BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM
THE ALLYN MUSEUM OF ENTOMOLOGY
Number 46 22 November 1977
THREE NEW SPECIES OF ADELPHA
MEXICO AND COLOMBIA
Stephen R. Steinhauser
Research Associate, Allyn Museum of Entomology
Lee D. Miller
Curator, Allyn Museum of Entomology
While arranging the Allyn Museum Adelpha from Mexico, we found two
species similar to, but distinct from, A. miller Beutelspacher (1976). A series of
Adelpha from western Colombia collected by the senior author and his wife, as
well as by Curtis Callaghan although very similar to A. rothschildi Fruhstorfer
(1915: 528) was consistently different and specifically distinct. A single aberrant
8 of A. eponina Staudinger (1888: 143) is also briefly discussed and illustrated, but
We wish to thank R. I. Vane-Wright of the British Museum (Natural History)
for the loan of a specimen of A. rothschildi; Jacqueline Y. Miller aided the study
by the preparation of specimens when we needed them, in the preparation of some
genitalic slides and for reading the manuscript; and A. C. Allyn took care of the
photographic chores and also read the finished manuscript.
Adelpha levona, new species
Figures 1, 2 (8), 5 (8 genitalia)
Male: Head, thorax and abdomen black above, pale gray below. Palpi black
above, remainder white, but with a black lateral stripe. Eyes densely hairy.
Antennae black. Legs clothed with tan outer and whitish inner hairs.
Upper surface of forewing dark brown with darker brownish-black transverse
bands in a typical Adelpha pattern, as illustrated; a postdiscal band of orange spots
running from midway out inner margin and curving around (but well outside)
cell to costa, as illustrated, those posteriad of Cu2 and in R3-R4 the most poorly
developed; two faint (occasionally orange tinted) pale spots just outside cell in
Rs-M, and M1-M2 have their proximal edges in line with the proximal edge of the
postdiscal spot in M2-Mg. Margin even, slightly concave; fringes gray-brown,
narrowly white at apex.
1 2 4
3 4 "
Hindwing above also dark brown with transverse blackish-brown bands;
basal two-fifths of wing anteriad of 2A blackish-brown; outwardly discal band
obscure, postdiscal band more prominent and macular, submarginal band narrow
and prominent; anal area slightly paler than rest of wing. Margin crenulate;
Under surface with a faded appearance compared with A. rothschildi. Ground
color of forewing ochreous to fulvous with dark markings corresponding to those
of upper surface; pale gray-white markings as shown in cell (three), just outside
cell in Rs-M, and M1-M2 and a submarginal series from inner margin to Rs-Ml.
Fringes darker than ground color, gray-brown, narrowly white at apex.
Hindwing below ochreous to fulvous with light gray bands and areas as
illustrated and with narrow red-brown lines separating the ochreous and gray
areas, especially in distal half and near base of wing. Fringes dark brown.
Length of forewing of Holotype a 32.0 mm., those of the eleven 3 Paratypes
range from 30.5 to 33.0 mm., averaging 32.0 mm.
Male genitalia as illustrated, -showing a close relationship with A. rothschildi
(Fig. 6). The sacculus bears a prominent toothed dorsal appendage (the "clunicula"
of Fruhstorfer, 1915) that is straighter than that of rothschildi, the valva in the
present species is narrower and levona has a slightly more hooked uncus.
Described from 12 male specimens from the Department of Valle del Cauca,
HOLOTYPE &: COLOMBIA: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Rio Anchicayd, 1000 m.,
2.ii.1975 (S. R. & L. M. Steinhauser).
PARATYPES: all COLOMBIA: VALLE DEL CAUCA: same locality and
collectors as Holotype, 53, 26.x.1974, 11.i.1975, 18.i.1975, 2.ii.1975, 15.ii.1975;
same locality and collectors as Holotype, but 1150 m. elevation, 45, 23.xii.1973,
5.i.1974, 24.xii.1975, 31.xii.1975; 2$ Calima Dam, 30.xi.1973 (C. Callaghan).
Disposition of type-series: For the present all of the type-series is in the
Allyn Museum of Entomology collection.
We take great pleasure in naming this beautiful species for the senior author's
wife, Levona, who collected many of the types.
Discussion: A. levona is very closely related to A. rothschildi (Figs. 3, 4,
8), from which the present species differs in the following particulars: 1) rothschildi
is a larger insect, averaging slightly over 33 mm. in forewing length, as against
an average of 32.0 for levona; 2) the forewing margin is quite even in levona and
crenulate in rothschildi; 3) rothschildi is much darker, especially on the under
surface; 4) the outer band of the upper surface forewing orange band is smoothly
sinuate in rothschildi, staggered in levona; 5) the orange spots just outside the cell
in Rs-M1 and Mi-M2 are well-marked and proximally well separated from the spot
in M2-M: in rothschildi, but generally diffuse, rarely orange-tinted and contiguous
to the spot in M2-M3 in levona; 6) the postdiscal dark band on the upper hindwing is
continuous and much heavier in rothschildi, but less pronounced and macular
in levona; 7) on the under forewing there is a conjoined, double tornal gray spot
distad of the gray band in rothschildi that is not present in levona (but this double
spot was not mentioned in Fruhstorfer's original description); 8) in rothschildi
there are two conjoined gray spots at the end of the cell, the upper one of which is
Figures 1-6: Adelpha. 1-2, A. levona, new species, Holotype S, upper (1,
photo no. 071377-17) and under (2, photo no. 071377-18) surfaces; COLOMBIA:
VALLE DEL CAUCA: Rio AnchicayA. 3-4, A. rothschildi Fruhstorfer, S upper
(3, photo no. 071377-17) and under (4, photo no. 071377-18) surfaces; COLOMBIA:
VALLE DEL CAUCA: Rio AnchicayA. 3-4, A. rothschildi Fruhstorfer, 3 upper
(3, photo no. 071377-17) and under (4, photo no. 071377-18) surfaces; COLOMBIA:
VALLE DEL CAUCA: Rio Anchicaya. 5, A. levona, new species, S genitalia of
Paratype; same data as Holotype; slide M-3696 (Lee D. Miller). 6, A. rothschildi
Fruhstorfer, a genitalia of specimen in Figs. 3-4; slide M-3705 (Lee D. Miller).
All specimens figured are in the Allyn Museum collection.
at most weakly developed in levona; 9) on the under hindwing of levona there are
a few weakly developed tornal gray streaks, whereas rothschildi has a more or less
complete series; 10) in levona the white fringe scales are at the forewing apex only,
whereas in rothschildi they are present between the veins on both wings; 11)
the valva of levona is narrower than that of rothschildi and the angle between
the costa and the base of the valva is more obtuse; the clunicula of rothschildi
is more curved caudad and the uncus of levona is slightly more hooked at the tip.
Biological Notes: Adelpha levona has been found in a restricted area of Valle
del Cauca between 1000 and 1500 m. along the western slope of the western cor-
dillera from October through February. It has been observed flying in patches of
remnant rain forest in an area that has been largely cleared for agriculture. Males
(the only specimens known) visit seeps in rock and on concrete faces and are also
attracted to human or animal urine. They may sun themselves on bare rock and
flat gravel surfaces.
A. levona has been taken at the same place on the same date with A. rothschildi,
strongly suggesting the non-conspecificity of the two insects.
Figures 7-9, Adelpha escalantei, new species; Holotype 5, upper (7, photo no.
071377-5) and under (8, photo no. 071377-6) surfaces; MEXICO: OAXACA: Chi-
malapa; 9, 3 genitalia of Paratype; MEXICO: CHIAPAS: Santa Rosa Comitan;
slide M-3701 (Lee D. Miller).
Adelpha escalantei, new species
Figures 7, 8 (a), 9 (a genitalia)
Male: Head, thorax and abdomen dark brown above, whitish below with
lateral brown stripes. Palpi dark brown above, white below and with a dark brown
lateral stripe. Eyes densely hairly, Antennae dark brown. Legs clothed with dorsal
brown and ventral white hairs.
Forewing above as illustrated, dark brown, with a transverse orange postdiscal
(white near inner margin behind Cu,) band that is broadest in M2-M3 above which
it is bifurcate, the distal arm being discontinuous and the proximal one continuous,
neither reaching the costal margin; some brown shading in band in Cu1-Cug.
Fringes black-brown, narrowly white at apex and a few white scales at tornus.
Hindwing above also dark brown with obscure darker banding and a white
discal band beginning at mid-costa and tapering toward tornus in Cu2-2A where
it approaches, but does not meet, a dark orange tornal area bounded by a double
black spot with white outer scaling nearest margin. Fringes dark brown with
a few white scales at tornus and apex. The outer margin is evenly rounded and
Ground color of forewing below brownish-maroon with a dark, uneven maroon
band around the end of the cell, shining pale gray markings within the cell and
dull tan-maroon areas corresponding to orange band of upper surface; a broken
submarginal band of gray spots runs from the costa to M2-M3 and from Cul-
Cu2 to near the tornus. Fringe dark brown, whitish at apex and tornus.
Hindwing below as illustrated, ground color brownish-maroon, basal pale
markings grayish, central band white and submarginal light markings gray;
postdiscal area crossed by irregular, more or less macular dark maroon bands;
tornal area marked gray and dark maroon. Fringes whitish proximad, dark brown
narrowly cut with white distad, tornus and apex whitish.
Length of forewing of Holotype 6 29.5 mm., those of the three 6 Paratypes are
28.0, 29.0 and 30.0 mm.
6 genitalia as illustrated and characterized by the curved and hooked uncus,
the broad, well-toothed valvae that are quite long and the general appearance.
Described from four male specimens from Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico.
HOLOTYPE 8: MEXICO: OAXACA: Chimalapa, ix.1965 (T. Escalante).
PARATYPES: all MEXICO: CHIAPAS: 13, Ocozingo, viii.1974; Santa Rosa
Comitan (properly Santa Rosa de las Margaritas), 16, iii.1958, 16, ix.1961 (all T.
Disposition of type-series: The entire type-series is in the collection of the
Allyn Museum of Entomology.
We take great pleasure in naming this Adelpha for its discoverer, Dr. Tarsicio
Escalante, of Mexico, D. F. who has contributed so much to our understanding of
the Mexican fauna.
A discussion of the members of the A. miller complex follows the description
of the next species.
Adelpha jacquelinae, new species
Figures 10, 11 (6), 12, 13 (9), 14 (6 genitalia)
Male: Head, thorax and abdomen dark brown above, whitish below with
brown lateral stripes. Palpi dark brown above, white below with a dark brown lateral
stripe. Antennae dark brown. Eyes densely hairy. Legs dorsally brown, ventrally
Forewing above as illustrated, dark grayish-brown with darker transverse
markings in typical Adelpha pattern; orange postdiscal band (shaded to white
Figures 10-14, Adelpha jacquelinae, new species. 10-11, Holotype 8, upper (10,
photo no. 071377-7) and under (11, photo no. 071377-8) surfaces; MEXICO: OAXACA:
Chimalapa. 12-13, Paratype 9, upper (12, photo no. 071377-9) and under (13, photo
no. 071377-10) surfaces; MEXICO: OAXACA: Puerto Eligio. 14, 6 genitalia of
Holotype, slide M-3703 (Lee D. Miller).
from Cu2-2A to inner margin) widest in M2-M. above which it is bifurcate, the distal
arm being composed of three discontinuous spots and the proximal arm more or
less continuous, neither reaching the costa; white area posteriad of Cu2 much nar-
rowed and only about 2/3 width of contiguous orange part of band; inner edge of
band fairly straight, slightly convex in M3-Cu,. Fringes dark brown, narrowly
white at apex and tornus and a few white scales between the veins.
Upper surface of hindwing likewise dark grayish-brown with darker transverse
bands typical of the genus; central white band beginning at mid-costa, thickest
in middle and terminating in a point near tornus; some orange tornal scales in
Cu2-2A just inside two black spots with white distal edges. Fringes checkered,
black brown along veins, white between them.
Under surface brownish-maroon with darker brown transverse lines as
shown in illustration; central band of forewing pale pinkish-brown, that of hindwing
pure white; other pale markings on both wings dull bluish-gray; tornus of hindwing
with two prominent black spots edged inwardly with fulvous and white scales.
Fringes of forewing dark grayish with white scales tornally and apically; those of
hindwing checkered with brownish-black and white between the veins.
Length of forewing of Holotype 8 28.0 mm., those of ten a Paratypes range
from 26.0 to 29.0 mm., averaging 27.5 mm.
The 3 genitalia are as illustrated and characterized by the slightly hooked
uncus, the broad terminus of the valva and the one to three stout teeth at the tip of
Female: Upper surface similar to the 3, but the orange forewing band is more
sharply bent at vein M3. The under surface ground color brown, rather than
maroon, the central band brown band more centrally placed than in the 6, and
the hindwing pale band not as well defined and straighter than in the S.
Length of forewing of the single 9 Paratype 31.5 mm.
Described from twelve specimens, eleven 6 and one 9, from the states of Oaxaca
and Chiapas, Mexico.
HOLOTYPE 6: MEXICO: OAXACA: Chimalapa, viii.1965 (T. Escalante);
8 genitalia slide M-3703 (Lee D. Miller).
PARATYPES: all MEXICO. OAXACA: same locality and collector as
Holotype, 13, viii.1964, 26 ix.1965; Rio Sarabia, 15, ix.1958; Puerto Eligio, 19,
1.x.1961. CHIAPAS: Ocozingo, 16, vii.1972; Petalocingo, 16, vi.1946 (all the pre-
ceding collected by T. Escalante); San Quintin, 38, 1-5.x.1971, 16, 8-12.viii.1971
(all R. Wind).
Disposition of type-series: The entire type series is in the collection of the Allyn
Museum of Entomology, but may be subdivided later.
We are very pleased to name this lovely Adelpha for the wife of the junior
author, Jacqueline, who is also the Assistant Curator of the Museum.
Discussion of the Mexican Adelpha phylaca complex
Adelpha escalantei and jacquelinae are part of a closely related complex
that includes A. miller Beutelspacher, A. baeotia oberthueri (Boisduval) and
A. phylaca phylaca (Bates), all known from Mexico, and several other species from
South America. Of the Mexican species we have figured here oberthueri (Figs.
15, 16, 6) and phylaca (Figs. 17,186) since neither was figured in "Seitz"; A.
miller is figured by Beutelspacher (1976) and is not figured here. A. b. oberthueri
may be immediately separated from the other species by its very broad discal
bands, and by that of the upper forewing being entirely orange with the exception
of a small amount of white suffusion in Cu2-2A and the anal cell. A. p. phylaca
is separable from miller, escalantei and jacquelinae by the forewing discal spot
in CuI-Cu2 on the upper surface being white in at least the proximal half inphylaca,
but in less than half in the other species. This same spot in phylaca is offset pro-
ximad by at least 2 mm.; in the others it is approximately in line.
There are many characters that separate miller, escalantei and jacquelinae,
1. There are two apical orange spots in miller, three in the other species.
2. The upper forewing discal band spot in M2-M3 is quadrate, entire in miller
with the outer edge straight and offset distad from the other spots, resulting in a
pronounced indentation of the discal band; in escalantei this spot is rounded,
centrally indented distad, rounded proximad; that of jacquelinae is quadrate,
generally entire and with the outer edge straight.
3. The upper hindwing of miller has no tornal orange shading; the other two
4. The upper hindwing inner submarginal band is more or less solid in
escalantei, macular in the other species.
5. The under forewing pale apical spots are round and white in escalantei,
gray and elongate normal to veins in the other two species.
Figures 15-18: Adelpha. 15-16, A. baeotia oberthueri (Boisduval), 3 upper
(15, photo no. 071377-1) and under (16, photo no. 071377-2) surfaces; MEXICO:
CHIAPAS: Pichucalco. 17-18, A. phylaca phylaca (Bates), 3 upper (17, photo no.
071377-3) and under (18, photo no. 071377-4) surfaces; MEXICO: GUERRERO:
6. The subapical pale spots on the under hindwing are white and ovoid in
escalantei, whitish, but divided by brown streaks in jacquelinae and obscure,
diffuse and ochreous in miller (spot in M,-M2 may be divided by a brown streak).
7. The under forewing brown streak within the pale discal band of miller is
centrally located in M3-Cu, (the band is white proximad and dirty white distad);
streak is proximad of center of M3-Cu, in escalantei and distad of the center in
8. Both edges of the white discal band spot on the under forewing are rounded
in escalantei; in the other two species the proximal edge is straight and the distal
9. Spot in Cu,-Cu, of the upper forewing discal band is entirely orange in the
8, sprinkled with some white in the 9, spot in Cu2-2A is white in miller; in escalantei
the Cu,-Cu, spot is all orange and that in Cu2-2A has an orange distal half; in
jacquelinae the proximal part of the spot in Cui-Cu2 is white, and the one in Cu,-
2A may have minor distal orange scaling.
10. Of the three submarginal bands of spots on the under hindwing, the outer
band is tan and the inner two blue-gray in miller, the inner and outer bands are
tan and the central whitish in escalantei and the inner band is tan with the outer
two blue-gray in jacquelinae.
11. The submarginal and postdiscal bands of the under hindwing are strongly
offset proximad in M2-M3 in miller, slightly offset distad in M1-M2 in jacquelinae
and the postdiscal band only is slightly offset distad in M1-M2 in escalantei.
12. The pale markings of the under surface proximad of the pale central bands
are pale gray on the forewing, white on the hindwing of escalantei, bluish-gray
on both wings in the other two species.
13. Upper surface ground color is darkest in escalantei.
14. The under surface ground color is rich maroon-brown in escalantei, browner
in jacquelinae and paler in miller.
15. The uncus is fairly straight, but slightly hooked in miller; is somewhat
hooked and slightly curved in jacquelinae and is curved and rather strongly
hooked in escalantei.
16. The valva distad of the clunicula is narrow in miller with the sides nearly
parallel, terminally rounded and bearing no teeth or only poorly developed ones;
that of escalantei is broad, sides slightly convergent, somewhat squared terminally
and bearing numerous well-developed teeth; in jacquelinae it is broad, sides con-
vergent, terminally rounded and bearing one to three teeth.
17. The lengths of the valvae are about equivalent in miller and jacquelinae;
in escalantei the valvae are about 1.4 times as long.
18. The length of the valvae from the extreme base to the costal apodeme is
very short in jacquelinae, short in miller and long in escalantei.
Adelpha eponina Staudinger, ab.
Figures 19, 20 (3)
A single aberrant a of this species was taken by S. R. and L. M. Steinhauser
(COLOMBIA: VALLE DEL CAUCA: Rio Anchicaya, 1000 m., 15.ii.1975). Normal
eponina (Figs. 21, 22 6) is not uncommon in this locality where remnants of rain
forest still exist on slopes of the Anchicaya valley too steep for cultivation. This
aberrant form has pale ochreous scaling in the tornal part of the upper forewing
discal band and a pale ochreous discal band on the upper hindwing, neither of
which is shown in typical eponina. Normal eponina has two ochreous discal bands
on the hindwing beneath separated by a broad brownish-black band; in the
aberrant specimen the ochreous bands are expanded and the intervening dark
band greatly reduced. The genitalia are identical in both forms. We here illustrate
both forms from the same locality, but not their genitalia.
Beutelspacher, C. R., 1976. Estudios sobre el genero Adelpha Hibner en Mexico
(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Rev. Soc. Mexicana Lepid., 2: 8-14; 6 figs.
Fruhstorfer, H., 1915. Adelpha, in Seitz, A., Die Gross-schmetterlinge der Erde,
Staudinger, 0., 1888, in Staudinger, 0. and E. Schatz, 1888-1892. Die Exotische
Schmetterlinge. Ftirth, G. Lowensohn: 2 vols.
21 2 2
Figures 19-22, Adelpha eponina Staudinger. 19-20, aberrant S, upper (19,
photo no. 071377-13) and under (20, photo no. 071377-14) surfaces; COLOMBIA:
VALLE DEL CAUCA: Rio AnchicayA. 21-22, normal 6, upper (21, photo no.
072377-11) and under (22, photo no. 071377-12) surfaces; COLOMBIA: VALLE
DEL CAUCA: rio Anchicayd.