a1 a iA, urA
LRLEB V, OQ IPAIN,
HEROES OF HISTORY
IN WORDS OF ONE SYLLABLE
BY AGNES SADLIER
AUTHOR OF A HISTORY OF IRELAND IN WORDS OF ONE SYLLABLE"
A. L. BURT COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
Burt's One Syllable Histories
Bound In handsome cloth binding. Covers in
Colors. Each Volume Profmrsely Illustrated.
HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. By MRS.
HELEN W. PIERSON.
HISTORY OF ENGLAND. By MRS. HELEN Wr PIER-
HISTORY OF FRANCE. By MRS. HELEN W. PIERSON.
HISTORY OF GERMANY. By MRS. HELEN W. PIER-
HISTORY OF RUSSIA. By HELEN AINSLIE SMITH.
HISTORY OF IRELAND. BY AGNES SADLIER.
HISTORY OF JAPAN. By HELEN AINSLIE SMITH.
HISTORY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. By JosE-
HISTORY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. By JosE-
HEROES OF HISTORY. By AGNES SADLIER.
BATTLES OF AMERICA. By JOSEPHINE POLLARD.
LIVES OF THE PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED
STATES. By MRS. HELEN W. PIERSON.
A. L. BURT COMPANY, New York.
BY JOSEPH L. BLAMIRB
CHAPTER I. PAGE
HEROES OF THE BIBLE, 7
HEROES OF PERSIA AND OF GREECE, 13
HEROES OF ROME, 29
HEROES OF THE MIDDLE AGES. FROM A.D. 700 TO A.D. 1500, 51
HEROES OF THE CRUSADES, 94
HEROES OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. FROM A.D. 1500 TO A.D. 16oo, 140
HEROES OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. FROM A.D. 1600 TO A.D. 1700, 18
HEROES OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. FROM A.D. 1700 TO A.D. 18oo, 96
HEROES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. FROM A.D. 18o0 TO THE PRESENT TIME, 213
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Cyrus, King of Persia,
A Persian Palace,
A Rock Grave in Persia,
Types and Costumes of Early
Alexander the Great,
Roman Eagle, .
The Gauls in Rome,
The Roman Forum,
Interior of the Pantheon,
The Appian Way, near Rome,
Julius Caesar, .
Tomb of Augustus Casar,
Constantine the Great,
Arch of Constantine in Rome,
The Huns, .
Arabs and Tartars,
Charlemagne at the School of the Palace,
Charlemagne Before Narbonne,
Death of Roland, .
A Knight Made by the Dead Hand of
A Viking (Scandinavian Pirate), 69
Landing of the Danes in England, 71
Raid of the Northmen, .. 73
Alfred the Great, .. 74
Canute and the Sea, 77
Ancient Round Tower, 79
Brian Boru on the Plains of Clontarf, .81
The Four Courts, Dublin, 83
Landing of William the Conqueror, 87
Harold, the Last of the Saxon Kings, 91
The Burial of William, 93
In the Time of the Crusades, 94
Jerusalem, Showing the Mosque of Omar, 103
At the Time of the Crusades, 105
Triumphal Entry of Richard I. and
Philip Augustus into Acre, III
Richard's Farewell to the Holy Land, 113
Edward I., .. 119
Robert Bruce, 125
Edward III,, 126
Death of Edward III., 127
Henry the Fifth, 135
"Welcome, Welcome, Harry of France
and England!" 137
Queen Isabella, 141
List of Illustrations.
Hernando Cortes, .
Charles V., .
William the Silent, .
The Dykes in Holland,
Ivan the Terrible,
The Count de Tilly Gloating Over
Gustavus and His Queen Entering
Death of Gustavus Adolphus,.
Louis XIV., .
Louis XIV. and His Court,
The Great Cond6,
William III. Receiving the Bishops,
William III. of Orange and Queen Mary, 191
Death of Turenne, .
The Duke of Marlborough,
Peter the Great, .
Charles XII. Stating the Conditions
Frederick the Great, .
General Wolfe, .
George Washington, .
Napoleon, Emperor, .
Battle of Trafalgar, .
Death of Nelson at Trafalgar,
Oliver Hazard Perry, .
Robert E. Lee, .
William T. Sherman, .
Philip Henry Sheridan, .
General Grant, .
William I., .
When it is seen that a book of the size of Heroes
of History" treats of the most famous of those who
have gained their laurels "on the tented field," from
Joshua down to General Gordon, it will readily be
recognized that the sketch of each one must neces-
sarily be slight. It is nevertheless hoped that the book
may be of real service in establishing correctly in the
minds of its youthful readers the main points of his-
tory-the causes which led these men to wage war
and where, when, with whom and against whom they
fought-and thus impart that general knowledge
which is sure to quicken the taste for wider reading
on the same subjects.
NEW YORK, August, 1891.
CCEUR DE LION IN THE BATTLE FIELP,
Heroes of History.
HE-ROES OF THE BI-BLE.*
A he-ro, as no doubt you know, is one who has
done great deeds for his land or for our race. Peace
has her he-roes as well as war; men who in times
which tried men's souls stood firm in the cause of right,
or by their great thoughts brought calm out of storm.
It is not of these though that this book will tell, but
of those who won their fame on the fields of war.
Josh-u-a. The first he-ro of whom we know much
more than his name was Josh-u-a. He was a He-
brew, but born in E-gypt, while his race dwelt there
as slaves. When Mo-ses brought them out of that
land, and they were in the des-ert, Josh-u-a's wise,
good words' made him dear to Mo-ses, so that when
the time came for that great man to die, he put his
hands on Josh-u-a, and made him chief in his place.
Full particulars of the lives and deeds of the Bible Heroes will be found in Rour-
LEDGE'S ONE-SYLLABLE HISTORY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
Heroes of History.
Then Josh-u-a led the He-brews, as God told him,
to the Land of Prom-ise. It was to be theirs, but
they had to fight for it, and wrest it from the strong
bad na-tions that held it. They went past the stream
of the Jor-dan and came to the strong town of Jer-i-
cho. Then their souls grew weak, and they said it
was too strong to take. But Josh-u-a, whose trust in
the Lord naught could shake, made them all march
round the walls once a day for six days, and make no
sound as they went. Then, on the next day, all the
priests went with themen, and bore the Ark. They
went round six times and made no sound. Then they
went round once more, but this time they gave a great,
long shout, while the trump-ets were blown. And at
once the walls fell down, and Josh-u-a took the town.
He had to fight a great deal though ere he won the
Land of Prom-ise. One time he had to meet five
kings with a great force. It was late in the day ere the
tide of strife was seen to turn for the He-brews, and
Josh-u-a was in fear lest the foe should get more men
ere the next day. So he plead with God to make the
day last till his men had beat the foe so that they would
not dare to face them more. And God heard him;
the day did not fade to night till few of the foe were
left. So he kept on, a true he-ro, in his course, till at
last the rich, fair Land of Prom-ise was won, and dealt
out mid the tribes of Is-ra-el. And Josh-u-a kept the
rule till his death, and gave proof that he was as great
in the arts of peace as in the arts of war.
Gid-e-on. For a long time the He-brews dwelt
in the place which he had won, till they set up false
gods in the place of the true God, who then let new
foes spring tp and smite them with a strong hand. In
their fear they plead with God to save them, so at last
He sent an an-gel to a poor youth whose name was
Gid-e-on, to tell him to come forth and save Is-ra-el.
Gid-e-on, who was of mean birth, was loath to take
the words for truth, and sought as a sign from God
that the fleece of wool which he should spread on the
ground might be wet with dew while all the ground
was dry. And it was so. Then he sought one more
sign; that the fleece might keep dry while all the ground
was wet. And God gave him this sign too. So he
went to the camp. Then God told him to let all the
men go home who had a wish to do so; and a great
throng went. Then God told him to bring his band to
drink at a stream, and to send home all those who bent
down their mouths to the stream to drink, but to keep
those who brought up the wa-ter to their mouths in
their hands. This test left him but 300 men, for most
knelt down to drink at their ease. Then Gid-e-on
made three small bands of these, and gave to each
man a trump-et and a pitch-er with a light in it. At
mid-night he led them to the camp of the foe, and all
Heroes of History.
blew a great blast on'their trump-ets, and made a wild
clang with their pitch-ers, while they cried out with a
loud voice, The sword of the Lord and of Gid-e-on!"
When the foe heard the shout and the noise, and saw
the bright light, and could not tell whence it came,
they were struck with fear and fled. But all the tribes
of Is-ra-el went out and cut them off, and put most of
them to death. And then Is-ra-el had peace for a long
time, and Gid-e-on kept the rule till his death.
Sam-son. Then a fierce foe, the Phil-is-tines,
smote the Is-ra-el-ites, and beat them so that they had
lost all hope, when God made a strong man of the
name of Sam-son fight them and save Is-ra-el. Sam-
son was not so good as Josh-u-a, or Gid-e-on. He
fell in love with a fair Phil-is-tine wo-man whose name
was De-li-lah, and she got him to tell her that the cause
of his great strength was in his long hair, which God
had said should not be cut. But while he slept, De-
li-lah cut it, and the Phil-is-tines took him with ease.
They put his eyes out, and kept him in jail, but on a
great feast-day they brought him out that all might
mock at him. But the blind Sam-son, whose hair had
grown and with it his strength, told the boy who led
him to place him by the two strong posts that held up
the hall. The boy did so, and Sam-son broke down
the posts, and slew all who were in the hall, and thus
died with his foes.
Da-vid. This was the next great he-ro of the He-
brews. He was but a poor boy who kept his sheep
on the hill-sides, till Sam-u-el was sent by God to make
him king in-stead of the bad king Saul. As he was
not to reign till Saul died though, he kept on at his old
life. Is-ra-el was once more at war with the Phil-is-
tines, at this time, and Da-vid was sent to the camp
with food for his broth-ers. And while there he saw
a huge man come down from the hill on which stood
the foe's camp, and mock the Is-ra-el-ites, and heard
that all stood in too much fear of him to go down in
the vale and fight him. But Da-vid felt no fear, and
got leave to fight him. So he took his staff, and chose
five smooth stones from the brook, and put them in his
scrip. Then he'took a sling in his hand, and went
down to where huge Go-li-ath stood in his strong,
bright coat of mail. He was in a great rage when he
saw how small a thing the youth brought to fight him
with; but Da-vid paid no heed to his treats, but as
he ran to meet him, took a stone from his scrip and
put it in his sling, and with it dealt Go-li-ath so strong
a blow in the face, that he fell to the ground. Then
Da-vid took his sword and cut off his head. Great
was the joy of the Is-ra-el-ites when Da-vid came back
With Go-li-ath's head! But the foe, full of fear, ran
off and left their camp to them. Da-vid's fame grew
Heroes of History.
so great that the king, Saul, could not bear him, and
tried to kill him, so that Da-vid had to flee and hide
in caves and holes till Saul died. Then he was made
king, and put down all Is-ra-el's foes, and made her a
strong rich na-tion.
Ju-das Mac-ca-be-us. It was long ere the He-
brews saw his like-not till near the time of Christ,
when they were great no more, but bent neath the
rule of strange kings. One of the worst of these was
An-ti-o-chus, who did his best to make them bow
down to the false gods whom he held in place of the
One and True God. So a brave priest, Mat-a-thi-
as, told all who had zeal for the true faith to flee with
him to the great hills. A great throng did so, and he
soon had a strong force. At his death, his son Ju-das,
who was so brave and strong that he got the name of
Mac-ca-be-us, or the Ham-mer, was made head in his
place, and fought so well that he got back a good part
of the land. At length An-ti-o-chus sent his best men
of war, at the head of a great force, to put them down.
The strife was fierce, but Ju-das won the field, and so
kept on till at last he was slain in a great fight, when
he had but few men to help him. But his life had
been so grand in its aim, that, though short, it was not
in vain; for his broth-ers, whom he had made to feel
as he did, fought on till they made their land for quite
a time great and free.
HE-ROES OF PER-SI-A AND OF GREECE.
Cy-rus. If you
were asked to tell of
Per-si-a, no doubt you
would say that it is a
land in the south-east
of A-si-a, whose head
man bears the name of
a the Shah, and that
there is not much else
to tell of it. And this
would be true of it
now. But once it was
not so; ere Christ
came on earth, Per-
si-a was a great land,
and had her he-roes
like the rest of the na-
CY-RUS, KING OF PER-SI-A.
tions. The first of
these was Cy-rus. A strange tale is told of his youth.
At the time of his birth, Per-si-a was neath the rule
of the Medes. The king's name was As-ty-a-ges,
and Cy-rus was his grand-son. In a dream he saw
Heroes of history.
that Cy-rus would one day take his throne from him,
so he told Har-pa-gus, one of the chief men of his
court, to put him to death. So Har-pa-gus gave the
child to a herds-man of the king, and told him to put
it on a bleak hill till it died. The man took it to his
own home, where he found that his own child had just
died. And when his wife saw the fair, strong babe,
she would not let him take it from her. So the man
put out his own dead child on the hill, and kept the
young prince. Time went on; he grew to be a strong
boy, and was so bright that all the rest of the boys let
him lead in the games. One day they had a sham
fight, and when one of the boys did not do as Cy-rus
told him, he beat him well with a stick. The boy ran
home and told his father, who was a man of high rank,
and he told the king, who had the boy brought to him.
At sight of him, the king knew from his age, and his
proud mien, that he must be his grand-son. So he
sent for Har-pa-gus and the herds-man, and got the
truth from both. As he thought that his dream had
been borne out by the fact that the boys had made Cy-
rus king at play, he let him live, but he got the son
of Har-pa-gus, and had him cut up, and the parts put
on a dish on the board, when he had Har-pa-gus to
sup with him. When he grew up, Cy-rus, whose fa-
ther was a Per-si-an, and whose heart was thus full of
love for that race, got them to rise and throw off the
yoke of the Medes, and make him king in his grand-
fa-ther's place. He made Per-si-a great, for he brought
all the lands in A-si-a neath-her sway. There was a
king in Lyd-i-a, a land far to the north-west, whose
name was Croe-sus, and who was so rich that to be
A PER-SIAN PAL-ACE.
as rich as Croe-sus got to be a prov-erb. He sought
to check Cy-rus in his course, and came to fight him
with a great host. But Cy-rus beat him, and kept him
for the rest of his life. The next feat of this great king
was to take Bab-y-lon. This great town was so large
as to take in 12 square miles on each side of the Eu-
Heroes of History.
phra-tes, a great, broad, swift stream-it was girt
round by thick, high walls, with great gates of bronze,
and was rich and grand with the fine houses of its
kings, and its great men, and its fair gar-dens, built
row on row, high in the air. To look at it, one would
have thought no one'could take it; but Cy-rus, when
he had laid siege to it for two years, found a way to
do it, and made a plan which has made him rank mid
the great men in war of all time. There was a lake
near by, to which a ca-nal led from the Eu-phra-tes.
Both of these were dry, for the stream was kept from
them by a great brick dam. But one long, dark night,
when a great feast was held in the town, he set his men
to work to tear down this dam. Thus the great stream
was made to turn its course, and leave in the midst of
the town through which it ran a dry bed. All the
streets that came to an end at the stream had strong
gates to keep out all the foe who might have tried to
get in the town by boat, but when the men of Cy-rus
came down the dry bed of the stream, they found one
of them at which they could get in, and thus get to the
heart of the town. Mean-while, in the great hall of
his pal-ace, lit by soft lights and full of rich scents, the
king sat at a great feast with his chief men round him.
All at once the cry that the foe was on them rang out,
but too late. From hall to hall, from feast to feast,
street to street, the men of Cy-rus had sped, and slew
each and all, till at last they burst in-to where the king
was and slew him on the steps of his throne (B.c. 538).
Cy-rus was now so great that he took the name of the
"king of the world." This great man met his death
A ROCK GRAVE IN PER-SI-A.
where he spent most of his life, on the field of war.
He went to put down a fierce tribe to the north, but
was slain, it is said, by a wo-man, who flung his head
in a bowl of blood, that he might drink his fill. :His
son, Cam-by-ses, who now came to the throne, is
Heroes of Hlstory.
thought to have been mad, yet he brought more lands
neath the sway of Per-si-a. When he died, he left no
son, but a man whose name was Smerd-is said he was
the son of Cy-rus, and got the throne. Not a few
thought that he was a man of low birth who had had
his ears cut off for a crime. He kept them wrapt up
in the day, but they got his wife to feel at night, and
she found that he had none; so he was put to death.
Da-ri-us. Of those who now thought they had a
right to the throne was Da-ri-us, one of the late king's
kin. He said to the rest who laid claim, that they
should all ride forth in the morn ere the dawn broke,
and that he whose horse should be the first to neigh
when the sun rose, should be king. This was done,
and the horse of Da-ri-us gave a loud neigh as the sun
rose, and the rest got down and made a bow to him as
their king. Da-ri-us was born to rule men. He made
fine roads through the land, built great towns, and kept
a strict, but not harsh rule. But he had a great wish
to add still more lands to his vast realm, and most of
all, to take Greece, for some of the men who dwelt
there had lent help to some foes of Da-ri-us in A-si-a.
Now Greece, small as it looks on the map, was a great
land ere Christ came on earth. The Greeks had
thought out their own civ-il-i-za-tion, and taught it to
the rest of the world. They had great men who gave
to the world the best thoughts that it knows; while
more gave it tne best things in art. Greece was made
up of a lot of small states, bound, not as our states
are, by a bond which makes all stand up for each, and
each for all, but by a sort of loose league which left
each free to help the rest or
not, as she chose. The two
chief states were Ath-ens and ,.-I!i
Spar-ta, but one of these was .~.':ii"
sure to choose black if one '
chose white, so they could
not be said to be friends. It
was Ath-ens which had
made Da-ri-us swear to
break her might, and, true to
his word, a vast fleet was
soon seen on the sea, led by
his chief men of war. Now // /
Ath-ens was but a small ""
place, not half the size of
Rhode Isl-and-that is, not
as big as a large farm in the
West-but her men had
great pluck. So they clad ML-TI-A-DES.
them-selves in brass and steel, and set off to meet the
Mil-ti-a-des. At length they came to the Plain
of Mar-a-thon, 22 miles out from Ath-ens. Huge
Heroes of History.
mounts and bare hills guard it on all sides, save one
where the bright blue sea breaks on the beach. The
great fleet of the foe rode in sight. It was the rule in
Ath-ens for a fresh man to lead each day, and by
good luck, on this day it was Mil-ti-a-des. He made
a long line of the men, and ere the foe had all got on
shore, with a great burst of song, they came down on
them with a run, and bore a great mass of them to the
ground with their spears. A long, fierce fight then
took place, but when at length the foe strove to get
back to their boats, the Greeks set scores of them on
fire. But at last they got off, and made straight for
Ath-ens. But Mil-ti-a-des led his men back to the
town in time to keep the foe from it. So they set
sail for A-si-a (49 B.c.). Mil-ti-a-des did not live
long; he died of a wound he got in war; but his name
will live till the end of time. Da-ri-us tried no more
to bring Greece neath his sway, but gave his time
to the arts of peace till his death. But his son Xer-
xes (Zerks-sez) set out to take it at the head of a great
Le-on-i-das, the Spar-tan, and The-mis-to-cles,
the A-the-ni-an. Not a few of the states said they
would not band with the rest to meet him; that he
was too strong. But Ath-ens and Spar-ta stood firm,
and a few small ones cast in their lot with them.
Now Spar-ta was a state where the first and last end
was war; they paid no heed to trade, but taught their
boys in all ways to bear pain and give no sign that
they were hurt. Their fare was but black beans and
broth. So you may judge
that though her men were
Sfew, they were worth a
great deal in time of war.
Led by Le-on-i-das, then
king, they now took the
field. Up to this time,
Ath-ens had fought but
land fights; but The-mis-
to-cles, a great and shrewd
man, had got her to build
a fleet. So the A-the-ni-
ans were to fight the foe
at sea, and the Spar-tans
on land, but for peace
sake, they let the men of
Spar-ta lead. In due time
-Xer-xes came, set a grand
land force on the shores of
THE-MIS*TO*CLES. Greece and made straight
for Ath-ens. But on the
way he had to lead them through a small pass twixt
the cliffs and the sea, which bore the name of Ther-
mpp-y-lae, or Hot-Gates, from the fact that hot
22 iHeroes of History.
springs were near by. Here Le-on-i-das, the Spar-
tan, took his stand with but a small force. In vain
the foe tried to break through; for two days he kept
them back, but then a false Greek led them by a
small lone path round the mount, and brought them
on the brave Spar-tan's rear. Some fled at sight of
the foe, but three hun-dred stayed with Le-on-i-das
and fought till they were slain (B.c. 480).
Xer-xes now swept on to Ath-ens. All fled as he
drew near to the fleet, and from it saw their homes burn.
These ships now the sole hope of Greece lay in
a small bay made by the coast of Ath-ens and two
isles, one of which, Sal-a-mis, gave its name to the
great sea-fight which now took place. When the
vast fleet of Xer-xes bore down on the Greek fleet,
some were in sore fear and sought to get off, but The-
mis-to-cles sent word of this plan to Xer-xes, and he
put a guard at the mouth of the bay to keep his prey
safe till the morn. When the Greeks found that they
were in a trap they knew they must do or die, so
in the morn a Greek ship made a dash at one of the
foe's. The rest went to her help, and soon the bright
bay was a scene of fierce strife and blood, while from
his gold throne, on the base of a hill on the shore,
Xer-xes kept the scene in view. But the size and
bulk of the foe's ships made them no match for the
small, light boats of the Greeks in so small a plact;,
TYPES AND COS-TUMES OF EAR-LY GRE-CIAN LIFE.
- r I
Heroes of History.
and at last they had to flee, and thus, thanks to The-
mis-to-cles, the Greeks won the great sea-fight of Sal-
a-mis (B.C. 480).
On this blow Xer-xes set off for home, but left a
large force, led by one of his best men, Mar-do-ni-us,
to keep up, tfe war.
Pau-sa-ni-as, the Spar-tan, and A-ris-ti-des,
the A-the-ni-an. The two foes met once more on
the plain of Pla-te-a. The Spar-tans were led by
Pau-sa-ni-as, one of the kin of the great Le-on-i-das,
and the A-the-ni-ans by A-ris-ti-des, the Just. i Fierce
and long was the fray, but at last Mar-do-ni-us fell,
and then the Per-si-ans fled and left all their tents, full
of rich things, to the Greeks.
Greece was now safe from the Per-si-ans, but Ath-
ens was a heap of burnt houses, so The-mis-to-cles
set to work to build it up. He was a man full of
craft and guile, but put these to the use of his land
and strove hard to make her great and strong. Pau-
sa-ni-as, of Spar-ta, who was sent to fight the Per-si-
ans, got to like their soft ways of life, and to loath
the hard life of Spar-ta, and at last told Xer-xes he
would help him to. take Greece. His plot was found
out; he was brought back to Spar-ta and tried, but
set free for want of proof. But he was soon at
his old tricks, and this time there was so much proof
that he fled to a tem-ple to be safe, and there died for
Pelopidas and Epaminondas.
want of food. I grieve to say that it was soon found
at Ath-ens that the great The-mis-to-cles had had
part in the schemes of Pau-sa-ni-
as, and he fled to Per-sia, where
The course of Pa,<4a-ni-as, and
still more that of The- mis-to-cles,
is a sad proof of how great a mind
and how vile a soul a man can
Ath-ens now grew great neath
the rule of a great and wise man
of the name of Per-i-cles, while in
war her men were led by Cimon.
But when Per-i-cles died, Al-ci-bi-
a-des came to the front and got the
men of Ath-ens to do things which
made the state weak. Spar-ta rose
and got to be the chief state of
Greece, and kept a harsh rule o'er
all the rest. By a trick she got her
men in a strong fortress of Thebes
PER-I-ES. and kept that town by force for
Pe-lop-i-das and E-pam-i-non-das of
Thebes. These were two brave youths of Thebes,
who made up their minds to free their town, So
26 Heroes of History.
Pe-lop-i-das and a band of youths dressed up like
girls, and put wreaths of pine and fir on their heads,
and went round from, house, to house where the Spar-
tans dwelt and put then to death.. Then they took
t-res y. storm, and put the rest of the Spar-
ut,l' a Tcred Thebes. But Spar-ta would not
Shbes go, and wentto war. So E-pam-i-non-
las led the men of 'TheWes to meet them. A great
fight took place at Leuc-tra, where E-pam-i-non-das
gave proof how fine a mind he had for war. This
fight broke the might of Spar-a, and Thebes got to
ie thethief town of Greece f"'a time. Through all
their lives Pe-lop-i-das and E-pam-i-non-das strove to
Sinake Thebes great, and both these dear friends died
o1iithe field of war.
Phil-ip of Mac-e-don. When Thebes was
thus left with no head, there dwelt in Mac-e-don,
a land to the north of Greece, a king of the name of
- Phil-ip. The folks of Mac-e-don were not keen like
the Greeks, but were rough and plain, and knew
naught of books or art. But Phil-ip had spent three
years of his youth at Thebes and learned how to
make war from E-pam-i-non-das. So he set to work
now to gain all Greece, and bit by bit he built up his
strength. He gave aid to Ath-ens in -her wars, but
;il the while drew the chains round her. In vain De-
mos-the-nes made great speech on speech to rouse
Alexander the Great.
them to a sense of what was to come; Phil-ip kept
on, and soon had all Greece at his feet. But at the
AL-EX-AN-DER THE GREAT.
height of his fame he was slain at a great feast held
when his daugh-ter was wed,
Heroes of History.
Al-ex-an-der the Great. Phil-ip's crown was
set on the head of his son Al-ex-an-der, but 20 years
of age. This king stands at the head of the war
he-roes of the world. His first feat was to start to
take Per-si-a. He set sail for A-si-a, and met the Per-
si-ans at the stream of the Gran-i-cus, and beat them
(334 B.c.). Then he kept on and met the foe led by
their king, Da-ri-us, at a place named Is-sus, and
beat them so that the king took to flight (333 B.C.).
On swept Al-ex-an-der in his wake, while each great
town threw wide its gates to him, and at last came up
with the king when he was near death from a wound
made by one of his own men. A-lex-an-der was now
head of the great realm of Per-si-a, but his wish was
to rule the world. So he set his face to the south,
to the great, strange land of In-di-a. O'er great
mounts, past great streams, by huge hosts of men
who sought to stay his course, he swept, and was
close to its bounds when his men, worn out with all
they had done, said they would not go one step more.
So he had to turn back, and went to Bab-y-lon to
rest for a time. But as his great joy was to spend
the whole night with his chief men, and drink a great
deal of wine as they spoke of the fields they had
won, it is not strange that, with his great toils, his
strength gave out. He grew weak and ill, and died
at the age of 32 years, and left his vast realm with no
HE-ROES OF ROME.
While these things
took place in Greece
and A-si-a, a new na-
tion, the Ro mans,
grew great in It-a-ly.
At first they were
neath the rule of
... kings, but at last they
got such a bad king
that they drove him
out, and made up
their minds to trust
the rule to two men
whom they would call
con-suls, and who
should hold it for one
Ho-ra-ti-us Co-cles. Tar-quin, the king, would
not yield to his fate, but tried hard to get back to
his throne. At last he got the aid of Lars Por-se-na,
a great king, who came down on Rome with a great
force. Now there was but one bridge by which he
Heroes of History.
... --- could cross the
s-I i t~ stream of the Ti-
ber to Rome, and
sw tso a brave man,
I Ho-ra-ti-us Co-
n a cles, said he
would go to the far end of the bridge
S from Rome, and hold it while the
rest cut it down. And there he stood
Switch his great axe, and kept the foe
g back till he heard the great crash, and
saw the bridge float down the Ti-ber;
then, all clad in stiff, strong mail as
he was, he sprang in the stream and
swam back to Rome. The state had
o a stat-ue of him set up, and gave
him as much land as he could plow
Sa d ay.
Cor-i-o-la-nus. The true name of
this man was Mar-cus, and, while still a mere boy, he
got the crown of oak for sav-ing the life of a man in
a great fight, and was known for the rest of his life
as Cor-i-o-la-nus. But though he fought war on
war for Rome, and made her foes shake at the sound
of his name, he had the fault of pride. He was of
high birth, and his mien to those of low birth was
harsh and proud. So they grew to hate him, and
when he sought to be con-sul they would not let
Iim have the post. So, in a rage, he went off, but
Heroes of History.
was soon back at the gates of Rome at the head
of her' worst foe--the Vol-sci-ans. In their fear,
the Ro-mans sent forth his moth-er and his wife
with his chil-dren to beg him to spare them. He
had been deaf to all else, but when they plead he
gave way, and, with
a burst of tears, cried
out, "Moth-er, thou
hast saved Rome,
but lost thy son."
SHe then led the foe
to their home, where,
S" it is said, they put
him to death. (488
.. The next he-ro of
.., Rome was Lu-ci-us
i' i-- Quin-ti-us, who got
the name of Cin-cin-
na-tus from the fact
that he wore his hair
in long curls. At a time when a strong foe of Rome,
-the zE-qui-ans, had got round the troops of Rome,
and held them fast, the chief men of Rome sent for
him to come and keep the rule till he had made
Rome safe. He was found at work at the plow on
his smarl farm, but he set off for Rome at once, as
soon as he heard the bad news. Then he made all
THE GAULS IN ROME
THE GAULS IN ROME,.
the men give up all else, and go with him to seek
the foe. He set off at their head, and went so fast
Heroes of Iistory.
that ere the foe knew where they were, they were
shut in by his troops. They had to yield, and as
a sign that they did so, Cin-cin-na-tus set up two
spears in the ground, and on the top laid one to
meet both. Then he made the foe pass neath this
yoke. In the short space of 24 hours this was all
done For this great act, Cin-cin-na-tus got a tri-
umph; that is, he rode through the gates of Rome
and all through its streets in a grand char-i-ot, with
a wreath of lau-rel on his head, while all the chiefs
of the foe were led first in chains, and all their flags
and the rich spoils which were won from them were
borne by the troops, so that all might see them.
When this grand scene was past, Cin-cin-na-tus went
to his home to taste once more the sweets of the peace
he had won. (458 B.c.)
Ca-mil-lus. This is one of the best men we meet
with in the tale of Rome. He won war on war for
her, and brought rich, strong towns neath her sway.
He was great of soul, too, for even when he laid siege
to a town, a man who kept a school there sought to
please him by a base act, and brought all the boys to
his camp. But Ca-mil-lus had his hands tied, and
Told the boys to flog him home, and so great was the
joy of the foe to see their boys safe that they flung
wide the gates of their town to Ca-mil-lus, and made
fi'iends with the Romans. But though Rome gave
.T4-A m -i
THE RO-MAN FO-RUM
Jeroews of H/s.'"'y.
him tri-umphs, and rang with his praise, he had foes,
and some of these said that in a late war he had kept
some of the spoils. So he left Rome, with a wish
that they might soon need him. It was not long ere
the Gauls, a fierce tribe from the north, swept in great
hordes to Rome, led by their chief, Bren-nus. Rome
sent a force to beat them back; but in vain. And
now the loss of Ca-mil-lus was felt; and in sore dread
all fled, save a band of young Sen-a-tors, and a few
more young men, who went in the Cap-i-tol and made
it fast. But the old Sen-a-tors who could not fight
went to the Fo-rum and took their seats in their chairs,
with their i-vo-ry scep-tres in their hands, there to wait
for the foe. When the Gauls got to Rome, they
found no one in streets or homes, and went on till they
came to the hall where they found this band of old men
straight and still in their chairs. At first they stood
in awe at the strange sight, but at last one grew so
bold as to go up and take hold of one of the old men's
white beards. At once the Sen-a-tor struck the Gaul
with his scep-tre, and then they were all slain! Then
the Gauls set fire to Rome, to all but the Cap-i-tol,
which stood on a steep hill which they durst not climb,
for fear of the bold, small band of Romans on top who
could hurl them down. One night they tried to get
up by stealth, and would have done so, for the man
on watch was in a deep sleep, but that some geese
--' = N
IN-TE-RI-OR OF T'HE PAN-IIIE-ON.
Heroes of H/si/ory.
made a loud noise, and woke one of the Sen-a-tors,
who woke the rest and made all rush out in time to
hurl the first Gaul down, who, as he fell, bore the rest
with him down the cliff. Mean-time those who had
left Rome, had sought out Ca-mil-lus and made him
take the chief rule once more. So he was soon at the
gates of Rome, with a strong force, drove out the foe,
and made all set to work to build up Rome once more.
His death did not take place for 25 years more, and
all that time he was chief man in Rome, and gave
proof that he was as great in the arts of peace as in
war. He died of a plague (365 B.c.)
As time went on, Rome grew great and strong, and
brought more lands neath her sway. But one great
town came near her in strength or might-this was
Carth-age, on the coast of Af-ri-ca. Her wealth had
been made in trade, so she had great fleets of ships,
which Rome had not. It was not long ere the two
found cause for strife. To fight Carth-age at sea was
now the dream of the men of Rome; but as they
had no ships, and knew not how to build them, it
would seem to most minds a mad one. But just at
this time the sea threw on their coast a ship of Carth-
age. At once they set to work. Trees were cut
down and 120 ships built like it, while bands of men
were put on a long bench with oars and taught how
to row on dry land. At last these bold Ro-mans
set out in these rude boats to meet the best men
on the sea, then in the world. They were led by Du-
il-i-us and they beat the men of Carth-age, who had
come to meet them
now sent out a great ...
fleet, led by Reg-u- I:"
lus, one of her con- '"
suls. Carth-age sent
as great a fleet to meet .:: "
it, led by Ham-il-car, ',
and a great sea-fight '-I'
took place, and the .
Romans won. They
then went on land to
take Carth-age. In /
the first fights they /
won, but then Reg-u-
lus lost, and the men ~
of Carth-age took him. -
They then sent him to
Rome to say on what terms they would make peace.
But when Reg-u-lus got there, he told the Sen-ate
not to yield to Carth-age, and went back and told
them that Rome said no to her terms. In their rage
they put the brave man in a cask stuck full of sharp
Heroes of History.
nails, and made it roll down hill, and thus put to
death a true he-ro (250 B.c.). But the war went on
for nine years, and then peace was made.
Han-ni-bal, of Carth-age. When a few years
went by, the war broke out once more. The men of
Carth-age were led this time by Han-ni-bal, who
stands mid the first war-men of all time. He came
at the head of a great land force, whom he led o'er
the Alps to Rome.
Fa-bi-us. One of the best men whom Rome
sent out tokeep him back from Rome was Fa-bi-us.
His plan was to use up all the food near the foe, and
to keep him in dread by quick moves on him here
and there, but not to fight on a field face to face.
Still, Han-ni-bal did not lose ground. He won
fight on fight, but did not go to Rome for though his
men tried to urge him, he knew how hard it would be
to take it. So the war went on till at last a young
man of the name of Scip-i-o came to the front. Save
one more, whom I will tell of in time, Scip-i-o was the
best man Rome had in all her days. His plan was
to take the war to Af-ri-ca, and thus make Han-ni-bal
go home to save Carth-age. So he set out and fought
the men of Carth-age, so that in great fear they sent
for Han-ni-bal to come home and save them from the
Ro-mans. He did so, and met Scip-i-o on the field
of Zam-a. Long and fierce was the fight, but Rome
* ._ .
A N ; --.a--i
: .., ., -... ;. '.
-" -, "'- .._ ., v -'--
_- ..-- ,.
- .. -- -.: -.- __ ; .
t ,. :" -_'. _-- "
THE AP-PI-AN WAY, NEAR ROME.
Heroes of History.
won, and Carth-age at last was at her feet (203 B.c.).
Scip-i-o, when he came back to Rome, had a grand
tri-umph, and got the name of Af-ri-can-us put to his
Ju-gurth-a, of Africa. The next strong foe whom
Rome found in Af-ri-ca was this prince. He took the
throne of Nu-mid-i-a from the right heir, and though
Rome gave him her aid and tried hard to put Ju-
gurth-a down, -he beat all her troops by his skill in
war, or by bribes.
Mar-i-us. At length Rome sent out a man of
low birth and rude in his ways, but of great skill in
war, to take Ju-gurth-a. This was Mar-i-us.
Though low-born, he had great aims and sought to
be made con-sul. Then he wed with one of high
birth, and thus made his way. But his hate for men
of high birth, who had made a mock of his birth and
his aims, was great, as you will see. He made an end
of the war, and brought Ju-gurth-a to Rome to grace
his tri-umph. Then this poor king was cast in a
dark jail, to die of lack of food.
Sul-la was a young man of high birth who had
been in the war neath Mar-i-us, and his friends said,
was the one who took King Ju-gurth-a. So a feud
sprang up twixt Sul-la and Mar-i-us. Sul-la was
not nice to look at; there were great sores on his red
f::co, and his keen blue eyes had a fierce glare; but
the troops had a deep love for him, for his ways with
them were kind. But just at this time huge hordes
of the fierce Celts and Ger-mans bore down on Rome;
and both Mar-i-us and Sul-la were sent out to fight
them, and for a time, to beat them was their sole
thought. But when this was done the feud sprang
up once more. Rome's prime need was now for a
man who was great in the arts of peace, to fix things
which had gone wrong. But Mar-i-us, though he
was made con-sul, did not do much to put things
right. When a fresh war broke out twixt Rome and
Pon-tus, a land of A-si-a, those of high birth thought
Sul-la should lead the troops, and those of low birth
thought Mar-i-us should do so. The troops stood
by Sul-la; Mar-i-us in vain made up a force of slaves;
he had to flee for his life. When Sul-la was gone to
the East, Mar-i-us came back, and with his friend
Cin-na, put him-self at the head of a great throng of
the low class, and put scores on scores of the high
class to death. It was not long ere Mar-i-us died
(B.c. 83), but the war went on till Sul-la came back.
Fierce and full of blood were the scenes that then
took place. The corpse of Mar-i-us was torn from
its tomb and cast in a stream. Throngs of the low
class were put to death, and bands of the rich as well
-all whom he thought were not with him. Then
Sul-la made new laws, and all the chief men of Rome
Heroes of His/gy .
said these were good, for they stood in too much fear
of him to say no. At last he went off to his fine
home, out of Rome, where he spent the rest of his
life and died (B.c. 78).
Pom-pey. A host of great men now came to the
front in Rome, and it got to be hard work with each
to hold his place. One of the best of these was Pom-
pey, who put down the last of the men with Mar-
i-us, in Spain, and when he came back to Rome got
a triumph and the name of The Great. He then got
him-self and his rich friend Cras-sus made con-suls.
Ju-li-us Ca-sar. "This was the great-est Ro-
man of them all." He was of the kin of the proud
wife of Mar-i-us, and a man born to rule men. His
fame was not made so soon as Pom-pey's, and at this
time he paid court to that great man whom all Rome
had a deep love for. At length Pom-pey was sent
off to A-si-a to put down the foes of Rome, and
Cae-sar was sent to rule Spain. The two got back
to Rome near the same time, and with Cras-sus,
made a league to help each other. Cae-sar was made
con-sul, and at the end of his term was sent to bring
Gaul (France) neath the yoke of Rome. For the
next nine years he was at war, in which his skill was
so great that he ranks with Han-ni-bal and Al-ex-
an-der. He wrote books, too, in which he has told in
a plain, pure style all that he did. When he had got
Gaul neath his rule,
he took Switz-er-land,
beat the Ger-mans and
went to Brit-ain, where
he got the tribes of the
Brit-ains to bend to
him, though not for
long. His fame was
nov far more than that of
Pom. pey, who, with men in
Rome, sought to bring to
pass his fall. Cae-sar knew
this, and so when word was
sent to him to dis-band his
troops and come to Rome,
he said he would if Pom-
pey, who was near Rome
with quite a large force,
would do so with his. No
heed was paid to this, but
he was told once more
by the con-suls, who
were friends of Pom-
pey, to dis-band his
troops, or Rome would
look -on him as her
foe. So he saw that
his death was meant,
and at the head of his
Heroes of History,
troops came to Rome, while all the chief men fled,
and put him-self at the head of things. The troops
of Pom-pey left him and came to C.e-sar, and Pom-
m IAykU~L~fa -, --~J~
TOMB OF AU-GU6-TUS CiE-SAR.
pey fled. When he had been made con-sul and
made things right at Rome, Cae-sar went in search
of Pom-pey, and found him in Thrace, a land north
of Greece. They had a great fight, but Ca~-sar
A ug ustus Ccesar.
beat and Pom-
pey fled to
he was slain in
a war in which
he took part
twixt the young
queen Cle-o-pa-tra and
her broth-er (B.c. 48).
Ca-sar went there and
brought back peace,
and gave the crown to
Cle-o-pa-tra neath the
sway of Rome. Then
he came back to Rome
and was made con-sul
once more. The men
who had been with
Pom-pey broke out in
war in Af-ri-ca, but he
went there and put them
down, and at last was
head of Rome, the queen
of the world, and at
peace. No man had
such honor paid him as
Cae-sar. But he was
mild in his time of rule,
and set to work to make
AU-GUS-TUS C E-SAR,
Heroes of Hislory.
Rome great and strong. But he had no lack of foes.
In vain he said he had no wish to be king; they said he
had set his heart on a crown and a throne, and so
they made a plot to kill
him, and slew him as
he stood in the sen-ate
'', 'iy1 hall. One of those in
the plot was his great
S- friend Bru-tus, and it is
said that as he fell he
S -"cried out, "And thou
too, Bru-tus." (B.c. 44.)
death brought on fresh
S war twixt the men of
SCae-sar, led by Marc
7 --i An-to-ny, and his foes,
led by Bru-tus. The
.I end of it all was that
\7 Oc-ta-vi-us, of the kin
of Cae-sar, put down
all the rest and made
him-self the first Em-
CON-STAN-TINE THE GREAT. pe-ror of Rome. He
pe-ror of Rome. He
did much to make Rome fine and great, and gave
great help to all the arts. At length Rome gave him
the name of Au-gus-tus, which means sa-cred. It
I j -
Si L ,1, ,:
c ,i f ;"^r !l
-1P -.. -:
-C .' ..
Z-'r ;- -
Heroes of Hislory.
was in his reign that Christ was born. At his death,
he left Rome strong and at peace (14 A.D.).
Con-stan-tine the Great. Of-the rest of those
who sat on the throne of Rome Ti-tus, Tra-jan, Au-
re-li-an and Al-ex-an-der Se-ve-rus made the most.
fame in war till the time of Con-stan-tine. He was
the first to grant peace to the Christ-i-ans, whom the
rest had put t6 death in fierce ways. It is said that
when he was in a fierce fight with Max-en-ti-as, who
sought to keep the crown from him, a cross of fire
was seen in the sky, which bore on it these words in
Greek: In this con-quer." When he got to the
throne he made his home at Con-stan-ti-no-ple, in
place of Rome, and did much to spread the true faith.
A sad blot on this great man's life is that he lent his
ear to false tales of his son Cris-pas, and had him
put to death. He died in the year 336 A.D., while in the
field at war with the king of Per-si-a, and left the
realm to his three sons.
HE-ROES OF THE MID-DLE A-GES.
FROM A.D. 700 TO A.D. 1500.
As the years went by, Rome, once so great and
strong that she had most of the known world neath
her sway, grew weak. Long ere Con-stan-tine came
to the throne, a strong wild tribe of the name of the
Goths came down from their home in Nor-way and
Swe-den, and spread o'er the rest of Eu-rope. Some
made their home on the vast steppes which stretch
from the Black Sea to the Bal-tic Sea, and were
known as the East Goths, and more found a place to
dwell near the Alps and the stream of the Dan-ube,
and were known as the West Goths. But to gain
these, homes, the strong Goths had to drive out of the
lands they took the Ger-man tribes who had dwelt
there, and these had to go south to seek new homes.
Thus they came like a great wave on the north
bounds of the realm of Rome. At first she was yet
too strong to give way, and time on time beat them
back, but at last they took from her.land on the Dan-
ube, and dwelt there.
As time went on, the Goths grew less wild and
rough, and not a few took the faith of Christ; and no
Heroes ?f History.
/doubt all would have gone well in time, had it not
been for a strange new foe who now swept down on
Eu-rope. This was the Huns, a tribe whose home
was in the north of A-si-a, on the vast plains which
stretch from Rus-si-a to Chi-na, but who one day
took it in their heads to see the world. The Huns
were not wild in their ways or in their looks. When
at home they dwelt in tents in which they kept their
steeds as well; but when on the move, the men ate,
and drank, and slept on horse-back; and thus kept
their legs in this shape so much, that they got bent
out like a bow. They were short, strong men, with
coarse thick lips, straight black hair like wire, small
round eyes black as sloes, and skins the hue of gold.
They ate nuts and raw meat, and did not seem to
know what lack of food, or thirst, or cold meant.
Their wives and chil-dren, who were just as foul to
sight and smell in all ways, rode back of them in huge
vans. Near-ly four hundred years from the time that
Christ had been on earth, this vast, fierce horde of
Huns came to Eu-rope, swept o'er Ger-man-y, and
then made their home in Da-ci-a, a land whose great
plains of grass no doubt put them in mind of the
home they had left, and which has since been known
as Hun-ga-ry. Just as the Goths had made the Ger-
man tribes give up their lands and move south, so the
Goths now had to make room for the Huns. They
Heroes of History.
.ed to the bounds of Rome, and plead for leave to
dwell in her realm. They got it, and 200,000 Goth-
men came o'er the Dan-ube. But those who had
charge of them did not treat them or their kin right,
and they got to look on Rome as a foe, and not a
friend. They made war on her, went east to the cap-
i-tal, met the Em-pe-ror Val-ers at the head of a great
force, and slew him in the fierce fight which took place
The-o-do-si-as the Great then came to the
throne. He made peace with the Goths, got great
bafds of them to serve as his troops, and gave them
lands to dwell on. But when he was dead, they broke
out once more, and, led by their chief A-lar-ic, swept
her realm, came to the gates of Rome, took it and
gave it to his men to sack for six days. (410 A.D.)
No doubt at this time much was lost that no gold
could give back to the world, but no church was hurt,
nor those who had gone in them to be safe.
Up to this time, the Huns, who were the cause of
all this strife, had staid in their new home. But now
a man got to be their chief whose name was At-ti-la,
but whose joy and pride it was to be known as the
Scourge of God. So, at the head of his wild horde,
he swept to the south, and left fire and blood as the
marks of his track. He came to Gaul, and there was
met by a great force of Ro-mans and tribes they had
got to help them. A fierce fight took place, but the
Huns lost. At-ti-la went off from Gaul, and made
his way to Rome. As he drew near its walls, he
was met by the Pope Leo I., who got him to draw off
his men and go back. From this time, the Huns are
lost sight of.
Clo-vis. On Christ-mas night (406) a horde of
Ger-man tribes made their way o'er the Rhine, and
made their home in Gaul. One of these tribes was
the Franks, and as years went on, one of their chiefs,
whose name was Clo-vis, put down the rest of the
tribes, threw off the last trace of the yoke of Rome,
and built up a great realm which got the name of
France from the Franks. Clo-vis had wed a good
maid, Clo-tilde, who held the faith of Christ, and
once, when in sore straits in a great fight, he cried out
to the God of his wife to help him. Then the tide of
strife was seen to turn for him, and he won the field.
So, one day, with great pomp and state, Clo-vis and
3000 of those neath his rule, went through the streets
of the old town of Rheims (rem) to the spot where
the priests gave bap-tism, and took the faith of Christ.
This brave chief brought more and more lands neath
his sway, till at his death France and a large part of
Ger-man-y made up his realm. But none of Clo-vis'
sons, nor of their kin, had his good traits. All his
line were weak, poor things, who could not cope with
Heroes of History.
the needs- of the realm, but left all their work to men
whom we should call Prime Min-is-ters, but who
were known in that day as May-ors of the Pal-ace.
The kings were seen but once a year, when they rode
on a car drawn by ox-en, with their crowns on, o'er
their long, fair hair, which fell to their waists. As
they did naught the rest of the year, save eat, and
drink, and sleep, and have a good time, they got the
name of the slug-gard kings.
Charles Mar-tel (or the Ham-mer) was May-or
of.the Pal-ace, when a great host of the Ar-abs made
their way to Eu-rope, took Spain and the south of
France, and would have got all the realm, had not he
gone to meet them with a great force, and beat them
at Tours (A.D. 732). For the rest of his life, this brave
man was king in all save name. He gave life or
death, made war or peace, just as if he were on the
throne. But he did not seek to bear the name; no
doubt he thought that it had grown so mean a thing in
the eyes of the Franks, that it would not add much
to him. So the poor heirs of Clo-vis were left in
peace on the throne till he died.
Pep-in the Short, his son, was not of the same
mind, though. He had hard work to keep the realm
safe from the wild tribes near by, and as he flew from
point to point, no doubt he thought he had& to work
too hard to keep his goose of a king safe on his throne.
AR-ABS AND TAR-TARS.
Heroes of His/ory.
So at last he sent to
the Pope to ask,
"Who is king, he
who rules, or he who
wears the crown? "
"He who rules, of
course," said the
Pope. "That is I,"
cried the small man
with a great will, and
lost no time, but sent
the last of the slug-
gard kings to dwell
in a house of monks.
Then Pep-in got the
crown put on his
head and the name
or Charles the Great,
was the son of Pep-
in, and stands one of
the first of the great
CHAR-LE-MAGNE.* men of all times.
Great in war, he was
still more great in peace, for in that rude, rough age, he
sought to have wise laws made, and to have the young
CHAR-LE-MAGNE AT THE SCHOOL OF THE PAL-ACE.
Hecoes of History.
of all ranks taught by wise men. He had, all his life,
a deep love for wise men, and for books.- The first
great feat of Charles was to march on the Sax-ons.
They were a strong, wild tribe who dwelt in the north
of Ger-man-y, mid the great hills, whence they would
bear down .on those who dwelt in the low lands, and
CHAR-LE-MAGNE BE-FORE NAR-BONNE.
burn the towns and the crops. So, at the head of his
troops, Charles went to a point in the great mounts
where a huge hill of red sand-stone rose on each
side like the post of a door. This was known as the
West-pha-li-an gate, for a path led up from here to
the heart of the Sax-ons' land. On one of these red
hills was the strong home of their chief, Wit-te-kind.
Charles did not take long to make this good for
naught, and then went on to Pad-er-born. He tore
down their great fane which stood at this place, and
had the great false god put down deep in the ground.
But, ere he had time to do more, he had to go off to
It-a-ly, to fight the Lom-bards, who dwelt there and
had tried to throw off his yoke. The next year he
went back to Sax-on-y, built a home there, and told
all the Sax-on chiefs to come and hail him. as their-
king. All did so, save Wit-te-kind, but he went off,
out of the land, to bide his time to strike. He had
not long to wait, for Charles had soon to go off to
Spain, to help the E-mir of Ar-a-gon, who had sought
his aid. Ere he set out for home he had brought a
great part of Spain neath his rule.
Ro-land. As Charles led his troops home through
the great range of hills, the Pyr-e-nees, which shut
out France from Spain, he put his rear guard in
charge of Ro-land, one of his kin. The line of the
troops had to stretch out to great length, for great
walls of rock rose up on each side of a small path,
and so Ro-land and his men were left far to the rear.
The foe knew this would be so, and they hid in the
holes in the rocks at a spot they thought would be
the best for their bad work; and when Ro-land and
his men got there, sprang out on them. The brave
Heroes of History.
Franks, thus caught in a trap, fought well, but to no
use; they were all slain. But the brave Ro-land
thought of those who had gone on, and in his death
throes he brought his great horn Du-ran-dal to his
lips, and blew a great blast which was heard a great
way off, to warn them that the foe was on their track.
Then the brave youth died, but his fame dwelt in the
hearts of the Franks. The tale of how he died was
told in hall and hut, and was made the theme of a
song, the "Song of Ro-land," which was sung as the
troops went to fight. When Charles got home, he
heard that the Sax-ons had been at their old work
once more. Wit-te-kind had come to his own, as
soon as Charles had gone, and led them like a scourge
through the land up to the walls of Co-logne. The
great king was soon in the midst of them, and built
ten great forts, and bore off some of their chief men as
a pledge on their part to keep the peace. Then he
told a great band of them to go with his own men to
fight a fresh foe, the Slavs. The Sax-ons went off
with joy and speed with the Franks, but one day, in
a pass mid the hills, fell on the Franks and slew them.
Great was King Charles' wrath when he heard this,
and he made up his mind to teach the Sax-ons once
for all that they had met o*ne to whose yoke they
must bend, if not by fair means, then by stern ones.
He came o'er the Rhine, laid waste their land with
DEATH OF RO-LAND.
Heroes of History.
fire and sword, and put to death 4000 who would not
take the faith of Christ. Their chief Wit-te-kind
made a last stand, but Charles beat him, and then at
last the fierce chief gave up and came to the camp of
Charles, and said he would be of the faith of Christ.
It is said that it was in a small church near his home
which Charles had torn down that Wit-te-kind bent
his neck to the yoke of Christ. And so at last the
Sax-ons, so long the scourge and pest of the north,
were brought to feel that war was not the sole end of
life. As time went on they grew to set some store by
the things of peace; new towns sprang up, and homes
for the monks, each with its church and school, where
their boys and girls learnt the things they should know.
Now I will go back and tell why Charles had to
go to It-a-ly. The king-of the Lom-bards, in It-a-ly,
Des-i-de-ri-us, had schemes to put down Charles.
With this end in view he had sought to get Pope
A-dri-an to crown the two sons of Charles' broth-er in
his stead. When the Pope said he would not, Des-
i-de-ri-us lost no time, but bore down on Rome at
the head of a great force. The Pope sent off to beg
Charles to come to his aid, but as he knew some time
must go by ere Charles could get to him, he had new
strong gates put up, and laid in a great store of food.
When Charles got word of the Pope's sore strait, he
sent word to Des-i-de-ri-us not to dare to raid Rome,
or he would march with a
give up such a plan. But
naught but jeer at his threat
Charles led his force o'er th(
i-de-ri-us ere he knew it.
which town Charles left one
great force to make him
the Lom-bard king did
,and kept on. At once
e Alps, and was on Des-
He fled to Pa-vi-a, at
Sof his men with a large
A KNIGHT MADE BY THE DEAD HAND OF RO-LAND.
force to keep him shut up, and went on to Rome,
where he was met with great joy. It must have been
a grand sight to see Charles, who was a tall man, near
sev-en feet high, with a grave, grand look, ride through
the streets on his fine steed, while songs and shouts rent
the air, at the head of his long train, in his rich robes
Heroes of History.
of pur-ple and gold, with a crown bright with gems on
his head. At the Church of St. Pe-ter, he got off his
horse and bent his lips to each step as he went up to
where, at the great door, the Pope stood to bless and
thank him for his prompt aid.
In a short time Charles got hold of Des-i-de-ri-us,
and made him leave the world, and dwell in a house
of monks. Then at Mil-an, the Pope set on the
great king's brow the i-ron crown of the Lom-bards,
which is said to have been made out of one of the
nails which held Christ to the cross. Charles had
not been at home long, when one of the kin of Des-i-
de-ri-us sought to stir up the Av-ars who dwelt in
Hun-ga-ry, to make raids on Charles' realm. He
was soon in the field, drove them back, and brought
the land now known as Aus-tri-a neath his rule.
With all this vast realm to watch and guard, this wise
king still found time to think of things that would
make those in it grow in the arts of peace. He got
as wise a man as the world had in that age, the monk
Al-cu-in, to leave Eng-land and teach the Frank youths.
He brought men from It-a-ly to teach them how to
sing. But though the song-schools were set up, I
grieve to say they were the cause of no great pride
or joy to the good king, for he says the sound the
youths made when they tried to sing was like the
howls of wild beasts. He found more cause to be
glad when he went to the schools and heard them at
their tasks. But one day when the mas-ter told him
that the sons of the men of rank did not get up their
tasks as well as did those of low birth, his face grew
red and his eyes shone with wrath, and in stern tones
he told them that if they thought that their rank and
wealth made them not need to learn from books, they
should find how far they were from the truth, for
they should gain naught from him, if he found that
they did not do their tasks well!
Charles did his best to make the poor through his
vast realm.get their rights. With this end in view,
he made wise laws and rules, and saw that they were
kept. He did all that he could, too, to make trade
grow. He dwelt at Aix-la-Cha-pelle, where he built
a great church, still to be seen, much the same as it
was in his day, and at In-gel-heim, where he built a
bridge o'er the Rhine.
I will now tell of the last great act of this great
king's life. In the year 800 the Pope, Leo III.,
was hurt by a band of men who had made a league
to put him down. Charles' wrath was great when
he heard that these had gone so far as to lay hands
on the Pope, and he set off at once for Rome, where
he soon put things right. Then came the last grand
scene of this great king's life. He went to High
Mass on Christ-mas day, and when it had been sung,
Heroes of History.
the Pope came to where he sat in state with all his
chief men round him, and set a crown on his head,
and gave him the name of Em-pe-ror of the West.
Charles had the grief to see all his sons die save
one, Lou-is, and when he grew old he sent for all
the chief men of his great realm, and got them to say
that they would be true to this youth as their king.
Then he told Lou-is to take the crown as a gift from
God, from him, and from the na-tion, and try to reign
well. In a few years from this time this wise and
brave king died. (Jan. 28, 814.)
The North-men. While the faith of Christ had
been taught through most parts of Eu-rope by this
time, there was a race in the far north who still held
to their old false gods. They dwelt in Scan-di-na-
vi-a (Nor-way and Swe-den), but the worst and most
fierce of them had their homes in Den-mark, and on
the south coast of the North Sea, in what we know
as Hol-land and Ger-man-y; bleak lands, full of mists
and fogs, where wild storms make the sea lash the
flat coasts, from which it is so hard to keep it out.
They were huge strong men, with white skins, fair
hair, and bright blue eyes, who drank deep at their
rude feasts, while their bards sang of their feats in
war. It was the boast of some of these sea-kings
that "they slept neath no roof and drank ale by no
hearth." War was their chief joy and they made it
their trade, and thought that bliss in the life to come
would be to be at war all the time. As their land
was poor and did not .'
yield much, their way 'iK'i
was to sail off in their ')
small ships to some .
rich land, sail up the '
streams to the towns
on -the banks, take all
they could bear off, ,
and burn the rest.
You may well think
that they were held in Em
dread by all the folks
of Eu-rope, who gave
them the name of .
Northmen or Vi-kings
(veek-ings). 'This ,
means creek-men, for
they kept their boats
in creeks. Ere
Charles died, he had "
A VI-KING (SCAN-DI-NA-VI-AN PI-RATE).
wept to see their
dark ships off his coasts, and, no doubt, it was at
the thought that when his strong hand should be
still in death, there would be none to hold them in
Heroes of History.
check. And his thought was true, as we shall see.
But they did not plague France till they had
brought much woe on Eng-land and Ire-land. So
far as their raids on Eng-land went they were no
new thing, for, 449 years ere this time (449 A.D.) great
war-bands of them, led by Hen-gist and Hor-sa, their
great chiefs, had come down on it, took it from the
Brit-ons, and made their homes there. As time went
on they took on the faith of Christ, and had but
just learnt to prize the things of peace when their
fierce kin swept down on their coasts for prey and
spoil. But the Eng-lish rose to fight the Danes-
this was the name they gave the North-men-and
thus men of one blood and one speech were at war.
For years, with gain and loss on each side in turn,
they went on, but at last the Danes got a great part
of Eng-land neath their rule, and it did not seem as
if aught could now keep the whole from them. But
this dark hour had its great man in Al-fred, king of
Wes-sex, one of the realms in which Eng-land was
split. From a boy he had been on the field of war,
so that when he came to the throne he could now put
to use what he had learnt in that hard school. At
first things did not go well, and he had to buy peace
for three years, which gave him time to breathe; but,
just as he thought, at the end of that time Guth-rum,
then chief of the Danes, was back in the land with
the whole strength of the North-men. They swept
through the land, and were soon in Wes-sex, and
took the town of Ex-e-ter. At break of spring Al-
LAND-ING OF THE DANES IN ENG-LAND.
fred fixed his force close round the town, while he
got a fleet of ships to keep all help by sea from them.
So at last the Danes had to give up the town, and
Heroes of Hi's/ory.
swore to leave Wes-sex. They went off, and Al-fred
let his troops go to their homes, and all was well,
when, all at once, the Danes burst on the land once
more with fire and sword. Al-fred had to flee and
hide in the woods with his small band, and live as
best he might. Thus, one day, he had to rest in the
hut of a poor herds-man, whose wife had put some
cakes on the fire to bake, while she. went off to- do
some tasks. No doubt the good dame thought that
as the king was close to the fire he would not let
them burn. But the king's mind was on his bow
and shafts, to see if they were fit to fight with, and he
paid no heed to the food. Soon the smell of burnt
cakes rose in the hut, and as the dame ran to the fire
to see how much harm had been done, she cried out
in great wrath that it was but just he should watch
the cakes when he was so glad to eat them.
In this dark time, too, he is said to have put on the
dress of a bard, and gone with his harp to the camp
of the foe, to see how strong they were. All this
time he got more and more men in his force, and at
last, with the first burst of spring, he set out to march
on the Danes. As he went, fresh bands of his men
came to him. When he came to where the great
host of Danes were, he went at once to fight, and
made them yield to him. Their chief, Guth-rum,
took the faith of Christ, and the Danes swore to make
sAiD or THS WQRTHMEN,
Heroes of Hislory.
war no more on Wes-sex. This peace, which was
kept, was known as the peace of Wed-more, where
it was sworn to (A.D. 878).
For the rest of his life this great king made the
__ good of those neath
his rule the sole
end of his life. He
did his best to
guard his realm, for
he made a fleet, the
first Eng-land had,
and thus may be
said to have been
the one to found
her might at sea.
He also made wise
Slaws, so that the
rich and the strong
should not crush
the poor and the
weak. He set up
schools for those of
low as well as for
those of high birth. He had a deep love for books,
and he knew not a few sweet songs by heart. He
found time mid the cares of state, too, to write books,
some out of his own head, and some in Eng-lish from
Sweyn, of Denmark.
the Lat-in tongue. In 886 the Danes made one
more great raid, but Al-fred, in a short time, drove
them back, and took a large part of their realm from
them. This blow broke their might for some years,
and when they came back once more, led by their
chief, Hast-ing, he beat them, and drove them from
the land. A few years from this time, this brave
and wise king, one of the best, if not the best, Eng-
land has had, died (A.D. 901).
Sweyn, of Den-mark. But the land had by no
means seen the last of the Danes. Though king on
king of the line of Al-fred fought them, naught could
break the might of this fierce foe. At last, when Al-
fred had been dead near 100oo years, a great fleet bore
a host of Danes to Eng-land's coasts, led by their
king, Sweyn. Eth-el-red then sat on the throne of
Eng-land, and in his dread lest the Danes who dwelt
in his realm should rise and join with their kin, he
had them all put to death on one day. When the
news of this rash act got to Sweyn's ears, he swore to
wrest the realm from king Eth-el-red. He swept
through its length and breadth with fire and sword,
and then went off to his own land, but was soon back
with a great fleet. The beaks of his ships were of
brass, the sterns bore beasts of gold. On the head
of each mast was the shape of a bird, or a man, or of
a bull, or a great fish. As he led his troops through
Heroes of History.
the land, town on town bent to his yoke, and at last
Eth-el-red had to flee o'er the sea to France, and
leave his realm to Sweyn.
Ca-nute, the Dane. Sweyn was now king of
Eng-land in all
save the name; but
as he died when
been but a few
months gone, he
did not get the
crown put on his
head. He left a
son, Ca-nute; but
a large part of the
realm rose to keep
the crown from this
young prince of the
foe. They sent for
Eth-el-red to come
back to his own.
CA-NUTE. Eth-el-red was so
slow that he was
known as the Un-read-y; but for once in his life he
went with speed, and was on Ca-nute's track ere he
knew it. Fierce strife went on for some time. The
son of Eth-el-red, a brave, wise prince, Ed-mund,
CA-NUTE AND THE SEA.
who was so strong that he got the name of I-ron-
sides, gave that king great aid, and when Eth-el-red
died, had the crown put on his head at Lon-don.
Ca-nute did the same at South-amp-ton, and thus
Heroes of History.
Eng-land had two kings. They kept up the war;
but at last, in a great fight at As-ling-don, the
Danes won. Then the two kings met on a small
isle in the stream of the Sev-ern, and made two parts
of the land. Ed-mund was to rule the South, and
Ca-nute the North. But the brave Ed-mund, who
had fought so well for his own, soon died, and Ca-
nute got to be king of the whole land. He had the
crown put on his head at Lon-don, and swore that he
would be just to all in his rule. Then he said that
Danes and Eng-lish must hold no grudge, but give
up strife and dwell in peace. As time went on, Ca-
nute rose from a mere wild fierce chief with a-thirst for
blood, to be a wise and mild king. He took on the
yoke of Christ, and then made a law that all the rites
of the old faith of the Danes, with its false gods, must
be seen no more in the land. He saw that the laws
were kept; that the poor had their rights. His first
aim was to win the love of those neath his rule. He
brought the poor land, rent so long with strife, peace,
and, as he said, strove to lead a right life in all
things." And so it came to pass that when he died,
the Eng-lish felt deep grief for this good king, whom
they once held in such dread. (A.D. 1035.)
Bri-an Bo-ru, of Ire-land. Of course, when the
Danes gave Eng-land such fierce, hard times, they did
not leave a land so close to her as Ire-land in peace,
you may be sure. It was in 790, just a few years from
the time that they swept down on Eng-land, that their
dark ships were first seen on the low, gray waves of
the I-rish Chan-nel as they swept the shore, then up
the streams to the broad lakes which stud the
heart of Ire-land; while the wail of
pain, the red glare of fire, and the
sight of blood, told where their path
had lain. This was but the first of
a long tale of strife and woe. It was
of small use to beat them back; more
and more they came, till at last they
had all the spoil of the land fast in
towns which they built at points on
the coast. Thus Cork, Lim-er-ick,
Wex-ford and Dub-lin were all first
S the strong-holds of the
S... Danes. At last great
.. piles of stone, which got
the name of round tow-
ers, were built through
the land; and .when the
prows of the foe's ships
were seen on the sea, the
strong men made haste to
put their wives and boys
AN-CIENT ROUND TOW-ER. and girls, and all the men
Heroes 2f History.
who were too ill or weak or old to fight, in these
strong keeps, while they went off to meet the foe.
As years went on, and the might of the Danes grew,
the I-rish did not learn to view them in the same way
as the Eng-lish. As has been said, the North-men
found in Eng-land their own kin, who spoke the same
tongue, and thus it was not hard for a strong king
like Ca-nute to make one nation of both. But from
first to last, the I-rish had naught but hate for them.
At last a time came when the Danes found their
match. In those days Ire-land was made up of five
small realms, each with its own king; while at Ta-ra
dwelt the kings of Ul-ster, the O'Neills, who were
Ard-reaghs, or head kings, and kept rule o'er all
the land. Now the man who was to give the
death-blow to the Danes' might was Bri-an Bo-ru,
king of Mun-ster. When he came to the throne,
men found that some one who knew how to rule
was at the helm of state. But what they had yet
to find was, that he had made up his mind to be
chief king; not the shade of a chief king, as most
of them had been, but a true king, who would make
him-self felt in the land. To bring this to pass, he
had to wrest the crown from the chief king, Mal-
a-chy, the head of the strong clan of the O'Neills,
and break the might of the Danes no slight tasks.
But Bri-an lost no time; he set to work at once to
' lk, I
B N O
BRI-AN BO-RU, ON THE PLAINS 0 F CLON-TARF,
.Roes of Zth!ory.
break the might of some foes near him, and then,
step by step, fought his way till at last he sat as Ard-
reagh in the hall of Ta-ra, while Mal-a-chy, who,
though brave-for he wore a col-lar of gold which he
had won from the Danes seems to have been a mild
man, went off to his small realm of Meath. Then
Bri-an went through the land, made the kings pay
him trib-ute, so that he got to be known as Bri-an of
the Trib-ute," and set to work to make the arts of
peace grow. He beat back the Danes, and for 12
years the land had a taste of the joys of peace. The
burnt homes of the monks were built up; men set to
till the soil; roads were built, each with a bridge
where there was need; and forts rose here and there.
But as the king grew old, the Danes grew bold once
more. At last they made up their minds to strike one
grand blow, and, with this end in view, sent off for
bands of their fierce kin in all the lands near by to aid
them. Bri-an, on his side, gave all his mind to a
like task, and soon had a strong force neath his flag.
One of the first of his chiefs was Mal-a-chy, king of
Meath, who, like a true man, did not let his own
wrongs keep his hand still when his land had need of
it. So Bri-an led his men down to the strand of
Clon-tarf, which lies north of Dub-lin, and here, at
dawn on Good Fri-day (A.D. 10I4), the Danes and
they met. All day the fight went on till the sun went
down the crest and was soon to sink. Then at last the
Danes broke and fled; some to their ships, some
to the great woods not far off. As one ran, he came
to the tent where the old king, too old to fight, had
staid to pray. The beams of the low sun fell on his
bent white head and long white beard. As he stood
to gaze, a Dane who had caught up with him said,
" That is the king." At this news, Bir-dar, the first
Dane, caught up his axe and made a rush on Bri-an.
The old king, who in his day knew no peer in strength
in the land, half rose
from his knees and
smote the Dane on the
legs with his sword.
But Bro-dar dealt him .
THE FOUR COURTS, DUB-LIN.
Heroes of Hisiory.
such a blow on the head that he laid him dead.
He then fled to the woods, but was caught next day
and put to death. So fell the great king Bri-an in
the hour when the foe fell, and deep was the grief
of those neath his rule as they bore him to Ar-magh,
where he was laid to rest (A.D. 1014).
Will-iam the Con-quer-or. I have told you
that Charles the Great wept when he saw the dark
ships of the Danes near his coasts. He would have
wept more could he have seen what was to come to
pass, for the fate of Eng-land and Ire-land was in
store for France, as the kings of his line found to
their cost. At last, in the year 911, Charles the Sim-
ple, then king of France, made up his mind to give
the Danes a part of France, and thus save the rest
from their raids. So he gave them a great tract in
the north, and gave his own daugh-ter to their chief,
Rol-lo, as his wife, when he took the faith of Christ.
The part of France where the North-men dwelt got
to be known in time as North-men's Land," or
Nor-man-dy. As the years went by they grew less
fierce and wild; the old Norse tongue died out and the
French tongue was heard in its stead. They grew
strong in the faith of Christ; grand homes for monks
rose in the glades of the woods, and on the roads
crowds were seen as they made their way each year
to pray at some shrine of fame. Neath the rule of
William the Con qzceror.
its dukes, as those who held the rule were known,
Nor-man-dy got to be rich and strong, and though a
part of the realm of France, and neath the rule of its
king, was in truth just as free as if it were bound by
no such tie. But the time had now come when it
was to play a part in the tale of Eng-land, and form
a bond which was to last for a long time, and cause
great woe and pain to more men and their kin than
we can count, ere there should rise one with mind
and strength to break it.
Will-iam of Nor-man-dy, whose chief work it was
to bring Eng-land and Nor-man-dy neath one crown,
stands in the first rank of the great men of all time.
His youth was hard, for he was but a child when he
got to be duke, and the fierce, proud lords were wont
to chafe neath the yoke of a child, the more so as he
was of low birth on the side of his moth-er. She was
but the child of a tan-ner, and won the love of Duke
Rob-ert, Will-iam's sire, as she stood to wash clothes
in a small brook near the road. But Will-iam's
strong will was more than a match for his lords, and
made him gain all his ends. He was so strong that
no man could bend his bow. At times he was hard,
as to the men of A-len-con, a town with whose men
he was at war. In scorn of his low blood they hung
raw hides on their walls, with loud cries of "Work
for the Tan-ner." To pay them for this scorn, Will-
Heroes of History.
iam tore out the eyes and cut off the hands and feet
of some men of theirs whom he had in his camp, and
flung these in the town. The way that Will-ian
came to set his thoughts on the throne of Eng-land
was this : when Ca-nute the Dane died he left two
sons, who both wore the crown of Eng-land in turn, but
left no heirs, so that the crown then went to their half
broth-er, Ed-ward, who was of the line of Al-fred the
Great. He had dwelt for a long time with Will-iam
and grown fond of him, and it was from there that he
came to Eng-land. But though mild and so good
that he is known as a saint, Ed-ward found it hard to
rule the Eng-lish. He had been so long in Nor-man-
dy that all his tastes, ay, the tongue he spoke, were
strange to those of his own land, and he had to lean on
his chief man, Earl God-win, whose daugh-ter he had
wed, for help. When God-win died his son Har-
old took his post, and did much to make the land
rich and strong. But while things stood thus, Har-
old went for a sail one time, but was swept on the
shores of Nor-man-dy. The chief on whose lands
he was cast gave him to Duke Will-iam, who told
him that while King Ed-ward had dwelt at his court
they had been as if of the same blood, and that when
he went to take his place on the throne of Eng-land
.he gave his word that he would leave the .crown at
his death to Will-iam. .The duke then went on to
LAND-ING OF WILL-IAM THE CON-QUER-OR.
Heroes of History.
tell Har-old that ere he would set him free he must
swear an oath on part of the bones of a saint to help
him to make Eng-land his. So Har-old swore; but
when he got back home he paid no heed to his oath,
and when the king died got all the chief men in the
realm to make him king. When news of this got
to Nor-man-dy the duke's rage was great, and he
built a great fleet and set sail for Eng-land. The
duke's ship was the Mo-ra, and was the gift of his
wife. The fleet had to lie still for quite a time for
want of a wind, but at last the breeze blew from the
right point, and the fleet made for the shores of Eng-
land. They got to land in Sus-sex. As soon as the
great news came to the ears of King Har-old he set
off with his troops, who were all in great glee, for they
had just won in a great fight with the Danes, so that
they felt sure they could beat this new foe. In the
dim dawn of a morn in the fall, Duke Will-iam
led his men to meet the king, who took his stand on
a hill near Has-tings-the hill on which Bat-tle now
stands. A fine, strong force were the men of Eng-
land that day as they stood in deep ranks with their
king and his rich flag in their midst, each with his
great gray, sharp axe and his strong shield. Still as
death kept the dense throng, while the Nor-man force
-came on : first those who shot shafts from their great
bows, next those who fought with the lance, and then,
William t he Conqueror.
last of all, the men on horse-back. In front of all
rode a bard, who threw his sword in the air and
caught it as he sang the song of Ro-land. As they
drew near they rent the air with their great war-cry,
" God is our help !" Then from the Eng-lish came
back theirs, Christ's Rood !" which means cross.
Then they met, but the Eng-lish stood firm as a rock
neath the sweep of the wave. And so the hours wore
on in fierce strife, and it was hard to tell which side
would win. But the duke did not lose head nor
heart; he kept his troops up to their work, and once,
when a cry went up that he was slain, he tore his hel-
met from his head and cried out, I live, and by God's
help will yet win." His chief aim was to get the flag
of the king in his hands, but each time he got near it
he was thrust back. At last he made a feint of flight,
and when he had drawn off a great band in his track,
made a great dash back, and for the first time broke
through the dense mass which rose like a wall round
it. Near and more near he drew, hard though the
Eng-lish fought to keep him back. At last, as the
sun went down the sky, a shaft struck King Har-old
in the eye, and he sank dead neath his flag, for which
a fierce fight went on o'er his corpse. But the Eng-
lish had lost heart, and in a short time fled and left
the field to the foe (A.D. 1o66).
When he had won this first great step he lost no
time, but made his way to Lon-don, and had the
crown put on his head mid shouts of" Yea, yea," from
the Eng-ish. Then he let them see that he had not
come to change aught, but to keep the rule they had
known. So that he could be just to all he tried hard
to learn the Eng-lish tongue, but in vain; he had to
give up the task. But when the new king went off
for a while to Nor-man-dy, the men of Eng-land rose
here and there to throw off his yoke. Will-iam was
soon back and put them down, but found that the
end was not yet. Sweyn, king of Den-mark, made
up his mind to wrest Eng-land from the Nor-mans,
and swept up one of her streams with a great fleet.
All Eng-land rose as one man to greet and join with
him. Great was Will-iam's wrath, but he did not
lose his head. He went to the Danes, gave them a
huge bribe to give no help to the Eng-lish, and then
swept down on the north, and swept it so with fire
and sword that it had no roof nor food for man nor
beast. The last to hold out was Her-e-ward, a brave
Eng-lish lord, who took his stand with a small force
in the fen or marsh lands near E-ly, and did such
brave, deeds that they seem like things that have been
made up to read of in books. At last Will-iam sent
word to him that he would give him his life and leave
to dwell a free man where he chose if he would lay
down his arms, So Her-e-ward, who saw that all
William the Conqueror.
hope was past, and that it was best for Eng-land for
him to give in, took an oath to be true to Will-iam,
and broke up his camp.
The land was now Will-iam's, who had had such
hard work to win it that -
he may in truth bear the ----
name by which he is
known -the Con-quer--
or. His first great work '
was to set to work to
find out just how much
land was in his realm,
and to count all the
towns and those who
dwelt in them. When
this was done it was all
set down in a book
which was known as
Dooms day Book, a
judg-ment day book, for
it was from it that the
king was to judge how
king was to judge how HAR-OLD, THE LAST OF THE SAX-ON KINGS.
large a tax each man
should pay. He got great sums by the tax which
he put on things which had had none till he came.
He made new laws, too, one of which was that the
fires and lights had to be put out at the sound of
Heroes of History.
a bell which rung each night at the hour of eight.
His love for the great deer was great, and he laid
waste a great tract of ground to make a vast woods
for them to roam in,. and where he might hunt.
In spite of all his harsh acts, his reign brought
great good to Eng-land. The men there were gross
in their ways, the lords fierce, with no thought save
of field sports and food and strong drink. The Nor-
man lads were, on the whole, mild in their ways,
though just as brave, and knew more of books and
the fine joys of life. Their monks and priests were
wise, good men, of meek ways and good lives. One
of them was Lan-franc, a monk whose great mind
and saint-like ways made him dear to Will-iam, who
made him Arch-bish-op of Can-ter-bur-y. In this
great post he did much good, for when all fell back
and dare not face the fierce king, Lan-franc would
plead with him to spare those who had drawn down
his wrath. And the king would at all times speak to
Lan-franc and smile on him as he did to no one
else. The last part of this great king's life was sad.
His son Rob-ert was the cause of much woe to him.
This youth went so far as to lead a force to fight him
with, and gave him a wound in the fray. At last he
went to fight the King of France, and as he rode
through a town which he had set on fire, his horse
shied and threw him. This hurt him so much as to
William Mke Conjueror.
cause his death.
As he lay on his '"
bed, the thought of
all the harm he had ,,j 1
done rose in his .
mind. No home ..-'"
nor church had he- 1 '' i "
been wont to spare,
and as he thought 7^- r
of this in his death
hour he gave great
sums to build some
of these up once
more, and large ,
alms to the poor.
At last one morn,' -
as the great bell of
a church near by '
rang the hour of THE BUR-I-AL OF WILL-IAM.
prime, he said that
he gave his soul to the Bless-ed Vir-gin, that she
might make his peace with Christ, and then he died.
Heroes of History.
HE-ROES OF THE CRU-SADES.
The Cru-sades. We
when the he-roes won their
in the Ho-ly Land for the
have now come to the time
great fame in wars fought
tomb of Christ. And I
IN THE TIME OF THE CRU-SADES.
will tell you how these came to be fought. As you
know, the Ho-ly Land was that where Christ was
born, dwelt and died. Now, it was quite in vogue in
the Mid-dle A-ges for folks to go there to press the soil
which the feet of Christ once pressed, and pray at Je-