Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Philosophies and objectives
 The cooperative business education...
 The cooperative business education...
 The instructional program
 Program effectiveness through...
 Back Cover

Title: Cooperative business education in Florida's high schools.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080735/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cooperative business education in Florida's high schools.
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: April, 1969
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 74 H-6
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080735
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
        Page ii-a
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iii-a
        Page iv
        Page iv-a
    Philosophies and objectives
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The cooperative business education program
        Page 6a
        Page 6b
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 27a
    The cooperative business education teacher-coordinator
        Page 27b
        Page 27c
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 40a
    The instructional program
        Page 40b
        Page 40c
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 47a
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Program effectiveness through evaluation
        Page 62a
        Page 62b
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 81a
        Page 81b
        Page 81c
        Page 82
        Page 82a
        Page 83
        Page 83a
        Page 84
        Page 84a
        Page 85
        Page 85a
        Page 86
        Page 86a
        Page 87
        Page 87a
        Page 88
        Page 88a
        Page 89
        Page 89a
        Page 90
        Page 90a
        Page 91
        Page 91a
        Page 92
        Page 92a
        Page 93
        Page 93a
        Page 94
        Page 94a
    Back Cover
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text


74 H-6 ,e,,, -73--H--.

APRIL 1969





Tallahassee, Florida
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, Commissioner




BULLETIN 74 H-6 :i~e.-I3 -

APRIL 1969





CARL W. PROEHL, Assistant Commissioner




--2-1.1,s c~ ,(7 : 7
P (,= K


The concept of combining work experience and formal schooling can

be developed in many ways. Such training bridges the gap between school

environment and occupational competency.

SGiven the objective of developing vocational capability in office

skills, knowledge, and understandings, the program of Cooperative

Business Education combines classroom instruction and on-the-job

training to prepare students for initial employment and for advance-

ment on the job.

Whereas any guide must be modified and adapted to a particular

program, it is hoped that this publication characterizes in essence

the nature of the cooperative method applied in business education,

Its purpose is to serve as a point of departure for the teacher-

coordinator in designing a series of learning experiences leading to

the career objective of students in business and office education.


Sincere appreciation is expressed to Miss Ruth Brewer, Teacher-

Educator, Business Education, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton

who coordinated the workshop for the revision of this guide. Grateful

acknowledgment is made also to the following whose attentive efforts

provided the nucleus of the publication:

Lois F. Barr Edward D. Miller
Manatee High School Consultant, Business Education
Bradenton, Florida State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida

J. Roger Bell Mary Clegg Miller
Leto Comprehensive High School Clearwater High School
Tamnpa, Florida Clearwater, Florida

Ada B. Birdwhistell Frances Pignato
Sarasota High School Seacrest High School
Sarasota, Florida Delray, Florida

Merlease Coons Lucy C. Robinson
George Stone Voc-Tech Center Curriculum Specialist, BE
Pensacola, Florida State Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida

Bruce Howell Joyce Sherster
South Broward High School Coral Gables Sr. High School
Hollywood, Florida Coral Gables, Florida

The accompanying teaching units were developed by graduate students

at Florida Atlantic University as partial fulfillment of requirements

for credit in Methods of Teaching Business Subjects.






. . . . . . . . . . .

Business Education and the Outcomes of Education .
Competencies to Be Developed in Business Education
Origin of the Cooperative Method . . . . .
Objectives of Cooperative Business Education . .


Organizing the Program . . . . . . . .

Criteria for the Program . . .
School-Community Survey . . .
Selection of Advisory Committee .
Identifying and Selecting Students
Federal-State Regulations . .
Organizing the Program . . .

Promoting the Program . . . . . . . . . .

Public Relations and Recruitment
A Calendar of Events . . . .

Developing the Program . . . . . . . . .

Selection of Training Stations . . . . . . . .
Training Station Assignments . . . . . . . .
Training Plan Development . . . . . . . .
Development of Training Agreement . . . . . . .


Qualifications of the Teacher-Coordinator . . . . .
The Professional Teacher-Coordinator . . . . . . .
Professional Organizations . . . . . . . .
The Role of the Teacher-Coordinator . . . . . .
Working With the Employer . . . . . . . . . .
Visitation of Training Stations . . . . . . .

. . .




Suggested Sequences . . . . .
Teaching Methods . . . . . .
Content . . . . . . . .
Youth Activities . . . . .
Facilities and Equipment . . . .



. . . . . 63

Objectives of Evaluation . .
Criteria Used in Evaluation
Evaluation Check List . .
Evaluation of Student Progress
Follow-up Studies . . .
Follow-up Study Questionnaire
Analyzing the Results . .


Initial Survey for New Programs .
Student Interest Survey . . .
Student Application . . . .
Work Permit . . . . . .
Initial Class Report . . . .
Sample Training Plan . . . .
Training Agreement . . . . .
Supplemental Class Report . . .
Interview Evaluation . . . .
Employer's Evaluation of Student .
Student's Self-Appraisal . . .
Final Report . . . . .
Follow-up of Graduates . ..
Application to Employ Student-Learner

. . . . . . . . . . .


The changing patterns of job opportunities for high school graduates,
the increasing demands for higher levels of stenographic skills, and the
rising levels of social and personal competencies required in the business
office demand a constant upgrading of the high school preparation for entry-
level positions. Recent economic developments and technological advancements
have forced business leaders to become increasingly aware of the related
skills, competencies, and knowledge which efficient personnel in the office
occupations should possess. The students need a broad, general background
which will enable them to adjust to changes which cannot be predicted. In
the words of one educator

The primary task, then is to prepare students for life
in a changing world in which it is impossible to predict
with any degree of accuracy what the world will be like
when they are adults.1

And, he continues

It will become increasingly important to emphasize broad
understanding in the vocational subjects rather than
drill students into practices that will be outmoded by
the time they are ready to enter their occupation.

Business Education and the Outcomes of Education

Business education has a decided contribution to make to the develop-
ment of the outcomes that are identified for all education. In each area
of competency, business education can assume an appropriate interest and
active responsibility. The major outcomes with which business education
is most vitally concerned can be identified as follows:

1. Preparation for Work. A major task of education for business
always has been preparation for work. In the past we have developed rather
specific job skills as a fundamental part of this preparation. In view of
the current emphasis on adaptability to occupational changes and the accom-
panying need for basic skill development, it may be that preparation for work
will take a somewhat modified form in the future. It seems realistic to assume
that the role of business education in preparing young people for work will be
defined as follows: (a) help young people refine partially developed skills
in reading, writing, speaking, spelling, and computing; (b) help young people
develop sufficient mastery of one or more specific job skills that will enable
them to make entry into initial employment; (c) help young people develop the
work habits that are necessary for sustained, quality performance and that are

John C. Roman, "Automation's Challenge to Business Education,"
Business Education World, 42 (November, 1961), p. 67.
Ibid., p. 67.

being required in an increasingly greater degree in all areas of business
and industry; (d) help young people develop the personal qualities that are
essential for adaptability, for working with highly complex machinery, and
for successful human relations involving the employer and fellow employees;
(e) help young people to learn of the career opportunities that are avail-
able to them and to learn of the educational and experience requirements for
success in these occupations.

2. Problem Solving and Logical Thinking. A recognized outcome of all
education is the development of problem solving and logical thinking skills.
Business education can assume a major role in achieving this outcome at the
secondary level and beyond. On the secondary level, critical analysis can
be developed through problem-solving activities. In many of the business
courses ample opportunity exists for these problem-solving activities:
economics, consumer problems, business organization and management, book-
keeping and accounting, and others.

3. Personal Development. Since education must be concerned with help-
ing young people develop to the fullest extent physically, emotionally, so-
cially, and economically, business education must assume a responsibility
for achieving the outcomes in this area. The personal development area with
which business education is most vitally concerned is the area of personal
economic competency. Since personal economics has to do with the personal--
business activities of an individual, business education is the logical dis-
cipline in junior and senior high schools and junior colleges through which
the outcomes are achieved. In addition, it is recognized that business edu-
cation is concerned with the emotional development of young people; and to a
lesser but important degree the social development. Certain non-vocational
skills, such as typewriting, recordkeeping, and notetaking also comprise a
part of the personal development of young people. Business education is
almost solely responsible for achieving the outcomes in this latter area
of competency.

4. Citizenship Education. Education for citizenship, a continuing re-
sponsibility of education at all levels, requires the attention and concern
of business education just as much as it requires the attention of other
subject disciplines. Personal-business competency; appropriate consumer at-
titudes; participation in local, state, and national political affairs; under-
standing of economic problems on all levels; and understanding the responsi-
bilities of business management and labor for the continued refinement and
operation of the free enterprise system are all important aspects of edu-
cation for citizenship.

5. Basic Skills. The development and refinement of basic fundamental
processes are responsibilities of education at all levels. Business education
must assume its rightful share, especially in the refinement of partially
developed processes. Every business teacher should feel obligated to help
students acquire higher degrees of skill in reading, writing, computing,
spelling, and speaking.

6. Appreciation of Our American Heritage. Young people need to learn
to appreciate the political, economic, and cultural heritage that is respon-
sible for the society in which we live. An appreciation of this heritage is
essential for the development of a desire to participate in political, econom-
ic, and cultural activities and a desire to perpetuate the heritage that is
ours. Business education is concerned about the development of an apprecia-
tion for our economic heritage. Such an appreciation comes from a real

understanding of the organization and operation of our individual enter-
prise economy. Young people need to develop also a desire to carry on
the traditions and practices of a free and individual enterprise economy.

Competencies to Be Developed in Business Education

Vocational business programs must be predicated on the development of
competencies demanded for initial jobs and the development of an awareness
of the demonstrated need for continuing education after leaving high school.
Those competencies most frequently listed are:

... Competence in fundamental skills

... Competence in developing personal attitudes,
traits, and appreciations

... Competence in developing basic business knowledge

... Competence in fundamental business skills and abilities

... Competence to understand and appreciate management

... Competence in handling business procedures, business
papers, and equipment

Distinction Between Work-Experience Programs and Cooperative Programs

Work-experience programs have a number of diffuse, general education
objectives. Cooperative programs have specific vocational objectives. It
is relevant to note that work experience can attain its general objectives of
retaining potential school leavers, providing general work experience, and
providing pre-vocational experiences. However, the task of developing oc-
cupational competence in specific jobs as the career objectives of students
is clearly vocational by nature and one of the functions of the cooperative

The overriding point here is that work experience programs and coopera-
tive programs have two different sets of purposes. Each uses on-the-job train-
ing as a locus but projects its purposes through a different set of organiza-
tional, operational, and instructional practices and for dissimilar purposes.

Origin of the Cooperative Method

Chronologically, the first program to utilize the cooperative approach
was in engineering at the University of Cincinnati in 1906. Categorically,
it can be documented that as early as 1901 some 23 states had provided for the
teaching of household subjects in industrial, vocational, or agricultural
schools, Ohio being one of these.1 The fact is, then, that home economics

Vocational Education. The Sixty-fourth Yearbook of the National Society
for the Study of Education, Part I, (Chicago: The National Society for the
Study of Education).

actually participated in one of the first programs using on-the-job training
and may well have been the genesis of inter-disciplinary learning.

Distributive education and trade and industrial education likewise began
their movement at approximately the same time--1904 to 1906. Not until the
passage of the Smith-Hughes Act in 1917, however, did agriculture, trade and
industrial education, and home economics achieve recognition for cooperative
programs through Federal subsidizing. A series of modifications in the ori-
ginal bill paved the way for distributive education to be included in 1936.

It should be noted here that a conference at Biloxi, Mississippi in 1933
may have provided impetus for the first cooperative program to be organized
in Florida. At this conference plans were developed for expanding part-time
cooperative programs.

From its inception, this program (DCT), Distributive Education, and Adult
Vocational Business Education were under the Trade and Industrial section. In
1955, the decision was made to remove all programs from Industrial Education
that did not directly relate. It was at this time that a separate section of
Distributive, Cooperative, and Business Education was formed.2 The present
section title of Business and Distributive Education was yet another effort
to distinguish between subject-matter disciplines and methods of teaching.

Section G of the Vocational Amendments of 19683 greatly expands federal
subsidy for cooperative education, secondary and post-secondary.

Cooperative Education Programs in Florida


Descriptive Title

Home Economics


Industrial education

Joint school-industry training



Technical education

Diversified programs

Distributive education

Business education

Annual Descriptive Reports.
Vocational, Technical, and Adult
of Education).

Cooperative technical education

Junior high work experience
Diversified cooperative training

Cooperative distributive education

Cooperative business education

Office of the Assistant Superintendent,
Education, (Tallahassee: State Department

Vocational Education Amendments of 1968, P. L. 90-576,
90th Congress. 1968.

Cooperative Business Education Defined. The Cooperative Business Education
program is one which provides opportunities for qualified students to select,
enter, and progress in learning a vocation of their choice through on-the-
job training correlated with classroom instruction of related subject matter.

Objectives of Cooperative Business Education. Statements of guiding prin-
ciples are imperative in planning a cooperative business education program
These can best be stated in the form of general and specific objectives de-
signed to assist teacher-coordinators, students, and employers in giving
credibility to the program, in developing its content and teaching methods,
in perpetuating its foundations, and in evaluating total program effec-


1. To provide a realistic means for expanding and improving the
instructional program in office education to better meet the
vocational needs of the students.

2. To provide more realistic occupational and educational choices
for the students by means of offering greater opportunities to
explore and pursue their interests, aptitudes, and career ob-

3. To provide a more effective program of office education through
closer relations among the business education department, the
school, the business community, and the public.

4. To create a normal, healthy, and sincere attitude on the part
of the students toward work.

5. To enable the pupil to adjust himself intelligently, safely,
and confidently to office routine as it actually exists in
business and industry.

6. To facilitate the transition between school and employment.

7. To develop general economic understandings concerning the
methods and functions of business.

8. To develop feelings of adult independence, of the satisfaction
of achievement, and of confidence in one's ability to attain
economic security.

9. To contribute to the generally recognized objectives of
secondary education.


1. To present, develop, and define the office skills necessary
for job competency.

2. To provide a laboratory in which students practice the skills,
knowledge, and attitudes learned to make the classroom instruc-
tion more meaningful and relevant.

3. To provide an opportunity, through the use of local businesses,
for the students to acquire additional skills and knowledge not
possible or practical in the classroom.

4. To prepare the students for full-time employment after graduation
and to give them a background of training which will contribute
to rapid advancement on the job.

5. To develop good work habits and attitudes; to aid in the develop-
ment of such personality traits as punctuality, dependability,
accuracy, tact, adaptability, poise, and a sense of responsibility
that makes for efficient work with a minimum of supervision.

6. To guide the students in selecting the particular job most suit-
able to them in terms of their interests, aptitudes, and their

7. To provide a situation in which community needs for office
employees may be more satisfactorily met.

8. To provide an opportunity for students to make social adjustments
and to develop the ability to work cooperatively with co-workers
and superiors.

9. To encourage graduates of the high school to become employed
and remain in the community.

10. To promote the feelings of self-respect and achievement in students.

11. To emphasize the importance of being able to follow instructions
and accept supervision.

12. To encourage good attendance in school and on the job.

13. To stress the importance of being neat, prompt, and dependable.

14. To develop sound concepts of personal money management through
experiences gained from wages received from training stations
and related instruction.





1. Administrative Approval of the Program Should Be Secured

The program should have the approval of the administration regarding
the essential phases of the program, such as objectives, student
learner recruitment and selection, class scheduling, school credit
for the two phases of the program, criteria for selecting training
stations, public relations and promotion, responsibilities and duties
of the teacher-coordinator, provision of adequate physical facilities
and equipment, evaluation of program, etc.

2. A Qualified Teacher-Coordinator Should Be Selected

The function of the teacher-coordinator is to organize and/or
administer the cooperative business education program in the high
school. To be successful, he must establish goals worthy for self-
improvement. He must also be constantly aware of the relation-
ships that are inherent in the teacher-student learning situation.

Teacher-coordinators should bring to their jobs the required ex-
perience and training. In every instance they should supplement
their employment experience and teaching and counseling skills
with continuous in-service improvement.

He should constructively relate the cooperative business education
program to other areas of basic instruction in the total school
program and to teach what is needed when it is most meaningful to
the student.

It is suggested that school administrators determine first whether
a person already on the school faculty is qualified for the posi-

Specific qualifications and the role of the teacher-coordinator
are more detailed on page 28.

3. An Advisory Committee Should Be Appointed

The purpose of this committee is to serve in an advisory capacity
to the school administration and the teacher-coordinator. It should
represent all those concerned with or who participate in the
program--students, school, parents, and businessmen. (See p. 11)

4, Adequate Classroom Facilities and Instructional Materials Should
Be Provided

Functionally designed classroom space and furniture should be provided
which will accommodate both group instruction and committee activities.
Also space should be provided for individual conferences between student
and teacher-coordinator. Modern office machines and equipment should
be provided and kept in excellent operating condition. Specialized
instructional materials and teaching aids requisite to the achievement
of vocational competency should be made available. (See p. 61)

5. Training Stations Should Be Carefully Selected

Training stations must provide supervised learning activities that
will prepare students for stated career objectives. These stations
should be selected according to suggested criteria set forth in this
guide. The training station supervisor must accept the basic philos-
ophy of the Cooperative Business Education programs.

6. The Student-Learner Should Have an Expressed Career Objective

The student is enrolled in the cooperative business education program
for the purpose of preparing for a specific occupation or a cluster of
office occupations. The student is a learner in a realistic office
training situation at the same time he is a student in a related in-
school class. The student must declare a specific career objective.

7. A Step-by-Step Training Plan Should Be Prepared

This is a written plan indicating the knowledge, skills, and atti-
tudes to be learned by the student in his specific training job and
in the related class. It sets forth the job description, the areas
of experience and training, as well as the planned learning outcomes.
The plan is prepared cooperatively by the teacher-coordinator, the
employer, and the student-learner.

8. A Specialized Curriculum Should Be Set Up and Followed

An approved vocational office education curriculum or curriculums
stenographicc, clerical, bookkeeping and manager owner) should be
set up consisting of a planned sequence of courses designed to provide
the learning experiences which will ensure vocational competency at the
end of the training program. Each student must select a curriculum in
accordance with his aptitudes and interests.

9. Effective On-the-Job Supervision Should Be Provided

The training which the student-learner receives on the job is a key
factor in vocational competency. An experienced office supervisor who
understands the philosophy of cooperative work experience should be ap-
pointed to work harmoniously with the teacher-coordinator in directing
the learning experiences of the student according to the step-by-step
training plan.

10. Systematic and Complete Program Records Should Be Kept

The teacher-coordinator should maintain a well-organized system of
records for keeping information on students, training stations, and
follow-up studies of graduates. An efficient filing system should
be developed for cataloging and storing correspondence, library
reference materials, duplicated instructional materials, research
studies, professional publications, and the like.

11. Requisite Coordination Time Should Be Provided

The coordinator should have adequate time to administer efficiently
the total cooperative business education program. This should include
sufficient time in the daily work load for related classroom instruction
and coordination activities outside the classroom. Consideration should
be given to the number of training stations to be visited and their geo-
graphical distribution as well as such functions as recruitment of new
training stations, public relations in the business community, home
visitations, etc.

12. Appropriate Related Instruction in School Should Be Provided

The curriculum should provide (a) those knowledge, skills, and traits
and attitudes which are basic to the needs of each student-learner for
the purpose of achieving competence in his specific job classification.
In addition, a related class period must be provided daily in the senior
year to successfully attain objectives.

13. A Dynamic Youth Organization Should Be Maintained

Extra-curricular activities which contribute directly to the achievement
of the vocational objectives of the cooperative business education pro-
gram should be provided. These experiences may be provided through the
existing FBLA club or other appropriate youth organizations and should
be sponsored or co-sponsored by the teacher-coordinator.


School Survey. A good way to conduct a school survey is to have an as-
sembly program of ninth, tenth and eleventh grade students. This will
acquaint them with the benefits and details of the cooperative business
education program. At the close of the assembly, a student-interest survey
form can be given to those who express an interest in the program. If an
assembly cannot be arranged, the student-interest survey forms may be
distributed through homerooms, business classes, or other subject classes.

Some specific objectives for conducting a school survey are:

1. To determine interest of students and parents in the program.

2. To determine willingness and need to participate in the program.

3. To determine career objectives of students.

4. To determine educational background for participation in the

5. To estimate the number of potential trainees.

6. To introduce the program to the students.

7. To determine the educational experiences and business cur-
riculum necessary for on-the-job training.

Community Survey. The primary objective of conducting a community
survey is to determine the potential of the firms in the community for
employing students of a cooperative business education program on a part-
time basis. Second, it is important to know the extent to which firms
will accept the basic philosophy of cooperative work experience programs,
which is supervised training on the job correlated with the related class
instruction. Last, community surveys are valuable in determining the
nature and scope of the cooperative business education program.

Some specific objectives for conducting such a survey are:

1. To determine willingness of businessmen to cooperate and
participate in the program.

2. To discover the employment needs of the community--kinds of jobs
and number of job opportunities.

3. To ascertain the names and the number of potential training

4. To introduce the program to the businessmen.

5. To determine the types of businesses in the community and the pos-
sible learning experiences they can offer cooperative business
education students.

6. To learn the sizes and locations of these businesses.

7. To determine the desirable school training necessary for
prospective workers in the area.

8. To determine the types of entrance tests used by employees.

9. To estimate starting salaries for office occupations in the

10. To determine the types of business machines used in the office.


Need for an Advisory Committee

After a need for a Cooperative Business Education Program is de-
termined and after school authorities have given their approval for the
development of such a program, an advisory and consultative body must be
formed. The need for this advisory committee is to assist and advise the
coordinator and to make recommendations to the school authorities on
various phases of the training program.

Functions of the Advisory Committee

In carrying out its purpose, the advisory committee has the follow-
ing functions:

1. To assist, give advice, and make recommendations to the school
authorities on matters concerning Cooperative Business Education.

2. To provide consultative and coordination services between the
school and the community in the areas of program development,
program operation, program evaluation, and public relations.

a. Program Development Activities

1. assist in developing standards for selection
of students.

2. aid in developing standards for selection of
training stations.

3. assist in establishing wage and hour policies.

4. aid in developing the Training agreement.

5. help in forming educational policies.

6. help in obtaining materials and equipment.

7. aid in forming Youth Club. (F.B.L.A.)

8. assist in organizing new phases of the program.

9. assist in organizing special committees.

10. aid in conducting surveys to determine the needs
of the program.

b. Program Operation Activities

1. aid in selecting training stations.

2. assist in placement of students in training stations.

3. assist in maintaining standards of operation.

4. help new coordinators in the program.

5. serve as speakers for school classes.

6. serve as speakers for Youth Club (F.B.L.A.)

7. assist in obtaining speakers for school class or
Youth Club activities.

8. advise coordinator regarding selection of materials
and equipment.

9. recommend new materials or equipment

c. Program Evaluation Activities

1. assist in annual evaluation of the overall program.

2. perform a periodic analysis of the program to determine
whether classroom instruction is being integrated with
actual work experience.

3. review training plans and to make recommendations
concerning changes or improvements.

4. advise coordinator as to suitability of training

5. conduct surveys to determine the value of the program
to the student, school, and community, and to report
their findings to the appointing authority.

d. Public Relations Activities

1. assist in the development of a Public Relations Program.

2. assist in explaining the purpose and objectives of the
program to the community.

3. aid in promoting the program within the community.

4. serve as speakers for community civic groups.

5. assist in finding jobs for students upon completion
of the program.

General Selection Procedure

Because of the purposes and functions of the advisory committee, it
is advisable to obtain a representative group of individuals from the
business, civic, and school community who are competent and progressive
in their fields, interested in community affairs, willing to assume re-
sponsibility, and who are both willing and able to devote the time required
to accomplish their duties. Both small and large businesses should be
represented on the advisory committee.

Meetings of the Advisory Committee

A minimum of four meetings should be held each year. One of these
required meetings should be held early in the school year to aid the
coordinator in his efforts to initiate the program smoothly and efficiently.


The teacher-coordinator of the Cooperative Business Education Program
should give careful consideration to the selection of students for
participation in the program.

1. The student must be at least 16 years of age.

2. The student must be a senior in high school.

3. The student must have a stated vocational objective for which
training has been given or is being received in the business
and office education field.

4. The student must have the consent of his parents or legal
guardian to enroll in the program.

5. The student must be available for placement on a part-time
job, for a minimum of 15 hours not to exceed 40 hours per
week, at a selected and approved training station.

6. The student must exhibit a willingness to work and satis-
factory traits and attitudes, such as honesty, dependability,
and cooperation.

7. The student should have the intelligence, interest, aptitude,
emotional maturity, and personality to indicate that he can
profit from the program.

8. The student should possess the physical and moral qualities
necessary for satisfactory attainment of his vocational

It is recommended that the coordinator utilize all available sources
of information about a student to determine if he meets the requirements
listed above. The following are some suggested items:

1. School records

a. Attendance
b. Personal data, including family background
c. Health record, including health certificate (when required)
d. General courses taken
e. Business education courses taken
f. Achievement record of students

(1) Student-learners who plan to work at stenographic
training stations should, as a general rule, have a
minimum overall grade point average of C with no grade
lower than C in beginning typewriting and shorthand.

(2) Student-learners who plan to work at bookkeeping or at
accounting stations should, as a general rule, have a
minimum overall grade point average of C with no grade
lower than C in bookkeeping or in courses closely re-
lated to bookkeeping, such as recordkeeping, business
mathematics, and the like.

(3) Some students with limited ability can be placed at
training stations which require the performance of
routine clerical duties. The decision as to which
students can profit from the program without lessening

the usefulness of the program will have to be made
by the teacher-coordinator based on available data.

2. The Student Interest Survey.

3. Conferences with the guidance personnel and other staff members
of the school regarding the student.

4. Previous work experience of the student, if he has been employed,
regarding length of service, responsibilities, attitude, rating
sheets, and other personnel records.


The legal aspects of the employment of cooperative students should
be known and adhered to by the teacher-coordinator and the employer.

Cooperative business education programs must be operated within federal,
state, and local laws, and regulations. These laws relating to the employment
of minors are similar in every community. The teacher-coordinator should
keep informed about the regulations applicable to his school service area,
such as employment certification, hazardous occupations, wage and hour laws,
jobs requiring licenses, and social security regulations.

The teacher-coordinator should discuss with the cooperating employer,
the student, and the parents all regulations applicable to the job. Any
questions about regulations should be discussed with a representative from
the proper governmental agency..


1. Work Permits and other Working Papers--The teacher-coordinator should
work closely with the agency concerned with enforcing the child labor

a. Instructions about the "work permits," employment certificates,
or working papers should be given to each student.

b. The school records should show when "work permits" have been
issued to students. Such permits must be issued before they
are placed on a cooperative job.

c. The employer should be reminded that a student under 18 cannot
be legally employed without a "work permit."

2. Child-Labor Laws--The teacher-coordinator should study the child-
labor laws in his state.

3. Fair Labor Standards Act

a. State staff members, concerned with cooperative education pro-
grams, should inform the state administrators of the Fair Labor
Standards Act and other similar regulations about the purposes
and plan of operation of cooperative education.

b. The teacher-coordinator should be informed about the pro-
visions and amendments of the Fair Labor Standards Act
of 1938 regarding interstate commerce.

1. He should discuss with the employer provisions
relating to minimum wage and overtime pay.

2. The employer should know how exemptions may be
made by issuing special certificates for
learners and apprentices.

4. Disability Insurance--The teacher-coordinator should discuss with
students the terms of disability insurance carried by business
and industry.

5. Workmen's Compensation Insurance--The teacher-coordinator should
exercise caution in placing students with employers who may not
carry workmen's compensation insurance or other comparable cover-
age for injuries incurred while on the job.

6. Social Security--Instruction regarding the basic provisions of
the Social Security Act should be given in the related class.

7. Working Hours--The teacher-coordinator should establish employ-
ment guidelines relating to hours of work for both boys and girls.
These should be checked against the state and federal regulations.

8. School Attendance--School attendance laws should be strictly en-
forced for all students enrolled in the cooperative business
education program.


Necessary Conditions

The establishment of a cooperative business education program in
high school is recommended only when certain conditions are present.
These conditions include the following:

1. The existing business education program can provide
the prerequisites required for entrance.

2. Student demand and interest is sufficient.

3. Business and office occupations placements in the community
are available and satisfactory to justify a program as
determined by a community survey.

4. School administrators are committed to making provision
for equipping the cooperative business education program
lab to meet minimum standards.

5. School administrators will employ a professionally qual-
ified and certificated teacher-coordinator.

Initial Planning

In organizing a cooperative business education program, it is
important that careful consideration be given to the initial plan-
ning. This is a cooperative enterprise involving both the school and
the community. The county administration, the school principal and
guidance staff, and the members of the school board should be well in-
formed regarding the cooperative business education program. They
should have a clear understanding of program objectives and operation
and their roles toward ensuring community effectiveness.

Program Determination Survey

In accordance with the provisions of the State Plan, the county
school superintendent shall submit a request to the Director, Business
and Distributive section to consider the establishment of a program in
a particular school. Surveys should be made to determine interest in
such a program by both students and prospective training establishments.
The surveys should determine the scope of training possibilities and the
number of business establishments available for placement. Staff from
the Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education Division of the State
Department are available for guidance in conducting the surveys.

Teaching Unit

After determining the student and community interest, the next step
in organizing a cooperative business education program is for the county
school board, through the county school superintendent, to request that
a vocational instruction unit be granted for the program.

The number of students to be assigned to a coordinator is often
difficult to determine. However, to assure adequate staff time for the
operation of cooperative business education programs, it is generally
agreed that assignment of teacher-coordinators should not exceed 30
students with an average of 25. It is recognized that local conditions
and demands may necessitate adjustments in the student load.



Promotion is an essential part of the cooperative business
Education program. The program must be continually explained, promoted,
and publicized to the community for it to be successful. Promotion is
a never-ending process of educating and developing the attitude of the
total community to one of acceptance, approval, and support.

The following is a suggested but not inclusive list of groups and
individuals who must understand and support the CBE program if it is to
contribute adequately to the community, school, and the individual.
Included are suggested methods and media for telling the story and a
suggested list of groups and individuals to whom the story should be told.

1. Teacher-coordinator. The teacher-coordinator must not only be
convinced of the value of the cooperative business education
program but must make it a part of his everyday life. The
coordinator's enthusiasm will carry over into the life and
conversation of friends, students, and the community.

2. Administration, guidance, and faculty. Some of the most im-
portant supporters of promotional activities are the school
administrators, guidance personnel, and faculty. It is most
essential that they understand the value of, need for, and
results of the program. This may be done in numerous ways.

a. reports: number of student-learners
hours worked
number and name of training agencies

b. labor market needs in the community

c. job opportunities on college and university campuses

3. Students. Posters, window displays, pictures taken on the job,
and school and local newspapers are some of the media that get
information to the students. The most effective promotion is
the performance and enthusiasm of students in the program.

4. Parents, Employers, and Community. People are interested in
what is happening in schools. The teacher-coordinator should
take every advantage possible to keep the public informed.
News releases, TV and radio, talks by students and coordinators
before civic groups, and breakfast or luncheon meetings with
employers. The employer-employee banquet is also excellent.


Several methods of promotion are suggested. Care should be taken
to assure that quality materials and accurate information is prepared.
Information for distribution should be meticulously planned and pro-
duced jointly by students and the teacher-coordinator.

For administration, guidance, and faculty

1. handbook a booklet may be printed or mimeographed and
circulated. It should contain prerequisites, course
credits, and an explanation of on-the-job training.

2. brochures these may be similar to the handbook but
condensed and presented to guidance counselors, parents,
potential employers, and students.

3. projects any number of school-community projects will
aid in leadership development of students.

4. group meetings these offer unlimited opportunities for
cooperation between students and administrators, guidance,
and faculty for promoting cooperative business education.
One or more of the following methods may be used for mul-
tiple or single classes.

a. student speakers
b. assemblies
c. films and slides
d. award presentations

5. displays various kinds of displays are excellent
attention attractions. Proper credit should be given
to the contributors.

a. window display
b. posters
c. bulletin board
d. mobile folding display

For the community

1. school paper most schools have a publication for
printing information concerning club activities and
other student events.

2. parents meetings activities may be publicized in
P.T.A. meetings or newsletters.

3. local newspapers current news and pictures relative to
youth activities, events, projects, training stations,
student progress and placement is applicable.

4. house organs many companies have in-house publications
and are delighted to receive or release accounts of
student activities and accomplishments.

5. yearbook most schools have a yearbook publicizing youth
activities. The FBLA-PBL chapter should budget money
early for inclusion of its members and activities. Many
times employers picture trainees in ads purchased.

6. telephone this is an indispensable tool for contact with
employers, parents, and others in the community. Personal
calls of congratulations, calls to make appointments, and
for short discussions with parents are quite effective.

7. TV and radio all broadcast media are required by law to
provide public service time. Stations will allocate this
time for presenting the cooperative business education
story and will assist in preparing promotion material.

8. direct mail mail-away folders are available or may be
prepared to explain the cooperative method applied to
business and office occupations education. These may be
circulated to prospective training agencies and parents
of students in the program and others. Correspondence
from teacher-coordinator to training agencies and others
is exceeded only by a personal visit.

For school-community and students

Many times during the school year opportunities are provided
to promote a better understanding of Cooperative Business Education
and to encourage school and community support. These same oppor-
tunities enhance the leadership and social attributes of students.

1. the early bird breakfast
2. advisory committee breakfast or luncheon or dinner
3. field trips
4. county and state fair
5. open house
6. parades
7. special events: Job Opportunities Day; Career Day;
Parent's Night
8. district, state, and national conventions
9. social functions
10. employer-employee banquet


A suggested list of activities for initiating and developing the
cooperative business education program is essential. After it is under-
way, careful systematic planning is requisite for its successful main-
tenance and improvement. A haphazard approach will likely result in a
static program practically devoid of vitality and originality. The im-
portance of continuous planning cannot be overemphasized.

Some of the activities may occur monthly, some annually, and others
infrequently in an on-going program. The point is that a definite series
of activities must be planned and scheduled if the teacher-coordinator
expects to use his time and energy most effectively.







1. Attend the summer planning conference for all
vocational educators.
2. Re-evaluate student-learner's interests, aptitudes,
and abilities,
3. Check confidential reports from teachers and counselors
concerning student-learners,
4. Set up student file folders and complete permanent
record cards, including test scores and notes.
5. Start student-learner interviews and placements for
students who were not placed in the spring.
6. Survey for new training stations and re-check those
stations where students are already placed.
7. Check on complete physical facilities and secure any
needed instructional materials, supplies, teaching aids,
and equipment.
8. Make broad lesson plans for semester. Make a detailed
plan for first six weeks' work and specify detailed
plan for first two weeks of study.
9. Visit in homes of student-learners.
10. Initiate publicity activities.

1. Conduct orientation classes for new students who did
not receive orientation in the spring. During this
class, introduce forms and reporting procedures.
2. Help arrange schedules and provide classrooms for
related instruction.
3. Hold Advisory Committee meeting.
4. Work on placing those student-learners who have not
been placed. Complete all placements if possible.
5. Begin keeping a*daily record of all students.
6. Hold open house for parents, businessmen, and teachers.
7. Help in the organization of FBLA-PBL.
8. Evaluate student-learners' progress during training
station visitation,

1. Attend FBLA-PBL district meeting.
2. Continue publicity activities.
3. Make training station visitations.
4. Complete initial report form for State Department.
5. Attend annual Fall Business Teachers Conference.

1. Recognize and provide specific instructional work
needs of each student.
2. Visit training stations.
3. Speak about cooperative business education program
before service and civic organizations.
4. Attend annual Southern Business Education Association
convention if possible.

1. Visit training stations.
2. Determine departmental equipment needs for spring
3. Attend annual convention of American Vocational
Association if possible.

JANUARY 1. Organize plans for recruitment of next year's students.
2. Visit training stations.
3. Prepare progress report for cooperating employers.
4. Plan for FBLA-PBL field trip.

FEBRUARY 1. Plan some type of employer appreciation activity.
2. Visit training stations.
3. Plan activities for FBLA-PBL Week, Career Week, or
Personal Emphasis Week.
4. Attend annual convention of National Business Education Assn.
if possible.

MARCH 1. Make plans to attend the FBLA-PBL Convention in April.
2. Provide student guidance information for prospective
CBE students. Work closely with guidance counselors.
3. Prepare news releases about the CBE program and FBLA-PBL.
4. Present homeroom and assembly programs to help promote
Cooperative Business Education.
5. Arrange testing for prospective students.
6. Review teacher evaluation forms.
7. Visit training stations.
8. Schedule interviews with prospective CBE students.
9. Administer National Business Entrance Tests.

APRIL 1. Attend FBLA-PBL State Convention. Enter competitions.
2. Attend spring conference for business education teachers.
3. Select new CBE students.
4. Make decision about attending National FBLA-PBL Con-
vention held in June.
5. Begin orientation of new students.
6. Assist counselors in scheduling classes for next
year's CBE students.
7. Visit training stations.
8. Review facility and equipment needs for coming year.

MAY 1. Visit training stations.
2. Continue orientation for newly selected CBE students.
3. Hold Employer-Employee Banquet.
4. Aid students in securing permanent jobs upon graduation.
5. Participate in departmental meeting for evaluation and
planning purposes.
6. Order supplies, new books, periodicals, and equipment
for next year's program.
7. Organize alumni group for the coming year.

JUNE 1. Begin student placements for following year.
2. Continue orientation and counseling students.
3. Clear instructional and administrative files.
4. Begin work on the follow-up report for this year's
5. Visit training stations.
6. Prepare an annual report for administrators and
Advisory Committee members.
7. Complete End-of-Year Summary for State Department.

JULY 1. Review files for job analyses that have been developed
2. Replace outgoing members of Advisory Committee.
3. Collect student follow-up forms and mail to State
4. Meet with new Advisory Committee to develop further
understanding of the program.
5. Conduct evaluation of previous year's program by
participating training station sponsors.
6. Contact new training stations that have evidenced an
interest in participating in the program.
7. Review and improve teaching outlines for related
classroom instruction.


Business establishments are used as training stations to provide
a variety of experiences and training for student-learners that will
prepare them for business and office occupations. In general, training
stations for the cooperative business education students should be
selected in terms of the quality of the educational experiences they
can provide.

The following criteria should be considered by teacher-coordinators
in the selection of training stations:

Work Experience

1. The employer or persons) designated by him must provide the
student-learner with planned office experiences in an approved

2. The employer should not consider the student-learner as merely
a source of part-time office help.

3. The part-time work experience should be related to the student-
learner's interests, aptitutdes, and career objectives.

Training Plan

1. A step-by-step training plan should be developed jointly by
the teacher-coordinator and training sponsor.

2. The training plan should serve as a medium for correlating the
related classroom instruction and on-the-job training.

Classification and Remuneration

1. Employment classification should be the same as that of other
part-time employees in matters of social security, insurance,
labor laws, and union contracts.

2. Student-learners should be paid the prevailing hourly wage for
beginning workers with similar training and experience.

Working Conditions

1. The training station should have a good reputation for safe
working conditions.

2. The business establishment should have a good reputation for
ethical business practices.

3. If occupational hazards are present, provisions should be made
for the protection of physical and mental welfare of the

Facilities, Equipment, and Location

1. The facilities and equipment used at the training station
should be up to date.

2. Progressive management, production, and office techniques
should be used by the business establishment.

3. The location of the training station should be convenient
and easily accessible to public transportation.


1. Supervision of the training station should be done by a person
competent in the skills and in technical knowledge of office

2. The supervisor should be able to teach those business traits
and attitudes considered essential to vocational competency.

3. The supervisor should be interested and willing to assist in
the training program.

Job Rotation

1. The training station should provide a variety of learning
experiences. Rotation through as many different office jobs
as possible that are related to the student-learner's
occupational objective is desirable.

2. Routine work experience of a repetitive nature for the most part
does not provide opportunities appropriate for the learner.

3. The employer must cooperate by providing time for conferences
with the teacher-coordinator to plan learning experiences,
evaluate the student-learner's progress, and discuss any

Several techniques may be used for obtaining information to determine
the suitability of prospective training stations:

1. Community surveys
2. Conference with Advisory Committee
3. Interview with employer (owner or manager)
4. Interview with supervisor of student-learner


Orientation to the Cooperative Business Education Program

The purpose of the orientation program is to provide pre-employment
training for students who will be enrolled in the cooperative part-time
program in the following fall. It should be offered in the spring or
near the end of the spring semester in the student's junior year in
order that the student may be prepared to begin his part-time work
promptly at the beginning of the fall semester.

Length The orientation course will of necessity be short in
duration involving preferably 5 to 7 meetings totaling approximately
10 to 12 hours.

Instruction The instruction in this course should be conducted
by the teacher-coordinator. The arrangements incidental to scheduling the
orientation course should be worked out with the counselor, principal,
and other appropriate school personnel.

Objectives As a result of this training, the coordinator should:

1. Introduce the student to the goals of the cooperative
business education program.
2. Give the student an understanding of his responsibilities in
such a program.
3. Give the student the needed knowledge of how to prepare for
the personal interview and any other pre-employment training
that is necessary in order to obtain a suitable part-time
training station in line with his interests and abilities.
4. Give the student a realization of the importance of further
general and occupational education.
5. Give the student an understanding of the qualifications desired
by employers.
6. Give the student an awareness of opportunities in his chosen
occupation and the ability to utilize a career objective
approach in his vocation.
7. Give the student some criteria for evaluating himself in terms
of skills, special abilities, and behavior.
8. Give the student a realization of what abilities he has for a
specific job in his chosen occupation.

Content and Activities

1. Class discussion of job qualifications in relation to each
student's ability.
2. A personnel interviewer from an established business should be
invited to speak to the students to aid them in adjusting to
the techniques of an interviewer.

3. Students should fill in an application form.

a. Teach proper procedures in detail
b. Have students fill in the form.
c. Check for errors.
d. Return and discuss few errors. Have students make
e. Test by having them fill in similar form.

4. Students should be taught how to prepare a letter of application.

a. Purpose
b. Appearance
c. Tone of letter (clear, concise, courteous)
d. List of references
e. Request for an interview at employer's convenience
f. Use of proper closing and signature

5. Students should be taught how to prepare a personal data sheet.

6. Class discussion on interview preparation.

a. Physical preparation
b. Mental preparation
c. Proper interview etiquette
d. The correct way to close an interview
e. Thank-you notes
f. Follow-up procedures

7. Students might dramatize sample interviews.

8. A hand-out sheet listing the criteria for selecting a job
might be distributed.


The step-by-step training plan is an individualized plan which serves
as a guide for the course of instruction of the student-learner. It provides
an outline of the skills, knowledge, and personal characteristics to be
learned and developed in the classroom and on the job.

A written training plan should be prepared on a cooperative basis with
the employer, teacher-coordinator, and student-learner participating. By
listing the specific job activities, the training plan is of value to the
employer because it makes him more aware of the student-learner's occupa-
tional goals.

The training plan is of value to the teacher-coordinator because it
eliminates the possibility of placing a student in a job where the learning
opportunities are limited or unrelated to the student-learner's career
objectives. It also serves as one of the bases for evaluating his progress.

It is of value to the student-learner because it brings him into
contact with the challenge of determining his final vocational objective.

The teacher-coordinator is responsible for the development of the
training plan. One plan for organizing it is outlined below:

1. List the skills, information, and personal characteristics
essential for success in the student's chosen career.

2. List the work activities that would contribute to the career
objective. It is assumed that the majority of the activities
will be present in the training station.

3. Decide whether the needed skills, information, and personal
characteristics could be developed better on the job or in
the classroom.

4. Determine the logical order in which the skills, information,
and personal characteristics should be developed.

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles and the Occupational Outlook
Handbook are useful references in developing a training plan. They also
provide guidance for careers in office occupations. They provide clues
for relating students and work requirements; a general picture of the
training content and time requirements; and a related classification
specifying preparation, aptitudes, interests, temperament, and the physical
demands required of the worker in his job.

The individual training plan should be based on the career objective
of the student-learner and the work experiences provided by the training
station. The step-by-step plan for a new training station may be pre-
pared after coordination visits to the station during the school year.
After establishing a plan for a particular station, usually review and
adjustment of the plan for other student-learners proves satisfactory.
(See p.87 for a sample training plan.)


The teacher-coordinator of the Cooperative Business Education program
should prepare a training agreement. This agreement is designed to give
the employer, the parents, and the student-learner an understanding of the
main purposes of the training program and the responsibility involved.

The agreement should normally include at least the following informa-

1. The name, age, date of birth, address, zip code, and telephone
number of the student-learner.

2. The name and telephone number of:

a. the school operating the program
b. the training station.

3. The name and position of the training sponsor or supervisor.

4. The career objective of the student-learner.

5. Pertinent employment information, including:

a. the beginning and ending dates of the training period
b. the rate of pay the student-learner is to receive
c. the working hours of the student-learner
d. basic skills, attitudes, and knowledge needed for the job

6. A brief outline of:

a. the major areas of experience and training to be provided
by the training station
b. the major areas of related instruction to be provided by
the school

7. Responsibilities of:

a. the student-learner
b. the parents of the student-learner
c. the training station
d. the teacher-coordinator

8. The signature of the student-learner, the parent, the training
sponsor, and the teacher-coordinator.

For a sample Training Agreement, please see p. 88)



Careful consideration should be given to the selection of a teacher-
coordinator. The successful operation of a cooperative business education
program is directly related to the coordinator's ability to secure and
maintain the full cooperation and support of community leaders and his
ability to organize the program on a sound basis.

In order to qualify for the Graduate Certificate, Rank III, covering
Teacher-Coordinator of Cooperative Business Education, the applicant shall
meet the following:

1. Satisfy all requirements for the Graduate Certificate covering
the broad field of secondary business education

2. Present six (6) semester hours in professional vocational education
courses including:

a. Three (3) semester hours in organization and coordination
of cooperative education

b. Three (3) semester hours in methods and content for related
instruction in cooperative business education (If an individual
has three years of successful business education teaching
experience, the three hours under (b) above may be waived.)

3. Must have had a minimum of two years of full-time successful work
experience (or its equivalent in part-time work experience) in
office occupations.

In addition, the teacher-coordinator must

1. be an experienced business education teacher.

2. understand the philosophy of vocational education.

3. be able to meet and work with people in a tactful manner.

4. have a genuine interest in the students, school, and community.

5. evidence a willingness to assume an active role in school and
civic enterprises.

6. have the ability to represent the school in such a manner as
to gain the confidence of both employers and students.

7. exemplify good habits of personal conduct, speech, and grooming.


Professional growth of the-business education teacher pre-supposes an
increased awareness of changing social conditions, continued development
in the understanding of youth, as well as studied improvement in classroom
methods and teaching techniques. It necessitates understanding in depth of
human relationships.

A professional business education teacher:

1. Is interested in teaching students more than subject matter.
2. Is active in professional organizations--from local to national,
from general to specialized.
3. Reads critically the professional literature that is available,
including reports of research studies.
4. Endeavors to keep professionally informed through association
with recognized authorities.
5. Is willing to adjust to changes in teaching assignments, school
schedules, curriculum development, and equipment-and facilities
if the changes are more beneficial to the school system.
6. Is able to adjust viewpoints and concepts to changes and advance-
ments in business conditions.
7. Contributes ideas, experiences, and research findings through
professional writing.
8. Makes every effort to enhance the public image of the business
education teacher.
9. Continues education toward more-advanced learning.
10. Attends workshops and participates in meetings and conferences.
11. Cooperates with requests for data concerning advanced studies,
standardized tests, and establishing national norms on tests.
12. Recognizes the need for and builds a personal professional library.


The Vocational Associations

The Florida Vocational Association is the state affiliate of the parent
organization, the American Vocational Association. Members receive the
official publication, the Florida Vocational Association Newsletter, on a
quarterly basis, the American Vocational Education Journal, and may
participate in the annual conferences. Dues $11.

The Business Education-Associations

The Florida Business Education Association is a section of the Florida
Education Association. The annual business meeting is held in conjunction
with a work conference in October and co-sponsored by the State Department
of Education. Dues $2.

The Southern Business Education Association .is one of the five regional
affiliates of the National Business Education Association. Its annual
convention is held during the Thanksgiving holidays in one of the twelve
south-eastern states. Annual convention for the National Business Education
Association is held:in February. Florida business educators who hold member-
ship in NBEA automatically become members of the regional association. Basic
membership is $8 and members receive the Business:Education Forum. Compre-
hensive membership is $10 and members receive both theBusiness Education
Forum and the National-.Business Education Quarterly.

County Business Education Association

In some counties there is a sufficient number of business education
teachers to make a county organization feasible. A county organization may:

1. Work toward the satisfactory development of a business education
curriculum in the county.
2. Cooperate with the county administrators and institutions of
higher learning in securing in-service training for teachers.
3. Make community surveys.
4. Obtain work opportunities for teachers.
5. Establish a businessmen's advisory committee.
6. Establish uniform business efficiency certificates.
7. Visit other business departments for ideas and suggestions.

A teacher should actively participate in organizations if he is to
receive maximum benefit from his membership. Attendance at meetings and
participation in programs are privileges that are available to all business
education teachers.


The nature and extent of the teacher-coordinator's duties and
responsibilities involve skills in planning, counseling, teaching,
placing, and supervising students in training stations, and making
follow-up studies to evaluate the student's performance.

The teacher-coordinator's duties are so varied that he should
develop a daily schedule to help him complete his work. Such a
schedule will provide evidence to the school administration that
the assigned coordination time has been well spent in performance
of the following:

1. Evaluate the business education curriculum to determine
changes necessary to meet State standards for approved
business education program.

2. Establish instructional objectives and standards for the
teaching of-skills, knowledge, and traits and attitudes.

3. Plan, organize, orient, and work with an advisory committee
in developing .an .effective program.

4. Build.a strong .program of public relations. Utilize personal
contacts, direct mailings, and other techniques to interpret
vocational education and the CBE program to students, profes-
sional .and lay workers, and business and community leaders.

5. Secure the cooperation and services of the guidance counselors,
departmental and other classroom teachers, and principal in the
selection and scheduling of students.

6. Select, counsel, and orient students, taking into consideration
their interests, vocational plans, educational background,
personal qualifications, and ability to profit from the program.

7. Make community surveys to ascertain local training needs,
employment possibilities, office procedures, employment, screening
and testing procedures, office standards, and office equipment.

8. Select appropriate work-training stations in the local community
and assist the employers in developing an educational training
plan for each student. Obtain signatures of student, employer,
and parents on the training agreement. See that students meet
legal job requirements.

9. Teach an organized related classroom instruction period for CBE
students and provide sound learning experiences correlated with
vocational objectives and on-the-job training needs.

10. Utilize a variety of current instructional materials, teaching
techniques and methods--providing as much individualized instruction
as possible.

11. Provide vocational, educational, and personal guidance services for
CBE students.

12. Arrange for adequate, up-to-date classroom facilities and equipment,
instructional materials, and teaching aids.

13. Prepare and submit all necessary local and state reports.

14. Maintain an up-to-date file on all CBE students and program acti-

15. Organize and sponsor youth group activities specifically designed
for business education students.

16. Conduct conferences with parents in order to explain the CBE program
and broaden the coordinator's understanding of the student's back-
grounds and family relationships.

17. Make regular visits to students' training stations in order to
observe, .check trainees' performances, give constructive suggestions
for improvement, evaluate students' progress, and assist in any
work-training coordination problems that may arise.

18. Confer with on-the-job supervisors at regular intervals to check and
evaluate progress for grading purposes, provide constructive infor-
mation to assist them in being more effective as student on-the-job
trainers, and ensure good employee-employer relationships.

19. Maintain membership in, attend, and participate in local, district,
state,.regional, and national professional and business education
meetings, conferences, and workshops to ensure professional improve-

20. Participate.in local community civic organizations and functions.

21. Maintain ethical and cooperative relationships with school personnel,
public officials, local organizations, and other groups and individ-

22. Develop an-effective program of student recruitment and guidance for
prospective students.

23. Secure qualified guest speakers and resource people for classes and
youth organization activities.

24. Keep current on technological advances in.business and office occupations.

25. Actively seek new training stations to provide for expansion of program
and to replace stations lost.

26. Make job analysis studies of office-occupations in local business

27. Study emerging fields of office work in the community to determine
training needs and employment possibilities for students and adults.

28. Sponsor an employee-employer appreciation breakfast, luncheon,
banquet, or other activity and invite the cooperating employers,
advisory committee members, administration.officials, departmental
teachers, and-others.

29. Conduct regular follow-up studies of CBE students and use question-
naire results and information for improvement of the program.

30. Assume responsibility for or aid in placement of students upon

31. Attend regular planned departmental meetings.

32. Discuss on-the-job deficiencies .and problems with each student
individually and-offer encouragement and suggestions for improvement.

33. Develop.a library of supplementary instructional materials, reference
materials, and teaching aids.

34. Engage inaction research in the classroom involving new methods
and materials of teaching.

35. Prepare progress reports for principal, superintendent, cooperating
employers, and advisory committee members.

36. Maintain.a friendly, cooperative relationship with State and local
administrative personnel.

37. Evaluate related classroom learning and.on-the-job training at
regular intervals and adjust as necessary to meet changing con-
ditions in the community.

Working With The Employer

The employer plays a vital role in the operation of the Cooperative
Business Education program. The total effectiveness of the program depends
on the extent to which the employer accepts his responsibilities.

This section is written: (1) to assist the employer who needs
additional information about effective selection and training of employees
and (2) to assist the coordinator in preparing student-learners in
understanding the employer's role in the total program.

Employer Responsibilities in Student Selection

a. Application Form

The employer has the responsibility of seeing that an application
form is complete. This form should be an efficient means of obtaining
the following data:

1. Information of a personal nature
2. Physical health
3. Educational background
4. Work experience
5. References

b. Testing

Testing is important because tests can give certain information
about applicants that cannot be obtained by other means. They provide
information concerning aptitudes, interests, and skills. Tests must be
used as a supplement to other information in the selection process.

Personnel tests can be classified into the following categories:

1. General intelligence tests
2. Aptitude tests
3. Tests measuring skills
4. Personality tests
5. Preference or interest tests

c. The Interview

The general objectives of the interview are to give and get information
and to develop good public-relations. It provides the opportunity to meet
the applicant and to evaluate "surface" or obvious characteristics such as:

1. Verbal ability
2. Personal appearance
3. Personality traits
4. Attitudes

For effective interviewing, the following procedures are recommended:

1. Have the meeting in pleasant surroundings

2. Have a list of items to be covered, such as:

a. Grades in school
b. Selected items from application form
c. Recreational interests
d. Personal likes and dislikes
e. Over-all objective in the business world
f. Future educational plans, if any
g. Punctuality, transportation facilities, and attendance

3. Rating or evaluation sheets can be used effectively during
the interview. The applicant should know that the sheet
is being used. (See p. 90)

Employer Responsibilities to Student Learners

a. What Business Expects of the Beginning Worker

1. Full day's work for full day's pay

a. Work diligently during hours on the job
b. Avoid unnecessary talking with fellow employees
c. Follow coffee break and lunch hour limits
d. Make few, if any, personal telephone calls

2. Adherence to employer's established customs and policies

a. There is a.reason for company policy, and.it is
important that directions be followed
b. Short cuts and new systems should not be used without
prior approval or supervisor
c. All companies are open to suggestions for improvement
of existing policies or procedures

3. Proper care.of employer's equipment, materials, and supplies

a. Have a good operating knowledge-of-all equipment to be
used. Ask-for instructions if necessary
b. Use as many of the supplies and materials as needed for
assigned jobs; however, avoid wasting materials.
c. Equipment, supplies, and materials are not to be used for
personal use.

4. Good judgment in handling confidential company information

a. Confidential information isn't always so labeled. Student
may not always be in a position to know what is and what
is not confidential.
b. As a general rule, never discuss business with friends,
relatives, or other acquaintances.

5. Respect for supervisors and other management personnel

a. Respect involves more than just "yes sir" and "no sir,"
b. Respect owed employee is an important factor in effective
human relations. Listen when spoken to with undivided
attention. Make mental note and give a courteous reply
to indicate comprehension.
c. Address supervisor or employer by last name, even if
everyone else uses first name, until told to-do otherwise.
d. Give due respect to supervisor even if his conduct or
language may irritate you.

6. Use of initiative on the job

a. Go ahead and do routine work; don't wait to be told every
single step
b. When you think work is completed, look around for more

7. Regularity of attendance

a. It is a cardinal rule that you must call your employer
if you must be absent. Do it personally.
b. Your presence is not wanted if you are really ill.
However, remember that supervisors are quick to detect
the three-day worker--those who are frequently absent on
Monday and/or Friday.

8. Company loyalty

a. Speak well of the-company to everyone and keep company
problems and troubles within the company

b. Be a company booster; if you cannot boost, leave.

9. In general, an-employer wants a worker who

a. likes his job
b. knows his job
c. keeps physically fit
d. keeps cheerful
e. does a day'.s work for a day's pay
f. wants toget -ahead
g. is always on the job.unless excused
h. follows safety rules
i. derives pleasure from work well done
j. avoids waste and cuts costs
k. looks for abetter way to do a job
1. tells the truth and..is sincere
m. thinks positively and gripes little
n. exhibits spirit of teamwork
o. asks questions when help is needed
p. watches work, not the clock
q. faces personal problems squarely

r. feels job is -a privilege, not a right

Orientation to the Job

The basic purposes of orientation to the job is to create a favorable
impression as first impressions will affect the morale and performance
of the employee for some time to come. The employee should be sure to
give accurate information. If the applicant or trainee has to get it
elsewhere, it may be unsatisfactory or distorted.

1. Specific Purposes of-Orientation

a. Aids learning
b. Helps save-trainee's time
c. Gives student necessary information.so that he knows what is
d. Helps prevent grievances and misunderstandings

2. Orientation should include the following:

a. Explanation of business organization, including a history of
the company
b. Relationships of various departments
c. Function of the supervisory personnel
d. Specific information about the department in which the
student will work
e. Tours should be given of the physical plant
f. Introduction to department workers
g. See that there is no resentment to the new worker
h. All available materials of a visual'or instructional nature
should be given to the student
i. Office manual should be provided that includes: letter styles,
special terminology, office procedures, and special forms
j. Pamphlets or booklet should be given that include information
about: working hours, pay, dress, office customs, tardiness,
checking in and out, smoking, breaks, visiting and talking, and
the use-of the telephone
k. Initial preparation for tasks of his job assignment should be
given. The supervisor and coordinator should discuss the step-
by-step training plan.
1. Follow-up study should be conducted about a week after the
c-tudent begins work to see that the student has familiarized
himself with the structure of the organization and to answer
any questions he may have.

3. Supervising Techniques Used in Orientation

a. Observe the student so that any misunderstandings can be
detected early.
b. Discuss any problems or just talk to the student during the first
week or weeks.

c. Make formal ratings. Be sure that the student .understands
the use of such ratings. These ratings will usually be
conducted also during each grading period during the entire
training program.

c. Work and Wages

1. Student-learner should be paid at the prevailing rate for
beginning workers in the occupation for which he is
2. Wages should be commensurate with-education-and experience
of the trainee.
3. Employer should pay one-half the amount contributed to
social security, workmen's compensation, etc.
4. Insurance programs, hospitalization plans, and other fringe
benefits should be made available to the trainee.

d. Safe Working Conditions

1. Provide working conditions which are as safe as possible
and which conform to law.
2. See that no worker under 18 years of age is employed in
hazardous job.
3. The employee, however, has obligation to exercise reason
care on the job.

e. Training on the Job


1. Employer must provide necessary training
vocational competence.
2. He must understand the philosophy of the
3. Full cooperation with the coordinator is
4. The step-by-step training plan should be
5. A periodic rating of the trainee must be

leading to

CBE program.
a must.
made by the

f. Termination of Employment

1. Termination can be arranged at request of employer or
employee at any time during the school year.
2. A two weeks' notice is acceptable, but notice equivalent
to the length of the pay period is generally customary.

Adjustment Factors

The new employee has many problems to face. These must be overcome
during the adjustment period if he is to be a useful employee.

a. Encourage the student-learner to ask questions. It should be
stressed repeatedly that it is better to ask too many questions
and do a job right than to ask too few and do it wrong.


b. Put forth every-effort to see that the learner is at ease, especially
during the adjustment period.

c. Encourage the trainee to be friendly and tactful with people. A
positive, cheerful attitude eliminates most personnel adjustment

d. Teach student-learner to respond properly to pressure and peak
loads of work. .It may be necessary for him to give up a break
period or to work overtime.

e. Prepare the trainee for the matter-of-fact attitude of business.
He must understand that much of the personal touch may seem to
be lost in the day-to-day activities of business.

f. Train the beginning worker to respond properly to attitudes of
unfriendliness and open hostility on the part of other workers.
Get him to compliment others. Once this is done, friendships
almost always follow.

g. Encourage the student to make the greatest'possible use of
available company.manuals, booklets, and instruction sheets.

h. Praise the beginning worker often, especially when he performs
a new job quite well.

i. Encourage the student-learner to use his initiative.


Improved relations result when the employee understands completely
what his job is, the relationship of his work to other work in the
department, and later that of his department to the entire organizational
structure. The.training program must fill the gap between what is now
known and what is needed. The trainee must have a personal interest in
obtaining skills and knowledge. He must want to learn, be in a receptive
mood, be emotionally stable, and be free from worries. The trainee must
learn from the guidance and stimulation given by the instructor.


One of the responsibilities of the teacher-coordinator is to visit
the training station for observation and conference. For the visitation
to be effective the coordinator should have certain objectives in mind.

The basic objectives of training station visits should be:

1. To observe the type of work performed by the student-

2. To ensure that a variety of experiences are provided which
contribute significantly to the development of knowledge,
skills, and attitudes needed to further the student's career

3. To secure the training sponsor's evaluation of student

4. To ensure that the training sponsor provides consistent,
effective guidance and supervision in accordance with the
step-by-step training plan.

6. To discuss with the training sponsor methods of improving
instruction and training for the particular job being

7. To become acquainted with management policies.

8. To verify the compliance of all Federal and state laws
concerning the employment of minors.

9. To make certain that student-learners are not exploited.

10. To correct any problems of relationship which may arise
between the student-learner and the employer.

11. To obtain suggestions as to how to make selection and place-
ment more effective.

12. To secure supplementary training materials which will make
the instruction in the related class more valuable.

13. To discover potential training stations of high quality.

14. To extend and improve public relations between school and

15. To extend invitations jointly with the student-learner to
various school activities.



A sound core of first-year subjects is pre-requisite for the
Cooperative Business Education program. Facilities appropriate for the
advanced subjects must be available. Unless the student-learner receives
adequate foundational development in school, he will not receive optimum
benefit from on-the-job training.

The following sequences are recommended for students enrolling in
Cooperative Business Education:

The Bookkeeping Sequence

Grade Suggested Courses

12 CBE Related Study
Bookkeeping II
Business English
Introduction to Data Processing
Cooperative Business Education

11 Bookkeeping I
Business Law

10 Typewriting I
Business Mathematics

9 General Business

The Clerical Sequence

Grade Suggested Courses

12 CBE Related Study
Business English
Introduction to Data Processing
Cooperative Business Education

11 Clerical Office Practice
Typewriting II
Bookkeeping I or Recordkeeping

10 Typewriting I
Business Mathematics

General Business

Manager and/or Owner Sequence

Grade Suggested Courses

12 CBE Related Study
Business Organization and Management
Introduction to Data Processing
Cooperative Business Education

11 Salesmanship
Office Machines
Bookkeeping I

10 Typewriting I
Business Mathematics

9 General Business

The Secretarial Sequence

Grade Suggested Courses

12 CBE Related Study
Business English
Shorthand II
Cooperative Business Education

11 Shorthand I
Typewriting II
Secretarial Office Practice

10 Typewriting I

9 General Business

Students will earn one credit for related study and one credit for
Cooperative Business Education. Each student will be employed for a minimum
of 450 clock hours of regularly scheduled employment in a training station
approved by the school. Credit for job proficiency in job performance is
determined by the teacher-coordinator and the training sponsor or job

The Teacher-Coordinator's Schedule

The teacher-coordinator must not be scheduled for more than three classes.
One must be a related study class offered solely for cooperative business
education students. Two other classes must be advanced business education
subjects. It is highly advantageous for the cooperative business education
students to be scheduled into these classes with the teacher-coordinator.

Time must be provided each ahool day for the teacher-coordinator to
visit training stations and schedule conferences. The following is a
suggested schedule for a cooperative business education teacher-coordinator:

Period 1 Related Study CBE students only
Period 2 Business English Preferably CBE students
Period 3 Office Practice or Shorthand II
Period 4 Conference Period
Period 5 Coordination Activities
Period 6 Coordination Activities

Student Schedule

The following schedule is suggested for students enrolled in a
cooperative business education program:

Period 1 Related Study CBE teacher-coordinator
Period 2 Business English Preferably with CBE teacher-coordinator
Period 3 Bookkeeping II or Shorthand II
Period 4 Required subject for graduation or elective in
business education
Period 5 Cooperative Business Education
Period 6 Cooperative Business Education


One of the most important factors in the success of the cooperative
business education program is the quality of instruction. The effective-
ness of instruction is measured in terms of the degree of vocational
competency attained by the students. Because of the wide scope of learning
activities which must be included and the fact that instruction must be
directed to the needs of the class as a whole as well as to improving the
competence of the individual student-learner at his training station, the
teacher-coordinator must employ a wide variety of teaching methods. Some
of the most effective teaching methods are listed and discussed below:

Lecture Outside Speakers
Assignment and Recitation Field Trips
Question and Answer Method Role Playing
Class Discussion Debates and Panel Discussions
Audio-visual Aids Committee or Group Work
Demonstrations Case or Problem-solving Methods
Scrapbooks Unit Teaching

Lecture, Assignment and Recitation, and Question and Answer Methods.
These traditional methods are predominantly teacher oriented and usually of a
formal nature. When properly used, however, each of these methods is parti-
cularly effective for one or more of the following purposes: (a) checking
reading assignments, (b) setting the stage for discussion, (c) revealing
student difficulties, (d) test review, (e) motivating students. Some of the
disadvantages of these methods may be offset by providing variety through
the use of audio-visual aids, outside speakers, field trips, and various
informal methods.

Informal Teaching Methods. Informal teaching methods generally create a
better learning atmosphere than do formal methods because they involve more
student-centered activities and less teacher domination of the learning

Some of the more infrequently used informal methods are role playing,
debate, committee or group work, case or problem-solving method, and project
or unit method. These are adaptable in varying degrees to the related study

One of the best known informal teaching devices applicable to the CBE
program is Unit Teaching. It is a flexible method in that it can be as
student-centered as the teacher wants it to be. Unit teaching is centered
around broad problem areas or situations.

There is a definite need to develop the content for units of instruction
that are not included in the text. Also Resource Units should be developed
for topics included in the text which are inadequately treated or need to be
brought up to date by adding content from supplementary sources.

Outline for a Resource Unit

I. Objectives of the Unit

A. Knowledges and Skills
B. Understanding and Appreciations
C. Attitudes and Traits

II. Student-Teacher Activities

A. Introductory Activities

1, motivation
2. protesting

B. Developmental Activities

1. students participate individually, in groups, and/or
as a class
2. study and research the unit through discussion, reports,
debates, field trips, projects

C. Culminating Activities

1. tie understandings and recognize interrelationships
2. presentation and utilization of findings

III. Resources

A. Teacher Resources

1. instructional reference materials
2. audio-visual materials

B. Student Resources

1. books, pamphlets, periodicals
2. community resources

Related Study Units

Unit I Orientation

Unit II School-Business-Community Relations

Unit III Business Behavior and Personal Development

Unit IV Business Communications

Unit V Recordkeeping and Money Management

Unit VI Office Practice

Unit VII Advanced Dictation and Transcription

Unit VIII Introduction to Data Processing

Unit IX Training for Leadership

Unit X Job Finding Procedure

Units should likewise be developed for specific skill development activities.


Future Business Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda is the nationally
recognized and recommended youth organization for all business education
students. Operating under the charter of FBLA-PBL, Incorporated, the national
office is able to provide wider and more complete services and activities for
students in business and office education. Participation in district, state,
and national conferences affords students the opportunity to affiliate with
peer groups and recognized leaders in education and industry.

General Organization of FBLA-Phi Beta Lambda

The organizational structure includes local chapters of FBLA in high
schools, local chapters of Phi Beta Lambda in colleges and universities,
state chapters, and the FBLA National Organization. The supervision of all
chapters and the FBLA National Organization is carried on by advisory com-
mitees consisting of teachers, school administrators, business and profes-
sional men and women who have the responsibility of guidance in making plans
and carrying out the activities of the chapters.

The sponsoring body of the FBLA is FBLA-PBL, Incorporated. This
organization approves an adult chairman in each state who supervises the
activities of FBLA at the state level and serves as Chairman of the FBLA
State Committee. Sponsorship at the local level is vested in the school
under the direction of one or more business education teachers.

The national organization headquarters' office serves as a liaison with
FBLA-PBL, Incorporated and is located in Washington, D. C. This office

publishes the official magazine, FBLA Forum; maintains a complete file and
records for each local and state chapter; directs the national convention;
and promotes FBLA activities at all levels.

Value to the Student of FBLA Activities

Both college and industry attach significant emphasis to extra-
curricular activities. Application blanks almost without fail contain
questions concerning the student's participation in clubs and activities.
Some of the specific needs that the FBLA Chapter meets for its members are:

1. Developing competent, aggressive business leadership.
2. Building confidence of young men and women in themselves
and their work.
3. Promoting greater interest in and understanding of the intelligent
choice of business and office occupations.
4. Encouraging the development of individual projects and establishing
the students themselves in business.
5. Encouraging improvement in the home and community.
6. Participating in worthwhile undertakings for the improvement of
business and the community.
7. Developing character, training for useful citizenship and
fostering patriotism.
8. Participating through cooperative effort.
9. Encouraging and practicing thrift.
10. Creating a desire for improvement in scholarship and promoting
school loyalty.
11. Providing an opportunity to participate in organized recreational
12. Establishing and improving standards for entering work in store
and office occupation.

Organizing a New Chapter

The business teachers should present the plan of organization to their
classes and secure a minimum of ten students interested in becoming charter
members. Every student who is taking one or more business education sub-
jects is eligible for membership. Scholarship should not be the basis for
selection; students who are not outstanding academically need an opportunity
to participate in youth activities. A good attendance record and willingness
to work with others should also be stressed as requirements.

Specific Steps in Organizing a New Chapter

1. Secure an application form from the national office in Washington
or from the Chairman of the State FBLA. Addresses for each are:

National FBLA Headquarters

Mr. Roger Nunley, Director, FBLA-PBL
NEA Center, P. 0. Box 47
1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C. 20036

State FBLA Headquarters

Mr. Edward D. Miller, Chairman
Florida FBLA-PBL State Committee
State Department of Education
213 Knott Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

2. Complete the application form and attach the following to this form:

a. the charter fee of one dollar
b. the national dues of one dollar per member
c. a list of charter members
d. a copy of the chapter's constitution and by-laws

3. The application and its attachments should be mailed to the national
office or to the chairman of the State FBLA Committee. A proposed
project for the year should be listed at the time the application
is submitted.

Complete information for organizing and operating the local chapter
is given in the official FBLA Handbook. A sample constitution and by-laws,
installation ceremonies, suggested projects, and other helpful information
are to be found in this handbook. Each new chapter receives one compli-
mentary copy; additional copies may be obtained from the national office
for two dollars each.

Coordinator's Responsibilities

The teacher-coordinator has the following responsibilities serving as
sponsor, co-sponsor, or advisor for the FBLA chapter.

1. Assist in publicizing the proposed chapter.
2. Assist in organizing the chapter.
3. Assist in electing officers and in orientating new officers.
4. Assist in preparing the budget for the year.
5. Assist in planning the schedule of activities for the year. Some
of these are:

a. Service projects to the school and community
b. Fund-raising projects
c. Promotional projects to further develop FBLA chapters
d. Social activities
e. Educational and business meetings
f. Participation at district, state, and national

Application blanks to apply for a charter in either FBLA or PBL follow
in addition to the National Constitution.





TO: Edward D. Miller, Chairman
State FBLA-PBL Committee
State Department of Education
213 Knott Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

FROM: Chapter Date






Our school warrant or chapter check is enclosed in payment of
Florida State Chapter membership dues for members of the chapter
listed above at the rate of seventy-five cents (75#) a member
for the current school year.

Number of Members

at 750 each $

President or Treasurer


Sponsor or Bookkeeper

(Please prepare in duplicate, mail one copy with remittance
BEFORE December 31; retain one copy for chapter records.



Amount Enclosed

Form BL-50

A Division of FBLA, Incorporated State
1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W. Date
Washington, D.C. 20036 National
Application for Chapter Charter Charter No.

To FBLA State Chapter and National Organization: Date:

Application and a proposed constitution are hereby enclosed for a local chapter of
the Future Business Leaders of America:

Name of School

Street Address

City State Zip Code

Faculty Sponsor

Principal of School (or administrative head)

Chapter Officers: President

Vice President



Others (give title)

Major projects) the group is undertaking:

Attached are (a) Proposed Constitution and Bylaws, (b) List of Charter Members, (c)
Remittance amounting to $ in payment of the $1 charter fee and national member-
ship dues for _' 'charter members at $1 each for one year. It is understood that
the national membership dues include individual subscriptions to the FUTURE BUSINESS
LEADER and other services of the FBLA National Office. (NOTE: Since the dues are
often earned by the chapter as a unit through various money-making projects, the
national dues may be remitted as late as December 31 of the current school year.
Chapters organized after January 1 are required to remit national membership dues
with the application.) It is understood also that the state chapter dues in the
Florida State Chapter are 75_ a member and we agree to communicate with the
chairman of the FBLA State Committee in complying with these and other state
chapter regulations.

Signed Approved
(Chairman or President) (Faculty Sponsor)

(This application should be sent to the Chairman of the FBLA State Committee in your
state. If the chapter is in a state which does not have a state chapter, the appli-
cation should be mailed directly to Future Business Leaders of America, NEA Center,
Box 47, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036)

Form CD-50

A Division of FBLA, Incorporated State
1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W. Date
Washington, D.C. 20036 National
Application for Chapter Charter Charter No.
Greek Letters


Application and a proposed constitution are hereby made for a local chapter of Phi
Beta Lambda, the College Division of the Future Business Leaders of America.

Name of School

Street Address

City State Zip Code

Faculty Adviser

Head of Department of Business Education

Chapter Officers: President




Others (give title)

Major projects the group is undertaking :

Attached are (a) proposed Constitution and Bylaws, (b) list of charter members, (c)
remittance amounting to $ in payment of the $1 charter fee plus national
membership dues for members at $1.50 each for the year. It is understood
that the national membership dues include subscriptions to the official publica-
tion, Phi Beta Lambda NEWSLETTER; College Packets; and other services of the
National Office. (NOTE: The national memb ership dues may be remitted as late as
December 31 of the current school year. Chapters organized after January 1 are re-
quired to remit national membership dues with the application.) It is understood
that the state chapter dues in the Florida State Chapter are 750
a member and we agree to comply with this and other National and State regulations.

Signed Signed
(President) (Adviser)

This application should be mailed to the Chairman of your State Committee. If the
name of the chairman is not known, mail the application directly to Phi Beta Lambda,
NEA Center, Box 47, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.




The name of this National Organization shall be "Future Business
Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda" and may be referred to as "FBLA"
or "PBL."


Section 1. The purpose of FBLA-PBL is to assist youth and young
adults enrolled in business programs to develop vocational competencies
and a sense of civic responsibility. FBLA-PBL is designed to be an ex-
tension of the instructional program, thus being an integral part of
the business curriculum.

Section 2. The specific purposes of this organization are to:

Develop competent, aggressive business leadership

Strengthen the confidence of young men and women
in themselves and their work

Create more interest and understanding in the
intelligent choice of business occupations

Encourage members in the development of individual
projects and in establishing themselves in business

Encourage members to improve the home and community

Participate in worthy undertakings for the improve-
ment of business and the community

Develop character, prepare for useful citizenship,
and foster patriotism

Participate in cooperative effort

Encourage and practice thrift

Encourage improvement in scholarship and promote
school loyalty

FBLA-PBL Constitution and Bylaws

Provide for and encourage the development of
organized recreational activities

Improve and establish standards for entrance
into business occupations

ARTICLE III Organization

Section 1. Future Business Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda is an
association of state chapters, each operating in accordance with a
charter granted by FBLA, Incorporated.

Section 2. The administration of FBLA-PBL will be vested in the
Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated.

Section 3. The FBLA-PBL National Association shall consist of two
divisions: (1) High School Division (FBLA) and (2) Post-Secondary
(PBL). The PBL Division may have two sections: (a) less-than bacca-
laureate level and (b) baccalaureate level. Greek letter names shall
be assigned to each PBL chapter by FBLA, Incorporated.

Section 4. State chapters may consist of either one or two divisions.
State and local chapters within the High School Division shall use the
letters "FBLA" as the official title, and the members shall be refer-
red to as "Future Business Leaders of America." State and local chapters
in the Post-Secondary Division shall be referred to as either "FBLA"
or "PBL."

Section 5. A local chapter may have as many special emphasis groups
within its organization as it deems necessary to care for all students'
interests. For example: a certain group of students may be enrolled
in a cooperative program and have specific interests and needs. A
special-emphasis group operating under the FBLA-PBL umbrella may be
established to fulfill this need. Other interest groups may be pro-
vided for those interested in, for example: data processing, book-
keeping-accounting, clerical, and secretarial occupations. Normally,
these special interests will be identified through the major study
emphases chosen by the students. The local chapter shall assume full
responsibility for coordinating the program for these interest groups.

ARTICLE IV Membership

Section 1. Membership of the Future Business Leaders of America-Phi
Beta Lambda shall consist of the total members of the chartered state
chapters and these members shall hold membership in their respective
state and local chapters.

FBLA-PBL Constitution and Bylaws

Section 2. State chapters shall be chartered as members of FBLA-PBL
upon approval of the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated. A state
chapter must have at least five local chapters with all members holding
membership in the National FBLA-PBL Association in order to qualify
for a charter.

Section 3. The National FBLA-PBL Association, as well as the state
and local chapters, shall be open for membership to all students re-
gardless of race, religion, color, or national origin.

Section 4. Individual members shall be recognized only through a
state chapter of the National FBLA-PBL Association.

Active Members shall be students participating in a business program
and who accept the purposes of FBLA-PBL, subscribe to its creed,
demonstrate willingness to contribute to good school-community re-
lations, and possess qualities for employment. Active members shall
pay dues as established by FBLA-PBL and shall be eligible to partic-
ipate in national events, serve as a voting delegate to the national
leadership conference, hold national office, or to otherwise repre-
sent his state or local chapter as approved by their respective state
or local adviser.

Associate Members shall be persons who have terminated their active,
in-school membership and who continue to comply with the regulations
and policies of FBLA-PBL. Associate members shall pay dues as estab-
lished by FBLA-PBL, but shall be ineligible to participate in events,
serve as voting delegates, or hold office.

Professional Members shall be persons associated with or participating
in the professional development of FBLA-PBL as approved by state chapters.
Such members may include local and state chapter advisers, business
teachers, business teacher educators, state supervisors of business
and office education, employers and/or supervisors of cooperative work-
training students, advisory council members, and other persons contrib-
uting to the growth and development of FBLA-PBL. Professional members
shall pay dues as established by FBLA-PBL, but shall be ineligible to
participate in events, serve as voting delegates, or hold office.

Honorary Members may be elected to a local or state chapter by a ma-
jority vote of the members who are of the opinion that such persons are
assisting in the advancement of business and office education and who
are rendering outstanding service to FBLA-PBL. Honorary members are
not eligible to vote or hold office and are not required to pay dues.

Honorary Life Members may be persons making significant contributions
to the field of business and office education and to the growth and
development of FBLA-PBL. Honorary Life members shall be recommended
by state chapters and approved by the National Executive Council of
the appropriate division of the National FBLA-PBL Association and by
the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated. These members shall not
be eligible to vote or hold office and are not required to pay dues.

FBLA-PBL Constitution and Bylaws

Section 5. The membership year shall be September 1 through August 31.

ARTICLE V Officers

Section 1. The officers for each division of FBLA-PBL shall be nom-
inated and elected annually at the National Leadership Conference by a
majority vote of state chapter delegates. The regional vice-presidents
for each division shall be elected annually at the National Leadership
Conference by a majority vote of voting representatives of local chapters
from the regions concerned.

Section 2. The officers for each division of FBLA-PBL shall consist of
a President, five Regional Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer,
and a Parliamentarian, and shall be known as the National Executive
Council of that division. The Executive Secretary of FBLA-PBL shall
be an ex officio member of the National Executive Council of each

ARTICLE VI Advisory Committees

Section 1. Advisory committees to assist in the growth and development
of FBLA-PBL may be appointed as deemed necessary by the Board of Direc-
tors of FBLA, Incorporated. Recommendations of persons for such ap-
pointments shall be requested of state chapters.

Section 2. Local and state chapters may select advisory committees
to assist in the growth and development of their respective chapters.


Section 1. A National Leadership Conference shall be held each year
for each division of FBLA-PBL at such time and location as selected by
the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated in consultation with the
National Executive Council of FBLA-PBL.

Section 2. Parliamentary procedure of all meetings will be governed
by Robert's Rules of Order, Revised.


Section 1. Each state chapter in good standing shall be entitled to
send two voting delegates and one alternate from its active membership
to the National Leadership Conference.

Section 2. Each local chapter in good standing shall be entitled to
send voting delegates from its active membership to the National
Leadership Conference in accordance with the following:

FBLA-PBL Constitution and Bylaws

Under 50 members = two voting delegates
50-100 members = three voting delegates
Over 100 members = four voting delegates

Alternates for the local chapter voting delegates may be sent to the
National Leadership Conference.

Section 3. All voting delegates of local and state chapters shall be
officially certified by their respective-advisers to the Executive
Secretary of FBLA-PBL not later than 15 days prior to the National
Leadership Conference.

ARTICLE IX Emblems and Colors

Section 1. The official emblems and insignia items designs are des-
cribed and protected from infringement by registration in the U. S.
Patent Office under the Trademark Act of 1946. The wearing or dis-
playing of this emblem shall be governed by each state chapter, the
National FBLA-PBL Association, and the Board of Directors of FBLA,

Section 2. Emblems and insignia shall be uniform in all local and
state chapters and within special-emphasis groups; they shall be
those of FBLA-PBL.

Section 3. The official colors of FBLA-PBL shall be gold and blue.

ARTICLE X Finances

Section 1. Dues of members may be forwarded directly to the FBLA-PBL
headquarters office or may be submitted through state chapters at the
discretion of the state chapter.

Section 2. The national dues shall be determined by the voting delegates
of local and state chapters for each division and approval by the Board
of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated.

Section 3. The Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated shall ad-
minister and control all FBLA-PBL finances and shall furnish an annual
audit to the National Executive Councils of FBLA-PBL and to each state

Section 4. The fiscal year of the Future Business Leaders of America-
Phi Beta Lambda shall be September 1 through August 31.

ARTICLE XI Amendments

Proposed amendments to the national constitution shall be submitted before
May 1 in writing to the FBLA-PBL Executive Secretary by voting delegates
of state chapters or by a national officer. Proposed amendments shall be
reviewed by the National Executive Council of the appropriate division

FBLA-PBL Constitution and Bylaws

of FBLA-PBL and the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated where it
shall be approved by a three-fourths majority vote before it can be
presented to the voting delegates. The National Executive Council of
the division involved shall submit the proposed amendments, with rec-
ommendations, to the voting delegates at the National Leadership Con-
ference. Amendments may be adopted or revisions made by a two-thirds
vote of the official delegates present at any National Leadership

ARTICLE XII By-Laws and Policies

Section 1. Each Division of FBLA-PBL shall adopt by-laws as are deemed
necessary to operate that division by a majority of the voting delegates
and approved by the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated.

Section 2. Policies of operation of FBLA-PBL shall be adopted as deemed
necessary by the National Executive Council of each division and the
Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated.


ARTICLE I National Executive Council

The National Executive Council of each division of FBLA-PBL shall be
composed of a president, five regional vice presidents, secretary,
treasurer, parliamentarian, and the Executive Secretary of FBLA-PBL as
an ex officio non-voting member. The Council shall meet upon the call
of the president of the division for the purpose of planning and carrying
out activities which promote the welfare of the division, properly pre-
sent the image of the division, and to effectively represent the division
as occasions may arise.

ARTICLE II Qualifications for National Office

Section 1. National officers of FBLA-PBL are elected at the annual
National Leadership Conference and only active members are eligible
to hold office.

Section 2. To be considered for an officer's position in either division
of FBLA, a candidate shall (a) have the endorsement of his local and state
chapters and be recommended by the chapter's advisers, (b) file an of-
ficial application with the Executive Secretary of FBLA-PBL,(c) have at
least one full school year remaining in his business program, (d) hold
or have held an elective office in either his local or state chapter,
(e) attain the score necessary for the office desired as evidenced by
his score on the official FBLA-PBL Parliamentary Procedure Test and/or
other appropriate skill and knowledge tests administered by FBLA-PBL,
and (f) be approved by the nominating committee.

FBLA-PBL Constitution and Bylaws

Section 3. Only those applicants who are officially certified by the
nominating committee are eligible to become candidates for a national
office of FBLA-PBL. A candidate shall not now hold or have held a
national office in the division in which he is seeking office.

Section 4. A candidate for a national office in FBLA-PBL shall be
from a state in which there is an active state chapter.

Section 5. No two national officers of each division of FBLA-PBL shall
be elected from the same state chapter and no more than two national
officers shall be elected from the same region.

Section 6. No region is eligible to provide the president for two
consecutive years.

Section 7. The candidates for national offices must be present at
the National Leadership Conference of FBLA-PBL to be eligible for
official nomination.

ARTICLE III Duties of National Officers

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the president of each division
of FBLA-PBL to serve as chairman of the National Executive Council
of his respective division; preside over the Council meetings and
business meetings of the division; appoint appropriately needed com-
mittees and committee chairmen; maintain a close and continuing re-
lationship with the Executive Secretary of FBLA-PBL; and perform other
duties for the promotion and development of local, state, and
national FBLA-PBL.

Section 2. It shall be the duty of the five regional vice presidents,
under the direction of the president of the division in which they are
serving, to assist the president of the division in the promotion and
development of FBLA-PBL in the region which elected them. In case the
office of president becomes vacant, the vice president from the presi-
dent's region shall assume the duties of the president.

Section 3. The secretary shall perform the duties common to such an
office, such as keeping an accurate record of all sessions of the
National Leadership Conference of FBLA-PBL and of the meetings of the
National Executive Council for the division he represents, supplying
at least one copy of the minutes and substantiating reports to the
Executive Secretary of FBLA-PBL promptly at the close of the meetings,
and perform such other duties as directed by the president.

Section 4. The treasurer shall assist the national headquarters office
with the keeping of accurate records of receipts, deposits, and dis-
bursements. He shall further present an annual report of such matters
to FBLA-PBL at the National Leadership Conference and perform such
other duties as directed by the president.

FBLA-PBL Constitution and Bylaws

Section 5. The parliamentarian shall be responsible for the orderly
conducting of business, according to Robert's Rules of Order, Revised,
to insure the president's conducting such business of the National
Executive Council and the business sessions of FBLA-PBL in accordance
with these Rules. He shall further perform such other duties as
directed by the president.

Section 6. The Executive Secretary of FBLA-PBL shall serve as the
administrative officer and agent of the National Executive Committees
and the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated. He shall conduct
the program of FBLA-PBL: provide for the general well-being of the
association; issue charters to chapters as approved by the Board of
Directors of FBLA, Incorporated; maintain membership records; be
responsible for the accounting of the association's funds; submit
an annual report of income and expenditures; prepare annual budgets;
be in charge of arrangements for the National Leadership Conference;
serve as editor of all publications; serve as custodian of copyrights
and patents of FBLA-PBL; and perform such other duties as directed by
the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated.

ARTICLE IV Committees

Section 1. The presidents of the divisions of FBLA-PBL shall, with
the advice and consent of the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated,
designate committees, name their members for a period not to exceed
his term in office, and assist these committees for his division.

Section 2. There shall be three standing committees for each division
of FBLA-PBL. They shall be (a) Nominating Committee, (b) Auditing
Committee, and (c) Committee on Youth Development Activities. Other
standing committees may be appointed as deemed necessary.

Section 3. The Nominating Committee shall, after careful consideration
of candidates for office in FBLA-PBL, officially approve candidates for
offices. No candidate is eligible to be officially nominated unless
approved by this committee.

Section 4. The Auditing Committee shall examine the financial records
of FBLA-PBL and recommend a budget for the year to the National
Executive Council and the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated.

Section 5. The Committee on Youth Development Activities shall rec-
ommend special projects, establish goals for FBLA-PBL, and suggest
ways and means of attaining them. The committee shall examine all
special projects proposed by state chapters for completion at the
state level and make appropriate recommendations to the National
Executive Council and the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated.

FBLA-PBL Constitution and Bylaws


Section 1. Dues for each division of FBLA-PBL shall be determined
by the National Executive Council of each division based on a budget
submitted by the Auditing Committee and approved by a majority vote
of the delegates present at the National Leadership Conference.

Section 2. Current annual dues for the high school division shall be
one dollar and shall be one dollar and a half for the post-secondary

ARTICLE VI Amendments

Proposed amendments to these by-laws shall be submitted in writing to
the Executive Secretary of FBLA-PBL at least 15 days prior to the
National Leadership Conference by authorized representatives of state
chapters. Proposed amendments shall be reviewed by the National
Executive Council and the Board of Directors of FBLA, Incorporated
and may be amended by a majority vote of the delegates of that
division attending the National Leadership Conference.


Classrooms and Laboratories

The principle governing the recommendations regarding all phases
of the physical facilities for an effective Cooperative Business Edu-
cation Program is based on the underlying philosophy of vocational
business and office education--the objective of vocational competency.
Facilities for vocational office training should be specialized and
functional; armchairs and other furniture commonly used in general
education instruction do not meet the needs of vocational office

The physical facilities for the Cooperative Business Education
Program must be considered as a part of the total physical facilities
of the Business Education Department. The number and types of class-
rooms and laboratories required will be governed by the number of
students, teachers, and approved curriculums offered (bookkeeping,
clerical, manager and/or owner, stenographic).

Basic Requirements for all Business Classrooms

1. The rooms of the Business Education Department should be grouped
as a suite.

2. An acoustical material should be used, at least for the ceiling.

3. One wall should be equipped with light green chalkboards.

4. Adequate, well-placed bulletin board space should be in each room.

5. Floors in all classrooms should be tile or equivalent.

6. Adequate, well-diffused and glareless light is necessary.

7. A minimum of one double electrical outlet at the front of the
room and one double outlet at the rear is needed for every room.
Double electrical outlets should be placed in the floor under each
desk that will have electrically operated machines.

Office and Storage Space

Office Space. Adequate office space must be provided for the teacher-
coordinator. It should be equipped with a telephone, ample book shelves,
and filing cabinets. In addition, a small combination conference room-
library should be located adjacent to the office for individual conferences
with students, testing and makeup work, advisory committee meetings, and
the like.

Storage Facilities. Ample storage space should be provided for sup-
plies, spare equipment, audio-visual equipment, and miscellaneous equipment
which cannot be left in classrooms. The storage room should beequipped
with shelves or racks to facilitate orderly storage and to obtain maximum
use of the space.

Shorthand Laboratory (Suitable also for Typewriting II, Clerical
Practice, Office Practice*)

Room: 30 square feet of floor space for each station.

Station Arrangement: Single.

Desks: 24 L-shapted desks--42" x 20" with an extension 23" x 18";
adjustable height 26" to 30"; nonglare finish; with bookrack.

Chairs: 24 adjustable--swivel or caster.

Teacher's Desk:

Other Equipment:

Top 30" x 60"; height 30" either single or double

24 student-learner Listening Stations, with four-speed
1 Console (in cabinet) with four-channel dictating units
1 set of Predictated Tapes, correlated with shorthand
text used
2 Sets of Tapes, one legal and one medical dictation
1 Set of tapes for supplementary speed building dictation
1 Stop Watch
1 Four-drawer steel filing cabinet with lock
1 unabridged dictionary
24 typewriters--It is highly desirable that each desk be
equipped with a typewriter for transcription purposes.
If this is not feasible, a typewriting laboratory
should be located in an adjoining room.

*Multipurpose Room. The shorthand laboratory can be an excellent multi-
purpose room if each desk is equipped with a typewriter and one of the
various machines listed in the following suggested office practice room.

Office Practice Room (Suitable also for Bookkeeping, Clerical Practice,
Business Principles and Management)

(Provides 24 stations and accomodates 24 students on a rotating basis)

Room: 30 square feet of floor space for each station.

Station Arrangement: Single.

Desks: 24 L-shaped-desks--42" x 20" with an extension 23" x 18"; adjustable
height 26" to 30"; nonglare finish; with book rack.

Chairs: 24 adjustable--swivel or caster.

Teacher's Desk: Top 30" x 60"; height 30" either single or double pedestal.


Dictating and Transcribing Machines

1 Dictating-Transcribing Machine
3 Transcribing Machines

Auxiliary Equipment
4 manual or electric typewriters

Ten-Key Office Machines


3 Ten-Key adding-Listing Machines, electric
1 Ten-Key Printing Calculator, electric

Full-Keyboard Office Machines

4 Full-Keyboard Adding-Listing Machines, electric


4 Automatic Rotary Calculators, electric
4 Key-Driven Calculators, electric

Duplicating-Typewriting Equipment

1 Mimeograph Duplicator, electric
(with storage cabinet)
1 Spirit Process Duplicator, electric or manual
(with storage cabinet)
2 Electric Typewriters
1 Long-Carriage Typewriter, 18" x 21"

Auxiliary Equipment
1 Mimeoscope
1 Set of stylii, lettering guides, shading plates

Total 24

Miscellaneous Instructional Equipment

2 Steel Filing Cabinets (one with lock)
1 Tape Recorder
1 Overhead Projector
1 Projection Screen
1 Motion Picture Projector
1 Film Strip Projector
1 Teletrainer
1 Phonograph
1 Photo Copying Machine
1 Collating Table
1 Collator (Optional)
1 Pencil Sharpener
2 Waste Baskets

Office and Instructional Supplies

Paper Cutter
Filing Kits or Boxes
Stop Watch
Interval Timer
Paper Punch
Staplers, regular
Stapler, long arm
Desk Trays
Postal Scales
Postal Guide
City Directory

Mimeograph ink
adding machine tape
carbon paper
onionskin paper

master units
fanfold labels
thumb tacks

mimeograph paper
correction fluid
paper clips
file folders
rubber bands



Objectives of.Evaluation

Evaluation involves a carefully considered judgment as to the adequacy
or effectiveness of the:program in the light of the objectives set for it.
However, the primary purpose of evaluation should not be one of merely pass-
ing judgment, but should provide a basis for guiding action to promote
future growth of the overall program. Thus, the reasons for evaluation are

1. To determine progress toward well-defined objectives.

2. To determine effectiveness of the program.

3. To discover strengths and weaknesses in the program.

Although informal evaluation should be taking place during the operation
of the program, the formal evaluation should take place annually at the end
of the school year. This may be done through the use of a questionnaire or
check list of criteria. Also, a follow-up study of former program graduates
should be done by the coordinator.

By evaluating the whole program at the end of each school year, it will
be possible to determine the extent to which students have profited by the
training they have received and to determine ways in which the effectiveness
of the program can be improved for the next school year. The basic concept
of evaluation should be to measure each program against its community poten-
tials and each coordinator against his optimum ability or capacity. Eval-
uation should take into consideration the maturity of the program and changing
circumstances such as school population and the extent of the area being

Increasing mechanization of the office and standardization of office
procedures have made it necessary to teach many new skills and to combine
previously acquired skills. Since office jobs and duties are changing because
of technological improvement, education for office workers must not remain
static, but must constantly change also. For this reason, the coordinator
must evaluate his program by determining the following:

1. Whether the material used and the way it is presented is bringing
about the desired results.

2. Whether businessmen are accepting the program through continuous

3. Whether students are improving in assuming job responsibilities,
developing poise, and improving job skills.

Through evaluation, the coordinator is able to find out what is good
in his teaching; what should be eliminated; what should be added; and
where greater emphasis should be placed.

The coordinator can judge the success of his program reasonably well
and discover some of the weaknesses that should be eliminated himself.
The evaluation process should be largely a self-evaluation for the coordi-
nator. Comparisons can be made at meetings with other coordinators. In
this way he can find out what is being done in other schools that might be
done in his own program during the next school year.

The coordinator should carefully analyze the results of the follow-up
study and sum up the responses on the check list of criteria to determine
the strengths and weaknesses of the program. He should then discuss the
findings of the evaluation and the suggestions for improvement with the
state supervisor, vocational director, or someone who is vitally interested
and competent to provide assistance. Ways to strengthen the program can be
determined in this way. The findings can then be presented to the principal
and the local superintendent.

Criteria Used In. Evaluation

Sound standards or evaluative criteria should be used as the basis for
determining the growth and development of the program. A check list of
criteria to determine the strengths and weaknesses according to areas may
be used. The evaluation of the school's program must be largely one of self-
evaluation. Insofar as possible, the coordinator should evaluate the program
with the help of the administration and the Advisory Committee. This could
be accomplished at a regularly scheduled meeting of the Committee near the
end of the school year. When evaluation is done from outside the school or
by the Advisory Committee, it will be necessary to (1) use the check list as
an evaluation instrument; (2) analyze the findings; and (3) follow through
with suggestions for changes and improvements.

Satisfactory evaluations are to be made in the light of the underlying
philosophy and expressed purposes of the overall program. It is suggested
that the items which make up the criteria used in the evaluation could be
grouped under the following headings:

1. General Objectives

2. Coordinating Teacher

3. Organization of the Program

4. Advisory Committee

5. Selection and Placement

6. Instructional Program

7. Coordination of the Program

8. Public.Relations

9. Follow up

The suggested check list is scored by-rating the criteria with the
appropriate numerals listed below.

4--Condition or provision is present to a very satisfactory degree.

3--Condition or provision is present to a satisfactory degree.

2--Condition or provision is present to a fair degree.

1--Condition or provision is present to an unsatisfactory degree.

0--Condition or provision is not present.

Notations should be made of compensating features or particular

The following suggested rating can be used for classification
according to total points:

200-220 Excellent: The entire program seems to be
functioning in the best possible manner.

165-199 Good: The overall program seems to be
functioning in a satisfactory manner.

110-164 Fair: The program appears to meet the
minimum requirements with some areas that
need improvement.

55-109 Poor: The program seems to be functioning
below normal with a number of areas needing


1. General Objective

a. Has a good written statement of objectives been developed? ( )

b. Are the objectives adjusted to meet changing conditions
in the community? ()

2. Coordinating.Teacher

a. Does the coordinator meet the state's requirements? ( )

b. Does the coordinator have suitable personal qualifications? ( )

c. How effectively does the coordinator promote the CBE program? ( )

d. Has a friendly and mutual relationship been established
between students and coordinator? ()

e. Is the coordinator an active participant in school and
community affairs? ()

3. Organization of.the.Program

a. Is CBE an integral part of the curriculum? ()

b. Are students given an opportunity to take preparatory
courses? ()

c. Is freedom given to the coordinator in the development of
the program? ()

d. Is provision made for protecting the best interest of
students? ()

e. Is class enrollment limited so as to provide time for
adequate individual instruction? ()

f. Does the student receive school credit for training
received in a training station? ()

g. Is scheduling of work experience done to the advantage
of students and.businessmen? ()

4. Advisory Committee

a. Is the Advisory Committee composed of individuals who
represent such groups as employees, employers, educators,
parents, or other interested groups? ()

Evaluation Check List (Continued)

b. Are the duties of the Advisory Committee confined to
counseling and advising the school? ()

c. Are the school administrator and the coordinator ex-officio
members of.the Advisory Committee? ()

5. Selection-and:-Placement

a. Does the coordinator have access to and use.of school
records? ()

b. Does the coordinator secure information about students from
guidance counselors and from other teachers? ( )

c. Does the coordinator investigate previous work records? ( )

d. Do prospective students have an opportunity to counsel with
the coordinator? ()

e. Are students counseled to enter the program on a basis of
their abilities and interests? ()

f. Does the training station provide well-organized learning
situations? ()

g. Is there provision for an adequate number of diversified
placement opportunities? ( )

h. Does the training station serve in an advisory capacity to
the school? ()

i. Does the training station pay the student-learner a salary
commensurate with ability and with other employees with
similar training and ability? ()

6. Instructional Program

a. Is instruction aimed at the present needs of the students? ( )

b. Is there good rapport between coordinator and students? ( )

c. Are adequate records of student progress available? ( )

d. If one text is used, are other reference books available? ( )

e. Are a variety of instructional methods used? e.g., con-
ferences, discussions, projects, etc? ()

f. Are current materials used in the classroom? ( )

g. Is there a variety of office machines available? ( )

h. Are there sufficient machines for instruction? ( )

i. Is there sufficient room for classroom instruction and
a room available for guidance activities? ()

j. Is there a business education club which provides for
the development of leadership and participation in group
activities? ()

7. Coordination..of.-the,.Program

a. Does the coordinator have sufficient time for coordination? ( )

b. Is the coordinator permitted to use coordinating time
only for coordinating duties? ()

c. Does the coordinator visit each training station
periodically? ()

d. Is the student's immediate supervisor contacted by the
coordinator to determine the student's progress? ( )

e. Does the coordinator use information obtained to adjust
problems that arise relative to the.program? ( )

8. Public Relations

a. Has the program been presented to various employer and
employee groups in the community? ()

b. Have the services of leaders in business and education
been used to present the program to community groups? ( )

c. Have parents of students been acquainted with the
program? ()

d. Do the teachers-understand and-appreciate-the program? ( )

e. Is consideration given to the work-study program in
scheduling? ()

f. Are the guidance counselors informed about-the place
of the program in the total school program? ( )

g. Do students have an opportunity to learn about the
program? ()

h. Does the local school administration support the program? ( )

9. Follow Up

a. Does the administrator counsel with the coordinator and
require.periodic reports? ()

b. Do the school administration and the coordinator use the
services of the State Department in evaluating and
improving the program? ()

c. Is a follow-up survey conducted each year? ( )

d. Are adequate records kept of former students? ( )

e. Is the program adjusted in the light of the evaluation
and follow-up findings? ()

f. Are recommendations made for curriculum development as
a result of follow-up findings and the evaluation of
the program? ()

Total Points

Evaluation of Student-Learner Progress

It is desirable to assign the student-learner one grade for related
class achievement and another grade for performance at the training station.
Evaluation should place emphasis on over-all progress rather than on sub-
ject matter alone. Evaluation is a continuous process and requires the
participation of all who are:involved in the student's work experience--
the learner, the teacher, and the supervisor or employer. The function of
each participant is discussed below. The teacher may use a check list to
measure progress at frequent intervals. In order to locate deficiencies
and provide for improvement of instruction, it is recommended that a check
list should be used every two weeks. In determining achievement in class,
check lists and samples of students' work may be considered in addition to
test grades.

Systematic on-thejob evaluation can provide the teacher with a knowledge
of student progress toward the job objectives. In order for the evaluation
to be most effective, the objectives of the specific training station should
be given to the student-learner as soon as possible after he is placed in
the particular learning situation.

Employer Evaluation

The employer is an important factor in evaluation, and he must be made
aware of his role in the evaluation process and of how he can best contribute
to it. Generally speaking, teacher-employer conferences and the use of check
lists or evaluation forms are the two commonly used methods of securing
employer appraisal of the student's achievement.

Employers can evaluate, in the light of what they consider job competence,
how well the student is measuring up to this standard. A written progress
report or evaluation form should be completed by the employer at least once
every six weeks. (See p. 91) Informal evaluation with consultation be-
tween the coordinator and the employer should be at least once a month. If
the employer evaluation appears to be unsatisfactory, the coordinator could
request to see samples of the student's work. It should be remembered that
the coordinator should not expect the employer or training sponsor to
evaluate the student-learner without guidance from the teacher-coordinator.

A copy of the measuring instrument used by the employer will make the
student aware of the role of attitudes and traits, general and specialized
knowledge, and specific skills, as well as all other factors considered in
the evaluation process.

Student Self-Evaluation

The student-learner may be provided a self-evaluation or rating scale
with which to evaluate himself. (See p. 92) This type of evaluation
enables him to analyze his strengths and weaknesses in each of the factors
considered essential to vocational competence and will make him conscious
of the areas where improvements are needed.


The teacher-coordinator has the task of evaluating the over-all
achievement of the student and assigning a grade. This involves
evaluation of (a) work in:the related class and (b) performance on
the job. To assist the teacher in evaluating student achievement in
the related class,.an evaluation form is suggested.

Frequent reports from the employer provide the necessary
information which will enable the coordinating teacher to:

1. Determine the aspects of the student-learner's performance
which need improvement.

2. Make necessary:adjustments in the classroom instruction to
better meet student needs.

3. Help make necessary adjustments in the instruction on the
job where needed.

Frequent visits to the training station provide an opportunity to
observe all facets of on-the-job performance: attitudes, skills, and
knowledge. The observation of the student on the job, conferences
with the employer, employer ratings, and the student's self-evaluation
should all be taken into consideration when assigning a grade for job

Maintenance of Student-Learner Records

The teacher-coordinator should maintain complete, accurate, and
up-to-date records for each cooperative business education student.
These records are valuable in the coordination of the program and
also in the follow-up studies made of graduates. The record is a
central source of information concerning the student.

The record should include:

1. Personal information name, date of birth, place of birth
(city and state), sex, home address, telephone, parent's
name and occupation, names and ages of brothers and sisters,
and educational background of parents

2. Educational background schools attended and dates attended,
courses taken in high school and grades earned

3. Test results I. Q. test, achievement tests, and vocational

4. Extra-curricular activities clubs of which student is a
member, offices held in various organizations, honors,
special awards, community activities, and church affiliation

5. Career objective there should be a written copy of the
student's career objective

6. Work experience a record of any previous work experience
including names of firms, dates of employment, salary received,
duties performed on the job, and reason for termination of

7. A copy of the student's application for the CBE program
(See p. 84).

8. A copy of the coordinator's interview report (See p. 90).

9. A copy of the training agreement (See p. 88).

10. A copy of the step-by-step training plan (See p. 87).

11. A copy of the student interest survey form (See p. 83).

12. Letters of recommendation (if required) no more than one of
these should be from a faculty member

13. Work permit (See p. 85).

14. Student reports of their individual study, reading, and

15. Evaluation reports completed by the employer (See p. 91).

16. Weekly work reports completed by the student including
problems encountered by the student-learner on the job

17. Reports of the coordinator on visitations to the student's
home and training station

18. Reports of the coordinator on conferences with teachers,
the student, counselor, parents, and employer

19. An evaluation report by the student-learner relating to
his on-the-job training

20. A copy of the student's self-appraisal sheet (See p. 92).

Many of the forms for maintaining a composite record of the
student's work in the CBE program as well as the results of follow-up
studies can be printed inside a manila file folder to conserve space.


A plan of following former students for a number of years to see how
many have remained in the occupation for which they were trained or in
related occupations should be a part of the evaluation of the program.
The justification of the Cooperative Business Education program is pri-
marily and ultimately based on the number of students who enter successful
employment in the occupational area for which they were prepared.

These former students should be checked to determine how many were
able to advance in the career selected and how many have not had additional
training after high school. This information and other valuable data can
be secured by an annual follow-up study of graduates of the local program.

The purposes of the follow-up study are to:

1. Determine the types of office occupations in which former students
are employed.

2. Determine the nature of the duties and responsibilities involved
in these occupations.

3. Gather information concerning the strengths and weaknesses of the
Cooperative Business Education program based on opinions of
program graduates.

4. Provide information concerning the success, progress, and advance-
ment of the Cooperative Business Education graduates.

5. Provide information for the evaluation and improvement of the
Cooperative Business Education program.

One of the most commonly used devices in conducting follow-up studies
is the mailed questionnaire. If a former student does not reply to the
questionnaire, a follow-up by telephone should be made.

The "Follow-up of graduates of Vocational Business and Distributive
Education Programs" (See p. 94) can be used to help organize and
classify job information obtained in the follow-up study into proper


This survey is being conducted in order to obtain facts regarding jobs
and the effectiveness of school training for these jobs. The information
collected will be used in adjusting future plans. All information will be
regarded as strictly confidential. Names will not be used in the completed

Name Maiden Name


Date Year of Graduation

1. Are you employed? Yes No

a) Full-time Part-time

b) Your job title

c) Specific duties

d) Employer or Supervisor

e) Address
(Street) (City) (State)

2. How did you obtain present position?

a) Tips from friends, relatives, etc.
b) Personal solicitation
c) Employment office
d) Private employment agency
e) School employment office
f) Other: Please explain.

3. What pre-training was necessary for your occupation?

a) High School
b) Business School
c) Other: Explain

4. In the list of job activities given, check in column 1 the activities
that are included in your responsibilities. In column 2, check the
activities for which you feel high school business education courses,
including cooperative business education, prepared you.

5. Have you changed jobs or received a promotion?

a) Have received a promotion to a higher-rated job with this company
b) Have not received an advancement or promotion with this company
c) Have changed jobs times since graduation
Reason for changing jobs

Job Activities 1 2

Cashier Work
Compose Letters
Cut stencils
File and index materials
Handle incoming and outgoing mail
Information desk work
Keep checkbook
Make appointments
Make original entries
Make out bills for customers
Make payrolls
Operate full-keyboard adding machine
Operate ten-key adding machine
Operate fluid duplicator
Operate rotary calculator
Operate transcribing machine
Operate key-punch machine
Operate verifier
Operate sorter
Operate collator
Operate photocopy machine
Operate computer
Operate switchboard
Operate bookkeeping machine
Prepare financial reports
Receive callers
Reconcile bank statements
Take inventory
Take dictation and transcribe
Type envelopes
Type (straight copy)
Type statistical material
Use electric typewriter
Use manual typewriter
Use reference books
Use telephone
Use timetables and make reservations

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