Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents

Title: Library science, a guide for students enrolled in diversified cooperative training programs.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080734/00001
 Material Information
Title: Library science, a guide for students enrolled in diversified cooperative training programs.
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Florida Department of Education
Publisher: Florida Department of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: November, 1964
General Note: Florida Department of Education bulletin 74F-6
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Bibliographic ID: UF00080734
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
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Full Text
PW W V' S W '

Bulletin 74F-6

November, 1964



$n01, Technical, and Adult Education
iomas D. Bailey, Superintendent
Tallahassee, Florida
375- oo00 7 %5
-636 A
?"-o 7"4P- 6
e ..





Bulletin 74F-6


Distributive, Cooperative, and Business Education Section

,November, 1964


A Guide for Students Enrolled


Diversified Cooperative

Training Programs

Tallahassee, Florida

Superintendent of Public Instruction

Director of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education

Supervisor of Distributive, Cooperative, and Business Education

375. o 9 75-7

^.o.^ "~


The guide, entitled LIBRARY SCIENCE, was specifically prepared for Diversified
Cooperative Training students who are employed in libraries. It is designed to aid
them in acquiring the necessary skills and knowledge to become proficient on the

The guide is to be used by the DCT coordinator in planning activities during
that period of the school day when the student is scheduled for specific related
study. The librarian, serving as the training supervisor, should indicate to the
coordinator the areas of emphasis at specific times during the school year.

The guide has been prepared by librarians and DOT coordinators, in cooperation
with the Distributive, Cooperative, and Business Education Section, and the office
of Library Services in the State Department of Education. Content was determined by
suggestions received from DCT coordinators in the state, from examples of similar
courses of study, and from the suggestions of librarians who have had DCT students
working under their supervision.

The librarian shares with the DCT coordinator several responsibilities for the
successful training of the student.

First, she serves as the training supervisor, cooperatively developing with
the DCT coordinator policies that guide the organization and activities of the
training program of the student. The program includes developing in the student
a broad understanding of library operation and management, as well as an apprecia-
tion of the past, present, and future roles of libraries and library materials.

She makes her professional library accessible to the student and secures
additional materials as needed to encourage the student to go beyond the limits
of this guide in his study of various operational procedures used by libraries.

She generously shares her own professional experiences with the student, there-
by helping to provide him with a richer understanding of the concept of library

She helps him develop self-confidence and poise by recognizing work well done
and encourages initiative and creativity on the part of the student.

Lastly, she teaches, by example, the skill of working effectively with indi-
viduals and groups as they seek to use library materials.

The Committee feels that, as librarians and DCT coordinators accept the added
responsibilities imposed upon them by the use of this guide, DCT students in this
program will become more proficient on the job. This handbook is not meant to be
exhaustive in content but to serve as an introduction to library operation.

The original draft was prepared by a committee of Leon County librarians and
DCT coordinators composed of the following: Mrs. Gladys Anderson, Mrs. Leona
Althoff, Mrs. Lucille B. Holliday, Mrs. Mary Meeks, Miss Willie M. Pemberton,
W. H. Robinson, Mrs. Connie Stancliff, Mrs. Claire Meador, and Mrs. Nancy Peavy.



Foreword i

Unit I Libraries and Career Opportunities

Unit 2 Library Orientation 2

Unit 3 Parts of a Book 3

Unit 4 Circulation Procedures 6

Unit 5 Dewey Decemal System 8

Unit 6 Arrangement of Books on Shelves 13

Unit 7 The Card Catalog 15

Unit 8 Processing Materials 25

Unit 9 Filing Catalog Cards 33

Unit 10 Reference Materials 41

Unit 11 Periodicals, Newspapers and Government Documents 45

Unit 12 The Vertical File 50

Unit 13 Clerical Practices 51

Unit 14 Book Mending 62

Unit 15 Bulletin Boards, Exhibits and Publicity 73

Unit 16 Taking Inventory 80

Unit 17 Audio-Visual Materials and Equipment 83

Glossary 101

Bibliography 106



Purposes and Types of Libraries

General Information

Most people, including those who are interested in libraries, are unaware
of the complete scope of library services that exists in our country. It must
be remembered that a library exists solely to provide informational, study, and
recreational services to its patrons. The type of patron and his particular
needs determine the type of library that must exist.

For the years 1958-59, the United States Office of Education reported that
there were 41,463 school libraries. In addition, there are approximately 10,000
public libraries and more than 3,000 special libraries. Among the special libraries
are law libraries, medical libraries, church libraries, and libraries maintained by
industries. Many large industrial plants have libraries which have the specific
resource materials needed by their employees, especially those engaged in research.
In addition there are many scientific and engineering libraries, and many business
libraries. The largest of all special libraries in the United States is our
national library, the Library of Congress, which is designed to serve members
of Congress and the armed forces. The Library of Congress has approximately
12,000,000 volumes and is a depository for every book which is copyrighted in the
United States.

Career Opportunities

The opportunities for career work in libraries are as varied as the kinds of
libraries and the services they offer. The professional librarian may specialize
in a public or a university library in the acquisition of material, in the organi-
zation of the library and its materials, or in readers' services that area of
library work which has to do with providing guidance to the vast amount of materials
housed in any library. Readers" services may include specialization in such areas
as reference work or children's-work. Finally, for those people who are interested
in specializing in a particular subject interest field, such as law, medicine,
history, art, electronics, banking, military affairs, insurance, there are tremen-
dous opportunities in the special library.

The basic requirement for professional librarianship is a bachelor's
degree from a four-year college followed by a fifth year at an accredited library
school. In 1959 the average starting salary for library school graduates was
$4862.00.. From this point salaries range upwards to $17,000 and $20,000.

For the student who does not wish to become a professional librarian there
are many opportunities for library career work. Libraries need microfilm tech-
nicians, bookbinders, audio-visual technicians, and clerical help of all kinds.
There is a job available in libraries for almost anyone especially you.

Student Activities

1. Become familiar with your public library and with the many types of career
jobs available in library work, in both the professional and the non-
professional areas.

2. Visit the special library or a college library in your area. Talk to the
librarian about her job and make note of the differences that exist between
her library and the type of service it provides and yours.


Library Orientation

General Information

The calm, quiet, relaxed atmosphere of the average library gives no hint
of the beehive of activity that exists behind the scenes. You, as a library
worker, will not only see this activity, you will become a part of it. You will
gain experience in various areas of library work. You will learn about acquisi-
tions, technical processing, readers' services, and audio-visual materials.

You, as a library worker, will learn to carry out many routine, but important,
library tasks. Your responsibility will be to learn well in order to carry out
your tasks with dispatch and efficiency. A library exists to serve its patrons.
The responsibility of providing that service is partly yours.

Student Activities

1. Become familiar with the various services your particular library seeks to
provide. Ask your librarian to tell you what these services are, and what
tasks are carried out by the staff in order that these services may be

2. Draw a floor plan of your library. Indicate the various types of materials
and where they are to be found.



Parts of a Book

General Information

Since the book is your library's "most important product," it is important
and necessary that you become completely familiar with this item. You will be
handling books constantly processing them, cleaning them, circulating them,
shelving them, repairing them, and, above all, using them.

Book pages are usually printed in sections of 4, 8, 16 or 32 pages at a
time. These pages, printed on a large sheet, are then cut, folded and put
together as a signature. The signatures are then glued and usually sewn to-
gether to form the body of the book. The rigid part of the body, formed where
the signatures are glued or sewn together, is known as the spine of the book.
The blank pages that precede the body of the book are called end papers. The
cover is made of heavy cardboard called "binders board", covered with paper
or cloth, and sometimes covered with a heavy-duty long-wearing cloth called

The cover is sometimes fastened to the body of the book by being glued
to the end papers. The best-bound books, however, are those whose covers are
attached to the end papers by means of a cloth hinge.

Parts of a Book

Every book has a title page. This is found near the front of the book and
contains the complete title of the book, the author's name, the name of the publisher
and the place of publication. Usually the copyright date is given on the back of
the title page. A copyright date indicates that the author or publisher has been
issued a guarantee by the government that he has the sole rights to the book and
its sale for 28 years from the date of the copyright. If all copies that have
been printed are sold, the publisher may print additional copies. The holder of
the copyright may make any number of printings. All copies printed from the par-
ticular set of printing plates are said to be an "edition". When the book is
changed in any way, so that new printing plates must be made, a new copyright is
issued and a new edition results. The number of the edition is indicated on the
title page.

Most authors introduce their book through a preface or foreword which follows
the title page and precedes the body of the book. The preface usually tells some-
thing about the book, what it seeks to do, or why the author chose to write it.
It may tell for whom the book is intended, or how it should be used. Readers
should always read the preface since it is intended to provide the reader with
information about the book which the author considers important.

The Table of Contents, usually found in the front of a book, is a vital
tool for understanding the arrangement of the material in the book. In many cases
the table of contents serves as an outline of the book. A good reader always pays
close attention to the table of contents as a preview of both the content and
arrangement of the material.


The Body of the book is the main part of the book. It contains the entire
text of the book.

The Bibliography is a list of materials (books, pamphlets, articles, etc.) on
a given subject. A bibliography may list the resources used by the author in com-
piling his information; it may also be intended to provide the reader with a list
of materials for further study. The bibliography uay appear at the end of each
unit or chapter or may be found at the end of the book.

Most books contain an index. This is usually found at the end of the book,
although its location is left to the discretion of the author or publisher. The
index to World Almanac precedes the body of the book, while the Sears Roebuck
Catalog has its index in the middle of the book. Indexes are usually an alpha-
betically arranged listing of the important subjects referred to in the book.
Some books may have several indexes. Poetry books are usually indexed by poem
titles, authors, and first lines of poems.

In addition to the parts of a book already listed, some books contain a
glossary, which is a list of vocabulary words peculiar to the subject of the book.
This workbook contains a glossary. A book may also have an appendix. This is a
section of the book that contains closely related material pertinent to but not
worthy of inclusion in the text itself. The appendix may include maps, charts,
graphs, tables, biographies, or documents. Both the glossary and the appendix
are usually found in the back of the book. A book may also have a list of illus-
trations or a list of maps. Such lists usually follow the table of contents and
precede the body of the book.

Types of Bindings.

When books are assembled at a bindery, the binding may be done in one of
several ways. The way in which a book is bound determines, to a great extent,
the cost of the book. More importantly, however, the type of binding determines
the "life" of the book; i.e.,how well it will stand up to use and abuse. Wisdom
must be exercised and knowledge must be applied if a librarian is to choose
bindings carefully. Since the life of a book is determined by its binding, the
librarian must anticipate how often and to whom the book will be circulated, and
then must choose the binding accordingly,

There are three general types of bindings found on library shelves. They
are the trade or publishers binding, the library binding, and the rebound book,

The Trade Edition

This is the regular edition, published primarily for sale to individuals.
While there are many variations in the binding of trade editions, it is generally
less sturdy than that of the library binding or of prebinding. Thinner and less
rigid beards are ued and these are covered with paper or an inexpensive cloth.
Signatures may beg ued together, or, if sewn, may be "saddle-stitched", the
least substantial type of sewing. The covers are usually glued to the end papers.

This edition is a practical one. It is the least expensive for the purchaser
to buy, and it is substantial enough for the use it will receive from the individual

The Library Edition

This is basically a "dressed-up" version of the trade edition. It is
reinforced to provide additional wear, usually through better sewing, a more
durable cloth and a more rigid cover which is usually fastened to the end
papers by means of a cloth hinge. The binding for this edition is frequently
referred to as a publisher's reinforced binding.

The Pre-bound Edition

The pre-bound edition has the sturdiest binding. A bookbindery that specialized
in this type of work will start with the signatures. They will be "side-sewn." The
best grade of binders boards and buckram will be used for the cover. The cover.will
be sewn to the signatures, and the cover and contents will fit each other perfectly.
The buckram will be impregnated with a celluloid or vinyl solution which will make
it both water-resistant and washable. A pre-bound book will endure the maximum use
and abuse. The cover will usually long out-last the contents. This type is frequently
purchased by schools.

It must be re-emphasized that it is neither necessary nor wise to buy this type
binding for all books. The "best" binding for any book is determined by the amount
of use the book is expected to receive.

Student Activities

1. Examine several different kinds of books. Look for the various parts. Notice
how the table of contents gives, or fails to give an outline of the book.
Read the preface to several different books. Notice the similarities and
differences. Find some books that contain glossaries and some that contain

2, Examine the title pages of several books. Can you find sub-titles? The
sub-title is that part of a title that expands or clarifies the title to help
make the subject of the book clearer. Can you find books in which the title
that appears on the title page is different from the title that appears on
the cover? Look for copyright dates, edition numbers, and printing dates.

3. Examine several of the more common reference books (your librarian will help
you choose some). Examine them carefully. Note how the preface, table of
contents, glossaries, bibliographies, and appendixes add to the value of the
books. Find the index to each set of encyclopedias your library owns.

4. Select several books of different sizes and thickneses. Note the construction
of the covers. How are they fastened to the contents? Choose several worn
and damaged books, Note the areas of wear and damage.

$. Compare several trade editions, library editions, and pre-bound books. Note
how they differ in construction.

6. Find some books with torn covers or whose covers have been removed. Note
those which have been glued and those which have been sewn. Can you find
books which have been sewn different ways? Locate a signature.

7. Learn all the terms underlined in this chapter.


Circulation Procedures

General Information

Circulation procedures vary from library to library; therefore, it is best
to check with the librarian about the procedure used in your library.

Activities for Students

1. Learn the meaning of the following terms and incorporate them in your
answers to question 2.

ao Accession number
b. Audio-visual materials
co Author
d. Book card
e. Book pocket
fo Book truck
g. Biography
h. Call number
i. Carding books
j. Classification number
k. Circulation
1. Current circulation file
m. Current periodicals
n. Cutter number
o. Date due
p. Dewey Decimal system
q. Easy books
r. Fiction books
s. Fines
to Library collection
u, Non-fiction books
v. Instructional Materials
w. Overdue book
x. Overdue file
y. Overdue notices
z. Periodicals
aa. Reference books
bb. Reserve books
cc. Story collection
dd. Vertical file

2, In your notebook, enter the headings below and write procedures for each as
used by your library.

a. Length of time books and other instructional materials may be kept by
b. Checking out books
c. Renewing books
d. Regulations concerning reserve books
e. Checking in books

f. Checking out other materials
(1) Vertical file materials
(2) Magazines
(3) Audio-visual materials
g. Checking in other materials
(1) Vertical file materials
(2) Magazines
(3) Audio-visual materials
h. Regulations concerning fines
i. Filing cards at the circulation desk. (Since this item is rather
standard in libraries, a suggested procedure is given below. Please
check with your librarian for other ways of filing cards at the
circulation desk.)

Cards for books and other materials that have been checked out are
filed by date due in the circulation files. Under each date the
book cards are arranged in the following manner:

All non-fiction book cards are arranged in numerical order
by classification number.

Biography book cards are arranged alphabetically by the
last name of the person the book is about.

Fiction book cards are arranged alphabetically by the
author's last name.

Cards for other instructional materials are filed after book cards.
If the system in your library differs, outline in your notebook the
procedure used.

3. Describe the circulation records kept in your library.



Dewey Decimal Classification System

General Information

Every good library must have a plan or system for placing books in the
library so they can be located quickly when wanted. This system is referred
to as a classification system. The one used by almost all organized school
and public libraries is known as the Dewey Decimal Classification System,
so-named for Melvil Dewey who devised it in the year 1876.

The Dewey system divides the field of knowledge into ten main classes.
These ten main classes are numbered from 000-999. Given below are the ten
classes with a story of the inter-relations of the broad classifications to
help make them more easily understood and remembered.

Explanation of the scheme of classification1

100-199 Philosophy

In the beginning people began to think about themselves and to
wonder why they were put on earth. They tried to reason also
who was responsible for their being here. Experience had taught
them that, if they were not good, they would perhaps be punished.
These ideas are incorporated in the 100's.

200-299 Religion

Having assured themselves that their presence on earth was due
to a Supreme Being, it was only natural that they should worship
Him. Thus we have the 200 group which includes the religions of
all peoples.

300-399 Social Sciences

It was not long before the people on earth began to realize that
they must live together and that laws were necessary for peace
and harmony. They sought education, government, and the con-
servation of natural and human resources. The 300's cover all
these things.

o00-499 Languages

The necessity for organization adcentuated the need for communi-
cation; and communication is dependent upon language which is the
400 group.

Douglas, M.P. Teacher-Librarian's Handbook. 2nd ed. Chicago, Ill., American
Library Association., c1919. P. 50-51.

500-599 Science

Man was not alone in the world. There were animals, flowers,
rocks; there were constellations and stars, and many other
things which attracted his attention and required his con-
sideration. These things constitute the 500's.

600-699 Useful Arts

All the elements available to man needed to be put to use.
Inventions and machinery were employed for improved health,
farming, home and manufacturing. This applied science is the
basis for the 600 classification.

700-799 Fine Arts

With the comforts of home life begun and with moretime for
leisure, the finer sensibilities of man expressed themselves
in painting, sculpture, music and other fine arts, which are
grouped in the 700's.

800-899 Literature

Literature naturally followed man's expression through the fine
arts, and he began to express himself in writing about various things.
He made poems of his feelings; he wrote stories. So the 800's
stand for this development.

900-999 History

Because of their achievements the people were able to visit from
land to land and to tell of the life and history of their own
lands. They were proud of their advancement and they wanted their
children to know of their struggles and their progress. The story
of mankind became history and is classified in the 900's.

000-099 General Works

With a wealth of accumulated knowledge in all the foregoing
fields at hand, it seemed wise to put it together for the use
of all people. These encyclopedias or general works are numbered
in the 000's.

Each of these classes is subdivided into ten more sections, making 100
divisions, as follows:

000 General Works 100 Philosophy

010 Bibliography 110 Mataphysics
020 Library Science 120 Metaphysical theories
030 General encyclopedias 130 Branches of psychology
040 General collected essays 140 Philosophic systems
050 General periodicals 150 Psychology
060 General societies Museums 160 Logic
070 Journalism 170 Ethics
080 Collected works 180 Oriental & ancient philosophy
090 Book rarities 190 Modern philosophy

600 Applied Science

210 Natural religion
220 Bible
230 Doctrinal theology
240 Practical theology
250 Pastoral theology
260 Ecclesiastical theology
270 Christian church history
280 Christian churches and
290 Non-Christian religions

300 Social Sciences


Political science
Public administration
Social welfare

00 Philology


Home Economics
Business Business methods
Industrial chemistry
Mechanic trades

700 Arts Recreation


Landscape and civic art
Drawing Decorative art
Prints and print making

800 Literature

Comparative philology
English language
German Other Germanic
French Provencal
Italian Rumanian
Spanish Portuguese
Latin Other Italic
Greek Hellenic group
Other languages

500 Pure Science


American literature
English literature
German Other Germanic
French and related
Italian and related
Spanish Portuguese
Latin Other Italic
Greek Hellenic group
Other literature

900 History

Chemistry Mineralogy
Earth sciences
Biological sciences

910 Geography Travel
920 Biography
930 Ancient universal history
940z Europe
950c Asia
970 oNorth America
9801 South America
990 Oceania Polar regions



200 Religion

Again each of these divisions may be subdivided into ten sections, making
1,000 in all. This process of division may be continued by the use of decimals
until the most minute subject will have its own number. This system is called
a decimal system because decimal means numbered or counted by tens, and decimals
are used to expand it. Such use of decimals makes the system wonderfully elastic,
meaning that it can be expanded to include any number of new books without dis-
turbing the classification of books that the library already has. The use of
few subdivisionsis known as broad classification, which is the general practice
of small libraries having fewer than 5,000 books. The use of many subdivisions
is known as close classification, and is the general practice of large libraries.

In addition to non-fiction, or factual, books which are classified according
to the Dewey Decimal Classification system, there are a few modified classes for
which symbols rather than Dewey decimal numbers are used in some libraries. They

Fiction, for which F is used as a symbol.

Easy books, for which E is used.

Story Collection, for which SC is used.

Reference is indicated by the use of R above or before the
Dewey number.

Biography is usually indicated by the use of B or 92. The Dewey
Decimal number 920 is usually usetdfor collective
biography. Collective biography contains the life
stories of several persons in one book; individual
biography contains only one.

Librarians use as their guide in the classification of books one or both
of the following books:

Dewey, Melvil. Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index.
Ed. 8, Abridged. 1959, Wilson.

Dewey, Melvil. Decimal Classification and Relative Index. 16th ed.
2 vol. 1958, Forest.

Activities for Students

1. Read a biographical account of Melvil Dewey's life and list some of the
important facts. You may use an encyclopedia for this.

2. Learn the ten major classifications of the Dewey Decimal system.

3. Are letters used instead of numbers for any classification of books?
What letters are used and for what do they stand?

4. Does your library use only letters? Or does it use letters and numbers
to indicate authors?

5. Write the call numbers, authors and titles of five books picked at random
from the shelves of your library.


6. Match the call numbers found in the left-hand column to the correct
author and title in the right-hand column. You may refer to the
Dewey Decimal outline in this booklet.

Call Number

a. 821
b. 395
c. 790
d. 640
e. 700
f. 292
g. 520
h. 220
i. 973.1
j. 425
k. 598
1. 822.3
m. 590

Author and Title

King, R.J. Discovery of America

Kupper, T.M. Zoolog

Bell, F.T. Bird Study

Wister, J.H. English grammar

Post, E. Etiquette

Shakespeare, W. Plays

Cook, D.C. New Recipes.

Crane, T.F. Roman myths

Creel, D.F. Stars

Cain, J.Co Bible Stories

Cellum, D.W. Art

Crook, I.A. Athletic contests

Gray, T.E. Modern English poems

7. Write the Dewey Decimal
books are shelved:

Books on electricity
Histories of England
Bird books
Myths of Greece and Rome

8. On your master floor plan, indicate

numbers to indicate where the following kinds of

Chemistry books
Folklore books
Language books
Etiquette books
Game books
Music books

the location of the various classes of



Arrangement of Books on the Shelves

General Information

As books are received in the library the librarian assigns a classification
number or symbol to each book and writes the number in a certain place in the
book. Later, that number or symbol is lettered on the spine of the book. (Else-
where in this handbook directions are given for the mechanical preparation of
books for use.) The first letter, or the first three letters of the author's
last name, or even the complete last name, is lettered under the classification
number or symbol. Together, these form what is known as the call number. This
same number appears in the upper left-hand corner of all catalog cards, on the
book card, and on the book pocket.

All numbered books are arranged on the shelves in numerical order, beginning
with 000 and going from left to right through 999, in much the same order that
the printed lines in a book are arranged. They are placed from left to right
on each shelf, one shelf below the other, until one section is complete, and
then from left to right on each shelf in the next section, and so on. Each of
the ten main classes may begin a new section, whether the preceding shelves are
full or not. Decimal figures are arranged in ascending order, just as figures
before the decimal are arranged. Books having the same classification number
are further arranged in alphabetical order by the author's last name. For
example s

387 398 398.2 598.1 598.1 598.1 598.2 621 621.3 621.38 629.13 629.2

641 759 783 808.8 910 932 940.1 972 973.3

The numbers are arranged figure by figure, and are read that way, as three-
nine-eight, six-two-nine point one three; not, three hundred ninety eight or
six hundred twenty nine decimal point thirteen.

Fiction, story collections, and easy books, also picture books, are all
arranged alphabetically according to the author's last name.

Collective biography is arranged according to the author's last name.
Individual biography is arranged according to the last name of the person
written about. This allows all books about a certain person to be placed
together on the shelf. The several books about one person are further arranged
alphabetically by the author's last name.

Books should stand out even with the front edge of the shelves, to allow
circulation of air behind the books. This practice also gives the library a
neater appearance than when books are pushed back against the back side.

Checking the shelves book by book to keep them in exact order is termed
"reading the shelves." This should be done regularly.


Activities for Students

1, What are the advantages of a call number consisting of the classification
number and the author's initial or name?

2. How is collective biography arranged on the shelf?

3. How is individual biography arranged on the shelf? What is the advantage
of this arrangement?

4. In your notebook, arrange the following call numbers as they should appear
on the shelves:

a. 940.1 h. 808.5
b. 242 i. 629.13
c. 808.81 j. 783
d. 808.82 k. 598.2
e. 629.3 1. 598.212
f. 629.3 m. 970
g. 943.21 N. 629.31



The Card Catalog

General Information

The card catalog is an index of all the instructional materials in a
library. This record is kept on cards, and the cards are arranged in alpha-
betical order in the drawers of a card catalog cabinet. Guide letters ir
the front of the drawers identify the cards found in each drawer. For instance,
a drawer with the guide letters Ba Bo would contain all cards beginning with
Ba through those cards beginning with Bo. Baseball would be found in this drawer,
and Boulder would also be found in this drawer.

A given book is represented in the card catalog under its author, title,
and, if necessary, the subject or subjects which it treats. Call numbers are
found in the upper left corner of the card, Therefore, if the patron knows
the author of a book, he can locate it by looking under the author's last name;
if he knows only the title of the book, he can locate it by looking under the
first word of the title, disregarding the articles "a", "an', and "the;" or,
if he knows only the subject of the book, he can locate the book by looking
under the subject.

It is very easy to learn to recognize the three main types of catalog cards
for books. The first line of printing on the card signifies whether it is an
author, title, or subject card.

The author card has the author's name (last name first) on the first line
of the card (See- illustration 1.)

The title card has the title on the first line and the author's name on
the seconrfliRe.-The title is also repeated on the third line. (See illustra-
tion 2.) Some libraries use an abbreviated title card which omits any unnecessary
information which can be found by referring to the author (or main entry) card.
If your library uses an abbreviated title card, the title card will probably
consist of the call number, the title on the first line, and the author's name
on the second line.

The subject card has the subject on the first line. A subject is usually
indicated in one of two ways: it is typed in all capital letters, (see illustration
No. 3) or it is typed in lower case letters in red.

Look at Illustrations No. 1-3. Notice how similar the three cards are.
Actually, only the first line on the three cards has been changed. In some
libraries, however, only the author card contains this much information concerning
the book. The title and subject cards may be abbreviated to include only the most
essential information needed in locating the book; i.e.,call number, author and


Garmon, Ida
The book of Indian-crafts; illus. by
James Drew. 2d ed. Chicago, Goodman, 1964.
256p. illus. (American Indian Series.)

Describes crafts of all American Indian

1. Indians of North America. 1 Title.

Illustration No. 1


The book of Indian-crafts.
Garmon, Ida
The book of Indian-crafts; illus. by
James Drew. 2d ed. Chicago, Goodman, 1964.
256p. illus. (American Indian Series.)

Describes crafts of all American Indian

1. Indians of North America. 1 Title.

Illustration No. 2


Illustration No. 3

Illustration No. 4 is an analysis of the type of information usually found
on the author (or main entry) card. Since the author card is compiled from the
book it is describing, there will be many variations in the extent and type of
information found on author cards.

c Ill(S-, a-, -I

TI+sratoy -
Eol>-li <- -
No- of Pae4 s-

1T qcingS -

Garmon, Ida
The book of Indian-crafts; illus. by

James Drew 2d ed.

Chicapo. Goodman. 196h.

6p. l1us. (American Indian Series.)
Describes crafts of all American Indian

1. Indians of North America. 1 Title.


Illustration No. 4

In addition to the author (or main entry), the title, and the subject
card, there are also analytic cards. The analytic cards may also be author,
title, or subject. Analytic cards refer the user to parts of a book, rather
than to a complete book. An author analytic, for example, will refer the
user to those pages in a book (often a collection of stories or plays) which
the particular author wrote.



Describes crafts of all American Indian

1. Indians of North America. 1 Title.


* Pae or Plbl,4.on

- \oSe ^ ^ pll. .i.c"

_ ______~_I_




-- ~I- -- ---

Garmon, Ida.
The book of Indian-crafts; illus. by
James Drew. 2d ed. Chicago, Goodman, 1964.
256p. illus. (American Indian Series.)


Poppy Seed cakes, p.23-87 in:
Bennett, Colin
Best in Children's literature;
illus. by John Harvey. Harcourt, 1955.
452p. illus.

Illustration No, 5

A title analytic will refer the user to those pages in a book (again,
often a collection of stories of plays) containing the titled material; for
example, a particular story or play.

Poppy seed cakes
Clark, Margery, p.23-83 in:
Bennett, Colin comp.
Best in children's literature;
illus. by John Harvey. Harcourt, 1955.
452p. illus.


Illustration No. 6


i ~-X-tlll_ 141_1~---- .. IIL-_li-Ylt-LIII~_UYY~C --

I-- --------- -'- -- ---

A subject analytic will refer the user to those pages in a book on a
particular subject.


EROSION, p.66-124 in:
Williams, Benjamin
Our natural resources;
illus. with photographs by
James Gond. Knopf, 1963.
650p. illus. with photos.


Illustration No. 7

There are also special reference cards in the card catalog. One of these
is a "pseudonym" card. Some authors prefer not to use their real name in
writing and have chosen a "pen" name or pseudonym. An example familiar to all
is Samuel Clemens who chose the pseudonym of Mark Twain. When pseudonyms are
used, a pseudonym card needs to be made for the card catalog. It will refer
the user from the form of the author's name under which he may look to the
form that is used in the catalog. (See illustration No. 8.)

Mark Twain, pseud. of

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne, 1835-1910

Illustration No. 8



Other special reference cards in the card catalog are cross reference cards.
They are of two kinds; "see" and "see also." A "see" reference card refers a
user from a term which is not used to a term which is used in the catalog.





Illustration No. 9

A "see also" reference card refers the user to additional terms on related
material listed in the catalog. (See Illustration No. 10.)


see also



Illustration No. 10


~~_ ^1~__11

------------------- --~----l---l-Y-l -I-~--

Many libraries list all holdings of instructional materials except periodi-
cals in the card catalog. Vertical file material, filmstrips, records, tapes,
maps, globes, charts, and other instructional materials can then be located
quickly and easily through the card catalog. This practice of developing a
central catalog of holdings makes the task of the user who needs to locate all
kinds of material on a subject much simpler, and saves him a great amount of

Libraries use several methods of listing such material in the card catalog.
One way is to use a different colored catalog card for each type of instructional
material. Blue cards may be used to designate vertical file material; yellow
cards, films; salmon cards, recordings etc. It is easy to see that the colored
card system, however, is limited to the number of different colors available
through library supply houses.

Another method used by some librarians is to
catalog card with a different color for each type
This method allows a greater choice of colors and
ordering colored cards.

band the top of a regular
of instructional material.
may be more convenient than

A third method is to not use a color at all, but to clearly designate on
the regular card catalog the type of instructional material.

Regardless of the method used, the information typed on the card about the
instructional material is essentially the same for any of the three methods
described above.

Below are several sample catalog cards for various types of instructional


Information on this subject
can be found in the Vertical File.

Illustration No. 11
Illustration No. 11



Introduction to Percentages. Curriculum
films, 1958.
30 fr. color silent (No.216)

1. Mathematics


Illustration No. 12


Cinderella. Mercury
records, SLP 101, n.d.
1 side 12" 33 1/3 rpm 18:55

Reverse: Jack and the

1. Fairy Tales

Illustration No. 13


Cards for other types of instructional materials are similar. Regard-
less of whether the catalog cards used are colored, banded, or white, the
type of material (i.e. recordings, maps, tapes) is indicated in the call
number in the upper left corner of the card.



I _~ I_~_ _

Activities for Students

1. In what card catalog drawer in your library would you find the following
authors, titles, or subjects:

Victor Hugo
Art through the Ages
Abraham Lincoln
The Art of Cooking

f. Frontier and Pioneer Life
g. Music
h, The Story of our Calendar
i. Of Mice and Men
j. A Look at You

2. Using the card catalog, write the title and call number of one book by each
of the following authors.

a. Pearl Buck
b. Charlotte Bronte
c. Betty Cavanna
d. Mark Twain
e. Thomas Hardy
f, Gateau de Leeuw
g. JcA Gunther
h. John Tunis
i. James Fenimore Cooper
j. George Bernard Shaw

3. Find the meanings of the following abbreviations used on catalog cards:

d. enl.
e. front.
f. illus,

g. rev.
h. pseud.
i. biblio.

4, In your

notebook write the name of the publisher after each of the following
(If books listed are not in the card catalog of your library, sub-

Walden, by Henry David Thoreau.
The Hunchback of Notre Dame, by Victor Hugo
The Scarlet Letter, by N, Hawthorne
A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens
The Outline of History, by H. G. Wells
Little Women, by Louisa M. Alcott

5. Choose five author cards from the card catalog. In your notebook write the
call number, author, title, copyright date, and number of pages in each book.

6. What are the three main types of catalog cards for most books in the library?
How can you recognize each kind?



7. In your notebook, identify the items found on the catalog card below:

M Morgan, Albert
The Wonder book of medicine;
illus. by Irving Watson. 2d ed, rev.
Chicago, Ill. American Press, 1964.
640p. illus.

i. Medicine I. Title

a. 610
b. Morgan, Albert
c. 610
d. Number of pages
e. c1964
f. Publisher
g. Irving Watson
h. 2d ed., rev.
i. Chicago, Ill.
j. Title of book

8. Name five types of instructional materials, other than books, for which
cards may be included in the card catalog.

9. Name two ways other instructional materials can be distinguished from
books in the card catalog.

10. Learn the meaning of the following terms:

a. Annotation
b. Author
c. Author card
d. Call number
e. Card catalog
f. Catalog card
g. Classification number
h. Copyright date
i. Cutter number
j. Edition
k. Instructional materials,
1. Library of Congress card
m. Main entry card
n. Pseudonym
o. Subject heading
p. Tracing
q. Wilson


Processing Materials

General Information


The following is generally accepted procedure. Your librarian will
indicate procedures that are different in your library.

1. Check books with invoice. Indicate on invoice that book was received by
placing a check mark before the title.

2. From the invoice record the following information on the order card and
in the book:

a. On order card

(1) Record date of invoice, source where book was secured, and cost
of book after discount. Check retail price of book on invoice
to see if it corresponds with retail price on order card. If
it does not correspond, change order card price.

(2) Leave order card in book.

b. In book

On the inside of first page after the title page write in
pencil the date of invoice, source where book was purchased,
list price of book, and the cost of book after discount.
(See diagram No. 1.)

3. If book is O.S. (Out-of-stock) or O.P. (out-of-print), note on order card
and refile card for future use.

Diagram No. 1


h. Open books properly (See diagram 2)

a. Hold book with spine on table.
b. Press front cover down until it touches table.
c. Press back cover down until it touches the table while holding the
pages upright.
d. Press open a few pages at the front and then the back until all
have been pressed down.
e. If pages are uncut, cut with a paper knife or letter opener.
f. Check books for correct pagination and assembling. Books with
imperfections should be returned to seller.

Diagram No.2

$. Stamp with library ownership stamt in four places as follows, keeping
the stamp straight:
a. Center bottom of inside front cover.
b. Center bottom of page after title page.
c. Center bottom of "secret" page (usually page 21 or 51).
d. Center top of inside back cover.

6. Books are now ready for librarian to classify. If Wilson or LC (Library of
Congress) catalog cards have already arrive, and librarian has checked them
for preferred classification, these cards may be inserted in the books, and
books are ready for the next step. If catalog cards have not been ordered,
they should be at this time. Your librarian will explain the procedure fo

7. After librarian has classified book:

Classification or call number should be marked in pencil in upper left
corner of back of title page, 1" in and 1" down. (See diagram No. 3.)

Diagram No. 3

8. Record titles in accession book, if one is used; otherwise record accession
number on order card.

9. Record accession number at the bottom center margin of page following title
page of book. (See diagram No. 4.) Some libraries also record the accession
number on the secret page. The accession number should be recorded at least
1" up from the center bottom of the page.

Diagram No. 4

10. Books with Wilson or LC cards will need the call number and any omitted
tracings typed on the cards. The business record will be typed on the celf-
list card. (See section on Clerical Practices, Illustration No. 11.) Your
librarian will explain these typing procedures to you.

11. For books without Wilson cards, the librarian will probably want to type the
main entry card so that the remaining cards may be typed from this. Remember
that the shelf-list card will contain the business record for the book.
(See section on Clerical Practices, Illustration No. 11.)

12. After catalog cards have been typed, insert book card in book pocket and
type the following information: (See diagram No. 5.)

a. In upper left corner of the book card and the book pocket type classi-
fication number with first letter of author's surname under first digit.

b. In upper right corner of each, type accession number.

c. Type the author's name, surname first, and the title of the
lines provided for them. The same information may be typed

F 24h
Farley, Walter
Blank StalIi nn
F 244
F Farley, Walter
Black Stallion

(School library)
(stamp here )

book on the
on the book

Diagram 5


P -1

13. If book pocket has not been imprinted with the library's name, stamp
book pocket with library stamp.

lh. Paste book pocket on inside of book cover, " from bottom edge.
Paste entire pocket.

Exception: If plastic cover is used for book jacket, both pocket and
date due slip are pasted on page opposite book cover. Sometimes the
date due slip is pasted on the front of the book pocket in such a
manner that vital information on the pocket is not obscured.

15. Paste date slip on page facing book cover, " from bottom edge. Paste
top edge only.

16. Print call number on book spine, leaving at least a 1" lower margin.
An electric stylus, white ink, or some other method may be used.

If spine is too narrow to letter, follow practice used in your library.
Some libraries prefer lettering in lower left corner of front of book
(see diagram No. 6). Others prefer upper right corner of back of book.

17. Shellac the book using fresh shellac or book lacquer, properly thinned.
Apply with long even strokes. Allow to dry.

18. If plastic book jacket covers are used, print call number on blank label
with pen and black ink, or type; paste label to book jacket spine; insert
jacket in plastic cover; and attach to front and back book covers, at top
and bottom, with tape.

19. Shelve books according to call numbers.

20. Catalog cards and other cards are ready to be filed.



Procedures for processing filmstrips vary from library to library; however,
the following is one generally accepted procedure.

1. Check filmstrips with invoice. Indicate on invoice that filmstrip was
received by placing a check before the title.

2. If order card has been used, record the date of invoice, source where
filmstrip was secured, and cost.

3, Filmstrips are now ready for the librarian to classify. Some librarians
classify and arrange filmstrips by Dewey Decimal number; others classify
and arrange filmstrips by order of acquisition; others may use still another
system. The method used here is arrangement by Dewey Decimal.

4. After librarian has classified the filmstrip, the classification number may
be marked on the top of the filmstrip can, according to directions by the

5$ Record filmstrip in filmstrip accession book if used; otherwise record
accession number on order card.

6. Record classification number on order card.

7. Cards are now ready to be typed for filmstrip. Usually there are three
cards typed; a title card that is used for the main entry, a subject card,
and a shelf-list card (which may also serve as the accession record). (See
unit on clerical practices.)

The main entry card will often be made up by the librarian and will include
some or all of the following information:

a. Designation that it is a filmstrip by using the word "filmstrip" or
the abbreviation "FS" above the classification number.

b. Classification number

c. Title of filmstrip

d. Imprint

e. Number of frames, (with a special reference if frames are double rather
than single).

f. Color or black and white

g, Silent or with sound disc

h. Any manuals or accompanying guides

i. Annotation

j. Grade level, if desired


The subject card can be a duplicate of the main entry card, or it can omit
most of the bibliographic information found on the main entry card; in either
case, the subject is typed (following proper indentation and form rules) above
the title.

The shelf-list card can be a duplicate of the main entry card, or it can
omit most of the bibliographic information found on the main entry card: in
either case, the accession information will be added to this card. (Sse unit
on clerical practices.)

8. a, The title of the filmstrip is printed on one side of a small tag; the
classification number and accession number is printed on the other
side; the tag, with looped string attached, is placed inside the film-
strip can. If the classification number has not been printed on the
top of the can, it should be done now.

Note: The above procedure is used by some libraries to facilitate
circulation. A board with hooks and room numbers, or teachers'
names, is used. When a filmstrip is checked out, the tag is removed
from the can and placed on the hook corresponding to the room where
the filmstrip is being taken. When the filmstrip is returned, the tag
is replaced in the can.


b. A book card is typed for the filmstrip and filed with other filmstrip
book cards. These cards are usually arranged as the filmstrips are

9. Some libraries letter (with electric stylus and white transfer paper) the
classification number and the filmstrip, approximately 1" from end of
filmstrip. The lettering is then shellaced over.

10. If filmstrip has accompanying manual, letter classification number in
upper right corner. Stamp with library ownership stamp, and circulate
as a book, but file with non-book material.

11. Catalog cards and order cards are ready to be filed.

Maps, Globes, Charts

1 6 Same as procedures for filmstrips. Procedures will vary from library
to library.

7. Main entry card will contain some or all of the following information:
(See unit on Clerical Practices.)

a. Designation of type of material above classification number.

b. Classification number.

c. Editor, cartographer.

d. Title, format.

e. Imprint.


f, Size (cm. or inches)

g. Color.

h, Scale.

i. Special features.

Subject card same as for filmstrips

Shelf-list card same as for filmstrips.

8. Every map, chart, globe should be clearly labeled where the label can be
seen easily when stored. Label should indicate classification number and
indication of the storage place.

Activities for Students

1. What information is transferred from invoice to order card in processing

2. What information is written in the book being processed?

3. Practice opening books as if they were new.

4. Where does your library have books stamped with ownership stamp?

5. If your library has an accession book, write the type of information
included in it.

6. Practice typing book cards, using "P" slips.

7. Practice lettering with equipment owned by your library until you become
skilled in this operation.

8. Make note of how procedures for cataloging filmstrips vary in your library
from the handbook.

9, Make note of how procedures for cataloging maps and charts vary in your
library from this handbook.

10. Become familiar with following terms:

a. Accession number

b. Accession record

c, Annotation

d, Audio-visual materials

e. Book card

f. Book jacket


g. Call number

h. Card catalog

i. Catalog card

j. Classification number

k. Collating

1. Date due slip

m. Imprint

n. Invoice

o. Main entry card

p, Processing

q. Shelf-list card

r, Shelf-list card file

s. Title card

to Tracing

u. Wilson cards



Filing Catalog Cards

General Information

1. Arrange all cards in alphabetical order by the first word on the top line,
disregarding initial articles a, an, the. "Arrange word by word, alphabeti-
zing letter by letter to the end of each word." A.L.A. Rules for Filing
Catalog Cards.

2. Follow the general rule, "Nothing comes before something."


3. Arrange same word used for different kinds of headings in order of person,
place, subject, title.
Entries of same word followed by a comma precede two word entries.

Love, Katherine
Love is a special way of
Love is forever

Disregard kind of entry and form
by word following entry word.

Love is a special way
of feeling
Love is forever
Love, Katherine

Washington, Booker Taliaferro
Washington, George, President U.S.
Washington, Martha (Dandridge) Custis
Wash ii--gt r.-
Washington, D.C.
Washington marches on
Washington's birthday

of heading and arrange alphabetically

Washington, Martha (Dandridge) Custis
Washington, Booker Taliaferro
Washington, D.C.
Washington, George, President U.S.
Washington marches on
Washington's birthday

U0 Arrange in correct alphabetical order names that vary in spelling. Use
"see also' cards.

An^.r;'. see also the spelling Ail.: -..: i Anderssen, Anderssono

5. Arrange abbreviations as if spelled completely.

M' Mc as if spelled Mac
Mrs. as if spelled Mistress
St. as if spelled saint

Explanatory references should be made when necessary.

6. Arrange elisions as printed disregarding the apostrophe.

D'Arcy, Alice
D'Aulaire, Ingri
O'Brien, Eleanor
O Hara

see Aulaire, Ingri d'

7. Arrange compound names as separate words

Saint Exupery
Saint Francis
St Lawrence River
San Francisco
San Martin
San Nicolas Island

8. Arrange names compounded with prefixes as one word.

De Angeli
De Borhegyi
De Jong
De La Mare
Du Bois
Van Buren
Van Dyck
Van Loon

9. Arrange hyphenated words as separate words disregarding the hyphen.

The red balloon Folk art
The Red-bud tree Folk-dances
Red-chicken Folklore

Arrange as one word hyphenated words with prefix such as anti, co, inter,
pre, post, etc.

Anti-slavery tracts
Inter-collegiate association

10. Disregard prefix titles in personal names except to distinguish between

Capt., Dr., Mrs., Sir

Do not disregard prefix titles in book titles

11. Alphabetize numerals as if spelled out. Spell as spoken and omit "and"
except at decimal point between two digits and in mixed numbers.

The five Chinese brothers One God
The 500 hats of Bartholomew Cubbins One horse farm
Flack, Marjorie 100 poems about people
The flag book 100 story poems
1 is one
One little Indian

12. Disregard apostrophe in possessive case and all punctuation marks in
alphabetizing titles.

Boyd, Jessie
The boys' book of communications
Boys' book of frogs, toads, and salamanders
The boy's life of Edison
The boys' second book of radio and electronics

13. Arrange subdivisions of subject alphabetically disregarding punctuation

Horses across the ages
Horses, Fossil
Horses History
Horses, horses, horses
Horses pictures, illustrations, etc.
Horses Stories

Exception History of country arranged chronologically

U.S. History
U.S. History Poetry
U.S. History Colonial Period
U.S. History Colonial Period Biography
U.S. History French and Indian War, 1755-1763
U.S. History Revolution
U.S. History War of 1812
U.S. History Civil War

14. Arrange subdivisions under place alphabetically disregarding punctuation.

New York Central Railroad
New York (City)
New York (City) Fiction
New York (City) History
New York (City) Metropolitan Opera Fiction
New York Herald Tribune
New York (State) Fiction

15. Arrange identical titles by edition or date. Most recent edition or date

16. Arrange publications of government departments together. Alphabetize by

17. Arrange Bible entries in the following order:

Bible Old Testament
Bible New Testament


Arrange all entries in straight alphabetical order.

18. Arrange Shakespeare entries in the following order:

Collected works in one alphabet.
Separate plays in one alphabet using short title.


Examples of catalog cards arranged in the simplest alphabetical order. Those
entries in all capital letters designate subject cards.

ABC bunny
ABC of cars and trucks
Abe Lincoln grows up
Adam of the road
Adams, Abigail (Smith), 174h-1818
Adams, Samuel Hopkins, 1871-1958
Anderson, Hans Christian, 1805-1875
Anderson, Clarence William, 1891-
Anderson, Erica, 1914-
Andrews, Roy Chapman, 1884-

Andy and the lion
Andy's wonderful telescope
Angelo, the naughty one
Angelo, Valenti, 1897-
Animals in armor
Animals of the Bible
Animals of the world
(as a book by Brooke, Leonar
(as a book by Brooks, Walter
(a book by Brown, Marcia)
Animals that help us
Animals without backbones
Bible readings for boys and girls

i Leslie, 1862-1940)

Rollin, 1886-

Boy and a battery
Boy of the Islands
Boy of the pyramids
Boy sailor
Boy with a harpoon
Boyd, Claude C.
Boyd-Orr, John Boyd Orr, 1st baron, 1880-
A boy's book of frogs, toads, and salamanders
Boys- book of magnetism
A boy's book of verse
Boys' first book of radio and electronics
Boys' own book of geat inventions
Bradford, William, 1588-1675


Cat came fiddling and other rhymes of childhood
The cat in the hat
The cat in the hat comes back
The cat who went to heaven
Catherine II, Empress of Russia, 1729-1796
Catholic Church
The day we saw the sun come up
De Angeli, Marguerite (Lofft) 1889-
De Borhegyi, Suzanne
Defoe, Daniel, 1661? 1731
DeJong, Dela, 1911-
DeJong, Meindert
(A book entitled Along came a-dog
DeJong, Meindert
(A book entitled The house of sixty fathers)
DeJong, Meindert
(A book entitled The last little cat
DeKruif, Paul
De La Mare, Walter
Delaware Indians
Freeman, Mae (Blacker) 1907-
The French Foreign Legion
Friedman, Estelle
A friend is someone who likes you
Friend, J. Newton
Friendly animals
One-act plays
One God
One horse farm
101 best action games for boys
One hundred plays for children
Saint Exupery, Antoine de
Saint Francis and the animals


Shakespeare (works by)
SHAKESPEARE (works about)
Shakespeare, William Adaptations


Booker .Taliaferra



Washington marches on
Zim, Herbert S.


American Library Association. A.L.A. Rules for Filing Catalog Cards,
Chicago: American Library Association, 19h2.
Douglas, M.P. Teacher-Librarian's Handbook. Chicago: American Library
Association, 1949.
Gardiner, Jewell, Administering Library Service in the elementary
school. Chicago: American Library Association, 195h.

Activities for Students

1, Arrange in correct order the following:

Books and reading
Book of famous ships
Books that count
Book collecting
Booksellers and bookselling


Books of English essays
Book scorpion
Book of famous ships

2. Arrange in correct order the following:

American Library Institute
Dr. Norton's wife
Mr. Emmanuel
Mrs. Miniver
St.Lawrence River
Saintsbury, George Edward Bateman
Mistress Margaret
American Library Association
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Mr. Pim passes by
Mistress Margaret
Saint Joan
AoLA. catalog
Doctor Luke
Miss Lulu Bett
Doctors on horseback

3. How are numerals in titles of books arranged?

4. How are books by the same author arranged?

5. When the same word serves for author, subject, and title, how are the
cards arranged?

6. Arrange in correct order the following:

Happy-thoughts hall
Happy thoughts
Happy home

7. Ask your librarian to let you file some cards.



Reference materials

General Information

The reference material listed in this section is not meant to be
inclusive, but is representative of the reference tools found in most
libraries. This represents a limited list. It will serve to acquaint
users with general reference tools, and will help ti:em to become skilled
users of reference tools.


The following represents two bibliographies of books useful in
selecting materials for children and young people.

Children's Catalog. Latest ed. N.Y., Wilson.
Contains several thousand titles recommended for elementary
school libraries. Those recommended for first purchase are
starred. Arrangement of books is by Oewey Decimal classification,
and approximate grading is given.

Standard Catalog for High School Libraries. Latest ed. N.Y. Wilson.
Contains several thousand books recommended for high school
libraries. Those recommended for first purchase are double starred,
and those recommended for special consideration are given one star.
Arrangement is similar to that in the Children's Catalog.


An index has been defined as "a systematically arranged list giving
enough information about each item to enable it to be identified
and traced."n The indexes listed below are periodical indexes.

Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, 1900- N.Y., Wilson.
Indexes approximately 130 periodicals, most of which are popular
enough to be found in the average niblic library. Author and subject
entries are given for each entry with emphasis on subject and
title entries are included.for stories. A dictionary arrangement
is used.

Abridged Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, 1935- N.Y. '/ilson.
Approximately 35 periodicals are indexed in the Abridged Readers'
Guide. The form is the same as for the larre Readers' Guide. It is
kept up-to-date by monthly supplements, except in July and August.


An encyclopedia has been defined as "a systematic summary of all the
information significant to mankind."

Comprehensive adult encyclopedias includes

Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago, Encyclopaedia Britannica.
This is the oldest of the modern English language encyclopedias.

cyclopedia Americana, N.Y., Americana,

Collier's Encyclopedia N.Y., Collier.

One-volume or two-volume encyclopedias include:

Columbia Encyclopedia, in One Volume; ed, by William Bridgewater
and Elizabeth J Sherwood. 2d ed. N.Y., Columbia Univ. Pr.

Lincoln Library of Essential Information. Buffalo, N.Y., Frontier

Encyclopedias useful in elementary, junior high, and even
senior high include theses

Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia. Chicago, Compton.

World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago, Field Enterprises.

Britannica Junior. Chicago, Encyclopaedia Britannica.

A classified school encyclopedia, wherein the material is
arranged by such major classifications as science, plant life,
animal life, literature, etc., iss

Book of Knowledge; the Children's Encyclopedia. N.Y.,
Grolier cc.


According to the A.L.A. Glossary of Library Terms an annual
is a "yearly publication that reviews events or developments during
a year", and a yearbook is "an annual volume of current information
in descriptive and/or statistical form,"

All of the major adult encyclopedias issue annual supplements.
These includes

Britannica Book of the Year; a Record of the March of Events,
Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica.

The Americana Annual; an Encyclopedia of Current Events, N.Y.,
Americana Corporation

Collier's Yearbook; Covering the Events of the Year. N.Y., Collier.

Compton's Yearbook. Chicago, Compton

World Book Encyclopedia Annual Supplement; Reviewing Important Events
and Develpments o hicago, Field Enterprises.

The Book of Knowledge Annual. N.Y., Grolier Society


The almanac is an annual compend of statistics and facts,
some retrospective and others current. Usually one will find a
record of the year's events in chronological order, or classified
by the divisions of human endeavor.

Information Please Almanac. N.Y., Farrar, Strauss.
Presents information under 18 divisions: news record of the year,
the United States, United States mileage maps, crossword puzzle
guide, American economy, who's who, associations and societies,
astronomy and calendars, other nations, world maps, science,
religion, chronology, aviation, United Nations, awards, sports,
and index.

The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1868- .N.Y., World
Telegram and Sun.
The index is in the beginning of the book, following the
table of contents. Comparable in content to the Information
Please Almanac.


The Statesman's Year-Book; Statistical and Historical Annual of the
States of the World, 1864- ; ed. by S.H.Steinberg.
London, Macmillan.
Book is divided into four parts (1) International organizations,
(2) British Commonwealth and Empire, (3) United States of
America, and (4) other countries, alphabetically arranged.
For each country information is provided about government, area
and population, religion, education, justice and crime, social
welfare, finance, defense, production and industry, commerce,
communications, banking, money and weights.


U. S. Bureau of the Census. Statistical Abstract of the United States.
1878- (annual). Washington, Govt. Printing Office.
This book might be regarded either as a yearbook or a handbook,
and "presents in a single volume important summary statistics
on the industrial, social, political, and economic organization
of the United States and includes a representative selection from
most of the important statistical publications." Significant
statistics are given under broad headings like area and population,
vital statistics, crime, immigration, education, climate.


Dictionaries and language books are the key sources for meanings,
spellings, pronunciations, usage and synonyms.

Two American unabridged dictionaries are:

Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language.
Springfield, Mass., Merriam.
The oldest and most famous American dictionary.

Funk and Wagnalls New Sandard Dictionary of the English Language.
N,7,-.,, Funk & Wagn-alls. ..


Webster's Biographical Dictionary, Springfield, Mass., Merriam.
This is "A dictionary of names of noteworthy persons, with
pronounciations and concise biographies". There are over
0,000 brief biographies, including some of living persons.

Who's Who, 1849- (annual). London, Black
A British publication, and includes-biographies of noteworthy
British persons. It does for Britain what Who's Who in America
does for America. It includes foreigners oT inter-ational note.

Who's Who in America, 1899- (biennial). Chicago, Marquis.
A biographical dictionary of notable living men and women.
Besides Americans, certain foreigners who have identified
themselves with American life or interest are included. A
geographic index is a added feature.

Current Biography, 1940- (Monthly except August). N.Y.,
Issued monthly except August, this booklet presents
readable biographical sketches of people in the news. All
fields of human endeavor are represented and the information
is drawn from newspapers, magazines, books and from the
biographees themselves.


Activities for studentss
4 '4

1. What reference books in your library would best answer questions in
the following subjects:

a. Science

b. Social studies

c. Language arts

2. Identify each of the following:

a. Abridged Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature

b. Britannica

c. World Almanac

d. Webster's Biographical Dictionary

3. Name seven kinds of information found in an unabridged dictionary.

h. Give the titles of four encyclopedias in your library.

5. What is the "Hall of Fame?" Where can the answer to this question be
found? (Include name of reference book, and page.)

6. Tell the difference between an abridged and an unabridged dictionary.

7. List the different kinds of dictionaries found in your library.

8. Become familiar wJith those reference books in specific subject fields.in
your library.

9. In your notebook, match the word in column 1 with the word of similar
meaning in column 2.

1. inhibited a. unequalled
2. aperture b. improvement
3. callow c. unalterable
h. inimitable d. saw
5. megalomania e. immature
6, debility f. assumed
7. amelioration g. opening
8. irrevocable h. delusion of grandeur
9. portend i. weakness
10. obtrusive j. lessen
11. postulated k. forward
12. described i. foretell

10. Wiho writes an encyclopedia? Read the introduction in the first volume
of an encyclopedia for this information.

11. How are encyclopedias kept up to date?

12. Compare the arrangement of World Book Encyclopedia and Compton's

13. Study the encyclopedias in your library, and list one as an example
of each of the following characteristics

a. Long scholarly articles
b. Fact index in back of each volume
c. Brief articles arranged alphabetically
d. Excellent bibliographies at end of articles
ea Kept up to date by annual supplement

ll.. Give the main characteristics of a one-volume encyclopedia, if there
is one in your library.

15. List the kinds of atlases in your library,

16. List the specific information found in one of the major atlases in your
library. Include name of atlas.

17. Classify the following titles by listing the type of reference it is;
i.e., handbook, annual, etc.

a. World Almanac
bo information Please
c, Statistical Abstract of the U.S.
d. Statesman's Yearbook
e. Compton s .Yearbook
f. The American Annual
go Britannica Book of the Year

18. Become familiar with the following terms

a. Abridged
b, Almanac
c. Annual
d. Bibliography
e. Biography
f, Handbook
go Indexes
h. Unabridged
i. Yearbook

-) 4


Magazines, Newspapers, Government Publications

General Information

Magazines, newspapers, and government publications are in the class of
instructional materials called "serials," A serial is a publication issued
in successive parts or parts of series at more or less regular intervals.
Magazines, often referred to as periodicals, newspapers, and government publi-
cations, make up most but not all of the class of "serials".

Most library collections will include a wide variety of magazines, several
newspapers, and an impressive number of government publications. Some of the
numerous reasons for this are:

1. They provide current and/or historical information on many subjects.

2. They provide written commentaries and diverse opinions on various subjects.

3. They often appeal to reluctant "book readers" because of the abbreviated
length of articles, profuse illustrations, and attractive appearance.

I. They are valuable in reference and research work.

50 They often provide material not available in any other form.

6. They are relatively inexpensive.

Magazines and newspapers are familiar to most of us. Government publications
may be less familiar to us. A government publication is one issued by any govern-
mental agency; local, state, federal, international, or foreign. Most governmental
publications are issued by the U.S. Government, and most of these are listed as
they are published in the United States Government Publications Monthly Catalog.
It is usually referred to as the Monthly Catalog and is published by the Office
of the Superintendent of Documents, the official purchasing agency. The Office
of Superintendent of Documents also issues a free semi-monthly list, "Selected
United States Government Publications." Government publications are usually
processed as vertical file material.

Newspapers are usually checked in on specially prepared cards (see illus-
tration). They are put out for general use for a specified time, filed for
reference for a certain length of time, then often clipped for vertical file
material before being discarded,

Magazines are processed in various ways. One method for processing, circu-
lating, and storing magazines is given below:

a. Check incoming magazines before opening to see if they are addressed
to the library.

b. Remove wrappers carefully so that no part of the magazine is cut or

c. Run through them quickly to see that they are not damaged.

d. Stamp outside of lower part of the covers and first pages of the text
with library ownership stamp.

e. Check in magazines. A list of magazines subscribed to is kept in each
library. This alphabetical list is kept on cards. There is one card
for each title. The following information is contained on each card:
(1) name of magazine; (2) date that each issue is due; (3) date the
subscription expires; (4) spaces for checking when each issue is re-
ceived. (See illustration)

f. After magazines have been checked, remove the previous issues from
the magazine racks and replace them with the latest issues received
by the library.

g. Arrange in alphabetical order by the title on the magazine rack.
Arrangements may vary in different libraries.

h. Place back issues in their proper places in the magazine files. Place
the latest issue removed from the racks on the top of the file of that
magazine which is shelved in the magazine storage space.

i. Back issues of magazines are made available to students and faculty for
both recreation and research. Magazines which are not kept over a
period of years for reference purposes are checked, clipped and filed,
and the remainder of the magazine is discarded.




Title Due

Year Vol. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. T.P.&I.

No. Copies Depts. Indexed in



(Publisher's name) (Publisher's address)
List price Vola. begin Bind
Ordered of.................................................. Date ........... Expires........... Cost...................
Ordered of............................... ............ Date.................. Expires.................Cost...................
Ordered of .......................... .....................Date ............ Expires............ Cost..................
Ordered of...................................................Date ............... Expires ........... Cost............... ...
Ordered of .......................... ........................ D at ........... Expires.................. Cost...................
O ordered of ........................ ........................ D ate.................. E xpires.................. C ost...................
Ordered of.................................................Date........... Expires..................Cost...................
O ordered of...................................................D ate ..................E xpire ........... Cost ...................
Ordered of............................................... Date............. Expres..............Cost...................
Ordered of..........................................Date...Date.......... Expires ............... Cost...................
Short 1st Notice sent 2nd Notice sent 3rd Notice sent





Title No. Copies Expires
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 13141516 171819 202122 2324 2526 27282930 31
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 19 101111213141516171819202122232425262728293031


Ordered of Price



ABiY Dae BindD RNT-- IN ..A.



Activities for Students

1. List all the magazines subscribed to by the library in which you are
receiving your training,,unless this is a prohibitive number..

2. Classify the magazines subscribed to by your library according to
general content; i.e.,art, music, current events, homemaking, etc.

3. Explore the different sections of several magazines and list some of
the articles included in each.

U. Read or examine a newspaper and a magazine in which a recent news
event has been treated. Compare the treatment of the two articles.

5. List two advantages that magazines have over newspapers as reference

6. List two advantages that newspapers have over magazines as reference

7. Locate and examine several government publications. Describe format
and style of writing.

8, Examine and become familiar with the "Monthly Catalog" and/or the
"Selected List of Government Publications."

9. List the newspapers your library receives.

10. Become familiar with following terms:

a. Government publications

b. Periodicals

c. Reader's Guide

d. Serials

e. Vertical file.


The Vertical File

General Information

The vertical file, sometimes called an information file, contains any
materials which will not stand up alone on a shelf. This may be pamphlets,
pictures, clippings, brochures, etc. Materials are usually arranged alpha-
betically by subject and are usually kept in manila folders or envelopes in
a file cabinet. A book card, pocket and date due slip are pasted on the
folder or envelope for circulating.

The materials for this file are gathered from many places, namely,
magazines, advertising agencies, cities, foreign countries, places of historical
interest, newspapers, etc. Two tools for keeping material up-to-date are the
Vertical File Index from H. W. Wilson Company and the Guide for Free Curriculum
Materials from Educators Progress Service, Randolph, Wisconsin. Your librarian
will advise you of other sources.

The material in the vertical file must be carefully evaluated as to need,
usability, and reliability. It should be "weeded" periodically with new
materials replacing the old.

The preparation of this material is usually done according to the
librarian's discretion. Some complete pages making one article can be stapled
together. Pictures, and short articles, can be mounted on lightweight index
paper or construction paper. Articles which cannot be replaced can be mounted
between pieces of acetate. Pamphlets and folders should be reinforced to
preserve them longer.

Any material clipped from a magazine or newspaper should have the souce
and date written on the clipping. Otherwise, the material is of no value.

Vertical file material is checked out according to policies established
by the librarian.

Activities for Students

1. Where is the vertical file material found in your library?

2. How is the material checked out in your library?

3. What is your responsibility for maintaining the vertical file?

4. List some of the subjectSfound in the vertical file that are of
particular interest to you.

5. How many different types of materials can you find in the vertical
file, such as pamphlets, clippings, etc.?


Clerical Practices

General Information

Typing Catalog Cards

If printed catalog cards are not available, it is necessary for the
librarian to type catalog cards for some of the books. The information which
appears on the catalog card is obtained primarily from the title page. The
copyright date of the books is usually found on the back of the title page,
and is written c1963 if the book was copyrighted in the year 1963. Paging
and other information which cannot be obtained from the title page is ascer-
tained from examining the book itself.

There are certain rules to follow in typing catalog cards. A good
typist can soon master these typing rules. Study the rules and examples
given below before attempting to type a catalog card. Often the librarian
will type the author card or shelf-list card, giving all pertinent information
and leave the other necessary cards for the typist to complete. Each book will
usually have an author, title, one or more subject cards, and a shelf-list card.
The main entry card, or author card, will contain "tracings" which indicate the
other types of cards necessary for the complete cataloging of the book. These
"tracings" will be found at the bottom of the author card, or on the back of
the author card.

Typing Rules

1. General Rules

One basic form should be used for typing catalog cards and shelf-list
cards. The following information is found on the catalog cards: call
number, author's name, title of book, editor's name (if edited), illus-
trator's name (if illustrated), place of publication, publisher's name,
copyright date, number of pages, number of volumes (if more than one
volume), if illustrated, an indication of this, a summary of the contents
(sometimes omitted), and the tracings. A common practice is to type
the tracings on the back of the catalog card.

C Cunningham, Ruth, 1907-1956
The importance of people: informal sketches.
New York, Teachers College, Columbia University,
39p. illus.

1. Education -- Addresses, essays, lectures.
1. Title.

Illustration No. 1

2. Placement of items

a. Classification number at left edge of card on third typing line.
b. Book number at left edge of card on fourth typing line. (Book
number refers to the second line of the call number, which, in all
cases except individual biography classified by B, is the first
initial of the author's last name.)
c. Main entry on eighth space from edge of card, and on fourth typing
d. Second indention is on the twelfth space from the left.
e. Second line of main entry begins at the third indention.
f. Added entries begin at second indention on the third typing line.
g. Two line headings for subject or other added entry headings
begin on the second typing line, at second indention, with the
second line of the heading on the third typing line at the
second indention.

3. Spaces

a. 1 space follows a comma and a semi-colon.
b. 2 spaces after a period, exclamation point, interrogation point,
c. 2 spaces separate the various parts of the collation.
d. 2 spaces separate collation from series note.
e. 4 spaces separate complete title of book from imprint.
f. 0 spaces between number of pages and p., between number of volumes
and v.
g. 1 line is skipped before first note. Notes begin at second
indention, with second line of a note at first indention.

U. Sample cards

a. Main entryunder first author.

K Kirkendall, Lester Allen, 1903-
Student councils in action, by Lester A. Kirk-
endall and Franklin R. Zeran. New York, Cart-
well House, 1953.

1. Self-government (in education) 1. Zeran,
Franklin Royalton, 1906- joint author.
11. Title.

Illustration No. 2

b. Added entry (subject)

K Kirkendall, Lester Allen, 1903-
Student councils in action, by Lester A, Kirk-
endall and Franklin R. Zeran. New York, Cart-
well House, 1953.


Illustration No. 3
c. Added entry (title)

371o59 Student councils in action
K Kirkendall, Lester Allen, 1903-
Student councils in action, by Lester A, Kirk-
endall and Franklin R. Zeran. New York, Cart-
well House, 1953.


d. Added entry (joint author) Illustration No. 4

71.59 Zeran, Franklin Royalton, 1906- jt. author
K Kirkendall, Lester Allen, 1903-
Student councils in action, by Lester A. Kirk-
endall and Franklin R. Zeran. New York, Cart-
well House, 1953.


5--55- iusiraLtin 1uno. NO

e. Main entry under title (Hanging Indention Form of Card)
Contents note

P The Patriotic anthology; introduced by Carl Van
Daren. New York, Doubleday, Doran, 1941.
Contents.-The discovery and early history of
America.-The revolution.-Post-revolution to 1815.-
1815-1860.-The civil war.-Lincoln.-1865-1900.-
1900-1914t.-World war.-Contemporary America.-Basic
American ideals.


f. An extension card (for work requiring more than one card)
Note and contents note

C Clark, Barrett Harper, 1890- ed.
Representative one-act plays, by British and
Irish authors. Boston, Little, Brown, 1935,
"Companion volume to 'Representative one-act
plays by American authors,' edited by Margaret
Gardner Mayorga and published in 1919.0--Pref.
Contents.-The widow of Wasdale Head, by Sir A.
Pinero,-The goal, by H.A. Jones.-Salome, by 0.

O (continued on next card)

Illustration No. 7
(card 2)


Clark, Barrett

Harper, ed. Representative one-
by British and Irish authors...

Contents Cont.
Wilde.-The man in the stalls, by A. Sutro.-'Op-o'
me thumb, by F. Fenn and R, Price.-The impertinence
of the creature, by C. Gordon-Lennox.-The step-
mother, by A. Bennett.-Rococo, by G. Barker.-
James and John, by G. Cannan.-The snow man, by L.
Housman.-Fancy free, by S. Houghton.


-56- Illustration No. 8

Illustration No. 6

g. Author analytic card

Illustration No. 9

h. Title analytic card

The goal
822.08 Jones, H. A., p 86-116 in
C Clark, Barrett Harper, 1890- ed.
Representative one-act plays, by British
and Irish authors. Boston, Little, Brown,

Illustration No. 10

Jones, H. A.
822.08 The Goal, p 86-1h6 in
C Clark, Barrett Harper, 1890- ed.
Representative one-act plays, by British
and Irish authors. Boston, Little, Brown,

i. Shelf-list card. Note: The shelf-list card below contains the
following business record: accession number, date of bill, vendor,
price. Kinds of business information included on the shelf-list
card will vary from library to library.

Illustration No. 11

j. Main entry card for filmstrips


Birds of the world.
films, 1964.
65 fr. si. col.

Young America

Describes bird families
all sections of the world.
information on migatory and


1. Bird migration.

Illustration No. 12


C Cunningham, Ruth, 1907-1956
The importance of people: informal sketches.
New York, Teachers College, Columbia University
39p illus.

6307 Baker 4-14-64 $3.12

1. Education--Adresses, essays, lectures.
1. Title


K. Main entry card for recordings

Illustration No. 13

1. Main entry card for maps

Our fifty states.
$6 x 64" steel

C.S. Hammond,

roller, wall mount

1. U.S. Geography

Illustration No. 14

811 Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth
Paul Revere's ride. Popular
Science Monthly, Studiodisc C107-A, n.d.
1 record. 2 sides. 12". 78 r.p.m.


Activities for Students

1. Become acquainted with information found on catalog cards.

2. Observe and discuss spacings on the ample catalog cards.

3. Practice typing catalog cards from copy slips or "P" slips, (may be
obtained from librarian), using the outline cards as guides. Watch

U. Compare the title pages of several books with the main entry cards
in the card catalog. Practice typing the main entry card from the
title page of a book. Study some of the reference books listed to
verify your work.

5. Typing catalog cards is one of the most important duties you will
perform. It is essential you practice this phase of your work until
you have mastered it. Turn in as many catalog cards typed on "P"
slips as possible. Master all the examples.

6. Learn the meaning of the following terms:

a. Accession number

b. Accession record

c. Audio-visual materials

d. Annotation

e. Author

f. Call number

g. Catalog card

h. Cataloging

i. Classification number

j. Copyright date

k. Main entry card

1. Shelf list card

m. Tracing


Procedures for Preparing Stencil Masters

1. Prepare typewritten model copy.

2. Clean the typewriter type.

3. Set the ribbon lever on "stencil" or "white" position.

l4 Insert the cushion sheet between stencil and the backing sheet.
If carbon paper is used, place glossy side upwards.

5. Place top edge of model copy at corner marks and determine how
far down on the stencil the first line of copy should by typed
and where the margins should be set.

6. Insert the combination of backing sheet, and cushion sheet, and
stencil sheet in typewriter with the perforated end inserted first.
Make sure stencil is perfectly taut and straight by aligning top
and bottom edges of the stencil just as you would a plain sheet.

7. Use an even, normal stroke. For capital letters use a firmer stroke.
For punctuation marks, such as the period and comma, use a lighter

8. In order to make corrections, roll stencil upwards a few lines.
Insert pencil between stencil and cushion sheet insuring that the
word to be corrected does not touch the cushion sheet. Apply
correction fluid. Allow drying time of 20 to 30 seconds before
typing correct letter or letters,

9. If you desire to sign or draw an illustration on the stencil,
remove stencil pack from typewriter and place a signature sheet
between the pencil and backing sheet. Hold stencil taut and sign,
write, or draw with a stylus using smooth, even strokes, employing
moderate pressure.

10. If you desire to save stencil for future use, clean stencil by
placing it between sheets of newspaper and applying pressure over
the paper. Continue placing stencil between two sheets until the
ink has been removed. Store stencil between two sheets of news-
paper, preferably in a stencil file folder.

Procedure for Preparing Direct-Process Masters (sometimes referred to
as Ditto)

1. Prepare model copy.

2. Remove from the master unit set the sheet of protective tissue paper.

3. Insert master in typewriter with white sheet facing typist after inser-
tion, and with the opened end of the unit at the top. The carbon
leaves a heavy deposit of dye on the reverse side of the white sheet
as the keys are struck. The glossy side of the carbon must face the
typist with the white sheet on top, causing the copy on the master to
be in reverse.

4. In order to correct errors, scrape away error or errors from the back
of the white sheet with a razor blade.

5. Place a piece of new carbon paper (snip from corner) between the
carbon and the white sheet where error appears and strike correct
letter or letters.

6. Signature or illustrations can be made by using a ball-point pen
or pencil on the white sheet with carbon underneath.

7. After master is complete, replace the protective tissue between the
white and the carbon sheet to protect the copy until duplication
takes place.

Procedures for Preparing a Purchase Order

1. An original and duplicates (the number of duplicates depending on
school policy) should be made of all purchase orders.

2. Place sheet of carbon paper between two copies with the carbonized
surface facing the second copy.

3. Insert in typewriter so that the carbonized surface of the carbon
paper faces the second copy.

4. Fill out with care and accuracy.

5. In order to erase errors, erase carbon copy with a soft eraser
(pencil eraser), place a light weight card between carbon copy and
carbon sheet and erase the original copy with a typewriter eraser.
Remove card before making corrections.

Activities for Students

The following books are recommended reading for this part of your work.
The code numbers, given at the left-hand side, refer to the title of the book.

COP Agnew, Peter L., Meehan, James R., and Loso, Foster L., Clerical Office
Practice. Cincinnati, South-Western Pub. Co., 1955.

SOP Agnew, Peter, Meehan, James R. and Loso, Foster W., Secretarial Office
Practice. Cincinnati, South-Western Pub. Co., 1954.

GOP Archer, Fred C., Becker, Raymond F. and Frakes, John C. General Office
Practice. N.Y., Gregg Publishing Division, McGraw-Hill Co., Inc., 1958.

ACP Friedman, Sherwood, and Grossman, Jack. Applied Clerical Practice.
N.Y., Pitman Pub. Corp., 1955.

ASP Gregg, Robert, Fries, Albert C., Rowes, Margaret, and Travis, Dorothy
L., Applied Secretarial Practice. 4th ed. N.Y., Gregg Pub. Division,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1957.

1. In connection with the directions on preparing direct-process masters,
read the following:

ACP -- pp. 207-215
ASP -- pp. 332-351
cOP pp. 159-182
GOP -- pp. 109-143
SOP -- pp. 353-374

2. Prepare a bibliography or library list of some kind--first, a model copy,
and after this has been corrected, prepare a master unit.

3. In connection with the directions for preparing a purchase order, read
the following:

SOP -- pp. 261-265
COP -- pp. 415-L23
ASP -- pp. 312-317
ACP -- pp. 345-348
GOP pp. 417-429

4h Prepare the following information on purchase orders as required by local
school policy:

2 boxes tacker staples #516 @ $2.40; 1 set stencil (letters and numbers)
@ .65; 2 #317 success calendar refills @ 1.25; 1 bottle 16 oz. Elmer's
Glu All 0.95; 2 boxes 8 x 11 white bond @ 3o22; 4 Remington t/w ribbons
(black nylon) @ 2.00; 6 dozen #1425 Red pencil with erasers @ .85 dozen;
7 Magic Markers (2 black, 2 red, 1 blue, 1 green, and 1 brown) @ .30;
1 #101 tacker stapler @ 2.65; 1 dozen 2; adding machine rolls @ 1.95 per
dozen, and 1 box 81 x 11 master units.



Simple Book Mending

General Information

Before any mending is done, an examination of the book should be made
to see whether its usefulness would be worth the cost of labor and materials.
Only minor mending which can be completed with minimum time and effort is

Things to look for which can be simply mended: 1) Soiled books, 2)
marked-up pages, 3) torn pages, 4) loose pages, 5) end papers detached,
6) hopelessly damaged pages, 7) margins of pages, 8) ragged corners of
cover, 9) ragged edges of cover, 10) spine worn or ragged, 11) weak
hinges of a cover or loose cover on the book, 12) body of book detached
from spine (where one cover is torn loose and cover entirely separated).



Transparent plastic covers may be wiped clean with a damp cloth. The
care and repair of these will be suggested by the manufacturer and you
need only follow instructions.

If dealing with the original cloth binding or a rebound book, remember
to work quickly and with a clean cloth wrung out almost dry. Any mild
soap will do, or use cleaning detergent purchased for the purpose from
library suppliers. Test small area of book cover to determine effective-
ness of cleaning solution.

Some covers may be washed with vinegar solution; 1 part water and 1
part vinegar, using cheesecloth wrung almost dry. Any cleaning or
washing should be followed, when dry, with a coat of shellac or lacquer
on original covers.

Clean top, bottom and fore edges with carpenter's sandpaper.


Pencil marks require an art-gum or kneaded rubber (artists) eraser;
regular ink marks can be removed with ink eradicator or household
bleach (sodium hydrochloride). Apply gently with soft cloth or appli-
cator and don't rub hard,and blot as soon as mark has disappeared.
Ball-point ink is there to stay. Crayon cannot be altogether removed.
Check the market for recent crayon removers.


Use any new permanent mending tape. The only thing to remember is that
it isn't quite as easy to use as it looks. You must lay the strip of
tape the first time exactly where you intend it to go; otherwise you'll
find the adhesive surface has picked up the print like magic. It is
best to work with comparatively small strips. With a little practice
and a steady hand, this invisible tape mends a page beautifully and for


A single page which has come loose can be tipped
in very easily.

Open the book widely at the point where the page
has fallen out, Using a small brush and heavy plastic
adhesive, run a delicate line down the very bottom of
the trough between the pages, trying not to coat more
than a sixteenth of an inch of the paper on either side.
Fold a piece of waxed paper close down beside the right-
hand page. Fit the loose page firmly back into the
space between the pages, making sure it is straight and
properly aligned with the top and bottom of the contents.
Fold another sheet of waxed paper and slip it down between
the inserted page and the left-hand page of the contents.
Or you may apply plastic adhesive to the binding edge of
the loose page, using the side of the brush or stick and
insert. See diagram on next page. Close the book and
allow to dry.

This same procedure, using slightly more of the
plastic adhesive, permits the insertion of loose plates,
illustrations, diagrams, maps, and so forth.

This same technique is used when the center two
pages of a signature tear loose from their stitching.
These central pages will be treated as one page folded
in the middle; they are replaced exactly as if they were
a single page.

It may happen that a whole signature will come loose--
often the first or last signature in the book. Here the
stitching has broken and perhaps eight folded sheets come
out all at once. They can be tipped in, one inside the
other, as if they were individual pages but this is not
recommended. Use the procedure illustrated on the
following page.

Put the signature together as 1.
it was in the beginning, and
observe that at the fold there
are punched holes through which
the original stitching ran. Get
a needle and white thread --
#20 or #40 doubled, sew the
signatures together through these
holes. Leave a couple of inches
of thread at the bottom of the
-fold and another couple of inches
at the top. Fold these thread- 2-
ends under the signature and lay
the newly sewn signature back
into its original place, which
you have anointed with the
plastic adhesive just as if the
signature were a single page.


Apply plastic adhesive to the
binding edge of the loose
signature, using the side of
the brush or stick and insert.

This, actually constructs the 2.
book as it was and adds neither
bulk nor future problems.



Cut four strips adhesive

backed mending tape 1j" by

3/4" to 1" and apply to out-
side/each corner as shown

in diagram 1 opposite. Turn

to inside cover, fold one side

down, rub down flat with bone

folder; turn other side down,

rub flat, also.


Use small brush or stick
to apply small amount of

plastic adhesive which dries

transparently, to edge. This

will keep tattered edges in

place when thoroughly dried67-

I K /


Align a 3/4" width adhes- i
,ive backed mending tape
along front hinge of book.'
Press down lightly.

Bring tape tightly across back of
book and press down lightly on
the other cover.

- -. -- 314 -

Cut from the end of the
tape at each end to the
cover as shown.

,1 5

Open the book. Press
wedge-shaped ends of the I
tape down into the spine
with a bone folder.


Fold down these flaps all around.
Fold corners over.

Lay the book on its side and crease
the hinge grooves with edge of
bone folder. Rub down flat sur-
faces with the flat edge of the
bone folder to complete the job.
Book is ready for relettering and

- e-


The first sign of major

trouble is a loose cover which

calls for immediate correction and

repair which only takes a minute

with adhesive plastic.

Open the book in upright position
so the cloth back separates from
the body. Now using a stick, apply
the adhesive plastic to the hinge
area only -- also to the lining
paper and super if they are loose.
Work half way down from one side,
then reverse the book and work
from the other end.

Press book well into cover. Use
flat edge of bone folder to score
hinges. May be held into place
with clothes pins if book is small
or pressed down with heavier books
while drying (usually overnight or
several hours). Book is then
ready for circulation.

If paper lining of cover is broken
or torn, reinforce with 1" wide
thread drawn tape or white paper
hinge tape.





Where one cover is torn loose:
Cut a piece of thread drawn tape; I
apply plastic adhesive to gummed I
surface of tape; apply one-half
of moistened tape to back of
contents (at the edge). Then
fasten loose cover and spine of I
cover to other moistened one-half
of adhesive tape.


Reinforce by adding a new hinge *
to repaired cover, using 11"
thread drawn tape, 1j" white
adhesive backed mending tape or
white paper hinge tape.

Score or crease hinges of cover
with bone folder.

Cover entirely separated: i.

Scrape away loose paper and glue
from back. Be careful not to
break stitching. Coat back of
contents with plastic adhesive
and allow to dry. Place strip of
waxed paper between cover and
contents. Fasten contents and
cover together, preferably with /.
double-stitched binder. See
following page for instructions.


Using double stitched binder:

Select double stitched
binder of proper width, making
sure each row of stitching lies
long each edge of contents.
Cut a piece 1/8" less than
length of contents. Coat inside
of binder with plastic adhesive
(even if gummed). Also coat
back of contents with plastic
adhesive. Attach binder to back
of contents as shown.

Lay contents on table. Pull
flaps down over contents until
the row of stitching lines up with
edge of contents. Repeat on
other side. Then apply plastic
adhesive to inside of gray gummed

With cover flat on table
top, fit the contents into the
back, centering contents between
edges of cover. Make sure con-
tents go in right side up. Close
book, and with index finger
doubled, push contents into back.

Lay assembled book on
table, open one cover, holding
other cover and contents securely
with other hand. Push cover
toward contents, close cover and
repeat process to make sure
cover and hinge operate freely.

Wipe away any excess

Repeat process on other
side. Score hinges along outside
of cover with bone folder.

Allow to dry under weight
of other books or in book press.



If paper lining of cover is broken or torn at spine,
reinforce with 1-" wide thread drawn tape, white adhesive
backed mending tape or white paper hinge tape. If torn
loose but not separated, adhesive plastic or other glue
may be used. Insert waxed paper where needed until
thoroughly dry.


If the damaged pages are available, the material
can be copied onto four pages or less on ordinary
typewriter bond, cut to fit the book. (More than four
pages is not recommended as they will be a dangerous strain
on the casing.) Type the material, keeping the same margins
as the book-page, and put the typed pages in order. Paint
plastic adhesive, just as it comes from the bottle, along
the inner edges of these grouped pages. Allow to dry. Then
insert these new pages, which are now firmly attached to
each other, into the book in the same way you would insert
a loose page or plate.


If margin is torn but no part missing, use strip of
transparent mending tape, folding over edge of outer margin,
or if tears are deep apply a full width strip on each side
of outer margin.

Where a part of outer margin is missing, use ungummed
onion skin paper. Fold to a "V' shape and put thin runny
paste on inside of fold. Slip 'V" over torn margin, smooth
with paste cloth and trim to fit page.


Other Simple Instructions

1. Mend new books at slightest hint of need to preserve for longer use,
using above guide to follow.

2. Purchase or obtain needed items and gadgets for process, which should
consist of the following (consult library suppliers)catalog):

Scissors, ruler, eraser and art gum, kneaded eraser,
newspapers, kitchen wax paper or book dusting powder,
plastic adhesive and runny paste, brushes, mending
tape (not regular Scotch tape as it turns yellow),
bone folder, book cloth, mystic tape, hinge tape (li"
size for all general purposes), double stitch binder
(varied sizes), lacquer, shellac or "Book Treet",
household wax or candles (for some cases of dried
out spines), and other items as needed.

3. Work slowly and carefully. Better no mending than poor mending. Follow
instructions carefully.

4. Use old newspapers on which to work, so that a clean, dry surface is
available for each step in mending.

$. Master mending processes before attempting to teach other teams.

6. Put "book repair slip" in book, calling attention to mending needs.

Care of Tools

1. Clean all tools and put them away properly after each using. Do not
leave the clean-up duties for the librarian.

2. Wash paste brushes in water or water containing a little household
ammonia. Never let paste brushes stand in water.

3. Wash and dry paste cloths after each mending period. Brushes should
be cleaned after each use. Stiff brushes can be softened with the
solutions recommended for cleaning.

h. Remove pen points from the staff after using white or India ink.
Wash and dry them thoroughly.

$. Wash paste from all tools which have become sticky.

6. Wipe all tools dry.

7. Keep all can and jars covered.

Activities for studentss

1. Practice mending as many books as possible until you become proficient
in it. Be neat and thorough. Do not rush.

2. Become thoroughly familiar with mending procedures so that you may be
able to describe how to mend such things as torn pages, loose pages,
weak hinges, etc.

3. Learn the meaning of the following terms:

a. Casing

b. End papers

c. Signature

d. Spine


Bulletin Boards, Exhibits and Publicity

General Information

Attractive bulletin boards, when well planned with related materials,
stimulate students to do much independent Beading* In order to be effective
the bulletin board display or exhibit must: (1) be prepared with thought and
care, (2) be attractive, (3) make an appeal to eye and thought, (4) be timely,
(5) have news value, (6) be changed frequently. Emphasis should be placed on
color, harmony, and good space relationships.

Some helpful hints to remember in the construction of bulletin boards
and exhibits are:

1. Materials should be suitable to the idea.
2. Materials should be concerned with the readers' interests.
3. The display should be colorful and appropriate-to the idea.
4. Some device should be used to attract attention.
5. Simple display is the most effective-"When in doubt, leave
it outA"
6. Center-the display around one theme rather than several
7o Choose inexpensive materials. Try to utilize odds, ends, and
scrap materials.
8. Printed materials should be mounted on colored paper.
9. Use three-dimensional objects whenever possible.
10. Keep materials up-to-date.
11. Allow students to participate--in planning, doing research, collecting
material, printing captions, designing layout, creative writing, art
work and photography.
12, Materials should be in varied sizes, shapes, colors, and textures.
13. Use few book jackets rather than many.
lb. Change often; preferably every week-two weeks at the most.

Gathering Materials

(Mrs. Winona L. Ochs, Harris Elementary School, Monroe County, Florida)

Some materials which may prove very useful are:

Alumunum foil--gold, red, and green foil (for background and letters).
Balloons, brooms, light-weight garden and kitchen utensils for 3-D effects.
Cardboard boxes shalloww) for mounting pictures. Round hat boxes are
interesting and different,
Coffee, ground fine, and glued on paper makes realistic bark on tree trunks.
Colored corrugated paper is fine for borders, backgrounds, letters, or
cylindrical containers.
Colored rubber bands.
Colored thumbtacks.
Colored yarn or ordinary twine, dipped in green poster paint, makes flower
stems; clothes line, rope, and raffia-for outlines, designs, frames
and arrows. The home is a good source for these.
Cork--for letters and other parts of the design.
Cotton--creates 3-D clouds or beards for Santa Clauses.

Crepe paper-- has many uses; backgrounds or (twisted in strips) borders,
drapes and costumes.
Egg carton dividers and egg tray dividers, colored, for mats.
Glitter--for stars.
Linoleum, brass sheeting, metal screen, chicken and fence wire--may be
obtained from department stores, hardware stores and sheet
metal shops.
Maps, photos, clippings, sheet music and records.
Newspapers or magazines for silhouettes, animals or letters.
Palm bark.
Ribbon or bias tape--for connecting units.
Seeds, shells, nuts and sea fans.
Textured fabrics--are plentiful and easy to obtain. Dry good stores,
drapery, yardage shops, and rug companies keep a wide variety of
these materials in stock and have usable scraps available for the
asking. Also fish net, burlap, monkscloth, felt, flannel, and
carpet remnants can be used.
Toothpicks, tongue depressors and pipe cleaners,
Straw mats--under vases, books and displays; for repeating bulletin
board colors.
Wallpaper--for dresses, backgrounds; strips for connecting art work
vertically and for carrying the eye across the display space.
Wooden blocks--for labels.

Expanding Bulletin Board Space

(Mrs. Winona L. Ochs, Harris Elementary School, Monroe Co., Florida).

When hampered by lack of suitable bulletin board surface, a additional
space may be quite easily provided in several different ways:

Folding screen and room dividers. By use of a screen or assembling
panels on stand legs, this type of bulletin board can implement room
arrangement of work areas and also provide two-sided displays.

Corrugated cardboard. A variety of free areas, standing on a low shelf
or cabinet or hanging over an unused chalkboard or wall space may serve
as a bulletin board background. Corrugated cardboard is available in
a variety of colors, textures and sizes.

Pegboard panels, mounted wherever a suitable surface is available.

Temporary bulletin boards may be made of Celotex or wood-fiber panel
set on the chalk tray or hung on the map rail or frame. Wallboard or
similar panels may be painted, sprayed or covered with paper.

Movable easel-type boards with fixed or folding legs, as desired,
greatly multiply display opportunities.

If more chalkboard space than display area is available, masking tape
may be used to fasten construction paper or wrapping paper to the board.
Painted houses, trees and figures may be cut out and pasted on to the

"Catchy" Captions
(Library Journal, January, 1956)



Turn over a new leaf
Resolved: to read more
Take off (to tomorrow)
New Arrivals
Present perfect, past perfect,
future perfect
Cast your weather eye
To meet the test
Accent on you
Stop, Look, and Learn
It's a small world
Bon fire


It started with Washington
How to tie a beau
Heart Campaign
Amo amas amati
Sugar and spice That's what
Hearts and trumps
Heroes and heroines
Who's who-whooing?
Tojours 1'amour


Colorful reading (Books with color
in title)

Our neck of the
For the love of
The eye listens
It's all in the
It did happen
It pays to be

Mike (radio)
angle (photography)

smart to look

Short but sterling
May we suggest


Love's old sweet song
Moonlight and magnolias
In your own back yard
Plus fours (golf)
Memo: Take along books
The language of the baton
For report card "blues"
Art for your sake
Off again (travel)


To be or not to be
Lucky you
Look ahead
Make your future bright
They started out young
Among friends
People of note (Musicians)
It's your concern
Blasting off (space)
Footlights and spotlights


Hook line and sinker
Bait for your line (Etiquette for
Stories to crow about (rooster)
Teen trifles (cooking--romance)
Whistle stops (beauty guides)
Dutch treat
A "hit" for the baseball fan
Going to bat

Dive into these
Americans by'choice
Ring for liberty
The America we defend
Swing around America
United through books
Mmml Varieties!
Out of this world
Hats offl


Cool, calm, and collected
(story collections)
Dillies but chilly (mystery)
Keep cool with a thriller
Rhyme with reason
Space on my hands
Portraits in print
Jest for fun
It's all in the family
Tip top



Best on the slate
Try the large economy size (long stories)
Slated for reading
Headlines for September
You can bank on these
,It's a myth
Cheer up (cartoons)
Prescriptions for pleasure--reading filled here
Getting more out of life
Calling all cars
Music hath charms


A "haunting" we will go
Tales with a grave end (Mystery)
A wise choice (owl)
Trick or treat (party)
Hand picked (apples) and books
Tales with a kick
A fall of favorites


Drumstick days
Thoughts of Thanksgiving
No time like the pleasant
It takes courage
Punch (boxing)
Caught on the rebound -- rebound books
I'd stalk a mile for a good book
Here's looking at you (grooming)
For the shutterbug


Mistletoe and sleighbells
Hearthside tales
Evergreen tales
They too believed (religious)
Let's sing
By candle glow
It's party time
Men of the moment


Other Slogans or Captions

Know America through books
History sings (origin and influence of historic songs)
Songs and their stories
Great inventors
Vitamins everyday
Health heroes
Be kind to books
Meet Mrs. Post
Information please
Do you seek adventure?
Fly away with books
Glad tidings brand new books
Hidden gold
Here, there, and everywhere
Fireside adventure
Eyes southward
Fall bargains
On wings of books
What do you see in nature
Tune up time
Now is the time to make a new friend
The experts recommend
Ride 'em cowboy
Boats and books
By the way of introduction
Be friends with the birds who stay all winter
Winter beauty (a snowflake exhibit)
Who walked there? (tracks in the snow)
Hot food for cold days
Dress properly and keep warm in winter


Logical Lettering

The first part of a bulletin board to attract attention is
the subject. Highlight the subject with attractive lettering.

CONTRAST with background, light against dark, dark against light.

LETTERS of 1" to 2" are legible at a distance. Emphasize important
words by changing size, shape, color or texture.

JUDGE SPACING between letters by sight, keeping letters close together,
and using the space of a letter "H" between each word.

LETTER FORMS at different grade levels; lower case manuscript in primary
grades, cursive after'it has been taught, all upper case manuscript
(capitals) from the fourth grade up.

For quick and easy hand lettering: speedball pen with a variety of pen
point styles; lettering brush; felt tip pen with interchangeable nibs
in various sizes and shapes; crayons; pastels; chalk, used with end of
side strokes.

Sources for ready made letters and figures are: Calendars, magazines,
newspaper advertisements (use whole words or separate letters)

Commercial letters are available in complete sets on individual
combinations may be purchased for special unit or seasonal captions.
The following are good sources:

Stick-a-Letter Co., Rt. 2, Box 286, Escondido, Calif.
Tablet and Ticket Co., 1021 W. Adams St., Chicago 7, Ill.
Demco Library Supplies, Box 1070, Madison 1, Wisconsin
Mutual Aids, 1946 Hillhurst Ave., Los Angeles'27, Calif.
Judy Co., (Flannel board letters), 310 N. 2nd St., Minneapolis, Minn.
Micro Sign Prodts.(Plastic pin-back), 1558 Euclid Ave., Santa Monica,
U.S. Plastic Co., 2570 E. .:alnut St., Pasadena, Calif.
Stacy Keach & Co., 12754 Ventura Blvd., Studio City, Calif.
Harris Mich Co., 216 W. Ontario Street, Chicago 10, Ill.
Grace Letter Co., 77 5th Ave., New York 3, New York
Mitten's Display Letters, 345 5th St., Redlands, Calif.
Hernard Mfg. Co., Inc., 21 Saw Mill River Rd., Yonkers, N.Y.

E-Z block letters may be cut from uniformed Squares of construction paper,
newspaper, magazine pictures, or any flexible material. A paper-cutter,
and scissors are needed for cutting the letters.


Activities for Students

1. In your notebook list five characteristics of a good bulletin board

2. Make a card file of bulletin board ideas for birthdays and special
events for each school month. On each card include sketch, caption,
colors, and materials to be used. Consult Douglas, M.P. Teacher-
Librarian's Handbook. 2d. ed., Chicago, A.L.A., 1949. pp T6-l1l.

3, Make a card file of bulletin board ideas to highlight the various
subjects taught in your school. Include on each card sketch, caption,
colors, and materials to be used. Some ideas may be obtained from
"Wilson Library Bulletin," a periodical published by the H. W. Wilson
Company, New York City.

4. Assist the librarian with actual construction of bulletin boards and
exhibits and return materials to their proper place after use.

5. Prepare a bulletin board in your DCT classroom, using techniques
learned in this unit.

6. Prepare a bulletin board for DCT to display in the school's hallway
or other exhibit area.

7. Plan a window display or table display.

8. Make a card file of bulletin board ideas to highlight the importance
of instructional materials to students. This should include one
bulletin board idea for each of the following: (a) magazine (b) re-
cordings (c) filmstrips (d) tapes (e) vertical file material (f)
reference books.
Note: If your school does not have tapes in the library, you may
omit tapes and substitute some other type of instructional material.



Taking Inventory

General Information

There are two activities in a book inventory. The first is the arrangement
of the books in their exact order on the shelves. (See section on READING SHELVES.)
Allow at least one or two days of your time for reading shelves.

In the second activity, a comparison is made of the books on the shelves
with the library shelf list. The shelf list is a file of the cards arranged in
the same order in which the books stand on the shelves.

A ready supply of rubber bands and paper clips is necessary. Remove cards
from shelf list corresponding to the section to be inventoried. Use rubber bands
when necessary to keep cards from getting mixed up.

Colored clips may be put on cards to represent books at the bindery or on
mending shelf.

It is more convenient if two persons work together in taking the inventory.
One can read author, title, and accession number on each card and indicate whether
there are two or more copies of each title. The other person can check the shelves.
Books that need mending or to be sent to the bindery can be pulled from the shelves
at this time.

9 51

994 Day, A. Grove
D Day, A. Grove Story of Australia
Story of Australia;
illus, by Lohse. Random,
178p. illus.

5155 Hale (date of acquisition,


If a book is missing, clip the shelf list card with a paper clip.

If one
the card and
Some schools

card represents two or more books, and one book is missing, clip
pencil the letter "m" by the accession number of the missing book.
also enter the year in which the book is missing.

If a book is not represented in the shelf list, but is on the shelves, pull
the book, insert a slip of paper with notation, and save for the librarian.

Note: Copy numbers are sometimes used rather than accession numbers on
the shelf-list card, but the same principle is followed in taking inventory.


D Dolch, Edward W.
Famous stories, by Edward W. Dolch
and others; illus. by John SLocum.
Garrard, 1955.
168p. illus.

2856 Garrard 12/1/58 1.83
2857 12/1/58 1.83M 1961
2858 12/1/58 1.83


Activities for Students

1. Take an inventory of one section of shelves in the reference section
of your library or a section designated by your librarian.

2. Learn the meaning of the following terms:

a. Accession number

b. Accession record

c. Bindery

D. Book card

e. Book jacket

f. Call number

g. Classification number

h. Reading shelves

i. Reference books

j. Shelf-list card

k. Shelf-list card file


Audio-Visual Materials and Equipment

General Information

Audio-visual materials are defined as "all media of communication
other than the printed word." This "audio-visual media of communication"
includes such things as motion pictures, filmstrips, recordings, charts,
maps, globes, picture materials, bulletin boards, and transparencies.

It is the purpose of this unit to help you become familiar with the
basic A-V materials and equipment. You will learn (1) how these materials
are used, (2) how to operate the equipment, (3) how to care for the
materials and equipment.

By learning the above three things you will greatly aid the librarian
and the teacher in making more effective use of the audio-visual materials.

This unit will be divided into three parts:

1. Projected Materials and Equipment--which will include the Over-
head Transparency Projector, Transparencies, Opaque Projector,
Filmstrip Projector, Filmstrips, 16mrm Sound Movie Projector, 16mm

II. Auditory Materials and Equipment--which will include Record
Players, Recordings, Tape Recordings, Tapes.

III. The Production Center which will include dry mounting, lettering
and picture making, transparencies, 2" x 2" slides and tape reproduc-


A. Overhead Transparency Projector

General Information

The overhead projector is a light-weight, large projector which
transmits a strong beam of light through a transparency and onto a
screen. This projector enables the operator to face the audience in a
fully lighted room while he is presenting the material. The operator
can point out features appearing on the screen by pointing to the
material at the projector itself.




This simple diagram shows the location of the light bulb and
mirrors. Notice how the light moves through the projector to the

Materials used on the overhead projector are called trans-
parencies. The transparencies are plastic, carbon cellophane, or
acetate sheets. (Cellophane rolls are included with some overhead
projectors.) Transparencies come in two standard sizes 7 x 7 inches
and 10 x 10 inches. 34 x 4 inch slides may also be used*

Operating the overhead projector is not complicated. Simply
place the transparency on the projection stage. The material is
focused by raising or lowering the upper reflector unit be means of
turning a knob.

After using the machine wait at least 15 minutes for it to cool
before moving it, If the machine is moved while hot, the bulb may "blow"
or burn out,


Activities for Students

1. Examine the overhead projector. Locate: (a) the on-off switch,(b) the
lens, (c) the focus knob, (d) the light bulb, (e) the raising and
lowering knob, (f) the cellophane roll. Locate the place where the
transparencies are put on the projector. Sketch an overhead projector
and label the parts as listed above.

2. Make a note of how your library's overhead projector differs from the
one described in this handbook.

3. Practice removing the projection lamp, noticing the wattage and type.

U. Examine several types of transparencies. If possible examine an overlay
transparency and a series of transparencies. Note the cellophane roller
if there is one on the overhead projector your library owns.

5. Place a transparency on the projector. Turn the machine on, adjust the
focus knob, practice pointing to the items on the transparency. Install
the cellophane roll. Practice drawing and lettering on the roll with a
wax pencil. Erase the markings.

6. After the machine is cool, store it away properly.

7. On your master plan of the library, indicate where the projectors,
replacement lamps, and transparencies are stored.

8. Learn the meaning of the following terms:

a. Audio-visual materials

b. Overhead projector

c. Transparencies.


B. Opaque Projector

General Information

An extremely useful type of projection is the opaque projector.
It permits nontransparent (opaque) materials, such as flat pictures,
books, illustrations, drawings, photographs to be projected onto a
screen. The opaque projector operates with reflected light. The
light bulb illuminates the materials, and the image is reflected by
a mirror through the lens to the screen. The opaque projector should
be used in a darkened room. Since this equipment is large and bulky,
it should be operated from a rolling stand to permit easy transpor-
tation from room to room with a minimum of lifting.

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This simple diagram
mirror in the projector.
bulb, strikes the opaque

shows the location of the light bulb
Notice how the light moves from the
object and moves through the machine

Operating the opaque projector is also fairly simple. Place the
opaque material to be projected on the copy tray, face up, with the
bottom of the picture toward the screen. Be very cautious when
adjusting the projector lens so that it is not pulled completely out
of the socket and dropped. In order to have a clear image, the pro-
jector must be fairly close to the screen; closer than a 16 mm or film-
strip projector.

to the

Activities for Students

1, Examine the opaque projector, locate: (a) the on-off switch, (b) the
pointer, (c) the lens, (d) the copy tray, (e) the focus knob, (f) the
lamp, and (g) the places where opaque materials to be projected are
placed. Sketch an opaque projector in your notebook and label the
parts as listed above.

2, Practice removing the lamp, noticing wattage and type.

3. Place material to be projected on the copy tray. Turn on the motor
and lamp and adjust tilt and level. Focus on the screen. Move the
projector toward or away from the screen to obtain satisfactory pic-
ture size, Correct focus until image is sharp. Use the pointer.
(Be very careful when using a book in an opaque projector. Make
sure the pages lie flat.) Determine the length of time material
may be kept in the projector without damage from heat.

4. On your master plan of the library, indicate where the projectors and
replacement bulbs are stored.

5. Explain the difference between opaque and transparent.

6. If you wish to show your class a picture taken from a magazine, would
you use an opaque projector or an overhead projector. Why?

7. In your notebook place the information given below under the name of
the proper projector. Use the alphabetical symbol to represent the
statement; i.e., a, b, c, d, etc.

a. Used in a lighted classroom

b. Uses transparencies

c., Used in a darkened classroom

do Has cellophane roller on some models

e. Has pointing arrow on some models

f. Used at the front of the room

g. Uses books, magazines

h. Light from the projection bulb must be reflected from the material

i. Light from the projection bulb must pass through or be blocked by
the material giving you a projected image or projected silhouette.

C. Filmstrip Projector and Filmstrip

General Information

The filmstrip projector consists mainly of a light, a series of
lenses, and a smooth channel for the filmstrip. Near the base of the
channel is a knob which is turned by hand to pull the filmstrip through
the projector, or it may be operated by a remote control unit. Filmstrip
projectors frequently have attachments which can be inserted to project
2 x 2 slides.

The 35mm roll of still pictures arranged in sequence is called a
filmstrip. Filmstrips are very susceptible to scratches. You should take
great care in the handling of a filmstrip. Keep fingers off picture surface,
and handle only the edges or the blank leader. After the filmstrip is used
it will be in a loose coil too large to put in the filmstrip can. The
correct method to place the filmstrip back in the can is to roll the film-
strip into a coil small enough to fit the can. Never cinch a filmstrip.
Remember at all times--handle the filmstrip gently.

Instructions for threading the Filmstrip Projector

Follow step by step the threading of the filmstrip projector, Study care-
fully the diagram on the next page.

1. Lift film retaining bar and insert filmstrip in the filmstrip carrier.

2. For proper insertion face the screen, read the filmstrip title.

3. Turn the filmstrip head down--so film rolls counter-clockwise as it

4. Push the filmstrip gently into the film channel until it stops.

5. Turn the operating knob until the title appears.

6. If it is an older model, open filmstrip gate by releasing gate catch;
then thread film on sprocket teeth, being certain sprocket teeth engage
with film perforations; close gate and begin to turn the operating knob.

7. Frame film by pushing in on operating knob and rotating. This is to be
done if the image is split between two frames. When picture is in proper
frame, pull out on knob.

8. By turning control closkwise the picture will be advanced in proper frame
automatically. Remember--when advancing a filmstrip from picture to
picture make the change firm and quickly, do not "inch" the picture


9. Caution: Never force the filmstrip if it does not move smoothly.
Forcing will scratch the strip and tear the sprocket holes.




Activities for studentss

1. Examine carefully the filmstrip projector. Locate: (a) the on-off
switch, (b) the sliding door for the insertion of the slide attach-
ment, (c) the elevation knob, (d) forward turning and framing knob,
(e) feed reel, (f) filmstrip channel. Open the filmstrip gate.
Sketch a filmstrip projector and become familiar enough with the
parts so that you can label them without referring to this handbook.

2. Examine a filmstrip. Note the emulsion side. Note the sprocket
holes on the filmstrip. Practice removing a filmstrip from the can.
Practice placing the filmstrip back in the filmstrip can. Examine
some damaged filmstrips. What are "cinch" marks?

3. Practice threading and operating the projector:

a. Set up the projector on a stand -- connect the power cord and
turn on the lamp.

b. Tilt the machine as required. Each machine will have some
method of tilt adjustment.

c. Move the projector toward or away from the screen to obtain
appropriate image size.

d. Focus the light beam on the screen to sharpen edges of the
white light.

e. Thread the filmstrip into the projector.

f. Show the filmstrip -- put the filmstrip away properly.

g. After showing, practice inserting the 2 x 2 slide attachment.

h. Put the filmstrip projector away, after cooling. Coil the
power cord and store neatly. Retract the front lens and level
the machine before replacing the lid.

U. Practice removing the bulb from the projector, noting wattage and

5. On your master plan of the library, indicate where the filmstrip
projectors and replacement parts are stored.

6. Make a note of how filmstrips are cataloged, stored and circulated
in your library.


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