Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The death of Dr. Livingstone: Carus...
 The development of the transport...
 Kigezi resettlement
 The growth and expansion of...
 Some musical instruments of...
 The wild mammals of Teso and Karamoja...
 Baganda traditional personal...
 Karamojong age-groups and...
 Library accessions, 1949-50
 Index to Volume 14 (1950)
 Back Cover

The Uganda journal
External Link ( Journal issues, 1999-2002 )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080855/00028
 Material Information
Title: The Uganda journal
Abbreviated Title: Uganda j.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Uganda Society
Publisher: Uganda Society etc.
Uganda Society etc.
Place of Publication: Kampala etc
Frequency: irregular[1976-<1995>]
semiannual[ former 1934-]
annual[ former <1948>-1973]
completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Periodicals -- Uganda   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Uganda
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- 1934-
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended May 1942-Mar. 1946; replaced by the Society's Bulletin.
Numbering Peculiarities: One issue published every few years, v. 38 (1976)-<v. 42 (1995)>
Issuing Body: Vols. 11-13 published in London.
General Note: Journal of The Uganda Society (formerly The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ABS8002
oclc - 01644239
alephbibnum - 000301510
issn - 0041-574X
lccn - 52026895
System ID: UF00080855:00028
 Related Items
Related Items: Uganda journal

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    The death of Dr. Livingstone: Carus Farrar's narrative
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    The development of the transport system of East Africa
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Kigezi resettlement
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 146a
        Page 146b
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    The growth and expansion of Buganda
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Some musical instruments of Usuku
        Page 160
        Page 160a
        Page 160b
        Page 161
        Page 162
    The wild mammals of Teso and Karamoja - V
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    Baganda traditional personal names
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Karamojong age-groups and clans
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 222a
        Page 222b
        Page 222c
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
    Library accessions, 1949-50
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    Index to Volume 14 (1950)
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
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Ki o g A giri p a d C a sD o u L R

E,Sv6R I 50
Patron:' l
MExcelWnoSh lohd Hathotti HMI, q.e.MO;b,s o Gtx., M;C

Df. A,,W. WiHiarns
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The, Tio Dr. JA.'Butchinson
rr U e
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Han. ice!'-Presidents.-
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Uganda Journal



No. 2


A. G. MACPHERSON Hon. Editors
(assisted in England by H. B. THOMAS, O.B.E.)

Published by



The Death of Dr. Livingstone: Cams Farrar's Narrative
The Development of the Transport System of East Africa
Kigezi Resettlement J. W. PURSEGLOVE
The Growth and Expansion of Buganda A. H. Cox
Some Musical Instruments of Usuku P. G. CovTrs
The Wild Mammals of Teso and Karamoja-V J. M. WATSON
Baganda Traditional Personal Names N. B. NIhmBI
Karamojong Age-Groups and Clans DoRIs CLARK

Another Letter of Emin Pasha -

A Trout Stream on Ruwenzori -
Livingstone's Muganda Servant -
Rwot Iburaim Awich -
A Dry Crossing of the Nile -
The Zimbabwe Cylinder
Tribal Names: Galla and Oromo
S.S. Khedive

Ekitabo kye bika bya Baganda' (by SIR APOLO KAGWA)


- 221
- 222
- 223
- 224
- 225
- 226

Y. K. MusiSI

Library Accpssions, 1st January 1949 to 31st May 1950 -

Index to Volume 14 of The Uganda Journal





The Birds of Bwamba by Dr. V. G. L. van Someren and G. R. C.
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THE lonely death of David Livingstone in Central Africa is "one of the
best-known episodes of the nineteenth century exploration of Africa. Yet
for the circumstances of this dramatic event we are ultimately dependent upon
the testimony of two of Livingstone's faithful but illiterate followers, Susi and
Chuma, as recorded twelve months later by Livingstone's devoted friend and
comrade of his Zambezi days, the Rev. Horace Waller. Little reference is to
be found to such evidence as could be given by Jacob Wainwright, the literate
African follower, who, having accompanied Livingstone's body to the coast,
was present at his funeral in Westminster Abbey on 18th April 1874.1
There has recently come to light among the archives of the Church Mission-
ary Society in London a contemporary account by another of Livingstone's
African followers, which was seemingly unknown both to Waller when he
edited The Last Journals of David Livingstone (2 vols., 1874) and to Sir Reginald
Coupland when writing Livingstone's Last Journey (1945).
I have to acknowledge with gratitude the ready permission granted by the
Church Missionary Society to print the text of this document. It is of some
importance, for it seems to be the only known first-person-singular' narrative
by one who was.with Livingstone's caravan at the time of his death.2 Though
often shaky in detail it affords remarkable confirmation of the story as elicited
by Waller and incorporated in the concluding chapter of his edition of the
Last Journals.
'The History of Carus Farrar of finding Dr. Livingstone in Central Africa'
is a manuscript of some nine pages of foolscap, dated at Bombay, 9th September
1874, in clear handwriting probably by some C.M.S. missionary in India3 but
there is no reason to doubt that the signature 'Carrus Farar' in another well-
formed hand is that of Carus Farrar himself.
1 Although he had been with Livingstone for a comparatively short time Jacob alone
of the faithfulss' accompanied the body to England, having been selected for his know-
ledge of English. Stanley's African servant, Kalulu, who was then in England, also
attended the service at the Abbey. Susi and Chuma arrived a few weeks later and Waller
found them to be more reliable witnesses. Jacob did not make a favourable impression
in England. His visit to Livingstone's staunch friend, Mr. W. F. Webb, at Newstead
Abbey, is described in Livingstone and Newstead, by A. Z. Frazer, London, 1913.
2 'Majwara's account of the Last Journey and Death of Dr. Livingstone', which
appears in the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. XVIII (1873/4),
p. 244, is a letter dated 12th March 1874 from Mr. F. Holmwood of the Zanzibar Consulate
to Sir Bartle Frere. It is not very informative. See also Sir John Gray, 'Livingstone's
Muganda Servant' (Uganda Journal, Vol. 13 (1949), p. 119).
3 Possibly the Rev. J. G. Deimler of the C.M.S., a German, first appointed to work
with Krapf and Rebmann in East Africa. Matthew Wellington refers to him as being
closely concerned with the Nasik boys before they left India in 1872 (see W. J. Rampley.
Matthew Wellington, London [c. 1930]).

We do not know the extent of Carus Farrar's knowledge of English, but
his 'History' displays a quaintness and here and there a maturity of diction
which suggests that its wording may in places have been prompted by someone
to whom he narrated his experiences. Nevertheless a study of the text and a
comparison of dates does nothing but confirm that this is a genuine and indepen-
dent account related without reference to the story as pieced together by Waller.
Waller must have been cross examining Susi and Chuma in England
during the summer months of 1874. His preface to the first edition of the
Last Journals is dated in England, 2nd November 1874, while Carus' History
is dated Bombay, 9th September 1874. It is thus unlikely that the account of
either was known to the other. Again there are blunders in Carus' story which
would hardly have been made if Waller's account had been consulted. For
instance, Carus mentions in more than one context that on the return journey
from Unyanyembe (Tabora) to the coast they were accompanied by one of
Cameron's party, 'Moffat'. But Robert Moffat, Livingstone's nephew by
marriage, had died some months before on the journey up-country towards
Unyanyembe. It was another member of Cameron's party, Lieutenant Cecil
Murphy, R.A., who returned with the faithfulss' to the coast.

Carus Farrar's narrative is as follows:
In February 1872 I was at Sharanpur School near Nasick. I heard Mr.
Price talk of an expedition going to Africa to find out Dr. Livingstone. I and
many others were willing to go and join the expedition. Sometimes after the
Rev. W. S. Price received a telegram. Whether it was from London or Bombay
I cannot tell, but this I know, that I, Jacob Wainwright and four others were
chosen for the expedition. We were ordered immediately to leave Nasick for
Bombay. At Bombay the Rev. J. S. S. Robertson the Secretary, got us all the
necessary things for our journey from Bombay to Zanzibar. Having got ready,
I and my fellow companions left Bombay per ship Livinia bound for Zanzibar.
The Captain of the ship was very kind to us throughout the voyage. We had
pleasant wind which made our ship to glide rapidly over the mighty foaming
ocean. But it did not continue so for many days. One day a heavy storm
made our little ship to reel fearfully, so much so that we and other passengers on
board had entirely dispaired of our lives. But God in whose hands the powers
of the sea are, was with us. The raging of the water soon ceased and our hearts
began again to look on the blue sea with less fear. After sailing twenty-one
days we landed at Zanzibar. We anchored about half past 6 p.m. Next day
very early in the morning the Captain of our ship took me and my companions
to see the English Consul, Dr. Kirk. He was very kind to us and he got us a
room where we lived in waiting for the remainder of the expedition. We were
only four days in the island when the remainder of the expedition consisting of

young Livingstone, Mr. Dawson and others arrived from England. After their
arrival everything was got ready. The Livingstone Search Expedition then
left the island of Zanzibar for Buagamoyo. At Buagamoyo while we were
ready for leaving the country for the interior, Mr. H. M. Stanley at once made
his appearance at Buagamoyo from the interior, bringing the news of Dr. L.
being found. We were all glad to hear that the good Dr. was alive. We all
then returned to Zanzibar again with Mr. Stanley, leaving some of us behind
to take care of some of the baggage that were left behind. At Zanzibar the
Europeans were all very glad to see Mr. Stanley specially the young Livingstone.
About ten days were given to the men who came from the interior with Mr.
Stanley for refreshment, after which time they were again asked to go and
carry some stores for the Dr. L. sent by Mr. Stanley. Young Mr. Livingstone
was willing to join this caravan in order to go and see his beloved father. But
the European friends at Zanzibar would not permit him to go. He asked me
and my companions whether we would prefer going to India back or joining the
party that was ready for going to carry some stores for his father. We all
preferred going to see the Dr. in the heart of Africa which was our object in
leaving India. .The whole party consisted of seventy persons in all. We then
left Zanzibar for Buagamoyo again. At Buagamoyo we did not stay long for
we remained there only two days and then commenced our long journey to
Unyembe in the interior. In about two months and half we reached Uniembe.
Here we found the great missionary and enterprising traveller, living with savage
Africans and half barbarous Arabs. The Dr. was very pleased to see us a little
band of Christians. Many and if not all of the nine boys who joined him at
first in his long and adventurous travels had entirely deserted him. It was
therefore natural for him to ask us whether we preferred going back to the
coast or following him in his adventurous work. He was afraid we would
prove ourselves the same as our brothers. He therefore gave us a day for
consideration as to whether we would go and be faithful to him in all the trials
and enormous difficulties and countless privations while journeying about
through countries unknown to finish his work assigned to him, or make our way
to the coast again. Some of us were willing to return to the coast a thing which
would go very much against us had we left him. After a little consultation we
all made up our minds to follow him. Ten days were then given to us here at
Uniembe for taking rest. When the ten days were expired we left the Uniembe
country for Cawende. In this country there is the Lake Tanganyika. We then
commenced our journey by coasting the lake towards the north east till we
reached the country of the Namaroongoo. Leaving the country of the
Namaroongoo we entered the country of the Wapipa. But before leaving the
frontiers of the fierce race of the Namaroongoo for Pipa, the Dr. was asked to
give something to the chiefs of the country as he was quitting their land. The
Dr. instead of heeding to their everlasting demands ordered the men to take up
their loads and move onwards without giving them anything. After marches
and counter marches of many a long day we entered the Wemba country. Here
we met with great difficulties arising from want of food. The natives had
deserted their country owing to some petty wars and our whole expedition was
thrown to the severest test as we lay for days without any means of sustenance

We fed upon wild fruits of the jungle. The Dr. then despatched ten men fully
armed to go finding if any trace of a road leading into countries or villages could
be found while the whole of the expedition and the Dr. remained behind. The
ten men travelled three days after which they found villages. The news of our
arrival soon reached Kumba-Kumba an enterprising Arab chief and one of
the Dr.'s friends, who hearing of his coming sent him some rice, goats, etc.
Kumba-Kumba is an Arab chief and is a terror of that part of the country.
After remaining a few days at Wemba we left it for the island where King
Matipa lives in the midst of the large sheet of water called Bemba. We found
the King in the middle of the Bemba lake. We reached him by going in the
small native canoes. The lake has many islands in it and it took us two days
to row to go to the island where the King resides. We were detained for a long
time by the King in this island as he was not willing to give us canoes. At last
the Dr. ordered all his men to arm themselves and to follow him to the King's
hut to demand boats. After telling the King the folly of his keeping us longer
against our will we demanded to leave the place soon anyhow contrary to his
will. The King seeing that the Dr. was determined to leave he immediately
procured him many boats which soon transported the Dr., his men and
their baggage on the other side of the Bisa country. It took us three days to
cross the Bemba lake to get to the other side of Bisa country. When we got to
the other side of the Bisa, the Dr. divided his men into two divisions. One
division went with the Dr. coasting one of the rivers called Chambesi which
falls into the Bemba lake. But he had soon to leave following Chambesi and
went coasting another river the name of which I do not now remember. The
second division went on by land following the same direction from where the
Chambesi flowed. We travelled three days without meeting the Dr.'s party.
We then halted three days near a river which the natives of the country would
not allow us to cross it owing to the war which was going on in that part of the
country. The Dr. while coasting the river in canoes took sickness. He then
sent some of his men to find out where the second division was in order to get
the Dr.'s donkey from them for him to ride as he was ill with dysentry which
sickness added to the inclement clime and the need of medical man did
greatly weaken his constitution. He then soon came and joined with the
second division. The next day we all along with the Dr. crossed river
where the natives detained the first division. The Dr. then began to grow
worse and worse every day. He was no longer able to ride on his donkey and
yet strange to say, he urged us all forward though we did not know where we
were hastening to. But each and all of us plainly saw that our master was
declining every day by the fatigue of the journey and by the sickness. When
he could no longer ride or be able to sit on his donkey we then carried him on
a cot. But time soon came when we could no longer also carry him about in
the open heat of the sun of central Africa. We therefore halted at a place
called Kalonga Njofu on the frontier of the Bisa country where we remained
five days. Leaving this place we crossed a river which divides the Bisa country
and Illala. In Illala we raised a booth for the sick Dr. His sickness
increased every day which thing greatly alarmed us. We six Nassick felt more
fear as we were the only Christians while the majority were Mohammedans.

We thought if our master die in this part of the world surely none of us that
are Christians would survive to go and tell the story of our master's death.
But our God over ruled the whole affair as it pleased Him. Majuara was his
waiting boy in the booth. On the morning of the second day of our arrival at
Illala, Majuara who always slept near our sick master was compelled by necessity
to leave the booth for some minutes leaving the Dr. on the cot inside the booth.
But on his return again he found the Dr. fallen on the ground already expired.
This took place on the 4th May 1873. We were all as it may easily be seen
then described very sorry for our master. The whole camp wept for him. We
decided that our master's death should be kept a secret from the natives. But
the King of Illala soon heard the Dr.'s death on the second day. He was grieved
for not having been informed by us at once of the Dr.'s death. To show how
much he loved the Dr., he summoned all the chiefs, men and women of his country
to come out with their drums and other materials of war to morn [sic] for the
Dr. after their custom. Accordingly his orders were obeyed. There was then
the most devilish and fanatical morning dance in which men women and children
promiscuously mingled. The whole caravan knowing the great loss they had
sustained fired incessantly their guns in honor of their master. The morning
was kept up for two days. Three days after, the bereaved faithfuls of the great
traveller held a council as to what should be done to the body of their deceased
commander. After giving each his own private opinion it was unanimously
carried out that the body of our master should not be left in the interior of
Africa, but embalm it and carry it to the coast. Accordingly, I and another
Swahiliman dissected the body and after removing all the abdominal parts filled
it with salt and brandy and then exposed it to the sun fifteen days. We then
began to think of returning to the coast with our master's remains. There is a
large tree at Illala and if travellers are ever to reach that part of Africa they
will not fail to see the inscription made on it. The name of the famous traveller
is there nicely cut on the tree and the date of his death. Thus far did I and my
companions go with Dr. L. whom death refused us to bring him alive again.
We then soon left Illala and travelling westward after three days we came to the
river Luafulla which we crossed.
After crossing the Luafulla we entered the country of Cawende. Leaving
Cawende we entered the country of Wemba. Here we met our formerly road
which we followed and led us to the country of King Kapesa one of the Dr.'s
best friends. King Kapesa when told of the Dr.'s death, he sighed heavily for
him and also appeared to be very sorry for him. We then left the Wemba
country and travelling every day about a score of miles we came to a country
called Pipa. There was no occasion for loosing time now. Leaving the Pipa
country we followed the same course we took going that is coasting the lake
Tanganyika. Quitting the Pipa country we entered the Namaroongoo country.
Leaving Namaroongoo country we hastily passed the Cawembe and Conongo
countries and finally arrived at Uniembe country. Here we met three
Europeans, to wit, Mr. Cameron, Dr. Dillon and Mr. Moffat. They were
proceeding to Ujiji with a view of rescuing some remaining papers left there by
the Dr. L. But as they saw the remains of the Dr. with us, two of them
Dr. Dillon and Mr. Moffat changed their minds so that instead of proceeding

on their journey they preferred returning with us to the coast. We were one
month at Uniembe with the three gentlemen. On the day of our leaving
Uniembe Mr. Cameron also left it for Ujiji while Mr. Moffat and Dr. Dillon
joined us. Dr. Dillon, however, soon took sickness on the way. After
journeying three days from Uniembe, Dr. D. blew up his own brains with
a gun and instantly expired. We buried him in the same country where he died.
Leaving Uniembe we came to a country called Ugogo. Hitherto the Dr.'s
remains were carried on the shoulders of two persons throughout, but coming
to the Ugogo country for fear of the natives knowing that we were carrying dead
body it became necessary to make it single man's load. It is an abomination
thing among some of the African tribes to carry a dead body through their
country. The Wagogo are a fierce and warlike race and we were afraid in
passing their country the remains of our master would fall into their hands.
But we soon passed their country and entered the Usagara country. Rapidly
passing through Usagara country we entered the Usigua. Leaving Usigua we
rapidly moved on till we once again saw Buagamoyo. "Heria bahari" or
welcome sea was the cheering word heard from everybody's lips while approach-
ing Buagamoyo.
At Buagamoyo there is a French Roman Catholic mission and as soon as
we arrived Mr. Moffat took the body to the mission house where a coffin was
made for it.
On the following day Mr. Moffat took the body on board ship which soon
weighed anchor and left for Zanzibar leaving many of us behind. But as the
end of our journey was now ended there was no reason for us to remain long
at Buagamoyo: hence remaining only there we left it also for Zanzibar. We
raised our grateful thanks to our heavenly father for his goodness in bringing us
safe again thus far. We all went to the English Consul's house. Of the nine
boys who followed the Dr. on the first outset two only followed his remains to
Zanzibar: to wit Ed. Gardiner and Nathaniel Cumba. These men throughout
the journey never associated with us six Christian boys their brothers as they
have turned out Mohammedans. Chuma and Suse in spite of all that the Dr.
did for them in getting them English education at Dr. Wilson's school at Bombay
have at last turned out Mohammedans also. One of the nine boys, Simon Price
by name, deserted the Dr. long before his death and is now trading between the
coast and the interior, Abraham Pereira is at Uniembe he like Simon deserted
their master. Andrew Powell, James Brown and Albert we did not see them
nor did we get any satisfactory account of them. Richard Isenburg died soon
before the Dr. left for the interior. Reuben Smith having fallen ill at Zanzibar
was sent back to Bombay. John Wainwright one of our number was lost on
the way while returning to the coast along with us. Having delivered the body
at Zanzibar we remained there a few days. The English Consul paid five of us
87) dollars. After a few days stay the English Consul sent Jacob Wainwright
to England while four of us, he sent to Mombas. At Mombas I not liking
Mr. Sparshott's' ill treatment I engaged myself to an engineer on board the
man of war called Daphne. After cruising about she went to Aden where the
engineer discharged me as being unfit for the duties I engaged myself. I then
1 The Rev. T. H. Sparshott of the C.M.S., Mombasa (1867-75).

paid my passage and went to Bombay where I arrived on the first of July. Here
ends my journey of finding the great African explorer in the central Africa and
back again to India.
(signed) CARRAS FARAR.
Bombay September 9 1874.


It is of interest to put Carus's account of his movements to the test by a
comparison with Livingstone's Journals, and it is noteworthy that most of his
names of places and chiefs can be identified.
Carus says that Livingstone and his reinforced party left Unyanyembe
country (sc., on 25th August 1872) for Cawende,1 passing thence by way of the
Namaroongoo and Pipa to the Wemba country. Kawendi appears on con-
temporary maps (e.g., in Cameron's Across Africa) as the area to the east of
Lake Tanganyika south of the Malagarasi River. Next, to the south-east of the
lake, lies Fipa, while at the south end is the Urungu country which is clearly
Namaroongoo. It will be seen that Carus transposes the correct sequence of
these areas, and there is no suggestion in the Journals of oppressive demands by
chiefs for tribute at this stage of the journey. Wemba is widely applied to the
region between Lakes Tanganyika and Bemba or Bangweolo. The Journals
(Waller, II, p. 252) put the entry of the Bemba country at about 1st December
1872 ; and it is quite explicable that the continuous misfortunes and frustrations
which dogged Livingstone's caravan for the next few months should have left
Carus, who would be but a callow youth, with no clear recollection of details of
their movements-only a benumbed memory of a ceaseless struggle for food.
On 3rd December Livingstone was in great straits and sent men to search for
a village that had food ibidd., II, p. 252). This is perhaps the incident remem-
bered by Carus of the ten men "who travelled three days after which they
found villages ".
On 9th December ibidd., II, p. 253) Livingstone, then at Kafumba's (situated
at say 9 40' S. 30' 30' E.), records that to-day a man came from the Arab
party at Kumba Kumba's with a present of M'chele and a goat" (Swahili
mchele=rice), an incident which left its impression on Carus. Nearly three
more months passed before on 3rd March 1873, the party reached Matipa's
island, in fact a slight eminence among. the flooded plains which bordered Lake
Bangweolo. They were held up here for some weeks awaiting canoes, and
Livingstone concluded that a display of firmness was necessary: "I. spoke
sharply to Matipa for his duplicity (16th March) and I made a demonstration
by taking quiet possession of his village and home" (19th March). This had
the desired effect and at last canoes were provided and Livingstone was able to
go forward. After two or three days of punting and wading (" it took us three
days to cross the Bemba lake" says Carus), they reached and crossed the
Chambezi River, one of the ultimate sources of the River Congo, near its
entrance into Lake Bangweolo and thus rounded its eastern end.
1 It is very confusing that he refers later to an entirely different Cawende, on the
north shore of Lake Bangweolo.

They were now in the Bisa country to the south of the lake; and on 5th
April Livingstone notes: march from Kabinga's on the Chambeze, our luggage
in canoes and men on land ", his object being to have the land party marching
westwards parallel to him while, by traversing the flooded area in canoes, he
himself kept nearer to the true edge of the lake. The parties became separated
but regained touch on 9th April. Carus was evidently with the land party.
"Another river the name of which I do not now remember" would be the
Muanakazi. It was on 26th April ibidd., II, p. 302) that they reached
Kalunganjovu, a name which Carus records. The end was near. On 29th
April, according to Susi and Chuma, the Doctor, already in extremis, was
carried across the Molilamo (Lulimala) River to Chitambo's in the Ilala
Carus gives 4th May 1873 as the date of his master's death. This was the
date carved by Jacob Wainwright on a tree near which his heart was buried;
and it attained wide currency (e.g., in Sir Bartle Frere's obituary of Livingstone
in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. XLIV (1874), p. cxxvi.).
Waller, however, deduced from the evidence of Susi and Chuma, built upon the
last entry by Livingstone in his Journal on 27th April, that the date was 1st May
and this appears on the Livingstone memorial in Westminster Abbey.' Either
day may be equally near the truth for Livingstone, on his own admission, more
than once lost count of the correct date.
Carus confirms the close attendance of the Muganda servant Majwara
upon Livingstone during his last hours. As for Carus's part in the autopsy
and preservation of Livingstone's remains, this is completely confirmed by
Waller (II, pb. 315-6), where are the only references to Carus in the Journals:
"Farijala2 was appointed to the necessary task and at his request, Carras,
one of the Nassick boys, was told off to assist him." Over the heads of
Farijala and Carras-Susi, Chumah and Muanya-S6rd held a thick blanket as
a kind of screen under which the men performed their duties."
Upon the return journey, Carus notes correctly that they set off from Ilala
in a westerly direction and, rounding the western end of Lake Bangweolo,
crossed the Luapula River, and entered the country of Cawende ". This is
entirely unrelated to the Cawende, on the east side of Lake Tanganyika earlier
mentioned by Carus. It is the name of a chief (' Chawende's' on the map in
Waller) sited on the north shore of Lake Bangweolo. Livingstone had failed
to reach the lake shore at this point in February 1873, and had turned back to
make for Matipa's by another way. The restraining hand of Livingstone was
now lacking, for they came to blows with the chief and looted his town
1 Coupland, Livingstone's Last Journey (note on p. 249) has made a slip in stating
that this memorial gives 4th May.
2 Farijala had been in the service of Dr. James Christie at Zanzibar and had there
seen post-mortem examinations performed. He was one of the relief party which came
from the coast to join Livingstone in August 1872. Later he was cook to the Rev. Charles
New on his journey from the Pangani to Mombasa in 1874 (Journal of the Royal
Geographical Society, Vol. XLV (1875), p. 414). Later in that year he became a picked
member of Stanley's 1874-77 expedition but he was killed in a skirmish at Vinyata on
24th January 1875 (Stanley, Through the Dark Continent, Vol. I, p. 128). He seems to
have been a man of parts for Livingstone more than once refers to his prowess in shooting

(Waller, II, p. 327). Carus is silent upon this episode which would have occurred
about July 1873.
Three days' march north of Cawende's they found themselves again at the
town of Kapesha or Kat6b6, whom Livingstone, on 6th January 1873, had
found "very civil and generous" ibidd., II, p. 261). They had thus made a
complete circuit of Lake Bangweolo.
Carus ventures on few details of the rest of the return journey. It is usual
to assume that the party retraced its way to the south end of Lake Tanganyika
by the same route as had been followed on the outward journey' and Carus's
narrative leaves this impression.
A close study of Susi and Chuma's account (Waller, II, pp. 331-4) shows,
however, that after crossing the Kalongwese (Kalungwisi) River they took quite
another route. They struck north until they found a road with which Susi and
Chuma would be familiar since it had been traversed by Livingstone from east
to west in May-September 1867. This road was the highway for Arab penetra-
tion from the south of Lake Tanganyika towards Lake Mweru and Cazembe's.
Mohammad bin Masud el Wardi alias Kumba Kumba seems to have established
himself near Nsama's, and it would be from here that the gifts which, as related
by Carus, Livingstone had received on 9th December 1872, were sent. Just
before reaching Kumba Kumba's, John Wainwright, one of the 1872 Nasik
recruits, disappeared (Waller, II, p. 332). It was at Panda on this road that
Livingstone had, on 29th July 1867, encountered Kumba Kumba's more famous
half brother, Tippoo Tib.2
Having regained the south end of Lake Tanganyika, the party did not, as
Carus suggests, follow their old route hugging the eastern fringe of the lake.
They took a direct line, through the Ukonongo country (which again appears
on contemporary maps) towards Unyanyembe where, a party still some 70-80
strong, they found Cameron on 20th October 1873. Their journey to the Coast
was resumed on 9th November 1873, but, as already remarked, they were
accompanied by Lieutenant Murphy not by Robert Moffat who had died in
the previous May. Dr. Dillon died by his own hand on 18th November. The
incident of re-packing Livingstone's body into one load which is reported by
Susi and Chuma is referred to by Carus. The party, which included most of
the men recruited in Zanzibar in May 1872 and sent by Stanley to Livingstone's
relief, reached Bagamoyo on 15th February 1874.
All in all, it is fair to say that Carus gives a faithful picture of the expedition
as it appeared to his eyes. He introduces a controversial note with the claim
that they, the five remaining Nasikers of the 1872 recruitment, had alone main-
tained their Christian faith. It would be but human nature if the handful of
tough survivors of the Doctor's original followers regarded and treated the
newcomers as tenderfoots, and it is probable that there was some friction
between these groups. It may well be that it was these allegations and the
revelation of this less happy facet of the relationships among Livingstone's
followers which led the Church Missionary Society at the time to refrain from
giving publicity to Carus's story.
1 As indicated on the map at p. 226 of Coupland's Livingstone's Last Journey.
2 For the identification of Kumba Kumba see H. Brode, Tippoo Tib (1907), p. 28.

One of the most exigent problems of every African explorer of the nine-
teenth century was the maintenance of a reliable body of servants and carriers.
Among the followers who had proved their worth to Livingstone during
his Zambezi expedition (1858-64) were Chuma and Wikitani (the latter had
been Bishop Mackenzie's favourite servant), Yao lads who had been rescued
from slave raiders in the Shire Highlands; Susi and Amoda, of the Shupanga
tribe; and Musa, a Muhammadan native of Johanna Island. At the end of
this expedition, and before returning to England, Livingstone steamed and sailed
his tiny launch the Lady Nyassa from Zanzibar to Bombay (May-June 1864)
in order to dispose of her there. Among his crew were seven native Zambezians
(including Susi it seems) and the two boys, Chuma and Wikitani. These last
two were left at Bombay in charge of Dr. Wilson of the Scottish Free Church
Mission.' Livingstone left England for his final expedition in August 1865.
He proceeded first to Bombay and there re-engaged Chuma and Wikitani, who
had learnt a little English and had been baptized.
From Stock's History of the Church Missionary Society we learn that
there had been a C.M.S. station at Nasik, about 100 miles north-east of Bombay
since 1832. In 1855 the Rev. W. S. Price had founded at Sharanpur nearby
an agricultural and industrial settlement which became a village of Indian
Christians. African slaves rescued by British warships had first been landed
at Bombay in 1847, and were there dispersed as servants. In 1860, during
Mr. Price's furlough, the Rev. C. W. Isenberg, Krapf's former companion in
Abyssinia, realizing the forlorn condition of the Africans now being landed in
increasing numbers, moved some of them to Sharanpur and thus established the
well-known Nasik asylum for liberated African slaves. Frere Town near Mom-
basa was founded for a similar purpose, with the encouragement of Sir Bartle
Frere, by the Rev. W. S. Price who reached Mombasa at the end of 1874, and
most of the Nasik Africans were moved there in the course of the next two years.
Livingstone visited Nasik towards the end of 1865 and there recruited nine
native-born Africans who had received some education and are referred to in
the first volume of his Journals as 'Nassick boys'. All, together with thirteen
sepoys provided by the Government of Bombay, accompanied Livingstone to
Zanzibar where they arrived on 28th January 1866.
At Zanzibar Livingstone found and re-engaged Susi and Amoda; also
Musa with nine more Johanna men. According to Carus one of the Nasik
boys, Reuben Smith, having fallen sick at Zanzibar was sent back to Bombay ".
The expedition landed on the mainland of Africa at Mikindani on 24th March
1866 and set off in the direction of Lake Nyasa. Another of the Nasik boys,
Richard,2 died early in June (Waller, Vol. I, p. 53). The sepoys were.only a
hindrance and were sent back in August. On 26th September Musa and all
1 There is no confirmation of Carus's statement that Susi also was put to school in
Bombay. He went on board ship to train as a sailor. Proc. R.G.S., Vol. XVIII
(1873-4), p. 300.
2 Carus Farrar speaks of him as Richard Isenberg who "died soon before the Dr.
left for the interior." These Nasik boys were often named after missionaries, e.g., Carus
was named after the Rev. C. P. Farrar (the father of Dean Farrar, who-such is fame-is
now more widely remembered as the author of Eric; or, Little by Little) who was, from
1829 to 1847, a C.M.S. missionary in India.

the Johanna men absconded and made their way back to Zanzibar (and
ultimately met with their deserts). A few days previously, Wikitani had found
himself in the vicinity of his own home and was allowed to depart. Thus,
before the end of 1866, Livingstone was left with a 'permanent staff' of only
Susi, Chuma and Amoda, together with the remaining, seemingly seven, Nasik
boys who had not so far proved very satisfactory.
As the months and years went by-1867, 1868, 1,869, 1870-the civilized
world was increasingly concerned to learn the fate of Livingstone. It may be
that H. M. Stanley, backed by his employer, Mr. James Gordon Bennett of the
New York Herald, looked to the finding of Livingstone as a potential news-
scoop ; but it is certain that the practical and generous measure of relief which
he was able to bring gave Livingstone a new lease of life. The famous meeting
between Stanley and Livingstone took place at Ujiji on 10th November 1871.
Meanwhile, more deliberate steps for learning the whereabouts of Living-
stone had been set on foot by the Royal Geographical Society. The Livingstone
Search Expedition, under the command of Lieutenant L. S. Dawson, R.N.,
reached Zanzibar on 17th March 1872. Dr. Livingstone's son, Oswell, aged
20, was of the party. Encouraged by the C.M.S. in London and with a view
to providing Livingstone with a reinforcement of trained African helpers, six
more Nasik boys, of whom Carus Farrar was one, were recruited and sent from
Bombay to Zanzibar where they arrived a few days before Dawson. Prepara-
tions for the march into the interior were well advanced when, on 6th May,
Stanley (who had said good-bye to Livingstone at Unyanyembe on 14th March)
reached the coast at Bagamoyo with first-hand news of Livingstone, and a clear
statement of his needs. There was now not the same call for Dawson's expedi-
tion; it was disbanded and in its place Stanley organized a relief caravan of
Africans under the command of Manwa Sera, a former follower of Speke and
Grant. Some of these were men who had just returned with Stanley (such,
for instance, was Majwara the Muganda boy whom Stanley had engaged at
Unyanyembe) and to these were joined the six new Nasik boys.
This welcome reinforcement of fifty-seven men left Bagamoyo at the end
of May and reached Livingstone at Unyanyembe on 14th August 1872. Eleven
days later he set off on the journey which was to end with his death on the
shores of Lake Bangweolo. Waller (II, p. 229) notes that he had then with
him only five in. all of his old servants, viz.: Susi, Chuma and Amoda of
Zambezi days and two of the 1866 Nasik men, Gardner and Mabruki; and
these same five men returned to the coast with Livingstone's body eighteen
months later.' When hereafter in his Journals Livingstone speaks of the
'Nassickers' he refers to the newly-joined six and they seem for some time to
have been a trial to him, even as had been the original Nasik boys of 1866. It
is one of the useful contributions of Carus Farrar's narrative that it enables us
to sort out' these various elements of Livingstone's party by giving names and
information regarding them which seem not elsewhere to be on record.
1 Another staunch retainer who reached the Coast with this party was Halima,
Amoda's wife, who had acted as Livingstone's cook. She was paid 50 dollars by the.
Zanzibar Consulate for her services-but received no medal! With her also was Ntaoeka
("a fine-looking buxom woman ") who had followed Livingstone's party since the
Manyema days and had been taken to wife by Chuma (Waller, II, pp. 201, 345).

Another expedition to carry further relief to Livingstone was meanwhile
being got together. Lieutenant (later Commander) V. L. Cameron, R.N., with
Dr. W. E. Dillon and Lieutenant C. Murphy, R.A., reached Zanzibar at the end
of December 1872, where they were joined from Natal by Robert Moffat,
Livingstone's nephew. This party (without Moffat, who died on the way up
country at Mohale, Usagara, on 22nd May 1873) reached Unyanyembe early in
August; and it was here on 20th October that they were found by the faithfuls
returning from Chitambo's with Livingstone's body.
In his Journals, Livingstone is somewhat casual on the subject of even his
most loyal followers. Of the original Zambezi faithfulss', Susi and Chuma,
make fairly frequent appearances,' and fully justified the trust which Living-
stone was increasingly reposing in them as his health failed. Amoda had not
been so uniformly reliable for he had refused to accompany Livingstone to the
discovery of Lake Bangweolo in 1868, and was absent for some months. But
Livingstone, with his innate kindliness, had taken him back. "I have faults
myself ", he records (Waller, I, p. 346).
Turning to the nine original Nasik boys of 1866; the loss of Reuben and
Richard has been referred to above. Carus Farrar gives the names of the
remaining seven as: Edward Gardner, Nathaniel Cumba, Simon Price, Abraham
Pereira, James Brown, Andrew Powell, and Albert.
The Journals seem to make no mention of the last two, and they can, as
Carus suggests, be written off. James was ambushed and eaten by the Manyema
on 4th February 1871, while Livingstone was held up at Bambarre ibidd., II,
p. 99). Abraham at first gave promise of being a useful man. Abraham has
worked hard all along" ibidd., I, p. 45). When, approaching Lake Nyasa, he
came into touch with relatives, he preferred not to leave Livingstone ibidd., I,
p. 77); and he was often used as an interpreter. Abraham and Simon would
be among those who deserted on 26th June 1870 ibidd., II, p. 45) when Living-
stone set off towards the Lualaba River. There is a last reference to Simon
and Ibram" on 16th February 1871 ibidd., II, p. 100). They had attached
themselves to Arab traders and were hanging about Livingstone's camp at
Bambarre: they impudently followed us ", he records.
Livingstone does not mention Nathaniel Cumba but refers to one Mabruki
on various dates between 1866 and 1871 (who cannot thus be the much more
famous Mabruki Speke who was one of the relief party of August 1872, and is
clearly referred to in the Journals by that name). It seems probable, therefore,
that this Mabruki is the same man as Nathaniel Cumba. Perhaps he had ceased
to be a Christian and has taken a common Muhammadan name.
Thus it seems that, contrary to a belief current in England, Livingstone had
at an early date lost all but two of his original Nasik followers. Waller gives
the names of Gardner and Mabruki as the two Nasik faithfuls remaining in
August 1872 (Waller, II, p. 229), and these two followed the Doctor's body to
the coast.2 This goes to confirm that Mabruki is the same man as Carus's
1 Some notes regarding their subsequent careers are added to this article. For these
and other references I am largely indebted to Sir John Gray, who has generously placed
the results of his researches in the Zanzibar Consulate archives at my disposal.
2 Waller makes a slip in referring to Abraham and Mabruki as the remaining pair
(Waller, II, p. 345).

Nathaniel Cumba. We hear of Gardner again. When Stanley got together
his 1874-7 expedition, he engaged any of good character who had been with
Livingstone and among them was Gardner. But he died of typhoid fever in
the Usukuma country on 14th February 1875. His last wish was that half his
property should be given to his old safari comrade Chuma (Stanley, Through
the Dark Continent, I, p. 135). Nathaniel Cumba alias Mabruki may well be
one of the several of the latter name who were enrolled in \he same
Carus does not give a clear list of the six 1872 Nasik recruits. The Rev.
W. S. Price's journal for 24th September 1875, written from Mombasa1 records
that "Major Euan-Smith presented medals2 to the five faithful followers of
Livingstone who are now with me, viz.: Jacob Wainwright, Carus Farrar,
Benjamin Rutton, Matthew Wellington and Richard Rutton ". These, with
John Wainwright whose death has already been noticed, would complete the
roll of six.3
Many years later, Matthew Wellington, as a very old man, gave to the
Rev. W. J. Rampley, the names of the six who left Bombay in 1872 as Jacob,
Kalos, Benjamin, Matthew with William and Legett.4 His recollection regard-
ing the last two names must be confused. The 'William' he had in mind is
probably William Jones, later the Rev. W. Jones, Bishop Hannington's African
chaplain on his last fatal journey, who had come from Bombay to Frere Town
as a catechist with forty of his fellow African ex-slaves in January 1876.
Jacob Wainwright's visit to England seems to have unsettled him. For a
while he took up school-work among the African Christians at Frere Town
(" Jacob is a great help in teaching "-Rev. W. S. Price's diary, 27th January
1876, in C.M.I., April 1876); but he was not able' to stay the course'. Joseph
Thomson (To the Central African Lakes and Back, Vol. I. p. 34) reports that
Jacob Wainwright we found to have fallen considerably. When I last heard
of him (i.e., 1879-80) he was acting as door-porter to one of the Zanzibar
traders ".
Carus returned from Bombay to East Africa. Toward the end of 1876
he and Matthew Wellington were in charge of a general shop in the C.M.S.
settlement at Frere Town (C.M.I., January 1877, p. 58). Later Carus was at
the C.M.S. settlement for freed slave boys at Shimba, south-west of Mombasa,
where the Rev. W. S. Price found him in charge in May-July 1888 (Price, My
Third Campaign in East Africa). According to Rampley (op. cit.) both Jacob
and Carus were laid to rest in Zanzibar ". One earlier charming little reference
to Carus merits repetition. Writing from Mombasa on 22nd January 1875, the

1 Church Missionary Intelligencer, April 1876, p. 205.
2 These medals were provided by the Royal Geographical Society. Regarding their
design and distribution to other of Livingstone's followers, see Sir John Gray's article on
Majwara, Uganda Journal, Vol. 13 (1949), pp. 128-9.
3 These six names are confirmed in a full nominal roll of the fifty-seven men
despatched to Livingstone in May 1872, which appears in Stanley's Memoir of Dr.
Livingstone which is includedin certain later one-volume editions (1887, 1890) of How
I found Livingstone.
4 W. J. Rampley, Matthew Wellington, sole surviving link with Dr. Livingstone,
S.P.C.K. [c. 1930]. Matthew died at Mombasa at 4th June 1935, reputedly in his ninetieth

Rev. W. S. Price, who had been seriously ill, notes that "Mrs. Price overheard
Carus, one of Jacob's companions with Livingstone, earnestly pleading with
God on my behalf (C.M.I., May 1875, p. 156).

Susi and Chuma had, by November 1874, returned from England to Zanzibar,
where the Rev. W. S. Price found them awaiting the arrival of Bishop Steere of the
Universities Mission (C.M.I., May 1875, p. 147); and Chuma, who had (for the
second time it seems) been baptized with the name of James, became headman of
Steere's caravan to the Rovuma in 1875.
Both Susi and Chuma, with ten other faithfulss', were in Zanzibar on 17th
August 1875 to receive the Royal Geographical Society's Livingstone medal at the
hands of Major Prideaux, then acting as British Consul-General during Kirk's
Later Chuma was Joseph Thomson's caravan leader on the expedition to
Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika in 1879-80. He died at Zanzibar in 1882. His will,
dated 25th September 1882, is among the Consular archives in Zanzibar. Susi, by
the name of Abdulla Susa, was appointed one of the executors and received half
the residuary estate.
Susi worked with Alexander Mackay on the construction of the road from
Saadani to Mpwapwa in the first half of 1877 (C.M.I., November 1877, pp. 647-9).
When, early in 1879, Stanley undertook to command the expedition of the Comite
d'Etudes du Haut Congo which led to the founding of the Congo Free State, his
first act was to visit Zanzibar, where he recruited a select body of sixty-eight
Zanzibaris. Among these was Susi. In a steamer chartered by the Comite, they left
Zanzibar in May 1879 and, sailing by, way of the Mediterranean, reached the mouth
of the Congo in August. Susi is referred to by Stanley (The Congo and the Founding
of its Free State, Vol. I, p. 345) as the head chief of the foreign native employs ;
he was entrusted with various important missions, and made the original selection
of the site of what is now the town of Leopoldville. When, in July 1882,
Stanley left the Congo for a short visit to Europe, the Zanzibaris who had done
three years' good service were repatriated. Probably Susi returned to Zanzibar
just in time to be by his old friend Chuma on his death-bed; and on 13th March
1883, he put his mark to a receipt for the legacy from Chuma. He had hitherto
been a Muhammadan, but in 1884 was admitted by the Universities' Mission as a
catechumen and was baptized in 1886. He made many journeys with Bishop
Smythies, Bishop Steere's successor, who found him a very useful headman. Seized
with paralysis, he died at Zanzibar on 5th May 1891; and tribute was paid to his
memory by the attendance at his funeral of the British Consul-General and most of
the British residents.


Commissioner for Transport, East Africa High Commission

N the time available I can only give'a broad outline of the history and
development of the transport system, and the part which it has played, and
will play, in East Africa. I propose, therefore to limit myself to a general
discussion rather than a detailed history, and to deal with economic aspects
rather than the part played by the transport system in two wars. The war
activities of the transport system would require a volume of their own.
The history and development of the East African Transport System falls
into four distinct phases:
(1) The consideration of the opening up of East Africa by railways-the
pre-East African history period;
(2) The actual building of the railway systems and their gradual emergence
as part of the economic structure of East Africa-the 'historical'
(3) The period from 1922 onwards to 1948, when the transport systems
emerged as quasi-public utility undertakings-the development
period; and
(4) The amalgamation of the two East African Transport systems in 1948
-the past-war period.
The pre-East African history period follows in the footsteps of the great
explorers, and their penetration into the interior of this part of Africa. This,
unfortunately, was followed by, or rather exposed, the Slave-trade, and the
development of the railway systems in East Africa, particularly the former
Uganda Railway, was very closely linked with the desire to suppress this
iniquitous traffic.. That in fact was the justification for the proposal to build
the railway through what is now Kenya to Uganda.
For approximately fifty years the maritime powers of Europe, particularly
Great Britain, had taken steps to check the seaborne slave traffic, but the
persistence of domestic slavery in certain countries ensured a demand for slaves
and a market for the slave-trader. It was clear that the slave-trade would never
be quashed until it was attacked at the source of supply, that was, within Africa.
For many years the British Government had spent considerable sums of money
on naval forces patrolling off the East Coast of Africa. Then, towards the end
of the nineteenth century and the last years of Queen Victoria's reign, the then
Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, proposed the building of a railway from
Mombasa into the hinterland of East Africa. The proposal was by no means
1 Address to the Uganda Society on 5th April 1949.

well supported. The arguments advanced against it were that the railway
would do nothing to stop the slave-trade; that it could not be made to pay;
that if any such railway should be built, it was the business of the Chartered
Company, under Sir William Mackinnon, and that it was a waste of the tax-
payers' money. The controversy dragged on and on. It was even the subject
of a cartoon in Punch and the publication of some well-known verses by
Labouchere who was a great opponent of the project. In the meantime, there
had been a change of Government and Mr. Gladstone became Prime Minister ;
but although his party had included a number of the opponents to the building
of the railway, a decision was taken for the construction of a railway from
Mombasa and some time later, in 1895, the late Sir George Whitehouse arrived
at Mombasa with the object of building this railway, the principal purpose of
which was the suppression of the slave-trade. Little consideration had been
given to the economic consequence of opening up East Africa by rail transport.
The building of the railway was full of difficulties, both physical and financial.
Much of the history is well known, and some of the highlights of the construc-
tion have been embodied in that very readable book The Man-eaters of Tsavo.
It would take too long to deal with the actual history of the building of the
railway and I hope that before long you may be able to read all these details
in a History of the Railway which has been written by Mr. Mervyn Hill at the
request of the former Kenya and Uganda Railways and Harbours Administra-
tion. Eventually, all the difficulties, physical and financial, were surmounted
and in 1901 the railway reached the shores of Lake Victoria. Steps were at once
taken to provide transport facilities into Uganda by means of ships crossing
the northern end of the Lake. All the ships which through the years have plied
to and fro on Lake Victoria were first transported over the railway in parts
and erected in Kisumu.
In the meantime there had been similar consideration for the opening up
of German East Africa, and in the same way there had been much vacillation
in the policy to be adopted by the German Government in providing rail systems
in what is now known as Tanganyika. But it was only after the Uganda Railway
had reached Lake Victoria that the Germans gave more serious consideration
to railway projects in German East Africa. The policy that the Germans
proposed was to build a railway from Tanga to Lake Victoria; another railway
from Dar es Salaam to Lake Tanganyika; and a third railway from Kilwa to
Lake Nyasa. The Germans at that time were not very much concerned over
the fact that a British railway had reached Lake Victoria and, by the provision
of ships, was able to play some part in the development of that part of German
East Africa which impinged on the Lake. It has been said that the German
objective was to build strategic railways, but the late Clement Gillman, who
had a long association with the railways in that part of East Africa, has, in
a short history of the Tanganyika Railways, denied that this was so. His
argument was that the primary stimulus for the building of railways in German
East Africa was to attract the traffic from the Central African lake basins, and
the eastern Congo to the ports of German East Africa. No doubt the policy
of peaceful penetration was not absent from the minds of those responsible for
the transport policy in that part of East Africa.

But about the same time as Sir George Whitehouse was embarking on the
project of building the Uganda Railway, the German engineers were preparing
to build the railways from Tanga and Dar es Salaam. In the event, the Tanga
railway was never carried through to Lake Victoria, and the Dar es Salaam
Railway only reached Lake Tanganyika just before the 1914-18 war. The
Kilwa to Lake Nyasa railway was never built, but it is interesting to note, in
view of what I may have to say later on, that Gillman records that "A fairly
detailed survey was made from Manda Bay to Songea" which is in the neigh-
bourhood of one of the areas which is to be opened up for the development
of groundnuts.
In 1914 the Governor of German East Africa said that "the available
districts along Lake Victoria are already opened up by the Uganda Railway.
Vast areas of the Protectorate are still awaiting development. For this reason
the good British communications on the Lake must be utilized and railways
should be built in other directions." Similar views had also been expressed
in 1912 by the Director of the German Railway Company who said, It seems
advisable to leave for the time being to the Uganda Railway the further develop-
ment of the German regions along Lake Victoria. More important, and mainly
for political reasons, would be the construction of a railway to Lake Nyasa."
With this brief survey of what I have called the historical period I now
turn to the next period-the gradual emergence of the transport systems as
part of the general economic structure of East Africa.
In 1903 the railway was handed over to the East Africa Protectorate and
Mr. Currie was appointed General Manager at a salary of 2,000 p.a., which
fact, if I may say so in a serious paper, goes to indicate that an East African
Salaries Commission was not appointed any too soon. The railway was not
much of a present to the Protectorate; it was, in fact, a very serious financial
liability. Consequently the Governor and Government of that day were driven
to consider how the burden could be lightened, and history establishes beyond
all doubt that it was the Uganda Railway, as it was then called, which founded
White Settlement in East Africa for it was only by development of the lands
opened up by the transport system and the creation of traffic to be carried by
the railways that the financial burden could be lessened. The indigenous people
were too primitive to inaugurate this development alone, and for good or ill
a drive was made to get adventurous Britons to develop the land. Whatever
political views we may hold about White Settlement, no man of judgment of
whatever race can deny that economically the advent of the European made
possible the development of East Africa and raised the economic status of the
Africans and enabled education, medicine and hospitals to be provided for
the indigenous races. Without European skill, knowledge and enterprise, the
railway would have become derelict, the population decimated from time to
time by famine, internecine war between tribes would have continued and the
country would have been a ready prey to any nation seeking world expansion,
whose administration might well have been worse than that of the British
Administration, whatever its faults and failings.
The railway was administered and operated in those days as an ordinary
Government department. The revenues earned were paid into the general

Government revenue, and expenditure was not based on the earning capacity
of the undertaking but mainly on the ability of the General Manager to extract
his minimum requirements from the financial pundits of that day-not so very
different from the procedure in respect of some Government departments of
to-day. No- thought was paid to the morrow and no one, except the railway
staff, seemed to realize that locomotives, wagons, rails, etc., wear out and have
some day to be replaced, and no one seemed to realize that it may be necessary
to spend money to earn money. It was mainly a standstill period with a policy
of earn as much as you can so long as it doesn't cost you much to earn it, and
eventually this policy turned the railway into a taxing instrument.
In the meantime, the enterprise of the settlers, as they came to be called,
had steadily developed East Africa, and had made many experiments possible,
some of which failed disastrously, but their skill and industry had caused a
steady, mounting traffic for the transport system. Many of these experiments
were of a courageous and costly kind, some of them have left a lasting benefit
on East Africa, and here in Uganda the one great experiment of cotton-growing
has been of immense value to both the transport system and to the people of
East Africa.
Then came the 1914-18 war, and, as in the last war, the railway was called
upon to play a very important part. The war was actually on its doorstep.
Difficulties were encountered and possibly the railway was not able to make
such a contribution in the 1914-18 war as was possible in World War II, but
it is difficult for us of to-day to judge the circumstances. No steps had been
taken, as they were taken before the last war, to have a fully equipped and
efficient machine. Financial difficulties were still encountered but it is not too
much to say that prolonged as the German East African campaign was, it
would have been still more prolonged had it not been for the services rendered
by the railway and the railway staff.
I must now turn for a few minutes to the development in what was German
East Africa. There again the railway, with many vicissitudes, physical and
financial (although, of course, the physical difficulties were nothing like the
difficulties encountered in the building of the Uganda Railway) was no more
economically successful than the Uganda Railway had been. In the early
stages of development the Germans were inclined to leave the matter to com-
mercial enterprise, but the burden was found to be too heavy and in 1908 a
Railway Commissioner was appointed as the head of a new Government
department, on whom rested the general supervision of the territory's railway
activities; and it is also interesting that in 1914 the Germans appointed a
Railway Advisory Council. After the assumption by the State of the responsi-
bility for railway development and operation in German East Africa, proposals
were made for extending the Central Railway to Lake Tanganyika, with the
objective of tapping the rich lands which now form the Belgian mandated
territory of Ruanda-Urundi. The intention was to build the railway to Kigoma
on Lake Tanganyika and serve these lands by means of ships erected at Kigoma.
Before any real steps could be taken for the development of the country arising
from the construction of the railway from Dar es Salaam to Kigoma, the 1914-18
war broke out. Thus, in Tanganyika, general development had not even been

on the same scale as that of the Uganda Railway, and little information is
available as to the financial result of traffic carried. But it is interesting to note
that the Germans, as far back as 1908, realized the necessity of providing for a
Renewals Fund to replace worn-out equipment-a realization which was not
apparent in the British administered territories.
The construction of the Tanga Line was not dissimilar to the construction
of the Uganda Railway. The railway was pushed forward to reach Moshi in
1911. The German Government then realized that in order to sustain this
railway it was essential to encourage European settlement and efforts were
made to induce Europeans to settle in what is now known as the Northern
Province of Tanganyika. By the time war broke out, considerable expansion
of plantation enterprise had taken place in this area and experiments had been
made to ascertain what economic crops, including rubber and coffee, could be
developed to provide traffic for the railway and the port of Tanga.
Returning now to Kenya and Uganda, the effect of the war on the Uganda
Railway had been serious. As in this last war, apart from financial considera-
tions, it was impossible to obtain new equipment and the physical state of the
railway gradually deteriorated until it was described in about 1920 by a well-
known East African politician as a ribbon of rust through Africa ". In the
same way in Tanganyika the railways were devastated by war damage. The
Germans realized the importance of railway communications and did everything
possible to deny the use of the railway system to the British Forces. The post-
1914-18 war period opened then with the railways in very poor condition, and
ill-equipped to deal either with existing traffic or to embark on any policy of
expansion and development. It is a sad chapter in the history of the transport
system in East Africa, but the fault did not lie with those in charge of the
system but rather with the general policy of administering such an important
In 1922 Mr., afterwards Sir Christian Felling, a prominent and able
railwayman from the South African Railways, was appointed General Manager
of the then Uganda Railway, and this brings me to the next epoch, the period
which I call the development period. Mr. Felling realized from the outset that
no success could be made of thetransport system under the existing methods
of control. Furthermore, Uganda had progressively become more and more
dissatisfied with the general control and higher policy of the organization. It
complained that since the railway was a department of the Kenya Government,
Uganda's interests were subordinated to those of Kenya. Felling, having
realized all this, took a bold and courageous step which has left its mark on
transport administration not only in East Africa but throughout the Colonial
Empire. He contended that the only way in which the transport systems could
play their part in providing a public service and developing the territories was
to divorce them entirely from Government administration and Government
methods, and to treat them as quasi-commercial undertakings on the public
utility model. Naturally his views at first did not find favour. He was, how-
ever, a courageous and persistent advocate. He was in an extraordinarily
powerful position as the South African Railways had made it quite clear that
if he were dissatisfied with conditions in East Africa, he would always be

welcome to resume a high appointment on the South African Railways system.
His conception was that the transport undertaking known as the Uganda
Railway should become a joint State service for Kenya and Uganda, to be
known as the Kenya and Uganda Railways. Furthermore, he held the view
that the most efficient and economic way of operating the port of Mombasa
would be to embrace it within that system, thus making it the Kenya and Uganda
Railways and Harbours. He insisted that the higher control of the new
administration should be freed from the Government method of accounting
and that, although responsible to both Legislatures, the actual control of policy
should be left in the hands of an Advisory Council containing equal representa-
tion from Kenya and Uganda, whose advice should be submitted to a High
Commissioner. The latter should act as the head of the transport system and
would be the medium between the transport system and the Secretary of State
for the Colonies. He was able to persuade the authorities to regulate the
control and management of the transport system by an Order in Council which
removed it from the vagaries of local politics. He also envisaged the control of
the port of Mombasa on similar lines and, at a later date, an Order in Council
was promulgated divorcing the control of the harbour from the political
atmosphere of East Africa by placing the harbour under the control of the
High Commissioner, who was to be advised on policy by a Harbour Advisory
Board, on which Uganda would have representation. His contention was that
whilst it was right and proper for bodies of officials and unofficial to fix the
policy, no success could be achieved by a transport organization unless the
management were free to manage within the terms laid down by the policy.
He also realized that there must be parliamentary control over a State service
of this sort, but he held that this should be a broad control of policy and a
broad control of finance. Within those limits the system should be operated
as a commercial undertaking. The results of his policy were far-reaching and
far exceeded expectations. The morale of the staff was immediately improved ;
the service became attractive to skilled railwaymen from'elsewhere; and, by
improvements in financial and operating methods, a sound undertaking was
built up with adequate and proper provision for the replacement of its assets
as and when they were required. Having achieved his objective in the way of
broad policy, he then set himself the task of expanding the system and, although
he died before seeing the results of his forward policy, it was due mainly to his
initiative that the railway was built right into Uganda and replaced to a very
great extent the former method of transport into Uganda by rail and Lake
Victoria. He was also instrumental in building a number of branch lines in
Kenya, and the line to Soroti in Uganda. Many of us at that time shared his
view that the objective so far as Uganda was concerned should be first of all
the commercial capital-Kampala-with possibilities of extensions towards
Lake Albert. But, in spite of all his efforts to avoid political pressure in
railway matters, politics enforced the main line going to Jinja. Many of us-
and I was one-thought at that time a mistake had been made and that Jinja
should have remained on a branch line. None of us at that time shared the
view of Mr. Churchill that there were great possibilities of development at Jinja
by obtaining power from the Ripon Falls. In the event it seems as though what

was then thought to be a mistake was a blessing in disguise, but this little piece of
history is interesting in view of the oft-repeated criticism of the long way round
taken by the railway to get into Uganda. Had the original project held good
that would have been the shortest route to Kampala.
On the other side of the border, German East Africa had become Tangan-
yika and was to be administered by the British Government as a mandated
territory. The first task was to rehabilitate the railway and to set up a British
organization. Gradually the same concept of a commercially-operated railway
as a public utility concern gained ground, and later, between the wars, the
Tanganyika Central Railway became a very important and financially valuable
link between the Belgian Congo and the East Coast of Africa. This develop-
ment, however, did not last and a very serious recession took place in 1930 and
1931 which, partly from the world depression, partly from the development of
railways on the West Coast of Africa, resulted in the loss of this valuable intransit
traffic. It was also unfortunate that Tanganyika, unlike Kenya, had been
unable to build up a financial structure capable of withstanding such a recession.
The recession was only met .with great difficulty in Kenya and Uganda, but the
foundations had been well and truly laid and, although the undertaking was
greatly shaken and the then General Manager-Sir Godfrey Rhodes-had the
unpleasant task of inaugurating a retrenchment policy on a very large scale,
the Administration was able to weather the storm.
In Tanganyika the shock had been greater and it was not possible for the
Transport Administration to surmount the crisis without financial assistance
from the Government. For some years after that, until the advent of the last
war, a very cautious financial policy was followed in Tanganyika, but by the
time the 1939 war had broken out there was a reasonable prospect of the railway
system meeting all its obligations.
In Kenya and Uganda the recovery from the great depression was quicker
than was expected and by 1939 the Administration was in a very sound financial
position and was well equipped to deal not only with existing traffic, but, as
events proved, to undertake a burden in the war of a size that exceeded all
expectations. In 1939 war came upon us, but I do not here propose to deal
with the war efforts of the two railway systems. Suffice to say that in the
opinion of independent observers and those most concerned-the Army and
the Navy-the transport system did its duty well and to the complete satisfac-
tion of those responsible for the prosecution of the war. It was an immense
task which has left its mark in the post-war years. It is often forgotten by
those who grumble because the transport systems of East Africa cannot do all
that is required at the time that it is required, that this is mainly due to the fact
that these two systems spared nothing in their efforts towards the successful
prosecution of the war. No financial considerations, no consideration for the
well-being of the assets of the Administration, no consideration for the health
and conditions of the staff, were allowed to interfere. The consequence is that
the transport systems emerged from the war period battered and beaten, depleted
in equipment and staff, only to be faced with problems almost as immense as
those encountered in the war. This is not the place for me to explain all the
difficulties which at present confront us. I only state it as a fact that many of

these difficulties are due solely to the war, and that point must be remembered
by all who use or depend upon the transport system.
I now come to the last period-a period with immense possibilities and
immense tasks. I refer to the amalgamation of the two railway systems of
East Africa into one organization-The East African Railways and Harbours.
The general conception of Sir Christian Felling has been extended in the
administration of this new undertaking; parliamentary control will be achieved
by means of a broad control by the East African Central Assembly. The
general policy will be set by advice from the Transport Advisory Council;
detailed advice on policy regarding particular aspects of transportation, such as
railways and ports, will be obtained by the appointment of bodies specially
equipped to deal with such matters, and forming an offshoot or part of the
Transport Advisory Council. Once the broad financial policy has been decided
by the Central Assembly, and once the broad general policy has been decided on
the advice of the bodies to which I have referred, the management is to be free
to execute these policies in the best and most economic manner in the interests
of the people of East Africa. There is not the slightest doubt that the success
of the former K.U.R. & H. was almost entirely due to these methods of higher
control, administration and management, and it is for that reason that these
methods have been adopted for the new East African Railways and Harbours.
I would here like to say a word about the qualifications of those appointed to
the Councils and Boards. In some quarters it has been suggested that the
appointments should be made of those with particular interests. In the opinion
of those responsible for the preliminary examination of these matters, such a
method was impracticable and would not secure the results which the advocates
of these methods hoped for. In Paper No. 210, which is the basis of the present
organization, it is stated that "the composition of the Council should not
otherwise (than in numbers) be prescribed either in relation to race or as to the
numbers of official or unofficial members. The objective would be to secure
for the High Commission the most competent advice available." A little
thought will show the difficulties of any other method of appointment. Once
the principle is accepted that appointments should be made on a sectional basis,
there is no end to the sections which would claim with justice to be responsible
for nominations. This is not a political paper and I am not therefore free to
develop this argument any further, but the principle is one of immense impor-
tance in the administration of a service which is so vital to the interests of East
Africa. As the new system covers a wide area in which there are many
political differences, it may be asked how will this new method work, and how
can we ensure that territorial development is advanced and not hindered by
such an administration ? I would like to'take, for example, a matter which is
well known to you all-the question of the development of the railway or some
other transport system westwards in Uganda. If the proposals which I have
placed before the Governments for Railways and Ports Committees are adopted,
the question of the policy of a westward extension in Uganda would first receive
the consideration of a Railway Committee. This Railway Committee would
consist of three members of the Transport Advisory Council, together with two
members appointed by Tanganyika, two by Kenya and two by Uganda; and

it would have the power to co-opt two additional members with full voting
rights from Uganda users, or those who have a particular knowledge of the
Uganda requirements. This Committee's recommendations would in turn be
considered by the Transport Advisory Council; and, finally, if it were decided
to recommend the extension of the transport system in Uganda, the authority
of the Central Assembly would be sought.
This is a practicable and workable method which ensures the fullest
consideration of all factors involved in such a matter. A similar procedure
would be adopted regarding the Ports Committee.
Having, I hope, explained the general policy of higher control, administra-
tion and management under the new system, what of the future ? What part
does the Transport Administration hope to play in the development of these
East African territories ? There are three major railway and port developments
which must receive the fullest consideration. I have already mentioned one-
the extension of the railway or the transport system westwards in Uganda.
Another is the connection between the Kenya and Uganda section of the main
system and the Central and Tanga sections of the Tanganyika Railways-
probably by a rail connection between Morogoro and Korogwe. This is a
development which arises partly as a result of experience gained in the war,
and partly from amalgamation. To deal very briefly with the war position,
those who studied the transport aspect of the war in East Africa realized that
these countries were well served with transport systems east to west, but there
was a vital defect in that there was no adequate connection from north to south.
The danger appeared in the north, and, as it so happens, all went well, but it
might not have happened so and in that event the lack of a north and south
connection would have brought about an extremely dangerous position.
Furthermore, at the height of the war the two railway systems were unable to
render to each other the assistance which would have been so valuable.
A further consideration is that the workshops in Dar es Salaam, apart
from the climatic difficulties, are in such a position that they cannot be extended
materially in their present situation, and it may well prove to be cheaper to
provide a connection between the Central Line and the Kenya and Uganda
Section than to attempt to move and rebuild the workshops in Dar es Salaam.
The building of this connection would involve certain work on the Voi-Kahe
line, which was built as a military railway in the 1914-18 war with little regard
to either location or economic circumstances.
The last of the three projects of expansion and development is the question
of a connection with Rhodesia. There are two aspects to this question: the
first is that for strategic and other reasons it may be desirable to make a con-
nection between the Rhodesian Railway system and the East African system
somewhere in the neighbourhood of Mackinnon Road or Mombasa. This would
complete a spinal transport system right through from the Cape to the East
Coast of Africa. The other aspect is possibly of lesser importance but it would
be to provide an additional outlet from the Rhodesias to the sea. With the
development of the groundnut scheme, the East African Transport Administra-
tion is committed to the construction both of a deep-water port at Mikindani,
which has a fine natural harbour, and of a railway inland for about 140 miles

to tap the groundnut area. This might prove a possible East Coast outlet from
the Rhodesias. There are of course not inconsiderable difficulties in providing
such an outlet, including either crossing Lake Nyasa by a train ferry, or the
provision of a railway round the head of Lake Nyasa which is known to be
difficult and mountainous country. Amongst the advantages of such a
connection with Rhodesia are that it would probably assist in the development
of the north-east corner of Northern Rhodesia, and possibly of Nyasaland, and
also provide an alternative outlet for that country.
The conversion of the railway from Mikindani towards the hinterland from
metre to 3 ft. 6 in. gauge will be a much less costly method than the conversion
which would be involved by a connection elsewhere in East Africa, and it should
be possible, if this connection with the port of Mikindani were made, to
economize considerably at Mikindani itself. As the position at present stands,
the building of a small railway in this area is bound to be unduly expensive as
it is completely detached from either of the main line systems. It will, therefore,
necessitate the building of workshops, and expensive equipment, to keep the
rolling stock, etc., in repair. If a connection were made with Rhodesia, many
of these difficulties might disappear.
I have perhaps emphasized the connection to Mikindani, but very weighty
arguments can also be advanced for the connection from the Rhodesias to be
with the Central Line in Tanganyika. The whole question has been reviewed
by His Majesty's Government and all the factors involved will receive the fullest
consideration before any definite decision is taken.
These, then, are the major considerations for railway transport develop-
ment in East Africa. They are of course, all hampered by reason of the fact
that materials and equipment are difficult to obtain. Our first task is to
get sufficient equipment for both the Kenya and Uganda and the Tanganyika
sections to enable them to handle, without undue delay or without imposing
heavy burdens on the users, all the traffic existing and potential which may be
offering over the next few years. This is the aim that we have set ourselves and
I am firmly convinced that as we have been able in the past to meet all the
calls made upon us, so we shall be able in the future to meet all the development
requirements of these East African territories. There will be difficult periods
as there have been in the past. I can only plead for tolerance and consideration
of those who make demands on the transport system. Given goodwill, I am
sure that the East African Railways and Harbours can make a considerable
contribution to these objectives and developments, not least in the improvement
of the standard of living of the indigenous people, and in the provision of
facilities which we of the West have been so used to, for the benefit of those
Swho, in the past, have not shared so fully in the good things of this world.



K IGEZI is one of the smallest districts in Uganda, tucked away in the south-
western corner. It has a total area of approximately 2,000 sq. miles and
with a present population of about 400,000 people. It was one of the last
districts in Uganda to come under British rule and the present boundaries with
the Belgian Congo and Ruanda were defined by the Anglo-German-Belgian
Boundary Commission of 1911. The first Europeans to enter Kigezi were
Emin Pasha and Stuhlmann in 1891 on the ill-fated expedition which ended
with the murder of Emin Pasha. Uncertainty as to how the boundary clauses
of the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890 should be applied to topographical
facts, which were only subsequently found to exist, left much of Kigezi 'in the
air' for years" (1) and these were only settled in 1911. Civil administration
began in 1912 with a political officer being stationed at Kumba, a Kivu Mission
Post, situated at mile 13 on the present Kabale-Kisoro Road. The district
headquarters were moved to their present site at Kabale in 1914.
Those of you who know Kigezi would, probably, agree with me that it
would be difficult anywhere in the world to find such varied and beautiful types
of scenery in so small an area as are there to be met with. Here are the
volcanic peaks of the Birunga Range, the home of the gorilla; Mt. Muhavura
(a local word meaning that which points the way), 13,547 ft. high and the third
highest mountain in Uganda; the fertile lava plains and minor craters of
Bufumbira in the south-west; the broken mountainous country round Kabale;
the scattered lakes, of which Bunyoni and Mutanda are particularly beautiful;
the forest-clad slopes of the Impenetrable Forest; those great gashes in the
earth-the Ishasha and Mitano gorges; the rolling grasslands of Ruzumbura
in the north; the dry Lake Edward plains, the home of much big game; and
Lake Edward itself, 3,000 ft. above sea level. The rivers, south and east of
Kabale, flow to Lake Victoria; the rest to Lake Edward.
The principal tribe is the Bakiga, a race of Bantu agriculturists, who now
occupy the sazas (counties) of Ndorwa, Rukiga and much of Kinkizi. In
Bufumbira are the Banyaruanda with a small element of Batutsi-an Hamitic
cattle people-and a much larger element of Bahutu-Bantu agriculturists not
dissimilar, but speaking a different language from the Bakiga. In Ruzumbura
there are the Bahororo, similar to the Banyankole, with Bahima and Bairu,
the last being Bantu and the cultivators. There are also a few Batwa-a
semi-pygmy tribe in the western forest country.
During recent years there has been a great increase in the Bakiga popula-
tion living in the mountainous country within a 12-mile radius of Kabale, with
the result that much of this area is now overpopulated. Members of various
Government departments had been aware of the problem, but the matter came
to a head during the 1943 and 1944 droughts, when it became evident that the
1 Lecture to the Uganda Society on 8th November 1949.

fertility of the soil of the area was deteriorating from constant use and that,
during years of poor rainfall, yields were low compared with those of areas on
similar soils and with similar rainfall which were not overpopulated.
At the end of 1944 I was sent to Kigezi to investigate this overpopulation
and, if possible, find out what could be done about it. The first step was to
examine carefully all the available population statistics to see if it was possible
to ascertain how overpopulation had been brought about and, secondly, by
making a careful quantitative survey of land use in the overpopulated areas,
to find out exactly what was happening to the land. In the middle of Africa
there is a serious lack of exact quantitative information and it is essential to
obtain this before any scheme for future development of the African and his
country can be satisfactorily worked out. It is easy to say, "I think so and
so, therefore I think we must do so and so," but it is a more difficult matter to
say, I know so and so is happening, therefore we must do so arid so."
Before passing to the methods used and the information obtained, the
land tenure and agriculture of the Bakiga in the overpopulated areas should
be examined a little more closely.
As I have stated earlier, the inhabitants of the overpopulated areas are
the Bakiga, a Bantu agricultural tribe. The name Bakiga merely means hill
people and probably originated as a nickname given by other tribes. As is
typical of farmers the world over and more especially with hill peoples, they
are a very independent and conservative people, often stubborn and highly
suspicious of all new departures until they have seen them in operation and
realized their superiority over the old methods. This is by no means an
unusual and reprehensible trait in a farmer. Many visitors to Kigezi, seeing
the soil conservation, believe that the local inhabitants must be extremely
amenable, but I can assure you that this is far from the case, as their recent
refusal to have anything done with their swamps plainly shows. As a people,
however, they have the great merit that they are industrious and not afraid of
hard work.
The Bakiga are thought to have come to Kigezi in fairly recent times from
what is now Belgian Ruanda, being forced out of that county by the pressure of
population and raids by the Batutsi. Wright in his mutala survey near Mpalo
gives the dates of the arrival of the Abazigaba clan as 1860 and the Abasigi
as 1885 (2). Another large clan of the Bakiga is Abahimba. The earliest
remembered inhabitants of the .area were a group of Hamitic pastoral
Abashambo of Hima origin, who grazed their cattle on the hill-tops. In those
days south-eastern Kigezi was part of the kingdom of Mpororo. The first
immigrants accepted the overlordship of these cattle people, but when the
Abasigi arrived in ever-increasing numbers from the Mulera area of Ruanda,
their war-like pressure forced the Abashambo to move northwards into
Immigration into Kigezi from Ruanda continued until 1943, when all
further immigration was stopped. Bakiga still live in Ndorwa and Rukiga
Sazas of Byumba District in northern Ruanda. This fact that the present
overpopulated areas have only been cultivated for a comparatively short period
has an important bearing on our present problem. During a recent visit to

Ruanda I got the impression that Ruanda had been cultivated for a much
longer period than Kigezi, where soil fertility had been stored up through the
ages. I have talked to one old man who remembers elephant and buffalo near
the present district headquarters of Kabale. Major E. M. Jack, the Chief
British Commissioner on the Anglo-German Boundary Commission of 1911,
states that the country, now overpopulated, was in 1910 "generally rough and
wild .thick grass, thick bush and forest with few signs of human occupa-
tion .and that the people were inclined to be truculent" (3), whereas
he describes Bufumbira as "a delectable land with short grass and well
populated ". A sketch map made in 1912 by Capt. E. H. Reid (Suffolk Regt.)
of the 4th K.A.R., shows the present central Ndorwa and Rukiga to be hilly
country with many cultivated valleys.
It should be realized that before the British administration there was no
tradition of chieftainship and that a clan system prevailed. With the advent of
our administration, the Buganda model of government with saza, gombolola
and miruka chiefs was installed. Baganda agents were brought in as the
principal chiefs to teach the local people this form of government. They were
replaced by Bakiga chiefs during the period 1927-30. These posts, not being
hereditary, the senior chiefs have risen through merit and are men of consider-
able ability and authority.
The system of local councils with a majority of elected members was
started in 1946, and these begin at the lowest level of the miruka and extend up
to the district council. The district council can now make bye-laws for the
good rule and government of the district under the provisions of the African
Local Government Ordinance.
The present overpopulated area consists of four main ridges with summits of
7,000-8,500 ft. and three main valleys, the floors of which for the most part exceed
6,000 ft., and are usually papyrus-filled swamps. All run from south-east to
north-west. The ridges are broken by short, steep-sided dip valleys, separated
by fluted spurs of the Karagwe-Ankolean hills and with numerous subsidiary
strike valleys. The narrower, higher valleys are usually dry.
Visitors to Kabale usually remark on the extreme greenness of the station
and imagine that it has a high rainfall. This is not so. The average annual
rainfall at Kabale is under 40 in. per year. There are two wet seasons-
February to May and September to November-the principal dry season being
June to August and with a lesser dry season in December and January. The
annual rainfall shows wide fluctuation and since 1918, when the records were
begun, has varied from 25-08 in. to 58-49 in. The rainfall, fortunately, is well
distributed and storms of over 1 in. in 24 hours are rare. Thick morning mists
are a characteristic of the climate and the average humidity at 8.30 a.m. is
91 per cent. The mean temperature is 61-3" F., but there is a wide daily range.
The lowest temperature recorded is 40* F. and the highest 87-5" F. The low
rainfall intensity has been a most important factor in preventing serious
The rocks of this mountainous overcrowded area are lake sediments of the
Karagwe-Ankolean system of shales, phyllites, quartzites and sandstones. The
softer members of this series of rocks have produced a deep fertile soil, little

Subject to erosion, well supplied with bases and of good lasting power. This soil
has one of the highest crumb structures recorded in Uganda, which would
account for its permeability and resistance to erosion. I believe, however, that
the present occupants are using up the accumulated fertility of long periods
when the land was not cultivated.
The soils of the most heavily-cultivated hill slopes are deep reddish-brown
loams, except on very steep slopes where the soils are thin with numerous rock
Soutcrops and can only be used for rough grazing. The hill-top soils are
thinner, often gravelly, and not so fertile, and the valley floors contain much
grey clay.
The Bakiga tend to build their houses in the valley and on the lower slopes
and cultivate up the hills. This gives an appearance of the country not being
so thickly populated as in fact it is. Generally speaking, the richer the man
the higher is the house up the hill, as he has more wives to carry water. In the
past, before the present pressure of population, the lower slopes only were
cultivated, but now cultivation has reached the summits of most of the ridges
and much of the grazing land on the thinner soils has now come under the
The original system of land tenure, before British administration, was
based on the principle that a man could hold as much land as he could cultivate
and defend with the assistance of his clansmen. The original immigrants, who
did not arrive in overwhelming force, sought first to create social bonds with
the original occupiers so that they might help and protect them and their families
and flocks from theft, witchcraft and raids. We, therefore, see the reason for
the great emphasis placed on blood brotherhood and marriage as a means of
obtaining land. If the immigrants arrive in sufficient force they can just take
the land.
With settled administration this system became modified to the principle
that a man can own as much as he can cultivate in a year, together with as much
as he can prove is his resting land and cultivated by him previously. A time
limit is eventually given to the period of rest. Although the land is now
classified as Crown Land, there exists absolute security of tenure to the peasant
cultivator and his heirs and he can loan, rent, will or sell his holding and such
land becomes virtually freehold in the eyes of the African occupier. Any
spare land is allocated by the chiefs. Usually in south-eastern Kigezi a man
has several blocks of land, as he recognizes the different soils most suitable for
his various crops. With the great increase in population, people have had to
go farther and farther afield to get more land and this, together with the system
of inheritance, has resulted in much fragmentation of holdings and plots may
be long distances, up to 5 miles, from the homestead. All grazing land, either
permanent pasture or resting land, is used communally but, of course, such land
is becoming sadly diminished.
The Bakiga are a grain-eating people; sorghum (great millet) is the staple
food and is also extensively used for brewing beer. Peas and beans form an
important part of their diet, as do sweet potatoes, the cultivation of which is
fairly recent. English potatoes became very popular but were almost com-
pletely wiped out by blight in 1942. Cultivation of this crop is now increasing

again and there are substantial exports to Kampala. Finger millet is grown
almost entirely as a famine reserve. Plantains do not do well in the Kabale
areas. Up to four years ago there were no crops rich in oil, but sunflowers
have now been introduced and, in the north, groundnuts.
Sorghum is usually planted in December and January and is harvested
about July. All other crops are grown twice a year. The bulk of the work
on food cultivation is done by the women, using a short-handled hoe, but men
assist in all operations except weeding. They do most of the initial clearing.
Kigezi hillsides are very steep and I cannot foresee any future for mechanical
cultivation in the area. Cattle, sheep and goats are kept, but only in small
The two main sources of income were labour in the mines, roads, etc., and
the sale of food. Coffee was tried on a large scale, but was unsuccessful.
Nicotine tobacco is now the principal economic crop in Ndorwa and Rukiga
and some 1 million lb. of cured leaf are sold annually. The species grown
is a variety of Nicotiana rustica, with a high nicotine content, about 7 per cent.,
and this is extracted locally. Flax is grown in Rukiga and the north of the
district. Any surplus food, European potatoes and onions are also sold from
the overpopulated areas.
Turning to the population statistics, in 1911, before the district was
administered, the total population of Kigezi was given as 100,000, but this was
only a guess. The 1921 census gave a total population of 206,090; the 1931-
225,892; and the recent census of 1948-367,519. The last census figure may
not be complete, but of this number 251,000 were Bakiga and 54 per cent. were
females. Looking through the vital statistics collected by the Native Adminis-
tration, we see that for the whole district the annual excess of births over deaths
was about 5,000 in the early 1930's, increasing to 8,000 by 1943, with the drop
during 1944 to 4,000 due to food shortage and outbreak of Shiga dysentery,
and it has now risen to 12,000 in 1948. If these figures can be believed, they
show an annual increase in 1948 of over 3 per cent. In 1948 the birth-rate
was given at nearly 50 per 1,000 and the deaths at 10 per 1,000. These figures
are for the district as a whole, but it should be remembered that the birth-rate
is probably highest in the southern parts of the district, which are the over-
populated areas.
Let us now look more specifically at the population statistics of the over-
populated areas. Of the total population of the district nearly 34 per cent.
live in the 234 square miles around Kabale, which in 1943 had a population
density of 360 people per square mile, while one area had 718 people to the
square mile. A study of the poll tax statistics showed a 60 per cent. increase
in the number of tax payers in the overpopulated gombololas during the twelve
years 1932-43. Of this increase, 34 per cent. was due to natural increase and
26 per cent. to immigration, mainly from Ruanda. This immigration was
stopped, as I have already said, in 1943.
From a perusal of all the available figures, I conclude that the population
of southern Kigezi will double itself in thirty years by natural increase alone.
The same figure was arrived at independently by the Belgian authorities for
part of Ruanda.

To what does one attribute this remarkable increase ? The country is
healthy, there is very little venereal disease or malaria, and people marry young.
I had believed that polygamy was a factor, but it has been pointed out to me
by several learned friends that among primitive peoples there is a higher birth-
rate with monogamy than with polygamy. The Medical Department must, of
course, be largely responsible, by reason of the control of epidemic and endemic
diseases, improved health services, skilled midwifery and surgery and ante-
natal clinics. But all departments must have contributed since every modern
circumstance favours the high natural increase-the compulsory cessation of
tribal and inter-tribal warfare, the prevention or mitigation of famine condi-
tions, the control of insect pests and plant diseases, the beneficial variation in
diet, the gradual improvement in housing, the introduction of law and order and
settled conditions of life, and the abolition of many sinister old customs which
in their day safeguarded tribal morality. In fact, the reasons- are similar to
those pointed out by Judge Mark Wilson as operating in the Kilimanjaro area
of Tanganyika (4).
So much for the population statistics. Now let us look at land use. When
I went to Kigezi to investigate the problem at the end of 1944, I had to devise
some way of obtaining an accurate analysis of land use in the overpopulated
areas. The method adopted is one which is, I think, new to agricultural survey
and was based on the line transect of the plant ecologist which is the basis of
the method of forest survey first used by the Germans. In the study of plant
communities, one takes a line or transect and counts the number of different
species of plants or trees which touch that line and so arrives at an estimate of
the plant population as a whole. In my land-use survey, I took a line which
cut across the main topography-which was north-east in the overpopulated
areas-and made a linear measurement of every foot of land along that line,
recording the slope of the land and the use to which the land was put-
cultivated plots and what they were growing, resting land, grazing, tree
plantations, house compounds and so on. Starting from the Buhara road, the
traverses went in a straight line north-east to the Mbarara road. I did a
number of these, 1I miles apart-this was merely an arbitrary figure as I did
not know what I would find. In all, 33 miles in the overpopulated areas
were measured and 4 miles in areas not so densely populated. There was no
difficulty in completing a 3-mile traverse in one day.
At every mile along the traverse I recorded the name of the owner of the
plot or nearest plot and later visited all his plots wherever they might be and
made a square measure of all plots cultivated and resting. This was not only a
useful check on the traverse method, but also supplied some additional valuable
information: and there was a surprisingly close correlation between land use
obtained by the two methods. Thus taking the total land actually growing
crops as 100, there was never as much as 1 per cent. difference between the
percentage of the various crops obtained by two methods. A word of warning
here is that the method would not be so easy to adopt in an area with thick
bush, long grass and many perennial crops as it was in Kigezi with short grass
and overpopulation.
It is inappropriate here to give the detailed results of my analyses-a

summary can be found in the East African Agricultural Journal (5). A record
of slopes showed that 63 per cent. of the land was on slopes of 0-15",
17 per cent. on 15-20" and 20 per cent. on slopes of over 20". Swamps or
marshy ground occupied 9 per cent. of the total land surface. Fifty-six per cent.
of the total land area, excluding swamps, was under cultivation at the time the
traverses were done. This is a percentage of the total land, cultivable or
The most important result obtained, however, was the extent of resting land
and how long this had been rested. (It was possible to make an accurate
estimate of the length of the resting period by the plants that were growing on
the resting land.) Thus, it was found that in every four plots only one was
resting and the majority had been rested for only short periods. In fact, more
than half the fallow land had been rested for six months or less. Now the whole
crux of the problem as to whether the overpopulated areas could continue to
support even the existing population is the period for which the land can be
cultivated without causing serious soil deterioration, and the period for which
the land must be rested to restore fertility before again being cultivated. I may
say that crops were still giving fair yields despite overcultivation, and soil
erosion was not as yet a serious problem. Nevertheless, cultivators were
emphatic that overcultivation had resulted in a reduction in crop yields,
particularly in years of low rainfall. It seemed to me, therefore, that the
writing was already appearing on the wall-a warning that something had
to be done. As has been pointed out by Jacks and Whyte-" The earlier
stage of erosion is the loss of fertility. Whatever the cause of the loss, the
result is invariably a corresponding loss in soil; the soil is deprived not
only of its production power, but also of its capacity for remaining in
place" (6).
The old method of shifting cultivation was no longer possible and, as
Lord Hailey has said, "shifting cultivation is less a device of barbarism, than
a concession to the character of the soil, which needs long periods for recovery
and regeneration (7). Also Vogt has pointed out that" overpopulation, which
forces violation of sound principles of land use, makes rotational exploitation
impossible" (8).
Obviously, with an increasing population, it would have been unwise to
continue with a system of agriculture in which the resting period was very
brief and sometimes non-existent, with the effects of soil deterioration and
later erosion becoming cumulative. Unfortunately, there was no reliable
information as to the period which land in the Kabale area could be cultivated
without serious deterioration, nor the period for which it would be necessary
to rest it-and we still do not know the complete answer, although experiments
are now in progress to try to find this out.
However, it was decided that if one plot in three could be rested, that is,
each plot would be cultivated for four years and rested for two years, this
would be a great improvement on what was already happening. Furthermore,
it was thought desirable that cultivation should not be done on slopes of over
20. Having accurate information of land use and knowing the population of
the area, it was possible by simple arithmetic to ascertain the number of people

who would have to move out of the congested areas to achieve this result,
namely 20,000 people.
Let me, for a moment, return to the survey of the sample households. The
size of the individual households varied from 2 to 45 persons. One old man
had had 8 wives, of whom 5 were living, and 31 children who were alive at
the time of the survey. The average number of residents per household was
14 and the ratio of taxpayers to total population was 1: 6. The average number
of wives per taxpayer was 1i with a family of 4 children. The number per
married person is higher as all taxpayers were not married.
The average acreage under cultivation was tnder 3 acres per taxpayer
and under half an acre per resident person. Each taxpayer had (about) 1 cow
and 5 sheep and goats.
How does this figure of under half an acre of cultivated arable land
compare with other countries ? In the United Kingdom the figure given by
Vogt (8) is a quarter of an acre of arable land per person and the country is
far from being self-supporting. Even so, the rate of population increase in
England per 1,000 is only 2-2 and at this rate it will take over 300 years to double
the population. In Kigezi it will take 30 years. In Greece the acreage of
arable land per person is threequarters of an acre and the population will double
itself in 60 years. France has one and threequarter acres of arable land per
person and the population is nearly stationary. India's population is approach-
ing 500,000,000 and is increasing at the rate of 14,000 per day. In the whole
world three babies are born every two minutes, and there is every day in the
world a net increase of 50,000 stomachs which have to be fed. So this problem
of overpopulation is not confined to Kigezi.
When it was decided that some resettlement was necessary, a.place had to
be found to which to move the people. With Mr. Mathias (who was the District
Commissioner and whose name will always be remembered in connection with
Kigezi), and accompanied by the senior chiefs, I looked at possible areas for
settlement in northern Kigezi and various parts of Ankole. The first essential
was to find a large area of country with few, if any, inhabitants. It must have
soil of reasonable fertility, be adequately watered, have a sufficient rainfall,
have poles for building, be reasonably accessible, as near as possible to the
overpopulated areas and, if possible, have people living nearby to provide food
for the settlers. The Bakiga, being a hill tribe, prefer mountainous country
and, of course, the new land had to be reasonably healthy, as the Bakiga have
little immunity from malaria. Even of northern Kigezi, the Bakiga complained
that their old men do not live as long as our old men and their women do not
bear as many healthy children as our wives ". As you can see, we had to find
'a promised land', which, if not exactly flowing with milk and honey, had to
have many points to recommend it.
The area eventually chosen was the country above the Lake Edward escarp-
ment and the 4,000 ft. contour in Ruzumbura and Kinkizi counties of north
Kigezi. Dr. James Hunter carried out a health survey of children at Kambuga
near the proposed resettlement area and at Kyanamira in the overpopulated
areas, which showed that the new area was reasonably healthy. The areas
chosen had in the past supported a sparse population, which had been driven

FIG. 1
Overcultivated hill near Kabale (note the general treeless effect, all trees visible being
recent plantings of eucalyptus: also the contour cultivation).

FIG. 2
Settler's family packing to leave.

[face p. 146

FIG. 3
En route for the 'promised land'.

r1,'. K'." /( II .a lL I prp l-I l I', rr F .l.l' hI Jll *fl., I ,i l.,II ( .C n i, t tr cr L1
FIG. 4
The goal (note the contour cultivation).

out by game and tsetse. Thus far had we progressed when I returned to Masaka
in May 1945, only to be recalled to Kigezi seven months later to help to carry
out the scheme.
One of the main difficulties was to persuade a conservative people, who
were very suspicious about their land, and were tied to this land by sentiment,
to seek a new home in a country which was hotter, less fertile, and less
healthy and was, furthermore, renowned for its witchcraft. It should also be
remembered that, for the time being, food supplies were still adequate in the
overpopulated areas. Since it had been laid down that any movement must be
voluntary, it will be realized that persuasion was no easy undertaking.
The District staff had for some time past been concentrating on intensive
propaganda pointing out the evils of overpopulation and overcultivation. In
the first place, since nothing could be achieved without the full co-operation of
the senior chiefs, it was essential to convince them, and this took about eighteen
months. Once these men, who, it will be remembered, have risen to their
present position of authority by ability alone, were satisfied that resettlement
was in the best interest of the district, their full co-operation was a most impor-
tant factor in the successful working of the scheme. In fact, they were among
the first people to take land in the new area. Fortunately, this new land was
within the Kigezi District, otherwise administrative obstacles would have been
added to the difficulties.
Many people, who knew Kigezi well, prophesied nothing but disaster for
the whole scheme. Nevertheless, in April 1946, I escorted the first party of
prospective settlers round the Promised Land. This first party consisted of
100 men who had volunteered to inspect the resettlement area, but without
any obligation as to whether they would subsequently emigrate. They were
accompanied by their chiefs. Lorry transport was provided to the new areas,
an average distance of about 70 miles from Kabale. The party spent a week
walking over the new country where they were housed in temporary grass huts,
well fed, and buffalo meat was shot for them. The country was green after
recent rain and looking at its best.
I shall always remember that first visit. The party arrived in pouring
rain, but a good meal of matoke, beans, potatoes and buffalo meat awaited them.
I must say they proved pretty temperamental and generally suspicious. Would
they or would they not take land and at least give the Promised Land a trial ?
During the first few days very few of them agreed to do so. I remember sitting
down with this party one night and telling them the story of the Pilgrim Fathers,
saying that the early settlers called places in the new land after their old homes,
such as New England and New York. Since that day our resettlement area
has been known as 'Rukiga Ensya'-the new country of the Bakiga, a name
given by the settlers themselves.
This, and subsequent, parties consisted of men who had insufficient land
at their old homes and were a heterogeneous collection including old and
influential men, demobilized soldiers, poor peasants and men of all ages. Most
of the party were married men with families, the off-shoots of large families
who had insufficient land for their numerous offspring. There was even
doubt in the minds of the earlier parties as to whether the Government was

moving them in order to take over the land vacated near Kabale for white
Of my first party of 100 volunteers, 51 took land. Of my second party
-these visits were always known as my Sunday School treats-the whole party
of 125 took up land within four days of leaving their old homes. It was very
exciting to go round and see knots in the grass, slashes on trees and poles marking
the new boundaries of land which had been taken up.
In the early days of resettlement, prospective settlers were permitted to
choose land wherever they liked in the resettlement area and no limitation of
acreage was made, so as not to arouse their suspicions. People who took big
pieces of land have since shared it with others. The African is, I believe, a
good judge of his own soil, much of which is patchy and I did not interfere in
his choice in this matter. Farms were not delimited prior to settlement as I
feel that this would have stopped people taking up land. What was aimed at
was that each settler with 1 wife and 4 children should have about 12 acres of
cultivable land, thus allowing 3 acres for current cultivation, 3 acres of resting
land and 6 acres for subsequent increase in family. This has been fairly well
achieved. Any form of regimentation was avoided.
The aim in resettlement has been to alleviate genuine hardship resulting
from emigration, but that the settler should not be spoon-fed. After all,
everyone appreciates a thing much more if he has to work for it. In the early
days settlers, having taken land, were brought back to their homes by lorry and
then taken back by lorry to cultivate and plant their crops. They were housed
in temporary camps and were fed. Seed was provided when necessary for
planting. Game guards were posted to the area to control game and provide
meat. Hoes were distributed to those who agreed to plant groundnuts or flax
on the understanding that they would pay for the hoes from the proceeds of
these crops. Weekly visits were made by medical orderlies to most areas.
Temporary camps were built on the route between their old homes and the
resettlement area so that when travelling on foot between the two there was
somewhere to spend the nights on the journey. Bakiga miruka chiefs from
the Kabale area were appointed to 'Rukiga Ensya'. Any person who settled
permanently was exempted from poll tax for two years.
The early settlers took some of their chickens with them and I did not
realize the purpose of these chickens at the time. Had I done so I should
probably have been very worried. It is apparently a Bakiga custom that when
a family moves it takes some chickens. If these flourish and increase then the
place is considered satisfactory. Fortunately for us the chickens did flourish
and when the settlers saw that their crops were going to yield well (fortunately
we had good rains) they built their houses, went back to fetch their wives and
families and they, together with their household effects, were taken out by lorry
to the Promised Land.
Since then a very familiar sight on Kigezi roads is lorries laden with men,
women and children of all ages and all the paraphernalia of the average Mukiga
household, baskets and cooking pots, bundles of foodstuffs, grinding stones,
beds, tables, chairs, dogs and fowls. Goats and sheep were taken on the

As soon as it was seen that the resettlement was going to be successful,
roads were constructed, medical dressing posts and schools were built, springs
were enclosed, baboons poisoned, and tree seedlings issued. Weekly hunts
against pig were organized and the larger game was controlled by game guards,
thus also providing a welcome change of diet. Good yields have been obtained
from the first crops. Examples of outstanding produce, such as particularly
big pumpkins or maize cobs, were sent back to the overpopulated areas for
exhibition and to encourage further settlers. New crops have been introduced
such as groundnuts, mosaic-resistant cassava, pigeon peas, cow peas and soya
beans. Coffee seedlings have been issued and the first experimental crop of
air-cured tobacco has given very promising results. The first aim was to make
the settlers self-supporting in regard to food and then to grow additional food
for feeding new settlers. The production of economic crops has now begun
and fair quantities of groundnuts, sunflower, maize and European potatoes have
already been exported from the area.
Three times since the scheme started, we have had to close down further
settlement temporarily as it was found impossible to cope with ever-increasing
numbers of new settlers who had to be fed. The money for the scheme has
come from the Rural Welfare and Development vote and the cost has been
just over 1 per head of people moved. The major item of expenditure has
been lorry transport. As the scheme continued, increasing numbers went out
on foot to take land. By the end of 1946, 1,500 people had moved out
permanently, by the end of 1947 there were 6,000, which had increased to over
10,000 by the end of 1948 and 15,000 by the end of 1949. Most people have
settled down happily and well.
It must not be thought that it has been entirely plain sailing. There have
been the anxious moments. One week the saza clerk was bewitched and there
were cases of cerebrospinal meningitis and anthrax which caused considerable
alarm. Elephants and buffaloes proved very frightening to people who were
only used to mice and rats. A serious outbreak of malaria at the beginning of
this year among settlers who had put their houses too low down the escarpment
near swamps, resulted in several deaths and a number of people returning to
their old homes, had temporarily put a stop to further settlement as people were
afraid to go out. However, due to the recent food shortage in the overpopulated
areas, 5,000 new settlers have moved out during the past four months and once
again we have had to put the brake on further settlement.
Cattle cannot be taken out on account of tsetse, but an experimental clear-
ing of several thousand acres of grazing has now been made and the first cattle
should be able to go out soon. One important aspect of resettlement should
not be lost sight of and that is that the people who lived behind the present
resettlement area can now live unmolested by game which has been pushed
back and that the spread of tsetse fly in the area has been arrested. In addition
to organized resettlement, many hundreds of people have also moved into
Ankole and other areas.
The present resettlement area is now almost full and presents a picture of
a settled community in an area which three years ago was merely the home of
big game. It looks little different now from other settled areas of Kigezi and

sometimes it is difficult to realize the change that has taken place. The increase
in population continues in the Kabale area, and already in some areas the
natural increase in population during the past three years has more than
counterbalanced the numbers who have gone out to the resettlement area.
Unfortunately, the Kigezi District Council, and even the more educated
Bakiga, do not realize the great danger to their district of their ever-increasing
population, which will result in deterioration of crop yields and soil fertility.
They have persistently turned down organized settlement in eastern Igara of
Ankole District, where the Ankole Native Government has offered a tract of
suitable land adjacent to the present resettlement area in Kigezi. It is to be
hoped that the Council will change their mind before it is too late and before
irreparable damage has been done.
I realize all too well that this present resettlement can only be a palliative
and that it may only be putting off the evil day. It has, however, given us a
chance to put our house in order in some small measure in the breathing period
It is, however, no use moving people out unless something is done to
improve land utilization in the land from which they are moved. Thus a
considerable effort has been made in soil conservation methods throughout the
district. Courses for chiefs, agricultural staff and teachers have been held on
our experimental farm, each lasting a week to ten days, when the theoretical
and practical aspects of soil conservation were taught. I consider that these
courses are largely responsible for the progress which has.been made. Almost
the whole of the cultivation in Kigezi has now been organized on strip cropping
lines. The maximum width of the strips, which are continuous along the hills,
is 16 yds., reduced to 12 yds. on steep slopes. Bunds, 3-4 ft. wide, of grass or
rubbish protect the strips from erosion. In the overpopulated areas it is the
aim to rest one strip in three and in some places this has now been achieved.
When this is completed it will be possible to see at a glance whether further
overpopulation is reducing the amount of resting land or strips. In less densely
populated areas alternate strips are cultivated and rested. In some cases the
strips continue for several miles and have quite altered the appearance of
Kigezi's countryside. The resting strips are grazed and the next step is to sow
them down with temporary leys, both grasses and clovers.
Once a permanent bund has been made, terracing will automatically follow
by the mere fact that the soil is pulled down the hill during cultivation and by
any soil wash. Already in many places the difference in height between
adjacent strips is several feet.
Cattle paths have been closed and others have been protected against
erosion; some have been fenced or live hedges planted. House compounds
have been planted with grass. Permanent crops such as bananas and coffee
have been adequately mulched. Contour lines of black wattle have been
planted on permanent pasture. Manure is being used and the majority of
cultivators in Kigezi now make compost. In fact, the Africans of Kigezi now
have a new word for all this, 'Plani', or 'Plani Ensya' now covers all aspects
of improved agriculture and the Resettlement Scheme, all of which are now
included in a comprehensive plan for the district as a whole.

Meanwhile, on the Experimental Farm at Kachwekano, experiments are
being carried out in an endeavour to increase production per acre by the
introduction and improvement of food and economic crops, by manuring, by
introduced temporary leys (incidentally, two grasses, Bromus marginatus and
Chloris gayana, as well as wild white-clover, are giving very good results) and
by improving the local livestock. In my view the best future for agriculture in
Kigezi lies in successful mixed farming.
In conclusion I would remark that this whole question of overpopulation
is not just a problem for Kigezi, nor even for Uganda, but is probably the most
pressing problem in the world to-day and is at the root of most of the troubles
and difficulties to be found in almost all countries to-day. Sir Douglas Harris
has pointed out that the population of Uganda is likely to double itself in
thirty-five years, by which time the whole area of the Protectorate will not be
enough to support any further people on a peasant system of agriculture.
It is often claimed that a rising standard of living in Uganda generally will
eventually limit population increases. I believe that in the early stages it will
have the reverse effect. In any case it will take many years before it has any
effect in Kigezi. It also presupposes additional land for the production of
economic crops and this is just not available in Kigezi. Large-scale indus-
trialization and urbanization is a possibility, but this, too, will take a long time
and one wonders if the local inhabitants are suited to this type of life.
The Bakiga are an industrious people whose expansion deserves to be
encouraged, both in their own interests and those of the general development
of the Protectorate. Nevertheless it is certain that the provision of more and
more land for a rapidly increasing native population cannot go on indefinitely
. other large-scale measures must be sought and found" (4). Therein, I
think, lies the challenge of the time and the country in which we live.
Lord Boyd-Orr, Vogt (8), Fairfield Osborn (9) and others have painted a
dismal picture of the human race rushing down the hill, like the Gadarene swine,
to destruction in an overpopulated world with diminishing food reserves, to
death and extinction by famine or the atomic bomb. Perhaps I am an optimist,
but I believe that something can still be done. As was pointed out by Sir
John Russell in his recent presidential address to the British Association:
" Most countries could increase their food production considerably by applying
known methods of improvement and raising the average performance to the
level of the best. The present limitations to food production-utilization
of 7-10 per cent. only of the earth's surface; conversion by the animal of
10-20 per cent. only of its food into human food; the fixation by the plant of
no more than 5 per cent. of the radiant energy it receives-these are all challenges
to agricultural science, which its, workers are vigorously taking up" (10).
Thus I believe that men of science and goodwill can still do much to avert
final disaster.

(1) Thomas, H. B., and R. Scott. Uganda (1935).
(2) Wright, A. C. A. Survey of Kitozho Mutala, unpublished (1940).

(3) Jack, E. M. On the Congo Frontier (1914).
(4) Wilson, Judge Mark. Report on the ArushacMoshi Lands Commission,
Govt. Printer, Dar es Salaam (1947).
(5) Purseglove, J. W. 'Land Use in the Overpopulated Areas of Kabale,
Kigezi District, Uganda', E. Afr. Agric. Journ. XII (1946), I.
(6) Jacks, G. V., and R. O. Whyte. The Rape of the Earth (1939).
(7) Hailey, Lord. An African Survey (1938).
(8) Vogt, W. Road to Survival (1949).
(9) Osborn, Fairfield. Our Plundered Planet (1948).
(10) Russell, Sir John. Presidential Address to the British Association, reported
in Nature, 164 (1949), p. 379.

By A. H. Cox, C.M.G.
There have been four stages in the development of Buganda:
The Pre-Kintu Age
Before Kintu, a small part of modern Buganda was inhabited by several
tribes of pure Bantu type. Five of the clans claim to date from this period.
The real home of the earliest inhabitants seems to have been the Busiro-
Mawokota area which no doubt included Kyadondo. There were people also
living in Kyagwe. Chiefs existed and some of their names are known.
The Kintu Period
About the beginning of the fourteenth century (the date is purely a con-
jecture) an incursion of Hamites occurred who, like the Angoni, no doubt had
their numbers added to by groups of non-Hamites who joined them on their
journey. They are believed to have come from the north-east. They were
probably nomads and wandered in search of pasture with a growing tendency
to settle and merge with the local population and adopt their language and ways.
According to Bishop Gorju, fourteen of the clans claim that they came with
Kintu. Kintu had as his first Katikiro a member of one of the clans which
accompanied him; as his second a member of one of the aboriginal or 'native'
clans. Three holders of what are now Saza titles are recorded of this period:
Mugema (Busiro), Kago (Kyadondo) and Kaima (Mawokota). The last named
was what was then a 'foreigner'. As his name denotes he was a herdsman to
the Kabaka and both he and Kago at this period may have been' palace officials'
rather than administrators. Busuju would have been settled or added to
Buganda during this period. The Hamite rulers or overlords disappeared and
a ruler of the Lugave, one of the aboriginal clans, seems to have become the
most powerful man in the country.
The Present Dynasty till the end of Mutesas Reign
The present dynasty was founded by Kimera. The usual story of a love
affair between a Muganda prince and a Munyoro princess is told to link him
with the previous rulers of the country. He came from Bunyoro with the
assistance of individuals in Buganda, and Sebwana, the native ruler referred to
above, fled to the Sese Islands before him. Kimera and his following may
have been Bantu or Hamites or Nilotics or a mixture of any combination of
these three races. They were probably a mixture and it is, I believe, modern
thought to stress Nilotic origin. Certainly certain Kabakas have had Nilotic
sounding names. According to Bishop Gorju seven of the clans claim that
they accompanied Kimera.
In Kimera's reign five 'Saza' chiefs are recorded: Mugema (Busiro),
Kago (Kyadondo), Mukwenda (Singo), Kasuju (Busuju) and Kangawo
(Bulemezi). This would appear to indicate that Buganda was enlarged by the

addition of southern Singo and southern Bulemezi. Kaima of Mawokota is
not mentioned. In fact, the chieftainship is only recorded as existing in two of
the twenty-four Kabakas from Kimera (3) to Semakokiro (27),' though most of
Mawokota as it now is belonged to Buganda over the whole period. From
Kimera till Katerega (14) Buganda, I think, consisted of Busiro, Mawokota,
Busuju and possibly part of Butambala which may have been included in
Mawokota, southern Singo, southern Bulemezi and Kyadondo, which last no
doubt included part of what is now western Kyagwe. This period covers some-
thing like 300 years. The Sese Islands at some period seem to have recognized
the overlordship of the Kabaka possibly after or during Nakibinge's (8) reign.
The islanders certainly came to Buganda's help when it was in grave danger
of destruction by Bunyoro in his reign. They continued till modern times to
control their own internal affairs but probably for long regarded themselves as
Baganda.2 Eastern Kyagwe, which was densely forested and sparsely inhabited,
in part by aboriginal people traces of whom still exist, was doubtless a sort of
In Katerega's (14) reign territorial additions are recorded. He added
Butambala as a separate Saza either by conquest, expansion, or division of
territory, and one of his generals conquered most of Gomba which was then
part of Bunyoro.
Juko (16) established a Saza in Kyagwe by the appointment of the first
Sekibobo. The evidence of this is the fact that no previous appointment is
recorded. The earlier position of Kyagwe is obscure. The Baganda used to
pass through it to raid Busoga and it was possibly regarded in some loose manner
as connected with that country.3 Doubtless it was unattractive on account of
mbwa fly and the title Sekibobo (Lord of the Fly Switch) is significant. Juko
was in constant conflict with his uterine brother Kayemba (17) who eventually
succeeded him and was probably always in competition for the throne. The
latter was banished (or fled) to Buvuma where he appears to have had some
military success and established himself. Juko may have appointed the
Sekibobo to guard himself from attack in that quarter. The appointment is
only mentioned twice in the next ten reigns. It is of interest to note that
Kyabagu (25) settled at Jinja in Busoga for some time after raiding there. He
wished to unite the two countries and as a symbol sent for earth from Buganda
to pour on the soil of Busoga. Earth was collected, not from just across the
Nile, but it was deemed necessary to go right back to the then capital at Nsambwe
to obtain it. Public opinion rebelled against the removal of Buganda soil,
and the earth, which was being carried off, was deposited at Mukono, i.e., still
within the confines of Buganda but only sixteen miles from Kampala. This
occurred as late as the middle of the eighteenth century. According to Bishop
Gorju, Kyabagu added Singo to Buganda by conquest. I do not know on

1 Numbers thus (27) indicate a Kabaka's position among the thirty Kabakas, from
Kintu (1) to Mutesa (30), as listed by Gorju.
2 A Muganda chief, the Gabunga, one of the heads of the Mamba clan, acted as
3 Kyagwe may have originally formed part of the territories of Namuyonjo, the
Munyara potentate of Bugerere. The Njaza (who were a Kyagwe tribe) say they were
in the far past with him ".

what he bases this statement as four Mukwendas are recorded before Kyabagu.
Junju (26) added Buddu to Buganda in the latter half of the eighteenth
century and Kamanya's (28) generals conquered from Bunyoro or Bunyoro's
tributaries the extreme west of Gomba, Buwekula, northern Bulemezi and
southern Bugerere (which last was administered from Kyagwe). Buwekula,
conquered by Kiwalabye, became at first a part of Singo (Sabawali). It was
advanced to Saza status later.
From Mutesa onwards
A period of expansion took place in the 1890's largely with British
assistance. Buvuma was conquered and Kabula and Mawogola were annexed,
these last hitherto pertaining to Ankole rather than to Buganda. Buyaga,
Bugangadzi and northern Singo and Buruli were taken from Bunyoro, while
northern Bugerere, a semi-independent area under the suzerainty of Bunyoro,
also was added to the kingdom. In 1896 Koki, a small independent kingdom
whose rulers hailed originally from Bunyoro, joined Buganda by agreement.
These, with those mentioned before, complete the twenty Sazas whose
existence as comprising Buganda was ratified in the Uganda Agreement of 1900.

Before the fourteenth century:
In the fourteenth century:
End of fourteenth century:
Early seventeenth century:
Mid seventeenth century:
Late eighteenth century:
Early nineteenth century:

Twentieth century:

Busiro, Mawokota, Kyadondo, part of Kyagwe.
Busuju added.
Southern Singo and southern Bulemezi added.
Gomba and Butambala added.
Kyagwe becomes a Saza.
Buddu added.
Singo and Bulemezi enlarged and southern
Bugerere added.
Kabula, Mawogola, Buyaga, Bugangadzi,
Buruli, Buvuma and Koki added.
Singo further enlarged.
Buwekula becomes a Saza.
Northern Bugerere added and Bugerere becomes
a Saza.
Sese becomes an ordinary Saza.

Were Saza Chieftainships formerly hereditary ?
Attached to this is a table indicating the clan of the holder of the Saza
titles wherever the chieftainship is mentioned in Buganda history from Kintu
down to and including Mutesa. It will at once be noticed that in a number of
cases the titles were long and continuously held by members of the same clan.
MUGEMA-Chief of Busiro
The post of Mugema was held by the head mutaka of the Nkima clan
from the days of Kintu until twenty years ago. When the Mugema ceased to
be a Saza chief the title was changed to Sebwana. This is a clear and undis-
puted case of the hereditary nature of a chieftainship which descended in the
patrilineal line in accordance with Buganda customary succession for 500 years.

The Nkima clan claim that they came with Kintu and they have always been
closely associated with the royal house. According to Bishop Gorju the title
Mugema comes from the Lunyoro kugema taba, to fill a pipe. This might
indicate that the original Mugema was a palace official.
KAIMA-Chief of Mawokota
Before Semakokiro (27) the existence of this post is mentioned only in
Chwa (2), Kimbugwe (13) and Juko (16). There is insufficient evidence from
which to draw any conclusion about the hereditary nature or otherwise of this
post. All that can be said is that originally the post can be presumed to have
been that of the royal cattle master. The first and third holders were of the
Nsenene clan which was originally a pastoral clan and the second holder was a
Mulangira (prince) who may have been Nsenene through his mother.
KAGO--Chief of Kyadondo
This post may originally and for long have been more of the nature of a
palace official than that of an administrator. The Kago was Sabadu (master
of the slaves) to the Kabaka and his employment ceased with the death of his
master. From Kimera (3) to Juko (16) a Kago is recorded in eleven reigns.
In eight of these the Kago was Sebatta (the executioner). Sebatta is one of the
siga heads of the Ngeye clan (a junior one), with butaka land at Mutundwe in
Kyadondo. As this is the only Ngeye estate in Kyadondo the indications are
that the holder of the post was not a local man but was brought from elsewhere
and established his own estate. The Ngeye clan claim that nearly every Kago
from Kimera (3) to Juko (16) was of this clan and it claimed the post till
Mawanda (21). The post may be said to have been hereditary till Juko in one
family and possibly hereditary in two other families till Semakokiro when it
ceased to be so.
MUKWENDA--Chief of Singo
From Kimera (3) till Kyabagu (25) the post is only mentioned four times
and there is no evidence to. show that it was hereditary.
KASJU--Chief of Busuju
From Kimera (3) till Mutebi (15) this chieftainship was clearly hereditary
in the siga of Balitema Kajubi of the Nsenene clan at Bujubi in Busuju. The
then Kasuju whose name was Nkune was regarded as having rebelled together
with his neighbour Mukwenda. An army was sent against Nkune and he
was defeated and killed by Kalali of the Lugave clan. Kalali was given the
chieftainship and it descended in his family until the reign of Sir Daudi Chwa.
He founded a siga of the Lugave clan with butaka at Mwera, which is still the
Kasuju's headquarters. The Lugave clan had no other estates in Busuju.
This is a clear case of a chieftainship being hereditary and descending in two
Families over a period of possibly 500 years.
KANGAWO-Chief of Bulemezi
The Mamba clan held this post in the Nabugwamu siga of the Mamba
clan from Kimera (3) till Mawanda (21). Mawanda for a time had his capital

in Bulemezi and while there he deposed Nabugwamu and gave the chieftainship
to a man of another clan. Thereafter it ceased to be hereditary. Nabugwamu
is mentioned before Kimera became Kabaka. He was one of those who
engineered Kimera's seizure of power and may have been rewarded with this
chieftainship. His clan were predominantly a Busiro clan and the fact that
only three out of about ninety of the clan's estates are said to have been in
Bulemezi would point to his having been brought from elsewhere to administer
Bulemezi. This post must have been hereditary for over 400 years and in
one family.
KITUNZI--Chief of Gomba
This appointment also dates from Katerega (14). I think it can be
accepted that Balamaga took this county from Bunyoro for Katerega.
Balamaga was given the chieftainship and founded a siga, calling his butaka
Buwanguzi (victory), a name which points to military success. The post was
hereditary in his family until Semakokiro (27) who displaced it. It regained
the title for a short time under Kamanya, the next Kabaka, but then lost it for
good and the chieftainship ceased to be hereditary. Hereditary for possibly
150 years.
KATAMBALA-Chief of Butambala
History records that Katerega (14) founded this chieftainship. The date
would have been somewhere about the early seventeenth century. It will have
been the result either of conquest from Bunyoro, the establishment of a' colony'
or the appointment of a chief over a settlement which had become large enough
to warrant it. It was founded at the same time as Gomba which it adjoins
and which I have no doubt was taken from Bunyoro by military action.
Katerega gave the chieftainship to Mpungu of the Ndiga which was a Mawokota
clan. Mpungu Katambala founded a siga and the post descended in his family
without a break till the reign of Sir Daudi Chwa. The post was hereditary for
about 300 years.
SEKIBOBO-Chief of Kyagwe
This appointment is not recorded until Juko (16). Until Semakokiro (27)
it is only mentioned in three reigns and there is no evidence to indicate that it
was hereditary.
PoKINo--Chief of Buddu
The appointment dates from Junju (26) in the late eighteenth century and
was never hereditary except that the first Pokino may have been succeeded by
a son or relative.

LUWEKULA-Chief of Buwekula
This county was conquered for Kamanya in the early nineteenth century
by Kwalabye who became the first Luwekula. The area was for many years
attached to Singo with what is now called gombolola status only and need not
be considered here.

To recapitulate:
Saza posts which have existed since Kimera (3) (end of fourteenth century):
Mugema Hereditary in one family for thirty reigns.
Kaima Doubtful.
Kago Mainly hereditary in one family for fifteen reigns.
Mukwenda Doubtful.
Kasuju Hereditary in two successive families for thirty reigns.
Kangawo Hereditary in one family for twenty-one reigns.
Saza posts which have existed since Katerega (14) (early seventeenth
Kitunzi Hereditary in one family for thirteen reigns.
Katambala Hereditary in one family for eighteen reigns.
Saza posts which have existed since Juko (16) (mid seventeenth century):
Sekibobo Doubtful.
Saza posts which have existed since Junju (26) (late eighteenth century):
Pokino Not hereditary.
It would seem that until some time in the eighteenth century most of the
Saza posts, if not all, were hereditary, though in some cases the titles may have
been transferred from one family to another. Some time in the eighteenth
century a change began to manifest itself and gradually, with three exceptions,
all traces of family succession disappeared. The three exceptions were the
Mugema, the Kasuju and the Katambala who maintained their positions till
recent years. The reason for the change was doubtless the expansion of
Buganda and the growing power of the Kabaka to the extinction of the powerful
Finally I would like to put and answer the following question:
Were Saza chiefs appointed in earlier times as Bataka or clan heads to rule
over their fellow tribesmen or clansmen or were they appointed as administrators
under the Kabaka to administer all people in their area ?
Clearly I think the latter is the right answer. Of the six definitely hereditary
chiefs only one Mugema was the head mutaka of his clan.
The following shows the number of butaka estates owned by their own
clans in the sazas in which the hereditary chiefs ruled.
Butaka Estates Total owned
Title Clan of Holder in Saza by Clan
Mugema Nkima 4 21
Kago Ngeye 1 54
Kasuju Nsenene 3 21
Lugave 1 36
Kangawo Mamba 3 90
Kitunzi Ntalaganya 7 12
Katambala Ndiga 10 35
The earliest case of a transfer of which I have found a record was in the
reign of Juko (mid seventeenth century) when Bwogi was transferred from the
post of Sekibobo to that of Kaima.



E cKit k
Kabaka a I .| 0


2. Chwa Nk.
3. Kimera .. Nk
4. Tembo .. Nk
5. Kigala Nk
6. Kiimba .. Nk
7. Kaima
8. Nakibinge INk
9. Mulondo INk
10. Jemba .. Nk
11. Suna I Nk
12. Kamanya Nk
13. Kimbugwe Nk
14. Katerega.. Nk
15. Mutebi .. Nk

16. Juko .. Nk
17. Kayemba Nk
18. Tebandeke Nk
19. Ndawula .. Nk
20. Kagulu Nk
21. Mawanda Nk

22. Kikulwe .. Nk
23. Mwanga I Nk
24. Namugala Nk
25. Kyabagu.. Nk

26. Junju .. Nk
27. Semakokiro Nk

28. Kamanya Nk (2)

29. SunaII .. Nk(5)

30. Mutesa .. Nk(5)
Nk (2)





Ng Mb

Bu (2) Ko

Lu Mb
Mus Nk (2)
Lu (2) Ng
Fu Lu
Ma Mb(4)
Ns Ng
Ng(2) Ns
Mp Bu






Lu (3)

Lu (8)













Nj (2)


Nd Ns
Nd Mus

Nd Ny


Nd (3) Ny
Nd Nk

Nd Mb(2)

Nd (2)

Nd (2)





Bu=Butiko (Mushroom). Fu=Fumbe (Civet Cat). Ko=Kobe (Yam). Lu=Lugave
(Pangolin). Ma=Mamba (Lung-fish). Mb=Mbogo (Buffalo). Mul=' Prince'.
Mus=Musu (Cane-rat.) Nd=Ndiga (Sheep). Ng=Ngeye (Colobus). Nj=Njovu
(Elephant). Nk=Nkima (Monkey). Ns=Nsenene (Grasshopper). Nt=Nte (Cow).
Nta=Ntalaganya (Blue Duiker). Nv=Nvuma (Small Seed). Ny=Nyonyi (Bird).




THE people of Usuku claim to be the original Iteso, and perhaps because of
the insulating effect of the Kamalinga massif and forest to the north-east,
the River Akokoroi to the west and Bisina (Lake Salisbury) to the south, they
have retained certain peculiarities and characteristics separate from other Iteso.
These notes were compiled in Usuku, where three at least of the instruments
described are claimed to be indigenous and not found outside Usuku. Apart
from this, the Iteso say that they can recognize a man from Usuku by his
speech; and in Usuku the Etesot's interest and indulgence in music are more
marked than elsewhere in Teso.
The 'Asukusuk', or 'Atoros' as it is sometimes called in Toroma, is an
end-blown trumpet, made out of a length of euphorbia (Ateso epopong) about
4 ft. long. This length is hollowed out in the form of a pipe, the diameter
of which is about three inches. To the end of the pipe is fitted a calabash with
a hole in the bottom of the same size as the pipe. The calabash is carefully
welded to the pipe by means of the juice of the Ebule tree, and is polished with
butter which gives it a most professional dark-brown look.
The calabashes are of different shapes and sizes, and the players assured us
that the epopong is not cut to any specified length, but it was interesting to
note that when three players blew together, they all sounded in unison, although
one was slightly flatter than the other two.
The 'Asukusuk' sounds five different notes: the lowest is meant to imitate
the growl of a lion. It sounds just beyond the compass of a normal Bass voice,
probably about low C. The most commonly played notes, however, are about
E flat, the octave above that, and a third again above that. This last is usually
preceded by an appogiatura a second below it. The usual method of playing
these notes is thus:

In -- j t .

It can give a very satisfactory effect heard from a distance: amongst the
fiddles and drums, it sounds extremely like the basses of an orchestra tuning up.
The 'Asukusuk' is usually employed at dances, when the octave is blown
to keep the dancers in time. It is admirably suited to this, as Teso dancing
often consists of jumping up and down. Occasionally the 'Asukusuk' is used
to call people to a gathering. It is never used for hunting.
I believe it is very like an end-blown trumpet made in Labwor (Karamoja),
but the Iteso claim that the 'Asukusuk' came first. There are only about ten
examples of the 'Asukusuk' in existence.

Photo. by J. C. D. Lawrence

FIG. 5
Asukusuk '-front view. Usuku. 1949.

FIG. 6
'Asukusuk '-side view. Usuku, 1949.

[face 16o

, ** b ." ,p ... o

S, .,. ., .
ra^ ->

p irh .' 1., I D I "i, C, ,'.
FIG. 7
'Aluut'. Usuku, 1949.

yj J. C. D. Lawrence

FIG. 8
'Aluut'-close view. Usuku, 1949.

The 'Arupepe', a side-blown trumpet, looks at first as though it were a
horn; it is very like the Madi horn, but in point of fact, it is made of two pieces
of edodoi, a tree with sausage-like pods. These pieces are chosen, hollowed
out and fitted together, so that the whole is shaped like, and is about the same
size as, a Bach 'D' trumpet or a herald's trumpet. The wood is covered in
two parts by skins, the long part with duiker, and the 'bell' part with goatskin.
They are fastened with beads. The mouthpiece is an egg-shaped hole about
six inches from the end of the pipe. The whole instrument is about 3 ft. 6 in.
The player blows vigorously into the mouthpiece, holding the instrument
horizontally to his left side. The note is single-toned, but is played in a
pressing rhythm:

or similarly.
The 'Arupepe' is played for gatherings, or when rain is wanted-either by
itself or in company with the elelekejai or rain-making ceremony, and dance.
It used to (and no doubt often still does) give warning of the approach of
Karamojong raiders.
The' Aluut' is a small cow's horn played to summon people to a gathering.
It is dual toned, the natural note of the horn being added to by means of a hole
at the end of the narrow end of the horn. The player holds the 'Aluut' in his
right hand and covers and uncovers the hole at the narrow end of the horn by
manipulating his thumb. The natural note is produced by blowing into, and
not across, a flute-type mouthpiece. It is extremely difficult for an unprac-
tised player to produce the note.
The Adigidi' is a patent copy of the Ganda edingidi' or fiddle. It is,
however, interesting to note that its tone is lower and it corresponds to the
edingidi' much as the viola to the violin. This is because a largish calabash
is used to form the bowl, instead of a hollowed, smaller, piece of wood. Teso
modifications include the use of half a groundnut as bridge, and the resin of
the echomai tree as bow resin, stuck in a large lump like chewing-gum on the
bowl of the fiddle.
The 'Adeudeu' has six strings and is therefore probably unconnected
with the 'enanga' of Buganda; Iteso claim that it is original and I believe it is
Nilo-Hamitic and not Bantu in origin.
In the first place, it is played, unlike the 'enanga', by holding it in both
hands opposite the face and about a foot away from it. The hands hold the
bowl of the instrument, and the strings are plucked by the thumbs-the larger
three by the right thumb, and the shorter three by the left. The strings seemed
to be tuned most accurately to the European ear, to a doh-me-fah-soh-lah-doh
pattern in the key D.
This lyre is never played unaccompanied by the voice of the player. The
strings are plucked seemingly haphazardly, but it requires considerable skill to

pluck them in the right order for each song (e.g., 1-2-3 for one song must be
accompanied by 4-5-6: for another 2-2-3 must be joined by 5-4-6, followed
by 5-6, 5-6, a favourite combination).
The voice sings in concert with the 'adeudeu' songs of love and war or
topical subjects, usually in 5/4 rhythm. The normal pitch is a Baritone, but a
sort of Tenor begins a new phrase and from time to time a Bass growl is inter-
posed an octave lower than the main tune of the song, giving a most amusing
effect like that in the slave's love-song in 'II Seraglio'.
The playing (and making) of the 'adeudeu' is handed down from father
to son. The bowl is made from the ang'osorot tree, the bow from the alogoik.
The bowl is covered with goatskin in two or three parts and is sewn very
neatly. The hole in the bowl is often made in a piece of tin introduced into the
skin. The whole instrument gives evidence of careful workmanship.
These five instruments, with a wealth of musical history and craft behind
them, and found in the small area of Usuku, show once again that it is
foolish to under-estimate the beauty, the scope, and the musical value of
African music.

Family: FELIDAE. Cats.
Subfamily: FELINAE.
FELIS LYBICA UGANDAE-Schwann. Wild Cat, Kaffir Cat.
Teso: Atawo, atawoi. Karamojong: Elure, ngilurei; Esakanjui,
ngisakanjui. In Dodoth: Elukutui (no plural recorded).
DISTRIBUTION: The Wild Cat is very common in Teso and I have inspected
skins from many places. In Karamoja it is well known in Labwor and I have
seen it near Moroto, and at Kichere in central Jie; I have a pelt from the
Manimani river. Generally speaking, it is likely to occur in Karamoja only
where cover is plentiful, for instance near mountain streams and sand-rivers.
DESCRIPTION: In size and appearance the Wild Cat closely resembles a
large domesticated cat: it is very variable in colour and markings. Measure-
ments: head and body, 22 in.-24 in.; tail, 5 in.-6 in.; weight, about-8 lb. The
ground colour is a grizzle of grey and pale ochreous, the hairs being white-
tipped. Along the back there is a series of very narrow black lines while on
the flanks faint dark brownish spots in series tend to form vertical stripes about
an inch apart. The under parts are pale sandy with darker blotches. The
grey feet are unspotted. The black-tipped tail is ringed but the rings are not
normally joined above as is usually the case in the domesticated cat; it is
Never so bushy as in many household breeds. On the front and sides of the
face black lines are usually well developed and there is a slight neck ruff. I
have examined two or three rich ginger specimens from the central plain of
Karamoja; the markings, which were similar in colour but darker, were only
faintly discernible.
BIOLOGY: The Wild Cat is solitary in habit and frequents localities where
there is an abundance of cover-bush, long grass or piled-up rocks; it may be
found a considerable distance from water. "Its presence is often thrust upon
us as it crosses freely with its tame relative (Annual Report, Game Department,
1925). By day it usually lies up in some suitable den, a hollow tree or among
rocks, but I have twice seen it on the prowl at midday. Its food includes
mammals up to the size of the young of small buck, birds up to the size of a
guinea-fowl, reptiles and large insects ; it is stated sometimes to attack kids
and lambs and is often a destructive pest of poultry.
The Wild 'Cat is extremely fierce and almost impossible to tame even when
captured as a kitten. Shortridge notes that it is particularly savage when
caught in a trap; it is liable to charge if approached incautiously and can give
an extremely good account of itself when cornered by a dog. Whether it
1 Corrigendum: Vol. 12 (1948), p. 204, "CARNIVORA. Man-eaters" should read
"Meat-eaters ".


FIG. 11

FIG. 12
Spotted Hyaena.

FIG. 9
Serval Cat.

FIG. 10

indulges in the caterwauling so characteristic of the domestic animal I am
unable to say but it is likely to utter some harsh and unpleasant cry even if
only occasionally.
The normal number of young in a litter is two or three, less commonly
four or five. They are usually born in a rock crevice or in the hole of a large
burrowing animal. The gestation period of the domesticated cat is 56 days.

FELIS SERVAL KEMPI Wroughton. Serval Cat.
Teso: Ekwaro, ikwaroi. Karamojong: Ekwaro, ngikwaroi.
DISTRIBUTION: Common in Teso; in Karamoja it frequents similar
localities to the wild cat.
DESCRIPTION: The Serval Cat resembles a slim, long-legged, large-eared
domesticated cat with close-set eyes. It stands about 15 in.-18 in. at the
shoulder. The head and body measure 40 in.; the tail, 15 in. The ground
colour is yellowish buff; the belly is white. The body is spotted with solid
black spots, I in.-l in. in diameter, which on the neck and between the
shoulders are elongated into stripes. Completely black specimens are not
uncommon; one was obtained some years ago at Kakamari. The ears, each
with a black horizontal stripe at the back, are very large and almost rounded;
the tail is thick and ringed; the limbs are blotched and spotted.
BIOLOGY: The Serval Cat inhabits the thick bush and undergrowth so
typical of much of Teso. It is not unknown in Karamoja but confines itself
to thickets along water courses. It is unlikely to occur in the arid Acacia
scrub country.
The Serval is said to be almost entirely nocturnal, prowling far and wide
at night in search of its food which consists of small antelopes, hares, rats,
birds (including poultry), reptiles and possibly the young of sheep and goats.
Its build suggests great activity and it is known to be an expert climber; the
Rev. R. Clark shot one in a tree near Lotome in May 1949. Roosevelt describes
the curious behaviour of two Serval Cats: "One of them was playing about,
now near the other, now leaving it; and nearby was a bustard which it several
times pretended to stalk, crawling towards it a few yards, and then standing up
and walking away. The bustard paid no heed to it; and, more singular still,
two white-necked ravens lit close to it, within a few yards on either side; the
Serval sitting erect between them, seemingly quite unconcerned for a couple of
minutes, and then strolling off without making any effort to molest them."
Stevenson Hamilton describes the cry of the Serval as a shrill 'meoa-meoa'
repeated seven or eight times in succession. It will also purr loudly like a cat.
The young are born in a burrow. Stevenson Hamilton records having
found three in a litter.
MISCELLANEOUS: The Serval kitten is easily tamed and reared, and makes
an intelligent and affectionate pet. Flower states that one lived in the London
Zoo for a little over eight years.
The Serval's droppings are characteristically shaggy-pointed at one end
and are greenish grey in colour.


FIG. 13
Striped Hyaena.

FIG. 14
Civet Cat.

FIG. 16
Bushy-tailed Genet.

FIG. 15
Common Genet.

Teso: Engatuny, ingatunyo. Karamojong: Engatuny, ngingatunyo.
DISTRIBUTION: Lions are not uncommon in Karamoja, particularly in the
north and west. In the rains, when game is more widely scattered, they may
be found almost anywhere except on the higher mountains, including such
unlikely places as Moroto township, the environs of the Loyoro dukas and in
the vicinity of Kacheliba. The foothills of Napak are said to be good lion
country at any season-indeed, while camped on the banks of the Michogo
stream I was disturbed by one drinking close to my bed-while in the Kidepo-
Larus river system, the home of both zebra and eland, Lions are sure to be
encountered sooner or later. Lions are not unknown in northern Teso but are
becoming rarer with the spread of population.
DESCRIPTION: The Lion requires no description; it is probably one of
the most photographed animals in the world and its bored appearance, which
characterizes so many of these pictures, suggests that it is well aware of the
fact. Measurements at shoulder: Lion, 40 in. (very large animals may reach
44 in.); lioness, about 35 in. Length (from tip of nose to end of tail): about
110 in. Weight: male, between 450 and 500 lb.; female, between 250 and
300 lb. A large full-maned Lion killed by Lt.-Col. C. H. Stockley measured:
height at shoulder, 39 in., length (nose to root of tail), 84 in.; tail, 32 in.;
girth of chest, 48 in.; girth of forearm, 16 in.
The usual colour of the Karamoja Lion is a pale tawny brown, darker on
the dorsal area, lighter below. In the males which I have examined the mane
is poorly developed and only a shade darker than the body. I have never seen
anything approaching the fine black mane beloved by depicters of African
wild life. The tuft at the end of the tail is black and in some specimens may
hide a small horny appendage which is merely a continuation of the skin at
the tip of the tail. This spur or prickle was believed by old-time natural
historians to be used by its owner for stirring up of himself against perils. ...
In his anger he beateth the earth with his tail, afterwards his own sides and
lastly leapeth upon his prey or adversary."
Young Lions show marked spotting on the under parts and limbs and
traces of this pattern may be retained into adult life. The markings may
sometimes take the form of dark transverse bands and a longitudinal stripe
down the middle of the back.
BIOLOGY: The Lion favours a habitat where the bush is not too thick,
and much of Karamoja is ideally suited to it. Its presence in any particular
area is governed by the food supply, and the plains in the west, which harbour
the zebra and larger antelopes, are more attractive to it than the thorn scrub
of the east.
The Lion is largely, but by no means entirely, nocturnal and in Karamoja
it has often been seen at midday. During the day it lies up in some suitable
grass thicket or in the shade of an overhanging rock; it is an adept at taking
cover and if disturbed invariably makes off. Solitary males are not uncommon,
although solitary females are rare. Common groupings are: a small party of


FIG. 17
Grey Mongoose.

FIG. 19
Hunting Dog.

FIG. 18
White-tailed Mongoose.

FIG. 20
Black-backed Jackal.

young males, a young male and an adult male companion, a family party, or a
pride of several families.
The roaring of a single Lion is no mean performance and, because a solo
effort not infrequently induces others to join in, it is often the prelude to a
grand and awe-inspiring chorus. Percival has well described this concert thus :
"One will start, letting out a full-throated roar, and before he has quite
finished another takes it up, another and another chiming in until five or six
are vying with each other. Females join in with the males, making almost
as much noise. Eventually the chorus begins to die away in grunts; one
after the other drops out, until at last only one is left, when each grunt becomes
fainter until silence supervenes." I have twice or thrice heard this roaring
chorus in the wilder parts of Dodoth, and I consider Percival's account an
excellent and fitting description. The sound always appears to be much nearer
than it really is and I have been told that a roaring Lion purposely holds its
head close to the ground so as to obtain the maximum resonance. In Karamoja
roaring is generally heard an hour or so after sundown but on odd occasions I
have heard an individual at midnight. Percival believed that it roars most
frequently in the rainy season, particularly on dark nights, but Shortridge
associates the roaring with the mating season, irrespective of climatic conditions.
It is evident, however, that when frequently disturbed, or in areas of expanding
population, the Lion is much less noisy. Despite Psalm 104, it is unlikely
that the Lion roars after its prey; more.probably when about to set out for an
evening's hunt. It may roar also before and after drinking, and certainly
sometimes after having made a kill. There is, too, a kind of grunting, bovine
cough which may be associated with hunting.
The Lion will eat almost any kind of flesh, fresh or putrid, including that
of fish and crocodiles. Pitman (1942) records that a Lion killed a large
crocodile in a lagoon near Butiaba and consumed the neck, flanks and shoulders
but not the feet. C. F. Marriott records, in the Field of 31st May 1949, the
killing of two full-grown hippos close to Mazima Springs, Tsavo. The victims
were attacked a few hundred yards from the water, knocked over on to their
backs and finished off by a series of bites in the chest and throat. The Lions
suffered no injury. The writer adds that there is ocular proof that a single
Lion can kill an adult buffalo with ease, and there is no doubt that buffaloes
do have a deep hatred of the Lion, as the following incident, which took place
in Acholi, shows: "Just prior to reaching the spot where we had shot the
lioness the previous evening we saw a very large herd of buffaloes (easily 200
strong) making off half a mile away at right angles to the road. On looking at
the lioness we found that the buffalo herd had spent several hours in a tight
circle around it and had made a lovely mess of the skin-goring and ripping it
all over. As evidence of the time they had spent there, the grass in a radius
of fifteen yards was trampled completely flat and there was a very considerable
amount of dung about. It was obvious that they had come across the dead
lioness in the early hours of the morning, probably 3 a.m. or so, and had spent
between then and 6.30 a.m. doing the damage they had done to it-the outcome
of the natural fear and hatred which they bear for the whole lion family."
Lions sometimes take toll of very young elephants but such attacks are not


FIG. 21
Big-eared Fox.

FIG. 22
Spotted-necked Otter.

FIG. 23

FIG. 24


carried out without peril to the attacker. A note by C. G. MacArthur of the
Kenya Game Department in Journ. E. A. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. XVIII, says:
"Natives heard screaming, trumpeting and crashing in the bush. They went
to investigate in the morning and found the mangled remains of a Lion; every
bone in his body was crushed and broken and the whole place round the
carcase had been trampled down by the elephants." In the Kruger National
Park, the favourite food of the Lion is the wildebeest (which does not occur in
Uganda) but both zebra and waterbuck are slaughtered in large numbers. In
Karamoja, the zebra is the chief prey. Other items of diet include porcupines,
rats and ostriches. Two instances of Lions eating the flesh of their own kind
are recorded by Selous.
From the accounts of hunter-naturalists it seems that the Lion kills its
prey in a variety of ways. Evidence suggests that when a number of Lions
combine to kill a large animal, they do this without much artistry, biting and
clawing it all over, but that when a Lion is alone it employs no little intelligence
and skill. Selous believed that the grazing animal is seized from the side, one
paw grasping the muzzle and the other gripping the shoulder, both hind feet
remaining planted firmly on the ground. The head of the victim is then pulled
beneath the body and as it plunges forward in its endeavours to escape, it topples
forward and automatically breaks its own neck. Another writer asserts that
the method usually adopted is for the Lion to spring on to the back of the
animal and to insert the claws deep into the flesh of the victim, those of the
left hind-foot low down on the near flank, almost at the stomach, those of
the right hind-paw high on the rump, the right fore-paw in the centre of the off
shoulder, and with the purchase so obtained, to bite into the nape of the neck,
simultaneously wrenching the head round by grasping the nose with the claws
of the left fore-paw" (Nicholls and Eglington). Percival's experience tends to
confirm this latter view. Most of the kills inspected by him showed a bite in
the neck, usually at the back, but sometimes also in the throat. He adds, "I
have never had an opportunity of examining any large game killed by lions,
my experience embracing only zebra, hartebeest, and smaller creatures. Among
these only two of the hartebeest had the neck broken; other animals had claw
marks on the face and nose."
When the Lion has made its kill, it usually starts feeding on the liver, heart
and lungs and then possibly on the haunch and part of the neck. Selous notes
that in South Africa the Lion will invariably remove with considerable skill
the paunch and entrails of the carcase and, having dragged them some way off,
then covers them with earth and grass. According to Percival, this is not usual
in East Africa, nor was it practised in the cases of oxen victims known to me
in Karamoja. There are several queer ideas prevalent among the Karamojong
on how a Lion makes its kill. Apparently it is important that the victim
should fall on its right side and the Lion is reputed to take all manner of
precautions to ensure that this happens. If the unfortunate zebra or antelope
collapses on its left side, its tail and left ear are bitten off but the rest of the
carcase is left untouched. I had this from a Bokora informant, but another
version, from Jie, states that the left ear of the dead animal is pushed into its
stomach. However that may be, the Karamojong are led to the freshly-killed

game by quickly-gathering vultures, there to find the carcase quite whole
except for the marks of the killing and the strange mutilations.
With reference to the method employed in attacking man, Percival's
evidence suggests that it usually rears up on its hind legs, places its front legs
on the shoulders or arms, then by sheer weight forces its victim to the ground
and finishes him off by a bite in the head. Selous, on the other hand, records
numerous instances when the victim was bitten in the thigh or groin. He adds:
"I have known personally a number of men who had been mauled by Lions.
Every one of them was bitten, not struck by the Lion's paw. Indeed, most of
them were absolutely untouched by the Lion's claws." Some consolation may
be found in the fact that Livingstone, who was mauled by a Lion, felt no pain
or undue alarm. It is said that Lions will not eat the soles of the feet of Africans.
The Lion probably hunts in co-operation with others of its kind more often
than by itself and when so doing shows considerable ingenuity and skill. Thus
a herd of zebras may be stampeded deliberately by one section of the troop so
that the terrified animals rush headlong past other members waiting in ambush
who select those animals most convenient to kill. Probably the Lion stalks
its prey upwind, in the manner of a cat and only makes its final rush when close
at hand. A Lion about to charge usually first shoots its tail straight into the
air, then with body low to the ground it rushes forward at a rapid gallop, mouth
open and uttering low growls. It is uncommon for it to charge over a distance
greater than 100 yards but its pace may reach 40 m.p.h. or more. F. W. Lane,
writing in Discovery, January 1949, thus describes the mechanism of a Lion's
charge: "When a Lion leaves the mark for the short explosive charge to its
prey, there takes place within its body a physical change which is more akin to
an explosion than to a bodily function. The large adrenal glands pour their
crisis-energy-producing secretion into the blood and cause a greater discharge
of the vitalizing sugar from the liver to enrich the blood stream. The result of
these chemical changes is that the Lion's brain, heart, lungs and nerves are
slammed into top gear, and its immense physical strength is concentrated into
a violent outburst of energy which is expended in a few seconds. Once
the charging mechanism has been put in motion and the vital organs have been
energized, nothing short of the most violent action can stop a Lion. Even with
its heart destroyed by a bullet a Lion may continue to charge for a dangerous
distance." The writer also mentions that Dr. Crile, author of Intelligence,
Power and Personality, discussed the charging Lion with Leslie Tarlton, the
big-game hunter. "Tarlton said that if an animal was quiet and not roused,
a shot through the heart would drop it almost in its tracks, but if it were already
alert when shot, it might bound away or, if it were a Lion, it might charge
vigorously." There is a remarkable instance of a Lion which although shot
through the heart managed to travel twenty yards, rear up and fell its hunter
to the ground only to die on top of him.
The normal gait of the Lion is a somewhat undignified walk, with head
held low, but it will break into a trot if occasion demands, a pace it can keep
up for some considerable time. I once saw a Lion bound away through the
long stems of grass remaining after a fire in a somewhat dog-like manner.
Young animals at any rate can climb, and I have seen three three-quarter

grown Lions in a large fig tree while the mother watched her offspring from the
ground below: one was endeavouring to cache a large piece of meat. A Lion
can leap over a ten-foot stockade (Kirby, quoted by Shortridge, measured the
distance covered in a single spring by a lioness from a bank four feet high and
found it to be 21 ft.) but in the experience of Selous it generally tries to enter
a boma through an opening or by creeping through the fence however thick and
thorny. Whether it is capable of leaping over a ten-foot stockade with a
yearling steer in its jaws or of carrying an 800 lb. ox for a mile without putting
it down, as is sometimes stated, I should not like to say.
Almost every year, fatalities due to unprovoked attacks by Lions occur in
Karamoja. In most instances, I imagine, the man-eaters are beasts incapacitated
by disease, toothlessness, or some similar cause, which have turned to man-
hunting through necessity rather than desire. In both Teso and Karamoja
I have heard mention of the Anguu which appears to be an old, frequently
hairless but particularly savage beast. One such was caught in a trap near
Achwa (Teso) in 1945; it was reported to have mauled two persons in a hut
before it was finally killed. In some parts of East Africa, however, despite a
plentiful supply of game,, healthy, able-bodied Lions turn to man-eating and
up to the present no adequate explanation has been offered for the existence of
these extremely dangerous beasts. Colonel Patterson, in his well-known The
Man-eaters of Tsavo, relates his extraordinary encounters with, and final
destruction of, a troop of man-eaters which were holding up the construction
of the Uganda Railway, while Pitman (1942) has gathered together innumer-
able instances of unprovoked attacks by man-eaters in Northern Rhodesia.
These animals appear to lose all fear of man and may set up a reign of terror
in their territory, entering huts or even houses in search of their special quarry.
Normally, however, a Lion will make every effort to get out of the way of a
human being. I have a note of a fully-fed male, resting beneath a bush, which
refused to move for a porter safari with which I was travelling. A lioness
with cubs is always dangerous; a Suk native who walked into such a party
was taken completely by surprise when one of the cubs bounded playfully up
to him and began to maul him harmlessly. He lay on the ground for about
half an hour while the cub played with him, the lioness meanwhile resting some
yards away, watching her child enjoying itself. Finally the whole party moved
off, doubtless to the relief of the unfortunate African who was, nevertheless,
none the worse for his adventure. I believe sportsmen are advised to select
the female first if a pair is encountered as otherwise she is likely to charge in
defence of her spouse. The Lion is undoubtedly inquisitive and it is probable
that many reports of animals "preparing to attack" are really the result of a
desire to know what is going on. On one occasion in central Jie, while
travelling along a seldom-used track, I managed to adjust the speed of my car
so that I drew up just as a pair of Lions had crossed the road. The Lion
showed no alarm but slowly walked right up to the car; on my calling to it
through the window, it turned about and moved off without any sign of anger.
The lioness showed some anxiety, alternately crouching low and then raising
herself to obtain a better view, rather as though she was performing 'press-ups'.
I do not believe that the Lion is unduly concerned at the smell of a human being,

or that it is particularly afraid of the glow of a fire. Nor does the appearance
of the King of Beasts always inspire that fear among game which one might
expect. Stigand (1912) relates how early one morning he observed a whole
herd of kongoni following a pair of Lions heavy from a recent meal across a
completely open plain.
The Lion is said to mate for life but it is certainly polygamous and may
have, therefore, two or three lionesses in its troop. In the breeding season
several Lions have been seen following a single female and fighting for her.
* Pitman (1942) notes that wild Lions have been watched mating in broad day-
light. He adds: They make an extraordinary noise resembling the bellowing
of a buffalo or the bickering of argumentative cow elephants." According to
the same authority, menagerie specimens start breeding early, sometimes before
they are three years old. One Zoo pair had two litters before they were four
years old. In captivity Lions breed regularly once a year, the lioness coming
into season every few weeks. In the wild state, on evidence from certain
localities, Pitman believes that they breed only once in two or two and a half
years. It is possible that the same pair will breed in the same locality for a
number of years. The cubs are born in some suitable lair-a grassy thicket
or a jumble of rocks-the normal litter being one to three although a litter of
as many as six has been produced in captivity. The period of gestation is
sixteen weeks. Lactation extends over ten weeks but until such time as the
milk canines have been replaced by adult teeth, i.e., at about a year old, the
cub is unable to fend for itself. It is not uncommon to see a lioness with cubs
almost as large as herself and they may stay with her until another litter is born.
The mane of the male begins to grow at about three years old and reaches its
maximum development at six years when, according to Flower (Proc. Zool.
Soc.,. London, 1930), it is at the prime of life. "After ten years his chances
of remaining alive depend on his individual cleverness and the absence of
competitors for food."

MISCELLANEOUS: Because it treads lightly, the spoor of the Lion,
according to Lyell, shows clearly only in sand or soft mud. Kirby, quoted by
Shortridge, states that the adult spoor of the two sexes is easily distinguishable,
that of the forefeet of the male being disproportionately larger than that of
the hindfeet whereas the spoor of the fore and hindfeet of the female are of
almost equal size. The pawmarks measure, on average, 5 in. x 4J in.
The Lion, when captured young, is fairly easily and safely domesticated
and many menagerie specimens show an extraordinary degree of docility.
At Amsterdam a captive Lion even permitted its keeper to take away its food,
its only resistance being a short clutch and a growl. A spectator admits:
"Its countenance had, however, lost its serenity and how long his good temper
would have continued is doubtful." The male of a caged pair is dangerous
while the female is on heat. Both cubs and adults are fond of play-they
have been observed in the wild playing a kind of football with an old tin can-
and in the house the cubs can cause much damage to personal belongings. The
average length of life in captivity appears to be about thirteen years: maximum
longevity is put at twenty-five years.

FELIS PARDUS PARDUS Linnaeus. Leopard.
Teso: Eris, irisai. Karamojong: Eris, ngirisai.
DISTRIBUTION: Very common in Karamoja both on the plains (especially
among the rocky hillocks) and in the mountain forests. It is reported to be
abundant in Teso but I cannot recollect either seeing or hearing one in that
district although 'leopard stories' are common enough. A. L. Stephens,
writing to me in 1945, says that they appear to have decreased in numbers
considerably in recent years.
DESCRIPTION: The Leopard stands about 28 in. at the shoulder and
measures on the average 7 ft. 6 in. in length from nose to tip of tail, the tail
measuring 3 ft. A very large male shot in Kenya measured 8 ft. 11 in. The
male weighs between 110 lb. and 140 lb.; the female, 80-120 lb. Around
the face and on the shoulders the markings consist of plain black spots but on
the rest of the body, and on the tail, the spots form definite rosettes with centres
slightly darker than the ground colour, a pattern quite unlike that of the cheetah
or the serval cat. In the young the rosettes are not so obvious or distinct. An
all-black leopard has been reported from Kenya.
BIOLOGY: The Leopard, although most active at night, may be seen by
day either in the early morning or late afternoon. It is generally solitary-I
have never seen more than one at a time-but is sometimes reported in pairs.
It is catholic in its choice of habitat and I have seen it both in the Kadam
forests at about 8,000 ft. and in the thick acacia scrub of the Upe plains. I do
not think it wanders far from water and it probably requires a drink at fairly
frequent intervals. It is particularly fond of rocky bush-covered hillocks and
riverain thickets. In Karamoja its harsh coughing purr, rather like the rapid
sawing of wood, is likely to be heard at night or in late afternoon almost any-
where except in the more thickly populated areas. The Leopard takes heavy
toll among bush-pigs, monkeys and baboons and thus performs the valuable
function of reducing the numbers of these agricultural pests; for this reason it is
not classed as vermin although it can, of course, do much damage among goats
and sheep. It also attacks smaller buck--Shortridge records a Leopard killing
a female lesser kudu-and is particularly fond of the flesh of the dog; many
stories are recorded in which Leopards have entered houses and grabbed dogs
from off, or from under, their owners' beds. On one occasion in Teso a
Leopard burst its way through the mosquito gauze of a verandah to snatch a
dog which was sleeping not far from its master who was sitting reading by the
light of a lamp.
It seems to be quite fearless, caring little for the presence of man and
showing little alarm at stationary lamps or fires; I have been told, however,
that it is suspicious of a moving light.
Having effected a kill, a leopard will not infrequently hide the carcase
high up in the branches of a tree where it is safe from thieving hyaenas but not,
of course, from vultures. It clearly requires considerable strength to hoist
such heavy loads and it is possible that two or more animals assist in the
operation. The Leopard is an excellent climber and loves to bask in the sun
on a large branch; when hard pressed it will automatically take to the

trees and when moving about in the forest monkeys will sometimes follow it,
chattering and swearing at it, as birds mob an owl. It is also a good swimmer.
Unprovoked attacks on man are not common but man-hunters, doubtless
old and crippled creatures, are not unknown. In Karamoja, at any rate, the
hyaena is much more the enemy of man than is the Leopard. When once
aroused, however, the Leopard is an extremely dangerous and ferocious creature.
It possesses plenty of pluck. and can inflict a severe mauling, although it is
said that Leopard wounds heal more rapidly than those caused by a lion.
The late Carl Akeley, the well-known American collector, actually killed bare-
handed a Leopard which sprang at him after it had been wounded. Despite
his badly bitten arm, he choked the life out of it.
The usual number of cubs is two to four and they are born in a thicket or
crevice among piled-up rocks; the gestation period is 92-95 days. According
to the Karamojong, the Leopard breeds throughout the year.
MISCELLANEOUS: Leopards occasionally fall victims to Karamojong spear-
men who are then entitled to decorate the ears of their totein oxen by cutting
small slits along the edge. (This applies also if a man kills a lion or other
dangerous beast.) Leopards are caught, too, in wooden tunnel-like traps into
which the Leopard is enticed by a live decoy. At the critical moment- a trip
rope releases the heavily weighted roof, which falls in, pinning the Leopard to
the ground. It is not a difficult animal to trap and when once caught makes
but a poor attempt to free itself. A trapped animal should nevertheless be
approached with the greatest caution. Young Leopards make interesting pets
but as they grow old they too frequently become treacherous.
I am told that the skins of Leopards from Labwor are exceptionally greasy
and are not suitable for curing.

CARACAL CARACAL NUBICUS (J. B. Fischer). Caracal, African Lynx.
Karamojong: Esakanjui lowale, ngisakanjui lowale.
DISTRIBUTION: Not found in Teso. Occurs sparingly in Karamoja in the
central plain, in very much the same type of habitat as the big-eared fox. It is
probably not very common as I have seen only one live and one dead specimen.
DESCRIPTION: The Caracal' stands 16 in. to 18 in. at the shoulder and
measures: head and body, 26 in.-30 in.; tail, 9 in.-10 in. Approximate
weight, 40 lb. (Shortridge; South African specimens). It is a handsome
creature, slight and slender in build and, owing to the presence of tufts of
black hairs at the tip of each ear, its appearance suggests close relationship to
the true lynx of America, although it lacks the distinctive throat and chest ruff
of the latter. The entire upper parts, with the exception of the black ears and
some dark spots and lines on the face, are mauve-brown; under sides whitish.
The tip of the tail may be darker than the body colour. New-born kittens
show a distinct spotting of the coat. The Rev. R. Clarke tells me he obtained
1 The name is derived from a Turkish word kara meaning black; the black backs
of the ears when viewed from behind are a noticeable feature. The Karamojong lowale
refers to the ear tufts.


alive an all-black specimen in 1946 and presented it to an Australian collecting
BIOLOGY: For its size, the Caracal is the most active of all the cats and is
capable of attacking game very much larger than itself; Shortridge records an
instance in which a Caracal killed a young kudu. In the face of danger it will
readily take to a tree and in defence of itself it can put up a magnificent fight.
Its habitat would appear to be the acacia-scrub country ,of the centre of the
district where it is likely to prey mostly on dik-dik, hares and guineafowl. In
South Africa, natives believe that it will occasionally spring upon brooding
ostriches and kill them with a quick bite through the neck. It will certainly
take sheep and goats if opportunity affords. In India it is reported to catch
birds on the wing (pigeons especially), leaping at them to a height of several
feet and knocking them over with a blow of the fore paw. When angry it hisses
and growls but at other times is believed to be silent.
The young, two to four, are reared in a burrow, e.g., that of an ant-bear,
or in a crevice among rocks.
MISCELLANEOUS: The Caracal is not a docile animal although there are
cases of friendly captive individuals. In India many were formerly trained to
hunt small deer, game birds, pigeons, etc. The skins were valued by old-time
Boers for the manufacture of karosses, such a mantle being held to be a
sovereign remedy against an attack of rheumatism.

ACINONYX JUBATUS subsp. Cheetah, Hunting Leopard.
Teso: Arara, ararai; Arugut, arunguu. Karamojong: Arara, ngararai.
DISTRIBUTION: Some years ago the Cheetah was fairly common in Teso,
and Mr. A. L. Stephens tells me he remembers assisting in hunting a large
female near Tira in 1934: two of its cubs were subsequently found and reared.
The late Mr. G. W. Foster also obtained cubs from the old Kasilo county.
Although I lived in Teso from 1936 to 1939 I cannot recollect having seen one
alive. In Karamoja, on the other hand, the Cheetah is abundant and ranges
throughout the central plain. The Karamojong tell me it is particularly
numerous in the Lorengidwat-Lokitanyala area but I have also seen it in many
other localities.
DESCRIPTION: The Cheetah-the name is derived from a Hindustani word
meaning spotted-stands between 30 in. and 36 in. at the shoulder and measures:
head and body, 4 ft. 6 in.; tail, 2 ft. 6 in. The female is somewhat smaller
than the male. In shape it resembles a long-legged, narrow-chested, slender-
bodied leopard, with its tail about half the length of head and body. Its
bullet-like head is small and light. The hair on the neck is somewhat elongated
and tends to form an incipient mane, particularly in the young; the fur is
generally coarse, noticeably so on the under side where it is longer and more
shaggy than elsewhere. The ground colour is yellowish fawn, the under parts
paler; the chin and throat are white and unspotted. The body-spots are round
and solid and do not form rosettes; towards the end of the tail they tend to
coalesce to form incomplete rings. The outer surface of the ears is black

. 177

except for the bases and margins which are tawny. From the inner angle of
each eye a black streak runs to the lip, while a less distinct line runs from the
outer angle of the eye to a point below the ear. Of the feet of the Cheetah,
Pocock (1916) says: "The protruding claws, hard, pointed digital pads, ridged
plantar pads, deeply emarginate webs, and wide hind feet are all better fitted to
securing a firm hold upon hard sandy ground and for traversing it swiftly and
surely than the softer and more pliable feet of other members of the cat tribe."
He adds that "the long heavy tail probably acts as a balance when turning or
wheeling at full speed ".
The young cubs are covered with a coat of long, uniformly greyish hair.
If it is turned back the under fur shows traces of spotting.
BIOLOGY: The Cheetah is at home in many types of habitat, including the
grassy orchard-like country of Teso, the almost open plains west of Mt. Kadam
and the thick Acacia scrub of Upe county. It is diurnal, usually moving about
by itself, sometimes in pairs. Its diet consists of the smaller gazelle, the young
of the larger antelopes, hares, ostrich chicks and guineafowl. In captivity it
relishes poultry, cheese, paw-paws, bananas, and bread and butter. According
to Shortridge it is not a carrion eater and seldom returns to its kill.
The Cheetah runs down its prey by sheer speed: for a quarter to half a
mile it is possibly the swiftest animal on earth. It can attain a speed of seventy
miles an hour but is incapable of maintaining this tremendous effort for long
and is easily run down by a mounted huntsman within a couple of miles. It
is said to throw its victim off its balance by striking at its hind-quarters with
one of its fore paws and then biting through its throat. Mr. D. C. Bousefield
watched a Cheetah catch a young eland. First it ran alongside, and then,
clasping it round the neck from below with its forefeet, threw it on to its back,
held it to the ground with its front paws and buried its jaws in its throat.
Mr. Bousefield then shot the Cheetah, at which the young eland jumped to its
feet and made off. Mr. Bousefield believes that the Cheetah had been playing
with the eland in a cat and mouse manner for some lime before he came on
the scene. The Cheetah will not attack man, and it puts up a poor defence,
only growling and snarling, when caught in a trap. On one occasion when
following a Cheetah which was slinking away from me I was rather surprised
when it turned round, facing me, and crouched low to the ground. But in
another second it was off and rapidly disappeared.
Roosevelt mentions that the Cheetah has a curious note, a bird-like chirp,
in uttering which it twists the upper lip as if whistling ". Others have described
the call as similar to the loud mewing of a domesticated cat. In captivity it
purrs when contented.
Four is the normal number of young and the gestation period is about
three months.
MISCELLANEOUS: One of my first experiences with wild-life in Uganda was
to travel some miles on the back seat of a car with a Cheetah as companion.
It was violently car-sick. Unlike the leopard, the Cheetah makes an interesting
and very docile pet, although it is somewhat difficult to rear; it seems particu-
larly prone to bone diseases, such as rickets, and the feed of cod-liver oil and

calcium phosphate may help to ward off such attacks. When full grown it
requires eight to ten pounds of meat a day (Joan Jugl, the Field, 16th April
1949). I have been told that if guineafowl are being fed to it, it is advisable
to feed the carcases unplucked.
In India the Cheetah was formerly kept in captivity for hunting buck;
for this purpose it had to be caught when almost full grown after its parents
had given it a thorough grounding in the art of the chase. A tame Cheetah
with which I was acquainted delighted in stalking and running down dogs; it
never did them any injury except to give them the fright of their lives.

Family: HYAENIDAE. Hyaenas.
CROCUTA CROCUTA (Erxleben). Spotted Hyaena.
Teso: Ebu, ibuin. Karamojong: .Ebu, ngibuin.
TAXONOMY: No fewer than twenty forms of Spotted Hyaena have
been described from various parts of Africa, frequently on small numbers or
even on single specimens, sometimes immature. Matthews (1934) working
in Tanganyika has shown that all characters on which the alleged forms have
been based (including skull characters) are extremely variable and that none
of the 'species' or 'sub-species' are worthy of recognition. Attempts to divide
the 103 specimens obtained in one month by Matthews according to any of the
characters which have been used would result in the recording of practically
every 'species' and 'sub-species' from the small area in which he worked.
This fully demonstrates the danger of erecting species or sub-species of mammals
from inadequate material.
DISTRmIUTION: The Spotted Hyaena is ubiquitous throughout Teso and
Karamoja wherever there is an abundance of food, either game animals or
stock. It occurs in almost every kind of habitat and is not confined to any
particular type of country.
DESCRIPTION: Both the Spotted and Striped Hyaenas are similar in general
appearance to a dog, but the hindquarters, which are weak in comparison to the
powerful and massive forequarters, are much lower than the shoulders so that
the back slopes downwards from the nape to the tail. The shape of the head
is midway between that of a dog and a cat; in appearance possibly it approaches
closer to that of the former animal although the actual skull has much in
common with that of the cat. The feet have each four toes and the claws are
The Spotted Hyaena stands about 30 in. at the shoulder. It measures:
head and body, about 4 ft. 6 in.; tail, 12 in.; weight, between 100 and 150 lb.
The female is larger than the male.
The coat is usually short, except for a somewhat ill-marked mane; the
colour is extremely variable. The ground colour may be red tinged with grey,
grey tinged with red, plain grey, or almost white: the spots may be distinct or
diffuse, black, brown or reddish. The belly and feet are pale or dark (black,
dark brown, or uniform with the ground colour). In some specimens the spots

are practically indistinguishable. Young animals tend to be paler in colour
and to have black spots and dark feet and belly. The tail, which is sliort and
slender, is dark brown or black at the end; the ears are rather small and rounded.
According to Roosevelt and Heller, the young are seal-brown at birth, without
any indications of spots, but after a few months assume the heavily spotted coat
of the immature. Col. H. F. Stoneham, in a letter to Nature in East Africa,
No. 4, describes as jet black all over a youhg Spotted Hyaena which was brought
to him. Unfortunately he failed to rear it to maturity. He adds that in
Karamoja in 1923 he observed a specimen which was almost black.
Large anal glands are present. The female sexual organs are peculiar in
structure and closely resemble in external appearance those of the male. The
powerful jaws are provided with enormous canine and carnassial teeth.

BIOLOGY: Everyone in East Africa must at one time or another have heard
the extraordinary cry of the Spotted Hyaena: a prolonged low-pitched call,
not unlike the lowing of cattle, followed immediately by a short higher whoop-
like note. The cry is generally heard at dusk or during the early hours of the
night when the Hyaena is prowling around in search of food. At Nabilatuk
I have heard a pair go right through my camp at about 9 p.m. howling to each
other. Only on one occasion have I heard the Spotted Hyaena give vent to
its so-called laughter. It was just after dark at Napyenenya and the peals of
laughter-difficult to describe but bordering on the weird and uncanny-were
intermixed with shrill cackles and grunts. I imagine there must have been
some half-dozen of the creatures taking part in the concert. Whether this
performance indicated sexual excitement or whether the troop was merely
feeding or waiting to feed, I was unable to find out. Matthews, from whose
account many of these notes are culled, records that when feeding the Spotted
Hyaena will utter a chuckling sound closely resembling human laughter, usually
rather low-pitched but frequently rising to a higher key and often interspersed
with yelps and growls accompanying quarrels. He considers that the "shrill
shrieks and yells accompanied by deep emetic gurgling and groans" forming
a background for "wild peals of maniacal laughter" appear to be uttered only
on nights of bright moonlight and to be associated with sexual excitement.
Although primarily nocturnal the Spotted Hyaena is by no means wholly
so and may be seen by day possibly on the outskirts of a herd of game waiting
an opportunity of feeding. At night it is guided to food mainly by smell, but
during the day sight plays a part; a flock of vultures perched on surrounding
trees will guide it to its meat. There are numerous records of packs of
Hyaenas, but it is doubtful whether they ever form genuine packs acting in
consort like hunting dogs. Undoubtedly they will combine temporarily to pull
down some powerful animal and many may gather round a single carcase. The
true units of Hyaena life appear to be the individual, the mated pair and the
female and pups; the father apparently does not remain with the family party.
The normal gait of the Hyaena is an unhurried lope which gets him over
the ground at a speed of about eight miles an hour, but if need be it can increase
its speed to 30 m.p.h., which it can maintain for some distance. It prefers
whenever possible to follow roads or well-beaten paths. It has been observed

wallowing in forest pools completely immersed except for its head and is
known to be a good swimmer when occasion demands. An anonymous writer
(Journ. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc., Nos. 33 and 34 (1928), p. 68) records the shooting
in the Naivasha district in Kenya of a footless Hyaena. This animal was killed
in September after mauling a calf in July, and was a well-nourished, full-grown
beast. The toes of all four feet and practically the whole of the pads were
missing; the bone of one hind leg was exposed for some inches and had become
smooth through wear. The writer of the note suggests as an explanation of
the occurrence the fact that a patch of papyrus near where the Hyaena was
shot was set on fire in early June. "The'papyrus went on smouldering at the
roots for ages, and the chances are that the Hyaena scented some toothsome
morsel among the ashes. In he went and got his toes burnt; he must then
have got panicky and the more he floundered about the smouldering stuff, the
more his extremities suffered until he got properly burnt. Nature did the rest."
The Spotted Hyaena has a lair or den in which the young are born and
often uses such a place as a dwelling. It may lie up in thick vegetation, in
gulleys, in crevices among rocks or in an extensive burrow excavated by itself.
Percival, describing these lairs, says: "It is always possible to identify the
dwelling of a Hyaena it is not unusual to find piles of bones and the
combination of smells is something to be remembered." While digging out
Hyaena pups from a burrow, he was surprised to see an adult travelling on its
knees in a sector too low for it to stand erect.
Carrion undoubtedly constitutes a very considerable proportion of the
Spotted Hyaena's diet and the animal's exceptionally powerful jaws are capable
of dealing with large bones rejected by other animals. It will dig up and devour
crocodile eggs, and appreciates those of the ostrich also. Certain Karamojong
clans expose their dead, particularly children, and the Spotted Hyaena takes
full advantage of this custom. In its search for food it is bold and determined,
paying scant attention to the presence of human beings. It will enter huts and
camps and make away with hides, rawhide ropes, hanging meat, etc.
Selous describes how a Hyaena entered his encampment, seized a drying
eland skin and, half carrying and half dragging it, managed to cover a distance
of a hundred yards before a pack of dogs forced him to drop it. The same
observer once saw a Hyaena seize a goat by the back of the neck, throw it over
its shoulder and gallop off with it. There is an apocryphal story of a European
in Kafamoja who, forced to spend the night on the roadside owing to a break-
down, made himself as comfortable as he could in the cab of his lorry but
owing to his height exposed his booted feet out of a window. In the morning
he was surprised to find that a Hyaena had made off with both the soles of his
boots, leaving only the uppers! Roosevelt records a remarkable instance of a
Hyaena which got inside the body of a dead elephant and bit a hole through the
belly wall, through which it thrust its head; it was then unable to withdraw its
head and remained completely helpless until some hunters came up and shot it.
Hyaenas have been known to enter huts and carry off children. I have heard
of an old woman being dragged out of a hut and of a small boy being killed
and eaten while asleep in the bush. Sleeping human beings are almost always
attacked in the face, and appalling injuries may be inflicted. Snorers are said-

to be particularly vulnerable as the Hyaena is then fully aware beforehand that
the object of its attack is truly asleep. Roosevelt records that in 1908 and
1909 Hyaenas haunted the sleeping-sickness camps and carried off people
incapacitated by the disease until armed sentries were posted over each hut.
The Hyaena is, however, quite capable of hunting for itself and the normal
fate of wild animals crippled by age or injury is probably to be pulled down
and devoured by it. It will hang about on the outskirts of game herds,
apparently awaiting the chance to fall upon a weakling, a doe heavy with young
or an immature animal. In Karamoja I have known cases of fully grown
donkeys and cows being slaughtered by Hyaenas. At Serere, in 1933, Hyaenas
broke into a mud and wattle hut, despite a nearby guard and fire, and scattered
a flock of sheep, killing several. Only one or two were actually eaten, the
rest were killed by having the tops of their heads bitten off or their stomachs
ripped open. Matthews records instances of zebras and wildebeest being killed
by Hyaenas, the method of attack being for several Hyaenas to combine in
running down the victim and to bite at the flank until the entrails are hanging
out. Perhaps the most remarkable Hyaena kills on record are a half-grown
rhino calf whose mother had been shot and old or crippled lions (Roosevelt).
Although a Hyaena which ventures too near a feeding lion may lose its life, a
pack of Hyaenas is reported (Donald Smith quoted by Shortridge) to have
"entered into a regular fight .with a couple of lions near a bait and got the
best of it". Cattle with the ends of their tails bitten off probably often owe
their injury to Hyaenas.
The Hyaena does not always have its own way, however, and Percival
relates a case in which a kongoni cow chased and knocked over a Hyaena which
had overlooked her presence when trying to seize her calf.
The Hyaena is not without bravery despite its somewhat unsavoury reputa-
tion. Percival recollects two occasions on which a trapped Hyaena showed
fight while Selous records the courage of an old individual who, with its back
to a tree, kept at bay a dozen or so hunting dogs. Normally, however, man has
nothing to fear from the Hyaena which when wounded submits to its fate without
any attempt at defence. A Hyaena will not devour its own kind.
There is no fixed breeding-season, for in the area where Matthews worked
females in all stages of pregnancy were found at all seasons. Percival found
newly born young on Christmas Eve and noted that half-grown cubs were
common in April. On these grounds he was inclined to put the breeding season
at from November to February. The normal number of pups in a litter is two,
the period of gestation is about 110 days and the period of lactation about six
months. The female is stated to regurgitate food for the pups. Matthews
states: "Each female breeds not more frequently than once every nine or ten
months; the interval is probably longer as a rule." The pups are slow growing
and are stated to be only half grown at nine months old; they never leave the
burrows while very small and it is probable that they are tended by their mother
until almost full grown.

MISCELLANEOUS: The latrines of the Hyaena, frequently sited near a path
or road, are conspicuous because of the chalky white colour of the droppings.

These are milky-green at first but on drying assume the characteristic bone-white
colour. In the Grotto of Aldene in France droppings left by the Spotted Hyaena
15,000 years ago have formed white coprolites, preserved by the high lime
content from digested bones.
The spoor is large-larger than that of the hunting dog-and the claw
marks are conspicuous.
The Hyaena is very easily trapped or poisoned, but owing to its immensely
powerful jaws it can twist and bend an iron trap in a most extraordinary
manner. Selous describes how a Hyaena which had been caught in a heavy
iron trap, requiring the strength of two men to set and which would probably
have held a lion, managed to free itself after having dragged the trap and a
heavy iron wagon chain a hundred yards. The trap was completely destroyed;
one of the large iron spikes which projected from the jaws had been snapped
off ; one jaw had been wrenched away and the solid iron tongue which supports
the plate had been twisted right round.
Mysterious beasts of indescribable ferocity, such as the Nandi Bear, are
frequently reported from various parts of East Africa: they invariably turn
out to be particularly large specimens of the Spotted Hyaena. The Etutui of
the Karamojong is merely a large'and exceptionally ferocious Hyaena, usually
almost silent and an adept at raiding the stock yard. I have examined one or
two pelts.
The Spotted Hyaena is long lived; its span of life under natural conditions
is believed to be about ten years, but individuals in captivity have been known
to live for twenty-five years. It is subject to diseases, particularly those
associated with parasitic worms. According to Selous, and contrary to general
belief, the Hyaena is not a more stinking animal than other carnivores; it
does not, for instance, smell so strongly as a lion.
The Spotted Hyaena is the familiar of the Teso and Karamojong warlock
(ekapalan). What function the Hyaena actually plays in the machinations of
this evil individual is not very clear but if necessity demands the warlock can
mount the Hyaena like a horse and ride it by night to any village where Death
approaches. It is said in Karamoja that the witch-doctor requires part of a
human corpse for the manufacture of spells-one of the first borehole pumps
suffered the indignity of attempted bewitchment by having a human hand
inserted into its spout-but whether the Hyaena assists in obtaining for its
master these valuable accessories I am not disposed to say.

HYAENA HYAENA DUBBAH Meyer. Striped Hyaena.
Karamojong: Ebu nagira, ngibuin nagira.
DISTRIBUTION: I have obtained only one specimen of the Striped Hyaena
from Karamoja but it is well known to natives as a frequenter of the open
central plain, where it is recognized as a pest of small stock. The animal does
not appear to be familiar to the Teso, though there is a single sight record from
the vicinity of Soroti.

DESCRIPTION: In many respects the Striped Hyaena, with its powerful
fore-quarters and the downward slope of its back towards the tail, is not unlike
the spotted species. It is somewhat smaller, stripes take the place of spots, the
coat is shaggier, the mane is well developed and forms a distinct erectile crest,
the tail is bushy and the ears pointed. Measurements: head and body, about
40 in.; tail, 12 in. to 13 in. The vertical body stripes are tawny or blackish
on a ground colour of dirty grey and are most obvious on the shoulders and
hind-quarters; on the body they have a tendency to break up into blotches and
on the legs they are arranged transversely. The feet, muzzle and throat are
black; the bushy tail is pale grey. The external genitalia are normal and
not like those of Crocuta.
BIOLOGY: I am informed by the Karamojong that the cry of the Striped
Hyaena, although very similar to that of its spotted relative, is thinner, pitched
in a higher key and generally lacks its volume. I am almost certain that I
have heard this peculiar call-it lacks the bovine quality of the first part of
the cry of the spotted hyaena-but on only a few occasions. It is probable,
therefore, that it is much less numerous than Crocuta. Percival considers that
the Striped Hyaena lacks the boldness of the spotted hyaena and that it is more
strictly nocturnal. It is also more solitary, and it is rare to see more than two
together. Percival adds: "Another point of difference between the two, if my
observations may be trusted, is that the smaller race is more independent of
water. I have, however, seen the tracks of the .spotted hyaena quite a long
distance from any water."
The Karamojong tell me that the Striped Hyaena acts as pilot to the
spotted hyaena. Its duty is to hunt out the larger beasts which it cannot
tackle by itself, and then to call up its larger brethren. It is expected to do the
same if it finds a supply of carrion.
Information on the habits of the species is scanty, but in general they
resemble those of the spotted hyaena ; its main food is carrion although it will
carry off sheep, goats and even dogs.
MISCELLANEOUS: Brocklehurst notes that the Striped Hyaena becomes
very affectionate in captivity if treated kindly.

Family: PROTELIDAE. Aard-Wolves.
PROTELES CRISTATUS (Sparrman). Aard-Wolf, Maned Hyaena.
Karamojong: Ebu nagira, ngibuin nagira.
DISTRIBUTION: I have seen only one skin from Karamoja, obtained near
Lorengidwat, but a specimen was shot by a K.A.R. officer on Mt. Zulia far
in the north-east of the District. The Karamojong do not distinguish between
the Aard-Wolf and striped hyaena, consequently local information is no guide
to its distribution. I suspect, however, that it is not uncommon throughout
the central plain and possibly extends its range up the lower rocky slopes of
the mountain masses.

DESCRIPTION: The Aard-Wolf is very similar indeed to a small, slender,
long-legged striped hyaena and stands about 20 in. at the shoulder. Head and
body, 27 in.; tail, 5 in. (from a single dried skin).
The long and almost woolly fur is pale sandy brown with three to five
well-defined dark brown to black vertical stripes each about I in. wide. There
is a distinct mane of long hairs, five inches or more in length, along the nape
and back, the individual hairs being buff with black tips. The black tips form
a pronounced black dorsal stripe. The black muzzle is sharper than that of
the striped hyaena.
The legs, which are relatively longer than those of the striped hyaena, carry
black markings which tend to form horizontal bars. The forefeet are furnished
with five toes (the hyaena has four). The tail is bushy, the terminal third being
black; the ears are long and pointed. There are four mammae.
The teeth are very small and this serves to distinguish the Aard-Wolf
immediately from all members of the Hyaenidae which are characterized by
their powerful and massive dentition.

BIOLOGY: I have no observations on this peculiar creature, but MacInnes
(1949) states that it is solitary or found in pairs and that it never gathers into
packs. Owing to its nocturnal habits it is very seldom seen, so that it is
difficult to judge whether. it is abundant or not in any specific locality. It is
likely to frequent a habitat similar to that of the long-eared fox. During the
day it lies up in some underground burrow, possibly that of an ant-bear, but it
is capable of excavating its own home. Its diet is almost entirely insectivorous.
Heller records a stomach filled with a mass of termites, whilst Shortridge states
that the stomachs of two specimens from the Kaokoveld (S.W. Africa) similarly
contained the undigested heads of hundreds of termites intermixed with much
freshly chopped grass. The latter presumably came from the interiors of the
nests, having been picked up and swallowed with the termites. Shortridge adds
that the Aard-Wolf will eat small rodents, and that its spoor and scratching
are frequently noticed around gerbil burrows. It is not attracted by carrion-
except possibly for the insects which gather round the decaying flesh-and it
is therefore difficult to trap. Its gait is slow and it can generally be outpaced
by dogs; when at bay it will erect its mane and is capable of ejecting an evil-
smelling fluid from its anal glands. Wilhelm, quoted by Shortridge, states that
the howling of the Aard-Wolf is similar to that of the striped hyaena, but
apparently it can also utter a sort of low whistle. Lanham, quoted by the same
authority, writes one sees them ferreting about the ground looking for beetles,
etc.; they do not run far, and one hears them whistling to their mates".
South African observations suggest that two to four are the usual number of
young, the cubs being reared at the bottom of a burrow; several families may
possibly occupy one earth.

MISCELLANEOUS The spoor is said to be small for the size of the animal,
only the front of each foot appearing to rest on the ground. The forefeet are
not larger than the hind; this is not the case with the hyaena.


Family: VIVERRIDAE. Civets, Genets, Mongooses, etc.
Subfamily: VIVERRINAE.
CIVETTICTIS CIVETTA SCHWARZI Cabrera. African Civet or Civet Cat.
Teso: Ekorri, ikorrio; also possibly Edokomuny (no plural recorded).
Karamojong: Ekorri, ngikorrio.
It will be noted that the vernacular name is not unlike that for the giraffe;
the o ", however, is more guttural, the r almost rolled and the "i" of the
singular hardly pronounced.
DITRIBUTION: The Civet has been recorded from many parts of Teso.
In Karamoja, especially in the very dry parts, it is not, I think, quite so
abundant. I have examined skins from Lotome, Amuda and Nabilatuk, and
it is reported to be common in Labwor, where it is regarded by beekeepers as a
menace to the hives. In Buganda, the Civet is the only carnivorous land
mammal (with the exception of a mongoose) to occur on Fumve island in the
west Sese group, and the island takes its name from the Luganda word for
this animal.
DESCRIPTION: The Civet Cat Stands about 14 in. at the shoulder and
measures 45 in. to 50 in. from nose to tip of tail; about 18 in. of this is tail.
The Civet's general appearance is undoubtedly feline although its face is
proportionally larger than that of the domesticated cat and the body is some-
what compressed laterally. The ground colour of the long and shaggy fur is
normally pale greyish buff, very profusely spotted with black. The head and
neck are mostly of the ground colour but with a broad black stripe below the
eye and narrower stripes on the sides of the neck. The cheeks and throat are
black; there is a white forehead band and muzzle; and there is a white streak
on the neck. The spots are smaller on the shoulders than farther back where
they are square in shape. There is a black dorsal stripe and the two rows of
spots on each side of it have a marked tendency to form lines; they become
solid lines on the rump. The male Civet has a slight dorsal crest which is
erectile. The legs and feet are blackish brown. The tail is mostly black with
some white near the base. The under side is for the most part black. In some
parts of Africa the proportion of black animals is tending, markedly, to increase;
all degrees of blackness may be encountered and completely black individuals
may occur in the same litter as normal ones; such specimens have been recorded
from Uganda but I have not seen any from Teso or Karamoja.
The five toes on each foot are provided with semi-retractile claws. A large
subcaudal pouch is present.
The young are darker than the adults.
BIOLOGY: The Civet is a bush- and forest-loving animal and, both in Teso
and Karamoja, is found in the less open parts. In Teso it is said to be most
abundant in the vicinity of the lakes and I have seen a specimen killed by a
car close to the bridge on the western side of the main Agu channel. It is
known to be a good swimmer and takes to water naturally. In Karamoja it
appears to favour the thick forest and bush along the sides of rivers.

As the Civet is entirely nocturnal it is seldom seen except by the glare of
car headlights as it trots along the road or moves stealthily to one side out of
the way of the oncoming vehicle. During the day it lies up in dense bush or in
holes excavated by some burrowing animal. Pitman records that in Northern
Rhodesia it is foolish and easy to trap, and is sometimes found sleeping practic-
ally in the open during the day. It is mainly carnivorous and will kill small
mammals and birds, including poultry, if opportunity permits. Reptiles, frogs,
crabs and eggs are, however, all relished, while pumpkins and maize do not
come amiss. In South Africa the Civet is said to be capable of much damage in
a mealie field. 'A stomach examined by Loveridge contained skins of fruit
(possibly mango), grass-hoppers, maggots, and parasitic worms. Native reports
from South Africa suggest that the Civet will on occasion enter huts and attack
young children. A Teso man who brought me a skin of a Civet told me he had
himself seen one climbing a tree. Be that as it may, throughout Uganda, from
Karamoja to Kigezi, the Civet is considered a pest by beekeepers. They believe
that the animal robs hives by inserting its tail into the nest; first the bees swarm
on this; that the tail is withdrawn; and that the Civet then eats all the honey
and bees which are adhering to the fur. This is a pleasant story but Pitman has
Never yet heard of a Civet being trapped near a bees' nest, and considers the ratel
the real destroyer of hives. He believes that near Entebbe the Civet is primarily
a vegetarian.
According to Stevenson Hamilton (1912), the normal cry of the Civet is a
kind of low-pitched cough, but it will utter a sort of growl when threatened
with danger.
A female killed near Serere contained four foetuses.

MISCELLANEOUS: The secretion from the large anal gland of the Civet was
once much prized as a base for perfumes, and the Abyssinians domesticated the
animal to obtain this valuable commodity. The secretion, which is the colour
and consistency of yellow cheese, was extracted at regular intervals by means
of a small wooden spoon. It was then packed into bullock horns and exported
to Europe. Thomas Bewick, in his General History of Quadrupeds, published
towards the end of the eighteenth century, says of the Civet: "Numbers of
them are kept in Holland, for the purpose of collecting this valuable perfume.
The civet procured in Amsterdam is more esteemed than that which comes from
the Levant or India, being less adulterated. To collect the perfume the Civet
is put in a cage so narrow that it cannot turn itself; the cage is opened at one
end and the animal drawn backwards by the tail and securely held by the hind
legs: a small spoon is then introduced into the pouch, which contains the
perfume, with which it is carefully scraped, and the matter put into a vessel
properly secured. This operation is performed two or three times a week.
The quantity depends much on the quality of the nourishment and the appetite
of the animal, which always produces more in proportion to the goodness of
its food. Boiled flesh, eggs, rice, small animals, birds and particularly fish are
the kind of food the Civet most delights in. .It requires little water; and
though it drinks seldom, it discharges its urine frequently. It is somewhat
remarkable that in this operation the male is not to be distinguished from the

female The ancients were well acquainted with the pomatum of the
Civet and ascribed to it certain powers of exciting love; for which purpose it
still constitutes one of the luxuries of the East. What has been fabulously
related concerning the uncertainty of sex in the hyaena1 applies much more
strongly to the Civet, for in the male nothing appears externally but three
apertures so perfectly similar to those of the female that it is impossible to
distinguish the sex otherwise than by dissection."
The Civet when captured young is rapidly tamed and can be handled with-
out fear; one specimen is recorded to have lived thirteen years in captivity.
Loveridge obtained two Civet kittens when they could just walk, their feet
being huge and out of proportion to theirbodies. When first received they
hissed like snakes when approached and gave vent to "startlingly sudden
spitting noises ". After a few weeks they became perfectly domesticated.

GENETTA GENETTA NEUMANNI Matschie. Bushy-tailed Genet.
Teso: Emiris, imirisia; also Alisibat, alisiban. Karamojong Emiris,
DISTRIBUTION: The Common Genet is widespread throughout Teso in
suitable localities, but does not appear to extend its range into Karamoja where
it is replaced by the Bushy-tailed Genet. The Common Genet is recorded
from many parts of Uganda including Bunyoro, Mengo and Kigezi but, as far
as I am aware, the Bushy-tailed Genet is only known from Karamoja.
DESCRIPTION: The Genets are somewhat similar to small cats in general
appearance but possess proportionately much shorter legs, much larger bodies
and longer faces than any cat. They are always profusely spotted and the tail
is conspicuously marked with alternate dark and pale rings. The ground colour
and the colour of the spots, which tend to form horizontal rows, vary consider-
ably. The two species under consideration are similar in size: head and body,
18 in. to 20 in.; tail, 12 in. to 13 in. The vernacular name emeris-a combina-
tion of the two words emir, rat, and eris, leopard, the combined word meaning
a rat-like leopard-is not entirely inappropriate.
The fur of the Common Genet is short and there is no trace of a dorsal
mane. The ground colour is usually a dirty sandy-buff, but I have seen one
specimen from Kumam in which it was rich deep chestnut. There is a thin
but well-defined dorsal stripe, a mere pencil line over the nape but about
in. wide in the centre of the back. The stripe tends to narrow again towards
the root of the tail and continues on the upper side of the tail, linking the
dark rings together. The colour of the lozenge-shaped spots may be black,
black intermixed with chestnut or, as in one specimen from Ajeluk in Teso, all
medium brown. The hair of the tail is short, between I in. and I in. long.
The Bushy-tailed Genet is very similar in size and general shape to the
Common Genet but the black dorsal line is well-marked and the hair along it
1 The spotted hyaena, like the Civet, possesses a subcaudal pouch. This has given
rise to the superstition that it is dual sexually.

forms a distinct crest especially noticeable on the hind portion of the back.
The tail is bushy, with hairs l1 in. to 2 in. long ; the prolongation of the dorsal
stripe on the upper side of the tail is not so well-marked as in the Common
Genet. The spots are black with a touch of chestnut on a background of
sandy-buff. Genets carry five toes on each limb; they are furnished with
semi-retractile claws.
BIOLOGY: In Teso the Genet is common in the well-wooded parts of the
District. Around Serere it is particularly abundant. In Karamoja the Bushy-
tailed Genet inhabits the thicket-and-forest fringe of the many watercourses,
e.g., that of the Lia river near Moroto and of the Kanyangereng at Amudat.
It is also recorded from Mt. Kadam where the late Mr. G. W. Foster trapped a
specimen with particularly pale markings.
The Genet is nocturnal although I have been shown skins which were
reported to be those of animals killed while abroad during the day. It usually
goes about singly or, sometimes, in pairs, and is often seen on roads at night,
when the long ringed tail is conspicuous. During the day the animal lies up in
hollow trees, among rocks and in holes of burrowing animals; and in such
places the young are born. These are usually two or three in number but I
have a record of four from Karamoja. An earth described by Loveridge
consisted of a circular chamber, unlined but perfectly clean, with two bolt
holes beneath the roots of a tree.
The Genet is reported to be an excellent climber, but I suspect it is not
entirely at home off the ground as I have seen many specimens killed both by
dogs and humans despite the presence of numerous trees into which they could
have rapidly escaped. Pitman, however, has more than once seen Genets
asleep by day in the topmost branches of large bushes, easily visible from the
The diet of the Genet consists of rodents, including hares, birds, guineafowl
and poultry, reptiles, frogs and insects. A young kitten reared by Loveridge
would only drink milk if sweetened with sugar to the consistency of treacle. It
drank water readily, although there was none anywhere in the neighbourhood of
the donga where it was found. It was also fond of jam and of locusts, and ate
the contents of birds' eggs.
Genets are not difficult to domesticate, and make delightful pets. Pitman
has known of many instances (once, in Lira, a litter of three) and states that in
every case they could be handled freely by anyone, without any risk of a bite.

Karamojong: Lojute.
DISTRIBUTION: I have only recorded the Dwarf Mongoose from Kara-
moja where, in suitable localities, it is very common.
DESCRIPTION: A small Mongoose, the head and body measuring 8 in. to
9 in., and the tail, 5 in. to 6 in. Like all Mongooses' it is characterized by
1 Not "mongeese ": the word is derived from the Tamil, manegos.

its proportionately long body, short legs, broad head, pointed muzzle (with the
characteristic vertical nose-groove of the Herpestinae), and short rounded ears.
The general colour of the upper parts is a rich finely-grizzled dark reddish-
brown, which is quite unlike the coloration of any other Mongoose likely to
be encountered in the District. The colour of the under parts is paler and
redder, while the feet are dark brown to black. The hairs at the base of the
tail are the longest and this results in a very marked tapering. The five toes
on each foot are provided with more or less straight non-retractile claws. This
is true of all Mongooses represented in Teso and Karamoja, but members of the
genus Helogale can be immediately separated from the others by having only
three pairs of pre-molar teeth in each jaw, the first of these being very close to
the canines. In the other genera, four pairs of pre-molars are found in each
jaw, except in the case of Crossarchus, but in that genus there is a definite gap
between canines and pre-molars.

BIOLOGY: I associate the Dwarf Mongoose, which appears to be diurnal,
with broken rocky terrain and stony .outcrops, e.g., Moruita near Kadam,
Amuda, and Lokitanyala. I have observed it singly, in small parties of two or
three and, once, in a pack of a dozen or more individuals. Hopkins saw one
on a rocky outcrop near Kotido which was inhabited by the rock hyrax: the
latter paid little attention to the Mongoose. As they scamper about the rocks
Dwarf Mongooses twitter in a somewhat bird-like manner. They are active
little creatures and, as Heller notes, make a definite rustling noise in their
incessant search for food among the leaves and brushwood.
Members of the genus Helogale will occupy holes at the foot of trees, or
deserted termite nests, but they do not appear to have fixed abodes. I have no
note of the food of the Dwarf Mongoose, but it is likely to consist largely of
insects and reptiles, small rodents, and birds' eggs. In south-east Africa one
species is said to be most partial to hens' eggs which it breaks by throwing them
back with its forepaws between its hindlegs against a stone.
Shortridge, quoting Hamilton, states that in the South African species
there are usually two or three young. Although holes are normally occupied
for parturition, the mother will on occasions construct a nest in the long grass.
Shortridge adds that the Dwarf Mongoose is said to become exceptionally tame
in captivity.

HERPESTES ICHNEUMON FUNESTUS (Osgood). Grey Mongoose, Egyptian
Teso: Eworiwori, iworiworia. Karamojong: Lotuba, ngilotubai
(Ekosimaiteng in Jie county).
TAXONOMY: A specimen of Grey Mongoose sent to the Coryndon Museum
from Karamoja agrees quite well with examples of the race funestus, the type
locality of which is Naivasha, Kenya. The Museum's specimens of funestus
are somewhat redder than that from Karamoja, but this may be due to soil
stain. Specimens from Teso are undistinguishable from those from Karamoja.

DISTBUTION: Common throughout Teso and not uncommon in Kara-
moja where it inhabits localities with a thick, dense vegetation (e.g., riverain
bush near Moroto) in preference to the more open scrub of the central plains.
DESCRIPTION: The Grey Mongoose measures: head and body, about
20 in.; tail, 16 in. The general colour is dark brown, coarsely speckled with
dirty-white to cream, an effect which is due to the dark brown and white to
light-buff banding of the individual hairs. The short hairs around the eyes and
nostrils are almost black. There is a slight but obvious rufous tinge on the
hindquarters and tail. The hairs of the basal portion of the tail are very much
longer than the rest, making that portion extremely thick in contrast with the
slender apical portion which is noticeably black-tipped, the black hairs being
about 2 in. in length. The feet, with five toes in each limb, are dark brown
with fine pale 'ticking', in contrast to the lighter shade of brown of the under
parts. The claws are non-retractile.
BIOLOGY : The Grey Mongoose is frequently encountered during the day,
slinking across road or path in a somewhat reptilian manner, with the tail
slightly raised above the level of the back. The black tail-tuft is then most
noticeable and I have heard the animal referred to on this account by the not
inappropriate name 'Lion-tailed Mongoose'. I have usually met it singly, but
on two occasions in pairs and once in a party of three. Its diet is mixed and
includes insects, birds (including poultry), reptiles, crocodiles' eggs, and small
rodents. It takes to the water readily and swims well; in some parts of Africa
it is reported to be very destructive to fish.
I have frequently met the Grey Mongoose far from water and I assume it
can exist for long periods without a drink. On the break of the rains in 1948,
after the first heavy shower, I observed one drinking from a puddle in the road
near Opopwa and subsequently saw three refreshing themselves in the same
manner near Moroto.
I believe it makes a good pet; I have seen a young one running about a
house a few days after capture.

ICHNEUMIA ALBICAUDA IBEANA (Thomas). White-tailed Mongoose.
Teso: Ekokwasi, ikokwasia. Karamojong: Ekokwasi, ngikokwasia.
DISTRIBUTION: The White-tailed Mongoose is almost ubiquitous through-
out Teso; very common in Karamoja, particularly in the less arid parts. It
is reported from many other places in Uganda, including localities as far apart
as Gulu and Entebbe.
DESCRIPTION: The largest and most conspicuous of the four species of
Mongooses occurring either in Teso or Karamoja. Measurements: head and
body, between 18 in. and 24 in.; tail, between 16 in. and 20 in.
The general colour is grey, the colour being produced by broad white
bands on otherwise black hairs. The limbs are black and are without' ticking',
except on a few hairs. There is considerable variation in the shade of the long
and untidy fur and Hopkins suggests that this variation may be connected with

the degree of wear of the coat as the palest of the specimens examined by him
was in worn coat while the darker ones seemed to be in much fresher coat.
The English name is not entirely satisfactory as dark- and black-tailed
specimens are not uncommon. The tail is long-haired and very bushy, usually
with a considerable admixture of white hairs ; the tip, in many cases, but by no
means in all, is pure white. There does not appear to be any association between
black-tailed and dark-coated specimens. At Ngora, the majority of specimens
brought to me were dark-tailed without the white tip.
An adult female is stated to have weighed ten pounds.

BIOLOGY: The White-tailed Mongoose is found in very similar localities
to the Grey Mongoose, but is undoubtedly much more abundant. I have
never seen it by day and believe it to- be almost entirely nocturnal, but in
suitable localities it is one of the commonest of the night wanderers, usually
occurring singly but occasionally in pairs. It shows no aversion to human
habitations and I have seen it well within the boundaries of Soroti township
and close to the houses at Moroto. During the day it lies up in some burrow
or among rocks. Its diet is similar to that of other Mongooses and includes
prey up to the size of guineafowl and hares. Pitman believes that at times it
is to a great extent vegetarian but records also that in his experience it is, in
some parts of Africa, a particularly relentless and deadly killer of domesticated
fowls, though in both Kampala and Entebbe, where this Mongoose is abundant,
he has never known it to attempt to take fowls, even when the birds have been
left out in the open at night.
On one occasion when I was driving over the Moroto aerodrome in a car
fitted with a powerful spotlight, a large number of White-tailed Mongooses and
many hares were caught in the beam, and I assumed the former were preying
on the latter. When a Mongoose became caught in the beam, it was possible
to approach within a few yards of the creature, which sat and groomed itself
quite unconcerned by the purring of the engine. At Lira an enterprising
specimen made two attacks on a half-grown tame duiker, the second attack
proving fatal to both animals, the Mongoose being shot and the duiker dying
of lung injuries inflicted by the Mongoose's claws. Roosevelt (1910) describes
an interesting encounter between a tame White-tailed Mongoose and a small
puff-adder. The Mongoose, on seeing the snake, sprang towards it with every
hair in its body and tail on end, and halted five feet away ". After a second or
two the Mongoose seemed to lose all its excitement and, trotting up to the
snake, seized it by the middle of the back and settled down to its dinner. Like
lightning the snake's head whipped round; it drove its fangs deep into the
snout or lips of the Mongoose, hung on for a moment, and then repeated
the blow. The Mongoose paid not the least attention and went on munching
the snake's body." Having devoured head, fangs, poison and everything,
it subsequently showed no signs of having received any damage from its
experience. Presumably the snake did not have a normal dose of poison
Roosevelt also notes that the White-tailed Mongoose is the especial foe of
the tree hyrax-which as far as I know does not occur in Teso or Karamoja-and

that it will follow them everywhere among the tree-tops. "This mongoose ",
he continues, "is both terrestrial and arboreal in habits, and is hated by the
Ndorobo because it robs their honey buckets" (a statement which Pitman
A friend tells me that he ascribes a dog-like yapping call which he
frequently heard at night at Serere to this creature; Shortridge records that it
will bark like a small dog.
MISCELLANEOUS-: The skin of the White-tailed Mongoose is used in special
circumstances by Teso women in the construction of the sling in which they
carry young children on their backs. A childless woman will visit the emurwon
(the witch-doctor dealing in white-magic; as opposed to the ekapalan, an
essentially evil individual) to procure the necessary medicine to bring about a
birth. If she is successful and a child is born, it is the duty of the husband to
procure the skin of a White-tailed Mongoose as it is considered that such a
covering wards off disease. The child is called Apedumo, if a girl, or
Opeding, if a boy. The name is derived from the word for a hole; the child
is supposed to enter the house through a special small door cut for this purpose.

MYONAX SANGUINEUS RENDILIS (Lonnberg). Black-tipped Mongoose,
Slender Mongoose.
Teso: Echuli, ichulin or ichulia. Karamojong: Lotuba, ngilotubai.
TAXONOMY: Specimens from Karamoja agree quite well with the original
description of rendilis, the type locality of which is the thorn bush country north
of the Northern Guaso Nyiro river in Kenya. The Teso form appears similar
to that of Karamoja, although I have only been able to make a few comparisons.
DISTRBUTION: Common in Teso, less so in Karamoja and probably found
only in the less arid parts of this District.
DESCRIPTION: In general appearance the Slender Mongoose resembles a
miniature edition of the Egyptian Mongoose, the black tail-tip heightening the
similarity. On closer examination, however, it proves to be a decidedly better-
groomed creature, the fur being sleek and not long, and the tail short-haired
and not unduly thick at the base. Measurements are: head and body, 11 in.
to 12 in.; tail, 9 in. to 10 in. The general colour of the upper parts is pale
buff finely speckled with dark brown, the individual hairs being buff with two
or three rings of dark brown. The tips of the hairs are pale sandy yellow.
The colour is darkest in the region of the head and nape, and there is a slight
rufous tinge on the dorsal region. The feet and under side are plain sandy
orange without speckling. The tail, with the exception of the 2 in. black tip,
is speckled rufous and black and is somewhat richer in colour than the rest of
the body.
BIOLOGY: I have seen this Mongoose only in localities of thick under-
growth, e.g., Serere, Agu, Moruita near Kadam, and Napak, except that I once
found a dead one on a small rocky outcrop near the Kotipe river in the central
Karamoja plain. I caught my specimens in cage rat-traps baited with fresh

meat. As I have often seen it by day, I assume that it is mainly diurnal: I
have never observed more than one at a time. As a distance when crossing the
road it may be mistaken for a ground-squirrel, although the slender black-tipped
tail, usually held aloft with the tip slightly inclined to the front, is at once
Like all Mongooses, the Black-tipped species is active and predatory, feed-
ing on small rodents, birds, reptiles, eggs and insects. According to the Teso
it is particularly fond of poultry and catches them in a most ingenious manner.
It takes up position, remaining absolutely motionless, with its anus opened and
much extended. The inquisitive fowl, in search of food, inserts its head into
this likely-looking cavity and in a trice the anus is closed around its neck so
that the fowl's head is held firmly in its captor's rectum. The Mongoose then
drags off the fowl, still held in this manner, to some convenient spot and devours
it at its leisure. A usually reliable witness assures me that he has actually seen
an Echuli dragging off a victim in the manner described. Pitman comments
on this that in his experience'' reliable' witnesses of this amazing phenomenon
are numerous! He states that it is usually attributed to Atilax, the marsh
The Black-tipped Mongoose sleeps and breeds in some convenient burrow:
Shortridge notes that all members of the genus are good climbers and will
occasionally ascend trees to catch small birds.

Family: CANIDAE. Dogs, Jackals, Foxes.
LYCAON PICTUS LUPINUS Thomas. Hunting Dog, Wild Dog.
Teso: Epeet, ipeen. Karamojong: Epeot, ngipei.
DisTRmuBToN: The Hunting Dog is not very common in Karamoja but
is probably widely spread. I have a reliable note of its occurrence near
Kamion and have examined skins from Upe county. It is likely to appear
wherever large herds of antelope congregate and therefore probably still occurs
in the north-east of Teso, in which District it was at one time common. Mr.
A. L. Stephens tells me that a pack is reputed to have visited Serere in 1926 and
to have killed a domesticated dog there.
DESCRIPTION: The Hunting Dog stands 24 in.-30 in. at the shoulder and
measures about 46 in. in length from the nose to the tip of the tail, of which
about 10 in. is taken up by the tail; it weighs about 70 lb. Its chief charac-
teristics are the curious blotched coat of black, orange-yellow and white; the
large upstanding ears, the backs of which are black; and the bushy tail with
its white tip.
On the upper part of the body black blotches tend to predominate and
white spots are rare. The muzzle to the level of the eyes, and also the throat,
are black. The under surface is marbled black and white, without any yellow,
the two colours being sharply defined one from another. The limbs are black
proximally but are blotched black and white lower down; the digits are black
throughout. The tail is yellow proximally, black in the centre and white

terminally. The Hunting Dog is distinguished from all other members of the
family Canidae by possessing only four toes to each foot. Its front feet, unlike
those of the domesticated dog and the jackals, ar6 not provided with dew-claws.

BIOLOGY: The Hunting Dog is gregarious, running in small packs of twelve
to sixteen animals although larger troops of forty or more are not unknown.
It lives a nomadic life, moving about by day and night at a long untiring gallop,
following the herds of game as they move from place to place in search of
grazing and water. All species of game are attacked, including even cow-
buffalo, eland and young giraffe, the pack running down its prey in the manner
of well-versed foxhounds. G. A. G. Adamson, writing in Nature in East Africa,
No. 5, describes a magnificent greater kudu bull which had been brought to bay
by a pack of about thirty Wild Dogs. Evidently there had been a long chase ",
he writes, "and from signs on the ground the kudu had put up a tremendous
fight, and for the moment had succeeded in repelling the attacks of his adver-
saries. He was standing under a low tree, panting with exhaustion, with the
dogs lurking in the surrounding bush resting before renewing the attack."
Col. Stevenson Hamilton, in his book Animal Life in Africa, mentions that
even leopards are known to seek safety in trees on the approach of Hunting
Dogs. Brocklehurst records that he saw three Hunting Dogs lying under a
tree in the shade in the middle of the day. He shot one, whereupon the other
two immediately fell on it and tore it to pieces.
The animal appears to be quite fearless of man, showing much curiosity
at his presence and leaping up out of the long grass to obtain a better view. I
can find no record of a man being attacked by Wild Dogs in East Africa, but
the South African author, L. G. Green, mentions in So Few are Free the case
of Wild Dogs attacking two policemen mounted on camels in South-West Africa.
The Wild Dog's usual call is a soft, far-reaching and not un-musical hoo-
hoo which it possibly utters as a means of keeping in contact with its fellows:
I have heard this peculiar baying on a moonlight night at Amudat. When
suddenly alarmed it will utter a short hoarse bark. I have heard only these
two types of call, but the animal is said to utter a voluble chattering rather like
monkeys when really excited. Brocklehurst records that on one occasion the
leader of a pack of about fourteen Hunting Dogs in pursuit of an impala was
running mute, but the rest of the pack were in full cry. "I shot the leader",
he writes, when the rest of the pack pulled up on their hocks and commenced
barking like ordinary dogs."
The pups, up to a dozen, are born in large burrows, often only ant-bear
earths somewhat enlarged for the purpose, into which dry grass is brought to
line the nest. Sometimes more than one female will share the burrow and
establish a common nursery. The gestation period is about 60 to 63 days.

MISCELLANEOUS: The pelt of the Hunting Dog possesses a peculiarly strong
and unpleasant odour and is therefore a most undesirable object to' handle.
Some African tribes consider the tongue of the Wild Dog to be worth eating.
The spoor is rather small for the size of the animal and resembles that of
a medium sized dog.

Brocklehurst recalls a Hunting Dog which was kept as a pet for several
years. It was devoted to its master and followed him everywhere. When on
trek it would range about thirty or forty yards on one side of him, but never
attempted to run away.
Lopei near Kangole is so called because it is the home of a group of
Karamojong whose totem is the Hunting Dog.

THOS MESOMELAS ELGONAE Heller. Black-backed Jackal, Saddle-backed
Karamojong: Kwee, ngikweei.
DISTRIBUTION: This Jackal is very common and widespread throughout
the central plain of Karamoja. It may occur in Teso but is generally associated
with acacia thorn-scrub rather than grassy woodlands.

DESCRIPTION: The Black-backed Jackal is a particularly handsome creature
resembling in appearance a medium-sized dog with pointed fox-like ears, 31 in.
to 4 in. long, and a black-tipped bushy tail. Measurements: head and body,
20 in. to 22 in.; tail, about 12 in. ; weight, about 20 lb.
The back appears silvery owing to the black and white coloration of the
hairs. A black line about in. wide separates the dark back from the rich
rufous of the flanks. The chin and throat are whitish, the rest of the under
parts are buff with the hairs quite grey basally. The backs of the ears are
tawny brown.

BIOLOGY: Owing to its bold and alert nature, the Black-backed Jackal,
often in pairs, is commonly seen by day watching passers-by on the Karamoja
roads. It shows little anxiety of motor cars and human beings and its whole
bearing and carriage is far removed from the conventional description of the
Jackal as slinking and cowardly. By night, especially in the early hours, it
draws attention to its presence by its very characteristic call which consists of a
succession of sharp high-pitched yelps. The vernacular name Kwee expresses
the sound very well.
All forms of small animal life, including the young of the lesser antelopes,
are included in the diet of the Jackal. It haunts the outskirts of villages picking
up carrion and other refuse, and is even reputed to dig up groundnuts. Short-
ridge notes that in the farming districts of South Africa it has developed, on
account of the increasing scarcity of its natural food, the habit of sheep-killing,
and that owing to systematic trapping it has become increasingly cunning,
wary and suspicious.
The young, which are born in a suitable cave or burrow (often a vacated
ant-bear earth), range from two to six; in South Africa three or four appear to
be the usual number. Cloete, quoted by Shortridge, states that the parents
are rarely found in the holes with the young ones but generally lie up in the
nearest patch of bush.

THOS ADUSTUS BWEHA Heller. Elgon Side-striped Jackal.
Teso: Ekwee, ikweei. Karamojong: Oloo (no plural recorded).
DISTRIUTION: I believe that this is the Jackal which is reported to occur
in the more lonely parts of Teso, and I have seen the skin of a specimen reputed
to have come from theBugondo hills. I have not examined a skin from Karamoja
but Hopkins has a record of this Jackal from Kotido. From conversation with
the Karamojong it is evident that their Oloo is a form of Jackal and I am
inclined to equate this with the Side-striped Jackal. The Oloo seldom
approaches human dwellings and is found in the more open parts of the district,
particularly the extensive "black cotton soil" plains. It does not frequent the
thorn scrub.

DESCRIPTION: The Side-striped Jackal is a somewhat larger animal than
the black-backed jackal and has been likened to a small Alsatian dog.
Measurements: head and body, 28 in.; tail, 12 in. The ears, the backs of
which are dark brown, are comparatively short and are upright and pointed.
The upper side is grizzled black and pale buff, the proportion of black being
greatest on a broad central band extending from the neck to tail. On the flanks
the light vermiculations are less pronounced, and this gives rise to an ill-defined
black horizontal stripe, noticeable particularly in dead specimens, running along
each side. The lower flanks are grizzled grey-brown, the limbs are tawny, and
the under parts ochraceous-rufous with the hairs grey bagally. The tail is
greyish with an ill-defined dorsal black band, a black area before the tip and a
more or less white tip.

BIOLOGY: I have not seen the Side-striped Jackal alive either in Teso or
Karamoja, and I assume it to be almost entirely nocturnal. I saw a pair of
Jackals in the open country near Moruakapi in the Southern Sudan which I
believe belonged to the species. With drooping tails and heads held low, they
were slinking about in the vicinity of a large herd of Mongalla gazelle. I
cannot recollect hearing the Side-striped Jackal in Karamoja but elsewhere at
night I have heard a kind of yapping bark-lower in pitch and more dog-like
than the cry of the black-backed jackal-which I believe was made by this
The diet of the two species is similar, although Shortridge considers
adustus to be more timid than mesomelas and less inclined to worry small game.
According to the Karamojong it is very partial to the brains of the ostrich
which it captures in a particularly cunning manner. It crawls up to a flock of
feeding ostriches and then, selecting a suitable acacia tree, rises on its hind legs
and clasps the trunk with its forelegs at the same time placing its head close
to the bark, so that Jackal and tree become indistinguishable. Sooner or later
a foolish ostrich approaches and believing the amber-brown eyes of the Jackal
to be tasty beads of gum makes a peck at them and falls an easy victim to the
waiting Jackal. Only the brains are consumed; the rest of the corpse is left
to the vultures. I have been told that the Jackal will deliberately close one
eye to make the deception more complete!

The Jackal is also reported to eat ostrich eggs: P. J. le Riche, writing in
the Countryman, Vol. XXXVI, No. 2, comments on the fact that an ostrich nest
may lie in the open in almost perfect safety but that Jackals will invariably
find it if it has been visited by a human being, the nest being robbed when the
male bird is absent.
Percival states that in Kenya the Jackal breeds in a large earth (often sited
on the side of a hill), the same earth being used year after year. The usual
number of young is four to six, but a female containing twelve foetuses has been
recorded from South Africa. The nursing mother is not without courage and
will put up a good fight in defence of her young:
MISCELLANEOUS: The Jackal makes an interesting pet and is easily and
quickly domesticated. According to Percival, cross-breeding with the
domesticated dog often occurs. He adds that affinity between the dog and
Jackal is shown by the fact that a hound will not willingly attack a female
Jackal at certain seasons.

OTOCYON MEGALOTIS (Desmarest) subsp. Big-eared Fox, Bat-eared Fox.
Karamojong: Ameguri, ngamegurio.
TAXONOMY: The few skins of this Fox which I have examined from
Karamoja agree fairly well with the account of the race virgatus described
by Miller from Naivasha in Kenya, but Pitman who compared a skin from
Karamoja with specimens at the Coryndon Museum tells me that the ears of
virgatus are very much paler than those of the Big-eared Fox of Karamoja.
When I drew up my Systematic List, I had no concrete evidence that this little
Fox occurred in Karamoja.
DISTRIBUTION: The animal appears to be very well known to the Kara-
mojong and to be widely distributed throughout the flat central plain of
DESCRIPTION: The Big-eared Fox is not unlike a small jackal with large
prominent ears and shortish legs. Measurements: head and body, 20 in.;
tail, 11 in.; weight, about 8 lb. It stands 10 in.-12 in. at the shoulder. The
upper parts are grizzled black and pale cream buff, the individual hairs being
black with a band of buff a little below the tip. The back is darker, particularly
between the shoulders where the fur is long and untidy. The under parts are
paler, suffused with orange; the throat is almost pure buff. The fore limbs
are dark brown to black and, in the specimen now before me, there is a definite
suggestion of a narrow dark girdle running from elbow to elbow over the
shoulders and a similar band on the hinder parts from one haunch to the other
through the root of the tail. The ears are buffish brown at the base, dark
brown in the centre and black at the tips. The tail is a grizzle of black and
brown with a dark dorsal stripe and a black tip 2 in.-3 in. long.
BIOLOGY: I have myself not seen the Big-eared Fox by day but others
have, and it is therefore not entirely nocturnal. It moves about singly or in
pairs, or sometimes in small parties: one such party was reported to me

between Moruita and Amudat. During the day it takes cover in some thicket
of bush or grass but if disturbed will, according to local opinion, rapidly run
to earth in its nearby home, perhaps an ant-bear or porcupine burrow. Percival
notes that these Foxes may sometimes be seen lying out in the sun close to the
entrance of their earths which are large with many openings and occupied by
a small colony. The animal is slow of foot and when running carries its brush
to one side or sometimes quite high. Many are killed by the dogs of the
Karamojong who value the brush as part of the full dress head ornament
(aloket). According to McInnes, writing in the Guide to the Animals of the
Nairobi National Park, the animal crouches, when slightly alarmed, lowering
its head and laying the ears flat and projecting outwards.
It feeds largely on insects especially termites, but also on mice, eggs, roots,
groundnuts and occasionally carrion. Shortridge states that the Big-eared
Fox has a rather thin call, which although not so loud is not unlike that of the
European fox.
Two to five cubs are born at a time in some suitable burrow; the period
of gestation is 60 to 70 days.

Family: MUSTELIDAE. Polecats, Otters, etc.
Subfamily: MUSTELINAE.
ICTONYX STRIATUS ALBESCENS Heller. Greater African Skunk, Zorilla,
African Polecat.
Teso: Ikolimony, ikolimonga. Karamojong: Naurungorok (plural not
TAXONOMY: The type locality of albescens is Lololokwi on the Northern
Guaso Nyiro river in Kenya, but Heller also records specimens of this race from
Nairobi, and it is known to occur on Mt. Elgon. It is probable, therefore, that
its range includes much of Kenya and eastern Uganda. The race is character-
ized by the extensive white areas of the head and body, the white face markings
coalescing and forming a broad band across the forehead. The white of the
back is also very extensive, the black areas on nape and shoulders being reduced
to narrow bands.
DISTRmBUTION: I have obtained only two Zorilla specimens, both juveniles,
one at Ajeluk in Teso and one at Moroto. The animal is probably widespread
in both districts, particularly Karamoja, where it is well known but nowhere
very common. I showed the skin of my Ajeluk specimen to many natives of
Teso and all expressed astonishment, stating that they had never seen such a
creature before.
DESCRIPTION: The general appearance of the Zorilla is stoat-like, but the
hair is longer than that of a stoat, whilst the colour pattern is reminiscent of
that of the North American skunk. Its measurements are (male): head and
body, about 15 in.; tail, 10 in. to 12 in. The female, in South Africa at any
rate, is considerably smaller.

The upper parts are white, with three black bands running from the head
to the tail where they merge into one. The under parts, including the legs,
are pure black. The black of the dorsal line broadens out to form a large oval
patch on the hinder part of the back, but on the nape and shoulders all the
stripes are reduced to very narrow lines. The white areas separating the black
of the under parts from the black lateral stripes are, broader than the white
areas lying between the dorsal stripe and the lateral stripes. The black of the
under side extends up to the head to form a frontal headband which passes
through the base of the rounded ears. The ears are black below but white
above. The nose and the area around the eyes are black but there is a con-
spicuous broad band of white across the forehead. Two very narrow bands
running between the eyes connect the black of the frontal band with the black
area around the eyes. The fur is long and makes the animal look rather untidy.
The tail, which is not very bushy (thus differing from the true skunk), is blackish
at the base, becoming whiter towards the apex.
BIOLOGY: The Zorilla is entirely nocturnal and solitary in habit, spending
the day in crevices among rocks or in a burrow of its own or some other
creature's making. In South Africa it has been known to take up its abode
under the floor of a house or in the loft of an outhouse. I have never seen this
animal alive. Unlike most night wanderers, it seldom exposes itself on the
road, and I have yet to meet a motorist who has observed it in the glare of his
headlamps. Its diet is mixed, consisting of birds, frogs, reptiles, locusts and
possibly carrion. It is said to move at an easy trot with the tail carried in a
horizontal position. According to South African observers, it utters when
cornered a succession of angry screams; when annoyed it erects the hairs on
the nape, curls its tail over its back and in defence of itself may eject a powerful
scent from the anal gland. This is said to be less acrid than that of the
American skunk. The Zorilla is very tenacious of life and will sham death for
half an hour or more. South African observers state that two or three young
are born at a time; at birth they are pink, bald and blind. In captivity the
Zorilla becomes tame and friendly.

MELLIVORA CAPENSIS subsp. Ratel, Honey Badger.
Karamojong: Ekorri, ngikorrio.
TAXONOMY: Two races of the Honey Badger have been described from
East Africa, maxwelli by Thomas from the Lorian Swamp, and sagulata by
Hollister from Mt. Kilimanjaro. A third form, cotton, was described by
Lydekker from a melanistic specimen collected in the Ituri forest and it is
probable that specimens from western Ugaqda belong to this race. The range
sagulata is known to extend as far north at the Mau hills near Ravine- in
Kenya. Unfortunately subspecific identification depends on the skull, and my
only specimen is a flat skin.
DISTRIBUTION: In my Systematic List I did not include the Honey Badger
because when I drew it up I had no positive evidence that the animal occurred