Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Definitions and concepts
 Assessing and reporting project/program...
 Back Cover

Title: Gender analysis tool kit
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080527/00010
 Material Information
Title: Gender analysis tool kit
Physical Description: 1 case : col. ill. ; 27 x 34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: GENESYS Project
Futures Group
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1994
Subject: Women in development -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Sex discrimination in employment -- Evaluation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Genesys.
General Note: "Genesys, a project of The Futures Group in collaboration with Management Systems International and Development Alternatives, Inc. and United States Agency for International Development, Office of Women in Development, Dept. of State."
General Note: "Contains ten analytical tools"--GCID framework t.p.
General Note: "Under the GENESYS Project for USAID G/R&D/WID Contract # PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00"--GCID Framework t.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00080527
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 31425196

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Definitions and concepts
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Assessing and reporting project/program impacts on men and women
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 13
    Back Cover
        Page 14
Full Text

SI a

gnMen and Wome

Program Impact:
A Tool for Reporting
Differential Effects
on Men and Women
Prepared by
Patricia Martin

August 1994
Under the GENESYS Proiect for
Coi1tract # PDC-0100-Z-00-944-01ii



I. Introduction 1
Reason for Developing the Tool 1
Purpose of the Tool 1
Target Audience 1
Strengths and Weaknesses 1
Layout of the Tool 2

II. Definitions and Concepts 4
Gender vs. Sex 4
Women in Development 4
Gender Differences 4
Gender's Effects on Development 4
Gender-Related Impact 4

III. Assessing and Reporting Project/Program Impacts
on Men and Women ("Gender Impact") 5
Step 1: Ask Questions at all Stages of Project/Program 5
Step 2: Data Analysis 5
Step 3: Determining Impacts on Women and Men 6
Step 4: Reporting Impacts on Women and Men 8

IV Conclusions 11



ABS Annual Budget Submission
CP Congressional Presentation
EOPS End-of-Project Status
LAC Latin America/Caribbean
NTAE Non-Traditional Agricultural
POD Program Objective Document
SAR Semi-Annual Report
WID Women in Development

I Introduction

Reason for Developing the Tool
The following was developed for the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) Bureau of the United States
Agency for International Development (USAID) by the bureau's gender/WID advisor, but it also applies to other
USAID bureaus and missions. It was designed to provide brief, basic guidance applicable at both the project
and program levels in a form accessible to project managers and program officers, as well as Women in
Development (WID) officers. Its purpose is to: 1) clarify definitions and concepts, 2) provide guidance on
assessing whether gender is an important factor in any given project or program, and 3) indicate the kind of
information needed to demonstrate the impact of programs and projects on diverse groups of people.

Purpose of the Tool
The tool complements formal donor reporting guidelines. It examines the rationale for considering gender
and its effects on sustainable development and illustrates processes for determining and reporting gender-related
impacts through examples of specific USAID/LAC Bureau systems and documents.
While this document uses specific LAC Bureau reporting systems to illustrate ways to integrate gender con-
siderations into reporting documents, it also serves as a model that could be adapted to serve the needs of other
USAID bureaus or offices or other development institutions.

Target Audience
The GENESYS tool Documenting Development Program Impact was originally developed for program and
project officers within USAID who prepare and coordinate routine field mission reporting to the LAC Bureau in
Washington, D.C. Nevertheless, it is useful for anyone who is responsible for analyzing and reporting project
and program impacts. The tool also clarifies for upper-level managers the benefits of integrating gender consid-
erations into mainstream reporting documents, rather than reporting on gender-related outcomes through sep-
arate channels or documents.

Strengths and Weaknesses
Use of these guidelines can help the analyst to assess a project/program's impact on individuals by showing
how women benefit from development interventions in comparison with men and how the impact can be
attributed to project and program efforts. The analyst also can report accurately on a program/project's impact
achieved through its gender-sensitive interventions, increase awareness of program results, and promote effec-
tive actions to improve these results in the future.



This tool is not meant to supplant an organization's reporting guidelines. The guidelines contained in the
tool are illustrative rather than prescriptive and must be adapted to the particular reporting needs of a develop-
ment organization.

Layout of the Tool
The main body of the tool is divided into two sections. The first section (Section II) provides key definitions
and explains common concepts used by gender analysts. The second section (Section III) presents a four-step
sequence for assessing, comparing, and reporting the impact of projects and programs on females and males of
all ages. Step 1 provides the user with basic guidelines for formulating gender-informed questions about the
participants and project or program outcomes. Step 2 describes principles for analyzing sex-disaggregated
information. Step 3 focuses on how to assess different types and levels of outcomes from projects and programs
for men and women. Finally, step 4 uses specific USAID reporting formats, such as the Semi-Annual Report
(SAR), the Program Objective Document (POD), and Annual Budget Submissions (ABS), to illustrate ways to
incorporate gender-related findings into overall program assessments.


II: Definitions
and Concepts
III: Assessing
and Reporting
Impacts on Men
and Wonew
("Gender Impact")
IV: Conclusions


II. Definitions and Concepts

The following key concepts summa-
rize the basic definitions and
analytical framework for considering
gender in development activities.

Gender vs. Sex
"Gender" is a sociocultural variable
that refers to the comparative, rela-
tional, or differential roles, responsi-
bilities, and activities of females and
males what a society or culture
prescribes as proper roles, behavior,
and personal identities. Gender
roles vary among societies and over
time. "Sex" as an analytical catego-
ry, unlike gender, distinguishes
males from females exclusively by
biological characteristics.

Women in
Because women have, more often
than men, been left out of the devel-
opment process, a special effort
often needs to be made so that
women as well as men participate in
and benefit from development; this
effort has become known as
"Women in Development" (WID).
WID does not mean leaving men
out; it means ensuring that women
are included. USAID has long
emphasized paying attention to the
effects of gender differences in all its
relevant activities considering
gender-based factors in order to
ensure full and equitable participa-

tion and benefit by both men and
women. "Gender-neutral"
approaches assume equal opportu-
nities and benefits, without ques-
tioning whether a person's gender
constrains or favors his/her access to
resources and participation in deci-

Gender Differences
Gender differences (differences in
males' and females' roles in society)
usually operate in association with
other socioeconomic variables.
Neither all men nor all women nec-
essarily share the same interests,
concerns, or status. These vary by
race, ethnicity, income, occupation,
age, level of education, and so on.
In addition, the concerns and status
of men and women differ within
groups, whether racial, ethnic, age,
or class.

Gender's Effects on
Gender issues affect economic as
well as social development objec-
tives. Gender is much more than an
equity issue: gender inequality, or
differences in roles and rights of
men and women, affects economic
growth as well as social stability and
well-being in a society. USAID
experience has demonstrated that
considering and enhancing
women's, as well as men's, roles and
contributions to the economy pro-
motes development and sustainabil-
ity. Increased economic participa-
tion by women also has proven to
have a direct impact on alleviating
poverty and its social and ecological

Minimizing differences in project
and program impacts between men
and women can bring about more
balanced participation and benefit
by both sexes, lessening gender
imbalances characteristic of many
societies, and thereby encouraging
better utilization of all human
resources and more effective and
equitable distribution of benefits.
These are necessary conditions for
achieving broad-based sustainable
Development activities can have
different types of impacts. Some of
these are more within an organiza-
tion's scope than others (and some
may be unintended), but all must be
analyzed to evaluate the final results
of development efforts and activities
and to demonstrate a plausible link
between the organization's interven-
tions and results.
The focus of this tool is specifi-
cally on gender-related impact, for
several reasons:

1. Gender cross-cuts all other social
variables and is usually a factor
that affects, at least in some way,
an activity's impact on individual
beneficiaries. For example, edu-
cating girls has multifaceted ben-
efits that differ from the benefits
of educating boys; and female-
controlled income may bring
about greater benefits in child
welfare than male-controlled


2. Gender analysis includes other
social variables, and is the most
efficient means of undertaking
effective social analysis. In gen-
der analysis, the effects of other
variables are taken into account
to provide a complete picture of
the factors affecting people's par-
ticipation in the economy and
development efforts and the
impact of these efforts on their
lives. The analysis examines the
roles and participation of women
and men belonging to specific
groups involved in a develop-
ment activity (e.g., indigenous
farmers, urban or rural microen-
trepreneurs, minority groups,
youth and students, the rural
3. Poor women, whether they are
urban, rural, of minority or
majority culture or ethnicity,
have long been among the most
disadvantaged and hardest to
include people in development
efforts. Therefore, demonstrat-
ing impact on women as well as
men is a key measure of effective-
ly reaching the disadvantaged,
expanding the human resource
base, and bringing about socioe-
conomic change among individ-
uals, thus contributing to broad-
based sustainable development.

III. Assessing and Reporting

Project/Program Impacts on Men

and Women ("Gender Impact")

Step 1: Ask Questions
at all Stages of
Project/Progra m
Gender is frequently an important
variable in determining project,
program, and policy effectiveness.
To assess whether and to what
degree gender-differentiated factors
(as well as other socioeconomic
variables) might affect the outcomes
of development interventions, key
questions should be asked during
the strategic planning process and
during the design, implementation,
and monitoring/evaluation stages of
the project/program cycle. These
questions include:
* Who needs to be reached for
action to occur (broken down
by sex and other relevant vari-
Why or so what? What differ-
ence will it make if these groups
participate in the effort or not?
What are the implications for
achieving the activity's objec-
M How can these groups be
reached? Different means may
be necessary to reach different
groups; various constraints may
exist because of gender roles
and activity patterns and differ-
ent access to resources.
* How will we know? What
information is needed to deter-
mine who participates and what
may result?
* What happened? Are the
expected results being achieved?
If not, why not? What changes
are needed?

Step 2: Data Analysis
If gender is a relevant variable, it
must be taken into account in deter-
mining project and program perfor-
mance. Sex-disaggregated indica-
tors or other data are needed to
assess whether gender factors are
relevant to achieving expected out-
puts and objectives in an equitable
and sustainable way.
Attention to gender in data
analysis does not mean adding an
extra data collection burden; it
means focusing on the data needed
to illustrate impact not more but
better information. The following
types of information should be
sought to determine impacts of
development efforts on males and
females in target communities:
The amount of participation by
both men and women in key
project activities, outputs, and/or
strategic objectives and the gen-
der roles of these men and
women in their society. These
roles affect: a) the way in which
men and women are involved in
activities as active partici-
pants in decision-making and/or
implementation or as recipients
of services; b) the types of
activities in which they partici-
pate (e.g., training, credit,
employment); and c) how they
handle obstacles to their partici-
* The impact of women's and
men's participation in project
or program activities, the
degree to which their involve-
ment has helped achieve the
effort's objectives, and lessons
learned in the process.



Step 3: Determining
Impacts on Women
and Men

The purpose of the bureau and mis-
sion strategic objective framework1
is to focus and concentrate inter-
ventions to achieve the greatest pos-
sible impact toward sustainable
development goals and to demon-
strate progress toward that impact
through measurable indicators.
Use of sex-disaggregated indica-
tors at both the project and pro-
gram levels is important for activi-
ties in which gender imbalances are
likely to affect attainment of objec-
tives. The relevance of gender and
the type of data needed can be
determined through a question-
and-decision process such as the

Based on existing information
and experience:
* Who participates in this
activity (by sex and other rele-
vant variables)? Who benefits,
and how? Are benefits to both
men and women within the tar-
get group generally proportional
to participation and to the time
and effort expended? Are there
differences in how families
benefit from participation by
women compared with men?
What are the implications of all
of this for project/program
impact? Could impact be
significantly increased if partici-
pation and/or benefits were

expanded (e.g., if more women
or more men participated and
benefited, or did so in more
effective ways)?

If impacts of project/program
activities differ for males and
females, then:
* Why are there differences in
participation and/or benefit
between men and women in
the target group? Could mis-
sion interventions sufficiently
change the factors resulting in
these differences in order to
enhance levels of participation
and/or benefit?

If the differences in impact are
amenable to change, then:
* What can be done to address
gender imbalances in partici-
pation and benefits? What spe-
cific interventions are likely to
increase and balance participa-
tion and/or benefits for women
and men and are possible and
practical within existing con-

Once these interventions are
* How can progress be measured?
What specific indicators are
needed to demonstrate impacts
on people's participation and

These steps are used to analyze
indicators to assess project/program
results, determine whether impact is
occurring, and make any needed
modifications in interventions. If
there is insufficient information on
gender-based differences or the

relevance of gender is unclear, the
importance of gender to impact can
be determined by including the
"who" questions above in an evalua-
tion or study and using this infor-
mation to assess the effectiveness of
the interventions.
Assessment of the impact of
project/program interventions on
the target population or area is at
the heart of the reporting process.
On page 7 is an example that illus-
trates what the completed process of
assessing impacts at different levels
and attributing these to project/pro-
gram efforts might look like.

1 Within the LAC Bureau in USAID, the
strategic objective framework is the cur-
rent planning and monitoring and evalu-
ation approach that links measurable
project objectives to broader and higher-
level program objectives (strategic objec-
tives). It is designed to make program
and project managers accountablefor
results rather than expenditures.


An Illustration of Different T pes of Gender Impact and Their

Effects on Development and Sustainability

Development interventions are meant to change
conditions and have a real impact on people's lives,
such as differences in behavior, income, or living
conditions. Sustainability depends on the effective-
ness and durability of these changes. The following
example ofh m\- different levels of impact can be
defined and feasibly linked with interventions, in
contributing to lasting change, is illustrative. The
same logical process can be applied to any type of
intervention and impact analysis.
1. The process begins with project or non-project
assistance inputs. An example is implementa-
I ion of a vocational training program designed to
be accessible to women as well as men. This
intervention is meant to maximize human
resource development by encouraging participa-
tion by both sexes.
2. The inputs are developed with certain goals and
outputs in mind. The output in this case would
be actual course enrollment and completion by
comparable numbers of women and men,
which would indicate successful elimination of
gender-related barriers. Sex-disaggregated pro-
ject data would demonstrate results directly
attributable to mission efforts.
3. Impact achieved by the process is assessed by
answering the question "So what? What differ-
ence have the inputs made?" An initial type of
impact for this example is employment. Another
equivalent impact would be promotion, for those
trainees already employed. Were both sexes suc-
cessful in finding appropriate employment as a
i result of their training, thus deriving economic
benefit as well as contrib ttiing to the economy?
This impact can be determined through project
data or an evaluation or special study. It can be
linked to mission efforts if training is shown to
have been based on an accurate assessment of
demand for skills or measures taken have been
successful in promoting employment of female as
well as male trainees.

4. Other impacts are assessed by looking at other
effects, and direct and indirect results. A further
economic impact in this example is the effect on
income: do men and women trainees earn simi-
lar levels of income from their employment, pro-
portionate to their experience and skills? Income
is difficult to measure, but it is ecintial to find
some measure of the comparative conionmic ben-
efit of training by sex in order to identify and
address gender imbalance. \What are the factors
contributing to equality or disparity, and what
are the implications for replicating successful or
changing unsuccessful interventions? If the
mission can demonstrate, through an e\ valuation
for example, that it has analv/ed result, and con-
tributing factors, and linked interventions with
results (e.g. measures that resulted in successfull
entry by women into higher-paid non- traditional
fields), it can claim that the effort has had the
desired impact.
Social impact can be demonstrated by changes in
women's influence or status in the family resulting
from employment and/or income gained due to
training. This could lead, for example, to more
equitable decision-making or distribution of
resources. The impact of women's income (com-
pared with men's) on family well-being or children's
nutrition, health,and education status also could be
am.,Ceed. This assessment could demonstrate
change in socio-economic conditions contributing
to sustainable development. Such impact is best
demonstrated by a study comparing results with
baseline data. If this is not possible, a link still can
be made if the economic impacts have been demon-
strated and a study or evaluation reveals results
based on data such as comparative reporting of
change in conditions by both trainees and male and
female family members.



Step 4: Reporting
Impacts on Women
and Men

If the above process of analysis indi-
cates that gender-related variables
are likely to affect achievement of
project objectives, gender-differenti-
ated impacts (both positive and
negative) should be reported based
on those objectives. Any actions
taken to counteract effects of gender
factors on project objectives should
be reported as well. Reporting is
necessary to ensure that these
impacts on project results are recog-
nized (gender factors are frequently
overlooked), as well as to improve
project results. A secondary reason
for reporting on gender is to satisfy
the congressional mandate that pro-
grams ensure participation and
benefit by both sexes.
If there are no data on or analy-
sis of differing impacts on women
and men at the project or activity
level, it will be very difficult to
address these impacts at the pro-
gram level. A coherent system is
needed to assess and synthesize pro-
ject impacts at succeeding levels.
Such a system requires integrating
gender and other types of individ-
ual-level ("people-level") impact
into the existing reporting system.
This not only provides information
in a useful, programmatically inte-
grated form, but eliminates the need
for additional and ad-hoc reporting.
Some guidelines and examples fol-

Project Monitoring
Projects for which gender variables
are or could be a significant factor
need to collect and analyze informa-
tion on gender-differentiated
impacts based on what the project is
trying to accomplish. Project moni-
toring systems should include
gender-sensitive impact indicators
and baseline data against which to
measure performance in achieving
end-of-project status (EOPS) objec-
tives, which should contribute to
program-level strategic objectives.
Project evaluations are an
important source of impact data
when sex-disaggregated impact
questions such as those above are
addressed and, especially, when dis-
aggregated baseline data exist.
Further, to ensure that the data col-
lected are analyzed, reported, and
acted upon, project managers
should be trained in at least the
basic elements of gender analysis
and held responsible by mission
management for incorporating gen-
der into performance reporting. An
example of a USAID project which
analyzes and measures its perfor-
mance and impact based on sex-dis-
aggregated data is provided in the


USAID/Quito's Non-
Traditional Agricultural
Exports (NTAE) Project's pur-
pose is to establish a healthy,
growing NTAE sector in support
of its strategic objective -
increased trade and employ-
ment. The project's EOPS
objectives include impacts on
production, export, and
employment figures. The
LSAID mission conducted a
study that showed 80%o of
NTAE employment in Ecuador
is comprised of women.
Consequentl); the mission per-
suaded the National
Employment Institute to com-
pile sex-disaggregated employ-
nlent data. One project impact
indicator mieasurres gender equi-
ty in distribution of benefits as
nitumbers of growers, who are
typically male, increase through
the project's efifrts. A project
target is to increase the percent-
age of growers who are women
to 65,0. Trarinig figures are
also sex-disaggregated by the
project to gauge equity in access
to instruction b both women
and men.


Semi-Annual Reports
Project impacts on men and women
("gender impact") in the target
community should be reported in
all relevant Project Status Reports
under the section "Other
Accomplishments and Overall
Status." Impact should be discussed
not merely in terms of inputs and
outputs (e.g. number of women
trained), but also as the effects on
or implications for achieving objec-
tives. Barriers identified or corrective
actions taken also should be noted.
To the extent possible, all relevant
Project Status Reports should disag-
gregate beneficiaries by sex, together
with major activities, in the "Project
Status" and "Major Outputs" sec-
tions. This not only will reveal who
is participating and how (data need-
ed to determine gender-differentiated
impact) but also will enable the
mission to aggregate certain impacts
across projects (e.g., numbers
and/or percentages of male and
female participants, trainees, bene-
ficiaries of employment creation,
loan recipients), particularly when
the SAR system is automated. This
in turn can facilitate reporting of
individual-level ("people-level")
impact in the mission director's
overview section, Action Plans,
Congressional Presentations, and
ABS coding (discussed further on
the following pages). Two examples
of projects that report on sex-disag-
gregated project impacts in semi-
annual reports and other project
status reports are provided in the

In its Project Status Report for
the Land Use and Productivity
Enhancement Project,
USAID/Tegucigalpa has disag-
gregated by sex all of its major
outputs (activities planned and
accomplished). Based on this
data, the report discusses project
impacts, including the fact that
the project did not reach its
planned proportions of women -
headed households with project
benefits, at least in part because
of inaccurate projections of both
total population and household
composition. The project has
reported that women are partic-
ipating in project activities at
lower rates than men, except in
several activities specifically
targeted to women, where their
participation has been high.
'72 report states that the pro-
ject is paying more attention to
promoting women's participa-
tion in other activities.

E ample
L'SAID/Quitos Project Status
Report on the Water and
Sanitation for Health and
Ecuadorian Development
Project describes training for
women promoters and cotnnlu-
nity members (who are trained
by the 'omnen promoters). The
report also discusses the impor-
tance to the project of the pro-
nioters' field work and notes
that training for promoters has
been expanded and that infor-
mal training in operations,
management, and hygiene edu-
cation has been mainly targeted
to women as the most intluen-
tial niembers of families.



Program Objective
Documents (PODs) and
Action Plans
Strategic objectives and program
outputs should include sex-disag-
gregated indicators wherever gender
is a significant factor. Programming
decisions, which follow program
objectives laid out in PODS, should
be based on Action Plan perfor-
mance reports. Gender impacts
(program effects on women and
men) should be described and syn-
thesized in the Action Plan narra-
tive, based on information from the
indicators and sources such as SAR
data and project evaluations, in
terms of their influence on meeting
strategic objectives. In other words,
program reports should address the
extent to which women and men
are participating and benefiting
from USAID mission projects and
discuss the difference this has made
(positive or negative) in achieving
the desired results at the program
level. It also may be useful to sum-
marize the reasons for any signifi-
cant gender-based differences and
how they have been addressed
(lessons learned). On this page are
two examples of program reporting
that discuss gender differences in
program impact.


In its Action Plan overview,
USAID/Tegucigalpa synthesized
and discussed the contributions
of its program's key activities
toward improving equity, high-
lighting impact on women and
other disadvantaged groups.
The overview describes studies
to assess the impact of its pro-
grams on the poor and on
women and to guide future pro-
gramming. All key indicators
are sex-disaggregated (e.g.,
manufacturing employment
gains, access oato actors o pro-
duction, practice of environ-
mentally sound cultivation
tech niques, number of vocation-
al training graduates


USAID/Guatemala provided a
clear example of how gender
impact links with development
impact in its Action Plan
overviewT. The ovierview report-
ed that the Mission had success-
fully negotiated with the coun-
try's Ministry of Education for
significant policy and resource
commitments to improve girls'
education. These commitments
are expected to reap long- tern
benefits not only in educational
attainment libt also in reduc-
tion of fertility and infant mor-
tality rates.

Presentations (CPs) and
Annual Budget
Submissions (ABS)
The CP should contain a brief syn-
thesis of the significance of gender
factors to achieving results and a
summary of impact on women as
well as men in the narrative section
(in response to the congressional
mandate, mentioned above, that
programs ensure participation and
benefit by both sexes). The primary
concern in the ABS is that budget
allocation codes accurately reflect
the impacts on women and men
reported in the performance assess-
ment and reporting documents dis-
cussed above. This allows missions
to link expenditure levels to devel-
opment outcomes. Analyses con-
ducted by USAID Washington's
WID Office in LAC countries indi-
cate that there are often significant
discrepancies between levels of par-
ticipation and benefits disaggregat-
ed by gender in the SARs and the
ABS coding. This calls reporting
accuracy into question and indicates
underreporting of WID impact in
either the SAR or ABS. Examples of
these types of discrepancies are
described on page 11.


R&D/IVID's analysis for
Guatemala showed that an
education project was reported
in the SAR as having a signifi-
cant component focused on
girls' education; however, the
ABS coding for the project did
not include ~7D. The SAR for
a rural electrification project
included disaggregated training
data and reported that women
comprised 30% of project par-
ticipants, vet no 1\\D coding
appeared in the ABS. The
reverse occurred for special
development fund activities.
The SAR made no mention of
women as project participants
or beneficiaries, but various
activities were coded for 11D in
the ABS (up to 40%0,l; the over-
all 1\TD attribution was 27'%.

IV Conclusions

Attention to gender-differentiated
impacts of programs and projects,
as outlined, helps provide a specific
measure of results of development
efforts on individuals (males and
females) within a target community.
Gender is a critical factor in assess-
ing and documenting improve-
ments in the lives of individuals, not
only broad communities or whole
families, that can be attributed to
development interventions. Once a
project/program manager has
decided that gender is an important,
integral factor in an activity, he/she

must analyze the outcomes or
results of the activity and report on
them, examining differences in
impact and benefits due to gender.
In standard, required reporting on
project/program efforts, these gen-
der-based differences and reasons
for them should be discussed (sup-
ported by sex-disaggregated data),
and improvements over the life of
the development activity may be
attributed to project and program
efforts to overcome these gender



A Projecl of

The Futures Group
in collaboradon with

Management SNslems International
Deielopmenl lifernalbes Inc.
YGOO 17th Sirvel. \ It. Suitt- 1001)
It ihinellon. PC 20030
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Fij 1202) 71.3-9699
lPi, %: 91112-31)4173H TI RESIJ ISH
1, -nir;v t : PI)C-010(11-00-9044-00
I nited State% %Wnn for
International Detelopmeni
Office of Uomen in Dnelopment
1hp winent oif Shilt,
";1mvin. 91 20-1'23-1816

F.p (703)87.3-41)33

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