Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Selection of teachers
 Teacher placement
 Professional stability and...
 Enlisting and educating teacher...
 The status of teachers in...

Group Title: Florida program for improvement of schools
Title: Providing better teachers for Florida schools
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080770/00001
 Material Information
Title: Providing better teachers for Florida schools
Series Title: Florida program for improvement of schools
Physical Description: vi, 123 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Florida work-conference on school administrative problems. University of Florida, Gainesville, 1940
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahasse Fla
Publication Date: 1940
Copyright Date: 1940
Subject: Teachers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Prepared at the University of Florida. Florida work-conference on school administrative problems. Edgar L. Morphet, director, State department of education. Colin English, state superintendant.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080770
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - ADJ8739
oclc - 18117010
alephbibnum - 000658568
lccn - e 41000361

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Selection of teachers
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Teacher placement
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Professional stability and growth
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Enlisting and educating teacher personnel
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    The status of teachers in Florida
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
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        Page 123
        Page 124
Full Text



Better Teachers


Florida Schools

Florida Program
For Improvement of Schools

Bulletin No. 15
December, 1940

Prepared at the
University of Florida

Edgar L. Morphet, Director

Colin English, State Superintendent
Tallahassee, Florida


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1 641 C3~r;l~-C O~i i ~J y)
sio~t, .c~i


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M. W. Carothers, Director of Instruction, State Depart-
ment of Education.
Edgar L. Morphet, Director of Administration and
Finance, State Department of Education.
James S. Rickards, Executive Secretary, Florida Educa-
tion Association.
T. George Walker, Supervisor of Pupil Transportation
and Manager of State Textbook Service, State De-
partment of Education.

Hal N. Black, Dean, Shenandoah Junior High, Miami.
Lula Beatty Blakey, Teacher, Orlando Senior High
Pauline Carlberg, Teacher, St. Petersburg.
Mrs. Sarah Goodman, Teacher, Memorial Junior High
School, Orlando.

John I. Leonard, Superintendent, Palm Beach County.
E. L. Robinson, Superintendent, Hillsborough County.
W. C. Carter, Board Member, Osceola County.
Mrs. Ralston Wells, Board Member, Volusia County.
Mrs. Pattie Day Miller, Trustee, Palm Beach County.
F. W. Buchholz, Supervising Principal, Gainesville.
Miss Florence Hughes, Principal, West Riverside Ele-
mentary School, Jacksonville.
Miss Alice Kahl, Supervisor of Personnel, Dade County.
R. L. Eyman, Dean, College of Education, Florida State
College for Women.
J. W. Norman, Dean, College of Education, University
of Florida.

Sponsored by
The Research Committee
of the
Florida Education Association

. ... .... .'.:
... '. .' : l .:: i ".


From the point of view of the welfare of the pupils,
no school can be satisfactory unless it has a staff of
competent teachers. One of the basic functions of school
administration, therefore, is to secure and to retain the
most competent teachers possible for each school in the
system. Procedures that will assure stronger and more
capable teaching personnel for all schools should be of
concern to everyone interested in school progress.
While Florida, undoubtedly, has a larger per cent
of well-trained and competent teachers today than ever
before, there are still many counties in the State and
still some schools in every county in which there are
teachers who are not at all qualified for or adapted to
the type of service they are expected to render. Every-
one at all familiar with the schools of the State knows
that there are many problems relating to the teaching
profession which are far from solved. Only by a careful
study of the problems and by an analysis of the issues
can a satisfactory solution ever be found.
This bulletin is devoted to a study of the administra-
tive problems involved in the training, selection, place-
ment, and improvement in service of the teachers in
Florida. It is written from the point of view of the public
school teachers and administrators rather than from the
point of view of the college teacher or research specialist.
The bulletin presents an administrative program worthy
of study by all who are interested in improving teachers
and teaching in the State. It should, as the title indicates,
help to provide better teachers for Florida schools.
This is one of a series of related bulletins and hand-
books in the field of school administration, produced by
committees comprising the Florida Work-Conference on
School Administrative Problems at the University of
Florida during the summer of 1940.

State Superintendent of Public Instruction



Chapter Page

I. SELECTION OF TEACHERS ---------------------------------- 1
Problems and Issues in Teacher Selection ------ 2
Who Should Make the Selection? ---------- 10
How Should Selections Be Made? _-------- 18
What Criteria Should Be Used in the
Selection of Teachers? __------------- 23
Problems of Supply and Demand ---------- 28
Summary ----------------------------- 33

II. TEACHER PLACEMENT ------------------------------------ 34
Placement Problems Arising Within
the School System -------------------_ 34
Problems of Placing Teachers in Service __---_ 44
Ethics in Selection and Placement of Teachers_ 50

Policies of School Officials _--------------- 53
Policies of Professional Organizations --_---_ 54
Administrative Incentives to Stability _----- 55
Administrative Incentives to Growth of Teachers 65
Personal and Professional Growth of Teachers__ 74

Definite Program Needed ------------------78
Professional Enlistment of Prospective Teachers 79
Guidance in Selection of Prospective Teachers -- 85
Teacher Education Programs --------------- 88
Program for Internship and Apprenticeship
Teaching -------------------------- 94


Chapter Page

Some Significant Trends -------------------102
Number and Types of Positions ---------106
Teachers Load ------- ---------------107
Sex and Age Groups ------ ----------109
Residence of Teachers ---- -------------111
Size of School and Number of Classes --------112
Training of Teachers ---------- -------113
Tenure and Experience of Teachers --------118
Certificates Held by Teachers ------- ---120
Salaries and Dependents of Teachers ------121
In Conclusion ------- ---------------122



Better teachers always mean better schools; better
schools mean better trained citizenry and a stronger
nation. Procedures which will result in the selection of
capable and well-qualified teachers constitute one of the
most promising and important means of assuring better
teachers for all schools of the state. Selection of teachers
therefore is a problem of prime importance.

A brief study of the situation in Florida shows that
many persons are being selected for and assigned to
teaching positions each year who are not well-qualified
for the work to which they are assigned. In 1939-40 for
example: 51 third grade, 51 second grade, 11 first grade,
41 special and 3 primary certificates were issued to white
teachers in the state on the basis of examinations. Many
of these persons had little or no college training and a
large percentage of them were assigned to teaching posi-
tions in the state. In addition to persons with limited
training who are being appointed to fill vacancies each
year, it is a well-known fact that there are still a great
many persons being certificated on the basis of college
credentials who are not well-adapted to teaching.

Of course, the selection of teachers cannot yet be
placed on a purely scientific basis. There is no means of
assuring that every teacher who is certificated or who is
appointed to a position will become a competent teacher.
However, if certain procedures could be uniformly fol-
lowed in the selection of teachers a number of major
improvements over the present situation would quickly


It should be obvious that as long as poorly qualified
persons continue to be selected for and assigned to teach-
ing positions the schools are going to be handicapped.
If procedures could be such as to assure that even 95
per cent of the persons selected for teaching positions
over the next two years would be properly qualified and
capable of becoming competent teachers, a marked im-
provement in the school program would be assured. A
larger proportion of properly qualified new teachers
would mean an improved educational program for the
children, and this improvement would result sooner or
later in more adequate support for the school system of
the state.
The best method of selecting teachers for the schools
is that method which makes as nearly inevitable as pos-
sible the appointment of persons who are best qualified
and most competent and which prevents the appointment
of persons who are inadequately prepared or are incap-
able of serving satisfactorily as teachers.
The term teacher as used throughout this bulletin
is used in a broad sense, as in the School Law. It is in-
tended to apply to and to include all members of the
instructional staff. The instructional staff is defined by
law as including supervisors and principals, as well as
librarians and other members of the professional staff
who have definite instructional responsibilities.

A brief study of the present situation in Florida
brings to light the fact that practices and procedures in
the selection of teachers vary greatly. There are some
communities in the State in which almost all practices
and procedures are of a high order. There are other
communities in which almost the opposite is true. In
these latter communities, the selection or retention of a
capable teacher is usually more largely the result of
chance than of a definite objective and plan.


It is obvious that there are two phases or aspects
of the problem of selecting teachers. One is concerned
with the selection of new or beginning teachers, while
the other is concerned with the reselection after teachers
have been in service and have to be considered for re-
appointment. In general the procedures and principles
which are applicable in the selection of teachers are also
applicable in the reselection; however, there is usually
much better opportunity to secure information and to
evaluate services of teachers who have already been ap-
pointed. Usually reselection resolves itself into the pro-
cess of determining which teachers are most capable
and of replacing those teachers who resign or who are
least successful with others who are more competent.
Some of the outstanding problems and issues in
teacher selection in Florida today are discussed briefly
below. Some of these which need more complete analysis
are dealt with under separate headings later in the
Qualifications Not Defined. There are two phases
to this problem. In the first place, research has not yet
shown conclusively what qualifications are needed to
make a good teacher. In general, the requirements which
are now commonly recognized as basic are incorporated
in certificate regulations, and teachers who are properly
certificated are assumed to be qualified to teach on the
levels or in the fields for which they hold certificates.
However, the fact that a teacher is certificated does not
mean that he is qualified to hold a particular position,
or even that he will be successful in any position.
In the second place, many local and county boards
have not yet prescribed or attempted to prescribe quali-
fications for the various types of positions. Most posi-
tions do not require just a person certificated to teach
certain subjects, but require a teacher who, in addition,
has certain qualifications needed for that particular posi-
tion in the schools. Moreover, there are many persons
in the state still holding old types of certificates based on


examination rather than training. If the County Board
has not prescribed any standards of training or any
special qualifications, any person who is certificated may
be nominated and appointed to a position and the level
of training of teachers in the county may be lowered in-
stead of improved. The County Board is authorized by
law to prescribe standards which must be met by all
teachers appointed in the county. Unless such standards
are prescribed, there is no assurance that the teachers
appointed will meet those standards.

Recommendations: The school officials of each
county should carefully determine the qualifica-
tions of teachers now employed in the county and
should prescribe higher qualifications for new
teachers as a means of raising standards. The
officials should not be satisfied until they have
eventually prescribed for all new teachers the re-
quirements o' college graduation with proper
certification in the subject fields to be taught by
the teacher. All competent teachers now in serv-
ice should be given a reasonable time to meet
these requirements.
Requirements for Positions Not Defined. The require-
ments for positions vary not only on the basis of the grade
or grades and the subject matter fields in which the
teacher is teaching, but also vary somewhat in terms of
communities of school-. The selection of teachers cannot
be considered entirely apart from placement. In many
instances, school officials have been satisfied to select
teachers merely on the basis of the fact that they are
certificated to teach in the fields in which there is a
vacancy and have not given proper consideration to the
question of whether the applicant has the necessary
qualifications to meet the requirements for the position.

Recommendations: Requirements for each com-
munity and for each position in the county should
be as carefully and as fully prescribed as possible.
Teachers should then be selected to meet the re-
quirements of these various positions.


Responsibility for Initiating the Selection of Teach-
ers Has Not Been Fully Determined. In numerous in-
stances, the selection of teachers has been initiated by
a trustee or by the trustees of a district. In other in-
stances, the selection has been initiated by a County
Board member or by the entire County Board. In some
cases, the initial recommendation comes from the County
Superintendent and, in many schools, from the principal.
There have even been instances where the selection,
particularly for reappointment, has been initiated by
petition of the people, although such a procedure has no
standing in law. The matter of who should select teach-
ers is of such importance that it is more fufly discussed
later in this chapter.

Recommendations: The initial recommendation
for the selection of a teacher should always be
made by the person or group in best position to
know and appreciate fully the qualifications of
the individual under consideration, as well as the
qualifications needed for the position.
The Items of Information Which Should Be Available
Are Not Fully Agreed Upon. School officials are some-
times satisfied merely to receive applications and to act
upon the basis of those applications. In other cases,
school officials have a definite list of items of informa-
tion deemed by them to be necessary concerning each
applicant, and make a conscious effort to secure com-
plete information in each item.

Recommendations: The matter of the type of
formation to be secured from each applicant can-
not safely be left to chance. There should be
a comprehensive list of items of information con-
sidered to be necessary and a definite plan for
securing such information concerning each appli-
cant. Information concerning the hobbies, and
extra curricular interests and abilities, and con-
cerning the extra-school experiences of the in-
dividual is just as essential as the record of acad-
emic training.


Methods of Securing Information Vary. Teachers have
sometimes been selected on the basis of a general "to
whom it may concern" recommendation; sometimes on
the basis of personal appearance, and sometimes on other
bases. All too often, no systematic method of securing
information has been followed. Obviously, any method
which would result in securing only partial information
or in securing information from only chance applicants
is likely to result sooner or later in the selection of some
teachers who are not properly qualified.

Recommendations: The method of securing in-
formation about available persons should be such
as to result in getting alist of several persons who
seem to have qualifications which meet, at least
reasonably well, the requirements, and to assure
the assembling of all pertinent information re-
garding each such person. A better and wiser
selection can then be made.
Procedures Used in Evaluating Applicants Are Not
Uniform. In some counties, a personal interview is re-
quired. In other counties a photograph plus complete
information are considered necessary. In still other
counties, teachers may be selected merely on the basis
of the fact that they hold a certificate to teach and are
known to be available for appointment.

Recommendations: A plan which will insure
careful and complete evaluation of each appli-
cant's qualifications, including all points on which
information should be available, is essential to the
proper selection of teachers.
Requirements Relating to Previous Experience Vary.
In some school systems, a teacher will not even be con-
sidered unless he has had previous experience elsewhere.
In other school systems, the policy is followed of select-
ing, each year when there are vacancies to be filled, a
small proportion of properly qualified persons who have
not had teaching experience.


Recommendations: Each school system should
follow the policy of selecting promising qualified
persons without previous experience to fill some
of the vacancies each year. These persons should
be carefully assigned so that they can begin their
work under proper supervision and can get the
type of experience which will help them to de-
velop into competent teachers. The requirement
of previous experience is meaningless unless that
experience has been gained under favorable cir-

Nepotism Is Sometimes a Factor in Selection. In
prior years, there have been a number of situations in
the state where teachers have been assigned to positions
largely on the basis of the fact that they were related
to some trustee, to a County Board member or to some
other school official. The mere fact of relationship should
not play any part in the selection of teachers. No school
official should, at any time, bring pressure to bear to
secure the employment of a relative.

Recommendations: Teachers should be selected
on the basi- of merit and without reference to ex-
traneous matters. The teacher who seems to be
the best qualified for a given position should be
assigned to the position without regard to rela-
tionship. In ordinary situations, the wife, son,
daughter or any other close relative of a trustee
should not be assigned to a school in the district.

Local Teachers Are Frequently Favored. In many
communities, the policy of giving decided preference to
local teachers has been rigidly followed. Sometimes bet-
ter qualified teachers have been excluded merely because
they come from other communities. Such practices are
bound to result sooner or later in seriously handicapping
the schools. In fact, it is pretty clearly established that a
local teacher should not be assigned to the school from
which he or she has graduated, at least until he or -he
has had successful previous experience elsewhere.


Recommendations: The best qualified teacher
should always be selected for a position. If a
local teacher is as well-qualified as an applicant
from outside the community, the local teacher
might properly be appointed, provided there are
no factors inside the community which would
react unfavorably on the work of the teacher. In
every school of any size, there should be some
teachers from other communities and some from
without the county in order to bring the stimulus
of other experiences and points of view. Too
large a proportion of local teachers is likely to
result in complacency and lack of progress.
Residence in Florida May be Unduly Emphasized. It
stands to reason that if teachers have been properly
trained and know conditions in Florida, they may at first
be better qualified to serve in Florida schools than some-
one who has never had any contact with the State. How-
ever, it would be most unfortunate to select some teacher
for a position merely because he has had his training in
Florida or has lived in the State. In fact, the law recog-
nizes that where properly qualified persons are not avail-
able from within the state, persons from without the
state may be employed. This provision is often par-
ticularly pertinent for the schools.
Recommendations: When well qualified and
competent persons from within the State are
known to be available for teaching positions, such
persons may properly be given preference for ap-
pointment to a position. However, if an applicant
from without the state is obviously better quali-
fied and should be able to do superior work, the
school system would undoubtedly be benefitted by
the selection of such a person as a teacher.
Political Influence Is Too Often a Factor in the Se-
lection of Teachers. When the selective power is wielded
by school officials who owe their positions to popular
vote, there is sometimes a temptation to select teachers
from among those who are political supporters of those
officials. In a few instances, school officials have openly


announced that their supporters would have first con-
sideration. In such cases, the selective power is unfor-
tunately in the hands of persons whose chief interests
are political and not the welfare of the children. Any
such situation is bound to be disastrous in the long run.
Moreover, capable teachers have all too often been
removed merely to make way for appointment of persons
who have political influence or who are political ad-
herents. Public opinion should be so firmly against such
practices that they would not be permitted to occur.
Recommendations: Every step possible should
be taken to keep the schools free from political in-
fluence. Trustees, County Board members, and
others involved in the appointment of teachers
should definitely pledge that appointment and
reappointment will be based on merit and should
take every step possible to carry out that pledge.
The initiation of a recommendation should be left
to the persons most concerned with the profes-
sional improvement of the schools.
Appointments Have Sometimes Been Made for
Charitable Reasons. Persons have sometimes been rec-
ommended for positions as teachers merely because they
are deserving. Perhaps the parents have once been
wealthy and have lost most of their money, and, under
the circumstances, the board may feel that the daughter
or son should have a job in order to save the family
from further embarrassment, br some family may actually
be needy and could be kept off the relief rolls if some
member had a teaching position.

Recommendations: Appointments should always
be based on qualifications and merit. Teaching
positions should never be given to persons merely
because they need work.
Unethical Practices Sometimes Interfere With School
Efficiency. In a few isolated instances, teachers have
been asked to contribute a percentage of their salaries
in order to be appointed to certain positions. This per-


centage has sometimes been expected to go to an in-
dividual and sometimes to a political fund in the county.
Teachers unwilling to contribute have been rejected.
Moreover, other equally undersirable and unethical prac-
tices have occasionally come to light. Each such devia-
tion from ethical practices is bound to be harmful to
the schools.
Recommendations: County Board members, trus-
tees, and other school officials should be expected
to follow ethical practices and procedures just as
rigidly as should teachers. No teacher should be
penalized economically or in any other manner as
a prerequisite to obtaining a position.
Summary. While practices and procedures in the se-
lection of teachers vary greatly as indicated above, there
is definite evidence that marked improvement has been
made during recent years. In most counties, many of the
better practices are now obviously followed. In some
of the counties in which conditions have been less satis-
factory, there have been evidences of improvements.
Complete elimination of the unsatisfactory practices,
however, is the only step that will result in needed im-
provement of the selection of teachers in all sections of
the state.

The selection of teachers should always be made by
those in best position to determine the qualifications
needed for success and best prepared to judge the quali-
fications of the various applicants.
Under Florida law, the County Board, the trustees,
the County Superintendent and the principal all have a
part in the selection of teachers. From one point of view,
this selective process might appear complicated, but if
all procedures are carefully worked out, the apparently
complicated process should help to eliminate the item of
personal prejudice and to give more assurance that se-
lections will be properly made. On the other hand, if


procedures are not carefully worked out, the process
may become a matter of annoyance to the applicants,
may involve issues that result in community dissension
and dissatisfaction and may even be carried to the courts.
Every county should be interested in procedures which
will result in the selection of competent teachers with
a minimum of confusion and uncertainty.
It is generally recognized on the basis of experience
throughout the country that a lay body such as the
trustees or County Board is ordinarily not in position to
judge wisely the professional qualifications of applicants
for teaching positions. Lay members of a board do not
supervise teaching and, therefore, cannot be expected
to know the requirements for each of the positions nor
to pass judgment properly on the probable success of
the work of various applicants. While it is generally
accepted that trustees and County Boards need the guid-
ance of professionally trained persons in administering
the functions of teacher selection, it is also recognized
that each of these groups has certain important respon-
sibilities to perform as indicated below.
The Public Acts Through the Trustees and County
Board. The public properly has a definite voice in the
selection of teachers, but the responsibility of the public
should be exercised through its properly elected school
representatives. It would, of course, be unwieldy and
impractical for the public to attempt to pass directly upon
each teacher. The law, therefore, provides for the elec-
tion of trustees to represent the people of the district
as a nominating body and of the County Board to repre-
sent the people of the county as the appointing body.
Recommendations: The people should exercise
great care to elect well qualified trustees and
County Board members who have the interest of
the schools at heart. They should then look to the
trustees and County Board and to the professional
administrators responsible to them for- the ap-


pointment of teachers. Seldom, if ever, should the
people attempt to interfere directly in favor of or
against the appointment of any teacher. Such
interference merely serves to confuse the issues.
Moreover, petitions signed by the people have no
status or recognition by law. The opinion of the
people is expected to be reflected in the actions
of the duly elected school officials. If the properly
elected officials neglect or fail to perform their
duty, steps should be taken to have them replaced.
The County Board Prescribes Qualifications and
Appoints Personnel. According to law, the County Board
is responsible for the appointment of all members of the
instructional staff in the county. No person can be as-
signed to teach in any school (except as a substitute)
without the approval of the County Board. (Section
423 (7). The law clearly and properly provide-, how-
ever, that the County Board is not to initiate the selec-
tion of teachers, unless the trustees fail to nominate
teachers for the district schools by the time prescribed
by law (four weeks before the close of school for re-
appointments and by the date designated by the County
Board for all new appointments). (Section 423 (7-c).
The County Board has the right to reject nomina-
tions of trustees for good cause. "Good cause" is in-
terpreted to authorize rejection of any person nominated
for a position who does not meet the qualifications pre-
scribed by the County Board, and of any person nomi-
nated for a position which was not authorized by the
County Board. It is also the duty of the County Board
to determine the number of positions to be filled and
to prescribe the qualifications for personnel for the va-
rious positions Section 423 (7-a).).
Recommendations: The County Board should al-
ways prescribe the number of positions to be filled
and specify definitely and fully the qualifications
which must be met by any persons to be nominated
for those positions. Any person nominated who
does not meet the qualifications should, of course,
be rejected. If the trustees fail to make a nomi-


nation by the time specified, the County Board
should call upon the County Superintendent to
confer with the principal and recommend a per-
son to fill the position. The County Board should
then act upon that recommendation as it would
upon nomination of the trustees; that is, it should
reject only for good cause and if any such recom-
mendation is rejected, the County Superintendent
should be called upon to make another recom-
mendation. The County Board should not at any
time initiate a recommendation and should always
seek to have recommendations initiated by pro-
fessionally trained members of the staff.
The Trustees Act on Recommendations Submitted by
Principals and County Superintendents According to
Law the Trustees are:
"To consider the recommendation of the County Superin-
tendent regarding all persons to be nominated by them for
district supervising principal or principals of all district schools,
and to make nominations for all such positions to the County
Board." (Section 443 (1).)
.. "To consider recommendations of the district supervising
principal or the principals of the schools in the district and the
County Superintendent regarding the nomination of teachers
and other members of the instructional staff and other per-
sonnel to serve in the district schools and to make nominations
for such positions to the County Board .... (Section 443 (2).)
The trustees have no responsibility for nominating
personnel for any schools except those schools within
the district which are classed as district schools. The
responsibility for the nomination of personnel for the
district schools is not intended by law to give trustees
the right to initiate the nomination. In fact, the law
specifically provides that the nomination is to be made
after the trustees have considered recommendations sub-
mitted by the principal and the County Superintendent.
Nominations submitted by trustees are required to
be in the hands of the County Board eight weeks before
the close of school for principals, six weeks before the
close of school for teachers to be reappointed, and at the
time designated by the County Board for any vacancies
which occur after that time. If there is a supervising


principal, he should be expected to keep in close touch
with the principals of the various schools and with the
County Superintendent and to submit recommendations
to the trustees If there is no supervising principal, the
trustees should look to the principals of the various
schools to submit recommendations after conferring with
the County Superintendent. For the smaller schools, that
is, the one-teacher schools and perhaps even the two
and three-teacher schools, trustees should look to the
County Superintendent to initiate recommendations.
Trustees should not receive applications or make
promises regarding positions, because they cannot be
expected to be as familiar with the needs of the schools
or with the qualifications of the average applicant as
the principal and the County Superintendent.
Recommendations: Trustees should always ex-
pect the supervising principal or the principals of
the various schools after conferring with the
County Superintendent to submit recommendations
for persons to be nominated for teaching or other
positions. Trustees should not hesitate to reject
such recommendations for good cause, but in each
such case should look to the principal to submit a
second recommendation after he has conferred
with the County Superintendent.
Both the County Superintendent and the principals
are expected to be professionally trained in the fields
of school administration and supervision. They, there-
fore, should be in better position to evaluate qualifica-
tions and to determine professional training needs for
the various positions than should the trustees or the
County Board.

County Superintendent Should Cooperate with
Principals in Initiating Recommendations. If the County
Superintendent is a professionally trained man, he should
be in a better position than anyone else to know the
general needs of the various schools in the county and


to assemble applications from which principals may se-
lect persons to be recommended. The County Superin-
tendent should work out procedures that will assure that
no one school in the county gets first choice of the par-
ticularly strong applicants and also that each school is
protected from being burdened by an over-supply of the
weaker teachers.
If the County Superintendent has not been profes-
sionally trained, it seems logical that he should leave the
matter of initiating recommendations pretty largely to
the principals who are professionally trained and that
he should cooperate with the principals in attempting
to determine persons available who are best qualified
for the various positions.
The Law requires the County Superintendent:
"To submit to the trustees of each school district recommenda-
tion of a person to fill the position of district supervising prin-
cipal or principal of each district school. . To confer with
the district supervising principal or principals and with the
trustees with reference to the persons who shall be nominated
by the trustees as members of the instructional staff (other
than principals) of district schools." (Section 433 (7-c, d).)
Recommendations: The County Superintendent
and his staff should always work in close co-
operation with the principals of the various
schools in determining qualifications needed for
the various positions and persons who meet those
qualifications. Supervising principals in cities or
other large districts may properly be expected to
exercise more responsibility for initiating recom-
mendations than principals of small schools. In
most cases, the County Superintendent's office will
be the proper place for a central file for appli-
Supervising Principals or Principals in Strategic Posi-
tions to Recommend Teachers. The principal is expected
by law to assume responsibility for the administration of
his school and for the supervision of the instruction in
the school. (Sec. 403 (5).). His authority should be com-
mensurate with his responsibility. In other words, in


most cases his judgment as to the qualifications needed
and the persons who meet those qualifications should
be relied upon. Of course, a principal should not be per-
mitted to recommend anyone with lower qualifications
than those prescribed by the County Board and should
not be given opportunity to select for his school persons
who can serve better in another school in the county.
Most applications for positions, except perhaps for
the largest schools, will properly go to the County Sup-
erintendent. The principals of the smaller schools should
usually defer to the judgment of the County Superin-
tendent and his staff if there should be a difference of
opinion regarding the suitability of the applicants, par-
ticularly if the County Superintendent is a professionally
trained man. In the larger schools, the judgment should
be jointly and cooperatively arrived at; except that
where a teacher is being considered for two schools in
the county, the judgment of the County Superintendent
should probably prevail. In practice in the larger
schools, the County Superintendent usually leaves the
matter of initiating recommendations pretty largely to
the principal, except that the County Superintendent
properly expects to be kept fully informed at all times
concerning the recommendations.
Recommendations: Insofar as practicable, the
County Superintendent and principals should be
in agreement upon recommendations to be sub-
mitted to the trustees. In general, relatively more
importance should be placed on the judgment of
the County Superintendent regarding recommen-
dations for the smaller schools, and the principals
should be given relatively more freedom in mak-
ing recommendations for the larger schools. Any
applications in the hands of a principal should be
made available to the County Superintendent so
that there will be a central source of information
regarding applicants for all schools in the county.
County Director of Instruction and Supervisors Should
Work in Close Cooperation with County Superintendent
and Principals. While the county director of instruction


and any supervisors should probably not ordinarily ini-
tiate recommendations, both the County Superintendent
and the principals should seek their judgment regarding
qualifications needed by the various persons to be recom-
mended. If principals, County Superintendent and the
director of instruction or supervisors are agreed upon a
person to be recommended, the judgment is probably
sound. If there is not agreement, the person representing
the minority opinion should always carefully consider
his judgment to see whether there is a possibility of
error or prejudices. If the County Superintendent and
principal are agreed, the opinion of the supervisors should
not, of course, be permitted to take precedence over their

Recommendations: A teacher should apply for a
the director of instruction and of any supervisory
assistants to the County Superintendent should be
sought by both principals and County Superin-
tendent in selecting or in reselecting teachers.
Such assistants, however, should ordinarily not
initiate recommendations for appointments.

Teachers Should Apply to the County Superintendent
or to the Principals. While the law does not specify the
procedure that should be followed by applicants, it is
commonly recognized that the application should be
filed with the County Superintendent or with the prin-
cipals, rather than with trustees or board members. By
observing this procedure carefully at all times, teachers
can aid in eliminating confusion and can help to put the
selective process on the right basis.

Recommendations: The advice and assistance of
specific position only when a vacancy is known to
exist but may file an application (not for a spe-
cific position) at any time so his name may be
available for consideration whenever there is a
vacancy in his field. Ordinarily the application
should be filed with the County Superintendent,
but where there is a specific vacancy in a large


school the application may be filed directly with
the principal or supervising principal, but never
with trustees or County Board members.
If there is a vacancy to be filled, the procedure in
selecting a person who can satisfactorily fill the vacancy
must necessarily be entitled different from the pro-
cedure to be followed in selecting for retention the best
qualified persons who are already in the system. The
procedures which should be followed in each of those
situations are separately discussed below.
Whenever a vacancy occurs, one of the first steps
that must be taken is to determine the qualifications
needed by the person who is to fill the vacancy. This
may have already been done, and the qualifications
previously prescribed may be followed. On the other
hand, it may be desirable to re-evaluate and revise the
qualifications. Such a statement of qualifications should
give a comprehensive picture of the type of person
needed to fill the position.
The next step involves the selection of the person
to be recommended for appointment. The criteria sug-
gested for consideration in making the selection are
presented in a later topic. In this topic, attention is
given primarily to procedures which should be followed
in order to assure the consideration of persons who pos-
sess the required qualifications. If applications from per-
sons posse-sing the necessary qualifications are already
on hand, the process will be considerably simplified. In
many cases, however, it will be necessary to make a
conscious effort to locate persons who possess the desired
qualifications, and who may be interested in applying
for the position.
Search for Desirable Candidates. A definite search
for desirable candidates rather than mere consideration
of applications which happen to be on hand or of persons


who happen to be known to be available, should be the
procedure followed in every county, unless just the right
persons are already known to be available. The County
Superintendent and principal responsible for making the
selection should prepare a careful statement of the quali-
fications required for the position in which the vacancy
occurs and should send or take the statement to the State
Department of Education, which maintains a registration
service, or to the placement bureau of one or more of the
Colleges and Universities in the State. If the officials in
charge of the registration service or placement bureaus
have a clear picture of the qualifications required, they
should be in position to select a number of possible ap-
plicants who appear to come nearest meeting those
qualifications. That procedure will eliminate the neces-
sity on the part of the county school officials of con-
sidering a number of applicants whose qualifications are
not at all suited to the position.

Formal Application Blank. When applications are
made by individuals, no uniformity may be expected un-
less some standard blank is prescribed. It often happens
that essential items of information are lacking on such
applications. Of course if credentials are secured from
the colleges, most of the basic information is available
in those credentials. However, each county should have
a standard application blank of its own which is required
to be filled out by all applicants. In fact, it might even
be desirable for the various counties of the State to co-
operate in preparing an application blank which is uni-
form in that it includes all essential items of information.
Each county could then use this blank containing mini-
mum essentials and should request any supplementary
information which it finds desirable.

Recommendations and Reference Blanks. The rec-
ommendations of practice-teacher supervisors and in-
structors should present a more nearly accurate picture
of a prospective teacher's inherent qualities and abilities


than do those of other authorities. Such recommendations
are usually not affected by local, political, or personal
factors. However, sometimes such recommendations are
vague or are based on too limited observation. Moreover,
the limited practice-teaching experience in college may
not give a true indication of how a teacher might develop
with experience in an entirely different situation.
A reliable indication of what a teacher may be
expected to do should usualy be obtainable if the person
has held a position elsewhere. However, securing a re-
liable evaluation of the teacher's strong and weak points
is not always easy, even under those conditions. General
recommendations are, in themselves, worthless. This
type of recommendation is often misused as a means of
transferring an undesirable teacher from one system to
another. A personal letter or a standardized rating form
gives more accurate and dependable information, but
even these frequently represent subjective judgments and
are not entirely reliable.
Practices regarding the writing of recommendations
have sometimes not been as uniform or as ethical as
should be desired. County Superintendents, principals,
and other school officials should ordinarily refrain from
writing a "to whom it may concern" type of recommen-
dation. Recommendations should usually be written only
on request and should be confidential. Any recommenda-
tion written by a County Superintendent or a principal
should be an honest recommendation. The recommen-
dation should always call attention to the good points of
the teacher, but likewise should call attention to any
weaknesses that may handicap the teacher unless they
can be overcome. In order to avoid any possibility of un-
fairness, the County Superintendent or principal, in writ-
ing a recommendation, should try to distinguish between
difficulties that have their origin in the community in
which the teacher has worked and difficulties which are
due to inherent weaknesses of the teacher.


A number of County Boards in the state have
adopted forms which are used for all references. Such
a form insures that there will be more or less uniform
treatment for all items on which information is sought.
Personal Interview. Before an appointment is made
it is usually desirable for school officials to arrange for
a personal interview to supplement the formal applica-
tion of any person who is being considered for a teaching
position. While a fairly accurate impression can usually
be obtained from a properly prepared application blank,
supplemented by a recent photograph, nevertheless, there
are certain points which may not be determined without
an interview. When an interview is considered desirable,
the applicant should have opportunity to talk with both
the principal or supervising principal and the County
Superintendent, separately if possible. If there is a
supervisor or director of instruction, the candidate should
also talk with him.
Through the interview, the County Superintendent,
principal, and supervisor can have opportunity to see the
applicant, note his physical fitness, neatness of dress.
tone of voice, personality, mental characteristics, and
also evaluate those qualities in terms of the particular
requirements of the position. The interview also affords
the applicant an opportunity to appraise the prospective
position and to form a judgment as to his own suitability
for the work.
After separate interviews with the most promising
applicants, the principal and County Superintendent
should be able to agree upon the person to be recom-
mended for the position.
Observation. If the principal or County Superinten-
dent can have an opportunity to visit the school where
the applicant is teaching, observe his teaching and then
talk with the applicant, a more reliable index of the
teacher's probable success or failure can usually be ob-
tained than through the interview alone. If a system of
internship teaching has been established in the county,


principals and superintendents can have an excellent op-
portunity for observing the work of beginning teachers
and for selecting those most suited for the various posi-

Eligibility Lists. Each county, and usually each
supervising principal or principal of a large school, should
have a file of applications classified in accordance with
the qualifications of the applicants. These applications
will of course be for types of positions rather than for
specific positions. Such a file should be maintained and
kept up-to-date by eliminating names of persons no
longer interested in positions in the county or school and
adding others. Sometimes it is possible to make selections
on the basis of this list without having to go to the trouble
of seeking persons elsewhere. However, such a file of
applicants is likely to be largest in the spring and lowest
in the fall about the time schools begin. When emergency
vacancies are to be filled, it will probably be necessary
for superintendents to contact college placement services
or the State Department of Education.
County school officials should be seeking constantly
to ascertain those persons in the county who are best
qualified to continue as teachers as well as those who are
doing the least satisfactory work. It should be accepted
as a responsibility of the County Superintendent and his
supervisory assistants as well as of the principal to seek
to bring about improvement of teachers as weaknesses are
discovered. This can be done in a friendly, helpful man-
ner, so that much progress will result.
In every county, and sooner or later in every school,
at least a few teachers will be found whose work is un-
satisfactory. Some of those, with help, will improve and
will eventually be recognized as satisfactory teachers.
Others, in spite of all effort will not make progress and
may even become a liability to the schools. In those cases,


the principal, County Superintendent, and supervisor
should agree upon the status and should determine when
it is desirable to seek another applicant to replace the
teacher whose work is not satisfactory. The teacher who
is thus to be replaced should be told frankly the reason,
and, at least eight weeks before the close of the school,
the principal should submit his recommendation to the
trustees that the teacher not be reappointed. Ordinarily,
the trustees would be expected to act in accordance with
such a recommendation, particularly if the principal and
County Superintendent are in concurrence. No principal
who has made a sincere effort to help a teacher should
be saddled with the responsibility for a teacher with
whom he cannot work. If the principal has failed, he is
the one who should be replaced, and if the teacher has
failed, then the principal should be given the complete
support of the trustees and County Superintendent.
Frequently a teacher who has not done satisfactory work
in one school may be assigned to another position in the
county with good prospects of being successful. Such
action should be taken whenever there is good reason for
thinking the teacher would succeed in another position.

The fact that a teacher holds a certificate to teach in
a certain field, means only that he has met the state
requirements for certification. It does not necessarily
mean that he is properly qualified to hold a position in a
given school, or, for that matter, to hold any teaching
One of the major problems for those interested in
teacher selection is to find or devise reasonable instru-
ments and procedures for measuring factors such as per-
sonality, moral character, interest in children, and other
more or less intangible attitudes which may be very signi-
ficant in determining the success or failure of teachers.
There is, of course no method for predicting teaching


success that will work in every case, but a careful study
of a number of factors other than training and certifica-
tion will be found not only helpful but essential to proper
teacher selection. Anyone who is seeking to evaluate
an applicant for a position should give careful considera-
tion to and assign proper weighting to such factors as
the following:
Broad Background. Above all, teachers need to un-
derstand reasonably well the civilization in which they
are living, the children with whom they have to work,
and the procedures which are necessary in order to guide
children through the various learning processes. A teach-
er with a broad background is likely to be a more valuable
teacher than one who has had a narrow limited back-
ground, and particularly than one who has had little
more than specialized training. However, too much sub-
ject matter specialization may be as undesirable as too
Intelligence and Information. The person who has a
broad fund of general information and who is above the
average in intelligence will be more likely to make a
successful teacher than persons with more limited in-
formation and intelligence. In fact, children need teach-
ers who are alert and well informed.
It is usually possible to get a fairly definite indica-
tion of the intelligence of an applicant from the college
record. Also, some knowledge can be gained concerning
the breadth of training of the applicant, but the breadth
of training does not necessarily indicate how well in-
formed the person may be. The learning may be largely
academic and not very practical.
In some of the larger systems, it may be desirable for
the County Superintendent to prepare a form of oral or
written, or both oral and written examination which can
be given to applicants who appear to be well qualified.
The purpose of such an examination should be to give the
County Superintendent and his assistants an opportunity


to secure additional information on the applicant's gen-
eral intelligence, his ability in written and oral expres-
sion, his use of the English language, his ability to an-
alyze problems and propose logical solutions, and other
details which may have an important bearing on the
work of the teacher. This means of evaluation has fre-
quently been used by the larger cities of the country to
provide information regarding applicants to supplement
that provided through regular channels.
General Preparation. In addition to having a record
of the certificate for each teacher on file, the County
Superintendents should have all necessary data relative
to the teacher's preparation, such as:
1. The school or schools he has attended.
2. Major and minor subjects.
3. Special preparation.
4. Professional work.
5. Scholarship achievement.
6. Preparation for extra-class activities.
In fact, each county should keep cumulative per-
sonnel records for each teacher. These records should
be kept up-to-date each year so that information re-
garding the teacher will be available at any time it is
needed. Such a record form might well be transferred
to another county when the teacher accepts work in that
Special Training. A teacher should be well trained
in the field in which he is expected to render service.
It is not sufficient for a teacher to be a college graduate
or to hold a teaching certificate. This fact is recognized
in Certification regulations, which provide for the certi-
fication of a person only in those areas in which he has
met certain requirements in the way of training and
achievement. For example, a person trained only for
high school work should never be selected for or assigned
to a position in an elementary school. A person trained
in English and mathematics should not be expected to
assume the responsibility -fos docfal:studijs.

'** " ."
'.:... .......


Experience. Previous teaching experience has too
often been considered one of the most important require-
ments in judging a candidate's fitness to serve. In fact
some school systems require experience elsewhere and
will not take inexperienced teachers. Such experience
may be either good or bad experience and does not neces-
sarily indicate success or failure in a new position. It
should not be the only and perhaps not even the major
consideration in rating a teacher. However, apparent
success in previous positions is worthy of special note.
It is desirable that candidates for teaching positions
have an understanding of the life of young people. There
should be in the preparatory period such experience with
young people in club work, church work, social work,
camp activities, etc., as would give the prospective
teacher an opportunity to enjoy association with them
and would help him to know something of their activities
and problems. This would also give a prospective teacher
a strong foundation for the sympathetic understanding
necessary in making helpful suggestions and in advising
the students with whom he will come in contact.

Personality and Culture. Desirable personality qual-
ities go far in determining teaching success. Considera-
tion should be given to the personal and social habits,
hobbies, and recreational life of a teacher. One who is
widely read and has traveled extensively should make a
good contribution to the profession. His hobbies can be
helpful in extra-class activities. The personality adjust-
ment and self-control of a teacher, as well as his ability
to meet difficulties will require a strong character. Per-
sonality, professional attitude, and character are three
of the most important attributes in a prospective teacher.

Earnestness of Purpose. Other things being equal,
the teacher who conscientiously intends to make teach-
ing his life work should be given preference over other
applicants. It should be recognized, however, that some
teachers are altogether'o6 se~ous. A person who lacks

; ...'. -' .... ...


a sense of humor or who is over-conscientious should be
as carefully guarded against as one who shows little
seriousness of purpose.
General Attitude. The applicant's general attitude
toward life as well as toward teaching is likely to be of
major significance. If the applicant is genuine rather
than superficial, sincere rather than blustering, unselfish
rather than selfish, and is interested in teaching rather
than in getting a job, the attitude may be considered

Health. Health, of course, is basic. No teacher can
be expected to do good work unless his health is satisfac-
tory. Each applicant should be expected to give evidence
regarding his health and should be required to pass a
satisfactory health examination before being appointed
to a position.
Religious and Political Interests. While care should
be used to avoid di criminating against teachers on
the basis of religious or political interests, it must be
recognized that information regarding such matters
should be available as a basis for selection and place-
ment. Obviously a teacher who has agnostic views or
who advocates radical political philosophies should not
be selected for a position in a conservative and deeply
religious community, and would not be suitable for any
position if his beliefs influence his work in the school
room. In view of the fact that teachers must be careful
not to indoctrinate childreri with their own political and
religious beliefs, applicants who give any indication of
being crusaders for a particular religious or political
point of view should be considered with care.
Marital and Economic Status. There is no evidence
that either married or single teachers, as such, should
be given preference. In fact, the evidence indicates that
other factors are far more significant than marital status,
unless the home life of a married teacher is such as to


interfere with his school work. The requirements of a
position should thus be taken into consideration in reach-
ing decisions involving this factor.
The economic status of the teacher does not neces-
sarily relate directly to teaching success. However, if
a person is a poor financial manager or has been in finan-
cial difficulties from time to time, his financial status may
sooner or later interfere with successful school work. On
the other hand a man or woman who has plenty of money
may become indifferent about school work unless he is
genuinely interested in teaching.
Miscellaneous. There is a tendency for some schools
to have too large a percentage of women teachers. The
matter of sex should enter into the selection of teachers
only insofar as it is desirable to keep a reasonable bal-
ance in the various types of schools. Moreover, as pre-
viously pointed out no school system should have too
large a percentage of local teachers. Similarly many
other factors will be encountered from time to time which
have some significance in the selection of teachers. Such
factors must be evaluated and given consideration in
proper relationship to their true significance.

There are many problems of supply and demand
which arise from time to time to complicate the process
of selection and placement of teachers. The fact that
there may be an apparent' over-supply of teachers in
certain fields is likely to be discouraging to those who
have spent their time and money for training in those
fields. If there is an under supply of teachers in any
field, administrators are faced with the problem of
getting properly qualified teachers who can meet the
There have been frequent statements indicating that
there is an over-supply of teachers. On the basis of the


evidence available it can clearly be stated that there is
not an over-supply of competent, well-trained teachers
in any field. From time to time it may seem that there
is an over-supply in certain fields, but this apparent
over-supply is due to the fact that many less well-trained
teachers are holding positions in those fields.
During recent years there has been a decrease in
elementary school enrollment in most states. In Florida
the elementary school enrollment has remained practical-
ly stationary because the population growth of the state
has been sufficient to overcome in large measure any
tendency toward a decrease in the number of elementary
pupils. Present indications are that the number of ele-
mentary teachers needed during the next few years in
Florida will probably be about the same as at the present.
In the elementary field there are probably not yet enough
well-trained teachers to permit standards in all counties
to be raised to require college graduation. However, the
evidence indicates that the standards could readily be
raised to the minimum of two years of training without
any serious handicaps.
In the high school field the enrollment is still in-
creasing considerably, partly because of the fact that the
falling birth rate has not yet begun to effect the high
schools seriously and partly to the fact that there are
still many pupils who are not in high school. For some
years a larger proportion of all pupils will very probably
continue to remain in school year after year. Present
indications are therefore that there will be substantial
increases in the high school population for several years
to come. That means that the number of teachers needed
for the high schools will probably increase at about the
same rate as in the past. A large proportion of the high
school teachers are already college graduates. In a very
few years there should be no high school teachers who
have had less than four years of college training.


In addition to the teachers who will be needed to
take care of the increasing high school population, addi-
tional teachers will probably be needed in special fields
during coming years. There probably will be a demand
for more properly trained librarians, for more persons to
act as deans or advisors in the larger schools, for addi-
tional teachers and supervisors in the fields of music and
art, commercial subjects, home economics and industrial
arts and, in general, for teachers who have had both
practical and academic training so that they will be able
to relate the training of children more directly to applied
During the last world war the supply of teachers
was seriously depleted because of the fact that many of
the men were in military service, that the cost of living
increased considerably and salaries were raised in busi-
ness more rapidly than in education, and that many peo-
ple in the field of education entered other fields of serv-
ice. During periods when costs of living decrease, sal-
aries of teachers usually do not fall quite as rapidly.
There is therefore a tendency for additional people to
enter the teaching profession. The supply of teachers
available for the various fields is usually more ample
during such periods although the supply of well trained
teachers may not be greatly affected.
During periods such as the present it may be ex-
pected that competition afforded by other fields will
attract people who are now teaching and that the supply
of well-trained teachers in certain fields will probably
become limited enough to afford serious problems.
The visible supply of competent teachers is usually
greatest in the spring and lowest in the fall. Most ap-
pointments are now made in the spring instead of in the
summer or early fall. That means that there are more
available teachers at that time. In the first place, college


graduates are available at that time; and in the second
place, many teachers who have been teaching are still
not under contract and are open for consideration of
other positions. Boards which wait until the fall or late
summer to make appointments are likely to find that they
have difficulty in locating teachers to meet the quali-
During most years there seems to have been a more
liberal supply of teachers in what may be termed the
more academic subjects than in some of the newer fields.
This may be due in part to unsatisfactory guidance pro-
visions on the part of teacher-education institutions and
in part to the fact that the teachers themselves hesitate
to undertake training in courses that are relatively new
or that teachers are not acquainted with some of the
possibilities of those courses. In such subject fields as
history and English and even in mathematics and foreign
languages there is usually a more liberal supply of teach-
ers than in commercial subjects, manual arts, applied
sciences, occupational subjects and similar subjects or
courses which have some rather direct vocational signi-
ficance. In fact each year there is usually a problem in
at least some counties in the state to find reasonably
competent teachers to meet the needs in some of these
subject fields. Prospective teachers should study the situ-
ation and select subjects in keeping with their abilities
and aptitudes and with the probable supply and demand.
Teachers: Teachers in service should continue to
study developments in education to determine trends and
needs. Some may want to take courses that will help
them to prepare better to meet some of the newer needs
of education-not necessarily by taking new positions,
but by serving in new capacities. For example, each
teacher should be prepared to assist with guidance and
consequently should take courses in that field as well as


in occupational studies and similarly related phases of
education. Prospective teachers should continually study
their abilities and interests as related to newer trends
and needs in education, and should seek to prepare them-
selves for the type of service they can render most satis-
factorily and for which there is likely to be the greatest
demand. This does not mean that the prospective
teacher should shift his objectives from time to time
as new developments occur in education, but that he
should make a wise choice and then prepare himself
thoroughly to meet all needs in the field.
Administrators: Principals and County Superintend-
ents are faced with the problem of supply and demand
in a number of respects. First, they can take advantage
of the opportunity to replace their least efficient teach-
ers with those who are better trained and more efficient,
particularly in fields in which there is a liberal supply
of well-trained teachers. Second, they can keep in touch
with trends and developments, and encourage promising
teachers in their counties to take additional training that
will help them to prepare better to meet some of the
newer demands in education. Third, they can bring be-
fore prospective teachers the problems of supply and
demand in education and help such persons make wise
decisions for training in accordance with their abilities
and the needs.
The State and Colleges: The State Department of
Education and the colleges and universities of the State
should be carrying on studies to determine greatest needs.
The result of these studies can be used to advise pros-
pective teachers regarding the fields in which they should
seek training. Most teachers have potential ability in a
number of fields and might well be guided into those in
which there is a prospect for a strong demand. State
officials can be of considerable assistance to principals,
school officials, teachers and prospective teachers
throughout the State in helping to advise regarding prob-
able demands and needs.


The best way to assure improvement in the schools
over a period of years is to exercise care in the selection
of the professional and instructional staff. The schools
must be kept free from outside interference of any type.
Persons in charge of selection should themselves be
selected for their positions because of their interest in the
schools and their ability to shape a satisfactory school
program. The key to the success of the school lies in the
quality of the human material that makes up its profes-
sional personal. Better selection of teachers will soon
result in better teachers and in better teaching for the



Many of the problems of teacher placement are
closely related to problems of selection. Frequently
teachers are selected for specific positions so that place-
ment occurs at the time of selection. In many of the
larger systems and at times in the other systems, teachers
are tentatively selected for types of positions and place-
ment comes later. However, in every situation there are
a number of problems which directly concern placement
as such, and problems in that field are discussed in this
chapter. In each school system the numerous problems
relating to placement of teachers must be satisfactorily
solved if the school program is not to be handicapped.
It is of great importance that teachers be assigned
to positions so that they may teach in fields in which
they have been trained and are best qualified. Unfor-
tunately this principle has frequently been violated.
Again and again trustees have nominated teachers for
positions for which those teachers were not properly
qualified. For example, teachers holding certificates in
high school subjects have sometimes been nominated to
teach in the elementary grades, and teachers with ele-
mentary certificates have been assigned to teach in the
high school field. Even more commonly teachers have
been assigned to teach subjects in which they have suf-
ficient credits to be certificated but which they are not
best qualified to teach.
A few systems have adopted the requirement that
any person who teaches in high school grades must first
have experience in elementary grades. Such a require-


ment makes it necessary that many persons teach in a
field in which they have not been prepared, or that they
prepare to teach in the elementary field and then take
additional training in the high school field. There seems
to be no essential reason for such a requirement. The
handicaps that arise undoubtedly exceed the advantages.
It is not fair either to teachers or pupils when
teachers are appointed to positions which make it neces-
sary for them to teach in fields for which they are not
prepared. Such procedure ignores completely the ad-
vantages and values of training. It makes the schools
subject to criticism because the teachers do not know
the field or subject they are teaching.

Recommendations: School officials should ascer-
tain fully the qualifications of a teacher before
submitting any recommendations for appointment
.and should take steps to see that he is placed in a
position where he will have opportunity to teach
the grades' or subjects for which he is best quali-
fied. The County Board should require not only
that each teacher be certificated to teach the sub-
ject fields required for a position before he is
appointed, but also that he be able to teach ef-
fectively the fields prescribed for the position.
Trustees then could not and should not nominate
a teacher to teach in subject fields for which he is
not reasonably well qualified.
Teachers who are successful in the school system
commonly look for opportunities for promotion. In coun-
ties which have a salary schedule some of these oppor-
tunities will come in accordance with and through pro-
visions of the salary schedule rather than through a dif-
ferent type of position. Even under the most favorable
conditions, however, some teachers will feel that they
would prefer to teach in some other subject field than
that in which they are teaching and other teachers will
aspire to administrative positions. Such persons should
never be appointed to new positions unless they are


qualified either by taking additional training or by secur-
ing experience for such positions by working under close
supervision. The fact that a teacher has been succe sful
in one position does not necessarily mean that he can be
successful in another type of position. The fact that a
person is a good teacher does not necessarily mean that
he will become a good administrator.
Recommendations: The County Superintendent
and supervisory staff of each county should con-
fer with the principals and teachers to locate mem-
bers of the instructional staff who seem to have
qualifications that would fit them for better posi-
tions. Teachers who are interested in positions
in which vacancies are likely to occur should be
encouraged to take additional specific training for
those positions and also to get as much experience
under careful supervision as possible. The time is
close at hand when no person will be appointed as
principal unless he has had specific training in
administration and supervision of elementary or
secondary schools, or if he is to be principal of
both an elementary and secondary school, unless
he has had training in both fields. Teachers who
are doing successful work in a given field and
who seem to have no special talent in another
field should be encouraged to remain in the field
in which they are already serving.
In the final analysis, as the law now stands in Flor-
ida, the responsibility for deciding placement of teach-
ers rests with the trustees who nominate and the County
Boards who appoint. However, if the procedure pro-
posed but not absolutely required by law is observed,
trustees and County Boards will act only on recommen-
dations submitted by principals and County Superin-
tendents. in that case the decisions will be made by
persons who are qualified to pass upon the preparation
of teachers as required for each position. The following
brief comments will summarize the part that each person
or group concerned should play in teacher placement.


The Teacher: Of course, the teacher should have
a right to preference as to the type of position in which
he is to serve, but his preference must necessarily be
limited by the subjects he is certificated to teach, and by
the training which he has had. The teacher should al-
ways seek a position which will permit him to teach the
subject and grades for which he is best prepared. A
teacher should never seek to teach in fields in which he
is poorly qualified unless he is willing to take additional
training in those fields.
The Principal. The principal should determine the
subject fields that can best be taught in combination in
his school. Certain combinations commonly go together
in the training of teachers. If this problem is carefully
worked out, schools will usually be in a position to seek
teachers who are qualified in subject combinations com-
monly encountered. Occasionally a situation will arise,
particularly in a small school, where a position will re-
quire a teacher certificated in such a combination as
Latin and industrial arts. Such an unusual combination
may be expected to involve difficulties in securing a
properly qualified person.
The principal should study the qualifications of each
applicant thoroughly in order to determine the field or
fields in which the applicant can best serve. The prin-
cipal, of course, should keep in close touch with the sup-
ervising principal, if there is one, and with the Superin-
tendent and his staff in arriving at decisions and in pre-
paring his recommendations.
County Superintendent: In the larger counties the
County Superintendent's office usually maintains a file
of qualified applicants. His office should always secure
sufficient information to show the fields in which the
applicants are best trained. The County Superintendent
should keep in close touch with all principals to be sure
that persons recommended to the trustees are well quali-
fied for the positions they are expected to fill, and to
be assured that the teachers appointed are assigned to


positions for which they are best qualified and adapted.
The County Superintendent should also recommend to
the County Board for adoption regulations relating to
qualifications which will help to improve teaching serv-
ices in the county.
Trustees: Trustees should adopt the policy of nom-
inating only persons who are recognized by the principal
as being qualified for the positions to be filled. As in-
dicated elsewhere in this bulletin, trustees should not
initiate recommendations, but should look to the prin-
cipal or County Superintendent to recommend qualified
persons for the various positions. The trustees should act
on those recommendations in accordance with their best
judgment to assure that the persons nominated to the
County Board will be properly qualified. Trustees should
depend on the principal and County Superintendent to
determine the responsibilities which the various teachers
should be assigned.
County Board: The County Board should adopt all
regulations necessary to limit nominations to persons who
are properly qualified. The County Board would then be
in position to reject and should reject for good cause any
person who is nominated for a position but who does not
qualify under the regulations adopted by the Board. The
Board should not attempt to place the teachers but should
leave the decision as to the capacity in which the various
teachers should serve to the judgment of the County
Superintendent and the principal.
Recommendations: The County Board should
adopt regulations providing that only persons
certificated to teach subjects required for a posi-
tion are to be considered eligible for nomination
for the position. The Board should also prescribe
minimum standards in the way of college training.
All nominations of persons not qualified should
be rejected. The decision as to the capacity in
which a teacher who has been appointed can best
serve the school or school system should be left to
the County Superintendent and principal and


should not be assumed by trustees and the
County Board. The principal of the school and
the County Superintendent should be familiar
with all qualifications of each appointee and
should see that he is assigned to the work for
which he is best qualified.
In spite of the best efforts of school officials some
teachers will sooner or later be found to have been im-
properly placed. Some factors relating to training may
have been overlooked or a teacher may have developed
characteristics which make it impossible for him to do
satisfactorily the work he is expected to perform in a
given position.
Principals and County Superintendents and their
supervisory assistants should continuously be studying the
teaching staff to determine those who are not well ad-
justed to their positions as well as those who are un-
usually successful. It is the responsibility of each prin-
cipal to work intensively with any teacher who does not
seem to be well adjusted in the work for which he has
assumed responsibility. The principal should make every
effort to bring about improvements and when necessary
should secure the help of the County Superintendent and
his staff. Frequently minor difficulties can be overcome
with benefit to both the teacher and the pupils.
If satisfactory adjustments cannot be- worked out
the principal should seek to find in the school some new
assignment which can be assumed by such a teacher. If
the adjustment can be made in the school such a step
is much better than going outside the school for an ad-
justment. Occasionally, however, situations will arise
where adjustments within the school are not possible.
Then the principal and county officials should cooperate
in trying to work out possibilities of adjustment within
the county. There may be some other place in the county
in which the teacher will be in a better position to do
satisfactory work. If no adjustment of this sort is prac-


tical the only solution may be to give the teacher an
opportunity to resign or if necessary to dismiss the teach-
er as a means of safeguarding the program.
Recommendations: Personnel problems require
continuous study. It is not sufficient to place a
teacher in a position and expect him to work out
his own salvation. For the benefit of the children
as well as the success of the teacher, principals
and county school officials should seek to work
out procedures, for helping teachers who are hav-
ing minor difficulties in adjustment. When prac-
ticable adjustments should be made within the
school to provide for better opportunities for
teachers to serve in accordance with their quali-
fications. When that is not possible, unadjusted
teachers may be assigned to other positions within
the county. If that does not work out, plans
should be made to replace such teachers with
teachers who are qualified to do the work.
Several school systems have adopted the require-
ment that teachers must have had experience elsewhere
before being appointed to a position in the county or
school. The fact that a teacher has had experience in
another school or county does not in itself mean any-
thing. That experience may have been good or bad. The
teacher may have been harmed rather than helped by
such experience.
It is a much better policy to plan to use a certain
percentage of inexperienced teachers each year when
vacancies occur. Such teachers should be carefully se-
lected in terms of required qualifications and should be
fully as carefully assigned to positions, as explained in
Chapter IV.

Recommendations: Each County Board should
adopt the policy and each principal and County
Superintendent should follow the policy of
selecting and placing in the system a few inexpe-
rienced teachers each year there are vacancies.
These teachers should be most carefully placed


in position so that they will have the best oppor-
tunity to develop satisfactorily. A plan should be
worked out for giving careful guidance to inex-
perienced teachers until they have mastered most
of their problems and have developed ability to
proceed without detailed guidance. A desirable
plan for internship or apprenticeship service for
inexperienced teachers is presented in a later
One of the most perplexing problems which has to
be faced by many counties is that of determining the
policy to be followed in the employment of local teach-
er-. At the present time many communities give local
teachers such preference that sometimes less qualified
local teachers are selected in preference to better quali-
fied teachers from elsewhere. This policy is unfortunate
and usually results from the fact that public sentiment
favors caring for local people. As a result trustees and
County Boards are subjected to great pressure to follow
a policy of this sort.
Recommendations: The policy of having a rea-
sonable proportion of teachers in each county who
are from without the county is desirable. Many
authorities favor having at least 25 per cent and
perhaps as many as 50 per cent of the teachers
from without the county. A teacher should never
be placed in a school because there is a demand
for a local teacher. She should be placed in
terms of qualifications. In fact inexperienced
local teachers should never be placed in the school
from which they graduate. Teachers may be
assigned to such positions provided they have de-
veloped into strong teachers and provided the
assignment of such teachers does not overweight
the school with local talent. Ordinarily the best
qualified available teacher should be assigned to
fill each vacancy.
In the past few years the question of employed mar-
ried teachers in the schools has presented problems in


many communities. Evidence seems to indicate that
there is no reason why married teachers might not be
placed in positions and succeed fully as well as unmar-
ried teachers, unless the married teachers are handi-
capped by home responsibilities. Studies made in va-
rious sections of the country indicate that the work of
married teachers is as satisfactory or even more satis-
factory than that of unmarried teachers. Discrimination
against married teachers encourages a larger turn-over
in teaching personnel and results in lessening of effi-

Recommendations: There should be no regula-
tion against married teachers as such. It is usually
well to preserve a reasonable balance between
married and single women teachers, but teachers
should be assigned to positions on the basis of
their ability to do the work. Married teachers
who are seriously handicapped by home respon-
sibilities should not be appointed. Those who
have no such handicaps should be considered on
the basis of competency rather than marital status.
A recent national survey brought out the fact that
79 per cent of the teaching personnel in all grade levels
were women and only 21 per cent were men. In elemen-
tary schools women constituted 84 per cent of the total.
This is about the situation in Florida. Assignments to
positions cannot be made satisfactorily on the basis of
sex. However, the proportion of men and women in a
school system is a factor which must be taken into
consideration in placing teachers in the various schools.
Recommendations: When making assignments a
plan should be worked out to preserve a reason-
able balance between men and women teachers
in the system. Men should be assigned to posi-
tions in accordance with their ability to render
effectively the service needed. Under present
conditions particular efforts should be made to
secure competent male teachers and to assign
such teachers to positions in the school or school


systems and especially to high schools where there
is now a marked predominance of women teachers.
Some teachers have unwisely specialized too nar-
rowly. In the larger schools such narrow specialization
may not be such a disadvantage, though generally speak-
ing it is better for any teacher to have a broad back-
ground that will help him to understand and make clear
the relationship between his special field and the other
phases of the school program.
Most teaching positions require many activities in
addition to the regular classroom teaching. College train-
ing programs, unfortunately, have sometimes stressed
the classroom activities and neglected the other respon-
sibilities of teachers.
Recommendations: Insofar as practicable teach-
ers should be placed in positions for which the
range of responsibilities required is adapted to
their preparation and qualifications. Teachers
with narrow specialization should be placed only
in positions where such specialization will not
afford a handicap to the school program.
Many problems may not be fully appreciated at the
time a teacher is assigned to a position and may become
obvious only after he has begun work. It is not always
possible, for example, to determine the attitude of the
teacher in advance. However, the attitude may be more
significant than the training. A careful study should be
made of the attitude of all applicants as a basis for plac-
ing in various positions those whose attitudes apparently
best conform to the requirements and responsibilities of
the position.
The fact that attitudes or beliefs of the teachers
are significant is often brought out by instances in which
teachers attempt to engage in political or religious activ-
ities. The question arises as to what extent teachers
should be free to take part in religious or political activi-


ties in the community in which they teach. Certainly, a
teacher should have the right to vote without restraint;
yet it is an accepted fact that in many communities a
teacher is expected to vote "right," that is, with the local
party in power. Several states have gone so far in recent
years as to enact legislation to guarantee reasonable
religious and political freedom to their teachers.
Recommendations: Possibly the best solution to
the perplexing problem of political and religious
freedom for teachers can be provided by a
professionally minded Board basing its decision on
the following broad principles:
(a) Insofar as practical teachers are to be placed
in positions in communities where the con-
flict of beliefs will not be too pronounced,
yet care will be exercised to avoid supple-
menting complacency or conservatism in a
community with too much complacency or
conservatism in the teaching profession.
(b) If religious or political activities do not in-
terfere with good teaching, or with the value
of the teacher to the school but are simply
in contradiction to the political or religious
affiliations of those in authority, dismissal
cannot be justified on any professional or
ethical grounds.

In addition to the problems encountered by school
systems in the placement of teachers there are many
problems encountered by teachers themselves, by the col-
leges and by the State in relation to the proper place-
ment of teachers. It is to the interest of the educational
program in the State for the most capable teachers to be
placed each year in the positions in which they can render
the most effective service. If such teachers are not hap-
pily and properly placed they are likely to become dis-
couraged and to enter other professions. Furthermore
many promising prospective teachers may be discouraged
from preparing for teaching and less competent teachers


are likely to be retained in service with the result that the
entire educational program may be hindered by lack of
proper placement of the more competent teachers.
There are various procedures by which placement
is carried out. Some of these involve teachers who are
already in the field and who are seeking replacement.
Others involve those who have never taught and who are
seeking their first position.
The problem of securing a better position for per-
sons who are already teaching is quite different from
the problem of placing persons who are just finishing
college work. Teachers who are already holding posi-
tions in a county u-ually come in reasonably close con-
tact with developments and with possibilities of other
positions in the county. However, it is much more dif-
ficult for such teachers to find positions in other counties.
Sometimes they may be fortunate enough to be selected
because they are known or their work is known to offi-
cials in another county. Sometimes they may hear of
such positions from friends in other counties. More fre-
quently such reports are in the nature of rumor or hear-
say and a teacher cannot be sure there is a vacancy for
which he would wish to apply.
Some of the colleges maintain a service for their
graduates who already have positions and seek to help
such persons to secure better positions. The State De-
partment of Education Registration Service is always
open to such persons and offers a means of getting their
names and qualifications before officials of other coun-
ties who are interested in securing capable teachers to
fill vacancies.
Many new or experienced teachers are fortunate
enough to secure positions for themselves either through
their own efforts or through efforts of their friends who
know their qualifications. This type of placement is


desirable if it is carried out on an ethical basis. Insofar
as possible teachers should make application for a par-
ticular position only when they know a vacancy exists.
It is not ethical for a teacher to make application for a
position which is not vacant. In some of the larger coun-
ties teachers may apply to be placed on the list of eligi-
bles. This is ethical and proper. The chief disadvantage
of this method is that it is difficult for the teacher to
learn of a vacancy. Moreover, the person who has to
make an application by mail is usually at a disadvantage
as compared with the person who is in position to make
a personal application.
Applicants should seek interviews whenever prac-
ticable. Of course an applicant will not wish to go to
the expense of making a trip for an interview unless he
has some indication that there is an opening and that
his qualifications seem to meet the requirements. He
should try to shape the interview so as to bring out points
regarding his qualifications which he wishes emphasized
although the initiative in the interview usually rests with
the administrator. A teacher should always apply to the
County Superintendent or the principal and should never
apply to trustees or to County Board members: In fact
it is considered unethical for teachers to apply to trustees
or County Board members or to seek to secure positions
through them. Such an application is likely to leave the
impression with the County Superintendent or principal
that the candidate is seeking to secure a position through
political or personal influence instead of on the basis
of merit.
Each college or university is interested in placing
its own graduates. Such institutions usually maintain a
placement bureau for securing placements for its gradu-
ates. From the point of view of the administrator there
are both advantages and disadvantages to placement
bureaus maintained by these institutions. There is the
advantage that principals and County Superintendents


can usually turn to such bureaus and find some person
who is reasonably well qualified to fill a position. The
disadvantage is that colleges are interested in placing
their graduates and hence qualifications may be over-
stated. The situation may be summarized as follows: The
personnel forms prepared by the colleges are usually
satisfactory as far as the academic training of the person
is concerned. However, even the academic information
provided by some of the instructors may not be adequate
as sometimes instructors do not have time or the oppor-
tunity to become fully acquainted with qualifications of
students. The personnel blanks usually do not provide
sufficient information regarding the background of the
student. School administrators are interested in hobbies,
and in what might be termed the extra-curricula interests
of teachers and usually wish more definate statements
of qualifications in these respects than are given on most
college personnel blanks.
Administrators are interested in getting the names
of persons who are properly qualified but are not in-
terested in persons who are only partially qualified.
They want to avoid getting lists of persons who are al-
ready placed. School administrators usually want an
opportunity for a choice. They do not want a college
to recommend just one person with the assumption that
they will take that person. After all, the college does not
know the requirements of the position and therefore can-
not know the person who is best qualified. The college
should if possible suggest several candidates who appear
to be well qualified for the position.
Administrators should give the college as complete
a picture as possible of the requirements of the position
they are seeking to fill. They should not simply state
that they want a person who can teach Latin or some
other subject. Colleges are at a disadvantage if such re-
quests come in.
Colleges, of course, cannot suppy information re-
garding qualified teachers unless they are informed of


vacancies. It is possible for the college to send out a list
of its graduates with a careful description of the quali-
fications and training of each. This may be helpful to
administrators, but usually the greatest help comes upon
specific requests.
The number of teachers placed by private or com-
merical teacher placement agencies is far smaller now
than a number of years ago. This is due partly to the
fact that a large proportion of the colleges have their
own placement bureaus and partly to the fact that oc-
casionally private agencies have abused the confidence
that has been placed in them.
There will probably always be room for such private
or commercial teacher's agencies. They can be a real
help to teachers who are seeking positions in other sec-
tions of the state or nation and can also help administra-
tors who are having difficulty securing persons with
desirable qualifications and training, particularly when
such persons must be secured from another .tate. When
such agencies are being operated for profit they may be
inclined to overstate the qualifications of the persons on
their lists. Administrators have learned to guard against
this. Fortunately most private agencies have learned
this practice is harmful rather than beneficial. The ob-
jective of private agencies as well as other placement
bureaus should be to help teachers to locate positions
in which they can serve most effectively and to help ad-
ministrators find teachers best qualified to fill the va-
A number of teachers are placed each year through
administrative channels rather than through direct ap-
plication. Most of these placements usually occur as
transfers within the county. Frequently, however, a
teacher may make a very favorable impression on a prin-
cipal or superintendent from another county through


some talk at a teachers' meeting or through some other
activity. Administrators often try to visit other counties
and to meet teachers whose work creates an unusually
favorable impression. There are, of course, many ad-
vantages to this type of placement from the point of view
of the administrator as well as that of the teacher. The
administrator has the opportunity to learn of the work
of the teacher and then to select solely on the basis of
The School Code provides that the State Superin-
tendent is to maintain through the State Department of
Education a Teacher Registration Service. (Section 531).
According to the law:
"This list, (comprising certificated personnel who have made
application to be included in this list), is to be used in giving
service to instructional personnel interested in securing positions,
to school officials who wish to secure lists of properly certificated
personnel for consideration for various types of positions
and for use by the State Superintendent when called upon to
suggest names of certificated persons qualified to fill positions
in various fields in which local officials fail to locate properly
certificated personnel."
The State, of course, is directly interested in helping
school officials locate persons who are properly qualified
to fill the vacancies. It is also interested in helping
qualified teachers secure positions. The State is always
interested in raising standards and this is one means by
which the level of training of teachers may be raised.
Persons who apply to be listed with the State Reg-
istration Service are required to give complete informa-
tion regarding their qualifications, training and interests,
and to pay a fee of one dollar. It would be impractical
to maintain such a list on a non-fee basis partly because
of the expense and partly because each applicant should
feel some responsibility for keeping his information up
to date and for informing the State when he secures a
position. Thus the list will not be confused by including
names of persons who already hold positions.


This service is not and should not be, in the strict
sense of the word, a placement service but is, as the name
indicates, a registration service. The State should usu-
ally not seek to place individuals in particular positions
but should seek to encourage selection by administrators
of the most competent teachers and those best qualified
for the position to be filled. Therefore, the service should
be maintained as a registration service and lists of eli-
gible applicants made available to those interested in
securing qualified persons to fill vacancies. Detailed
information regarding any one or more applicants could
then be made available on request.
One advantage of the Teacher Registration Service
maintained by the State is that teachers from all colleges
as well as teachers not recently connected with such in-
stitutions can be included on the list. This affords a
central place to which all County Superintendents and
principals can turn for qualified personnel.
Placement and registration services can be operated
most effectively only when there is complete cooperation
among school officials. Principals and County Superin-
tendents should prepare accurate descriptions of the
qualifications needed for the various positions and should
make these available to the State or to the colleges from
whom applicants are to be sought. Moreover, local of-
ficials should set standards so as to exclude the least well
qualified and to encourage the selection of properly
qualified persons for all positions.

Teachers of the State have adopted a code of ethics
which contains a number of provisions relating to pro-
cedures in securing and retaining positions. It is also
important for trustees, County Board Members, Super-
intendents and principals as well as college and State


officials to subscribe to and to follow scrupulously a
number of similar ethical principles.
It is not considered ethical, for example, for a teach-
er or a principal to try to secure a position held by an-
other teacher. Any effort to undermine a colleague for
the purpose of getting his position is considered flagrantly
unethical and persons have been expelled from the pro-
fession for such practices. Moreover, teachers are ex-
pected to observe scrupulously the terms of a contract
after it has been signed. It is considered unethical for a
teacher to sign a contract and then accept another posi-
tion before first obtaining the consent of the contracting
Board. Furthermore as indicated above, teachers are
expected to apply for positions through principals and
County Superintendents rather than through trustees and
County Board members.
Similarly school officials should seek to place teach-
ers on the basis of merit rather than on the basis of
personal or political favoritism. They are expected to
provide teachers with definite contracts on which teach-
ers can rely. Teachers cannot be dismissed during the
period of contract except for cause and any teacher rec-
ommended for dismissal must be given an opportunity
for a hearing. Furthermore, if teachers have served more
than two years they should be considered as having a
continuing contract and should not be recommended for
dismissal except for good reason. No school official
should attempt at any time to place teachers under per-
sonal obligation to him either financially or otherwise.
If such ethical principles as the above are scrupul-
ously observed by all school officials as well as by teach-
ers and principals, the matter of selecting and placing
teachers can be placed and kept on such a basis that
merit and qualifications rather than personal favoritism
will be, as they should be, the deciding factors.



Professional stability and growth for teachers are
or should be inter-related. Each should contribute to
some extent to the other. Stability is desirable largely
because it provides opportunity for better work and
incentive for growth. Growth is necessary for all teachers
to continue to render satisfactory service in a changing
Stability means freedom from unnecessary change
of position or of occupation. It is a result of conditions
which assure teachers of an opportunity To remain in
their positions as long as they are doing satisfactory
work, which provide encouragement and incentive for
teachers to continue to teach over a period of years,
and which encourage them to regard teaching as their
Either too little or too much stability is undesirable.
If teachers have no assurance of being continued in
service on the basis of merit, they are likely to become
restless and some of the best will probably seek oppor-
tunities for work elsewhere or for other types of work.
If the emphasis on stability is too great there is always
danger that teachers, or, for that matter, any other
human beings, may become too complacent in their
work and may not have the necessary incentive to keep
A certain amount of stability for teachers is neces-
sary for the development of a profession and of profes-
sional attitudes. Professional attitudes can only be ex-
pected when persons have an opportunity to continue
in their positions and in their chosen occupations over a
sufficient period of time to develop pride in their work
and respect for their fellow workers.


If teachers are to render satisfactory service in any
school, they must be thoroughly familiar with the com-
munity in which they are serving. They should be
able to interpret problems and needs of the children in
the light of the situation in the community and in proper
relationship to fundamental educational objectives.
Ordinarily, a teacher cannot be expected to render his
best service in the community during his first year of
teaching. On the other hand, a teacher may remain in
a community so long that he becomes blind to many of
the problems and, therefore, does not render some of the
services which should be rendered through the schools.
As pointed out elsewhere in this bulletin, there is
still a relatively high rate of transciency among teachers
in most counties in Florida. The situation has improved
to some extent, but it still needs much further improve-
ment. There are still entirely too many factors that con-
tribute to instability in most counties .and, in too many
instances, there has not been sufficient encouragement
for growth. Instability and insufficient growth have,
again and again, resulted in an unfavorable attitude on
the part of the public, have handicapped the schools and
have detracted from the professional status of teachers.
The policies observed by the school officials of the
various counties constitute the most important single
factor which contribute to or distract from professional
stability and growth of teachers. This, fact cannot easily
be over emphasized. If desirable policies are followed,
teachers have proper assurance of continuity of service
and are afforded needed incentive for growth. If short
sighted or politically influential policies are followed,
feelings of insecurity and di-couragement are certain
to be prevalent among the teachers.
School officials of each county, including trustees,
Board members, and the County Superintendent, should
examine every proposed policy to determine its probable
effect on stability and growth of teachers. If its effect


is likely to be unfavorable it can be classed as a bad
policy; if it is likely to be favorable, the policy should be
considered desirable.
Wrong policies regarding the selection and place-
ment of teachers, contracts, continuity of service, length
of terms, salary schedules and compensation, leave of
absence, promotion, retirement, and, in fact, any other
phase of personnel administration, may handicap the
whole school program because such policies increase
profes ional instability and discourage growth. At one
time or another, almost every county has adopted some
policies which have not been very satisfactory. A few
counties have adopted and continued numerous unwise
policies with results that have been disa-trous.
School officials in each county should seek to follow
policies which meet the following criteria:
1. All teachers should be given every possible in-
centive and opportunity for continuous growth.
2. All competent teachers should be given every
assurance of opportunity to continue in service
as long as their work is satisfactory.
3. The less competent teachers should be given every
opportunity and encouragement to improve in
service, and those who do not improve should be
replaced by competent teachers.
4. Teachers should be given every assurance that
there will be no personal or political interference
with their work or positions.
The policies of professional organizations of teach-
ers may be almost as significant in some respects as
policies of county officials. Local, county, or state or-
ganizations may follow policies which tend to promote
harmony and cooperation and which, at the same time,
encourage provi ion for stability and growth of teachers.
On the other hand, professional organizations may follow
policies which create strife and disturbance over minor


details and, consequently, contribute to the feeling of
insecurity and perhaps lessen the incentive for growth
on the part of teachers.
The following criteria should be observed by all pro-
fessional organizations:
(1) Measures which contribute to reasonable stability
and provide incentive for growth of teachers
should be encouraged.
(2) Measures, which tend to protect incompetent
teachers or to remove the incentive for growth
should be discouraged.
(3) Organizations at all times should seek ways and
means of cooperating with school personnel in
promoting desirable objectives and policies for
the school program and, particularly, for per-
sonnel administration.
(4) All issues should be faced and solved on the basis
of fundamentally sound principles instead of in
terms of personalities or trivialities.
The objectives of school administration should be
to place and keep each teacher in the position in which
he can render his best service and to avoid placing and
keeping a teacher in a position without regard to the
service he is rendering. The following paragraphs are
devoted to a discussion of administrative procedures
which, if properly carried out, should help to provide
desirable stability in service for teachers.
If teachers are selected on the basis of merit and
placed in positions for which they are properly trained
and to which they are well-adapted, such teachers will
tend to remain in their positions over a longer period of
time and to render more satisfactory service than if they
were carelessly selected and assigned to positions. School
officials should therefore ,always observe carefully the
criteria for the selection and placement of teachers pro-
posed in Chapters I and II.


The law now prescribes the time for reappointment
of teachers already in service and authorizes the County
Board to prescribe the time by which appointment of
new teachers should be made. It is no longer possible
for local school officials to wait until late in the summer
to notify teachers concerning their reappointment or for
trustees to wait for an indefinite period of time before
making a nomination for a vacancy. This new require-
ment thus is an important factor in promoting stability
for teachers.

Recommendations: Teachers should always be
selected for and assigned to positions on the
basis of qualifications and merit. They should be
appointed to fill positions for which they are prop-
erly certificated and are best qualified. The Coun-
ty Board should set a reasonable time by which
trustees should be required to make nominations
of persons to fill vacancies. When a vacancy oc-
curs in the spring, trustees might be given as long
as a month to submit a nomination. If it occurs just
before school opens, the trustees should not be
given more than a week or ten days, depending
somewhat upon the situation. Teachers should
always4 be notified in writing concerning their
reappointment by the time required by law. It
is not sufficient merely to notify those who are to
be retained.
An important aim of the teaching profession is to
make teaching a genuine career. Teaching cannot be a
career nor a profession unless teachers have spent a
number of years in preparation for their work, have a
professional attitude toward their work, and have rea-
son to expect to remain in the service over a long period
of time. A feeling of reasonable security is necessary for
any teacher who is to do satisfactory work. Worry and
fear or a feeling of insecurity are not conclusive to
tSee Bulletin: "Continuity of Service for Teachers in Florida."


Any competent teacher should have a right to ex-
pect to continue in service as long as he renders efficient
service. He should be protected from discrimination on
the grounds of prejudice, sex, marriage, religion, age
(within limits,), or political affiliations. He should also
be protected against excessive local pressure, nepotism,
and other uncertainties of employment.
Recommendations: All county school officials
should adopt and follow policies which will give
teachers assurance that they can continue in their
positions as long as their service is satisfactory.
District trustees as well as County Boards should
adopt resolutions stating that it is their intention
to give teachers who have served more than two
years the equivalent of continuing contracts.**
Trustees and board members should agree that
teachers are not to be dismissed at the end of the
year by omitting their names from the list. When
dismissal is necessary, teachers should be given
written notification stating the reason for dis-
missal. If teachers know that they are not to be
dismissed except for good reason, they will feel
much more secure than otherwise. In the near
future, the law should probably be changed to
authorize contracts for a period longer than a
year and perhaps to provide for continuing con-
tracts for teachers who have been in service for
some time.
Teachers should be as well trained for work in
kindergarten or elementary grades as in the high schools.
In order to attract to the elementary field, teachers who
are interested, are properly trained, and who find their
most congenial work and effective service at this level,
a uniform school term is necessary. Moreover, elemen-
tary pupils are entitled to a term which is as long as the
term for high school pupils.
Recommendations: Elementary schools should
always be operated for the same length of terms
**See "Handbook for County School Board Members in Florida," p. 71;
also "Handbook for School Trustees in Florida," p. 44.


as the high schools as a means of providing better
incentive and opportunity for elementary teachers
and pupils.
One of the surest ways to interfere with desirable
stability for teachers is for a County Board to create
some uncertainty regarding contracts of the teachers.
There have been cases where teachers were not given
any contracts or were given contracts which were mean-
ingless. The law requires that each teacher be provided
with a written contract at least one month before school
begins, providing for the payment of a definite salary,
for a definite term of service, and specifying the number
of monthly payments to be made. (Section 423 (7-g).).
A teacher who has signed a contract should live up to
the terms of the contract unless he is released. There
can be no excuse for any teacher signing a contract and
then leaving merely because he has another position.
Such actions are not only unethical but constitute grounds
for a reprimand and, perhaps, even for revoking the
certificate of the teacher.
Recommendations: The contract form provided
by the State Board of Education should always be
used. No County Board should write any qualify-
ing clause relating to the payment of salaries on
the contract form. For example, it is not valid for
a County Board to write on the contract "provided
funds are available." It would be acceptable for
a County Board to attach as a condition to the
contract for a teacher in a small school, the pro-
vision that the contract is valid only as long as
the enrollment does not fall below a specified
number of pupils. Teachers should always observe
fully the terms of the contract unless they are
released by the school officials with whom they
have contracted.
Educators recognize that the schools exist for the
education of pupils and not as a means of supporting
teachers; however, it is also recognized that teachers'


salaries must be comparable with earnings in other pro-
fessions in order to attract and hold people with suffi-
cient ability to fulfill the exacting requirements of
education in a modern world. Any person who is to lead
and guide youth successfully must live in a challenging
environment and move among stimulating associates.
The requirements of professional training and satis-
factory personal living necessitate salaries which make
this possible.
The law requires the County Board to adopt a
salary schedule or schedules to be used as a basis for
paying members of the instructional staff. It provides
that ". .such schedules (are) to be arranged, insofar
as practicable, so as to furnish incentive for improvement
in training and for continued and efficient service . ."
(Section 423 (7-f).
Basic Principles: Some of the basic considerations
relating to salary schedules are given below:
(1) A salary schedule should assure an adequate living wage for all
teachers. The minimum salary should not only provide the
necessary basic subsistence and allow for emergencies but should
also provide for desirable and comfortable living standards and
allow for professional culture and for continued study.
(2) Maximum salaries should be high enough to justify persons to
consider teaching as a career rather than as a temporary or
"stepping stone" job.
(3) The salary schedule should encourage the professional growth of
teachers while in service by such means as the addition of in-
crements for acceptable educational advancement. A teacher
should be paid according to the level of professional training he
has completed; higher minimum and maximum salaries should
be paid to teachers with high levels of training.
(4) The salary of a teacher should be based upon professional prep-
aration, the skill attained, and the quality of service rendered,
irrespective of the grade 'r age of the children to be taught.
It should not deprive any school level of the service of its foremost
(5) Conditioned upon satisfactory service, salary increases should be
assured for a specific number of years, at which point the in-
creases should cease until evidence of additional preparation or
growth is approved and recorded to the teacher's credit. Salary
schedules commonly provide from 5 to 10 annual (or sometimes


biennial) increments for each level of training. The increments
are usually larger for the higher than for the lower levels of
(6) Merit should insofar as practicable be recognized and rewarded.
However, a salary schedule in which merit is a factor is difficult
to administer. To prevent abuse the system of determining merit
must be very carefully worked out. Automatic increases regardless
of merit or efficiency may soon become deadening and result in
a stultifying "lock-step."
The Single Salary Schedule: The use of a single
salary schedule providing that all teachers regardless of
grade or subject taught will receive equal salaries for
equivalent education, experience, and merit is a just and
fair means of compensation for teachers.
Some of the advantages of a single salary schedule
are given below:
(1) It helps to encourage the well-trained teacher to remain in his
field of specialization and to remove the incentive for transferring
to another field which may provide better compensation.
(2) It helps school administrators to secure and retain well-trained,
efficient, and satisfied teachers at all levels of service.
(3) It helps to strengthen the elementary school, which usually needs
Salaries for Twelve Months? The question as to
whether teachers are to be paid for the term taught, or
are to be paid monthly for twelve months is frequently
discussed. Unquestionably principals, at least, should
be paid on a twelve-month basis. The matter of the
number of payments to be made to teachers should prob-
ably, for the present, be determined by the teachers
themselves in the various counties. If there can be as-
surance that teachers will actually receive their salaries.
for the full twelve months (that salaries will not be
promised on a twelve months basis and then withheld
for the final month because funds have been exhausted),
and if County Boards can make provision to have a suf-
ficient reserve on hand to pay salaries for July and
August without having to borrow, there seems to be no
valid reason why teachers should not be paid on the
twelve-month basis.


Recommendations: Each county should seek to
develop a salary schedule based primarily on
training and experience, so that all teachers may
know what to expect in the way of salaries, and
salary increments The increments for teachers
with the experience should provide for salaries
considerable higher than those for beginning
teachers. Also, increments for added training
should be sufficient to provide incentive for
growth in service. The principle of the single
salary schedule should be adopted as the policy
for the county. Provision should always be made
for funds to be on hand to pay salaries when due,
regardless of whether those salaries are paid for
the length of the school term or are paid on a
twelve-month basis. Insofar as practicable, every
effort should be made to put salaries on a level
that will permit teachers not only to maintain a
decent standard of living but to have a sufficient
margin to improve themselves culturally and pro-
Sooner or later, every teacher is likely to have to be
away from his work for at least a short period of time
because of illness or for other reasons. When provision
is made for leave of absence, a step has been taken to-
ward professionalizing teaching because of the added
security that is thereby afforded.

For a number of years, Florida laws have provided
for limited leave of absence for teachers. The School
Code strengthened some of the original provi-ions, and
added other possibilities. Among the important pro-
visions of law are the following:
Sick Leave. Teachers are entitled to five days of sick leave annually,
when needed, with full pay. Sick leave is cumulative for a total of
twenty days. Substitute teachers must be paid by the County
Board. Their salaries cannot be deducted from the salary of the
regular teacher who is absent on sick leave. (Section 540)
Illness in Line of Duty Leave. A teacher who is injured or contracts
some illness in the performance of his duty is entitled to claim not
more than ten days illness-in-line-of-duty leave per year. This may
be in addition to the sick leave. Illness-in-line-of-duty leave is not
cumulative. Teachers are entitled to full compensation for any


illness-in-line-of-duty leave used, and substitutes are to be paid by
the County Board. (Section 541)
Professional Leave. IThe County Board is authorized to prescribe
regulations relating to professional leave and the County Superin-
tendent may grant professional leave to employees under regulations
of the County Board. The County Board also prescribes regulations
under which compensation is to be allowed and the extent uf the
compensation. (Section 542)
Personal Leave. Employees may be granted personal leave, but
they are not entitled to compensation for such leave. Personal
leave must be approved by the County Superintendent under regu-
lations of the County Board. (Section 543)
Sabbatical Leave. There is no provision in the law
at present for sabbatical leave. However, County Boards
could and should provide for such leave, although there
is no provision for authorizing compensation for sab-
batical leave. It would be a good policy for a County
Board to give teachers, who have been in service for a
period of time, leave of absence upon request, for
advanced study or for other reasons. In a number of the
larger cities of the country, at least partial compensation
is authorized for such leave.
Recommendations: County officials should will-
ingly carry out all provisions of the law relating
'to leave of absence as a means of providing fur-
ther stability and security for teachers. Leave of
absence provisions should be as liberal as the law
will permit and as needed to provide wholesome
teaching conditions. Compensation for leave
should always be paid promptly and without
needless restrictions when such compensation is
authorized and when teachers have properly filed
their claims. Competent teachers who have been
in service for several years should be granted leave
of absence upon request so they will be assured
that they are entitled to their positions when they
If teachers recognize that there are opportunities
for promotion within the system in which they are work-
ing, they are likely to be less restless and less apt to
seek positions elsewhere than if there are few such op-
portunities in the system. Promotion should not be con-


sidered a matter of changing from one type of work to
an entirely different type unless preparation has been
made for the change by additional training or by the
development of special abilities. The classroom teacher
who has done outstanding work and whose professional
interest lies in his classes should be rewarded by added
compensation within the limits of the salary schedule
instead of having to look to an administrative position
in order to get a salary increase.
The teacher who does the best work and who shows
the most promise should be the one selected for advance-
ment. In a large school, promotion may usually be more
readily worked out within the school than in the small
school. In some of the largest schools, there are op-
portunties for promotion such as deanships, supervisors,
heads of departments, and coordinators. Sometimes it
may be desirable to promote a teacher to a better posi-
tion in another district. In the latter case, the consent
of the trustees will have to be secured, and this may be
a complicating factor unless trustees are accustomed to
depending upon the judgment of the principal and the
County Superintendent. In every case the principal and
County Superintendent should be in best position to
judge when promotions are deserved.
Recommendations: Every school system should
adopt the policy of promoting deserving employ-
ees not only through salary schedule advance-
ments but also through better positions within the
system. Promotion should not be restricted to
any school or district but should be worked out,
insofar as possible, on a county-wide basis. The
County Superintendent and his staff, as well as
principals and heads of departments, should con-
tinually be seeking to locate teachers who are
doing unusually satisfactory work, and who
would be well suited for other positions when
openings occur. While it may sometimes be
necessary to go outside of the county to fill such
a vacancy, teachers within the county should
feel that they have an opportunity to qualify.


However, teachers should recognize that they can
not qualify for a position requiring special train-
ing unless they secure the training insofar as
possible in advance of the appointment.
Teacher retirement is an important factor in any
system in encouraging stability of teachers. Fortunately,
Florida has recently made limited provision by law for
the retirement of teachers. All teachers over seventy
are required to retire, and teachers between sixty and
seventy are permitted to retire. The rate of retirement
compensation is based upon the length of prior service
for the teacher and upon the rate of contribution he has
made to the system as determined by the age at which
he entered.
With such a retirement system it is less likely that
teaching will be used by individuals as a stop-gap in
preparing for some other professional occupation. All
new teachers are now required to become members of
the retirement system and cannot withdraw unless they
leave teaching. The fact that they have an investment
in the teaching profession and are making some pro-
vision for old age provides added incentive for them to
continue in the teaching profession.
Recommendations: Retirement for teachers
should be administered in every county in such a
manner that teachers will fully realize and benefit
from the added security provdied by such a
At the present time, most school systems in the
State are greatly handicapped by the rapid turnover and
general instability of teachers. The fact that many
teachers seek positions in other counties or seek posi-
tions outside of the profession each year means that
county officials should place emphasis on those adminis-
trative procedures which will tend to encourage a greater
feeling of security and will provide greater incentive for
remaining in the service. Security and stability, however,


should not be developed to the place where teachers feel
too complacent in their positions or where teachers con-
tinue to remain in communities after their period of use-
ful service to the community has passed. A limited
amount of moving from county to county is desirable as
a means of stimulating teacher and school growth, but
such moving should occur only occasionally in the life
of any teacher instead of practically every year or two
as is now the case in many situations.


Most of the incentives for stability which were dis-
cussed in the previous topic are also, directly or indi-
rectly, incentives for growth. However, it is possible
that some of the incentives for stability may be so ad-
ministered that the incentive for growth is removed or
decreased unless proper safeguards are observed.
Every teacher in the profession must continue to
grow in order to understand and be able to meet prob-
lems involving the changing civilization in which he is
living. If teachers fail to grow, the schools will no longer
meet the needs of the children. There is always a ten-
dency for teachers and schools to lag behind changes
in civilization.
There is no danger that teachers will grow too
much or too rapidly. There is always danger that they
will not grow rapidly enough. Therefore, school offi-
cials in every county must constantly be seeking ways
and means of stimulating teacher growth. Every teach-
ers' organization, whether county or state, must likewise
be seeking ways and means of stimulating growth among
the members of the profession.
The best professional growth arises from personal
incentive and initiative instead of from administrative
stimulation. However, there are a number of important
administrative measures and policies which help to pro-


vide or encourage individual or personal incentives for
growth. Some of these are discussed below.
Teachers meetings may be purely academic gather.
ings, may become largely social occasions, or may pro-
vide real incentive and stimulation for professional
growth. The objective should always be to arrange for
meetings of teachers which not only provide stimulation
and inspiration, but which also provide definite incen-
tives for growth and development.
Professional Meetings: There are numerous pro-
fessional meetings which teachers may attend. Each
fall the Florida Education Association holds district
meetings at which there are inspirational speakers and
at which problems relating to the work and professional
development of the teachers are discussed. The annual
meeting of the State Education Association is held in the
spring. The general meetings are inspirational and in-
formational. Group meetings provide opportunities for
specific help to teachers working in the various fields.
In addition to state meetings, there are, of course,
national meetings of various types such as the National
Education Association, which meets about the first of
July each year.
Teachers and groups of teachers usually derive from
professional meetings just what they put into the meet-
ings. If the teachers are interested in getting inspiration
and help, they can usually find it. Partly as a means of
self-help, teachers should be on the alert constantly to
assist their professional organization in planning better
and more constructive meetings.
State Department District Conferences: Once or
twice each year, the State Superintendent and his staff
arrange for district meetings for all County Superin-
tendents, board members, trustees and principals. At
these meetings the newer projects in education are dis-
cussed and proposals which are in process of develop-


ment are presented for suggestions and reactions. Such
meetings are held in various sections of the state in order
to give everyone a chance to attend and participate.
County Meetings: In some counties the teachers
hold monthly meetings to discuss their professional
problems and to collaborate in planning improvements
in the County Program. In other counties such meetings
are seldom if ever held. Periodic county meetings are
desirable in all counties. At such meetings principals
as well as various groups of teachers should have op-
portunity to work on their own problems. There should
also be meetings at which principals and teachers should
work together as a unit in thinking through and planning
improvements in the county school program.
School Faculty Meetings. Wide awake and up to
the minute faculty group di-cussions may prove an in-
valuable means of teacher education. Alert principals
take advantage of the potentialities of faculty meetings
and encourage their teachers to participate actively in
the discussion. If every teacher shares the responsibility
of contributing suggestions pertinent to the problem
under discussion, faculty meetings should evolve into
weekly or even semi-weekly work-conferences. The re-
sulting gains in teacher growth should be immeasurable.
Such topics as professional ethics, the philosophy of the
school, improving the school program, improving the
teacher-pupil relationships, and cooperating with the
community, may profitably be taken up for discussion
at these meetings. The success of the meetings will de-
pend not only on the principal but also on the staff. Such
meetings should constitute a cooperative project for the
school personnel.
Recommendations: Teachers meetings should be
arranged for the benefit of teachers as well as of
the administration. Teachers should avoid using
such meetings primarily as social occasions but
should seek and expect stimulation for growth.
Administrative officials should provide oppor-


tunities for teachers to attend meetings but should
see that the privilege is not abused. There are
likely to be so many requests for attendance at
meetings that a policy will probably need be
adopted by the County Board to prevent abuses.
Teachers should of course be encouraged to at-
tend district and state meetings of the Florida
Education Association and those called by the
State Superintendent. Persons whose work is out-
standing and who are in position to derive ma-
terial benefit from such meetings should be au-
thorized from time to time to attend meetings
outside the state.
If teachers have the opportunity to participate in
the planning of the curriculum for their own school and
for their own classroom they will have incentives for
growing and developing that could not otherwise be
afforded. Every county should have a curriculum pro-
gram which is closely correlated with the State program.
Each school likewise should have a similarly correlated
curriculum program and the faculty should be working
continuously on the curriculum. Rapid changes in civili-
zation necessitate continuous changes in the school pro-
gram. Group planning for the total educational program
offers a most effective method for the growth of faculty
members. Some of the advantages from a curriculum
revision program are as follows:
1. It provides unity of purpose and effort in the
professional life of the teacher.
2. It clarifies issues which teachers have already
begun to think about for themselves.
3. It serves as a vitalizing force in the personal de-
velopment of teachers.
4. It replaces the habit of seeking patterns for
teaching and provides a real insight into the fun-
damental principles of learning.
5. It presents the opportunity for teachers to keep
up-to-date with teaching materials, professional
books, and contemporary problems.


6. It develops an enlarged point of view by con-
stantly raising, in the on-going process, problems
in new areas.
Recommendations: Every school and every
school system should have a curriculum revision
program de signed in part to keep curriculum ma-
terials up-to-date and in part to stimulate desirable
growth of teachers. Teachers who are constantly
studying and planning improvements in their cur-
riculum are almost certain to be growing in many
useful respects.
A school can be developed as an isolated academic
institution or as an integral part of community life. Of
course one of the objectives of education is a school sys-
tem which constitutes one fundamental aspect of the life
of the whole community. The school should not by any
means be an isolated institution. It has a definite respon-
sibility to the community and the community in turn has
a definite responsibility to the school. More emphasis
is being placed upon this inter-relationship each year.
The teachers in each school system need constantly to
be studying the community in which they live, and to be
seeking ways and means of making the school more ef-
fective in the community. Unfortunately many people
tend to think of teachers as academically minded indi-
viduals who have little contact with practical problems.
It is up to the schools to revise this conception.
Recommendations: Each school should serve as
a democratic agency for the training of young
citizens of the community. It should function
as an integral part of the community life. It
should contribute definitely to the growth and
development of the community and should sup-
port and assist the community in perfecting and
carrying out its own program. If the teachers
function in a school program of this type, growth
is assured for them as well as for the school.


Each school system should have definite regulations
regarding the periodic study of teachers. Such require-
ments should be so formulated as to assure that teachers
will keep in contact with the new developments in edu-
cation and will have the opportunity to utilize these de-
velopments in their own school program. Some County
Boards have no requirements relating to the continued
training of teachers, and depend entirely upon State
requirements relating to extension of certificates. How-
ever, the state requirements are not sufficient to meet
the needs. Many teachers hold life certificates of various
types which do not have to be renewed or extended. All
teachers should be expected to attend summer school
from time to time or to engage in some other activity
which represents the equivalent of summer school at-
Recommendations: Each County Board should
require all teachers who are not four-year college
graduates to attend summer school at least one
term each second summer in order to continue in
the system. Furthermore ,the County Board should
prescribe a time limit by which teachers who are
not in the county system must complete their
college work or at least complete a prescribed
number of years of college training. Teachers
who have already completed their college work
should be required to attend summer school at
least once each three years or to substitute some
other activity which would be considered the
equivalent in educational possibilities of summer
school attendance. Preference should be given to
activities relating to and involving the Florida
Program for Improvement of Schools, such as the
Work-Conference or Workshop programs or other
activities involving the preparation of bulletins.
Teachers who are in service have, or should have,
better opportunities to grow and develop in connection
with their work than at any other time. In college they
were in a more or less specialized environment, and were


in excellent position to grow academically but not in
such good position to grow in other respects unless they
were exceptional individuals. Teachers in service have
the challenge of their work, have academic duties in con-
nection with their work and at the same time have to be
practical enough to keep contact with community life
and development.
There are numerous opportunities for the adminis-
trative staff to plan for growth of teachers in service.
Some important opportunities for growth should come
through the supervision of the principal. This does not
necessarily mean frequent class visitation but particularly
refers to the leadership and stimulation a principal may
give the teachers in planning a dynamic school program
and in helping them to grow in connection with such
A number of counties have supervisors who should
be in an excellent position to work with teachers and
principals to bring about an increase of in-service
growth. All counties need some type of supervisory
service. If there are no supervisors, the county leader-
ship and integration must be provided through the
County Superintendent's office and this is often all but
impossible because of the many other duties devolving
on the Superintendent.
Teachers in a number of counties take extension,
correspondence, or other types of training during the
year. Many times these courses are not directly related
to the school program of the county. In fact Superin-
tendents have sometimes found it difficult to secure the
cooperation of colleges in the type -of courses which
should be provided. College teachers usually have
courses which they have been offering on the college
campus and which they do not wish to change to be
offered in the field. From the point of view of school
administrators it would usually be helpful to have spe-
cially prepared courses to meet the needs of the teachers
in the various counties. Most of the regular college


courses are not well adapted to aid in promoting in-
service growth of teachers.
Schools also have opportunity to secure special
services upon request from the State Department which
may be helpful to teachers and other personnel. More-
over it is frequently possible for State Department rep-
resentatives to aid the teachers of the county or of a
number of schools in the county in the study of certain
problems or phases of their work. Usually a State De-
partment representative visits each of the larger schools
some time during the year, and assistance which should
be beneficial to the principal and teachers may be ob-
tained at that time.
Recommendations: Teachers and school officials
in each county should carefully develop their
program for the year to include a plan for secur-
ing the services that would be most beneficial.
The county can arrange a- definite plan to foster
improvement in service under the supervision of
principals, supervisors, and the County Superin-
tendent's office. Moreover a number of services
may be available to the schools and to the entire
county upon request through the State Depart-
ment of Education. Colleges which offer such
services will cooperate in providing extension or
other in-service training courses. Officials and
teachers, however, should decide upon the type
of training needed in the county and should seek
to have colleges offer courses which will help the
teachers with their own problems. Subjects which
are offered merely for credit during the school
year should be discouraged, when they conflict
with the county wide in-service program.
State laws and regulations provide a number of in-
centives for in-service growth of teachers and also pro-
vide certain handicaps. Some of the most important of
these provisions are discussed below.
Certification: State laws relating to certification of
teachers were completely revised when the School Code


was adopted, and are now considered as modern as any
in the Nation. These laws, supplemented by regulations
of the State Board, provide certain important incentives
for growth of teachers. In the first place, provisions for
certification by examination are much more limited than
in previous years. In fact, the laws provide for the
elimination of such certificates entirely when the supply
of teachers is sufficient to warrant that step being taken.
After July 1, 1941 no teacher with lers than thirty hours
of college training may be certified by examination.
Certificates are now classified on the basis of col-
lege training including prescribed courses in education.
Such certificates may be extended or renewed under
regulations of the State Board. Certificates may be ex-
tended for one year at a time by meeting requirements
for college attendance or reading circle work. Persons
holding undergraduate certificates must attend summer
school at least once every three years as the basis for
renewing such certificates.
Under previous laws, life certificates which required
no additional training for renewal were granted to many
teachers. Persons who held life certificates might drop
out of school wcrk entirely for many years and still be
eligible to return to teaching. Present laws and regula-
tions, of course, do not invalidate life certificates already
granted to teachers, but do provide definite incentives
as indicated above for continued improvement of all
other teachers.
Accreditation and Recognition of Schools: As a
means of encouraging improvement of teachers as well
as of the schools the state suggests standards that should
be met by all schools. In schools from which pupils are
to be eligible to transfer credits to other schools these
minimum standards are required to be met. In such
schools a teacher cannot be employed who does not have
the minimum training required nor can a new principal
be employed if he has not had training in administration
and supervision. This provides a very distinct incentive


and helps to avoid the appointment of poorly qualified
teachers in schools and counties where the County Board
has not prescribed minimum qualifications.
Publications: From time to time the State Depart-
ment of Education issues special bulletins and publica-
tions relating to problems of improving teachers. These
publications, supplemented by suggestions and confer-
ences by staff members are intended to help to raise the
standards of the teaching profession in the state.
State Funds for Teachers' Salaries: The instruc-
tional salary portion of the State Teachers Salary Fund
is to aid in maintaining salaries at a reasonable level in
all counties. Counties must use this entire portion of the
fund for teachers' salaries and must budget the entire
apportionment if it is to be received. The instructional
salary portion of the fund, however, is apportioned to
counties on the basis of the number of instruction units
computed according to requirements prescribed by law
and based primarily on average daily attendance. A
county that has no standards for beginning teachers and
employs poorly qualified teachers receives the same ap-
portionment per instruction unit as a county that pre-
scribes college graduation as a minimum standard. Thus
no direct incentive is provided for counties to raise
standards for teachers and there is undoubtedly some
incentive to some counties to maintain low standards.
A number of education leaders have suggested that some
incentive to encourage backward counties to raise
standards for teachers should be incorporated in the law.
The best type of professional growth for teachers
is not that which is required by state certification pro-
visions or by regulations of the County Board. It comes
because the teacher is genuinely interested in improving
himself as an individual and as a member of the teaching
profession. The objective of every teacher should be to


continue to find ways and means of understanding better
the group with which he lives and works and of acquir-
ing knowledge and skills which will be useful to him
in his profession.
The gains both to teachers and to their classes would
be enormous if over a period of years, each teacher
would voluntarily and systematically renew his under-
standing of the board fields of human learning-such as
science, the arts, social studies, and the humanities.
Every teacher should be a progressive student of educa-
tion. He should increase his educational equipment after
entering the service and should maintain an open mind
toward all forms of professional progress. Every class-
room teacher, as well as each principal and Superin-
tendent, should want to exert individual effort to renew
continuously his own intellectual resources. It is his
duty to do so.
The following suggestions indicate possibilities for
growth of individual teachers through personal motiva-
1. Self-directed reading, liberalizing social and
esthetic experience, and formal courses in colleges
and universities all have their place in carrying
out a program of professional rejuvenation.
2. Every teacher should periodically enroll in sum-
mer or extension courses in colleges or universities.
3. Every member of the profession should engage
in Euch experimentation and collection of data as
will test the value of educational theories and aid
in the establishment of a scientific basis for edu-
cational practice, and should be willing to give his
fellow members the benefit of his professional
knowledge and experience.
4. Each teacher should maintain his efficiency and
teaching skill by study and through active par-
ticipation in local, state and national organiza-


tions as well as in the Florida Program for Im-
provement of Schools.
Reading is not by any means the sole source of
growth. In fact, growth through reading has very def-
inite limitations. However, there are also some very
definite possibilities. Each teacher should do a certain
amount of social as well as professional reading each
week. Teachers should read regularly some of the best
magazine articles as well as some of the most outstand-
ing cultural and professional books. Not all of the books
which are read should be modern. Periodically a teacher
should take time to read some of the books that have
come down through the years and are recognized as out-
standing. Reading, however, should always be supple-
mented by other means of securing information and pro-
viding stimulation.
Many colleges and universities have arranged to
give credit for travel during the summer through regular
courses. Through a carefully arranged program of the
history and English departments an interesting schedule
of visits to historic and literary shrines may be planned.
Visits to National Parks and trips through various in-
dustries have greater value than many prescribed courses.
When travel is carefully planned by the individual it is
usually far more stimulating and helpful than when un-
dertaken merely as a tour with little individual fore-
thought. Every teacher should have opportunity to travel
at some time. There is nothing quite so broadening as
travel if planned properly. Foreign travel should be most
enlightening if teachers go to other countries with a
genuine desire to learn about the people and understand
their customs. School officials should recognize the
value of properly planned travel and should make pro-
visions for encouraging teachers to plan and take educa-
tional trips from time to time.


The opportunities of teachers for community par-
ticipation are almost unlimited-particularly of those
teachers who are interested and who have talents for
community leadership. In fact, teachers are frequently
in position where, because of the many demands, they
must select and evaluate ways and means by which they
may most effectively participate in community life.
Teachers should study the community as it relates to
the school. It is easy for teachers to become blind to
community problems and needs. The teacher who under-
takes to understand and to improve his community as
related to the school and to the civilization in which he
lives is in an excellent position to do a lot of growing
in a short time.
Means of growth are almost unlimited. They are
constantly at hand for those who would take advantage
of them. A teacher should not be satisfied at any time
unless he is growing and is taking advantage of every
possible opportunity through the radio, the movies,
musical productions, cultural programs and other stimu-
lating agencies and procedures. A growing teacher
means one who is alert to his opportunities for improve-
ment. A profession comprised of alert teachers means
better schools for the children.



Throughout this bulletin emphasis has been placed
on procedures which are desirable to aid in providing
better teachers for Florida schools. Much progress can
be made through better selection, more careful place-
ment, and greater attention to measures which promote
stability and growth. However, no problem can be solved
unless all aspects are considered. The phases of the
problem of providing better teachers which have been
previously considered are concerned only with teachers
as they become available for schools. There are still
more fundamental problems to be solved. Among these
are the following:
1. Encouraging persons with talent and ability for
teaching to select teaching as a profession.
2. Guiding these people into the type of teaching
for which they are best adapted.
3. Preparing these persons, through the teacher-
education institutions, to become competent teach-
4. Bridging the gap between college preparation
and the beginning of active work as a regular
Unless the State has a definite plan and program for
facing and solving these problems, the schools are cer-
tain to be handicapped sooner or later because of weak-
ness in some of these fundamentals. A program planned
to aid, in solving problems in these fields is therefore of
great interest and major importance to school adminis-
trators and, in fact, to the entire teaching profession
which should benefit from such a program.


Problems in the field of enlisting and educating
teacher personnel with which this chapter deals, are here
discus-ed from the point of view of principals, superin-
tendents, and others who have to face such problems in
the field, and of the teaching profession which should be
directly interested in helping to solve these problems.
Education is a public service. It affects all the chil-
dren, and directly or indirectly affects all of the people.
It affects them much more intimately and over a longer
period of time than any other one public service.
The citizens of any state, therefore, should be di-
rectly concerned with plans and procedures for encour-
aging the most capable persons possible to select teaching
as a profession and to prepare for teaching. The State
and the Nation receive direct benefits in proportion to
the competence of the persons who prepare for teaching
and are employed as teachers.
The matter of who enters the teaching profession
should not be left to chance or to economic determination.
It is easy to picture a situation where the entire State
would be handicapped because of such low salaries that
very few persons of outstanding talent would select
teaching as a profession. Such a situation would be
There is some cause for concern, even at present,
about the type of persons who are preparing for teach-
ing. Studies that have been made in colleges in many
sections of the Nation show that the average level of
ability for persons preparing to teach is considerably
less than that of persons preparing for a number of
other professions. That situation may be due in part to
the relatively low salaries which have been paid teach-
ers, but is probably brought about partly by the fact
that there has not been a very definite program for help-
ing to interest persons with ability in the possibilities of


The importance of careful selection of prospective
teachers was strikingly pointed out by Thorndyke in the
following words: "A nation which lets incapables teach
it, while the capable men and women only feed or clothe
or amuse it, is committing intellectual suicide."f
We have not yet reached the stage where persons
who will make good teachers can be definitely selected
from among high school or college students. However,
there are certain qualities which are known to be posi-
tively related to teaching efficiency. Among the most
important of these are: Intelligence, scholarship, skill
in expression, judgment, attitudes of various sorts, and
adaptability.** Not all youth who possess such character-
istics would make good teachers, but promising prospec-
tive teachers can be selected from among persons pos-
sessing such qualities. Persons who are below the average
in one or more of these qualities are not likely to become
good teachers.
Pupils who are efficient in their work, who hold the
recognition and respect of their associates, who make
friends readily, who have participated widely in extra
curricular activities and who give evidence of marked
scholastic ability, would usually make promising candi-
dates for teachers. Some of the characteristics indica-
tive of a good teacher may also be stated as follows:
1. He should have an interest in teaching and feel
that it is one of the most important types of work.
2. He should have a positive personality. A negative
personality fails to elicit proper response and
would probably have little stimulation for chil-
dren. The positive personality, however, should
include a spirit of cooperativeness, a sympathetic
understanding, and the power of adaptability.
tQuoted by Buckingham, B. R., in "Supply and Demand in Teacher
Training," p. 3.
**See also discussion in Chapter I under the topic: "What Criteria
Should Be Used in the Selection of Teachers?"


3. The person should be a good student. He should
have the habit of facing and solving problems
rather than of avoiding issues.
4. He should use sound judgment, should be able
to express his judgments clearly and should have
the courage of his convictions.
5. His personal and social habits should be of a high
order. He should not only be able to make but
also to maintain a good impression.
6. His health should be good. The exacting demands
of the teaching profession require both physical
and emotional stability.
7. He should have initiative. Leadership is important
but ability to cooperate in working out problems
is also essential.
It is, of course, impossible to predict the future of
many high school youth. Some of the most promising
in high school may not continue to be the most promising
in college. Some of the best prospects for teachers may,
after considering teaching, decide upon another career.
Many of the girls will decide to marry instead of pre-
paring for a profession outside the home. In spite of the
uncertainties and handicaps, however, each high school
faculty and the school administrative officials of each
county should be studying the high school students with
a view to determining those who seem to have the char-
acteristics which would enable them to become good
Care should be used not to over-encourage young
people to decide upon teaching. We have not yet
reached the stage where we can definitely determine in
our own minds what young people should do, and then
expect them to carry out our conclusions. There would
be just as much harm in over-persuasion as there would
be in saying nothing to young people about the values
of teaching and in permitting them to reach a totally
unguided conclusion.


Each high school should have a guidance program
which seeks to help pupils determine their own interests-
and aptitudes. Those responsible for the guidance pro-
gram should keep in mind the desirability of encourag-
ing the most promi-ing young people who show an
aptitude for teaching to select that profession. Some of
the following procedures may be helpful in connection
with the teacher-selection phase of the guidance program
of any high school:
1. Teachers should seek opportunities to discuss
with pupils on a frank and friendly basis, the
po-sibilities of teaching as well as some of the
problems in the teaching profession.
2. Each school might do well to arrange for a
student-teacher day for seniors or for juniors and
seniors. This day could be planned along the line
of the Boys Town idea, with students taking over
the various responsibilities of operating the school
in accordance with their capacities and abilities.
Such a project could be made very valuable, not
only from the point of view of guidance, but also
from the point of view of training in democracy.
3. Many schools have already established a Future
Teachers Club, and others should do so. The
membership for such clubs should be carefully
Selected on the basis of interest in teaching and
of qualities relating to teaching.
4. Each school should keep its students, as well as
its teachers, in close touch with some of the most
promising developments in the field of education.
The Florida Program for Improvement of Schools
should be understood by all.
The result of such a program as here proposed,
should be that a number of the mostI promising students
in each high school would have tentatively made up their
minds by the time they complete high school to prepare
for teaching as a profession. However, such decisions,


in most cases, would still be tentative and subject to re-
vision in college.
The process of studying young people to determine
those best suited to become teachers should be continued
in the colleges and universities. If such study occurs only
in high schools, many of the outstanding possibilities will,
for one reason or another, be overlooked. Unfortunately
among the academic faculties in some of the colleges
there is little respect for public school teaching as a pro-
fession. As long as such an attitude prevails even among
part of the faculty of any college, there cannot be an ade-
quate program for guidance of young people. People who
should go into teaching will be improperly influenced to
go into other professions. Many of the students in such
colleges will be persuaded to look down on those who are
preparing to teach. As a result of such attitudes the
prospective teachers sometimes have to carry the added
burden of an implied social stigma.
Any democratic form of government is needlessly
weakened if its public school system is handicapped by
critical and unsympathetic college or university teachers
who have little respect for public school teaching as a
profession or for those who are preparing to teach in the
public schools.
Each college and university should constantly study
its student personnel, particularly in the first and second
years, to determine those who are best suited for teach-
ing, as well as those best suited for other professions.
Such a study should be a definite and continuing part of
the guidance program. The college testing program
should be used to throw light on the abilities and interests
of the students. College counselors should advise the
students and seek to determine their real interests and
abilities. This should not be the duty of just one or two
experts in guidance, but of every member of the college


The principal of each high school should acquaint
the college faculty with the pupils from his high school
who have tentatively decided upon teaching as a career.
Such students should be further studied in college. Mem-
bers of the faculty of the College of Education should
become well acquainted with these students and should
arrange conferences with them from time to time in
order to evaluate further the interests and possibilities
of the students. The faculty of the College of Education
should be reeking also to learn of other students who
may have developed an interest in teaching since they
graduated from high school, and who have qualities
which are desirable for teachers. There should be such
a close relationship between the College of Education
faculty and the faculty of the rest of the college, that
all such students will be called to the attention of those
who have responsibilities for teacher education.
The college program should be such that by the end
of the second year of college training, those who are
interested in teaching will have reached a fairly definite
decision regarding teaching as their career and likewise
the college will have reached a fairly definite decision
regarding their suitability for teaching. Further pro-
cedures relating to this phase of the program are dis
cussed later in this chapter under the heading "Guidance
in Selection of Prospective Teachers."
As previously implied, the State should be directly
interested in any program of teacher selection and train-
ing. This interest should extend beyond the mere for-
mulation of such a program. It, in fact, should have cer-
tain financial aspects. Many young men and young
women who should develop into good teachers do not
have the financial resources to take the training which
is necessary. Unless they have some assistance, they
will be lost to the profession and the State program will
be handicapped to that extent. It will not be sufficient


to depend upon aid from such agencies as the NYA; the
program of State aid should go beyond that.
The State of Florida has indicated its interest in this
problem by legislation which is intended to aid in pro-
viding a solution. In a law which became effective on
July 1, 1927, a State system of scholarships for prospec-
tive teachers was established. The law provides:
"Annually every senatorial district of this State shall be allowed
one scholarship for men at the University of Florida and one schol-
arship for women at the Florida State College for Women, and
annually every county of this state shall be also allowed the same
number of scholarships for men in the University of Florida as the
county has Representatives in the House of Representatives and
annually each county of this State shall also be allowed as many
scholarships in the Florida State College for Women as the county
has Representatives in the House of Representatives of the State
of Florida . The scholarships shall be awarded only to such resi-
dents of the several counties and the Senatorial districts as intend
to make teaching in this State their occupation. ." (Chapter 12261,
Acts of 1927).
Unfortunately, State finances during recent years
have been such that these scholarships have not been
effective. The idea back of the scholarships is excellent
and the State should take steps in the immediate future
and see that the program is put into operation as a means
of strengthening the teaching profession. Young people
who benefit from such scholarships should realize fully
their obligation to the State and should be in good posi-
tion to make a distinct contribution to the teaching pro-
fes ion.

Attention has been previously called to the import-
ance of an adequate guidance program in order to stim-
ulate interest in teaching as a career and to encourage
selection of this career by those who have the necessary
ability and aptitudes. Such a program should be so care-
fully worked out that by the time a student has completed
his second year of college, decisions will have been fairly


definitely made. Most of those who are well qualified
and interested in teaching should have made their de-
cision to prepare for teaching, while most of the others
should have determined upon other occupations or pro-
The fact that a student has tentatively selected
teaching should not, even at the end of the second year
of college, mean that his decision is irrevocable. After
a student has begun his training for teaching it may be-
come clear that he has certain characteristics or lacks
certain characteristics that would make it almost impos-
sible for him to succeed as a teacher. In such a case, the
student should be encouraged to select something bet-
ter suited to his abilities. Moreover, a small percentage
of students who have tentatively selected some other
career such as law or engineering, may decide, with their
advisers, that they are better adapted to teaching. Such
students should still have the opportunity and should be
encouraged to transfer to the type of work for which
they are best fitted.
There is still another guidance function which must,
necessarily, be served by the teacher-education colleges
in cooperation with the State education authorities. Con-
tinued studies should be made of supply and demand for
teachers. It is very important that a large supply of
prospective teachers should not be encouraged to pre-
pare for teaching in any field unless it is reasonably
certain that there will be a demand for their services.
The fact that a person selects teaching as a career
is an important first-step but does not solve the problem.
Another step is to select the phase of teaching in which
the person is most interested. This can usually be done
fairly early in the program.
The first basic consideration is whether a student
is interested in, and has aptitudes for, teaching in ele-
mentary or in high schools. While there are a number
of characteristics that are common to both groups of


teachers, some people prefer to work with younger chil-
dren, while others are more interested in, and are better
qualified to work with older children. This decision
should be very carefully made by the student and his
advisers. Very frequently in the past, teachers have
begun to teach in elementary schools and then have
found that they were better adapted to high school
teaching, or, have first begun to teach in high school and
found that they were better adapted to the elementary
After this decision has been made, the high school
teacher must necessarily determine the subject field in
which he is most interested. This should be determined
partly in terms of his abilities and aptitudes, and partly
in terms of the supply and demand for teachers in the
Selection of public school administration and super-
vision or of college teaching as a career should probably
not come until reasonably late in the training of an in-
dividual. Most students will not be in a position to make
such a decision until they have completed at least three
years of college work, and many others will not be able
to make the decision until they have completed their
college work and had experience as teachers. A teacher
in the field can, perhaps, have better opportunities to
determine his qualities for an administrative or super-
visory position than can a person who is still taking col-
lege work. Many people are not at all adapted to ad-
ministrative or supervisory work. Such persons should
be encouraged to prepare definitely for teaching posi-
tions. Good administrators are still so rare that there
should be a carefully developed program of selecting
those whose abilities seem to lie along these lines and
encouraging them to take training. It must be realized
that capable administrators cannot be selected merely
by promoting a good teacher to an administrative posi-
tion. Training for administration and supervision is just
as essential as is training for regular classroom teaching.


As indicated above, college authorities should al-
ways be alert to help to avoid the possibility of over-
crowding any field of teaching. In the first place, per-
sons who are clearly not well adapted for teaching should
be encouraged to select some other occupation. This
means that each college or school of education should
establish certain standards and administrative procedures
which will aid in eliminating those persons who should
not plan to teach.
In the second place, the college authorities should
keep well informed concerning supply and demand so
that they may be in a position to encourage persons with
proper abilities to select those fields of teaching in which
there is likely to be greatest demand. Usually there is
a relative over-supply of teachers (although not of well-
trained teachers) in such subject fields as history and
English and an under-supply of qualified teachers in
some of the more practical or applied fields. The col-
lege program should aid in solving for the student, as
well a- for the State, the problems of supply and demand.
The lay public does not always full recognize the
importance of proper teacher-education programs. In
fact, even some administrators and college teachers fail
to recognize the value and possibilities of such programs.
While teaching and school administration have not,
by any mean-, been reduced to an exact science, never-
theless, sufficient information is now available that most
states, including Florida, have already adopted definite
requirements. It is recognized that a certain amount of
training for teaching will help to prevent promising
teachers from making mistakes at the expense of the
children. Furthermore, training for school administra-
tion will help to prevent the taxpayers, as well as the
teachers, from having to suffer from costly mistakes that
untrained administrators might make.


The point of view that a teacher who knows his
subject matter can teach it, is till sometimes expressed.
However, that conclusion does not logically follow, as
has all too often been demonstrated. Some of the poorest
teachers are occasionally encountered as college spe-
cialists who know their subject field thoroughly but do
not know how to teach it.
Teachers need to know not so much subject matter
as such, but subject matter in proper relationship to the
problems of living. They need to know children, and
how children learn; otherwise, they cannot be prepared
to take full advantage of the learning possibilities of
children. Some teachers have had too much emphasis
on methods of teaching and not enough on subject
materials. Others have had entirely too much specialized
subject matter and not enough of what is commonly
called methods of teaching. What is needed by all is
a balanced program; one which will help a teacher to
know and understand all that is necessary for good
Prospective teachers inevitably reflect the influence
of their instructors and the methods of teaching used
by those instructors. If the instructors in college have
been uninspiring and theoretical and have used the ortho-
dox lecture method or the plan of textbook assignment
and of class recitation based on the assignment, their
students are likely to develop into teachers who are just
as traditional and uninspiring. A teacher in a teacher-
education school has a serious responsibility. He should
not only be able to inspire his students, but he should
be familiar with all of the best methods of education
and should use such methods consistently in his work.
There should be no place in a teacher-education institu-
tion for a member of the faculty who has lost his en-
thusiasm and inspiration and who has failed to keep in
touch with developments.


Some of the important characteristics and qualifi-
cations of a good teacher in a teacher-education institu-
tion are as follows:
1. He should have had actual experience in public
school teaching and should keep in close contact
with public school work.
2. He should have a progressive outlook and should
keep in touch with all newer trends in education.
3. He should have a dynamic personality and be
able through his personality to inspire prospec-
tive teachers to do thorough and efficient work.
4. He should have a thoroughly professional attitude
and should be able to help prospective teachers
to understand and appreciate the ideals of the
5. He should have a thorough understanding of the
needs of the field in which he is preparing per-
sons to teach and should be able to relate that
field properly to all other phases of education.
6. He should have a practical knowledge of school
problems in the State acquired through continu-
ous contact with the public school program and
should be able to prepare his students to become
practical teachers.
The State Board of Education has authority to pre-
scribe minimum curricula for the training of personnel
engaged in public school work in the State and to approve
institutions for the education of teachers and administra-
tors. (Sections 510-11.) There are certain essentials
which should be a part of the training of every teacher
and these, of course, should be included in the curricula
of the teacher-training institutions.
It is well recognized that the curricula of teacher-
education schools should provide an adequate back-
ground and appreciation in the major fields of human
knowledge, yet, should be differentiated to give specific
preparation for the field in which the student is planning


to teach. The curricula, therefore, should be built around,
and should contribute to the following:
1. An understanding of the civilization in which we
2. An understanding of the phase of civilization with
which the teacher is immediately concerned-not
as a subject, but as a field in proper relationship
to the other phases of civilization.
3. An understanding of the child as a functioning
human being.
4. An understanding of the learning processes and
how they may best be utilized.
5. An understanding of the purpose and functions
of public education and of the public schools.
The curricula of teacher-education institutions
should be so organized that the students do not get just
the theory of the educational processes. In fact, one of
the difficulties with teacher-education today is that it is
on a basis which is entirely too theoretical. The schools
must become more dynamic; they must consider and deal
with the home, child and his environment and they must
change to meet the needs of a changing civilization.
The development of adequate curricula for teacher-
education institutions is a continuing and cooperative
process. All teacher-education institutions must work
with state authorities and with each other in order to
create a State-wide program of teacher-education which
will be sufficiently elastic and yet will include all mini-
mum essentials. Some suggestions for carrying out this
study are as follows:
1. That the Florida Teachers Education Advisory Council continue
to attack cooperatively the problem of coordinating the profes-
sional activities of all the teacher-education schools within the
2. That this Council continue the work that it has carried on during
the last several years toward the promotion of better policies and
practices in the education of teachers and that it expand its
program to include further efforts in this direction.
3. That this Council initiate a study of the existing curricula in
teacher-education schools giving particular attention to the


a. The need of a broad educational background for teachers; the
fallacy of using knowledge alone to prepare teachers to teach
in a particular subject field.
b. The need of special subjects preparation beyond the general
background work.
c. The need for this special work to equip teachers to teach in
relation to student and community needs.
d. The need for training schools to preserve such a degree of
practical contact with developing public school conditions as
will insure the greatest usefulness to the schools and the largest
possible success of their product.
e. The need for the State to require of prospective teachers a
period of teaching in an actual teaching situation prior to
f. The need for many extra-class activities, which have heretofore
been available at the student's option, to be made integral
parts of the curricula in order to prepare for the "allround"
service which is expected of a teacher.
g. The need for new or revised courses of specific value to the
prospective teacher.
h. The need for definite training in regard to Drofessional ethics.
i. The need for a complete subjective and objective examination to
be administered upon completion of the four years of work.
4. That this Council consider the possibility of a future need arising
to allocate types of education programs (music, industrial arts.
etc.) consistent with the best interests of the State education
program, and for the teacher-education institutions to be prepared
to accept such allocation in good faith, provided allocations are
developed intelligently.
Some of the problems on which more emphasis is
needed in order to enable teachers to cope more ade-
quately with the issues that are met in the field are as
1. All teachers should study and evaluate carefully the codes of
ethics for teachers, County Board members, trustees and County
Superintendents in order that they may understand and observe
desirable ethical practices.
2. Teachers should understand fully the best procedures in selec-
tion, placement, and improvement in-service of teachers in order
that they may be able to deal intelligently with the problems
they will face.
3. School administration cannot be left entirely to administrators
particularly in view of the fact that no standards have yet been
prescribed for County Superintendents. Teachers should know
what are best practices for County Board members, County
Superintendents, trustees and principals in order that they may
be in a position to encourage those practices, to discourage others
that are not desirable, and to contribute effectively to democratic
school administration.

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