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Guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education

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Title:
Guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education
Creator:
Perdue, Beverly Moore, 1948-
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Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 248 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aging education ( jstor )
Community colleges ( jstor )
Educational services ( jstor )
Gerontology ( jstor )
Higher education ( jstor )
Job training ( jstor )
Older adults ( jstor )
Professional training ( jstor )
Universities ( jstor )
Vocational education ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Administration and Supervision -- UF ( lcsh )
Educational Administration and Supervision thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Gerontology -- Study and teaching ( lcsh )
State universities and colleges -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Gainesville ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 239-246).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Beverly Moore Perdue.

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University of Florida
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Full Text














GUIDELINES FOR EDUCATIONAL GERONTOLOGY IN
FLORIDA'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION














By

BEVERLY MOORE PERDUE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE RFQUIRFPENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1976
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer wishes to acknowledge the support and assistance provided by the many individuals who helped make this study possible. Special thanks is given to Dr. James L. Wattenbarger for his help and guidance in the completion of the study and to Dr. Michael Y. Nunnery for his ability to instill perserverance and confidence. Thanks also go to Drs. Betty Siegel and Phillip Clark for their support and assistance in the formulation and completion of this study, and to Dr. Harold Stahmer for his introduction to the field of gerontology.

A final word of thanks goes to three special people who made the entire educational dream a reality: Alfred and Irene Moore and Gary Perdue.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . ii

LIST OF TABLES . Vi

LIST OF FIGURES . I . Ix

ABSTRACT . x


CHAPTER

I DESIGN OF THE STUDY . 1

The Problem . 8 Delimitations and Limitations . 10 Justification for the Study . 10 Definition of Terms . 15
'Procedures . 17
Organization of the Research Report . 20

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND DEVELOPMENT
OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK . 21

The Demography of the Elderly . . 22 Educational Needs of the Elderly . 28 The Learning Abilities of the Elderly . 31
Core Components of Educational
Programs for the Elderly . 38
Consideration in Programing for the Elderly . 43 Financing of-Educational Programs . 47
Community College Involvement in
Educational Gerontology . 50
The Community College and Manpower
Training . 53
The Community College and Educational
Services for the Elderly . 58
University Involvement in Educational
Gerontology . 61








Page


The University and Manpower Training . 65
The University and Educational Servi-ces
for the Elderly. 72
Summary of Constructs. 77

III FINDINGS FOR THE STATE OF FLORIDA.82

Introduction.82
Institutional Support for Educational
.Gerontology. 83
Educational Services to the Elderly.88
Training Opportunities for the
Professional in Gerontology.113
Summary. 128

IV ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS FOR THE STATE OF FLORIDA. 130

Institutional Support for Educational
Gerontology. 130
Educational Services to the Elderly.134 Purpose of Educational Opportunities.137 The Elderly and Special Services.141
Problems Identified with Educational
Services to the Elderly. 148
Training Opportunities for the
Professional in Gerontology. 150
Training Programs for the Professional
.in Gerontology.152
Continuing Education for the Professional
in Gerontology. 155
Summary. 157

V DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES IN EDUCATIONAL
GERONTOLOGY FOR THE STATE OF FLORIDA.161

Introduction. 161
Institutional Support for Educational
Gerontology. . 162
Educational Services for the Elderly.164 Purpose of Educational Opportunities.167 The Elderly Student and Special Services 169
Probl ems Identified with Educational
Services to the Elderly.;.173
Academic Courses in Gerontology-Related
Subjects.175
Training Programs for the Professional
in Gerontology. 177
Continuing Education for the Professional
in Gerontology. 179
Summary. 181








Page


VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR FUTURE STUDY . 185 Introduction 185
Summary of Findings . 186 Conclusions . 195, Implications . 197 Recommendations for Future Study . 200 APPENDICES . 203

A COVER LETTER AND INSTRUMENT . 204 B DATA DEALING WITH THE ELDERLY . 213

C LEGISLATION RELATING TO THE ELDERLY AND
SELECTED FEDERAL PROGRAMS APPLYING TO AGING 229

D COURSES IDENTIFIED AS MOST DESIRED BY
THE ELDERLY . 237 REFERENCES . 239 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . 247















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Population Estimates by Age for Florida
and Its Counties: July 1, 1974 4

2 Years of School Completed, March, 1972 41

3 Median School Years Completed by Age and
Sex for the United States 1940, 1950,
1960, 1972 42

4 Training Programs in the Field of Aging
Offered by Community Colleges 54

5 Academic Level at Which Courses are Taught 67

6 Time Length of Institutional Participation
in Educational Gerontology 84

7 Institutional Interest in Providing
Further Educational Services for the
Elderly 85

8 Training the Professional in Gerontology 87

9 Special Courses Designed for Elderly 89

10 Courses Open to All Age Groups 90'

11 Workshop.s, Institutes, Conferences on
Age-Related Problems and/or General
Topics 91

12 Off-Campus Courses Within Neighborhood 91

13 Objectives of Courses for Elderly in
Community College 93

14 Objectives of Courses for the Elderly
in Universities 95

15 Elderly Involvement in Course Development 96









Table Page

16 The Elderly as Classroom Resources 97

17 Counseling 98

18 Student Volunteers and Special Assistance
for Elderly 99

19 Free or Reduced Admission Rates for
El derly Students 100

2o Use of Facilities and/or Library 101

21 Transportation Services for Elderly
Students 102

22 Meal Services for Elderly Students 103

23 Health Services for Elderly Students 104

24 Recreation/Social Activities for
Elderly Students 10.5

25 Institutional Sponsorship of Senior
Club or Center 106

26 Elderly Participants 107

27 Entrance Requirements for the Elderly
Student 108

28 Tuition/Fee Practices for Elderly Students
in Florida's Public Institutions 109

29 Institution Problems Identified with
Educational Services to the Elderly ill

30 Availability of Academic Courses for
Gerontological Training in Floridas
Public Community Colleges 115

31 Availability of Academic Courses for
Gerontological Training in Florida's
Public Universities 117

32 Availability of Training Programs for
the Professional in Gerontology in
Florida's Public Community Colleges 120


vii









Table Page

33 Availability of Training Programs for
the Professional in Gerontology in
Florida's Public Universities 122

34 Availability of Continuing Education
Programs for the Professional in
Gerontology in Florida's Public
Community Colleges 124

35 Availability of Continuing Education
Programs for the Professional in
Gerontology in Florida's Public
Universities 126

36 Degrees or Specialty Areas of a Program
.Offered by Public Institutions of Higher
Education in Gerontology 127

B-1 Total Population 65 Years and Over, in
Thousands, 1900 Through 1975, and Decennial
Increase, 1900 Through 1970 214

B-2 Men, Per 100 Women by Age and Race,
1900 to 1990 215

B-3 Percentage Change in Population for 1950
to 1960 and 1960 to 1970 byRace, Sex
and Age Groups 216

B-4 Percent Distribution of Adult Population
by Years of School Completed, 1970 217

B-5 Percent of Elderly Participating in Labor
Force by Age and Sex, 1940-1975 218

B-6 Trend in Median Money Income of Families
and Unrelated Individuals, 1960-1972 219

B-7 Estimated Population Aged 65+, by State,
1974 221

B-8 Location of Counties of Florida's Elderly
Population 223

C-1 Selected Federal Programs Applying to
Aging 233


v i i i















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1 Percentage of Older People in Adult
.Education. 40

2 Who Pays for Special Programs for Older
People in 95 Institutions? 49










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


GUIDELINES FOR EDUCATIONAL GERONTOLOGY IN
FLORIDA'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION By

Beverly Moore Perdue

March, 1976


Chairman: James L. Wattenbarger Major Department: Educational.Administration


The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for the field of educational gerontology, i.e., training opportunities for professionals in gerontology and educational opportunities for-the elderly, in order to construct a set of guidelines which could be used by Florida's public institutions of higher education in educational gerontology. Six subproblems were examined in order to construct these guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida. By developing a set of constructs for educational gerontology as derived from the literature and authoritative opinion which gave attention to the educational opportunities available for the elderly and the professional training available for workers in the field of aging, a base for determining what ought to be going on in educational gerontology in public institutions of higher









education was developed. Then by examining the findings for educational gerontology in both the areas of training and services in Florida's public institutions of higher education in 1975, the status of educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education was determined. Further, by comparing these findings for the State of Florida to the constructs for educational gerontology derived, it was possible to offer guidelines for educational gerontology in the State of Florida.

As a basis for the development of guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education, every public community college (28) and university (9) was utilized for data collection. The guidelines developed were in the areas of educational opportunities for the elderly, in both community colleges and universities, short-term and long-term training opportunities fbr professionals in the field of aging, and continuing education for those individuals currently working with the elderly population.














CHAPTER I

DESIGN OF THE STUDY



American education has evidenced continuing change throughout its history. As the days of the small, primary schoolhouse gave way to state systems of public elementary and secondary education, there alsd developed in this country a system of public higher education to serve the needs of citizens. By the early 1970's this system of higher education encompassed universities, state colleges, and community colleges (Henderson & Henderson, 1974).

Concurrent with this institutional expansion,

there. also occurred an expansion in the population which education served. Institutions of higher education began to offer degree and nondegree experiences for adults of all ages (Center for Continuing Education, 1971). These educational experiences for adults were sometimes called life-long learning and embraced the educational philosophy that "educational opportunity should be made realistically available and feasible for all who might benefit from it, whatever their condition of liFe" (Jacobson, 1973, p. 13). Life-long learning embraced the philosophy of educational services for all people of all









ages. Florida's Chancellor E. T. York stated, "education is not an exclusive right of the young. Learning, like breathing, is truly a lifelong process. And higher edu, cation systems must be restructured to accommodate this fact" (1975, p. 14).

Chancellor York maintained that one of the purposes of higher education and life-long learning was service for the old as well as for the young (1975, p. 14). Other institutions of higher education throughout the country likewise recognized the need for service and training for the elderly as was evidenced by the emergence of a field of study termed educational gerontology (Institute of Gerontology, 1971).

Educational gerontology may be defined as that

,aspect of gerontology which is composed of all the educational activities and services related to aging with a primary emphasis in two areas: the provision of educational services and programs for the elderly and the training of professionals to work with the elderly (Institute of Gerontology, 1973). The need for educational gerontology has been evidenced yearly through the growth in the number of elderly citizens in this country. Now numbering over 20 million, the elderly population is expected to total one-third of all Americans by the year 2000 (Osterbind & Menke, 1972). These elderly individuals need educational services. These elderly individuals









require trained professionals to care for them. The growing elderly population has resulted in educational gerontology becoming a component of the curriculum in many institutions of higher education throughout the country (Academy for Educational Development (AED), 1974).

Demographic data compiled by Osterbind and Menke (1972) and Kincaid (1975) showed that based upon current trends, the State of Florida has had and will continue

to have the largest in-migration of elderly people in the United States as well as the largest percentage of elderly individuals related to the total population of the state. According to Kincaid (1975), one of every seven individuals in Florida was over 65 years of age in 1974. Florida has seen a population increase of 651.2% since 1940 in the number of elderly who live in the state and continues to show a definite trend toward, increasing the number of residents over age 45 and decreasing the number under 45 years of age (Osterbind & Menke, 1972). Kincaid (1975)

and Lewis (1975) have used these population data to support the idea that Florida's elderly population is of such a proportion that it cannot be ignored (see'Table 1)- Educational services must exist for this population. Chancellor York's desire for life-long learning and services for the elderly must become a reality in the State of Florida in order to serve this growing elderly population.










Al I Races
County All Ages 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65 and Over


Table I

Population Estimates by Age for Florida and Its Counties: July 1, 1974


FLORIDA


8,248,851

125,135
11 841 90,150 15 , 786
248,919 828,169
8,078
39,844 30,517 45 , 761 5F,749 28,393 1 413,102
17,660
6,514
570,412 222,414


1 852,045


19356,820


1 841 900


1 755,985


1 442,099

8,128 1 256 9,133 1 529
15,555
185,101
1 031
18,766 12,339
3,736
11 298
2,689
215,659
2 727
703
46,107 16,358


Alachua Baker Bay
Bradford Brevard, Broward
C a I h o u n Charlotte
C i t r u s Clay Collier Columbia
Dade DeSoto Dixie Duval Escambia


.27,944
3,410 23,828
4,149 66,643
164,409
2,322 4,576 5,070
14,324 12,765 8,217 309,381 4,171 1 792 147,089 56,872


40,625
2,007
16,610 2,675
49,116 110,889
1 304 3,127 2,989 7,580 7,857
4,893 225,334
2,737 1 164 118,923 50,627


30,163 2,851 21 825 4,136 68,399 178,266
1 632 3,908
4,333 12,913 11 858
6,994 341 964
4,224 1 436 150,538 58,375


18,276 2,317 18,754 3,296
49,209 189,507
1 789 9,467 8,786 7,208
14,971 5,601 320,775
3,801 1 420 107,757 40 , 184







Al I Races 65 and
County Al I Ages 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 Over


Table I continued


F I a g 1 e r F r a n k 1 i n Gadsden Gilchrist Glades Gulf Hamilton Hardee Hendry Hernando
H i g h I a n d s Hillsborough Holmes Indian River Jackson Jefferson Lafayette
Lake Lee
Leon Levy


6,259 7,752 38,780
4,910 4,747 10,697 8,195 18,074 15,098 26,537
40,659 588,792 12,283 45,038 4 b , 12 5
9,255 3,228 83,473
148,495 129,903 14,868


1 427 1 897 11 770 1 415 1 550
3,034 2,440 6,163
4,616 5,264 8,302 149,508 . 3,179

10,427 9,536 2,755 1 029 17,303 29,475 31 179
4,059


923 1 579 7,322 1 118
895
2,322 1 823 3,533 3,739
4,409 6,327 154,858
2,565 9,128 8,785 1 711
645 13,715 26,599 32,764 3,106


1 1189 1 743 7,701 1 147 1 039
2,112
1 448 3,562 2,966 6,329
9,450 115,30,6
2,720 10,077 7,561 1 699
622 18,816 35,586 18,778 3,363


1 789 1 335 4 : 98 7 502 563 1 185 1 083 1 665 1 233 7,863 11 768 63,910 1 1909
9,469 5,144 1 214 461 23,350 37 ' 755 731196 2,260


932 1 1199 7,000
727 700
2,044 1 401 3,151
2,544 2,672
4,812 105,212
1 1911 5,938 91100 876
471 10,290 19,082 39,988 2 081







Al I Races 65 and
County All Ages 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-54 Over


Table I continued


Liberty Madison Manatee Marion Martin Monroe Nassau Okaloosa Okeechobee Orange Osceola Palm Beach
Pasco Pinellas
Pol k Putnam St. Johns St. Lucie Santa Rosa Sarasota Seminole


3,822
14,220 117,642 92,522 45,097 53,582 26,693 101 266
16,284 423,981 36,889 459,167 123,199 649,852 268,343
42,346 37,931 67,034 46,685 157,738 134,336


1 043 3,749 19,883 22,922
8,419 10,771 8,543 28,974 4,768
104,528. 8,420 96,940 20,054 107,037 69,312 Ill 148
9,585 16,793 12,009
22,499 36,571


682
3,157
12,425 13,817
5,496 11 563
4,523 22,459 3,234 83,180
4,318 66,048 15,258 75,233
42,829 6,961 6,894 9,539 11 840 16,486 19,922


853
2,576 16,876 19,770 7,682 13,556 6,690 31 061 3,562, 102,977
6,961 99,173 20,275 103,286
56,447 7,949 7,349 13,172 11 1974 22,563 35,181


762
2,769
24,619 20,971
10,2.40 11 429 4,865
14,792
3,098 89,838 8,507
100,450 30,935
146,252 54,962 9,483 8,023 15,053 7,805 36,276 29,182


482
1 970
43,840 15,042 1 3,260 6,263 2,071
3,981 1 622
43,461 8,683 96,559 36,676 218,047
44,796
6,805 6,080 12,478 3,058 59,915
13,480




Table 1 conti- lied


All Races 65 and
County All Ages 0-14 15-24 .25-44 45-64 Over

Sumte r 20,034 4,817 3,457 4,118 4,617 3,026
Suwannee 17,645 4,952 2,903 3,587 3,782 2,421
Taylor 14,366 3,895 2,612 3,041 3,058 1,759
Volusia 206,967 38,843 31,956 37,220 47,585 51,364
Wakul 1a 8,635 2,582 1,513 2,154 1,569 816
Wal ton 17,569 4,401 2,714 3,378 4,389 2,688
Washington 13,931. 3,621 2,459 2,882 2,815 2,154









The movement by Florida's systems of public higher education into the area of educational gerontology is based upon'the need for life-long learning opportunities among the elderly as well as the need for professionally trained workers in gerontology. Florida's growing elderly population presents a new responsibility for the state's systems of public higher education. Service and training in educational gerontology must be developed throughout the state, if in fact it does not already exist, to serve this elderly population. The development of educational gerontology in Florida must be based upon concepts and principles heretofore developed and tested by authorities throughout the United States in order to provide the best

possible program of life.,long learning for Florida's elderly citizens as well as to train quali-fied professionals to serve the needs of the el.derly.


The Problem


Statement of the Problem

The problem of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for the field of educational gerontology, i.e., training opportunities for professionals in gerontology and educational opportunities for the elderly, composed of.a set'of constructs which could be used as guidelines by the public institutions of higher education in









Florida. These constructs were derived from the developing theory of the field of educational gerontology as expressed in the literature and in the current practices of the public institutions of higher education in Florida.

Specifically attention was given to the following subproblems:

1. The development of a set of constructs regarding educational opportunities for the elderly which gave attention to course content, admission proceed ures, financing, physical arrangements for the classes,

supplemental services for the elderly, and appropriate

teaching methods.

2. The development of a set of constructs concerned with

training opportunities for the professional in gerontology.

3. The determination of the educational opportunities

available for the elderly in the Florida system of

public higher education (community colleges and univers i ti es ) i n 1975 .

4. The determination of the training opportunities available for the professional in the Florida system of

public higher education in 1975.

5. The examination of the educational opportunities

available for Florida's elderly in light of the conceptual framework dev eloped regarding educational

services for the elderly.









6. The examination of the training opportunities available in gerontology in Florida's public system of

higher education in light of the conceptual framework developed regarding training experiences for the professional.

7. The development of a set of author-formulated guidelines for the future directions of educational gerontology in the State of Florida based upon the literature review, current institutional theory, an d practice.


Delimitations and Limitations


The study was confined to data gathered from a

questionnaire survey received from 37 public universities and community colleges in Florida and from the.literature on the subject of educational gerontology published since 1950.


Justification for the Study


The justification for making a study of the

current involvement of Florida's institutions of higher education in educational gerontology in relationship to a conceptual framework of educational gerontology is supported by the fact that Florida's growing elderly population should be a concern of the institutions of higher education.









The point has been made that the field of educational gerontology is a growing one. This growth, particularly in a state with an annual increase in the elderly population (Burns, 1975), is predicated upon a basic conviction and upon a statement of fact.

1. Education should be seen as a lifelong process. Inof higher education in Florida should provide some type of educational experience for adults

of all ages, including the elderly.

2. Since the elderly population of Florida is increasing

more rapidly than any other age group, institutions

of higher education should provide professionals

trained to work with the elderly.

In orderfor Florida's system of public higher education to serve best the elderly population, it was important to determine what the status of educational gerontology was in these institutions and to compare this with the constructs developed from the literature as being basic to educational gerontological theory. With this information it was then possible to develop guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida. Educational Opportunities and Lifetime Learning for the Elderly


In 1961 and 1971, the White House Conference on Aging issued reports which implored educational institutions to implement plans for providing service, cultural









enrichment, leisure training, and academics for the elderly. These suggestions for action by institutions of higher education reflect the philosophy of lifelong learning-that an individual cannot learn enough in childhood and youth to last a lifetime, and that older adults benefit from learning experiences. They also reflect the philosophy that the elderly should continue to receive educational experiences.

The White House Conference recommendations were supported by authorities in educational gerontology. Jacobs (1970) wrote that the terminal philosophy indicated by the American educational system was a major weakness. because it presupposed that individuals could be taught enough in chUdhood and youth to last them a lifetime and that older adults could not learn (p. 381). Londoner (1971) wrote that education-must exist for the life cycle in order to emphasize learning, unlearning, and relearning by people all ages. Mason (1970) offered the argument that educational services must be provided for the elderly in order to allow aging . individuals to exert some control over how they approach old age. This education would teach the elderly how tc accept new roles and status positions in their lives. Hendrickson and Barnes (1967) concluded that colleges and universities must accept the responsibility for providing educational services to the elderly and for training professionals in









gerontology as an important component of higher education.


Florida's Elderly Population


Demographic data for the United States show that there are more than 20 million Americans in this country who are over 60 years of age. This means that-one of every 10 individuals is over 60 (Riley & Foner, 1968). Osterbind and Menke (1972, pp. 1-2) found that the State of Florida had the largest net in-migration of elderly in the country in 1971; that the population of Florida since 1960 increased by 37% while the number of people aged 65 and over increased by over 78%. Furthermore, Kincaid (1975) stated that in 1974 one out of every seven persons in the State of Florida was elderly.

Florida's institutions of higher education must provide e ducational services for this growing elderly population in order to carry out the philosophy of lifelong learning. Such educational opportunities can help older individuals find new vocations and/or meaningful activities in order to augment the final stage of life (AED, 1974).

Professionals in Educational Gerontology


Professionals must be trained to work with the

elderly in order to alleviate some of the physical, mental,









and social problems which confront many elderly individuals (Seltzer, 19.74). This training is vital in a. state such as Florida where a growing elderly population has caused increasing demands to be made upon the state's social services (Kincaid, 1975).

Value of the Study


Since there were no available data on activity by Florida's public institutions of higher education in educational gerontology, there was a need for this study. Higher education should provide lifelong learning opportunities for citizens of all ages including the large elderly population. Such activity in Florida was examined in this study in order to determine the extent of educational gerontology occurring in Florida; moreover, this, activity was viewed in light of the conceptual framework of educational gerontology developed from the literature. The results of such a comparison between what was happening in Florida and the constructs which were identifi ed, through the literature may lead to

1. the concept of lifetime learning becoming a reality

for Florida's elderly

2. the provision of needed educational services for the

older population

3. the elderly becoming active participants in higher

education










4. the development of a plan of action for Florida in

educational gerontology.

This study was also justified by the fact that a

recent publication by the Academy for Educational Development (AED) (1974) showed that at a time when financial problems in higher education were greatest, there was increased federal funding in educational gerontology. Moreover, final justification for a study on the involvement by Florida's institutions of higher education in educational gerontology was cited by the Ohio Administration on Aging (1973) which did a similar study in Ohio: "in a democratic society there is need to insure to every age equal opportunity for alternatives-a choice of life styles, including avenues to meaningful use.of time, whether through w ork or leisure" (p. 3). This study goes beyond a compilation of data on thestatus of Florida's educational gerontology by developing a conceptual framework for the discipline of educational gerontology. This framework can serve as a basis for the development or expansion of educational gerontology in Florida.


Definition of Terms


Construct. "Something constructed by mental synthesis" (Webster's New World Dictionary, 1970, p. 305).









Educational gerontology. That aspect of gerontology which is composed of all the educational activities and services which are related to aging with a primary emphasis in two areas: the provision of educational services and programs for the elderly and the training of

professionals to work with the elderly.

Educational needs of the elderly. Those special

educational needs which have been identified by the elderly as accompanying increased age, i.e., retirement preparation, leisure time activities, community service activities.

Educational services for the elderly. The component of educational gerontology which focuses upon institutions of higher education providing academic and nonacademic experiences for the elderly, i.e., classes, workshops, seminars, in order to meet their educational needs.

Elderly. Persons 65 years of age and older; used interchangeably with aged (Older Americans Act, 1971).

Lifelong learning. One aspect of the total educational program in the developmental concept wherein individuals, irrespective of age, are seen as being involved in a continuum of interrelated developmental tasks beginning with infancy and ending with death.

Professionals in gerontology. Individuals who have educational training and expertise in gerontology; those trai ned to deliver social services to the elderly. Professionals include individuals with degree and nondegree










expertise and training from institutions of higher education.

Training of professionals to work with the elderly. Degree and nondegree training experiences and continuing education experiences for those individuals who work directly with the elderly or who perform supportive services such as research and training in gerontology.



Procedures


Overview of Study Design


The design for the study was composed of three parts. The first section of the study was a review of the literature in order to develop a conceptual framework for the field of educational gerontology. The second phase of the study was an empirical survey utilizing a questionnaire instrument which provided information regarding the extent of educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education. The data gathered from the questionnaires were then compared to the conceptual framework developed for educational gerontology from the literature review. The f inal phase of the study was the development of a set of guidelines for future directions in educational gerontology by Florida's public institutions of higher education.









Development of theConceptual Framework


The conceptual framework for the field of educational gerontology was developed through an extensive review of the related literature on training and services in gerontology available in the United States. Basic constructs were developed for the overall discipline of educational gerontology. These constructs were subdivided into relevant propositions in order to expand the conceptual framework.


Empirical Study Utilizing a Questionnaire


The survey section of the study was conducted

during the summer of 1975 by mailing a modified version of the Ohio Administration on Aging Questionnaire to the president of each public community college (28) and each state university (9) in Florida. There were 'a total of 37 respondents, one from each public institution. A cover letter was sent with the questionnaire explaining the procedure (see Appendix A).

The instrument. The instrument used for the

survey was an adapted version of the Ohio Administration on Aging questionnaire in a study of educational gerontology in higher education. The instrument was designed. to solicit responses to questions similar to those posed in subproblems 3 and 4 of the Statement of the









Problem. The instrument was modified by the researcher in order to make it more concise with a forced choiceyes or no-answer.

Data collection and analysis. The data for this section were obtained from survey responses of 37 public institutions of higher education in Florida. The analysis occurred in two parts: (1) percentage compilations for each survey item in order to determine the answers to subproblems 3 and 4 of the Statement of the Problem, the extent of educational opportunities available for the elderly and the extent of professional training experiences available in gerontology; and (2) an examination of these empirical data collected from Florida's institutions of higher education in light of the conceptual framework developed for educational gerontology. Development of the Guidelines


The construction of the guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education were conceptually formulated by the author based upon a comparison of the constructs for educational gerontology with the comprehensive data collected from each institution.









Organization of the Research Report


This research study is organized into six chapters. The first chapter includes the introduction, the problem and the procedures for the study. A review of the selected literature, research, and authoritative opinion and the development of a conceptual framework for educational gerontology are presented in the second chapter. The third chapter contains the findings for the State of Florida, while a discussion of thels'e findings is presented in Chapter IV. The fifth chapter is devoted to.a comparison between the constructs for educational gerontology developed in Chapter II and the findings for Florida presented in Chapter IV in order to develop guidelines for educational gerontology in Florida's public institutions of higher education. The sixth chapter contains a summary of the study.















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


The review of literature related to the study on the participation by Florida's public institutions of higher education in providing both educational services for the elderly and training for the professional in gerontology was intended to serve as an overview of involvement in this area in order to develop a conceptual framework for educational gerontology.

In order to develop an understanding of the impact of the growing elderly population in this country, to gain insight into the necessity for providing educational services for the elderly as well as specific training for the professional in educational gerontology, and to develop an awareness of existing status of educational gerontology, the literature.review was divided into seven areas:

1. the demography of the elderly

2. the educational needs of the elderly 3. the learning ability of the elderly

4. core components of educational programs for the elderly

5. community college participation in educational gerontology









6. university participation in educational gerontology

7. generalizations about educational gerontology in order

to develop a conceptual framework.

Each section of this Literature Review is concluded with the development of constructs for educational gerontology based upon the review. These constructs are summarized-at the end o f Chapter II as a "Conceptual Framework for Educational Gerontology."



The Demography of the' Elderly


The United States Congress adopted the standard

definition of the aged as 65 with the passage of the Social Security Act in 1935 when the economy was best served by a wholesale retirement of older workers (Atchley, 1972). Atchley (1972) cited this law as the impetus for the societal acceptance of age 65 as the age for required withdrawal from the work world and as the "moment in life.when one enters old age" (p. 102), even though Congress has included those people between 60 and 65 as recipients of services provided through the Older Americans Act of 1972. In this Review of the Literature tile definition of the elderly as heretofore stated includes those individuals over the age of 65 in accordance with the Population Bureau's (1975) suggestion that "most of the available data in the United States are for persons in that category









(over 65); more people retire at age,65 than at any other. The literature of gerontology uses 65 as the point of elderly classification" (p. 4).,


Number

The elderly population of the United States has mounted consistently since 1900 when slightly more than three million men and women were aged 65 and over. By 1940, the elderly population had nearly tripled to nine million, and in 1975 it was more than 22 million (see Appendix B). This almost sevenfold gain in 70 years was much greater 'than that of the total population, which nearly tripled from 76 million to 215 million over the same period. Several factors have contributed to this rapid expansion which were cited by Eklund (1968): the high fertility rate of the- 19th and early 20th centuries, the decline in the rate of mortality, and the high level of immigration prior to World War I.

For the future the United States can expect a

continuing increase in the numbers-of older people through the year 2020. The United States Bureau of the Census (1975) has projected 24 million elderly by 1980, 27.7 million by 1990, 28.8 million by 2000, 30.9 million by 2010, and 40.2 million by the year 2020.

Kincaid (1975) published statistics on the elderly population which showed that Florida has the third fastest









rate of growth for those over 65 years of age and the largest numbers of net in-migration of elderly citizens for any state in the United States. It had the second fastest growth rate for elderly whites and the twelfth fastest growth rate for nonwhites. Florida's elderly population, according to Kincaid (1975) "increased twice as rapidly as did its total population between the census counts in 1960 and 1970" (p. 1).


Race, Sex, and Age Distributions


According to figures compiled by the Population Reference Bureau (1975), men and women aged 65 and ove r were not evenly distributed by race, sex, and age. The Population Bureau's 1970 figures showed 10.3% of all whites in the United States to be over 65 as compared to 7% of all blacks.

The majority of older Americans in 1970 were

widowed women. In numbers, according to the Population Bureau (1975), there were 72 men over age 65 for every 100 women age 65 or over. With increasingage, the imbalance becomes more pronounced with 64 men for every 100 women over the age of 75.

Florida's population patterns followed the nation's patterns according to Kincaid (1975), who stated that based on t-he 1970 census there.were 744,507 elderly women and 603,784 elderly men. He concluded that the numbers of









elderly women were "growing faster as a group in Florida than elderly men and the growth in white population was much larger than the nonwhite population" (p. 2). Economic and Social Aspects of the Elderly


Although the elderly are no more homogeneous in

health, e education, work or manner of living than in demographic characteristics, certain patterns were discernible through a review of the literature.

Education. According to the Population Reference Bureau (1975), the elderly have completed fewer years of formal education than younger adults. For example, in 1970 about 4% of those 65 and over had had no formal schooling and another 53% had completed less than the eighth grade. In contrast, only 1% of men and women from 25 to 65 years old had no schooling, and only 21% had less than an eighth grade education (see Appendix B). The median number of school years completed was 8.7 for the elderly and 12.1 for those 25 to 64 years of age.

In 1972, 2.4% of the 20 million people over age 65

and 6.3% of the 19 million people aged -55 to 6-4 participated in adult education. This means that of the total national enrollment in adult education for 1972, 1.7 million or 19% of that participation was by members of the elderly population. About 13/00 of that elderly group participated in educational programs through institutions of higher education (AED, 1974, p. 10).









Employment. In 1900, two out of three elderly men worked for a living; now only about one in four does. The trend for elderly women, however, has been somewhat different. Between 1940 and 1960, the percentage of elderly women who were employed increased. However, since the 1960'.s, the trend toward employment by elderly women has declined since more women, upon reaching retirement age, were eligible for their own retirement benefits from previously held jobs (see Appendix B).

Income. Atchley (1972) stated that retirement

benefits were the most prevalent and important source of income for the elderly. The UnitedStates Social Security Administration (1973) compiled data which show ed that for elderly couples with a head of household over 65, retirement payments were over half the income of the majority of couples, while for. individuals over 65, retirement payments provided, in 1973, nearly two-thirds of the total income. The Social Security Administration. (1973) stated that approximately 50% of all nonmarried elderly in the United States reported incomes below the poverty threshold while 14% of married couples were in a similar condition. About

1.2 million couples had incomes between $5,000 and $10,000 while 655,000 couples had incomes of $58 per w eek, or an annual earnings total of about $3,000 (HEW, 1975). About 944,000 older nonmarried elderly reported incomes of $29 weekly or. $1,500'annually. These combined statistics









according to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1975), showed 16% (3.4 million) of the elderly people below the poverty level (see Appendix B).


Distribution of the El derly

In 1974, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1974) stated that about 50% of the persons age 65 or over lived in the six most populous states-California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas and Florida. Each of these states had more than one million older persons. Eight states had a population which was classified by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1974) as proportionately high (12% or more). These states were Florida, Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, and Oklahoma.

Saba (1973) identified the location of Florida's elderly population for 1970-1980. This information is presented in Appendix B.


Development of Constructs


The demographic evidence given about this increasing elderly population was used to develop the first construct for educational gerontology: Construct. As a result of the increasing elderly
population, new or expanded programs, of educational gerontology providing
both educational services for the








0
elderly and manpower training in aging will be required to meet the needs of
this population group and to make lifelong learning a reality.


Educational Needs of the Elderly

The major problems of the elderly have been documented by researchers such as Hendrickson and Barnes (1967), Hiemstra (1972) and Sarvis (1973) as inadequate employment and income, substandard housing, unfulfilled needs from social service agencies, poor physical and mental health, change in family, life, inadequate retirement and leisure time preparation, and an insufficient knowledge of the social and psychological aspects of aging. According to Hiemstra (1972) and Sarvis (1973), educational programs could help alleviate each of these problem areas for the elderly.
McClusky (1971) saw the educational needs of the elderly as being divided into four categories: coping, expressive, contributive, and influencing. Coping needs were essentially survival needs, since they helped the elderly individual face new roles and personal adaptations in order to exist. He identified coping needs as a minimal ability to read, write, and do computation, the knowledge and utilization of health, diet, and physical fitness programs; the knowledge encessary for existence in a complex socity-knowledge of retirement, finance,








insurance, health care procedures; and the ability to find a personal use for leisure time.

McClusky (1971) indicated that partial fulfillment of the coping needs must be achieved by an individual before the expressive needs can be considered. He next defined expressive needs as being based on a premise that people ar e self-motivated toward some type of activity for personal reward. These needs were fulfillable, according to McClusky (1971), through any type of activity which made an individual feel a personal-sense of accomplishment, well-being, and pride in doing a task. Examples of expressive activity, according to McClusky (1971), were evidenced in the areas of hobby and self-awareness activity, i.e., art, drama, gardening, dance, writing, sewing, carpentry, and mechanics.

The third level of educational needs of the elderly as identified by McClusky (1971) were contributive needs. These needs were based upon the assumption that people had a need and a desire to contribute to others which resulted in individuals helping others. Peterson (1974) saw the worth of educational programs as fulfilling the'contributive needs of some of the nation's 20 million elderly in volunteer programs such as Retired Senior Volunteer Programs, teaching and medical assistants, foster grandparents.









McClusky (1971) noted that productivity and contribution by the elderly were essentials in the fourth area of the educational needs, the ability to influence. Implicit in the power loss of the aged according to McClusky (1971) was the loss of influence. Atchley (1972) stated.that the need to control and to influence was evidenced especially in politicians and scholars who continued to work lona after the normal retirement age and exemplified the need that many elderly individuals feel to control their lives. This need to control included independence, retention of home and mobility, advice and service, and feeling a sense of influence and importance to others instead of feeling useless and unproductive, stated Atchley (1972).

Educational programs have been developed throughout the United States in response to the White House Conference on Aging's 1961 and 1971 reports which implored social agencies and educational institutions at all levels to implement plans of service, cultural enrichment, leisure training, and academics for the elderly. Sarvis (1973) stated that the purpose of these educational programs was essentially the same as for any educational endeavor for groups of any age: to help develop wise use.of time; to help create an awareness of world, national, and local events; to help in utilization and development of the social world for the benefit of the general welfare.









Sarvis (1973) saw in these educational programs the philosophy that an individual cannot learn enough in childhood to last a lifetime.


Development of Constructs


The literature review on the educational needs of the elderly showed that as adults grow older, they are confronted by problems which, in many instances, could be lessened by educational experiences. Based on this review, the following construct was derived: Construct. The elderly have special needs and
problems documented as accompanying increased age which require special
educational programs.



The Learning Abilities of the Elderly


The ancient Roman belief that senectus 'ipsa morbur

-old age is in itself a disease-exists today. Hoffman (1970) noted however that society has begun to acknowledge the fact that aging is not so much a matter of chronological status as it is cf functional status. As a result of extensive research into the aging process, authorities on learning such as Birren (1974), Woodruff and Walsh (1975), and others have begun to see the older adult as retaining an intellectual and creative potential which is needed by society. Arenberg and Robertson (1965) wrote that the









number of published papers on the learning abilities of the elderly has become so large that a literature review of this area must be highly selective.


Biological and Physiological Factors as Related to the Learning Abilities of the Elderly


Birren (1974) cited the fact that the potential of the aged is sometimes limited by a decreased learning ability resulting not from old age, but from noncognitive influences such as loss of hearing; vision, and poor educational preparation. Botwinick (1959),.who supported noncognitive influence on learning abilities, suggested that "changes with age in the ability to learn [are] small, under most circumstances" (p. 85).

Aging has been characterized by many experts as a decline in physical and mental capacities. Riley and Foner (11, 1968) cited a wide variability among all organisms with little relationship to chronological age. According to Eklund (1968) this has become an important factor in planning educational goals for the elderly, since individual variation-in the rate of aging prevents a stereotyped educational program for the elderly as a group. Woodruff and Walsh (1975) suggested the theory of a variance in learning ability by the elderly. They stressed that regardless of the reason, the elderly did, in many cases, perform more poorly than young people and









that, as a result of this poorer performance, educators must deal with the problem when providing any type of educational program for the elderly.

Atchley (1972) has delineated major physiological deteriorations which accompany aging: weakening eyesight, hearing loss, impairment of psychomotor skills and manual dexterity, sensory decrements, decreases in physical mobility, and an eventual, general decline in coordination which impairs the ability to do complicated tasks or to perform new skill1s .

Wilkie and Eisdorfer (1974) stated that these physiological changes were unavoidable and have given credence. to the belief accepted by many that the elderly cannot continue to learn. Even though longitudinal studies made by Bayley .(1973) showed that, "barring brain control accidents, mental ability is ageless" (p. 131), and that as long asI there "is continued health and available education opportunities, there may be no difference in the intellectual performance between youth and older adults" (p. 139).

Most of the research on age, according to Woodruff and Walsh (1975), has resulted f-rom investigationss of performance changes in verbal learning. Baltes (1974) found a decline in performance with age and concluded that the cognitive process, i.e., learning ability, declines with age. Cannestrari (1963) argued that verbal paired associate learning tests used by Gilbert and others was "unfair








to older persons" (p. 165) since some findings showed that the performance deficits of older pe rsons can be explained in part by noncognitive processes,, as well as by the fact that older people have higher achievement rates when they are allowed more time to study the stimulus materials, which suggests that the old may need more time to learn in the first place.


Psychological Change as Related to the Learning Abilities of the-Elderly


Mason (1970) identified two barriers to learning

in the later years, psychological and cultural. These, he believed, were caused by the negative stereotype associated with old age in the United States culture. He wrote that

there has been ample evidence to show that persons who grow old with a positive view of life do not feel as if they are useless and hopeless in the elderly years. Chown (1967) wrote that similar older individuals had higher tested morale,, were more vigorous, more intellectually able, lived longer, had less disease, and were better adjusted than those elderly who internalized society's stereotype of themselves as one whose physical and mental capacities have deteriorated and whose general interest in life has diminished. Research has not been sufficiently extensive or intensive to give unequivocal evidence of the influence of age upon intellectual capacity.









Thorndike (1936) did research on the question and his conclusions were as follows:

1. The acme of ability (to learn) is reached at some

point between 20 and 25 years of age.

2. There is a decline in capacity for learning from 20

to 25 years to about 42 years of age amounting to

13 to 15%, or approximately 1% per year.

3. The influence of intellect upon the curve of ability

to learn in relation to age is very slight. The

ablest man and the ordinary man show very nearly the

same curve.

4. Individuals, on the average, probably learn much less

from 25 to 45 than they did from five to 25. This is attributable to various combinations of four factors: general health and energy, ability to learn, interest

in learning, and opportunity for learning.

5. By the age of 25 most persons have, within certain,

limitations, learned a great part of what they wish

to learn.

Jones and Conrad (1933) confirmed Thorndike's conclusions that intelligence declines with age; not necessarily old age.

Wechsler and Shakow (1946) concluded on the basis of various studies of intellectual and physical ability that while intellectual ability follows the same general pattern of decline as does physical ability, these









intellectual abilities did not necessarily decline at the same rate. Baltes (1974) wrote that if the speed factor were eliminated and only mental power considered, the difference between the learning abilities of older and younger people was reduced.

Mills (1968) wrote that as a result of the attention, retention and recall elements of learning which decrease with age, there existed a need to create in elderly learners the desire to learn. He wrote that attitude, interest, and motivation were better sustained as age advanced so that active learning usually was practiced in areas defined in terms of personal interest.

Donahue (1949) made the following observations with respect to intelligence and learning:

1. The same abilities decline at different rates in

different persons.

2. Age.differences and age changes have frequently been

confused.

3. There is good evidence to support the view that the

greater the individual's intellectual endowment, and the greater the amount of education, the less steep is the decline in intellectual ability, other things

being equal.

4. Exercise of the mind seems to retard deterioration

of intellectual processes.









5. The older adult can continue to learn meaningful

things; comprehension of difficult reading shows

little or no change with age; but there is a decline

is ability to remember isolated facts.

Available research findings were summarized briefly

by Eklund (1968) when he wrote:

An individual's age and his test performance
are neither clearly nor consistently related, while there is substantial evidence that'(a) intelligence level, education, and
socioeconomic status at early adulthood
(which also correlates with childhood advantages and educational opportunities),
constitute the most consistent cluster of variables associated with learning abilities; (b) poor health is a dominant inhibitor; (c) different motivations underlie
the learning of older people as compared with young people or with themselves at younger ages; and (d) when other factors
are held constant, apparent declines in
learning ability and motivation may be the consequence of disuse and lack of
opportunity to practice relevant skills.
(p. 334)


Development of Constructs


The research on the learning abilities of the

elderly was the basis for the development of the following

constructs on involvement by institutions of higher education in providing educati onal services to the elderly:

Construct. After accepting the fact that the
elderly can learn, educational programs developed for the elderly will require the recognition of differential learning abilities which result from cognitive and noncognitive lifetime experiences as well as the aging









process. These factors will require
that educational programs for the
elderly be slower paced and more individualized.

Construct. Educational participation by the elderly is positively associated with
continued mental and physical performance while this participation in education by the elderly is associated
with previous positive educational
performance.


Core Components of Educational

Programs for the Elderly

Educational needs similar to those identified by the White House Conference on Aging were alsotpresent in studies by Hiemstra (1972), Sarvis (1973), and others (see Appendix C). Sarvis (1973) divided those educational needs identified in his study into categorical areas which were important to the elderly: useful utilization of time through leisure time-activities, hobbies, services to others; retirement preparation; budgeting and income problems; legal knowledge, real estate, trusts, estates; nutrition and health.


Elderly Participation in Education


Hendrickson (1968), Hoffman (1970), and Londoner (1971) established the fact that the elderly benefit from participation in education. Hiemstra (1972), McClusky (1971), Sarvis (1973) and others have stated that the









educational needs and interests of the elderly were definable. DeCrow's (1974) work for the Adult Education Association showed that elderly participation in any type of educational program was low. Of the 20 million people over age 65, 2.40/0 participated in educational programs in 1972, according to a study by the Academy for.Educational Development (1974) which is summarized in Figure 1. Of those 19 million people between the ages of 55 to 64,

6.3% participated for a total of 1.7 million participants age 55 and over in educational activities (A.E.D., 1974, p. 14). Thirteen percent of those between 55 and 64 who participated in adult education, according to the Academy

for Educational Development (1974) , did so through community colleges or universities. The elderly percentage utilizing institutions of higher education dropped to 5% for those over 65.

Peterson (1974) wrote that participation by the elderly in education was low because older adults felt that education had nothing positive to offer, nor any answers for the problems associated with old age. Eklund (1968) stated that to recruit the elderly to education, as each successive generation reached a higher educational levelthere would have to occur "a massive commitment to a redesign and overhaul of the existing educational system in order to accommodate the educational needs of the elderly population" (p. 344), Peterson (1971) suggested that the




40






33.2%












21 .3%





15.1%








6.3%






26 22 23 19 20

Population in Millions 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+

Age Group Figure 1. Percentage of Older People in Adult Education.
Source: U. S. Office of Education, 1972.









commitment by institutions of higher education to provide services to the elderly must begin immediately in order to offset the negative feelings the elderly expressed toward education (see Tables 2 and 3).




Table 2

Years of School Completed,
March, 1972



Years of School Completed (% distribution)
Elementary School High School College
Less Median School
Than 5-7 8 1-3 4 1-3 4 or Years
Age 5 yrs yrs yrs yrs yrs yrs more Completed

25-29 years 0.8 2.7 3.1 13.6 43.8 17.1 19.0 12.7

30-34 years 1.4 3.4 4.7 16.7 43.9 13.6 16.5 12.5

35-44 years 2.5 5.4 6.9 18.5 41.5 11.5 14.7 12.4

45-54 yeras 3.4 7.3 10.8 18.6 38.6 10.6 10.7 12.3

55-64 years 5.6 11.6 17.3 18.9 29.3 8.5 8.8 11.3

65-74 years 9.9 16.0 23.6 15.3 20.1 7.2 7.8 9.1

75 years
and over 16.0 18.3 27.1 11.8 15.2 6.1 5.6 8.6


Source: U. S. Bureau of Census,


"Educational Attainment:


.March, 1972.11 Current Population Reports, 1972.









Table 3

.Median School Years Completed by Age
and Sex for the United States
1940, 1950, 1960, 1972


Age
75 and
25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 over


Mal1e s

1972 12.7 12.5 12.3 11.1 8.9 8.4

1960 12.2 12.0 9.9 8.6 8.2 8.0

1950 11.8 10.0 8.7 8.4 8.1 8.8

1909.7 8.7 8.4 8.2 8.-l 7.8



Females

1972 1 2.6 12.4 12.3 11.5 9.5 8.17

1960 12.2 12.1 10.6 8.8 8.5 8.3

1950 12.1 10.6 8.9 8.5 8.3 8.2

1940 10.3 8.8 8.5 8.4 8.2 8.1



Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census, Eighteenth Census,
1960; Seventeenth Census, 1950; and Sixteenth Census,194U; and Current Population Reports,
1972.









Development of Constructs


The literature review on the elderly participation in educational activities was the basis of the following related construct:

Construct. Since research showed that the elderly
see little value in life-long learning and that elderly participation is low,
educational institutions will be required to make positive recruitment
efforts to reach this population group.


Consideration in Programing .for theElderl~y


The following discussion is presented as a summary

of the literature related to the considerations which should be given to programming courses for the elderly. Structure and Content of Courses


According to Korim (1974), involvement by institutions o f higher education in educational gerontology showed that programs should be of six types: (1) needsoriented, i.e., nutrition, transportation, health, employment; (2) counseling and guidance; (3) information and referral; (4) retirement planning and education; (5) recreation; (6) facilitative activities. Hendrickson and Aker in the 1972 report of Florida's Leadership Development Institute on Improving Education for Older Adults concurred that these areas were prime targets for educational services to the elderly.









Londoner (1971) cited the fact that when the

elderly participated' in educational programs they had a

preference for noncredit classes in confronting and

solving the problems associated with aging. Carlson

(1973) learned in his research that older adults showed

higher involvement and continued attendance in classes

which allowed them active participation and an opportunity

to utilize their lifetime of experiences in the classroom.

The Academy for Educational Development (1974)

identified as a characteristic of programs for older

people courses designed specifically for older personsresidential, campus, and outreach. A roster of the principal characteristics of the ongoing programs included:

courses-on a residential or on campus
basis; outreach courses offered in convenient off campus locations; peer group
instruction in localities that have large
pools of well-educated retired professionals; comprehensive educational programs
in geographic areas that have high concentrations of older citizens; preretirement
planning before the often traumatic transition into a new lifestyle;, educational
vacations on college campuses; consortia
of institutions to maximize resources;
supplementary services, such as health,
transportation, or counseling; mass media instruction and information tailored es-pecially for older people; manpower training for personnel working with the aged;
new careers and retraining for older
people. (p. 19)


Development of Constructs

The following construct is applicable to the

course structure and content of programs for the elderly









as derived from the literature: Construct. Educational programs for the elderly
will require variety in planning and
programing in order to accommodate
the documented educational needs
of the elderly. Special, attention
will be required to develop programs
for the diverse educational backgrounds
of elderly students, to utilize the
elderly as classroom resources, and to
make available credit-noncredit class
options for elderly students.


Physical Arrangements


Eklund (1968) stated that traditional educational. patterns must be restructured to serve the elderly. His contention has been supported in the literature. Hendrickson and Barnes (1967) wrote that although many older adults needed educational services, they did not seek them out or utilize themwhen they were available. Their research showed that.most elderly people were hesitant, about going to a community college or university for courses and that few left home if educational services were available through the media. Hiemstra (1972) found that the elderly manifested a preference for informal educational programs in " their homes, a neighborhood center or a church.

Afford (1969) identified the lack of transportation as one primary reason for the low participation and reluctance of the elderly to attend educational courses. Atchley (1972) identified a lack of transportation as a major problem in the mobility of the elderly. He also stated that









the physical problems of many older adults such as poor vision, lack of energy, poor health, and failing mobility prevented participation in programs which were not in the local neighborhood. Atchley (1972) noted that educational programs for the elderly should be during the day, because of these problems as well as the fear expressed by many older adults of being away from home at night.

Sarvis (1973) cited the need for classes which were planned to accommodate the physical limitations of some older adults. He suggested that poor vision, poor hearing, and other handicaps often prevented the elderly from participating in educational activities. Hiemstra (1972) wrote that courses must be designed to. meet the special needs of the elderly, i.e., accessibility, daytime, length. Elkund (1968) stated that the best length of time for classes for the elderly was from one to two hours, with differentiated activities and student participation.

Sarvis (1973) and Hiemstra (1972) discovered that elderly students were often hesitant about participating in any type of educational experience at an institution of higher education because of complicated application and registration procedures. DeCrow (1974) wrote that such procedures and regulations were a direct cause of low elderly participation in education.










Development of Constructs


The following constructs on the physical arrangements for classes for the elderly were derived from the literature review on this subject: Construct. Since the elderly have indicated that
complicated admission procedures prevent educational participation, educational institutions may be required to modify or eliminate these requirements for the elderly if they plan to
serve them.

Construct. There are many factors related to the
physical location and arrangements of classes, which prevent elderly participation. Alleviation of these barriers to elderly participation will
require: daytime classes of from
one to two hours in the neighborhood of the elderly; removal of architectural barriers; comfortable cha-irs
and good lighting.


Financing of Educational-Programs


The financing of educational programs for the elderly in institutions of higher education was a "problem of priorities" (p. 82.) according to Kobasky (1974). Kobasky (1974), Korim (1974), the Academy for Educational Development (1974), and others wrote that educational programs for the elderly were, for the most part, self-supporting, because few states offered provisions by which elderly students could attend classes at a no- or low-cost tuition. Korim (1974) and DeCrow (1974) cited this factor as one









reason for low participation in educational programs by the elderly. Korim (1974) wrote that if colleges and/or universities had state funding for positions, the direct costs of the programs offered were recoupable. Most money available through the Administration on Aging and the Higher Education Act of 1965, according to their data, was for training manpower personnel to work with the elderly rather than for the provision of educational programs for the elderly (see Figure 2).

Other research by Londoner (1971) and Sarvis (1973) suggested that when financially feasible, a minimal registration fee paid by the elderly reinforced their right to participate in all facets of the educational process since they were purchasers of services.

In contrast, work by Eklund (1968), Osterbind

and Menke (1972), and Peterson (1974) cited the financial dependence of the elderly on a retirement income as reason for total financial assistance for the elderly. In order to combat the problem of the elderly's fixed income which might prohibit their participation in educational activities, legislatures in Arkansas, North Carolina, and Kentucky (AQA, 1975) mandated that they be admitted to comMunity colleges and universities on a space available nocharge basis (see Appendix D for example of state legislation). Legislation in the Older Americans Act (1973, Amendments) provided as an allowable expense funding for














(D







* - Tuition and fees 67 Institutions

00 0
El State government 41


(0 t
* < =(n Federal government 36*
M V)


r -, Local government 26


CD -0 X 0 M Title III, Older Americans Act 24*

(A En C+ *,DJ
W Community voluntary agencies 24



C o Business corporations 14
:z -51-01 rD .0-1 CD (D . .
Foundations 12
CA
-hI
(D mo Alumni contributions 10

CD
C _ . Endowment income 2
o 0 rD


(D -50

(D 0D-













instances where limited scholarships were also available to elderly students who needed financial assistance. Development of Constructs


Based on the authoritative opinion of the financing of educational programs for the elderly, the following con-


educational programs for the elderly in community colleges


through Area Agencies on Aging.


Sarvis (1973) cited some


strict was Construct.


derived:

If institutions of higher education
choose to become involved in providing educational programs for the elderly, they will be required to
be cognizant of the financial limitations of most elderly individuals.
These financial limitations may prevent the elderly from participating
in educational programsunless institutions support legislative action
to modify or eliminate fees for the
elderly.


Community College Involvement
in Educational Gerontology


According to a recent study by Peterson (1970),

the top six priorities for community college administrators of the 1970's were to:

serve the higher education needs of youth from the local community; respond to the
needs of the local community; help students adapt to new occupational requirements; reeducate and retrain those whose vocational capabilities are obsolete; and make financial assistance available-to any student who wants to*enroll in college. (p. 49)









Peterson (1970) did not fin& a priority for serving all adults through a program oflife-long-learning,

except as it was reflected in terms of a response to the

needs of the local community. In a similar study, Bushnell

(1973) showed that the concept of adult education rated in

the lower 50% of a general priority list.

According to Korim (1974) and Scott (1974), the

community college has begun to accept the challenge of

serving the elderly. In a study of community college involvement in educational gerontology, Andrew Korim 1974)

wrote:

Every community college in the nation
should find an opportunity to contribute
to an improvement of conditions of life ,experienced by older persons. The concept of a college is taking on a meaning that reflects basic community characteristics which are bypassed by much of higher
education. Broader based than traditional
colleges, a departure from the classical
limitations of education and the pure
professions is under way. Emphasis on assisting the total community of individuals
with needs for life-long development and redevelopment, on serving as vehicles to' assist communities and their institutions,
and on participation in the process of
ordering community priorities give an expanded meaning to college in the community college context. This enlarged definition
permits a community college to be openended and truly community-oriented.

Korim's remarks summarized the philosophy of educational gerontology-service to the elderly and training for

the professional in gerontology.,









This rationalization for service, training, and educational programs in new areas with goals of reaching heretofore untouched community members was advocated by Edmund Gleazer (1974) when he suggested that community colleges throughout the United States form coalitions with community resources in order to develop community priorities aimed at developing services for the growing elderly population. These services, according to Gleazer

(194),would involve training professionals to work with the elderly as well as providing educational services for the older population.

According to Korim (1974), of the 1,100 community

colleges. in the United States, less than 50% have attempted to serve the needs of the aged population through the development of educational gerontology. Korim (1974) stated that in those community colleges providing educational programs for the elderly and/or manpower training in aging, grants from the Older Americans Act were available. Grabowski and Mason.(1973) identified federal funding programs which existed to finance educational programs in community colleges in order to prepare manpower to deliver services to the elderly or provide educational programs for the elderly. Some state legislatures have begun to waive tuition fees for those over 65 in order to provide educational services for the elderly (see Appendix D).









The Community College and Manpower Training


In a report prepared for the Administration on Aging, the need for educational programs designed to increase the number of persons trained in providing services to the aged was addressed (U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1969). The report recommended that community colleges develop "curricula suitable to prepare trainees for employment as . . . aides in aging programs" (p. 11) and " courses designed to recruit

students for training in technical occupations essential to the provision of services for the older population" (p. 63). This emphasis on the development of educational gerontology training programs in the community college was incorporated into the recommendations of the White House Conference on Aging (1973) through a priority request for certificate and associate degree programs for personnel who delivered services to the elderly.

A recent study by Korim (1974) of the nation's

1,100 community colleges identified 42 community colleges in 26 states which offered training programs in the field of aging. The two-year associate degree program was available in 23 community colleges while short-courses or certificate programs in the area of aging were found in 21 colleges. Table 4 summarizes these findings.



















Number Number of Programs
of Assbctate Short Course Program
State Colleges Degree or Certificate Unspecified


Alaska 1
California 3 2 2
Colorado 1
Delaware 1
Florida 2
Georgia 2
Illinois 3 1 2
Indiana I
Iowa 1
Kansas 3 2
Maryland 2- 1 3
Massachusetts 2 2
Michigan 1 1
Missouri 2 2
Montana 1 1
New Jersey 1 2
New York 2 2
North Carolina 4 1 2
Oklahoma- I I
Oregon 1 1 2
Pennsylvania 1 3
South Carolina 2 2 1
South Dakota I I I
Texas 1 1
Vermont 1 1
Washington 1 1

TOTALS 26 42 24 21 8


Source: Based on data compiled from a survey conducted by the
American Association of Community and Junior Colleges
in October, 1972, and updated in March, 1974.


Table 4

Training Programs in the Field of Aging Offered
by Community Colleges









Korim (1974) identified five categories of formal training and educational programs in gerontology:

1. in-service and pre-service training
for administrators of residential,
extended care, and nursing home facilities.

2. training and education of geriatric
a i d e s ;

3. short-term training for homemaker-home
health aides or home companions for
the elderly;

4. options related to aging in a curriculum such as human services, recreational
leadership, and mental health technology;

5. training components for personnel of
area agencies on aging and state agencies on aging. (p. 25)

Korim (1974) concluded that most programs were oriented toward preparing individuals to work in the geriatric health-related professions. Few community colleges offered preparation for individuals to work with-90% of the elderly who w ere.healthy. He identified gaps in training for jobs associated with state and community agencies to work with the elderly-in jobs at senior center clubs-retirement communities, and in volunteer agencies. Korim (1974) advocated "the capability of community colleges to provide direct services to senior citizens as a component of training programs" (p. 34): and also stated that with the increasing elderly population there will be "a labor market demand for persons capable of rendering services to older Americans . . . at the paraprofessional and technical levels" (p. 34).









In a statement made before the Senate Committee on Aging, Arthur Fleming endorsed manpower training in gerontology:

I think it is important for us to do
everything we can, within the resources that are made available to us, to provide training opportunities for people who are right now working in the field
of aging in the nutrition projects,
with the State agencies, with the area agencies, and those who are engaged in the delivery of services to older persons. (p. 180)

Fleming (1975) went on to recommend that community colleges offer short-term training for professionals in agingdefined as being multidisciplinary training aimed at putting immediate, helpful, and problem-oriented learning interven-tions into the working lives of individuals (p. 182). Hendrickson (1973) stated that short-term training was not conceptually based but rather was patterened on right-hereand-now situations in order to prepare men and women to work as effectively as possible with older adults. Fleming (1975) stated that "these people may lack some academic credentials, but that this lack is more than compensated by an eagerness to do good for those elderly citizens who have themselves done so much" (pp. 182-183). Moreover, he saw short-term training leading to community awareness of the needs of the elderly population. In summary, Fleming (1975) defined the goals of educational gerontology's manpower program as training and technical assistance to enable









local agencies, citizens, and professionals to do the following:

1. develop an administrative capacity;

2. gain skills in community organization; 3. recruit, organize, train and supervise
a staff capable of devel ' oping a program
of aging services that makes a difference in the community;

4. plan and budget a program of aging
services;

5. communicate the purposes of the aging
programs to other community agencies,
and to the public and to create a community awareness of aging;

6. rationalize the needs of the elderly in
order to work to improve community services for the elderly;

7. develop leadership skills among the
older people who participate in the
local agency programs to set community
program objectives. (p. 183)

Curry (1975) defined the goals of short-term training for the community colleges and for continuing education programs in universities as being the way to "maximize the use of aging funds to get assistance to older people immediately" (p. 192). He saw a need in educational gerontology in institutions of higher education for a clear definition of training needs; for the persons doing.the training to have expertise in a certain subject area; for appropriate I.earning experiences; for different levels of program implementation; and for the development of resource materials on aging (p. 192).









Development of Constructs


The following constructs on the extent and direction of community college involvement in educational gerontology were derived from a review of the literature:

Construct. In order to be involved effectively
in gerontology manpower training,
community colleges will be required to offer short-term certificate and degree training programs for professionals in aging aimed at developing
immediate problem-solving skills.
These programs would meet the needs
of the local community for aging services and would not be exclusively
health related.

Construct. Community colleges, in order to
develop campus and community awareness
of the elderly, as well as to serve the needs of the local residents who
work or live with the elderly, will be required to initiate a survey course(s)
in aging, offer in-servic.e. andt -
-,ra 1 n 1 ng
workshops for local professionals and nonprofessionals in aging-related and aging-service occupations; and instigate community planning for the needs
of the elderly.


The Community College and
Educational Services for tile Elderly


Community college involvement in providing educational services to the elderly has been identified by

Korim (1974) in 140 two-year colleges with retirement

programs, 339 with cultural enrichment programs, and 42

with job training programs designed especially for the

elderly. Free or reduced tuition was offered by 167 colleges in 40 states.









Support for community college involvement in providing educational opportunities for the elderly was prominent at the 1971 White House Conference on Aging where Howard McClusky, cochairperson of the Section on Education, stated that

one development in education for aging
[was] the phenomenal growth of the community college which [was] designed to
make community services and adult education a principal part of its overall
program. (p. 122)

DeCrow (1974) found in this study of the national involvement in educational services for the elderly that' about 360 community colleges reported courses and programs in this area. He found that about one-half of the programs involved 100 or less students while 18% served 500 or more. Seventy-two percent of his respondents indicated new activity in educational gerontology within the last year'(1973). DeCrow (1973) identified the problem areas associated with programs for the elderly as finance, lack of supportive services (i.e., transportation, meals, medical care), shortage of trained staff, and locating and interesting the audience (pp. 28-29).

Community college participation in programs for the elderly was consistent among the community colleges. Korim (1974). and DeCrow (1974) identified divergency in the area of providing direct social services to the elderly. They cited 26 community colleges in 15 states as having organized senior citizen centers, volunteer programs,










transportation services, food services, or screening services. Korim (1974) found that three community colleges in Iowa were designated by the state as Area Agencies on, Aging, which made them recipients of all federal funds for the direct provision of services to the elderly within the geographical boundaries of the community colleges. According to Fleming (1975), this designation of the community colleges as an Area Agency on Aging was not a preferred one since organizations of local governments could more effectively develop and coordinate programs of com-,prehensive services for the elderly. Fleming (1975), Korim (1974), DeCrow (1974), Sarvis (1973), Peterson (1971) and Kobasky (1974) saw the role of the. community college as providing educational programs for the elderly in accordance with the White House Conference on Aging's guidelines for program development and educational services

for the elderly.


Development of Constructs


Based on the literature review of the role of the community college in providing educational services for the elderly as well as the earlier literature review on the educational needs of the elderly and the curriculum guidelines for these programs, the following constructs were derived:









Construct. As the elderly populati-on increases
and as their social needs become
more pronounced, community colleges will be required to provide general academic and vocational classes in
the area of aging for community members and college students in order to create an awareness of aging and
to develop more efficient services
for the elderly.

Construct. Community colleges will not be required to provide direct social service delivery for the elderly.


University Involvement in Educational GerontologyIn addition to the community college service to the aged, there has been some movement by universities to establish educational gerontology programs beyond the traditional human growth and development curriculum of the social sciences and medicine which had an aging component (AGHE, 1975). University involvement in educational gerontology has been identified in three areas: (1) programs which offered educational services to the elderly similar to those offered by the community colleges; (2) the establishment of national models of service to the aging, which involved providing educational services for the'elderly and training opportunities for the professional in gerontology; and (3) basic research and training in gerontology (HEW, 1969, 1972; AGHE Memorandum, 1975).

The need for trained manpower with a knowledge of the aging process in order to provide planning and









services for the elderly was evidenced in the Recommendations on Training (Birron, 1971) issued by the White House Conference. The specialists in aging identified three broad categories of personnel to be trained by universities ranging. from those capable of performing routine tasks to those with the highest degree of creativity and skill-those ranging from baccalaureate degree to the postdoctoral degree:

1. Persons trained primarily at the doctoral level to extend s kills in the knowledge-of aging and for training
additional personnel in all categories.

2. Personnel equipped to, plan, administer,
and supervise programs and facilities
for the elderly.

3. Personnel with-the knowledge and 'Skills
required to provide the broad range of
.services needed by the older population.
(White House Conference, 1973, pp. 11-12)

Some of the diversity of direction in both training in gerontology and services to the elderly among universities in the area of educational gerontology was evidenced by an examination of three of the major American aging centers. The Percy Andrus Gerontology Center at the University of Southern California offered intensive academic preparation for the Doctor of Philosophy degree as well as summer institutes. for the continuing education of the professional in aging; the Duke Aging Center at Duke University offered a clinical and research model of intensive medical and social training for the professional; the third









major center, the Syracuse University.Center for Aging, represented a model for direct service to the aged through an emphasis on the establishment and practice of personnel relationships with the elderly as well as intensive academic preparation for the professional gerontologist (AGHE Memorandum, 1975).

Other programs in universities offered extensive services to the elderly in lieu of or concurrent with a minimal academic training program in ge-rontology. Scott (1974) identified some colleges which followed the model advanced by the University of Oregon where a class of college students received credit for working with elderly citizens in class sesssions. Kauffman (1967) wrote that the University of Kentucky went beyond utilization of the elderly as off-campus resource persons by including them as non-tuition paying members of the academic community through a program called the Donovan Scholars, where any resident of Kentucky over 65 may pursue a degree in any academic area or attend noncredit classes without charge.

DeCrow (1974) identified 350 universities and,

colleges with involvement in educational gerontolo-gy. He identified many institutions where faculty commitment from many departments to develop long-range plans for the engagement of university resources with the unfolding lives of older people was sought. In some states, Korim (1974)

saw consortia of universities forming to rationalize and coordinate









efforts in aging programs while some universities provided

direct services to the elderly as a laboratory and testing

ground for.improving the other major functions of universities in the field of gerontology-basic research the

preparation of workers in many disciplines for working

with the older population, and continuing education in

the professions (pp. 32-33).

Although there appeared to be diverse activity in

gerontology in DeCrow's study, Beattie (1973) challenged

the current involvement by institutions of higher education

in educational gerontology. He wrote that

the place of gerontology in higher education, much as the place of older persons in society, is one of low status and low priority. Aging has had low priority in
colleges of medicine, schools of social
work, schools of architecture, colleges of
law, as well as in basic baccalaureate
education and among the scientific disciplines. Little content on aging is available in the majority of disciplines and professions . . . with only limited support for the development of curricula,
for faculty development, and for students
has been forthcoming. At the same time, however, much as aging is becoming more
visible within the society, so is the
demand for higher education to commit its
resources to aging becoming more prominent.
Therefore, there is an important and-special issue of institutional commitment on
the part of higher education to aging which
goes beyond commitments of individual
faculty, departments, schools, or colleges.
(p. 15)

In agreement with the challenge offered to universities to serve the elderly by Beattie, Hodgkinson (1975)

wrote that the era of egalitarianism had arrived for higher









education, bringing to universities a commitment to serve

all types of people of all ages. This, he stated, meant 11service to the elderly" (p. 127).


Development of Constructs


The following construct was developed from the

literature on the participation by universities in the

area of educational gerontology:

Construct. University involvement in educational
gerontology will require degree programs at all levels and in all areas
to prepare professionals in aging and will require some type of direct.educational services for the elderly.
The university's program will develop from institutional goals for an aging program. Models advanced nationally
are of three basic types: interdisciplinary training for the social science professions, academic programs of clinical research, or general academic preparation for service professions Utilizing the elderly community as
a laboratory experience.


The University and Manpower TrainingThe report-of the 1971 White House Conference on

Aging stated that "the great majority of training programs

and courses in aging are housed in universities. Academic,^

medical and professional*schools accounted for threefourths of the setting for training in aging" (1973, p. 46).

Two-thirds of the gerontology training identified by the

Administration on Aging (1975) was offered in graduate level









courses by universities as compared to 21% for the undergraduate (see Table 5).

Curry (1975) stated that the university must

respond to the need for manpower training in gerontology in the areas of:

1. Continuing education providing specific training in

aging professionals who are already trained in their

basic specialty or discipline but who lack specific

training in the field of aging.

2. Training for the professional o work with the impaired

elderly.

3. Training for new types of personnel to serve the

elderly population.

4. Training for the researchers in gerontology (pp. 5-7).

Birren (1971) stated that "the goal of graduate

training in gerontology is to prepare students for careers in teaching and research in the field of aging" (p. 47). The approach to this training in aging at the graduate level varies from utilization of the traditional single disciple ne approach to a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. The single discipline approach, according to Birren (1971), has sent the graduate into a specific area of aging while the multidisciplinary approach has fostered interaction among disciplines in order to produce graduates with a broad perspective on aging, as well as one specialty area. A study.for the Gerontological Society (1970) on




















Number of
Level Courses Percent

Liberal arts 145 43

Medical and graduates 30 9

Nursing 4 1


Graduate 179 53

Undergraduate 71 21

Both graduate an.d undergraduate 29 9

Medical 43 13

Other 14 4


Total 336 100


Source: U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare,
1968, final report. "A Survey of Training Needs
and Mechanisms in Gerontology by the Gerontological
Society." Public Health Service, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. U. S.
Senate Background Studies by States, 1960, Bethesda, Maryland.


Table 5

Academic Level at Which Courses are Taught









educational programs indicated that "innovative graduate programs in gerontology" (p. 155) were existent in all geographical areas of the United States.

Birren (1971) reported in a training paper for the White House Conference that undergraduate level recruiting and training of students in. aging was minimal. He identified only one college-Mt. Angel College, Oregon-as having an undergraduate degree in gerontology, while 21% of the courses taught in aging were geared to the undergraduate level (p. 47).The Association for Gerontology in Higher Education (1975) has begun a study to identify the current status ,of courses and degree opportunities in gerontology at the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Earlier studies by Anderson (1970) and Duncan (1971) showed that training programs in aging throughout the United States were funded primarily by the Administration on Agi ng, the National Institute of Child He'alth and Human Development, and the National Institute of Mental Health. A study by the Division of Manpower for the Administration on Aging (1972) on the federally supported university programs in aging reinforced these studies which showed most training in aging occurring at the graduate level. Birren (1971) cited these findings as evidence of the need to extend the gerontology course curricula from the graduate level to the undergraduate level.









The need for an undergraduat-e and a graduate curriculum in order to train professionals in aging is linked, according to Werdell (1974) and Wren-Lewis (1974), with the public services function of the university to develop people prepared to help solve society's problems, to articulate needs, to understand others, and thereby to create new goals and new forms of learning. Beattie (1973) and Birren (1971) supported the development of gerontology centers in institutions of higher education to accomplish the necessary training in aging through a multidisciplinary academic preparation. Beattie (1973) stated that

the multidisciplinary nature of gerontology . . . makes the issue of educational design an organizational and administrative issue,
as well as a substantive issue . . . One
cannot escape the fact that a large component
of education and research (in gerontology)
goes beyond the confines of a particular discipline or profession, with each somewhat dependent upon-the domain of the other.
(p. 16)


Continuing Education


The need for continuing education in aging at the undergraduate, graduate, and certificate levels has been established through a review of the literature. This training is necessary in order to provide professionals who work in the field of aging with a-continuing education experience to expand knowledge. One method of providing this training and retraining in aging supported by the









White House Conference (1973), the American Association of Community and Juni or Colleges (Korim, 1974), the Adult Education Association (DeCrow, 1974), and many individual authorities on aging is through short-term training sessions-.at the university.

The Gerontologist (1970) described short-term

courses available for practitioners and researchers including physicians, administrators of long-term care facilities, executive and staff personnel in public and private agencies associated with the elderly, educational directors, Congressmen, senior center staffs,, recreation and nutrition staffs, and ministers. Others who attended shortterm training courses were college students, volunteer workers, clinical staff, nursing home personnel, nurses, and home economists. Birren (1971) identified training goals of short-term continuing education courses as leadership training, leadership development and insight, community involvement in aging as well as the acquisition of a basic skill in a specific subject area, i.e., Medicare, Meal Service, Nursing Home Administration, Legislation on Aging.

The White House Conference (1973) cited the Universities of Southern California, Kentucky, Georgia, Michigan-Wayne State, and Oregon as offering intensive residential workshops throughout the year.








Continuing education courses have been utilized to introduce students, practitioners, and rese archers to the field of aging as well as to retrain and update knowledge for those who are already established in gerontology. The Training Report of the White House Conference (Birren, 1971) stated:

the federal government spent 1.3 million dollars to support 100 extension courses
in aging in 1970 . . . but it was not known how many non-federally supported
short-term courses occurred yearly.
(p. 57)


Long-Term Training


Commissioner Fleming (1975) stated to the Senate

Committee on Aging that programs in educational institutions which provided persons with long-term training in aging were established nationally. Fleming (1975) also stated that the most important educational program in the university in the area of aging was still "long-ter m training programs, particularly at the graduate level, that will provide training for persons who are going to be leaders in the field of aging when they finish their programs" (p. 179).

Development of Constructs

The literature review on the subject of university involvement in providing manpower training for the professional in aging was the basis for the development of the following constructs:









Construct. Construct. Construct.


Universities which choose to become involved in educational gerontology. will be required to provide undergraduate and graduate multidisciplinary and single disciplinary programs to prepare gerontology professionals in the areas of research, teaching, and direct service.

As the elderly population increases and as its social needs become more pronounced, universities will be required to provide general academic and vocational classes in the area of aging for community members and college students in order to create an awareness of aging and to develop more efficient services for the elderly.

The continuing education or extension component of the university will be required to establish workshops, training sessions, and short-term courses t * o train and retrain professionals in gerontology as well as individuals and agency staff who work
with the elderly.


The University and Educational Services for the ElderlX


DeCrow (1974) cited a need for.universities to develop programs of training and service in educational gerontology. Emphasis, stated DeCrow, should be placed on a cooperative effort by all colleges and departments within a university to provide trained professionals in research and delivery of services for the elderly. Fleming (1975) saw a major component of university activity occurring in the continuing education of professionals in aging









and the professions which served the elderly through shortterm and workshop courses. Educational services to the elderly were peripheral to these goals. DeCrow (1974) identified the university's role in educational gerontology as providing training for professionals and direct educational services for the elderly only as they related to the mission of professional training in gerontology.

Hendrickson and Barnes (1967) conducted one of

the first studies on the involvement of colleges and universities in providing educational services for the elderly. They concluded that colleges and universities had a responsibility to meet the educational needs of the elderly through both the existing academic courses and the development of continuing education courses and stated 'that "universities should recognize and act on this responsibility" (p. 121).

Kauffman and Luby (1974) conducted a study of land grant colleges and universities in order to determine the extent of educational services extended to the elderly. They stated, "the replies, while not overwhelming with opportunities, did reflect an awareness of the need for extending education to include older people" (p. 136) Kauffman and Luby reported that 40% of those surveyed

had no programs for the elderly and no interest in developing them; 21% reported an interest in developing programs; and 10% of those institutions polled indicated .educational








services to the elderly should be provided by community colleges.

The universities identified by Kauffman and Luby (1974), DeCrow (1974), and the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education (Weg, 1975) as providing educational services to the elderly had programs which offered general services similar to those in the community colleges or programs which were part of a training model for undergraduate and graduate students in gerontology.

Beattie (1973) reported that the Syracuse University Center for Aging had a model for direct service to the aged which emphasized the establishment and practice of student relationships with the elderly. Syracuse's Aging Center served as a residence hall for several hundred

elderly people.

The Association for Gerontology in Higher Education (1975) identified several universities-Utah, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, and others-as having tuition waivers for those over 65 years of age in credit and noncredit courses, although no special educational services were provided for elderly students. Several other universities were identified by the Association (Osterbind, 1975; Weg, 1975) which utilized older students as a gerontology laboratory for younger students.

DeCrow (197.4) *identified 350 colleges and universities with learning programs for the elderly as a part of









the established continuing educationprogram of the institution. In his study, De~row (1974) found two. primary methods for providing educational services to the elderlythe evening program of urban universities and the extension service of the rural or small universities.

Kauffman (1974), Mason (1974), and DeCrow (1974)

cited two innovative educational programs for the elderly: the Institute for Retired Scholars (or some variation thereof) and the open university. The Institute for Retired Scholars offered retired professors and/or professionals an opportunity to continue a life of learning under the guidance of emeritus professors and instructors while the open university allowed people of all ages an opportunity to participate in educational programs regardless of background or age.


Vocational.Upgrading


Hickey and Spinetta (1974) summarized one goal of educational services to the elderly as:

a greying of the university . as
gerontologists continue to stress the
need for education, throughout the lifespan, we see more courses, seminars, and
programs dedicated to reversing professional obsolescence, to initiating second careers, and to the fulfillment of selfand much of what has been called higher education-propelled to change. (p. 433)

Hickey and Spinetta (1975) were joined by Hodgkinson (1975), Cross and Valley (1974), DeCrow (1974), Jacobs (1970) and









other authorities on education and aging in citing the need

for educational institutions to cultivate and develop the

elderly as a suitable clientele for career retraining in

the later years. Hickey and Spinetta (1975) wrote:

The old adage remains true: too soon
old, too late wise. It is often after a
person has achieved his lifetime goals of
a comfortable home, a well-paying job, a
family, and good health that he asks:
what now? After these basics are provided
for, what values are served? Do we now have what we want? Are we the kinds of
people we wanted to be? If not, why not?.
Where have we failed? Can we learn to explore the range and quality of experience that could have been ours? Can we radically reexamine what happiness and satisfaction really mean in terms of the inner life of man?, It is from these basic concerns that questions must be formulated to
develop educational opportunities for the
elderly.

Our universities began as institutions
devoted to aiding people in thei r quest for
wisdom and judgment, in training persons
to unite experience and knowledge in their
search for human fulfillment. Somewhere
along the way the universities have deviated
to the preservation and pursuit.of separate
branches of knowledge which are peripherally involved in the integration of knowledge with living. It is time to reshape
the goals of the university toward aiding
the individual in his need to integrate
his living and his earning.

In large part, the institutional response is becoming a forced choice-one
which has been presented to use by the
changing structure and composition of the
student population. We should welcome this
choice, to serve older students, seizing it as an opportunity for the suc.cessful future of both higher education
and the large society which it serves.
Similarly, a more specific call must go









out to academic gerontologists, who have
a professional and scientifi'c knowledge
of adults and the development throughout
life, to take a leadership role in reshaping higher education's response to
the need for educational services for the
elderly. (p. 445)


Development of Constructs


The following construct on university involvement in providing direct educational services to the elderly was derived from the literature review on this subject: Construct. Universities which choose to become
involved in educational gerontology
will be required to serve the educational needs of the elderly through the ongoing academic and/or continuing education classes. Universi-ties
will not be required to provide special educational programs for the
elderly outside the ongoing curricu1lum.


Summary of Constructs

Each of the constructs developed in this chapter

on the involvement of public institutions of higher education in educational gerontology is important to the future development of educational gerontology in higher education as it relates to the social needs of an increasing elderly population. The constructs derived from the dominant themes expressed in the literature of educational were presented as a "what ought to be" for institutions of higher education based upon the available data and' authoritative opinion.









The constructs presented in this chapter according


to dominant Construct. Construct. Construct.










Construct. Construct. Construct.


literature themes are li-sted below.

As a result of the increasing elderly population, new or expanded programs of educational gerontology providing both educational services for the elderly and manpower training in aging will be required to meet the needs of this population group and to make lifelong learning a reality.

The elderly have special needs and problems documented as accompanying increased age which require special educational programs.

After accepting the fict that the elderly can learn,. education programs developed for the elderly will, require the recognition of different tial learning abilities which result from cognitive and noncognitive lifetime experiences as well as the aging process. These factors will require that educational programs for the elderly be slower paced and more individualized.

Educational participation by the el" derly is positively associated with continued mental and physical performance while this participation in education by the elderly is associated with previous positive educational performance.

Since research showed that the elderly see little value in life-long learning and that elderly participation is low, educational institutions will be required to make positive recruitment efforts to reachthis population group.

Educational programs for the elderly will require variety in planning and programing in order to accommodate the documented educational needs of the elderly. Special attention will be required to develop programs for









the diverse educational backgrounds of elderly students, to'utilize t-he elderly as classroom resources, and to make available credit-noncredit class options for elderly students.

Since the elderly have indicated that complicated admission procedures prevent educational participation, educational institutions may be required to modify or eliminate these requirements for the elderly if they plan to serve them.

There are many factors related to the physical location and arrangements of classes, which prevent elderly participation. Alleviation of these barriers to elderly participation will require: daytime classes of from one to two hours in the neighborhood of the elderly; ,removal of architectural barriers; comfortable chairs and good lighting.

If institutions of higher education choose to become involved in providing educational programs for the elderly, they will be required to be cognizant of the financial limitations of most elderly individuals. These financial-limitations may prevent the elderly from participating in educational programs unless institutions support legislative action to modify or eliminate fees for the elderly.

In order to be involved effectively in gerontology manpower training, community colleges will be required to offer short-term certificate and degree training programs for professionals in aging ai.med at developing immediate problem-solving skills. These programs would meet the needs of the.local -community for aging services and would not be exclusively health related.


Construct. Construct. Construct. Construct.









Community colleges, in order to develop campus and community awareness of the elderly, as well as to serve the needs of the local residents who work or live with the elderly, will be required to initiate a survey course(s) in aging, offer in-service and training workshops for local professionals and nonprofessionals in aging-related and aging-service occupations; and instigate community planning for the needs of the elderly.

As the elderly population increases and as their social needs become more pronounced, community colleges will be required to provide general academic and vocational classes in the area of aging. for community members and college students in order to create an-awareness of aging and to develop more efficient services for the elderly.

Community colleges will not be required to provide direct social ser-, vice delivery for the elderly.

University involvement in educational gerontology will require degree programs at all levels and in all areas to prepare professionals in aging and will require some type of direct educational services for the elderly. The university's program will develop from institutional goals for an aging program. Models advanced nationally are of three basic types: interdisciplinary training for the social science professions, academic programs of clinical research, or general. academic preparation for service professions utilizing the elderly community as a laboratory experience.

Universities which choose to become involved in educational gerontology. will be required to provide undergraduate and graduate multidisciplinary and single disciplinary programs


Construct. Construct. Construct. Construct. Construct.









to prepare gerontology professionals in the areas of research, teaching, and direct service.

As the elderly population increases and as its social needs become more pronounced, universities will be re-,_kPj',quired to provide general academic and vocational classes in the area of aging for community members and college students in order to create an awareness of aging and to develop more efficient services for the elderly.

The continuing education or extension component of the university will be required to establish workshops, training sessions, and short-term courses to train and retrain professionals in gerontology as well as' individuals and agency staff who work with the elderly.

Universities which choose to become involved in educational gerontology will be required to serve the educational needs of the elderly through the ongoing academic and/or continuing education classes. Universities will not be required to provide special educational programs for the elderly outside the ongoing curriculum.


Construct. Construct. Construct.













CHAPTER III

FINDINGS FOR THE STATE OF FLORIDA



Introduction


This chapter presents the data collected from the public institutions of higher education in Florida in order to establish the extent of their involvement in educational gerontology, i.e., the training of professionals in gerontology and the provisions of direct educational services to the elderly. In order to-simplify the data presentation on the training opportunities in gerontology and direct educational services available for the elderly in Florida's public community colleges and universities, to prepare a foundation for a later analysis of the existing activity, and to make a conceptual framework based upon this existing activity in educational gerontology, the following procedure was used:

1. Questionnaire items were grouped in topographical categories within the two facets of educational gerontology: training opportunities for the professional and.educational services for the elderly.

2. Responses were compiled for community colleges and universities according to a percentage basis of









positive and negative answers. These percentages were rounded in order to provide for 100 percent response. No response answers were recorded as such. In instances

where a series of questions was given to the respondents, answers were compiled and presented in descending order of occurrence.


Institutional Support for Educational Gerontology


Length of Educational Services toElderly


Table 6 indicates the overall length of time of

institutional participation in providing direct educational services to the elderly in the public institutions of higher education in Florida. As defined previously direct educational services to the elderly means -institutional provisions of classes, seminars and other educational experiences for the elderly within the framework of the existing academic or community service program.

Community college responses indicated that 4% had begun to provide educational services for the elderly during the year-of the study. There was no indication that a community college did not provide services to the elderly; however, 8% of those polled did not respond to the survey item. The remaining responses by community colleges indicated that 61% had been providing educational








Table 6

Time Length of Institutional Participation
in Educational Gerontology


Community
Colleges Universities
No. % No. %

Does Not Provide

Less than One Year 4 1 11

One to Five 17 61 2 22

Five or More 8 29 6 67

No Answer 2 8



services for the elderly from one to five years while 29% had been involved in education for the elderly for more than five years. It is important to note here that one community college was established in 1972.

A compilation of the university responses to this

item showed that 11% had been providing educational services for the elderly less than one year. Twenty-two percent indicated that their institution had provided services from one to five years, and 67% evidenced involvement for more than five years. Here, too, attention must be given to the fact that two universities have joined the state system during the 1970's. Community college and university responses to this item indicated that all public institutions in Florida had provided some type of educational services for the elderly population of this state.








Interestin-Expanding Educational Services to the Elderly


Table 7 contains those data for expanding, educational services to the elderly of Florida through public, institutions of higher education.


Table 7

Institutional Interest in Providing Further
Educational Services for the Elderly




Community
Colleges Universities
No. % No. %

Planning Underway 13 46 4 44

Some Interest Exists 9 32 3 33

Might Consider 5 18 2 11

Too Involved

Not Appropriate

Not At All

No

No Answer 1 4




Of the 28 public community colleges in Florida, 46% indicated that ongoing planning was occurring while 32% evidenced an expressed interest in providing educational services to the elderly. Eighteen percent









indicated that consideration might be given to providing educational programs for the elderly. No community college indicated a disinterest in these services nor did any feel that this type of service was inappropriate.

The responses made by the nine public universities in Florida showed 44% were now involved in planning for further educational services to the elderly. Another 33% indicated that interest existed in entering this field while 11% indicated that their institution might consider .such services. As with the community college responses,, there were no indications made by university respondents that the provision of educational services to the elderly was either inappropriate or not a priority item. Training for Professions in Gerontology


Table 8 presents the.overall responses by community colleges and universities as to the institutional interest in developing training programs for the professional in gerontology. As previously defined, these training programs included certificate, diploma, degree, and graduate training in all areas of gerontology.

Responses from the community colleges indicated

that 25% were currently providing for training experiences for professionals to serve the elderly while another 35% evidenced an interest in planning this training area. Eighteen percent of the respondents indicated that they




87





Table 8

Training the Professional in Gerontology'




Community
Colleges Universities
No. % No. %

Planning Underway. 7 25 5 55

Some Interest Exists 10 35 2 22

Might Consider 5 is 2 22

Too Involved 1 4

Not Appropriate 2 7

Not at All 2 7

No Answer 1 4





might consider offering training experiences in gerontology while 4% indicated that other priorities were such that no current interest in developing educational gerontology existed. Seven percent of the community colleges answered that institutional involvement in training individuals to serve the elderly was inappropriate for their institution. Likewise 7% expressed that there was absolutely no interest or plans for entering this area of educational gerontology. Four percent did not respond to this item.









University responses as to involvement in training the professional in educational gerontology showed that 55% of the institutions were currently offering training and planning for further programs in this area. Interest in developing training experiences was indicated by 22% of the universities while the remaining 22% indicated that they might consider programming in this area.


Educational Services to the Elderly


Tables 9-12 contain the data which show what types of educational opportunities were provided for the elderly by the public community colleges and universities of Florida. Following this summary of the institutional activity in educational gerontology are tables which document the curriculum m and the structure of the existing services and programs in educational gerontology for the elderly, at the time of the study. This section of the analysis is concluded by an examination of the problems identified by institutions in providing educational services to the elderly andan analysis of the number of elderly participants in these services.


Types of Educational Opportunities for the Elderly

Special courses for the elderly. Table 9 shows responses as to whether special courses designed for the elderly were provided by an institution.















Yes No
N o No.

Community Colleges 19 68 9 32

Universities 3 32 6 68




Sixty-eight percent of the public community colleges in Florida indicated that they provided some type of educational experience designed to meet the special needs of the elderly, while 32% indicated that no such course(s) existed. University responses showed that 32% provided some type of special c ourse(s) while 68% indicated no activity in special programming for the elderly.

General courses open to all ages. The provision of special courses for the elderly documented in Table 9 is contrasted to the responses documented in Table 10 which show institutional activity in providing the elderly an opportunity to participa.te.in courses of general interest open to all ages.

In response to this item 89% of the community colleges stated that the elderly were participants in general courses open to all age groups while 11% indicated


Table 9

Special Courses Designedfor Elderly




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