992' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHI' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
e60bf1cdb450eaaf6c44b97e99aae64e
582cff52131b8625dd8b432adab9f867e02d830f
describe
'11424' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHJ' 'sip-files00044.pro'
5507651046ceaeabe85b88a24be764fe
afaf77721ad7cd74a5f0f22d51b2ca99e02a66ee
'2011-12-12T20:06:35-05:00'
describe
'39395' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHK' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
ecbc26ba61289cbc103641fc7539a8ac
fce5024932967b9e7d35370736a185aca898799a
describe
'4114544' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHL' 'sip-files00044.tif'
91886845d20f804a595f19ba1ed2fa46
872147ec2cba544ac55a5f137e99d6d1427c2de5
'2011-12-12T20:01:30-05:00'
describe
'512' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHM' 'sip-files00044.txt'
83da9ad384d48f920486b58891bbe0a9
15a63c78f6d0061e7e0844662be635292355d685
'2011-12-12T20:05:23-05:00'
describe
'9106' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHN' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
f47c833411103822291ed8cc113c168f
44c436c433042f6bff723e79ab63746572fc505a
'2011-12-12T20:00:58-05:00'
describe
'511435' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHO' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
722abb133fbd54ad21937c2111eeedec
69f4d31b834737d35a4e2c7da95f6f05d7f2e43b
'2011-12-12T20:03:07-05:00'
describe
'135341' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHP' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
bce9c5dc54da5b857a5a1a059fbc21fe
2806035e84724dc32460f2116feb9b90d2668ae3
'2011-12-12T20:03:13-05:00'
describe
'43515' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHQ' 'sip-files00045.pro'
67cdfccc1572e5a73f4353b9409e5852
8ae778ce11acb0db9a929cc7f97ef268dda577aa
describe
'37933' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHR' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
59eb6fb213a1d6a50c79f7cd969a8fcf
16b9eb764814f9b1e12bcb5f5c2191ce20e155b0
'2011-12-12T20:02:24-05:00'
describe
'4114360' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHS' 'sip-files00045.tif'
7ab3b13485569d86f54922a6994d5ed4
a79882e5d4cd1abb8ff6149505e92fce5699af49
'2011-12-12T20:05:28-05:00'
describe
'1997' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHT' 'sip-files00045.txt'
4e85028de5c311e52546b3d56c9a7570
c8591814308f8db0b582b45cc908672bb3aa4795
describe
'8963' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHU' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
523a00cc69fe7ddb0131af7a5142e662
c0a299bf65223eb18d783e51f64707d3d7616692
'2011-12-12T20:03:54-05:00'
describe
'500602' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHV' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
f8859fe12c90b46225610a2c75ed4523
b8bc5ef6b2440836dfbd3ee8099194f65fbeac5f
'2011-12-12T20:05:17-05:00'
describe
'145778' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHW' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
5c561f69177b71cc8a05b097bc304f39
8a11cd678768065b37f5046fed31bcc1f312ef57
describe
'47029' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHX' 'sip-files00046.pro'
8743140fb7e9c70a87736c9314ef2da8
ae857777511c7e1c218c65005f0f28c0b5ae8b9b
'2011-12-12T20:01:23-05:00'
describe
'38291' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHY' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
3604338ab119bb71ffec90bb116f2224
a7dd602ab8fc25c1f63726f6fefe7ec6236f0402
describe
'4027824' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOHZ' 'sip-files00046.tif'
4c5188e438de43d75d11dfa0f0d90e65
d70700e8f6e0707784e432644f02db21b2f82bc5
describe
'2505' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIA' 'sip-files00046.txt'
dba24b57be6047182291910204227431
811c030a32823ee858df4ce219cd263558a5fcbe
describe
'9213' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIB' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
8dcbd3d0251a07a0c15b9e6e78be0133
ef5e086985ebc019751fc46e82fada4ad1e6d20b
describe
'511520' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIC' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
9c035597e1af6a52dd47c5a7cb1fc492
8bbf207894a7b31dcee36808717e7b2ec4d85c04
'2011-12-12T20:05:07-05:00'
describe
'93671' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOID' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
8cb151e6258c8dce4a122b94a4ae5f74
2c782d1dbf97b7ca7af2ac6c2f38e9791073bc99
'2011-12-12T20:05:00-05:00'
describe
'31430' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIE' 'sip-files00047.pro'
0f266cc7fc44964e5e1304fcd03d5626
b3266c6e779ba2dbf3a07caf6c8844f6941405fa
describe
'26672' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIF' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
ff3d78b2461b63cef8385de2c0730bce
06a8da335fcbb23c1823db3865239138e58b2c2d
'2011-12-12T20:06:38-05:00'
describe
'4112908' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIG' 'sip-files00047.tif'
3ff62a2775684da0d53abba710b283bc
59ad6d4741d3512881893670d52f34bde7c0ed06
'2011-12-12T20:06:13-05:00'
describe
'1450' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIH' 'sip-files00047.txt'
163d7cd08ba52f45116fbc721cac853b
3878a4f8ba1b2f632bc2b4c80979fcca80b05ce7
describe
'6544' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOII' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
17dde745c91c35fa41cf60309701e39e
42abbfb965aa0557bd20d3e8e18e6bc731b07b3c
'2011-12-12T20:00:32-05:00'
describe
'498766' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIJ' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
490b413aea36dd462ba2e57217117741
e586952d156665b2bf770b1bda80700ef28ff7d6
'2011-12-12T20:01:20-05:00'
describe
'125565' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIK' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
69812bf74c020c3e35cedd966f7d0140
5f6140ad1346e7ee6a080627bf7d2520f3eb9899
'2011-12-12T20:02:29-05:00'
describe
'32662' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIL' 'sip-files00048.pro'
4b98c99539f28021423f109bd43eb2ad
fc48d4741980965758f3010766a9b8f8a2ae3ddc
'2011-12-12T20:03:49-05:00'
describe
'34384' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIM' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
f3f0f9a3cbbefb5ec3ab81a8bada9207
0c4c2eaf4dc6478ac50aa39711d1c821d37af7a9
'2011-12-12T20:04:24-05:00'
describe
'4012040' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIN' 'sip-files00048.tif'
357e3232f64210c67b3b80e36d4c49fa
cc83e6a7f756e5230c7582bd47776ca7b6a5ec84
'2011-12-12T20:04:09-05:00'
describe
'1422' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIO' 'sip-files00048.txt'
29efdc953175a8c0733c8190b3a07af4
c43844f54ba9a7aa4fdec26331117283caeb4a96
'2011-12-12T20:04:58-05:00'
describe
'7687' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIP' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
fe401d80553ea437e20752497758eb52
5ae8a32af40297d0d4e10b32ca7160660a5aa416
'2011-12-12T20:00:50-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIQ' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
997ed44b7b95c8d2a1545f741673343a
c21e4c2f073c8acc5f740cafc63a3f075fe5412c
describe
'106006' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIR' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
ec9008249747ac28464f3ceb4c950898
0d3ca90854cb17aa92ad5ebc9cac37aeea15f304
describe
'32582' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIS' 'sip-files00049.pro'
e7df5a16994acb8427626fde8472954b
868c9a867797efed24553db1e0dd86dc457bd781
'2011-12-12T20:01:25-05:00'
describe
'29888' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIT' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
dccad0d1f996ec41d5a54a4388dadda7
7bc86e0fd8c0d9ff6e6447b80c68963e06760647
describe
'4113292' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIU' 'sip-files00049.tif'
0c6ee88a5fd92d57bbf5f8491aa2dc3a
fbfabe71e17e65ee73664711962965fa09343a67
'2011-12-12T20:05:54-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIV' 'sip-files00049.txt'
46f15d60f2080c0ea9949fa332330bd7
df03e6eabd4d05d14d98a142640c1b1d1cf8f834
describe
Invalid character
'6691' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIW' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
c4c4e42e8c7cb4faa702b17306a6bf88
e02cf0206fb6630907b6ea72bcecb716e1056a3f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIX' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
e892ceca43a70cd7b2dd3c902deac9da
3d19bbee43fca38c182198d5351d1c81fba40e8e
'2011-12-12T20:05:04-05:00'
describe
'170762' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIY' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
d5b342ef17ac3dcd0013ca7db5f545c1
b7e800f607092e2f8ab4502c99ed8a1d57c13155
describe
'56649' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOIZ' 'sip-files00050.pro'
bdf34bdbd3b67f714aaac17ee0826159
ff4d530792c3d8268da2daef312a95c71d8167a2
describe
'51182' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJA' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
c6605101525c5bc52c5655200c38757f
5a6d230725e031f9096cb85571ad509d19a9595b
'2011-12-12T20:03:20-05:00'
describe
'4115844' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJB' 'sip-files00050.tif'
31259e8c9e356400e7df91e260d381a5
44e4108305d1352be46e1b05eb7bc490b0ad3667
'2011-12-12T20:01:44-05:00'
describe
'2228' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJC' 'sip-files00050.txt'
39a59a8fbd2a0afc81a5292b2b0af2d4
d5f9d3f358ed9040f2bb18e0e505cdf58f41c4f2
describe
'11365' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJD' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
cd8dc0227451523e96ada52f9b58365e
610c92e11a62b20bdbc190fb5236107e079ccc23
'2011-12-12T20:01:32-05:00'
describe
'511516' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJE' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
30669e41f895070b76702acac23f097b
cba43f889eb41e0e7002b16ab7f5899255173c0f
describe
'133115' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJF' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
012388401952b4cc559eb87de1d23250
a4ba2d616fe4034c45185285f447ae903962223a
describe
'20490' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJG' 'sip-files00051.pro'
aafc2eb8ddf09682a43229644fdf0819
2ef7fd812c2b4eb758651ee59a38dee5cdeec0f5
describe
'37564' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJH' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
8fe0df8dbd0c7c157f4f40204b216ab0
ed2e08b54e52c8ff31a8dbbbd26333964a83e4ee
'2011-12-12T20:05:32-05:00'
describe
'4115876' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJI' 'sip-files00051.tif'
e8631e789090c1501236b60f04d989f0
9f5846eb33a9115ce47fdde54d4bb865b95ce8e3
describe
'1113' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJJ' 'sip-files00051.txt'
bc9f5a383b60a160a3bf7c214d9c4d6f
c5f72962354b221344619ac83f3f7a75c2b61a8f
'2011-12-12T20:04:41-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'9905' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJK' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
1ffdbabae7f06de7bf39984eb4f1f562
124e933ca6235281c863e988ca165e7ce54988f1
'2011-12-12T20:04:07-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJL' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
d2afb8f8b2fcf8e155720f8f184549e3
ab03bf572ed42ef4081e4ab24f3345cf8a8108a3
describe
'38580' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJM' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
1f2199197b46d6c20d711a7728d62d0a
83fdca013d80a7088d3dc09052b4e86fa2e36ede
'2011-12-12T20:03:31-05:00'
describe
'6700' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJN' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
581657578249a6057c9fa5b5fdffb09c
2f5f6e8db6e088192870ff3d22461c91d3d92179
describe
'4109740' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJO' 'sip-files00052.tif'
5332695a51f7e1ca5933a3d47431151d
389c1f8aecaec922dcd8597e35fdb32820fdbc33
'2011-12-12T20:03:11-05:00'
describe
'1278' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJP' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
961107398bff2bbd326c2b63a6ead31d
812d7fbf4a684951fc144e716cd5abbc70d444db
'2011-12-12T20:05:36-05:00'
describe
'511542' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJQ' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
ee0a71b3f7d5a58597a021eab8062089
3e1241ad5c0694dd2067038110b5e4ca2de6874e
'2011-12-12T20:02:27-05:00'
describe
'165189' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJR' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
67792bcf79aa063e1aa92fd92c94436b
000e3a3fa9b467483820d2ed692860d986cadcd7
'2011-12-12T20:03:01-05:00'
describe
'54510' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJS' 'sip-files00053.pro'
db8740fdbb8b8e529531ce2a2b7b5cc0
eaba3aa28b26e95e0bb348b23e2319fd4ba49829
'2011-12-12T20:04:49-05:00'
describe
'47454' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJT' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
0da5b5c59d877ac0a6ff0ec7987c5479
2d10b7818d46713735a81ed198c1040e9409ab8c
'2011-12-12T20:04:28-05:00'
describe
'4115352' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJU' 'sip-files00053.tif'
09336d935a7ab45984abf4dd3201bc39
214d7e2221b93261ebfb0090f89e318cff08ba1b
describe
'2187' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJV' 'sip-files00053.txt'
53b28caeedfcefc295f55dfc43a904bc
6e6e13bc08d408b8ba909491e524453fe78f851c
describe
'10821' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJW' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
033bb2e20a789dc42e2093df0031b1bd
489559a3006f55312558e60732ad18b3bfb78a4e
'2011-12-12T20:00:51-05:00'
describe
'511504' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJX' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
adab8213dd052d898620d2b3523c13b8
1ef7f0e03dc3101059fbf5b9bfa7d2cbbccd8b17
'2011-12-12T20:03:36-05:00'
describe
'107563' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJY' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
b2b58993e920edb5c8ec21bcf35e15f7
d2bbd354c74dd0879d575c0e1d0e19d61f5c9f1c
describe
'32790' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOJZ' 'sip-files00054.pro'
ed31171db41e279ef11a8d69a51c11bd
f57ff88fbfa954ec749a814cf1fa3a9ff7486e4c
'2011-12-12T20:05:30-05:00'
describe
'29700' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKA' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
29f1e12484e823e00518aae17aa36592
3b352da6816a81b2b4d75a43dc280360e112d050
describe
'4113268' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKB' 'sip-files00054.tif'
b5ad29e09a682cc2976aa2fceb9f5402
130e74dff18b0e5619c8c12b4369b3de758e8c83
'2011-12-12T20:01:19-05:00'
describe
'1371' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKC' 'sip-files00054.txt'
a299fc03051bbcdc28006a75c24f9f60
ac8161f0b3986d0fc8b3345506def1ee158b612c
'2011-12-12T20:01:42-05:00'
describe
'7199' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKD' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
df5789c202592e608cefd493d1e2fa1d
4d8b5bff93c6cc1c47f7d995bd85cd064777e44d
'2011-12-12T20:02:26-05:00'
describe
'511517' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKE' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
ac8183cb5a6a892eb66e2d67a77a14b0
4f604da6903d16cfd3ab737835920ee8041eeb11
describe
'131944' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKF' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
becc4cd66a6d7abc45fa8c631cc25d49
f1ce37f4b19fbbe018fe5965c642e5528309788e
'2011-12-12T20:02:42-05:00'
describe
'24458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKG' 'sip-files00055.pro'
8aec861bf1245013df715bb42491214d
6f7b49fe82ab7970ac8bcd0e26ea6704c1b12870
describe
'34443' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKH' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
dabb4d9091b024f90a78efff27b52255
dcded51a82cbe11bd57f7a77b80fd0604ba1da95
'2011-12-12T20:03:08-05:00'
describe
'4113756' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKI' 'sip-files00055.tif'
f3b4e8fde6e0cc38a0afd1e98bf46f5d
49943955f340512bfb0f23c979f2c218d79feb5e
'2011-12-12T20:00:25-05:00'
describe
'1528' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKJ' 'sip-files00055.txt'
091a522dbdbc576f6d7209546ac5c450
434367827210a694400bdb5ed13259243a8be33e
describe
'8421' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKK' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
eb285fdbf88b75002093e47e1446a526
3ab5f9678115d98900cba6d2ea33f0f8279893f6
'2011-12-12T20:06:19-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKL' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
b1229de0bc6e697ac84f9d408ada187d
aa997fd2333853e54f9ca6f58dd4dce1c803011d
'2011-12-12T20:01:29-05:00'
describe
'159211' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKM' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
c415830f52931f80b4ecd3d51ac2b342
ec6639aee32d486c28773e969e1379594739dc1a
'2011-12-12T20:04:16-05:00'
describe
'49653' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKN' 'sip-files00056.pro'
b71c21f749e650469283185ec7830866
54bd7bc31061330becd6b67bf2ff5d4c25430a8f
describe
'46683' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKO' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
b5bfcc4b3803092db89da11a760c9333
e15792cb86e1f3921ba4df8815af4ead4df40397
describe
'4115372' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKP' 'sip-files00056.tif'
96d295a8633d9351b2a3dba833582c77
1a12723a30d435697562cd270fac20593d0c5d53
describe
'1984' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKQ' 'sip-files00056.txt'
4728439704979618872b39c99bc5c04a
e9d9d40dea63a2c99d94f8f2d0bc8ea0299be1f7
'2011-12-12T20:00:54-05:00'
describe
'10754' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKR' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
94f18f9fe697ec86ac0c31f107a0f313
b59dc26a650e0f835efd555c2231cf5a511ddc5b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKS' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
511552b65cc49a85b667414b6a4071fb
2449e60f330e9ce7df58fdbf16497bf5eae097c8
describe
'166530' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKT' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
2d185184fccf09a711d67bd97a2d3bc5
db4ec1a79fbafbefb68d67cfd506fe45f6a19e9b
describe
'56235' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKU' 'sip-files00057.pro'
a08feb5bdab2cb69df97f4b94a6072fb
aac3c9acd20e58e6b012fb36e341964daeeb5290
'2011-12-12T20:00:17-05:00'
describe
'49083' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKV' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
c27a280166844dd7e5566debad93a303
115764e29cb3b1af5abf16671e032bb188f30222
'2011-12-12T20:05:47-05:00'
describe
'4115516' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKW' 'sip-files00057.tif'
d847fc0bbfba61fb658aa8e70d9ac60c
8e50dd98dc1a6f3896f2f59789c918576983b6cb
'2011-12-12T20:03:52-05:00'
describe
'2210' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKX' 'sip-files00057.txt'
e2731be7f56fdf07fd46f911204c48c9
ff58a6849ef5dccb5c5ec8973001240789f609cb
'2011-12-12T20:02:55-05:00'
describe
'10892' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKY' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
e5fd9ab6a41f73715aa80223ceaa90df
a2fc9645c2a820be5976de2ef08fc9755bbea8f7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOKZ' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
7dfade1f73304714011b342291fface5
cfe445b96de4f95cc7fc1da5368d847ffbd81eda
describe
'167289' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLA' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
941ba3d99226dac902297230ac7211e0
4b5156ccf932ecfc2211a404954b7ea790a46be2
'2011-12-12T20:04:21-05:00'
describe
'56663' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLB' 'sip-files00058.pro'
b11393becab36733d494d87a245af581
c1c8f0204cedabb97a46fc6a44bf58e3ea6f5d5c
describe
'49359' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLC' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
d5fe9dc98fdc703f65e56339eb65220c
c21608b96157ba45e3fa8a633f930a9ce8cdc2d9
describe
'4115660' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLD' 'sip-files00058.tif'
2e3301e28785595ac45fc5cee0f6954c
75307711d4b61fc22dc9e8706bf7dc5f0140a0e2
'2011-12-12T20:05:43-05:00'
describe
'2223' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLE' 'sip-files00058.txt'
418af3fd4e3748f0717c9f1d5ea6aecb
375d6bcf69c2e3e380fa5047959ff4f4e38704d3
'2011-12-12T20:02:08-05:00'
describe
'10927' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLF' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
cc0e1ea99133e93dc8575df14f351187
0244174cbe587da241ebc2e6f9f69dd2d479fb32
'2011-12-12T20:02:49-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLG' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
e4b2e155c6162fbfc5b38da3c11bc6ee
a1d1022807eb157ab0c35725e4c474201db034f8
'2011-12-12T20:04:38-05:00'
describe
'158053' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLH' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
6508cbc3a42ca5d417089000e74cc09b
00c9243f2d1ad9fc464869d3fb04a5ebe143ec79
describe
'28240' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLI' 'sip-files00059.pro'
6d07bc20cd951410861b85a52f9f5283
51738771210bc4c2598d21c1416d92f98491a9b3
describe
'43855' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLJ' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
bb148111995ead7f3ccf4ad26f3528b9
4ddcddd03279e61aa8e7edce8febfa4da0aa7e05
describe
'4115604' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLK' 'sip-files00059.tif'
f0e2e070598b4c0f73a4f825eafec793
ed93919aac72f90056d01f413d371a40f451daeb
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLL' 'sip-files00059.txt'
c16b0a68bb505b701a9db6a83d658447
cd1a7681885171cda237babfc9c038afe2fdb168
describe
'10353' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLM' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
2eb2df6c6e64eefaa3f11f6fe7ef01a7
89985d715b8071a784a4f946e64df44729f4a581
'2011-12-12T20:06:36-05:00'
describe
'511482' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLN' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
af5960cea5d0d1ed653fc2ce826a362f
e82d59bc9a02e52febc58a273d57051a99046c08
describe
'162307' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLO' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
8acae60b8d5b4a7c6aeadf3876b56a16
de6f67746e5430c5b62ad084bb9070039f4b579a
describe
'46682' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLP' 'sip-files00060.pro'
950ebe8b730aead608a4fd5c6371eb25
6111dcafdba656c3859a600ed9b97061034ecd30
describe
'46265' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLQ' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
8833d0e199c7f576db7fe3d97fdc9804
d300b7728d6243505d6f53d830e8ac34821a908c
describe
'4115468' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLR' 'sip-files00060.tif'
e35831734cf6ae8b386e928f099faf18
57268844160b235ab41526f084b68ffaedc76b71
describe
'2236' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLS' 'sip-files00060.txt'
b2173968dd3aec71bce903f1e3f89be9
57c1971436840f37a761389a425b154202c71c44
describe
'10384' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLT' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
d7caf830fdae8ec2173295fc06ae1513
c0cce5c183739814f2ef08a7097fb8a2b459e638
'2011-12-12T20:00:03-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLU' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
480682d7ed419641067ae889b8880fea
e181a0bee7f1d71772ab6622ee3a36b7a1ace79d
describe
'163021' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLV' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
978c090bbaf26c7dbd94c2418edd91e5
9ae0adc348ce3a2a1f3b14335e2779d0b4cf1de5
describe
'54359' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLW' 'sip-files00061.pro'
71c2026011d39e29a4d654e1e60dc03a
71cbe04e9bae8f9304e67dab28fb8e8a35926a74
'2011-12-12T20:02:15-05:00'
describe
'48430' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLX' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
0031368c2f8ace74352ba36e77167963
8bd38863a0b3c602d2303137fc7d593b494ad551
describe
'4115476' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLY' 'sip-files00061.tif'
e4638df0b82fdbfb5eee157ec9f09141
0f74b01fe429d887b4eefa944d0116d25d00ae33
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOLZ' 'sip-files00061.txt'
d4c341044cff8538d66b2d93d9bb9ef8
20882dba9f543192aa6e5f092ca36e73dd9cebc6
describe
'10856' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMA' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
bf5c33d2b3c1ea8bb014b516cfba33cf
20718e828794a7da70a9a876bf4f18b5f601044e
describe
'511537' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMB' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
f1bc28bef90d877dcb1add4864646960
f3fec5dfb6c63edb5540884886c54aad97e3c565
'2011-12-12T20:02:23-05:00'
describe
'154458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMC' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
72465d0fe2d1e5056d026268a5502459
8dbe78c0587f304f64f04ebb8eb180798e2611c5
describe
'43737' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMD' 'sip-files00062.pro'
cbf13e3a4c72d93efc516a133cb0d283
7c5967ba23db5c010ba894bc9732200b71c5cbc0
describe
'45455' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOME' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
941eb9d41c60e7513344bccffdb1991a
f3f6692f32e5279a67c9bca89c249e90548dadc1
describe
'4115224' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMF' 'sip-files00062.tif'
c4bae2ab6d8947f4f650c6edfc78fc33
1afc63595e4752155083e1a7c209f4f4e5e58621
describe
'2102' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMG' 'sip-files00062.txt'
8e46f55789e415796186c042150a882a
f8d0c8da6023d3df801600d2c7ffe13610cc8e7d
'2011-12-12T20:04:42-05:00'
describe
'10472' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMH' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
7315519a1114fad61b58f07b846cc291
b3b4412414ac4b1592164c8894c72f866ae987ea
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMI' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
0ea05d71a007baf292a117801e027f4a
d75c4e3c0d44c118d34eb7694187119978e9098c
describe
'180108' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMJ' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
c6c40981cd94f8b633059bcd0889305f
d286a3941b4c2ca2deb6a01f5345f7b87d1be755
describe
'38689' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMK' 'sip-files00063.pro'
c707a1392cb152ab0a96af96446f0986
c13c3ce2c9aaa71be7c18e456269b43df24912e7
describe
'47521' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOML' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
766838f51056ccf2d916a605125421b2
65f479ec7ce8007a2aebcf63c09a40adee29d8dc
describe
'4116292' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMM' 'sip-files00063.tif'
9bd6cfd85ec8cf5cc24f465b219d2444
5d161f40a080842e8830f5849750f8ddb6765b16
describe
'1657' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMN' 'sip-files00063.txt'
9094d6690a740f7c5d38236415ac5c90
ced7c545f342009e97b27cef22a36094266e2bb4
describe
'11294' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMO' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
42912835f3dfa35a0012447102c82985
bfb8c5fd03bb44aa80312a10568bc20051f60203
'2011-12-12T20:00:08-05:00'
describe
'511495' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMP' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
7ee3abfff385a55d3e25bef17294d902
22effbbd18136ee922b73e2890f18faf84d0ec6d
'2011-12-12T20:05:10-05:00'
describe
'167647' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMQ' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
185c465ecc90befdd629c908303c7041
8cb4fda5815e84fd93f4eecafe3047ab48cb5635
'2011-12-12T20:05:39-05:00'
describe
'54550' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMR' 'sip-files00064.pro'
27f334e7a8543769deb50a32f6ce2b9b
29f3c42ac1da21024663441cf7cc54cf764d5166
describe
'49418' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMS' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
7f2a3d6411b505af3bcb8fdb100be22a
9a16e497a087ca030d411d21ac8e9c6795f9d5c3
describe
'4115240' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMT' 'sip-files00064.tif'
e29cf1ed1ef7fee5b4d65a5d25b8285f
2376b2402a3b22da1039af54124c7ebbec7fea78
'2011-12-12T20:04:14-05:00'
describe
'2139' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMU' 'sip-files00064.txt'
9fdea61c969d28f82b5a9fe6fc5d04ee
0a276939ad96122bc99cfb6f0a9beaf95a477aae
describe
'10792' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMV' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
d41237b2ab83b6c59d26b381cccf58fd
c2df7027d438a65bf91f4a190de25a9f81f40c2e
describe
'511538' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMW' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
e530a1701a3bd5afc816a282b726f8f7
8daf85a64e4377e334ed9029e4bee356996d1c70
describe
'168529' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMX' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
eefe120142dcb390c5e8ae05a853b89d
c3e9bbf4454e3640e317f4f857212dae80ae2378
'2011-12-12T20:05:53-05:00'
describe
'56144' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMY' 'sip-files00065.pro'
fb9c19a3c16fda6d82b4dee94b37ebc4
88e6479172cf46f6c75f0c818e4c9e5284f6eeaa
'2011-12-12T20:02:51-05:00'
describe
'49129' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOMZ' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
cc1288017e0c57081e17ae5e6f7b24ab
b5de4aff35dc85728cfa4aaa5458f4814b1062bf
'2011-12-12T20:00:48-05:00'
describe
'4115728' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABONA' 'sip-files00065.tif'
8e3833ae3563522002c3165e1bab4c50
a6c41235f9f43f6509b948cc1f1753cdb4ebca00
describe
'2230' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABONB' 'sip-files00065.txt'
a6926408bcfaa1ff6ffdaeb981d2c4e6
b733c5245f2f17302ba0c473fefec824d1baeec8
describe
'10866' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABONC' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
6a4902211cd3203612495a308d0490c3
658ea9351f657297a56801767b0c4a7e1cbf33bf
'2011-12-12T20:04:29-05:00'
describe
'511513' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABOND' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
e36276668e386e0f648c4eef75868742
e2e28748a3b5bfa562eb593d333f5de1df8a4cda
describe
'173777' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABONE' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
ba49074d6dbeaacbfc3bf1220909efcc
d3773d8ccdb529a1fc66a6ebfc38af6b969ea988
describe
'57072' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABONF' 'sip-files00066.pro'
df70f225d8d5ed451efd72634380cfc2
dae4fcad1485b700ecd2a9a146201b4195e6136e
describe
'50130' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABONG' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
b810c4ff212e042005e50a339d50995d
ee1ec8db30977c3f1fbb25a48a859fad6f094a77
'2011-12-12T20:04:20-05:00'
describe
'4115940' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABONH' 'sip-files00066.tif'
1a46331c86fec13c5484f61418f33d19
08ca4b33dc19d0ad571a456848b243bbdcd88c39
'2011-12-12T20:03:21-05:00'
describe
'2243' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABONI' 'sip-files00066.txt'
afac8220b6b89bbfd91fee3c7b3d9229
401d553e8414eb6d1df70fb1ec0f29171e9d053a
'2011-12-12T20:01:08-05:00'
describe
'11167' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAADSfileF20080516_AABONJ' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
b9bffc324071966f45a00a20cd58bdc0
cecd0c9a167d4cd1d8f101cdf9a7fab111556ba5
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAA