Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Guidelines for Project Design

Material Information

Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Guidelines for Project Design
Russo, Sandra
Bremer-Fox, Jennifer
Poats, Susan
Graig, Laurene
Spring, Anita
Place of Publication:
Washington, D. C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Women in development ( fast )
Malawi ( fast )
Women in rural development ( fast )
Cropping systems ( fast )
Women ( jstor )
Gender roles ( jstor )
Agriculture ( jstor )
reporting ( MARCGT )
journal ( MARCGT )


This issue was presented in 1988 to the Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination Office of Women in Development U.S Agency for International Development. The first chapter in the paper is the "Introduction". The Introduction outlines and describes why the Women in Development (WID) movement is very important and how the design and management to achieve the goals of incorporating more women into agricultural development processes. Section 1.1 is "A.I.D.'s Women in Development Policy", which describes how the A.I.D policy derives from the Percy Amendment to the Foreign Assitance Act. Section 1.2 is "Women in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management", and describes the crops and roles women play in agricultural production and natural resource management. Section 1.3 is "Organization of the Manual", which outlines and future chapters of this paper. Section 2 is "Gender Issues and the A.I.D Project Cycle", starting with Section 2.1 "Gender Analysis", gives a small description of the surveys that were given and recorded from men and women. The following section is 2.2 is "Incorporation Gender Concerns into the CDSS and Action Plan", which gives an outline of the Analysis, Strategy, and Resources of the A.I.D strategy and program development. There are many figures and case studies in this paper. The following pages describe Figure 1-3 for. Section 2.2.1 is "Review of Economic Performance", which explains how women's labor and women-managed plots are important to the economy of the country. Section 2.2.2 is "The Mission Assitance Strategy", which describes how each of the proposed problem-specific strategies will address women's issues in the most effective way. Section 2.2.3 is "The Mission Portfolio Strategy", which explains how the CDSS could be strengthened by the suggestions of the authors. Section 2.2.4 is "Incorporating Gender into an Action Plan", which emphasizes the need for action plans to incorporate women's needs and roles. Section 2.3.1 is "Type of A.I.D WID Projects", which describes which projects are funded by A.I.D and what projects are designed for women only. Figure 4 is described on page 19. Section 2.3.2 is "Targeting Resources to Women", which gives a brief introduction to how programs can target women for programs and projects. Section 2.4.1 is "Project Identification Document", which gives an example for a concise proposal for a project. Section 2.4.2 is "Project Paper", which gives suggestions on what a project paper should consist of. Section 2.5 in Project Implementation", which explains how to target gender-related concerns during project implementation. Section 2.6 is "Project Evaluation", which describes the monitoring and evaluation systems that should be considered during the design phase. Section 2.7.1 asks the question "Is Gender an issue in Non-Project Assitance", and if policy reform or budget support should be examined. "Policy Reform" is explored in Section 2.7.2. Figure 5 is described on page 28. Section 2.7.3, "Budget Support", describes how women's access to funding is low because priority, the limited information provided to women, and poor understanding of the roles women have in agricultural decision making. Section 2.7.4 describes "Other Programs" that might assist women in the agricultural sector. Section 3 is "Integration of Gender Issues into the Design of Agricultural Projects", which discusses the design issues with incorporating gender analysis in short- and long-term goals. Section 3.2 is "Gender Analysis in the Project Paper", which starts with 3.2.1 "The Social Soundness Analysis". The Soundness Analysis is used to shape and design and provide information to other analyses. Figures 7- 9 are described from pages 35-38. Section 3.2.2 is "The Technical Analysis", that explains how each project will need analysis based on the project. Section 3.2.3 "The Economic Analysis", explains how a project is determined to be worthwhile in relation to the real benefits and real costs it can provide. Figure 10 is described on pages 39-40. Section 3.3 is "Incorporating Gender Concerns into Individual Project Components", which explains that there is an important distinction between the access that women and men have over resources in the world and that project components should always address those distinctions. Figures 11- 12 are described on pages 41-43. Section 3.5 is "Access and Control Factors and the Implications for Field Level Projects", where it includes a brief section about women's land access. Figures 13-16 are explains on pages 44-46. The first case study, on page 49, is "Incorporation of Women and Gender Analysis in a Rice0Based Farming Systems Project in the Philippines". The case study tells how the IRRI-sponsored Asian Rice Farming Network surveys on rice production and found that women are responsible for pulling seedlings but not for transplanting. Section 3.5.2 is "Capital", which explains how developments can assist women to create income-generating projects. There are some constraints that women can encounter when trying to earn income including cultural society norms. Section 3.5.3 is "Labor", which compares women's working hours and the demand they face for agricultural and domestic activities. The second case study is "Increasing Women's Involvement in Agribusiness". This case study is an experiment of giving villages different crops and switching between no women and women working in the fields, and comparing their results. Section 3.5.1 is "Credit" and discusses how women lack access to credit and what the barriers to credit are for women. Section 3.5.5 is "Education", and how investments to women's education can benefit a country's growth and welfare. Case Study 3 is "Incorporating Gender as a Variable in Agricultural Research in Ecuador". This case study evaluates how women are in charge of agricultural production in Ecuador since men normally have to migrate for wage labor. Figures 20-22 are described on pages 65-67. Section 3.5.6 is "Products and Production", which describes some of the crops that women have and don't have access to. Case Study 4 is "Integration of Farmer's Criteria in Bean Variety Testing". This case study on the women in Colombia provides their input to bean farms, which was higher than previously thought based on interviews. Section 3.5.7 is "Livestock Systems", which explains what can improve on women's ownership and control of livestock. Case Study 5 is "Dairy Goat Production - Women's Projects vs. Integrated Projects". This case study describes some of the dairy goat productions in Western Kenya and how women's labors were distributed among animal care. Women were given training in goat management and the results were evaluated. Section 3.5.8 is "Agroforestry and Natural Resource Management", which describes the agroforestry in any system of land use. On page 73 there is a figure that explains Gender Constraints, Effects, Results in Terms of Access to Project Assistance, and Recommendations. Section 3.5.9 is "Additional Components of Agricultural Projects", which includes "Activities Common to Sectoral and Field Level Projects". Page 76 includes Figure 24, "Designing Resource Management And Conservation Components in Agricultural Projects", which raises many questions about women's roles in managing livestock. The next following pages are a description for Figures 25-35, ending on page 88. The Figures described here also involving issues and answers for questions about women's roles. Section 3.7 is "Monitoring and Evaluation Systems", which explains how the A.I.D and World Bank are providing guidance for monitoring on the programs and projects for women in development. The second to last chapter is "Project Implementation and Evaluation", which starts with the "Implementation" process of how a plan describes the action required to put into effect the project elements. Section 4.1.1 "Selection of Institutions, Technical Expertise, and Delivery Services", which poses questions that should be considered during the selection process. There also considerations for Extension and Training, Monitoring and Evaluation. Descriptions are explained for Figure 36-37 after Section 4.1.1. Section 4.2.1 is "Gender-disaggregated Indicators", which mentions that the best time to collect information for disaggregated gender is the time when the paper was written. There are factors to consider such as age, social class, and how gender affects people's ability to participate in project activities. Section 4.2.2 is "Overall Indicators of Women's Participation", explain that the best data to show indicators come from gender-disaggregated data. Section 4.2.3 is "Specific Techniques for Evaluation Women's Participation in Agricultural Development", that describes what techniques should be flexible and rapid. Section 4.3 is "Revision of Current Projects", which explains the current state of the ongoing extension projects. Section 4.4 is "Adaption of Existing Projects", which gives a brief description of how to adapt projects for women's participation, such as rewriting training manuals to be better understood by women. Case Study 6 is "A Successful Project Adaptation to Gender Concerns", where they used Social Soundness Analysis on women farmers, showing that women's self-help groups would be the main source of labor because of male out-migration. The last chapter of this paper is Section 5 "Tools for Analysis". Section 5.1.1 is "Intra-household Dynamics and the Farming Systems Calendar". This section discusses the framework for planning and implementing dynamics. Starting on page 112 are the information for Worksheets 1-A and 1:b, which discusses farming systems calendar and activity analysis. section 5.1.2 is "Spatial Mapping", which explains the importance of agricultural maps and what some of the common symbols are. Section 5.1.3 is "Informal Surveys", which describes the characteristics of informal surveys that were identified by Franzel. Pages 124-125 include hand-drawn agricultural maps. Section 5.1.4 is "Community Interviews", which outlines how community interviews should be conducted. Section 5.1.5 is "Consumption-Focused Surveys", which describes how these surveys can be used to track the food system back to production and reveal several ignored issues. Section 5.1.6 is "Household Record-Keeping", which gives the reasons why record keeping is so important in households to determine actual labor contributions. Section 5.12.7 is "Purposive Sampling", where families are selected to be interviewed or surveyed based on pre-determined criteria. Section is 5.1.8 is "The Policy Inventory Technique", which only outlines one of the techniques to effectively generate the information needed to determine if there needs to be policy reform. Section 5.1.9 is "Elements of a Policy Inventory", which outlines the basic elements of policy inventory. Section 5.1.10 is "Uses of the Policy Inventory", which explains how the information will aid in analyses for long-term and short-term goals. Figure 40 is described on pages 138-139. Section 5.1.11 is "Inventory Format", which explains how the inventory should be formated to increase decision maker's awareness of the effect of existing agricultural policies. The last section is the "Conclusion", which sums up the previous section's sentiments. The last pages on this document are the Appendix and Bibliography.
Dr. Anita Spring has devoted her life to research in topics such as international agricultural development; food security; entrepreneurship and African business; women/gender in international development; environment and resource management since the 1970s. She has conducted research and produced many publications at several prestigious universities including Cornell University, San Francisco State University, and recently the University of Florida. She is currently a professor emeritus in the Department of Anthropology, and director of the Sub-Saharan Africa Business Environment Report (SABER) Project at the University of Florida.
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Prepared for: Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination Office of Women in Development U.S Agency for International Development

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Full Text
Gender Issues in Agriculture
and Natural Resource ManagementGuidelines for Project Design
Sandra Russo
Jennifer Bremer-Fox
Susan Poats Laurene Graig
Anita Spring
Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc.
Prepared for
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
Office of Women in Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
June 1988

Gender Issues in Agriculture
and Natural Resource Management
Guidelines for Project Design
Sandra Russo
Jennifer Bremer-Fox
Susan Poats Laurene Graig
Anita Spring
Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc.
Prepared for
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
Office of Women in Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
June 1988

Section Page
SECTION 1 Introduction 1
1.1 A.I.D.'s Women in Development Policy 2
1.2 Women in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management 3
1.3 Organization of the Manual 6
SECTION 2 Gender Issues and the AI.D. Project Cycle 7
2.1 Gender Analysis 7
2.2 Incorporating Gender Concerns into the CDSS
and Action Plan 8
2.2.1 Review of Economic Performance 13
2.2.2 The Mission Assistance Strategy 14
2.2.3 The Mission Portfolio Strategy 15
2.2.4 Incorporating Gender into an Action Plan 17
2.3 Incorporating Gender into A.I.D. Projects 18
2.3.1 Types of A.I.D. WID Projects 18
2.3.2 Targeting Resources to Women 21
2.4 Project Design 22
2.4.1 Project Identification Document 22
2.4.2 Project Paper 23
2.5 Project Implementation 24
2.6 Project Evaluation 24
2.7 Incorporating Gender into Non-Project Assistance 25
2.7.1 Is Gender an Issue in Non-Project Assistance? 25
2.7.2 Policy Reform 26
2.7.3 Budget Support 28
2.7.4 Other Programs 29
SECTION 3 Integration of Gender Issues into the Design
of Agricultural Projects 31
3.1 Agricultural Project Design Issues 31
3.2 Gender Analysis in the Project Paper 33
3.2.1 The Social Soundness Analysis 33
3.2.2 The Technical Analysis 38
3.2.3 The Economic Analysis 38

Section Pae
3.3 Incorporating Gender Concerns into
' Individual Project Components 40
3.4 Sectoral Projects 43
3.5 Access and Control Factors and the Implications
for Field Level Projects 43
3.5.1 Land 43
3.5.2 Capital 50
3.5.3 Labor 54
3.5.4 Credit 59
3.5.5 Education 61
3.5.6 Products and Production 68
3.5.7 Livestock Systems 70
3.5.8 Agroforestry and Natural Resource Management 72
3.5.9 Additional Components of Agricultural Projects 75
3.6 Activities Common to Sectoral and Field Level Projects 75
3.7 Monitoring and Evaluation Systems 88
SECTION 4 Project Implementation and Evaluation 93
4.1 Implementation 93
4.1.1 Selection of Institutions, Technical
Expertise, and Delivery Services 94
4.1.2 Monitoring 97
4.2 Evaluation 97
4.2.1 Gender-disaggregated Indicators 100
4.2.2 Overall Indicators of Women's Participation 101
4.2.3 Specific Techniqes for Evaluating Women's
Participation in Agricultural Development 102
4.3 Revision of Current Projects 105
4.4 Adaptation of Existing Projects 106
SECTION 5 Tools for Analysis 109
5.1 Tools for Diagnosis and Analysis 109
5.1.1 Intra-household Dynamics and
the Farming Systems Calendar 109
5.1.2 Spatial Mapping 122
5.1.3 Informal Surveys 123
5.1.4 Community Interviews 127
5.1.5 Consumption-Focused Surveys 128
5.1.6 Household Record Keeping 129
5.1.7 Purposive Sampling 129

5.1.8 The Policy Inventory Technique 133
5.1.9 Elements of a Policy Inventory 135
5.1.10 Uses of the Policy Inventory 137
5.1.11 Inventory Format 140
5.2 Conclusion 140
APPENDIX A. Obtaining Documents and Information from A.I.D. and WID BIBLIOGRAPHY

Figure Page
1. From Gender Blindness to Gender Adaptation:
Useful Definitions 9
2. Steps in the Gender Analysis Process 10
3. Incorporating Gender Concerns in the CDSS 12
4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Three Types
of Women's Projects 19
5. Issues and Answers for Gender Concerns in
Non-Project Assistance 27
6. Patterns of Gender Responsibilities 32
7. What Should be Included in the Design Team
Scope of Work to Address Gender Issues? 34
8. Incorporating Gender Concerns into Project Design:
Issues and Answers 35
Addressing Gender Issues in the Project Paper 37
10. Gender Issues to be Addressed in the Project
Technical Analysis 39
11. Gender Issues to be Addressed in the Project
Economic Analysis 41
12. Main Types of Agricultural Projects and
Project Components 42
13. Designing Policy Analysis and Reform Components
in Agricultural Projects 44
14. Designing Data Collection and Planning Components
in Agricultural Projects 45
15. Designing Agricultural Education Components
in Agricultural Projects 46
16. Designing Land Reform and Tenure Components
in Agricultural Projects 52
17. Rural Women's Work Time 55
18. Comparison of Time Allocations to Rural Activities,
By Gender 57
19. Designing Credit Components in Agricultural Projects 62

Figure Page
20. Designing Research Components in Agricultural Projects 65
21. Designing Research Components in Agricultural Projects 66
22. Designing Farmer Organization Components
in Agricultural Projects 67
23. Constraints Women Face in Livestock Projects 73
24. Designing Resource Management and Conservation Components
in Agricultural Projects 76
25. Designing Irrigation Infrastructure and Management
Components in Agricultural Projects 77
26. Designing Irrigation Infrastructure and Management
Components in Agricultural Projects 78
27. Designing Components to Provide Other Services to Farmers
in Agricultural Projects 79
28. Designing Input Supply System Components
in Agricultural Projects 80
29. Designing Marketing Components in Agricultural Projects 81
30. Designing Storage and Processing Components
in Agricultural Projects 82
31. Designing Technical Assistance Components
in Agricultural Projects 83
32. Designing In-country Training Components
in Agricultural Projects 84
33. Designing Long-term Training Components
in Agricultural Projects 85
34. Designing Management Development Components
in Agricultural Projects 86
35. Designing Components to Improve Physical Facilities
in Agricultural Projects 87
36. Ensuring Gender Adaptation in Agricultural Projects:
Project Officer Responsibilities for Project
Monitoring and Implementation 98
37. Sampling Strategies 99

Figure Page
38. Framework for Evaluating the Distribution
of Project Benefits 103
39. Possible Strategies for Taking into Consideration
the Linkages Between Women's Roles in
Production and Consumption 130
40. Summary of Differential Policy Impacts on Women
in the Agricultural Sector 138
41. Elements of a Policy Inventory The Inventory Matrix 141

Case Study Page
1. Incorporation of Women and Gender Analysis in
a Rice-Based Farming Systems Project in
the Philippines 49
2. Increasing Women's Involvement in Agribusiness 58
3. Incorporating Gender as a Variable in
Agricultural Research in Ecuador 64
4. Integration of Farmers' Criteria in Bean Variety Testing 69
5. Dairy Goat Production -- Women's Projects vs.
Integrated Projects 71
6. A Successful Project Adaptation to Gender Concerns 108

Women in development (WID) has become an increasingly important
development issue in recent years. It has long been known that when projects are appropriately planned and adapted to reflect local conditions, the projects are more likely to achieve their objectives. Understanding gender variables is key to understanding human variables. When development fails to reach women, both in absolute terms and relative to men, the development activities often fail to achieve all their aims. Boserup argued that:
economic and social development unav oidably entails the
disintegration of the division of labour among the two
sexes... with modernization of agriculture and migration to
towns, a new sex pattern of productive work must
emerge... The obvious danger ... is that in the course of this
transition, women will be deprived of their productive
functions and the whole process of growth will be
There is strong interaction between the design and management of an agricultural project and the -delivery of agricultural resources to women. Efficiently designed and managed projects are better able to deliver resources to women, and projects that deliver a ppropriate resources-to women are generally more successful projects(1O) Both equity and efficiency goals are met when women are included in the development process, and when they are not included, the effect on the overall economy can be significant. Commenting on factors contributing to the food crisis in Africa, Spring noted that the
exclusion of women from new technologies and capital
schemes has negatively affected women's productivity, and
this reduced productivity is a major contributor to the
current food crisis in Africa.(52)
This manual is written for A.J.D. project design officers, mission staff, and design team members to assist them in designing projects that integrate women into the agricultural development process. Such integration has been mandated by A.I.D. policy and the Percy Amendment. However, there is

sometimes difficulty in translating a mandate into concrete strategies for implementation.
This manual is not meant to be a scholarly reference book on gender issues in agriculture and natural resource management, but a workbook to be used in project design. It provides an introduction to gender issues, a survey of recent findings from A.I.D. projects, and guidelines for the integration of gender issues into project design.
1.1 A.I.D.'s Women in Development Policy
The policy of A.I.D. on women in development derives from the Percy Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act, which directs that the United States government's bilateral assistance programs should be administered
so as to give particular attention to those programs,
projects and activities which tend to integrate women into
the national economies of foreign countries, thus
improving their status and assisting the total development
In 1982, A.I.D.'s Women in Development Policy Paper stressed that
gender roles constitute a key variable in the socioeconomic condition of any country -- one that can be decisive in the success or failure of development plans. Women often face different constraints than men. Failure to include women in the development process has consistently led to failure in achieving project goals. The issue is an economic one:
misunderstanding of gender differences, leading to
inadequate planning and design of projects, results in
diminished returns on investment.(2)

1.2 Women in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management
The roles that women play in agricultural production and natural resource management are critical to the economies of developing countries, yet the value of these roles has often been ignored or overlooked. Several factors contribute to women's invisibility. Women are usually self-employed or employed in family enterprises rather than wage earners; they work seasonally rather than year-round; they tend to be underemployed rather than formally unemployed; and they engage in fluid patterns of diverse and shifting economic activities.(13) There is rarely a clear-cut distinction between domestic production for household consumption and for economic agricultural activities, between economically active and inactive persons, or between agricultural and non-agricultural tasks.
Women are the majority of the world's food producers. Recent United Nations estimates indicate that women provide 60 to 80 percent of the agricultural labor in Africa and Asia and 40 percent in Latin America(33) National statistics on women's roles in agricultural production vary widely, yet analyses by several agencies indicate that women participate in the entire food system to a much greater degree than routinely reported. Women participate in the food system as producers, distributors, processors, storers, and marketers. They are involved in every type of agricultural activity, putting in as many or more hours than men. They participate in the entire rang& of crop production activities from land clearing and preparation through harvesting and processing. They take care of all classes of livestock, process products for home consumption and the market, manage natural resources through their use of fuel and water and their crop and animal responsibilities, and market their products at local, regional, and national levels. Women and men also have different spheres of knowledge, which may not overlap at all. In any area of the world, not all women are equally involved in agricultural production at a specific time nor does each woman have the same role throughout her lifetime. Nevertheless, it is a given that women's contributions are important and vital to the rural -economy.

Despite women's significant contributions to agricultural production and to rural households, there is substantial evidence that women have less access to land, capital, credit, technology, and training than men in the same system. The constraints that women face in gaining access to all of these resources significantly reduce the productivity of both the rural sector and the national economy. Some researchers, in fact, believe that until women's agricultural participation is given its due or is equitably targeted, food crop production may remain at current stagnant levels.
Effective project design must identify barriers to women's access to new technologies and resources. Steps must be taken
to ensure that the new technologies and resources which are part of development in the agricultural sector actually
reach women. There has been liffle evidence of "trickle
across," in fact, resources allocated to "the farm
household" typically reach men rather than women.(2)
Women are principal economic actors in the agricultural sectors of most developing countries. The economic and financial return on A.I.D. investment in developing countries is heightened by including women as both participants and beneficiaries.
The difference between 'parti~ipan~s and beneficiaries of project activities needs to be clarified. Participants are those people who actually participate in a project; they could be involved in agricultural training, construction of drainage ditches, fertilizer experimentation, or reforestation plantings. Participants, by and large, for many reasons described later in the manual, tend to be male. Beneficiaries are those people who benefit from the project's activities. It must not be assumed that benefits accrue equally to all members of a household, especially when the assumption is that men's involvement will reach their famili es (lack of "trickle across"s cited above). Children are very rarely participants, with the possible exception of education programs in the schools. Children are more likely to be direct beneficiaries when development activities include their mothers.

Development activities in the past have focused on women's reproductive, health care, and nurturing roles. While women will always have these roles, they are concurrent with their roles as agricultural producers in most developing countries. Development activities must take into account the multiple roles of women. A.I.D.'s policy paper summarizes the key elements of development activities as follows:
1. The gender- and age-linked division of labor by crop and
ethnic group must be fully comprehended as a basis for all
project planning.
2. Male and female differentials in access to and control of
key productive resources must be understood and planned
for in projects. These resources include land, capital,
labor, credit, information, seeds, tools, fertilizers, water,
and fuel.
3. The specific farming responsibilities which are uniquely
and particularly assigned to female members of the
household or society must receive an appropriate share of
attention in project identification, design, and implementation. These responsibilities may include "women's
animals," "women's crops," weeding, transporting,
marketing, preserving, processing, and storage.
4. Explicit strategies to address gender-role aspects of
farming must be built into all projects in which outreach
to farmers is attempted (extension, training, research).
In particular, integrated services to address females'
multiple responsibilities in farm households are required.
These responsibilities would include human nutrition!
health, animal nutrition/health, farm management, family
resource management, and time/labor-saving technologies.
Incorporating these concerns into the design of a project is not an easy task, especially for those who do not have experience with gender issues. Until recently there were no good role models or projects for designers to follow, nor were there data from which to operate. It has been demonstrated that failure to include a gender focus in a project and failure to integrate

women throughout the entire project process is associated with lower levels of project success.
An extensive review conducted by-the Center for Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE) examined more than 100 A.I.D. projects. In agricultural projects, attention to gender issues can affect the
* Elimination of bottlenecks to production
* Successful transfer of technology
* Willingness to adopt new practices
1.3 Organization of the Manual
This manual will provide methods, guidelines, and examples that will facilitate the integration of women into agricultural development projects. Section 2 examines the methods of incorporating gender issues into the various stages of the A.I.D. project cycle. The integration of gender issues into the design of agricultural projects is discussed in Section 3. Section 4 focuses on the integration of gender concerns into project implementation and evaluation. Tools that can be used for gender analysis and diagnosis are presented in Section 5.

Gender Issues and the A.l.D. Project Cycle
This manual presents guidelines for the integration of women into agricultural development projects. Although the manual is not intended to provide in-depth guidance on every phase of the A.I.D. project cycle, this section will provide suggestions as to where and when gender issues should be addressed in the CDSS, Action Plans, project design, implementation, evaluation, non-project assistance, and other areas.
2.1 Gender Analysis
The Center for Development Information and Evaluation (CDJE) review referred to in Section 1 developed 10 helpful steps (shown in Figure 2) to be followed in the gender analysis process. The questions posed in these steps may seem difficult or even impossible to answer given the short period of time in which most design teams normally operate. Yet many of the answers are available through the WID office, in the country profiles, from secondary sources of data, from local staff, and, obviously, through interviews with farmers of both sexes. This list of questions is not meant as -a checklist inwhich each question must be answered before moving on to the next. Nor is it suggested that the design team conduct in-depth baseline surveys to try to answer all of the questions. A rapid appraisal of the proposed project areas by a gender-focused team may be sufficient to answer the more obvious questions such as who will undertake particular activities, and with what degree of access and control. Modification of project design can be made if gender analysis indicates such changes are necessary.

Packaging Information: Experience of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) used an
innovative approach to synthesize existing information on women in agriculture
for several of the countries where their program scientists were engaged in collaborative projects. WID specialists reviewed the available literature and
prepared concise resource guides that included an overview of women's roles in
production, implications for projects, a list of women's organizations pertinent to agriculture, and a selected, annotated bibliography. Scientists with little or
no gender sensitivity or experience were able to use these in their project
designs and implementations.(18, 27)
2.2 Incorporating Gender Concerns
into the CDSS and Action Plan
The integration of women into the development process both as productive actors and as beneficiaries continues to be a major priority as reflected in A.I.D. guidance on strategy and program development (i.e., CDSS and Action Plan guidance) which contains numerous references to WID concerns. Complete information and analysis of gender issues can be used to strengthen the CDSS and the Action Plan. The CDSS typically includes three basic sections:
1. Analysis: A review of recent economic performance in the
country, including macroeconomic policy changes, structural
adjustment, and growth, as well as growth performance of the
major sectors, to identify the main constraints on national
2. Strategy. A discussion of the mission's strategy for overcoming
these constraints, laying out a set of goals or targets relevant
to the mission's proposed strategy
3. Resources: A review of the mission's strategy for overcoming
these constraints, emphasizing the relationship between the
proposed strategy and the planned mix of assistance vehicles
Specific gender-relevant information can be provided within each of these three sections of the CDSS (summarized in Figure 3). The following discussion of methods for integrating gender issues into the CDSS is based on the recent CDSS of an African country. To illustrate common issues and possible approaches, the country will not be identified.

Women versus gender: Gender is a broader concept that includes concern
with women's roles and responsibilities in relation to those of men. Emphasis on "women" can both isolate women and obscure differences among women.
Gender blindness: The inability to perceive that there are different
gender roles and responsibilities; the perception that farmers and technology are male (or neuter); and the failure to realize that project activities can have different effects on men and women.
Gender focused: The focus is on gender beyond the perceived
traditional roles; the setting is understood in terms of gender-based patterns of behavior.
Gender analysis: The analysis of the intersection of male and female
roles and responsibilities with project goals, strategies, and outcomes at any stage of the project cycle.
Gender adaptation: Going beyond women's projects and targeting
resources for women to the gender adaptation of project activities and services.

Step 1: Clarify gender roles and their implications for project strategies.
The starting point should be to clarify the project strategy. For example,
what does the project propose to do to improve agriculture? What activities
will be affected by project interventions? What is the existing division of
labor in these activities? How do these activities fit in with the total pattern of household productive and domestic activities? What innovations are being
proposed? What are their behavioral implications for different household
Step 2: Analyze eligibility to receive project inputs.
Start by examining what inputs the project intends to provide, and identify
which household member should receive them, in light of the existing division
of labor. For example, if livestock is women's responsibility and grain is
men's,. inputs for livestock should go to women and inputs for grain to men.
If women are responsible for an activity slated for project intervention, can
they qualify to receive inputs in their own name? What are the prerequisites
for eligibility, and how many households in the target group can meet those
Step 3: Define prerequisites for participation in project activities.
In light of the division of labor, which household member should participate in
activities such as soil conservation, water user groups, training, and extension?
Even if there is no formal discrimination against women, how will the location
and timing of activities affect their participation? Does the proportion of
women in the pool ofeligible participants match the division of labor?
Step 4: Examine outreach capabilities of institutions and delivery systems.
If analysis of the division of labor shows that an activity slated for project
intervention is women's responsibility among smallholders, to what extent do
existing institutions and delivery systems have direct contact with female
smallholders, or with any women.?
Step 5: Assess the appropriateness of proposed technical. packages.Are the technical packages applicable to all households or only to those with certain types of resources, such as irrigated land, several head of cattle, or a labor surplus? How many households in the target group have the right kind
of land? How many, given the gender-typing of tasks and male migration, can
meet the additional labor requirements? How many can raise the necessary
cash? What implications do gender differences have for the spread of
technical innovations to poor households?

FIGURE 2. (Cont.)
Step 6: Examine the distribution of benefits and its effect on incentives.
Given the gender division of labor and the control over income from different
crops by men and women in some regions, what interest would women have in
intensifying production? Do the direct returns to women outweigh the
additional effort? If the project affects marketing, are women likely to lose
an independent source of income?
Step 7: Consider the reliability of feedback mechanisms.
If women play a major role in project-related activities such as farming
vegetables, how will the project find out whether the proposed technical innovations are acceptable to them? What provisions are made for local
women and men's participation in selecting and testing technologies and in
evaluating results? Do monitoring and reporting systems distinguish male and
female participants?
Step 8: Anticipate probable changes in the roles and status of women.
How will the project affect women's access to and control over land, labor, capital, and expertise? Will women's workload increase or decrease? What
will happen to their independent income, to their control of crops and the income from their sale, or to their voice in household decision making on
expenditures and other issues?
Step 9: Link changes in the 'roles and status of women with the expected
project impact.
How will changes in women's access to and control of land and productive
resources affect food availability? How will changes in-women's ability to
earn an independent income affect household cash flow? How will it affect
their ability to provide for their families? How will changes in women's
workload affect such things as child care and family nutrition?
Step 10: Identify adaptations needed.
Using the previous steps as a guide, specify what changes are needed in
institutions, delivery systems, technical packages, and feedback mechanisms to
overcome the barriers to women's access to project inputs and their ability
and incentive to participate.

Assessment of Recent Performance
" Discuss how policies have affected low-resource groups including women.
" Discuss how the failure to reach women and other low-resource farmers
has affected both government and donor project success.
Definition of Mission Assistance Strategy
*. Identify strategy areas where women's participation is important.
* Describe how women's participation will contribute to implementing the
* Describe how women will benefit.
Description of Mission's Project Portfolio
* Identify projects in subsectors where women are important.
* Summarize actions taken or planned to ensure that women will participate.
* Identify the impact of failing to reach women on project and strategy*

2.2.1 Review of Economic Performance
Recent A.I.D. guidance cables have stressed the importance of addressing women in development concerns in this first section of the CDSS. Women and girls should be addressed not only as potential beneficiaries of development progress, but also as participants in projects. The analysis section should identify the development problems the country is facing with an emphasis on the conditions and problems of the poor, including the position of women in society. Impediments to women and an assessment of women's participation, i.e., a description of the role of women in small farmer productivity, should be included. This section should include adequate statistical data, disaggregated by gender wherever possible.
The country CDSS provides a thorough discussion of the recent developments in the agricultural sector, both in the text and in the accompanying annexes, and discusses the impact of ongoing reforms. The description in the CDSS notes that rural areas are no longer self-sufficient in food, despite large investments in improving support services to agriculture.
Given the importance of women's labor and women-managed plots to production of cereals for rural, consumption, it is appropriate to ask whether the treatment of this issue in the CDSS could have been strengthened by considering whether development efforts in the sector have failed in part because they have not reached women farmers. The appropriate question from the gender perspective is:
Are current policies or economic conditions a major
barrier to more rapid growth or higher income in sectors
where women's activities are concentrated, in this case
food production?
According to a study conducted in the country, past policies have indeed discouraged food production by women. For example, policies that subsidize peanut production for the export market have increased demands for women's

labor on cash crop plots. Moreover, the policies have channeled assistance to the rural sector through institutions that generally do not provide inputs, credit, or technical advice to women. The study also found that development of private sector channels, encouraged by economic reforms, was beginning to make an improvement in women's access to inputs, but that the transition was far from complete.
In response to these issues, the CDSS discussion could be strengthened by examining whether low-resource food producers, including women, had been able to benefit from economic reforms, and if not, what additional steps would be needed to bring reform to their level.
2.2.2 The Mission Assistance Strategy
The strategy section of the CDSS should describe how each of the
proposed problem-specific strategies will address women' s and girls' issues effectively. This section should specify which groups in the population are expected to make progress toward the benchmarks, specifically addressing the impact on demographic categories such as the poor and women.
The assistance strategy for the agricultural sector of the country, for
example, emphasizes improvements in grain marketing, promotion of incomegenerating activities, *and support to forestry activities such as village woodlots. The appropriate gender question relative to these emphases is:
What roles do women play in the sectors and sub-sectors
identified by A.I.D. as priorities for assistance?
The study mentioned above indicated that women in the country are
taking a leading role in establishing private sector grain trading systems, that they constitute the majority of participants in such important income-generating activities as vegetable production and fish processing, and that their responsibility for firewood supply suggests that they would be the most logical targets for efforts to establish village woodlots.

By recognizing the importance of women in A.M..'s priority subsectors,
the CDSS could both demonstrate the mission's understanding of those aspects of the local economy that it seeks to influence and pave the way for the design of project activities that 'respond to gender differences in roles and resources.
2.2.3 The Mission Portfolio Strategy
The CDSS discussion of the mission portfolio of the country emphasizes the role of women in family planning and rural health activities, but overlooks their productive activities in the agricultural sector. Two questions from the gender perspective are appropriate to this part of the CDSS:
" Which projects will directly affect women's economic
activities and how will they affect women as well as men?
" How will women's activities and women's capacity to
respond to new opportunities affect the success of A.I.D.'s
With regard to the first question, it is evident that several projects in* the portfolio will affect activities that women participate in, particularly grain production and input markets. A.I.D.'s main project in the country is designed to promote the development of privately organized farmers' groups foe, purchasing inputs and to assist private sector input distribution channels with credit and technical advice.
In this case, the treatment of gender issues in the CDSS could be strengthened by
" Recognizing that women in the country frequently form
women's farmers groups for the cultivation of millet and
other crops.
" Committing the mission to promote favorable conditions
for the formation of women's groups as well as men's
groups to participate in project programs.

U Recognizing that women are already taking an active role
in establishing private marketing systems, but that their
ability to benefit from new opportunities will be limited
by barriers to credit for women, and indeed for all small
entrepreneurs, in the existing credit system. Although a
detailed discussion of access to credit lies outside the
scope of a CDSS, the document could identify access to credit as a target for A.I.D. policy or program assistance.
With regard to the second question, how failure to reach women will affect project success, the CDSS sets a target of 5 percent annual growth in millet production from the use of improved seed and fertilizer. Women produce a significant portion of the millet, in addition to working on family plots; therefore, women are likely to be responsible for applying fertilizer on the majority of millet plots and for making decisions regarding fertilizer purchase on their own plots. In many countries, the percentage of national millet production deriving from women's plots is not known, but a study conducted in Burkina Faso estimated that Burkina women produce 13 percent of the nation's dryland food grains on their own plots.(23)
The CDSS discussion of a 5 percent target and the feasibility of reaching it could be strengthened by
N Recognizing that low-resource- farmers, including women,
do not now have access- to fertilizer for grain production
N Including a discussion of how mission projects will ensure
that these farmers have access to fertilizer and knowledge
of its use in the future
This discussion illustrates the ways in which an understanding of women's participation in African agriculture could be used to improve the development of A.I.D. strategies for the agricultural sector and how this understanding could be reflected in the CDSS. The information needed to gain this understanding unfortunately may not exist in many countries. An important task in developing an agricultural strategy to meet women's needs is therefore to identify the information needs and describe how the mission proposes to meet these needs. The annual action plan provides an appropriate forum for

reporting on and updating the mission's understanding of gender roles in agriculture; the action plan is discussed in more detail below.
2.2.4 Incorporating Gender into an Action Plan
An action plan is basically a scaled-down version of a CDSS; it emphasizes mission actions to be taken during the coming year to further the strategy developed in the CDSS. Because the action plan emphasizes project and program development and implementation, the incorporation of gender issues into the action plan should be based on an examination of how modifications in the project and program assistance strategies will affect the program's impact on women, either negatively or positively.
In the case of the African country reviewed above, for example, a delay in implementing reforms in the agricultural input system would be expected to lead to a delay in improving access to inputs for women. This delay should be identified in the action plan as part of the discussion of reform implementation.
The action plan should also discuss progress in implementing the gender strategy identified in the CDSS. If the CDSS laid out a strategy for assessingproject impacts on women through the collection of gender-disaggregated data, for example, the action plan would be an appropriate place for an update on mission information on gender and a discussion of how this information affects project implementation.
If mainstream projects were identified as expected sources of benefits for women farmers or entrepreneurs, the action plan should include an assessment of whether women are participating in these activities. In order to generate this information, of course, projects must include the collection of genderdisaggregated data in their baseline and monitoring systems.

2.3 Incorporating Gender into A.I.D. Projects
2.3.1 Types of A.I.D. WID Projects
A.I.D. funds a wide variety of agricultural development projects, ranging from larger, all-encompassing projects (integrated rural development, institution building, or policy and planning) to smaller, more specific ones (fertilizer credit programs, introduction of a new crop or animal, or cookstove technology). Since the 1970s, A.I.D. has attempted to integrate its women in development mandate into its agricultural projects. Three types of projects have been developed to include women in the development process: womenonly projects, projects with women's components, and mainstream projects that integrate women into their programs. The advantages and disadvantages of these types are summarized in Figure 4.
A project review conducted by the Center for Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE) examined more than 100 A.I.D. projects that included the terms 'women,' 'female,' or 'gender' in project documents.(7) The review determined that A.I.D. uses three basic approaches to incorporate women into their projects: women-only projects, a women's component within a project, and an integrated project. Each of these approaches has advantages that depend on the details of the site and project. There is no single best method to incorporate women into a project, but integrated projects have usually been the most successful.
Women-only projects are designed to deal explicitly with women. They have the advantage of being highly visible, but their budgets are usually small, they receive low government priority, and they are more often seen as welfare-oriented than as production-oriented. When located in ministries of social welfare, private voluntary organizations, or women's bureaus, their impact is very low. For example, several small projects designed by the Africa Bureau to assist African women had little publicity, low levels of funding, slow implementation, poor direction (women received handicrafts training rather than the agricultural assistance they requested), little interaction with

Type of Project Advantages Disadvantages
WID-Specific Women receive all of the project's These projects tend to be small scale and underfunded.
resources and benefits. Benefi- Implementing agencies often lack technical expertise
ciaries may acquire leadership in raising productivity or income. WID-specific
skills and greater self-confidence income-generating projects rarely take marketability in gender-segregated environment, of goods or services into account and thus fail to
Skills training in nontraditional generate income. Women beneficiaries may be required
areas may be much easier without to contribute their time and labor with no compensation.
male competition. Women may become further marginalized or isolated from
mainstream development.
*Womn'sThe project as a whole enjoys more The WID component usually receives far less funding
resources and higher priority than and priority than do the other components. These WID-specific projects, which can components have tended to respond to women's social
benefit the WID component. Women roles rather than their economic roles; for this reason,
are ensured of receiving at least domestic activities may be emphasized to the exclusion
a part of the project's resources. of any others. Awareness of the importance of gender in Women can 'catch up' to men through the project's other components may be missing. WID components.
Integrated Women can take full advantage of Unless information on women's activities and time use is
the resources and high priority that introduced at the design stage, these projects may integrated projects receive. If inadvertently exclude women through choices of promotion
women form a large proportion of mechanism, location and timing of project resources,
the pool of eligibles, their etc. If women form only a small proportion of'the pool
will probably be high, even without of eligibles, they may not be included in the project. detailed attention given WID issues. Women may be competing with men for scarce project resources and lose out because of their lack of
experience in integrated group settings and their relatively low status in the family and community.

presumed beneficiaries, and indications that project personnel had limited WID training. Evaluators gave poor to mediocre ratings for the 12 projects actually implemented under this program.(19) Successful women-only projects are those implemented by powerful institutions such as ministries of agriculture, labor, and education or credit banks rather than by women's bureaus or PVOs. In general, women-only projects were more successful in delivering training than in raising production or generating income.(7) The most effective use of a women-only project is to train women in additional, new, or non-traditional skills or to train WID personnel, including training in WID issues for WID positions.
A women's component is a women-oriented part, often a distinctly
separate part, of a larger project. Again, projects with women's components typically have a small budget. They may be tacked on to a larger project and seen as a token gesture to WID mandates, and they may not receive adequate technical support from the larger project. One disadvantage of a women's component is the tendency to emphasize women's domestic roles and overlook their economic roles. For example, the Mixed Farming and Natural Resource Management Project in The Gambia introduced maize as a cash crop and had a women's component that taught women how to prepare and cook maize but not how to produce it. Another example can be drawn from a resource conservation project in Nepal that focused on women's domestic roles (cookstoves, kitchen gardens, and sewing) while ignoring their significant inputs into resource conservation activities including reforestation, watershed management, and soil conservation.(19)
A second disadvantage of women's component projects is that a women's component may be implemented in isolation from the rest of the project and may lack input from technical staff on the project. In the CAEP Project in the Eastern Caribbean region, having a women's component diverted attention from gender issues in the main project, which was designed to improve agricultural extension. During the second phase, the project dropped the women's component. Integration of the women's component into the rest of the project led to a higher success rate.

An integrated project, as defined by A.I.D., is any mainstream project
that integrates women without a women-only design or a women's component. Gender-sensitive projects have both gender analysis and gender adaptation. Gender analysis is the analysis of the intersection of male and female roles and responsibilities with project goals, strategies, and outcomes at any stage of the project cycle. Gender analysis begins with the design phase of a project and ideally extends throughout the life of the project. Gender analysis alone is not sufficient; women must actually participate in and benefit from the project. The process of gender analysis is described in the next section.
The CDIE review found that gender-sensitive design correlates with
achievement of objectives, and that failure to achieve objectives can often be traced to gender-blind design. Integrated programs also minimize two major risks:
" The likelihood that the project will translate their
productive goals into a welfare approach to women
" The risk that the project will further marginalize women
from access to resources by creating mechanisms that
separate them from mainstream activities(6)
Of the three project types, gender-sensitive mainstream projects appear
-to be the most effective -way. of. promoting and utilizing women's contributions.(7) When women's participation is high, especially through direct involvement of women farmers, projects are more likely to achieve their objectives. Still, there are some situations in which the most effective way of reaching women is through women-only or women's component projects. The disadvantages mentioned above should be kept in mind when the decision is made to use one of these types of projects.
2.3.2 Targeting Resources to Women
Targeting, or earmarking, a portion-of project inputs for women or establishing quotas for women's participation in project activities is one approach that can be used to reach women. However, targeting may not work

when technical and institutional constraints on female participation remain. For example, funds may be set aside for extension work with village women, but the work frequently focuses on women's domestic tasks rather than on agricultural production. If a quota is set for females to participate in training and the quota is not met because of a lack of qualified women, it may be more effective to hold those slots open than to let men have them. Targeting resources to women improves the probability that they will receive them, but it does not guarantee access unless the procedure is monitored.
2.4 Project Design
The two principal project design documents are described briefly in the following sections.
2.4.1 Project Identification Document
The Project Identification Document (PID) presents a short, concise proposal for a project. Impetus for developing a PID can come from any source. It outlines the description, rationale, and estimated cost for a new project; it should reflect both A.L.D. and host country development strategies. The PID describes the perceived problems and presents ways in which the project will address the problems.
Development projects need to be responsive to the social, economic, and political factors of their environment. As pointed out in A.I.D.'s Handbook 3, consideration of these factors, including the definition and examination of project participants and in tended beneficiaries, is expected to begin with the earliest stages of project identification.(1) It should continue throughout project development so that relevant knowledge about beneficiary populations can be applied to the project design, and so that future feasibility and implementation problems can be minimized.

In identifying problems and constraints, and in explaining how the
project will contribute to the overall goal of the attainment of basic human needs, the PID should show the differential impact of development on women and men. In describing the characteristics of the beneficiaries, direct and indirect, care must be taken to delineate gender differences. What are the factors that will facilitate or constrain the progress of the project and are these factors gender-related?
2.4.2 Project Paper
After a PID has been approved by A.I.D./Washington, the mission in
collaboration with host country counterparts prepares the Project Paper (PP). The PP presents the rationale, a thorough analysis, and the plan, schedule, cost estimate, and recommendations for the new project along with other supporting documents. The PP summarizes the analyses carried out during project development and represents the final proposed design.
The thoroughness of these analyses (discussed in detail in Section 3)
greatly influences the progress of a project -- whether it runs smoothly or is weighted down with innumerable design flaws. Ample evidence exists to show that gender issues must be properly addressed and fully integrated into project design for project development to be successful.
The PP should establish criteria against which the project's performance and success in reaching and benefitting. women can be evaluated. It should outline WID-related activities to be accomplished, and set target dates and goals to indicate that activities are achieved. Since women represent half of the population and often more than half of the farmers in many developing countries, half of the beneficiaries and participants of A.I.D.-funded projects should be women. Finally, the PP must be flexible enough to allow for necessary adjustments to the changing situations of women.

2.5 Project Implementation
Implementation of a project entails putting the project design into effect or operation. Implementation of A.I.D.'s WID policy consists principally of ensuring that women share in the new resources and higher returns for their labor for activities in which they engage. To do this effectively, it is necessary to understand the gender roles and responsibilities within local systems.(1O) Gender-relate- d concerns that occur during project implementation include
* Programs that do not have an adverse effect on Women's
control of and access to resources
* Women's access to training
* Projects that do not promote technologies and practices that
conflict with women's needs or require resources they do not
This mandate to give women access to the project should come from the PP, but projects can be adapted so that they will reach women. These concerns are discussed more fully in Section 4.3.
2.6 Project Evaluation
Monitoring and evaluation systems must be built in during the design
phase so that it will be possible to monitor and report the project's progress in integrating women as soon as implementation begins. A separate analysis of the project's progress in reaching women is essential. Adequate monitoring of women's participation may require that data be more detailed than that usually collected for mission reports. Methods of monitoring women's progress are discussed more fully in Section 3.6.
The evaluation will have to ascertain if there has been any awareness of women in development issues in project design and implementation. If

baseline data are not adequate or disaggregated by gender, provision must be made to update the baseline data on women's activities and their access to and control over resources. If women have not been targeted or included in project benefits, the evaluation should discuss this problem and indicate methods of addressing it. Evaluations should include not only hard, quantitative indicators but also qualitative assessments of changes that have taken place as a result of the project.
2.7 Incorporating Gender into Non-Project Assistance
2.7.1 Is Gender an Issue in Non-Project Assistance?
Gender concerns have rarely been addressed in non-project assistance, but the increased emphasis being placed on these concerns argues for including them in such assistance programs when appropriate. In general, gender concerns should be examined in the design of non-project assistance programs that address either policy reform or budget support for the agricultural sector. If appropriate, measures to address these concerns should be incorporated into the program. Gender concerns are generally not an issue in other types of program assistance, such as commodity import or food aid programs directed primarily to balance-of-payments support, but the relevance of-gender concerns should be confirmed for each case.
Two basic questions must be asked to determine whether gender concerns are relevant to specific policy reform and budget support programs:
" To what extent do women participate in activities likely to be
affected directly or indirectly by the program?
" To what extent is the impact on women likely to differ
significantly from that of others in the sector, given gender
differences in roles, resources, and other factors?
The next two sections discuss how to answer these questions for policyfocused and budget support programs. Basic issues and answers with respect to gender in non-project assistance are summarized in Figure 5.

2.7.2 Policy Reform
Programs to s upport policy reform generally target macroeconomic and agricultural policies that are believed to restrain growth in the agricultural sector and reduce rural incomes. Because women farmers generate a significant portion of total production in most countries and because they are among the poorest farmers, special consideration of how policies and policy reform affect them is consistent with A.I.D.'s aims.
Even though policies are by definition implemented throughout the
economy, they do not by any means affect all farmers (all traders, etc.) in the same way. Differences among farmers in access to and control over resources, in social and economic constraints, and in other factors intervene to cause differences in policy impacts among farmers. Women farmers, for example, are likely to sell a smaller proportion of the food crops they produce, on average, than do men farmers (because of their responsibilities to supply family food, the generally smaller size of their holdings, and so forth). Consequently, policy interventions affecting food crops that work through the market (e.g., mandatory deliveries at a fixed price) can affect women and men farmers differently.
Budget support programs differ greatly with respect to the specificity of budget categories identified for support. Where support is being provided for the government agricultural sector program as a whole (or with very limited specification of line items or agencies), and where the process does not permit A.I.D. to influence the allocation of resources, it will be difficult to tie gender concerns into the program. Where support is being provided for specific programs (A.I.D.funded projects), agencies (extension), or line items (training), explicit inclusion of gender concerns should be examined closely by the mission during program design.
The way in which policies are implemented can also lead to differential impacts within the agricultural sector. For example, budgetary considerations often force governments to limit the supply of subsidized inp uts, such as

1. When are gender concerns an issue in non-project assistance?
Gender concerns may be an issue in non-project assistance in either
of two situations: (1) if the program supports policy reforms that
are likely to have a significant impact on activities in which women
participate, and gender-based differences in roles and resources
cause this impact to differ from the effect on others in the sector,
and (2) if the program supports government activities in the agricultural sector for which women are or could be target
beneficiaries or which will affect women in the sector directly or
2. Why would the effect of policy reforms, differ by gender?
The impact of policy reforms may differ by gender if there are
significant gender-based differences in roles and access to resources
in those parts of the agricultural sector affected by the policy
reform. if women grow food crops while men grow cash crops, for
example, policies affecting the relative profitability of these two
activities will have differential impacts. If women have less access
to formal credit than men, policy reforms affecting formal credit
may affect women differently from men.
3. Why is gender an issue in budget support to agriculture?
A.I.D. budget support is generally aimed at encouraging activities
identified as important in achieving pectoral goals such as increased
rural incomes, improved nutrition, etc. Women's contributions to the
agricultural sector are important determinants of whether these goals
are reached, yet women farmers generally benefit less than men
farmers from government services such as extension and support to
cooperatives, and assistance to women often receives low priority in
the allocation of funds, because of under-estimation of the importance of their role. Funding to improve government outreach to
women farmers therefore may be expected to increase the effectiveness of government agricultural support programs.
4. Should A.I.D. emphasize support to women farmers if the host
government is unreceptive?
This decision depends on two factors: (1) the priority assigned to gender concerns in the mission's total development strategy; and (2) the effect on achievement of the program's goals if gender concerns
are not addressed effectively. It may be more productive to
emphasize the negative impact on production and rural incomes of
failing to extend program benefits to women, than to emphasize
equity concerns or WID issues.

fertilizer. The result is frequently that larger farmers, those belonging to government-organized groups, and those growing priority crops (e.g., export crops) have better access to subsidized inputs, even if official policy calls for all farmers to benefit. Women farmers generally do not fall into these groups, and therefore are less likely to benefit from fertilizer subsidies.
As these examples illustrate, gender-based differences in policy impacts -and in the impact of reforms -- derive from fundamental gender-based differences in roles and resources within the agricultural sector, not from rent discrimination. Although decision makers may be unaware of these differences, they can greatly influence the outcome of reforms. Consideration of such differences is therefore important in the design and monitoring of policy reform programs.
2.7.3 Budget Support
Women farmers and small entrepreneurs in the agricultural sector have traditionally had less access than other farmers to government services. This situation is due to a combination of factors:
1. The low priority assigned to women farmers by many host
2. The difficulty of reaching women farmers, who are often
illiterate, may not speak the official language, and are less likely to belong to formal groups such as government-sponsored cooperatives
3. Government emphasis on cash and export crops less likely
to be grown by women
4. Limited inform ation on effective measures (e.g., the design
of credit programs) to reach women
5. Poor understanding of the role of women in agricultural
decision making and in the rural household (leading to an
assumption that it is sufficient to reach male heads of

The low priority placed on women's agricultural activities coupled with budget limitations on agricultural activities have often reduced the resources allocated to reaching women to a level well below that consistent with their importance in agricultural production (particularly food production) and resource management. In other words, many situations exist where a reallocation of resources to increase extension and other support to women farmers would increase the total effectiveness of such programs, even where women may be more costly to reach per person.
Targeting increased expenditures to women farmers and traders should therefore be considered as a potential component of A.I.D. budget support programs. Targeting may take the form of increased funding for specific women-oriented units in the appropriate ministry (e.g., Agriculture), allocation of part of the funds to units in other ministries (e.g., Social Services) that provide services to women farmers, or inclusion of increased funding for women-oriented activities in the list of activities to be supported (and monitored) under the program.
2.7.4 Other Programs
Particularly in large-scale assistance programs, non-project assistance may also be chosen as the mode of implementation for other types of assistance, such as participant training. In such ca ses, attention to gender differences is appropriate, following the same criteria as outlined below for similar activities.
The design of a participant training program, for example, should examine measures to increase the participation of women. These may include measures such as the following.
" Working with host government officials to identify women with
suitable backgrounds for long-term overseas training
" Expanding the program to include non-degree or bachelor's
degree training to permit more women to participate, particularly where social restrictions limit long-term travel by

women or where the number of women with appropriate
undergraduate degrees is limited
" Financing in-country degree or non-degree training to facilitate
participation by women
" Identifying women in the private sector (e.g., private traders)
who may be able to benefit from training in agricultural or business skills, particularly if there are insufficient suitable
candidates in government positions

Integration of Gender Issues into the Design of Agricultural Projects
3.1 Agricultural Project Design Issues
All A.I.D. projects share a common set of goals, which are usually stated as improving the social and economic well-being of small farm households by increasing production, raising incomes, reducing malnutrition, conserving natural resources, and improving the quality of life. Each project also has its immediate goals, e.g., introduction of a new crop variety, improved livestock production, reforestation. Gender analysis can be used to provide insight into the ways of achieving both short- and long-term goals. It goes without saying that the baseline situation needs to be understood before a project can be designed. Every project operates within a specific geographic, economic, cultural, and social environment as well as in a. broader political one. Gender roles and responsibilities vary widely between and within countries but they can be or already are documented.
As discussed in Section 1, the importance of gender in agricultural
production goes beyond the equity issue. It is an economic issue. Throughout the world, women's 'work' and contribution to the economy has been underestimated. Dixon's survey (13) of 82 developing countries indicated that women represent 46 percent of the agricultural labor force in sub-Saharan Africa, 45 percent in Asia, 40 percent in the Caribbean, and 31 percent in North Africa and the Near East. It is important to understand not only who is doing the work but who is making the decisions about cropping patterns, seed selection, use of purchased inputs and family labor, and crop disposal.(10) It is also important to know who is implementing the decisions, with what resources and at what level of skills. Five patterns of gender responsibilities can. be observed: separate crops, separate fields, separate tasks, shared tasks, and women-managed farms (see Figure 6).

1. Separate crops. Men and women are responsible for
production and disposal of different crops. Women are often responsible for the livestock, vegetables, and tree
crops near their dwellings.
2. Separate fields. Women and men produce the same crops,
but in different fields. This pattern is common in West Africa, where private fields are part of a larger system in
which both men and women also contribute their labor to
communal fields. In such cases, there may be three
interlocking systems: fields worked by each wife, fields
worked by the husband, and fields worked by the extended
3. Separate tasks. In this pattern, some or all of the tasks
within a cropping cycle are assigned by gender. For
example, rice transplanting is often carried out by women,
plowing by men.
4. Shared tasks. In this pattern, which overlaps other
patterns, men and women undertake the same tasks on the
same crops. In some systems, most tasks are shared; in
others, only labor-intensive tasks, such as weeding and
harvesting, are shared.
5. Women-managed farms. There are two types of womenmanaged farms, de facto and de jure. in de facto
systems, men work away from the farm for days, months,
or even 'years, leaving the women to manage the farm.
De jure women-managed farms are those in which the
women may be widowed, divorced, abandoned, or never
married. De jure systems appear to be increasing
worldwide. They tend to be among the poorest farming
households, yet many people depend on them for survival.

Most farms display mixed patterns of responsibility and control, combining production cycles in which one gender is primarily responsible with those in which responsibility is shared or interlaced. In these systems, resources such as land and animals may be pooled or not, and the income streams resulting from the use of these resources also may be pooled or not. Household decision-making patterns are complex, subtle, and not well understood. They differ from system to system, and differences arise to a large degree from the gender patterns of resource control, as well as the division of labor. Knowledge of local gender patterns of resource control, management responsibility, and labor is crucial because they have important effects on project implementation and the attainment of project goals.(1O) The main issues to be considered during the design stage are presented in Figures 7 and 8.
3.2 Gender Analysis in the Project Paper
In general, project design and analysis are concurrent activities. Analysis tests the feasibility and effectiveness of the design, possibly leading to modifications, which are then re-analyzed. Gender analysis should be an integral part of all aspects of the project paper, as shown in Figure 9. The incorporation of gender into the social soundness analysis, the technical analysis, and the economic analysis is discussed below.
3.2.1 The Social Soundness Analysis
As discussed in detail in A.I.D. Handbook 3, the Social Soundness Analysis is used to shape the design, to strengthen and provide information to other analyses, and to confirm the socio-cultural feasibility of the overall activity. Six aspects are normally addressed as part of the social soundness analysis, and gender can play a very important role in all six areas:
K Socio-cultural context: The socio-cultural context of the
project areas should be examined in relation to the wider
social, economic, and political environment.

Basic Design Issues for All Projects
Project Background and Problem Statement: Analyze the extent to which gender differences and the role of women in the agricultural sector affect the basic problem (e.g., inadequate transmission of technologies to farmers).
Project Strategy and Feasibility Analyses: Identify the extent to-which effective incorporation of gender concerns (e.g., reaching both men and women farmers with new technologies) will be necessary for project success. What is the impact on the project of failing to incorporate :such concerns effectively?
Choice of Host Country Institutions: Determine the effectiveness of the primary implementing institutions (e.g., the extension service) in addressing gender concerns and identify measures needed to improve their performance in this area.
Project Budget and Financial and Implementation Plans:. Include the cost of measures necessary to reach women farmers or otherwise address gender concerns effectively. Describe measures to ensure that gender concerns are adequately addressed in the selection of the technical assistance team, participant training programs, and project activities.
Design Issues for Sector-Level Projects
Project Background and Problem Statement: Describe the extent to which sectoral institutions are currently addressing gender concerns (e.g., in collection of data on theagricultural sector) and determine the impact of their performance in this area on overall effectiveness.
Project Activities (Outputs): Identify activities necessary to improve institutional performance in addressi 'ng gender concerns (e.g., gender disaggregation of farm management data) and include such activities in project input planning.
Design Issues for Field-Level Projects
Project Background and Problem Statement: Determine the role of women in agricultural activities in the project area relevant to the project's focus (e.g., women's role in poultry management if this is a poultry project); analyze gender differences in constraints, problems, and resources at the farm level (e.g., differences in credit access, technologies used, and economic strategies).
Project Activities (Outputs and Inputs): Identify measures necessary to reach women effectively and include such activities in project input planning; if sufficient information to design such measures is not available during design, specify additional data needed, how it will be gathered during project implementation, and how findings will be incorporated.

1. Is it necessary to have a women-in-development specialist on the team?
No, not if gender concerns are adequately covered in the design team's scope of
work. A WID specialist may be necessary on design teams for projects with a
heavy field orientation, where information on women's roles in the project area is
scarce, in order to ensure that team resources and expertise are sufficient to
collect information, analyze constraints and opportunities, and identify appropriate
design actions despite data limitations.
2. Should responsibility for addressing gender concerns be given to the design
team member responsible for the social soundness analysis?
No, responsibility for addressing gender concerns should usually be assigned to the
team leader. Discussion of gender issues in the social soundness analysis rarely constitutes an adequate approach to addressing gender concerns. These should be reflected in the design of the project's activities, in the implementation plan, and
where necessary, in the budget.
3. What if the host government counterpart institution is indifferent or even
hostile to gender issues?
The primary reason for incorporating gender concerns into A.l.D. projects is to
increase project effectiveness. Host government participation in the project design
team and project negotiations should be used as opportunities to help decision
makers understand the- need to address gender concerns (e.g.,-reaching women aswell as men farmers with improved technologies) in order to achieve the project's
4. Is it necessary to have a "1WID component" to address gender issues
No, on the contrary, experience indicates that integrating efforts to reach women
farmers and entrepreneurs into the project's central activities is generally more
effective than a separate effort directed at women.

" Beneficiaries: The direct and indirect beneficiaries of project
activities must be identified. The method by which men's and
women's needs for planned activities have been determined and
how project activities will lead to benefits must be discussed.
A description of the characteristics of the participants
(including education, land ownership, surplus labor) necessary
to benefit from a proposed project activity must be elaborated.
Intra-household benefit distribution must be addressed, as well
as whether any particular category of participants is likely to
be affected adversely.
" Participation: The extent to which beneficiary participation
has been achieved during project development must be assessed,
as well as the opportunities for, and means by which,
beneficiary participation has been built into project implementation and evaluation plans. An assessment of ways for
structuring incentives and thus ensuring motivation among
local men and women should be included.
" Socio-cultural feasibility. The obstacles that may arise from
intra-family, local, and national level socioeconomic forces that
influence decision-making processes of participants and
beneficiaries should be reviewed.
" Impact: Project impact should be addressed from several
perspectives, including the probability that there will be an equitable distribution of benefits among all affected groups,
including women.
" Issues: Social issues that have a particular bearing on the
success of the project should be addressed. This may result
in the identification of other. types of information to be
gathered during initial implementation phases; a review of project monitoring and feedback systems in view of their
capacity to identify problems of a socio-cultural nature;
consideration of intra-family or local decision making, and
resource distribution mechanisms.
The Social Soundness Analysis should therefore provide answers to questions such as:
* What are the gender roles in the society?
* How do they intersect with project goals and activities?
* What are the target groups, given the division of labor
and gender roles?

Project Paper Section Treatment of Gender Concerns
Introduction and Problem Briefly identifies role of women in agricultural,
Statement livestock, and resource management activities to
be addressed by the project and relates their role to the problem that the project will tackle (e.g., role of women in grain storage in a project to reduce post-harvest losses).
Project Strategy and Discusses how incorporating women in project
Rationale activities will assist in solving the problems
Project Description Describes how project activities will involve
women farmers and traders, relates their involvement to achievement of the project's purpose, and describes how project inputs have been adjusted to ensure women's participation (e.g., inclusion of gender expertise on the technical assistance team).
Project Implementation Financial Plan explicitly identifies costs
Plan associated with reaching women (e.g., special
training programs for women, additional technical assistance).
Implementation Plan includes benchmarks for developing and implementing activities to reach women, as appropriate, and discusses responsibilities for addressing gender issues (A.l.D., host government, and contractor). Evaluation Plan describes how project data collection and evaluation activities will generate and make use of gender-disaggregated data.
Project Analyses Technical Analysis discusses applicability of
project approach and project-supported technologies to women's activities in the agricultural sector.
Economic Analysis identifies costs and benefits to women and Sensitivity Analysis reviews impact on project returns of failing to incorporate women in project activities. Social Soundness Analysis discusses social constraints on involving women and how they are addressed in the project design. Institutional Analysis describes capabilities of implementing institutions to reach women in their target groups, and discusses measures to enhance this capability.

" How will the target groups be reached by existing
" Is the proposed technology appropriate to the needs and
resources of the target groups?
" How can delivery systems and technical packages be
adapted for gender differences?
3.2.2 The Technical Analysis
The technical analysis, meant to examine the technical feasibility of a project, depends on the nature of the project. It often overlaps with the economic analysis and social analysis. Although it may be argued that "technical" is a-gender-neutral term, it is unlikely that there is any technical aspect of a project that does not affect people. For example, if construction of physical facilities is the only project element, the question to be asked is "Who will be using these facilities?" If it is a school, is it coed, for boys, for girls, for adult education? A school that does not provide separate facilities for girls and women will automatically exclude them in many cultures. If the technical package includes the provision of seeds, what are the eligibility requirements for receiving seeds? Technical problems do not have other solutions besides purely technical -ones. Gender analysis of the technical aspects will indicate potential problem -areas. A list of gender issues to be addressed in the technical analysis section is presented in Figure 10.
3.2.3 The Economic Analysis
The economic analysis determines whether a project is a worthwhile
investment for the country and usually compares real benefits with -real costs. A.I.D. does not have a specific methodology for economic analyses since the application of even standard methodologies varies in different sectors and projects. Regardless of the methodology chosen to conduct the economic analyses, the information gathered (e.g., wages, income distribution) should be disaggregated by gender and the effects of the proposed project on women

Issues Related to, Technical Feasibility and Appropriateness of Overall Approach
1. What barriers to reaching or including women in project activities are
present in the project's technical environment (for example, higher
illiteracy or lower education among women farmers)?
2. What technical measures are incorporated in the project design to
overcome these barriers and what is their expected effectiveness?
3. What will be the impact on project success if women do not participate
in project activities?
4. Will the technical assistance team include gender expertise?
5. Will women have access to proiect-funded facilities, e.g., has the proposed
design and location of training facilities been adjusted to make them
consistent with local norms for women's participation?
Issues Related to Productive Technologies to be Disseminated or Developed
1. Does sufficient information exist regarding women's participation in the
agricultural sector to determine how project-supported technologies are
likely to affect women? if not, how does the project design ensure that
this information will be made available during implementation in order to
ensure that the project is technically relevant to women as well as men
in the agricultural sector?
-2. Do project-supported tech nologies. javo r high-resource or low-resource
farmers (including women)?
3. Are the technologies applicable to women's productive activities (e.g., for
a seed multiplication project, will seeds for women's crops be produced)?
4. Does the technology increase demand for women's labor or displace
women from existing sources of income? If the technologies will require a change in labor patterns, what measures are included in the project to
ensure that women are adequately compensated and are able to make the
change in their labor patterns required to adjust to project-supported
5. Does the technology require inputs and/or expertise that women farmers
do not have? if so, how will the project ensure that women farmers gain
access to inputs and expertise needed to apply project-supported
6. How will women be informed about project-supported technologies and
what measures are included in the project to ensure that this process is

should be considered. Gender issues to be addressed in the economic analysis section of the Project Paper are summarized in Figure 11.
3.3 Incorporating Gender Concerns
into individual Project Components
Nearly all of the agricultural projects financed by A.I.D. can be categorized into two groups, based on whether or not they involve direct contact with farmers on a regular basis:
0 Those that operate primarily at the sectoral level, such as
policy analysis and data collection projects and most
institution-building projects
N Those that operate primarily at the field level, such as farming
systems research projects or extension projects
Although it is difficult to develop a comprehensive but manageable list of all the components that may be included in an agricultural project, an attempt in this direction is included in Figure 12. Both approaches may be combined in a single project, such as a research institution-building project that combines field-level research with staff training and other components directed at the research institution. This distinction is useful in considering how to integrate gender concerns into agricultural projects because very different approaches are required depending on whether direct farmer contact will or will-not be a major feature of project activities.
Another important distinction to be made is that women and men do not have equal access to or control over resources in most of the world, either legally or culturally. Having an awareness of the losses that occur because of women')s unequal access to resources and the consequences for women's participation in economic activity should lead to more effective project designs. The access and control factors such as land, labor, capital, credit, and education are used in conjunction with the main types of A.I.D. agricultural projects to guide this presentation of agricultural project design issues.

1. Benefits to Women Participants in the Project: What benefits will the
project provide to women farmers, entrepreneurs, and others who
participate in the project? Can these benefits be quantified? How
significant are these benefits relative to other current sources of income
(e.g., percentage increase in total income, or farm income, expected from
participation in project activities)?
2. Economic Feasibility of Participating in the Project: Will participation in
the project require economic resources, such as land or capital, that
women do not have? if so, how has the project design been adjusted to
ensure that women are able to participate? Will participation in project
activities be economically attractive to women, compared to alternative
uses of their time and financial resources? Will participation be as
attractive for women farmers (entrepreneurs, etc.) as for men in these
same groups? Is participation in project activities riskier or costlier for
women than for men and, if so, how has the project design been adjusted
to balance this difference?
3. Other Impacts on Women in the Agricultural Sector: Will the project
create new economic opportunities for women? Will it displace women
from functions they currently perform? Will the project increase women's
productivity in the agricultural sector? Will the project increase the
earnings of women in the agricultural sector? Will the project increase
the demand for women's labor and, if so, does it appear that women will
receive appropriate compensation for their additional inputs? Will the
project increase the earning potential or profitability of those who compete with women fe.g., large-scale male and corporate poultry
producers versus small-scale women producers) in ways that reduce the
competitiveness of women-managed activities?
4. Impact on Net Project Benefits of Women's Participation in the Project:
How would project benefits and economic return be affected if women did
not participate as expected, either directly as decision-makers or as
members of participating families (e.g., how would project benefits be
reduced if women do not provide increased labor for family production)?
What additional costs (e.g., additional staff) are associated with reaching
women and what is the expected return on these costs?
5. Distribution of Project Benefits: Will women in the agricultural sector
participate in the project in proportion to their participation in the
economic activities and subsectors targeted by the project (e.g., poultry
production, credit use)? Will benefits to women participants average
more or less than benefits to men partic pants? How does the mechanism.
for providing benefits to women differ from that for men (e.g., will
women benefit primarily as wage earners in processing plants while men
benefit as producers of the goods processed)? What proportion of total
project benefits are expected to accrue to women?

Sectoral Projects Field-Level Projects
" Policy analysis and reform Research
Data collection and U Extension
planning Infrastructure
" Agricultural education Irrigation
* Credit
* Other services (e.g., market information) x Input supply systems
* (e.g., seed, trees)
* Marketing
* Storage and processing
* Land reform and tenure
* Resource management and conservation
* Farmer organization
Activities Common to Both Types
* Technical assistance
* In-country training
* Long-term training
* Management development
* improvement of physical facilities

The remainder of this section presents design issues and possible solutions with reference to each of these project components. Neither the issues nor the solutions shown are comprehensive; rather they represent a point of departure for those designing projects with these (and other) components. The specific questions to be asked during the design and the answers identified must be tailored to each project's situation.
Incorporation of the solutions identified may or may not require a reallocation of the project's budget for effective implementation.. In the majority of cases, however, a serious effort to incorporate women into agricultural projects will have implications for the project budget. Where additional expenditures are required (inclusion of social scientists on the technical assistance team, outreach to women's organizations, organization of additional field days for women farmers), these expenditures should be allowed for in the project budget.
3.4 Sectoral Projects
Figures 13 through 15 present issues and solutions that may be encountered during the design of sectoral projects in the areas of policy analysis and reform; data collection and planning; and agricultural education.
3.5 Access and Control Factors and the
Implications for Field Level Projects
3.5.1 Land
Women's access to land varies widely throughout the world, yet land is a crucial component in agricultural production for both men and women. Ownership, use of the land (usufruct), and control are determined by tradition or by law, or some combination of the two. The control of and access to land

0. Women farmers often differ from men in their roles and resources within
the agricultural sector: what they grow, how they grow it, and what use
they make of the crop. Will the analysis of current policies and
alternative reforms examine potential differences in policy impact by
10- Are women farmers more or less likely to grow and market crops targeted
for government assistance?
~- Are women farmers more or less likely to grow and market crops that are
taxed by the government?
~- Are women farmers more or less likely to participate in programs such as
government-subsidized credit, provision of inputs, etc.?
S Will the analysis of alternative reforms examine and disaggregate effects
on different groups within society, including women-headed households, or
will it focus only at the macro-economic level?
~- Will the analysis examine indirect impacts of possible reforms on such
factors relevant to women as demand for and return to family labor,
profitability of traditional crops (especially. food crops), relative return to
livestock and crop-growing activities, small-scale marketing, etc.?
10- Does sufficient information on womenfs participation in- the -agricultural
sector exist to examine this issue* in policy analyses?
* Design analytic activities to examine disaggregated impacts as well as
aggregate impacts.
* Include analysis of women's role in the agricultural sector in the
proposed analytic agenda if existing data are inadequate.

~- Is data collection at the farm household level currently disaggregated by
gender to distinguish women-headed from men-headed farm households?
S Given the local social structure, does the proposed definition of the "farm
household" as the unit of analysis reflect women's roles as producers and
managers or is a smaller unit of analysis app .ropriate?
Does farm-level data collection currently disaggregate between men's and
women's agricultural activities within the household, in terms of their
farm size, crop mix, input use, sales behavior, etc.?
~- Can male enumerators collect data from women farmers or must information collected directly from women farmers be collected by women or
through intermediaries?
S Will the project include improved understanding of the contribution of
women to the agricultural sector among the sectoral issues to receive
project assistance?
~- Will data collection and planning include activities traditionally managed
by women in this society (e.g., poultry, vegetable production, local
'- Will participation by women in project activities (e.g., identification of
employees for training) be monitored?
UTrain women enumerators as well as male enumerators.
* Disaggregate household-level farm management data by gender.
* Collect data directly from women farmers as well as men.
* include women's as well as men's activities in data collection.
* Design the analysis and planning of activities to highlight women's
participation in the agricultural sector to improve decision-maker
understanding of gender issues.

0- What percentage of the current student population is female?
0- What percentage of the population from which students are drawn (e.g.,
graduates of secondary technical schools) are women?
O- Does training cover traditi onal, low-resource technologies used by women
farmers (and low-income men farmers) or does it assume a high-input
11- Do formal entry requirements make it difficult for women to qualify (e.g.,
literacy, knowledge of official language, requirement to own land)?
10 Are future extension agents and other field-level personnel receive
training in post-harvest operations, such as on-farm storage, traditionally
handled by women?
01- Will a special effort be made to identify and encourage women applicants?
P.- Are requirements (e.g., secondary school degree) that may inhibit women's
participation really required for adequate job performance?
111 Where qualified women applicants are lacking, can special programs be
designed to provide training to women to make them qualified?
* Monitor women's participation in train-Ing and, where if is in-adequate,
identify and remove limiting factors.
* Eliminate entry requirements that are not job-relevant.
* Add part-time or other non-degree training for women candidates who
cannot meet formal requirements.
* Include low-resource technologies, traditional crops, and livestock in the
* Include on-farm post-harvest management in the curriculum.

within a country, culture, ethnic group, village, and household are variables that must be known in order to understand women's roles in agriculture, their incentives for production and modernization, and their ability to produce and modernize. Agricultural projects planned without an understanding of the land tenure system frequently overlook, ignore, or discourage women's participation.
Land tenure systems vary by region. The first design point is how land is acquired for use (inherited, jointly held by a group or village, held by the state) and what the status of women is in the acquisition process. Is land passed from mother to daughter or from father to son? Do men only have usufruct rights, or can'women own or purchase land themselves? If only men have access rights, how do women get access and can they retain control of those fields once they start using them? Women often lose out when land tenure systems change from usufruct to state-controlled, because in most countries men have been the recipients of land rights. This also occurs in resettlement schemes, that tend to favor men over women as the "primary' farmers and recipients of aid. The assumptions appear to be that heads of households are always men, and that they will organize family members equitably.
The effects of privatization of land and commercialization of agriculture are important because they tend to decrease women's access to land. Land adjudication in Kenya, for example, ignored female farmers, their traditional usufruct and managerial rights, and their rights to the sale of produce.(432) In Kenya and in many other countries, having title to land is essential to gain access to agricultural services, credit, loans, and techno cal assistance, and to join producer cooperatives. When women's access to services is cut off or restricted, their productivity and efficiency as farmers declines, as does their incentive. If women and men traditionally farm separate fields and have separate crops, giving access only to men reduces women's productivity.

Switching from subsistence crops to cash crops (commercialization of agriculture) can also cause women to lose access to land. As land goes into production for cash crops, women may be forced to farm more marginal land or may not be able to farm at all. For example, in the traditional swamp rice production systems of West Africa, women produced rice for home consumption, selling any surplus for cash to meet family food and other needs. As project after project introduced irrigation, double cropping, and new rice varieties to men, women lost control and access to the productive swamplands. Women now have to produce their families' food crops on more marginal, less productive land and are expected to assist their husbands with the new cash crop.
Land Ownership and Food Production
Henn (24) compared the productivity of Tanzanian Haya women who were
landowners with other Haya women who farmed but did not own their land.
Landowners displayed impressive entrepreneurial and agricultural skills, had a
higher standard of living, grew and earned income from cash crops, and hired
male laborers. Women farmers who did not own land did not follow this
pattern. The ability of women farmers to produce and earn income if given
the necessary access to land is well documented. As Henn argues, "the
improvement and expansion of the traditional women's food sector is likely to
be both the cheapest and most reliable method of increasing domestic food

Case Study 1: Incorporation of Women and Gender Analysis in a Rice-Based Farming Systems Project in The Philippines
The IRRI-sponsored Asian Rice Farming Systems Network (ARFSN)
operates a project to improve existing farming systems by integrating suitable crop and animal production technologies. The project is developing ways of
increasing the utilization of crop by-products and residues for animal feed
through crop-livestock research. The Women in Rice Farming Systems (WIRFS)
effort aims to institutionalize women's concerns within the research and
extension agencies dealing with rice farming systems. WIRFS used a stepwise approach to integrate women and gender issues into the crop-livestock project.
WIRFS representatives began by being observers in a project site
workshop. This allowed them to learn about the goals and nature of the
project without being responsible for any actions initially. They discovered that despite a multidisciplinary project team, no social scientists participated,
and existing socioeconomic profiles for the area did not include information on
the participation of women. WIRFS initiated several diagnostic surveys to
identify farming practices and decision making by gender, complemented by a
three-day visit after the surveys to observe activities first-hand.
WIRFS found a gender division of labor in rice production; women are
responsible for pulling seedlings but not for transplanting, as is true in other provinces. Women sell products and by-products. For mungbeans, cowpeas, and vegetables, women harvest, thresh, and make marketing decisions. Men
are responsible for large animals (cattle, carabao) but women help with
feeding, gathering forage, cleaning shelters and animals, herding, and collecting
and disposing wastes. Swine and poultry are women's responsibilities. Women
process glutinous rice, a major income-generating activity that consumes much
fuel and labor. Available agricultural training is gender-specific with courses on farming for men and on nutrition and food preservation for women. No training existed for vegetable, production, swine or poultry production, or rice
processing. Women do not have access to formal credit since they are not
formally organized and do not have collateral such as land titles.
WIRFS provided this information to the ARFSN team and was asked to
participate in a workshop to design future research. As a result, several
changes occurred in the research agenda. The use of mungbean residue for fodder in rice-mungbean cropping patterns was introduced, and women were included in demonstrations on how to use the fodder, and how to use better pest management techniques in mungbean production. The focus of research shifted from large livestock only to include swine and poultry. Women were
invited to attend research meetings and a special class was held to consider
women's participation in crop and livestock activities. A female livestock
nutritionist was engaged to explain the nutritive values of different crop
residues and fodders to women. Varietal and processing research on glutinous
rice was initiated to improve production as a source of income for women.
Gradual inclusion of WIRFS team members in the project and provision of
useful analysis of farm production constraints by gender facilitated the
incorporation of women's concerns into the research and extension efforts and
led to a broader understanding of the farming systems of the area.
[Adapted from Thelma Paris (39)]

Although single and married women's access to and control of land may be hampered by land ownership patterns, the position of divorced, separated, or abandoned women is even worse. Women whose husbands have migrated may also face the same constraints if all of the land is in their husbands' names. Frequently, these women have extremely limited or no access to land from which to feed themselves and their families, much-less produce some income. The reduction or restriction of women's access to land, and thus to services, needlessly constrains food production.
3.5.2 Capital
In all societies, women have primary responsibility for child care and for feeding the family. "Feeding the family' may range from preparing the meals using purchased food to actually producing and processing the food. The former is typical of urban women, the latter more typical for rural women. Even when rural women grow their own food, they still need money to purchase items such as salt or clothing or to pay school fees. Access to or lack of cash is an important constraint on women's ability to invest in agriculture, whether to purchase inputs, to hire labor, or to invest in laborsaving technology. Household demands may consume all of the cash a woman has, assuming she has any at all. Women's -lack of cash or capital and the difficulty they have in generating cash Pr capital seriously hinder their ability to improve their agricultural productivity.
One development approach to assist women has been income-generating projects. These projects focus on handicrafts, sewing, tailoring, and other domestic activities or on small-scale agricultural production such as vegetable gardening. The first problem usually encountered is that rural women have very little leisure time. Second, the market for the handicrafts or vegetables is generally very limited because of distance from urban areas, the tendency to flood, the market with the same products at the same time, and transportation problems. Third, if the new project requires inputs and does not provide easy access to credit, then most women cannot participate. Fourth, if the project seems profitable, men tend to step in. There is some evidence, for

example, that because of increased prices, men are producing food crops in areas where those crops are scarce. Finally, there has been a disheartening tendency for income-generating projects to be designed and implemented before consulting with the presumed beneficiaries and participants, i.e., women.
Women may be culturally constrained from earning income. In parts of Asia (e.g., India, Bangladesh) having "idle" women in the family confers a high status. Women may be forced to hide their income-earning activities by working only in their homes or in homes of friends or by working early in the morning and late at night. Despite the surreptitiousness of their labor, low.income women work as many hours for wages as men. In Latin America, rural women are usually seen as being only housewives and not taking part in any income-earning activities. That these activities may be hidden from both the husbands and the interviewers does not mean they do not occur. Women are often, able to produce surplus of some sort from their kitchen gardens, or from gathering wild foods, or eggs from chickens, giving them the proverbial "egg money."
Agricultural wage labor is another way for women to earn income.
Constraints that may prevent women from participating in this type of activity are child care and other domestic responsibilities. Solutions to this problem include providing child care, allowing children to accompany their mothers to work, having flexible hours so women.can work part-time, and paying by the task, piece, or kilo, again, so women can work part of the day. 0
In many instances, especially in Asia, women laborers are hired for the lowest paying jobs, on a temporary basis, or with few benefits and amenities such as food, breaks, or even sanitary facilities. Women have less occupational mobility than men (witness the high rates of male out-migration) and may not be able to switch from low-skill rural to higher skill, higher pay urban or semi-urban positions; thus, women are forced to accept the less than ideal wage labor situations.

0- How do women gain access to land under current, informal tenure systems
(e.g., through their husbands, their families, or directly)?
0- Do current tenure laws allow women to hold title in their own names?
P- How do widowhood or divorce affect women's access to land under the
current and proposed systems?
0- Will the proposed tenure reform or titling result in land title being
assigned only to male heads of households?
P- Do women need the permission of male relatives to sell or rent land?
W- Will land registration fees be low enough so that women are able to
register land for title?
0- Does a minimum size limit exist for formal titling that limits women's
participation in the system?
10- Will the adjudication process make it easy for women to participate when
ownership is disputed?
10 Will formalization of title reduce access to land by low-resource women
farmers (as has happened in some cases) and, if there is a danger of this
happening, how can it be avoided?
01- Will an explicit effort be6 made to inform women farmers as well as men
of the new procedures?
" Undertake a thorough analysis of traditional land tenure and land access
systems before making changes in the formal system and consider how the
two systems will interact after the reform.
" Monitor impact of land reform and tenure reform on women's access to
land and provide for redesign and adjustment during implementation.
" Revise tenure laws to give greater security to women, regardless of
marital status.
" Provide titles to both men and women, not just heads of household..
" Eliminate minimum size restrictions for formal titling.
" Lower fees and simplify procedures for formal titling.

Agriculture is the major provider of employment and income in developing countries. In Asia, agricultural growth has come from technical progress and intensification. In Africa, growth has come mainly from extension of the area under cultivation. Despite the differences in structural growth, overall employment in agriculture has not grown significantly in either continent.(32)
The nature of many African cultures discourages women's migration for labor. Women must be able to mobilize factors of production in agriculture and to have access to agricultural technologies. Although African women generally have the right to income from their own production, their control of this income is constrained by their responsibilities to feed the household.
In Latin America, by contrast, women do migrate to the urban areas for wage labor, especially in the service sector. Although their income may be low, it is much more under their control. Studies show that few wives surrender control of all earned income to husbands.(4) For example, in the ALCOSA project (see Case Study 2), a fourth category of women were those who were employed by the agribusiness firm in the processing plant. These women worked such long shifts (12-16 hours per day for six-day weeks, eight to nine months per year) at the minimum wage that they earned 150-300 percent of the average female wage. They wanted to continue to work indefinitely, regardless of anyhiusband or children acquired. They retained control of their income. Not a single woman reported giving all of it to her husband. Women reported that their earnings brought enhanced independence, self-esteem, and decision-making power.(4)
Women devote a higher proportion of their earnings to household needs wherever they have the structural obligation to act as food providers or are placed in the situation of being the providers of last resort. Their spending of income is contingent on their control of income. Control of income is associated with greater decision-making power.(4)
The lessons from these studies provide impetus to project designers to consider both men and women in their income-generating plans. Who works?

What is the gender division of labor and time? Who benefits? What is the gender division of resources and returns? This information needs to be gathered about men and women, and used with the other factors discussed in this section.
3.5.3 Labor
Women work longer hours than men in developing countries, low-income
women work longer hours than better-off women, and rural women work longer hours than urban women (see Figure 17). Not only do low-income rural women work unusually long hours, but they also face competing demands for agricultural activities and domestic/household activities. In Figure 17, if processing of food were added to the hours spent in agricultural production as is sometimes done, the hours spent would be much higher. Hours spent on food processing alone in these studies ranged from 2.1 to 4.4.033) Age does not reduce women's working hours relative to men's either. Girls as young as seven worked 5.3 hours compared with 0.7 hours for boys in a study in Burkina Faso.(37) The same study examined the amount of time spent by women and men on rural activities (see Figure 18). Women had only 1.3 hours of free time in the first 14 waking hours. The project (UNESCO/UNDP Project for Equal Access of Women and Girls to Education) therefore emphasized the introduction of technologies to lighten the food-processing and portage tasks.
Gender-linked labor constraints include male migration, intensification of women's workload, women's domestic responsibilities, and conflicts between project activities and women's role in farming.
Male out-migration from rural areas results in de facto women-headed households, which now form on average 20-25 percent of all rural households except in strongly Islamic societies. In some countries, such as Lesotho, the number of female-headed households may be as high as 70 percent. Shortage of male labor for land preparation can cause serious bottlenecks for production, such as delays in planting and lower yields. Women may have access to other men's labor, animal draft power, or the labor of other women if they

Agricultural Total Agricultural production
productionO work as percentage of total
Country (hrs/day) (hrs/day) (work time)
Tanzania 2.3 11.0 21
Burkina Faso 3.0 9.8 31
Burkina Fasoc 4.5 9.0 50
Central African
Republic 3.3 13.3 25
Zambia 10.0 15.0 67
Kenya 3.7 8.6 43
Tanzania 5.0 9.8 51
Senegal 3.5 8.7 40
Philippines 2.0 10.3 19
Philippinesc 1.9 9.0 21
Philippinesc 4.4 13.3 33
Malaysia 1.8 11.8 15
Indonesia 1.6 12.3 13
Nepal 3.8 11.5 33
Nepalc 6.8 12.1 56
Nepalc 3.3 10.4 32
Bangladesh 4.7 11.7 40
Pakistan 5.5 7.6 24
Perud 1.8 7.6 24
a. Compiled from three tables containing studies on rural women's work time, Leslie (21).
b. Not food processing.
c. Represents different studies.
d. Dualistic agriculture in Latin America and cultural definitions of "housewife" make it difficult to gather data on women's tasks.

can arrange payment in cash, in kind, or through exchange. If women do not have access to other labor, they will have difficulty participating in any project that requires more labor from them.
The intensification of women's workloads occurs not only because of male migration but often because new technologies increase women's labor while decreasing men's. The increase in women's labor in weeding because -of the introduction of animal traction has already been mentioned. When agriculture is commercialized, men may mobilize women's labor for cash cropping but women still have the responsibility for subsistence crop production. In Latin America, women may spend more hours in food preparation for hired labor as cash cropping increases. In contrast, African women will decrease their time spent in food proce *ssing and preparation during busy seasons.(33) There are many instances of the introduction of a new grain or pulse crop that required women to spend much more time on processing; they ultimately rejected the crop. Women will not accept intensification of their workload unless they receive some benefit from the intensification, i.e., control of the income or product.
Worldwide, women assume primary responsibility for child care and housework. These responsibilities prevent them from participating fully in agricultural production. In the Mahaweli Ganga Irrigation Project (Sri Lanka), lack of extended family networks for child care hampered women's availability for work on the irrigation allotments., Fetching water is almost always a task allotted to women and children; it can consume a significant portion of their waking hours, again limiting the time they can spend on agriculture. Nieves' desk review of water supply and sanitation projects found that reducing time spent carrying water did not increase time spent in production unless incomeearning opportunities existed or were introduced.
IFPPI case studies indicate that women's labor on crops varies greatly
and appears to be a function of the role of the crop in the household economy as related to women's role and the gender division of crops.(29) Gender division of labor describes the allocation of tasks and responsibilities to men and women in a particular situation.(46) The division of labor is determined

Average time Average time
allocated allocated
(in minutes) (in minutes)
Activity Women Men Activity Women Men
A. Production, supply distribution 367 202 D. Household 148 4
148 4
1. Food. and cash crop production 178 186 1. Rearing, initial care of children 18 0
Sowing -269 4 2. Cooking, cleaning, washing 130 1
Weeding, tilling 35 108 3. House building 0 0
Harvesting 39 6 4. House repair 0 3
Travel between fields 30 19
Gathering wild crops 4 2 E. Personal needs 1 58 269
Other crop production 1. Rest, relaxation 117 233
activities 1 47 2. Meals 21 29
2. Domestic food storage 4 1 3. Personal hygiene and other
3. food processing 132 10 personal needs 20 7
Grinding, pounding grain 108 0
Winnowing 8 0 F. Free time 77 118
Threshing 4 0 1. Religion 2 6
Othier processing activities 12 10 2. Educational activities (learning
4. Animal husbandry 4 3 to read, attending a UNESCO
5. Marketing 4 0 meeting or class) 17 4
6. Brewing 1 0 3. Media (radio, reading a book) 0 14
7. Water Supply 38 0 4. Conversation 14 69
8. FulC Supply 6 2 5. Going visiting (including such
social obligations as funerals) 43 69
B. Crafts and other professions 45 156 6. Errands (including going to pur1. Straw work 0 ill chase personal consumption
2. Spinning cotton 2 0 goods, such as kola, next door) 1 6
3. Tailoring 2 10
4. Midwifery* 41 0 G. Not specified .18 0
5. Olier craftslprofessions(e.g.,
metal work, pottery, weaving Total work (A, B, C, D) 587 453
Total personal needs and
C. Community 27 91 free time (E, F) 235 387
1. Community projects 27 0
2. Other community obligations 0 91
Source: McSweeney (20)

Case Study 2: Increasing Women's Involvement in Agribusiness
The ALCOSA Agribusiness Employment/[ investment Promotion project in
Guatemala had the goal of improving the standard of living and stimulating the economy in rural areas by expansion of private agribusiness investments.
Villagers in the area produced labor-intensive broccoli, cauliflower, and
snowpeas on contract for the agribusiness firm. Several areas were involved, but three of the villages can be used as cause-effect models of what happens
when women's involvement in a project ranges from low to high.
In Village 1, women neither worked in the fields nor received benefits,
and the project was floundering because of lack of labor. In Village 2, women were pulled into two to three days per week of field work when the husbands
became contract farmers. This meant the women had to cut down on their
market vending, which eliminated their only independently controlled source of
income. Checks from the firm were made out to the husband only. Project
results were intermediate.
In Village 3, a cooperative had been formed where women worked as
partners, rather than helpers, in the fields. Either spouse could deliver
produce and get paid in cash. Women cut down on their market vending in
favor of more field work. The average farmer in Village 3 had lower costs,
higher yields, higher quality produce, and higher net income per unit of land
compared with the other villages. Other factors contributed to this success story but the fact that women provided more labor (three to four days per
week) and received at least some direct benefits certainly appears critical.
[Blumberg (4)]

not by the physical differences between the sexes, but by the social definitions of proper relations between men and women. There is some indication that these divisions are becoming more flexible with agricultural intensification.
Project designers should examine the gender division of labor. Is it rigid or flexible? Are there tasks that only women do or only men do? Will improved technology increase women's labor requirements? A useful instrument for answering these questions is the agricultural calendar. Use of this calendar is described in Section 5.
3.5.4 Credit
Women's access to or lack of credit causes the same problems as their limited access to and control of cash. Without cash or credit, women are hard-pressed to purchase the inputs needed to improve their agricultural production.
Formal access to credit is often a barrier women cannot cross. The focus of lending is on larger firms, not micro enterprises, and on maledominated sectors, not female-dominated sectors. Women generally have smaller enterprises and need smaller amounts of capital. A.notable exception are the women traders of West Africa. who operate regionally. The minimum size of loans is often greater than women need. Banks are often unw-illing to service smaller loans because of overhead costs. Collateral requirements (land, houses, other assets) prevent women's, applications for credit as few women own land, houses, vehicles, or other types of acceptable collateral.
There are also hidden costs to borrowing. Few banks operate in rural
areas, so women must take time off to travel to the bank or credit outlet both to apply for the loan and to repay the loan. Rural women who may be illiterate and untraveled may be afraid to confront such formal institutions as a bank or credit outlet, especially when the loan officer is male. The entire process can be extremely daunting.

Instead, many women prefer informal credit transactions for a variety of reasons. Called contribution clubs, savings clubs, lending groups, women's clubs, or cooperatives, they are readily accessible to a rural woman because they are usually in her village and are composed of people she knows. These clubs operate differently but have similar characteristics. Women are able to borrow small amounts and pay back the loan in small amounts, sometimes in kind rather than cash. An example would be obtaining a loan of cash to purchase seed or fertilizer and repaying with seed, or a loan of cash to purchase a cow and repaying with the first calf.
When terms of lending are conducive, women will constitute a high
proportion of loan recipients. When lending terms are adverse, few women will receive loans, regardless of efforts to target them. Thus gender analysis and adaptation of eligibility criteria and delivery systems are the keys to increasing women's participation in credit programs and to the productive activities that those programs support.
The following features can be incorporated into project design:
" Several repayment options, allowing a choice of repaying
the loan in frequent small payments or fewer larger
payments, depending on the expected income stream of the
borrower. Although flexible repayment schemes may be
costly to administer, they tend to reduce the rate of
default on loans dramatically.
" Reduced collateral requirements through heavier reliance
on the repayment capacity of the borrower or by
broadening the concept of collateral to encompass security
for a loan through group lending or guarantees by
members of the borrower's community. Group lending will
also help reduce projects' unit costs of lending. When
physical collateral is required, it should not be restricted
to formal titles to land and business registrations, but
should include jewelry and other resources available to
" Use of information and credit distribution channels to
which women have access. Large banks, agricultural
cooperatives, and extension services have not been
successful in distributing either information about credit
or actual credit funds to the vast majority of women who need credit. Thus, credit projects should make

information and funds available at the marketplace,
through religious groups, small savings associations, and grassroots organizations that tend to be more aware of
and responsive to the economic roles of women.
[taken from Lycette (35)]
3.5.5 Education
Education of women and girls has been called one of the best investments a country can make in its future growth and welfare. Developing countries have become more willing to accept the importance of education but females are still denied access to education by competing household and child care responsibilities, parents' negative attitudes toward educating daughters, shortage of schools and distance from schools, shortage of female teachers to provide both encouragement and role models, early marriage age, and lack of provisions to allow girls to re-enter school once they have dropped out.(2)
Education through training and agricultural extension is one of the most. used ways to introduce new technologies and information in development programs. Training can be either formal or informal. Formal training is either short-term, leading to a certificate or diploma, or long-term, leading to an academic degree or equivalent. Informal training, often gained through practical experience,' may -haVe'less ceremony but not necessarily less value.
Formal long-term training in agricultural projects is usually perceived as the post-secondary school education of host country counterparts in a formal institution, often outside that country. The fact that the percentage of illiterate women in the world has not changed in 30 years makes it reasonable to assume that the number of women eligible for post-secondary education is low. Minett (38) estimated that out of 500 girls starting primary school, fewer than 2.4 would eventually be trained in agriculture. On the other hand, project staff should not accept statements that no eligible women exist. Projects must make efforts to identify and encourage women to apply for agricultural training. Training funds should be set aside and held for women. Formal training for the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. may not and should not be the

01- To what extent do women have access to formal credit in cash and
10 To what extent do women currently make use of informal credit, and how
do services compare to those in the formal system (interest rate, waiting
time, location and other requirements)?
0- Do formal credit requirements restrict women's access by requiring, for
example, title to land, literacy, or club membership?
0- Is credit equally available for women's and men's income-generating
0- Can women receive credit as individuals or only as group members?
Do Are the rules different for men (e.g., do loans to women require
husband's approval, but not the other way around?)
0- is credit available to small women traders; if so, under what conditions?
0- Does access to credit require travel beyond the village?
D- is credit available for production for home consumption and, if not, would
such credit be feasible?
0- is the husband's permission required for women to gain access to credit?
10- Are loans made in the name of the individual or the head of household
(if different)?
0- If loans are made to multiple family members, is liability limited to loans
in one's own name?
* Design credit programs so that land collateral is not required.
* Organize group lending or other semi-formal intermediation systems to
permit low-income women to participate.
* Simplify credit application procedures and locate the credit services
close to the user as possible.
* Use interest rates to allocate credit, not other artificial systems such as
through crop targets.
* Make loans on an individual, not household, basis.
* Channel credit to women through informal as well as formal systems.

only answer. Short courses of a week to a few months are often held at universities and international agricultural research centers. Eligibility requirements for these courses are usually minimal. The International Livestock Center for. Africa (ILCA), for example, will even provide specialized individual training for national agricultural research staff if the student is proposed by a sponsor, at no cost to the student or sponsor. These short courses may be more informal but provide immediate, practical training for professional staff.
The type of education described above is essentially unavailable to the
average rural woman for many reasons. Instead, training more commonly takes the form of courses held at a center, in the village, or in the field. This training can be conducted by agricultural extension agents, donor agencies, project staff, or trained local people.
It has been demonstrated repeatedly that men are the primary recipients of training in new technologies. Most current agricultural training uses the male farmer's perspective. Adult literacy classes, for example, deal with men's farming problems and women's child-care and nutrition problems, which, although they are important, are not enough to improve agricultural production. In addition, the focus of training often has been on non-food cash crops rather than food crops.
An innovative. approach taken in several countries has been to train a small number of women from several villages, and then have them provide training to the women in their villages, either in their homes or in the field. This is an excellent mechanism to avoid social and cultural constraints faced by rural women farmers, while at the same time possibly encouraging these trainers to obtain further education. It must be noted that much of this training of trainers is done in local languages and does not necessarily require literacy.
The problems in reaching women farmers and adapting a project's
training, extension, and delivery services have been discussed earlier.- The salient points from that discussion are that the training must be relevant to

Case Study 3: Incorporating Gender as a Variable in Agricultural Research in Ecuador
It is often presumed in Latin America that women d o not play an active
role in farm production. Through its smallholder production research program
(PIP), the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP) in
Ecuador has discovered that the reality of smallholder farming systems dictates
that gender be included among the key variables considered in the development
and dissemination of agricultural innovations. Several examples from PIP
activities illustrate how sensitivity to gender helped benefit smallholders.
In many areas, males are typically absent from the household because of
temporary or seasonal migration for wage labor. Men return on holidays that
coincide with planting times but may be absent for most of the agricultural cycle. If research teams interview only males about farming practices, the
men will "forget" the answers to some agricultural practices because the
women are responsible for them. Good research techniques require that both
men and women be interviewed; in practice, this is difficult when research
teams are composed only of men. Women are reluctant to speak freely with
men, especially in groups, or may be discouraged by their husbands from
participating in discussions when their husbands are present. In Indian communities, women may not be able to communicate effectively in Spanish with
researchers. A PIP solution has been to hire and train female paraprofessional
interviewers who can talk to women about their work and thereby obtain
information about production, storage, and consumption practices. Male and
female multidisciplinary teams are used to obtain information about the
production system in order to design appropriate research activities.
Gender is important in the selection of farmers for on-farm trials. In
some households men are often absent; if only men participate in the
negotiations, researchers are likely to find on subsequent visits that the men
are absent, and the women may -throw them off the farm. INIAP -researchers
now negotiate with both members of a. couple whenever appropriate. Development of INIAP 101 maize demonstrates the importance of input from women.
Plant breeders had been concerned about tillering and regarded multiple shoots
as a negative characteristic. However, women tending animals regarded the
shoots positively because they provided, additional stover. Breeders abandoned
tillering as a problem to focus on.
INIAP used to invite only men to attend field days and to participate in
tours to observe trials. As the PIP program worked with smallholders,
technicians realized that it would be desirable to incorporate women.
However, when attending, women would separate themselves from men and
would not participate. Language was one problem. INIAP incorporated -a
Quechua/Spanish speaker with a megaphone into the presentation. This
technician served. as translator and broker between the community and the
researchers, facilitating both feedback and technology transfer. These
examples demonstrate the principle that changes in agricultural technology
must be directed towards the individual who will actually use and adopt the
[Adapted from Garrett and Espinosa (22)]

~-Will on-farm trials, if any, include women as well as men cooperators? ~- What is the role of women in the production of the crops (livestock
activities, etc.) selected for research?
'- Will research consider the economic and technical feasibility of proposed
solutions for farmers with limited resources and access to inputs as well
as for high resource farmers?
'- Will analysis of the impact on the demand for and return' to family labor
be examined in comparing alternative technologies?
S Will women as well as men farmers be asked to evaluate proposed
technologies (e.g., improved varieties)?
'- Will a special effort be made to ensure that women farmers participate in
field days and other technology dissemination activities?
S Will social scientists be represented among national researchers on the
research team?
S Will social scientists be represented on the technical assistance team?
* Include women farmers'in surveys or other initial work to define the
research agenda.
* Include social scientists on the national research team and the expatriate
technical assistance team.
* Disaggregate analysis of proposed technologies to examine their feasibility
for low-resource farmers, such as women, as well as high resource
* Include efforts to develop technologies suitable for low-resource farmers
as well as high-input technologies.
* Include women farmers in on-farm trials.
* Conduct separate field days for women with local language translation, if
necessary, or incorporate specific efforts to ensure women's participation
in general field days and other dissemination efforts.
* Conduct research on traditional food crops, traditional livestock varieties,
and other agricultural activities managed by women as well as men.

~-What percentage of the current extension staff is female?
Do local social standards make it difficult for men extension agents to
communicate directly with women farmers?
10- Are resources provided to women extension agents (e.g., transportation
allowances, vehicles, housing) to allow them to function in the field?
0- Is the current extension program designed to encourage participation of
women farmers (location of demonstrations, timing of field .days, etc.)?
Do- What percentage of the extension agents' time is spent with male as
opposed to female farmers?
P- Does the extension program design primarily target heads of household?
0- What is the relative emphasis on traditional food crops, cash crops,
livestock production, etc., in the current extension program, and does this
emphasis correspond to their importance to women as well as men
10 In what form will the extension message be provided (written, oral, etc.)?
" Use group-oriented extension methods to facilitate participation by-women
where one-to-one contact between men and women is not unacceptable.
" Organize separate field days and other dissemination activities for women
to encourage them to participate actively.
* Monitor the program's success in reaching women, including their
participation in extension programs and their adoption of recommendations, to identify and solve problems early.
" Include training in reaching women farmers and farm wives in training
programs for both men and women agents.
" Provide ad "ditional travel or housing resources for women agents to enable
them to function effectively in the field, despite social constraints.
* Include traditional products in the extension program in proportion to
their importance in the village economy.
* Include post-harvest management and other on-farm activities that. are
women's responsibility in the extension program.

S What is the current participation of women in farmers' organizations of
the type to be assisted by the project?
Is membership limited to heads of household, may both male and female
farmers from the same household belong, or may single, widowed and
divorced female farmers also belong?
~- Are there membership requirements (e.g., land ownership) -that may inhibit
membership by women?
S What informal organizations currently exist that might be brought into
the program, whether or not they are oriented towards agriculture (e.g.,
savings clubs), and what is the role of women in these groups?
S Will the groups' activities be focused on particular products or activities
(e.g., marketing of grain) and, if so, what are the roles of women in
these areas?
S Will the groups build on or replace women's current role in the agricultural economy?
'- What special efforts or design features are needed to encourage women to
join the groups and participate actively?
* Allow multiple memberships in a single family.
* Where women currently perform a given function (e.g., vegetable
marketing), direct organizational activities to women rather than men
" Incorporate traditional women's groups, as well as government-sponsored
groups into the program.
" If cultural norms prevent women and men from belonging to the same
group, organize separate women's groups but ensure that participation and
benefits are equal.

the needs of women and accessible to them. A final point illustrates why adapting to the gender of project participants is important for introducing new technology to the poor. Emphasis on "specialist" or "contact" farmers has two major flaws:
These farmers are generally better off and more willing to
invest in new technology, thus leading to development of
technology that is beyond the means of the rural poor.
Because these farmers are almost always male, the
education and training they receive is probably not passed
on to female farmers.
3.5.6 Products and Production
Historically, agricultural development projects have focused on cash crops or cattle production, assuming perhaps that more cash in the system would improve the standard of living. Women do not necessarily have access to or control of cash crops or cattle. Their motivation to provide unpaid family labor is closely linked to their ability to control the product's disposal and earnings from its sale. Cash coming into the system into men's hands may not filter through to women and households; for example, there is not necessarily a positive connection between increases in aggregate household income and improvements in children's nutritional status. Gender variables intervene in the production process at every step in critical ways which all interact:
" Planning for gender factors in production -- including
access to and control of resources, labor constraints, and
incentives -- is particularly useful for development and
successful transfer of technology.
" Planning for differential male and female income sources
is particularly useful for efforts to raise the standard of
living of the poor.
" Planning -for gender roles in consumption, including whose
income is used to buy food, can be crucial for ensuring that higher incomes result in better nutrition and family

Case Study 4: Integration of Farmers' Criteria in Bean Variety Testing
CIAT and IFDC are working in Colombia to develop appropriate bean varieties and fertilizers for small farm systems. A participatory research approach is used to provide more specific information to breeders earlier in the project cycle and to minimize non-adoption.
Farms in the area are small and family operated, growing coffee and cassava as cash crops; most farmers produce some beans for sale in urban markets. Preferred beans grown for the urban market are large, opaque, and red. Initial on-farm interviews indicated that men were responsible for crop production while women were responsible for processing and household activities. Two management systems exist typical and innovative. Typical management involves low inputs to disease and pest control and high fertilizer application; innovative management involves higher inputs to pest control including labor, use of higher producing varieties, and desire to lower fertilizer costs.
Breeders had 10 varieties available for on-farm testing and had ranked them for presumed farmer preference. Farmers were then asked to rank the varieties. Four of the varieties are listed below:
Bean variety Grain size and color Breeders rank Farmers rank
A-36 Medium, red opaque 1 3.
A-486 Large, pink opaque 2 2
AFR-205 Large, purple mottled 31
BAT-1 297 Very small, red opaque 10 6
When women were included in the interview and were asked to rank the beans, it was found that BAT-1297 was preferred and could be ranked as high as third because women preferred the variety for its better cooking qualities. Notably, it would swell- considerably, providing more food from fewer beans.
After on-farm testing of the ten varieties under typical and innovative management systems, only two varieties, one of them BAT-i 297, showed significant response to fertilizer under typical management. The analysis of the exploratory trials indicated that the four best varieties were BAT-1297, A-36, A-486, and PVAD-1261. A simple partial cost-benefit analysis showed BAT-1297 to be the most profitable variety. Male farmers still chose A-36 and A-486 as their top-ranked varieties.
More in-depth interviews with the women elicited that women had more input into agricultural production than previously thought. Women's evaluation of the ten varieties placed three varieties, including BAT-1297, above A-36. Given the results of the agronomic evaluation from- the exploratory trial and these two sets of preferences, researchers decided to continue work on both the larger beans and the very small beans since both have a place in these farming systems.
[Ashby (3)]

3.5.7 Livestock Systems
Women's ownership and control of livestock and their products varies. It
should not be assumed that women only care for small stock, that dairying is a woman'Ys specialty, or that only men are involved in cattle or camel production.
Project planners cannot assume, for example, that cattle are the sole responsibility of men, because women will undoubtedly have responsibilities for
milking, food processing, or young or ill animal care. In some African
societies, herd management is turned over to a hired herder because cattle
owners, wh 'o are traditional crop farmers, cannot herd and farm at the same
time. In a project to improve cattle production, then, who should be
contacted -- the herder, the male owner, or the female milkers? In mixed
crop and livestock systems in which cattle do not migrate for grazing, women
may have the responsibility for feeding. Plans to improve forage production
are properly addressed to the person who has that responsibility. Large animal
livestock projects must identify women's role in animal production. Questions
for determining their role are
" Who owns livestock? If women do not, do they have
access to dairy products from their husbands or families
" What is the gender division of labor in animal care-
feeding, watering, herding, care of sick animals?
" What is the gender division of labor for processing animal
products -- meat, milk, wool, hide s, eggs?
" What is the gender division of control over livestock
Small ruminants tend to be "women's animals," that is, under women's
care and control, in many ub-Saharan African countries and the altiplano
* region of Latin America. Small ruminants have been used, like cattle, as a
form of savings and investment by women. Recent projects introducing dairy
goats have emphasized that milk is an equally valuable by-product of goat production. Where small ruminants are promoted as an income-generating
activity, designers will need to integrate women into the marketing sector. It

Case Study 5: Dairy Goat Production Women's Projects vs. Integrated Projects 0
Several projects have attempted to introduce dairy goat production in
Western Kenya, an area of high population and decreasing farm size. The
majority of the dairy goat projects were targeted to women through rural women's goat raising organizations. Women's labor was to be used for
general animal care, and women were to receive training in goat management.
Women participants were eventually to receive a goat of their own to take home. In fact, men held wage labor jobs at project sites and received the
training. When and if the women brought goats home, men controlled
economic decisions about their ownership. Project sponsors assumed that any
increased income would benefit the entire family. The majority of women reported increased workloads and interference with their other work. Women
continued to participate primarily because of allegiance to the sponsor (a
woman Assistant Minister of Education from the area) and to maendeleo, a
Kiswahili term for progress or development.
In contrast, the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program
did not specifically address women in its dual purpose goat project. Instead,
all participating farmers were treated equally, whether male or female. The
majority of farmers were female at the project villages in Western Kenya.
Farmers received training at home and at the research station in goat care and management, veterinary care, feed production, and milk and cheese production.
Farmers were brought to the research station to participate in training and to teach staff about their farming practices. Enumerators lived in each area and
contacted farmers daily, forming close relationships with the farm families.
The tendency for male farmers to claim knowledge of livestock care and
responsibility, thus receiving all project inputs, was prevented if enumerators found it not to be true. Project inputs and training went to the farmer who was actually responsible for the goat. Project success has been outstanding; ... both goats and their products are in high demand in the area. A likely
contribution to the equitable treatment of all farmers was the composition of the technical staff, both expatriate and Kenyan. The forage agronomist, food scientist, rural sociologist, agricultural economist, and animal technician were
all female at certain times during the project. Secondly, it is widely
recognized in Kenya that women are farmers, so that when project staff
worked with the farmer, whoever he or she was, conflicts did not occur.
(from Noble (40) and Russo (49)]

is rare for women to be livestock traders (Togo is an exception), yet they must be able to control their income from sales.
Small animals such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, guinea fowl, rabbits, and guinea pigs are important to women because they are often the only source of income fully under women's control. As noted earlier, recognizing that these small animals are women's responsibility has not necessarily meant that project inputs are delivered to women.
Commercialization of dairying can adversely affect women by creating more work yet depriving them of their income. The creation of dairying cooperatives does not necessarily insure that women will directly benefit if only men own cattle and only men are the official cooperative members. Direct purchases of dairy products from women can help them retain their inco me.
Livestock and veterinary services must be targeted to women as well as men. If livestock information is made available only to men, there is no evidence it will be passed on to women. In vaccination programs, women's animals may not be brought to the vaccination point if women are unaware of the program. Veterinary and livestock technicians are usually male, and constraints noted earlier on the transfer of information from men to women are present. The constraints that Women face in livestock projects, the effect of those constraints, and possible solutions are presented in Figure 23. Adaptation of project design can improve women's access to new livestock technologies.
3.5.8 Agroforestry and Natural Resource Management
Agroforestry is any system of land use that deliberately combines, in
space or over time, woody plants with crops and animals. This definition of agroforestry applies to a variety of land use systems ranging from very intensive farming to extensive pastoral systems, including bush fallow farming; managing fodder trees in private or communal grazing land; planting trees and

Result in terms of
access to project
Gender Constraints Effect assistance Recommendations
Livestock ownership Project fails to Women do not Select animals
may be considered a integrate women or realize project associated with
man's activity men take over benefits and may women for project
women's livestock have increased input
project component livestock
caretaking work
Women lack time for Project causes Women lack time to Design women's
increased livestock labor conflict with engage in project livestock caretaking agricultural or activities and components that
household duties fail to benefit are integrated
with women's work
Women need Project diverts Women fail to Reserve a portion
livestock/dairy livestock/dairy benefit and family of animal byproducts for home products from nutrition declines products for
use, but project family use family use
promotes commercial
Women are not Project increases Women's income is Integrate women as
integrated into mean men's income, reduced and family active particilivestock/dairying women lose income, nutrition may pants in coops or
cooperatives especially from suffer develop women's
dairying producers coops
Women lack access Women face problems Women are less Provide marketing
to commercial in transport, able to benefit input for women,
markets quality suffers from project input perhaps through
women's coops
Women are often Women are less able Women receive Provide credit for
neglected as credit to increase live- fewer benefits women's livestock
recipients stock involvement than men investment
Women are often Women's livestock Women's livestock Recruit women
excluded from live- suffer more illness is isolated from extension agents;
stock extension/ and less access to project benefit train men for
outreach vet care women's outreach

shrubs as live fences on farm boundaries for fuel wood, small timber, and other useful products; intercropping tree cash crops with food, timber, fodder, and soil improving crops; intercropping hedges with grain crops for leaf mulch; home gardening of all types in which trees and annual crops are mixed; and many other systems in which farmers and herders combine trees with field crops or animals. In many of these systems, women are primarily responsible for planting, tending, gathering, harvesting, processing, and using woody plants, in addition to performing their roles in crop and animal production and consumption within the larger agroforestry system. The following discussion is taken from Rocheleau.(47)
Agroforestry systems reflect the prevailing gender division of labor,
skill, responsibility, and control within the larger society. The problems and opportunities inherent in the gender division of access to land, labor, cultivated and wild plants, and products present a special challenge to planners. They require specific consideration and programs not yet part of the mainstream approach to agroforestry research and development projects. The implications of these differences extend to the content of technology designs and social contracts for management as well as to the way that research and development is conducted with women clients. Gender-based differences in legal status, use of and access to space, type of activities, and control over labor and resources all have a direct bearing on what type of plants can be planted, managed, used, and harvested, in terms of place, person, purpose, and benefit.
Whether or not women are considered apart or as a distinct client subgroup within the larger population, the terms of their participation will usually be distinct from that of men. This is especially true for the quantity, quality, and terms of access to land. Women's access to other productive resources (water, draft power, agrochemicals, labor, information) also differs from men's. Moreover, women's control over the components (animals, crops, trees, shrubs, pasture) and the products (food, fodder, fuel, timber, cash, fiber, medicine) of agroforestry systems is often subject to rules distinct from those governing men's actions. All of these differences are expressed in the existence of men's and women's separate places and activities, in nested

complementary roles in the same places and activities, or in sharing of interchangeable roles.
Although these differences may limit the scope and nature of agroforestry technology and project design, there are also distinct advantages and opportunities for agroforestry within women's separate domains of space, time, activities, interests, and skills. Women may also have special knowledge, rights, and obligations relating to certain categories of artifacts (tools), natural objects, and phenomena (water, fire, plants, animals). Women's knowledge of wild plants used for food and medicine is generally much wider than men's knowledge. Wild food may also be a significant -percentage of children's diets. Reforestation and revegetation schemes sho~ild utilize local plants when possible.
Project experiences suggest that women's interests in agroforestry and
natural resource management are not the same everywhere and vary considerably from men's interests. Different groups of women may also have different interests. Project design must address these distinct needs, constraints, and interests.
3.5.9 Additional Components of Agricultural Projects
Previous sections have discussed the principal factors of access and control and their implications for project design. Design issues of other components of agricultural projects are presented in Figures 24 through 30.
3.6 Activities Common to Sectoral
and Field Level Projects.
Both sectoral and field level projects share certain activities such as technical assistance and training. Figures 31 through 33 present some, issues that may be encountered in the design of these activities.

b- What role do women play in resource management decisions?
How do the us es women make of renewable resources differ from those of
men (e.g., women may use wood for firewood, while men use wood for
construction, crafts, or sale)?
What role do women play in managing livestock that use threatened-land
bl- Do women's plots tend to be located on land resources more subject to
erosion or to other environmental damage than plots owned and managed
by men?
How are women's household maintenance activities, such as firewood
collection and water supply, affected by environmental degradation, and
what impact do these changes have on women's income-generating
activities (e.g., reduced time for farming)?
Is women's status in the tenure system a factor in poor resource
Include women farmers in conservation programs in proportion to their
role in managing fragile lands, as farmers. as livestock users, and as
resource managers.
" Analyze interactions between women-managed activities and men-managed
activities before devising conservation solutions.
" Analyze potential impacts on women's income and labor use, including
household requirements, as part of the design of resource management
" include components to improve women's land tenure-security to encourage
sound long-term land management practices.
" Consider both ownership-based and use-based rights (e.g., grazing rights,
gathering of wild plants) in designing resource management strategies-for
areas where multiple uses are important.

10- Based on experience elsewhere in the country, will expansion of the road
network tend to expand marketing activities carried out by women or will
small women traders be displaced by male traders?
I- If women traders tend to be displaced when roads improve, can the
program be expanded to include credit for women traders or other
measures to prevent this effect?
How will the roads affect the relative profitability of production for home
consumption and for sale and how will this affect women farmers?
E Analyze negative as well as positive effects on women traders and design
appropriate counter-measures, if needed.
X Analyze negative as well as positive effects on women farmers and design
appropriate counter-measures, if needed.
X Women should be eligible for credit for vehicles on the same basis as

I- What percentage of irrigated land is currently managed by women?
0- How do women's family labor inputs and women's income per hectare
compare on irrigated and non-irrigated land?
01- To what extent do women currently participate in irrigation management,
including allocation of irrigation water?
ON- Will high-value women's crops (e.g., vegetables) be irrigated or will it be
limited to cash crops or cereal crops managed by men?
10- How will irrigation affect the relative profitability of production for home
consumption and for sale?
10- Will user charges be assessed against households or individuals?
10- If gatekeepers and other irrigation system employees are to be drawn
from the local farm population, will women be eligible for these jobs and
will they be encouraged to enter the necessary training programs, etc.?
10- How will changes in the irrigation or natural watercourse system affect
women's household activities, such as access to water for clothes-washing,
food preparation and clean-up, watering household animals, etc.?
" Monitor th 6 impact of irrigation system changes on women's labor inputs,
income, production, and household activities to identify problems and
solutions as early as possible.
" Organize water user groups in ways that give women farmers a voice in
the allocation of irrigated land and irrigation water.
Consider household water use carefully in designing water system changes.
Actively recruit women for water management and maintenance positions.
Organize water user groups so that both male and female farm managers

0- Do women farmers or traders currently make use of the system? b- How are the services provided (visits, training centers, radio, etc.) 01- What barriers in the design of the system or in the system's environment
limit women's use of the service?
0- Is the service relevant to women farmers, e.g., does market information
cover crops marketed by women as well as by men?
pl- Will the project improve women's access to the service?
" Monitor women's use of the service to identify and solve problems during
" Decentralize service provision to enable women to benefit.
1. Examples include market information, soil testing services, and control of agricultural chemical quality.

ON- What role do women currently play in the informal or private sector
input supply system (including on-farm systems such as selection and
storage of seed)?
0- How will the proposed changes to the system affect informal and private
sector systems?
I'- Will the proposed system displace women's income-earning activities, such
as small trade?
10- Will the proposed changes in the system limit women's access to inputs
(e.g., by linking purchase to membership in govern men t-sponso red groups
that generally exclude women, by linking purchase to formal credit
systems with requirements that women cannot meet, etc.)?
D- In selecting inputs for the supply system, will the needs of women
farmers be met as well as those of men (e.g., will poultry breeds include
traditional as well as hybrid breeds)?
P.- Will the smaller holding size of women be accounted for by "mini" input
packages or other marketing features?
E Rule out assistance to. informal and private sector input supply systems
before considering establishment of a new government supply system or
assistance to an existing one.
N Reform existing public systems to allocate supplies by price, without
additional requirements such as use of government credit or membership
in specific groups.
0 Provide assistance to informal on-farm systems, such as seed selection
and storage, to the extent feasible.
E Carefully consider negative impacts on traditional systems before
introducing new systems, particularly if the latter are not to operate on a
fully commercial basis.
0 Involve women farmers in seed production, production of breeding stock,
nursery operation, and other input -supply support systems, either as
contract farmers or as employees.

10 What is the role of women farmers and traders in the current marketing
0- Do women traders have access to formal credit and other assistance?
~- What use do they make of informal credit and other support systems?
S Are women traders adequately represented in the organization(s) chosen
for project implementation, such as the Chamber of Commerce?
Do formal or informal organizations of women traders exist?
10 What problems do women traders and farmers face in marketing activities?
0- How will the proposed changes in the marketing system affect women
traders and farmers?
10- What measures are necessary to ensure that women traders participate
fully in any assistance programs provided for traders?
" include a full analysis of private trading, including activity by women
traders and informal marketing by women farmers, in project start-up
activities, if 'sufficient information is not available, and allow -sufficient
flexibility in the design to incorporate the findings of the analysis.
* Broaden market information programs and other assistance to traders to
reach small women traders as well as larger traders.
* Design marketers' credit programs with low minimum loan size and limited
collateral requirements to encourage women to participate.
" Analyze the impact of formal marketing systems on the traditional
systems operated by women traders and farmers.
" Monitor program impact on women traders and their relations with other
parts of the system.

01 What role do women farmers and farm wives play in storage and
processing of crop, livestock, and forest products?
10- What technical problems do women face in storage and processing?
10- Can these problems be overcome or is it necessary to shift to a more
formal system to achieve acceptable levels of spoilage, etc. (or, on the
contrary,, are losses lower in the traditional system)?
0- What role does on-farm storage and processing play in the overall system
for various agricultural commodities?
0- How do on-farm and off-farm storage and processing systems interact?
P_ Will proposed changes to the system compete with women-operated
systems, displace such systems, or support them?
0- Do existing regulations make it difficult or impossible to conduct
processing on-farm without violating such regulations and, if so, are the
regulations actually necessary for public health or other reasons?
" Monitor the impact of project storage and processing activities on
traditional on-farm systems." Incorporate assistance to on-farm systems to the extent compatible with
the projects overall strategy.
* Provide financing for on-farm storage and processing.
* Revise food regulations and eliminate unworkable standards that discourage small entrepreneurs or deny them credit.

~- Will the proposed technical assistance team structure include expertise in
women-in-development issues?
~-Will the team include social science as well as production expertise?
Does the institution (or type of institution) identified as the source of
technical assistance generally have expertise in addressing gender
Does the draft scope of work reflect gender concerns and* incorporate
project design features to address such concerns?
* Include social scientists as full-time members of the technical assistance
team where appropriate.
* Identify monitoring of gender issues and design of solutions as a priority
application for short-term technical assistance.
* Include gender concerns in the scope of work.
* Include experience with gender issues as a criterion for evaluating
technical assistance team and institutional qualifications for contract

10- Will training sensitize both male and female trainees to the need to reach
women farmers and traders and provide information on how to do so?
P.- Will training cover traditional activities as well as *modern" activities?
Will emphasis be placed on identifying women candidates for training?
Will the. design of the training program (location, selection criteria, etc.)
facilitate participation by women?
Decentralize training and substitute several shorter courses for one longer
one to facilitate women's participation.
Include information on the role of women in the agricultural sector and
,the technologies used by women in training curriculum.
Provide training on methods to reach women farmers and traders.
Monitor women's participation in training and develop measures to
overcome problems restricting participation as they are identified.

10- is the pool of women with appropriate backgrounds for long-term training
sufficiently large to ensure good representation in participant training? 01- If not, are the problems subject to solution with project funds (e.g.,
language training, studying for SAT, GRE, or TOEFL exams) or are they more fundamental (limited number of women college graduates in fields
chosen for training)?
" Broaden criteria (e.g., consider women with social science degrees for
advanced overseas training in technical areas). Finance language training if necessary.
" Broaden program to include undergraduate training for women.
" Broaden program to include short-term training for women who cannot
qualify for long-term training.
" Include women in training and study courses for standardized tests.

0- What role do women currently play in management of the institutions to
be assisted (e.g., district extension offices)?
11- What constraints exist to expanding the role of women in management:
low numbers of women in management positions; low numbers of women
in positions from which management cadres usually drawn; lesser degree
of formal preparation among women employees; attitudes of senior
personnel, etc.?
01- Are women managers more common in public or private 'sector institutions
(where relevant, e.g., marketing institutions) and would broadening the
training to reach private sector firms increase the number of women
Do- In private firms, do social practices conceal the importance of women's
role in management?
Will the procedures to be used to identify candidates for management
training ensure that women are chosen at least in proportion to the share
of employees they represent?
If personnel from private firms are to receive training, will the size of firm be small enough to reach women entrepreneurs, who tend to run
smaller firms?
" Track women's participation in training to identify problems in reaching
women at an early stage in the project.
" Include training modules aimed at personnel with less formal preparation.
" Expand training eligibility to include female personnel in mid-level
positions from which future managers will be drawn.
" Develop procedures for identifying candidates actively, rather than relying
solely on nomination by more senior personnel, who may not view women
as managers.

Will the design of the facilities permit women to use them, given local mores and social practices (e.g., separate facilities for women, if necessary)?
Will the facilities be located sufficiently close to population centers (urban or rural) so that women can commute, if overnight absences from home are not locally acceptable?
Expansion of dormitory facilities to meet local privacy standards for women (e.g., provision of separate rather than communal bathrooms) Construction of separate training facilities for women Location of facilities near main residential centers and transport routes Provision for day-care facilities on-site, particularly for women employees Decentralization of facilities (more, but smaller facilities) to facilitate use by rural women, who may not be able to be absent from their homes for extended periods.

3.7 Monitoring and Evaluation Systems
A.I.D. and the World Bank have produced documents providing guidance for monitoring and evaluation; these are general guidelines for an entire project's life cycle and are not specific for gender issues. However, some of the ideas relevant to planning for monitoring and evaluation are equally relevant here. The most obvious is that there is no single approach to or methodology for monitoring and evaluation that can be used uniformly across all projects. Approaches that are immediately useful to project managers are preferred to more complicated methods. For example, it may not be necessary to monitor production increases on men and women's fields, .a difficult and time-consuming task under the best of circumstances. Instead, interviews with male and female farmers after harvest may give the type of information most useful to project managers. These situation analyses are based on the critical incident technique as described by Jiggins.(31) Informal but structured interviewing focuses on a "critical incident" that exemplifies one of the problems. The incident is analyzed in depth, leading to a discussion of ways to deal with it. Another technique that can be used is peer group workshops. Such informal methods have certain drawbacks but are often sufficient for management's purposes.
Monitoring is used to measure the- progress during implementation and the appropriateness of the project design. It is an ongoing function within the project involving the continuous or periodic collection of information. A.I.D. management systems also include mechanisms that link evaluation with design and require that project designs provide a basis for the assessment of performance.(1) Built into the design of a project should also be systems specifically designed to monitor and evaluate women's participation in the project. This type of monitoring and evaluation is separate from that required by a project, but the results could certainly be included in project documentation. Collection of the right data is essential. Reliance on overly sophisticated methods based on academic research standards for statistical accuracy or reliability may be unworkable and impractical for development projects.(25)

These methods are too expensive, too complicated, too slow, and require specialists.
Current thinking on monitoring and evaluation favors the use of multiple data collection approaches rather than reliance Ion a single data collection method.(9) Probably two of the best and ultimately most useful mechanisms for monitoring project attention to women are field trip reports and quarterly reports. These could include a standardized checklist, modified for each project, such as
How many people were contacted?
men ____women ___Whose farms/fields were visited?
men ____women___Who was trained?
men ____women___Was this the first visit or a repeat visit?
Gathering data in this manner is much more reliable than either a one-time, extensive survey that consumes a great deal of time and energy or relying on recall months after the fact. It also forces each person on the staff to document involvement with women farmers and does not allow them to pass off gender concerns to some-one else.
Depending on the size and scope of the project, it is conceivable that an individual other than the Project Officer could be made responsible for monitoring project activities throughout the life of the project, or at least in the initial. years. This person could be placed directly on the project management team to allow for continued interaction. It is not suggested that a short-term WID consultant be parachuted in half-way through the project to conduct an analysis. This only begs the issue, letting the project management "forget" to implement women's programs and then not have the time nor money to do so. Another approach to monitoring would be to designate one person as the external WID adviser and have that person be responsible for WID monitoring for the life of the project, regardless of the composition and

changes in project and mission staff. This arrangement would avoid several problems: the 'parachuted' expert's inexperience with the project, the overburdened staff person's lack of time or interest, and the lack of continuity if several consultants were used. Monitoring women's participation need not be a painful task provided it is written into the project design and is used from the beginning.
A separate analysis of project progress in reaching women is absolutely essential. It is not enough to identify target groups in the PP. Aside from the equity and fairness aspects, desk reviews and impact evaluations have shown the economic importance of including women in agricultural projects. Assessment of progress in reaching women should be relatively straightforward if targets and progress indicators (benchmarks) were included in the project design and if progress data (monitoring) are collected regularly during implementation. A built-in monitoring and evaluation plan that included benchmarks for evaluation would enable tracking the project's impact on the target groups. Benchmarks for evaluation could include simple before and after studies -- how many women are planting a new variety? how many women are contacted by extension agents? how many hours do women spend on production activities? Alternatively, targets could be set -- x number of women in a village will have been trained by a particular date. In other situations, merely documenting how many women have been trained or reached
-by project activities will -be sufficient.
A.I.D. documents such as the CDSS, PID, and PP are required to describe strategies to involve women, benefits and impediments to women, and benchmarks to measure women's pa rtici patio n.(2) In order to make benchmark evaluations of women's participation, baseline informat ion must be available. The WID office has many documents, reports, and statistics that can be used to establish baseline information for a particular country (see Appendix A). Other sources of secondary information are also available depending on the country or region. It may not be cost effective to collect such detailed baseline information during the design st 'age. However, mechanisms to collect this information must be built into the design of the project. Without baseline data, it is difficult to measure adequately women's progress a nd participation

in a project. Delays in obtaining these data will only delay implementation of project goals. The data collection can be made in conjunction with monitoring activities; data collected during these activities will provide the information necessary for evaluation during the life of the project.
Demand for Food Grains: Experience' from The Gambia
The Mixed Farming Project in The Gambia promoted the use of maize as
a food grain rather than as a vegetable. Women did not know how to use
maize as a grain so cooking demonstrations were held throughout the country.
By the end of the project, more than 3,000 women had received training in the
preparation of maize as a grain.(36)