Front Cover
 The bean/cowpea CRSP
 Bean/cowpea constraints
 The bean/cowpea CRSP organizat...
 Insect constraints
 Physical environment constrain...
 Disease constraints
 Plant response limitation...
 Storage, food preparation, nutrition...
 Socio-economic and farming systems...
 The bean/cowpea CRSP roster of...
 Program personnel

Title: The BeanCowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) : : an international community of persons, institutions, agencies and governments committed to collectively strengthening both health and nutrition in developing countries by improving the availability and utilization of beans and cowpeas
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080683/00001
 Material Information
Title: The BeanCowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) : : an international community of persons, institutions, agencies and governments committed to collectively strengthening both health and nutrition in developing countries by improving the availability and utilization of beans and cowpeas
Physical Description: 1 folded sheet (9 p.) : ill. ; 46 x 30 cm. folded to 23 x 10 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program.
Publisher: Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University,
Publication Date: 1988?
Subject: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program.
Beans -- Research -- Developing countries.
Cowpea -- Research -- Developing countries.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080683
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 173257068

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    The bean/cowpea CRSP
        Page 2
    Bean/cowpea constraints
        Page 3
    The bean/cowpea CRSP organization
        Page 4
    Insect constraints
        Page 5
    Physical environment constraints
        Page 6
    Disease constraints
        Page 7
    Plant response limitation constraints
        Page 8
    Storage, food preparation, nutrition and health constraints
        Page 9
    Socio-economic and farming systems constraints
        Page 10
    The bean/cowpea CRSP roster of projects
        Page 11
    Program personnel
        Page 12
        Page 13
Full Text

The Bean/Cowpea |
Support Program

An International community of persons,
institutions, agencies and governments
committed to collectively strengthening
both health and nutrition in developing
countries by improving the availability
and utilization of beans and cowpeas.

Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824 U.S.A.
Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 263359

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Michigan State University
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP is a coordinated effort
addressing hunger and malnutrition in Africa and Latin
America through research on the production and
utilization of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas
(Vigna unguiculata).
Beans and cowpeas are dietary staples in the
countries associated with this CRSP. Among the poor,
these legumes provide the major source of high quality,
affordable protein, as well as an important source of B
vitamins. Beans and cowpeas generally are grown as
food for household consumption rather than as an
export crop; they are typically grown on subsistence
farms and, in some countries, are grown solely by
women, on whose shoulders fall the major responsibility
for providing the food for family consumption.
Based on a global plan developed in concert with
Host Country colleagues, the CRSP is made up of a
series of discrete but integrated international agricul-
tural research projects. Involving multidisciplinary
teams of scientists, thirteen such research projects
engage leading researchers from around the US and
abroad, selected on the basis of interests, competence,
experience and potential for significant contributions to
project goals.
These vigorous international research partnerships
directly involve research institutions in eleven Host
Countries, thirteen US agricultural research institutions
and two International Agricultural Research Centers.
To attack the complex factors underlying the
limited availability of beans and cowpeas, the CRSP has
directed its resources to:

* Supporting close collaboration between Host Country
and US colleagues.

* Including graduate level training in each project for
Host Country nationals.

* Monitoring project impacts on women and their
families, emphasizing each project's contributions to
women's roles in the fight against hunger and

* Emphasizing multidisciplinary research, including
with the production research attention to related
non-production issues such as health, nutrition and

* Requiring that a minimum of one-half of each
project's allocated funds are expended in or directly
on behalf of the project's Host Country.

* Emphasizing research sites in traditional settings,
including field trials on small farms.

* Identifying mechanisms for the subsequent
distribution of research findings.

* Developing technologies and information useful to
both HC small-scale farmers and bean/cowpea
farmers in the US.

This CRSP is making important contributions to the
resolution of difficult and persistent problems
associated with bean and cowpea production and
utilization. Additionally, there is emerging from this
CRSP a heterogenous international cadre of
professional researchers, comfortable and confident
with one another, addressing over the long-term
troublesome constraints to adequate food and nutrition
in poverty regions of the world.

Bean/Cowpea Constraints
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP is based on a comprehensive
global plan which includes agronomic, biological and
socio-economic components. The plan directs research
to problems of small-scale farmers in traditional
settings and focuses on the following constraints:

* crop performance limitations due to diseases

* crop performance limitations due to pests

* crop performance limitations due to the
physical environment

* inherent plant response limitations

* storage, nutrition, food preparation and health

* socio-economic and farming systems issues

* limitations of education, training and research

Project research teams concentrate on a particular
area or areas of research identified in the global plan.
Each research team includes a principal investigator
from one of the US lead institutions who is formally
linked with a collaborating principal investigator from a
Host Country institution.
Basic attention to farm family goals and the rural
cultures of small-scale farmers is crucial to the
ultimate usefulness and acceptance of the research
findings of these projects. The constraints therefore,
are addressed with a serious concern for appro-
priateness and relevance and with a sensitivity to the
implications of research findings for women who
perform principal roles as producers, processors and
consumers of beans and cowpeas.

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP operates with contributions
from the United States Agency for International
Development (AID) and the participating US and Host
Country research institutions. It is guided by the Board
of International Food and Agricultural Development
(BIFAD). In addition to the projects, the CRSP
organization includes:

The Management Entity--Michigan State University
(MSU) is the management entity for this CRSP. MSU
has created a CRSP Management Office consisting of a
Director, Deputy Director, Administrative Officer and
Program Secretary to carry out its functions.

A Women in Development (WID) Program--Staffed
by a Women in Development Specialist, the WID
program provides documentation and professional
support to projects as one means of assuring that
research is appropriate to the needs of women and their
families in the Host Countries.

The Board of Directors--Elected by and from among
the Institutional Representatives, who are so designated
by their respective institutions, the Board of Directors
serves as the policy-making component of the CRSP.
The five person Board is typically made up of high-level
administrators of agricultural programs.

The Technical Committee--Elected by the Board of
Directors, the Technical Committee consists of five
members from US institutions engaged in CRSP
projects plus two international members, one each on
an alternating basis from the two participating
International Agricultural Research Centers (CIAT and
IITA) and one from a Host Country collaborating
institution. They review and advise the CRSP an
project workplans and budgets, project management and
technical progress.

The External Review Panel--Five persons with
international research and program management
expertise are appointed by AID/BIFAD to review and
evaluate CRSP management and research progress.
This international panel of outstanding experts,
representing an array of disciplines important to the
CRSP, reviews the program annually.

Insect Constraints
Insect pests cause major losses of beans and
cowpeas throughout the world and are often responsible
for crop losses ranging from 30 to 100 percent. The
plants are vulnerable to pest attack from the seedling
stage to harvest as well as in storage. Traditionally,
beans and cowpeas have been high-risk crops with low
yields at the small-scale farm level. To reduce insect
damage, there has been a need to develop inexpensive
integrated pest management strategies utilizing insect
resistant varieties, as well as safe pest control methods
which can be adopted by small-scale farmers.
The major insect pests of beans and cowpeas are
leaf hoppers, leaf beetles, cowpea curculio, bean fly,
aphids, thrips, legume pod borers, pod-sucking bugs and
bruchid storage beetles.
The US and developing country entomologists in the
CRSP are collaborating on the following activities:
(1) developing integrated pest management strategies,
(2) evaluating germplasm for resistance, (3) breeding
for resistance, (4) collecting and identifying insect
pathogens and (5) Improving seed storage technology.

1. Approximately 200 strains of insect pathogenic
fungi have been collected and identified for
biological insect control. These pathogenic fungi
are being tested for the control of several major
cowpea insects (Boyce Thompson Institute/Brazil).
2. In the Cameroon, the CRSP worked with the
national program to identify a high yielding cultivar,
TVX 3236 (developed at IITA). Seed demand for
TVX 3236 has gone from five metric tons in 1984 to
forty-seven tons in 1986. With the pest
management systems introduced by the CRSP,
farmers can expect average yields of 600-1,200
kilograms per hectare compared with 300 kilos
without the improved system (University of
3. Four cowpea cultivars were identified that exhibited
an antibiosis resistance to the cowpea aphid
(University of Georgia/Cameroon).

Physical Environment Constraints
Many aspects of the physical environment influence
the growth and development of beans and cowpeas.
Critical tasks face CRSP scientists in addressing these
Issues. The first task has been to identify those aspects
of the physical environment that most substantially
Influence small-scale cowpea and bean productivity in
developing countries. A second task has been to
characterize the nature of the limitations imposed by
the physical environment in different climatic zones so
that solutions can be developed which are appropriate
to the different production regions and farmer
resources. Four important aspects of the physical
environment known to influence cowpea and bean
productivity are: (1) environmental control of
germination, flowering and maturity; (2) plant water
relations; (3) heat; and (4) solar radiation through its
effects on yield potential.
Environmental influences on germination, flowering
and maturity are important factors in the productivity
potential of beans and cowpeas. Their growth cycles
are strongly influenced by the impact of photoperiod
and temperature on date of flowering, two factors
which contribute to zonal variations in plant behavior.
Drought is a major environmental constraint in plant
water relations in virtually all areas of bean and
cowpea production but is particularly important for
beans in Mexico and Brazil. Sub-Saharan Africa and
Brazil are important cowpea regions subject to drought.
Heat is another significant constraint. High
temperatures accentuate drought because of higher
evaporative demands, increased water use and more
extreme plant-water deficits. It has also been proposed
that heat is a factor in flower and pod abortions
thereby lowering plant yields.

I. In spite of the drought in 1985, Senegal increased
cowpea production fivefold, utilizing research
findings of the CRSP. During this serious food
shortage period in Senegal, over one million people
were fed with the increased cowpea production.
Early maturing cowpea cultivars as were utilized
are important in the food balance equation for
low-input farmers in the Sahelian region (University
of California-Riverside/Senegal).
2. From 1,500 bean lines screened annually in Mexico,
a number have been identified with drought
tolerance. Pinto Nacional 1 was identified to have
drought resistance and was recommended to farmers
(Michigan State University/Mexico).
3. Cowpea lines were identified which have substantial
heat tolerance at flowering (Prima, TVU 4552 and PI
204647), extensive root systems (Grant and Bambey
21) and early flowering over a broad range of
photoperiods and temperatures (UCD 7694, UCR
193, Rawal 4-1 and IT 82E-18)University of

Disease Constraints
Diseases are among the production constraints most
often cited as problems by national bean and cowpea
research programs. Major bean diseases include rust,
common bacterial blight, anthracnose, bean common
mosaic, bean golden mosaic, angular leaf spot, web
blight and ashy stem blight. Important cowpea diseases
include bacterial blight, ashy stem blight and several
viruses. Disease control in beans and cowpeas is very
important in stabilizing or increasing yields. Many of
the diseases such as bean golden mosaic, anthracnose
and rust are capable of causing significant losses.
Diseases not only cause direct damage to the leaves and
grain but this damage, which occurs in both field and
storage, also affects nutritional quality. Management
practices are important in the control of these
diseases. However, disease control strategies used by
small-scale farmers are Influenced heavily by economic
and technical constraints. Additionally, strategies to
control the disease vector, e.g. the use of pesticides,
are often undesirable for environmental reasons.
Research collaboration between the US and
developing country institutions has been an especially
successful model in addressing these constraints. The
CRSP projects concerned with disease constraints are
addressing (1) epidemiology, (2) pathogen variability,
(3) Integrated disease control, (4) resistance breeding
and (5) disease identification.

1. The been common mosaic virus antisera and
serodetection protocols were developed. They are
being used to insure farmers of disease-free seed as
well as to control the spread of bean common
mosaic virus to new regions, including the US. This
methodology is rapid and inexpensive (Washington
State University/Tanzania).
2. A significant contribution was made to resistance
breeding when it was found that the inheritance of
resistance to common blight and rust is inherited
quantitatively and that different genes controlled
the resistance reaction in different plant parts
(University of Nebraska/Dominican Republic).
3. Inoculation techniques for the sequential inoculation
of beans under field conditions have been developed
for four major bean diseases, i.e., rust, common
blight, angular leaf spot and anthracnose (University
of Wisconsin/Brazil).
4. Several bean cultivars with multiple disease
resistance have been developed and released
(University of Puerto Rico/Honduras and Dominican

Plant Response Limitation Constraints
The response of beans and cowpeas to various
environmental and soil constraints is an important
factor in their development. The CRSP has identified
three factors which significantly influence the growth
and development of these crops. These are nitrogen,
population structure in landraces, and yield.
1. Nitrogen is a major nutrient constraint in bean and
cowpea production throughout the world. For most
farmers, nitrogen fertilizer is limited in supply and
is expensive. Economic return to nitrogen fertilizer
is very uncertain where other important production
constraints exist. Inoculation with nitrogen-fixing
bacteria, rhizobium, has been utilized as a low-cost
nitrogen substitute but commonly fails to meet the
plant's requirement for nitrogen. Thus, yields suffer.
2. Landraces represent repositories of genetic
diversity. They are the source from which
particular traits are chosen and incorporated into
improved varieties. It is not clear, however,
whether breeders should attempt "pure line"
breeding or aim for improved landraces per se.
Landraces also change over time. Such genetic drift
must be evaluated if sound and effective breeding
strategies are to be developed.
3. Yields have increased significantly for many crops,
while the yields of beans and cowpeas have
remained static. Bean and cowpea cultivars usually
exhibit non-uniform light distribution in their
canopies, which may detract from yield. In
addition, for cowpeas, very few well-adapted,
determinate cultivars have been developed.
Research is needed to design ideotypes for beans
and cowpeas for increased yield potential.

1. Improved strains of bean rhizobia have been
identified that have increased bean yields from 500
kg/ha to 1,600 kg/ha following inoculation. The
combination of superior cultivars with improved
strains of rhizobia will enable low resource farmers
to maximize their nitrogen fertilization at very
little expense (University of Wisconsin/Brazil).
2. Cultivars of black beans have been identified that
fix up to 60 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare under
field conditions (University of Wisconsin/Brazil).
3. Extensive germplasm of beans and cowpeas has been
collected and evaluated for use in the breeding
programs. Germplasm with disease and insect
resistance, good cooking quality, high yield and
various stress tolerances have been identified
(Michigan State University/Malawi).

Storage, Food Preparation, Nutrition and
Health Constraints
Beans and cowpeas are important protein foods in
tropical and sub-tropical areas. The nutritional quality
of these legumes can be improved through breeding,
biotechnology and other methods. Both beans and
cowpeas are susceptible to development of the
"hard-to-cook" phenomenon which requires more time
and fuel for preparation as well as reduces seed
germination and viability. Large quantities of these
legumes are lost to insects through poor storage
Beans and cowpeas are considered "a poor man's
food," an image which constrains consumption. There is
indication that above a certain level as personal
incomes increase, consumption of beans and cowpeas
may in fact decrease. Improvement of the image of
beans and cowpeas as important contributors to good
health and nutrition is necessary to enhance consumer

1. Surveys were conducted in several countries where
large quantities of beans and cowpeas are consumed
to establish patterns of consumption, methods of
preparation, medical and health problems associated
with their consumption and the nutritional status of
low income populations. In the countries surveyed,
it was determined that cowpeas are usually
consumed with cereals or tubers, a practice
important in nutrition. In Nigeria, 96 percent of the
households used cowpeas for infant feeding
(University of Georgia/Nigeria).
2. Studies indicate that the hard-to-cook phenomenon
in beans is caused by the interactions of phytate,
proteins and minerals. The quantitative relationship
among phytate, calcium and magnesium is
predictive of cooking time (Washington State
3. Two processing treatments have been developed
that minimize bean hardening (Washington State

Socio-economic and Farming Systems
The major goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is to
contribute to the alleviation of hunger and malnutrition
through research on the production and utilization of
beans and cowpeas. To achieve this goal, both
biological and socio-economic factors are considered in
the generation of new agricultural technologies for
small-scale farmers.
Several of the CRSP projects have an active
interface between agricultural scientists and social
scientists. Research agendas for these projects have
been planned with the participation of the social
scientists concerned with macro- and micro-level
constraints of the farm family production systems.
Both baseline data and ongoing research (which
monitors need, changes and impact of policy) contribute
to project success.

1. Relevant information has been gathered on food
preferences, legume cooking characteristics and
nutrition-related factors in the small farm setting.
Farm labor utilization and allocations have also
received study. This information permits improved
varieties to be developed which fit into the total
production cycle and are compatible with local
resources (Washington State University/Tanzania).
2. Investigators report the critical importance of yield
stability. This criterion seemed to underlie the rich
bean mixtures or cowpea mixtures traditionally
planted in several of the countries studied. A
combination of farmer practices and natural events
were documented as contributing to the existence of
mixtures (Michigan State University/Malawi).
3. Female labor in major cash crop production was
documented at 50 percent. In several countries,
their contribution to food crops has been
documented at a much higher level where they are
responsible for weeding, harvesting, threshing and
processing. Innovations in food production
technology that conflict with women's roles as
contributors to the major cash crop may produce
serious production cycle/labor conflicts or may not
be adopted at all (Washington State Univer-
4. Farming systems research identified problems for
experiment station and on-farm research which
strengthened a national program's ability to develop
appropriate interventions. Of major significance
was the documentation of varying research and
intervention needs for three different categories of
small-scale farming (Cornell University/Ecuador).

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Roster of Projects

Title of Prolect
HC Research Institution US Lead Institution
Collaborating Institution(s)
Development of Integrated Cowpea Production Systems in
Semiarid Botswana
Ministry of Agriculture Colorado State University
Dr. David Gollifer Dr. C.J. deMooy
Department of Agronomy
Fort Collins, CO 80523
Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest Management Systems for
Developing Nations
Empresa Brasileira de Boyce Thompson Institute
Pesquisa AgropecuBria (EMBRAPA)
Mr. Bonifacio P. Magalhaes Dr. Donald W. Roberts
Ithaca, NY 14853
Identification of Superior Bean-Rhizobia Combinations for
Utilization in Cropping Systems Suitable to Small Farms in
EMBRAPA University of Wisconsin
Michigan State University
Mr. Ricardo Silva Araujo Dr. Frederick A. Bliss
Department of Horticulture
Madison, WI 53706
Pest Management Strategies for Cowpea Production and
Storage in Cameroon
L'lnstitut de Recherche Being Reorganized
Agronomlque au Cameroun
Mr. Zachee Boli Baboule
Biology Epidemlogogy, Genetics and Breeding for Resistance
to Bacterial and Rust Pathogens of Beans (Phaseolus
vulgaris L.)
Secretaria de Estado University of Nebraska-
de Agriculture Lincoln
Ing. Agron. Freddy Saladin Garcia Dr. Dermot P Coyne
Department of Horticulture
Lincoln, NE 68583
Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield
and Adaptation
Institute de Ciencias y Cornell University
Tecnologia Agricola
Dr. Porfirio Masaya Dr. Donald H. Wallace
Plant Breeding Department
Ithaca, NY 14853
Improvement of Bean Production in Honduras Through Breeding
for Multiple Disease Resistance
Escuela Agricola Panamericana University of Puerto Rico
Dr. Silvio Zuluaga Dr. James S. Beaver
Department of Agronomy
MayagUez, PR 00708

Impro ed Biological LUttilzoton and .cceptablitry of Dry
Institute de Nutrici6n de Washington State University
Centroamerica y Panama Kansas State University
Michigan State University
Dr. Ricardo Bressani Dr. Barry G. Swanson
Department of Food Science
and Technology
Pullman, WA 99164
Genetic, Agronomic and Socio-Cultural Analysis of Diversity
Among Bean Landraces in Malawi
Bunda College of Michigan State University
Dr. Wilson Msuku Dr. M. Wayne Adams
Department of Crop and
Soil Sciences
East Lansing, MI 48824
Improving Resistance to Environmental Stress in Beans
Through Genetic Selection for Carbohydrate Partitioning,
Water Use Efficiency and Efficiency of Biological Nitrogen
Institute Naclonal de Michigan State University
Investigaciones Agricolas University of Minnesota
Dr. Rogelio Lepiz-Ildefonso Dr. M. Wayne Adams
Department of Crop and
Soil Sciences
East Lansing, MI 48824
Appropriate Technology for Cowpea Preservation and
Processing and Study of Its Socio-Economic Impact on
Rural Populations in Nigeria
University of Nigeria, Nsukka University of Georgia
Mr. Dickson O. Nnanyelugo Ms. Kay H. McWatters
Department of Food Science
Experiment, GA 30212
A Program to Develop Improved Cowpea Cultivars, Management
Methods and Storage Practices for Semiarid Zones
Institute S6ndgalais de University of California-
Recherches Agricoles Riverside
Dr. M'baye Ndoye Dr. Anthony E. Hall
Department of Botany and
Plant Sciences
Riverside, CA 92521
Breeding Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for Disease, Insect
and Stress Resistance and Determination of Socio-Economic
Impact on Smallholder Farm Families
Sokoine University of Washington State University
Agriculture, Morogoro University of Illinois
Dr. James M. Teri Dr. Matt J. Silbernagel
Prosser, WA 99350

The Bean/Cowpea



Support Program


Michigan State University

Dr. Harvey Hortik
Bureau of Science and Technology

Director Dr. P.W. Barnes-McConnell
Deputy Director Dr. Russell D. Freed
Administrative Assistant Ms. Sue Bengry
Program Secretary Ms. Annette McGarey

Dr. Anne Ferguson
Michigan State University


Dr. Richard L. Lower, Chairperson
Associate Dean
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
University of Wisconsin

Dr. Lee Sommers, Secretary
Chair, Agronomy Department
Colorado State University

Dr. Seymour Van Gundy
Associate Dean of Research
College of Natural and
Agricultural Sciences
University of California-

Dr. Dale Harpstead
Department of Crop
and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University

Dr. E. Walter Coward, Jr.
Director, International
Agriculture Program
Cornell University


Dr. A.E. Hall, Chairperson
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences
University of California-Riverside

Dr. James R. Steadman,
Department of Plant
University of Nebraska-

Dr. M.W. Adams
Department of Crop
and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University

Dr. Shiv R. Singh, Director
Grain Legume Improvement
IITA, Nigeria

Dr. Larry R. Beuchat
Department of Food Science
University of Georgia

Dr. Porfirio N. Masaya
Bean Program Leader
ICTA, Guatemala

Dr. Matt J. Silbernagel
Washington State University

Dr. Douglas Pachico
Coordinator, Bean Program
CIAT, Colombia


Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III, Chairperson
Professor, International Extension
and International Studies
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Dr. A. Hugh Bunting
Agricultural Development
University of Reading,

Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida

Dr. Edna McBreen
Associate Director
International Programs
State University of New

Dr. Kenneth 0. Rachie
Senior Associate
Winrock International

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs