Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Trustees in 1986
 Principal staff in 1986
 Management review
 A review of CIMMYT programs
 Extra-core grants
 Staff publications
 Financial statement
 CIMMYT addresses
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00080068/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Publisher: The Center
Place of Publication: México D.F. México
Creation Date: 1986
Publication Date: 1986-1987
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Corn -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Wheat -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1985-1986.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 17799721
lccn - sn 88024457
issn - 0257-8735
System ID: UF00080068:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: CIMMYT ...

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Trustees in 1986
        Page 2
    Principal staff in 1986
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Management review
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    A review of CIMMYT programs
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Extra-core grants
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Staff publications
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Financial statement
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    CIMMYT addresses
        Page 83
    Back Matter
        Page 84
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
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IM86Anna Report
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

1986Annual Report
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center


2 Trustees in 1986

3 Principal Staff in 1986

6 Management Review
6 Changes in the Board of Trustees
8 Financial Summary
9 Observations on Strategic Planning
11 Conclusion

12 A Review of CIMMYT Programs
16 Maize Research
28 Wheat Research
40 Economics Research
44 Support Services

47 Extra-Core Grants
48 Training, Conference, and Information Center
48 Central America and Caribbean Maize Seed Production
49 East Africa Cereals Program, Maize
49 Ghana Maize Program, Phase II
50 Pakistan Maize Program
50 Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV)
51 Introduction of Alien Genes into Wheat Through Conventional and
Biotechnology Approaches
51 East Africa Cereals Program, Wheat
52 Bangladesh Wheat Program
52 Pakistan Wheat Program
53 Peru National Cereals Program
53 Wheat Improvement in Turkey
54 On-Farm Research in Eastern and Southern Africa
54 Haiti Economics Program, Phase II
55 Pakistan Economics Program
55 Information Service for Wheat and Other Small Grains

56 Appendix I: Distribution of Maize Program international trials, 1985-86
57 Appendix II: Distribution of Wheat Program international nurseries, 1986
58 Appendix IIll: Countries of origin of maize in-service trainees, 1971-86
59 Appendix IV: Countries of origin of wheat in-service trainees, 1966-86
60 Appendix V: Publications released by CIMMYT in 1986

62 Staff Publications
62 Journal Articles, Monographs, Proceedings, and Book Chapters
66 Conference and Seminar Presentations

69 Financial Statement
70 Comparative Statement of Financial Condition
71 Comparative Statement of Activity
72 Comparative Statement of Changes in Financial Position on a Cash Basis
73 Notes to the Financial Statements
77 Detailed Statement of Activity
78 Sources of Income From Grants
79 Core-Restricted Pledges and Expenses
81 Extra-Core Pledges and Expenses

83 CIMMYT Addresses

Trustees in 1986

Dr. Guy Vallaeys (Chairman), France
Advisor to the Director General
International Center for Cooperation
in Agricultural Development
Research (CIRAD)

Dr. Doris H. Calloway, USA
Provost, Professional Schools and
Colleges, University of California, Berkeley

Dr. Peter Day, England
Director, Plant Breeding Institute (PBI)

Dr. Walter P. Falcon, USA
Associate Dean of Humanities and
Sciences, Stanford University

Dr. Ahmed Goueli, Egypt
Governor, Province of Damiett

Dr. Phaitoon Ingkasuwan, Thailand
Professor, Kasetsart University

Dr. H.K. Jain, India
Deputy Director General for Research
International Service for National
Agricultural Research (ISNAR)
The Netherlands

Dr. James R. McWilliam, Australia
Director, Australian Centre for
International Agricultural
Research (ACIAR)

Dr. Joseph M. Menyonga, Cameroon
International Coordinator of the
Semi-Arid Food Grain Research and
Development Project (SAFGRAD)
Organization of African Unity
Burkina Faso

Jesus Moncada de la Fuente1
Chief Executive, National Institute of
Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock
Research (INIFAP)

Dr. Stachys Muturi, Kenya
Director of Agriculture
Ministry of Agriculture

Mr. Eduardo Pesqueira Olea, Mexico
Secretary of Agriculture and
Water Resources (SARH)

Dr. Lucio Reca, Argentina
Secretary of Agriculture and Livestock

Dr. Antonio Turrent Fernandez, Mexico2
Chief Executive, National Institute of
Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock
Research (INIFAP)

Dr. Donald L. Winkelmann, USA
Director General, CIMMYT

Dr. Hikoyuki Yamaguchi, Japan
Professor, Faculty of Agriculture
University of Tokyo

Dr. Zhuang Qiao-sheng, China
Research Professor and Deputy
Director, Institute of Crop Breeding and
Cultivation, Chinese Academy of
Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)

1 Ex-officio position, through June 1986.
2 Ex-officio position, beginning July 1986.

Princ al Stajin 1986

Office of the Director General
Donald L. Winkelmann, USA, Director General
Robert D. Osler, USA, Deputy Director General
and Treasurer
W. Clive James, Canada, Deputy Director
General- Research
Gregorio Martinez V., Mexico, Government and
Public Affairs Officer
Norman E. Borlaug, USA, Consultant

General Administration
Richard L. Clifford, USA, Financial Officer
Homer M. Hepworth, USA, Training
Coordinator *
Jos6 Ramirez S., Mexico, Administrative Officer
Alejandro D. Violic, Chile, Training Coordinator
Linda Ainsworth, USA, Head, Visitor Services
Hugo Alvarez V., Mexico, Purchasing Officer
Alfredo Cedillo S., Mexico, Head, Human
Javier Eissa O., Mexico, Administrative Computer
Susana Eng, Mexico, Supervisor of Accounting
Jos6 Luis Fonseca, Mexico, Head, Goverment
Carlos Garcia P., Mexico, Head, Food and
Yolanda Guerrero L., Mexico, Assistant Supervisor
of Personnel Services
Armando Kegel S., Mexico, Superintendent of
Gilberto Lugo A., Mexico, Head, Building
Roberto Martinez L., Mexico, Head, Building

Maize Program
Ronald P. Cantrell, USA, Director
R.L. Paliwal, India, Associate Director
James B. Barnett, USA, Training Officer
Magni S. Bjarnason, Iceland, Breeder, Quality
Protein Maize
James A. Deutsch, USA, Breeder, Advanced Unit
Dana Eaton, USA, Breeder, Advanced Unit
Gregory Edmeades, New Zealand, Physiologist
Brhane Gebrekidan, Ethiopia, Breeder
David C. Jewell, Australia, Breeder, Wide Crosses
James E. Lothrop, USA, Breeder, Highland Maize
John A. Mihm, USA, Entomologist
Hiep Ngoc Pham, USA, Breeder,
International Testing
Bobby L. Renfro, USA, Pathologist
Margaret Smith, USA, Breeder, Backup Unit
Suketoshi Taba, Japan, Breeder, Germplasm Bank
Surinder K. Vasal, India, Breeder, Hybrid Maize
Willy L. Villena O., Bolivia, Training Officer

Visiting Research Fellows
H. Garrison Wilkes, USA, Germplasm Bank**

Associate Scientists
Jos6 Luis F. Crossa, Uruguay
H. Ren6e Lafitte, USA

Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows
Narceo B. Bajet, the Philippines
David L. Beck, USA
Wolfgang Drepper, West Germany*
A. Michael Foster, UK**
Steven J. Gulden, USA*
Jens Hock, West Germany
Karim Meridia, India*

Andean Region
Wayne Haag, USA (based in Colombia)
Edwin B. Knapp, USA (based in Colombia)
Shivaji Pandey, India (based in Colombia)

Asia Region
Carlos de Le6n G., Mexico (based in Thailand)
Gonzalo Granados R., Mexico (based in Thailand)
Richard N. Wedderburn, Barbados (based in

Eastern Africa Region
Bantayehu Gelaw, Ethiopia (based in Kenya)
A.F.E. Palmer, UK (based in Kenya)
Joel K. Ransom, USA (based in Kenya)

Mexico, Central America,
and Caribbean Region
Hugo C6rdova, El Salvador (based in Guatemala)
Federico Kocher, Switzerland (based in Mexico)
Alejandro Ortega C., Mexico (based in Mexico)

North Africa/Middle East Region
Sutat Sriwatanapongse, Thailand* (based in

Southern Africa Region
Stephen R. Waddington, UK (based in Zimbabwe)

CIMMYT/IITA Cooperative Program
Yoel Efron, Israel (based in Nigeria)
Alpha O. Diallo, Guinea (based in Burkina Faso)
Ching-Yan Tang, Hong Kong (based in Nigeria)
Richard W. Ward, USA (based in Zimbabwe)

Francisco R. Arias M., El Salvador
Michael D. Read, USA

E. John Stevens, New Zealand

Wheat Program
Byrd C. Curtis, USA, Director
Arthur R. Klatt, USA, Associate Director
Osman S. Abdalla, Sudan, Breeder
Maximino Alcal S., Mexico, Head, International
Arnoldo Amaya C., Mexico, Head, Wheat
Industrial Quality Laboratory
Girma Bekele, Ethiopia, Pathologist
Pedro Brajcich G., Mexico, Head, Durum
Wheat Program
Peter A. Burnett, New Zealand, Pathologist
Gerbrand Kingma, The Netherlands, Head,
Wheat Training**
A. Mujeeb Kazi, USA, Head, Wide Crosses
Matthew A. McMahon, Ireland, Head,
Agronomy Progam
Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer, West Germany, Bread
Wheat Breeder
J. Michael Prescott, USA, Head, Seed Health
Sanjaya Rajaram, India, Head, Bread Wheat
Ricardo Rodriguez R., Mexico, Head, Special
Germplasm Development
Kenneth D. Sayre, USA, Agronomist
H. Ayla Sencer, Turkey, Head, Germplasm Bank
Ravi P. Singh, India, Pathologist/Breeder
George Varughese, India, Head, Triticale Program
Reynaldo L. Villareal, the Philippines,
Training Officer

Associate Scientists
L.T. van Beuningen, The Netherlands (based in
Daniel Danial, The Netherlands (based in Kenya,
East Africa Region)
Lucy Gilchrist S., Chile
M6nica Mezzalama, Italy*
Mahmood O. Osmanzai, Afghanistan**
Javier Peia B., Mexico
Elizabeth J. Warham, UK
Masao Yoshida, Japan**

Pre- and Postdoctoral Fellows
Robert Asiedu, Ghana*
Thomas C. Barker, USA
Mark Bell, Australia*
Robert Raab, USA
Tony B. Ramey, USA**
William Raun, USA*
Lesley A. Sitch, UK**
John Stapleton, Ireland**
Maarten Van Ginkel, The Netherlands*

Andean Region
Paul N. Fox, Australia (based in Ecuador)
Patrick C. Wall, Ireland (based in Ecuador)

East Africa Region
Douglas G. Tanner, Canada (based in Kenya)
Enrique Torres, Colombia (based in Kenya)

North Africa and Iberian Peninsula
Santiago Fuentes F., Mexico (based in Portugal)

South Asia Region
H. Jesse Dubin, USA (based in Nepal)

Southeast Asia Region
Christoph E. Mann, West Germany (based in
David A. Saunders, Australia (based in Tha.iiandi

Southern Cone of South America
Man Mohan Kohli, India (based in Paraguay)

CIMMYT/ICARDA Cooperative Program
M. Miloudi Nachit, West Germany (based
in Syria)
Guillermo Ortiz Ferrara, Mexico (based in

Larry D. Butler, USA
Mengu Mehmet Guler, Turkey**

Peter R. Hobbs, UK

Gregorio Vazquez G., Mexico

Hans-Joachim Braun, West Germany
Eugene Saari, USA
Bent Skovmand, Denmark

Economics Program
Robert B. Tripp, USA, Training Officer1
James L. Longmire, Australia, Economist

Associate Scientists
Beatriz Avalos, Mexico*
Ousmane Guindo, Canada, (based in Haiti)
Paul W. Heisey, USA (based in Pakistan)
Gustavo E. Sain, Argentina (based in Mexico,
Central America and Caribbean Region)

Postdoctoral Fellows
Rigoberto Stewart, Costa Rica**

Central America and Caribbean Region
Juan Carlos Martinez S., Argentina (based
in Mexico)
Michael Yates, USA (based in Haiti)

South Asia Region
Derek R. Byerlee, Australia (based in Pakistan)

Southeast Asia Region
Larry Harrington, USA (based in Thailand)

Eastern and Southern Africa Region
Ponniah Anandajayasekeram, Sri Lanka (based
in Kenya)
Malcolm Blackie, Zimbabwe* (based in Malawi)
Michael P. Collinson, UK (based in Kenya)
Allan R.C. Low, UK (based in Zimbabwe)

Alberic C. Hibon, France

Evangelina Villegas M., Mexico,
Head, General Laboratories
Enrique I. Ortega M., Mexico,
Associate Scientist
Reynald Bauer Z., West Germany,
Laboratory Supervisor

Experiment Stations
John A. Stewart, UK, Head of Stations
and Executive Officer
Armando S. Tasistro S., Uruguay, Agronomist
Hannibal A. Muhtar, Lebanon, Training Officer
Roberto Varela S., Mexico, Coordinator
Jos6 Luis Feregrino, Field Superintendent,
Poza Rica Station
Ricardo Marques L., Mexico, Field
Superintendent, El Batan Station

Jos6 A. Miranda, Mexico, Field Superintendent,
Toluca Station
Gonzalo Suzuki, Mexico, Field Superintendent,
Tlaltizapan Station
Reyes Vega R., Mexico, Field Superintendent,
CIANO Station
Daniel Villa H., Mexico, Workshop Head

Data Processing Services
Carlos A. Gonzalez P., Uruguay, Head,
Data Processing
Russel Cormier, Canada, Software Development
Neal Bredin, Canada, Associate Scientist
Marco van den Berg, The Netherlands,
Associate Scientist
J6rgen Andersen, Denmark, Associate Scientist
Julio Cesar Ovalle, Mexico, Operations
Jesis Vargas G., Mexico, Systems Manager

Information Services
Tiffin D. Harris, USA, Head, Information Services
Eugene P. Hettel, USA, Science Writer/Editor*
Nathan C. Russell, USA, Science Writer/Editor
Kelly A. Cassaday, USA, Associate Editor*
Edith Hesse de Polanco, Austria, Head, Scientific
Information Unit
Miguel Mellado E., Mexico, Publications
Production Manager

1 Acting Director of the Economics
Appointed during 1986.
Left during 1986.

Management Review

Accomplishment and progress on many fronts
characterized 1986 for CIMMYT. To mention
but a few highlights: The Maize Program
increased its commitment of resources to
Africa with the creation of two additional
positions in the eastern and southern regions.
The Program made significant progress toward
documenting maize germplasm bank
accessions through a new computerized data
management system. We also made rapid
progress toward the goal of identifying
heterotic patterns in CIMMYT maize
germplasm, information that should prove
useful in national hybrid development
programs. And significant levels of insect
resistance were made available to national
programs through the newly organized Multiple
Borer Resistance (MBR) maize pool.

CIMMYT's 20th anniversary symposium was but a
prelude to a larger process of reorientation and
renewal involving numerous staff representing all
facets of the Center's professional life.

Many national programs continue to employ
advanced CIMMYT bread wheat, durum, and
triticale germplasm in their research programs.
Of particular note has been the release of
numerous varieties having CIMMYT germplasm
in their backgrounds and the rapid increase in
area devoted to Veery-based varieties. The
Wheat Program initiated a new international
research effort (based in Turkey) focusing on
winter wheats and concluded an agreement
with Poland that will expand our ability to
effectively develop triticale.

In Economics a new Director was selected (Dr.
Derek Byerlee, Australia) who will assume the
position in 1987. Steps were taken to
strengthen data analysis capabilities at
headquarters with the addition of two associate
staff, and a new on-farm research program in
Malawi was initiated.

The year was significant in other ways as well.
In September CIMMYT marked the beginning
of its third decade. The occasion was
celebrated with old and new friends alike in an
atmosphere charged with appreciation for the

past and anticipation of the future. Indeed, the
inauguration of the newly completed Norman
E. Borlaug Training, Conference, and
Information Center was itself a rededication to
the traditional values, the guiding principles of
our organizational culture. The subsequent two
days were devoted to an international
symposium entitled Future of Maize and Wheat
in the Third World; in-depth discussions were
held among a group of key individuals from
around the world who share a common interest
in CIMMYT's future. A wide range of themes
were touched upon during the symposium,
from the more technical to the more
inspirational, but all had in common a view
toward new challenges on the Center's

The 20th anniversary, however, as well as an
internal review of the maize program held last
spring, were but a prelude to an even larger
process of reorientation and renewal. It is this
theme that will serve as the focus of the 1986
Management Review and one that will be
revisited in years hence. It is given added
significance in that during 1987 CIMMYT
begins in earnest its strategic planning efforts.
As currently envisioned, this will be an open
and dynamic process drawing upon the talents
and energies of numerous staff representing all
facets of the Center's professional life. One
end product of the process, of course, will be
a long-term plan, but much more will be
gained from the effort. The activity will be of a
recurring nature, such that the Center can
periodically reevaluate its medium-term plans in
the light of changing opportunities and

Changes in the Board of Trustees
During 1986 several key changes occurred in
CIMMYT's Board of Trustees:

Guy Vallaeys (France), a member of the Board
since 1984, was elected Chairman, replacing
Virgilio Barco who gave up many of his other
commitments to assume the presidency of
Colombia. Dr. Vallaeys, who specialized in
tropical agriculture on the Faculty of
Agronomy, Gembloux (Belgium), currently
serves as Advisor to the Director General of
France's International Center for Cooperation in
Agricultural Development Research (CIRAD).
Dr. Vallaeys and the rest of the Board, along
with all CIMMYT staff, wish Dr. Barco the very
best in meeting the challenges of Colombia's

IL I ---lc- I-

H.K. Jain (India), a noted plant geneticist who
has served on the Board since 1980, resigned
in 1986 when he accepted an appointment as
Deputy Director General for Research at the
International Service for National Agricultural
Research (ISNAR), The Hague, Netherlands. As
a long-standing member of the Program
Committee, Dr. Jain's thoughtful counsel and
guidance proved invaluable to CIMMYT

Omond M. Solandt (Canada), distinguished
research manager and consultant, took his
leave of the Board after eight years of service.
As Chairman of the Executive and Finance
Committee, Dr. Solandt's efforts on CIMMYT's
behalf were undertaken with the same energy
and dedication that characterize his long career
in science.

W.A.C. (Will) Matheison (England), longtime
public servant and administrator, also left the
board during 1986. Mr. Matheison served as
Chairman of the Program Committee,
participating in a number of in-house program
reviews and preparing the 1982 External
Program Review. Mr. Matheison's well-received
contributions to CIMMYT always combined
wisdom with wit.

Tomio Yoshida (Japan), left the Board in 1986
to join the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC)
of the Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Dr. Yoshida, a
soil microbiologist and Professor of Soil
Science at the University of Tsukuba, will,
through his efforts on the TAC, continue to
make significant contributions to CIMMYT and,
more broadly, to the CGIAR. We wish him well
in those endeavors.

Peter R. Day (United Kingdom), Director of the
Plant Breeding Institute (PBI), Cambridge,
joined the Board in the fall of 1986. Dr. Day's
career in agricultural science spans two
continents: educated in the United Kingdom,
he served from 1964 to 1979 as Chief of the
Genetics Department, Connecticut Agricultural
Experiment Station (New Haven, Connecticut,
USA), moving from there to his current position
with PBI. Along the way, he received a number
of awards and fellowships, including the
Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship (University of
Queensland) and the American
Phytopathological Society Fellowship.

Zhuang Qiao-sheng (left) and Stachys Muturi, members of the Program Committee of
CIMMYT's Board of Trustees. During 1986 the Committee began a comprehensive
review of the Center's crop programs in preparation for the strategic planning effort to
be initiated in 7987.

1111 1 'IIII-=, 1L r r

Ahmed A. Goueli (Egypt), former Professor
and Chairman of the Department of Agricultural
Economics, Zagazig University and now
Governor of Damiett Province, came to the
Board last year as well. Dr. Goueli received his
Ph.D. in agricultural economics from the
University of California, Berkeley (USA), after
which he joined the Egyptian Ministry of
Industries as an Economic Expert. From 1966
to 1971, he served as an Assistant Professor
of Agricultural Economics on the Faculty of
Agriculture, University of Ain Shams, and then
assumed his position at Zagazig University. Dr.
Goueli has served on a number of noted
national and international committees, and has
worked as a consultant dealing with a range of
agricultural issues for the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), and Ford

Hikoyuki Yamaguchi (Japan), Professor of
Radiation Genetics at the University of Tokyo,
also joined the Board in 1986. Dr. Yamaguchi
has extensive research and teaching experience
in genetics and plant breeding, and brings to
the Board a special perspective on the
application of new science to our more
traditional disciplines. He spent nearly 12 years
on research activities related to the
International Atomic Energy Agency and in the
late 1970s served as Director of the Research
Center for Nuclear Science and Technology at
the University of Tokyo.

Financial Summary
CIMMYT's total revenues increased by
$2,217,000 or 7 percent from 1985 to 1986
The largest portion of this increase was in
grants, particularly those from extra-core
donors. This is a reflection of increased
activities in selected regional and national
programs funded by these donors, and the
completion of the Norman E. Borlaug Building,
which was funded as an extra-core project by
the Government of Japan and the Japanese
Shipbuilding Industry Foundation (see page
47). Revenue from CGIAR donors to the
Center's core program increased by only 4
percent, reflecting the diminishing growth of
the core program. One new member of the
CGIAR, the government of Austria, contributed
to our core program. We recognize that these
core donors represent the backbone of
CIMMYT's research and training programs, and
we are continually seeking to strengthen our
relationships with them.

Inflation and exchange rates continued to play
an important role in the Center's management.
Their eventual values played an important role
in determining annual revenues, wage
adjustments, and major expenses for the
renovation and maintenance of the physical
plant. In general, the weakness of the dollar
resulted in higher dollar revenues from
donations denominated in other currencies.
Unfortunately, the timing of some payments
resulted in smaller gains than hoped. Still,
CIMMYT did benefit from the shift in the value
of the dollar. In Mexico itself, where inflation
was over 100 percent, the devaluation of the
peso permitted the investment of somewhat
more funds in our research and training

CIMMYT's externally audited financial
statement is presented later in this report
(pages 69-82). It shows the Center's financial
condition at year end and the effects of
financial flows during the year. Most pleasing is
the significant increase in the value of property,
plant, and equipment. This reflects the
completion of the Borlaug Building and the
remodeling of portions of the main building.
Both these moves gave the Center much
greater capacity for handling staff, visitors, and
trainees, and permitted the installation of new
electronic data processing networks and
graphic design facilities. All these will add
greater efficiency and effectiveness to our
operations. Less promising was a markedly
reduced interest income during the year. Most
CIMMYT funds are now received in the latter
half of the year and a relatively large portion of
these in the final three months. Not only does
this make cash management difficult, but it
also reduces interest income. Over the last
three years income from these investments
was two to three times as high as for 1986,
the difference being a consequence of lower
interest rates and later payments by donors. In
1987 we will focus more attention on cash
management and work with donors to find a
more favorable solution to this problem.

The 1986 financial statement follows the
recently adopted CGIAR accounting guidelines
and reporting formats. We hope this gives a
clear and concise view of CIMMYT's finances.
One noteworthy new item is the capital
development fund, which we intend to use as
a basis for the medium- and long-term
assessment of capital and maintenance needs.
This will give a financial foundation for
planning equipment needs and undertaking

I, rlL I

preventive maintenance, and will help to
forecast future cash requirements. As the
Center's physical plant grows older and the
equipment and ta.:Liir-s required to undertake
agricultural research become more
sophisticated and costly, the prudent
management of capital development funds will
be ever more vital for the Center and for the

Observations on Strategic Planning
As noted at the beginning of this report,
CIMMYT launched its strategic planning
process in 1986 with an internal review of the
Maize Program; the 20th anniversary
celebration and symposium were organized
with that objective in mind as well. Directing
staff and others also began the task of
identifying the critical dimensions of the
planning process. These events, combined with
an internal review of the Wheat Program in the
spring of 1987, will serve to underpin much of
the analysis that will occur in the months

Strategic planning is a complex process,
involving a comprehensive analysis of the
major facets of an organization. These various
facets are themselves complex and nearly
always highly interrelated, adding to the
difficulty of the task. By virtue of the activities
required, strategic planning is at once
introspective and outward looking. It is
introspective to the extent that detailed
assessments are made of key managerial,
scientific, and support program components.
The process is outward looking to the extent
that much energy is devoted to undersiandinri
and anticipating changes in the broad
environment within which the organization
must operate, with particular emphasis on the
future needs of clients and alternative ways to
satisfy those needs.

CIMMYT's future operating environment is
made up of a number of key elements. The
framework created by the CGIAR and TAC
helps to delineate our perceptions of research
opportunities and constraints. Among such
considerations are the CGIAR's recent
reaffirmation of the system's focus on
foodstuffs and low income groups, along with
the relative priorities given by the TAC to
various commodities, the importance of
assessing the environmental impacts of new
technologies, of sustaining yields, of engaging
in more strategic research at the Centers, and
of the attendant devolution of certain Center
activities to advanced national programs.

Beyond that, we give heavy emphasis to
evaluating the future needs of our clients,
which v. il serve to orient much of what we will
be doing in the next decades and how we will
be doing it; in this context, we must also
assess the potential of various other suppliers
to meet our clients' needs. Long-term trends in
the production, consumption, and trade of
maize and wheat also figure prominently in the
evaluation, as do changes in science, with their
implications for our work and that of others.

Strategic planning is at once an introspective and
outward-looking process that gives particular
emphasis to anticipating the future needs of clients.

In the light of this environmental assessment,
then, we will go on to determine more clearly
the mission of the Center, which enterprises
we should be involved in, what the product
mix and the relative priorities given to each
should be, and which strategies are needed to
achieve desired results. All of this will then be
compared to a current profile of the Center and
its strategies and activities, with an eye to
determining whether and how that profile
needs to change in order to remain viable in
the future. At this point, too, financial and
budgetary considerations come into play in
determining the feasibility of proposed

External participation in our efforts will
characterize CIMMYT's strategic planning
endeavors. The thinking of representatives from
national agricultural research programs will be
actively solicited, the Center's Board of
Trustees will be mobilized to participate, and
various outside consultants who are noted for
their vision will be invited to share their
perspectives. These contributions will be added
to those of staff from all levels within the
Center, giving a well-rounded thoroughness to
the process and its eventual results.

Although it is premature to comment in detail
on probable outcomes of the process, a few
observations can be made as to the major
areas that will receive attention; within each of


them, a number of strategic issues will be
reviewed. Those questions arise at this juncture
in CIMMYT's evolution as a natural
consequence of contemplating the future. They
represent the kinds of issues that must be
explicitly considered on a periodic basis to
maintain the long-term health and viability of
the Center. Only by asking ourselves and
others the difficult questions exemplified by
those noted below can we hope to continue
meeting the changing needs of our clients.

We are organizing the strategic planning
process around six major categories: training,
collaboration with national agricultural research
programs, germplasm products, basic and
strategic research, crop management, and
information. Clearly, there is a high degree of
interdependence among these categories as
well as a number of strategic issues contained
within them. Finance is not considered as a
separate category, but rather as integral to
each of the six.

Training-The Norman E. Borlaug Building is
perhaps the most visible manifestation of the
Center's commitment to quality training of
national program staff, and we anticipate that
the coming year's deliberations will give it a
continuing high place. Even so, there are a
host of important questions to review. Among
them are such issues as general versus more
specialized training, the effectiveness of in-
country versus headquarters-based training,
and the role of training materials in extending
the reach of our efforts.

Collaboration with national programs-At this
point in CIMMYT's development, it is essential
that we gain a clearer sense of how the needs
of our clients are evolving and how we might
better respond to those needs. Our current
activities in this area cut across the range of
more traditional modes of cooperation, from
headquarters-based relations to regional and
bilateral programs. The question needs to be
raised as to which among these are proving
most effective in light of our mandate and

Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado
(right), President of Mexico,
was in attendance at the 20th
anniversary celebrations to
formally inaugurate the
Norman E. Borlaug L,;'. ,r'.,,

whether relative priorities should be adjusted.
In a broader context, we need to evaluate how
we are assigning our resources among
competing demands. New forms of
collaboration are also in the offing, such as
innovative types of networking, and we need to
thoroughly evaluate their potential.

Germplasm products-A number of interesting
questions confront us here, and it is likely that
more will surface in the course of discussions.
Among them are the role of agroecological
zone delineation (to indicate what we refer to
as mega-environments) in priority setting and
orienting germplasm development efforts,
general versus specialized germplasm, broad
versus narrow adaptation, the extent to which
we decentralize our breeding activities, and the
amount of resources we should be ii,..anrnig to
genetic conservation.

Basic and strategic research-Here, too, there
is no shortage of challenges. Key consid-
erations include the relative need for basic and
strategic versus applied and adaptive research,
and the implications for national programs of
the balance among them, factor versus
disciplinary research, networking in research,
the long-term environmental impacts of the
technological components available to national
programs, and the implications for income of
technological change.

Crop management-Issues of strategic
importance in this area continue to excite
interest within CIMMYT. They include such
considerations as yield sustainability and
environmental impact, crop management in
stress environments, the effectiveness of and
requirements for crop rotations and
intercropping techniques, and the relative roles
of on-station and on-farm research.

Information-Rapid changes in information
technologies have opened new areas for
consideration within the Center. These relate
to, for example, the role of information for
internal and external use, to cost-effectiveness
in satisfying demands, to the potential for inter-
institutional cooperation, and to the roles of
data processing and statistical support services.

Much of CIMMYT's energies during the coming
year will be given over to the development of a
strategic plan. The 20th anniversary
symposium and its attendant activities were
really only the first blush of a comprehensive
evaluation and planning process. Although the
energies required by such an endeavor are
notably high, the potential payoffs easily justify
the investment. The Center's management and
staff look forward to the challenge of carefully
preparing for our own future, secure in the
belief that CIMMYT will be an even more
effective organization, that national programs
will benefit from our efficiencies, and that
ultimately the farmers and consumers of
developing countries will gain ground toward a
better life.

Donald L. Winkelmann
Director General

IC1 I II I I --F ~ r I I I I -

A Review of CIMMYT Programs

Maize physiologist Gregory
Edmeades taking soil samples
in an evaluation of materials
selected for drought tolerance.

The basic task of every CIMMYT scientist is to
identify problems and needs in agricultural
research for the Third World and to seek
effective ways of dealing with them. This
search for practical means toward useful ends
implies much individual effort but also a large
degree of reliance on and accountability to
others. u lJ.ii,', the research tasks are
complicated enough that they require a
multidisciplinary approach and often call for the
joint participation of numerous groups. Seldom
is the judgment of any single group an
adequate basis for assuming that the most
urgent problems are being addressed or that
they are being dealt with in a cost-effective
manner. A much better guarantee that the
research is well-targeted and efficiently
managed is to maintain strong ties and open
channels of communication with various peer
groups whose opinions have some bearing on
research priorities and plans.

Thorough accountability to our peers in the
agricultural development and scientific
community is ep-e,:aij,' important in view of
the Center's mission, which requires prudent
and efficient use of donors' funds in the
service of maize, wheat, triticale, and
economics research conducted by scientists in
the Third World. The weight of this
responsibility is increased by the considerable
autonomy of the Center within the CGIAR
system, which makes it incumbent on CIMMYT
to have a reliable mechanism for establishing
priorities and enough flexibility to adjust them
according to changing needs and
circumstances in the research programs of
developing countries. Fulfilling that obligation is
a vital part of our trust to a large and diverse
public that includes hundreds of researchers
around the world, the farmers they serve, and
the donors who wish to assist them.

During 1986 various groups examined the
research and training programs of the Center to
consider how its staff should be discharging
their public trust in the coming years. Some of
the observers, including most participants in
the 20th anniversary symposium, were
developing country representatives and other
experts from outside CIMMYT. They were
particularly helpful in calling attention to issues,
such as the application of biotechnology to
crop improvement, that will be central in the
strategic planning process initiated this year.
Much of the scrutinizing, though, was done by
Center scientists themselves and by the Board
of Trustees. In March, for example, the
Program Committee of the Board met at our

headquarters in Mexico for a comprehensive
review of maize germplasm development work.
A similar review of the Wheat Program will
take place early in 1987. In addition, just prior
to and after our 20th anniversary celebrations,
the Maize, Wheat, and Economics Programs
held a series of staff meetings to consider
current research priorities and approaches.

Having a reliable mechanism for establishing
priorities and enough flexibility to adjust them
according to client needs is a vital part of CIMMYT's
public trust.

Research Products and Services
The center of attention during those events
was CIMMYT's products and services and its
vehicles for delivering them. The former are of
five main types:

* Improved germplasm for major production
environments in the Third World, particularly
the less favored ones

* Efficient procedures for plant breeding, crop
management research, and agricultural
decision making

* Training for agricultural scientists in
developing countries

* Technical consultation and assistance for
national agricultural research programs

* Scientific information provided in the form of
publications, collections of abstracts, and
on-line data base searches

Those products and services are provided by
about 80 scientists and other specialists
working in the three main programs-Maize,
Wheat, and Economics-and in various support
units. Roughly half of the scientific staff are
based in Mexico and the rest in regional
programs or bilateral projects throughout the
Third World.


The Work at CIMMYT Headquarters
Most of the researchers at headquarters are
developing and improving germplasm. This
work is carried out, with assistance from
laboratory and experiment station units, at five
principal locations in Mexico, which represent
different types of production environments
commonly found in developing countries.
Products of the germplasm programs are
distributed to hundreds of locations around the
world through maize, wheat, and triticale
testing networks.

For most of the last 20 years, CIMMYT has not been
the type of centralized organization implied by the
term center. Since the early 1970s, about half of our
staff have gone into outreach programs that touch
nearly all regions of the Third World.

Each of those products is designed for a
particular mega-environment, which is a
subdivision of one of the major agroecologies
found in the Third World (lowland tropics,
subtropics, and so forth). These subdivisions
are distinguished from one another by
differences in availability of moisture during the
growing season, incidence of various diseases
and insect pests, soil types, and other
conditions that determine the characteristics
farmers must have in improved maize, wheat,
or triticale. The areas that make up each
mega-environment are not necessarily
contiguous, or even on the same continent,
but are roughly uniform in their germplasm

The relative uniformity of mega-environments
across continents has tremendous implications
for global germplasm development. One can be
reasonably certain that a maize variety, for
example, which performs well at a Central
American location representing a particular
lowland tropical mega-environment will respond
similarly at an African location possessing the
essential features of that same mega-
environment. This ability to transfer results
obtained on one continent to corresponding
locations on another enables CIMMYT to work
at a few representative sites in developing

maize, wheat, and triticale germplasm for most
regions of the world. Because our varieties and
other materials are targeted for broad mega-
environments, they are by definition
intermediate in nature and must often undergo
further refinement by plant breeders in the
Third World before they can be considered
final products ready for release to farmers. We
view this process of refinement as an
indispensable element in the development of
national crop programs, one that contributes
substantially to their research capacity and self-
sufficiency and which, in any case, is quite
properly their responsibility.

Those programs vary greatly, however, in their
level of development and require various forms
of assistance in their breeding and other work.
Our staff at headquarters, for example, are
heavily involved in training programs aimed at
improving the research capacity of their
colleagues in developing countries. Those staff
also devote a considerable portion of their time
to generating technical information, most of
which is prepared and distributed by the
Information Services Unit. Conferences and
workshops held at headquarters provide
another forum for the exchange of research
ideas and results. In all of those activities,
scientists and other specialists are ably assisted
by a support staff in Mexico of about 850

Regional Programs
and Bilateral Projects
The various units at headquarters make up the
core of the Center's research and assistance
program, and in the eyes of some people they
are CIMMYT. But for most of the last 20 years,
we have not been the type of centralized
organization that is perhaps implied by the term
center. Since the early 1970s, about half of
the scientific staff have moved into bilateral
projects or set up maize, wheat, and
economics regional programs that touch nearly
all regions of the Third World. Those programs
have proved to be extremely versatile and
useful, performing a number of functions that
could not be done at headquarters.

One of their functions is to offer counsel and
assistance in the use of germplasm and other
products available from CIMMYT headquarters.
As suggested previously, many of those
products are somewhat like partially finished
items from a workshop in that they often
require additional refinement before being
released to farmers. The complicating factor is

that no two Center clients will employ our
products in exactly the same way or under the
same circumstances. For that reason the
regional specialists provide highly individualized
assistance primarily through timely visits to
research programs in the various regions.

From their visits to experiment stations and
farmers' fields, the regional specialists come
away with a clear sense of the needs of
research programs in developing countries.
That information is conveyed to Center
headquarters, where it is taken into account in
decisions about the research programs. During
recent years the information link between
headquarters and national programs via the
regional networks has proved to be an essential
aid in setting priorities and allocating research
resources. Because we have had more
accurate and abundant information about

germplasm and other needs in the Third World,
we have been better able to identify and
concentrate on truly urgent problems, adjusting
our resource allocations accordingly. This
information is also helping us explain to
donors, scientists, and others who have an
interest in the Center's work why we are
employing our human and financial resources
in particular ways.

The brief reports that follow show what we are
learning about the requirements of crop
research in developing countries and about
efficient ways of meeting them. More detailed
accounts of the Center's activities are given in
the CIMMYT Research Highlights series and in
other recent publications.

1 El Batan, Mexico
2. Les Cayes, Haiti
3. Guatemala City, Guatemala
4 Call, Colombia
5 Quito, Ecuador
6. Lima, Peru
7 Asunci6n, Paraguay
8. Lisbon, Portugal
9. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
0. Accra, Ghana
1. Ibadan, Nigeria
2. Ankara, Turkey
3 Aleppo, Syria
4. Nairobi, Kenya
5 Lilongwe, Malawi
6 Harare, Zimbabwe
7. Islamabad, Pakistan
8 Kathmandu, Nepal
9. Bangkok, Thailand
0 Dhaka, Bangladesh

Locations at which CIMMYT staff are based.

During 1986 important steps were taken by
various units of the Maize Program to sharpen
the focus of our research on particular
germplasm needs in the Third World. (See box
for an overview of the various groups that
make up the Maize Program.) Those steps
were of two main types. The first included
actions taken by several units working on
stress tolerances or resistances, traits that
should help remove some of the uncertainty of
developing country maize production by
ensuring more stable yields from year to year.
The second type consisted of adjustments
made by various groups in the Program that
are developing and improving special
categories of germplasm. These materials differ
from other types of maize germplasm in two
ways: some have special traits, while others

Maize Research

Regional maize specialist Carlos de Ledn (center)
consulting with national staff at a trial site in

can best be handled at locations away from
headquarters. These circumstances have led us
to set up several highly specialized breeding
programs that operate somewhat
independently, but with definite links to, our
mainstream germplasm program.

This year's work on stress tolerance breeding
and on special categories of germplasm is
described in the first two sections of this report
on maize research. We then briefly review the
activities of our training and regional programs.

As mentioned in the 1985 Annual Report,
scientists in regional posts have been working
with staff of our international maize testing
program to gather information on germplasm
needs in the Third World's major production
environments. We have almost completed the
task of collecting data and have begun
organizing and analyzing it. Already this
information has proved to be quite useful as a
guide to our stress tolerance work,
development of special categories of germ-
plasm, and other maize breeding activities.
Directions in the Mainstream
Germplasm Improvement Program
When the Maize Program initiated its work 20
years ago, improved maize germplasm for the
lowland tropics and other agroecologies found
in the Third World was quite scarce, and
relatively little was known about germplasm
needs and appropriate ways of meeting them.
Since then the Program has made considerable
headway in creating a wide range of improved
materials for most of the principal maize mega-
environments, and developing countries have
steadily improved their capacity to further
refine such materials for use by farmers. In the
process, particularly during recent years,
national scientists and CIMMYT staff have
gathered a sizeable body of knowledge about
maize germplasm requirements in developing
countries. Based largely on that information,
the Program has begun to bring more of its
resources to bear on improvement of specific
traits (mainly stress tolerances) that are needed
for Third World maize production. Wider
availability of materials carrying those traits will
put fairly advanced maize programs in a better
position to adapt elite germplasm more
completely to farmers' requirements.

Activities and Structure
of the Maize Program
Maize research and training are conducted by a
multidisciplinary team of 17 scientists at
CIMMYT headquarters and by 14 maize
specialists in six regional programs (see the
diagram). In addition, three scientists are
working in the national maize research
programs of Ghana and Pakistan, and four are
engaged in maize breeding projects in Africa
that operate as remote units of the maize
improvement program at headquarters.

The mainstream of our breeding program
consists of the backup and advanced units and
the international testing program. The backup
unit is responsible for germplasm complexes
that we refer to as pools, while the advanced
unit handles more highly refined advanced
populations. The plant breeders that staff those
units work closely with the entomology,
pathology, physiology, germplasm bank, and
wide cross units, which provide new sources
of resistance and tolerance to various stresses
or try to raise the levels of these traits in elite
germplasm. Superior materials (full-sib families
and experimental varieties) are distributed to
researchers in national agricultural research
systems (NARS) through the international
maize testing program.

Other units in the program are developing and
improving the following special categories of
germplasm: highland maize, hybrids, and
quality protein maize (QPM). Those groups, like
the ones comprising the mainstream breeding
program, are aided by entomologists,
pathologists, and other specialists, and the
distribution and testing of their germplasm
products are coordinated by the international
testing program. Another special category of
germplasm (midaltitude maize) as well as
streak virus resistant materials are being
developed in a cooperative program with the
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture

Scientists in NARS receive assistance in the
use of intermediate germplasm products and in
related work (such as agronomy and seed
production) from maize specialists in regional
programs and bilateral projects. Those staff
also help identify training needs, some of
which are met by in-service courses and
visiting scientist fellowships at headquarters.
When special training needs arise, outreach
staff organize courses and workshops that are
tailored to the requirements of maize programs
within their regions.

Maize Program

Gene pools-Much of the responsibility for
developing readily usable sources of certain
traits will reside with the backup unit.

The gene pools formed by that unit in the past
were broad-based materials representing most
of the maize types grown in developing
countries and possessing reasonably good
agronomic quality and field tolerance to a
number of stresses. In the coming years, new
materials fitting that description (which we
refer to as general-purpose pools) will be
developed by the backup unit from the best
germplasm available for specific areas. With
those pools we hope to satisfy the need for a
continuous flow of raw materials that can be
used by developing country breeders in
population improvement and variety selection.

An increased portion of the Backup Unit's efforts is
being devoted to special-purpose pools, agronomi-
cally acceptable materials into which we are

for stress tolerances.

A greater portion of the unit's efforts, however,
is now being devoted to another category of
germplasm complexes that we term special-
purpose pools. These are agronomically
acceptable materials into which we are
incorporating genes for tolerances to one or a
few biotic or abiotic stresses, such as stalk
borers and drought. Our work with those
materials represents quite a departure from
previous stress-tolerance breeding in the pools.
Selection for resistance to fall armyworm, for
example, used to be conducted simultaneously
with selection for many other traits. Since all of
them were emphasized equally, progress in
some, such as fall armyworm resistance, was
extremely slow. We expect to make more rapid
progress by assembling all the materials we
can find that have shown resistance to a given
stress and in the pool so formed to select
intensively for this trait.

Selection for most traits (particularly those
requiring laboratory support or precise
environmental control) will be conducted at
CIMMYT headquarters, assuming that the
appropriate selection environment can be found

or created there. If conditions are not right for
selection in Mexico, it will have to be carried
out elsewhere under cooperative arrangements
with other institutions. In any case, because of
the complex nature of many of the traits that
are needed, selection in the special-purpose
pools will inevitably be a long-term endeavor,
but one that within a reasonable time will
provide breeders with valuable sources of
stress tolerance.

Several steps toward that objective were taken
this year, including important decisions as to
what traits are needed for particular mega-
environments in the Third World. In addition,
work was initiated with a drought-tolerant pool
and with materials showing resistance to stalk
borers. Much of this early work is intended to
identify and group sources of resistance for
more convenient handling. In that and other
current and projected activities, the Backup
Unit will require close cooperation with virtually
every other unit in the Maize Program as well
as with our regional staff and colleagues in
national programs.

Insect resistances-Entomology is one unit
that is already well along in the development of
special-purpose pools. This work was begun in
1984 with the formation of a multiple-borer
resistance pool (MBR) from seed of all maize
that had been reported to be resistant or was
being selected for resistance to borer species
that attack the crop. In subsequent evaluations
the pool showed sufficient resistance to the
southwestern corn borer, sugarcane borer, and
fall armyworm that by 1986 it was ready for
international testing to determine its potential
usefulness in other countries and to obtain data
that would assist us in further improving the
pool and in developing new products from it.

Superior families from the pool were distributed
for testing at 10 sites in six countries (Kenya,
Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Turkey, and the
USA) where facilities are available for mass
rearing of and artificial infestation with various
borer species. Although not all the test results
are in yet, it appears from the data we have
that a significant number of families are
showing at least intermediate resistance to five
borer species. We can be fairly confident,
therefore, that selecting for resistance to the
borer species prevalent in Mexico gives us a
good chance of obtaining germplasm with
resistance to species found in Africa and Asia.

incorporating genes

Even so, the MBR pool, like any other maize
germplasm, is limited in its range of
adaptation. Being a subtropical material, it will
probably never be able to supply the disease
resistance and agronomic characters needed in
maize germplasm for the lowland tropics, even
though its progeny possess resistance to
tropical borer species. For that reason the
entomology unit has developed another
resistance source, the multiple-insect resistant
tropical pool (MIRT), which contains some of
the same materials included in the MBR pool
but is composed largely of insect-resistant
selections from the Maize Program's tropical
germplasm. Already the MIRT pool is showing
good resistance to the sugarcane borer and fall
armyworm and by 1988 should be ready for
international testing in the lowland tropics.

Tolerance to abiotic stresses-A large part of
the n-rjtaiiii, of maize production in the highly
uncertain marginal areas of the Third World is
accounted for by harsh physical conditions.
Any program therefore that aims to improve
yield stability in marginal environments must
come to grips with those stresses, in addition

to developing insect- and disease-resistant
germplasm. Developing tolerance to abiotic
stresses is a primary responsibility of the Maize
Program's physiology unit, which has come to
focus on two major problems, drought and low
availability of nitrogen. The choice of those
problems, like the selection of priorities in the
backup unit, was based on information we
have gathered about the conditions of maize
production and on the experience of our maize
scientists in developing countries.

In its work on drought tolerance, the
physiology unit is currently pursuing a dual
strategy that consists of a short-term and a
long-term approach. The former involves a
modified version of the recurrent selection
procedure employed in the population Tuxpeho
Drought during the 1970s. Selection is now
being conducted in four elite materials that are
commonly used by maize breeders in drought-
prone regions. During 1986 those materials
were evaluated at the Program's station in
Tlaltizapan. Two of them had been evaluated
during the previous season at other locations,
Pool 18 in the hot, dry environment of Ciudad
Obregon, Mexico, and Pool 16 in Burkina Faso.

Plant breeder Margaret Smith
selects ears in materials
handled by the backup unit,
which is responsible for
providing maize breeders with
readily usable sources of stress

The aim of this two-stage, two-location
selection and testing procedure is to provide
breeders in developing countries fairly soon
with elite germplasm showing reasonably good
drought tolerance.

The long-term approach, begun this year, is to
develop a pool characterized by unique drought
tolerance. The main building block of this pool
is cycle 8 of selection in Tuxpeio Drought; it
also contains materials from the US Corn Belt,
drought-resistant Mexican landraces, and a
hybrid derived from Thailand's Suwan 1
germplasm. Other germplasm possessing
drought tolerance characteristics will be added
as it is identified. At present the pool is less
agronomically desirable than elite germplasm,
but we expect that over time it can be made
into a more readily usable source of drought

Several valuable contributions of the physiology unit
in its work on drought have been to assemble
sources of tolerance, find new selection techniques
and criteria, and demonstrate that progress can be
made through recurrent selection.

Several valuable contributions of the physiology
unit so far in its work on drought have been to
assemble sources of tolerance, find new
selection techniques and criteria, and
demonstrate that progress can be made
through recurrent selection. The unit is
accomplishing essentially the same objectives
in its efforts to improve nitrogen-use efficiency
in maize grown under low nitrogen supply. This
is a much-needed trait in the many developing
countries where nitrogen fertilizer is not widely
available to farmers.

A program of recurrent selection for improved
performance under low nitrogen levels was
initiated this year and a trial of 16 elite
materials and two landraces conducted to
identify useful selection criteria. It appears from
the results of that trial that several traits are
correlated with grain yield at low levels of
nitrogen. One of those, leaf chlorophyll content
(which is an indirect measure of nitrogen status
in the leaves) should be particularly useful,
since it can be gauged rapidly in the field with
a portable photometer. Using that and other

criteria, we will continue selecting under
different nitrogen levels in promising materials
such as the variety Across 8328, which has
performed well across nitrogen levels.

Disease resistances- With some notable
exceptions, these traits have proved to be less
elusive than insect resistances and tolerance to
abiotic stresses, and for some time the Maize
Program has had in place several effective
strategies for developing disease resistances.
One of them is selection for multiple
resistance, often under artificially created
disease pressure, at experiment stations in
Mexico. That approach has led to reasonably
good protection against ear and stalk rots and
leaf blights and rusts in a range of pools and
populations, which are being channeled
through the advanced unit and international
testing program to researchers in developing

For the several important diseases that do not
occur in Mexico, we have set up various
cooperative arrangements with institutions in
other countries. Breeders in Thailand's maize
program, for example, this year completed
their fourth cycle of recurrent selection for
downy mildew resistance under the direction of
our regional program in Asia. At IITA in
Nigeria, a CIMMYT maize breeder continued to
incorporate maize streak resistance into
superior experimental varieties and to improve
Population 43 and Pool 16 for resistance to
this disease. Under another cooperative
arrangement (for development of resistance to
the stunt diseases), the first cycle of selection
was completed in four populations. Two of
those are being handled by the national maize
program of the Dominican Republic and the
other two by breeders in El Salvador under the
coordination of our pathology unit.

Corn stunt and bushy stunt (which are
prevalent throughout the lowland tropics of
Latin America, particularly in Mexico and
Central America) are somewhat more
complicated than some of the diseases for
which the Maize Program has already
developed good resistance. Much remains to
be discovered about the relative importance of
the stunt diseases in particular regions, about
any differences in virulence that may exist
within and between the mycoplasmas that
cause them, and about the mechanisms and
inheritance of resistance. As a start toward
elucidating those issues, the Maize Program
participated during 1986 in a cooperative
project with The Ohio State University and

distributed a stunt disease nursery to the
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Mexico, and

It is important that the Maize Program should
have numerous options in disease resistance
breeding, since the disease situation in
developing countries is extremely dynamic. A
case in point is the tar spot disease syndrome.
Until quite recently it was widely thought to be
limited more or less to the special environ-
ments of experiment stations, but it now poses
a growing threat to maize production from
Mexico to Central America and has been found
as far south as Ecuador. This year the
pathology and advanced units initiated a
project for incorporation or development of
resistance in four materials. An experiment on
chemical control of the disease was also begun
to provide protection in the short term at
experiment stations and in regions where
fungicides are available to farmers. As with the
stunt diseases, we also initiated some basic
studies of tar spot to augment our currently
limited knowledge of its causal agents and their
exact role in disease development.

Germplasm bank-Much of the new work in
the backup and other units of the Maize
Program requires an extensive search for
sources of resistance. Some of those might be
found in the germplasm bank, which contains
accessions of landraces and other materials
that were employed in the original formation of
many of our pools and populations. During
1986 samples of those materials were sent in
56 shipments to 21 countries and also made
available to various units in the Maize Program.
In addition, we returned excess seed of some
accessions to their countries of origin.

As reported in the 1985 Annual Report and
Research Highlights, we have taken several
actions during the last two years to better
document the accessions and to make detailed
information about them more readily available
to maize researchers. Good progress was made
this year toward fulfilling that goal. All the
available information about most bank
accessions has been reviewed and placed in
our new computer data management system.
By 1987 information on the rest of the
accessions should also have been entered and
printed out in the form of three draft
catalogues, one each for accessions from
Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean,
and South America. This information, once it is
published and distributed, should save
researchers considerable time and effort in their
search for resistances and other traits.

Associate scientist Renee Lafitte uses a portable photometer to measure 'iOr-.pr) '
content (an indicator of nitrogen status) as part of a program for improving nitrogen-
use efficiency in maize grown under low supply of this nutrient.

Some of the bank's other activities are
intended to expand our knowledge about
accessions of maize and its wild relatives. Part
of that work, such as maize race evaluations
begun in 1986, can be done routinely by our
own staff, while certain special projects will be
executed in cooperation with other institutions.
We are already receiving valuable help from
groups outside CIMMYT in growing bank
accessions for regeneration of seed. During
1986 regenerations were continued at
headquarters and were also conducted by
Pioneer Hi-bred International in Florida, USA,
and by Ecuador's National Institute of
Agricultural and Livestock Research.

Wide crosses-Another source of traits
(especially those for which there is insufficient
or no variability in the maize crop) is the wide
cross unit, which attempts genetic transfer of
desired characteristics into maize through
crossing with its wild relatives. The products of
this work are intended to be readily usable and,
unlike most germplasm bank accessions,
should not be characterized by an
unacceptable plant type that makes their
incorporation into a maize improvement
program somewhat difficult and time-
consuming. Developing immediately useful
wide cross materials, however, is itself a long-
term process that is complicated by the
differing genetic complexity of the various
desirable traits.

The wide cross unit is currently devoting most
of its efforts to hybridization of maize and
Tripsacum. This highly variable genus is of
considerable interest to us as a source of
beneficial genes. It is widely adapted and
tolerant to different soil and climatic conditions
and possesses resistance to certain foliar
diseases and insect pests, particularly the
tropical maize stalk borers and fall armyworm.
Since there appears to be no lack of variability
in the Maize Program's germplasm for
resistance to the foliar diseases, we are
concerned primarily with evaluating and
transferring the insect resistances into maize.

Since the early 1980s, we have been
developing a procedure for transferring
Tripsacum genes fairly quickly into tropical and
subtropical maize. In 1983 part of a tripsacoid
maize population with temperate adaptation
(obtained from the University of Illinois in the
USA) was combined with our subtropical
Population 47 in an effort to improve the
resistance of the latter to the southwestern
corn borer. By 1986 the resulting materials had
intermediate levels of resistance and a
reasonably good plant type and were thus
ready to be turned over to the backup unit.
Such conversions of temperate tripsacoid
materials to tropical or subtropical adaptation,
though potentially useful, are a short-term
activity, however. Our more distant objective is
to develop tripsacoid populations that have
tropical and subtropical adaptation from the
outset and to transfer insect resistance from
them to maize.

The advanced unit and international
testing-The assembly of much new resistant
germplasm, as described in the foregoing
sections of this report, raises a number of
important questions. How, for example, will we

Plant breeder David Jewell
examining materials handled by
the maize wide cross unit.

coordinate the diverse operations carried out by
various groups in the Maize Program to
develop and improve resistant materials? Even
more important, how exactly will those
materials reach maize breeders in developing

Accomplishing the first task has required that
the backup unit adopt a role it has not
generally performed in the past. One of its
main functions, beginning this year, is to
deploy resistance developed by other units,
along with that already available in our
germplasm, among special-purpose pools that
are adapted to the particular mega-
environments for which those resistances are
needed. Another of its functions will be to
coordinate the breeding efforts required to
maintain or raise resistance levels in those
pools, while improving them for agronomic

Once the agronomic quality of the resistant
materials is considered satisfactory, they will
either serve as sources of traits to be
introgressed into advanced unit populations or
will become advanced populations in their own
right. Those materials will be further refined
and prepared for distribution through the
population improvement and variety
development scheme that continues to be the
core of our maize breeding program.

The advanced unit, which has primary
responsibility for that work, improves the
populations for a wide range of traits (yield,
husk cover, and resistance to certain diseases,
for example). The unit also conducts trials to
determine the degree and nature of progress in
population improvement, as illustrated this year
with studies of materials that have undergone
many cycles of selection for early maturity and
others for drought tolerance. In addition, the
advanced unit is providing guidance to the
backup and other units concerning germplasm
needs in developing countries.

Much of the information on which we are
basing decisions about priorities in germplasm
development has been generated by the mega-
environments study begun in 1985 by the
international testing program. By the end of
this year, we had received responses for about
80 percent of the developing countries that
produce significant amounts of maize. Starting
with sub-Saharan Africa, we began organizing
the information and presenting it in the form of
maps and accompanying tables for immediate
use by Maize Program staff. This year we also
initiated a related study in which we are
collecting data from experiment stations in sub-

Saharan Africa on rainfall, temperature, amount
of sunlight, soil types, and a number of other
conditions over the past five years. Taking into
account the marked differences in many
respects between experiment stations and
farmers' fields, we will use that information to
check the impressions about maize production
that were conveyed to us by our maize special-
ists and their colleagues in national programs
as part of the mega-environments study.

As new germplasm is made available by our
breeding units and regional programs, the
international testing system will be called upon to
provide new avenues for the free exchange,
evaluation, and use of these improved materials.

Though extremely important, this effort to
characterize maize-production environments in
developing countries is secondary to the main
task of the testing program, which is to provide
a channel for distribution of experimental
varieties and the elite fractions of populations.
The program's main vehicles for disseminating
that germplasm are International Progeny
Testing Trials (IPTTs), in which full-sib families
from a particular population are evaluated at up
to six locations, followed by Experimental
Variety Trials (EVTs) and Elite Variety Trials
(ELVTs), which test varieties formed on the
basis of IPTT results sent to us by trial
cooperators in developing countries (see
Appendix I for details on trial distribution).

As greater volumes and more varied types of
germplasm are made available by our breeding
units and regional programs, the international
testing system will be called upon to provide
other avenues for the free exchange,
evaluation, and use of improved materials. The
program's involvement this year in international
testing of the MBR pool developed by the
entomology unit is one illustration of how such
new arrangements for testing are being made.

Special Categories of Germplasm
Much of the new material that will soon require
international testing is being generated by the
several groups in the Maize Program that are
handling special categories of germplasm. To
accommodate the influx of new materials, the
international testing program anticipates an
expansion in its activities and is currently
developing various trial types in addition to the
ones already in use.

Quality protein maize-Over the past four or
five years, the international testing program has
coordinated the evaluation of a large collection
of special germplasm developed by the QPM
program. This germplasm carries the opaque-2
gene (responsible for marked improvement in
protein quality) but without most of the serious
defects of opaque-2 materials formed in the
early 1970s. International testing has been
extremely valuable in further refining the QPM
germplasm, particularly in disease resistance,
wide adaptation, and stability of the genetic
modifiers that have given OPM a far more
acceptable grain type than was possessed by
the original opaque-2 materials. This testing
has also provided an opportunity to share the
materials with breeders in developing countries
and to get their reactions about its
performance and utility.

One limitation of that germplasm, however, is
that very few researchers in developing
countries will be able to cross OPM with locally
adapted germplasm and make selections. Such
steps would require continual monitoring of
changes in the amino acid balance by a
laboratory specially equipped for protein quality
analysis, which most developing countries do
not have. Thus, in a rare exception to its policy
of developing intermediate products, the Maize
Program is in the position of having to provide

final products for release to farmers. That
being the case, we must target QPM materials
very precisely for areas in which they might be
especially beneficial in the human diet and in
livestock feed.

An important implication of this policy is that
resistance to certain diseases will have to be
incorporated into selected QPM materials.
Toward that end two tropical QPM pools were
inoculated with ear rot and stalk rots this year
for resistance selection, and four subtropical
pools were screened for resistance to turcicum
leaf blight and common maize rust. Other
materials were converted to streak resistance
through introgression of the corresponding
normal germplasm that carries this trait. More
exact tailoring of QPM to particular mega-
environments will also require intensive testing
in target areas under cooperative arrangements
with selected national programs. The breeder
responsible for this work made a start toward
e-iiLbiLhirng such relationships by visiting
Ethiopia in 1986 to discuss the potential
contribution of OPM to the country's maize

Highland maize-This work, as explained in
the 1985 Annual Report and Research
Highlights, has been reoriented from a more or
less exclusive preoccupation with floury and
morocho highland maize for the Andean region
to a primary emphasis on the semident types
preferred by highland farmers in other parts of
the world. The floury and morocho maize
germplasm, developed and improved by a
CIMMYT breeder based in Ecuador from 1978
to 1985, is currently being handled by the
national program in that country with support
from our specialists in the Andean region. Staff
at Center headquarters, where our highland
program is now based, are assisting
Ecuadorian scientists as well, particularly in
improving the materials for ear rot and corn
earworm resistance.

The reoriented program's first order of business
was to characterize the various highland
environments and identify their germplasm
requirements. That task was ess~enr,.ll,
complete by the end of 1986, although the
information we have will, of course, be
continually updated. According to our current
estimates, there are nearly 5.5 million hectares
of highland maize in developing countries,
which we divide into three categories: 1)
tropical highland maize, of which an estimated
3,424,500 hectares are grown at 2000 to
3600 meters above sea level, 2) tropical
transitional zone maize, covering 1,913,000
hectares at 1300 to 2200 meters, and 3)

International trials like this one
in Ivory Coast are the Maize
Program's main channel for
distribution of improved

... .
,r d


temperate highland maize, occupying 135,500
hectares between 1000 and 2500 meters.
These categories of maize are further
distinguished by a number of other factors,
including daytime and nighttime temperatures
during the growing season, disease pressures,
and so forth.

The program has already begun developing
pools and populations for all three main types
of highland maize environments. Most of our
resources, however, will be committed to
germplasm for the tropical highlands, since
they are the most extensive of the three
environments, occupying 63 percent of the
world total.

Mexico contains a quite large share of the
world's tropical highlands, so naturally we are
developing close relationships with highland
maize breeders in our host country and are
concentrating heavily on its germplasm needs.
Our primary aim will be to supply breeders with
materials that respond well to nitrogen fertilizer
and in other respects are better suited than the
currently available germplasm to more inten-
sive, mechanized maize production. The new
genotypes will need to be shorter and more
tolerant of high plant densities and have better
root and stalk quality than materials now being
cultivated. By crossing exotic with Mexican
germplasm, we hope to develop more efficient
plant types with those traits, while retaining the
outstanding cold tolerance, partial tolerance to
hail damage, and other useful traits present in
the tropical highland germplasm.

A substantial part of the highland maize
breeder's time was devoted this year to
training and to consultation with maize
breeders from areas that show high potential
for production of highland maize. We are
hopeful that those contacts and others made
by our regional staff will lead to cooperative
arrangements in which national scientists can
assume the leadership in highland maize
improvement for key regions.

Midaltitude maize-Maize of this type (which,
like highland maize, is widely grown in eastern
and southern Africa, but at 900 to 1500
meters above sea level) is the focus of a new
germplasm development program initiated in
1985 under a cooperative agreement between
CIMMYT, the University of Zimbabwe, and
IITA. During 1986 the breeder and
entomologist working at the Midaltitude Maize
Research Station at Harare, Zimbabwe, divided
their time among five main activities: 1)
becoming familiar with the region's midaltitude

environments and visiting the breeding
programs that are developing germplasm for
them, 2) designing and constructing research
facilities, 3) hiring staff, 4) initiating the maize
breeding program, and 5) laying the
groundwork for mass rearing of and artificial
infestation with the vector of streak virus.

Mexico contains a large share of the world's tropical
highlands, so naturally we are developing close
relationships with highland maize breeders in our
host country and concentrating heavily on its
germplasm needs.

Good progress was made in all of those
activities, including the evaluation of a quite
large collection of germplasm in hundreds of
trial plots. Within a fairly short time, we expect
this station to become a major tributary feeding
improved midaltitude germplasm into our
international testing program, which in turn will
distribute the material to eastern and southern
Africa and other regions of the world where
this type of maize is grown.

Hybrid maize-In addition to distributing
improved germplasm, CIMMYT provides much
information about these materials that
enhances their value to breeders in developing
countries. Generating such information is an
especially important task of our hybrid maize
program, which was established in 1985 to
meet the growing demand for assistance in
hybrid breeding. During 1986 the program was
engaged in a number of activities that are
leading to the development of new germplasm
products and information about them or about
other materials already available.

One of those activities is to provide data on the
combining ability of our germplasm that will
give breeders some indication about its utility in
hybrid formation. For that purpose the various
pools and populations were divided into eight
groups during 1985, diallel crosses made
within each one, and the diallels evaluated in
1985 and 1986. From the results of those
evaluations, we now have a general idea of
which materials combine well and will publish
that information during 1987. In an effort to
improve the cross performance of some of
those materials, we shifted Populations 21 and
32 from the advanced unit into the hybrid
program where they will undergo interpopu-

nation improvement. From those and other
pools and populations, the program is also
attempting to develop source germplasm that is
tolerant to inbreeding depression, so that
breeders employing these materials will stand a
better chance of extracting good inbred lines
from them.

Regional maize workshops provide the direct and
continuous contact between scientists in developing
countries that is a precondition for the emergence of
regional strategies in agricultural research.

In more or less the same set of pools and
populations, we continued a project begun in
1985 for developing our own early generation
inbred lines. Some of the most promising ones
identified so far are being screened for insect
resistance by the entomology unit and for
drought tolerance by the physiology unit, while
others are being evaluated and further inbred
by researchers in developing countries. We are
taking a number of the inbred lines and other
materials a step further by forming single-cross
hybrids (whose performance enables us to
predict good combinations for three-way and
double-cross hybrids, among other purposes).
We also developed and evaluated various types
of nonconventional hybrids, in which by
definition at least one of the parents is not an
inbred line. Because the nonconventional types
are somewhat simpler and less expensive to
produce than the conventional ones, we
consider them a good intermediate step for
maize programs that have only recently
initiated hybrid breeding.

The Maize Program's efforts are divided more
or less evenly between generating research
products and strengthening the capacity of
maize scientists in the Third World to employ
these and other resources effectively. One of
our primary means of accomplishing the latter
objective is to offer various training programs
at Center headquarters, including in-service
courses and fellowships for predoctoral
candidates, researchers who have just received
their doctorates, visiting scientists, and
associate scientists (see Appendix Ill).

Completion this year of the Borlaug Building
and the donation of several grants has enabled
us to open up new maize training
opportunities. With funds from various
governments and from private seed and
chemical companies, we are providing
approximately 45 new one- to four-month
visiting scientist fellowships from 1986 through
1988 for senior researchers in Third World
countries. In addition, we are expanding our in-
service maize breeding and production
agronomy courses to include training in the use
of microcomputers for data analysis, with
equipment provided by a private company.

Several other adjustments were made in those
courses to improve the quality of instruction.
Starting in 1987, for example, the six-month
courses will be offered in only one language
during a given cycle (one cycle taught in
Spanish for every two in English), a change
that will double classroom time and greatly
simplify field activities. The scheduling of the
cycles is also being altered in such a way that
trainees will receive more experience in
planning on-farm research. Finally, for the first
time since maize training was initiated at
CIMMYT, a breeder will be devoting full time to
the course in crop improvement, a
development that should greatly enrich the
training experience of participants.

One beneficiary of those training activities is
the Maize Program itself. Visiting scientists and
course participants have much to teach us
about maize research challenges in their
countries, and in doing so they provide us with
valuable guidance in setting priorities. Another
group that contributes substantially to the
Program is pre- and postdoctoral fellows and
associate scientists, of whom there were eight
during 1986, conducting research on nitrogen-
use efficiency, various diseases, hybrid
development, and analysis of yield stability.

Regional Programs
Several staff changes took place, and one
important adjustment in organization was made
this year in the maize regional programs, of
which there are currently six: 1) Andean
region, 2) Asia, 3) eastern Africa, 4) Mexico,
Central America, and the Caribbean, 5) the
Middle East/North Africa, and 6) southern
Africa. The Asia and Andean regional programs
each acquired one extra specialist, and a new
staff member joined us from Thailand's
national program to take the place of a

specialist transferred from Turkey to Colombia.
The addition of other regional specialists to our
staff in sub-Saharan Africa has enabled us to
divide one program into two, with one for
eastern and another for southern Africa. By
1987 the former will be staffed by one breeder
and two agronomists based at Nairobi, Kenya,
and the latter by a breeder and one agronomist
operating from Harare, Zimbabwe. The division
of what was a very large and diverse region
into two smaller ones, along with the additional
staff, will result in a much-needed increase in
our level of support to African national

Apart from the two regional programs, we
have three breeders in West Africa and a
fourth in Zimbabwe, who are engaged in
germplasm development activities and training.
They in effect manage distant branches of the
headquarters breeding effort and work closely
with, but do not form a part of, our regional
and bilateral programs (for details on the
bilateral projects, see the reports on extra-core

In other sections of this report, we have
pointed out some of the vital contributions of
the regional programs. An important one is the
gathering of information needed for research
planning and other decisions at CIMMYT
headquarters. It was largely at the urging of
scientists in the Asia region, for example, that
we held a conference on aflatoxin this year in
Mexico, the proceedings of which will be
available in 1987. Other important functions of
the regional programs are to organize in-
country training activities and assist national
maize programs in germplasm development
and other research.

Rather than give a comprehensive account
here of the numerous ways in which each of
our six regional programs provided those
services this year, we cite several
representative examples. Fairly typical of the
regional agronomy work were the three on-
farm research courses offered to about 30
research and extension workers in Colombia
and an equal number in Paraguay. Regional
specialists concentrating on crop improvement
were engaged in parallel activities, such as the
two-week maize breeding and production
course, covering the fundamentals of maize
improvement, that was given in Zambia for 38
persons. Through those and other means, the
maize specialists provided individualized
attention to maize programs in most developing
countries where significant amounts of maize
are produced and consumed.

Much of their energies also went into activities
designed to promote regional cooperation in
maize research. Four of the six programs, for
example (Asia, Andean region, Central America
and Caribbean, and Middle East/North Africa),
held regional workshops, and the two others
(eastern and southern Africa) began planning a
workshop to take place in 1987. Because
these are regular events, they provide the
direct and continuous contact between
scientists in developing countries that is a
precondition for the emergence of regional
strategies in agricultural research. The
cooperative activities encouraged by the
workshops vary in their forms and objectives
from one region to another. The Andean
meeting, for example, provided a forum for
discussing an international initiative for
development of tolerance to aluminum toxicity,
a region-wide constraint of maize production.
For the meeting in Asia, superior germplasm
from 14 countries in the region was planted in
Indonesia, the country hosting the workshop,
so that participants could examine the
materials and make seed requests.

Participants in the Second
Asian Regional Maize
Workshop during a visit to a
seed production plant in

During 1986 bread wheats, durum wheats, and
triticales with the Center's germplasm were
planted on more than 45 million hectares in the
Third World and another 15 million hectares in
developed countries. The tremendous surge of
improved germplasm since the early days has
truly transformed the agricultural scene of

Wheat Research

H. Jesse Dubin (left), pathologist/breeder (based in
Nepal), and Arthur Klatt, associate director of the
Wheat Program, inspect wheat plots at the Phrae
Rice Research Center, Thailand.

many cooperating countries. With the proper
agronomic practices, it has helped double and
even triple the wheat production of many
developing countries, contributing to raised
standards of living for millions of people.

It is interesting to note that the bread wheat,
durum wheat, and triticale breeding programs
have even longer histories in Mexico than the
Center itself. Bread wheat breeding completed
its 43rd year in the country in 1986. The first
efforts in durum wheat breeding started in the
early 1950s, with major work starting in the
late 1960s. Triticale breeding began in 1965.
The new winter wheat improvement program
based in Turkey started in 1985.

Crop Improvement Programs
Shuttle breeding and multilocation testing are
key strategies that come into play for all four
crop improvement programs.

The Wheat Program has developed a range of
widely adapted germplasm appropriate for
Third World production conditions through a
"shuttle breeding" strategy combined with
extensive international multilocation testing. In
the shuttle breeding concept, germplasm is
crossed, screened, and selected during winter
and summer cycles each year at two diverse
locations in Mexico. Advanced generation
breeding materials that have passed the rigors
of selection at both locations are then entered
into nurseries for international testing and
distributed to cooperators around the world.

In 1986 collaborating scientists in 97 countries
were sent 2628 sets of bread wheat, durum
wheat, and triticale nurseries (see Appendix II).
In addition, in cooperation with the
International Center for Agricultural Research in
the Dry Areas (ICARDA), CIMMYT prepared
and distributed 255 sets of barley nurseries for
testing in 66 countries. The information
returned by the cooperators helps the Program
to plan future crosses as well as set the
priorities and direction of the three programs.
This research methodology, using the
information derived from the international
nurseries in the Program's crossing program in
Mexico, followed by the selection of superior
advanced genotypes at testing sites in Mexico

Activities and Structure
of the Wheat Program
The CIMMYT Wheat Program conducts
research at headquarters in Mexico, Turkey,
and regional and national programs. There are
20 international staff at headquarters working
in the three crop improvement programs in
bread wheat, durum wheat, and triticale and
the nine support programs; two staff members
in Turkey work in the winter wheat
improvement program (see the diagram). At
the end of 1986, 11 wheat specialists were
assigned to six regional programs and four
others were assigned to four bilateral r,:r ii

The four crop improvement programs are the
core of the Wheat Program. The germplasm
developed in these programs is dlirtjul-,J to
collaborating scientists in national agricultural
research systems (NARS) through the
international nurseries. This process is only
complete when NARS scientists have selected
and refined this germplasm to suit specific local
needs, and have successfully extended new
varieties to farmers.

The research done within Mexico and Turkey is
reinforced and complemented by CIMMYT's
regional and bilateral programs. The Program's
outreach staff play a vital role in developing

and disseminating its research products.
Working with NARS personnel, outreach staff
help identify regional and national needs,
expedite the exchange of germplasm,
participate in an advisory capacity in crop
improvement and crop management research,
and assist with the training of technical
personnel from national programs. The
exchange of information among NARS
scientists and CIMMYT staff in Mexico, Turkey,
and elsewhere abroad is crucial for the rapid
development of widely adapted, improved
wheats suited to a wide range of

The nine support programs at headquarters,
not only serve the crop improvement, regional,
and bilateral programs, but also provide the
NARS with a wide array of technical assistance
in breeding, pathology, crop management, and
training. The ICARDA barley breeder posted in
Mexico also makes use of these support
services in the development of barley
germplasm for the NARS.

Wheat Program

I Regional programs I

* Andean region
* East/Southern Africa
* North Africa/Middle East
Cooperative Project)
* South Asia
* Southeast Asia
* Southern Cone of South

Bilateral programs
* Pakistan
* Turkey
* Bangladesh
* Peru


National agricultural research

Support programs
* Germplasm development
* Germplasm bank
* International nurseries
* Training
* Crop management
* Industrial qu3iht,
* Seed health
* Wide crosses
* Pathology





and other locations, has proved to be an
extremely effective breeding strategy for bread
wheat, durum wheat, and triticale

The shuttle breeding technique that has proven
to be so effective in Mexico is also working
extremely well on an international basis. The
best example has been CIMMYT's 13-year
collaboration with Brazilian scientists to develop
high-yielding wheat varieties with tolerance to
the problems of acid soils. In 1986, CIMMYT
began a small-scale shuttle breeding project
between Mexico and China to develop scab-
resistant spring wheats for the Yangtze River
Valley. International shuttle breeding projects
were also expanded to include Kenya and
Ethiopia (resistance to the rusts), and Nepal
(helminthosporium resistance).

In 1986 the process of identifying and describing the
mega-environments for which the Wheat Program
develops its materials continued. Through the years
this task has been an evolving process as more
information has become available.

In 1986 the process of identifying and
describing the mega-environments (agro-
ecological zones) for which the Program
develops its materials continued. Through the
years this task has been an evolving process as
more information has become available on the
predominant characteristics, such as moisture
availability, biotic and abiotic stresses, and soil
types, that differentiate one mega-environment
from another. As a result of this ongoing
exercise, the mega-environments discussed
below, as they relate to the crop improvement
programs, have been and will continue to be

Bread wheat improvement-The bread wheat
program is the largest of CIMMYT's small
grains improvement efforts, a priority that is in
keeping with the fact that about 61 percent of
the developing world's wheat area is devoted
to spring bread wheat. The Center maintains a
broad genetic base in its bread wheat
germplasm for such traits as yield, wide
adaptation, resistance to the major diseases,
and milling and baking quality. In addition, the
germplasm base contains subsets of materials
having especially desirable traits, such as

resistance to "minor" diseases of wheat and
tolerance to such stresses as drought and the
problems of acid soils.

In 1986 the bread wheat program continued to
refine the identification and description of the
five mega-environments for which it has
devised different research agendas to support
national programs.

Well-watered environments with no obvious
soil problems occupy approximately 60 percent
of the Third World's spring bread wheat areas.
Rusts, powdery mildew, and in certain cases,
septoria tritici blotch are prevalent.

More than 20 million hectares (about 20
percent) of the developing nations' spring
bread wheat areas are found in high-
temperature environments, including rice-wheat
rotation areas. In 1986 the bread wheat
program continued its research on the
problems encountered in attempting to produce
wheat in warmer, more tropical production
environments. In addition to focusing on the
development of greater resistance to certain
diseases, this breeding effort is giving attention
to improving tolerance to heat stress, which
can adversely affect tillering and grain filling
abilities of wheat grown in warmer
environments. Helminthosporium, fusarium
head scab, and the rusts are the main disease
constraints in this environment.

Semiarid environments occupy about 15 million
hectares of developing country bread wheat
areas. Drought resistance and heat tolerance
are major breeding constraints. Some spring x
winter materials are showing improved
tolerance to drought and may be a promising
avenue of exploration. Advanced lines are now
being selected under reduced moisture
regimes, and the best of these lines are
distributed through the international nursery
program for additional testing.

Mineral toxicities/deficiencies associated with
acid soils are a problem on less than 5 percent
of the Third World's spring bread wheat areas.
Aluminum toxicity is usually the main problem
in this mega-environment. In order of
importance, the rusts, the septorias, head
scab, helminthosporium, and barley yellow
dwarf virus (BYDV) are the main disease
constraints. A number of high-yielding bread
wheat lines with tolerance to the problems of
acid soils and with improved resistance to the
diseases found in these environments are being
developed through the shuttle breeding
program with Brazil.


Approximately 27 percent of the developing
countries' bread wheat areas are in what could
be described as a winter wheat mega-
environment. In 1985-86, CIMMYT began a
winter wheat program on a partnership basis
with Turkey (see the section on winter wheat
improvement for more details).

Durum wheat improvement-The importance
of durum wheat as a major basic food is well
established for most of the countries of North
and East Africa and the Near and Middle East.
It is also important in the Asian Subcontinent
and the Andean region and is a major crop in
Argentina, Canada, Chile, the USA, and several
countries of southern and eastern Europe.

The area planted with durum wheat worldwide
covers approximately 30 million hectares, with
about 11 million in developing countries.
Production of durum wheat in these Third
World nations is approximately 10 million tons
annually. Large production areas of North
Africa, the Middle East, and the Southern Cone
of South America reflect a low average yield
resulting from cultivation in mainly dry areas
under rainfed and semiarid conditions. This low
yield also illustrates that the crop is often
poorly managed and that the cultivars available
to the farmers are often susceptible to one or
more major diseases.

Progress has been made in improving the level
of disease resistance in CIMMYT's durum
wheat germplasm for stripe rust, powdery
mildew, and septoria nodorum blotch. This can
be demonstrated by the disease score results
of the entries of the 14th Elite Durum Wheat
Nursery (EDYT) and 16th International Durum
Wheat Yield Nursery (IDYN). However, the
mean disease reactions for spike infection of
stripe rust, leaf and stem rusts, septoria tritici
blotch, head scab, and BYDV suggest the need
to further increase the genetic variability for
disease resistance.

Shuttle breeding is especially useful in durum
wheat germplasm development when the
severity or magnitude of the selection pressure
for one or more traits at one research site is
not representative of that present worldwide.
This is particularly true for diseases, in that it is
very rare to find all of the important pathogen
variability at any one location. This is most
evident with the rusts (stem, leaf, and stripe).

Breeding objectives continue to be the
development of high-yielding, management-
responsive, and input-efficient germplasm that

is disease resistant, has good quality traits, and
is tolerant to environmental and soil stresses.
To accomplish these objectives, the durum
wheat breeding program has identified five
mega-environments worldwide.

The mega-environment characterized by well-
watered lands encompasses about 20 percent
of the durum wheat areas of the developing
nations. These environments can be irrigated,
have high rainfall, or have low rainfall with
supplemental irrigation. The relatively high
program effort with this mega-environment is
due to preliminary data that suggest that
certain genotypes perform well in both well-
watered and stress environments, and due to
the severe disease pressure commonly
encountered in this mega-environment.

Pedro Brajcich, head of the
durum wheat program, selects
durum wheat for seed quality
during the Toluca cycle.



Semiarid environments with drought stress
encompass about 40 percent of the durum
wheat areas of the developing nations. These
areas have less than 400 millimeters of rainfall
annually. As a test of newly advanced
germplasm for drought tolerance, the 17th
International Durum Screening Nursery was
planted in two locations at Ciudad Obregon in
1985-86 to simulate both full and limited
irrigation. Data indicate that selection under full
irrigation also helps to identify lines that do
well under stress conditions.

Thomas Barker, postdoctoral
fellow in the triticale breeding
program, makes selections
during the 1986 Toluca cycle.

Highlands (more than 1000 meters above sea
Idvel) encompass about 10 percent of the
durum wheat areas in the developing world.
The rusts, septoria tritici blotch, septoria
nodorum blotch, leaf blight, head scab, root rot
and powdery mildew are the major disease
problems. Minor element toxicity/deficiency
caused by low pH soils is also a constraint.

Environments where some cold tolerance is
required encompass about 10 percent of the
durum wheat areas in the developing nations.
The rusts, septoria tritici blotch, leaf blotch,
head scab, root rot, and common bunt are
disease problems. Durum wheat producing
areas within this mega-environment require
differing levels of tolerance to cold
temperatures. Therefore, in 1986 crosses were
initiated between CIMMYT's best lines and
winter durum wheat cultivars from Germany,
Turkey, France, Austria, Italy, Romania, and
the USSR.

Winter or facultative durum wheat areas
encompass about 20 percent of the durum
wheat areas of the developing nations. The
newly established winter wheat improvement
program in Turkey (described in the winter
wheat improvement section below) will also
give attention to durum wheat. The durum
wheat program also uses lines from the area as
a source of variability for cold tolerance and an
additional gene pool for disease resistance,
drought tolerance, and quality.

Triticale improvement-The first commercial
triticale varieties were released 18 years ago in
Hungary, Spain, and Canada. In 1986 the crop
was grown in some 32 countries on just over 1
million hectares.

Because triticale is a manmade crop (the
successful hybridization of wheat and rye), its
genetic variability is much more restricted than
that of crops such as maize and wheat, which
originally evolved in nature over long periods.
In addition, excessive use of a few varieties,
which in the early stages were more promising,
further restricts this variability. Thus, the threat
of genetic vulnerability is more acute in the
case of triticale than any other crop. CIMMYT
is working to rectify this problem by combining
the variability from the putative parents, as well
as from winter triticales, as a separate gene

Since 1984 greater priority has been given to
expanding the variability of the germplasm
base. In 1986 approximately 34 percent of the
crossing efforts (compared to 16 percent in
1984) were directed toward creating additional

variability through interspecific crossing and the
production of primary triticales. In addition, 21
percent of the crosses (compared to 6 percent
in 1984) were between spring and winter
triticales. This shift in emphasis will continue,
and the expansion of the genetic base shall be
treated as a principal objective for the
foreseeable future.

Two major target areas identified for triticale
improvement are acid soils/tropical highland
environments and semiarid conditions. Well-
watered areas have been identified as a third
mega-environment of lesser importance in the
triticale program. Now that these areas have
been targeted, strategies are being designed
for enhancing the potential adaptation of the
germplasm to each of them.

From a breeding standpoint, tropical highlands
and the acid soils with aluminum toxicity have
many characteristics in common, and hence
they are treated as a single mega-environment.
Free aluminum ions (toxicity), unavailability of
phosphorus, insufficiency or toxicity of minor
elements, high humidity during the crop
ripening phase, and presence of numerous
diseases are typical of this mega-environment.
The adaptation of triticale to these conditions is
probably due to the presence of the rye
genome. Resistance to sprouting and the
capacity to maintain good smooth seed after
the ripe crop is subjected to excessive rainfall
are important characters for the acceptability of

Tolerance to head scab, helminthosporium spot
blotch, and septoria nodorum blotch and
resistance to stripe rust, stem rust, and leaf
rust are also important for the viability of the
crop in this mega-environment. The germplasm
development activity of the triticale program
attempts to incorporate variability for all these
diseases from bread wheat, durum wheat, and

Stability of yield and test weight under drought
conditions are the two prime considerations in
developing material for semiarid conditions.
Diseases are not considered a major factor;
however, care is taken so that the material is
fairly broad based for resistance to the rusts
and septoria.

Major dryland areas in the developing world
with potential for triticale cultivation are in
North Africa and the Middle East, parts of
China, central India, the dry areas of
Afghanistan, and parts of Sind and Baluchistan
Provinces in Pakistan.

Segregating populations based on lines and
varieties showing high test weight and yield
under drought environments in Mexico are
shuttled three times through Huamantla, a
drought-prone location with sandy soils, and
Ciudad Obregon under limited irrigation (no
irrigation results in total crop failure). During
each cycle populations are eliminated based on
the mean value of all the plots for yield and
test weight. Populations selected under drought
stress are then planted at the F5 stage under
optimal conditions to identify plants with higher
genetic yield potential. Plants so selected are
reevaluated under various drought situations
before they are included in international
nurseries, which are sent to many drought-
prone areas. In 1986 the first group
undergoing this selection procedure was at the
F5 stage.

Since 1984 greater priority has been given to
expanding the variability of the triticale germplasm
base. This shift in emphasis will continue, and
expansion of the genetic base will be treated as a
principal objective for the foreseeable future.

Yield levels of triticale in well-watered areas are
comparable to those of durum and bread
wheats. Lower test weight and lack of a
market discourages expansion of triticale in this
mega-environment. However, under special
circumstances in some of the high-production
environments, such as the areas in Mexico,
India, and Pakistan with Karnal bunt, triticale
might be a good alternative to wheat.

Germplasm under development for the acid
soils/tropical highland and semiarid mega-
environments is cycled through, and evaluated
at, various stages in high-production
environments. This permits the program to
identify lines having potential for the well-
watered areas. In addition, a small portion of
time is devoted to developing substituted
triticales with high yield potential, rust
resistance, and industrial quality.

Winter wheat improvement- Large areas of
the developing world depend on winter wheat,
and improved germplasm could contribute
significantly to increased production. CIMMYT
initiated its winter wheat program in 1985-86,
and it is still quite small with only two core-

funded staff members assigned and with
limited input from national and regional
program staff. Current financial resources
allocated to winter wheat research represent 2
percent of the base budget and 14 percent of
the total outreach budget. This 14 percent is
primarily the costs of the two staff members in
Turkey and the Turkish bilateral program.
Winter wheat research currently commands 7
percent of the total budget.

The partnership with Turkey makes available a large
array of scientific and financial resources with which
to meet the needs for winter wheat in developing

Obviously, winter wheat research deserves a
greater input of resources, but part of this
requirement is being obviated by the
cooperative winter wheat program with Turkey.
This partnership makes available a large array
of scientific and financial resources with which
to meet the needs for winter wheat in
developing countries. Also, considering that a
large portion of the total winter wheat area is
in China, CIMMYT is negotiating with the
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for
collaboration in the overall winter wheat
research effort.

In addition, a cooperative program on winter
wheat research has been developed with Texas
A&M and Kansas State Universities. These
programs will supply germplasm and training.
Although Oregon State University, formerly a
large contributor of winter materials, is phasing
down on international winter wheat research, it
continues to be a close cooperator with
CIMMYT in germplasm exchange and training
of graduate students. The combined activities
of Turkey, China, the USA, and CIMMYT
should make an impact on winter wheat
production in the near future.

To date, winter wheats originating from the
Turkey/CIMMYT partnership have been
evaluated. Superior lines selected for
international testing in the International Winter
Wheat Screening Nursery (IWWSN) were sent
to 40 locations in 1986.

Also in 1986, a small winter wheat breeding
project in Mexico complementing the larger
program in Turkey was at the F6 level. Some
of these lines will be distributed in 1987-88 for

Support Activities
Crop management-Improved crop
management will play an increasingly important
role in future gains in productivity and total
production in many developing countries.
Presently, germplasm exists with a yield
potential far exceeding local production
conditions, resulting in a large yield gap in
many countries. To take greater advantage of
the available genetic potential, improved crop
management practices must be adapted.
Certainly, the Wheat Program cannot conduct
all the necessary research, but it can play a
significant role in assisting national programs to
organize research activities that address
problems and reduce or eliminate production
constraints. The input will involve technical
assistance, consultation, and, to some extent,
direct participation to motivate research efforts.
Of course, training will play a significant role in
motivating researchers and increasing the
attention to crop management research needs.

In 1986 crop management represented about
20 percent of the Program's human and
financial resources. If CIMMYT is to fulfill its
stated mandate, then crop management has a
significantly greater role to play.

Germplasm bank-The wheat germplasm bank
maintains working collections of breeding
materials primarily to support the research of
Wheat Program scientists and national program
collaborators. At the end of 1986, CIMMYT
had 55,763 entries in its small grains bank,
including 11,512 bread wheat, 4,824 durum
wheat, 5,375 triticale, 4,837 barley, and
2,561 alien related species entries; the bank
also contained 26,554 entries from other
international germplasm banks.

Pathology-The Wheat Program's pathology
efforts include a seed health unit, a global
small grains disease surveillance program, and
a special project focusing on BYDV (see the
section on extra-core grants).

The seed health unit, established in 1984,
provides a more comprehensive and
coordinated approach to seed health problems
for both the Maize and Wheat Programs. The
unit works in close collaboration with the
Mexican Plant Protection Organization (Sanidad
Vegetal) and is responsible for all standard
tests for seedborne pathogens in germplasm

destined for international distribution,
development of improved methods of detection
of seedborne pathogens, experiments to
determine the efficacy of chemical seed
treatments, training in seed health, and
determining improved seed treatment and

A special research project within the unit deals
with Karnal bunt, a disease of wheat and
triticale caused by the weakly pathogenic
fungus, Tilletia indica. At present quarantine
restrictions apply to seed movement from
Karnal bunt-infected areas in northwestern
Mexico to other parts of the country and to
international destinations. These restrictions
hinder germplasm exchange. Entries in the
Karnal Bunt Screening Nursery, grown at four
locations during the 1985-86 season in the
Mayo and Yaqui Valleys under natural and
artificial infection, comprised the best bread
wheat, durum, and triticale lines from previous
screening. The best lines identified will be
further tested at 10 to 15 locations in Karnal
bunt areas of Mexico and at sites in India,
Pakistan, and Nepal, during the 1986-87
season. During a smut and bunt workshop in
April, more research activities were planned to
broaden the knowledge base and to resolve
some of the unknowns about the disease.

Since the 1970s, CIMMYT has conducted a
disease surveillance program. This network of
cooperators has helped monitor and survey
prevalent diseases and races that exist
throughout the world. Preliminary results of the
survey have been distributed to cooperators.
During 1986 work began to publish the
complete data and analysis from the program.
The results will help identify epidemiological
zones around the world. It will also help
scientists obtain some insight on the
dissemination of new races from one country
to another.

Wide cross research-Research in wheat wide
crosses is devoted to improving disease
resistance and stress tolerance in wheat by the
transfer of useful genes from related genera of
wheat. The program currently focuses on
developing resistances to Fusarium
graminearum, Helminthosporium sativum, and
Tilletia indica; tolerances to saline and
aluminum toxic soils; and copper deficiencies.
Most of the wide crosses to date involve
Agropyron, Elymus, and Aegilops species.

Interspecific crosses were initiated in 1986.
Due to the existence of close phylogenetic
relationships, ease of crossability, and

Peter Burnett, pathologist and
head of the Barley Yellow
Dwarf Virus Program,
discusses advances in BYDV
research at Toluca.

opportunities of a high recombination status,
this work offers short-term payoffs (7 to 10
years) and, as a result, will now receive about
60 percent of the wide cross program's efforts.
The more distant alien species contributing to
the intergeneric area fit the long-term goals (15
years) and will now receive 30 percent of the
program's attention.

Numerous hybrids have been produced and
advanced to field testing. Resistances to
Fusarium and Helminthosporium spp. as well
as to Karnal bunt have been identified. Alien
germplasm with tolerance to aluminum toxic
and saline soils is being used for wheat
improvement, as is alien germplasm with an
efficient uptake of the copper micronutrient in
copper-deficient soils. Callus culture is being
used for in-vitro screening, inducing variation,
and for alien gene introgression. Techniques
involving the use of nonradioactive probes for
D genome identification are available, and
probes for other alien species are being
developed. These will substantially aid the
program in making alien gene transfers. Other
diagnostic probes may be of value and will be
assessed through future collaborative research.

New areas of research being considered
include resistance to BYDV, septoria diseases,
leaf rust, and powdery mildew. It is hoped that
collaborative research will be developed in the
following areas: isozyme analyses (USA and
Australia); restriction fragment length
polymorphism probes (USA and UK); and
nonradioactive probes (USA). The technique
employing nonradioactive probes for D genome
applications in interspecific hybridization has
been developed and will be transferred to

CIMMYT wheat training programs are
characterized by close working relations
between the Center's senior scientists and a
limited number of trainees from national crop
improvement and crop management programs
in the developing world (see Appendix IV).
Although trainees learn firsthand about the
Center's methods and materials, the purpose of
this training is not to transplant CIMMYT
methodologies into national programs. Rather,
the intention is to allow each national program,
through the trainees that come to to the
Center, to borrow as much of the research
approach as is useful.

Wheat improvement-The main objectives of
the wheat improvement training program are to:
* Impart to trainees the research skills and
knowledge used at CIMMYT to develop
improved germplasm
* Encourage and develop the trainees'
ability to synthesize new forms of wheat
* Foster specific types of attitudinal change
among trainees

Each trainee is assigned to a work team with a
crop interest (bread wheat, durum wheat,
triticale, or barley). With the objective of
turning trainees into an "army" of crop
improvement specialists, all trainees, regardless
of their areas of specialization, are given the
opportunity to work across disciplines at the
field level. This process of integration includes
all phases of germplasm development research,
the theory and practice of cereal pathology,
and important aspects of crop management.

From 1971 to 1986, CIMMYT has trained 335
scientists from developing countries in wheat
improvement (breeding and pathology). The
impact of this training on human resources in
the developing world has been substantial.
Today, breeders and pathologists trained by
CIMMYT are active in over 100 national
programs. Many of the research leaders in
national programs today are former CIMMYT
trainees and visiting scientists.

Production-The objective of the production
training program is to develop an agronomist
conversant with all aspects of crop
management. Trainees are generally young
wheat scientists from developing countries and
generally have very little experience in
research. Ideally, after the six-month course,
trainees return to their research programs to
execute a research program in wheat
agronomy that is relevant to the agronomic and
economic circumstances of their countries.

Trainees work on the experiment station and in
farmers' fields. On-farm research is emphasized
to maintain a high level of consciousness of
the relevance of agronomic research to
farmers' problems. Interdisciplinary
competence is achieved through trainees'
exposure to a wide range of field problems and
through field and classroom lectures by
CIMMYT staff from many disciplines. All steps
in the research process are taught in a
sequence ranging from problem diagnosis to
research planning, field execution, agronomic
and economic analysis, and extension.

E_ E_ =_ M

In 1986 the production course was held for the
20th time. An increasing number of trainees
are drawn from areas where wheat is not a
traditional crop, such as Nigeria and Thailand.
Beginning in 1987, part of the field component
of the course will be done near Chalco, where
wheat is the main crop. The experiment station
part of the course will be strengthened,
because strong research on the station is
essential to the success of on-farm research.

The course is now taught under dryland
conditions, but an irrigation component will be
incorporated in the future. More time will be
spent on field diagnosis, on the basis of which
trainees will be asked to design and implement
a research program. Greater emphasis will be
given to cropping systems in relation to wheat
production; this segment of the course will be
taught using case studies of situations
encountered by CIMMYT agronomists in their
work throughout the world.


Maria Teresa Nieto, a doctoral
candidate from Spain, helps
with emasculation in durum
wheat plots at Obregon.

Regional and Bilateral Programs
The breeders, pathologists, and crop
management specialists in regional and bilateral
programs provide assistance to the
development of national wheat research
programs and, ultimately, to improving wheat
productivity in developing countries. These
program staff members are involved in crop
improvement, training, and support to national

Regional programs cover the major wheat-
growing areas of the developing world:

* The Andean region
* East and southern Africa
* South Asia
* North Africa/Middle East
(CIMMYT/ICARDA Cooperative Project)
Southeast Asia (wheats for warmer and
more marginal environments)
Southern Cone of South America (wheats
for warmer and more marginal

In 1986 the program's post in Lisbon,
Portugal, for North Africa and the Iberian
Peninsula was closed. The region will continue
to be administered by CIMMYT personnel
assigned to the CIMMYT/ICARDA Cooperative

CIMMYT currently has bilateral programs in
Pakistan, Bangladesh, Peru, and Turkey (see
the section on extra-core grants).

Andean region-This regional program began
in 1976 when CIMMYT posted a
breeder/pathologist to Quito, Ecuador. Since
1982 a regional agronomist was part of the
team. The primary goal of the regional staff
has been to increase the productivity of
resources devoted to wheat production in the
region. The most obvious immediate measure
of success is the fact that, in all traditional
small grain-producing areas of the region,
adapted and disease-resistant varieties with
high yield potential are widely cultivated.

East and southern Africa-The nations of this
region are seeking new areas in which wheat
production can be established or expanded.
The objectives of CIMMYT activities in this
region cover three broad areas: 1) germplasm
and human resources development, 2)
networking and training, and 3) improved crop
management techniques (see the section on
extra-core grants).

South Asia-This program, based in
Kathmandu, Nepal, was established in 1985
to: 1) focus on helping to minimize the
possibility of wheat disease epidemics in South
Asia and 2) assist national programs in
germplasm development, training, technical
backup, increased communication within
countries and regionally, and small equipment

North Africa/Middle East-Since 1980 bread
wheat improvement for North Africa and the
Middle East has been a joint CIMMYT/ICARDA
endeavor. The facilities and bread wheat
breeding programs of both research centers are
used to improve bread wheat germplasm for
targeted marginal environments in the region.

Durum wheat is planted to about 70 percent of
the total wheat area of this region. Since
1984, CIMMYT and ICARDA have had a joint
durum wheat program with the aim of

Mahbub Uddin Ahmed (left),
wheat pathologist with the
Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute (BARI) and
former CIMMYT trainee, and a
co-worker inspect Bangladesh
Screening Nursery plots at

developing complementary durum wheat
research at both institutions, coordinating
germplasm distribution, and working closely
with national programs.

In 1986 the Center laid the groundwork to
create a new program in North Africa and by
1987 expects to have a specialist based in
Morocco, where there will be special emphasis
on triticale improvement.

Southern Cone of South America (wheats for
warmer and more marginal environments)-
The regional program for developing wheats for
the warmer and more marginal areas in South
America was initiated in 1986 and now has
staff based in Paraguay. They are
concentrating their efforts on developing
wheats and technologies for the more tropical
areas of Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, and
Argentina. They will also give limited input to
germplasm development for other countries of
the Southern Cone. The challenge lies in
identifying and screening appropriate
germplasm that can adapt and produce under
the high, dynamic disease and insect pressures
at an economic level. Regional staff are
working with the national programs to identify
problems, set up priorities and goals, and
assist in developing appropriate research

Southeast Asia (wheats for warmer and more
marginal environments)-This regional
program is based in Thailand and concentrates
on developing germplasm and crop
management research programs for Thailand,
Indonesia, Burma, and the Philippines. To date
'working relationships with many of these
countries have been established for the
exchange of germplasm and information.
Special international nurseries have been set up
and distributed to national programs. An
international conference entitled Wheat
Production Constraints in Tropical Environments
is scheduled for January 1987 in Chiang Mai,

Pakistan-The bilateral program in Pakistan
was established in 1976 with the general aim
of strengthening wheat research in the country
and giving more emphasis to agronomy. On-
farm research has provided a better
understanding of each selected cropping zone
in the country and has helped focus work at
the stations on relevant research issues.

Bangladesh-Wheat is the second most
important cereal crop in Bangladesh. The
bilateral program was initiated in 1982 and has
three major components: technical assistance,
training, and equipping the national program
for research. Progress has been made in
developing appropriately adapted, leaf-rust
resistant, popular varieties to replace and/or
effectively diminish the area occupied by the
predominant commercial variety that is
susceptible to leaf rust. Bangladesh also plays
an important role in the regional tropical wheat

In 1986 the Center laid the groundwork to create a
new program in North Africa and by 1987 expects
to have a specialist based in Morocco, where there
will be special emphasis on triticale improvement.

Peru-Since 1983, CIMMYT has based a
scientist in Peru in the capacity of co-leader of
the National Cereals Program. Areas of
research include 1) intensification of on-farm
production agronomy research, 2) work on the
main limiting factors of infertility and weeds,
and 3) maintaining levels of acceptable disease
resistance. Priority is also given to training.
During the period 1983-86, approximately
20,000 lines of small grain cereals in different
stages of development were evaluated. Two
bread wheat varieties and one durum wheat
variety were released for the Peruvian Sierra.

Turkey-CIMMYT has two programs in Turkey,
the international winter wheat program
discussed above and the bilateral program
started in 1984 with UNDP funding. The two
programs are closely aligned. However,
activities specific to Turkey in the bilateral
program include work to expand the
development of winter bread and durum wheat
germplasm and enhanced selection for types
suited to marginal and rainfed conditions.
Attention is also given to increasing wheat
yields in areas that have lagged behind and
developing materials for newly irrigated areas.

The work of the Economics Program is aimed
at strengthening the capacity of national
research programs to carry out efficient
agricultural research. In 1986 there were 4
staff at headquarters and 12 involved in
cooperative research and training activities in
four regional programs (Central America and
the Caribbean, Eastern and Southern Africa,
South Asia, and Southeast Asia) and in two
bilateral projects (Haiti and Mexico).

Economics staff have devoted much of their
effort to the development and teaching of
research procedures, primarily for conducting

Economics Research

Members of one of Panama's
regional on-farm research units
conduct a formal survey of
farmers as part of a call
system course organized by
the CIMMYT Economics
I ., ..

adaptive on-farm research. With these
methods, which were developed in conjunction
with CIMMYT agronomists and scientists in
national programs, researchers assess the
production circumstances and problems of the
majority of farmers in target research areas, set
priorities for experimental programs, and
analyze experimental results. This approach to
on-farm investigation is now being practiced in
many production research programs in the
Third World.

Center economists are also developing
methods for improving the efficiency of
decision making in the allocation of resources
within national programs. The aim of current
efforts is to adapt the techniques of domestic-
resource cost analysis to the problems of
setting priorities. In other work we are
examining the effects of the policy environment
on the acceptability of technologies generated
through on-farm research and developing
methods through which researchers can deliver
appropriate technical data to policy makers.

In addition, the Economics Program continues
to work on the collection and analysis of data
concerning the world maize and wheat
economies. These analyses are useful both to
national program decision makers and to
CIMMYT staff.

Technology Generation
The Economics Program works with national
programs in developing countries to formulate,
demonstrate, and institutionalize on-farm
research procedures. A growing number of
national research institutes in Africa, Asia, and
Latin America have integrated on-farm research
procedures into the process of technology

In 1986 Economics staff worked closely with
scientists in selected countries where on-farm
investigation has been institutionalized to
further strengthen this type of research.
Economics staff consulted with scientists in a
number of other countries that already have
well-established on-farm research efforts,
including Indonesia, Pakistan, Zambia, Malawi,
and Honduras. Our staff also demonstrated on-
farm research techniques in other countries
where scientists are considering how to adapt
these procedures to their own institutional

I -

Training forms an important part of our work in
on-farm research. Most of this training takes
place in-country, and it is often conducted
according to the "call system" approach, in
which participants come together for periods of
one to two weeks at key stages in the research
cycle (for example, to conduct farm surveys,
evaluate trial results, or plan subsequent
experimentation). During 1986 call system
courses were initiated in Haiti and Ethiopia. In
addition, workshops on various social science
components of on-farm research were offered
in a number of countries.

Research Resource Allocation
The Economics Program is developing
procedures for shaping research priorities and
allocating resources within national research
organizations. Our aim is to provide agricultural
administrators with reliable means for making
decisions about the distribution of scarce funds
and trained personnel among competing crops
and regions. Current work involves a series of
case studies using the techniques of domestic-
resource cost analysis to determine the
profitability at the farm and national levels of
alternative crops or production techniques.

Work continued in 1986 on case studies
initiated previously, and a new study was
begun in Zimbabwe to examine the likely costs
of different options for increasing the country's
wheat production. Drawing on experience
gained from studies that have already been
completed, we are planning a workshop on
procedures for resource allocation.
Farm-Based Policy Research
The Economics Program is working on policy
issues that affect the potential acceptability of
technologies generated through adaptive
research. In many instances the
implementation of policies (on input delivery,
marketing systems, credit, or extension) limits
the diffusion of otherwise appropriate
technology. These imperfections in agricultural
policy can be attributed at least in part to a
lack of technical information among policy
makers. Using data generated by on-farm
work, researchers should be able to supply
administrators with information that will help
them make more effective decisions on policy

Economist Alberic Hibon
(center) assists in the analysis
of on-farm research data
collected by Mexican



In 1986 case studies were completed that
examined the consequences of and alternatives
to policies affecting the availability of particular
types of fertilizers in specific regions of Mexico
and Haiti. Another study was carried out that
considered the choice and distribution of types
of wheat seed in Pakistan. Based on the
experience gained in those studies, we are
developing a framework within which scientists
in national programs can apply data from on-
farm research to the implementation of policy.

Data Collection and Analysis
The Economics Program collects and analyzes
data on the production, utilization, and trade of
maize and wheat. The results of these analyses
are reported in alternate years in the series
World Wheat Facts and Trends and World
Maize Facts and Trends, which are aimed at
agricultural administrators, researchers, and
policy makers.

A study conducted in 1986 on the economics of
maize seed production underscores the tremendous
scope for wider dissemination of improved maize
and calls attention to some of the circumstances that
have limited its spread.

In 1986 an issue of Maize Facts and Trends
was prepared that focuses on the vital issue of
seed production in developing countries, in
addition to providing basic information on the
current situation of world maize production and
utilization (see box). For the study of seed
production, two sets of questionnaires were
distributed. One went to CIMMYT outreach
staff and their colleagues in national programs,
who provided figures on the amount of maize
seed planted, area sown to improved maize,
and so forth for each of the major maize-
producing countries of the world. The second
questionnaire was sent to maize seed
enterprises to collect data on costs, prices,
yields, and other variables in seed production.

The Global Maize
and Wheat Situation
Maize, with a global harvest of almost
480 million metric tons (Mt) in 1986,
ranked with wheat and rice as the
world's major cereal crops. Worldwide
about two-thirds of all maize is used for
feeding livestock, almost one quarter for
human consumption, and about 10
percent for industrial purposes and seed.
In 1986 developing countries produced
171 Mt of maize, roughly half of which
was used for human consumption,
slightly less than half for livestock feed,
and the remainder for industrial purposes
and seed. Maize is a particularly
important part of the human diet in sub-
Saharan Africa, Mexico, Central America
and the Caribbean, and the Andean
countries. During recent years growth in
the demand for maize as a feed grain has
slowed in the Third World because of
economic downturns in many countries.
In spite of those difficulties, however,
developing countries imported some 22
Mt of maize during 1985-86 out of a
total 55 Mt imported worldwide. Third
World nations exported around 18 Mt, a
large portion of which came from
Argentina, China, and Thailand.

Worldwide production of wheat reached
the record level of 534 Mt in 1986 (206
Mt of it in developing countries), having
risen remarkably from 319 Mt in 1970.
Roughly half of the increased production
is grown in the Third World, where wheat
consumption rose dramatically during the
1970s, driven by rapid population
growth, urbanization, and rising incomes.
During the 1980s the economic fortunes
of many countries declined sharply,
causing Third World wheat imports to
level off in recent years. Even so,
developing countries remain the largest
wheat importing group, having received
54 Mt (including China) in 1985 out of
the total shipments of 84 Mt.

The data and analysis presented underscore
the tremendous scope for wider dissemination
of improved maize and call attention to some
of the circumstances that have limited its
spread. That discussion, covering seed costs,
pricing, and performance, is followed by a
section on important issues that decision
makers in developing countries must face as
they try to promote the growth of effective
seed industries. For example, what role does
hybrid maize seed have to play, and what
types of hybrids might be appropriate under
prevailing circumstances in a given country's
maize production? What place should the
public and private sectors have in supplying
improved seed to farmers? And what incentives
are needed to encourage seed industries to do
their jobs effectively? Decision makers should
find much useful information in this study that
will help them arrive at sound conclusions on
those issues and others pertaining to the
development of maize seed production.

Regional Programs
In each of our four regional programs,
economists work with selected national
programs in cooperative research projects and
training activities. In eastern and southern
Africa, we continue to emphasize the
development of national capacities to conduct
on-farm research, and the staff in that region
devoted a very high proportion of their time to
training activities in 1986. In Southeast Asia
Economics Program activities included training
and consulting with on-farm researchers. In
South Asia emphasis was placed on applying
on-farm research data to policy and planning
issues in Pakistan. The regional staff in Central
America and the Caribbean carried out several
intensive training courses and developed case
studies on farm-based policy research.

Staff of the Ghana Grains
Development Project
interviewing a farmer during a
study on the adoption of
technology recommended by
the project.


The research and training programs described
in foregoing sections require support in field
activities and laboratory analysis, and they
generate tremendous amounts of data and
information that must be presented in
appropriate forms. Providing those services is
the main responsibility of four research support
units at Center headquarters in Mexico.
CIMMYT staff are the direct recipients of many
services they provide, but in numerous ways
the activities of the support units reach beyond
that group, affecting nearly all of our
cooperators in developing countries.

Experiment Stations
In Mexico the primary responsibility of our
experiment station management unit is to
oversee field operations on some 500 hectares
of land at various research stations and other
experimental sites. The unit works closely with
CIMMYT scientists and reduces their burden of

Support Services
IT)//^ ^W

day-to-day field supervision, so that they can
concentrate on research issues. Experiment
station staff attend to such matters as land
preparation, fertilization, plant protection,
irrigation, and management of field workers.
Most of this work takes place at five stations in
Mexico, four of which (El Batan, Poza Rica,
Tlaltizapan, and Toluca) are managed directly
by Center staff and the fifth (at Ciudad
Obregon) by the National Institute for
Agricultural, Livestock, and Forestry Research

In addition, the unit offers an in-service training
course, in which station workers from
developing countries spend about five months
in Mexico studying and gaining experience in
the whole range of activities that are involved
in running an experiment station. In the past
this course has been offered twice a year, but
starting in 1987, it will be conducted once
annually for larger groups of participants.

This step and the return of one staff member
upon completion of his graduate studies have
permitted experiment station management staff
to begin committing a much larger share of
their time to support of station work in
countries other than Mexico. During 1986
three staff members devoted approximately six
man-months to visits in Bolivia, Kenya,
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Thailand,
and Turkey. Their purpose in making such trips
(which are organized by regional specialists in
the Maize and Wheat Programs at the request
of national staff) is to offer assistance in the
development and improvement of experiment
station facilities and to conduct courses on
specific topics that cannot be covered by the
more general in-service course given at
headquarters. The unit has been involved in 64
separate experiment station projects in the
Third World (of which 18 are ongoing), an
obvious indication that there is a large demand
for this service.

Most of the thousands of analyses conducted
by laboratory staff are used by CIMMYT
researchers in crop improvement work at
headquarters and in outreach programs. This
information provides valuable guidance in
selecting materials for certain desirable traits
that cannot readily be measured in the field.

Overseeing field operations is a major responsibility
of Experiment Station staff, who in doing so free
CIMMYT scientists to concentrate on research.

0 ____ E_

Some 20,000 samples of quality protein maize
(QPM) germplasm, for example, are analyzed
each year to detect any negative changes in
protein status that may take place as the
materials are selected for yield, kernel
modification, and other traits. The laboratory
also conducts protein fractionation periodically
in advanced QPM populations to determine the
effects of genetic modifiers that have been
accumulated in these materials on their protein
balance. In addition to handling the routine
work of QPM analysis, laboratory staff
conducted and published during 1986 a study
on the stability of improved protein quality in
typical maize products such as tortillas. They
also trained five researchers from five countries
in procedures for quality protein analysis.

In a parallel activity, the Wheat Program's
milling and baking laboratory conducted
extensive evaluations of early generation lines
for good grain type and other characteristics
(including protein and pigment content) and of
advanced lines for traits such as test weight
and milling and baking qualities. Maintenance
of high standards in those characteristics is
essential to the ultimate acceptability of wheat
lines disseminated by CIMMYT to breeders in
developing countries.

Another activity that laboratory staff are
engaged in primarily for the Wheat Program is
screening of germplasm for tolerance to
aluminum toxicity. Wheat scientists have a
longstanding project for development of this
trait in cooperation with Brazilian scientists and
routinely request the services of laboratory staff
in their aluminum tolerance work. The Maize
Program, on the other hand, has just recently
initiated an international program in the Andean
region for developing germplasm that is
tolerant to aluminum toxicity.

One service provided regularly by laboratory
staff across programs is the analysis of soil and
plant tissue samples. Many requests for this
type of analysis come from participants in
training courses at headquarters, who use the
results in planning experiments. A particularly
large influx of soil and tissue samples came
from the Maize Program's physiology unit this
year as part of its work on drought tolerance
and nitrogen-use efficiency.

Information Services
A number ot important changes occurred
during 1986 within Information Services. The
unit came under new direction at the beginning
of the year, and several other key staff were
hired; the group moved into new facilities (the

Norman Borlaug Building); and the unit
adopted new word processing and library
automation hardware and software. All these
changes reflect a continuing commitment by
CIMMYT management to meet in an efficient
manner the information needs of the Center's
various clients.

Experiment Station staff have assisted in 64 separate
projects for station development in the Third World,
an obvious indication that there is a large demand
for this service.

The primary objectives of the Information
Services unit remain unchanged, however.
They are to assist Center staff 1) in
communicating the results of their research to
colleagues around the world, 2) in remaining
current in their respective fields by providing
better access to the results of research done
elsewhere, and 3) in improving the
effectiveness of maize, wheat, and economics
training activities. The group is thus organized
into three interrelated areas: publications
production, a scientific information unit (which
includes our specialized library and is currently
funded by Canada's International Development
Research Centre, IDRC), and training
materials/audiovisuals development.

In publications a senior science writer/editor
and an associate English language editor joined
the staff during the year; a second associate
editor (Spanish) was identified and will join the
group in January 1987. Some 60 new
publications of various types were produced
(Appendix V), with emphasis given to practical
guidebooks intended to enhance the
competencies of national program staff and
widen their access to CIMMYT germplasm and
information. An increasing number of those
titles were translated into other languages
(primarily Spanish and French), a trend we
anticipate will continue. Distribution of the
Center's publications expanded rapidly through
the use of an increasingly well targeted
mailing list system containing names and
addresses of over 7600 individuals, libraries,
and national program institutions.


Our scientific information unit (SIU)/library also
underwent important staffing changes with the
hiring of a professional information officer (to
assist Center staff in information database
searches) and a professional librarian (whose
immediate challenge is one of streamlining and
automating our traditional library services).
Further details on the work of the SIU are
given in the section of this report that covers
extra-core grants.

Another significant staffing decision occurred
with the identification of an associate training
materials/audiovisual coordinator, who will join
the information group in January 1987. This
decision reflects a renewed commitment to the
development of training materials, as well as a
recognition of the need to develop materials
that take full advantage of cost-effective
instructional A/V technologies. Priority activities
will include reorganization of photographic
services, design and implementation of an
"image bank" for color slides and black and
white negatives, and the clear delineation of a
training materials agenda that reflects the
needs of CIMMYT training officers and

Data Processing
This unit provides vital support in every aspect
of CIMMYT's operations (research,
administration, information services,
accounting, personnel management, and so
forth) by assisting in statistical analysis,
developing new software, installing and
maintaining hardware, and assisting computer
users. The addition of staff and some
accompanying reorganization in 1986 enabled
Data Processing to make an unprecedented
contribution to the computerization of Center
activities that previously were done by hand or
according to older, less efficient systems; some
were not done at all for lack of resources.

The most important change in organization was
the creation of an operations unit responsible
for hardware and of a software development

unit. Under the latter, programmers that
previously worked within the two crop
programs were consolidated to form a single
crop systems development group consisting of
five staff. Three new programmers were added
to the software unit (through special funding
from Digital Equipment Corporation, IDRC, and
the government of Denmark), bringing its total
number up to 10. The operations unit acquired
one additional staff member to organize
training and provide assistance to computer

The major acquisitions of the operations group
this year were several microVAX computers
(one for software development, another for the
Wheat Program, and a third, donated by the
government of West Germany, that will serve
various units) and 40 IBM personal computers,
plus eight more given to us by IBM, Mexico.
One of the unit's main accomplishments in
1986 was to install the PCs, which are being
used mainly for word processing, spread sheet
analysis, and experiment station operations.
This group also began setting up a local area
network that, when complete, will allow us to
connect a larger number of terminals at lower
cost, among other advantages.

In software development, several important
projects were brought to completion, and
others were carried through important design
and testing stages. Among the items of
software finished was a pedigree management
system for the Wheat Program. This system
serves as the basis for other software,
including an international nursery system and
breeders' seed inventory system, both
completed in 1986, and a wheat field book
system, for which we have just completed an
assessment of the Program's requirements.
Separate nursery mailing list systems were
developed for the Wheat and Maize Programs
along with other software that is enabling the
maize germplasm bank to compile information
on landraces and other accessions in a
computer database. In addition, a database
from the Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) that contains crop production and
related information was updated and made
available to users, particularly in the
Economics Program.

Extra-Core Grants

Extra-core programs are undertaken within a
direct relationship between CIMMYT and a
donor. Although they fall outside of the
Center's core program (sponsored by the
CGIAR), they form an important part of its
research and training efforts. Extra-core
programs are generally of four types:

* Direct assistance (posting of staff or
provision of research equipment) to national
or regional programs

* Specialized or advanced-degree training

* Cooperative research arrangements of a
more basic or long-term nature

* Special exploratory research activities

The CIMMYT Board of Trustees has established
the following guidelines for judging the relative
merit of projects funded through extra-core

* The action should not be a mere technical
assistance contribution to a country or
region, but have some potential for
strengthening the Center's overall research
competence and adding to the base of
scientific knowledge.

* The project should have, wherever
appropriate, a training component that
enables CIMMYT staff to gain experience or
enhances national capacity in the area of

* Any administrative costs to the Center
should be fully identified and reimbursed by
overhead or other means in the funding of
the project.

* There should be no implied continuing
obligation on the part of CIMMYT; that is,
all potential costs for staff repatriation and
rehabilitation and ancillary costs on
termination must be covered by the donor.

In 1986 extra-core grants amounted to
US$6,436,000 or 23 percent of total
expenditures. Reports on major grants are
given in the following pages. Several of those
provide funds for posting staff in national
research programs, and all contribute in
important ways to the Center's research

3. -

The recently completed
Norman E. Borlaug Training,
Conference, and Information

Capital Improvements

Project: Training, Conference,
and Information Center

Donor: Japan Shipbuilding Industry
Foundation and
Government of Japan

Pledge: uSs 1.000.000
US5 586,274

Other Intere[s earned on advance
Revenue: payment of donation
US 8144,000

Duration: January 1985 o: Seprember

Financial Expenses (US')
Summary Preious veais
Total to date1


Balance available -0-

Objectives-This project funded the
construction of the Norman E. Borlaug Building
at CIMMYT headquarters, which is permitting a
sizeable expansion of services in training and
information as well as accommodating growth
in the crop programs.

Activities in 1986-By the end of the year,
construction had been completed, and staff of
the maize and wheat training programs,
publications unit, scientific information unit
(SIU)/library, and Wheat Program had moved
into their new quarters. The basement of the
building, which has three floors, is occupied by
the publications unit and the SIU/library. Those
units are now well situated for increasing their
efforts in the production and distribution of
printed and audiovisual information products
and in the use of major bibliographic
databases. Another important means of
information exchange will be aided by the
seminar facility on the main floor, which is
equipped with modern systems for
simultaneous translation and audiovisual
presentations. This floor also houses the
training programs, which now have ample
space for the classroom portion of in-service
courses, access to a combination self-learning
center/language laboratory and microcomputer
users room (both part of the library), and office
space for 10 visiting scientists on the second
fldor. Other offices on that floor are now used
by several Wheat Program staff.

Project: Central America and Caribbean
Maize Seed Production

Donor: Swiss Development Cooperation

Pledge: US$ 1,050,000

Duration: July 1983 to December 1986

Financial Expenses (USsl5
Summary Previous years
Total to date

$ 366.000
5 577,000
$ 943,000

Balance available $ 107,000

Objectives-This project was established to
improve maize seed production in 13 countries
of the Central America and Caribbean region.
Although seed industries have expanded
considerably in the region over the past few
years (particularly in El Salvador, Guatemala,
and Nicaragua), growth has been slow in some
countries, and in general weak seed production
operations have been an impediment to the
spread of new germplasm developed by
national maize programs. In their breeding and
agronomy research, those programs are
assisted by a companion project that is also
funded by the Swiss Development Cooperation,
but as part of CIMMYT's core program.

Activities in 1986-The current work of this
project (staffed by one maize scientist based in
Guatemala) is to help countries in the region
develop effective seed production strategies.
The most promising approach is based on a
strategy already adopted with some success in
Guatemala and that, with appropriate
modifications, should prove to be effective in
other countries as well. Two important
elements of that strategy are production of
basic seed by the national maize program and
of foundation seed by a unit set up specifically
for that purpose. Much of the project's
resources was committed to developing and
supporting such units during 1986.



Project: East Africa Cereals Program

Donor: Canadian International
Development Agency (CIDA)

Pledge: CA$ 1,760,000
US$ 1,354,000 (est.)

Duration: October 1984 to June 1988

Financial Expenses (US$I
Summary Previous years $ 227,000
1986 S 420,000
Total to date s 647,000

Balance available $ 707,000

Objectives-The principal aim of this project is
to strengthen the maize agronomy research
capacity of seven nations in the region:
Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia,
Tanzania, and Uganda. Although project staff
are currently working with those countries
individually, they also try to support regional
initiatives by participating in workshops
organized biennially by CIMMYT's regional
maize program. The primary services offered
by the project are consultation and in-country
training; the latter is often conducted in
cooperation with Economics Program staff and
with other development organizations operating
in the region. In a companion project, funded
by CIDA from the same grant, the Wheat
Program is working toward essentially the same
objectives in agronomy research on small

Activities in 1986-The two agronomists
staffing this project (which has its headquarters
at Nairobi) visited all seven countries several
times in 1986 and now have a fairly clear idea
of the region's agronomy research history,
needs, and opportunities. During those visits
their time was divided between consultation
(mainly for identification of problems and
planning of agronomic experiments) and
training and other types of assistance in on-
farm research (OFR). Much of the OFR work is
organized jointly with the Economics Program,
as in the case of call system courses and
another type of event that has been dubbed
the networkshop. In the latter (one of which
was held in Ethiopia this year) researchers from
throughout the region visit one country to
review its OFR program and share their own
insights and experiences.

Project: Ghana Maize Program, Phase II

Donor: Canadian International
Development Agency ICIDA)

Pledge: CA$ 4,977,866
US$ 3,750,000

Duration: October 1983 to March 1989

Financial Expenses (USS).
Summary Pre% ious years
Total to date

$ 726,000
$ 2.245,000

Balance available $ 1,505,000

Objectives-The objective of this project,
which was initiated in 1979 and is now in its
second phase, is to improve maize and grain
legume production in Ghana through improved
technologies and to strengthen the overall
research capacity of the country's Crops
Research Institute. The CIMMYT Maize
Program provides a resident joint project
coordinator and agronomist, and Economics
Program staff make periodic visits to assist
with on-farm research. The International
Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
coordinates the research on grain legumes.

Activities in 1986-Work continued this year
on improvement of maize pools and
populations, and numerous national and
international maize and cowpea trials were
carried out. Project agronomists were active in
conducting investigations on weed control,
integrated pest management, intercropping,
and other problems. With assistance from the
CIMMYT Economics Program, project
economists and other staff made an informal
survey of 180 farmers in an area where
extensive on-farm research has been
conducted. The results indicated a fairly high
rate of adoption by farmers of project
technologies and recommendations, which
were developed and tested in hundreds of trials
at locations throughout the country. To
strengthen these research efforts, the project
has a large training component that includes
various types of in-country courses and
workshops as well as graduate studies. Three
national staff completed master's and Ph.D.
programs, and a number of others continued or
began study programs.



Project: Pakistan Maize Program

Donor: United States Agency for
International Development

Pledge: Rps 9 026,879
(US$ 524,0001
USS 740 000

Duration: October 1984 to September

Financial Expenses IUS$i.
Summary Previous years
Total to date

s 505.000
5 229,000
$ 734.000

Balance available s 530 000

Objectives-The maize portion of this project,
which also includes wheat and economics
components, was set up to assist the Pakistan
Agricultural Research Council in its work with
provincial research institutes. The central
purpose of that work is to increase the
availability of improved maize technology to
farmers, with the aim of boosting production to
meet growing demand for maize in the poultry

Activities in 1986-The project's primary
means of achieving those objectives are
assistance to the national breeding effort and
participation in a stepped-up on-farm research
program initiated during 1984. In germplasm
work the CIMMYT scientist staffing this project
worked with national and provincial scientists
in developing and improving early maturing
maize for upland areas and winter/spring
plantings. The project was also actively
involved in a multidisciplinary on-farm research
program that is working toward a clearer
understanding of farm-level constraints of
maize production, identifying technical
solutions, and testing and demonstrating those
solutions in farmers' fields. In addition, the
project scientist is consulting with a program
for development of modified maize planting and
shelling equipment that is now being
manufactured locally and should help farmers
save considerable time and labor.

Project: Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

Donor: Italy

Pledge: uSs 1.477.017

Duration: January 1984 to December 1987

Financial Expenses iUS$):
Summary Previous years $ 193,000
1986 S 425,000
Total to date s 618,000

Balance available $ 859,017

Objectives-The project aims to reduce losses
caused by this virus by supporting the transfer
of technology currently available in developed
country institutions to Third World countries via
CIMMYT. Since BYDV is both significant and
ubiquitous, the development of resistant
germplasm could increase cereal production in
developing and developed countries by
decreasing the losses it currently causes. The
project's overall goal is to identify sources of
resistance to the virus from research currently
being undertaken in several institutions and
transfer this technology through a cooperative
network to institutions throughout the world,
especially in developing countries.

Activities in 1986-Seven main aphid species
that feed on small grains have been identified
in Mexico. Work to date also indicates that
there are three main isolates of the virus
present in Mexico. At CIMMYT the ELISA
facility, purchased with Italian funds, has
become functional and uses antisera purchased
from institutions in England. With ELISA, the
Center can now test dried leaf samples thought
to be infected with BYDV. ELISA is also being
used to examine the virus concentration in
BYDV-resistant plants to see if this technique
may be used as an adjunct to symptom
assessment for selecting resistant plants.
Construction of an aphid rearing and handling
facility within the greenhouse complex began in
1986, and it will be operational by 1987.



Project: Introduction of Alien Genes into
Wheat Through Conventional
and Biotechnology Approaches

Donor: Australia

Pledge: A $ 140,000
US$ 114,000

Duration: Australia, multiyear; UNDP,
negotiated annually

Financial Expenses (US$):
Summary Previous years
Total to date

$ 15,000
$ 74,000
$ 89,000

Balance available $ 25 000

Objectives-The objectives of the wheat wide
cross program are to incorporate resistance to
Helminthosporium sativum, Fusarium
graminearum, and Tilletia indica (Karnal bunt)
and stress tolerance (salt, drought, heat,
aluminum, and copper) from related genera
into wheat.

Activities in 1986-Interspecific hybridization,
a new area of investigation, was initiated in
February during the Ciudad Obregon crop
cycle. The objectives are similar to those of the
ongoing intergeneric hybridization program. The
species involved are more closely related to
wheat and in 1986 included Triticum urartu, T.
boeticum, T. araraticum, T. dicoccoides, T.
dicoccum, T. tauschii, and T. carthlicum.
Interspecific efforts, due to the existence of
close phylogenetic relationships, ease of
crossability, and opportunities for high
recombination status, offer wheat programs
short-term payoffs (7 to 10 years).

Project: East Africa Cereals Program

Donor: Canadian Inrernational
Development Agency (CIDA)

Pledge: CA$ 993,000
USs 764,000 lest I

Duration: October 1984 to June 1988

Financial Expenses (US$):
Summary Previous years
Total to date


Balance available $ 416,000

Objectives-The project has as its principal
objective increased wheat and triticale
productivity in Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, and Uganda. The
project seeks to transfer improved wheat
production technology to the countries of
eastern Africa, primarily through improved
agronomic practices and varietal improvement.

Activities in 1986-The project agronomist
concentrated his time in Ethiopia and Kenya,
where more than 90 percent of the region's
small grains are produced. Single visits were
made to most of the other countries in the
region. During monthly visits to Ethiopia, the
agronomist was involved in planning trials on
rotation, fertility, use of grain and forage
legumes to break up continuous wheat
cultivation, tillage, use of rock phosphate and
bone meal, seeding rates, herbicides, and
irrigation frequency.

In Kenya weed control and fertility maintenance
continued to be areas of the utmost
importance. Most of the CIMMYT agronomist's
time in Kenya was spent in the areas of acid
soils, marginal rainfall, high-altitude barley, and
mid- to high-altitude wheat. The project
agronomist also participated in a number of
workshops, in-country training sessions, and
field days throughout the region.



Project: Bangladesh Wheat Program

Donor: Canadian International
Development Agency (CIDA)

Pledge: CAS 4,680,000
USS 3 744,000 lest

Duration: April 1982 to %pril 1987

Financial Expenses 1USsi
Summary Previous years
Total to date


Balance available s 1,563,000

Objectives-The overall objectives of the
project are to increase wheat production in
Bangladesh by developing superior wheat
varieties and improved production technologies,
and to help strengthen and support the
research and production staff currently
assigned to the wheat research program of the
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute.

Activities in 1986-BAW 38, introduced as an
advanced line from Pakistan in 1979, was
released under the varietal name, Agrahni, in
October. Agrahni is expected to compete
extremely well against leaf rust-susceptible
Sonalika, the predominant commercial variety,
particularly at late dates of planting.

There is general agreement that wheat stands
in Bangladesh are poor relative to those
expected under the best growing conditions
because of a steady loss of micronutrients with
increased intensification of cropping. Wide-
ranging soil analyses tend to confirm this, with
data indicating several areas deficient in boron
and manganese. A soil chemist specializing in
micronutrients will arrive for a month's stay in
January 1987 to further investigate this

Approximately 600 farmers at respective
district headquarters attended lectures and
demonstrations on proper seed placement and
plant establishment. Groups of farmers also
participated in traveling seminars at two
regional research stations. These seminars,
now in their third year, have been very
successful in showing farmers the performance
of newly developed varieties in the field.

Project: Pakistan Wheat Program

Donor: United States Agency for
International Developmen!

Pledge: Rps 12.817,176
IUSs 1,744,0001
USS 1,078,750 lest I

Duration: October 1984 to September

Financial Expenses (US$)S
Summary Pre ious years
Total to date

$ 454,000
$ 431,000
$ 885,000

Balance available $ 938,000

Objectives-This project, in which the Maize
and Economics Programs also participate, is a
continuation of an association with USAID and
the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. The
overall objective is to develop improved
varieties and agricultural technologies for the
increased production of wheat and maize in

Activities in 1986-In addition to the many
provincial screening and yield nurseries, 250
national uniform yield trials were sent
throughout Pakistan. Several lines showed wide
adaptability across regions and had good
disease resistance. Seventy-nine CIMMYT
nurseries and 70 from the International Center
for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
(ICARDA) were distributed to provincial wheat
programs through the wheat coordinator.
Results were compiled and sent back to the
respective international centers.

The CIMMYT on-farm specialist assisted in a
survey of farmers' knowledge and perceptions
of wheat technology in the rice-wheat, cotton-
wheat, and maize-wheat zones. The results
showed that farmers are not getting the
improved, disease-resistant wheat seed fast
enough. More than 50 percent of each zone is
still sown to disease-susceptible varieties.
Much more work is needed to determine if the
problem is seed multiplication, distribution, or
knowledge of the farmer.



Project: Peru National Cereals Program

Donor: Peruvian National Institute for
Agricultural Research and
Production (INIPA) and World

Pledge: US$ 482,000

Duration: August 1983 to December 1987

Financial Expenses (US$):
Summary Previous years
Total to date

$ 303,000
$ 91,000
$ 394,000

Balance available $ 88,000

Objectives-The project is designed to help
INIPA strengthen its cereals research program
through: 1) consulting with national cereals
research coordinators in program planning and
research implementation, including the
development of research facilities and
manpower, and 2) assisting program leaders to
develop a national in-service training program
and participating in the selection of candidates
for advanced training outside Peru.

Activities in 1986-Germplasm development
and improvement continued during 1986.
Since the project's initiation in 1983, the
National Cereals Program has evaluated
approximately 20,000 lines of small grain
cereals in different stages of development,
including locally derived materials from abroad,
principally from CIMMYT and ICARDA. Three
wheat varieties for the Sierra have been

Because of funding problems with the project,
in-service training in Mexico was funded
entirely by CIMMYT in 1986. An INIPA
extension agent from the Majes Valley made a
short visit to study irrigation and soil
management at seeding time in the Yaqui
Valley of northern Mexico.

In March a regional cereal researchers
workshop was held in Peru. Participants came
from all four small grain cereal-producing
countries of the Andean Region and the
CIMMYT base program. Emphasis was on
informal discussions and interchange of ideas
among the participants.

Project: Wheat Improvement in Turkey

Donor: United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP)

Pledge: US$ 391,000

Duration: December 1983 to December

Financial Expenses (US$):
Summary Previous years
Total to date

$ 241,000
$ 150,000
$ 391,000

Balance available -0-

Objectives-The project seeks to strengthen
small grains cereals research in Turkey by:
1) establishing a germplasm exchange and
distribution system that will allow Turkey to
benefit from improved germplasm with superior
characteristics, 2) developing improved
varieties that are suitable for particular wheat-
growing zones in Turkey, 3) increasing
understanding of the role and control of small
grain diseases in production, and 4) initiating a
national in-service training program to ensure
the long-term sustainability of the national
cereals research program.

Activities in 1986-In April a one-year
extension of the project was approved, so work
continued toward meeting the above
objectives. Between 1500 and 2000 crosses
(mainly winter x winter) per crop cycle are
presently made at Ankara, Edirne, and
Eskisehir. This variability is employed in the
international winter wheat program as well as
the national program. A program has been
initiated at Izmir to place more emphasis on
exploiting winter x spring wheat crosses. The
2nd International Winter Wheat Screening
Nursery (IWWSN) was prepared during the
summer, consisting of 103 entries. Sets were
sent to 50 locations throughout the winter
wheat regions of the world. Candidates were
identified for the 3rd IWWSN and were planted
in Edirne for multiplication.



Project: On-Farm Research in Eastern
and Southern Africa

Donor: United States Agency for
International Development

Pledge: US $ 5,000,000

Duration: January 1986 to May 1990

Financial Expenses (US$):
Summary Previous years
Total to date


Balance available $ 4,309,000

Objectives-This project, which entered its
second phase at the beginning of 1986, is
providing assistance in on-farm research (OFR)
to a number of national agricultural research
and extension institutions and USAID
agricultural project management teams in
eastern and southern Africa. Another
economist joined the project this year, bringing
the total number of staff up to three, with one
based at Nairobi, another at Harare, and the
new project staff member at Lilongwe in

Activities in 1986-Most of the project's
resources go into training, workshops, and
consultation aimed at establishing and
maintaining national OFR efforts. This year
various stages were completed in call system
courses taking place in Ethiopia and Kenya,
and other types of training courses or
workshops were held in a number of countries.
Partly as a result of those types of activities,
most countries in the region are actively
engaged in OFR. It became particularly
apparent this year that those programs now
require more training and assistance in
analyzing trial data and in developing future
plans on the basis of trial results. For that
reason many of the training events and much
of the consultation provided by project staff in
1986 centered on statistical and economic

The development of OFR programs also places
heavier demands on researchers and
administrators in the coordination and
integration of that work into other research
activities. To assist with those efforts, project
staff took part in planning sessions in several
countries of the region.

Project: Haiti Economics Program,
Phase II

Donor: Canadian International
Development Agency (CIDA)

Pledge: CA$ 778,395
US$ 564,000 (est.)

Duration: January 1985 to December 1988

Financial Expenses (USS)
Summary Previous years
Total to date

$ 85,000
$ 178,000
$ 263,000

Balance available $ 301,000

Objectives-The primary aim of this project is
to assist Haitian researchers in the
development and diffusion of improved
technologies that are appropriate to the
biological and socioeconomic circumstances of
the country's maize farmers. The CIMMYT
economist responsible for this work is assisted
(at no cost to the project) by a Center maize
agronomist and an economist assigned to the
Central America and Caribbean regional
program, which is a core-restricted effort
funded by the Swiss Development Cooperation.

Activities in 1986-One of the most important
tools employed to accomplish the project's
objectives is OFR. This year a call-system
course on OFR was initiated for researchers
from all over Haiti, and project staff continued
to participate in an OFR project in Les Cayes,
southwestern Haiti. They also completed an
analysis of fertilizer policy at the farm level, a
project in which data generated through OFR
are being used to identify adjustments in policy
that might lead to more appropriate distribution
of fertilizer.


Information Services

Project: Pakistan Economics Program

Donor: United States Agency for
International Development

Pledge: Rps 2,689,050
(US$ 156,000 est.)
US$ 300,000

Duration: October 1984 to September

Financial Expenses (US$):
Summary Previous years
Total to date

$ 75,000
$ 53,000
$ 128,000

Balance available $ 328,000

Objectives-All three of CIMMYT's main
programs participate in this project, which
grew out of previous work by USAID and the
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. The
economics component of the project was
established in 1984 and is staffed by one
economist. He receives assistance from
CIMMYT's regional economist in South Asia,
who is also stationed in Pakistan and devotes
about 50 percent of his time to the work there,
using core funding. The purpose of the
economics research, like that of the maize and
wheat components, is to make improved
agricultural technology more widely available to

Activities in 1986-Project staff conducted
surveys to gather information about farmers'
use, knowledge, and perception of improved
wheat technologies, such as new varieties,
weed control measures, and fertilization
practices. A paper reporting the results of
surveys on maize production in the Northwest
Frontier Province was published this year. It
points to a number of issues that influence
farmers' acceptance of improved maize
technologies. Among those are various
socioeconomic circumstances, such as the
form of land tenancy and the sharing of inputs,
grain, and fodder under that arrangement, and
the extremely complex matter of farmers' dual
use of maize as a grain and fodder crop.
Information about those issues should provide
valuable guidance in future planning of
research and extension for the province. There
and elsewhere in the country a multidisciplinary
on-farm research program is further exploring
the types of issues raised in the study.

Project: Information Service for
Wheat and Other Small Grains

Donor: International Development
Research Centre (IDRC), Canada

Pledge: CA$ 387,075
US$ 295,000 (est.)

Duration: June 1984 to June 1987

Financial Expenses (US$):
Summary Previous years
Total to date

$ 97,000
$ 59,000
$ 156,000

Balance available $ 139,000

Objectives-The purpose of this project is to
provide information and documentation
services for researchers working on wheat and
other small grains. With the addition of one
new position this year (as supervisor of
information services), the project now has a
staff of five.

Activites in 1986-Most of their efforts are
directed toward providing three main services:
1) database searches, 2) document delivery
based on a coupon system, and 3) distribution
of various bibliographic materials. During 1986
the number of database searches done for
CIMMYT staff tripled to over 400, while our
fledgling document delivery service grew
rapidly, nearing the 3000 mark in number of
documents delivered. Copublication with the
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) of
the Wheat, Barley, and Triticale Abstracts and
Maize Abstracts continued, while the 1986
issues of the CIMMYT/AGRIS Wheat, Barley,
and Triticale Bibliography were delayed until
early 1987, pending system changes within

Another element of the project consists of
state-of-the-art reviews on topics closely
related to the Center's research. As part of the
first review, initiated in 1985, seven Regional
Disease Trap Nurseries and two International
Disease Trap Nurseries were analyzed and the
results submitted to CIMMYT.

The SIU also undertook preliminary testing of
CD-ROM technology for CAB International,
becoming one of 40 test sites located in 26
countries. Results of this effort will become
available in early 1987.



Appendix I

Distribution of Maize Program international trials, 1985-86

1985 1986 1985 1986 1985 1986 1985 1986

Mexico, Central America,
and Caribbean 33
Costa Rica 3
Cuba 1
The Dominican Republic 2
El Salvador -
Guatemala 3
Honduras 2
Mexico 17
Nicaragua 2
Panama 3
St. Kitts

South America

Middle EastlNorth Africa 4
Egypt 2
Mauritania -
Saudi Arabia -
Turkey 2
Yemen, North -

Sub-Saharan Africa 17 9
Angola -
Burkina Faso 2 1
Burundi -
Cameroon 1
Cape Verde -
Congo -
Ethiopia 2
Gabon -
Gambia -
Ghana -

a International Progeny Testing Trial.
b Experimental Variety Trial and Elite Variety Trial.

Sub-Saharan Africa
37 (continued)
3 Guinea-Bissau
Ivory Coast
2 Kenya
2 Malawi
4 Mauritius
9 Reunion
15 Sierra Leone
2 Somalia
South Africa
67 Swaziland
6 Tanzania
21 Togo
15 Uganda
3 Zaire
2 Zambia
2 Zimbabwe
9 Asia
1 Bangladesh
2 Burma
4 China
17 Indonesia
Korea, South
9 Nepal
2 Pakistan
The Philippines
5 Sri Lanka
1 Taiwan

131 France
2 Spain

- Total trials
2 Total countries

1 1

2 1

- 2

_ -
2 1

20 19
1 -

1 1
2 7

3 4

5 4
3 -

- -

26 4
3 5
1 -
5 -
24 23
6 -
8 3
8 5
7 5
6 3
6 12
16 11

99 72 732 499
35 26 75 54


Appendix II

Distribution of Wheat Program international nurseries, 1986

Bread Triti- Germ. Special Bread Tdti- Germ. Special
Wheat Durum cale Barley Dev. Nur. Wheat Durum cale Barley Dev. Nur.

Latin America
Costa Rica

Burkina Faso
South Africa

Middle East
Saudi Arabia
Yemen, North
Yemen, South

81 83 25
18 4 2
11 5 -
4 20 6
20 10 -
3 5 -
1 1 -
4 1
3 2
10 18 8
14 10 -
2 2
1 -

104 74 64
2 3 3
1 1 1

1 1 2

14 8 -
9 2 2
10 5 5
15 5 13
2 1
5 2 -
11 5 5
4 4 2
1 2
5 2

10 9 7

3 3 8
16 7 7
1 2 -
4 -
1 3 1
1 2 2

96 35 44
4 2
1 3
1 2
6 3 -
18 6 5
4 2
2 1 1
22 6 11
33 14 16
7 3 -

90 Asia
10 Afghanistan
3 Bangladesh
32 Bhutan
13 Burma
3 China
1 India
5 Indonesia
1 Japan
11 Korea, North
4 Korea, South
6 Nepal
1 Pakistan
The Philippines
Sri Lanka
103 Taiwan
4 Thailand
1 Vietnam
2 Oceania
6 New Zealand
6 New Caledonia

11 Europe
6 Albania
2 Austria
2 Belgium
8 Bulgaria
2 Czechoslovakia
2 England
4 Finland
1 France
1 Germany, East
7 Germany, West
3 Greece
1 Hungary
6 Ireland
12 Italy
3 The Netherlands
2 Norway
4 Poland
6 Portugal
55 Spain
2 Sweden
4 Switzerland
3 Yugoslavia
2 North America
15 Total nurseries
2 Total countries










57 55 50
6 3 4
1 1 -
1 2 1
19 20 22
16 2 -
2 2 -
1 1
1 1 1
1 2 3
1 1 1
5 8 12
3 -



9 11 7
2 6 4
7 5 3
1 1

105 114 51
7 5 3
5 1 1
1 -
7 2 -
2 3
1 5 2
3 1
8 13 2
3 3
11 7 2
8 4 4
2 3 1
14 5 3
1 2 1
2 3
2 8 2
3 -
3 6 1
34 27 14
3 -
2 3 -

6 4

22 21 14
6 6 4
16 15 10

465 393 255
61 79 66

Appendix III

Countries of origin of maize in-service trainees, 1971-86

1971-86 1986

1971-86 1986

Mexico, Central
America, and
Costa Rica
The Dominican Republic
El Salvador

South America


Asia (continued)
The Philippines
Sri Lanka

Middle East/North Africa
Yemen, North

Sub-Saharan Africa
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Ivory Coast

Other countries

Total trainees
Total countries

4 -

940 79
78 39

Appendix IV

Countries of origin of wheat in-service trainees, 1966-86

1966-86 1986

1966-86 1986

Latin America
The Dominican Republic

North Africa/Middle East
Saudi Arabia

Sub-Saharan Africa
Burkina Faso
Ivory Coast


The Philippines
Sri Lanka

Other Countries

Total trainees
Total countries

Appendix V

Publications released by CIMMYT in 1986

Language Pages Pressrun

1985 Annual Report

CIMMYT Budget Request 1987
CIMMYT Research Highlights 1985
CIMMYT's Information Service for Wheat,
Barley, and Triticale (brochure)
Mainstreams of CIMMYT Research:
A Retrospective
Norman E. Borlaug Building (brochure)

Strengthening National Research Programs Through
Training: A Twenty-Year Progress Report
This is CIMMYT

A Common Ground for Maize Research:
Regional Cooperation in the Middle
East and North Africa (CIMMYT Today No. 17)
CIMMYT International Maize Testing Program
1984 Final Report
Development, Maintenance, and Seed
Multiplication of Open-Pollinated
Maize Varieties
Improving on Excellence: Achievements in
Breeding with the Maize Race Tuxpeio
Maize Diseases: A Guide for Field
Seed Conservation and Distribution:
The Dual Role of the CIMMYT Maize
Germplasm Bank
To Feed Ourselves: A Proceedings of the
First Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa Regional
Maize Workshop

Cereal Diseases Methodology Manual

CIMMYT Report on Wheat Improvement 1984
Durum Wheat: Names, Parentage, Pedigrees,
and Origin
Instructions for the Management and
Reporting of Results for the CIMMYT
Wheat Program International Nurseries

Nursery reports:
Results of the 6th International Barley
Yield Trial (IBYT) 1983-84
Results of the 11th International
Barley Observation Nursery (IBON) 1983-84
Results of the 15th International
Durum Yield Nursery (IDYN) 1983-84
Results of the 15th International
Durum Screening Nursery (IDSN) 1983-84
Results of the 13th Elite Durum
Yield Trial (EDYT) 1983-84
Results of the 15th International
Triticale Yield Nursery (ITYN) 1983-84














80 4,000
80 3,000
36 1,000
132 4,000
48 4,500
48 1,500
10 1,500
10 1,000
24 4,000
24 2,000
48 1,500
48 1,000
48 1,000














Appendix V (Continued)

Publications released by CIMMYT in 1986

Language Pages Pressrun

Results of the 15th International English 42 750
Triticale Screening Nursery (ITSN) 1983-84
Results of the 17th International English 73 750
Bread Wheat Screening Nursery (IBWSN) 1983-84
Results of the 5th Elite Selection English 69 750
Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT) 1983-84
Results of the 14th International English 42 750
Septoria Observation Nursery (ISEPTON) 1983-84
Results of the 20th International Spring English 94 750
Wheat Yield Nursery (ISWYN) 1983-84
Results of the Aluminum Resistance English 22 20
Screening Nursery (ARSN) 1983-84
Results of the Drought Tolerance English 24 20
Screening Nursery (DTSN) 1983-84
Results of the Early Maturity English 18 20
Screening Nursery (EMSN) 1983-84
Results of the Helminthosporium Resistance English 20 20
Screening Nursery (HRSN) 1983-84

Proceedings of the Fifth Biennial Smut English 46 1,000
Workers' Workshop
Spring Triticale: Names, Parentage, English 52 1,500
Pedigrees, and Origin Spanish 48 1,000
Veery 'S': Bread Wheats for Many English 28 2,000
Environments Spanish 28 1,000
Wheat Diseases and Pests: A Guide for English 148 10,000
Field Identification Spanish 148 5,000
Wheat Varieties of the Southern Cone English 72 1,000
Region of South America: Names, Spanish 78 1,500
Parentage, Pedigrees, and Origins

Comparative Advantage and Policy Spanish 126 750
Incentives for Wheat Production in Ecuador
Comparative Advantage and Policy Incentives for English 118 1,000
Wheat Production in Rainfed and Irrigated Areas of Mexico

Copublication of Bibliographic Journals
Maize Abstracts (CAB)
Vol.1, No.6 English 80 750
Vol.2, No.1 English 80 750
Vol.2, No.2 English 112 750
Vol.2, No.3 English 96 750
Vol.2, No.4 English 96 750
Vol.2, No.5 English 80 750

Wheat, Barley, and Triticale Abstracts (CAB)
Vol.2, No.6 English 144 600
Vol.3, No.1 English 119 600
Vol.3, No.2 English 160 600
Vol.3, No.3 English 176 600
Vol.3, No.4 English 144 600
Vol.3, No.5 English 160 600

Wheat, Barley, and Triticale Abstracts,
Vol.2, Annual Indexes English 128 600

Wheat, Barley, and Triticale Bibliography,
Vol.1, No.6, November-December 1985 English 116 750

Staff Publications

Journal Articles,
and Book Chapters

Altay, F., H. Bostancioglu, H.J. Braun, E. Firat,
N. Hazar, M. Kiziltan, G. Mizrak, F. Ozberk,
A. Safi Kiral, B. Skovmand, B. Zusen, and A
Yazili. 1986. Items from Turkey. Annual
Wheat Newsletter 32:111-112.
Amaya, A.A. 1985. Composite flours: Potential
for utilization. In Regional Wheat Workshop:
Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa and
Indian Ocean, 167-175. Nairobi:
Amaya, A., R.J. Pefia, and G. Varughese.
1986. Influence of grain hardness on the
milling and baking properties of recently
developed triticales. In Proceedings of
International Triticale Symposium, 511-524.
Sydney: AIAS.
Barnett, J.B. 1986. On-farm research methods
in the Andean Region. In Proceedings U.S.
Universities-CIMMYT Maize Conference: On
Collaboration Toward Mutual LDC
Production Objectives, ed. James C. Sentz
and Ronald P. Cantrell, 59. St. Paul:
University of Minnesota.
Bernard, S., and D.C. Jewell. 1985. Crossing
maize with sorghum, Tripsacum, and millet:
The products and their level of development
following pollination. Theoretical and Applied
Genetics 70:474-483.
Bjarnason, M., G.O. Edmeades, and A. Ortega.
1985. Improvement of some important traits
of tropical maize. In Breeding Strategies for
Maize Production Improvement in the
Tropics, eds. A. Brandolini and F. Salamini,
409-28. Florence: FAO/Overseas Agricultural
Borlaug, N.E., and P.N. Fox. 1986. Triticale. In
Colliers Encyclopedia.
Burnett, P.A. 1986. Barley yellow dwarf
screening. Annual Wheat Newsletter
Burnett, P.A., L.I. Gilchrist, and M. Mezzalama.
1986. Vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus
in Mexico and the screening of small grain
cereals for resistance to virus. Proceedings
of the Workshop on Epidemiology of Plant
Virus Disease, 8-10, Session IX. Clemson,
South Carolina: Clemson University.
Burnett, P.A., and A.R. Klatt. 1986. The barley
yellow dwarf research program at CIMMYT.
In DSIR Plant Breeding Symposium,
228-231. Agronomy Society of New
Zealand Special Publication No. 5. Lincoln.
Byerlee, D. 1986. Some common sense about
farmer recommendations and extension
advice. Farming Systems Support Project
Newsletter 4(4):4-6.

Byerlee, D., and R. Akhtar et al. 1986. Wheat
in the cotton wheat systems of Southern
Punjab: Implications for research and
extension. Pakistan Agricultural Research
Council. PARC/CIMMYT Paper No. 86-8.
Byerlee, D., R. Akhtar, and P.R. Hobbs. In
press. Reconciling conflicts in sequential
cropping patterns through plant breeding:
The example of cotton and wheat in
Pakistan's Punjab. Agricultural Systems.
Byerlee, D., and E. Hesse de Polanco. 1986.
Farmer's stepwise adoption of technological
packages: Evidence from the Mexican
Altiplano. American Journal of Agricultural
Economics 68(3):519-527.
Byerlee, D., P.R. Hobbs, M.R. Akhtar, and
A. Majid. 1986. Developing improved
technologies within the context of Pakistan's
multiple cropping systems. Pakistan Journal
of Agricultural Social Sciences 1(1): 1-28.
Byerlee, D., P. Hobbs, B.R. Khan, A. Majid,
R. Akhtar, and N. Hashmi. 1986. Increasing
wheat productivity in the context of
Pakistan's irrigated cropping systems: A
view from the farmer's field. Pakistan
Agricultural Research Council.
PARC/CIMMYT Paper No. 86-7. Islamabad.
Byerlee, D., and S.S. Hussain. 1986. Maize
production in NWFP: A review of
technological issues in relation to farmers'
circumstances. Pakistan Agricultural
Research Council. PARC/CIMMYT Paper No.
86-1. Islamabad.
Byerlee, D., and J. Longmire. 1986. El trigo en
los tr6picos. Si o no? CuBndo y c6mo?
Ceres 19(3):34-39. (Also published in
Byerlee, D., and G. Sain. 1986. Food pricing
policy in developing countries: Bias against
agriculture or for urban consumers?
American Journal of Agricultural Economics
Cartwright, P.M., K.A. Jaddoa, and S.R.
Waddington. 1985. Spike development
stages in barley. Aspects of Applied Biology
Collinson, M. 1986. Farming systems research:
Diagnosing the problems. In Research,
Extension, Farmer: A Two-Way Continuum
for Agricultural Development. Washington,
D.C.: World Bank.
Collinson, M. 1986. On-farm research and
agricultural research and extension
institutions. Overseas Development Institute.
Agricultural Administration (Research and
Extension) Network Discussion Paper 17.
United Kingdom.

C.lriin-c.,r,, M., and D. Norman. 1986. Farming
systems research in theory and practice. In
Agricultural Systems Research for
Developing Countries. ACIAR Proceedings
No. 11. Canberra, Australia.
C6rdova, H.S. 1986. The CIMMYT maize
backup unit. In Proceedings U.S.
Universities-CIMMYT Maize Conference: On
Collaboration Toward Mutual LDC
Production Objectives, ed. James C. Sentz
and Ronald P. Cantrell, 29-30. St. Paul:
University of Minnesota.
De Le6n, C. In press. Disease management
strategies of maize diseases in Central and
South America. In Handbook of Diseases of
Maize and Their Management. Boca Raton,
Florida: CRC Press.
Delobel, T.C., R.B. Shrestha, B.K. Singh, and
K.D. Sayre. 1985. Initial results of farmer
monitoring for crop-livestock farming
systems research at Pumdi Bhumdi.
Cropping Systems Program. Nepal.
Dubin, H.J., and R.W. Stubbs. 1986. Epidemic
spread of barley stripe rust in South
America. Plant Disease 70:141-144.
Eaton, D.L., R.H. Busch, and V.L. Youngs.
1986. Introgression of unadapted
germplasm into adapted spring wheat. Crop
Science 26:473-478.
Edmeades, G.O. 1986. CIMMYT approaches to
breeding for stress tolerance. In Proceedings
U.S. Universities-CIMMYT Maize
Conference. On Collaboration Toward
Mutual LDC Production Objectives, ed.
James C. Sentz and Ronald P. Cantrell, 49.
St. Paul: University of Minnesota.
Efron, Y., and S.K. Kim. 1986. Can the
success story of hybrid maize in Kenya
repeat itself in Nigeria? In Proceedings U.S.
Universities-CIMMYT Maize Conference: On
Collaboration Toward Mutual LDC
Production Objectives, ed. James C. Sentz
and Ronald P. Cantrell, 75-76. St. Paul:
University of Minnesota.
Eskridge, K.M., R.F. Mumm, M. Aslam, and
E.J. Stevens. 1986. Selection for genotype
stability using expected utility maximization
and safety first rules. In Agronomy
Abstracts, 63. Madison, Wisconsin: ASA.
Gurung, B.R., R.B. Shrestha, R.K. Subba, and
K.D. Sayre. 1985. Survey results of labor
and power requirements for the predominant
crops and cropping patterns at the cropping
systems research sites. A Cropping Systems
Report. Nepal.

Hassen, M.M., E.T. Mertz, A.W. Kirleis,
G. Ejeta, J.D. Axtell, and E. Villegas. 1986.
Tryptophan levels in normal and high-lysine
sorghums. Cereal Chemistry 63(2):175-176.
Hobbs, P.R., B.R. Khan, A. Razzaq, B.M.
Khan, M. Aslam, N.I. Hashmi, and A. Majid.
1986. Results from agronomic on-farm trials
on barani wheat in the high and medium
rainfall areas of Northern Punjab for 1983 to
1985. Pakistan Agricultural Research
Council. PARC/CIMMYT Paper No. 86-8.
Hobbs, P.R., A. Razzaq, N.I. Hashmi,
M. Munir, and B.R. Khan. 1986. Effect of
mustard grown as a mixed or intercrop on
the yield of wheat. Pakistan Journal of
Agriculture Research 6(4):241-247.
Hussain, S.S., D. Byerlee, B.R. Khan, B.M.
Khan, and P.R. Hobbs. 1985. Wheat in the
irrigated farming systems of Mardan District:
Implications for research and extension.
Agricultural Economics Research Unit, ARI,
TARNAB, NWFP; Wheat Program, NARC,
Islamabad; Cereal Crops Research Institute,
Pirsabak, NWFP; CIMMYT Economics and
Wheat Programs, Islamabad.
James, C. 1985. Opening address. In Regional
Wheat Workshop: Eastern, Central, and
Southern Africa and Indian Ocean, 11-29.
Jewell, D.C. 1986. Overview of the CIMMYT
germplasm preservation and wide cross
program. In Proceedings U.S. Universities-
CIMMYT Maize Conference: On
Collaboration Toward Mutual LDC
Production Objectives, ed. James C. Sentz
and Ronald P. Cantrell, 21. St. Paul:
University of Minnesota.
Johnson, E.C., K.S. Fischer, G.O. Edmeades,
and A.F.E. Palmer. 1986. Recurrent
selection for reduced plant height in lowland
tropical maize. Crop Science 26:253-260.
Khaleeq, B., and A.R. Klatt. 1986. Effects of
various fungicides and insecticides on
emergence of three wheat cultivars.
Agronomy Journal 78:967-970.
Khan, K., D. Byerlee, M. Ahmad, M. Saleem,
and E.J. Stevens, 1986. Farmer-managed
verification of improved maize technology:
Results and experiences from Swat, 1985.
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council.
PAR. Cir.lt 1YT Paper No. 86-12. Islamabad.

1._ __.._._~_ I L~ '

Mann, C.E. 1985. Current state of breeding
wheat for suboptimal environments. In
Regional Wheat Workshop: Eastern, Central,
and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean,
241-261. Nairobi: CIMMYT/NPBS.
Martinez, J.C., and M. Yates. 1986. Assessing
farm-level grain storage as a research
opportunity in on-farm research: Some
economic and technological considerations.
CIMMYT Economics Program. Photocopy.
Martinez, J.C., and G. Sain. 1986. On the cost
efficiency of on-farm research: Social costs
and benefits in Caisan, Panama. CIMMYT
Economics Program. Photocopy.
McKenzie, R.I.H., P.A. Burnett, C.C. Gill,
A. Comeau, and P.D. Brown. 1985.
Inheritance of tolerance to barley yellow
dwarf virus in oats. Euphytica 34:681-687.
Ortega, A. 1986. Mejoramiento genetico en los
programs de manejo integral de programs
fitosanitarios: El maiz como ejemplo. In
Memorias XII Simposio de Parasitologia
Agricola. Mexico, D.F.: Ingenieros
Agr6nomos Parasit6logos.
Ortega, E.I., E. Villegas, and S. Vasal. 1986.
A comparative study of protein changes in
normal and quality protein maize during
tortilla making. Cereal Chemistry 63(5):446.
Palmer, A.F.E. 1986. Conservation tillage: A
technology that emerged from on-farm
research. In Proceedings U.S. Universities-
CIMMYT Maize Conference: On
Collaboration Toward Mutual LDC
Production Objectives, ed. James C. Sentz
and Ronald P. Cantrell, 58. St. Paul:
University of Minnesota.
Pandey, S. 1986. The CIMMYT maize
advanced unit. In Proceedings U.S.
Universities-CIMMYT Maize Conference: On
Collaboration Toward Mutual LDC
Production Objectives, ed. James C. Sentz
and Ronald P. Cantrell, 35. St. Paul:
University of Minnesota.
Pandey, S., A.O. Diallo, T.M.T. Islam, and
J. Deutsch. 1986. Progress from selection
in eight tropical maize populations using
international testing. Crop Science
Peeters, J.P., A.F.J. Griffiths, and G. Wilkes.
1985. In vivo karyotypic modifications
following spontaneous cell fusion in maize
(Zea mays L.). Canadian Journal of Genetics
and Cytology 27:580-585.
Renfro, B.L. 1986. The impact of agricultural
changes in the tropics on maize diseases. In
Vistas in Plant Pathology, 123-138. New
Delhi: Malhotra Publishing House.

Saari, E.E. 1986. Wheat disease problems in
Southeast Asia. In Wheat Pathology:
Problems and Progress of Wheat Pathology
in South East Asia, 31-40.
Saari, E., G. Varughese, and O.A. Abdalla.
1986. Triticale diseases: Distribution and
importance. In Proceedings of International
Triticale Symposium, 208-231. Sydney:
Singh, R.P. 1986. Current and future rust
research at CIMMYT. In Dialogo XIII:
Reuni6n de Especialistas en Royas de
Cereales de Invierno, 33-36. Montevideo:
Singh, R.P. 1986. Genetic approaches to the
identification and utilization of specific genes
for rust resistance in wheat. In Dialogo XIII:
Reuni6n de Especialistas en Royas de
Cereales de Invierno, 21-32. Montevideo:
Smith, M.E. 1986. Panel discussions and
recommendations. In Proceedings U.S.
Universities-CIMMYT Maize Conference: On
Collaboration Toward Mutual LDC
Production Objectives, ed. James C. Sentz
and Ronald P. Cantrell, 60-64. St. Paul:
University of Minnesota.
Smith, M.E., E.D. Earle, and V.E. Gracen.
1986. Variability in maize plants regenerated
over a thirty-month period from a callus
culture of the inbred W18BN. In Agronomy
Abstracts, 83. Madison, Wisconsin: ASA.
Smith, M.E., and C.A. Francis. 1986. Breeding
for multiple cropping systems. In Multiple
Cropping Systems, 219-249. McMillan: New
Stevens, E.J., M. Aslam, D. Byerlee, and M.Q.
Chatha. 1986. Report of an on-farm maize
travelling workshop. Pakistan Agricultural
Research Council. PARC/CIMMYT Paper No.
86-5. Islamabad.
Stevens, E.J., M.Q. Chatha, M. Saleem, and
D. Byerlee. 1986. Farmer-oriented research
and the transfer of maize technology for
NWFP and the Islamabad Capital Territory of
Pakistan. Pakistan Agricultural Research
Council. PARC/CIMMYT Paper No. 86-2.
Stevens, E.J., K.M. Eskridge, S.J. Stevens,
A.D. Flowerday, and C.O. Gardner. 1986.
Phenology of dent corn and popcorn. I.
Analysis of repeated measures from
phenology experiments. Agronomy Journal
Stevens, E.J., S.J. Stevens, A.D. Lowerday,
C.O. Gardner, and K.M. Eskridge. 1986.
Development morphology of dent corn and
popcorn with respect to growth staging and
crop growth models. Agronomy Journal

Stevens, E.J., S.J. Stevens, A.D. Lowerday,
C.O. Gardner, and K.M. Eskridge. 1986.
Phenology of dent corn and popcorn. III.
Improved crop development models.
Agronomy Journal 78:885-891.
Stevens, E.J., S.J. Stevens, A.D. Lowerday,
C.O. Gardner, and K.M. Eskridge. 1986.
Phenology of dent corn and popcorn. II.
Influence of planting date on crop
emergence and early growth stages.
Agronomy Journal 78:880-884.
Stevens, S.J., E.J. Stevens, K.W. Lee, A.D.
Flowerday, and C.O. Gardner. 1986.
Organogenesis of the staminate and pistillate
inflorescences of pop and dent corns:
Relationship to leaf stages. Crop Science
Stewart, R. 1985. Costa Rica and the CGIAR
centers: A study of their collaboration in
agricultural research. CGIAR Study Paper
No. 4. Washington, D.C.
Stewart, R. 1985. Guatemala and the CGIAR
centers: A study of their collaboration in
agricultural research. CGIAR Study Paper
No. 5. Washington, D.C.
Tanner, D.G., and J.K. Ransom. 1985.
Potential research priorities for the small-
scale wheat farmer. In Regional Wheat
Workshop: Eastern, Central, and Southern
Africa and Indian Ocean, 183-208. Nairobi:
Torres, E., and D. Danial. 1985. Germplasm
evaluation by regional CIMMYT personnel. In
Regional Wheat Workshop: Eastern, Central,
and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean,
339-342. Nairobi: CIMMYT/NPBS.
Tripp, R. 1986. Some common sense about
recommendation domains. Farming Systems
Support Project Newsletter 4(1 ):1-3.
Tripp, R., and D. Winkelmann. 1986.
Socioeconomic factors influencing the
adoption of triticale. In Proceedings of
International Triticale Symposium, 345-371.
Sydney: AIAS.
Van Beuningen, L.T., and M.M. Kohli. 1986.
Results from the observation on the Latin
American rust nursery (ELAR 1981-83). In
Dialogo XIII: Reuni6n de Especialistas en
Royas de Cereales de Invierno, 7-20.
Montevideo: IICA.
Varela, R.S. 1986. Can conventional
management theories, techniques, and
practices be adapted to agricultural
experiment station management in
developing countries? Ph.D. diss., California
Coast University, USA.
Varughese, G., E.E. Saari, and O.S. Abdalla.
1986. Two decades of triticale breeding and
research at CIMMYT. In Proceedings of
International Triticale Symposium, 148-169.
Sydney: AIAS.

Vasal, S.K. 1986. The CIMMYT quality protein
maize program. In Proceedings U.S.
Universities-CIMMYT Maize Conference: On
Collaboration Toward Mutual LDC
Production Objectives, ed. James C. Sentz
and Ronald P. Cantrell, 41. St. Paul:
University of Minnesota.
Violic, A. 1986. On-farm research program for
maize. In Proceedings U.S. Universities-
CIMMYT Maize Conference: On
Collaboration Toward Mutual LDC
Production Objectives, ed. James C. Sentz
and Ronald P. Cantrell, 57. St. Paul:
University of Minnesota.
Waddington, S.R., and P. Cartwright. 1986.
Modification of yield components and stem
length in spring barley by the application of
growth retardants prior to main shoot stem
elongation. Journal of Agricultural Science
Waddington, S.R., M. Osmanzai, M. Yoshida,
and J.K. Ransom. 1986. In press. The yield
potential of durum wheats released in
Mexico between 1960 to 1984. Journal of
Agricultural Science.
Waddington, S.R., J.K. Ransom, M. Osmanzai,
and D.A. Saunders. 1986. Variability for
grain growth in early maturing triticale.
Cereal Research Communications
Waddington, S.R., J.K. Ransom, M. Osmanzai,
and D.A. Saunders. 1986. Improvement in
the yield potential of bread wheats adapted
to Northwest Mexico. Crop Science
Warham, E.J. 1986. Comparison of packaging
materials for seed with particular reference
to humid tropical environments. Seed
Science and Technology 14(1):191-211.
Warham, E.J. 1986. The effect of different
packaging materials on moisture uptake by
dry wheat seed in simulated humid tropical
conditions. Seed Science and Technology

Warham, E.J. 1986. Karnal bunt disease of
wheat: A literature review. Tropical Pest
Management 32(3):229-242.
Warham, E.J., A. Mujeeb-Kazi, and V. Rosas.
1986. Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) resistance
screening of Aegilops species and their
practical utilization for Triticum aestivum
improvement. Canadian Journal of Plant
Pathology 8:65-70.
Wilkes, G., and S. Taba. 1986. CIMMYT
begins in situ monitoring in Mexico and
Guatemala. Diversity 9:26.
Wooley, J.N., and M.E. Smith. 1986. Maize
plant types suitable for present and possible
bean relay systems in Central America. Field
Crops Research 15:3-16.

I I I -I I I

Conference and
Seminar Presentations

Diallo, A.O., and M.S. Rodriguez. 1986
Comportement et selection de certain
g6notypes de mais dans les conditions
naturelles de s6cheresse. International
Drought Symposium on Food Grain
Production in the Semi-Arid Regions of
Africa, May, Nairobi, Kenya.
Edmeades, G.O., K.S. Fischer, and T.M.T.
Islam. 1986. Improvement of maize yield
under drought stress. International Drought
Symposium on Food Grain Production in the
Semi-Arid Regions of Africa, May, Nairobi,
Gelaw, B. 1986. Germplasm handling and seed
production. Technical Assistants Training
Workshop (East of the Rift), September,
Embu, Kenya.
Longmire, J., P. Ngobese, and S. Tembo.
1986. Policy options in Zimbabwe and
SADCC countries: Preliminary findings.
Conference on Food Security Research in
Southern Africa, November, Harare,
Low, A. 1985. Farm-household economics and
biological research: An approach to the
development of subsistence farming in
southern Africa. Food Security Seminar,
December, University of Zimbabwe.
Ortiz Ferrara, G., and D. Mulitze. 1986. Bread
wheat breeding for the low-rainfall
nonirrigated areas of West Asia and North
Africa. International Wheat Conference,
May, Rabat, Morocco.
Renfro, B.L. 1986. Agrometeorological effects
on maize diseases. World Meteorological
Organization, July, Cotonou, Benin.
Tang, C.Y., M. Bjarnason, Z. Dabrowski,
J. Fajenisin, J. Mareck, and Y. Efron.
1986. Recent progress on maize streak virus
resistance conversion. Nation-Wide
Conference on Maize, March, University of
Ife, Ile-lfe, Nigeria.
Tanner, D.G. 1986. Wheat production systems
and agronomic constraints. Workshop for
MOA-ADD/FAO Agronomists, November,
Byerlee, D. 1986. A farming systems approach
to integrated agronomic/economic research,
extension, and farmer interaction for
increasing maize productivity. National
Seminar on Maize, Sorghum, and Millet,
February, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Harrington, L.W. 1986. Farm-level profitability
of fertilizer on maize in Thailand: Evidence
from farm surveys and on-farm experiments.
International Seminar on Yield Maximization
of Feed Grains through Soil and Fertilizer
Management, May, Bangkok, Thailand.
Harrington, L.W. 1986. Practical steps for
setting research priorities in on-farm
experiments. Third Annual Thailand Farming
Systems Research Seminar, April, Chiang
Mai, Thailand.
Harrington, L.W. 1986. Profitability of new
maize technology in Thailand: An economic
analysis of three years' verification trials.
Thai National Corn and Sorghum Reporting
Session, April, Chanthaburi, Thailand.
Hobbs, P.R. 1986. Increasing wheat
production in the context of Pakistan's
farming systems. Wheat Conference, March,
Lahore, Pakistan.
Klatt, A.R. 1986. International cooperation in
wheat research. Silver Jubilee Workshop of
All-India Coordinated Wheat Improvement
Project, August, New Delhi.
Saunders, D.A. 1986. CIMMYT and the
national wheat research and development
program. Wheat Review and Planning
Workshop, PCARRD, June, Los Bafos, the
Saunders, D.A. 1986. CIMMYT's contribution
to the Thailand wheat program. DOA Annual
Research Conference, April, Bangkok.
Saunders, D.A. 1986. CIMMYT's role in wheat
growing in Thailand. ATT Seminar, March,
Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Saunders, D.A. 1986. Wheat-growing for the
northern highlands of Thailand. Payab
University/FAO Workshop: Data
Requirements for Highland Farming Systems
Development, April, Payab University.
Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Vivar, H.E., P.A. Burnett, and J.E. Bowman.
1986. Barley breeding for multiple disease
resistance. Fifth International Barley Genetics
Symposium, October, Okayama, Japan.
Middle East
Paliwal, R.L. 1986. CIMMYT's assistance
to national programs. First Regional Maize
Travelling Seminar, August-September,
Smith, M.E. 1986. The use of gene pools in
maize breeding programs. First Regional
Maize Travelling Seminar, August-
September, Turkey.

--r I ~t~~-r ~r ~ ~ _~-C-~-lllll~l~

Latin America
Bajet, N.B., and B.L. Renfro. 1986. Tropical
diseases of maize. Tropical Plant Pathology
Workshop, February, the Mexican Society of
Plant Pathology and the Post-Graduate
College, C6rdenas, Tabasco, Mexico.
C6rdova, H. 1986. Evaluaci6n de variedades e
hibridos de maiz del program cooperative
Centro Americano para el mejoramiento de
cultivos alimenticios. XXXII Reuni6n Anual
del PCCMCA, April, San Salvador, El
C6rdova, H. 1986. Investigaci6n y
entrenamiento en tecnologia de -7rrnills, un
enfoque integrado para consolidar la
industrial semillera en El Salvador. Primer
Taller de la Industria Semillera, January, San
Salvador, El Salvador.
C6rdova, H., M. Gutierrez, and J. Lothrop.
1986. Mejoramiento integral para
rendimiento, cobertura y pudrici6n de
mazorca en los complejos germoplasmicos
de maiz del CIMMYT. XXXII Reuni6n Anual
del PCCMCA, April, San Salvador, El
Edmeades, G.O. 1986. The role of physiology
in crop improvement programs. Seminar,
October, CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico.
Edme, S., and M. Yates. 1986. Evaluando
alternatives de labranza-cero en Les Cayes,
Haiti. XXXII Reuni6n Anual del PCCMCA,
April, San Salvador, El Salvador.
Fox, P.N. 1986. D6nde tiene el triticale su
potential? Taller sobre Investigaci6n de
Cereales Menores de la Regi6n Andina,
March, Huaraz y Cuzco, Per6.
Garcia, A., and A. Hibon et al. 1986.
Generaci6n de tecnologia apropiada para los
productores de maiz de La Huerta, Jalisco:
Informe de diagn6stico, April,
Haag, W.L. 1986. Mejoramiento de maiz para
tolerancia a la sequoia: Algunas
consideraciones y los trabajos del CIMMYT.
Reuni6n Thcnica del Centro de
Investigaciones Agricolas de Uruguay y del
INTA de Argentina dentro del Marco del
Cauce, October, Estanzuela, Uruguay.
Harris, T., and E. Hesse de Polanco. 1986.
Program de los servicios de informaci6n del
CIMMYT. Seminario sobre Vinculos de
Comunicaci6n entire Programas Nacionales y
Centros Internacionales de Investigaci6n
Agricola, April, CIAT, Cali, Colombia.
Hibon, A. 1986. Importancia del cientifico
social en la investigaci6n agricola.
Conferencia sobre la formaci6n de una Red
Regional de Mecanizaci6n para el pequeno
agricultor, November, INIFAP, SARH y
Consejo BritBnico, Cotaxtla, M6xico.

Klatt, A.R. 1986. El crecimiento demogrifico y
la producci6n de alimentos: La tarea que
encaramos. I Congreso Nacional de Trigo,
October, Pergamino, Argentina.
Kohli, M.M., I. Ramirez, and L.T. Van
Beuningen. 1986. Resultados del 40 vivero
de lines avanzadas del Cono Sur (LACOS).
Program Cooperativo de Investigaci6n BID-
IICA-Cono Sur. Chile.
Martinez, J.C. 1986. Desarrollo rural e
investigaci6n en fincas. SDC-CIMMYT, May,
Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
Martinez, J.C. 1986. Les M6thodologies de
Recherches sur I'exploitation (OFR au travers
d'une 6tude de cas utiiiise par le CIMMYT
au Panama. Caribbean Agricultural
Development, Research Development
Seminar, January, Antilles-Guyane, Point 6
Pitre, Guadeloupe.
Martinez, J.C. 1986. El papel de la tecnologia
en el agro en America Latina. Seminario de
Actualizaci6n de Profesores sobre Ciencia y
Tecnologia, May, Universidad Aut6noma de
Pandey, S., G. Granados, and W.L. Haag.
Propuesta para un proyecto international de
mejoramiento de germoplasma de maiz
tolerante a problems de suelos acidos. XII
Reuni6n de Maiceros de la Zona Andina,
September-October, Quito, Ecuador.
Pandey, S., G. Granados, W.L. Haag,
J. Barnett, and E.B. Knapp. 1986. El
program regional Sudamericano de maiz
del CIMMYT. XII Reuni6n de Maiceros de la
Zona Andina, September-October, Quito,
Pena, R.J., and A. Amaya. 1986. La calidad
de trigo que necesitan los paises de la
region andina. Taller de Investigadores en
Cereales de la Regi6n Andina, March, Peru.
Renfro, B.L. 1985. Seedborne diseases of
maize. Seed Quality and Disease Control
Workshop, November, CIAT, Call, Colombia.
Tasistro, A. 1986. Control de malezas anuales
en maiz (Zea mays) en la estaci6n
experimental de Poza Rica (CIMMYT),
Mexico. VII Congreso Nacional de la
Sociedad Mexicana de la Ciencia de la
Maleza y VIII Congreso de la Asociaci6n
Latinoamericana de Maleza, November,
Guadalajara, M6xico.
Tasistro, A. 1986. Evaluaci6n de oxolabentrilo
como antidoto de metolador en sorgo
(Sorghum bicolor). VII Congreso Nacional de
la Sociedad Mexicana de la Ciencia de la
Maleza y VIII Congreso de la Asociaci6n
Latinoamericana de Maleza, November,
Guadalajara, Mexico.

Tripp, R. 1985. Gulas para la fase de
diagn6stico de la investigaci6n en fincas con
sorgo. Sistemas de Producci6n de Sorgo en
America Latina, INTSORMIL, CIMMYT,
VBsquez, W., E. Silva, and S. Taba. 1986.
Analisis de estabilidad de rendimiento de
variedades de maiz (Zea mays L.) harinoso y
morochos en la sierra del Ecuador. XII
Reuni6n de Maiceros de la Zona Andina,
September-October, Quito, Ecuador.
North America
Curtis, B. 1986. International agricultural
research and the world food supply. Kansas
Fall Cereal Conference, August, Kansas
State University, Manhattan.
Curtis, B., and S. Rajaram. 1986. New
developments in cereal plant breeding. CIDA
Food Administrators Course, September-
October, Winnipeg, Canada.
Davidson, D.J., and P. Ch- jiirr. 1986. Plant
water deficit effects on quantitative changes
in soluble stem carbohydrates in spring
wheat. ASA Annual Meeting, December,
New Orleans, Louisiana.
Harrington, L.W. 1986. The on-farm research
program for palawija-based farming systems
in Malang District, East Java, Indonesia,
1984-1986. Farming Systems Research
Symposium, October, Kansas State
University, Manhattan.
James, C. 1985. The role of plant pathology in
global cereal production. Inaugural
Presentation at the Dedication of Borlaug
Hall, September, University of Minnesota.
Martinez, J.C., G. Sain, M. Yates, and A.
Hibon. 1986. Toward farm-based policy
research: Learning from experience. Farming
Systems Research Symposium, October,
Kansas State University, Manhattan.
Muhtar, H. 1986. Performance of CIMMYT's
no-till planter in developing countries.
American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
June-July, California Polytechnic State
University, San Luis Obispo, California.
Seubert, C.E., A. Low, and J. Curry, Jr. 1985.
An on-farm research approach to the
identification of appropriate weed technology
for maize in Swaziland. ASA Annual
Meeting, December, Chicago, Illinois
Tang, C.Y., M. Bjarnason, Z. Dabrowski,
J. Fajemisin, J. Mareck, and Y. Efron.
1986. Development of maize streak virus
resistant varieties by the backcross method.
ASA Annual Meeting, December, New
Orleans, Louisiana.

Tasistro, A.S., A. Violic, and E.B. Knapp.
1986. Weed control practices in maize (Zea
mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
in Mexico. 26th Meeting of the Weed
Science Society of America, February,
Houston, Texas.
Collinson, M. 1986. The development of
African farming systems: Some personal
prejudices. October, Reading University,
United Kingdom.
Diallo, A.O., and M.S. Rodriguez. Evaluation et
selection du mais pour la resistance a la
s6cheresse dans la zone Soudanienne de
I'Afrique de I'Ouest. 1986. Meeting on
Drought Resistance in Plants: Genetic and
Physiology Aspects, October, Amalfi, Italy.
Dubin, H.J. 1986. Interdependence of plant
pathology in the Third World and
industrialized nations. British Society for
Plant Pathology, December, King's College,
University of London.
James, C. 1986. The role of international
centres. British Society for Plant Pathology,
December, King's College, University of
London, United Kingdom.
Longmire, J., and D. Winkelmann. 1985.
Research resource allocation and
comparative advantage. 19th International
Conference of Agricultural Economists,
August-September, Malaga, Spain.
Low, A. 1986. Farm household-economics and
the design and impact of biological research
in southern Africa. October, Reading
University, United Kingdom.
Plumb, R.T., and P.A. Burnett. 1986.
Comparative epidemiology of barley yellow
dwarf virus. British Society for Plant
Pathology, December, King's College,
University of London.
Tripp, R. 1985. CIMMYT's experience with the
user's perspective in technology
development. The User's Perspective in
International and National Agricultural
Research. A background document prepared
for a CGIAR Inter-Center Seminar on
Women and Agricultural Technology,
March, Bellagio, Italy.
Warham, E.J., and J.M. Prescott. 1986.
Cultures of Karnal bunt disease of wheat
(poster). British Society for Plant Pathology,
December, King's College, University of
Klatt, A.R. 1986. Population growth and food
production: The challenge before us.
International Triticale Symposium, February,
Sydney, Australia.

I I -

Financial Statement

Rio de la Plata 48
Colonia Cuauhtemoc
06500 Mexico, DF

Telefono 533-1000
Telex 1772579 GVPWME
Telecopier 2866248

Pice Waterhouse

Mexico, D.F., February 22, 1987

To the Board of Trustees of
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento
de Maiz y Trigo, A.C.

In our opinion, the accompanying statements of condition and the related statements of activity
and of changes in financial position on a cash basis, expressed in United States dollars, present
fairly the financial position of Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Mafz y Trigo, A.C.
(CIMMYT) at December 31, 1986 and 1985, and the results of its operations and the changes in
its financial position for the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally
accepted in the United States of America for not-for-profit organizations consistently applied. Our
examinations of these statements were made in accordance with generally accepted auditing
standards and accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and such other auditing
procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances.

Our examinations were made primarily for the purpose of forming our opinion on the financial
statements taken as a whole. We also examined the additional information presented on Exhibits
1 to 4, expressed in United States dollars, by similar auditing procedures. In our opinion, this
additional information is stated fairly in all material respects in relation to the financial statements
taken as a whole. Although not necessary for a fair presentation of financial position, results of
operations and changes in financial position, this information is presented as additional data.

Price Waterhouse

C.P. Oscar C6rdova

Cludad Juarez Rio Nilo 4049-6.Planta Baja. Fraccionamiento Cordoba Americas. 32310 Ciudad Juarez.Chihuahua.Telelono 3-8184. Telex 33399
Chihulhua Av. Juarez 1108-503.31000 Chihuahua.Ch;h. Telelono 16-9937 Guadalajara Vallarta 1390 701.44960 Guadalajara, Jalisco
Telefono 25 1050,Telex 0684182 Monterrey Condominio Losoles D-21.Avenida Lazaro Cardenas Poniente 2400.66270 Garza Garcia.
Nuevo Leon Telefono 35-3500.Telex 0382788 Queretaro Hidalgo 20.76000 Queretaro.Querelaro. Telelono 2 1605 Satelite Federico T. de la Chica 17.
esquina (on Manuel E.Izagulrre Circuito Centro Comercial Cludad Satelite. 53100 Naucalpan. Estado de Mexico. Telelono 360-0660

Comparative Statement of Financial Condition
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, A.C.

Assets, Liabilities, and Fund Balances Currency: US Dollars (000s)

Year ended December 31
Notea 1986 1985b


Cash and short-term deposits 2 2,388 5,687
Accounts receivable
Donors 6 1,570 1,130
Others 6 721 744
Inventories 2 95 88
Other assets 1
Property. plant, and equipment 2 19,300 16,658

Total assets 24,074 24.308


Accounts payable and other liabilities 1.204 2,007
Accrued benefits 2 377 245
Payments in advance from donors 6 2.194 4,509

Total liabilities 3,775 6,761

Fund balances

Property, plant, and equipment 2,4 19.300 16,658

Capital development 4 400
Operating 4 2,415 2,415
Auxiliary services 4 138 159
Cumulative translation effect 3 (1.954) (1,685)
Subtotal 999 889

Total fund balances 20,299 17,547

Total liabilities and fund balances 24,074 24,308

aThe anached notes numbered 1 to 6 form an integral part of these financial statements
bReclassified tor comparat. ,e purposes

Comparative Statement of Activity
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, A.C.

Revenue and Expenses Currency: US Dollars (000s)

Year ended December 31
Notea 1986 1985b

Revenue 5

Grants 27,643 25,621
Administrative fees 1,369 1,139
Sale of crops 47 38
Interest on short-term investments 196 309
Auxiliary services 734 665
Other income 1 1

Total revenue 29,990 27,773

Operating Expenses 5

Research programs 18,408 17,063
Conferences and training 3,921 3,659
Information services 697 905
General administration 1,834 1,857
Plant operations 1,306 1,463
Capital acquisitions 1,241 986
Auxiliary services 755 571
Indirect costs 1,369 1,139
Accrual benefits 80 36

Total operating expenses 29,611 27,679

Excess of revenue over operating
expenses 379 94

Allocated as follows:
Capital development fund 4 400
Auxiliary services 4 (21) 94

Translation effect for the year 3 (269) (312)

Net excess (defect) of revenue over
expenses 110 (218)

Fund, opening balances 889 1,107

Closing fund balances as per statement of
condition 999 889

a The attached notes numbered 1 to 6 form an integral part of these financial statements.
DReclassified for comparative purposes.

Comparative Statement of Changes in Financial Condition on a Cash Basis
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Mafz y Trigo, A.C.

Currency: US Dollars (000s)

Year ended December 31
Operating activities Notea 1986 1985b

Cash receipts:
Grants from donors 5 27,643 25,621
Other 5 2,347 2,152
Subtotal 29,990 27,773
Translation effect for the year 3 (269) (312)
Capital development fund 4 400
Subtotal 30,121 27,461
Cash disbursements:
Salaries and allowances 12,460 12,291
Travel 2,116 2,241
Training, conferences, and publications 3,601 3,205
Field and laboratory 3,399 4,030
Office and vehicle 3,975 2,379
Others 1,818 1,139
Subtotal 27,369 25,285
Cash provided by operating activities 2,752 2,176

Other activities:
Additions to property, plant, and equipment 2 (2,642) (2,394)
Accounts receivable from others 6 23 (315)
Accrued benefits 2 132 133
Inventories 2 (7) 125
Payments in advance from donors 2,6 (2,315) 2,960
Accounts receivable from donors 2,6 (440) 307
Accounts payable and other liabilities (802) (972)
Other assets 9

Cash used in other activities (6,051) (147)

(Decrease) increase in cash and short-term
deposits (3,299) 2,029
Cash and short-term deposits at beginning of
year 5,687 3,658

Cash and short-term deposits
at end of year 2,388 5,687

aThe attached notes numbered 1 to 6 form an integral part of these financial statements.
bReclassified for comparative purposes.

Notes to the Financial Statements
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Mafz y Trigo

December 31, 1986, and 1985
US Dollars

Note 1: Statement of Purpose
The Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de
Maiz y Trigo, A.C. (CIMMYT), is a private,
autonomous, not-for-profit, scientific and
educational institution chartered under Mexican
law to engage in the improvement of maize
and wheat production everywhere in the world,
with emphasis on developing countries.

Note 2: Summary of Significant
Accounting Policies
CIMMYT follows accounting policies
recommended by the Secretariat of the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural
Research (CGIAR), an international association
sponsored by the World Bank, the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
and the United Nations Development
Programme. In 1986 these policies were
revised, and a standard presentation for all
research centers supported by the CGIAR was
adopted. These policies are in accordance with
accounting practices generally accepted in the
United States of America for not-for-profit
organizations and are summarized below:

a. CIMMYT uses the accrual method of
accounting for transactions, and its books of
account are kept in US dollars. Transactions in
other currencies (mainly Mexican pesos) are
recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on
the dates they are entered into and settled.
Assets and liabilities denominated in such
currencies are translated into US dollars
applying Statement No. 52 of the Financial
Accounting Standards Board of The United
States of America (FAS 52). In accordance
with that statement, CIMMYT has adopted the
US dollar as its "functional currency" in
consideration that the Mexican economy has
been hyper-inflationary, i.e., with a cumulative
inflation rate for the three last years greater
than 100 percent as measured by the National
Consumer Price Index published by Banco de

b. Purchase orders issued prior to December
31 are treated as operating expenses of the
year in question and are shown on the
statement of condition under vouchers payable.
This is in accordance with guidelines issued by
the CGIAR.

c. During periods of cash surplus, CIMMYT
makes short-term investments in marketable
securities. Those denominated in dollars are
transacted in the US money market. Interest is

credited to income when the security matures
or is sold. The security is recorded at cost,
which approximates market, and any gain or
loss from its sale is recorded at that time.
Investments in pesos are held in a short-term
interest-bearing account in a Mexican bank or
in government securities. Interest is credited to
income as accrued.

d. Inventories are stated at cost (first-in, first-
out method), which is not in excess of market.

e. Fixed assets are stated at acquisition cost:
Up to 1971 all purchases of property and
equipment were recorded as expenses. In
1972 the CGIAR requested that the
International Agricultural Research Centers
change to the "write off, then capitalize"
method of recording purchases of property and
equipment. Accordingly, all property and
equipment purchased under capital grants as
from January 1, 1972, were recorded as an
asset and credited to capital grants. Prior to
1980 replacements of capital items were
recorded as expenditures of the related
programs and did not enter in any way to form
part of CIMMYT's capital grants, shown on the
statement of condition. In 1980 this policy was
revised to conform with the accounting policies
of the CGIAR. Under this set of guidelines, the
incremental value of a capital replacement
item, i.e., the amount by which the historical
cost of the replacement item is greater (less)
than the historical cost of the item being
replaced, is credited (debited) to capital grants
fully expended on fixed assets. In this way the
statement of condition reflects the historical
cost of the fixed assets actually in use.

CIMMYT's buildings at certain locations in
Mexico are constructed on land owned by the
Mexican government and will be donated to
the government when CIMMYT ceases
operations in Mexico.

f. Depreciation-In accordance with the "write
off, then capitalize" method, no depreciation is
provided since the assets have already been
written off at the time of purchase.

g. Seniority premiums, to which employees are
entitled upon termination of employment after
15 years of service, are recognized as
expenses as such premiums accrue. The
estimate of the accrued benefit determined on
the basis of an actuarial study as of the year
end amounted to $135,000 in 1986
($143,000 in 1985), and CIMMYT has

recorded a liability of $119,000 in 1986
($126,000 in 1985). The charge to income for
the year amounted to $83,000 in 1986
($36,000 in 1985), including amortization of
past service cost over 10 years.

Other compensation based on length of
service, to which employees may be entitled in
the event of dismissal or death, in accordance
with the Mexican Federal Labor Law, is
charged to income in the year in which it
becomes payable.

Since 1985, CIMMYT has recorded an accrual
for unutilized benefits, such as leave time, by
staff. This amounted to $258,000 in 1986
($119,000 in 1985).

h. Revenue Recognition-Core unrestricted
grants are given annually and are charged to
accounts receivable when the amount of the
donation becomes known. The receivable is
cancelled when the funds are received. Any
un:ollcied portion of the pledge applicable to
the current year remains charged to accounts
receivable and forms part of the institution's
income in that year. If the pledge is later
judged to be uncollectible, it is written off
against income of the year in which it is

Pledges in currencies other than US Dollars are
recorded at their equivalent at the date of

Core restricted and extra core pledges, which
are often for more than one year, are treated
somewhat differently. In these cases the
amount recognized as a receivable is equal to
the expenses incurred under the grant. The
uncollected portion of the pledge is not
recognized as a receivable and consequently
does not contribute to income. Only when
expenses are incurred under the grant is an
account receivable created and income
recorded. This treatment matches revenues
and expenses in accordance with the level of
activities carried out under the grant.

This accounting policy permits CIMMYT to
distinguish between income and amounts
pledged in core restricted and extra-core
grants. This is necessary since these grants

often cover more than one year's activities or
contain carry-forward provisions in cases of
underexpenditure. Recognizing the total pledge
in a given year as income could result in an
overstatement of income. Core unrestricted
grants do not require this treatment since they
are given annually and the amount pledged
represents income that year.

Note 3: Mexican Peso Transactions
The foreign exchange system existing in
Mexico as of July 1985 permits the parallel
existence of controlled and free exchange rates
handled through exchange brokerage houses
with rates in the latter case set on the basis of
supply and demand.

At December 31, 1986, CIMMYT had Mexican
peso assets and liabilities amounting to Ps
365,895,000 (Ps 63,949,000 in 1985) and Ps
397,097,000 (Ps 139,341,000 in 1985),
which were included in the statement of
condition at their US dollar equivalents resulting
from applying the year-end rate of Ps 911 per

In 1986 the value of the Mexican peso
compared to the dollar fell from Ps 448 to Ps
911 to the dollar (Ps 209.22 to Ps 448.00 in
1985). This devaluation gave rise to a
translation loss aggregating $269,000
($312,000 in 1985). In accordance with FAS
52, where the firm is judged to be operating in
a hyper-inflationary environment and the dollar
is judged to be the functional currency, the
translation effect in each year is charged to
current income.

At February 27, 1987, date of issuance of the
Financial Statements, the brokerage houses'
exchange rates with the US dollar were Ps.
1,044 (buy) and Ps. 1,054 (sell

Note 4: Fund Balances
The CGIAR permits CIMMYT (and all other
international agricultural research centers
funded through it) to maintain certain fund
balances. The largest of these is the total
investment in property, plant, and equipment.
By the end of 1986, this had reached
$19,300,000. A capital development fund may
also be maintained to help finance future
purchases or maintenance of capital items. In
1986, CIMMYT placed $400,000 in this fund.

An operating fund may also be kept for the
purpose of smoothing out cash flows and year-
to-year revenue streams. At the end of 1986,
CIMMYT had $2,415,000 in operating funds.
The surplus from CIMMYT's auxiliary services,
such as food and housing, of $138,000 is also
shown under fund balances. Lastly, the
accumulated effect from the translation of
Mexican pesos and other currencies is listed
under fund balance and in 1986 amounted to

Note 5: Revenue and Expenses
A. Revenue-CIMMYT's revenues are grouped
into six categories:

i) Grants. These are funds received from
donors and are used to support two types of
programs at CIMMYT: core and extra core.
Core programs must fall within the mandate of
the center and be approved by the Board of
Trustees. These must also be approved by the
members of the CGIAR, who then provide
funding. The CGIAR membership includes
governments, government aid agencies,
international and regional development banks,
and private philanthropic foundations (see
Exhibit 2). Core programs are divided into two
groups: unrestricted and restricted. Unrestricted
grants come with only one requirement: that
the funds be used to support core activities.
Restricted grants also support core activities,
but they must be used for an activity mutually
agreed upon by CIMMYT and the donor.

Extra-core programs must also fall within
CIMMYT's mandate and also must be
approved by the Board of Trustees. They fall
outside of any direct funding through the
CGIAR and may be considered related, but
distinct, sets of activities from the core
program. In general they are of four types:
1) direct assistance (i.e., posting of staff) to
national programs, 2) training at CIMMYT for
persons from a specific country, 3) collabora-
tive research arrangements with other
institutions, and 4) special exploratory research
activities. Coordination of this type of funding
is done between CIMMYT and the donor.

ii) Administrative fees. These fees are charged
on restricted and extra-core grants. They
permit CIMMYT to offset the cost of
administering these grants, which by design
only fund specific research activities. In 1986
and 1985, this fee was generally 15 percent,
though for some on-campus activities it was
25 percent.

iii) Sale of crops. CIMMYT operates four
experiment stations throughout Mexico. Grain
and other produce not required for continuance
of the research programs is sold from time to
time depending on their availability and quality,
and revenues received are registered as income
of the period.

iv) Interest on short-term investments. Surplus
cash is invested in short-term interest-bearing
securities, and any interest earned is recorded
as income. Similarly interest expense arising
from short-term borrowings to cover cash
deficit positions is charged to this account.

v) Auxiliary services. These comprise revenues
from the following areas within CIMMYT:
cafeteria, laundry, guest house, dormitories,
and staff residences. As a whole, they are
intended to be self-supporting.

vi) Other income. This is a grouping of
miscellaneous revenues received from the sale
of surplus items such as used tires and other
small pieces of equipment no longer needed by

B. Expenses-The breakdown of CIMMYT's
expenses as shown in its statement of activity
is largely self-explanatory. Included under
Research Programs, the largest single
expenditure, are the expenses of the Maize,
Wheat, Economics, Experiment Stations,
Laboratories, and Data Processing units. In
1986 and 1985, their expenses were as

1986 1985

Maize 6,981 6,313
Wheat 6,853 6,678
Economics 1,680 1,334
Experiment Stations 1,410 1,530
Laboratories 401 386
Data Processing 840 693
Others 243 129

Total 18,408 17,063

Note 6: Accounts Receivable and Payments in Advance
Donors: In 1986 and 1985, these were comprised as follows:
1986 1985
Accounts Receivable From Donors (000s)

Canadian International Development Agency 229 191
European Economic Community 129
Germany, The Federal Republic of 20 18
International Crops Research Institute for the
Semi-Arid Tropics 9 26
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture 23 26
International Center for Agricultural Research in the
Dry Areas 84 49
International Development Research Centre 56
Institute Nacional de Investigaci6n y Promoci6n
Agropecuaria, Peru/World Bank 90 54
OPEC Fund for International Development 69 30
Switzerland, Government of 326
The Netherlands. Government of 73 39
United Nations Development Programme 207 152
United States Agency for International Development 331 362
Other donors 53 54
Subtotal: Accounts receivable from donors 1,570 1,130
Payment in Advance From Donors
Australia, Government of (60) (99)
Canadian International Development Agency (112) (509)
Denmark, Government of (67)
Germany, The Federal Republic of (32) (35)
International Development Research Centre (19) (25)
Italy, Government of (937) (712)
The Japan Shipbuilding Industry Foundation and
Government of Japan (600) (785)
Switzerland, Government of (53) (1,406)
The Ford Foundation (112) (24)
United States Agency for International Development (11) (13)
United Nations Development Programme (65) (70)
World Bank (15) (750)
Other donors (111) (81)
Subtotal. Payments in advance from donors (2,194) (4,509)

Net status of donors' payments (624) (3,379)

Others: In 1986 and 1985, these were as follows:

Receivables (payments)
1986 1985

Loans to senior staff 208 253
Personal charges to employees (22) (26)
Official expenses advances 450 462
Employee credit union (49) (28)
Miscellaneous debtors 134 83
Total 721 744

A program of loans to senior staff, mainly to
provide partial financing for house purchases,
was initiated in 1982. These carry an interest
rate of prime plus 1.75 percent.

1 0-

Detailed Statement of Activity For the Period January 1 to December 31, 1986
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Mafz y Trigo, A.C.

Exhibit 1

Currency: US Dollars (000s)

Core Core Extra core and Auxiliary
unrestricted restricted cooperative services Total
Revenue (Note 5)
Grants 16,019 5,188 6,436 27,643
Administrative fees 1,369 1,369
Sale of crops 47 47
Interest on short-tern investments 196 196
Auxiliary services 734 734
Other income 1 1

Total revenue 17,632 5,188 6,436 734 29,990

Expenses (Note 5)
Research programs 11,358 3,171 3,879 18,408
Conferences and training 1,645 1,335 941 3,921
Information services 697 697
General administration 1,834 1,834
Plant operations 1,306 1 306
Capital acquisitions 312 929 1,241
Au-liar,, services 755 755
Indirect costs 682 687 1,369
Accrual benefits 80 80

Total operating expenses 17,232 5,188 6,436 755 29,611

Excess defect of revenue over operating
expenses allocated as follows: 400 (21) 379

Capital development fund (Note 4) 400 400
Auxiliary services (Note 4) (21) (21)

Translation effect for the year (Note 3) (2691 12691

Net excess defect of revenue over expenses 131 (21) 110

Sources of Income from Grants For the Period January 1 to December 31, 1986
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, A.C.

Exhibit 2

Currency: US Dollars (000s)

Extra core and
Unrestricted Restricted cooperative Total

Australia, Governmenr otf 78 74 652
Austria, Go.ernment ct 250 250
Canadian International De'.elopment Agenc', 1 216 2,148 3.364
China. People's Republic of 80 80
Denmark. Government of 363 16 379
European Economic Community 22 22
France Go.ernment of 341 341
German', The Federal Republic of 447 30 67 544
Inter-American Development Bank 3,901 3,901
International Center for Agricultural Research for the
Dr, Areas 35 35
International Crops Research Institute for
The Semi-Arid Tropics 236 236
International Development Research Centre 67 67
International Institute ol Tropical Agriculture 62 62
Instituto Nacional de Inrestigaci6n y Promoci6n
Agropecuana Peru/World Bank 91 91
Ireland Government of 102 102
Italy, Go.ernment of 425 425
Japan, Government ot 1,480 1.480
Mexico, Government of 48 48
OPEC Fund for International Development 145 145
Spain, Government of 115 115
Switzerland. Government of 1,155 598 1,753
Norwegian Agenc, for International Development 145 62 207
The Ford Foundation 100 2 102
The Japan Shipbuilding Industry Foundation and
Government of Japan 827 827
The Netherlands, Government of 333 333
The Philippines, Government of 54 54
The Rockefeller Foundation 10 10
The United Kingdom, Government of 878 150 1,028
United Nations Development Programme 1,618 1,618
United States Agency for International De.elcpment 6,100 1,412 7,512
World Bank 1,690 1,690
Miscellaneous training and research grants 170 170

Total income from grants 16,019 5,188 6,436 27,643

Core-Restricted Pledges and Expenses For the Period January 1 to December 31, 1986
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Mafz y Trigo, A.C.

Exhibit 3 Currency: US Dollars (000s)

Grant period Grant -- ------Expenses- - -
(month/day/year) pledged Prior years This year Total

Government of France
Collaborarl.e Research, Maize 01,01/86-12/31/86 174 174
Bread Wheat 10101/86-12!3186 54 54
Triticale 01,01/86-12/31 86 54 54
Economics 01/01/86-12!31/86 59 59

Total 341b N/A 341 341

Government of Japan
Wheat Disease Sur.eillance 01,01.86-12/31 86 387 387
Wheat and Maize Plant Prorection 01/01/86-12/31/86 .19 719
Wheat. Southern Cone 01/01/86-12/31/86 374 374

Total 1.480c N/A 1,480 1,480

OPEC Fund for International Development
Maize West Africa. Phase III 07,01i85-06'30,86 125 61 76 137
Maize West Africa, Phase IV 07/01i86-06/30/87 125 N/A 69 69

Total 250 61 145 206

Government of Switzerland
Central America and Caribbean. Maize 01/01,85-12i31,86 366 823 1.189
Central America and Caribbean
Economics 01/01/85-12/31!86 243 332 575

Total 1,764 609 1,155 1,764

Government of The Netherlands
Economics 01/01/86-12!31/86 118 N/A 118 118
Computer Programmer 01i06/83-12; 31/86 421 252 215 467

Total 539 252 333 585

Continued next page

Exhibit 3 (Continued)

Grant period

United Nations Development Programme
International Maize Testing Program
and Selected Training Activities 01/01/85-12/31/89
Tropical Wheat 07/01182-06130187


European Economic Community
Andean Regional Wheat and Maize 03/12/83-12/31/86

Norwegian Agency for International Development
Wheat and Maize Training 01/01/86-12/31/86

The Ford Foundation
East Africa 09/24/81-12/31/86

Government of Federal Republic of Germany
Wheat Improvement Program 07/01/83-06/30/86

International Development Research Centre
Data Processing 11/02/84-11/02/87

Total Core Restricted

a For irtormation purposes only
b Equivaleni to FF 2 300,000
c Equivalent to YEN 229.680
d Equi.'aient to ECU 2 000,000
e Equi..alen to NOK 450.000
1 Equrialeni to CA 197 000

N/A = Not applicable









Currency: US Dollars (000s)

- ---- Expenses------
Prior years This year Total













22 1,615




Extra-Core Pledges and Expenses For the Period January 1 to December 31, 1986
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Mafz y Trigo, A.C.

Exhibit 4

Grant period Grant -- - Expenses- -- -
(month/day/year) pledged Prior years This year Total

The Ford Foundation
Economics and Training, Algeria


United States Agency for International Development
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council,
Wheat, Maize, and Economics 10/01/84-09/30/87
Miscellaneous Training b
Africa On-Farm Research, Phase II 01/01/86-05/20/90
Agronomic Wheat Production 08/01/85-11/30/85


United Nations Development Programme
Turkey, Wheat 12/31/83-03/01/86

Canadian International Development Agency
Triticale Research and Training 04/01/78-12/31/86
Haiti Economics Program. Phase l 01/01/85-12/31/88
East Africa Cereals Program 10/01/84-03/31/88
Ghana Maize. Phase II 10/01/83-09/30.88
Bangladesh, Wheat 04/01/82-03/31/37
East Africa Consultanc, 12 13/85-03/31/86


Government of Switzerland
Central America and Caribbean Seed
Economics Training



Institute Nacional de Investigaci6n y Promoci6n Agropecuaria, PerulWorld Bank
Wheat 08/01/83-12/31/87 482 303

Government of Federal Republic of Germany
Maize Improvement Program 01/01/83-05/15/86 129 91 4 95
Wheat International Agricultural
Research 07101/86-06130/89 591 60 60
Enhancement of Disease Resistance in
Quality Protein Maize 07/01/86-06/30/88 190 3 3

Total 910 91 67 158

Continued next page

Currency: US Dollars (000s)





3,744 h































Grant period Grant ------ Expenses-----
(month/day/year) pledged Prior years This year Total

Government of Italy
Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus 01/11184-10;31/89 1,477 193 425 618

Government of Mexico
Research 01/01/86-12/31/86 481 N/A 48 48

The Japan Shipbuilding Industry Foundation and Government of Japan
Training Building 11/01/84-12/31/86 1,730k 903 827 1,730

International Development Research Centre
Bibliographic Service on Wheat and
Small Grains 01!01,84-12/31/86 531 8 8 16
Information Services on Wheat and
Small Grains 06/29/84-06'30/87 295m 97 59 156
Database Management 11/02,84-11102/86 160n 18 18

Total 508 123 67 190

Biotechnology Consortium
Government ot Australia 01/09/84-01/09/86 1140 15 74 89

Danish International Development Agency
DPS Associate Scientist 09/01/86-08/30/89 137 16 16

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
SAFGRAD 01/01/86-12/31/86 N/A N/A 62 62

Miscellaneous Training Grants b N/A N/A 169 169

Cooperative Projects
ICARDA, Barley Project 01/01,86-12/31/86 N/A 35 35
ICRISAT, Sorghum Prolect 01/01i81-12/31/86 1,395 917 236 1,153

Total 1,395 917 271 1,188

Total Extra Core 8,749 6,436 15,185

a For information purposes only.
b Grant period not applicable, donor pays tuition for each
trainee sponsored.
c Includes RPs 24.533,105, equivalent to U S $1.423.860
d Equivalent to CA 338,944
e Equivalent to CA 778,395
f Equivalent to CA 2,753,000
9 Equivalent to CA 4,754,300
h Equivalent to CA 4,680,000

i Equivalent to CA
j Equivalent to MPs
k Includes US$144,600
I Equivalent to CA
m Equivalent to CA
n Equivalent to CA
0 Equivalent to AD

N/A = Not applicable.

of interest earned

Currency: US Dollars (000s)

Exhibit 4 (Continued)

CIMMYT Addresses


Lisboa 27, Apdo. Postal 6-641
Col. JuBrez, Deleg. Cuauhtemoc
06600 Mexico, D.F.
Telex: 1772023 CIMTME

Outreach Staff:

c/o The Canadian High Commission
House 16, Road 48
Gulshan, Dhaka
Telex: 642892 ASTDK BJ

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
West Africa
Telex: SAFGRAD 5381 BK

c/o CIAT
Apdo A6reo 67-13
Cali, Colombia
America del Sur
Cable: CINATROP, Call
Telex: 5769 CIATCO

Apdo. 2600
Quito, Ecuador
America del Sur
Cable: INIAP, Quito
Telex: 00308 2532 INIAP ED

c/o Canadian High Commission
Box 1639
Accra, Ghana
Telex: DOMCAN 2024
(Canadian High Commission in Ghana)

c/o ICTA
Ave. Reforma 860 Zona 9
Edif. Galerfas Reforma, 3er. Nivel
Guatemala, C.A.

Service de Recherches Agricoles
B.P. No. 9
Les Cayes, Haiti
West Indies

P.O. Box 25171
Nairobi, Kenya
Cable: CENCIMMYT, Nairobi
Telex: 22040 ILRAD

P.O. Box 30727
Lilongwe 3
Telex: 4487 CBS MI

P.O. Box 1336
Kathmandu, Nepal
Telex: 2262 NARANI NP

c/o International Institute of
Tropical Agriculture
P.O. Box 5320
Ibadan, Nigeria
Telex: 31417 TROPIB IBADAN

P.O Box 1237
Islamabad, Pakistan
Cable: LAPSA
Telex: 5604 PARC PK -Islamabad,

c/o CIP
Apartado 5969
Lima, Perd
Telex: 25672 PE

P.O. Box 5466
Aleppo, Syria
Telex: 331206 ICARDA SY
331208 ICARDA SY

P.O. Box 9-188
Bangkok 10900
Cable: CIMMYT, Bangkok
Telex: 84478 INTERAG TH

P.O. Box 120
Ankara, Turkey
Cable: CIMMYTANK, Ankara, Turkey
Telex: 42994 CIMY TR

P.O. Box MP163 or MP154
Mount Pleasant
Harare, Zimbabwe
Telex: 2462 CIMMYT ZW

C-C 1170
Asunci6n, Paraguay
Telex: 602 PY CIMMYT

The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) is an internationally funded,
nonprofit scientific research and training organization. Headquartered in Mexico, the Center is
engaged in a worldwide research program for maize, wheat, and triticale, with emphasis on food
production in developing countries. It is one of 13 nonprofit international agricultural research
and training centers supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR), which is sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United
Nations, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), and the
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The CGIAR consists of 40 donor countries,
international and regional organizations, and private foundations.

CIMMYT receives support through the CGIAR from a number of sources, including the
international aid agencies of Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Federal Republic
of Germany, France, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, the
Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the USA and from the
European Economic Commission, Ford Foundation, Inter-American Development Bank,
International Development Research Centre, OPEC Fund for International Development,
Rockefeller Foundation, UNDP, and World Bank. Responsibility for this publication rests solely
with CIMMYT.

Correct Citation: CIMMYT. 1987. 1986 Annual Report: International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center. M6xico, D.F.

ISSN 0257-8735

SCentro InterPkiona de Mejoramiento de A laiz y Trigo
International Maize and Whe-t Improzvment Center
Lis law2 Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 AMecico, D E, Mexico


CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

The CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement
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considered the copyright holder for the text and images of
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The CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center has made this publication available to the University of
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The CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center reserves all rights to this publication. All uses,
excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
Code, Title 17, Section 107 are restricted.

Contact the CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center for additional information and