Group Title: The Trinidad Historical Society publication.
Title: Publication
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Publication
Physical Description: no. : ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Historical Society of Trinidad and Tobago
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Port-of-Spain
Publication Date: 1932?-52?
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: History -- Periodicals -- Trinidad   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Trinidad and Tobago -- Trinidad
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1-1042.
Numbering Peculiarities: Ceased publication.
Issuing Body: Issued 1932-35 by the society under its earlier name: Trinidad Historical Society.
General Note: Reprints of documents relating to the history of Trinidad.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080962
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 45882505

Full Text


Publication No. 24.
Sir Walter Raleigh's visit to Trinidad 1595.

Source:-The Discoverie of Gviana by Sir Walter Raleigh
Knt; reprinted from the edition of 1596 by the Hakluyt
Society in 1848. Published by kind permission of the
Hakluyt Society.

On Thursday the 6 of Februarie in the year 1595, we
departed England, and the Sunday following had sight of the
North cape of Spayne, the winde for the most part
continuing prosperous; wee passed in sight of the Burlings
and the rocke, and so onwardes for the Canaries, and fell
with Fuerte ventura, the I7th of the same month, where
we spent two or three daies, and relieued our companies
with some fresh meate. From thence wee coasted by the
Gran Canaria, and so to Tenerife, and stayed there for the
Lyons, whelp your lordships ship, and for Captaine Amys
Preston and the rest; but when after 7 or 8 dales we found
them not, wee departed and directed our course for
Trinedado with nine owne shippe, and a small barke of
Captaine Crosses only (for we had before lost sight of a
small Gallego on the coast of Spayne, which came with vs
from Plymouth) : wee arriued at Trinedado the 22 of
March, casting ancour at Point Curiapan, which the
Spanyards call Punto de Gallo, which is situate in
8 degrees or thereabouts : we abode there 4 or 5 daies, and
in all that time we came not to the speech of anie Indian or
Spaniard : on the coast we saw a fire, as we sailed from the
point Carao towards Curiapan, but for feare of the
Spaniards, none durst come to speaker with vs. I my self
coasted it in my barge close abord the shore and landed in
euery Coue, the better to know the island, while the ships
kept the channel. From Curiapan after a fewe daies we
turned vp Northeast to recouer that place which the
Spaniards cal Puerto de los Hispanioles, and the inhabitants
C-nquerabia, and as before (reuictualing my barge) I left
the shipps and kept by the shore, the better to come to
speache with some of the inhabitants, and also to vnder-
stand the riuers, watering places and portes of the island
which (as it is rudely done) my purpose is to send your

lordship after a few daies. From Curiapan I came to a
port and seat of Indians called Parico, where we found a
fresh-water riuer, but sawe no people. From thence I rowed
to another port, called by the naturals Pische, and by the
Spaniardes Tierra de Brea. In the way between both were
diuers little brooks of fresh water, and one salt riuer that
had store of oisters vpon the branches of the trees, and were
very salt and wel tasted. Al their oisters grow vpon those
boughs and spraies, and not on the ground: the like is
commonlie seen in the West Indies and else where. This
tree is described by Andrewe Theuet in his French
Antartique, and the forme figured in his booke as a plante
very strange, and by Plinie in his XII. bocke of his natural
historic. But in this ilande, as also in Guiana, there are
verie manie of them.
At this point called Tierra de Brea or Piche there is
that abundance of stone pitch, that all the ships of the world
may be therewith loden from thence, and wee made trial
of it in trimming our ships to be most excellent good,
and melteth not with the sunne as the pitch of Norway,
and therefore for ships trading the south parties very profitable.
From thence we went to the mountain foote called Anna-
perima, and so passing the riuer Carone, on which the
Spanish Citie was seated, w'e met with our ships at Puerto
de los Hispanioles or Conquerabia.
This iland of Trinedado hath the forme of a sheep-hook,
and is but narrow ; the north part is very mounteynous,
the soile is very excellent and wil beare sugar, ginger, or
any other commodity that the Indies yecld. It hath store
of deare, wyld porks, fruits, fish and fowle. It hath also
for bread sufficient Mais, Cassaui, and of those roots and fruits
which are common euery where in the Wst Indies. It hath
diuers beasts, which the Indies haue not : the Spaniards
confessed that they found grains of gold in some of the riuers,
but they hauing a purpose to enter Guiana (the Magazin
of all rich mettels) cared not to spend time in the search
thereof any farther. This island is called by the people
thereof Cairi, and in it are diuers nations : those about
Parico are called Iaio ; those at Punto Carao are of the
Arwacas, and between Carao and Curiapan they are
called Saluaios; between Carao and Punto Galera are
the Nepoios, and those about the Spanish Citie tearme
themselves Garinepagotos. Of the rest of the nations, and
of other portes and riuers I league to speaker heere, being
impertinent to my purpose, and meane to describe them
as they are situate in the particular plot and description
of the iland, three parties whereof I coasted with my barge,
that I might the better describe it

Meeting with the ships at Puerto de los Hispanioles,
we found at the landing place a company of Spanyardes
who kept a guard at the descent, and they offering a signe
of peace I sent Captaine Whiddon to speaker with them,
home afterward to my great griefe I left buried in the
said iland after my return from Guiana, being a man
most honest and valiant. The Spanyards seemed to be
desirous to trade with vs, and to enter into terms of peace,
more for doubt of their own strength then for ought else,
and in the end vpon pledge, some of them came abord :
the same euening there stale also abord vs in a small Canoa
two Indians, the one of them being a Casique or Lord of people
called Cantyman, who had the year before been with
Captaine Whiddon, and was of his acquaintance. By this
Cantyman wee understood what strength the Spaniardes had,
how farre it was to their Citie, and of Don Anthonio
de Berreo the gouernour, who was said to be slaine in his
second attempt of Guiana, but was not.
While we remained at Puerto de los Hispanioles some
Spaniardes came abord vs to buy lynnen of the Company,
and such other things as they wanted, and also to view
our shippes and company, all which I entertained kindly
and feasted after our manner: by means whereof I learned
of one and another as much of the estate of Guiana as I could,
or as they knew, for those poore soldiers hauing been
many years without wine, a fewe draughtes made them
merry, in which moode they vaunted of Guiana and of
the riches thereof, and all what they knew of the waies and
passages, my selfe seeming to purpose nothing less then
the entrance or discouerie thereof, but bred in them
an opinion that I was bound only for the relief of those
english, which I had planted in Virginia, whereof the brute
was come among them, which I had performed in my return
if extremity of weather had not forst me from the said coast.
I found occasions of staying in this place for two causes :
the one was to be reuenged of Berrco, who the year before
betraied 8 of Captaine Whiddons men, and toke them while
he departed from them to seeke the E. Bonauenture, which
arriued at Trinadado the day before from the East Indies:
in whose absence Berreo sent a Canoa abord the pinnace
only with Indians and dogs inuiting the company to goe
with them into the wods to kil a deare, who like wise men
in the absence of their Captaine followed the Indians, but
were no sooner one harquebush shot from the shore, but
Berreos soldiers lying in ambush had them all, notwith-
standing that he had giuen his worde to CaptaineWhiddcn
that they should take water and wood safelie: the other cause
of my stay was, for that by discourse with the Spaniards

I daily learned more and more of Guiana, of the riuers
and passages, and of the enterprise of Berreo, by what means
or fault he failed and how he meant to prosecute the same.

While we thus spent the time I was assured by another
Casique of the north side of the island, that Berreo had sent
to Marguerita and to Cumana for soldiers, meaning to have
giuen me a Cassado at parting, if it had bin possible. For
although he had giuen order through all the island that no
Indian should come aborde to trade with me vpon paine
of hanging and quartering, havingg executed two of them
for the same which I afterwards founde) yet euery night
there came some with most lamentable complaints of his
cruelty,how hehaddeuided the island andgiuen toeuery soldier
a part, that he made the ancient Casiqui which were Lordes
of the country to be their slaues, that he kept them in chains,
and dropped their naked bodies with burning bacon, and
such other torments, which I found afterwards to be true :
for in the city after Ientredthe same, there were 5 ofthe Lords
or little kings (which they cal Casiqui in the West Indies) in
one chaine almost dead of famine, and wasted with torments:
these are called in their own language Acarewana, and
now of late since English, French, and Spanish are come
among them, they cal themselves Capitaynes, because
they preceiue that the chiefest of euery ship is called
by that name. Those flue Capitaynes in the chaine
were called Wannawanare, Carroaori, Maquarima, Tarroo-
panama, and Aterima. So as both to be reuenged of
the former wrong, as also considering that to enter Guiana
by small boats, to depart 4.00 or 500 miles from my ships,
and to league a garrison in my back interested in the same
enterprise, who also daily expected supplies out of Spaine,
I should haue sauoured very much of the Asse : and
therefore taking a time of most advantage, I set vpon the
Corp du Guard in the cuening, and hauing put them to
the sword, senate Captaine Calfeild onwards with 60 soldiers,
and my self followed with 40 more and so toke their new
city which they called S. Ioseph, by break of day : they
abode, not any fight after a few shot, and al being
dismissed but only Berreo and his companion, I brought
them with me abord, and at the instance of the Indians
I set their new city of S. Ioseph on fire.

The same day arriued Captaine George Gifford with
your Lordships ship, and Captaine Keymis whom I lost on
the coast of Spaine, with the Gallego, and in them
diuers Gent. and ,others, which to our little army was a
great comfort and supply.

We then hastened away towards our purposed discouery,
and first I called all the Captaines of the island together that
were enemies to the Spaniards, for there were some which
Berreo had brought out of other countries, and planted
there to eat out and wast those that were natural of the place,
and by my Indian interpreter, which I carried out of
England, I made them understand that I was a seruant of
a Queen, who was the great Casique of the North, and
a virgin, and had more Casiqui vnder then there
were trees in their iland : that she was an enemy to the
Castellani in respect of their tyrannie and oppression, and
that she delivered all such nations about her, as were by
them oppressed, and hauing freed all the coast of the
northern world from their seruitude had sent me to free
them also, and withal to defend the country of Guiana from
their inuasion and conquest. I shewed them her maiesties
picture which they so admired and honored, as it has been
easie to haue brought them idolatrous thereof.
The like and a more large discourse I made to the rest
of the nations both in my passing to Guiana, and to those
of the borders, so as in that part of the world her maiesty
is very famous and admirable, whom they now call Ezrabeta
Cassipuna Aquerewana, which is as much as Elizabeth,
the great princess or greatest commander. This done
wee left Puerto de los Hispanioles, and returned to Curiapan,
and hauing Bcrreo my prisonour I gathered from him as much
of Guiana as he knewe.
This Berreo is a gent. well descended, and had long
serued the Spanish king in Millain, Naples, the lowe Countries
and elsewhere, very valiant and liberal and a Gent. of great
assurednes, and of a great heart : I vsed him according
to his estate and worth in all things I could, according to the
small means I had.

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