Front Cover
 Title Page

Title: School social work.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080972/00001
 Material Information
Title: School social work.
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Florida State Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
General Note: Florida State Department of Education bulletin 724
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Bibliographic ID: UF00080972
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text




For students to more effectively utilize the educational
opportunities provided, Florida must strive to meet the
social, emotional, physical, and developmental needs of the
total school population. As a part of a coordinated system
of pupil personnel services, school social work assists in
meeting these needs by supplementing and facilitating the
teaching-learning process.
While the school social work service is not a recent
innovation, the scope of the program has broadened from
responsibility for pupil attendance to working toward the
elimination of social-emotional factors which prevent the
student from maximum utilization of the educational
setting. With the recognition that student problems stem
not only from the student himself but also from the family,
the school, and the community, the school social worker
performs an essential liaison function. Services such as
casework, group work, consultation, and community in-
volvement are provided to locate the root causes of pupil
problems and to work toward their resolution. Increasingly,
the school social worker is the significant link between
school, home and community and functions as a member of
a pupil personnel team which incorporates the efforts of
teachers, principal, guidance counselors, psychologists, and
school nurses.
It is hoped that this publication will assist educators
throughout the State as they thoughtfully consider improv-
ing learning opportunities for all children in Florida.

Floyd T. Christian

P 3 oo 5~/ 0 0 39 75



-1 1


Andy comes to school every day, but he spends much of his
time quietly crying at his desk.
Other students are making remarks about the size of Jane's
waistline. She is told to get her things together, because she
is being withdrawn from school.
Johnny crouches in the rear of the classroom. He is
embarrassed because he has nothing to wear but his sister's
blouse. He wishes that he had stayed home again today.
A paper airplane sails through the air. The teacher turns to
see Tom balancing precariously atop his chair, distracting
and disrupting the class again.
Mary bursts into tears when the teacher asks for her signed
report card. She didn't bring it because she was afraid to
show that "C" to her father.

This is the sad procession. There are a thousand variations,
but all are our children, troubled children crying out for
help! School social work is one of the services which may
answer this cry for help! The current form of social work in
the schools has been shaped by many important events,
and, today, those seeking to help the young are facing even
more vital challenges.
Some of the more pressing ones are:

The rapid development of our country from a wilder-
ness, to an urban, to a suburban society has created a
pattern of mobility.
.. Legislation and court rulings have produced important
changes in the treatment of minorities, especially Negroes.
Our youth are demanding a greater part in directing
their own destiny.
.. Automation, specialization and the drop-out (high
school and junior high school) are demanding continuous,
consistent, and creative review of our education curriculum.
Issues such as war, pollution, abortion, and drugs are
on everyone's lips.

The problems facing education today demand new ap-
proaches to Pupil Personnel Services. The school social
worker should be involved in the mainstream of education,
helping the system become more flexible and assisting in
'the modification of conditions and policies which are
obstacles to successful school experiences for children. The
school social worker should also work actively in the
community, assisting in the coordination and development
of resources to meet the needs of those struggling toward
better social-emotional, physical or financial adjustment.
School social work and other pupil personnel services, such
as psychology, guidance, and health are working together
with teachers and administrators to offer comprehensive,
coordinated services to all children.


All children have in common certain physical, social-
emotional and developmental needs which the school social
worker and other school personnel must understand and
strive to see are met. In addition to the basic physical needs
such as food, air, and water, children need to love and to be
loved, to belong and be involved, to achieve and feel
worthwhile. Also, every child needs the opportunity to
develop to the maximum of his potential within the
realities of his environment.
When one or more of a child's social-emotional needs are
unmet or inadequately met, he may exhibit learning or
behavioral difficulties, which act as a signal to those around
him that something is amiss. If these signals are not
recognized, it is probable that the child's difficulties will
increase, thus interfering with his personality development
and school progress.

PREVENTION-Human resources are too precious to allow
preventable problems to restrict the maximum, wholesome
development of any child. Instead of waiting for problems
to occur, the school social worker* assists in the organiza-
tion of preventive programs designed to help as many
children as possible. These preventive programs should be
directed toward building into children the strengths that
will enable them to avoid behavior and learning problems.
Preventive programs also attempt to reduce or eliminate
potential trouble spots in the home, the school and the
community before they exert a negative influence on the
child. Some questions which may be considered in evalu-
ating the school and the community role in prevention are:
Is the school providing for the intellectual and voca-
tional needs of every child?
Is the mental health climate of the school conducive to
the optimum personal and social development of every
To what extent does the school have up-to-date informa-
tion and basic social facts about the community for use
in policy making and curriculum planning?
To what extent does the school have an understanding
of emerging social needs brought about by community
How does the community view the school and its
What resources for helping children are needed in the
The consideration of these questions and the organization
of appropriate preventive action is the combined responsi-
bility of the home, the school and the community.
Therefore, the school social worker is involved and co-
operates with other school personnel, the family and
community agencies in an attempt to provide the most
healthful environment for the optimum development of
each child.
strategic position of the school in the life of the child, the
school social worker and other school personnel have the
opportunity to detect problems in the early stages. It is
*The term school social worker is used herein interchangeably with
the title visiting teacher.

essential that all persons close to the child, especially the
teacher, understand that a child who exhibits behavioral
and learning difficulties is frustrated and is calling for help.

The school social worker may conduct meetings and
workshops to help teachers and other school personnel
identify social-emotional problems in the early stages. When
referral is made at this point, help may be given most
effectively and with the least interruption in learning. Early
recognition and referral for school social work services in
kindergarten or primary grades is likely to prevent more
serious maladjustment later in the child's life.

tain times in life all persons tend to be emotionally
vulnerable and are likely to be in need of support and
reassurance. The understanding and sensitive teacher is alert
to these "special problem times" which may include:
Those undergoing crises brought on by such occurrences
as birth of a sibling, personal illness, death of a loved
one, moving to a new neighborhood, or school failure.
Those undergoing normal transition in individual
biological-social development, such as entrance to kinder
garten or first grade, or the adolescent period.
In addition to those experiencing transitional vulnerability,
certain groups of people tend to have special areas of more
or less continuing vulnerability. These include:
Minority ethnic groups
Economically or socially underprivileged groups
One-parent families
Physically or mentally handicapped persons
By identifying vulnerable groups, anticipating their needs,
and giving support as needed, serious problems may be
eliminated. Often the classroom teacher is in the best

position to recognize the situation and give the needed
support, with the school social worker serving as a resource

are many symptoms observable which may be signals
indicating a need for school social work services. Most
children will from time to time exhibit one or more of
these symptoms to some degree. The severity of the
symptoms, its appearance in a pattern with other symptoms
and the persistence of the negative behavior pattern over a
period of time are factors to be considered in determining
whether or not to refer the child to the school social
worker. Any sudden persistent personality change may be
an indication for referral.

Some typical symptoms are listed as follows:
SCHOOL PROBLEMS-irregular attendance, repeated tardi-
ness, poor academic achievement, lack of interest in
HOME PROBLEMS-parental neglect or physical abuse,
unrealistic expectations for child, sibling rivalry,
inadequate clothing and food, over-protection;
BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS-excessive shyness, aggressiveness
or clowning, anxiety or depression, lack of integrity,
poor peer relationships, vandalism, drug abuse, un-
accepted sexual behavior;
PHYSICAL PROBLEMS-unrealistic physical complaints,
physical differences which cause a feeling or rejection
or ridicule.





student is referred for social work services, the school social
worker reviews all available information and formulates a
plan to assist the child. Some students can be helped best
by a one-to-one relationship, known as casework. This
method consists primarily of a series of planned interviews
in which reassurance, support and direction are provided.
The key to assisting students experiencing difficulties is to
establish a positive relationship founded upon mutual trust
and understanding. First, the school social worker discusses
the reason for referral with the pupil and attempts to secure
his cooperation in working toward the alleviation of his
problem. Together the school social worker and the student
examine and assess the problem and possible ways of
dealing with it. The school social worker then helps
mobilize and provide the means whereby the problem may
be dissolved or diminished. He directs the relationship
toward a specific goal, constantly analyzing and reassessing
with the student his functioning in relationship to this goal.
Much of the casework process with younger children may
be carried out not only through discussion, but also by
understanding the meaning of play, story telling, and facial
or postural expressions. But, whatever the age of the
student, the casework relationship is one which affords him
an opportunity to:
Clarify his problem;
Receive support and reassurance;
Begin to assume responsibility for improving his
Recognize and develop his strengths;
Learn to "live with" situations or conditions, such as
physical or mental handicaps, which cannot be changed;
Come to a better understanding of himself as a person.

Depending upon the needs of the pupil, the casework
relationship may be of brief duration, or may extend over a
longer period of time. However, throughout the process,
the school social worker keeps the teachers, the principal
and the parents informed of the progress and collaborates
with community agencies and other pupil personnel
workers when appropriate.

interaction of group members with one another and with
the school social worker may be more beneficial than the
one-to-one casework relationship. The group method is
particularly helpful for the adolescent, because he is
strongly influenced by his peers, and it is they who can best
help him see himself more realistically and objectively.
The most common approach to work with groups in the
schools occurs when the school social worker, in consulta-
tion with teachers and administrators, decides to form a
group composed of pupils with somewhat similar problems.
The school social worker may also work with natural
groups of pupils (cliques, dissidents) who come to the
attention of school personnel due to their problematic
The group work approach provides a situation for members
in which learning takes place both through the skilled
guidance of the school social worker and through the
helping interactions among the groups members themselves.
The school social worker's focus with groups may not
always be discussion oriented, depending in part on the age
and developmental level of the pupils involved. Activities
and games may be utilized to assist group members to
understand themselves, to improve their relationship skills,
and to enhance their self-concept. At all times, however,
the school social worker retains the primary objective of
assisting the group and its members toward improved social
and educational functioning within the school setting.
Whether the school social worker works in a casework or
group work relationship with children, the same consider-
ation is given to work with the home and family, and to
collaborate with other school personnel and community
agencies. Each is viewed as an individual; the group is
structured to meet his unique needs, and he is helped to use
the group in an individual way.

COLLABORATION-The relationship between the teacher
and the pupil is the most important element in the school
life of the student and can exert a strong influence on his
aspirations, attitudes, and achievement. The role of the
school social worker is supplementary to the teacher role,
and he functions as a member of the teaching team to meet
the overall goals of the school in educating children.
The school social worker's greatest effectiveness is achieved
by his ability to function as a member of an inter-
disciplinary team. Collaboration is a process of interaction
that takes place when two or more persons work together
toward the solution of a problem for which they share
responsibility. In the school setting, the team effort of
collaboration occurs when the school social worker works
with teachers, administrators, and other personnel such as
guidance counselors, psychologists, and school nurses.

A more formal means of collaboration, the case conference,
is a method utilized to facilitate effective services for
pupils. In these meetings, key personnel share information
and engage in joint planning of activities designed to help

the pupil who is experiencing difficulties. Team members
may decide to work independently or tasks may be
delegated that will further the goals accepted by the team.
When members of different disciplines work together, it is
essential that those involved recognize the areas of com-
petence and the specialized training and skills of the other
persons. The goal of achieving high quality services fre-
quently calls for members of the team to extend themselves
to others in order to resolve road-blocks to communication.
The school social worker shares this responsibility equally
with other team members.

CONSULTATION-The method whereby the school social
worker helps students indirectly by acting as a resource
person for teachers, principals, and other school personnel
is known as consultation. The school social worker may
render consultation services regarding mental health con-
cepts, the school situation, or the community in general.
Because of his knowledge of the family and neighborhood,
gained from home visits, the school social worker can share
his perceptions of the cultural forces acting on students. He
can assist teachers to become more perceptive observers of
themselves, their students, and the school milieu. The
school social worker also explores with teachers ways to
facilitate constructive peer relationships in the classroom.
In order for effective consultation to occur, there must be a
mutuality of respect between the teacher and the school
social worker; each profession enhances the effectiveness of
the other. The school social worker must be sensitive to the
limitations of his consultant role; he can share with the
teacher his impressions and suggestions, and the teacher can
accept or reject them. Ultimately it is the teacher who must
work with the child in an attempt to alleviate the problem.
The school social worker is also alert for opportunities to
consult with teachers in groups, and he frequently does so
at the request of the school administrator or the teachers
themselves. The purpose of the group is evolved by the
members. For example, teachers may wish to discuss
common classroom problems, using the school social
worker as a resource person with particular knowledge and
competence in the area of social and emotional difficulties
of children. The group affords opportunities for teachers to
learn from each other valuable teaching approaches and
techniques to develop emotionally healthy behavior in
pupils. Equally important is the opportunity provided for
professional relationships to be improved, for the school
social worker to learn from teachers, and for the fostering
of open communication between the two groups.

RICULUM CHANGE-Because of the school social
worker's knowledge and understanding of the family, the
neighborhood, and other cultural factors that affect pupil
functioning, he can be helpful in the formulation of
administrative policy which directly affects the welfare of
students. For example, he may act as an advocate for
change in the interest of the unwed mother, or in the
creation of a program to prevent dropouts. The school
social worker can also assist in planning activities designed
to improve relationships among faculty and student from
different cultural backgrounds. His knowledge of the home
and community is also helpful in planning curriculum
changes to meet the needs of the student population.


WORKING WITH FAMILIES-It is essential to recognize
the importance of the parent-child relationship, because the
student brings with him to school the attitudes, responses,
and values developed at home. Thus it is necessary to
communicate with the parents as early and as consistently
as possible whenever the student is experiencing difficulty.
The school social worker is in a key position to involve
parents, because one of his major functions is to act as the
liaison between the home and the school, and particularly
to make home visits.
The school social worker often has the responsibility of
interpreting to the family the pupil's behavior as the school
views it. In addition, the school social worker obtains from
the parents information regarding the student's behavior at
home and developmental history, which can be utilized in
working with the pupil and transmitted to other school
personnel when appropriate.
The school social worker enlists the cooperation of the
parents in examining the family situation and together they
assess the strengths and the problem areas. He helps parents
to see how they contribute positively to their child's
growth and development, and also how they may be a part
of their child's problems because of such things as marital
discord, faulty childrearing practices, or unrealistic expect-
ations. Occasionally, the family relationships and problems
are such that the school social worker will offer services to
the family as a group in sessions involving various family
members interacting with one another and the school social
worker. Often the school social worker's purpose in
working with a family is to help them understand and
accept services from other community agencies when such
specialized assistance is necessary. Sometimes the focus of
the school social worker's association with parents is to
help them improve their relationship with the school, or
assist them in channeling their concerns about the school
system to the appropriate authorities. The ultimate goal in
working with families is to have parents participate actively
and constructively in the school-child-parent relationship.

social worker is in a strategic position to work with groups
of parents because he sees the problem of children in school
and also has a first hand look at the home and needs of the
parents. Groups can be of an informational or educational
type, with the school social worker assisting parents in
coping with common difficulties of child growth and
development and in supporting their children's efforts in
school. Such groups are extremely important in preventing
problems from occurring.
The school social worker also offers counseling assistance to
groups of parents who have problems which affect their
children's functioning in school. In addition, parent groups
may be composed of parents of children who are experi-
encing common difficulties in school. A positive result of
such groups is a reduction in the sense of isolation and
aloneness that can occur with many parents whose children
are experiencing difficulties.

The selection and development of parent groups should be
a joint endeavor by the school social worker and other

school personnel. Support from teachers and administrators
is essential in starting a group, and in supporting its
on-going efforts. Other professional persons within the
school staff may act as co-leaders of the group with the
school social worker.


In offering services, the school social worker is confronted
with many school community situations that can interfere
with a student's educational development. These problems
may originate within a school environment which is not
responsive to the special needs of students from various
cultures and neighborhoods. Often it is the community
itself which fosters student difficulties because of such
factors as poor housing or inadequate resources. In attempt-
ing to resolve these problems, the school social worker has a
three-fold responsibility.
First, the school social worker assumes the more traditional
role of liaison or reporting to the members of the school
staff the dynamics of the community and the social factors
operating there for the purpose of curriculum development
and special program planning. He also communicates to the
community the school's problems and needs, as well as
interprets the school social work service to various inter-
ested groups. As a liaison person, the school social worker
acts as a referral agent to community agencies, collaborates
and cooperates with agencies in the rendering of services,
serves on boards and committees of agencies, and works in
various groups as a citizen.
However, simply continuing programs and increasing their
scope of operation is often insufficient. A second important
area of school social work responsibility is the interpreta-
tion of gaps in services to the school and the community.
The school social worker enables both the school and
community to ask questions and raise issues as they
contribute to the improvement of existing programs or the
creation of needed programs to assist children and their
Third, the school social worker finds avenues to assist in
planned change within the organizational patterns of
programs and resources and/or acts as a catalyst in the
development of new services. He also initiates and partici-
pates in programs provided by the school to draw the
community into school planning and increase their under-
standing of and contribution to the educational program.
The focus of the school social worker's involvement in the
community is on eliminating the causes of problems, rather
than treating the results. However, involvement in the
community often leads to the adoption of new methods to
treat, as well as to control and to prevent problems in social
functioning. Effective liaison between the school and the
community becomes a primary objective and not a second-
ary one to facilitate other services. The school social worker
should attempt to enhance relationships between the school
and all segments of the community which it serves, and
work with those factions in the community which impede
the educational process. The community service portion of
the school social work function offers an exciting oppor-
tunity for preventive program planning.



The county superintendent's understanding of and commit-
ment to the school social work program is invaluable. When
the superintendent views school social work services as
helping the school achieve its educational goals, the services
are more likely to be accepted and utilized by school
The support of the principal is essential in insuring the
fullest use of the service in his school. He can interpret the
value of his service to the faculty, participate in the referral
procedures, and can open lines of communication within
his building.
The program administrator has primary responsibility for
interpreting the school social work program to the Board of
Education, the school staff, and the community. He is also
responsible for planning, organizing and coordinating the
program in accordance with the county administrative
structure and policies. He should provide for the recruit-
ment, in-service training and the supervision of personnel. If
possible, field work placements should be provided for
graduate and undergraduate social work students, not only
as an opportunity for the student, but as a means of
enriching the total program.

STAFF DIFFERENTIATION-Differentiated staffing
patterns should be considered to provide a comprehensive
range of school social work services. One such pattern is the
differentiation of staff according to interests and areas of
competence, such as working with the juvenile court, with
potential dropouts, or with special education students.

Another possible pattern is the differentiation of staff
according to education and experience. The master's degree
school social worker could concentrate on complex case-
work and group situations, plan and participate in in-service
training, and help supervise other staff members. The
bachelor degree person could establish supportive relation-
ships with students, both individually and in groups, visit
parents, share information, plan with teachers, and contact
appropriate community agencies. The para-professional
could be used to follow up on absences, to arrange
parent-teacher conferences, and to conduct other activities
commensurate with his ability. In addition, volunteers
could be utilized for selected services and activities.

OFFICE PROCEDURES-Assignments and Schedules-
Staff assignments should be made according to pupil needs
and school areas to be served, taking into account the
interests and abilities of the worker to be assigned. The
school social worker needs to be at the school on a
regularly scheduled basis, with provision for handling
emergency cases when they arise. Scheduled office time is
necessary for the preparation of reports and case records,
for supervisory conferences, and for staff meetings. Time
allotted for attendance and/or participation in professional
meetings is important.
Statistical Reports-Regular statistical reporting is essential
for effective supervision of staff and for program evalu-
ation. The frequency and content of statistical reports is
dependent upon several factors, including the size of the
program and the legal requirements that may exist. The
administration will find monthly and annual reports useful
in looking at the services provided in interpreting to others
what is being done, and in securing additional funds for
staff and equipment.
Case Records-Case records should be succinct, but contain
sufficient data for planning and decision making. The case
record is an account of professional services rendered by
the school social worker and/or other persons involved in
helping the child and the family and is kept in a
confidential file, which may, however, be subject to public
inspection. Provision should also be made to note in the
student's cumulative folder that the school social worker
has been involved in the situation.

Referral Procedures-Clearly established channels of refer-
ral, involving primarily the principal, the teacher, and the
school social worker are necessary. The teacher is the most
frequent source of referral but the parent, the child, other
school personnel, community agencies, or interested per-
sons may also initiate referrals. The referral form should be
brief, but contain sufficient information for the school
social worker to act on the referral in an appropriate

should be adequate physical facilities to house the school
social work staff and supporting personnel, whether it be in
the central office or the individual school. The facilities
should provide privacy for interviews and space for small
groups. Appropriate office equipment (chairs, desks, tele-
phone, locked files, typewriter, etc.) should be provided.
Trained secretarial help is essential to prepare case records,
handle correspondence, and perform other responsibilities.
Secretaries must be impressed with the confidentiality of
information. No student help should be utilized.

RESEARCH AND Research and evaluation are essential to ascertain whether
the school social work program effectively meets student
EVALUATION needs, to improve the procedures and skills of the school
social worker, and to justify expenditures for continuous
assessment and revision of goals to better serve the
individual student and to fulfill the purpose and role of the
school as part of the community.
The following questions are central to any research and
evaluation of the school social work program;
What are the needs of the students?
What kind of school social work activities are required to
satisfy those needs?
What changes result when students receive school social
work services?
How are the school social work services perceived by the
What new services have been initiated or what existing
services adapted to meet the program objectives?
Are interpreted data shared with faculty, administration
and staff?

One problem in attempting evaluation is that too often the
objectives of the school social work program have not been
stated in terms of observable student performance. Specific
objectives should be established for effective evaluation of
the school social work program to occur. Objectives stated
in student performance terms become the criteria against
which the school social work program can be assessed.
Through identification of both short and long term goals
and construction of the accompanying objectives, it is
possible to determine the present status of the program.
The present status compared with the goal reveals the level
at which students' needs are being satisfied. Selected
activities are chosen in an attempt to help the student to
achieve the desired goal. The results are then analyzed to
evaluate the program.
The school social worker can utilize several methods of
gathering data for evaluation; such as, study of the
individual case histories, reports from parents, teachers and
the student himself relative to behavioral changes. In
addition, questionnaires, checklists and opinions concerning
the overall school social work program can be used.
Examination of daily and monthly activity logs and
caseloads will also provide data which are central to an
evaluation of the program. Assessment of the individual
school social worker's performance is essential.
Research and evaluation will enable the school social work
program to meet the changing needs of students and answer
the questions posed by parents, school personnel, and the
general public. Data collected will aid in securing needed
financial support for an adequately staffed, appropriately
housed, well-planned school social work program. Research
and evaluation will further assist school and community
services to complement each other, to avoid duplication of
services, and to provide additional services when and where




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(January, 1971), 11-17.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS-The preparation of a Florida curriculum bulletin requires the concentrated effort and diligent labor of a team of
educators representing the total school program. This bulletin could not have been accomplished without the contributions of school social
workers, principals, visiting teachers, county administrators, and university personnel. Serving on the committee were: Mrs. Harriet Baeza,
Committee Chairman, Supervisor, School Social Work, Pinellas County: Mrs. Gaye Katsaris, School Social Worker, Leon County; Mr. John
Alderson, Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, Florida State University; Mrs. Margaret Bristol, Professor, Department of Social
Work, Florida State University; Dr. John Demming, Director, Pupil Personnel, Palm Beach County; Mr. Don Grinenka, School Social Worker,
Hillsborough County; Mr. Eugene Hester, Attendance Assistant, Pasco County; Miss Agnes Martin, Head Visiting Teacher, Dade County: Mrs.
Josephine Newton, Visiting Teacher, Escambia County; Dr. Raymond Patouillet, Professor, Department of Guidance, University of South
Florida; Mr. Ralph Storey, Principal, Duval County: Mrs. Mary Turschwell, Coordinator, Pupil Welfare and Attendance, Lee County; Mrs. Sue
Woodberry, Visiting Teacher, Gadsden County.
Special recognition and thanks is extended to Mrs. Gaye Katsaris who served as committee editor and was responsible for the compilation of
this bulletin.
Grateful acknowledgement is extended to the staff members of the Department of Education who assisted the committee with the
development and production of this bulletin. These include: Dr. Joseph W. Crenshaw, Chief, Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction; Dr. Paul W.
Fitzgerald, Administrator, Pupil Personnel Section; Mrs. Anabel Brantley, Consultant, School Social Work; Mr. Thomas Culton, Consultant,
Curriculum Specialist; Mrs. Cynthia R. Perkins, Editorial Associate; Marta Foutz, layout and design.

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