Alley cropping experiment

Material Information

Alley cropping experiment 198586 growing season
Series Title:
TropSoils field research brief
Evensen, Carl
Yost, Russell S ( Russell Shelley ), 1945-
Lembaga Penelitian Tanah
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
Place of Publication:
Raleigh, NC
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, North Carolina State University
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
7 leaves ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Hedgerow intercropping -- Indonesia ( lcsh )
Soil management -- Indonesia ( lcsh )
Liming of soils -- Indonesia ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Indonesia ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:


General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"September 1986."
General Note:
At head of title: Centre for Soil Research.
Statement of Responsibility:
researchers, Carl Evensen and Russell Yost.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
159936954 ( OCLC )

Full Text
C CSR) 3


Centre for Soil Research; JI. r. H. Juanda 98: Bogor: Indonesia (0251) 23012
Contact: TROPSOILS; Box 02; Sitiung 1A; Sumatera Barat

TITLE: Alley Cropping Experiment 1985/86 Growing Season
RESEARCHERS: Carl Evensen and Russell Yost
1. To determine Al tolerance of 3 legume tree species under
Sitiung conditions.
2. To determine their nitrogen, leaf, and wood production.
3. To measure the effects of green leaf manure on rice and
cowpea yields when intercropped with the trees.
4. To measure effects of these organic matter additions on
soil chemical properties (Al saturation, ECEC, organic C,
etc.) and their interactions with crop growth.
5. To select appropriate legume tree species and liming
levels for farmer testing.
SOIL: Typic Paleudult; clayey, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic.
FCC: Ceak. Cleared by manual tree felling and then
bulldozed during 82/83 wet season but never cropped
previously; heavily eroded in parts.
The experiment'is laid out in a split plot design with four
replications. The treatments are as follows:
Main Plots Tree Species
1) Albizia falcataria (grown from seed)
2) Calliandra calothyrsus (grown from seed)
3) Gliricidia sep um (grown from hardwood cuttings)
4) No trees (control)
Subplot Liming Levels
1) No lime
2) Low lime (Ca supplied as a nutrient at 375 kg lime/ha/
year to provide 0.5 cmol Ca / kg soil to 15 cm depth)
3) High liming rate to reduce Al saturation to 25 %
(2 T CaCO3/ha applied first year; about 1/2 T lime/ha
applied second year)


This report covers the crops grown during the 1985/86 rainy
season, including upland rice, cowpeas, and the growth of the
tree hedges themselves. For a description of the establishment
of the tree hedges, see FRB no. 20.

The trees were first pruned on September 17, 1985, nine
months after planting. They were sampled to determine leaf
fraction, wood fraction, and dry matter content, and the
prunings spread in the alleys to dry. After four days, leaves
were shaken off branches and wood removed from the plots. Lime
was reapplied on the high lime plots to bring acid saturation to
25 % (about 1/2 T lime/ha this season) and at 375 kg lime/ha on
the low lime plots (to make a total of 750 kg lime/ha applied to
these plots). Also, TSP and KCL were broadcast, each at 50 kg/ha
(i.e. 10 kg P and 25 kg K per ha). All these fertilizers and
amendments were incorporated with hoes to a depth of about 15cm.

A local variety of upland rice (disease tolerant and
preferred by local farmers) was planted at a spacing of 40 x 15 cm
on September 25, 1985. No rows of rice were skipped because of
tree hedges (i.e. rows of rice were planted 20 cm to either side
of the tree hedges). Seed was planted in dibble holes along with
3 % carbofuran granules (1.3 kg a.i./ha). Germination was rapid
and uniform. All tree species had resprouted well by two weeks
after pruning. The trees were pruned again on November 26,
1985 to reduce shading of the rice; the prunings were used as
mulch between the rows of rice. Diazinon insecticide was sprayed
on October 12, December 6, and on January 2, 12, and 17.

Blast and Helminthosporium Brown Spot caused some leaf
damage which looked serious in November, but the rice recovered
well and produced a good crop of grain. Heavy rains in January
caused some serious lodging, but stems to be included in the
harvested areas were carefully sorted out. Mature panicles were
harvested on-February. 3, 1986. The straw and the remainder of
the later maturing pani les were harvested on February 13.
Harvest areas were 12 m which consisted of 2 m to either side
of the center tree hedge. The straw was returned to the plots
and buried.

The trees were pruned again on February 18, the prunings
placed in the alleys to dry and drop the leaves, and after four
days the wood was removed. TSP was broadcast at 50 kg/ha (10 kg
P/ha) and leaves and fertilizer incorporated by hoe. A local
variety of semi-determinate cowpea was planted at 40 x 20 cm
spacing on March 6, 1986. Germination and growth was very good.
On April 12, the tree hedges were pruned and the prunings
applied as mulch between the rows of cowpeas. Mature pods were
harvested from the 12 m harvest areas on May 5 and vines and the
remaining pods harvested on May 15, 1986. The trees were allowed
to grow uncut into the dry season.


The yields of leaf, leaf nitrogen, and wood are shown in
Tables la, lb, and 1c, respectively. The tree yields were
calculated on the basis of total intercropped land area, not just
yield per hedgerow area. Clearly Albizia was the most productive
tree species in the first several prunings, but by February,
Calliandra had become the most vigorous and productive species.
Because of the huge amount of leaf and wood produced by the
Albizia during early growth, this species produced highest
yields during the first year of pruning (from planting in
December 1984 to the last pruning of the 1985/86 season in April
1986). Albizia wood yields were especially higher than the
other species, however, the wood is soft and (according to local
farmers) is not as desirable a fuelwood as is Calliandra. The
Gliricidia was far less vigorous and productive. It is probably
not as well adapted to the infertile soils in Sitiung, although
it may be at a disadvantage in this experiment since it was
started from cuttings. The Albizia and Calliandra were grown
from seed and therefore have the benefit of strong taproots.
Analysis of variance of leaf, leaf N, and wood yields revealed
that neither lime nor lime x species interactions caused
significant differences in yields. There was however a tendency
for the Gliricidia yields to increase with increasing liming
levels. Heights of the trees at pruning times are shown in Table 2.

The yields of grain and stover for both rice and dowpea
crops increased significantly with increasing lime rates (Table 3).
Rice grain yields increased with both increments of lime, but
were not significantly different in response to application of
green leaf manures from the different tree species (Table 4).
However, there was a tendency for rice yield to decrease in
conjunction with more vigorous growth of the tree hedges. The
tree hedges did shade the closest rows of-rice, although this did
not cause a significant rice yield decrease. Timely pruning of
the tree hedges to minimize this shading would seem to be very
important. Table 5 shows that cowpea grain yield, unlike rice,
increased significantly with only the first increment of lime.
Also, the application of Albizia green leaf manure caused
significantly greater cowpea grain yields than the other green
leaf manure species or the control (Table 5).

The interaction of green leaf manure species x lime caused
significant differences only of rice grain yields (Table 3).
This indicates that only in the case of rice grain, the crop
response to green leaf manure application differed at the
different lime rates. It is especially interesting to note
(Table 4) that for rice grain at the zero rate of liming, there
is a strong tendency (although not significant) for grain yield
to increase with increasing amounts of green leaf manure
application. This indicates the possibility of reducing liming
requirements by green leaf manure application. Cowpea grain
yields (Table 5) were higher in response to Albizia application
at all liming levels (although not significantly so at the zero
lime level). The possibility of reducing lime requirements by

application of green leaf manure is merely suggested by this data
and confirmation will have to be sought in the next season's
results, along with information on other possible effects of
green leaf manures.

It is also important to note the rather high coefficients of
variation of experimental error as shown in Table 3. The soil
micro-variability on this site is high, which makes any tests of
significance imprecise. This is a constant problem on these
newly cleared forest sites and in a low input trial such as this,
only very strong treatment effects will be evident.

In Table 6, soil analyses are shown for composite samples
from all plots, taken before the start of and during the
experiment. There was little difference in exchangeable bases or
in acid saturation between different soil depths before the start
of the experiment. However, extractable acidity as well as ECEC
seemed to increase with depth, possibly due to greater organic
matter content in the surface layers. Extractable P was
extremely low. Analysis of samples taken on September 10, 1985
(before the second lime application) and on April 12, 1986 (after
the second lime application) show that the lime treatments had
produced distinct acid saturations of approximately the desired
levels. At a later date, the samples will be analysed for
organic C.

An important analysis which can't be done on site in
Sitiung, is the determination of the breakdown products of
decomposition of the green manures and crop residues. The labile
organic acids and polyphenolic compounds may be especially
important in completing with aluminium, thereby reducing liming
requirements. An assessment of these decomposition products will
possibly be carried out at the University of Hawaii.


SThe leguminous tree species, Albizia falcataria and
Calliandra calothyrsus, show potential for use in alley cropping
under the soil and climatic conditions in Sitiung (i.e. acidic
soils, low in bases and a warm, humid climate). The species,
Gliricidia sepium, does not grow as vigorously under these
conditions. During the 1985/86 growing season, the upland rice
crop did not respond significantly to these green leaf manure
additions, but cowpea crop yields were increased by addition of
Albizia prunings. These results indicate that alley cropping
provides only a marginal benefit to farmers during the first year
of cropping. However, as the tree pruning and cropping sequence
continues on this site, it is quite likely that the frequent
additions of green leaf manure will cause increased soil
fertility and crop yields. Also, the hedges of trees can provide
other benefits, including an animal forage source, fuelwood, and
erosion control when planted along contours. These
considerations indicate that further study of alley cropping in
Sitiung is warranted.

Table 1.

Yields of tree hedgerows during the 1985/86 season.

a. Leaf Yield

--------- Tree Pruning Date ---------- Total
Tree Species Sept.'85 Nov.'85 Feb.'86 Apr.'86 Annual
-------------------kg7 ha -------------------

Albizia 1489 538 264 220 2511

Calliandra 397 531 590 332 1850

Gliricidia 172 196 90 68 526

LSD (0.05) 335 154 141 87 600

b. Nitrogen Yield in Leaf
--------- Tree Pruning Date ---------- Total
Tree Species Sept.'85 Nov.'85 Feb.'86 Apr.'86 Annual

-------------------kg 7 ha-------------------

Albizia 48.5 17.6 8.6 7.2 82.1

Calliandra 11.2 15.0 16.5 9.4 52.3

Gliricidia 6.8 7.7 3.5 2.7 20.7

LSD (0.05) 10.7 5.0 4.4 2.6 18.6

c. Wood Yield
------- Tree Pruning Date --------- Total Fuel
Tree-Species Sept.'85 Nov.'85 Feb.'86 Apr.'86 Annual Wood

Albizia 2685 416 408 101 3610 3093

Calliandra 496 391 460 150 1497 956

Gliricidia 180 111 77 23 391 257

LSD (0.05) 969 120 139 30 1092 1069

Yield in kg/ha is calculated in the basis of total intercropped
land area, not just yield per hedgerow. (To calculate kg
yields per meter of hedgerow, multiply yields/ha x 0.0004).

Fuel wood is the sum of only the Sept.'85 and Feb.'86 harvests,
since the wood was taken off the plots only at these times.

Tree heights at pruning (in cm above ground level).

---------- Tree Pruning Dates-----------
Tree Species Sept.'85 Nov.'85 Feb.'86 Apr.'86

------------------ cm-------------------
Albizia 253 161 173 92

Calliandra 131 143 174 94

Gliricidia 109 94 98 57

LSD (0.05) 7 ---- ------20 23 ------ ----

Table 3. Analysis of
upland rice

variance for grain and
and cowpeas during the

stover yields of
1985/86 season.

Upland Rice ---- ------ Cowpea ------
Source df Grain MS Stover MS Grain MS Stover MS

Tree Species
Error A
Lime Rate
Lime x Tree Spp.
Error B

58478 ns
217301 ns
7394238 ***
443317 *

558156 ns
274648 ns
9958957 ***
759350 ns

53946 ns
333560 -
868025 ***
3776 ns

118189 ns
250841 *
1395855 **
27049 ns

CV (%) Main-plot 45.3
CV (%) Subplot 26.7
* Significant at 0.05 level
*** Significant at 0.001 level



ns = not significant

Table 4. Effects of lime rates and green leaf manure species on
grain yields of upland rice during the 1985/86 season.
--------- ----------------------------------------
Tree Species High lime Low lime Zero lime Species Means
----------------------------- ------------------
------------------ kg 7 ha ----------------------
Albizia 1804 1219 939 1321

Calliandra 1901 1511 883 1432

Gliricidia 2013 1938 562 1504

No Tree 2349 2113 464 1642

Lime Rate Means 2017 1695 712

LSD Between species means = ns
(0.05) Between lime rates means = 287
Between lime rate means for the same species = 576
Between species for the same or different lime rates = 774



Table 2.

Table 5. Effects of lime rates and green leaf manure species on
grain yields of cowpeas during the 1985/86 season.

Tree Species High lime Low lime Zero lime Species Means
-------------------kg 7 ha ----------------------

Albizia 921 849 427 732

Calliandra 652 510 213 458

Gliricidia 556 459 138 384

No Tree 536 478 121 209

Lime Rate Means 666 574 225

LSD Between species means = 209
(0.05) Between lime rates means = 143
Between lime rate means for the same species = 287
Between species for the same or different lime rates = 313

Table 6. Soil analyses at the start of and during the experiment.

Sampling Sample AT+H --Ca" Mg K" ECEC P Acid
Time Type ---------- cmol / kg ----------- ppm Sat.

09/1/84a 0-15cm 2.21 0.76 0.28 0.07 3.32 0.9 66

15-30cm 1.93 0.77 0.25 0.05 3.01 1.6 63

30-60cm 1.53 0.85 0.25 0.04 2.67 0 57

09/10/85b High lime 1.12 2.19 0.07 0.09 3.47 N/A 33

Low lime 1.89 0.75 0.11 0.08 2.83 N/A 68

Zero lime 2.21 0.38 0.06 0.09 2.73 N/A 81

04/12/86c High lime 0.74 1.66 0.12 0.21 2.74 5.8 27

Low lime 1.33 0.83 0.16 0.20 2.52 5.8 54

Zero lime 1.71 0.27 0.10 0.21 2.29 6.3 75

a Before start of experiment
Before second lime application (Sept. 23, 1986) and
Planting. All samples 0-15 cm.
d After second lime application. All samples 0-15 cm.
Extracted with IN KC1.
e Extracted with Mehlich I (double acid) extractant.