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THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
"As I slept, I dreamed a dream."
grtm thti ljorlId to ti t which t to come
BY JOHN BUNYAN
WITH ONE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS
BY FREDERICK BARNARD AND OTHERS
ENGRA VED BY DALZIEL BROTLIERS
R. S..PERL O & COMPANY
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
"As I slept, I dreamed a dream"
"I saw a man clothed with rags" .
HEADING-The City of Destruction .
"He brake his mind to his wife and children" .
"He began to retire himself to his chamber to pray"
"' Do you see yonder wicket-gate ?'". .
"Christian still endeavoured to struggle to that side of the Slough that was farthest
from his own house" ..
Mr. Worldly Wiseman. .
"When Christian was stepping in, the other gave him a pull" .
"Beelzebub and they that are with him shoot arrows"
"There sat a man in an iron cage" .
"The bottomless pit opened just wherabout I stood"
SHis burden fell off his back, and began to tumble"
"Behold, three Shining Ones came to him, and saluted him ". .
Formalist; Hypocrisy .
" He fell from running to going, and from going to clambering upon his hands a.ndc
his knees, because of the steepness of the place" .)
" He stumbled and fell, and rose no more". .
" He at last fell into a slumber .
Artist. Pag .
F. BARN ARiD-Front.isfirce
E. F. BREWTNALL. 2
F.BARNARD .. 3
TOWNLEY GREEN 5
F. BARNARD 7
W. SMALL 9
W. SMALL 13
F. BARNARD .
E. F. BREWTNALL 31
TOWNLEY GREN 35
E. F. BREWTNALL 39
F. BARNARD 42
E. G. DALZIEL 43
F. BARNARD 45
Watchful the Porter Ditto
"The lions were chained, but he saw not the chains" J. WOLF
"'This man is on a journey from the City of Destruction to Mount Zion'" J. M'L. RALSTON
"Then.they read to him some of the worthy acts that some of His servants hadj Ditto
done" .... *'
"Therefore to Him let me give lasting praise" F. BARNARD
"A company of fiends" .Ditto
'One of the wicked ones got behind him, and whisperingly suggested many) E.G. DALZIEL.
grievous blasphemies to him"
"He can now do little more than sit in his cave's mouth, grinning at pilgrims" F. BARNARD
"He could not rise again until Faithful came up to help him" .. TOWNLEY GREEN
Discontent. . F..BARNARD
Pride; Arrogancy; Self-conceit; Worldly-Glory Ditto
" A man whose name is Talkative" Ditto
" At the town there is a fair kept, called Vanity Fair .. Ditto
Lord Hate-good Ditto
viii LIST OF ILLUSTRA TIONS.
THE WITNESSES:-Envy, Superstition, Pickthank .
THE JURY:-Mr. Blind-man, Mr. No-good, Mr. Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. Live-
loose, Mr. Heady, Mr. Highmind, Mr. Enmity, Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr.
Hate-light, and Mr. Implacable .
"They burned him to ashes at the stake"
There was one whose name was Hopeful, who joined himself unto him"
"And behold, as they came up with him, he made them a very low cong "
"They stood looking and looking upon it, but could not tell what they should make
Giant Despair .
So they continued together in the dark that day, in their sad and doleful condition "
A man whom seven devils had bound" .
So they came up all to him, and with threatening language bid him stand"
"Then Atheist fell into a very great laughter" ...
He said, No, for I was invited to come" .
"I am always full of good motions" .
"Thus they got over" .
"Christian brake out with a loud voice, 'Oh! I see him again' "
One of the King's Trumpeters
"Then they took him up, and carried him through the air to the door that I saw in
the side of the hill, and put him in there .
TAILPIECE-The Dreamer awaking .
HEADING-Bunyan in Bedford Jail .
The Author and Mr. Sagacity .
Her thoughts began to work in her mind"
"Then said she to her children, 'Sons, we are all undone'" .
"' Well, I see you have a mind to go a-fooling too' ".
MRs. TIMoOROus's NEIGHBOURS:-Mrs. Bat's-eyes, Mrs. Inconsiderate, Mrs. Light-i
mind, and Mrs. Know-nothing .
"'Come, let us venture, only let us be wary .
The King's Trumpeter .
"Mercy was fallen down without in a swoon" ..
The ill-favoured ones .
"So Christiana's boys, as boys are apt to do, being pleased with the trees, and thej
fruit that did hang thereon, did plash them and began to eat" .
"A man that could look no way but downwards, with a muck-rake in his hand"
Short-wind; No-heart; Sleepy-head. .
"I went on bemoaning the hardness of my heart"
"Then she began at the youngest whose name was James"
Mr. Brisk .. .
Doctor Skill .. .
The Shepherd Boy .
Giant Maul .
Old Honest .. .
"He stood a good while before he would adventure to knock".
"Mercy, as her custom was, would be making coats and garments to give to the)
TOWNLEY GREEN 115
F. BARNARD 119
E. G. DALZIEL. 127
F. BARNARD 132
E. G. DALZIEL 37
F. BARNARD 178
E. G. DALZIEL 79
F. BARNARD .182
E. F. BREWTNALL 185
F. BARNARD 87
E. F. BREWTNALL 205
F. BARNARD 211
J. D. LINToN 219
J M'L. RALSTON, 223
F. BARXARD 226
E. F. BREWTNALL 227
J. D. LINTON .243
F. BARNARD 249
E. F. BREWTNALL 263
F. BARNARD 267
E. F. BREWTNALL 281
F. BARNARD .287
F. BARNARD 295
E. F. BREWTNALL 309
LIST OF ILLUSTRA TIONS. ix
Mercy and Matthew F. BARNARD 11
"Rather than we will part, since we are thus happily met, I will lend thee one of Ditto 317
my crutches" I
Despondency Ditto 328
Much-afraid Ditto 329
Prejudice Ditto .331
Ill-will ........ Ditto 332
" Evangelist offered to lay hands on him; to turn him into the way again Ditto 335
Wild-head Ditto 338
Valiant-for-truth J. D. LINTON 339
"She still followed me with enticements". .F.BARNARD 349
" So she came forth and entered the river . E. F. BREWTNALL .35
AUTHOR'S APOLOGY FOR HIS BOOK.
WHEN at the first I took my pen in hand
Thus for to write, I did not understand
That I at all should make a little book
In such a mode; nay, I had undertook
To make another; which when almost done,
Before I was aware, I this begun.
And thus it was: I, writing of the way
And race of saints, in this our Gospel day,
Fell suddenly into an allegory
About their journey, and the way to glory,
In more than twenty things which I set down:
This done, I twenty more had in my crown;
And they again began to multiply,
Like sparks that from the coals of fire do fly.
Nay, then, thought I, if that you breed so fast,
I '11 put you by yourselves, lest you at last
Should prove ad infinitum, and eat out
The book that I already am about.
Well, so I did; but yet I did not think
To show to all the world my pen and ink
In such a mode; I only thought to make
I knew not what: nor did I undertake
Thereby to please my neighbour: no, not I;
I did it my own self to gratify.
Neither did I but vacant seasons spend
In this my scribble; nor did I intend
But to divert myself in doing this
From worser thoughts which make me do amiss.
Thus I set pen to paper with delight,
And quickly had my thoughts in black and white;
For, having now my method by the end,
Still as I pulled, it came; and so I penned
It down; until it came at last to be,
For length and breadth, the bigness which you see.
xii THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY FOR HIS BOOK.
Well, when I thus had put mine ends together,
I showed them others, that I might see whether
They would condemn them or them justify:
And some said, "Let them live;" some, "Let them die;"
Some said, "John, print it;" others said, "Not so;"
Some said, "It might do good;" others said, "No."
Now was I in a strait, and did not see
Which was the best thing to be done by me:
At last I thought, Since ye are thus divided,
I print it will, and so the case decided.
For, thought I, some, I see, would have it done,
Though others in that channel do not run:
To prove, then, who advised for the best,
Thus I thought fit to put it to the test.
I further thought, if now I did deny
Those that would have it, these to gratify,
I did not know but hinder them I might
Of that which would to them be great delight.
For those which were not for its coming forth,
I said to them, Offend you I am loth;
Yet, since your brethren pleased with it be,
Forbear to judge till you do further see.
If that thou wilt not read, let it alone:
Some love the meat, some love to pick the bone.
Yea, that I might them better palliate,
I did too with them thus expostulate:-
"May I not write in such a style as this?
In such a method, too, and yet not miss
My end-thy good? Why may it not be done?
Dark clouds bring -waters, when the bright bring none.
Yea, dark or bright, if they their silver drops
Cause to descend, the earth, by yielding crops,
Gives praise to both, and carpeth not at either,
But treasures up the fruit they yield together;
Yea, so commixes both, that in their fruit
None can distinguish this from that: they suit
Her well when hungry; but, if she be full,
She spews out both, and makes their blessings null.
You see the ways the fisherman doth take
To catch the fish; what engines doth he make!
Behold how he engageth all his wits;
Also'his snares, lines, angles, hooks and nets:
THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY FOR HIS BOOK. xiii
Yet fish there be that neither hook, nor line,
Nor snare, nor net, nor engine can make thine:
They must be groped for, and be tickled too,
Or they will not be catched, whatever you do.
How does the fowler seek to catch his game
By divers means! all which one cannot name:
His guns, his nets, his lime-twigs, light, and bell;
He creeps, he goes, he stands; yea, who can tell
Of all his postures? Yet there's none of these
Will make him master of what fowls he please.
Yea, he must pipe and whistle to catch this;
Yet, if he does so, that bird he will miss.
If that a pearl may in a toad's head dwell,
And may be found too in an oyster-shell;
If things that promise nothing do contain
What better is than gold; who will disdain,
That have an inkling of it, there to look,
That they may find it? Now, my little book
(Though void of all these paintings that may make
It with this or the other man to take)
Is not without those things that do excel
What do in brave but empty notions dwell."
"Well, yet I am not fully satisfied
That this your book will stand, when soundly tried."
Why, what's the matter? "It is dark." What though?
"But it is- feigned." What of that? I trow
Some men, by feigned words, as dark as mine
Make truth .to spangle and its rays to shine.
"But they want solidness." Speak, man, thy mind.
"They drown the weak; metaphors make us blind."
Solidity, indeed, becomes the pen
Of him that writeth things divine to men;
But must I needs want solidness, because
By metaphors I speak? Were not God's laws,
His Gospel laws, in olden time held forth
By types, shadows, and metaphors? Yet loth
Will any sober man be to find fault
With them, lest he be found for to assault
The highest wisdom. No, he rather stoops,
And seeks to find out by what pins and loops,
By calves and sheep, by heifers and by rams,
By birds and herbs, and by the blood of lambs,
xiv THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY FOR HIS BOOK.
God speaketh to him; and happy is he
That finds the light and grace that in them be.
Be not too forward, therefore, to conclude
That I want solidness-that I am rude:
All things solid in show not solid be;
All things in parables despise not we;
Lest things most hurtful lightly we receive,
And things that good are, of our souls bereave.
My dark and cloudy words, they do but hold
The truth, as cabinets enclose the gold.
The prophets used much by metaphors
To set forth truth; yea, whoso considers
Christ, His apostles too, shall plainly see
That truths to this day in such mantles be.
Am I afraid to say that Holy Writ,
Which for its style and phrase puts down all wit,
Is everywhere so full of all these things-
Dark figures, allegories? Yet there springs
From.that same Book, that lustre, and those rays
Of light, that turn our darkest nights to days.
Come, let my carper to his life now look,
And find there darker lines than in my book
He findeth any; yea, and let him know
That in his best things there are worse lines too.
May we but stand before impartial men,
To his poor one I durst adventure ten
That they will take my meaning in these lines
Far better than his lies in silver shrines.
Come, truth, although in swaddling clouts, I find,
Informs the judgment, rectifies the mind;
Pleases the understanding; makes the will
Submit; the memory also it doth fill
With what doth our imagination please;
Likewise it tends our troubles to appease.
Sound words, I know, Timothy is to use,
And old wives' fables he is'to refuse;
But yet grave Paul him nowhere doth forbid
The use of parables; in which lay hid
That gold, those pearls, and precious stones, that were
Worth digging for, and that with greatest care.
Let me add one word more. O man of God,
Art thou offended? Dost thou wish I had
THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY FOR HIS BOOK. xv
Put forth my matter in another dress?
Or that I had in things been more express?
Three things let me propound; then I submit
To those that are my betters, as is fit.
I. I find not that I am denied the use
Of this my method, so I no abuse
Put on the words, things, readers; or be rude
In handling figure or similitude,
In application; but, all that I may,
Seek the advance of truth this or that way.
Denied, did I say? Nay, I have leave
(Example too, and that from them that have
God better pleased, by their words or ways,
Than any man that breatheth nowa-days)
Thus to express my mind, thus to declare
Things unto thee that excellentest are.
2. I find that men as high as trees will write
Dialogue-wise; yet no man doth them slight
For writing so; indeed, if they abuse
Truth, cursed be they, and the craft they use
To that intent; but yet let truth be free
To make her sallies upon thee and me
Which way it pleases God; for who knows how
Better than He who taught us first to plough,
To guide our minds and pens for His design?
And He makes base things usher in divine.
3. I find that Holy Writ in many places .
Hath semblance with this method, where the cases
Do call for one thing, to set forth another.
Use it I may, then, and yet nothing smother
Truth's golden beams: nay, by this method may
Make it cast forth its rays as light as day.
And now, before I do put up my pen,
I'll show the profit of my book,' and then
Commit both thee and it unto that Hand
That pulls the strong down, and makes weak ones stand.
This book it chalketh out before thine eyes
The man that seeks the everlasting prize;
It shows you whence he comes, whither he goes;
What he leaves undone, also what he does;
It also shows you how he runs and runs
Till he unto the' gate of glory comes.
xvi THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY FOR HIS BOOK.
It shows, too, who set out for life amain,
As if the lasting crown they would obtain;
Here also you may see the reason why
They lose their labour, and like fools do die.
This book will make a traveller of thee,
If by its counsels thou wilt ruled be:
It will direct thee to the Holy Land,
If thou wilt its directions understand:
Yea, it will make the slothful active be;
The blind also delightful things to see.
Art thou for something rare and profitable?
Or wouldst thou see a truth within a fable?
Art thou forgetful? Or wouldst thou remember
From New Year's Day to the last of December?
Then read my fancies: they will stick like burrs,
And may be, to the helpless, comforters.
This book was writ in such a dialect
As may the minds of listless men affect:
It seems a novelty, and yet contains
Nothing but sound and honest Gospel strains.
Wouldst thou divert thyself from melancholy?
Wouldst thou be pleasant, yet be far from folly?
Wouldst thou read riddles and their explanation?
Or else be drowned in thy contemplation?
Dost thou love picking meat? Or wouldst thou see
A man i' the clouds, and hear him speak to thee?
Wouldst thou be in a dream, and yet not sleep?
Or wouldst thou in a moment laugh and weep?
SWouldst thou lose thyself, and catch no harm?
And find thyself again without a charm?
Wouldst read thyself, and read thou know'st not what,
And yet know whether thou art blest or not,
By reading the same lines? Oh, then come hither,
And lay my book, thy head, and heart together.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
"I saw a man clothed with rags."
AS I walked through the wilderness of this.world, I lighted on a certain
place where was a den, and laid me down in that place to sleep; and,
as I slept, I dreamed a dream. I dreamed, and behold, I saw a man
clothed with rags, standing in a certain place, with his face from his own
house, a book in his hand, and a great burden upon his back. (Isa. lxiv. 6;
Luke xiv. 33; Ps. xxxviii. 4.) I looked, and saw him open the book, and
read therein; and, as he read, he wept and trembled; and, not being able
longer to contain, he brake out with a lamentable cry, saying, "What
shall I do?" (Acts ii. 37; xvi. 30; Heb. ii. 2, 3.)
In this plight, therefore, he went home, and restrained himself as long as
he could, that his wife and children should not perceive his -distress; but he
could not be silent long, because that his trouble increased. Wherefore at
length he brake his mind to his wife and children; and thus he began to
talk to them: "O my dear wife," said he, "and you the children of my
bowels, I, your dear friend, am in myself undone by reason of a burden
that lieth hard upon me; moreover, I am certainly informed that this our
city will be burned with fire from heaven; in which fearful
overthrow, both myself, with thee, my wife, and you, my This world.
sweet babes, shall miserably come to ruin, except (the which
yet I see not) some way of escape can be found whereby we may be
delivered." At this his relations were sore amazed; not for that they
believed that what he had said to them was true, but because they thought
that some frenzy distemper had got into his head; therefore, it drawing
towards night, and they 'hoping that sleep might settle his brains, with all
haste they got him to bed. But the night was as troublesome to him as
the day; wherefore, instead of sleeping, he spent it in sighs and tears.
4 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
So when the morning was come, they would know how he did. He told
them, Worse and worse; he also set to talking to them again; but they
began to be hardened. They also thought to drive away his distemper by
harsh and surly carriage to him: sometimes they would deride, sometimes
they would chide, and sometimes they would quite neglect him. Wherefore
he began to retire himself to his chamber, to pray for and pity
Carnal them, and also to condole his own misery; he would also walk
sick soul. solitary in the fields, sometimes reading, and sometimes
praying; and thus for some days he spent his time.
Now, I saw, upon a time, when he was walking in the fields, that he
was (as he was wont) reading in his book, and greatly distressed in his
mind; and as he read, he burst out as he had.done before, crying, "What.
shall I do to be saved?" (Acts xvi. 30, 31.)
I saw also that he looked this way and that way, as if he would run;
yet he stood still, because (as I perceived) he could not tell which way to
go. I looked then, and saw a man named Evangelist coming to him, who
asked, "Wherefore dost thou cry?"
He answered, "Sir, I perceive by the book in my hand, that I am
condemned to die, and after that to come to judgment (Heb. ix. 27); and
I find that I am not willing to do the first (Job xvi. 21, 22), nor able to do
the second." (Ezek. xxii. 14.)
Then said Evangelist, "Why not willing to die, since this life is attended
with so many evils?" The man answered, "Because I fear that this burden
that is upon my back will sink me lower than the grave, and I shall fall
into Tophet. (Isa. xxx. 33.) And, sir, if I be not fit to go to prison, I am
not fit to go to judgment, and from thence to execution; and the thoughts
of these things make me cry."
Then said Evangelist, "If this be thy condition, why standest thou still?"
He answered, "Because I know not whither to go." Then
Conviction he gave him a parchment roll, and there was written within,
necessity of "Flee from the wrath to come." (Matt. iii. 7.)
fleeing. The man, therefore, read it, and, looking upon Evangelist
very carefully, said, "Whither must I fly?" Then said Evan-
gelist (pointing with his finger over a very wide field), Do you see yonder
wicket-gate?" (Matt. vii. 13, 14.) The man said, "No." Then said the
other, "Do you see yonder shining light?" (Psa. cxix. io5; II. Pet. i. 19.)
He said, "I think I do." Then said Evangelist, "Keep that light in your
"He brake his mind to his wife and children."
CHRISTIAN'S DISTRESS OF MIND.
eye, and go up directly thereto: so shalt thou see the gate; at which when
thou knockest, it shall be told thee what*thou shalt do." So I
saw in my dream that the man began to run. Now, he had Christ and
the way to
not run far from his own door, when his wife and children Him cannot
perceiving it, began to cry after him to return; but the man be found
S. without the
put his fingers in his ears, and ran on, crying, "Life! life! Word.
eternal life!" (Luke xiv. 26.) So he looked not behind him
(Gen. xix. 17), but fled towards the middle of the plain.
The neighbours also came out to see him run (Jer. xx. o1); and as he ran,
some mocked, others threatened, and some cried after him to return; and
among those that did so there were two
that resolved to fetch him back by force.
The name of the one was Obstinate, and
the name of the other Pli-
able. Now, by this time the They that
flee from the
man was got a good dis- wrath to
tance from them; but, how- come are a
ever, they were resolved to to the world.
pursue him, which they did,
and in a little time they overtook him.
Then said the man, Neighbours, where-
fore are ye come?" They said, "To.
persuade you to go back with us." But
he said, "That can by no means be: you
dwell," said he, "in the City of Destruc-
tion, the place also.where I was born:
I see it to be so; and, dying there,
sooner or later, you will sink lower than
the grave, into a place that burns with
fire and brimstone. Be content, good "He began to retire himself to his chamber to pray."
neighbours, and go along with me."
OBST. "What!" said Obstinate, "and leave our friends and comforts
CHRIS. "Yes," said Christian (for that was his name), "because that
all which you forsake is not worthy to be compared with a little of
that I am seeking- to enjoy (II. Cor. iv. 18); and if you would go
along with me, and hold it, you shall fare as I myself; for there, where
8 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
I go, is enough and to spare. (Luke xv. 27.) Come away, and prove
OBST. What are the things you seek, since you leave all-the world to
CHRIS. I seek an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not
away (I. Pet. i. 4), and it is laid up in heaven, and safe there (Heb. xi. 16),
to be bestowed, at the time appointed, on them that diligently seek it.
Read it so, if you will, in my book.
OBST. "Tush said Obstinate, "away with your book: will you go back
with us or no I"
CHRIS. "No, not I," said the other, "because I have put my hand to the
plough." (Luke ix. 62.)
OBST. Come, then, neighbour Pliable, let us turn again, and go home
without him: there is a company of these crazy-headed coxcombs, that,
when they take a fancy by the end, are wiser in their own eyes than seven
men that can render a reason.
PLI. Then said Pliable, "Don't revile; if what the good Christian says is
true, the things he looks after are better than ours; my heart inclines to go
with my neighbour."
OBST. What! more fools still? Be ruled by me, and go back; who
knows whither such a brain-sick fellow will lead you? Go back, go back,
and be wise.
CHRIS. Nay, but do thou come with thy neighbour Pliable; there are
such things to be had which I spoke of, and many more glories besides.
If you believe not me, read here in this book; and for the truth of what is
expressed therein, behold, all is confirmed by the blood of Him that made
it. (Heb. ix. 17-21.)
PLI. "Well, neighbour Obstinate," said Pliable, "I begin to come to a
point; I intend to go along with this good man, and to cast in my lot with
him. But, my good companion, do you know the way to this desired place ?"
CHRIS. I am directed by a man, whose name is Evangelist, to speed me
to a little gate that is before us, where we shall receive instructions about
PLI. Come, then, good neighbour, let us be going.
Then they went both together.
"And I will go back to my place," said Obstinate; "I will be no com-
panion of such misled, fantastical fellows."
"Do you see yonder wicket gate?"
. -% ,I t V4
CHRISTIAN DISCOURSES WITH PLIABLE. Ir
Now, I saw in my dream, that, when
Obstinate was gone back, Christian and
Pliable went talking over the plain; and
thus they began their discourse:
CHRIs. Come, neighbour Pliable, how
do you do? I am glad you are per-
suaded to go along with me. Had even
Obstinate himself but felt what I have
felt of the powers and terrors of what is
yet unseen, he would not thus lightly
have given us the back.
PLI. Come, neighbour Christian, since
there are none but us two here, tell me
now further what the things are, and how
to be enjoyed, whither we are going.
CHRIS. I can better conceive of them
with my mind than speak of them with
my tongue; but yet, since
OBSTINATE. God's things
you are desirous to know, I unspeakable.
will read of them in my book.
PLI. And do you think that the words of
your book are certainly true?
CHRIS. Yes, verily; for it was made by Him
that cannot lie. (Tit. i. 2.)
PL. Well said; what things are they?
CHRIS. There is an endless kingdom to be
inhabited, and everlasting life to be given us,
that we may inhabit that kingdom for ever.
.(Isa. lxv. 17; John x. 27-29.)
PLI. -Well said; and what else?
CHRIS. There are crowns of glory to be
given us, and garments that will make us shine
like the sun in the firmament of heaven. (II.
Titm. iv. 8; Rev. xxii. 5; Matt. xiii. 43.)
PLI. This is very pleasant; and what
'CHRIS. There shall be no, more crying, nor PLIABLE.
12 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
sorrow; for He that is owner of the place will wipe all tears from our eyes.
(Isa. xxv. 8; Rev. vii. 16, 17; xxi. 4.)
PLI. And what company shall we have there?
CHRIS. There we shall be with seraphims and cherubims (Isa. vi. 2; I.
Thess. iv. 16, 17; Rev. v. I I), creatures that shall dazzle your eyes to look
on them. There also you shall meet with thousands and ten thousands
that have gone before us to that place; none of them are hurtful, but [all]
loving and holy; every one walking in the sight of God, and standing in
His presence with acceptance for ever. In a word, there we shall see the
elders with their golden crowns (Rev. iv. 4); there we shall see the holy
virgins with their golden harps (Rev. xiv. 1-5); there we shall see men
that by the world were cut in pieces, burnt in flames, eaten of beasts,
drowned in the seas, for the love they bare to the Lord of the place (John
xii. 25), all well, and clothed with immortality as with a garment. (II. Cor.
PLI. The hearing of this is enough to ravish one's heart. But are these
things to be enjoyed? How shall we get to be sharers thereof?
CHRIS. The Lord, the Governor of the country, hath recorded that in this
book (Isa. Iv. i, 2; John vi. 37; vii. 37; Rev. xxi. 6; xxii. 17); the substance
of which is, If we be truly willing to have it, He will bestow it upon us
PLI. Well, niy good companion, glad am I to hear of these things; come
on, let us mend our pace.
CHRIS. I cannot go so fast as I would, by reason of this burden that is
on my back.
Now, I saw in my dream, that just as they had ended this talk, they drew
nigh to a very miry slough, that was in the midst of the plain; and they,
being heedless, did both fall suddenly into the bog. The name of the
slough was Despond, Here, therefore, they wallowed for a time, being
grievously bedaubed with the dirt; and Christian, because of the burden
that was on his back, began to sink into the mire.
PLI. Then- said Pliable, "Ah neighbour Christian, where are you
CHRIS. "Truly," said Christian, "I do not know."
PLI. At this Pliable began to be offended, and angrily said to his fellow,
"Is this the happiness you have told me all this while of? If we have such
ill speed at our first setting out, what may we expect between this and our
"Christian still endeavoured to struggle to that side of the slough that was farthest from his own house."
CHRISTIAN RESCUED FROM THE SLOUGH BY HELP. 15
journey's end? May I get out again with my life, you shall possess the
brave country alone for me." And with that, he gave a des-
perate struggle or two, and got out of the mire on that side of It is not
enough to be
the slough which was next to his own house: so away he went, pliable.
and Christian saw him no more.
Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slough of Despond alone;
but still he endeavoured to struggle to that side of the slough which was
farthest from his own house, and next to the wicket-gate; the which he did,
but could not get out because of the burden that was upon his back; but I
beheld in my dream, that a man came to-him whose name was Help, and
asked him, What he did there?
CHRIS. "Sir," said Christian, "I was bid to go this way by a man called
Evangelist, who directed me also to yonder gate, that I might
escape the wrath to come; and as I was going there I fell The promises.
HELP. But why did you not look for the steps?
CHRIS. Fear followed me so hard, that I fled the next way, and fell in.
HELP. Then said he, "Give me thine hand." So he gave him his hand,
and he drew him out (Psa. xl. 2), and set him upon sound ground, and bid
him go on his way.
Then I stepped to him that plucked him out, and said, "Sir, wherefore,
since over this place is the way from the City of Destruction to yonder gate,
is it that this plat is not mended, that poor travellers might go thither with
more security?" And he said unto me, "This miry slough is such a place
as cannot be mended; it is the descent whither the scum and filth that
attend conviction for sin do continually run, and therefore it is called the
Slough of Despond; for still, as the sinner is awakened by his lost
condition, there arise in his soul many fears, and doubts, and discouraging
apprehensions, which all of them get together, and settle in this place; and
this is the reason of the badness of the ground.
"It is not the pleasure of the King that this place should remain so bad.
(Isa. xxxv. 3, 4.) 'His labourers also have, by the direction of His
Majesty's surveyors, been for about these sixteen hundred years employed
about this patch of ground, if perhaps it might have been mended; yea,
and- to my knowledge," said he, "here have been swallowed up at least
twenty thousand cart-loads, yea, millions, of wholesome instructions, that
have at all seasons been brought from all places of the King's dominions
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
(and they that can tell say they are the best materials to make good ground
of the place), if so be it might have been mended; but it is the Slough of
Despond still, and so will be when they have done what they can.
"True, there are, by the direction of the. Law-giver, certain good and
substantial steps, placed even through the very midst of this
The promise slough; but at such time as this place doth much spew out its
and accept- filth, as it doth against change of weather, these steps are
ance to life hardly seen; or, if they be, men, through the dizziness of their
by faith in
Christ. heads, step aside, and then they are bemired to purpose,
notwithstanding the steps be there; but the ground is good
when they are got in at the gate." (I. Sam. xii. 23.)
Now, I saw in my dream,
that by this time Pliable was
got home to his house. So
Ships neighbours came to visit
him; and some of them called
S him wise man for coming
Back, and some called him a
fool for hazarding himself
with Christian; others again
did mock at his cowardliness,
saying, "Surely since you
began to venture, I would
not have been so base to have
given out for a few difficul-
ties;" so Pliable sat sneaking
among them. But at last he
got more confidence; and
MR. WORLDLY WISEMAN. then they all turned their
tales, and began to deride
poor Christian behind his back. And thus much concerning Pliable.
Now, as Christian was walking solitary by himself, he espied one afar off
come crossing over the field to meet him; and their hap was to meet just.
as they were crossing the way of each other. The gentleman's name that
met him was Mr. Worldly Wiseman: he dwelt in the town of Carnal
Policy, a very great town, and also hard by from whence Christian came.
This man, then, meeting with Christian, and having some inkling of him-
WORLDLY WISEMAN'S COUNSEL. 17
(for Christian's setting forth from the City of Destruction was much noised
abroad, not only in the town where he dwelt, but also it began to be the
town-talk in some other places)-Mr. Worldly Wiseman, therefore, having
some guess of him, by beholding his laborious going, by observing his
sighs and groans, and the like, began thus to enter into some talk with
WORLD. How now, good fellow I. whither away after this burdened
CHRIS. A burdened manner indeed, as ever I think poor creature had I
And whereas you ask me, Whither away? I tell you, sir, I am going to
yonder wicket-gate before me; for there, as I am informed, I shall be put
into a way to be rid of my heavy burden.
WORLD. Hast thou a wife and children?
CHRIS. Yes; but I am so laden with this burden, that I cannot take that
pleasure in them as formerly; methinks I am as if I had none. (I. Cor.
WORLD. Wilt thou hearken to me, if I give thee counsel?
CHRIS. If it be good, I will; for I stand in need of good counsel.
WORLD. I would advise thee, then, that thou with all speed get thyself
rid of thy burden; for thou wilt never be settled in thy mind till then; nor
canst thou enjoy the blessings which God hath bestowed upon thee till
CHRIS. That is that which I seek for, even to be rid of this heavy
burden; but get it off myself I cannot; nor is there any man in our
country that can take it off my shoulders; therefore am I going this way,
as I told you, that I may be rid of my burden.
WORLD. Who bid thee go this way to be rid of thy burden?
CHRIS. A man that appeared to me to be a very great and honourable
person; his name, as I remember, is Evangelist.
WORLD. I beshrew him for his counsel I there is not a more dangerous
and troublesome way in the world than is that into which he hath directed
thee; and that thou shalt find, if thou wilt be ruled by his counsel. Thou
hast met with something, as I perceive, already; for I see the dirt of the
Slough of Despond is upon thee; but that slough is the beginning of the
sorrows that do attend those that go on in that way. Hear me: I am older
than thou: thou art like to meet with, in the way which thou goest,
wearisomeness, painfulness, hunger, perils, nakedness, sword, lions, dragons,
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
darkness, and, in a word, death, and what not. Thsse things are certainly
true, having been confirmed by many testimonies. And why should a man
so carelessly cast away himself, by giving heed to a stranger?
CHRIS. Why, sir, this burden upon my back is more terrible to me than
all these things which you have mentioned; nay, methinks I care not what
I meet with in the way, if so be I can also meet with deliverance from my
WORLD. How camest thou by the burden at first ?
CHRIS. By reading this book in my hand.
WORLD. I thought so. And it has happened unto thee as unto other
weak men, who, meddling with things too high for them, do suddenly fall
into thy distractions; which distractions do not only unman men, as thine
I perceive have done thee, but they run them upon desperate ventures, to
obtain they know not what.
CHRIS. I know what I would obtain; it is ease for my heavy burden.
WORLD. But why wilt thou seek for ease this way, seeing so many
dangers attend it ? Especially since (hadst thou but patiencL to hear me),
I could direct thee to the obtaining of what thou desirest, .. without the
dangers that thou in this way wilt run thyself into. Yea, and t e remedy
is at hand. Besides, I will add that, instead of those dangers, thou shalt
meet with much safety, friendship, and content.
CHRIS. Sir, I pray, open this secret to me.
WORLD. Why, in yonder village (the village is named Morality), there
dwells a gentleman whose name is Legality, a very judicious man, and a
man of very good name, that has skill to help men off with such burdens
as thine is from their shoulders; yea, to my knowledge he hath
He prefers done a great deal of good this way; aye, and besides, he hath
morality skill to cure those that are somewhat crazed in their wits with
strait gate. their burdens. To him, as I said, thou mayest go, and be
helped presently. His house is not quite a mile from this
place; and if he should not be at home himself, he hath a pretty young
man to his son, whose name is Civility, that can do it (to speak on) as well
as the old gentleman himself. There, I say, thou mayest be.eased of thy
burden; and if thou art not minded to go back to thy former habitation (as
indeed I would not wish thee), thou mayest send for thy wife and children
to thee in this village, where there are houses now standing empty, one of
which thou mayest have at a reasonable rate; provision is there also cheap
CHRISTIAN ADMONISHED BY EVANGELIST. 19
and good; and that which will make thy life the more happy is, to be sure
there thou shalt live by honest neighbours, in credit and good fashion.
Now was Christian somewhat, at a stand; but presently he concluded,
"If this be true which this gentleman hath said, my wisest course is to take
his advice;" and, with that, he thus further spake:
CHRIS. Sir, which is my way to this honest man's house?
WORLD. Do you see yonder high hill?
CHRIS. Yes, very well.
WORLD. By that hill you must go, and the first house you come
at is his.
So Christian turned out of his way to go to Mr. Legality's house for
help; but, behold, when he was got now hard by the hill, it seemed so high,
and also that side of it that was next the wayside did hang so much over,
that Christian was afraid to venture farther, lest the hill should
fall on his head; wherefore there he stood still, and wotted not .Mount Sinai.
what to do. Also his burden now seemed heavier to him than
while he was in his way. There came also flashes of fire (Exod. xix. 16,
18) out of the hill, that made Christian afraid that he should be burnt:
here, therefore, he sweat and did quake for fear. (Heb. xii. 21.) And now
he began to be sorry that he had taken Mr. Worldly Wiseman's counsel;
and with that, he saw Evangelist coming to meet him, at the sight also of
whom he began to blush for shame. So Evangelist drew nearer and
nearer; and, coming up to him, he looked upon him with a severe and
dreadful countenance, and thus began to reason with Christian:
EVAN. "What dost thou here, Christian?" said he; at which words
Christian knew not what to answer; wherefore at present he stood speech-
less before him. Then said Evangelist further, "Art thou not the man that
I found crying without the walls of the City of Destruction?"
CHRIS. Yes, dear sir, I am the man.
EVAN. Did not I direct thee the way to the little wicket-gate?
CHRIS. "Yes, dear sir," said Christian.
EVAN. How is it, then, that thou art so quickly turned aside? For thou
art now out of the way.
CHRIS. I met with a gentleman as soon as I had got over the Slough of
Despond, who persuaded me that I might, in the village before me, find a
man that could take off my burden.
EVAN. What was he?
20 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
CHRIS. He looked like a gentleman, and talked much to me, and got me
at last to yield: so I came hither, but when I beheld this hill, and how it
hangs over the way, I suddenly made a stand, lest it should fall on
EVAN. What said that gentleman to you?
CHRIS. Why, he asked me whither I was going, and I told him.
EVAN. And what said he then?
CHRIS. He asked me if I had a family, and I told him. But, said I, I
am so laden with the burden that is on my back, that I cannot take pleasure
in them as formerly.
EVAN. And what said he then?
CHRIS. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden; and I told him it
was ease that I sought. And, said I, I am therefore going to yonder gate
to receive further direction how I may get to the place of deliverance. So
he said that he would show me a better way, and short, not so attended
with difficulties as the way, sir, that you sent me in; which way, said he,
will direct you to a gentleman's house that hath skill to take off these
burdens. So I believed him, and turned out of that way into this, if haply
I might soon be eased of my burden. But, when I came to this place, and
beheld things as they are, I stopped for fear (as I said) of danger; but I
now know not what to do.
EVAN. Then said Evangelist, "Stand still a little, that I may show thee
the words of God." So he stood trembling. Then said Evangelist, "See
that ye refuse not him that speaketh; for if they escaped not who refused
Him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away
from Him that speaketh from heaven." (Heb. xii. 25.) He said, more-
over, "Now, the just shall live by faith; but if any man draw back, my soul
shall have no pleasure in him." (Heb. x. 38.) He also did thus apply
them: "Thou art the man that art running into misery; thou hast begun
to reject the counsel of the Most High, and to draw back thy foot from the
way of peace, even almost to the hazarding of thy perdition."
Then Christian fell down at his feet as dead, crying, "Woe is me, for I
am undone At the sight of which Evangelist caught him by the right
hand, saying, "All manner of sin and blasphemies shall be forgiven unto
men." (Matt. xii. 3I.) "Be not faithless, but believing." (John xx. 27.)
Then did Christian again a little revive, and stood up trembling, as at first,
EVANGELIST REPROVES CHRISTIAN. 21
Then Evangelist proceeded, saying, "Give more earnest heed to the
things that I shall tell thee of. I will now show thee who it was that
deluded thee, and who it was also to whom he sent thee. That man that
met thee is one Worldly Wiseman; and rightly is he so called; partly
because he savoureth only of the doctrine of this world (John iv. 5),
(therefore he always goes to the town of Morality to church), and partly
because he loveth that doctrine best, for it saveth him from the Cross (Gal.
vi. 12); and because he is of this carnal temper, therefore he seeketh to
pervert my ways, though right. Now there are three things in this man's
counsel that you must utterly abhor:
"I. His turning thee out of the way.
"2. His labouring to render the Cross odious to thee.
"3. And his setting thy feet in that way that leadeth unto the adminis-
tration of death.
"First,-Thou must abhor his turning thee out of the way; yea, and
thine own consenting thereto; because this is to reject the counsel of God
for the sake of the counsel of a Worldly Wiseman. The Lord says,
'Strive to enter in at the strait gate' (Luke xiii. 24), the gate to which I
send thee; 'for strait is the gate which leadeth unto life, and few there be
that find it.' (Matt. vii. 13, 14.) From this little wicket-gate, and from the
way thereto, hath this wicked man turned thee, to the bringing of thee
almost to destruction; hate, therefore, his turning thee out of the way, and
abhor thyself for hearkening to him.
"Secondly,-Thou must abhor his labouring to render the Cross odious
unto thee; for thou art to prefer it before the treasures of Egypt. (Heb.
xi. 25, 26.) Besides, the King of Glory hath told thee that he that will
save his life shall lose it; and he that comes after Him, and hates not his
father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea,
and his own life also, he cannot be His disciple. (Mark viii. 35; John xii.
25; Matt. x. 39; Luke xiv. 26.) I say, therefore, for man to labour to
persuade thee that that shall be thy death, without which the Truth hath
said thou canst not have eternal life, this doctrine thou must abhor.
Thirdly,-Thou must hate his setting of thy feet in the way that leadeth to
the ministration of death. And for this thou must consider to whom he sent
thee, and also how unable that person was to deliver thee from thy burden.
He to whom thou wast sent for ease, being by name Legality, is the son
of the bondwoman which now is. and is in bondage with her children (Gal.
22 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
iv. 21-27); and is in a mystery this Mount Sinai, which thou hast feared
will fall on thy head. Now, if she with her children is in bondage, how
canst thou expect by them to be made free? This Legality, therefore, is
not able to set thee free from thy burden. No man was as yet ever rid of
his burden by him; no, nor ever is like to be; ye cannot be justified by the
works of the law; for by the deeds of the law no man living can be rid of
his burden. Therefore, Mr. Worldly Wiseman is an alien, and Mr.
Legality is a cheat; and, for his son Civility, notwithstanding his simpering
looks, he is but an hypocrite, and cannot help thee. Believe me, there is
nothing in all this noise that thou hast heard of these sottishh men, but a
design to beguile thee of thy salvation, by turning thee from the way in
which I had set thee." After this, Evangelist called aloud to the heavens
for confirmation of what he had said; and with that there came words and
fire out of the mountain under which poor Christian stood, which made the
hair of his flesh stand up. The words were thus pronounced: "As many
as are of the works of the law are under the curse; for it is written, Cursed
is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book
of the law to do them." (Gal. iii. o1.)
Now, Christian looked for nothing but death, and began to cry out
lamentably; even cursing the time in which he met with Mr. Worldly
Wiseman; still calling himself a thousand fools for hearkening to his
counsel. He also was greatly ashamed to think that this gentleman's
arguments, flowing only from the flesh, should have the prevalency with
him so far as to cause him to forsake the right way. This done, he applied
himself again to Evangelist, in words and sense as follows:
CHRIS. Sir; what think you? Is there any hope? May I now go back,
and go up to the wicket-gate? Shall I not be abandoned for this, and sent
back from thence ashamed? I am sorry I have hearkened to this man's
counsel; but may my sins be forgiven?
EVAN. Then said Evangelist to him, "Thy sin is very great, for by it
thou hast committed two evils: thou hast forsaken the way that is good, to
tread in forbidden paths. Yet will the man at the gate receive thee, for he
has good will for men; only," said he, "take heed that thou turn not aside
again, lest thou perish from the way, when'his wrath is kindled but a
little." (Psa. ii. 12.) Then did Christian address himself to go back; and
Evangelist, after he had kissed him, gave him one smile, and bid him God
speed; so he went on with haste, neither spake he to any man by the way;
CHRISTIAN MEETS GOODWILL.
nor, if any asked him, would he vouch-
safe them an answer. He went like one
that was all, the while treading on for-
bidden ground, and could by no means
think himself safe, till again.he was got
in the way which he had left to follow
Mr. Worldly Wiseman's counsel: so, in
process of time, Christian got up to the
gate. Now, over the gate there -was
written, "Knock, and it shall be opened
unto you." (Matt. vii. 7.)
He knocked, therefore, more than
once or twice, saying,
"May I now enter here? Will He within
Open to sorry me, though I have been
An undeserving rebel? Then shall I
Not fail to sing His lasting praise on high."
"When Christian was stepping In, the other gave
him a pull."
At last there came a grave person to
the gate named Goodwill, who asked
who was there, and whence he came,
and what he would have?
CHRIS. Here is a poor burdened sin-
ner. I come from the City of Destruc-
tion, but am going to Mount Zion, that
I may be delivered from the wrath to
come; I would therefore, sir, since I am
informed that by this gate is the way
thither, know if you are willing to let
GooD. "I am willing with all my
heart," said he; and, with
The gate will
that,-he opened the gate. be opened
-So, when Christian was to broken-
stepping in, the other gave sinners. "*Beelzebub and they that are with him shoot arrows."
24 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
him a pull. Then said Christian, "What means that?" The other told
him, "A little distance from this gate there is erected a strong
Satan envies castle, of which Beelzebub is the captain; from whence both he
those that and they that are with him shoot arrows at those that come up
strait gate. to this gate, if haply they may die before they can enter in.
Then said Christian, I rejoice and tremble." So when he was
got in, the man of the gate asked him who directed him thither..
CHRIS. Evangelist bid me come hither and knock, as I did; and he said
that you, sir, would tell me what I must do.
GoOD. An open door is set before thee, and no man can shut it.
CHRIS. Now I begin to reap the benefit of my hazards.
GoOD. But how is it that you came alone?
CHRIS. Because none of my neighbours saw their danger, as I saw mine.
GooD. Did any of them know you were coming?
CHRIS. Yes, my wife and children saw me at the first, and called after
me to turn again; also some of my neighbours stood crying and calling
after me to return; but I put my fingers in my ears, and so came on my
GOOD. But did none of them follow you, to persuade you to go
CHRIS. Yes, both Obstinate and Pliable; but, when they saw that they-
could not prevail, Obstinate went railing back, but Pliable came with me a
GOOD. But why did he not come through?
CHRIS. We indeed came both together until we came to the Slough of
A man may
he sets out
and yet go
Despond, into the which we also suddenly fell. And then was
my neighbour Pliable discouraged, and would not venture
farther. Wherefore, getting out again on the side next his
own house, he told me I should possess the brave country
alone for him: so he went his way, and I came mine; he after.
e. Obstinate, and I to this gate.
GOOD. Then said Goodwill, "Alas, poor man I is the celestial
so little esteem with him, that he counteth it not worth running
the hazard of a few difficulties to obtain it?"
CHRIS. "Truly," said Christian, "I have said the truth of Pliable; and, if
I should also say the truth of myself, it will appear there is no betterment
betwixt him and myself. 'T is true, he went on back to his own house;
GOODWILL POINTS OUT THE WAY. 25
but I also turned aside to. go into the way of death, being persuaded
thereto by the carnal argument of one Mr. Worldly Wiseman."
GOOD. Oh! did he light upon you? What he would have had you seek
for ease at the hands of Mr. Legality I They are both of them a very
cheat. But did you take his counsel?
CHRIS. Yes, as far as I durst. I went to find out Mr. Legality, until I
thought that the mountain that stands by his house would have fallen upon
my head: wherefore there I was forced to stop.
GOOD. That mountain has been the death of many, and will be the
death of many more; it is well you escaped being by it dashed in
CHRIS. Why, truly, I do not know what had become of me there, had
not Evangelist happily met me again as I was musing in the midst of my
dumps; but it was God's mercy that he came to me again, for else I had
never come hither. But now I am come, such a one as I am, more fit
indeed for death by that mountain, than thus to stand talking with my
Lord. But, ohl what a favour this is to me, that yet I am admitted entrance
GOOD. We make no objections against any, notwithstanding all that they
have done before they come hither;. they in no wise are cast out. (John vi.
37.) And therefore, good Christian, come a little with me, and I will teach
thee about the way thou must go. Look before thee: dost thou see this
narrow way? That is the way thou must go. It was cast up by the
patriarchs, prophets, Christ and His apostles, and it is as strait as a rule
can make it: this is the way thou must go.
CHRIS: "But," said Christian, "are there no turnings nor Christian
afraid of los-
windings by which a stranger may lose his way?" ing his way.
GoOD. Yes, there are many ways butt down upon this, and
they are crooked and wide; but thus thou mayest distinguish the right from
the wrong, the right only being strait and narrow. (Matt. vii. 14.)
Then I saw in my dream, that Christian asked him further if he could
not help him off with his burden that was upon his back. For
as yet he had not got rid thereof, nor could he by any means Christian
weary of his
get it off without help. burden.
He told him, "As to thy burden, be content to bear it until
thou comest to the place of deliverance; for there it will fall from thy back
26 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address himself to his
There is no
from the guilt
and burden of
sin, but by
So the other told him that by that he was gone some
distance from the gate, he would come at the house of the
Interpreter, at whose door he should knock, and he would
show him excellent things. Then Christian took his leave of
his friend, and he again bid him God speed.
Then he went on till he came to the house of the Inter-
preter, where he knocked over and over. At last one came to
the door, and asked who was there.
CHRIS. Sir, here is a traveller who was bid by an acquaintance of the
good man of this house to call here for his profit;'I would therefore speak
with the master of the house.
So he called for the master of the house, who, after a little time, came to
Christian, and asked him what he would have.
CHRIS. "Sir," said Christian, "I am a man that am come from the City
of Destruction, and am going to Mount Zion; and I was told by the man
that stands at the gate at the head of this way, that, if I called here, you
would show me excellent things, such as would be helpful to me on my
INTER. Then said the Interpreter, "Come in; I will show thee that which
will be profitable to thee." So he commanded his man to light
Illumination. the candle, and bid Christian follow him; so he had him into a
entertained. private room, and bid his man open a door; the which when he
had done, Christian saw the picture of a very grave person
hung up against the wall; and this was the fashion of it: it had eyes lifted
up to heaven, the best of books in its hand, the law of truth was written
upon its lips, the world was behind its back; it stood as if it pleaded with
men, and a crown of gold did hang over its head.
CHRIS. Then said Christian, "What meaneth this?"
INTER. The man whose picture this is, is one of a thousand. He can
say, in the words of the apostle, "Though ye have ten thousand instructors
in Christ, yet have you not many fathers; for in Christ Jesus I. have
begotten you through the Gospel. My little children, of whom I travail in
birth again until Christ be formed in you." (I. Cor. iv. 15; Gal. iv. 19.)
And whereas thou seest him with his eyes lifted up to heaven, the best of
books in his hand, and the law of truth writ on his lips, it is to show thee
THE INTERPRETER'S HOUSE. 27
that his work is to know and unfold dark things to sinners; even as also
thou seest him stand as if he pleaded with men. And whereas thou seest
the world is cast behind him, and that a crown hangs over his head; that is
to show thee that, slighting and despising the things that are present, for
the love that he hath to his Master's service, he is sure in the world that
comes next to have glory for his reward. Now, said the Interpreter, I have
showed thee this picture first, because the man whose picture this is, is the
only man whom the Lord of the place whither thou art going hath
authorized to be thy guide, in all difficult places thou mayest meet with
in thy way; wherefore take good heed to what I have showed thee,
and bear well in thy mind what thou hast seen, lest in thy journey
thou meet with some that pretend to lead thee right, but their way goes
down to death.
Then he took him by the hand, and led him into a very large parlour,
that was full of dust, because never swept; the which after he had reviewed
it a little while, the Interpreter called for a man to sweep. Now, when he
began to sweep, the dust began so abundantly to fly about, that Christian
had almost therewith been choked. Then said the Interpreter to a damsel
that stood by, Bring hither water, and sprinkle the room;" the which when
she had done, it was swept and cleansed with pleasure.
CHRIS. Then said Christian, "What means this?"
INTER. The Interpreter answered, "This parlour is the heart of a man
that was never sanctified by the sweet grace of the Gospel. The dust is his
original sin, and inward corruptions that have defiled the whole man. He
that began to sweep at first is the law; but she that brought water, and did
sprinkle it, is the Gospel. Now, whereas thou sawest that, as soon as the
first began to sweep, the dust did so fly about that the room could not by
him be cleansed, but that thou wast almost choked therewith; this is to show
thee, that the law, instead of cleansing the heart (by its working) from sin,
doth revive (Rom. vii. 9), put strength into (I. Cor. xv. 56), and increase it
in the soul (Rom. v. 20), even as it doth discover and forbid it, for it doth
not give power to subdue. Again, as thou sawest the damsel sprinkle the
room with water, upon which it was cleansed with pleasure; this is to show
thee, that when the Gospel comes, in the sweet and gracious influences
thereof, to the heart, then, I say, even as thou sawest the damsel lay the
dust by sprinkling the floor with water, so is sin vanquished and subdued,
and the soul made clean through the faith of it, and, consequently, fit for
28 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
the King of Glory to inhabit. (John xv. 3; Eph. v. 26; Acts xv. 9; Rom.
xvi. 25, 26; John xv. I3.)
I saw moreover in my dream, that the Interpreter took him by the hand,
and had him into a little room where sat two little children, each one in his
own chair. The name of the eldest was Passion, and the name of the other
Patience. Passion seemed to be much discontented, but Patience was very
quiet. Then Christian asked, "What is the reason of the discontent of
Passion?" The Interpreter answered, "The governor of them would have
him stay for his best things till the beginning of next year; but he will have
all now. Patience is willing to wait."
Then I saw that one came to Passion, and brought him a bag of treasure,
and poured it down at his feet; the which he took up, and rejoiced therein,
and withal laughed Patience to scorn. But I beheld but awhile, and he had
lavished all away, and had nothing left him but rags.
CHRIS. Then said Christian to the Interpreter, "Expound this matter
more fully to me."
INTER. So he said, "These two lads are figures: Passion, of the men of
this world; and Patience, of the men of that which is to come: for, as here
thou seest, Passion will have all now, this year, that is to say in this world;
so are the men of this world: they must have all their good things now;
they cannot stay till the next year, that is, until the next world, for their
portion of good. That proverb, 'A bird in the hand is worth two in the
bush,' is of more authority with them than all the Divine testimonies of the
good of the world to come. But, as thou sawest that he had quickly
lavished all away, and had presently left him nothing but rags, so will it be
with all such men at the end of this world."
CHRIS. Then said Christian, "Now I see that Patience has the best
wisdom, and that upon many accounts. I. Because he stays for the best
things. 2. And also because he will have the glory of his when the other
has nothing but rags."
INTER. Nay, you may add another; to wit, the glory of the next world
will never wear out; but these are suddenly gone. Therefore Passion had
not so much reason to laugh at Patience because he had his good things at
first, as Patience will have to laugh at Passion, because he had his best
things last; for first must give place to last, because last must have his
time to come; but last. gives place to nothing, for there is not another to
succeed: he, therefore, that hath his portion first, must needs have a time to
THE INTERPRETER'S HOUSE. 29
spend it; but he that hath his portion last, must have it lastingly; therefore
it is said of Dives, "In thy -lifetime thou receivedst thy good things, and
likewise Lazarus evil things; but now he is comforted, and thou art tor-
mented." (Luke xv. 25.)
CHRIS. Then I perceive it is not best to covet things that are now, but to
wait for things to come.
INTER. You say truth; "for the things that are seen are temporal, but the
things that are not seen are eternal." (II. Cor. iv. 18.) But, though this
be so, yet, since things present and our fleshly appetite are such near
neighbours one to another; and again, because things to come and carnal
sense are such strangers one to another; therefore it is, that the first of these
so suddenly fall into amity, and that distance is so continued between the
second. (Rom. vii. 15-25.)
Then I saw in my dream, that the Interpreter took Christian by the hand
and led him into a place where was a fire burning against a wall, and one
standing by it, always casting much water upon it, to quench it; yet did the
fire burn.higher and hotter.
CHRIS. Then said Christian, "What means this?"
INTER. The Interpreter answered, "This fire is the work of grace that is
wrought in the heart: he that casts water upon it to extinguish and put it
out, is the devil; but, in that thou seest the fire notwithstanding burn higher
and hotter, thou shalt also see the reason of that." So then he had him
about to the other side of the wall, where he saw a man with a vessel of oil
in his hand, of the which he did also continually cast, but secretly, into
CHRIS. Then said Christian, "What means this?"
INTER. The Interpreter answered, "This is Christ, who continually, with
the oil of His grace, maintains the work already begun in the heart; by the
means of which, notwithstanding what the devil can do, the souls of His
people prove gracious still. (II. Cor. xii. 9.) And in that thou sawest that
the man stood behind the wall to maintain the fire; this is to teach thee,
that it is hard for the tempted to see how this work of grace is maintained
in the soul."
I saw also that the Interpreter took him again by the hand, and led him
into a pleasant place, where was built a stately palace, beautiful to behold,
at the sight of which Christian was greatly delighted. He saw also upon
the top thereof certain persons walking, who were clothed all in gold.
30 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
Then said Christian, "May we go in thither?"
Then the Interpreter took him and led him up toward the door of the
palace; and behold, at the door stood a great company of men, as desirous
to go in, but durst not. There also sat a man at a little distance from the
door, at a table-side, with a book and his ink-horn before him, to take the
name of him that should enter therein; he saw also that in the doorway
stood many men in armour to keep it, being resolved to do to the men that
would enter what hurt and mischief they could. Now was Christian some-
what in amaze. At last, when every man started back for fear of the armed
men, Christian saw a man of a very stout countenance come up to the man
that sat there to write, saying, "Set down my name, sir:" the which when
he had done, he saw the man draw his sword, and put a helmet upon his
head, and rush toward the door upon the armed men, who laid upon him
with deadly force; but the man, not at all discouraged, fell to cutting and
hacking most fiercely. So that, after he had received and given many
wounds to those that attempted to keep him out (Matt. xi. 12; Acts xiv.
22), he cut his way through them all and pressed forward into the palace;
at which.there was a pleasant voice heard from those that were within, even
of those that walked upon the top of the palace, saying:
"Come in, come in,
Eternal glory thou shalt win."
So he went in, and was clothed in such garments as they. Then
Christian smiled, and said, "I think verily I know the meaning of this."
"Now," said Christian, "let me go hence." "Nay, stay," said
Despair like the Interpreter, "until I have showed thee a little more; and
an iron cage. after that thou shalt go on thy way." So he took him by the
hand again, and led him into a very dark room, where there
sat a man in an iron cage.
Now, the man, to look on, seemed very sad. He sat with his eyes
looking down to the ground, his hands folded together; and he sighed as if
he would break hisqheart. Then said Christian, "What means this?" At
which the Interpreter bid him talk with the man.
Then said Christian to the man, "What art thou?" The man answered,
"I am what I was not once."
CHRIS.' What wast thou once?
"There sat a man in an Iron cage."
. I- 1.4
THE INTERPRETER'S HOUSE. 33
MAN. The man said, "I was once a fair and flourishing professor (Luke
viii. 13), both in mine own eyes, and also in the eyes of others; I was once,
as I thought, fair for the Celestial City, and had even joy at the thoughts
that I should get thither."
CHRIS. Well, but what art thou now?
MAN. I am now a man of despair, and am shut up in it, as in this iron
cage. I cannot get out. Oh, now I cannot I
CHRIS. But how camest thou in this condition?
MAN. I left off to watch and be sober. I laid the reins upon the neck of
my lusts; I sinned against the light of the Word and the goodness of God;
I have grieved the Spirit, and He is gone; I tempted the devil, and he has
come to me; I have provoked God to anger, and He has left me; I have so
hardened my heart that I cannot repent.
Then said Christian to the Interpreter, "But are there no hopes for such
a man as this?" "Ask him," said the Interpreter.
CHRIS. Then said Christian, "Is there no hope, but you must be kept in
the iron cage of despair?"
MAN. No, none at all.
CHRIS. Why? the Son of the Blessed is very pitiful.
MAN. I have crucified Him to myself afresh. (Heb. vi. 6.) I have
despised His person. (Luke xix. 14.) I have despised His righteousness;
I have counted His.blood an unholy thing; I have done despite to the Spirit
of grace. (Heb. x. 28, 29.) Therefore I have shut myself out of all the
promises, and there now remains to me nothing but threatening, dreadful
threatening, fearful threatening of certain judgment and fiery indignation,
which shall devour me as an adversary.
CHRIS. For what did you bring yourself into this condition?
MAN. For the lusts, pleasures, and profits of this world; in the enjoy-
ment of which I did then promise myself much delight; but now every one
of those things also bite me, and gnaw me, like a burning worm.
CHRIS. But canst thou not now repent and turn?
MAN. God hath denied me repentance. His Word gives me no encour-
agement to believe; yea, Himself hath shut me up in this iron cage; nor
can all the men in the world let me out. O eternit) I eternity how shall I
grapple with the misery that I must meet with in eternity?
INTER. Then said the Interpreter to Christian, "Let this man's misery be
remembered by thee, and be an everlasting caution to thee."
34 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
CHRIS. "Well," said Christian, "this is fearful! God help me to watch
and be sober, and to pray, that I may shun the cause of this man's misery.
Sir, is it not time for me to go on my way now?"
INTER. Tarry till I show thee one thing more, and then thou shalt go on
So he took Christian by the hand again, and led him into a chamber, where
there was one rising out of bed; and, as he put on his raiment, he shook
and trembled. Then said Christian, "Why doth this man thus tremble?"
The Interpreter then bid him tell to Christian the reason of his so doing.
So he began, and said, "This night, as
I was in my sleep, I dreamed, and
behold, the heavens grew exceeding
black; also it thundered and lightened
in most fearful wise, that it put me into
an agony. So I looked up in my dream,
and saw the clouds rack at an unusual
Rate; upon which I heard a great sound
of a trumpet, and saw also a Man sitting
upon a cloud, attended with the thou-
sands of heaven; they were all in
flaming fire; also the heavens were in a
burning flame. I heard then a great
voice saying, 'Arise, ye dead, and come
to judgment.' And with that the rocks
rent, the graves opened, and the dead
that were therein came forth: some of
them were exceeding glad, and looked
upward; and some thought to hide
"The bottomless pit opened just whereabout I stood." themselves under the mountains. Then
I saw the Man that sat upon the cloud
open the book, and bid the world draw near. Yet there was, by reason of
a fierce flame that issued out and came before Him, a convenient distance
betwixt Him and them, as betwixt the judge and the prisoners at the bar
(I. Cor. xv.; I Thess. iv. 16; Jude 15; John v. 28, 29; II. Thess. i. 7-10;
Rev. xx. 11-14; Isa. xxvi. 21; Micah vii. 16, I7; Psa. 1. I-3; Mal. iii. 2, 3;
Dan. vii. 9, io). I heard it also proclaimed to them that attended on the.
Man that sat on the cloud, 'Gather together the tares, the chaff, and stubble,
"His burden fell off his back, and began to tumble."
THE BOTTOMLESS PIT. 3
arid cast them into the burning lake.' (Matt. iii. I2; xiii. 30; xxv. 30; Mal.
iv. i.) And, with that, the bottomless pit opened, just whereabout I stood;
out of the mouth of which there came, in an abundant manner, smoke and
coals of fire, with hideous noises. It was- also said to the same persons,
'Gather my wheat into the garner.' (Luke iii. 27.) And, with that, I saw
many catched up and carried away into the clouds; but I was left behind.
(I. Thess. iv. 16, I7.) I also sought to hide myself, but I could not; for the
Man that sat upon the cloud still kept His eye upon me; my sins also came
into my mind, and my conscience did accuse me on every side. (Rom. ii.
14, 15.) Upon this I awakened from my sleep."
CHRIS. But what was it that made you so afraid of this sight?
MAN. Why, I thought that the day of judgment was come, and that I
was not ready for it. But this affrighted me most, that the angels gathered
up several, and left me behind; also the pit of hell opened her mouth just
where I stood. My conscience, too, afflicted me; and, as I thought, the
Judge had always His eye upon me, showing indignation in His coun-
INTER. Then said the Interpreter to Christian, "Hast thou considered
CHRIS. Yes; and they put me in hope and fear.
INTER. Well, keep all things so in thy mind, that they may be as a goad
in thy sides, to prick thee forward in the way thou must go.
Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address himself to his
journey. Then said the Interpreter, "The Comforter be always with thee,
good Christian, to guide thee into the way that leads to the city."
So Christian went on his way, saying,
"Here have I seen things rare and profitable;
Things pleasant, dreadful; things to make me stable
In what I have begun to take in hand;
Then let me think on them, and understand
Wherefore they showed me where; and let me be
Thankful. 0 good Interpreter, to thee."
Now, I saw in my dream that the highway up which Christian was to go
was fenced on either side with a wall that was called Salvation. (Isa.
xxvi. I.) Up this way, therefore, did burdened Christian run, but not with-
out great difficulty, because of the load on his back.
38 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
He ran thus till he came to a place somewhat ascending; and upon that
place stood a Cross, and a little below, in the bottom, a sepulchre. So I
saw in my dream, that, just as Christian came up with the cross, his burden
loosed from off his shoulders, and fell from off his back, and began to
tumble, and so continued to do till it came to the mouth of the sepulchre,
where it fell in, and I saw it no more.
Then was Christian glad and lightsome, and said with a merry heart,
"He hath given me rest by His sorrow, and life by His death." Then he
stood still awhile to look and wonder; for it was very surprising to him that
the sight of the cross should thus ease him of his burden. He looked,
therefore, and looked again, even till the springs that were in
When God his head sent the water down his cheeks. (Zech. xii. o1.)
releases us Now, as he stood looking and weeping, behold, three Shining
of our guilt
and burden, Ones came to him, and saluted him with "Peace be to thee."
we are as So the first said to him, "Thy sins be forgiven thee" (Mark
leap for joy. ii. 5); the second stripped him of his rags, and clothed him
with a change of raiment (Zech. iii. 4); the third also set a
mark on his forehead (Eph. i. 13), and gave him a roll with a seal upon it,
which he bade him look on as he ran, and that he should give it in at the
celestial gate: so they went their way. Then Christian gave three leaps for
joy, and went on, singing,
"Thus far did I come laden with my sin;
A Christian Nor could aught ease the grief that I was in,
can sing, Till I came hither: what a place is this!
heou Godne, Must here be the beginning of my bliss?
doth give him Must here the burden fall from off my back? .
joy in his Must here the strings that bound it to me crack?
heart. Blest cross! blest sepulchre! blest rather be
The Man that was there put to shame for me!"
I saw then in my dream that he went on thus, even until he came to the
bottom, where he saw, a little out of the way, three men fast asleep, with
fetters upon their heels. The name of one was Simple, of another Sloth,
and of the third Presumption.
Christian, then, seeing them lie in this case, went to them, if perad-
venture he might awake them, and cried, "You are like them that sleep on
the top of a mast (Pro. xxiii. 34); for the deep sea is under you, a gulf that
"Behold, three Shining Ones came to him, and saluted him."
FORMALIST AND HYPOCRISY 41
hath no bottom: awake, therefore, and come away; be willing, also, and I
will help you off with your irons." He also told them, "If he
that goeth about like a roaring lion (I. Pet. v. 8) comes by, you There is no
will certainly become a prey to his teeth." With that they persuasion
will do if God
looked upon him, and began to reply in this sort: Simple said, openeth not
"I see no danger." Sloth said, "Yet a little more sleep." the eyes.
And Presumption said, "Every tub must stand upon his own
bottom." And so they lay down to sleep again, and Christian went on
Yet was he troubled to think that men in that danger should so little
esteem the kindness of him that so offered to help them, both by awakening
of them, counselling of them, and proffering to help them off with their
irons. And, as he was troubled thereabout, he espied two men come
tumbling over the wall on the left hand of the narrow way; and they made
up apace to him. The name of one was Formalist, and the name of the
other was Hypocrisy. So, as I said, they drew up unto him, who thus
entered with them into discourse:
CHRIS. Gentlemen, whence came you, and whither go you?
FORM and HYP. We were born in the land of Vain-glory, and are going
for praise to Mount Zion.
CHRIS. Why came you not in at the gate which standeth at the beginning
of the way? Know ye not that it is written, "He that cometh not in by
the door, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a
robber"? (John x. I.)
FORM and Hyp. They said that to go to the gate for entrance was, by
all their countrymen, counted too far about; and that therefore their
usual way was to make a short cut of it, and to climb over the wall as
they had done.
CHRIS. But will it not be counted a trespass against the Lord of the city
whither we are bound, thus to violate His revealed will?
FORM and HYP. They told him, that as for that, he needed not trouble
his head thereabout; for what they did they had custom for, and could
produce, if need were, testimony that could witness it for more than a
CHRIS. "But," said Christian, "will it stand a trial at law?"
FORM and HYP. They told him that custom, it being of so long standing
as above a thousand years, would doubtless now be admitted as a thing
42 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
legal by an impartial judge. "And be-
sides," said they, "if we get
They that into the way, what matter
comeway, but note is it which way we may get
by the door, in? If we are in, we are
!i \0 theyink that in: thou are but in the way,
something in who, as we perceive, came
vindication in at the gate; and we are
of their own
practice. also in the way, that came
tumbling over the wall:
wherein, now, .is thy condition better
than ours ?"
CHRIS. I walk by the rule of my
SMaster; you walk by the rude working
of your fancies. You are counted
thieves already by the Lord of the way;
9 '- A therefore I doubt you will not be found
FORMALIST. true men at the end of the way. You
come in by yourselves without His
direction, and shall go out by yourselves without His mercy.
To this they made him but little
answer; only they bid him look to him-
self. Then I saw that they went on every
man in his way, without much conference
one with another; save that these two
men told Christian, that, as to law and
ordinances, they doubted not but that
they should as conscientiously do them as
he. "Therefore," said they, "we see not
wherein thou different from us, but by the
coat which is on thy back, which was, as
we trow, given thee by some of thy
neighbours to hide the shame of thy
CHRIS. By laws and ordinances you
will not be saved, since you came not in .
by the door (Gal. ii. 16). And as for this HYPOORISY.
"He fell from running to going, and from going to clambering upon his hands and his knees, because
of the steepness of the place."
FORMALIST AND HYPOCRISY 45
in_____ a i a i hint:
SHe stumbled and fell, and rdse no more."
that my burden fell off my shoulders. I
will tell you, moreover, that I had then
given me a roll sealed, to comfort me by
reading as I go in the way;
I was also bid to give it in He is com-
at the celestial gate, in forced also
t he with his mark
token of my certain going and his roll.
in after it; all which things,
I doubt, you want, and want them be-
cause you came not in at the gate.
To these things they gave him no
answer; only they looked upon each
other, and laughed. Then I saw that
they went on all, save that Christian
kept before, who had no more talk but
with himself, and sometimes sighingly,
and sometimes comfortably; also he
would be often reading in the roll that
it that is on my back, it was given to
by the Lord of the place whither I
;and that, as you say, to cover my
kedness with. And I
e it as a token of His Christian has
got his Lord's
.dness to me; for I had coat on his
thing but rags before. back, and is
.d besides, thus I corn- therewith.
t myself as I go. Surely,
nk I, when I come to the gate of the
y, the Lord thereof will know me for
od, since I have His coat on my back:
oat that He gave me freely in the
y that He stripped me of my rags. I
Je, moreover, a mark in my forehead,
which perhaps you have taken no
tice, which one of my Lord's most
imate associates fixed there the day
"He at last fell Into a slumber."
46 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
'one of the Shining Ones gave him, by which he was refreshed. I beheld
then that they all went on till they came to the foot of the Hill Difficulty,
at the bottom of which was a spring.
There were also in the same place two other ways, besides that which
came straight from the gate;
one turned to the left hand, and
the other to the right, at the
bottom of the hill; but the nar-
row way lay right up the hill,
and the name of that going up
the side of the hill is called
Difficulty. Christian now went
to the' spring (Isa. xlix. 20), and
drank thereof to refresh him-
self, and then began to go up
the hill, saying,
"The hill, though high, I covet to as-
The difficulty will not me offend,
For I perceive the way to life lies here.
Come, pluck up, heart, let's neither
faint nor fear.
Better, though difficult, the right way
Than wrong, though easy, where the
end is woe."
The other two also came to
the foot of the hill. But when
they saw that the hill was steep
and high, and that
The danger there w er e two
of turning out other ways to go;
MISTRUST. of the way.
and supposing also
that these two ways might meet again with that up which Christian went,
on the other side of the hill; therefore they were resolved to go in those
ways. Now, the name of one of those ways was Danger, and the name of
the other Destruction. So the one took the way which is called Danger,
CHRISTIAN FALLS ASLEEP. 47
which led him into a great wood; and the other took directly up the way to
destruction, which led him into a wide field, full of dark mountains, where
he stumbled and fell, and rose no more.
I looked then after Christian, to see him go up the hill, where I perceived
he fell from running to going,
and from going to clamber-
ing upon his hands and his
knees, because of the steep-
ness of the place.
Now, about the A ward of
midway to the grace.
top of the hill
was a pleasant arbour made
by the Lord of the hill for the
refreshment of weary trav-
ellers. Thither, therefore,
Christian, got, where also he
sat down to rest him; then he
pulled his roll out of his
bosom, and read therein to his
comfort; he also now began
afresh -to take a review of
the coat or garment that was
given him as he stood by the
cross. Thus pleasing himself
a while, he at last fell into a
slumber, and thence into a
fast sleep, which detained him .
in that place until it was al-
most night; and
in his sleep his He that
sleeps is a
roll fell out of loser. TIMOROUS.
his hand. Now,
as he was sleeping, there came one to him, and awaked him, saying, "Go to
the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise." (Prov. vi. 6.)
And, with that, Christian suddenly started up, and sped on his way, and
went apace till he came to the top of the hill.
48 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
Now, when he was got up to the top of the hill, there came two men
running amain: the name of the one was Timorous, and of the other
Mistrust; to whom Christian said, "Sirs, what's the matter? You run the
wrong way." Timorous answered, that they were going to the city of Zion,
and had got up that difficult place: "but," said he, "the farther we go, the
more danger we meet with; wherefore we turned, and are going back
"Yes," said Mistrust, "for just before us lie a couple of lions in the way,
whether sleeping or waking we know not; and we could not think, if we
came within reach, but they would presently pull us in pieces."
CHRIS. Then said Christian, "You make me afraid; but whither shall I
fly to be safe? If I go back to my own country, that is prepared for fire
and brimstone, and I shall certainly perish there; if I can get to the
Celestial City, I am sure to be in safety there: I must venture. To go back
is nothing but death; to go forward is fear of death, and life
Christian everlasting beyond it. I will yet go forward." So Mistrust
fear. and Timorous ran down the hill, and Christian went on his
way. But, thinking again of what he heard from the men, he
felt in his bosom for his roll, and found it not. Then was Christian in great
distress, and knew not what to do; for he wanted that which used to relieve
him, and that which should have been his pass into the Celestial City.
Here, therefore, he began to be much perplexed and knew not what to do.
At last he bethought himself that he had slept in the arbour that is on the
side of the hill; and, falling down upon his knees, he asked God forgiveness
for that his foolish act, and then went back to look for his roll. But all the
way he went back, who can sufficiently set forth the sorrow of Christian's
heart? Sometimes he sighed, sometimes he wept, and oftentimes he chid
himself for being so foolish to fall asleep in that place, which was erected
only for a little refreshment from his weariness. Thus, therefore, he went
back, carefully looking on this side and on that, all the way as he went, if
happily he might find his roll that had been his comfort so many times in
his journey. He went thus till he came again within sight of the arbour
where he sat and slept; but that sight renewed his sorrow the more, by
bringing again, even afresh, his evil of sleeping into his mind. (Rev. ii. 4,
5; I. Thess. v. 6-8.) Thus, therefore, he now went on, bewailing his sinful
sleep, saying, wretched man that I am, that I should sleep in the day-
time; that I should'sleep in the midst of difficulty that I should so indulge
CHRISTIAN LOSES HIS ROLL-AND FINDS IT. 49
the flesh; as to use that rest for ease to my flesh which the Lord of the hill
hath erected only for the relief of the spirits of pilgrims I How many steps
have I taken in vain I Thus it happened to Israel; for their sin they were
sent back again by the way of the Red Sea; and I am made to tread those
steps with sorrow which I might have trod with delight, had it not been for
this sinful sleep. How far might I have been on my way by this time I
am made to tread those steps thrice over which I needed not to have trod
but once; yea, also, now I am like to be benighted,. for the day is almost
spent. Oh that I had not slept"
Now, by this time he was come to the arbour again, where for awhile he
sat down and wept; but at last (as Providence would have it), looking
sorrowfully down under the settle, there he espied his roll, the which he,
with trembling and haste, catched up, and put it into his bosom. But who
can tell how joyful this man was when he had gotten his roll again? for this
roll was the assurance of his life and acceptance at the desired haven.
Therefore he laid it up in his bosom, giving thanks to God for directing his
eye to the place where it lay, and with joy and tears betook himself again
to his journey. But oh, how nimbly now. did he go up the rest of the hill!
Yet, before he got up, the sun went down upon Christian; and this made
him again recall the vanity of his sleeping to his remembrance; and thus he
began again to condole with himself, "Oh, thou sinful sleep how for thy
sake am I like to be benighted in my journey. I must walk without the
sun, darkness must cover the path of my feet, and I must hear the noise of
the doleful creatures, because of my sinful sleep I" Now also he remem-
bered the story that Mistrust and Timorous told him, of how they were
frighted with the sight of the lions. Then said Christian to himself again,
"These beasts range in the night for their prey; and if they should meet
with me in the dark, how should I shift them? how should I escape being
torn in pieces?" Thus he went on his way. But, while he was thus
bewailing his unhappy miscarriage, he lifted up his eyes, and behold, there
was a very stately palace before him, the name of which was Beautiful, and
it stood just by the highway side. (Rev. iii. 2; I Thess. v. 7, 8.)
So I saw in my dream that he made haste, and went forward, that, if
possible, he might get lodging there. Now, before he had gone far, he
entered into a very narrow passage, which was about a furlong off the
Porter's lodge; and looking very narrowly before him as he went, he espied
two lions in the way. Now, thought he, I see the dangers that Mistrust
50 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
'and Timorous were driven back by. (The lions were chained, but he saw
not the chains.) Then he was afraid, and thought also himself to go back
after them; for he thought nothing but death was before him. But the
Porter at the lodge, whose name is Watchful, perceiving that Christian
made a halt, as if he would go back, cried out unto him, saying, "Is-thy
strength so small? (Mark iv. 40); fear not the lions, for they are chained,
and are placed there for the trial of faith where it is, and for the discovery
of those that have none: keep in the
S midst of the- path, and no hurt shall
come unto thee."
Then I saw that he went on trembling
for fear of the lions; but, taking good
heed to the directions of the Porter, he
heard them roar, but they did him no
harm. Then he clapped his hands, and
went on till he came and stood before
the gate where the Porter was. Then
said Christian to the Porter, "Sir, what
house is this? and may I. lodge here
The Porter answered, "This house
was built by the Lord of the hill, and
He built it for the relief and. security
of pilgrims." The Porter also asked
I whence he was, and whither he was
WATCHFUL THE PORTER. CHRIS. I am come from the City of
Destruction, and am going to Mount
Zion; but, because the sun is now set, I desire, if I may, to lodge here
PORT. What is your name?
CHRIS. My name is now Christian, but my name at the first was Grace-
less. I came of the race of Japhet, whom God will persuade to dwell in
the tents of Shem. (Gen. ix. 27.)
PORT. But how doth it happen that you come so late? The sun is set.
CHRIS. I had been here sooner, but that, wretched man that I am, I slept
in the arbour that stands on the hill-side. Nay, I had, notwithstanding
"The lions were chained, but he saw not the chains."
PRUDENCE, PIETY, AND CHARITY. 53
that, been here much sooner, but that in my sleep I lost my evidence, and
came without it to the brow of the hill; and then, feeling for it and finding
it not, I was forced with sorrow of heart to go back to the place where I
slept my sleep, where I found it; and now I am come.
PORT. Well, I will call out one of the virgins of this place, who will, if
she likes your talk, bring you in to the rest of the family, according to the
rules of the house.
So Watchful the Porter rang a bell, at the sound of which came out of
the door of the house a grave and beautiful damsel, named Discretion, and
asked why she was called.
The Porter answered, "This man is on a journey from the City of
Destruction to Mount Zion; but, being weary and benighted, he asked me
if he might lodge here to-night: so I told him I would call for thee, who,
after discourse had with him, mayest do as seemeth thee- good, even accord-
ing to the law of the house."
Then she asked him whence he was, and whither he was going; and he
told her. She asked him also how he got into the way; and he told her.
Then she asked him what he had seen and met with on the way; and he
told her. And at last she asked his name. So he said, "It is Christian;
and I have so much the more a desire to lodge here to-night, because, by
what I perceive, this place was built by the Lord of the hill for the relief
and security of pilgrims." So she smiled, but the water stood in her eyes;
and, after a little pause, she said, "I will call forth two or three of my
family." So she ran to the door, and called out Prudence, Piety, and
Charity, who, after a little more discourse with him, had him in to the
family; and many of them, meeting him at the threshold of the house, said,
"Come in, thou blessed of the Lord: this house was built by the Lord of
the hill on purpose to entertain such pilgrims in." Then he bowed his
head, and followed them into the house. So, when he was come in and sat
down, they gave him something to drink, and consented together, that,
until supper was ready, some of them should have some particular dis-
course with Christian, for the best improvement of time; and they appointed
Piety, Prudence, and Charity to discourse with him; and thus they began:
PIETY. C6me, good Christian, since we have been so loving to you to
receive you into our house this night, let us, if perhaps we may better our-
selves thereby, talk with you of all things that have happened to you in
54 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
CHRIS. With a very good will, and I am glad that you are so well
PIETY. What moved you at first to betake yourself to a pilgrim's life?
CHRIS. I was driven out of my native country by a dreadful sound that
was in mine ears; to wit, that unavoidable destruction did attend me, if I
abode in that place where I was.
PIETY. But how did it happen that you came out of your country this.
CHRIS. It was as God would have it; for, when I was under the fears of
destruction, I did not know whither to go; but by chance there came a man
even to me, as I was trembling and weeping, whose name is Evangelist,
and he directed me to the wicket-gate, which else I should never have
found, and so set me in the way that hath led me directly to this house.
PIETY. But did you not come by the house of the Interpreter?
CHRIS. Yes, and did see such things there, the remembrance of which
will stick by me as long as I live, especially three things; to wit, how Christ,
in despite of Satan, maintains His work of grace in the heart; how the
man had sinned himself quite out of hopes of God's mercy; and also the
dream of him that thought in his sleep the day of judgment was come.
PIETY. Why? did you hear him tell his dream?
CHRIS. Yes, and a dreadful one it was, I thought; it made my heart
ache as he was telling of it; but yet I am glad I heard of it.
PIETY. Was that all you saw at the house of the Interpreter?
CHRIS. No; he took me, and had me where he showed me a stately
palace; and how the people were clad in gold that were in it; and how
there came a venturous man, and cut his way through the armed men that
stood in the door to keep him out; and how he was bid to come in and win
eternal glory. Methought those things did ravish my heart. I would have
stayed at that good man's house a twelvemonth, but that I knew I had
farther to go.
PIETY. And what saw you else in the way?
CHRIS. Saw? Why, I went but a little farther, and I saw One, as I
thought in my mind, hang bleeding upon a tree; and the very sight of Him
made my burden fall off my back; for I groaned under a very heavy
burden, and then it fell down from off me. It was a strange thing to me,
for I never saw such a thing before; yea, and while I stood looking up (for
then I could not forbear looking), three Shining Ones came to me. One of
"'This man is on a journey from the City of Destruction to Mount Zion.'"
CHRISTIAN CONVERSES WITH THE VIRGINS. 57
them testified that my sins were forgiven me; another stripped me of my
rags, and gave me this broidered coat which you see; and the, third set the
mark which you see in my forehead, and gave me this sealed roll. (And,
with that, he plucked it out of his bosom.)
PIETY. But you saw more than this, did you not?
CHRIS. The things that I have told you were the best; yet some other
matters I saw; as namely, I saw three men, Simple, Sloth, and Presumption,
lie asleep, a little out of the way as I came, with irons upon their heels; but
do you think I could wake them? I also saw Formalist and Hypocrisy
come tumbling over the wall, to go, as they pretended, to Zion; but they
were quickly lost, even as I myself did tell them, but they would not
believe. But, above all, I found it hard work to get up this hill, and as
hard to come by the lions' mouths; and truly, if it had not been for the
good man the Porter, that stands at the gate, I do not know but that, after
all, I might have gone back again; but now I thank God I am here, and I
thank you for receiving of me.
Then Prudence thought good to ask him a few questions, and desired his
answer to them.
PRU. Do you think sometimes of the country from whence you came?
CHRIS. Yes, but with much shame and detestation. Truly, if I had been
mindful of that country from whence I came out, I might have had an
opportunity to have returned; but now I desire a better country, that is, a
heavenly one. (Heb. xi. 15, 16.)
PRU. Do you not yet bear away with you some of the things that then
you were conversant withal?
CHRIS. Yes, but greatly against my will; especially my inward and carnal
cogitations, with which all my countrymen, as well as myself, were
delighted. But now all those things are my grief; and, might I but choose
mine own things, I would choose never to think of those things more; but,
when I would be doing that which is best, that which is worst is with me.
(Rom. vii. 15-21.)
PRU. Do you not find sometimes as if those things were vanquished,
which at other times are your perplexity?
CHRIS. Yes, but that is but. seldom; but they are to me golden hours in
which such things happen to me.
PRU. Can you remember by what means you find your annoyances, at
times, as if they were vanquished ?
58 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
'How Chris- CHRIS. Yes; when I think what I saw at the cross, that will
tian gets do it; and when I look upon by broidered coat, that will do it;
against his also when I look into the roll that I carry in my bosom, that
corruptions. will do it; and when my thoughts wax warm about whither I
am going, that will do it.
PRU. And what makes you so desirous to go to Mount Zion?
CHRIS. Why, there I hope to see Him alive that did hang dead on the
cross; and there I hope to be rid of all those things that to this day are in
me an annoyance to me. There, they say, there is no death
Why Chris- (Isa. xxv. 8; Rev. xxi. 4); and there I shall dwell with such
tian would company as I like best. For, to tell you the truth, I love Him
be at Mount
Zion. because I was by Him eased of my burden; and I am weary
of my inward sickness. I would fain be where I shall die
no more, and with the company that shall continually cry, "Holy, holy,
CHAR. Then said Charity to Christian, "Have you a family? are you a
CHRIS. I have a wife and four small children.
CHAR. And why did you not bring them along with you?
CHRIS. Then Christian wept, and said, "Oh, how willingly would I have
done it! but they were all of them utterly averse to my going on pil-
CHAR. But you should have talked to them, and endeavoured to have
shown them the danger of staying behind.
CHRIS. So I did, and told them also what God had shown to me of the
destruction of our city; but I seemed to them as one that mocked, and they
believed me not. (Gen. xix. 14.)
CHAR. And did you pray to God that He would bless your counsel to
CHRIS. Yes, and that with much affection; for you must think that my
wife and poor children were very dear unto me.
CHAR. But did you tell them of your own sorrow and fear of destruc-
tion? for I suppose that destruction was visible enough to you.
CHRIS. Yes, over, and over, and over. They might also see my fears in
my countenance, in my tears, and also in my trembling under the appre-
hension of the judgment that did hang over our heads: but all was not
sufficient to prevail with them to come with me.
CHARITY CONVERSES WITH CHRISTIAN. 59
CHAR. But what could they say for themselves why they came not?
CHRIS. Why, my wife was afraid of losing this world, and my children
were given to the foolish delights of youth; so, what by one thing, and
what by another, they left me to wander in this manner alone.
CHAR. But did you not, with your vain life, damp all that you by words
used by way of persuasion to bring them away with you?
CHRIS. Indeed, I cannot commend my life, for I am conscious to myself
of many failings therein. I know also, that a man, by his conversation,
may soon overthrow what, by argument or persuasion, he doth labour to
fasten upon others for their good. Yet this I can say, I was very wary of
giving them occasion, by any unseemly action, to make them averse to
going on pilgrimage. Yea, for this very thing they would tell me I was too
precise, and that I denied myself of things (for their sakes) in which they
saw no evil. Nay, I think I may say that, if what they saw in me did
hinder them, it was my great tenderness in sinning against God, or of
doing any wrong to my neighbour.
CHAR. Indeed, Cain hated his brother (I. John iii. 12) because his own
works were evil, and his brother's righteous; and, if thy wife and children
have been offended with thee for this, they thereby show themselves to be
implacable to good: thou hast delivered thy soul from their blood. (Ezek.
Now I saw in my dream, that thus they sat talking together till supper
was ready. So, when they had made ready, they sat down to meat. Now,
the table was furnished with fat things, and wine that was well refined; and
all their talk at the table was about the Lord of the hill; as, namely, about
what He had done, and wherefore He did what He did, and why He had
builded that house; and by what they said, I perceived that He had been a
great warrior, and had fought with and slain him that had the power of
death (Heb. ii. 14, 15), but not without great danger to Himself, which made
me love Him the more.
For, as they said, and as I believe (said Christian), He did it with the
loss of much blood. But that which puts the glory of grace into all He
did, was, that He did it out of pure love to this country. And, besides,
there were some of them of the household that said they had seen and
spoke with Him since He did die on the cross; and they have attested that
they had it from His own lips, that He is such a lover of poor pilgrims,
that the like is not to be found from the east to the west. They moreover
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
gave an instance of what they affirmed; and that was, He had stripped
Himself of His glory, that He might do this for the poor; and that they
had heard Him say and affirm that He would not dwell in the mountains
of Zion alone. They said, moreover, that He had made
Christ makes many pilgrims princes, though by nature they were beggars
beggars born, and their original had been the dunghill. (I. Sam. ii. 8;
Psa. cxiii. 7.)
Thus they discoursed together till late at night; and, after they had com-
mitted themselves to their Lord for protection, they betook themselves to
rest. The Pilgrim they laid in a large upper chamber, whose window
opened towards the sunrising. The name of the chamber was Peace, where
he slept till break of day, and then he awoke and sang,
"Where am I now? Is this the love and care
Of Jesus, for the men that pilgrims are,
Thus to provide that I should be forgiven,
And dwell already the next door to heaven?"
So in the morning they all got up; and after some more discourse, they
told him that he should not depart till, they had shown him the rarities of
that place. And first they had him into the study, where they showed him
records of the greatest antiquity; in which, as I remember in my dream,
they showed him first the pedigree of the Lord of the hill, that He was the
son of the Ancient of Days, and came by an eternal generation. Here
also were more fully recorded the acts that He had done, and the names of
many hundreds that He had taken into His service; and how He had
placed them in such habitations that could neither by length of days nor
decays of nature be dissolved.
Then they read to him some of the worthy acts that some of His servants
had done; as, how they had subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness,
obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched the violence of
fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong,
waxed valiant in fight, and turned to flight the armies of the aliens. (Heb.
xi. 33, 34.)
They then read again in another part of the records of the house, where
it was shown how willing their Lord was to receive into His favour any,
even any, though they in time past had offered great affronts to His person
and proceedings. Here also were several other histories of many other
"Then they read to him some of the worthy acts that some of His se. vants had done."
famous things, of all which Christian had a view; as of things both ancient
and modern, together with prophecies and predictions of things that have
their certain accomplishments, both to .the dread and amazement of
enemies, and the comfort and solace of pilgrims.
The next day they took him and had him into the armoury, where they
showed him all manner of furniture which their Lord had provided for
pilgrims; as sword, shield, helmet, breast-plate, all-prayer, and shoes that
would not wear out. And there was here enough of this to harness out as
many men for the service of their Lord as there be stars in the heaven for
They also showed him some of the engines with which some of His
servants had done wonderful things. They showed him Moses' rod; the
hammer and nail with which Jael slew Sisera; the pitchers, trumpets, and
lamps too, with which Gideon put to flight the armies of Midian. Then
they showed him the ox's goad wherewith Shamgar slew six hundred men.
They showed him also the jaw-bone with which Samson did such mighty
feats. They showed him, moreover, the sling and stone with which David
slew Goliath of Gath, and the sword also with which their Lord will kill the
Man of Sin, in the day that He shall rise up to the prey. They showed
him, besides, many excellent things, with which Christian was much
delighted. This done, they went to their rest again.
Then I saw in my dream that on the morrow he got up to go forward,
but they desired him to stay till the next day also; "and then," said they,
"we will, if the day be clear, show you the Delectable Mountains;" which
they said would yet further add to his comfort, because they were nearer
the desired haven than the place where at present he was. So he con-
sented and stayed. When the morning was up, they had him to the top of
the house, and bid him look south. So he did, and behold, at a great
distance he saw a most pleasant mountainous country, beautified with
woods, vineyards, fruit of all sorts, flowers also, with springs and foun-
tains, very delectable to behold. (Isa. xxxiii. 16, 17.) Then he asked the
name of the country. They said it was Immanuel's Land; "and it is as
common," said they, "as this hill is, to and for all the pilgrims. And when
thou comest there, from thence thou mayest see to the gate of the Celestial
City, as the shepherds that live there will make appear."
Now he bethought himself of setting forward, and they were willing he
should. "But first," said they, "let us go again into the armoury." So
64 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
they did; and when he came there, they harnessed him from head to foot
with what was of proof, lest perhaps he should meet with assaults in the
way. He being, therefore, thus accoutred, walked out with his friends to
the gate; and there he asked the Porter if he saw any pilgrim pass by.
Then the Porter answered, "Yes."
CHRIS. "Pray did you know him?" said he.
PORT. I asked his name, and he told me it was Faithful.
CHRIS. Oh," said Christian, "I know him, he is my townsman, my near
neighbour: he comes from the place where I was born. How far do you
think he may be before?"
PORT. He has got by this time below the hill.
CHRIS. "Well," said Christian, "good Porter, the Lord be with thee, and
add to all thy blessings much increase for the kindness thou hast showed
Then he began to go forward; but Discretion, Piety, Charity, and
Prudence would accompany him down to the foot of the hill. So they
went on together, reiterating their former discourses, till they came to go
down the hill. Then said Christian, "As it was difficult coming up, so, so
far as I can see, it is dangerous going down." "Yes," said Prudence, "so
it is; for it is a hard matter for a man to go down the Valley of Humilia-
tion, as thou art now, and to catch no slip by the way; therefore," said they,
"are we come out to accompany thee down the hill." So he began to go
down, but very warily; yet he caught a slip or two.
Then I saw in my dream that these good companions, when Christian
was gone down to the bottom of the hill, gave him a loaf of bread, a bottle
of wine, and a cluster of raisins; and then he went his way.
But now, in this Valley of Humiliation, poor Christian was hard put to
it; for he had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming
over the field to meet him: his name is Apollyon. Then did Christian
begin to be afraid, and to cast in his mind whether to go back or to stand his
ground. But he considered again that he had no armour for his back, and
therefore thought that to turn the back to him might give him greater
advantage with ease to pierce him with his darts; therefore he resolved to
venture and stand his ground; for, thought he, had I no more in mine eye
than the saving of my life, it would be the best way to stand.
So he went on, and Apollyon met him. Now, the monster was hideous
to behold: he was clothed with scales like a fish, and they are his pride; he
APOLLYON STAYS CHRISTIAN. 65
had wings like a dragon, and feet like a bear, and out of his belly came fire
and smoke; and his mouth was as the mouth of a lion. When he was
come up to Christian, he beheld him with a disdainful countenance, and
thus began to question with him:
APOLLYON. Whence come you, and whither are you bound?
CHRIS. I am come from the City of Destruction, which is the place of all
evil, and am going to the City of Zion.
APOL. By this I perceive that thou art one of my subjects; for all that
country is mine, and I am the prince and god of it. How is it, then, that
thou hast run away from thy king? Were it not that I hope that thou
mayest do me more service, I would strike thee now at one blow to the
CHRIS. I was indeed born in your dominions; but your service was hard,
and your wages such as a man could not live on; for the wages of sin is
death (Rom. vi. 23); therefore, when I was come to years, I did as other
considerate persons do, look out, if perhaps I might mend myself.
APOL. There is no prince that will thus lightly lose his
subjects, neither will I as yet lose thee; but, since thou com- Apollyon's
plainest of thy service and wages, be content to go back, and flattery.
what our country will afford I do here promise to give thee.
CHRIS. But I have let myself to another, even to the King of princes;
and how can I with fairness go back with thee?
APOL. Thou hast done in this according to the proverb, "changed a bad
for a worse;" but it is ordinary for those that have professed
themselves His servants, after a while to give Him the slip, Apollyon
and return again to me. Do thou so too, and all shall be undervalues
CHRIS. I have given Him my faith, and sworn my allegiance
to Him; how, then, can I go back from this, and not be hanged as a
APOL. Thou didst the same to me, and yet I am willing to pass by all,
if now thou wilt yet turn again and go back.
CHRIS. What I promised thee was in my nonage; and besides, I count
that the Prince under whose banner I now stand is able to absolve me, yea,
and to pardon also what I did as to my compliance with thee. And
besides, O thou destroying Apollyon, to speak the truth, I like His service,
His wages, His servants, His government, His company, and country,
66 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
better than thine; therefore leave off to persuade me further: I am His
servant, and I will follow Him.
APOL. Consider again when thou art in cold blood, what thou art likely
to meet with in the way that thou goest. Thou knowest that for the most
part His servants come to an ill end, because they are trans-
Apollyon gressors against me and my ways. How many of them have
pleads the been put to shameful deaths I And besides, thou contest His
ends of service better than mine; whereas He never came yet from the
t disnsuade place where He is, to deliver any that served Him out of their
Christian hands; but as for me, how many times, as all the world very
from persist well knows, have I delivered, either by power or fraud, those
ing in his
way. that have faithfully served me, from Him and His, though
taken by them And so I will deliver thee.
CHRIS. His forbearing at present to deliver them is on purpose to try
their love, whether they will cleave to Him to the end; and, as for the ill
end thou sayest they come to, that is most glorious in their account. For,
for present deliverance, they do not much expect it; for they stay for their
glory, and then they shall have it when their Prince comes in His and the
glory of the angels.
APOL. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy service to Him; and how
dost thou think to receive wages of Him?
CHRIS. Wherein, 0 Apollyon; have I been unfaithful to Him?
APOL. Thou didst faint at first setting out, when thou wast almost
choked in the Gulf of Despond. Thou didst attempt wrong
Apollyon ways to be rid of thy burden, whereas thou shouldst have
pleads Chris- stayed till thy Prince had taken it off. Thou didst sinfully
mities sleep, and lose thy choice things. Thou wast almost per-
against him. suaded to go back at the sight of the lions. And when thou
talkest of thy journey, and of what thou hast seen and
heard, thou art inwardly desirous of vain-glory in all that thou sayest
CHRIS. All this is true, and much more which thou hast left out; but the
Prince whom I serve and honour is merciful and ready to forgive. But
besides, these infirmities possessed me in thy own country; for there I
sucked them in, and I have groaned under them, been sorry for them, and
have obtained pardon of my Prince.
APOL. Then Apollyon broke out into a grievous rage, saying, "I am an
CHRISTIAN GIVES BATTLE. 67
enemy to this Prince; I hate His person, His laws, and people. I am come
out on purpose to withstand thee."
CHRIS. Apollyon, beware what you do, for I am in the King's highway,
the way of holiness: therefore take heed to yourself.
APOL. Then Apollyon straddled quite over the whole breadth of the
way, and said, "I am void of fear in this matter. Prepare thyself to die;
for I swear by my infernal den, that thou shalt go no farther: here will I
spill thy soul." And, with that, he threw a flaming dart at his breast; but
Christian held a shield in his hand, with which he caught it, and so pre-
vented the danger of that.
Then did Christian draw, for he saw it was time to bestir him; and
Apollyon as fast made at him, throwing darts as thick as hail,
by the which, notwithstanding all that Christian could do to Christian
avoid it, Apollyon wounded him in his head, his hand, and wounded in
foot. This made Christian give a little back; Apollyon, there- standing,
fore, followed his work amain, and Christian again took cour- conversation.
age, and resisted as manfully as he could. This sore combat
lasted for above half a day, even till Christian was almost quite spent.
For you must know that Christian, by reason of his wounds, must needs
grow weaker and weaker.
Then Apollyon, espying his opportunity, began to gather up close to
Christian, and, wrestling with him, gave him a dreadful fall; and, with that,
Christian's sword flew out of his hand. Then said Apollyon, "I am sure
of thee now." And, with that, he had almost pressed him to death, so that
Christian began to despair of life. But, as God would have it, while
Apollyon was fetching his last blow, thereby to make a full end of this
good man, Christian nimbly reached out his hand for his sword, and caught
it, saying, "Rejoice not against me, 0 mine enemy: when I fall I shall
arise" (Mic. vii. 8); and, with that, gave him a deadly thrust, which made
him give back, as one that had received his mortal wound. Christian, per-
ceiving that, made at him again, saying, "Nay, in all these things we are
more than conquerors through Him that loved us." (Rom. viii. 37.) And,
with that, Apollyon spread forth his dragon's wings, and sped him away,
that Christian for a season saw him no more. (James iv. 7.)
In this combat no man can imagine, unless he had seen and heard, as I
did, what yelling and hideous roaring Apollyon made all the time of the
fight: he spake like a dragon; and, on the other side, what sighs and groans
68 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
burst from Christian's heart. I never saw him all the while give so much
as one pleasant look, till he perceived he had wounded Apollyon with his
two-edged sword; then, indeed, he did smile and look upward; but it was
the dreadfullest sight that ever I saw.
CHRIS. So, when the battle was over, Christian said, "I will here give
thanks to Him that hath delivered me out of the mouth of the lion; to
Him that did help me against Apollyon." And so he did, saying,
"Great Beelzebub, the captain of this fiend,
Designed my ruin: therefore to this end
He sent him harnessed out; and.he with rage
That hellish was, did fiercely me engage:
But blessed Michael helped me; and I,
By dint of sword, did quickly make him fly:
Therefore to Him* let me give lasting praise,
And thank and bless His holy name always."
Then there came to him a hand with
some of the leaves of the tree of life;
A .-/ the which Christian took, and applied
r to the wounds that he had received in
the battle, and was healed immediately.
He also sat down in that place to eat
bread, and to drink of the bottle that
was given to him a little before: so,
being refreshed, he addressed himself to
S his journey, with his sword drawn in his
"Therefore to Him let me give lasting praise." hand; "For," he said, "I know not but
some other enemy may be at hand."
But he met with no other affront from Apollyon quite through this
Now, at the end of this valley was another, called the Valley of the
Shadow of Death; and Christian must needs go through it, because, the
way to the Celestial City lay through the midst of it. Now this valley is a
very solitary place; the prophet Jeremiah thus describes it: "A wilderness,
a land of deserts and pits, a land of drought, and of the shadow of death,
* Videlicet, to God.-ED.
THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW OF DEATH. 69
a land that no man" but a Christian "passeth through, and where no man
dwelt." (Jer. ii. 6.)
Now here Christian was worse put to it than in his fight with Apollyon,
as by the sequel you shall see.
I saw then in my dream, that when Christian was got to the borders of
the Shadow of Death, there met him two men, children of them that
brought up an evil report of the good land, making haste to go back; to
whom Christian spake as follows:
CHRIS. Whither are you going?
MEN. They said, "Back; back I and we would have you to do so too, if
either life or peace is prized by you."
CHRIS. "Why, what's the matter?" said Christian.
MEN. "Matter!" said they: "we were going that way as you are going,
and went as far as we durst: and indeed we were almost past coming back;
for had we gone a little farther, we had not been here to bring the news
CHRIS. "But what have you met with?" said Christian.
MEN. Why, we were almost in the Valley of the Shadow of Death, but
that by good hap we looked before us, and saw the danger before we came
to it. (Psa. xliv. I9; cvii. io.)
CHRIS. But what have you seen?" said Christian.
MEN. Seen why, the valley itself, which is as dark as pitch: we also saw
there the hobgoblins, satyrs, and dragons of the pit; we heard also in that
valley a continual howling and yelling, as of a people under unutterable
misery, who there sat bound in affliction and irons; and over that hung the
discouraging clouds of confusion; Death also does always spread his wings
over it. In a word, it is every whit dreadful, being utterly without order.
(Job iii. 5; x. 22.)
CHRIS. Then said Christian, "I perceive not yet, by what you have said,
but that this is my way to the desired haven." (Psa. xliv. 18, 19; Jer. ii. 6.)
MEN. Be it thy way, we will not choose it for ours.
So they parted, and Christian went on his way, but still with his sword
Irawn in his hand, for fear lest he should be assaulted.
I saw then in my dream, as far as this valley reached, there was on the
right hand a very deep ditch; that ditch is it into which the blind have led
the blind in all ages, and have both there miserably perished. Again,
behold, on the left hand there was a very dangerous quag, into which, if
70 THE PILGRIMS' PROGRESS.
even a good man falls, he finds no bottom for his toot to stand on: into
that quag King David once did fall, and had no doubt there been
smothered, had not He that is able plucked him out.
The pathway was here also exceedingly narrow, and therefore good
Christian was the more put to it; for when he sought, in the dark, to shun
the ditch on the one hand, he was ready to tip over into the mire on the
other; also when he sought to escape the mire, without great carefulness he
would be ready to fall into the ditch. Thus he went on, and I heard him
here sigh bitterly, for besides the danger
S mentioned above, the pathway was here
so dark, that ofttimes, when he lifted up
-his foot to go forward, he knew not
where or upon what he should set it
About the midst of this valley I per-
ceived the mouth of hell to be, and it
stood also hard by the wayside. Now,
thought Christian, what shall I do?
And ever and anon the flame and smoke
would come out in such abundance,
with sparks.and hideous noises (things
that cared not for Christian's sword, as
did Apollyon before), that he was forced
to put up his sword, and betake himself
to another weapon, called "All-Prayer."
(Eph. vi. i8.) So he cried in my hear-
'1, ,ing, "O Lord, I beseech Thee, deliver
"A company of fiends." my soul." (Psa. cxvi. 4.) Thus he
went on a great while, yet still the
flames would be reaching towards him; also he heard doleful voices, and
rushing to and fro, so that sometimes he thought he should be torn in
pieces, or trodden down like mire in the streets. This frightful sight was
seen, and those dreadful noises were heard by him, for several miles
together, and, coming to a place where he thought he heard a company of
fiends coming forward to meet him, he stopped, and began to muse what
he had best to do. Sometimes he had half a thought to go back; then
again he thought he might be half-way through the valley. He remem-
"One of the wicked ones got behind him, and whisperingly suggested many grievous blasphemies to him,"
THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW OF DEATH. 73
bered, also, how he had already vanquished many a danger, and that the
danger of going back might be much more than going forward. So he
resolved to go on; yet the fiends seemed to come nearer and nearer. But,
when they were come even almost at him, he cried out with a most vehe-
ment voice, "I will walk in the strength. of the Lord God." So they gave
back, and came no farther.
One thing I would not let slip: I took notice that now poor Christian
was so confounded that he did not know his own voice; and thus I per-
ceived it: just when he was come over against the mouth of
the burning pit, one of the wicked ones got behind him, and Christian
stepped up softly to him, and whisperingly suggested many that he spake
grievous blasphemies to him, which he verily thought had pro- blasphemies,
ceeded from his own mind. This put Christian more to it than satan that
anything he had met with before, even to think that he should suggested
them into hi-
now blaspheme Him that he had so much loved before. Yet, mind.
if he could have helped it, he would not have done it; but he
had not the discretion either to stop his ears, or to know from whence those
When Christian had travelled in this disconsolate condition some con-
siderable time, he thought he heard the voice of a man, as going before
him, saying, "Though I walk through the Valley of the Shadow of Death,
I will fear no evil; for Thou art with me." (Psa. xxiii. 4.)
Then he was glad, and that for these reasons:
First,-Because he gathered from thence, that some who feared God
were in this valley as well as himself.
Secondly,-For that he perceived God was with them, though in that
dark and dismal state. And why not, thought he, with me, though, by
reason of the impediment that attends this place, I cannot perceive it?
(Job ix. I .)
Thirdly,-For that he hoped (could he overtake them) to have company
by-and-bye. So he went on, and called to him that was before; but he
knew not what to answer, for that he also thought himself to be alone.
And by-and-bye the day broke. Then said Christian, He hath turned the
shadow of death into the morning." (Amos v. 8.)
Now, morning being come, he looked back, not out of desire to return,
but to see, by the light of the day, what hazards he had gone through in the
dark. So he saw more perfectly the ditch that was on the one hand, and
74 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
the quag that was on the other; also how narrow the way was which led
betwixt them both. Also now he saw the hobgoblins, and satyrs, and
dragons.of the pit, but all afar off; for after break of day they came not
nigh; yet they were discovered to him according to that which is written,
" He discovereth deep things out of darkness, and bringeth out to light the
shadow of death." (Job xii. 22.)
Now was Christian much affected with his deliverance from all the
dangers of his solitary way; which dangers, though he feared them much
before, yet he saw them more clearly
now, because the light of the day made
them conspicuous to him. And about
this time the sufi was rising, and this
was another mercy to Christian; for you
must note that, though the first part of
the Valley of the Shadow of Death was
dangerous, yet this second part, which
he was yet to go, was if possible .far
-more dangerous; for, from the place
where he now stood, even to the end of
the valley, the way was all along set so
full of snares, traps, gins, and nets here,
and so full of pits, pitfalls, deep holes,
and shelvings down there, that, had -it
now been dark, as it was when he came
the first part of the way, had he had a
Thousand souls, they had in reason been
s cast away. But, as I said just now, the
"He can now do little more than sit In his cave' Sun was rising. Then said he, His
candle shineth on my head, and by His
light I go through darkness." (Job xxix. 3.)
In this light, therefore, he came to the end of the valley. Now, I saw in
my dream that at the end of the valley lay blood, bones, ashes, and
mangled bodies of men, even of pilgrims that had gone this way formerly;
and, while I was musing what should be the reason, I espied a little before
me a cave, where two giants, POPE and PAGAN, dwelt in old time; by whose
power and tyranny, the men whose bones, blood, ashes, etc., lay there, were
cruelly put to death. But by this place Christian went without danger,
CHRISTJAN FIRST SEES FAITHFUL.
whereat I somewhat wondered; but I have learnt since, that Pagan has
been dead many a day; and, as for the other, though he be yet alive, he is,
by reason of age, also of the many shrewd brushes that he met with in his
younger days, grown so crazy and stiff in his joints, that he can now do
little more than sit in his cave's mouth, grinning at pilgrims as they go by,
and biting his nails because he cannot come at them.
So I saw that Christian went on his way; yet, at the sight of the old man
that sat at the mouth of the cave, he could not tell what to think, especially
because he spoke to him, though he could not go after him, saying, "You
will never mend till more of you be burned." But he held his peace, and
set a good face on it, and so went by and catched no hurt. Then sang
"Oh, world of wonders (I can say no less),
That I should be preserved in that distress
That I have met with here! Oh, blessed be
That hand that from it hath delivered me!
Dangers in darkness, devils, hell, and sin,
Did compass me, while I this vale was in;
Yea, snares, and pits, and traps, and nets did lie
My path about, that worthless, silly I
Might have been catched, entangled, and cast down;
But, since I live, let Jesus wear the crown."
Now as Christian went on his way, he came to a little ascent which
was cast up on purpose that pilgrims might see before them: up there,
therefore, Christian went; and looking forward, he saw Faithful before
him upon his journey. Then said Christian aloud, "Ho, hol so-hol
stay, and I will be your companion." At that Faithful looked behind
him; to whom Christian cried, "Stay, stay, till I come up to you." But
Faithful answered, "No, I am upon my life, and the avenger of blood is
At this Christian was somewhat moved; and putting to all his strength,
he quickly got up with Faithful, and did also overrun him: so the last was
first. Then did Christian vain-gloriously smile, because he had
gotten the start of his brother; but, not taking good heed to Cstian's
his feet, he suddenly stumbled and fell, and could not rise Faithful and
again until Faithful came up to help him. him go
Then I saw in my dream, they went very lovingly on together.
76 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
together, and had sweet discourse of all things that had happened to them
in their pilgrimage; and thus Christian began:
CHRIS. My honoured and well-beloved brother Faithful, I am glad that
I have overtaken you, and that God has so tempered our spirits that we
can walk as companions in this so pleasant a path.
FAITH. I had thought, dear friend, to have had your company quite from
our town; but you did get the start of me, wherefore I was forced to come
thus much of the way alone.
CHRIS. How long did you stay in the City of Destruction before you set
out after me on your pilgrimage?
FAITH. Till I could stay no longer; for there was great talk, presently
after you were gone out, that our city would, in a short- time, with fire from
heaven, be burned down to the ground.
CHRIS. What I did your neighbours talk so?
FAITH. Yes; it was for a while in everybody's mouth.
CHRIS. What! and did no more of them but you come out to escape the
FAITH. Though there was, as I said, a great talk thereabout, yet I do not
think they did firmly believe it. For, in the heat of the discourse, I heard
some of them deridingly speak of you, and of your desperate journey; for
so they called this your pilgrimage. But I did believe, and do still, that
the end of our city will be with fire and brimstone from above; and there-
fore I have made my escape.
CHRIS. Did you hear no talk of neighbour Pliable?
FAITH. Yes, Christian; I heard that he followed you till he came to the
Slough of Despond, where, as some said, he fell in; but he would not be
known to have so done; but I am sure he was soundly bedabbled with that
kind of dirt.
CHRIS. And what said the neighbours to him?
FAITH. He hath, since his going back, been had greatly in derision, and
that among all sorts of people: some do mock and despise him, and scarce
any will set him on work. He is now seven times worse than if he had
never gone out of the city.
'CHRIS. But why should they be so set against him, since they also
despise the way that he forsook?
FAITH. "Oh," they say, "hang him; he is a turncoat! he was not true to his
profession I" I think God has stirred up even his enemies to hiss at him
"He could not rise again until Faithful came up to help him."
WHAT WAS SAID IN THE CITY. 79
and make him a proverb, because he hath forsaken the way. (Jer. xxix.
CHRIS. Had you no talk with him before you came out?
FAITH. I met him once in the streets, but he leered away on the other
side, as one ashamed of what he had done; so I spake not to him.
CHRIS. Well, at my first setting out, I had hopes of that man, but now I
fear he will perish in the overthrow of the city. For it has happened to
him according to the true proverb, "The dog is turned to his vomit again,
and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire." (II. Peter
FAITH. These are my fears of him too; but who can hinder that which
CHRIS. "Well, neighbour Faithful," said Christian, "let us leave him,
and talk of things that more immediately concern ourselves. Tell me now
what you have met with in the way as you came; for I know you have met
with some things, or else it may be writ for a wonder."
FAITH. I escaped the slough that I perceive you fell into, and got up to
the gate without that danger; only I met with one whose name was
Wanton, that had like to have done me a mischief.
CHRIS. It was well you escaped her net: Joseph was hard put to it by
her, and he escaped her as you did; but it had like to have cost him his life.
(Gen. xxxix. 11-13.) But what did she do to you?
FAITH. You cannot think (but that you know something) what a flatter-
ing tongue she had; she lay at me hard to turn aside with her, promising
me all manner of content.
CHRIS. Nay, she did not promise you the content of a good conscience ?
FAITH. You know what I mean-all carnal and fleshly content.
CHRIS. Thank God you have escaped her: the abhorred of the Lord
shall fall into her ditch. (Prov. xxii. 14.)
FAITH. Nay, I know not whether I did wholly escape her or no.
CHRIS. Why, I trow you did not consent to her desires?
FAITH. No, not to defile myself; for I remembered an old writing that I
had seen, which saith, "Her steps take hold of hell." (Prov. v. 5.) So I
shut mine eyes, because I would not be bewitched with her looks. (Job
xxxi. I.) Then she railed on me, and I went my way.
CHRIS. Did you meet with no other assault as you came?
FAITH. When I came to the foot of the hill called Difficulty, I met with
80 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
a very aged man, who asked me what I was and whither bound. I told
him that I was a pilgrim, going to the Celestial City. Then said the old
man, "Thou lookest like an honest fellow: wilt thou be content to dwell
with me, for the wages that I shall give thee?" Then I asked him his
name, and where he dwelt.. He said his name was Adam the First, and
that he dwelt in the town of Deceit. (Eph. iv. 22.) I asked him then
what was his work, and what the wages that he would give. He told
me that his work was many delights; and his wages, that I should be his
heir at last. I further asked him. what house he kept, and what other
servants he had. So he told me that his house was maintained with all
the dainties of the world, and that his servants were those of his own
begetting. Then I asked him how many children he had. He said that
he had but three daughters, the Lust of the Flesh, the Lust of the Eyes,
and the Pride of Life (I. John ii. 16), and that I should marry them if I
would. Then I asked, how long time he would have me live with him?
And he told me, As long as he lived himself.
CHRIS. Well, and what conclusion came the old man and you to at last?
FAITH. Why, at first I found myself somewhat inclinable to go with the
man, for I thought he spake very fair; but looking in his forehead, as I
talked with him, I saw there written, "Put off the old man with his deeds."
CHRIS. And how then?
FAITH. Then it came burning hot into my mind, whatever he said, and
however he flattered, when he got me home to his house he would sell me
for a slave. So I bid him forbear to talk, for I would not come near the
door of his house. Then he reviled me, and told me that he would send
such a one after me that should make my way bitter to my soul. So I
turned to go away from him; but, just as I turned myself to go thence, I
felt him take hold of my flesh, and give me such a deadly twitch back, that
I thought he had pulled part of me after himself: this made me cry, 0
wretched man I" (Rom. vii. 24.). So I went on my way up the hill. Now,
when I had got about half-way up, I looked behind me, and saw one
coming after me, swift as the wind; so he overtook me just about the place
where the settle stands.
CHRIS. "Just there," said Christian, "did I sit down to rest me; but
being overcome with sleep, I there lost this roll out of my bosom."
FAITH. But, good brother, hear me out. So soon as the man overtook
me he was but a word and a blow; for down he knocked me, and laid me
FAITHFUL AND ADAM THE. FIRST.
for dead. But, when I was a little come to" myself again, I asked him
wherefore he served me so. He said, because of my secret inclining to
SAdam the First. And, with that, he struck me another deadly blow on the
breast, and beat me down backwards; so I lay at his feet as dead as before.
So, when I came to myself again, I cried him mercy; but he said, "I know
not how to show mercy;" and, with that, he knocked me down again. He
had doubtless made an end of me, but that One came by, and bid him
CHRIS. Who was that that bid him
FAITH. I did not know Him at first;
but, as He went by,. I. perceived the
holes in His hands and His side; then
I concluded that He was our Lord.
So I went up the hill.
CHRIS. That man that overtook you
.was Moses. He spareth none, neither
knoweth he how to show mercy to those
that transgress his law.
FAITH. I know it very well: it was
not the first time that he has met with
me. It was he that came to me when
I dwelt securely at home, and thattold
me he would burn my house over my
head if I stayed there.
CHRIS. But did not you see the
house that stood. there, on the top of *
that hill on the side of which Moses
FAITH. Yes, and the lions too, before I came at it. But, for the lions, I
think they were asleep, for it was about noon; and because I.had so much
of the day before me, I passed by the Porter, and came down the hill.
CHRIS. He told -me, indeed, that he saw you go by; but I wish you had
called at the house, for they would have showed you so many rarities, that
you would scarce have forgot them to the day of your death. But pray
tell me, did you meet nobody in the Valley of Humility?
FAITH. Yes, I met with one Discontent, who would willingly have per-
82 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.
suaded me to go back again with him: his reason was, for that the valley
was altogether without honour. He told me, moreover, that there to go
was the way to disoblige all my friends, as Pride, Arrogancy, Self-conceit,
Worldly-Glory, with others, who he knew, as he said, would be very much
offended if I made such a fool of myself as to wade through this valley.
CHRIS. Well, and how did you answer him?
FAITH. I told him that, although all these that he named might claim
kindred of me, and that rightly (for, indeed, they were my relations
according to the flesh), yet, since I became a pilgrim, they have disowned
me, as I also have rejected them; and therefore they were to me now no
more than if they had never been of my lineage.. I told him, moreover,
that as to this valley, he had quite misrepresented the thing; for before
honour is humility, and a haughty spirit before a fail. "Therefore," said I,
"I had rather go through this valley to the honour that was so accounted
by the wisest, than choose that which he esteemed most worthy of our
CHRIS. Met you with nothing else in that valley?
FAITH. Yes, I met with Shame; but, of all the men that I met with in
my pilgrimage, he, I think, bears the wrong name. The other would be
said nay, after a little argumentation and somewhat else; but this bold-faced
Shame would never have done.
CHRIS. Why, what did he say to you?
FAITH. What? why, he objected against religion itself. He said it was
a pitiful, low, sneaking business for a man to mind religion. He said that
a tender conscience was an unmanly thing; and that for a man to. watch
over his words and ways, so as to tie up himself from that hectoring liberty
that the brave spirits of the times accustom themselves unto, would make
him the ridicule of the times. He objected also, that. but a few of the
mighty, rich, or wise were ever of my opinion; nor any of them neither,
before they were persuaded to be fools, and to be of a voluntary fondness,
to venture the loss of all for nobody else knows what. (I. Cor. i. 26; iii.
18; Phil. iii. 7-9; John vii. 48.) He, moreover, objected the base and low
estate and condition of those that were chiefly the pilgrims of the times in
which they lived; also their ignorance, and want of understanding in all
natural science. Yea, he did hold me to it at that rate also, about a great
many more things than here I relate; as, that it was a shame to sit whining
and mourning under a sermon, and a shame to come sighing and groaning