Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter

Title: Safety practices in agricultural education,
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080736/00001
 Material Information
Title: Safety practices in agricultural education,
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: May, 1966
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 72 F-6
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080736
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 15
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        Page 28
        Page 29
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        Page 31
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Back Matter
        Page 56
        Page 57
Full Text



State Superintendent


in agriculture

education ...

MAY, 1966

.o p I


Bulletin 72F 6

May, 1966


Prepared by

Clarence J. Rogers, Assistant Professor
Agricultural Engineering
University of Florida

Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education
Walter R. Williams, Jr., Director

Agricultural Education Section
Harry E. Wood, Assistant Director
G. C. Norman, Program Specialist

Educational Materials
R. W. Scull, Assistant

17' 7

F63 6.-


This manual was written to be used as a guide and aid to teachers
in agricultural education and other interested persons in setting up
an effective program in teaching safety and implementing a safety pro-
gram. Material in this manual may be modified to fit particular situ-
ations. The various forms included in the manual may be used as they
are, or they may be used as.guides for making up forms to suit an in-
dividual's needs.

Appreciation is expressed to William Dampier for his help in pre-
paring this manual, to Dr. Drayton T. Kinard, Chairman Agricultural
Engineering Department, University of Florida, and W. T. Loften, Chair-
man, Vocational Agriculture and Extension Education, for their coopera-
tion, to George Cappe for his guidance, Ray Pettis for his suggestions,
to J. Mostella nyers for his aid, and to the many others who have as-

Assistant Professor
Agricultural Engineering

-i -



FOREWORD. ... . . . . . . . .... i

TABLE OF CONTENTS. .. . . . . . . . ii

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . .. . . 1


B. FIRST AID . ... .. . . . . 5
C. ELECTRICAL SAFETY . . . . . . . .... 5
D. FIRE SAFETY . . . . . . . .... .. .. 5

A. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . 8
B. CHISELS AND PUNCHES . . . . . . .... 8
C. FILES . . . . . . . . ... . . .. 8
D. HAMMERS . . . . . . . ... .. . 8
E. SAWS . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
F. SCREWDRIVERS . . . . . . . .. . 9
G. WRENCHES . . . . . . . .. . . 9

A. DRILL PRESS . . . . . . . . 10
C. GRINDERS. . . . . ... . . . . . 11
D. JOINTERS. . . . . . . . . . . ... 12
E. METAL WORKING LATHE . . . . . . . .. 13
F. THE WOOD LATHE . . . . . . . . ... 14
G. THE THICKNESS PLANER. . . . . . . . ... 15
H. PORTABLE BELT SANDER . . . . . . . .. 16
I. BAND SAW ............ ... . . . . 16
J. THE TILTING ARBOR BENCH SAW . . . . . ... .17
K. THE JIG SAW .. . . . . . . . . . 18
L. PORTABLE ELECTRIC SAW . . . . . . . .. 18
M. RADIAL ARM SAW. . . . . . . . . .. 19
N. THE SHAPER . . . . . . . .... .. 20



A. CHAIN SAWS . . . . .
C. LADDERS . . . . . .
D. MOWERS . . . . . .

A. GENERAL . . . . . .
C. OPERATION . . . . . .
E. MACHINERY . . . . . .

A. GENERAL . . . . . .

A. LIABILITY . . . . . .

S . . 21
S . . 22

. . . . . . 30

. . 32
. . . . 33



. 34


A. BOOKS . . . . . . . . . .

REGULATIONS . . . . . . . .
B. SAFETY ENGINEER . . . . . . .

S . . 41
. . . 43
. . . 46

. . . 48


Safety in the Agricultural Education Program has always been of para-
mount importance. It is of even more importance today than formerly. At
one time the major source of farm accidents was farm animals. With the ra-
pid shift to mechanization, machinery is now the major cause of such acci-

Vocational agriculture shops are becoming better supplied with new and
modern tools and equipment. With the advent of the Vocational Act of 1963,
the scope of teaching agricultural mechanics was greatly broadened. This
will necessitate a greater depth of teaching in the mechanics laboratory.
Training, with the idea that the students will go into agriculturally re-
lated areas, involves new awareness of the need for an effective safety pro-

Safety instruction must be practical, not merely an attempt to prepare
an individual to pass a course or to write a successful examination. It must
teach the student to work safely in the home, on the farm, and in industry.
It mu-t teach him to recognize and respect dangerous conditions and to deter-
mine how to conduct himself under such conditions. It must be of a type that
will command respect and carry over into life situations long after the course
has been completed.

Talks on accidents and accident prevention, posters showing results of
accidents, descriptive and illustrative pamphlets, competition between de-
partments, and printed safety rules all have proven feasible and desirable.
The surest way to prevent accidents however is to train students so that cor-
rect operations become automatic; and the worker, through habit as well as
judgment, will achieve maximum safety,

The time to train a student in the correct operations and safe practices
for any job is when the learning process begins. Otherwise he will develop
incorrect and unsafe habits which must be "unlearned". It is important that
students observe every safety precaution, take every safety measure, and use
every safety device at all times. There can be no excuse for deviation. It
is not possible to fix a habit of safe practice, if safety measures are ob-
served one day and disregarded the next.

Safety instruction and safety practices cannot be stressed too much, and
teachers and students must be alert to discover and correct any unsafe prac-

- 1 -


A. The Teacher's Responsibilities

1. To maintain safe working conditions and safe practices in his

2. To provide adequate safety instruction for his students and foster
student cooperation in the shop.

3. To make recommendations to his school administrators for improving
shop safety conditions.

4. To carry out all recommendations from his administrators for im-
proving safe working conditions or giving safety instruction.

5. To keep Up-to-date on the most modern and accepted safety practices.

6. To follow all safety rules and practices personally in order to set
an example for his students.

In carrying out the above responsibilities the teacher should consider
the following physical conditions in his department:

1. Housekeeping. Good housekeeping not only eliminates a great many
hazards but also teaches students orderly work habits that will fit
into their future life's work. A shop is in order when there are no
unnecessary objects about and when all tools and materials are in
their proper places.

2. Floors. A constant check must be made of hazards which might cause
stumbling and slipping. Provide containers for scraps, and facili-
ties for immediately cleaning up spilled oils, greases, etc. Don't
let items clutter up the floor until the end of the day but rather
creck for such hazards and have them remedied immediately.

3. Halls, Passageways, Stairs, and Exits. Keep such areas free of
loose scraps, piled-up objects and materials, etc. This is especial-
ly important in case of fire.

4. Service Areas. Areas where deliveries are made must be kept clean.
Washroom and toilet facilities must be kept orderly and clean. Check
especially for excess water carelessly splashed on floors. This us-
ually causes a slipping hazard.

5. Lighting. Various industrial studies have shown that there is a defi-
nite correlation between the amount of illumination and the number of
accidents. Good lighting is essential for accident-free shops. Your
local electric company representative will be glad to check your shop
and make recommendations.


6. Painting. Men in industry have found out that by painting their shops
in certain color combinations they are able to reduce the number of
accidents. The proper colors will also reduce eyestrain and fatigue,
improve lighting and boost morale. Local paint company representa-
tives will be glad to help select the proper colors for a shop. Color
coding of the equipment in the shop is discussed in Section XI.

7. Storage of Tools and Materials. One of the most important parts of
housekeeping involves the storage of tools, materials, projects being
constructed, and finished projects. Use every possible means to pro-
vide a place for everything, and keep everything in its place. Use
racks, cabinets, panels, lockers, overhead space, etc., to accomplish

B. The Supervisor's Responsibilities

1. To promote the proper attitude toward safety at all levels.

2. To establish and endorse a safety Irogram in all agricultural educa-
tion departments.

3. To implement safe working conditions, including properly safeguarded
equipment and the elimination of all health hazards.

4. To follow local and state requirements governing safety in school
shops and to foster a close relationship between bhe school and the
local, state, and national agencies which provide safety services to



A. General Recommendations

1. Never leave a class unsupervised.

2. Disconnect from the power source all power equipment not in use.

3. Allow no student to operate power tools without the instructor's

4. Safety goggles or glasses must be provided and worn in all areas
where there is a possibility of an eye injury. (See Section X.)

5. Do not allow the use of any electric powered tool or machine un-
less it is properly grounded.

6. Post regulations so students will know what to do in case of fire.

7. Post safety rules at or near each machine or danger area.

8. Maintain a safety bulletin board.

9. Develop in each student a sense of responsibility for his own
safety and that of others.

10. Rotate assignments among students to act as a "safety chief",
"Engineer", or "foreman", to watch for unsafe practices in the

11. Have weekly safety inspections.

12. Provide a non-skid floor area for students to stand on when op-
erating hazardous machines.

13. Use color coding on machines to emphasize danger areas,

14. Use painted lines on floor around each hazardous machine.

15. Fasten all machines securely to the floor or bench, unless machines
are heavy enough not to be moved or overturned easily.

16. Have spring-lid metal containers for oily rags or waste.

17. Provide a shop clean-up period at the end of each work session.

18. Provide a standard procedure to keep floors free of oil, water,
and foreign materials.

19. Require students to report all accidents to the teacher regardless
of nature or severity.
-4 -

20. Make a written report of all accidents. These reports should be made
in accordance with local regulations.

B. First Aid.

1. Every shop should have a first aid cabinet handy. It should be well
stocked and checked regularly.

2. Never take a chance with so-called "small" injuries. Give immediate
first aid to the injured. Failure to take a few minutes for first
aid at the appropriate time may mean many days ot weeks of disability.

3. Personal cleanliness is excellent protection against colds, skin
troubles, and infections. Wash often, using mild soap and water.

4. Never trust care of your eyes to anyone but a doctor, nurse, or quali-
fied first-aid attendant. Amateur "doctoring" is always risky.

C. Electrical Safety.

1. Prohibit the use of temporary wiring of any kind in the shop.

2. All electrical wiring should be installed in compliance with national
electrical code. All extension or power cords should be 3-wire parallel
ground with 3-prong plugs.

3. Condition students to assume that all electrical apparatus is "HOT" and
must be treated as such.

4. Students working in and around electricity should have more than just a
passing knowledge of what they are doing.

5. Students working with any equipment which has an electrical charge
should stand on rubber mats or wooden floors.

D. Fire Safety.

1. Types of fires.

The following information about fires and fire extinguishers should
be known by both students and teachers:


Class A Fires (wood, Pressurized water (2 1/2 gallon
hay, paper, textiles, with pressure gauge)
Water pump (tank type)

On water type extinguishers, add
wetting agent, (detergent) 1 oz.
per gallon.

D. Fire Safety (Cont'd)


Class B Fires (oil, Pressurized dry chemical
grease, gasoline,
paint, etc.) CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)

Class C Fires (live
electrical equipment) CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)

Pressurized dry chemical

2. Types of Extinguishers

a. Soda-acid This extinguisher is one of the most common types
and is found in many public buildings. Water in this extin-
guisher pubs out the fires. When it is inverted, a bottle of
acid mixes with the solution of soda-water, causing a reaction
that provides pressure for the stream of water and acid. Dis-
advantages If solution gets on a person, it could burn or
blind. Also it will damage fabrics, etc. Once inverted, this
extinguisher cannot be stopped until completely discharged.
If hose became clogged (for example by a wasp) there could be
an explosion. It should be pressure tested and recharged each
year. Use for Class A fires only. Dangerous if used on elec-
trical fires or oil fires. Qualified person must refill. This
extinguisher is not recommended for vocational agriculture shops
due to disadvantages listed above.

b. Foam Extinguisher This extinguisher is useful for Class B fires.
In case of a "spill" fire, the foam must be used to build a wall
around the burning fuel and then it can be placed over the flame
to extinguish it. Djsadvantages Experienced personnel are need-
ed to use such extinguishers and may not be available when needed.
Results will probably be poor in the hands of an unskilled person.
Refilling requires an experienced person.

c. Carbon tetrachloride This extinguisher is usually in the form
of a small hand pump. Disadvantages It is very dangerous to
use this extinguisher indoors. When the carbon tetrachloride
strikes a hot surface, phosgene gas results. This gas is dan-
gerous and may be fatal to anyone breathing it. Refilling re-
quires an experienced person. This extinguisher is no longer

d. Pressurized water Advantages Can be used on fire intermitten-
ly as desired. A glance at the gauge lets one know if it is ready
to use. Anyone can refill easily by adding water, closing lid and
supplying air pressure.

e. Pressurized Dry Chemical Advantages The active ingredient is
ordinarily baking soda and cannot harm humans or fabrics. A child
10 years old can effectively use this extinguisher. It can be used


e. Pressurized Dry Chemical (Cont'd)

intermittenly as desired. The pressure gauge indicates when
this extinguisher is ready for use. Disadvantages A residue
(baking soda) is left. On electrical fires, involving a motor
or electronic equipment, this residue might have to be removed.
This extinguisher must be recharged by a qualified person.

f. C02 Carbon Dioxide Advantage Especially good on electrical
fires because of no residue. Disadvantages It is only effec-
tive at close range. Released carbon dioxide gas (which puts
out fires) could injure a person because of the resulting low
temperatures (far below 00). Sometimes a leaky valve will re-
sult in an extinguisher being empty when it is needed. An ex-
perienced serviceman must determine (by weighing) when the ex-
tinguisher needs a recharge. Refilling must be done by a quali-
fied person.

SUGARY Soda-acid and foam extinguishers must be completely
cleaned and recharged once a year and pressure tested every 5
Cartridge operated extinguishers of all types are awkward to
use and there is no way to determine that they are in operating
Carbon tetrachloride extinguishers are no longer approved by
several approving agencies. More effective types, already dis-
cussed, are replacing these.
Important advantages of the newer recommended types (pressur-
ized water and pressurized dry chemical) are the gauges that
show at a glance if the extinguisher is ready for use. Also
they require a minimum of maintenance and recharging is needed
only after use.
The average farm only needs pressurized water and pressurized
dry chemical extinguishers (with gauge). For automobiles, trac-
tors, and kitchens use a 2 1/2 pound pressurized dry chemical
extinguisher with gauge.

3. General Fire Safety Practices

a. Bulk storage of flamable materials (gasoline, paint thinner, etc.)
should be in an area away from the main school building.

b. Store flamable liquids in approved safety containers.

c. Prohibit the use of highly flamable liquids for cleaning purposes.

d. Inspect paint and chemical cabinets periodically for fire hazards.

e. Provide instruction on the prevention of fires in the school shop.

f. Inspect fire extinguishers regularly.

g. Provide periodic instruction and practice in the proper procedure
for evaluating the shop in case of fire or other emergency situ-



A. General

1. Use the right tool for the job to be undertaken. Don't hammer
with pliers, pry with files, or use pliers where wrenches are

2. Use tools correctly. You will do better work and do it more
safely. There's a right (safe) way to use even the simple tools.

3. Keep tools in a safe place. Put them in tool boxes, trays, cases,
or hang them on the wall. They cause injury and are damaged when
they just lie around.

4. Use only tools that are in good condition. Split handles, worn
teeth, and dull chipped edges do poor work and cause injuries.
Keep tools clean, free from grease, oil, metal filings, and chips.

B. Chisels and Punches

1. Chisels are particularly dangerous when the heads have mushroomed.
Never use a chisel after the head begins to mushroom. See that the
head is rounded down and, if possible, safe-ended with a soft metal
collar. Keep the cutting edge sharp.

2. Protect eyes with goggles when chipping with a chisel, and put up a
screen to protect other people.

C. Files

1. Files are brittle and must be handled with care. Don't hammer them,
nor use them for hammers or pries,

2. Use a handle to avoid puncture wounds from the file tang.

D. Hammers

1. Use a hammer with a securely fastened handle and an undamaged head.

2. Do not "choke" a hammer. Choose one of the right size, grip it near
the butt of the handle and use a normal swing.

3. Use machinist's hammers for machine work, claw hammers for carpentry.
Use big ones for big jobs, snall ones for light work.

4. A ball peen, claw, soft metal, or leather hammer each serves a dif-
ferent purpose. When you use a metal hammer be especially careful
not to strike metal that is harder than the face of the hammer it-


E, Saws

1. Don't force a saw, especially a hacksaw. When cutting metal, don't
rush the job. The heat accumulated may damage the blade.

2. Start cuts with both wood saws and hacksaws by guiding the blade
with your thumb.

3. Saws kept rust-free and sharp are less likely to bind and jump,

4. Both wood saws and hacksaws should be hung up when not in use.

F. Screwdrivers

1. With a screwdriver of the right size, pliers are not needed to get
twist. Never hammer a screwdriver except to tap it to knock rust
out of a screw slot.

2. Don't pry with screwdrivers, use them for chisels, or for checking
electric circuits.

3. For every job there is a screwdriver of the right size--one which
won't damage the screw head, require too much strain, or be broken
in service.

4. Keep screwdriver bit properly shaped.

G. Wrenches

1. The jaws of a wrench, especially the jaws of an adjustable wrench,
should fit the nut snugly.

2. Never apply a wrench to moving machinery, and dontt leave a wrench--
or any other tool--where it can cause injury to yourself or someone

3. Use a wrench big enough for the job. Never get leverage with a pipe
slipped over the handle. Pull towards the movable jaw on an adjust-
able wrench.

4. A loose fit may cause you to lose your balance or injure your hands,
and may also ruin the nut and damage the wrench.

5. Pull on a wrench--it's safer. Occasionally you have to push on one,
When you do, push with the open palm and watch out for your knuckles.



A. Drill Press

1. Neckties should not be worn and sleeves should be rolled above the
elbows. Remove gloves and rings.

2. Check to make sure the chuck grips the bit tightly.

3. Be sure chuck key is removed before starting drill.

4. See that the belt guard is in place.

5. Be sure drill press head and table are anchored securely before turn-
ing on power.

6. Do not attempt to oil, clean or adjust any part of machine or table
while the motor is running. Stop motor and remove fuse or lock power
switch in the "off" position.

7. Even after power is off, do not leave machine until it has stopped
running. Do not attempt to loosen stock clamped to table until motor
has stopped and do not try to stop drill by grasping the chuck.

8. Do not hold small pieces by hand while drilling. See to it that small
pieces, especially metal, are securely clamped to drill press table be-
fore turning on motor.

9. VWithdraw drill frequently if it penetrates beyond flutes so flutes can
be cleaned of drill shavings.

10. Avoid forcing the drill.

11. Reduce pressure when drill starts to break through work.

12. Keep drill bit sharp. Use cutting oil as recommended for job at hand.

13. Clean chips off work and table with brush. Put metal chips in suitable

14. The switch to start and stop the drill press should be conveniently lo-
cated, where it cannot be accidentally turned on.

15. Concentrate on the work and do not talk unnecessarily. Be sure you
have sufficient light to see clearly.

B. Portable Electric Drill

1. Clothing worn should be free of loose ends, with no necktie, loose cuffs,
etc., which might get caught in drill or other accessory.

- 10 -

B. Portable Electric Drill (Cont'd)

2. Safety goggles with side shields should be worn on all jobs where
possibility of eye injury from flying chips or dirt is involved.
(See Section X.)

3. Be sure chuck key is removed before starting drill.

4. Be sure chuck grips drill bit tightly.

5. Use cutting lubricant when drilling all metals except cast iron,

6. Avoid forcing drill.

7. Do not attempt to hold by hand, small parts in which holes are being
drilled. These should be placed in a vice or clamped securely to
table or other large object.

8. Reduce pressure when drill begins to break through work.

9. Withdraw drill frequently if drill goes beyond flutes so flutes can
be cleaned of drill shavings.

10. Be careful with sharp metal drill chips, Use a brush to remove them
from work.

11. To prevent possibility of electrical shock, drill power cord should be
3 wire parallel ground with 3 prong plug.

12. Be careful not to trip over electric cord, or to drop drill on feet.

C. Grinders

1. Avoid wearing long or loose sleeves. Sleeves should be rolled above
the elbows, and neckties should be removed.

2. See that grinders are provided with safety hoods and heavy transparent

3. Check grinder to see if it is rigidly faste-d to its support.

4. Use only the size wheel specified for any particular grinder.

5. Check stone for flaws or cracks.

6. Use correct kind and size of bushing when installing a wheel.

7. Do not use wheels that have been considerably reduced in diameter.

8. Check grinder speed. Its peripheral speed should not be more than
the speed recommended by the manufacturer of the wheel,

9. Wear safety goggles when using a grinder. Keep goggles near grinder
when not in use.

- 11 -

C. Grinders (Cont'd)

10. Do not hold, in your hand, any round or spherical object to be ground.
Use suitable holding devices such as vise grip pliers.

11. Do not stand directly in line with a grinding wheel.

12. Keep grinding wheel properly "tuned up" by frequent dressings.

13. See that the tool rest is kept adjusted and close to the grinding
wheel. The distance from the wheel should not exceed 1/8 inch.

14. Be careful to keep the fingers clear of the grinding wheel.

15. Use the face, not the sides. of the wheel, while grinding heavy cuts.

16. Apply the stock slowly when the wheel is cold. Let the wheel warm
up to help avoid breakage.

17. Be careful not to overload grinding wheel.

18. Avoid letting one side of the wheel become soaked with water. It
may make the wheel unbalanced.

19. Do not grind on the wheel while it is coasting to a stop or before
it has reached operating speed.

20. Keep hands away from eyes when grinding.

21. Have the on-off switch conveniently located.

22. Stand aside and allow grinder to run far a few minutes after assem-
bling a new wheel. WJhen installing a new wheel, test before start-
ing by tapping. If it rings, it is properly installed. If it does
not ring, do not start.

D. Jointers

1. Check knives carefully to see that they are not loose.

2. Do not use a jointer if the knives are dull. (Dull knives cause kick-

3. See that material run over the jointer is sound and free of knots and
splits (there is danger of faulty material breaking and being thrown).

4. Stand to the left of the joiner, never directly in front of it.

5. Use guard over the cutter head on all jobs that will permit its use.
The fence should be set as near the operator as the width of stock
will permit. Removing the guard should require special permission.

6. See that the "clamping screws" on the fence are screwed down securely
so that the fence cannot slip while in use.

- 12 -

D. Jointers (Cont'd)

7. Be sure no one is standing in line with the jointer while it is in

8. Use proper stance and technique in jointing a board.

9. Use a push block when surfacing thin stock.

10. Feed the stock with the grain.

11. Do not attempt to take too heavy a cut.

12, Do not attempt to surface stock that is less than 10 inches in length.

13. Do not attempt to plane stock material that cannot be held securely
against the fence.

14. Do not attempt to joint end grain of stock.

15. Do not let your- fingers extend over either end of a board being
planed. Keep fingers and hands out of cutter.

16. Change position of the hands so they will never be directly over the
cutter when passing work over the jointer.

17. Do not move the fence while the machine is in operation.

18, Open main power switch, remove fuse or disconnect cord when instal-
ling, checking, or adjusting knives.

19. Locate on-off switch conveniently for the operator, and where it can-
not be accidentally turned on.

20, Keep your eyes on your work. Do not look around or engage in conver-
sation while working on a jointer.

E. Metal Working Lathe

1. Do not cross belt laces on the side next to the pulley; this makes
them cut themselves in two. Make sure belt tension is correct.

2. Keep the lathe well oiled; follow manufacturer's instructions.

3. Clean and oil the threads before screwing chuck or faceplate onto
the lathe spindle.

4. Make sure the spindle tapers of the lathe are clean and free from
burrs and dirt before inserting the lathe centers.

5. Use hand power only in putting on or removing chuck or faceplate.

6. Check to see that the tool holder and stock being turned are properly
clamped and that the tailstock spindle is locked.

7. Never leave the chuck wrench or any other tool in the lathe chuck.

13 -

E. Metal Working Lathe (Cont'd)

8. Do not start to turn a job on lathe centers unless you know the
centers are both in line with the ways.

9. Stand erect, keep your face away from flying chips.

10. For external work, do not set lathe tool below center of work.

11. Do not shift or change gears while the lathe is running.

12. Do not try to measure work or adjust cutting tool when the lathe
is running. Do not attempt to stop the lathe chuck with hands.

13. Be careful not to take too heavy a cut. This may force the stock
out of the chuck jaws and cause injury to both the machine and the

14. Do not run the lathe tool into the faceplate.

15. Keep cutting tools sharp. After grinding lathe tool, hone it to a
keen edge with an oil stone.

16. Use lard oil or cutting compound when threading steel or wrought
iron. Use small brush to spread oil on the work proceeding the cut.

17. Remove metal chips or curls with a brush or wood paddle. Do not
touch chips with hands.

18. Sweep up metal chips from the floor regularly. Chips and curls are a
slipping hazard, and may cut through a shoe.

19. Locate on-off switch conveniently for the operator and where it can-
not be accidentally turned on,

F. The Wood Lathe

In wood turning, use good common sense. Do hot wear loose, sloppy clothing.
Use a face shield or goggles to protect the eyes.

1. Keep lathe tools sharp.

2. Do not use gauge on inside of cup-shaped faceplate turning job.

3. Be sure the stock has no loose knots, insecurely glued joints or
checked ends. Adjust tool rest so it is slightly above center of
the stock; keep the tool re;t adjusted close to the stock.

4. Operate the lathe at slow speed until stock is cylindrical, regulate
speed according to size and length of the stock.

- 14 -

F. The Wood Lathe (Cont'd)

5. Do not allow excess wood turning chips to gather on the floor; they
present fire and slipping hazards.

6. Arrange turning tools so they are convenient and readily accessible.

7. Always check to make sure that the stock is securely mounted--then
spin the set-up by hand before starting the lathe. Stand a little
to one side of the cut being made and hold the chisel so that, if
thrust back suddenly, it will not strike your body. Do not make
any measurements or adjustments when the lathe is running.

8. Locate on-off switch conveniently for the operator anywhere it can-
not be accidentally turned on.

G. The Thickness Planer

1. In handlin- rough boards, wear heavy leather gloves or hand pads.
Wear goggles or face shield as eye protection against chips and

2. When the feed rolls take hold of a board, the operator should let
go of it. Always keep hands at a safe distance from the feed rolls.
Make sure hands do not get pinched at the side or under the stock as
it is being pulled into the machine.

3. Never look into a planer when it is working because you may be hit
with a small piece of wood or splinter, which may be thrown back with
great force. Do not try to dislodge slivers from; around cutting head
when machine is operating.

4. Long stock should be supported on wooden rollers, at both the front
and rear of the planer.

5. Before starting the planer, check to make sure the knives are securely
fastened in the head. Also be sure the knives are sharp.

6. Do not plane a warped board before one side has been straightened on
a jointer so it will lie flat on a level surface. If this is not done,
pressure of the infeed roller will straighten the board momentarily
but it will rewarp after leaving the outfeed roller.

- 15 -

G. The Thickness Planer (Cont'd)

7. Keep out-running end of stock clear of all obstructions and make sure
all persons are out of line of finished pieces.

8. Never plane stock of varying thickness at the same time because the
thinner stock may be thrown back.

9. The shortest length of stock that should be planed is at least two
feet longer than the distance between the feed rolls in the bed.

10. Locate on-off switch conveniently for the operator and where it can-
not be turned on accidentally.

H. Portable Belt Sander

The portable belt sander is one of the safest power tools to use, yet
certain precautions are necessary to prevent accidents.

1. Small pieces of either wood or metal to be sanded should be fastened
to a bench, or placed in a vise so they will not be thrown backward
by the action of the belt.

2. Never lift a sander by the electric cord.

3. Be sure the switch is off before inserting the plug in the outlet.
If this is neglected, the sander may "walk" off the table and injure
someone or be broken and require costly repairs.

4. Sander power cord should be 3 wire parallel ground with 3 prong plug.

5. Always be sure the sander is disconnected from the electric outlet
before making adjustments or servicing the unit.

I. Band Saw

1. A cracked blade should never be used.

2.- Keep saw sharp ard evenly set.

3. Both upper and lower band wheels should be fitted with steel guards and
these guards should be in place before starting saw.

4. Saw should be provided with an adjustable guard on working side of saw
blade between upper wheel enclosure and guide rolls; also guard on back
of saw between wheels.

5. See to it that blade guides, both upper and lower, are adjusted pro-
perly. This will help keep blade operating in proper position.

6. Check adjustments by hand-turning the band wheels,

7. Keep blade at proper tension: hands well away from blade.

- 16 -

I. Band Saw (Cont'd)

8. Before feeding work into saw, upper blade guard and guide should be
adjusted so it clears work only about 1/4 inch.

9. Plan saw cuts to avoid "backing out" of curves as much as possible.

10. Make turns carefully and do not turnarcs with radii small enough tp
cause twisting of blade.

11. Do not stop a band saw suddenly by forcing a piece of wood against
the blade.

12, Locate on-off switch conveniently for the operator and where it can-
not be accidentally turned on.

J. The Tilting Arbor Bench Saw

The Tilting Arbor Bench Saw is one of the most dangerous tools in the
farm shop, especially when in the hands of an inexperienced operator.
Therefore, it is suggested that the following safety practices be ob-
served when using a saw of this type,

1. Avoid wearing loose clothes. Have sleeves rolled up above elbows
and remove tie.

2. MakD sure that the saw blade is sharpened properly. A dull blade
is frequently the cause of kickback.

3. Make sure that the saw is equipped with a guard and a splitter and
use them. (The splitter holds the stock open after it has been cut
so that it will not tend to bind and kickback.)

4. Do not allow the saw to project more than 1/8 to 1/4 inch higher
than the thickness of the stock to be cut.

5. Stand to one side of the saw blade, never directly behind it,
(when the saw is in operation) so if a piece does kickback it
will not strike you.

6. Use a push stick between the fence and the saw for all narrow rip-

7. Do not saw freehand on a circular saw. Always use the guide in-
tended for the purpose.

8. Use a stop block on ripping fence when cutting to length.

9. Do not rip uneven stock unless one edge has been jointed. Place
the jointed edge against the ripping fence.

10. Do not allow the hand to go past the front of the table, (use a push

- 17 -

J, The Tilting Arbor Bench Saw (Cont'd)

11, Do not reach over a saw with hand. Have an assistant to support long
stock or to help w-hn necessary,

12. Do not let anyone but the operator advance stock through the saw.

13. Do not let students leave the saw until it is entirely stopped,

14. Have the students get the instructor's permission for each job where
a special "set-up" is involved.

15, Have students pay attention to their work when using the bench saw.
One small lapse in attention could cost a finger or hand.

16. Do not attempt to oil, adjust or clean a bench saw while it is run-
ning. Stop the machine and lock power switch in off position.

17. Keep floor clean and use a non-slip floor covering. Put scrap stock
in scrap box immediately,

18. Locate switch conveniently for the operator, and where it cannot be
accidentally turned on.

K. The Jig Saw

1. Motor belt should be covered with a protective guard or shield.

2. Fit blades into chucks to cut down on length of strokes. Keep hands
away from the blade.

3. Before switching power on, turn saw by hand to see if guide and hold-
down assembly interferes with blade movement,

4, Do not adjust hold-down when saw is running.

5. Do not attempt to make sharp turns with large blades.

6., Plan cuts so "backing-out" will be reduced to a minimum.

7. Locate on-off switch conveniently for the operator and where it can-
not be turned on accidentally.

L. Portable Electric Saw

1. Power cord should be 3-wire parallel ground with 3-prong plug.

2. Use sharp saw blades only and c-hck for saw wobble before starting
the saw,

3. Always use the proper blade J'or material being sawed.

4. Make sure telescoping blade guard which automatically covers blade ex-
cept when sawing and trigger operating safety switch are in good op-
erating condition.

- 18 .-

L. Portable Electric Saw (Cont'd)

5. Do not reach over or around saw while in motion. Keep hands away from
the blade,

6. Always disconnect saw (Remove plug from outlet) before changing blades,
lubricating, or inspecting.

7. Never carry or drag saw around by the cord. Keep cord clean and free
from grease and oil. Protect cord from wheelbarrows or trucks (use
parallel planks).

M. Radial Arm Saw

1. Do not wear loose clothing that might get caught in the machine.

2. See to it that saw is fitted with a dependable protective guard. A
self-retracting blade guard with splitter and anti-kickback features
is highly desirable. Guard should automatically adjust itself to
miter or other angular position and to depth of cut.

3. Use anti-kickback device when ripping.

4. Be careful not to drop saw deep enough to mar the tables.

5. Keep saw blade sharp, evenly and accurately set; be sure teeth are
facing correctly when replacing blade on unit.

6. Inspect all lumber to be cut for nails and other metal.

7. Be sure all clamp handles are properly tightened before operating the

,8. Keep the blade bright and clean; remove gum and pitch which collects.

9. Rip from the right direction.

10. Keep hands out of line with the cut and do not stand directly in line
with the saw.

11. Place lumber in position to be sawed only when the saw is stopped.

12. Do not .saw pieces shorter than 12 inches.

13. Do not stop saw after power has been turned off by forcing a piece
of wood against cutting edge of the blade. Do not leave saw until
blade has stopped turning.

14. Locate on-off switch conveniently for the operator and where it can-
not be accidentally turned on.

- 19 -

N. The Shaper

1. Do not wear a necktie or other clothing that might get tangled up
in the machine.

2, Use a protective guard, fence or hold-down as much as possible.

3. One-piece cutters should be used in preference to slotted collar and
open knife-type cutters. Be sure the cutter is sharp and properly
fastened in place before starting the motor.

4. Be sure spindle nut is tight before starting the motor,

5. Be careful about wood with knots. Knots may cause kickback,

6. Small pieces should be fed into the cutter using a hold-down or jig.
Do not take chances on working too close to the cutter with your hands.

7. Run the stock against the rotation of the spindle,

8. Do not take deep cuts and do not crowd the cutter.

9. Keep your mind on your work. Do not let your attention waiver because
of what others in the shop are doing.

10. Locate on-off switch conveniently for the operator and where it cannot
be accidentally turned on,

- 20 -


A. Electric Arc Welding

1. Make sure that all electrical connections including the power line,
arc welding machine cable, electrode, and ground clamp are firmly
attached before beginning to weld,

2. Inspect primary and secondary cables regularly. Repair or replace
defective cables at once. Use only parts that have capacity to carry
amperage equal to or greater than maximum capacity of welder.

3. Wear a skull cap under helmet to protect head from particles or spatter.

4. Wear protective clothing when welding and keep all parts of the body

5. Wear good quality leather gloves.

6. Keep buttoned such parts of clothing as collar, shirt sleeves, and
pockets. Have cuffs of pants turned down in order to avoid catching
weld spatter. Avoid wearing ragged clothing when welding.

7. Wear high top shoes to protect feet and ankles from burns caused by
weld spatter,

8. Examine the head shield or helmet and color lens, making sure that
there are no cracks which will permit leakage of light rays.

9. Do not strike arc without first covering face and eyes with the pro-
tective shield or helmet.

10. Give the word "cover" to all people standing nearby when ready to
strike the arc.

1l. Protect face and eyes from flying particles of slag by use of chipping
goggles and by placing hand in front of face to deflect particles when
chipping the bead.

12. Use electrode holders which are fully insulated.

13. Keep shop well ventilated when welding steel or cast iron in order to
insure comfort of welding operator.

14. Use ventilating fan or work in open when welding metals containing
zinc or lead.

15. Use forced ventilation when welding in a confined area such as a tank.

16. Never weld when uncovered containers holding combustible or inflamable
materials are in the shop.

- 21 -

A. Electric Arc Welding (Cont'd)

17. Clean shop frequently, especially the area where welding is done.

18. Avoid handling hot metal.

19. Stand on a dry board while welding if the ground or floor is wet,

20. Twist electrode free or remove holder, before removing shield, if
electrode should "freeze" in welding.

21. In case a direct flash is received from the arc at close range, treat
eyes with butyn preparation to prevent infection,

22. Drink sweet milk to overcome nausea resulting from welding where zinc
oxide fumes are present.

23. Treat all emergency cases resulting from shock or respiratory failure,
using mouth to mouth resuscitation, if needed.

24. Do not run farm machinery over or under welding cables.

25. Secure services of a competent electrician when making electrical in-
stallations for an arc welding machine.

B. Oxy-Acetylene Welding

1. Do not use oil on any part of oxy-acetylene welding equipment.

2. Use safety goggles while grinding or buffing steel.

3. Use a shade 4 or darker calobar lens for goggles.

4. Use correct colored hose for each gas tank (usually green for oxygen
and red for acetylene).

5. Use only double braid twin hose with standard fittings. The hose
should be inspected for leaks frequently.

6. Be sure hose connections are tight before beginning to weld. Never
change torches by crimping hose to shut off gas.

7. Use a soap solution to test for leaks,

8. Do not attempt to repair a lealk hose with tape.

9. Be gentle in putting a tip on a torch; remember it is made of copper
and threads will strip with very little pressure.

10. Be sure to use the proper mixture in your welding torch.

1l. Keep the end of the tip, whether welding or cutting, out of the molten

- 22 -

B. Qxy-Acetylene Welding (Cont'd)

12. Keep torch tip out of heat reflecting areas or holes.

13. Keep hot netal away from the hose.

14. Locate all oxygen and acetylene cylinders at a safe distance from the
welding operations. Cylinders should be properly marked as to con-

15. Provide individual welding tables with firebrick tops. The tables
must be spaced at least two feet apart to prevent students from burn-
ing each other.

16, Provide tongs for each table.

17. Provide each station with a flint lighter. Jhen lighting, turn torch
tips away from the body.

18. Shut off the oxygen valve immediately when a torch backfires or pops
out with a screeching sound. Next shut off the acetylene valve, and
then relight and adjust the flame,

19. Provide adequate ventilation.

20. Do not use acetylene at a pressure exceeding 15 pounds per square inch.

21. Shut off the gas at the tank when you have finished welding. This pre-
vents wastes from leaks and avoids fire hazards.

22, Do not jar cylinders or leave them near a hot furnace because the gas
is under high pressure.

23. Oxygen should not be used as a substitute for compressed air, or for
any purpose other than welding or cutting.

24. Keep the generator in a separate building if the acetylene is generated
and installed to conform to the Board of Fire Underwriters regulations.

25. Keep scrap barrel close and put scrap in barrel as it is made.

- 23 -


A. Chain Saws

The chain saw is a modern, portable power tool for felling trees, bucking
(cutting up) logs and other similar operations for which normally two-man
crosscut saws are used. This tool is a fast-cutting powerful tool and can
be an extremely dangerous one. Yet in the hands of a thinking, careful
operator it is a safe one. Instruction in the use of the chain saw should
be thorough and all safety precautions observed at all times.

1. Do not wear loose flapping clothes, ragged gloves, or slippery shoes.

2. Carefully plan your work before starting to cut. Hold saw securely
when operating. Make sure all spectators are at least 6 feet away
before starting to cut.

3, Clear space in which to work and provide secure footing for saw op-
erators. Prearrange a route to take when the tree starts to fall.
Give warning before tree falls.

4. Place saw on the ground when starting and be sure all persons are at
least 6 feet away before pulling starter cable. Make sure clutch is
not engaged,

5. Before starting every cut make sure all limbs, branches, etc., are
clear of proposed cut because the saw may kick backwards if the back
travel of the chain comes in contact with a branch.

6. In bucking on a hillside, keep the engine on the high side. Shore up
the log to prevent rolling on the man on the tail stock end.

7. 14hen felling a tree be careful to leave holding wood to prevent kick-
back and to control the fall.

8. Use hardwood wedges only.

9. Remember that the abutments on the transmission must be kept against
the tree or log.

10. Always stop engine when making adjustments.

11. Do not allow the chain to run when not in a cut.

12. Never carry a saw that is running--play it safe--stop the engine.

13. If unit is gasoline powered, follow usual precautions when handling
fuel. Never run engine in a closed room. Never start saw in the
same place it was fueled,

14. Swivel the blade to the bucking (vertical) position for transporting.

- 2h -

B. Compressed Air Paint Spraying

1. The spray unit should be provided with an approved type safety valve
and an automatic switch which keeps the air pressure constant within
the limits for which it was designed.

2. Spray in a well ventilated area.

3. Under extreme conditions spray painting may involve hazards from ex-
plosion and fire. It is recommended that motors or gas engines of air
compressing outfits be operated outside of the spray zone. Make cer-
tain that electrical devices are not sparking.

4. When working in close quarters, use a respirator as protection against
fumes or vapors. With materials injurious to the skin, wear gloves or
apply grease to hands and face.

5. Inflamable liquids such as thinners, lacquers, etc., should be kept in
safety cans.

6. A fire extinguisher (pressurized dry chemical type) should be readily
available for use if needed.

C. Ladders

1. Stepladders should be carefully footed and leveled before using.

2. A straight ladder should be placed so the distance of the foot of the
ladder from the support is equal to one-fourth its height.

3. Face the ladder when climbing and descending and grip sides firmly,
Place each foot firmly on the rungs as close to the side rail of the
ladder as possible.

4. Always hold with at least one hand when on a ladder. Avoid over-
reaching, pushing or pulling.

5. Remember what goes up, can come down suddenly, and it might be you.

6. Inspect ladders before using, or periodically, if used often. If
defective, either repair or discard.

7. Do not paint ladders. Cover with shellac, varnish or linseed oil.
Paint may hide defects.

8. Do not allow ladders to fall or be mistreated. If damaged, the ladder
could result in a serious fall for someone.

9. Always store ladders in an easily accessible location out of the weather.

- 25 -

D. Mowers

1. Read Instruction Manual. The manufacturer wants you to get good
service and not be injured. Follow the instructions given.

2. Keep your lawn mower clean. Inspect mower before using--remove
all weeds, rope and wire that may be tangled around mower blade.
Wipe off any excess oil left on the engine. A clean machine is
much easier to work on when you make periodic adjustments. Sharpen
the blades as needed.

3. Clean up yard before mowing. Inspect your lawn. Pick up stones,
sticks, wire and other debris in the area.

4. Keep other people, especially children, away from the vicinity of
the mower while in use. Power mowers have been known to strike
foreign objects sending them traveling a great distance at high
speed. These could kill or injure people, Also children might
touch a moving part of the mower and be injured.

5. Don't attempt to adjust belts or remove trash from mower while it
is running. Never raise a mower on the side while it is running.
Be extra careful when getting close to a gasoline engine or elec-
tric motor that is running.

6. Learn the controls, especially how to stop the mower, before op-
erating it.

7. Gasoline storage and use:

a, Do not refill while engine is hot,

b. Store gasoline in an approved metal container, not a glass jug
that could break.

c. Allow expansion space when filling fuel tank. Heat causes gas-
oline to expand and if it spills over the hot engine, fire will
likely result.

8. Adequate ventilation--Crank Outdoors. Gasoline engines have exhaust
gases containing carbon monoxide, a deadly poison.

9. Starting the Engine. ,len starting the mower, stand firmly and make
sure your feet are in a safe position.

10. Keep clothing away from mower. Loose clothing may become entangled
in the moving parts of the mower. This could result in injury or
death to the operator.

11. Do nob operate electric mowers when the ground is wet. If the cord
were accidentally cut, or if the mower has a short in the wiring, the
operator is in great danger. A person on wet ground may be killed if
he touches a live wire.

- 26 -

12. Be careful not to cut cord. In using an electric mower, move back
and forth, i.orking away from power source. If the electric mower is
used properly, there is little danger of cutting the cord. ,ihen all
areas of the lawn can be reached with 100 feet of heavy conductor
cord and there are not too many trees and other obstacles, an elec-
tric mower will probably be ideal.

13. Always turn off an electric mower and disconnect the cord when you
leave it.

14. Power cord should be 3-wire parallel ground with 3-prong plug.

- 27 -

D. Mowers (Cont'd)


A. General

1. Avoid loose fitting clothing.

2. Plan and conduct a safe tractor operation program,

3, Keep children away from tractors and equipment.

4. Only the driver should ride on the tractor.

5. To insure control while driving a tractor, keep brakes, steering
mechanism, clutch and hydraulics in proper adjustment.

6. Safety shielding should be in place at all times.

7. Avoid fire, Do not refuel hot or running engines, and do not smoke
when refueling,

8. Refuel L. P. gas engines according to instructions,

9. A first aid kit should be provided on the tractor.

10. A fire extinguisher should be carried on the tractor.

11. Operate tractor inside a building only when doors are open.

12. rWhenever possible, avoid heavily traveled roads when moving farm

13. When necessary to travel on the highway be sure that proper and ap-
proved identification and markings are displayed,

B. Before starting your tractor

1. Reduce tractor tipping hazards by spreading tractor wheels as far as

2. Clear dirt, trash, and grease from the operator's platform, pedals,
steps, steering wheel, and other places where it may cause an accident,

3. Oil, grease, and service engine before starting, not while engine is

4. Put all controls in neutral before starting the engine.

C. Operation

1. Pull only from drawbar; never hitch to the axle housing.

- 28 -

C. Operation (Conb'd)

2. Set drawbar height within recommended limits before hitching imple-
ments to tractor.

3. Shift transmission to neutral, or turn off ignition and lock brakes
before dismounting to hitch implements.

4. Do not remove belt while pulley is in motion.

5. Disengage PTO before adjusting or unclogging power-driven machinery.

6, Avoid sudden starts, excessive speeds, or sudden stops when operating
on hillsides, rough ground or similar off-the-road operations,

7. Do not operate at excessive speeds.

8. Reduce speed before making a turn or applying brakes.

9. When moving on the highway or from field to field, lock brake pedals
together for simultaneous operation when making a stop,

10, Never use tractor or truck to stretch barbed wire.

D. After operating your tractor

1. Do not dismount while tractor is in motion.

2. Disengage power take-off before dismounting,

3. Lower all equipment before leaving the tractor,

4. Shut off engine and remove ignition key.

5. Lock the brakes so tractor will not roll.

6. To remove pressure radiator cap when engine is hot, first turn cap
to safety stop and let all pressure and steam escape before removing.

7. Never step over a rotating PTO shaft.

E. Machinery

1. Check machinery for safe operating condition.

2. Keep all shields and guards in place.

3. Disengage power take-off when making repairs, adjusting, or unclog-
ging a machine.

4. Operate equipment at slower speed in tall weeds or grass because of
the danger of hidden obstacles.

5. Operate farm equipment with care on uneven ground and on slopes; be
especially wary of deep ditches.

- 29 -


A. General

1. READ THE LABEL each time you use a pesticide--no matter how often
you have used it; no matter how well you think you know the in-


3. Use a pesticide only when you are sure it is needed. Use the one
best suited to your needs. The label on the product explains the
proper uses.

4. Keep the pesticide in a plainly labelled container, preferably the
one in which it was bought. Never transfer pesticides to unlabel-
led or mislabelled containers.

5. Store pesticides under lock and key, away from food items and OUT
OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN, pets and people who mitht not be able to
understand their danger.

6. Agricultural chemicals are non-toxic, toxic, and highly toxic to
humans. Choose the safest chemical for the jobs to be done.

7. In applying pesticides to food plants and crops: (a) use the pro-
per dose recommended for the purpose, and (b) allow the full re-
commended time between applying the pesticide and harvesting the
crop, to avoid having a harmful amount of pesticides remaining on
food to be eaten. Do not plant food crops near ornamental plants
which are to be sprayed.

8. When handling, mixing, or applying pesticides, avoid inhaling dust
and fumes and avoid getting materials on the skin.

9. Check the label of the product before using, so that you know what
to do quickly if there is an accident. In case of an accident, call
a doctor or get the patient to a hospital immediately.

10. When mixing or using inflammable chemicals, be especially careful to
avoid the fire hazards caused by smoking, defective wiring, and open

11. Persons who suspect that they may have a special sensitivity to pesti-
cides should consult an allergist, and, if necessary, take steps to
avoid any exposure to the offending agent.

12. 'ash hands thoroughly after using pesticides and before eating and

- 30 -

A. General (Cont'd)

13. Change clothing after each day's operation and bathe thoroughly.
If clothing or. skin become contaminated, wash the skin and change
to clean clothing.

14. Work in a well-ventilated area, to avoid inhalation of fumes.

15. Do not spray into the wind.

16. When so directed by the label, wear protective clothing, such as
goggles, gloves, aprons, respirators, and masks.

17. Check sprayers before each use, to make certain that hose connections
are tight and that valves do not leak.

18. Cover food and water containers when using pesticides around livestock
or pet areas.

19. Get rid of used pesticide containers in a way that will not leave the
package of leftover contents as a hazard to people--particularly
children-or to animals or plants.

20, Do not spray or treat plants or animals or animal feeding areas with
pesticides unless you are certain such treatment is safe for that use.

- 31 -


A. Liability

It is not the purpose of this section to cover all facets of the law re-
garding teacher liability for pupil injury.

The prevention of pupil injuries in the school shop has assumed major
educational and humanitarian significance and is acknowledged as the pri-
mary function of a school shop safety program. The responsibility for
providing a.safe environment in ivhich pupils may work and learn is shared
by the teacher and the school system. It is the responsibility of the
school system to furnish adequate facilities and the responsibility of
the teacher to see that these facilities are utilized and properly main-
tained. It is accepted that teachers are not insurers of the safety of
the pupils, but they do accept a degree of responsibility.

A wholesome interest in liability associated with pupil injuries has de-
veloped in recent years. This interest has been stimulated in part through
an awareness of court cases, through the efforts of teacher training in-
stitutions and through a realization of the importance of laws regarding
schools. Although the potential for liability seems greater for vocation-
al or shop teachers because of the nature of the activities carried on in
these classes, school administrators need to be aware of the problems in-
volved to more adequately administer the entire program of the school
system, arr the individual teacher be recognized with regard to liability,
since some pupils are bound to be careless and injuries may occur.

An accident is usually the result of an unsafe act or an unsafe mechanical
or physical condition. An unsafe act is a violation of an accepted safe
procedure, while an unsafe mechanical or physical condition is one which
can be corrected or guarded against. Ihen an accident occurs which in it-
self was unforeseeable, unavoidable and no one was to blame, it is common-
ly referred to as a pure accident, and no damages are recoverable.

The possibility of a public school teacher becoming involved in a legal
action resulting from a school related pupil injury is greater today than
in any other period in history. Although teachers and administrators are
not always .aware of what their specific responsibilities are, it is rather
generally accepted that responsibility to the pupil is shared by the teacher
and the school. The increase in the number of pupil injuries resulting in
court cases and the exorbitant damages currently being granted by juries,
demand an awareness of the consequences of liability suits. Court records
attest to the fact that shop teachers have been named as the defendant in
liability suits resulting from pupil accidents in the school shop. In
some instances they have been absolved of negligence and in others have
been held liable. There are many critics who feel that in particular
cases of court record, teachers have been the providential recipients of
the verdict. Remember that in most cases of this nature previous court
cases are used as guides for decisions that are made on new casr-s of simi-
lar circumstances.

- 32 -

A. Liability (Cont'd)

The laws of negligence in effect in the United States are based on the
theory of precedent: established modes of legal procedures and previous
judicial decisions. Nelgigence is basically unintentional. One of the
basic elements in the determination of negligence is the presence of a
designated duty of an individual to act so as to protect others from
unnecessary risks. Failure to do so could constitute negligence if an
injury producing accident results. Actions of a teacher could be term-
ed negligent, if the risks involved are unreasonable and prone to cause
undue harm.

The clearest expression of the law of Florida on personal liability of
a teacher we have is the following statement, given by the Attorney
General in response to the question which states:

Q. "Are teachers who are responsible for the conduct of chemicals
or other lab or shop work, liable in the event a student is
injured in performing such work or while exposed to its haz-

May the state or County provide liability insurance for such

A. 'In general an instructor is nob liable for injury to his
students, except if the injury is due to the instructor's
negligence. On the other hand, the instructor is liable,
like anyone else, when, due to his negligence, someone is
injured. In 78C. J.S. 1197, the general rule is briefly
stated, thus: OA teacher in the public school is liable
if injury in his charge was by his negligence for failure
to exercise reasonable care.t In the absence of authori-
zing statute, state or county funds may not be used to pay
insurance premiums on non-existent state or county liability
I ri

In view of the above it would seem advisable for all teachers and espe-
cially shop teachers to make sure that they are covered in their own
liability policy. Endorsements on existing policies can be secured at
a very reasonable rate.

B. Eye Protective Devices

Laws of Florida, Chapter 65-526 (Originally House Bill No. 508)

AN ACT relating to certain vocational training students and teachers;
requiring all students ani teachers in certain vocational and chemical
laboratory courses in schools, colleges, and universities to wear eye
protective devices; boards of public instruction may furnish protective
devices and adopt administrative rules and regulations; providing an
effective date.

Be It Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Florida:

Section 1. Every student and teacher in schools, colleges, and univer-
sities in' this state shall be required to wear industrial quality eye
protective devices when participating in any of the following courses.
33 -

B. Eye Protective Devices (Cont'd)

(1) Vocational or industrial art shops or laboratories involving work

(a) Hot molten metals

(b) Milling, sawing, turning, shaping, cutting, grinding, or
stamping of any solid materials

(c) Heat treatment, tampering, or kiln firing of any metal or
other materials

(d) Gas or electric arc welding

(e) Caustic or explosive materials

(2) Chemical or combined chemical-physical laboratories involving caustic
or explosive chemicals or hot liquids or solids.

Section 2. The boards of public instruction of the several counties may
furnish such equipment for students and teachers, and shall furnish such
equipment for all visitors to such classrooms or laboratories. A board
of public instruction may purchase such devices in large quantities and
sell them at cost to students and teachers.

Section 3. To implement and carry out the purpose of this act the boards
of public instruction of the several counties are hereby given authority
to promulgate rules and regulations to accomplish the purpose of the law.

Section 4. "Industrial quality eye protective devices: as used in this
act means devices meeting the requirements of the American standard safety
code for head, eye and respiratory protection Z2 1-1959, promulgated by
the American standards association, incorporated."

Section 5. This act shall take effect upon becoming a law.

Become a law without the Governor's approval.

Filed in Office Secretary of State June 25, 1965.

C. Suggestions Regarding Florida's New Eye Protection Law: Laws of Florida,
Chapter 65.- 526. (Originally House Bill No. 508)(Dr. Ralph V. Steeb,
Consultant for Industrial Arts)

The Florida eye protection law for students, teachers, and visitors in
school, college, and university shops and science laboratories became
law on June 25, 1965. The provisions of the law are now in effect and
should be carried out immediately in view of possible negligence re-
sulting from failure to comply.


1. Every student and teacher in industrial arts shops or laboratories
shall wear industrial eye protective devices when working with:

- 3h -

C. Suggestions Regarding Florida's New Eye Protection Law (Cont'd)

(a) Hot molten metals

(b) Milling, sawing, turning, shaping, cutting, grinding, or stamping
of any solid materials

(c) Heat treatment, tempering, or kiln firing of any metal or other

(d) Gas or electric arc welding -

(e) Caustic or explosive materials.

2. The Board of Public Instruction shall furnish such eye safety equip-
ment to all visitors to the shops or laboratories.

3. All equipment must meet the requirements of the American Standard
Safety Code for head, eye, and respiratory protection. When purchas-
ing eye safety equipment, order forms and bid sheets should carry the
specification that the devices meet the "ASA Z2. 1-1959 Code."

4. Rules and regulations for a county eye protection program should be
organized and distributed to the county personnel.

5. Care should be taken to see that the proper, approved device is used
for specific activities. For example: Face shields and plastic type
goggles may be used for operations and activities where dust and splash
hazards exist, but safety goggles are required where impact hazards may
be present.

Specifically; approved safety goggles should be required for drilling
metal on drill press, lathe work, buffing, etc; approved face shields
and plastic goggles may be used for power sanding, heat treating, etc.;
and approved light-radiation devices for welding.

Experience has indicated that the plastic cover-all type of goggle is
not as satisfactory as the spectacle type eye protection. The plastic
devices are hot, uncomfortable, scratch easily, and may be unsatisfac-
tory against impact. They are better suited to chemistry laboratories
than to shops. Industry uses the spectacle type of safety goggle with
side shields,

6. Visitors type glasses are available in many styles. Most are plastic
with poor optical quality and questionable impact resistance. Under
no circumstances should this type of glasses be worn by students or

7. Safety devices should be worn not only by those participating in the
activity but also by those who are observing or who may be in close

8. A procedure for periodic disinfection is recommended. One method is
to wash all parts of the device with soap and water. Rinse well to

- 35 -

C. 8. (Cont'd)

remove all soap. Swab thoroughly or completely immerse all parts for
10 minutes in a solution of germicidal deodorant fungicide. Air dry
all parts to retain the germicidal residue which retains its effec-
tiveness for some time. The ideal practice is for each student to
have his own eye protective device which he can use throughout his
school career for shop and chemistry courses. However, each shop
should have sufficient devices available to protect the largest num-
ber of students who at one time may be engaged in the activities in-
dicated in the law.

9. Standard glasses, even though heat treated for hardness, do not meet
the ASA Z2. 1-1959 Code.

10, Administrative, supervisory, and teaching personnel should be familiar
with the entire Act. Copies have been mailed to all industrial arts
personnel in the state.

- 36 -


Paint can make the farm shop safer and more efficient. Thousands of in-
dustrial workers in plants all over America are working more safely and
working more efficiently because of the wise use of paint.

To achieve better farm shop safety by using paint, a systematic code of
colors must be used. Each color must be definite in its designation.
To use one color to designate different applications--some hazardous
and some safe-is both misleading and dangerous.

It is not enough to simply paint buildings, machinery and equipment.
The color must attract the person's attention, warn him of a dangerous
condition or direct him to controls or to safety equipment. Some colors
have become traditional signs, such as red for fire protection equipment
and green for safety equipment.

It does not take much paint for color coding. In fact, except for the
background-lines, blocks or strips of color are always better than mas-
ses of color.

There are six basic colors in the safety color code. These are:

HIGH-VISIBILITY YELLOW should be used to mark all levers and gear handles.
Used with alternate stripes of black, it can be used to mark strike--
against, stumbling, falling, or tripping hazards. Yellow is very bright
and should be restricted in use to those places where it has real mean-
ing. Examples to paint with yellow are: gear shift handle, brake and
clutch on a tractor, adjusting screws on a power saw and handles on power
tools. Use yellow and black strips on such hazards as center posts in
machine sheds and barns, corners of buildings next to drives, and raised
sills in barn doors. Yellow is also used to designate safety areas a-
round a machine. A stripe 3 or 4 inches wide is used.

ALERT ORANGE should be used to indicate dangerous parts of machines and
equipment, particularly moving parts which are uncovered or which are
sometimes uncovered. Machine guards which can be opened or removed should
be painted orange on the inside as well as the dangerous part which is ex-
posed. If the dangerous part is large, the color will usually be more ef-
fective if a bar of orange is placed along the danger edge. Examples where
alert orange should be used are: interior of switch boxes, fuse boxes,
power boxes, and machinery guards; and the exposed parts of pulleys, gears,
cutting edges, rollers, or presses.

SAFETY GREEN should be used to designate first-aid kits and cabinets for
quick location. The Green Cross symbol should be placed on the wall above
first-aid equipment so it can easily be seen from a distance. Safety Green
(sharp shade) should not be confused with high-visibility green, which is a
milder shade.

- 37 -

FIRE PROTECTION RED has for many years been used to designate fire pro-
tection equipment. Other uses should be discouraged. It should not be
used to designate danger areas because of its low visibility as compared
to high-visibility yellow or alert orange and because such use is con-
fusing. Not only should the fire protection equipment be painted red or
with bands of red, but the wall should be painted red where it hangs and
a red square be placed on the floor below the equipment and on the wall.

Use fire protection red on fire extinguishers, fire hose, hose connections,
hydrants, apparatus, fire doors, alarm stations and fire blankets.

PRECAUTION BLUE should be used to indicate the need of caution. Blue may
be put on switch boxes, handy receptacles starting and stopping levers as
a reminder to use caution and be sure everyone is free of danger from the

It is well to hang a large blue tag with the words, "DO NOT OPERATE" there-
on, on any machine which is being repaired, until it is all ready to go.

HIGH-VISIBILITY BUFF. Background paint of high-visibility buff, mild green,
or ivory on the other parts of machines and equipment, especially sharp
tools, will add greatly to the efficiency and safety. Dark colors tire
the eyes. Soft colors such as high-visibility buff will add to the visi-
bility and be restful to the eyes as well as increase the effectiveness of
the other colors.

It does not take much paint to accomplish wonders in color coding a shop.
The average shop should need about:

2 quarts of high-visibility yellow

1 quart black

1 quart alert orange

1 pint safety green

1 quart fire protection red

1 quart precaution blue

2 gallons of high-visibility buff (mild green or ivory).

Quick-drying synthetic resin base exterior enamel paints are good for this

To put on the yellow and black strips, paint the area all black or yellow.
Allow it to dry for 2 3 days. Put gummed masking tape in strips and ap-
ply the other paint.

Remember, a little paint will go a long way towards increasing safety and
safety consciousness in your shop.

- 38 -


Work Station

Arc Welder

Bench and Vise

Drill Press



Depth (Measured from
front of machine)





Oxygen-Acetylene W'elder

54" (36" left side
18" right side


27" (Front and rear if
away from wall)


48" (Front and rear)


48" (Front and rear
+ 12')


Radial Saw

Table Saw

Tool Grinder

Work Bench

12' (each side)




30" (Front and back
+ 12')

27" (Each end)

Lines around the operational areas or "Safety Islands" should be either 2 or
3 inches wide and be painted yellow. The 12 feet in the front and rear of
the Jointer and Table Saw would possibly be left off since in most shops the
actual machine is not fastened to the floor and will need to be shifted to
provide enough room for long boards.

- 39 -


A. Books

Mix, Floyd and Moore, Farm Mechanics Power Tool Manual, The Goodheart-
Wilcox Company, Incorporated, Chicago, Illinois.

William, William A., Accident Prevention Manual, American Technical
Society, Chicago, Illinois.

B. Pamphlets and Bulletins

Farm Equipment Institute, Tips for Safe Tractor Operation, Farm Equip-
ment Institute, 608 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago 5, Illinois.

Future Farmers of America, At Work For Safety, F.F.A.,.Washington, D.C.

National Safety Council, Shop Safety, National Safety Council, 425 N.
Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois.

National Safety Council, Safety Education in the School Shop, National
Safety Council, 425 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois.

A. M. Pettis, Tips on Farm and Home Safety, State of Florida, Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida.

State Board of Control for Vocational Education, Training For Safety.
The State Board of Control For Vocational Education, Lansing, Michigan.

C. Unpublished Materials

Putnam County Vocational School, Steps to Safety, Putnam County Voca-
tional Schools, Palatka, Florida.

Smiley, John H., Safety Handbook, Volusia County Schools, Deland,
Flor ida.

Henderson, Harry D., State Requirements in the Farm Mechanic Laboratory,
Wisconsin State College and Institute of Technology, Platteville,

- 40 -



Unit A under Program Orientation deals with Organization of the Agricul-
ture Department. In this unit such things as class procedures, house-
keeping, safety, land laboratory, and agricultural mechanics laboratory
are discussed. After this discussion it is wise to give the student a
list of the items that he must abide by in the above areas. He must read
this list, sign it, stating he has read it and also understands the poli-
cies. The list is then placed in his notebook. It is also wise to have
students take the list home with the request that both of his parents
read it. The parents should sign a statement indicating they have read
the instrument and that they understand the regulations or policies.

This action, however, does not absolve the teacher from responsibility
in case of an accident. Teacher responsibility is discussed under Sec-
tion X, Legal Responsibilities.

The following regulations are for your guidance. They may be added to
or changed. You might wish to incorporate them with a general policy
statement for your department. The statement is also an example which
you may change any way you see fit. This statement should be kept in
your file.


1. Proper clothing must be worn in shop at all times.

a. Long sleeves must be rolled up.

b. Loose clothing should be avoided.

c. Ties and rings must be removed before working in shop.

d. Protective clothing must be worn when welding.

2. Protective devices must be used on all machine s.

3. Guards must be left in place.

4. Goggles will be worn when using machines that produce flying
particles, or when any type of eye hazards are present.

5. Unattended machines must not be left running.

6. Machines must not be operated by unauthorized persons.

- 41 -

A. Safety Regulations (Cont'd)

7. Students will not operate machines until they have received instruc-

8. Shop must be kept clean at all times; all students will participate
in this operation.

9. Machines must be kept in good working order. Any machine not work-
ing properly must be reported at once.

10. Fire extinguishers will be kept in strategic places around the shop
and be properly mounted.

11. All accidents must be reported to instructor at once.

12. A student must keep his attention fixed on his work at all times.

13. Horseplay in the shop will not be tolerated.

14. All fire hazards will be taken care of at once.

15. Aisles will be kept clear at all times.

16. Safety rules for the operation of each machine will be discussed at
the period of instruction on the particular machine and students will
be expected to abide by rules at all times.

17. There shall not be more than one person riding on tractor or equip-
ment when it is in operation.

By my signature, I admit having read these policies and fully understand
their meaning.



I have read the
Agriculture Department Safety
tions and what is expected of


High School Vocational
Regulations and understand these regula-
my child.



- h2 -


Many students will be in the shop at one time and will be using tools and
equipment that could be dangerous. In order that the student may become
more safety conscious, a definite safety organization should be enforced
under the direction of a class member, usually designated as the safety
engineer. His authority is next to that of the teacher in matters per-
taining to the safety of the group and to each individual.

It is the duty of the safety engineer to circulate about the shop correc-
ting any unsafe practices which anyone may be employing. He will make a
daily report to the teacher. A copy of the daily check is included here.

The success of the safety program will depend entirely upon the kind of
cooperation the students give the safety engineer in carrying out daily
tasks. In every shop there are certain general and specific safety rules
which must be followed. These are listed elsewhere in this publication.

It is the duty of the safety engineer to foster safe use of tools and
equipment and to impress upon each student the safety rules which he must
follow. He must complete the items listed below each day.

- 43 -



Everyone's sleeves are rolled up- -- ----

No ties are worn - - - - - - - -

Proper clothing worn- - - - - - - -

Machines not in use are disconnected- - - -

Grinder tool rest is set less than 1/8 inch - -

Goggles are being worn by students when necessary

Goggles are clean - - - - - - - -

8. First-aid cabinet is clean and equipped

9. Toolroom is clean and orderly - - -

10. Stock piled orderly and neatly- - -

11. Paint cabinet clean and orderly - -

12. Bookcases in good order - - - -

13. Teacher's desk neat -- - - - -

14. Lockers closed- - - - - - -

15. Waste rags put in underwriters laboratory
containers- -- - - -------

16. All shelves dusted- - - - - -

17. All models dusted - - - - - -

18. All pipes clean and dusted- - - -

19. Benches kept dusted - - - - -

20. Windows and window ledges kept dusted -

21. Necessary accident reports made out in

22. Ventilator fan turned on during class s

7y approved

notebook -

ession; off

when class leaves - - - -

23. Scrap wood kept removed from floor- -

24. Entrances and exits all unlocked- - - -

25. All tools and machines properly grounded- -

- 4h -





Safety Engineer



- 45 -


For Use in Periodic Shop Inspections

PURPOSE: An Evaluation of Shop Safety Conditions and Practices.


Date Inspection was Made:

1. Housekeeping

Storage of supplies..............................
Waste disposal..................................
Periodic waste removal.............................
Aisle and floors clear and skid-proof............
Tool arrangement..............................
Lighting.......................... .... ..... .......
Use of color..... .............................. ...

2. Machinery

Properly installed................................
Point of operation guards.........................
Transmission guards; .............................
Maintenance................ ....................
Rules posted......................................

3. Fire protection & prevention

Storage of combustible materials...............
Extinguishing equipment...........................
Signs and indicators............................
Exits and fire doors clearly indicated............




- h6 -

4. Tools

Hand tools storage.....,,,,,,,,......... ,,,,,
Hand tools use................ ...... ......
Hand tools maintenance..........................

5. Personal Protective Equipment

Goggles and Shields provided....................
Use enforced....................................
Gloves provided where needed.....................
Welding apparel sufficient..................
Casting apparel sufficient.......................

6. Electrical Hazards

Grounding .............. ... .......... ......
Master switches.............................
Cut-off switches................................
Manual starters one H.P. and up.................
Color code compliance..........................
Portable tools grounded.........................
Machine switch accessibility....................
Extension cords ..................... .........
Conduits. ..................... .. .... .....
Exhaust fan motors..............................
Finish room ......................... .........

7. Safety Education

Safety rules posted........... ...............
Safety rules distributed......................
Permission slips............................
Accident reports..............................
Record of safety discussions....................
Restrictions at grade level set..............
Personnel organization........................
Safety display periodically changed...........
Bulletin board neat, attention getting..........


- h7 -

Recommendations of the Committee:


Prepared by the Joint Safety Committee of the



A safe environment is an essential part of the school safety education
program. Regular and frequent safety inspections by school personnel--
administrators, teachers, and students will identify and correct exist-
ing hazards.

Inspections may be made at the request of the board of education, the
school administration, or upon the initiative of the teacher. Some com-
munities have drawn upon the cooperative service of professional safety
engineers, inspectors of state labor departments, insurance companies,
and local safety councils to supplement and confirm inspections by school


Who Inspects? This will depend upon local policies. It is recommended,
however, that shop teachers and students--the student safety engineer
and/or student safety committee--participate in making regular inspec-
tions. This not only tends to share responsibility but stimulates a
broader interest in the maintenance of a safe school shop.

How to Inspect? Inspections should be well planned in advance. Inspec-
tions should be systematic and thorough. An inspection check list should
be used.

Inspection reports should be clear and concise, but with sufficient ex-
planation to make each recommendation for improvement understandable.

Follow-Up, The current report should be compared with previous records
to determine progress. The report should be studies in terms of the ac-
cident situation so that special attention can be given to those condi-
tions and locations which are accident producers.

Each unsafe condition should be corrected as soon as possible in accord-
ance with accepted local procedures.

A definite policy should be established in regard to taking materials and
equipment out of service because of unsafe conditions.

The inspection report can be used to an advantage as the subject for staff
and class discussion.

- 48 -


Draw a circle around the appropriate letter, using the following letter

S Satisfactory (Needs no attention)

U Unsatisfactory (Needs immediate attention).

Recommendations should be made in all cases where a "U" is circled.
Space is provided at the end of the form for such comments. Designate
the items covered by the recommendations, using the code number appli-
cable (as B-2). Space is provided for lisitng of standards, require-
ments or regulations which have local application only.


1. Safety instruction is an integral part of each teaching Unit. S U

2. Accident prevention is taught with a positive approach. S U

3. The proper use of each piece of equipment is demonstrated
before student use is permitted. S U

4. Informational safety rules are posted near each hazardous
piece of equipment. S U

5. Printed general safe practices are provided each student. S U

6. Instruction is provided on proper methods of lifting,
carrying, and lowering heavy objects. S U

7. Safety posters are used and changed frequently. S U

8. Each class has a safety inspector or committee and each
student has an opportunity to serve on the safety com-
mittee some time during the four years. S U

9. A procedure is established for students to recognize
and report hazards. S U

10. Tests on safety are given regularly as a part of the test-
ing program. S U

11. A complete record is kept of safety instruction, including
test records, and are on file. S U

12. First aid instruction is provided all students. S U

13. Students are taught types of fire extinguishers and how
to use them. S U

14. Running, horseplay, etc., is completely prohibited. S U

- 49 -


1. Goggles or protective shields are provided and required for
all work where eye hazards exist (grinding, drilling, wire
brushing, etc.). S U

2. Shields and goggles are provided for electric welding and
acetylene welding. S U

3. Respirators are provided for dusty or toxic atmospheric
conditions, such as spray painting. S U

4. Coveralls or other appropriate apparel are worn and check-
4d (for loose ends) when working in the shop. S U

5. Sleeves are rolled above elbows and ties are removed when
working around machinery. S U

6. Jewelry (rings, wristwatches, etc.) are not worn when
working around machinery. S U

7. An adequately stocked first aid cabinet is provided in
the agricultural mechanics shop and laboratory and check-
ed monthly. S U

8. The shop is kept locked when the instructor is not pre-
sent. S U


1. All accidents are reported to the instructor. S U

2. Accident reports are completed on all accidents, regard-
less of nature of severity, and reported to the school
nurse or principal's office. S U

3. Accident reports are analyzed for instructional purposes
and for aiding in preventing other accidents. S U

4. Written posted policies are maintained outling correct
procedures in case of accident. S U


1. Equipment and supplies are kept arranged with adequate
aisles for safety and easy exit. S U

2. All compounds and materials are properly labeled. S U

3. Poisonous materials are labeled and kept separate from
other materials. S U

4. Proper laboratory procedures are demonstrated before
students begin work. S U

- 50 -


5. The laboratory is adequately ventilated. S U

6. Fire resistant materials are used where needed. S U


1. The shop lighting is safe, sufficient, and well placed. S U

2. Ventilation is adequate to remove all fumes. S U

3. Floors and aisles are skid resistant. S U

4. The.shop has two or more well marked exits. S U

5. Students are familiar with emergency procedures in evac-
uating the shop, S U

6. All hinged doors open outward and are kept unlocked
during shop periods. S U

7. Walls and storage areas are kept clear of objects that
might fall. S U

8. Adequate storage space is provided. S U

9. lockers and storage cabinets are regularly inspected for
cleanliness and fire hazards. S U

10. C02 fire extinguishers are available for electrical fires. S U

11. Dry powder extinguishers are available for gasoline and
oil fires. S U


1. The general appearance of the shop is that of orderli-
ness, S U

2. All tools and materials are properly stored when not in
use, S U

3. Luiber and metal is properly stacked. S U

4. Work benches are kept clear of unneeded materials S U

5. The shop floor is kept clear and free of water, oil,
and foreign materials. S U

6. Provision is made for daily removal of sawdust and other
waste materials, or it is stored in fire-proof, approved
containers. S U

- 51 -


7. Approved properly marked containers are provided for scraps. S U

8. Scrap materials are placed in proper bins promptly. S U

9. A spring-lid metal container is provided for oily waste
and rags. S U

10. Storage of supplies and shop projects is arranged for
safe storage. S U

11. The tool and supply room is maintained in an orderly and
safe condition. S U

12. Flammable materials are stored in metal cabinets. S U

13. Dangerous materials such as gasoline are stored in approved
containers in a separate place. S U

14. Flammable materials are not used for cleaning purposes. S U

15. Washing facilities are kept clean and neat. S U


1. Special tool racks are provided and kept in an orderly
condition. S U

2. Hand tools are kept sharp, clean, and in safe condition. S U

3. Students are trained and use the proper size tool for the
job to be done. S U

4. Tool handles are kept firmly fastened and free from dirt,
oil, and grease. S U

5. All hand tools are regularly checked for defects and
damage. S U

6. Machines are arranged so that workers are protected from
hazards of other machines, passing students, etc. S U

7. All gears, moving belts, etc., are protected by permanent
enclosure guards. S U

8. All machines have proper guards at point of operation. S U

9. All power tools are operated according to manufacturers
directions. S U

10, A student is permitted to operate a machine only after
demonstrating his ability, S U

- 52 -


11. Danger zones are properly indicated and marked. S U

12. Permanently placed machines are securely fastened to the
floor or bench. S U

13. Strict supervision is provided students using hazardous
equipment. S U

14. Machines are always shut off when not attended. S U

15. Brushes are used in cleaning equipment. S U

16. Unsafe equipment is promptly repaired or put out of use. S U

17. Grinder wheels are kept in balance. S U

18. The grinder tool rest is maintained within 1/8 inch of
wheel. S U

19. Pusher sticks are available and used on circular saws
and jointers. S U

20. All equipment is color coded. S U

21. There is adequate lighting for safe work at each equip-
ment area, S U

22. All work is securely fastened when drilling. S U


1. All electrical control switches are within easy reach of
the operator. S U

2. All motors, fuse and switch boxes, and other electrical
equipment are grounded. S U

3. There is a master control switch for all electrical in-
stallations. S U

4. All switches are enclosed. S U

5. Electrical outlets and circuits are properly identified. S U

6. All extension cords are in safe condition and are not
carrying excessive loads. S U

7. Equipment is provided with overload and underload con-
trols. S U

8. Electrical motors are wired to comply with the National
Electrical Code. S U

- 53 -


9, All convenience outlets are grounded. S U

10. All machines and power tools are properly grounded. S U


1. Machinery and equipment are kept in proper working order. S U

2. The operator is familiar with the operation manual of
the machine being used. S U

3. Power take-off drives on machines are shielded at all
times. S U

4. Machines are turned off when being adjusted, repaired,
or serviced. S U

5. Machines are used only for the jobs for which they were
made. S U

6. Extra care is taken in hitching and unhitching. S U

7. Farm equipment used on the highway is properly identified
with a "slow moving vehicle" emblem. S U

8. Stairs and walks are well lighted and clear of obstruction. S U

9. Ladders are in good condition and tested before use, S U

10. An appropriate fire extinguisher is available in each farm
building. S U

11. All heating and electrical equipment is shielded and
grounded. S U

12. All engines are stopped when refueling. S U

13. An adequate water supply is available for controlling
fires. S U

14. Fire-fighting equipment is readily available and well
marked. S U

15. "No Smoking" signs are placed in strategic places. S U

16. Maximum vision is provided where farm driveways enter
the highway. S U

17. All machines and equipment have proper lights for night
travel. S U

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18. Stocks or other safety devices are used when treating or
caring for farm animals. S U

19. Insecticides and other drugs are properly identified and
stored. S U

20. Newly stored hay and grain is regularly checked for heat-
ing. S U

21. Dated medicines are destroyed, S U


1. Rules and laws of the highway are observed at all times S U

2. Only approved vehicles are used for farm visits and field
trips. S U

3. All vehicles are checked periodically to keep them in safe
operating condition. S U

4. Hazardous areas such as school zones, hill crests, etc.,
are given special consideration. S U

5. The rights of pedestrians are respected at all times. S U

6. When walking near highways, everyone faces on-coming
traffic. S U

7. Vehicles are not overloaded with either passengers or
materials. S U

8. All drivers and passengers are insured for both liability
and personal injury. S U

9. Proper signals are given for turns and stops. S U


1. S U

2. S U

3. S U

4. S U

5. S U

6. s

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