Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Part I
 Part II

Group Title: materials center ...
Title: Materials center
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080915/00001
 Material Information
Title: Materials center
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 22C
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080915
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Part I
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Part II
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
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Full Text


F656 b.
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! i







THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent


Sara Krentzman Srygley (Mrs.), Assistant Professor, Library School, Florida State University, Director

Sue Hefley, Director, Materials Center, Webster Parish Schools, Minden, Louisiana;
Virginia P. Holtz (Mrs.), Instructor, Library School, Florida State University

Celia Anderson (Mrs.), Librarian, Zephyrhills Schools;
Gloria Baxter, Librarian, Dania Elementary School;
Ruth Bradley (Mrs.), Librarian, DeSoto High School, Arcadia;
Irene Christen (Mrs.), General Supervisor, Columbia County, Lake City;
Frances Collins (Mrs.), Teacher-Librarian, Madison Elementary School;
Amelia Delack (Mrs.), Librarian, Largo Elementary School;
Madia Flowers (Mrs.), Teacher, Gainesville;
Julius Hagel (Mrs.), Librarian, St. Lucie High School;
Mary F. Hubbard (Mrs.), Elementary Principal, Mt. Pleasant;
Eunice Keen, Librarian, Lakeland High School;
Lessie Knight (Mrs.), Librarian, Quincy Elementary School;
Edgar Lane, Coordinator, Materials Distribution, Dade County Schools, Miami;
Lena McDonald, Teacher-Librarian, Lake Morton School, Lakeland;
Eleanor McNeil, Librarian, Palm Beach High School;
Vera L. Odham (Mrs.), Elementary Teacher, Miami;
Lillian O'Kelley, Teacher-Librarian, Naval Air Elementary School, Ft. Lauderdale;
Iris Bass Owens (Mrs.), Librarian, Chipley High School;
Alice Pearce (Mrs.), Librarian, Hardee County High School, Wauchula;
Dora Phillips (Mrs.), Assistant Supervisor of Instruction, Polk County Schools, Bartow;
Margaret Sewell (Mrs.), Librarian, Mirror Lake Junior High School, St. Petersburg;
Clara Thompson, Librarian, Brentwood School, Pensacola;
Sarah Wellman (Mrs.), Librarian, Wilson Junior High, Tampa.

To President Doak S. Campbell, Florida State University, and Dean Louis Shores, Library School, Florid
State University, for providing personnel and facilities necessary in the production of this bulletin.
To Audrey Newman and T. George Walker, State Department of Education, for editorial contributions.
To Forrest M. Kelley, Jr., State School Architect and
Albert R. Broadfoot, Assistant State School Architect, for their cooperation in preparing drawings for us
in this publication.
To Meri Adams (Mrs.), Secretary, School Lunch Program State Department of Education, for illustration
used as chapter headings.
To Deputy Superintendent J. K. Chapman for technical direction in publication.
To Thomas N. Morgan, Assistant in School Law and Information,
J. T. Kelley, Director, Division of Teacher Education, Certification and Accreditation; and
M. M. Ferguson, Coordinator of Certification Services all from the State Department of Education fo
specific information used in this bulletin.
To the following organizations for permission to quote material, as documented in this bulletin: Ameri
can Library Association and Joint Committee of N.E.A.- A.L.A.


As Florida teachers, supervisors, and administrators have improved the quality of the instructional
program in the State, increasingly there has been recognition of the need for good materials of instruc-
tion. Consequently, there has been much study and experimentation in methods of selection, organiza-
tion, and use of materials. A materials center to provide the many types of materials and equipment
needed in a modern school program, is generally recognized as effective and economical.

Local schools have indicated the need for guidance in planning materials centers. A group of
Florida school personnel was invited to develop a bulletin for this purpose in the summer of 1951. This
group worked together on the Florida State University Campus for six weeks. They secured valuable
assistance from staff members of the State Department of Education and faculty of the University.

Since 1951, the bulletin manuscript has been examined by many interested people, who have made
valuable suggestions for increasing its usefulness. In the summer of 1954, the manuscript was revised
and presented to the Department of Education by Mrs. Sara Krentzman Srygley, Assistant Professor,
Library School, Florida State University.

There have been many publications dealing with the administration of special types of materials.
Books and other printed materials are usually treated in library publications. Audio-visual guides have
been developed which are concerned with projected materials, maps, charts, globes and recordings.

As schools in Florida have tended to plan materials centers, offering instructional aids of all types,
there has been a demand for a single publication designed to offer help in choosing, administering, and
using all types of instructional materials. In response to this need, The Materials Center has been

The publication is unusual in plan. An introductory story shows a materials center in action. The
table of contents for Part I is annotated, giving in very brief form the basic principles of planning, which
administrators, supervisors, teachers, and parents may find helpful. The chapters which follow amplify
these principles, and give more detailed explanations. Part II contains the very specific information, with
many illustrations, required for the actual work of organizing and administering a materials center.

As this bulletin is read, one becomes aware of the fact that the principles for selecting and using
materials (regardless of type), are generally the same. Some differences exist in handling materials
administratively because of physical characteristics (films, maps, books, etc.). But good teachers use
materials to complement and supplement each other, and there is little competition in such instances
among types of materials. *
I am grateful to all those who have contributed to the development of this material. It is presented
here with the hope that it will help local school systems adequately to provide the materials needed for
learning and teaching.

^ --*- -* -

State Superintendent of Public Instruction


"What do they mean, Miss Madison?"
had just moved to Florida from Mississippi.

Why Do People Come To Florida?

The children in the fourth grade at
Satsuma City Elementary School had a
game. Miss Madison, their teacher, knew
about it. James, Larry, and Ken were
talking with her about it at noon.
"I have two more Michigans, Miss
Madison," bragged James.
"I have a Texas and a Colorado,"
Larry reported proudly. Ken boasted two
Californias and a North Carolina.
The bell rang, and the lunch hour was
over. The boys were still talking as they
took their seats.
asked Sarah Drew, a new pupil whose family

"James means that he has seen two cars with Michigan license plates," explained Miss
Madison. "We play a game to see who can spot the most cars that have come here from
other states. Did you ever play that game in Mississippi?"
"We counted white horses and wished on them," said Sarah, "but we didn't count license
"James," Miss Madison said, "perhaps Sarah would like to know why Florida is such a
good state in which to play the license game. Can you tell her?"
"Well, I guess it's because so many people come here from other states," suggested
"Don't they go to Mississippi from other states, too?" Larry wondered.
"Of course they do, but we have an unusual number here," said Miss Madison.
"Why?" asked Sarah.
The question was not easy to answer. A map of the United States showed that Florida
is not in the center of the nation, but down in one corner. Even so, Larry knew that his father
operated a tourist court because so many people came in and out of the state, and needed a
nice place to spend their nights as they traveled.
"People must come here on purpose," Jessie volunteered, "and not just happen by. There
are too many of them for that."
"Let's try to find some good answers for Sarah," suggested Miss Madison. "Would you
like to?"

So the fourth graders planned how they would work. "We'll have to read about Florida,"
said Martha.
"And look at magazines," added Jason.
"Maybe we'd better go to the library and see what we can find," said James.
When they arrived at the school library, Ken and Larry volunteered to tell Miss Jamer-
son, the materials specialist, what they wanted.
"We want everything you've got here to help us find out why so many people come to
Florida," Ken said.
Miss Jamerson smiled and looked thoughtful. "My," she said, "there are all kinds of
things here that you might use! Books, pictures, magazines, films-some of them might
answer your question. We'll have to find the particular ones you need. How shall we
So they began to look. Larry chose to see what an encyclopaedia included about
Florida. That gave Ken an idea-so he took the "F" volume of another reference book.
A committee of three began looking in the card catalog. They were quite excited to
have Miss Jamerson explain that the different colors of cards in the catalog represented dif-
ferent types of materials. By looking under "Florida" one could find films, books, record-
ings, and filmstrips that might answer the question the fourth grader asked.
Two of the children discovered the file of pictures, clippings, and pamphlets, arranged
in folders by broad subjects. This was called the Information File. How pleased they
were to find the "Florida" collection filled a whole drawer of the file! They removed some
of the materials from the file and settled down to find out which ones told in words or
pictures about why people come to Florida.
"Now let's consider films," suggested Miss Jamerson. "Our county materials center has
some, and we may borrow other films that we don't own in our county. Here's a list you
might like to consider."
"Maybe we should borrow this one called Florida: Wealth or Waste," volunteered Sarah.
"That sounds good."
Ken was busy at the card catalog again. "Here it says Music from FSU, 8 sides, 10
inches. What does that mean?"
"Those are 10 inch recordings, Ken; two sides to a record, 8 sides, you see," said Miss
"Would they help us, do you think?"
"Maybe you'd like to hear them, and find out," she said.
"Let's ask people why they come to Florida," Sarah insisted.
"I bet they wouldn't like to tell us," Ken replied.
Miss Jamerson interrupted their conversation with a good suggestion-that they talk
with Mr. Kent, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce. Surely he would know why lots
of people come to Florida, and he might suggest some others who would talk with them.
He might give them some interesting pamphlet and picture materials to use on their bulletin
boards, too.

So, by reading books, looking at pictures, exploring motion pictures and slides, tryil
out recordings, and talking with people, the fourth graders at Satsuma City learned mo
about their state.
Materials and other resources, and a materials specialist helped them and their teach(
Because the school's materials were centralized, organized, and accessible, it was easy
locate and to use them. These fourth graders had a valuable experience in identifying ai
evaluating materials-an important step in problem solving. They were glad they had
materials center in their school!

The Materials Center

Part I
Annotated Table of Contents

1. WHAT IS A MATERIALS CENTER?------ ----_---------
A materials center offers a centralized service in instructional materials and in infor-
mation about materials and resources in support of the school program. It may function
as a unit within the school or at the county or multi-school level. A school library
is a materials center when it gives equal consideration to all types of instructional
materials needed for the school's program.
Materials are the tools for teaching and learning. They are essential for an effective
program of education. They are produced today in great quantities and in good
quality. A centralized service in materials provides a planned program for wise
selection and acquisition, and for maximum use by the most people of the materials
school-owned. This results in economical and efficient provision of materials. It helps
teachers who appreciate advisory services from a specialist in materials as well as the
time saved in having help in locating and using materials.

A specialist in materials is one who is qualified by training and experience to direct a
materials center. Many others share the responsibility for planning and evaluation:
State Department of Education personnel; the county school board and superintend-
ent; the county supervisor of instruction; the principal; teachers; pupils; and parents.
The community has the responsibility for financial support through the tax structure.
The materials specialist strives for the best use of what the community provides in the
interests of pupils.
It is located for maximum convenience to those served. Planning for the housing of
the service is a cooperative process. Quarters vary in size and design to provide ade-
quately for the activities of the service.
Policies, services, and activities are determined cooperatively. The materials specialist
provides for cooperative evaluation, selection, and administration of materials by all
who use them. Resources of the center are made accessible through logical arrange-
ment, adequate indexing, continuous physical upkeep, and flexibility in circulation
procedures. Good leadership is essential for good administration.

Materials center costs are an integral part of the over-all school budget and should be
cooperatively planned. Provision of centralized services in materials does not neces-
sarily increase costs; through wise planning, costs may be lowered. The school admin-
istration is responsible for allocating the amount of money necessary for adequate
materials of instruction from school funds.

In the small school (6 teachers) administrative responsibility for materials may be
shared by the teachers, under leadership of a chairman. In larger schools, at least
one qualified materials specialist (librarian) is needed. When only one is provided, he
should be qualified in printed and audio-visual materials. If more than one is justified
by the size of the school, specialization is possible within the materials field. There
may be materials centers at the school, county, regional and state levels. The principles
of planning are the same, regardless of level of service.

The story had its beginning years ago. Through teacher expression and official or legal
statement, the place of instructional materials, effectively administered, has been estab-
lished in Florida's program of education.

Part II
Materials; a checklist ............------------ --.......- --------- ...... .------.. 29
Criteria for the selection of materials and equipment -- --- 31
Aids in selection of materials for children and young people .....--- ----------- 35
Magazines; a checklist for school use ---- ------ -- 39
Magazines; a checklist for educators .--------... ..--------- -- --- -- ----- 41
Processing of materials; a visual presentation ---.......... ...- ------------- ------ 42
Classification of materials
Subject Headings used in organizing materials
Processing: From Identification to Circulation
List of supplies needed for organizing a materials center --------... ---------- ----- 92
Dealers and commercial services ---------------------------- --- -------- -------------- 93
Book Jobbers
Book binderies and jobbers for books in reinforced bindings
Magazine agencies
Maps and globes
Producers and distributors of educational films
Commercial organizations distributing films for use in vocational and
technical education
Pamphlet services
Library supplies and equipment
Agencies for flat pictures
Audio-visual equipment

Quarters for a materials center; specific of planning -----

Plan I. A center for materials in a six room school

Plan II. A center for materials in a small elementary school

Plan III. A center for materials in a twelve grade school

Plan IV. A center for materials in which special care has been taken to
provide .. audio-visual materials

Plan V. Suggested areas to be included in materials center at the county
or regional level

Specifications for shelving, cabinets, and other built-in equipment

Standards for materials center
Materials standards for accreditation of Florida schools
Standards of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools
Summary of quantitative standards suggested for school libraries by the
American Library Association

Professional groups related to materials centers

The Materials center at the county or multi-school level

The Committee advisory to the materials specialist at the school level

The Committee advisory to the materials specialist at the county or
multi-school level-

Florida High School Library Council_- -- ---

Suggested activities for student assistants in materials centers -

Evaluating services in materials

A week in a materials center; the librarian's record -- -

Bibliography ------ -- -

The Materials Center
Part I


The library should not be just a deposi-
0 tory for books, but should be a place where
all materials relating to the instructional
li program can be filed properly and yet
-readily can be made accessible to all
CN^ teachers and pupils who should use them.
/ Many school libraries in Florida are con-
,r\ firming this principle and are centers for
Small types of educational materials. In these
o 0. libraries books, films, slides, filmstrips,
magazines, newspapers, recordings, and
collections or specimens of real objects
may be found. In some schools too small
to provide the more expensive items, such as films, or unusual books or recordings, the library
provides a service in identifying and securing them on a loan basis.

Other schools in Florida have provided materials on a non-centralized basis. In some
cases, printed materials are organized in one center, and the various audio-visual materials
in one or several separate centers. This has been done in some instances because of space
limitations and in others because of interests of certain faculty members in special types of
materials. Whenever materials with schoolwide value are separated physically by type, it is
most helpful to teachers if an index to all school-owned materials can be provided in one
center. In any case all those with administrative responsibility for materials should work
cooperatively to provide a well-rounded collection of all types of instructional materials
and to make them accessible schoolwide.

It is characteristic of the service of a materials center that all types of educational and
instructional materials and resources, and information about them, have equal status in
consideration. By materials is meant: (1) printed matter, such as books, pamphlets, maga-
zines, newspapers, charts; (2) audio-visual items, such as films, film-strips, recordings, slides,
maps, globes, pictures; (3) other useful things, such as collections of rocks, stamps, sea-
shells, models, exhibits, Indian relics, Confederate firearms-anything with instructional value
which is subject to acquisition, organization, and circulation. The term may also include
expendable supplies for teaching and learning; for example, clay, scissors, test-tubes, or

crayons. By resources is meant agencies, organizations, persons, places, or things that
useful. Many materials are dependent on special equipment or services for their i
Consequently, the materials center which provides films provides film projectors and proj
tionists; if recordings are to be accessible, so must record players.

The scope of materials service is determined locally in relation to needs, budgetary p
visions, and other considerations. The decision as to what will be provided should be m,
with recognition of all the materials, resources, and equipment available today, the poten
value of them in a particular program of education, and the funds available in the sch

Each materials center should be planned locally to offer materials, equipment, i
other resources, or information about them, to support effectively the instructional progr
in each locality.


Educational psychology has thrown
Slight on the nature of the learning process,
S 7 conditions of effective learning, and the
significance of environment. The curric-
/ ulum has come to mean more than a course
of study. It is a plan of activity by and
through which pupils gain understandings
of the world about them and grow in mind,
body, and spirit. As teachers have found
out more about the learning process, they
have recognized the necessity for many
instructional materials, varied in type, pur-
pose, content, and level of difficulty. They
have recognized that tools for teaching and learning must be carefully chosen, then made
accessible when and where they are needed. A rich environment is essential for education,
whether it be planned or unplanned learning.

Production is sensitive to need. Materials of many kinds are widely available in America
today, but as yet they are not accessible to many teachers and children. The community,
which supports its schools through the tax structure, and those who administer school funds
have the responsibility for providing adequately for instructional materials. Increasingly,
Florida school budgets are allowing for materials and for their administration.

How can these materials be organized to give the most effective, yet most economical
service to the school? The case for centralization of materials and of ready access to them
no longer need be argued. Teachers, curriculum directors, and pupils have agreed that
they need printed and audio-visual materials and help in selecting and using them. Re-
search has indicated that people use more freely materials that are easy to find and to
borrow. Time-most valuable to teachers-is saved if it is possible to go to one center to
identify all the materials the school provides, and to receive help in choosing and using the
tools best suited to a purpose. Uniform, simplified procedures in acquisition, organization,
indexing, and circulation are more possible with centralization. This makes it easier for
pupils and teachers to use materials. The saving resulting from schoolwide sharing of
materials and services appeals to taxpayers and to school administrators with budgetary
A materials center functioning properly brings together in one place books, audio-visual,
and other instructional materials-or information as to how to get those not provided in the
center. The materials are chosen carefully by those who will use them, and organized and

administered toward one goal-making them accessible and useful in the school program.
The school library becomes a materials center only when equal consideration is given all
types of materials in developing the collection and services offered.

Unification of materials in a center encourages a teacher or pupil to select materials for
specific purposes with due regard for the potentiality in all the various types of materials. It
is in terms of the characteristics and potential of all materials that selection of a single item
can be made most wisely. Teachers are motivated to consider how different types of mate-
rials may supplement or complement others. Centralization minimizes acquisition which is
competitive for types of materials or areas of the school program. It is in terms of total
school needs and total budget possibilities that the materials center operates.

In its very nature, a materials center becomes a proving ground for materials. Its
services encourage teachers to share experience with materials-the only basis for evalua-
tion that is dependable.

Access to a centralized collection of materials and information about them results in
maximum use at the lowest cost.


S The director of the materials center has
i/the chief responsibility for its administra-
tion. The title for this position is not as
important as recognition that a qualified
person should be charged with this re-
sponsibility. The title may be "Director,"
"Coordinator," "Materials Specialist," or
simply "Librarian." For years Florida's
certification laws have required librarians,
or materials specialists, to be qualified as
teachers and to have training in the admin-
istration, organization, and selection of
audio-visual as well as printed materials.
Many others share the responsibility for the success of the materials program. These
include individuals and groups at state, county, and local levels:
Members of the staff of the State Department of Education provide advisory service,
help to determine and interpret minimum standards, work for school improvement at the
state level, and help provide an environment for the development of local leadership. The
office of the Consultant in Instructional Materials, a member of the State Education De-
partment staff in Florida, provides special leadership in the materials field for all school
personnel. The Consultant in Instructional Materials is a resource for information and as-
sistance; her services are available to local schools on request.
In the final analysis, the community itself is responsible for the quality of the local
educational program. Members of the community accept this responsibility by partici-
pating in cooperative planning for school improvement, by providing desirable school pro-
grams through the tax structure, and by giving local support to school improvement at
state, county, and local levels. Local communities indicate their concept of desirable en-
vironment for learning by the materials and services they provide for school use.
The county school board and the county superintendent of public instruction share the
responsibility for planning a good countywide program of education. Theirs is the respon-
sibility for making possible democratic planning, for budgeting wisely available funds, for
interpreting the budget to all affected by it, and for providing qualified school personnel.
The Supervisor of Instruction at the county level works with teachers to determine
goals and ways to reach them. One step in this process is the identification of needed
materials. The supervisor is especially well equipped to help in planning for cooperative
services at all levels.
Materials Centers at the county or multi-school level have been developed in Florida

in several places. These offer services to supplement the school library or materials center.
County centers are dependent on the cooperative planning of all the schools they serve for
successful operation.

The school principal has a responsibility for each aspect of the school program. In
working with others for the school's materials program, he can: (1) plan for the best use of
available funds, (2) make recommendations for adequate, well qualified personnel, (3) pro-
vide opportunities for faculty planning of physical quarters, (4) provide for school-wide
consideration of the materials program, (5) plan administratively for the materials specialist
to have those professional experiences which will encourage understanding of the total pro-
gram and for others on the faculty to understand the materials program, (6) assure that the
school's materials center is accessible all day to those who need it, (7) help to interpret the
services of the materials center.

Teachers and pupils share with the materials specialist responsibility for determining
the needed services of the materials center. Selection of materials is primarily the teacher's
responsibility. Boys and girls can share this responsibility in relation to their maturity.
Participation, with guidance, in this activity can encourage growth in the skill of choosing
materials with intelligence and discrimination.

The Materials Specialist, with his assistants, works with teachers and pupils in the
choice and use of materials. These assistants may be professional, clerical, or pupil. It is
the responsibility of the materials specialist to make it easy for others in the school com-
munity to work with the staff of the materials center. His is the responsibility for organ-
izing, circulating, maintaining, and improving the materials collection.

Some pupils work well in clubs or as assistants concerned with various aspects of the
materials program. The use of student assistants is justified to the degree that their activities
are basically educational. There is no justification for pupil exploitation through dull,
mechanical library tasks which may lose their value for students through repetition.

The Florida High School Library Council is the statewide organization of student assist-
ants in materials programs in Florida schools.

See Part II:
Florida High School Library Council
Suggested Activities for Student Assistants in Materials Centers


In a school, a center for materials is care-
fully located for the maximum convenience
of those who are to use it. Physical quar-
ters are planned to house the materials,
Equipment, and services desired in the
S" instructional program. In older buildings,
a > S-- \ wwise planning is required to adapt estab-
lished space to a desirable program.

-. Since the materials center serves all
aspects of the school program, care should
be taken to place it where it is easily reached by the most classes, with the least traffic
conflicts. If possible, it should be removed from other areas in which noise is a neces-
sity (band, etc.).

The best basis for planning physical quarters is a consideration of what is to be kept in
them and what activities are necessary. On this basis, a description of the services of a
particular center is necessary before quarters can be planned for it.

Materials of all kinds are housed in the center. Books to the number of 5-10 per pupil;
current and back files of magazines, perhaps 15 titles as a minimum or as many as 100;
recordings, filmstrips, slides, newspapers, maps, globes, charts in varying quantity are
shelved or placed in cabinets of appropriate design and size; miscellaneous objects are
shelved or kept in cabinet drawers.

Materials of all kinds are processed to make them ready for circulation. This means they
are ordered, received, checked, and prepared for circulation. Space is provided for the
materials specialist or librarian and his assistants to use as they handle packages and in-
voices, prepare and maintain a variety of card indexes and files, paste pockets and "date
due" slips in books or identifying labels on filmstrips cans and on recordings. Pasting,
stamping, marking, shellacking-these are routines behind the scenes. Inspection of films
is a necessary activity, as well as servicing of audio-visual equipment. A work area for
these activities, with running water, good work surfaces, cabinets and shelving for storing
supplies and materials "in process," contributes to efficient working conditions.

Some materials in the center are used infrequently or must be held for minor repair.
Storage space is as valuable in this case as in the well run home or business. It may be
combined with the workroom, but it is always separate from the main usage area, although
adjacent to and connected with it.

Pupils, teachers, and parents go to the center to examine, select, and use materials. As
many as 10-15% of the high school enrollment, and as many as 50 elementary students may
go to the center at any one time, even in the smallest school. Most of those who go to the
library need to sit down to examine or compare materials. Tables and chairs are suggested
to make this activity easiest. The general usage area is most important, since this is the
space most used by the library's public.

An important function of the materials center is distribution. Accordingly, a well-
defined area for this purpose, with charging desk of suitable size, is planned. The equip-
ment and furnishings required for distribution are allowed for in this area-shelving for
reserved material, card files or indexes for the identification and location of materials,
movable trucks for transporting materials, small tables for assembling materials. This
area may be part of a large usage area, or a separate room, depending on size of the center.

Pupils or teachers often meet in small groups to discuss problems or projects, or to
evaluate the materials available. At least one small conference room makes this possible;
larger schools require two or more. Small but adequate rooms for hearing recordings or
previewing films or other projected materials are desirable. Lighting and acoustical
conditions must be carefully planned.

The materials specialist, or director of the center, has work to do that is particularly
his own. Office space, if not a private office, is available. This may be part of the work
room or the general usage area, separated by double-faced shelving, in the small school.
In the larger school, it is practical to provide an office. The materials specialist is respon-
sible for supervision of all physical areas of the center; consequently, clear glass in parti-
tions separating these areas is essential.

The physical areas described for the school materials center are the same as those
needed in the county or multi-school center. At this level some of the activities may be
modified, and the quarters would be modified accordingly. For example, at the county
level, a large space may be required for receiving materials and sorting them for distribu-
tion; a comparatively small space may be needed for examination or use of materials.

Equipment and interior detail are chosen in regard to function and need. It is essen-
tial for the school materials center circulating many types of materials to provide large
storage areas, with cabinets, deep shelves, or bins specifically designed for projectors,

distribution agencies. At any time it is easy to determine the state of acquisition if files are
kept, headed: "Purchases or acquisitions considered"; "Orders or requests outstanding";
"Orders or requests received"; "Reported not available."
Organization and arrangement of materials for easy accessibility and maximum use is
another responsibility of the materials specialist. A classification system is adopted; usually
the Dewey Decimal System is considered the best for school materials centers. This system
brings like things together, or materials on the same subject together, and suggests a num-
ber for each subject. Usually materials of one type (books, films, recordings, pamphlets,
etc.) are arranged together, with Dewey classification within each type when appropriate.
Thus, through organization and arrangement, all books about insects bear the classification
number 595.7 and stand together on the shelves; books of poetry are located together; all
pamphlets on dairying are in one folder, alphabetically in place under subject heading in the
pamphlet and picture file; all 2 x 2" slides are found in one place, classified either by the
Dewey system or in order of acquisition and indexed by subject.
It is desirable that each person using the materials center be as independent as pos-
sible. Therefore, it is an obligation of the center to provide an index to its resources indi-
cating where each piece of material is located. This index is most practical and can be kept
current when arranged on cards (the card catalog), with as many card entries for each piece
of material as necessary to identify it by author, title, subject, performer, editor, etc. These
cards are arranged in one alphabetical sequence, including cards indexing resources outside
the center, when desirable. In some centers, different colored cards indicate the type of
the material cataloged.
The user's approach to identification of materials may be through authorship ("Do we
have the book Joseph Gallomb has written about a medical missionary in Africa?"); through
a title ("Do we have the book, Great Expectations?"); through subject ("I have to write a
theme on protective coloration. What do you have to help me?"); through type or form
of material, then purpose ("I'd like to use a film with my Boy Scout troop to teach elementary
first-aid. What do you suggest?") The card catalog has many of the answers! It is sup-
plemented by printed or mimeographed indexes, catalogs, or lists. Sometimes these are
checked (v) to indicate local ownership or availability. The materials specialist encourages
the use of indexes planned as part of a particular piece of material, such as the index to a
book. He is available when needed to help people learn the use of indexes and to give
advisory service in the location, evaluation, or use of materials.
Distribution or circulation of materials is a primary function of a materials center.
Desirability, orderliness, consistency, and sound policy are reconciled with flexibility in the
design of circulation procedures. Each piece of material in the center's collection has its
own identification (an accession number or a copy number). This number is important in
checking materials in and out, so that responsibility can be assigned fairly to the borrower.
Materials can be circulated under many patterns. For example, from the School
Materials Center, an individual may borrow a recording for one week; a teacher may borrow

15 items-books, pamphlets, filmstrips-on a single subject for indefinite use in a classroom;
a teacher may borrow 30 books on miscellaneous subjects for a month to facilitate reading
guidance in the classroom; a single pamphlet may be reserved at the center, at a teacher's
request, for maximum use by a physics class; an issue of a current magazine may be bor-
rowed at the end of the school day for overnight use; a film may be requested for classroom
use for a specific hour and day; a book for recreational reading may be borrowed for one
week and renewed if desired.

Materials in the center and the center itself must also reflect good housekeeping pro-
cedures. The materials specialist is intolerant of clutter, and works with pupils so that
they increasingly assume responsibility for the proper care of the materials they use. Since
the service of the center is built on the assumption that each person participating is a good
citizen with regard to the use of public property, it serves as a laboratory in this area of
pupil growth. Only minor repair of books and other materials is undertaken at the center;
commercial book binderies, equipment dealers, and other specialized agencies are depended
upon for major repairs.

Well recognized policies are basic to the operation of a service in materials. The
materials specialist makes it possible for others to work with him in the formulation of
these policies. Both pupil and teacher advisory committees are strongly recommended.
There is shared responsibility for deciding if fines for "over-dues" are to be charged, or if
individual volumes of an encyclopaedia are to be loaned. When policies are established,
it is the materials specialist's responsibility to put them into practice.

The most serious responsibility of the person in charge of the materials service is to see
that it is completely identified with the school program. The materials center should
reflect the educational goals and needs of the school; it should support every important
undertaking of the program. The materials specialist-his own interests, his personality, his
training, his aptitudes are significant. He must be a specialist in human relations, as in
materials, with unusual ability to work with others. He must be able to see all phases of the
school's program in their proper perspective with the whole.

Successful administration of a school materials center contributes to improving the
quality of the educational program. This is possible only when all those using the center
cooperate in its planning and operation.

See Part II:
Materials: A -Checklist
Criteria for the Selection of Materials and Equipment
Aids in Selection of Materials
Magazines; A Checklist for School Use
Magazines; A Checklist for Educators
Processing of Materials; A Visual Presentation
Lists of Supplies Needed for Organizing a Materials Center
Dealers and Commercial Services
A Week in a Materials Center
Evaluating Services in Materials


The costs of a materials service are those
S/ required to provide physical quarters, ad-
Sministrative personnel, initial provision of
/ / / a basic collection of materials, initial cost
/ / of equipment, and a regular, annual appro-
9) / ( / B UD priation for maintenance and expansion.
SThe yearly appropriation should be ade-
I quate to keep equipment in good condition,
Sto replace materials and equipment worn
BU out and discarded, and to purchase new
materials and equipment as needed.
In estimating costs for a materials service
at any given time certain variables must be
recognized. Evaluation of each situation is necessary to determine possible expense.
One variable is the degree to which initial costs already have been met. Must new
quarters be provided? This question is asked at the present time particularly in regard to
service in elementary schools and at the county level. Is there an adequate basic collection
of printed materials? Audio-visual materials? What projection equipment is now avail-
able? It is obvious that answers to these questions determine the appropriation necessary
for beginning a materials service.
A second variable is the scope of the materials service planned.Will 16 mm films be pur-
chased or borrowed? Shall a recordings collection be provided? Maps, charts, globes?
Is a professional library for teachers needed? To what extent will museum materials be
included? Supplementary textbooks? Art supplies? Will space be allocated for exhibits
of pupil work?
The number of people to use the materials service is a commonly accepted index to
costs. This is particularly significant in determining the size of the basic collection, and
the amount of the annual appropriation.
Costs are influenced by the kinds of services offered. This is particularly true of a
service at the county or multi-school level. Such a service might be no more than a re-
source in information about materials. It might give full coverage to needs for materials,
providing opportunities for pre-purchase examination, maintaining loan collections of all
types, centralizing acquisition, classification, and cataloging for the local school materials
centers served. Sample collections of new equipment (tables, chairs, desks, A-V equip-
ment, etc.) are sometimes maintained for examination purposes. The range of services
offered at any level is a factor determining what personnel and space should be provided for
the operation of the center.
The services undertaken are best determined by the expression of needs in materials
on the part of those served by the center. Democratic planning provides a channel for this

expression and, still more important, provides for the cooperative identification of needs.
The amount of money which can be budgeted from school funds, with fair considera-
tion of total school needs, is a rather significant factor. There can be no doubt that the state-
wide appropriation from which materials can be purchased has not been sufficient to provide
adequate materials in Florida schools. As needs are clearly identified throughout the state,
cooperative planning at all levels can result in providing through the tax structure for the
instructional materials necessary for a good educational program.
Costs of materials vary as the purchasing power of the dollar varies. It must be remem-
bered that this variation affects estimates for initial outlay and for annual upkeep.
Obviously, an estimate for a materials service annual appropriation can be made on a
per pupil" basis considering a fair coverage of all types of materials (rental, not ownership of
16 mm films). $3.00 per pupil should provide maintenance and some expansion of a
materials center already stocked with a basic collection. This estimate is in line with national
standards. Capital outlay should be provided for the basic collection in relation to the size
of the school or school systems and the nature of the educational program.
While it is difficult to estimate costs, it is simple to identify certain principles of
financing. Some of these generally agreed upon are:
1. Consistency of annual appropriation is as important as the amount.
2. Quality in all materials and equipment is more important than quantity.
3. Materials are used most when acquired to meet a purpose or need.
4. Cooperative planning for expenditure of funds insures acceptance of the resulting
5. Widely disseminated information about the financial structure which supports an
educational program encourages intelligent planning for wise expenditures and ac-
ceptance of the results.
6. Centralization of responsibility for materials of all types minimizes competitive
acquisition of the various types.
When planning to finance a new building or to remodel an old one, consideration should
be given to incorporating in the specifications for the bond issue or other means of financing
construction, the capital outlay funds necessary for establishing a basic collection of
materials and equipment to support the school program.
It should be recognized that the provision of a centralized materials service need not
increase the overall budget for materials in the school or county. Economy should result
from wise planning for materials, shared use of them, and cooperative responsibility for their
care and maintenance.
Coordination, through one director or supervisor, or through committee planning, of
existing services concerned with special types of materials (films, books, radio, etc.) is one
step toward a materials center. Regardless of the organization of materials services, coop-
erative planning, with equal consideration of all types of materials and equipment is most
desirable. There should be definite policies, cooperatively planned and widely known, for
financing the materials center.
See Part II: Standards for Materials Centers


There are many units within the
school system that supply materials.
Each may offer some aspects of
materials service. This is true of the
classroom library, which at its best
is a changing collection drawn from
the central library. It is true of a
teacher who has been assigned the
responsibility of handling films and
equipment. It is true of the office
which handles adopted textbooks
or of a service in audio-visual aids
only. It is true of the library of
books and other printed materials,
or of a state-wide lending service.
1 1C When the different aspects of a
'- "total materials program exist inde-
pendently, this indicates that administrators and teachers have only partially accepted the
idea of centralized materials services. While each of these special units demonstrates a type
of centralization, a library becomes a real materials center only when it represents in its
services the whole range of instructional materials, equipment, and resources needed by the
school. In Florida, the school library is legally commissioned to be such a center. The cen-
ter at the county level which renders a parallel, supporting service in all materials meets this
description. Even in these two units, administrative patterns may vary greatly in relation to
size and purpose.
In the small school, such as the six-teacher elementary school, administrative respon-
sibility for the centralized materials collection may be shared by teachers, under the leader-
ship of a chairman. In larger schools, administration of the materials service is usually
assigned to one qualified, certified person-the school materials specialist, or librarian. In
very large schools, two of more materials specialists may be needed; sometimes one of these
may have special interests and abilities in audio-visual or in printed materials.
In the center serving a county, a materials specialist or materials supervisor has the
responsibility of administration. There may be a "one-man" staff, or the service may be of
such volume that assistants-clerical, professional, or both-are provided. In this way the
very large county might provide several professionals to work in the materials center, each
with a specialization for which he is responsible. Specialists in radio, projected materials,
recordings, printed materials, or television may work cooperatively in one center, with a
designated coordinator or supervisor of materials. When only one person is provided in a
school or in a county, he should be qualified as a general materials specialist and assume
responsibility for a total materials program.
Although patterns of service may vary, certain features of the service are common to
all: the identification of materials, their selection and evaluation, centralized acquisition,
classification, cataloging, and arrangement, display, loan, and use.

f //S TORV
OF The evolution of instructional materials
I/YI AT / IALS can be traced through the history of educa-
tion. Rousseau in his book, Emile, wrote
//N a new charter for childhood. In his major
doctrine of educational theory, he stated
FL/ ~/D A that education should proceed through
concrete life experience rather than
through books alone.
Pestalozzi and Froebel, influenced by
Rousseau, accepted child nature as the
starting point in education and made in-
struction sensory and objective through
the use of materials. They believed that development of a rich sensory background was
necessary in order that definitions and abstract statements of books might develop meaning.
Objects, field trips, directed observations, and the like were used to provide sensory experi-
ences for their pupils.
At the beginning of educational efforts in America, the Bible was the sole material
used in the teaching of reading. In turn, the horn book was added. Writing in sand was
replaced by the slate. The quill pen was replaced by steel pens which later were replaced
by fountain pens. The New England Primer, blueback speller, and McGuffy readers which
were handed down from parent to child, stand at the head of a long line of textbooks.
In 1879, industrial art made its appearance in St. Louis and in New York City. Dr.
Felix Adler contended that object creating must supplement object teaching, and that cre-
ative effort should become an organic part of regular instruction. In the teaching of
mathematics, for instance, this system provides an opportunity for pupils to work out mathe-
matical truths with their own hands. Industrial arts were in time brought into educational
practice from first grade through college.
As teachers changed their philosophy of education, teaching aids were changed or
expanded, and a demand for more and better materials of instruction was felt throughout
the land. With the commonly accepted belief that education is interactive and that the
main factors in the learning process are (1) the pupil and his needs, (2) the social group and
its institutions, the curriculum changed. Understanding that the pupil grows and changes
in proportion to his potential abilities and meaningful experiences resulted in increasing
demands for materials of instruction.
*Developed by Mrs. Irene Christen, Supervisor of Instruction, Columbia County, Florida. Brought up-to-date by Mrs.
Sara K. Srygley, Assistant Professor, Florida State University.

Wealth and poverty inevitably affect the extent of the use of materials. In the Florida
Survey which was made by Strayer and Englehardt in 1927 and released in 1929, much of
the deficiency in achievement in Florida schools was charged directly to the lack of mate-
rials. One of that committee's first recommendations was: "Develop a procedure which will
assure proper standardization and care of all school materials, supplies, equipment, and
buildings provided with public funds." This committee recommended free textbooks for
high schools. At that time textbooks were furnished for elementary school children only.
The Legislature provided high school textbooks in 1935.
One of the major problems identified by the survey committee in its report was the
absence of libraries. At that time only 13 schools had definite budgetary support for libraries
and other materials. Fifteen depended on money raised by giving plays and entertainments.
Seven depended upon PTA's for support and the others had nothing more than textbooks.
In the Florida Survey report there is mention of the bareness of classrooms, and the lack of
variety of materials, as well as a caution that instructional aids would be of little use unless
teachers were trained to use them.
In many schools, teachers collected a fee from each child to cover the cost of supplies.
Parents sometimes refused to pay this fee, and many times the school board was troubled
by irate patrons. It was a lucky teacher who was not accused of purchasing her summer
bonnet with money collected for children's school supplies!
A scarcity of materials has long been an unsolved problem, involving not only selection
and use, but finance as well. The poorly trained teacher failed to recognize the need for
such material and it isn't any wonder that experiences, outside of those provided in the use
of the textbook, were not enjoyed by pupils in most classrooms. Where teachers used a
variety of materials, children became more satisfied with school and attendance was greatly
improved. Of course, this use of materials was an indication of better understanding of
teaching and of learning. Parents were delighted with the change in the attitude of their
children toward school and expressed a desire to have their children with teachers who
used materials to make school interesting.
School boards became quite conscious of what the teachers had spent and although
there was no money set aside for materials, there was a small increase in salary for the more
efficient work of teachers. PTA's sent representatives to school boards and there were
many discussions about the necessary materials. Several counties in tourist areas furnished
copies of the much cherished "Green" course of study. Parents and teachers kept requests
for financial aid by school boards before the parent meetings, but, as always, the interest
came and went.
The Florida School Code committee appointed in 1936 by Governor Sholtz was faced
with the tremendous task of reorganization and clarification of school law which for years
had accumulated in the Florida Statutes. W. S. Cawthon, State Superintendent, initially
was-appointed to serve as chairman of the study group and in 1937 was replaced on the
committee as chairman, by Colin English who had been elected State Superintendent in
1936. Many subcommittees representing many different groups contributed to the study.

In this connection it is interesting to note that the present State Superintendent Thomas D.
Bailey served on the committee first as representative of the principals of Florida schools and
later as representative of the Florida Education Association after he became president of that
organization. The compilation of the Code was accelerated through the cooperation of
the Florida Works Progress Administration project for the study of state and local govern-
ment under the supervision of Bryan Willis, State Auditor.
In a report made during the work of this committee the following statement was
"Even good teachers must have at hand appropriate and adequate instructional mate-
rials, if they are to do the type of teaching needed to prepare children for life in a complex
Following the 1937 report, a group of Florida teachers produced the first of a long series
of bulletins entitled Source Materials. It was published in 1938.
On pages 152-161 of Bulletin No. 19, Handbook for County School Superintendents
which was distributed by the State Department of Education in the following paragraphs
emphasized the need for materials:
"INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AIDS . In the ordinary course of events,
instructional materials and aids are developed and improved as teaching is improved. How-
ever, there must be an organization for directing particular attention to the various aids
essential to satisfactory instruction. Care must be exercised, however, not to give too much
relatively to the materials of instruction or to try to standardize needlessly such materials."
"TEXTBOOKS . The objective should be to help teachers develop procedures
which represent a marked improvement over the old textbook type of teaching. One of
the best steps in that direction is for the county school authorities to provide in addition
to textbooks, a variety of other materials which would be just as valuable and useable as
the textbooks themselves. Emphasis should be placed on units developed by teachers and
pupils, rather than too largely on materials which come from the textbooks."
"LIBRARIES AND LIBRARY BOOKS ... The library should not be just a depository
for technical books more or less in the nature of textbooks, but should be a place where all
materials relating to the instructional program can be properly filed and yet can be made
readily accessible to all teachers and pupils who should use them."
"OTHER INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS-Any good teacher is handicapped without numer-
ous materials and aids in addition to textbooks and books ordinarily found in libraries. ...
The importance of other 'instructional materials' is recognized in the law, which makes it
the duty of the county superintendent to recommend plans for providing and to facilitate
the provision and proper use of such teaching accessories and aids as are needed." (Again,
there was a caution not to go to the extreme nor to handicap the teachers by lack of
sufficient materials.)
"TEACHING SUPPLIES-The problem of teaching supplies presents difficulties in
practically every county. . There should be a definite plan for providing needed supplies

out of county funds. Teachers should not be expected to rely on PTA's or to provide their
own supplies. Supplies should be ordered on the basis of specifications rather than trade
name. A committee of teachers should study the problem and attempt to prepare a standard
list from which supplies may be selected to meet the ordinary needs of schools."
In March, 1947, came the report of the Florida Citizens Committee on Education.
Former Governor Spessard Holland, Governor Millard Caldwell and State Superintendent
Colin English were responsible for the appointment of this committee and the study of
education which followed. The comprehensive report pointed out the very small amounts
spent on instructional materials. Nine cents per pupil in average daily attendance was
spent in 1946 for library materials when the recommended expenditure was at least one
dollar. The average school in Florida spent 89 cents per pupil for teaching supplies other
than books. The national annual cost of teaching supplies was $2.25 per pupil.
The citizen's committee reported that an adequate program for materials of instruction
would involve (1) regular budgetary provision, (2) cooperative planning, (3) suitable quarters
for housing, (4) trained personnel to organize, care for, and promote the best use of instruc-
tional materials.
Findings of the statewide study of citizens' opinions indicate that the question of
whether the schools should have more instructional materials such as moving pictures, radio,
slides, maps, and charts was answered in the affirmative by more than 20 to 1.
In the 1947 edition of Florida Laws (page 31) is found a section charging the State
Board with authority to establish minimum standards to be met by county boards in expend-
ing funds for other current expenses. Very soon after the printing of the new 1947 laws,
the State Board passed regulations to conform with the authority placed upon them.
The latest compilation of Florida School Laws (1952 edition) includes specific legal
provisions for adequate materials of instruction. Section 230.22 (6), Florida Statutes,
charges the county school board to provide adequate educational facilities for all children
without tuition. In the words of the law, the school board shall: "See that adequate educa-
tional facilities are provided through the uniform system of public schools, for all children of
school age in the county, these facilities to be provided with due regard to the needs of the
children on the one hand and to economy on the other ... "
Section 233.29 authorizes county boards to establish and maintain libraries, and to sup-
port them with school funds. Mobile or circulating libraries are permitted when desirable.
Section 233.30 permits the school board to make contracts or agreements with county
or community groups for cooperative libraries to serve school and community, providing
that the service is on school property and is supervised and controlled by the school board.
Section 233.31 establishes school library personnel as part of the instructional staff. This
is of great significance in terms of implying responsibilities and privileges of librarians.
Section 235.26 establishing the minimum standards for school building construction,
states: "In every school building where elementary or high school, or combination ele-

mentary and high school, subjects are taught, there shall be provision for minimum library
facilities to meet regulations that may from time to time be adopted by the State Board."
Section 231.15, Florida Statutes, lists the position of school librarian as one requiring
certification by law and by regulations of the State Board of Education.
The State Board is required by law, Section 233.27, to "prescribe such rules and regula-
tions for the establishment, government, preservation and maintenance of public school
libraries as will insure to the public school pupils of the state the best practicable library
While personnel, quarters and the establishment of library services for Florida schools
are specifically required by law, the provision for financing this service is not so definite.
While the Minimum Foundation Program, enacted in 1947, provides a current operating
expense item of $300 for each instruction unit allocated to the county system, this fund must
be used for a variety of other current expense items, hence, it generally has been insufficient
to provide needed materials and materials services.
In the 1953 session of the Florida Legislature, an effort was made to raise the $300 pro-
vided for current expense to $350, with the additional $50 to be earmarked for instructional
materials. This attempt was supported by the Citizens Advisory Council on Education
and by State Superintendent Thomas D. Bailey. In the closing days of the Legislature, this
increase was defeated, when it became apparent that unprecedented enrollment growth
would necessitate several millions of dollars in additional funds to implement the program
already established by law.
Even though this attempt failed, teachers and administrators, as well as materials
specialists, were encouraged by the recognition of the need for funds to put into effect the
spirit and intent of the Florida School Laws-to provide adequately for materials of instruc-
tion. The consideration given to the problem by the 1953 Legislature may result in legal
action in 1955 to provide the instructional materials so badly needed in the Florida school
Florida's concept of the materials center has attracted attention throughout the nation
and in some foreign countries.
Since 1939, the Florida State Department of Education has given vigorous leadership
in offering in-service education opportunities to teachers and librarians in the choice and
use of all types of materials. Bulletins, conferences, workshops, extension courses (provided
by the state universities through the General Extension Division) are part of this program.
Increasingly, all school personnel are expanding their knowledge of materials. Increasingly,
more librarians are becoming more functional in offering a variety of materials and advisory
services in their use.
Realistic financial support of this program and many more qualified materials specialists
are needed for the development of materials centers in Florida. If as much progress is
made in the next 20 years as in the past 20, Florida's citizens can point with pride to the
instructional materials in Florida schools and to the effective way in which they are admin-
istered and used.

Part II

(With slight adaptation and addition, taken from Materially Speaking, a folder prepared and issued by the Joint Committee
of the National Education Association and the American Library Association. Used here with permission of the Committtee.)

Books are the most abundantly available of all materials suitable for educational
use. Books provide wide coverage of curricular and individual pupil interests.
They are naturally the number 1 type of material in the school library collection.

Periodicals characteristically provide concise, popular treatment of subjects which
are currently emphasized for one reason or another. Periodicals help to insure
a consistent flow of fresh material for the users of the school library.

How dear to the heart . free and inexpensive material! How significant in
instruction if wisely selected and carefully administered in a well-organized
Slsubject file! Pamphlets, like periodicals, are characterized by concise treatment
of subject; they are frequently inviting in format.

Study prints. Pictures may be gathered from many sources. Mounted on heavy
construction paper and arranged in a file by subject they are a significant type
of library material. Suitable pictures for treatment as library material are easily
I .,ii.- and offer remarkable coverage of curricular interests. (When used with
the opaque projector, the study print takes on the added charm of projection.)

Stereographs. Three dimensional magic. A "natural" for use in solid geometry;
Sespeciallyadapted to nature study and geography. The stereograph is an old
home favorite that has taken on new meaning in the educational program.

Slides. Drawings, designs, maps and charts, may be fixed on glass for projection.
S Prepared slides may be purchased. Teachers and students may also prepare
their own slides, thus insuring maximum suitability for and acceptability in the
educational program. Slides may be prepared or purchased in two sizes-2" x 2"
and 34" x 4".

Filmstrips. Some filmstrips now available are designed and distributed by book
publishers to accompany a particular book. Some filmstrips are made up as a
sequence of frames which were originally part of a moving picture and may be
used independently of the original moving picture or in connection with it.
Filmstrips on many subjects are available. Some are designed to be used with
transcriptions which are played back as the filmstrip is projected.

16mm films. Young people are conditioned to accept information which is
presented by way of the moving picture. Moving pictures can do a good teach-
ing job. They can employ the poetic license of animation, and they can take
advantage of the seven-league boots of time-lapse photography. If the acquisition
of 16mm films will break the back of the school budget, school library service
may still function to provide those needed. Supplying information about avail-
abilities from film lending centers and administering a program whereby films are
borrowed for school use and returned is school library service, also.

Recordings and transcriptions-DISC JOCKEY IN THE CLASSROOM
Since specially designed playback tables are now available, designed to turn
45, 78, and 33 1/3 rpm, and equipped with earphones for individual listening,
recordings and transcriptions are increasingly suitable for inclusion as materials
in a school library collection. They are "naturals" for use in music appreciation
and foreign language study; they are also particularly adapted to a study of
good diction, and in dramatization and dramatic presentation of all interests of
the curriculum.

Radio and television programs-AIR BORNE
School library service may also function to supply information about radio and
television programs which may be suitable for use in relation to the curriculum.
In the library's functioning as a materials center and as a communications center,
owner-ship of materials becomes secondary to information about availabilities
and establishment of procedure in supply.

Maps and globes-ONE WORLD
Maps and globes have taken on a new significance although they have long been
taken for granted as materials of teaching in the social studies. No school library
service can function fully unless they are represented in its collection of materials.
Long established concepts of proximities have been revised as the result of
scientific, political and economic developments; a study of any of the many phases
of the inter-relatedness of nations and peoples sends the learner again and again
to maps and globes.

Objects, specimens, and models are used effectively in relationship to the cur-
riculum. They have the conviction of actuality or the charm of the replica.
The school library supplies them as important media in the communication
of ideas.

Modeling clay, tempera paints, etc.-EXPENDABLES
These also are materials of instruction and communication. They represent the
means by which the child can make response to the idea which has been com-
municated to him. Their administration from a general materials center may
be desirable in many situations.

1. Is selection cooperative, with principal, teachers, pupils, supervisors, materials specialists participat-
ing to the extent that each is interested and competent?
2. Is selection based on knowledge of the needs and interests of the pupils and of the teachers?
3. Is selection made with knowledge and understanding of materials available for selection?
4. Are the items selected related to the curriculum and suitable to the teaching methods and purposes
in the school?
5. Are the items selected suitable to the grade and interest levels for which they are suggested?
6. Are all types of materials considered in choosing those for the materials center, to insure a variety of
aids to teaching and learning, without unjustifiable emphasis on any one type?
(Reprinted with permission from the Teacher-Librarian Handbook, 2nd ed., by Mary Peacock Douglas.
A.L.A. 1949, p. 87.)
1. Is the subject matter suitable and desirable for young people?
2. In factual books, is the subject matter accurate, authoritative, and up to date?
3. Will the subject matter tend to develop desirable attitudes and appreciations?
4. Does the subject matter interpret historical or modern life situations from a true and unbiased
5. Is the style of the book-vocabulary, sentence structure, form, diction-appropriate and effective for
the subject matter and for the readers for whom it is intended?
6. Is the format of the book satisfactory-in appearance, size, durable binding, opaque paper, wide mar-
gins, type, spacing between lines?
7. Are the illustrations satisfactory from the standpoint of text, of clarity, of art value?
8. Is the author qualified to write in this particular field?
9. What is the reputation of the publisher in relation to desirable books for school libraries?
10. Has the book been included in any recognized list or review of books suitable for school libraries?
1. Do the magazines selected fit the needs of the school program in relation to readability, subject or
interest coverage?
2. Do the magazines selected fit the needs of individuals in the school in relation to interests and
3. Are the magazines selected the best for the purpose and the price?
Criteria for Audio-Visual Materials and Equipment
(Reprinted or adapted from the Audio-Visual Way, Bulletin 22B, Florida State Department of Education.)
The Globe
1. Is it durable? It should be sturdy enough that pupils may handle it freely.
2. Is it a 16-inch globe?
3. Are the colors pleasing? They should be clear, strong, and readable, but not garish.
4. Is one outstanding color used to indicate all man-made features, such as cities, political boundaries,
railroads, canals, etc.?
5. Are the symbols used to show cultural or man-made features easy to distinguish? For example,
large dots to indicate large cities, smaller dots for next size cities, and so on; solid heavy lines for
political boundaries, etc.
6. Are symbols for cultural or man-made features shown consistently? For instance, there are so many
large cities in Western Europe that cities of less than 100,000 population cannot be shown; Africa
has so few population centers that all cities-2500 and larger-can be shown. However, if this were
done it would give a wrong concept of the city pattern. To make it consistent, no item should be
shown anywhere on the globe unless that item can be shown everywhere it occurs on the globe.
7. Is the type good?
8. Is the legend complete?
9. Is the mounting flexible? (The cradle mounting is most flexible because the globe can be completely
removed, carried about, measured, etc.)

World Maps
1. Does the map show the whole world? (Check the polar regions.)
2. Is it mapped on an equal area projection? (Look at title of map for this information.)
3. Are sufficient parallels shown? (About 100 to 150 intervals.)
4. Are the parallels straight lines spaced equal distances apart?
5. Do the 60th parallels measure approximately one-half the length of the equator?
6. Do the meridians converge at the poles?
7. How many straight or standard meridians does the map have? Straight or standard meridians should
measure one-half the length of the equator to be true to scale. To maintain good shape a world
map should have two or more standard meridians.
8. Is the map political-physical?
9. What is the scale of miles? A scale of more than 500 miles to the i.lch is not desirable because th
features of such a map are too small.
10. Are the colors distinct and pleasing?
11. Are the symbols consistent?
12. Is the legend complete?
13. Is the mounting flexible? Maps should be mounted in single copies to permit best use. Folded map
are particularly desirable because they are easier to handle and store than other types of mounting

Maps of Continents
1. Is the continent shown in relation to other land masses? On the map of South America is the ac
joining part of Central America shown? Is Asia shown in relation to Africa and Europe?
2. Is the scale of miles large enough to show more detail than a world map could show?
3. Are the colors pleasing?
4. Are the symbols consistent?
5. Is the legend complete?

1. Is there an index to all places located?
2. Is there a pronouncing gazetteer?
3. Are the maps accurate?
4. Are the maps clear and legible?
5. Does it include all types of maps, physical, political, economic, etc.?
6. Is it up-to-date?
7. Is the scale on maps plainly indicated?
8. Is the lettering distinct and easily read?
9. Is the United States the country of origin?

History Maps
1. Is the map simple in content, clear, and not confusing because of innumerable details?
2. Is it historically accurate?
3. Is it attractive?
4. Do the symbols and lines stand out clearly so that the map is readable from any part of the classroom
5. Is it appropriate for the grade in which it is to be used?
6. Does it have a meaningful title?

Slides and Film Strips
1. Are they true to facts?
2. Are they appropriate to your age level and purpose?
3. Are they good in technical quality, i.e., with sharp lines, good coloring, no blemishes, scratches, etc.
4. Are they worth the price in terms of future as well as present use?
5. Have you viewed them through a projector? (Some defects may not be seen by the naked eye.)

Motion Pictures

1. Is the film basic teaching material? Is it authentic?
2. Is it of suitable length for comprehension-ten, fifteen, twenty minutes of film showing?
3. Does the film incorporate teaching qualities that reflect the laws of learning: readiness, repetition,
and effect?
4. Does it motivate pupil activities?
5. Is the film within the level of age of the group to which it is to be shown?
6. Is the action in the film such that the pupils will "live" through these experiences with the actors?
7. Are photographic quality and sound good?
8. Will the film actually help build desirable attitudes and help develop abilities?

1. Is the recording appropriate to the purpose intended?
2. Does it have clear tone quality?
3. Is the content and vocabulary suitable to the maturity level of the pupils with whom it is to be used?
4. Is the material interestingly presented?
5. Is it up-to-date and authentic?
6. Does it encourage intelligent listening?
7. Does it stimulate learning and promote follow-up activities?
8. May it be used effectively without a teacher' manual?

1. Is there a well defined plan of use before purchase?
2. Does it suit the purpose for which it will be used?
3. Is there an agency in the state which will provide full maintenance when the machine needs repair?
4. Is the dealer reliable?
5. Is there a supply of material available to use with the projector?
6. Is its weight sufficiently light for easy moving?
7. Is it easy to operate?
8. Are the parts accessible for cleaning and oiling?
9. Are the parts standard and easily replaced?
10. Is it possible to have competitive tryouts before purchase?
11. Have you considered the advisability of standardizing equipment within a county?
12. Does it have a coated lens, which gives a brighter light?

Additional Criteria for Opaque Projectors
1. Is there adequate illumination-at least 500 watts?
2. Is it light enough to be carried about easily?
3. Will it accommodate material at least 6" x 6" in dimension?
4. Are reflectors readily available for replacement?

Additional Criteria for Slide and Filmstrip Projectors
1. Is there adequate illumination-at least 300 watts?
2. Is operation of the machine comparatively simple?
3. Is there minimum number of interchangeable parts for either use?

Additional Criteria for 16mm Projectors
1. What special features are necessary or even desirable?
2. Does it have at least a 750 watt lamp?
3. Does it have a pilot light?
4. Are the arms of sufficient length to accommodate a 1600 foot reel?

Record Players
1. Is the machine designed for playing recordings at all speeds?
2. Is the machine equipped adequately for amplification for the use intended (classroom, auditorium)
3. Is the tone arm heavy enough for good tone quality, yet light enough to prevent the needle's cutting
the recording? (Not more than one to two ounces.)
4. How satisfactory are fidelity of sound, cost of maintenance, availability of records, portability, eas
of operation?

Recording Machines
1. Is the school first well-equipped with other audio-visual materials?
2. Is the machine to be used for educational purposes?
3. Will it reproduce without distortion?
4. Is it simple to operate?
5. Does your school need a portable machine to be used in several places?
6. Does the machine require little maintenance?
7. Is there an agency within the state which provides full maintenance if the machine is in need c
8. Is the amplifying output sufficient for all required use?
9. Is it possible to have competitive tryouts of the equipment prior to purchase?
10. Is the dealer reliable?
11. Will the number of teachers using this piece of equipment, or its importance to a few teachers, b
sufficient to justify its purchase?

Screen and Stands
A reflecting surface is necessary for using many projected instructional materials but this does nc
necessarily mean that one must purchase an expensive screen. There are a number of different kind
of screens available. Even a smooth white wall may be used, but it must be smooth, it must be whit(
it must be clean, and it must be just above eye level.

The most popular screen is the beaded type. This type screen consists of a white surface cover
with millions of clear tiny glass particles which catch the light and reflect it in the same direction as th
source. A beaded screen can be used most successfully in a long, narrow room. The angle of reflect
tion of the beaded screen is comparatively narrow, and consequently the illumination decreases towar
the sides of the room. In any room which is not long, and rectangular, a flat white screen is recommended
The angle of reflection of a flat white screen is wider than that of a beaded screen. This means that th
audience along the sides will see the picture better.

It is possible to remove dust and other blemishes from a beaded screen without removing beads. I
order to avoid damage, care should be exercised in rolling and unrolling, and in moving the screen.

The size of the screen will depend upon the conditions under which it is to be used. Roller screen
can be mounted either on a tripod or on the wall. A simple but adequate classroom screen may actually b
made by attaching a piece of white rubber sheeting to a 48 inch shade roller.

A strong, firm support will be necessary for the projector. This should be of sufficient height to allo\
the projection beam to pass over the heads of students. It can be purchased or can be built in th
school shop.


(A list of identification and selection aids is prepared and issued annually by the Joint Committee of the National Educa-
tion Association and the American Library Association. The 1952 list is reprinted here, with the permission of the

Selection of materials for youth-materials to be read, heard or seen-places a creative power in the
hands of the selector. The materials to be chosen carry ideas, attitudes, facts, aesthetic experiences, in-
spiration and significant vicarious experiences. Those selected may influence the shape of the years ahead.
Their choice should be made with the full advantage of the best aids. This leaflet describes some of the
most carefully chosen and most used aids in the selection of printed materials, recordings and non-
theatrical films for children and young people. The lists included have been prepared after examination
and evaluation of many more materials than those finally chosen. The compilers of the lists have had
extensive experience in use of materials with children and young people. They have consulted with
teachers and librarians and often with parents and children in making decisions on inclusion.

By use of these aids plus every opportunity for first hand reading and examination of materials there
is much greater assurance than otherwise that materials selected will be of good quality and appropriate
for the children and young people who are to use them.

Suggestions for selectors. Keep a shelf of these aids in up-to-date editions in every library, school
and bookstore. For home use, select those which fit the ages of the family. Check with these lists
before purchasing materials noted in advertisements or seen in displays.

General Lists
Adventuring with Books, compiled by the Elementary Reading List Committee of the National Council
of Teachers of English, Margaret M. Clark, chairman. National Council of Teachers of English, 211 W.
68th St., Chicago 21, Ill. 1950. 60c. 10 copies or more 50c each.
For teachers and parents of children in kindergarten through the sixth grade. Lists and
annotates over 1000 books. Indicates books useful in personal development, for understanding
human relations, and for use by readers of limited ability. Indexed.

An Ample Field: Books and Young People, by Amelia Munson, American Library Association, 50 East
Huron, Chicago 11, Ill. 1950. $3
An unusual aid for teachers and librarians who have opportunity to help young people discover
the satisfaction from reading good books. Interesting lists of recommended books at the end of
each chapter.

A Basic Book Collection for Elementary Grades, compiled by a Joint Committee of the American Library
Association, National Education Association, National Council of Teachers of English and Association for
Childhood Education. Miriam Snow, chairman. American Library Association, 1951. $2
Arranged under subjects, 1000 selected books are described briefly, with grade range for each.
Includes list of picture books and easy books. Full buying information is given. Indexed by
author, title and subject.

A Basic Book Collection for High Schools, compiled by a Joint Committee of the American Library Ass
citation, National Education Association, and National Council of Teachers of English. Dorotha Dawso
chairman. American Library Association, 1950. $2.75
An annotated list of about 1500 titles for the average high school. Arranged by subject. An index
makes it possible to locate books by author, title or subject. Publisher, price and classification
are given.
A Basic Book Collection for Junior High Schools, compiled by Elsa R. Berner and Mabel S. Sacra, Ame:
can Library Association, 1950. $1.75
A selection of books of first importance for a small junior high school. Arranged by subject.
Annotated and well indexed. Gives buying information and classification.
A Bibliography of Books for Children. 1950 revision. Association of Childhood Education Internation;
1200 15th St., N.W., Washington 5, D. C. 1950. $1
A selected, classified list of books for elementary school ages. Annotated. Prices are given.
Books for You, prepared by the Committee on Recreational Reading. Mark Neville, chairman. Nation
Council of Teachers of English, 1951. 40c
A list for high schools, arranged by topics and by type. Brief annotations. The NCTE list for
junior high schools is being revised.
Bulletin of the Children's Book Center, University of Chicago, Center for Children's Books, 5835 Kii
bark Avenue, Chicago 37, Illinois. Monthly, $1.50 a year.
Annotated list which indicates both books which are "recommended" and those "not recom-
mended." Codes books to indicate certain developmental values in growth of characters which
might make book helpful for the vicarious experiences they would provide for readers with
related problems.
By Way of Introduction, A Book List for Young People, compiled by a Joint Committee of the Americ:
Library Association, National Education Association and the National Council of Teachers of English, Je;
C. Roos, chairman, Frances Grim, editor. Rev. ed. American Library Association, 1947. $1.25
Recreational reading for young people of high school age. Over 1000 titles grouped according to
reading interests. Annotations addressed to young readers. Gives full buying information.
Children and Books, by May Hill Arbuthnot. Scott Foresman & Co., 433 E. Erie St., Chicago 11, Ill. 19Z
Text ed. $3.60. Trade ed. $5
A textbook in children's literature which has many bibliographies and discusses the principles of
good book selection. Recent books as well as older titles are included.
Children's Books for Eighty-five Cents or Less, Association for Childhood Education International, 12
15th St.. N.W., Washington 5, D. C. 1952. 50c
Children's Catalog, compiled by Ruth Giles and Dorothy E. Cook. 8th ed. H-. W. Wilson Co., 95 Ui
versity Ave., New York 52, N. Y. Sold on service basis. Write for price.
A catalog of over 3000 children's books selected and annotated for library and school use. Gives
subject headings and classification. Titles are starred for first purchase. Indexes analytically 419
of the books included. Complete revision every five years.
For the C(il' lre s' Bookshelf, a Booklist for Parents. U. S. Children's Bureau, Publication 304-1949. Pt
chase from U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 15c
An introduction to children's books for parents who wish to buy or borrow interesting and
appealing books for their children.
Current Books: Junior Booklist of the Secondary Education Board, April, 1951. Secondary Educati.
Hoard, Milton 86, Mass. 25c
Current Books, Senior Booklist of the Secondary Education Board, April, 1951. Secondary Educatii
Board, Milton 86, Mass. 25c
Annual selected lists of books for junior and senior high, chosen with private school students in
mind. Gives grade range. Also full buying information and interesting notes.
Magazines for School Libraries, compiled by Laura K. Martin, H. W. Wilson, 1950. $2.75
An important aid in choice of magazines for elementary and secondary schools.

Standard Catalog for High School Libraries, compiled by Dorothy E. Cook, Anne T. Eaton and Dorothy
H. West. 5th ed. H. W. Wilson, 1947. Sold on service basis. Write for price.
Describes over 5000 books and 700 pamphlets. Books are starred for first purchase. Books useful
for senior or junior high and for trade schools are indicated. Part I is a dictionary catalog by
author, title, and subject. Part II is arranged according to Dewey Decimal Classification and
with full cataloging and buying information. Complete revision every five years.

Subject Index to Books for Intermediate Grades, compiled by Eloise Rue. 2nd ed. American Library
Association, 1950. $6
Indexes under subjects and units materials in 1800 books recommended for use in 4th, 5th, and
6th grades. Stars 200 books for small library first purchase. Gives grade range for each reference.

Subject Index to Books for Primary Grades, compiled by Eloise Rue, American Library Association, 1943.
First supplement, American Library Association, 1946. $1.25 (combined price $3)
Indexes under subject, the material in more than 500 readers, picture books and story books for
first three grades. 225 of these titles published between 1942-46. Gives grade range and full
buying information.

Lists of Current Books

The Booklist: A Guide to Current Books. American Library Association. Semi-monthly. $5 a year
Each issue lists and describes critically the current books for children, young people and adults
which are recommended for school libraries and for small and medium-sized public libraries.
Gives classification and subject headings as well as full buying information. Age range is given
for children's and young people's books. Includes lists of free and inexpensive material.

Horn Book Magazines, Horn Book, Inc., 248 Boylston St., Boston 16, Mass. Bi-monthly. $3.50 a year
Brief reviews of a selected list of recommended books are a regular feature of this magazine
devoted to children's literature. Reviews are by Virginia Haviland and Jennie Lindquist. Annual
"honor list" of books for the year appears in the July-August issue.

Library Journal. Issued twice a month. R. R. Bowker, 62 W. 45th St., New York 19, N. Y. $6 a year
Part II of the regular feature, "New Books Appraised," is "Children's Books Appraised by Chil-
dren's Librarians," made up of signed annotations by children's and school librarians throughout
the country. Louise Davis is editor of Children's Books section.

New York Herald Tribune Book Review, New York Herald Tribune, 230 W. 41st St., New York 18, N. Y.
Weekly. $2 a year
Books for Young People, conducted by Louise Seaman Bechtel, is a feature in the Sunday book
supplement of this New York newspaper.

New York Times Book Roeiew, New York Times, 229 W. 43rd St., New York 18, N. Y. Weekly. $3 a
A section of children's and young people's books under the editorship of Ellen Lewis Buell is a
regular feature in the Book Review section of the Sunday New York Times.

Other reviews of children's and young people's books appear monthly in the following magazines: Child-
hood Education, Elementary English, English Journal, Saturday Review and Wilson Library Bulletin
(Readers Choice of Books).

Lists of Special Types of Material

Books for Tired Eyes, compiled by Charlotte Matson and Lola Larson. 4th. ed. American Library Asso
ciation, 1951. $1
Lists books in large type. P. 60-75 children's books in 14-point or larger. Grade indicated. Books
in adult list of interest to adolescents are designated.

Subscription Books Bulletin. American Library Association. Quarterly. $2.50 a year. 65c a single
Encyclopedias and other sets of books sold by book agents are critically reviewed by a commit-
tee of experienced librarians. Back files, available in many libraries, give information on nearly
300 publications, many of them sets for the use of children and young people.

Vertical File Service. H. W. Wilson. Sold on service basis. Write for price.
Monthly, cumulated list of pamphlet materials, arranged alphabetically under subject. Especial-
ly useful in locating pamphlet material needed in high school libraries.

Government documents published by U. S. Government Offices and by state and city governments are
often important materials for school or personal use. Selected list of U. S. documents appears periodically)
in The Booklist (American Library Association) and in School Life (U. S. Office of Education Monthly
$1 a year. Order from U. S. Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.). State education de
apartments and state library agencies list state and local documents of special interest.

Subject Lists or lists of materials selected for special purposes are available in many fields. The follow
ing are examples of the many useful special lists.

America, Past and Present, compiled under the direction of Eloise Rue, chairman. (Reading fo
Background) H. W. Wilson. 1948. 75c

Challenge: Background Readings for and about the Physically Handicapped, Adult and Children
compiled by Agnes Shields. (Reading for Background) H. W. Wilson, 1946. 60c

Gateways to Readable Books, by Ruth Strang, Christine B. Gilbert, and Margaret C Scoggin. 2nd ed
H. W. Wilson, 1952. $2.75

Reading Ladders for Human Relations, by the staff of Intergroup Education in Cooperating Schools
Hilda Taba, Director. Rev. and enl. ed. American Council on Education, 744 Jackson Place, Wash
ington, D. C., 1949. $1.25. Discusses use of books through which youths with problems can identify
themselves through their emotional experiences with characters who have and solve similar problems
Includes many books annotated from this point of view.

We Build Together, by Charlemae Rollins. Rev. ed. National Council of Teachers of English, 1948
65c. A very helpful selected and annotated list of books by and about Negroes. For elementary
and secondary schools.

Lists for Distribution. The A.L.A. Division of Libraries for Children and Young People, obtains or com-
piles and makes available many special book lists for quantity purchase by libraries, schools, parent
teacher groups and others. Write for information to Sturgis Printing Company, Sturgis, Michigan. En
velope of samples, $1.

No List Available? When lists to meet special needs cannot be located, the following sources of lists ma)
be explored: The local school library, the local public library, the state library agency, and if not else
where available, the American Library Association.

Aids in selecting FILMS & FILMSTRIPS
For location of films and aid in their selection, catalogs should be obtained from the state university ex-
tension departments and other state film libraries in the region; from county and municipal school film
libraries, and from local public library film collections.
Audio Visual School Library Service, by Margaret I. Rufsvold. American Library Association, 1949. $2.75
A handbook for school librarians and others who have responsibility for selection, organization
and distribution of all types of audio visual materials. Lists the most useful aids in the selection
of films, records, filmstrips, slides, and stereographs.
Educational Film Guide, compiled by Frederic A. Krahm. H. W. Wilson. $5 per year
An annual list of 16mm films with quarterly supplements. Part I is an alphabetical title and
subject list of 5400 films. Part II is a selected list of 3700 films grouped by subject. Annotations
indicate content of film and type of group which will be interested. Gives purchase price and
rental source.
Filmstrip Guide, compiled by Frederic A. Krahm. H. W. Wilson. $3 per year
An annual list of filmstrips with quarterly supplements. Arranged alphabetically by subject and
title in Part I. In Part II arranged by Dewey Decimal classification. Descriptive notes are given.
Filmstrips, by Vera Falconer. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 330 W. 43rd St., New York 18, N. Y.
Comprehensive book on this subject. Includes aids in selection and use.

Aids in selecting RECORDINGS
The Children's Record Book, by H. B. Barbour and W. S. Freeman. Crown Publishers, 419 Fourth Ave.,
New York 16, N. Y. 1948. $2
Offers suggestions for helping children enjoy and appreciate music. Lists records and transcrip-
tions, roughly classified according to age and interest.

Recordings for the Elementary School, by H. S. Leavitt and W. S. Freeman. (An Oliver Durrell book)
Crown Publishers, 419 Fourth Ave., New York 16, N. Y. 1949. $2.40
Recordings are listed in the text, with description of their type and use. Material is divided into
two sections-primary and intermediate. Lists of records that can aid in teaching language arts,
literature and history are included.

Addresses of individual magazines are not given here since it is assumed that in most instances sub-
scriptions will be placed through an agency. Subscription prices are given, although the possibility of
price changes necessitates verification. Costs can at least be estimated from prices given.
Certain symbols have been used: "Ar"-indexed in Abridged Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature
(sold on service basis, H. W. Wilson Co., 950 University Ave., New York); "E"-suitable for use in element-
ary schools; "J"-suitable for use in junior high schools; "S"-suitable for use in senior high schools or
junior colleges. Ultimately, suitability must be determined locally.

Current Topics
Life (J-S) Ar $6.75
Newsweek (J-S) Ar $6.50
New York Times-Magazine Section (S) Ar $10.00 (Complete Sun. ed.)
Time (S) Ar $6.00
U. S. News and World Report (J-S) Ar $5.00
United Nations World (J-S) Ar $4.00

General Content
American Girl (E-J-S) $2.00
American Junior Red Cross News (E) $50c
American Magazine (S) $3.00
American Red Cross Journal (S) $1.00
Boy's Life (E-J) $2.50
Children's Activities (E) $3.00
Children's Digest (E) $8.00
Colliers (S) $5.00
Jack and Jill (E) $2.50
Open Road (J-S) $2.00
Readers' Digest (S) $3.00
Saturday Evening Post (J-S) Ar $6.00
Atlantic (s) Ar $6.00
Collins Magazine for Boys and Girls (E-J) $4.50 (English-Canadian)
Coronet (J-S) Ar $3.00
Harper's Magazine (S) Ar $5.00
Junior Scholastic (J) 90c
Literary Cavalcade (s) $1.00
Senior Scholastic (s) Ar $1.20
Story Parade (E-J) $3.00
Aviation Week (S) $6.00
Florida Grower (S)
Florida Wildlife (E-J-S)
Flying (J-S) Ar $3.00
Model Air Plane News (E-J-S) $2.50
Nature Magazine (E-J-S) Ar $4.00
Popular Mechanics (E-J-S) Ar $3.50
Popular Science (E-J-S) Ar $3.00
Q S T (Radio) (J-S) Ar $4.00
Science Digest (S) Ar $3.00
Science News Letters (J-S) Ar $5.50
Skyways (J-S) Ar $3.00
Today's Health. (S) Ar $3.00
Home Making
American Home (J-S) $2.50
Better Homes and Gardens (J-S) Ar $2.50
Charm (J-S) $2.50
Consumer Report (S) $5.00
Consumers' Research Bulletin (S) $3.00
Glamour (J-S) $2.50
Good Housekeeping (J-S) Ar $2.50
Ladies Home Journel (S) Ar $3.00
Mademoiselle (J-S) $3.50
McCall's Magazine (S) $2.50
Seventeen (J-S) $3.00
Woman's Home Companion (S) $3.00
Musical America (J-S) $4.00
School Musician (J-S) $2.00

Athletic Journal (S) $2.00
Field and Stream (J-S) $4.00
Sport (J-S) $3.00
American Photography (S) $3.50
Popular Home Craft (J-S) $2.00
Popular Photography (J-S) $3.00
Design (S) $4.00
School Arts (E-J-S) Ar $4.00
Arizona Highways (E-J-S) $3.50
Holiday (S) Ar $5.00
National Geographic (E-J-S) Ar $5.00

Addresses as well as subscription prices are given since in most instances subscriptions will be placed
with the publisher.
Audio-Visual Guide. Newark, N. J.: Ed. and Recreational Guides, Inc. $3.00
Children's Activities. Chicago: Child Training Association, Inc., 1018 S. Wabash Avenue. $3.00
Childhood Education. Washington, D. C.: Ass'n. for Childhood Ed. International, 1200 15th Street
N.W. $4.50 per year. ACEI membership (including subscription) $7.00
Clearing House. New York: 207 4th Street, $3.00
Education Digest. Ann Arbor, Michigan: 330 S. State St. $3.00
Educational Leadership. Washington, D. C.: Assoc. for Supervision and Curriculum Division, NEA,
1201 16th Street, N.W. $3.50
Educational Screen. Chicago: Ed. Screen Inc., 64 E. Lake St. $3.00
Elementary School Journal. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 5750 Ellis Ave. $2.50
Filmstrip Guide. New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 950-72 University Ave. $3.00
Florida Parent-Teacher. Florida (Orlando): Fla. Congress of Parents and Teachers, Box 100 F. 35c
Florida School Bulletin. Tallahassee, Fla: State Department of Education. Pub. quarterly, Sept., Dec.,
March, and June. Free to public schools.
Grade Teacher. Darien, Conn.: Ed. Publ. Corp. $3.00
High School Journal. Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of N. C. Press. $1.50
Instructor. Dansville, N. Y.: F. A. Owen Publ. Co. $3.00
Journal of the Florida Education Association. Tallahassee, Fla. Free to members of the FEA.
Journal of the National Education Association. Washington, D. C.: 1201 16th Street N.W. $3.00
Monthly Catalog of U. S. Public Documents. Washington, D. C.: Supt. of Documents. $2.25
National Ass'n. of Secondary-School Principals Bulletin. Washington, D. C.: 1201 16th Street, N.W. $5.00
(includes membership)
National Parent-Teacher. Chicago: National Parent-Teacher, Inc., 600 S. Michigan Blvd. $1.25
Nation's Schools. Chicago: Nation's School Pub. Co., 919 N. Michigan Ave. $3.00
Occupations. .New York: National Vocational Guidance Association, 82 Beaver St. $4.50
Parent's Magazine. New York: The Parent's Institute, 52 Vanderbilt Ave. $2.50
Saturday Review. New York: Curtis Publishing Co., 25 W. 45th St. $7.00
School Director. Tampa, Florida: 202 E. Henderson Avenue. $2.00
Scholastic Teacher. New York: 220 E. 42nd Street. $3.00
School and Society. New York: 15 Amsterdam Ave. $7.00
School Executive. New York: Am. School Publishing Corp., 470 4th Ave. $3.00
School Life. Washington, D. C.: Gov't. Printing Office. $1.00
School Review. Chicago: Department of Education. University of Chicago Press, 5750 Ellis Ave. $4.00
See and Hear. Chicago: Audio-Visual Pub. Inc., 812 No. Dearborn St. $3.00

Classification of Materials
The purpose of classifying books is to bring books on one subject together on the shelves. The sys
most frequently used in school libraries is the Dewey Decimal System of Classification. Audio-Vi
materials may be classified using this system or the accession number may be used rather than a classic
tion number.
Following is a list of classification numbers most frequently used in organizing materials acquired
the materials center:

Selected by Virginia P. Holtz

000 General Works Prolegomena
010 Bibliography
020 Library science
025.2 Book selection
028.5 Children's literature
028.62 Story-telling
030 Encyclopedias
040 General collected essays
050 General periodicals
060 General societies, museums
070 Journalism, Newspapers
080 Polygraphy, Special libraries
090 Book rarities
100 Philosophy
110 Metaphysics
120 Other metaphysical topics
130 Physiologic, normal and differential
136.7 Child study
137 Personality
140 Philosophic systems
150 Psychology
160 Logic Dialectics
170 Ethics
172.4 Peace
179 Thrift
180 Ancient and Oriental philosophers
190 Modern philosophers

200 Religior


Natural theology
Bible Bible stories
221 Old Testament
225 New Testament
Doctrinal Dogmatics Theology
Devotional Practical
Homiletics Pastoral Parochial
Church Institutions and work
General history of Christian church
Christian churches and sects
Nonchristian religions
291 Mythology

300 Social sciences Sociology in general
301 Sociology: Philosophy,
310 Statistics
320 Political sciences
321.8 Form of state: Republi
323.1 Questions of nationalist
323.35 Community life
323.6 Citizenship
325.1 Immigration
326 Negroes
327 International relations
328 Legislation Lawmaki
Legislative bodies
328.1 Parliamentary Practice
329 Political parties

3380 Economics
330.1 Consumption
.331 Labor and laborers
332 Finance: Money
331.1 Banks and banking
333 Conservation of natural resource
336 Public finance (includes Taxati
337 Tariff
338 Production
339 Capitalism Distribution and
consumption of wealth

340 Law
341.1 International congresses and
342.73 U. S. Constitution

350 Administration
352 Local government: Town, Cit
353 U. S. and state government
354 Foreign governments
355 Army
359 Navy

360 Welfare and social associations
361 Charitable
364 Crime and criminals
364.36 Juvenile delinquents and
365 Prisons
367 Clubs
369 Societies
369.4 Boy scouts, Girl scouts
370 Education
371.33 Visual instruction
371.42 Vocational training
371.7 School hygiene
372 Elementary education
373 Secondary Academic Preparatory
378 Colleges and universities
380 Commerce Communication
383 Mail service
385 Railroads
387 Ocean and air transport
388 Local transit: city and interurban
390 Customs Costumes Folklore
391 Costume
392 Familiar relations
394 Holidays
395 Etiquette
398 Fairy tales Folklore
398.2 Legends, tales, traditions
400 Philology
410 Comparative
420 English
423 English dictionaries
424 English synonyms
425 English grammar
430 German and other Teutonic
440 French, Provencal, etc.
450 Italian, Rumanian, etc.
460 Spanish, Portuguese, etc.
470 Latin and other Italic
480 Greek and other Hellenic
490 Other languages
(All languages are subdivided like
500 Pure science
502 Outlines (includes Unity of
509 History of science
510 Mathematics
520 Astronomy
523.4 Planets
523.8 Stars
525.5 Seasons

530 Physics
531 Mechanics
537 Electricity
540 Chemistry
541.2 Atomic theory
541.37 Electrochemistry
549 Mineralogy
550 Geology
551 Physical geology
551.4 Rivers
552 Rocks
553 Minerals
553.6 Phosphates
560 Paleontology
570 Biology, Anthropology
571 Prehistoric and primitive
578 Microscopy

580 Botany
590 Zoology
595.7 ]

Trees and shrubs

Animal stories
Marine biology
Dcean life
Butterflies, Moths

600 Useful arts
608 Inventions
610 Medicine
610.7 Nurses and nursing
612.6 Sex education
613 Personal hygiene
613.7 Health and physical
614 Public health (includes
614.2 State Control of medicine
614.8 Protection of human life
from accidents, etc.
614.84 Fires: prevention
619 Comparative medicine

620 Engineering
621 Mechanical engineering
621.3 Electrical engineering
621.38 Radio and television,
Telephone, Telegraph
621.9 Machine tools
623.8 Naval engineering,
629.13 Aeronautics
629.2 Motor vehicles, automobiles
630 Agriculture
630.1 Rural life
631.4 Soils
632 Agricultural blights, pests,
633 Field crops
633.1 Corn
633.5 Cotton
634 Fruit Orchards


Garden crops
Domestic animals
Birds: cage and ornamental
Dairy and dairy products
Bee culture
Hunting, trapping, fish
culture, etc. (as an

640 Home economics
641 Food Cookery
641.5 Cook books
643 Shelter: house, home
645 Interior decoration
646 Clothing Toilet
(including materials, tex-
tiles, sewing, knitting, etc.,
dry cleaning, cosmetics)
649 Home care of children, sick,
infirm and aged
650 Communication Business
651 Office economy
653 Shorthand
655 Printing Publishing
657 Bookkeeping Accounts

658 Business methods
Industrial management
658.8 Selling, salesmanship
659.1 Advertising
660 Industrial chemistry
666.3 Pottery
669 Metals
670 Manufacturing
677 Textile industry (includes
677.4 Silk
680 Manual training, Handicrafts
684 Furniture
690 Building
694 Carpentry, Woodwork,
Shop work
700 Fine Arts Recreation
709 General history of art
710 Landscape and civic art
720 Architecture
728 Architecture, Domestic
730 Sculpture Plastic arts
737 Coins
740 Drawing Decoration Design
744 Mechanical drawing
745 Arts and crafts
745.6 Ornamental lettering
747 Interior decoration
750 Painting, pictures
760 Engraving
770 Photography
778 Moving picture photog-
780 Music
782 Opera
784 Folksongs: Vocal music
790 Amusements (includes Hobbies)
791.3 Circuses
791.4 Movies
791.5 Puppet plays
791.6 Public fetes (includes fair!
pageantry, parade, fire-
works, etc.)
792 Theater and entertainment
793 Indoor games
793.3 Dancing
793.8 Parlor magic (Scientific
and pseudo-scientific
796 Athletics and outdoor
sports and games

800 Literature
803 Dictionaries, cyclopedias
804 Essays, lectures, addresses
808 Rhetoric
808.3 Fiction
808.5 Oratory (include public
speaking, debate)
808.8 Collections from several
808.81 Collections of poetry
808.82 Collections of drama
808.84 Collections of essays
808.85 Collections of orations
808.87 Collections of humor and
809 General history of literature
810 American literature
810.9 History and criticism
811 American poetry
811.08 American poetry,
812 American drama
812.08 American drama,
814 American essays
814.08 American essays,
815 American oratory
816 American letters
817 American humor and satire
818 American miscellany-
820 English literature
820.9 History and criticism
821 English poetry
821.08 English poetry,
822 English drama
822.08 English drama, collections
822.3 Shakespeare
824 English essays
824.08 English essays, collections
825 English orations
825.08 English orations, collections
830 German and other Teutonic
840 French, Provencal, etc.
850 Italian, Rumanian, etc.
860 Spanish, Portuguese, etc.
870 Latin and other Italic
880 Greek and other Hellenic
890 Other literature

900 History
903 General history reference
909 World history
910 Geography and travel


Geography and travels
(includes explorations,
piratic adventures, trips
around the world, etc.)
Historical atlases
Modern atlases, maps
Europe-Description and

914.1 Scotland, Ireland
914.2 England, Wales
914.3 Germany
914.4 France
914.5 Italy
914.6 Spain
914.7 Russia
914.8 Scandinavia-in-
cludes Norway,
Sweden, etc.
914.9 Minor European
Countries, includes
Greece, etc.
915 Asia-Description and
915.1 China
915.2 Japan
915.4 India
916 Africa-Description and
916.2 Egypt
917 North America-Descrip-
tion and travel


Mexico and West Indies
United States
Northeastern states
Southeastern States
917.59 Florida

917.6 South central states
917.7 North central states
917.8 Western states
917.9 Pacific states
917.98 Alaska
918 South America-Description and

919 Oceania and Polar regions- 948 Scandinavia-History
Description and travel Includes Norway, Sweden, etc.
919.1 Philippine Islands 949 Minor European countries-History
919.4 Australia (Includes Netherlands, Switzer-
919.8 Arctic regions land, Greece, etc.)
919.9 Antartic regions 950 Asia-History
951 China-History
920 Biography (Collective) 952 Japan-History
Individual biography arranged 954 India-History
alphabetically by the name of the 960 Africa-History
person written about. 962 Egypt
929.9 Flags 970 North America-History

930 Ancient history 970.1 American Indians
932 Ancient Egypt 971 Canada-History
937 Ancient Rome 972 Mexico and West Indies-History
938 Ancient Greece 973 United States-History
973.2 Colonial period
940 Europe-History 973.3 Revolution and Con-
940.1 Medieval Europe federation
940.2 Modern Europe 973.7 Civil War
940.3 European War 1914-1918 973.8 1865 A.D.-1901
940.5 Later 20th century 937.9 20th century
940.53 European War 1939-1945 974 Northeastern states
History of the individual countries for all 975 Southeastern states
continents have the same numbers as apply 975.9 Florida-History
in Description and travel without the dis- 976 South central states
tinguishing figure 1. 977.1 Ohio-History
941 Scotland-History 978 Western states
942 England-History 979 Pacific states
943 Germany-History 979.8 Alaska-History
944 France-History 980 South America-History
945 Italy-History 990 Oceania-History
946 Spain-History 991 Philippines-History
947 Russia-History 994 Australia-History
Some exceptions to the Dewey System of Classification for classifying books are:
F Fiction. Fiction is marked with an F and the author's surname, e. g. Lenski. Some libraries:
use just the author's surname without the F as a designation for fiction, e. g. Lenski.
B Individual biography and autobiography. These books are marked with a B and the name oi
the subject of the book, e. g. Fortune for the biography, Amos Fortune, free man, by Elizabeth Yates
Collective biography is marked with 920 and the initial of the surname of the author, editor, or compiler
e. g. J
E Easy books. Easy books for grades one through three are marked with an E and the surname
of the author, e. g. Brown.
SC Short story collections. These books are marked with SC and the surname of the author, editor
or compiler, e. g. Smith.
R Reference books. The letter R is placed above the call number to indicate that the book is
reference book, e. g. 310. These books are usually shelved separately.

Below is a list of subject headings, with suggestive classification numbers, most frequently used in
organizing materials in a materials center. In addition to the subject listed here the center also uses as
subject headings the following:
Names of persons, e. g. FORTUNE, AMOS.
Names of places and regions, e. g. RICHMOND, VIRGINIA
Names of societies, institutions, buildings, etc.


(Selected by Virginia P. Holtz)

Accidents-Prevention 614.8
Accounting 657
Adolescence 136.7
Aeronautics 629.13
Africa-Description and travel 916
Africa-History 960
Agricultural pests 632
Agriculture 630
Air mail service 383
Airplanes 629.13
Airplanes-Models 629.13
Alaska-Description and travel 917.98
Alaska-History 979.8
America 970. See also headings beginning
with U. S.
American Indians. See Indians of North
American drama-Collections 812.08
American essays-Collections 814.08
American literature-History and
criticism 810.9
American poetry-Collections 811.08
Amusements 790
Ancient history. See History, Ancient
Animal stories. See Animals-Stories
Animals 590
Animals-Stories 591; F; SC
Antarctic regions 919.9. See also South
Arbor Day 394
Architecture 720
Architecture, Domestic 728
Arctic regions 919.8. See also North Pole
Armies 355
Army. See Armies
Art 700-799
Art industries and trade 745

Asia-Description and travel 915
Asia-History 950
Associations. See Clubs; Societies
Astronomy 520
Athletics 796
Atlases 912
Atlases, Historical. See Geography,
Atomic bomb 541.2
Atomic energy 541.2
Audio-Visual instruction. See Visual
Australia-Description and travel 919.4
Australia-History 994
Authors 920. See also Biography; Literature-
History and criticism
Automobiles 629.2
Aviation. See Aeronautics
Baby sitters 649
Bacteriology 589
Banking. See Banks and banking
Banks and banking 332.1
Bees 638.1
Bible 220
Bible-Stories 220
Bible. Old Testament 221.
Bible. New Testament 225
Biography 920
Biology 570
Birds 598.2
Book reviews 804
Book selection 025.2
Bookkeeping 657
Books and reading 804
Botany 580
Boy Scouts 369.4
Buses. See Motor buses
Business 658

Business English 651
Butterflies 595.78
Canada-Description and travel 917.1
Canada-History 971
Capital and labor. See Industrial
Carpentry 694
Cattle 636.2
Cave dwellers 571
Character 170
Chemistry 540
Chemistry, Technical 660.
Children's literature 028.5
China-Description and travel 915.1
China-History 951
Choral speaking 808.5
Christmas 394
Circus 791.3
Citizenship 323.6
Civilization, Medieval 940.1
Clothing and dress 646
Clubs 367
Coins 737
Colleges. See Universities and colleges
Colonial history (U. S.). See U. S.-
History-Colonial period
Commerce 380
Communication 621.38 (Includes Radio;
Telegraph; Telephone; Television)
Community life 323.35
Conduct of life 170
Conservation of Natural resources. See
Natural resources
Cook books. See Cookery
Cookery 641.5
Corn 633.1
Costume 391
Cotton 633.5
County government 352
Cowboys 917.8
Cows 636.2
Crime and criminals 364
Dairying 637. See also Cattle; Cows
Debates and debating 808.5
Democracy 321.8
Dictionaries. See name of language
Discoveries (in geography) 910
Dogs-Stories SC; F
Domestic animals 636
Drama-Collection 808.82
Drawing 740
Dressmaking 646

Earth 551. See also Geology; Physical
Easter 394
Economics 330
Education 370. See also Education of
children; Elementary schools;
junior high schools; High schools;
Universities and colleges
Education of children 372
Egypt-Description and travel 916.2
Egypt-History (Ancient) 932
Egypt-History (Modern) 962
Electrical engineering 621.3
Electricity 537
Elementary education. See Education of
Elementary schools 372
Encyclopedias and dictionaries 030
Engineering 620
England-Description and travel 914.2
England-History 942
English drama-Collections 822.08
English essays-Collections 824.08
English language-Dictionaries 423
English language-Synonyms 424
English literature-History and criticism
English poetry-Collections 821.08
Eskimos 919.08
Essays-Collections 808.84
Etiquette 395
Europe-Description and travel 914
Europe-History 940-949
Europe-Politics and government 354.
See also individual countries, e. g.
England, Germany, Spain
European War, 1914-1918. 940.3
Everglades, Florida 975.9; 917.59
Explorations. See Discoveries (in
Fairy tales 398
Family 392
Farm life 630.1
Ferns 587.3
Feudalism 940.1
Fiction 808.3. Use for works dealing
with fiction as a literary form.
May also be used as a subdivision
under any heading, e. g.
Finance 332
Fine arts. See Art
First aid in illness and injury 614.8

Fish. See Fishes
Fishes 597
Flag Day 394
Flags 929.9
Flowers 583. Names of individual
flowers are now included in this
list but may be used in the plural
form as needed, e. g. Roses; Pansies
Florida-Description and travel 917.59
Florida-Fiction F
Florida-Politics and government 353
Florida-History 975.9
Folk songs 784
Folklore 398
Food 641
Foreign relations. See International
Forests and forestry 634.9. See also
France-Description and travel 914.4
France-History 944
French language 440. Suddivide like
English language
Frogs 597.8
Fruit culture 634
Furniture 684
Games 790
Gardens 635. See also Fruit culture
Geography, Historical-Maps 911
Geology 550
German language 430. Subdivide like
English language
German-Description and travel 914.3
Germany-History 943
Girl Scouts 369.4
Government. See Political science and
subdivision, Politics and govern-
ment, under proper names. See also
Local government.
Grain 633.1
Grammar (Use as a subdivision under names
of language, e. g. English language-
Great Britain 942
Greece-History 938. Use for ancient
Greece, Modern 949; 914.9
Guidance. See Vocational guidance;
Personnel service in education
Handicraft 680
Health education. See School hygiene
High schools 373
History, Ancient 930

Hobbies 790
Holidays 394. See also names of holidays
Holland. See Netherlands
Home economics 640
Horses 636.1
Horses-Stories SC; F
House decoration 747
Household management. See Home economics
Houses 728
Hygiene 613
Immigration and emigration 325.1
Indians of North America 970.1 Names
of tribes are not included in this
list but may be used as needed, e. g.
Cherokee Indians; Seminole Indians
Industrial arts. See Technology; Art
industries and trade
Industrial chemistry. See Chemistry,
Industrial relations 331
Insects 595.7
Interior decoration. See House decoration
International relations 327
Inventions 608
Inventors 920
Italy-Description and travel 914.5
Italy-History 945
Japan-Description and travel 915.2
Japan-History 952
Journalism 070
Junior high schools 373
Juvenile courts 364.36
Juvenile delinquency 364.36
Labor and laboring classes 331
Language and languages 400-499
Latin America-Description and travel 918
Latin America-History 980. See also
Pan American Day; South America
Latin language 470. Subdivide like
English language
Law 340
Legends 398.2
Lettering 744; 745.6
Library science 020
Literature 800-899
Literature-Collections 808.8
Literature-History and criticism 809
Local government 352
Machine shop practice 621.9
Machinery 621
Mail service. See Postal service
Man, Prehistoric 571
Manners and customs 390

Manual training 680
Manufacturers 670
Maps 912
Marine biology 591.92
Marionettes. See Puppets and puppet
Mathematics 510
Mechanical drawing 744
Mechanics 531
Medicine 610-619
Merchant marine 387
Metals 669
Mexico-Description and travel 917.2
Mexico-History 972
Microscopes and microscopy 578
Middle ages-History 940.1. See also
Civilization, Medieval
Mineralogy 549
Minerals. See Mineralogy
Money 332
Moths 595.78
Motor boats. See Motorboats
Motor buses 629.2
Motorboats 623.8
Motorboats-Models 623.8
Moving picture photography 778
Moving pictures 791.4. (general works-
and entertainment )
Municipal government 352
Music 780
Mystery and detective stories. F; SC
Mythology 291
Natural resources 333. See also Forests
and forestry; Trees
Nature 502
Nature study 502
Navies 359
Navy. See Navies; and names of countries
with subhead Navy, e. g. U. S. Navy
Negroes 326
Netherlands-Description and travel 914.9
Netherlands-History 949
North America-Description and travel 917
North America-History 970. See Also
individual countries, as Canada,
Mexico, United States
North Pole 919.8. See also Arctic regions
Norway-Description and travel 914.8
Norway-History 948
Nurses and nursing 610.7
Nuts 634
Occupations 371.42
Ocean life. See Marine biology

Opera 782
Orations 808.85. Use for collections of
orations by several authors
Outdoor life 796
Pageants 791.6
Painting 750
Pan American Day 394
Parliamentary practice 328.1
Peace 172.4
Personality 137
Personal service in education 371.42
Pets 636
Philippines-Description and travel 919.1
Philippines-History 991
Philosophy 100-199
Phosphates 553.6
Photography 770
Physical education and training 613.7
Physical geography 551
Physics 530
Pirates 910.4; 920
Planets 523.4
Plants 580
Plays. See Drama-Collections
Poetry-Collections 808.81
Political parties 329. Use also names of
parties, e. g. Democratic Party,
Republican Party
Political science 320
Pony express 383
Post office. See Postal service
Postage stamps 383
Postal service 383
Pottery 666.3
Poultry 636.5
Prehistoric man. See Man, Prehistoric
Printing 655
Prisons 365
Production. See Economics
Professions 371.42. See also Occupations
Psychology 150
Public finance. See Finance
Public health 614
Public speaking. See Debates and
Puppet and puppet plays 791.5
Quotations 808.8
Race problems 323.1
Radio 621.38
Radio vision. See Television
Railroads 385
Railroads-Trains 385. See also Subways
Recipes. See Cookery

Recreation 790
Red Cross 361
Religion 200-299
Reptiles 598.1
Rhetoric 808
Rivers 551.4
Rocks 552
Rome 937; 914.5
Russia-Description and travel 914.7
Russia-History 947
Safety education. See accidents-
Salesman and salesmanship 658.8
Sanitation 614
Saving and thrift 339
Scandinavia-Description and travel 914.8
Scandinavia-History 948
School hygiene 371.7
Schools 370-379. See also Education;
Elementary schools; High schools,
Junior high schools, Universities
and colleges
Science 500-599
Scotland-Description and travel 914.1
Scotland-History 941
Scouts and scouting 369.4. See also
Boy scouts; Girl scouts
Sculpture 730
Sea stories F; SC
Seasons 525.5
Secondary education 373
Secondary schools. See High Schools;
Junior high schools
Secretaries, Private 651
Secretaries, Social 651
Sex education. See Sex instruction
Sex instruction 612.6
Shells 594
Ships 387
Shop practice. See Machine shop practice
Shorthand 653
Shrubs 582

Short stories SC
Silk 677.4
Snakes 598.1
Social problems 301
Societies 369
Sociology 300
Soils 631.4
Songs 784
The South. See Southern States
South America-Description and travel 918
South America-History 980
South Pole 919.9. See also Antarctic
Southern States 975; 976; 917.5; 917.6
Spain-Description and travel 914.6
954 India-History
960 Africa-History
962 Egypt
970 North America-History
970.1 American Indians
971 Canada-History
972 Mexico and West Indies-
973 United States-History
973.2 Colonial period
973.3 Revolution and
973.7 Civil War
973.8 1865 A. D.-1901
973.9 20th century
974 Northeastern states
975 Southeastern states
975.9 Florida-History
976 South central states
977 North central states
977.1 Ohio-History
978 Western states
979 Pacific states
979.8 Alaska-History
980 South America-History
990 Oceania-History
971 Philippines-History
974 Australia-History



This order card or handwritten order slip now shows that the book has
been ordered, and that two copies were requested:

Class No.

Accession No.

No. of Copies
Date ordered


Date of bill

Cost per copy


Order Slip (handwritten)

Author's surname, followed by miven name or initials
Yates, Elizabeth
Amos Fortune, free man

Edition Year Publsher List Pi ice
1950 ....Aladdin 2.50
Requested by
6th grade
Notify \Adress
iaas S. RiYers_ _
Reviewed in

Approved by

Lilrarics comblililln o anin d al,-'s1sii reccJidj nlv 1: 1 tile reverse of thlu
card lor recording syin ols oi branchll, tiuil Ihelir d(ati.

Order Card (typed)

1-t4-) &e-LtGi~A



This order card now shows that the book has been received:

Class No.

A2J sion No. Author's surname, followed by given name or initials
251 Yates, Elizabeth
.,oCoit%? Title
2 Amnos Fortunefreeman_
Date ordered Vols.

Edition Year Publisher List Prie
opf 1950 Aladdin 2.50
Everyman'a -.
fIeqiue-ltc by
Received 6th grade
3/23/51 Notify Audreas
Dateofbils S. Rivera
Reviewed in
Cost per copy Approved Ly
Lii-arn9 comiil l'" o us ilil :c-'.,- ix rlicord i, ii- tli re ery of tiIi!.
GAYLORD IO1-L card lor iccordingi y im ols of hiranchc, aii oitiher dai.

(This same information could be shown on a handwritten order slip.)

This shows the order file with its divisions:

The book is opened properly:

When opening a new book place the book with its back on the table. Press the front and back
covers down to the table while holding the pages up with one hand. Press open a few pages on one
side, then the other side until the center of the book is reached.

This book has now been entered in the accession record, a chronological record of all books in
the materials center, showing author, title, publisher, year, source, cost, and final disposition of each

Date March, 1951



2s I yatea, E- Amos ?ortume, free nan Aladdin -590friym' 2~
25521 W R 19c50 W 23

2553 Lenski T. St,-WbDZ= O00 A',3945 P-T-AL P

L ii~ _

56~~~~~~ _______________ ___________


On the verso or back of the title page, the call number is given. For this book, the call number is

Fortune. On the page following the title page, parallel to the inside margin, the date of acquisition,
source, and price, are given. For this book, this information is: 6-26-50 Everyman's Bookshop $2.13.
On this same page, at the bottom, the accession number, which identifies this book, is given.

The book is equipped for circulation with a book pocket, a book card (with classification number,
author's last name, simple title, accession number, and spaces for borrowers to use in checking book
out) and a date due slip. The same information on the book card can be used on the book pocket, to
speed up circulation routines. The book is also stamped on the inside front cover, and on a selected page
(e. g. 21) with the name of the materials center, signifying ownership.

The call number is placed on the spine of the book and then the cover is shellacked:

Cards must be made for the
card catalog, an index showing
in one alphabet all materials:
books, records, films, filmstrips,
slides, etc. which the center has,
by author, title and subject.

This is a copy slip from which the cards for the card catalog are typed:

,,,,1.- i^ T5-eeo L si

Irp yi~.

Front of Copy Slip

Back of Copy Slip

Arabic numbers denote subject headings in card catalog. Roman numerals
denote all other entries in card catalog. The accession and copy numbers are
to be used on the shelf list card.

/ C-k.j > ^ eL

~23>5-i" /.2

Below is shown the main entry This is usually the author card. The num-
bers around the card show spacing of items on the card, e. g. the author's name
is on the 4th line from the top of the card and begins on the 8th space from the
left edge of the card; the title is on the line below the author's name and begins
on the 12th space from the left edge of the card.

3 B
4 For- Yates, Elizabeth, 1905-
tune Amos Fortune, free man; illus. by Nora S.
Unwin. Aladdin, c1950.
181p. illus.


On the back of the main entry is the tracing which shows the other entries
which are made for the book. If the center withdraws the book at any time this
record tells where to find all of the catalog cards for withdrawal.


1 Fortune, Amos
I Title

This is the title card. Note that it is exactly like the author card, except that
the title is on the line above the author, beginning on the 12th space from the left
of the card.

B Amos Fortune, free man.
For- Yates, Elizabeth, 1905-
tune Amos Fortune, free man; illus. by Nora S.
Unwin. Aladdin, c1950.
181p. illus.


This is the subject card. The subject heading may be typed in black capital
letters or in red. Note similarity to author card, except for subject.

Fortune, Amos. ---- -- ----
Yates, Elizabeth, 1905-
Amos Fortune, free man; illus. by Nora S.
Unwin. Aladdin, c1950.
181p. illus.

-in red

17 Th^


For- Yates, Elizabeth, 1905-
tune Amos Fortune, free man; illus. by Nora S.
Unwin. Aladdin, c1950.
181p, illus.


This is the shelf list card showing the accession numbers and copy numbers:

The shelf list card is placed in the shelf list, a record on cards of all materials
as they are arranged in the materials center, that is, by classification:

For- Yates, Elizabeth, 1905-
tune Amos Fortune, free man; illus. by Nora S.
Urwin. Aladdin, c1950.
181p. illus.
2552, c.2


When someone borrows this book from the
center the book card is placed in the charging
tray behind date due:

a.-2 2552
Yates, Elizabeth
Amos Fortune, free man

S <. DA. LI




Following are some examples of cards for the card catalog for some other types of books
in the materials center's collection:

A book of fiction:

A book of fiction:

Strawberry girl.
Lenski, Lois, 1893-
Strawberry girl.
193p. illus.

Lenski, Lois, 1893-
Strawberry girl.
193p. illus.

Lenski, Lois, 1893-
Strawberry girl.
193p. illus.

Lippincott, c1945.

Lippincott, c1945.




Lippincott, c1945.






1 Florida Fiction
I Title


A non-fiction book:

Rombauer, Irma (von Starkloff) 1877-
A cookbook for girls and boys.
243p. illus.

Bobbs, c1946.



s Cook books

The above sample shows the author or main entry card with the tracing on the
back. The tracing indicates the other cards that are made for this book. s-Cook books
indicates that a subject "see" reference needs to be made for this book (a sample of this
reference is given under cross references).


The main entry with tracing on the back for a reference book:

The World almanac and book of facts . .


Library has:


1945- -+- cLc-A -

The main entry for the above book is under title.


N. Y.


1 Statistics


The main entry with tracing on the back for a state publication:

F Florida. State department of education.
The audio-visual way . Tallahassee,
Florida, State department of education, 1948,
108p. illus. (Its Bulletin 22B)


1 Visual instruction
I Title

s Audio-visual instruction

The "s-audio-visual instruction" indicates a see reference for audio-visual instruction
needs to be made.

Cross references are put in the card catalog to help the user find the material
he wants.

This is a "see" reference, a direction from a heading that is not used to a
heading that is used:

This is a "see also" reference, a direction from material the materials center
has on a given subject to other related materials:


see also







The card catalog in the materials center also has references to sources of information
in the community, people who might be valuable, places where information about sub-
jects may be obtained, e. g. suggested field trips, where one might write for information
about bees. These references are called resource references.
These are sample cards of this type:

The First National Bank permits field trips if
arrangements are made three days in advance
with Mr. Henry Smith of that bank.


Mr. and Mrs. James Fielding, Jones Street, who
lived for ten years in Mexico will come for
talks and will bring souvenirs and phlIoographs.


Below are examples of Wilson Cards, printed cards which may be used for many books in the ca
catalog. These card sets may be ordered from the H. W. Wilson Company, 950 University Avemn
N. Y., for a nominal amount. The materials center orders Wilson Cards for all books for which cards a
available because they are reasonable in cost and save time for the librarian who, because of their ui
has more time to assist teachers and pupils.

In ordering them, the materials specialist has the opportunity to choose cards with or without class
fiction numbers and subject headings. When cards are chosen without classification numbers and su
ject headings, these are easily added by the typist to conform with the library's policies.

Wilson Cards without subject headings:

Kiver, Milton S
Television simplified. Van Nostrand 1946
375p illus


Television simplified

Kiver, Milton S
Television simplified. Van Nostrand 1946
375p illus
A companion volume to "UHF radio simplified" which explains "tele-
vision rprpeivprg in Si;nnlp intlinope without mathem.-nt s nirrlt;ln Cf f,.

Kiver, Milton S
Television simplified. Van Nostrand 1946
375p illus
A companion volume to "UHF radio simplified" which explains "tele-
vision rpecivers in simnle lanon ueo withnot mnthemntire T;r.p;,ne C nr

Card for
shelf list
number to
be added
by typist)

Title card
number to
be added
by typist)

number to
be added
by typist)

Kiver, Milton S
Television simplified. Van Nostrand 1946
375p illus
A companion volume to "UHF radio simplified" which explains "tele-
vision receivers in simple language, without mathematics. Directions for
trouble shooting and repairing television equipment fare given. Covers
color television, frequency modulation and related subjects." Library
Glossary of television terms: p366-69

1 Television I Title

O (W) The H. W. Wilson Company

number to
be added
by typist.
at bottom
of card)





Wilson Cards with subject headings:

621.388 Kiver, Milton S
Television simplified. Van Nostrand 1946
375p illus

Television simplified
621.388 Kiver, Milton S
Television simplified. Van Nostrand 1946
375p illus
A companion volume to "UHF radio simplified" which explains "tele-
vi.Cinn rpereire inin ginlemnp -ine-_ ..;tbhnif f-01-io- fl-rp.-f;-nr (r_4--- ---

621.388 Kiver, Milton S
Television simplified. Van Nostrand 1946
375p illus
A companion volume to "UHF radio simplified" which explains "tele-
visinn receivers in imnle lannmi,a withnt motem-ti n;-irti;-o fnor-

Card for
shelf list

Title card



If the classification numbers and subject headings do not agree with the ones the materials center
uses the above type cards must be erased and adapted for the individual center or the Wilson Cards with-
out subject headings and classification numbers used.

621.388 Kiver, Milton S
Television simplified. Van Nostrand 1946
375p illus
A companion volume to "UHF radio simplified" which explains "tele-
vision receivers in simple language, without mathematics. Directions for
trouble shooting and repairing television equipment [are given,. Covers
color television, frequency modulation and related subjects." Library
Glossary of television terms: p366-69

1 Television I Title 621.388

Q (W) The H. W. Wilson Company


Magazines are ordered from a magazine agency. This simplifies ordering
and receiving. Upon receipt, magazines are stamped with the materials center's
ownership stamp and are checked in on periodical record cards.

This is a sample record card for a daily or weekly publication:

Name No. Copies Expires
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1213114 15 16 17 18 19 2021122 23124 25 26127 2829 30131



-A"^--- _____iji,- -- ---_----__ _---(_

Nov. I
Dec. __- -- --
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13314915 16 1718 19 202122 2 2425 26 27 28 2930 31

Front of card

Ordered of Price

YES -------------
Bill Date Bind O NO-


Back of card

This is a sample record card for a monthly, bi-monthly, or annual publication:

(Name of Magazine) (Due)

Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. T.P.&I.

No. Copies Depts. Indexed in
I (ov9n)

Front of card

(Publisher's name) (Publisher's address)
List price Vols. begin Bind
Ordered of ...................................................D ate............ Expires..................Cost...................
Ordered of ................................... ............ Date..................Expires............ Cost...................
Ordered of ...................................................Date..................Expires............ Cost..................
Ordered of ................................................... Date..................Expires............ Cost..................
Ordered of................................................... Date............ Expires .............. Cost.................
Ordered of............................................ .........Date ....... Expires...................Cost..................
Ordered of ..................................................Date............ Expires............ Cost...................
Ordered of..................................................Date................Expires............ Cost..................
Ordered of.......................................... Date.......Expires...........Cost..................
Ordered of................................. ............ Date..................Expires............ Cost...................
Ordered of ...................................................D ate..................Expires............ Cost...................
Short 1st Notice sent 2nd Notice sent 3rd Notice sent

Back of card


In this file are kept pamphlets, pictures, newspaper clippings, magazine
clippings, etc. These materials are kept in large folders and are arranged alpha-
betically by subject. The center uses the Alphabetical Subject Heading List
suggested for cataloging for this file, too. This file should be weeded at least
once each year in order to discard out of date and useless material.

Boys and girls can help with clipping materials and with mounting pictures
and clippings, when desirable.


Many of the processes of acquiring and processing audio-visual or non-book materials are the same
as the ones used for books, e. g. order cards are made and are kept in the order file, materials are classi-
fied, etc. The librarian must also check carefully to see that the condition of the materials is acceptable,
e. g. records should be played and examined for defects.

The following description shows one way of preparing these materials for circulation, with sample
cards for the catalog and the shelf list. In this description the shelf list and accession record are com-
bined, and the accession number plus some identification of the type material is used for the call number,
e. g. a slide with the accession number of 101 would have the following call number, SL101. Some
libraries use the Dewey Decimal System of Classification for A-V materials. Some libraries also use
different colored cards for each type material, e. g. the catalog cards for slides might be on green cards
and the catalog cards for records might be on blue cards, etc.

In the following descriptions the grade level is indicated in the upper right hand corner of the cards
using these symbols:

P Primary
E Elementary
J Junior high school
H High school.

This is a film in its container ready for circulation:

The film is checked out using a call slip which
is placed in the charging tray behind date due:


Call no. F 15

Date due 7/ /

The main entry for films is under title. The tracing, as for books, is given on the reverse side of the
main entry card. The call number is made up of the accession number preceded by the letter, F, e. g.
F101. The following information is included on the cards: call number, title, millimeter, running time
of film, black and white or colored, producer, date of production. On the shelf list card the date obtained,
source and price are given:

These are sample cards for a film:


The secretary's day.
16-sd. 10 min. black and white. Coronet
films, 1947.

3/5/51 Coronet films $45.00
J s


The secretary's day.
16-sd. 10 min. black and white.
films, 1947.



The secretary's day.
16-sd. 10 min. black and white.
films, 1947.


Shelf list


Main entry
Title card
tracing on
the back

1 Secretaries, Private



Coror, t

This is a filmstrip in its container ready for circulation:


The filmstrip is checked out using a call slip
which is placed in the charging tray behind date

The main entry for filmstrips is under title. The tracing, as for books, is given on the reverse side
of the main entry card. The call number is made up of the accession number preceded by the letters,
FS, e. g. FS101. The following information is included on the cards: call number, title, number of
frames, silent or sound, black and white or colored, producer, date of production. On the shelf list
card the date obtained, source, and price are given.

These are sample cards for a filmstrip:


How to use an encyclopedia. Shelf list
51 frames. si. black and white. Popular card
science, 1948.

1/12/51 Popular science $3.00

How to use an encyclopedia.
51 frames, si. black and white. Popular
science, 1948.
E Main entry
S FS101 Title card
How to use an encyclopedia. with
51 frames. si. black and white. Popular th bacinn
science, 1948.


1 Encyclopedias and dictionaries

This is a map ready for circulation:

A map is checked out using a call slip which
is placed in the charging tray behind date due:


Call no. Ml 0

1 81-


Date due 7 /. <* /


The main entry for maps is under title. The tracing, as for books, is given on the reverse side of the
main entry card. The call number is made up of the accession number preceded by the letter M, e. g.
M101. The following information is included on the cards: call number, title, size of map, scale, pub-
lisher, publisher's number, date. On the shelf list card the date obtained, source, and price are given.

These are sample cards for a map:


Shelf list


Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
44"x32". Scale 1" = 80 mi, Denoyer-Geppert,
H16, c1949.



Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
44"x32". Scale 1" = 80 mi. Denoyer-Geppert,
H16, c1949.


Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
44"x32". Scale 1" = 80 mi. Denoyer-Geppert,
H16, c1949.

7/9/51 Denoyer-Geppert $2.50


Main entry
Title card
tracing on
the back


1 Europe History


This is a set of slides in its cabinet, ready for

Slides are checked out on a call slip which is
placed in the charging tray behind date due:


Call no. 5 L 103

Name due /-. / /

Date due 1/..s-/

The main entry for slides is under title. The tracing, as for books, is given on the reverse side of the
main entry card. The call number is made up of the accession number preceded by the letters, SL, e. g.
SL103. The following information is included on the card: call number, title, number of slides in set,
size of slides, black and white or colored, producer, date of production. On the shelf list card the date
obtained, source, and price are given.

These are sample cards for slides:


Flowering shrubs.
10 2x2 slides.
education, n.d.


2/20/51 Society for visual educa

Flowering shrubs.
10 2x2 slides. col.
education, n.d.

Society for visual

ition Free

Society for visual



Flowering shrubs.
10 2x2 slides. col.
education, n.d.

Society for visual

Shelf list


Main entry
Title card
tracing on
the back




1 Shrubs


This is a record in its record holder ready for

A record is checked out on a call slip which is
placed in the charging tray behind date due:


Call no. f /O /

Name D -

Date due 7 /ac. /

The main entry for a single recording is under composer or author. The tracing, as for books, is given
on the reverse side of the main entry card. The call number is made up of the accession number pre-
ceded by the letter, R, e. g. R101. The following information is included on the cards: call number,
composer or author, title, producing company, record number, date of production, 1 record, 2 sides, size
of record, speed of playing. On the shelf list card the date obtained, source, and price are given.

These are sample cards for a single recording:


Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882. Shelf list
Paul Revere's ride. Popular science monthly, card
Studiodisc 0107-A, n.d.
1 record. 2 sides. 12". 78 r.p.m.

1/12/51 Popular science monthly $2.00


R101 Paul Revere's ride.
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882. Title ca
Paul Revere's ride. Popular science monthly,
Studiodisc 0107-A, n.d.
1 record. 2 sides. 12". 78 r.p.m.

RL01 REVERE, PAUL, 1735-1818. Subj
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882. card
Paul Revere's ride. Popular science monthly,
Studiodisc 0107-A, n.d.
1 record. 2 sides. 12". 78 r.p.m.


Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882.
Paul Revere's ride. Popular science monthly,
Studiodisc C107-A, n.d.
1 record. 2 sides. 12". 78 r.p.m.


1 Revere, Paul, 1735-1818.
I Title



Main entry
racing on
he back

A record album is equipped with a book

pocket, book card, and date due slip just as a

book is. These are on the inside back cover of

the record album:

A record album is checked out on the card

which is placed in the charging tray behind date


Ringwald, Roy
The song of Christmas


The main entry for a record album is under composer or author. The tracing, as for books, is given
on the reverse side of the main entry card. The call number is made up of the accession number pre-
ceded by the letters, RA, e. g. RA101. The following information is included on the cards: call number,
composer or author, title of the album, producing company, record number, date of production, number
of records, number of sides, size of records, speed of playing. On the shelf list card the date obtained,
source, and price are given. These are sample cards for a record album:


Ringwald, Roy
The song of Christmas; the story of the nativ- Shelf list
ity told in Christmas songs, carols and Biblical
verses. Decca, DAU-13, c1948.
2 records. 4 sides. 12". 78 r.p.m.

1/15/51 John H. Smith Gift
RA101 The song of Christmas.
Ringwald, Roy Title card
The song of Christmas; the story of the nativ-
ity told in Christmas songs, carols and Biblical
verses. Decca, DAU-13, c1948.
2 records. 4 sides. 12". 78 r.p.m

Ringwald, Roy Subject
The song of Christmas; the story of the nativ- card
ity told in Christmas songs, carols and Biblical
verses. Decca, DAU-13, c1948.
2 records. 4 sides. 12". 78 r.p.m.
EP JS Author
RA101 or
Ringwald, Roy Main entry
The song of Christmas; the story of the nativ- with
ity told in Christmas songs, carols and Biblical tracing on
verses. Decca, DAU-13, c1948. the back
2 records. 4 sides. 12". 78 r.p.m.


1 Christmas
I Title

This is a stereograph in
its holder ready for circula-

A stereograph is checked out using a call slip
which is placed in the charging tray behind date


Call no. 5 T I

Name -" .

Date due 7 /; / I

The main entry for stereographs is under title. The tracing, as for books, is given on the reverse side
of the main entry card. The call number is made up of the accession number preceded by the letters,
St, e. g. ST101. The following information is included on the cards: call number, title, number of reels
with trade name, producer, producer's number, date. On the shelf list card the date obtained, source,
and price are given.

These are sample cards for a stereograph:

ST101 Shelf list
The People of Haiti. card
1 reel View-master. Sawyer's, 590, 1946.

7/20/51 Camera center $.35
ST101 HAITI. card
The People of Haiti,
1 reel Viev.w-.:ster. Sawyer's, 590, 1946.
E J H Main entry
Title card
ST101 with
The People of Haiti. tracing on
1 reel View-master. Sawyer's, 590, 1946. the back


1 Haiti


Inventory is the process of comparing all materials: books, films, filmstrips, recordings, slides, etc.,
with the shelf list to determine the actual number of materials on hand. Shelves should be read and all
materials checked for proper order before beginning inventory in order to facilitate the process. It is ad-
visable for two people to work together with one reading the shelf list and the other checking the shelves.
Before any material is recorded as lost all other records, e. g. circulation record, should be checked.
These are sample records that are made for the annual inventory:


Name of School Date
No. at 1st No. No. lost & Total
Books of year added discarded now

920 & B



No. 1st No. No. lost & Total
Audio-Visual of year added discarded now

Record albums
Records (Single)



The cards in the card catalog are filed by filing rules. The following filing rules may be used by a
materials center:* If any changes are made in them, the rule should be written down to make it pos-
sible for anyone to see quickly how materials are arranged.

1. Arrange all cards in alphabetical order.
2. Arrange all cards by the first word on the top line disregarding initial articles. Follow letter by
letter to the end of the word and then word by word. Every word, including articles-except
when initial word-and prepositions, is to be regarded.
3. Arrange word by word following the general rule, "Nothing comes before something."
A.E., pseud.
Abbott, E. H.
Abbott, Edith
Air Mail Service
Aircraft Yearbook

4. When the same word is used for different kinds of headings, the order is: person, place, subject,
Washington, George (author) (
Washington, George (subject)
Washington (state) (Place)
Washington, D. C.
Washington, Mount (Subject)
Washington College
Washington in War Times (Title)
All entries of the same word followed by a comma precede two-word entries.
Washington, D. C.
Washington, Mount
Washington College

5. Arrange abbreviations as if spelled in full, because they are so pronounced, except Mr. and Mrs.
which are filed as they are spelled on the card. A card to explain the rule should be filed in the
card catalog.
M', Mc as if spelled Mac
St. as if spelled Saint

6. Elisions beginning with D', L', 0' are arranged as printed, disregarding the apostrophe.
D'Angelo, Pascal
Contractions are filed similarly.
Who Killed Cock Robin?
Who'd be King?
Who's Who

7. Arrange in proper alphabetical places names that differ slightly in spelling. Use "see also"
cards unless the other spelling follows on the next card.
Brown. See also Browne
Clark. See also Clarke

8. Arrange compound names, both for persons and places, as separate words.
Saint Gaudens, Augustus
St. Louis, Mo.
Saint-Saens, C. C.
Saint Thomas College

9. Arrange personal and place names compounded with prefixes as one word.
La Farge
La Fontaine
Van Bibber
Vanbrugh, Sir John
Van Buren, Martin
10. Arrange hyphenated words as if separate words, disregarding the hyphen.
Happy home
Happy-Thought Hall
Happy Thoughts
File as one word hyphenated words compounded with a prefix, such as anti, co, pre, etc.
Coerne, Louis Adolphe
11. Disregard prefix titles-Mrs.. Sir, Gen.. Capt., Dr.-in personal names, except to distinguish be-
tween persons.
Scott, Sir Walter
Scott, Walter B.
Prefix titles in book titles are not disregarded.
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
12. Figures in titles of books are alphabetized as if the word were spelled in full. They are not
filed in numerical order. Spell 100 as "one hundred," etc. (not "a hundred").
19th Century
13. The apostrophe in possessive case is disregarded.
Boys' and Girls' Book
Boys' King Arthur
Boy's Will

14. Arrange the subdivisions of a subject alphabetically.
Art, Ancient
Art, French
Art History
Art, Italian
Exception: Under history of a country the subdivisions are arranged chronologically. Subject
divisions precede period divisions. If in doubt about the order, use a subject heading list, such
as Sears, for a guide.
United States History
United States History -Discovery and Exploration
United States History Colonial Period
United States History Revolution and Confederation
United States History War of 1812
United States History Civil War
Use a cross reference from American history, as:
American history. See United States History

15. Arrange subdivisions under place alphabetically, disregarding words in parentheses.
North Carolina (state)
North Carolina (state) History
North Carolina (state) Library Commission
North Carolina State Historical Commission

16. If two or more cards under an author's name bear the same title, arrange by edition, putting
the most recent edition first. There will be one title card, but a separate author card for each
5th edition, 3rd edition, 1st edition

17. Arrange publications of a government department together and then alphabetize by title.
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Handbook for Elementary and
Secondary Schools 1938. Publication no. 206.
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. North Carolina Public Schools.
Publication no. 209.
North Carolina- Department of Public Instruction. North Carolina School Library
Handbook by Mary Peacock Douglas. Publication No. 197

18. Arrange Bible entries as follows:
Bible Old Testament
Bible New Testament
Single books of both the Old and New Testament are preferably arranged alphabetically.

19. Arrange Shakespeare's entries as follows:
Collected works in one alphabet
Separate plays in one alphabet, arranged by name of play. Using the short title, e. g.,
Hamlet (not Tragedy of Hamlet)

*Mary Peacock Douglas, The Teacher-Librarians Handbook (2d ed.; Chicago: American Library Association, 1949),
pp. 81-84 (Refers to Zona K. Miller, How to Organize a Library; New York School) Library Division, Remington Rand.)


Akers, Susan Grey. Simple Library Cataloging. 3d ed. Chicago: American
Library Association, 1946. $2.25.
Daughtry, Bessie M. "Cataloging and Classifying Audio-Visual Materials; A Guide to the Preparation c
Films, Filmstrips, Slides, and Records for Use in the Materials Center of the School of Librar
Training and Service..." Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State University, 1950. (Mimeographed
Dewey, Melvil. Abridged Decimal Classification and Relative Index. 6th ed. Lake Placid Club, N. Y
Forest Press, Inc., 1945. $4.00
Educational Film Guide. Compiled by Dorothy E. Cook and Eva Rahbek-Smith. New York; H. M
Wilson. (Monthly issues and bound volumes) $4.00.
Filmstrip Guide. Compiled by Frederic A. Kahn. New York: H. W. Wilson Co. (Monthly issues an
bound volumes) $3.00.
Florida. State Department of Education. The Audio-Visual Way . Tallahassee, Florida: State Deparl
ment of Education, 1948. (Its Bulletin No. 22B) $.35.
Keen, Eunice. "Manual for Use in the Cataloging and Classification of Audio-Visual Materials for
High School Library." Chicago: Graduate Library School, University of Chicago, 1949. (Mimec
graphed) $.30. (Order direct from author, Lakeland High School Library, Lakeland, Florida)
Rufsvold, Margaret Irene. Audio-Visual School Library Services, A Handbook for Librarians. Chicagc
American Library Association, 1949, $2.75.
Sears, Minnie Earl. Sears List of Subject Headings. Edited by Bertha Margaret Frick. 6th ed. Ne'
York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1950. $4.00.

These supplies are available from library supply firms, office equipment firms, dealers in A-
equipment, or in some cases from the 5 and 10c store.
Catalog cards, medium weight, approximately 5 per title or piece of material to be cataloged
Book cards (1 per title)
Book pockets (1 per title or item)
Date due slips (1 per item)
Library paste
Paste brush
Shellac brush
Denatured alcohol
Clear shellac
White lettering ink
India ink (black)
Pen staff and pen points
Card file
Date stamp
Stamp pad
Materials Center stamp
Charging tray
Card catalog case (4 drawer minimum)
Guide cards for charging tray 1 31
Guide cards for charging tray A Z
1 set 10 printed shelf list guide cards
25 plain guide cards halves for catalog

400 feet of "leader"
1 half pint of cement
10 yards cheesecloth (for cleaning splices)
2 gallon Vitafilm (for cleaning and lubricating films)
1/2 pint quick-drying enamel, both black and white, for lettering cans and reels
1 pen staff and stub pens for lettering
35mm. leader for filmstrips
Rewinds and film splicer

Avoid dampness, prolonged exposure to direct sunlight, or excessive heat. Protect the backs of
books from insect damage by applying a coat of shellac. As books stand on shelves, dust them oc-
casionally, handling each book individually, and dusting the shelf as well.
Hold books erect on shelves with bookends.

Films and slides
(Taken with permission from Visual Aids, by Weaver and Ballinger, published by Van Nostrand,
Store films in metal containers to avoid dust and damage.
Keep slides in slide case to prevent breakage and to insure their proper sequence.
Handle films and slides by edge only. Avoid finger marks.
Remove dust and lint with a soft cloth dampened with carbon tetrachloride.
Re-run the film through a dry, clean soft cloth to polish it.
Avoid scratching the emulsion on films and slides as nothing can be done to restore it.
Prevent oil from touching films.
Avoid extremes of heat and humidity.

Avoid heat; recordings will warp and "ruffle"
In storage, see that recordings are always in a true horizontal or vertical position. Leaning will
distort the shape.
Keep behind cabinet doors or in albums; dust is ruinous to the surface of a recording.
Provide albums or tough manila envelopes for circulation of recordings.

It is not practical to list individual publishing houses or individual producers and distributors of
audio-visual aids. Information in regard to firms in these categories will be supplied upon request by
the Consultant in Instructional Materials, State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
Patterson's Educational Trade Index and Buyers' Guide, reprinted from the 1951 edition of Patterson's
American Educational Directory as a "free service to school administrators" by Field Enterprises, Inc.,
35 West Wacker Drive, Chicago 1, Illinois, helps in the identification of dealers and commercial services.
Firms are listed under such headings as: Art Materials; Atlases; Band and Orchestra Music; Book-
binders, Library; Books; Cameras; Charts and Models; Films, Motion Pictures; Filmstrip; Handicrafts
Materials; Industrial Art Equipment; Maps and Globes; Prints and Pictures; Recordings; Slides. Ad-
dresses of all firms are given.

Some firms offering frequently used services are given here:

Book Jobbers as a rule give a discount from the price of from 10 to 15% on educational editions and
20 to 25% on trade editions.
The American News Co., 131 Varick St., New York 13, N. Y.
Anglobooks, 475 5th Ave., New York 17, N. Y.
The Baker and Taylor Co., Hillside, New Jersey.
William M. Bains, 1617 Samson St., Philadelphia 3, Pa.
Barnes and Noble, Inc., 105 5th Ave., New York 3, N. Y.
Book Supply Co., 564-66 Monroe St., Chicago 6, Ill.
Bookazine Co., Inc., 43 E. 10th St., New York 3, N. Y.
C. L. Bowman & Co., 123 E. 24th St., New York 10, N. Y.
Brown Book Co., 1787 Longfellow Ave., New York 60, N. Y.
Charles W. Clark Co., 45 E. 17th St., New York 3, N. Y.
Davis Book Wholesalers, 115 E. 23rd St., New York 10, N. Y.
DeWolfe & Fiske Co., Archway Bookstore, 2 Park St., Boston 4, Mass.
Dimonstien Book Co., 60 E. 13th St., New York 3, N. Y.
J. K. Gill Co., S. W. 5th Ave. at Starke St., Portland 4, Oregon
The Jenkins Book Co., 1739-41 Bordeaux St., New Orleans 15, La.
Landau Book Co., 235 4th Ave., New York 3, N. Y.
A. C. McClurg & Co., 333 E. Ontario St., Chicago, Ill.
I & M Ottenheimer, 23-25 S. Howard St., Baltimore 1, Md.
Outlet Book Co., 419 4th Ave., New York 16, N. Y.
The Personal Book Shop, 95 St. James St., Boston 17, Mass.
Gerald Sutlift Co., Garden City, L. I.
Thomas & Eron, 89 Chambers St., New York 7, N. Y.
Transbook Co., Inc., 6 W. 39th St., New York 16, N. Y.
Vroman's Inc., 383 S. Pasadena Ave., Pasadena, Calif.
Wilcox & Follett, 1255 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago 5, Ill.

The Library Binding Institute, 561 Fifth Ave., New York City 17, N. Y., will supply librarians
with a list of those library binderies that have been certified by the Joint Committee of the American
Library Association and the Library Binding Institute.
E. M. Hale Co., Eau Claire, Wisconsin (For Cadmus & Landmark Books).
Hertzbett, Craftsman, East Grand Ave., at 22nd St., Des Moines 17, Iowa
Ernst Hertzberg and Sons, 1751 Belmont Ave., Chicago 13, Ill.
H. R. Huntting Co., 100 Chestnut Street, Springfield 5, Mass.
The Imperial Book Co., 2303 76th Ave., Philadelphia 38, Pa.
Carl J. Leibel, 1220 Maple Ave., Los Angeles 15, Calif.
Library Binding Co. of Pa., Inc., 212 N. 12th Street, Philadelphia 7, Pa.
Library Book House, 271 Park St., West Springfield, Mass.
National Binding Co. of Georgia, 2397 Peachtree St., N. W., Atlanta, Ga.
New Methods Book Bindery, Jacksonville, Illinois
R. S. & S. Co., Willington and Clinton St., Hempstead, L. I., N. Y.
Represented in Florida by Haslam's, 742 Central Ave., St. Petersburg, Fla.
Rademaekers, Inc., 74 Oraton Parkway, Newark, New Jersey
Joseph Ruzicka, Library Bookbinding, 220-222 E. Gaston St., Greensboro, N. C.
Universal Dixie Bindery, Jacksonville, Florida

Reliable magazine agencies offer money-saving subscription combinations. Some agencies are:
American News Co., 131 Varick St., New York
Crowley, The Magazine Man, 511 E. 164th St., New York City
William Dawson Subscription Service, Toronto 2, Canada
F. W. Faxon Co., 83 Francis St., Boston, Mass.
Franklin Square Agency, 40 E. 33rd St., New York City
Hanson-Bennett Magazine Agency, 529 S. Franklin St., Chicago
Herman Goldberger Agency, 592 S. Franklin St., Chicago
Mayfair Agency, Moore, Cottrell Subscription Agency, North Cohocton, N. Y.
Military Service Co., Tuscaloosa, Alabama
Turner Subscription Agency, 30 Irving Place, New York City
1. Name and Address
2. Names of magazines listed alphabetically and subscription length for each
3. Date of first issue to be received.
4. Request for the indexes for the magazines to be sent when issued by the publisher
5. Request for information regarding better prices for long term subscriptions
Abrams Aerial Survey Corp., 606 E. Shiawassee St., Lansing, Michigan
American Map Co., Inc., 16 E. 42nd St., New York
Edward E. Babb & Co., Inc., Boston, Mass., and Philadelphia, Pa.
R. R. Bowker Co., 62 W. 45th St., New York, N. Y.
Stanley Bowman Co., 2929 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
Milton Bradley Co., New Brunswick, N. J.
Campbell Photo Service, Inc., 917 E. St., N. W., Washington, D. C.
Charles W. Clark Co., 240 Madison Ave., New York
Edith M. Cook Projects, Westtown, Pa.
George F. Cram Co., Inc., 730 E. Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind.
Denoyer-Geppert Co., 5235 N. Ravenswood Ave., Chicago
Deseret Book Co., 44 East on South Temple St., Salt Lake City, Utah
Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc., 224 E. llth St., Los Angeles, Calif.
Friendship Press, 156 Fifth Ave., New York
L. F. Gates, Syracuse, N. Y.
Greyhound Travel Bureau, 920 Superior Ave., Cleveland, Ohio
A. J. Griner Co., 417 E. 13th St., Kansas City, Mo.
C. Eleanor Hall, 45 Spring St., Port Henry, N. Y.
C. S. Hammond & Co., 440 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y.
Home Movie Sales Agency, 259 S. Corona St., Denver, Colo.
Industrial Arts Cooperative Service, Inc., 519 W 121st St., New York
International News Photos, 235 E. 45th St., New York
Keystone View Co., Meadville, Pa.
J. S. Latta & Son, Cedar Falls, Iowa
McConnell School Map Co., 610 E. Madison St., Goshen, Ind.
McKinley Publishing Co., 1021 Filbert St., Philadelphia
A. J. Nystrom & Co., 3333 Elston Ave., Chicago, Ill.
Pan American Airways System, 135 E. 42nd St., New York
Pictorial Statistics, Inc., 142 Lexington Ave., New York
Practical Drawing Co., Dallas, Tex.
Rand McNally Co., 536 S. Clark St., Chicago
Karl Smith, Cartographer, 1242 Cherokee Road, Louisville, Ky.
Universal Distributing Co., 38 Union Square, New York

For a more complete list, consult the Educational Film Guide or a Partial List of 16mm. Fii
Libraries, Washington: U. S. Office of Education.
A. F. Films, Inc., 1600 Broadway, New York 19
Academy Films, 844 Seward St., Hollywood 38, Calif.
American Museum of Natural History, 79th and Central Park West, New York 17
Association Films (YMCA Motion Picture Bureau), 347 Madison Ave., New York 17
Bailey Film Service, P. O. Box 2528, Hollywood 28, Calif.
Brandon Films, Inc., 1600 Broadway, New York 19
Bray Studies, Inc., 729 7th Ave., New York 19
British Information Service, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N. Y.
Business Education Visual Aids, 330 W. 72nd St., New York
Castle Films, Division of United World Films
Coronet Productions, 65 E. South Water St., Chicago
Dudley Pictures Corp., 9724 Santa Monica Blvd., Beverly Hills, Calif.
Eastin Pictures Co., P. O. Box 598, Davenport, Iowa
Edited Pictures System, 165 W. 46th St., New York 19
Educational Film Library Association, Inc., 1600 Broadway, New York 19
Encyclopedia Britannica Films, 1150 Wilmette Ave., Wilmette, Ill.
Film Program Services, 1173 Ave. of the Americas, New York 19 (Distribute Award Films)
Films, Inc., 330 W. 42nd St., New York 18
Frith Films, P. O. Box 565, Hollywood 28, Calif.
Heidenkamp Nature Pictures, 583 Glen Arden Dr., Pittsburg, Pa.
Ideal Pictures Corp., 26-34 E. 8th St., Chicago 5
Institute of Visual Training, 40 E. 49th St., New York 17
Institutional Cinema Service, Inc., 84 E. Randolph St., Chicago 1
International Film Bureau, Inc., 6 No. Michigan Ave., Chicago 2
International Film Foundation, Inc., Suite 1000, 1600 Broadway, New York 19
Jam Handy Organization, Inc., 2821 E. Grand Blvd., Detroit 11
Johnson Hunt Productions, 1133 N. Highland Ave., Hollywood 38, Calif.
Knowledge Builders, 625 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.
D. D. Livingston, 39 E. 35th St., New York 18
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Text-Film Dept., 330 W. 42nd St., New York 18
March of Time Forum Edition, 369 Lexington Ave., New York 17
Museum of Modern Art Film Library, 11 W. 33rd St., New York 19
National Film Board of Canada, 620 Fifth Ave., New York 20
New York University Film Library, 71 Washington Square, New York 12
Nu-Art Films, Inc., 145 W. 45th St., New York i9 (Distribute Films of the Nations)
Official Films, Inc., 25 W. 45th St., New York 19
Pan American Union, Washington 6, D. C.
Post Pictures Corp., 115 W. 34th St., New York (Distribute Academic Films)
Princeton Film Center, 55 Mountain Ave., Princeton, N. J.
RKO Radio Pictures, Inc., 1270 Ave. of the Americas, New York 20
Simmel-Meservey, Inc., 321 Beverly Dr., Beverly Hills, Calif.
Teaching Film Custodians, Inc., 25 W. 43rd St., New York 19
Teaching Films Inc., 88 Lexington Ave., New York 18
United World Films, Inc., 445 Park Ave., New York 22 (Distribute Bell and Howell Films)
Vocational Guidance Films, 215 E. Third St., Des Moines 9, Iowa
Yale University Press Film Service, 386 4th Ave., New York
Young American Films, 18 E. 41st St., New York 17


Abrasive Company, Tacony & Fraley Sts., Philadelphia
Aetna Life Affiliated Company, Hartford, Conn.
Allen Equipment Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan
Allis Chalmers Mfg. Co., Adv. Dept., Milwaukee, Wis.
American Brass Company, Waterbury, Conn.
American Institute of Steel Construction, 100 Park Ave., N. Y. C.
American Rolling Mill Co., Middletown, Conn.
American Sheet Metal & Tin Plate Co., Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa.
Amphibian Car Company, Buffalo, N. Y.
Armstrong Cork Co., Lancaster, Pa.
E. C. Atkins & Co., 402 St. Illinois St., Indianapolis, Ind.
Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N. Y.
Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Pershing Sq. Bldg., N. Y. C.
California Oregon Power Co., Medford, Oregon
Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, New York
J. I. Case Co., 700 State Street, Racine, Wis.
Caterpillar Tractor Corp., Peoria, Ill.
Champion Spark Plug Co., 904 Upton Avenue, Toledo, Ohio
Chevrolet Motor Co., Detroit, Michigan
Cleveland Twist Drill Co., 1242 E. 49th St., Cleveland, Ohio
Chicago Tribune, Tribune Sq., Chicago, Ill.
Cincinnati Milling Machine, Cincinnati, Ohio
Colonial Beacon Oil Co., 30 Rockfeller Plaza, N. Y. C.
Dierks Lumber & Coal Co., Kansas City, Mo.
E. I. DuPont Co., Wilmington, Del.
Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, New York
Ford Motor Co., 3674 Schafer Road, Dearborn, Michigan
General Electric Co., Schenectady, New York
General Motors, 1775 Broadway, N. Y. C.
General Railway Signal Co., Rochester, N. Y.
P. H. Glatfeller Co., Spring Grove, Pa.
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio
Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Co., 122 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago
Hamilton Standard Propellers, Union Aircraft Service Corp., Hartford, Conn.
Hammermill Paper Co., Advertising Dept., Erie, Pa.
Harris Seybold Potter Co., 451 E. 71st St., Cleveland, Ohio
Hercules Power Co., Wilmington, Del.
Household Finance Corp., 919 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.
International Assn. of Electrical Inspection, 85 John St., N. Y. C.
International Shoe Co., Hy-Test, Div., St. Louis, Mo.
International Business Machine, 590 Madison Ave., N. Y. C.
International Harvester Co., 606 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.
John's Manville Sales Corp., 76 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Kansas City Power & Light Co., Kansas City, Mo.
Kearney & Tucker Corp., Milwaukee, Wis.
Lake Shore Mines, Kirkland Lake, Ontario, c/o Mr. C. E. McKnight
Liberty Mutual Insurance Co., Park Square Bldg., Boston, Mass.
Lincoln Electric Co., 12818 Colt Dr., Cleveland, Michigan
Lindbert Engineering Co., 2450 W. Hubbard St., Chicago, Ill.
Lukens Steel Co., G. M. Gillen, Coatesville, Pa.
Mass. General Hospital, Boston, Mass.
Mechanical Brickhandling Corp., P. O. Box 239, Lancaster, Pa.
Melville Shoe Corp., 25 W. 43rd St., N. Y. C.
The Mercury Corp., Indianapolis, Ind.
Modern Plastics Magazine, 122 E. 42nd St., N. Y. C.
Motor Vehicle Dept. of Wis., Madison, Wis.
National Ed. of Fire Underwriters, 85 John Street, N. Y. C.
National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio
National Development Bureau, Canadian Government, Ottowa, Canada
National Retailers Mutual Insurance Co., Film Distribution Dept., 7450 Sheridan Rd., Chicago, Ill.
National Safety Council, 20 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago, Ill.
National Society for Prevention for Blindness, 1790 Broadway, N. Y. C.
National Tube Co., Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa.
Horton & Co., Worcester, Mass.
Perfect Circle Co., Hagerstown, Md.
Portland Cement Assn., 33 W. Grand Ave., Chicago, Ill.
Pyrene Mfg. Co., 560 Belmont Ave., Newark, N. J.
Ray Bell Co., 821 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn.
R. C. A. Radiotron Co., Harrison, N. J.
Remington Rand Inc., 465 Washington St., Buffalo, N. Y.
Remington Arms Co., 60 Warren St., Buffalo, N. Y.
Rockwood Sprinkler Co., 48 Harlow St., Worcester, Mass.
F. K. Rokett Co., 6050 Sunset Blvd., Hollywood, Calif.
Singer Sewing Machine Co., Educational Dept., 797 8th Ave., N. Y. C.
Smith Bros. Mfg. Co., Carthage, Mo.
South Bend Lathe Works, So. Bend, Ind.
Southern Bell Telephone Co., Atlanta, Georgia
Southern Cypress Mfg. Assn., 722 Barnet Nat'l. Bank Bldg., Jacksonville, Fla.
H. F. Staples Co., Medford, Mass.
Sun Oil Co., 1608 Walnut St., Philadelphia
Superheater Co., 60 E. 42nd St., N. Y. C.
Thermoid Rubber Co., Trenton, N. J.
Traveler's Insurance Co., 48 Harlow St., Worcester, Mass.
U. S. Steel Corp., 71 Broadway, N. Y. C.
United Wallpaper Factories, 3330 W. Fillmore St., Chicago, Ill.
Van Camp Sea Food Co., Terminal Island, Cal.
Western Electric Co., E. Pittsburgh, Pa.

Bacon Pamphlet Service, Northport, Long Island, N. Y.
Vertical File Service, H. W. Wilson Co., 950-972 University Ave., New York 52

Globe-Wernicke Co., 5029 Carthage Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio
Leonard Peterson and Co., 122 Fullerton Ave., Chicago, Ill.
Library Bureau Division, Remington Rand, Inc., 205 E. 42nd Street, New York City
(Branches in many cities)
E. H. Sheldon and Co., Muskegon, Michigan
Southern Desk Co., Hickory, N. C.
Gaylord Brothers, Syracuse, N. Y. (carries a limited number of library furniture and is adding more)
Demco Library Supplies, Madison 3, Wisconsin, and New Haven 2, Conn.
Gaylord Brothers, Inc., Syracuse, New York
Library Bureau Division, Remington Rand, Inc., 205 E. 42nd St., New York City
Library Efficiency Corp., 36 W. 20th St., New York City
Sturgis Printing Co., Sturgis, Mich.
Catalogs of supplies are issued by each company and are available on request

Art Extension Press, Westport, Conn.
Boston Printing Co., Sturgis, Mich.
Brown, Robertson Co., 424 Madison Ave., New York City
Crown Publishers, 419 4th Ave., New York, N. Y.
National Geographic Society, Washington 6, D. C.
New York Graphic Society, 95 E. Putnam Ave., Greenwich, Conn.
F. A. Owen Co., Dansville, N. Y.
Pan American Union, Division of Intellectual Cooperation, Washington, D. C.
Perry Picture Co., Malden, Mass.
Skina, Inc., 381 Fourth Ave., New York 16
Sturgis Printing Co., Sturgis, Mich.

Equipment should not be purchased hastily because of the wide range of projection devices and
laboratory equipment available. Plan your visual aids program first and then select the equipment with
which you can accomplish your objectives. Consult various equipment dealers, solicit the opinions of
people who have used the machines and devices and finally choose that equipment that will satisfy your
particular needs. It is advisable to consult your county school administration as to regulations made in
buying equipment. Many local dealers can be of great assistance and can quote prices and terms that
would be to your advantage.

1. The Ampro Corporation, 2889 N. Western Ave., Chicago 18
2. Bell and Howell Co., 1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago 13
3. DeVry Corporation, 1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago 14, Ill.
4. Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., 356 Madison Ave., New York 17
5. Movie Mite Corporation, 1105 E. 15th Street, Kansas City 6
6. Natco, Inc., 505 N. Sacramento Boulevard, Chicago 12, Ill.
7. Radio Corporation of America, Educational Department, Camden, N. J.
S. Victor Animatograph Corp., Davenport, Iowa

1. Da-Lite Screen Co., Inc., 2723 Crawford Ave., Chicago 39
2. Motion Picture Screen and Ace. Co., 351 W. 52nd Street, New York City
3. Radiant Mfg. Co., 411 Irving Park Road, Chicago
4. Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc., 918 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia

1. Harte and Co., Inc., 267 Fifth Ave., New York 16, N. Y.
2. E. U. Barnett, 614 Hollow Tree Road, Darien, Conn.

1. Beckley-Cardy Co., 1632 Indiana Ave., Chicago
2. Luther O. Draper Shade Co., Spiceland, Ind.

American Optical Co., Buffalo 15, N. Y.
Bausch and Lomb Optical Co., Rochester 2, New York (Opaque)
Charles Beseler Company, 243 E. 24th St., New York 10, N. Y. (Opaque)
DeVry Corporation, 1111 Armitage Avenue, Chicago 14, Illinois
Gold E. Mfg. Co., 1222 E. W. Mackson Street, Chicago, Illinois
Keystone Mfg. Co., 288 A Street, Boston, Mass. (Opaque)
The Magnavox Corporation, Ft. Wayne, Indiana
Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 E. Ohio St., Chicago, Illinois
Spencer Lens Co., Buffalo, New York (Opaque)
Three Dimension Co., 500 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, Ill.
Victorlite Industries, 2414 West Clauson Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. (Opaque)
Viewlex Inc., 35-01 Queens Blvd., Long Island City, N. Y.

Admiral Corporation, 3800 W. Courtland Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
Emerson Radio and Phonograph Corp., 111 8th Ave., New York
General Electric Co., Schnectady, New York
Philco Products, Inc., Tioga and C. Streets, Philadelphia, Pa.
R. C. A., Camden, N. J.
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 306 4th Ave., Pittsburgh 19, Pa.
Wilcox-Gay Corp., Charlotte, Michigan

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