Citation
P fertilization and maintenance, Sitiung Ia

Material Information

Title:
P fertilization and maintenance, Sitiung Ia
Series Title:
TropSoils field research brief ; 22
Creator:
Wade, M. K.
Wade, M. K. (Michael Karl)
Widjaja-Adhi, I. P. G.
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program.
Place of Publication:
Raleigh, NC
Publisher:
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, North Carolina State University,
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
2, 1 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Soil management -- Indonesia.
Soil chemistry -- Indonesia.
Spatial Coverage:
Indonesia.

Notes

General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"January, 1986."
General Note:
At head of title: TropSoils-Indonesia.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
156945697 ( OCLC )

Full Text
TROPSOILS
I PUSLITTAN
TROPSOILS-Indonesia WEST SUMATERA
Field Research Brief No. 22 January, 1986
TITLE: P Fertilization and Maintenance, Sitiung Ia'
RESEARCHERS: Mike W7ade and I P. G. Widjaja-Adhi
OBJECTIVES: 1. Determine initial P rates necessary to reach a
critical soil test value and optimum crop yield,
2. Determine per crop rates necessary to maintain
established soil levels,
3. Compare banding vs. broadcasting of mainentance
applications.
SOIL: Inceptisol, Cak, cropped for 7 years after bulldozer
clearing without lime or fertilizer inputs
TREATNIENTS: Factorial, RCB, 4 replications, 4.5 X 7m plots Initial Rates Per Cot Rates
(2X per year)
1. 0 kg P/ha 1. none
2. 20 2. 20 kg P/ha band
3. 40 3. 20 kg P/ha broad4. 80 cast
5. 160 "
6. 320 "
CROP: (4th) Corn-variety C-l, spacing 25x75cm, pesticides
carbofuran 0.5kg a.i./ha at planting and Ridomil
5g/kg seed, one hand weeding at 4 weeks after emergence, base fertilizer 150 kg KCI, 100 kg
kieserite, and 300 kg urea (100 each at planting,
3 weeks and 6 weeks) per ha.
RESULTS: The corn crop of this second season grew and produced well by tropical standards. The treatment means, as affected by initial P rates (x-axis) and maintenance applications, are plotted in Figure 1. Trend analysis of this factorial experimental design showed that only the linear portion of the response significantly influenced the regression. Thus, we compare only the linear slopes of the response to initial P rates of the maintenance treatments. The coefficients of the two maintenance methods, banding and broadcasting, are not significantly different from each nor from zero. Therefore, apparently the two methods are (1) equally effective and, (2) have eliminated a response to the initial rates of P, which were applied at the beginning of the experiment in September, 1984. This suggests that the maintenance rate of 20 kg P/ha must be building soil P rather than merely maintaining it.
1




The residual effect of the initial applications in fact is
rather remarkable. Figure 2 shows the corn yield response of both year 1 and year 2 to the initial rates (without maintenance applications). Clearly there has been little change between the two seasons. So if the residual-of the initial rates is not
declining over time, then any "maintenance" applications would logically be building soil P rather than maintaining it. Indeed, Figure 3 shows that total P applied, whether initial or maintenance, or combination thereof, correlates- extremely well with corn yield of year -2. Again the indication is that residual P is just as effective as fresh (maintenance) applications.
Soil analysis has so far been inconclusive in detecting the apparent changes (or lack thereof) in the available soil P. Initially we extracted the soil with mod Olsen but were dissatisfied as the range of values was quite-narrow. From year 1 data the minimum value was 3 ppm and the critical value was only 8 ppm. Figure 4 shows the relationship of year 2 yield data with Mehlich I extractable P. There is good correlation and definition of a critical level (23 ppm). With a minimum value of 11 ppip, a much wider range in the response portion of the regression exists than with the mod Olsen of -year 1. Therefore we are currently re-analyzing previous soil samples with-the Mehlich I. Hopefully this will produce sound correlation data, but it remains to be seen if it will correlate over time as well.
The-strength of the residual effect of the P fertilizer in
this trial is unusual. Normally we would expect a decrease in P availability over time. The reason for lack of such here may not be readily apparent. However our hypothesis is that the answer
may well be in the organic activity of the soil. Other trials in Sitiung have shown impressive responses to organic additions, whether as green manure or crop residues. Yet the soils are surprisingly high in OM, usually 4-5% by Wackley-Black. This
suggests that, like the clay, the organic matter may have a low activity quality. Thus fresh additions of organic material cause considerable and positive changes in the soil dynamics. Although crop residues are removed at harvest time in this experiment, root and stubble from the high yielding crops would be substantial. Enhanced nutrient availability by organic additions has been observed in other- trials here, and even though this experiment has no specific organic treatments the same processes may well enter into the nature of the P response. Prior to experimentation, the field for this trial had been in low input (and low yielding) production. Initiation of our trial has brought about many changes that could radically alter the organic complex of- the soil. As mentioned, indirect applications of crop residues (roots -and stubble), liming and macronutrient fertilization would all favor a more active microbial population and increase
the quantity (and.quality?) of the organic fraction of the soil. This may in turn result in more favorable root growth and P availability, thereby offsetting the expected decline in P over
time. This of course is conjecture time but raises some important, if not critical, research issues for optimizing long-term economic crop production.
2




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