BULLETIN OF THE ALLYN MUSEUM
THE ALLYN MUSEUM OF ENTOMOLOGY
Number 18 22 July 1974
DISTRIBUTION OF ARCTIC-ALPINE
LYCAENA PHLAEAS L. (LYCAENIDAE)
IN NORTH AMERICA WITH DESIGNATION
OF A NEW SUBSPECIES'
Clifford D. FerrisO
College of Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071,
and Research Associate, Allyn Museum of Entomology
The Lycaena phlaeas (L.) complex has been studied in detail by a number of
workers. Two papers, in particular, have surveyed the literature. Ford (1923)
presented observations on the world-wide geographic races of the butterfly. His
treatment of Old World races is quite complete relative to the period when the paper
was published. The North American discussion is rather incomplete, however,
and Ford recognized only the taxa hypophlaeas Bdv. and feildeni M'Lachlan
[misspelled as fieldeni]. Shields & Montgomery (1966) discussed the distribution
and bionomics of arctic-alpine phlaeas in North America. They recognized four
subspecies, as did dos Passos (1964): arethusa Wolley-Dod, feildeni M'Lachlan,
hypophlaeas Bdv., and the non-arctic-alpine americana Morris. Harris is usually
noted as the authority for the taxon americana. F. M. Brown (in litt.) has stated
that the name appeared in "Synopsis of the described Lepidoptera of North America.
Part 1. Diurnal and Crepuscular Lepidoptera." Compiled for the Smithsonian
Institution by John G. Morris, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Wash-
ington, D.C. 358 pp. 1862. Harris died in 1856 without having published the name
americana. Thus the citation in dos Passos (1964) should read Morris, 1862 rather
than Harris, 1862. Ford considered hypophlaeas and americana synonymous,
which is not the case. He apparently ignored arethusa, described in 1907.
Since Ford's paper, additional North American races of phlaeas have been
identified. Before these races are discussed, several other matters need to be
examined. Generally speaking, the tails present on the secondaries of many Old
World phlaeas are lacking in the New World races. Harry Clench (in litt.) has
pointed out that our phlaeas is closest to the Manchurian race.
'Published with the approval of'the Director, Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station, as Journal Article
no. JA 667.
zMuseum Associate, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, Los Angeles, California.
Ford recognized the varieties of L. phlaeas as falling into three categories:
geographical, seasonal, and casual variation. With the exception of americana,
the North American races appear to be univoltine, so seasonal variation (spring,
summer, fall, or wet and dry season broods) is not a factor to consider. Thus we
are dealing with Ford's "constant broods" and geographic races, excecting
americana. Aberrations (casual variation) occur with some frequency in all
subspecies of phlaeas, and of the New World subspecies, are most common in
americana. These will not be treated here. Robertson (1969) has discussed
homoeosis and heteromorphosis in L. phlaeas at some length.
There are two characters which Ford used to separate populations of L. phlaeas.
These are the orange subterminal line or band on the underside of the hindwings
and the "critical spot". This is the spot which appears dorsally in space Cu2 of
the forewings. Ford classified it as either concave outward or concave inward.
In many of the North American races, the "spot" is distinctly double or is fused
in the form of a modified hourglass. Thus it is difficult to use this character. As
Ford noted, one must use a statistical analysis of the "critical spot", as any given
population will exhibit some variation and one spot form will predominate,
although several forms may be present.
Ford also discussed the form caeruleo-punctata Stgr. to some extent. This is
the form which exhibits a postmedian blue spot row (DHW) proximal to the
orange band. In the North American races, the majority of the specimens
examined exhibited this character. While it may have some value in separating
Old World forms and geographic races, it does not appear to be a valid or useful
taxonomic character for the New World subspecies.
DESCRIBED NORTH AMERICAN SUBSPECIES OF LYCAENA PHLAEAS
Lycaena phlaeas americana [Type Locality: Massachusetts] is by far the
most common and widely distributed of the North American subspecies. Clench
(in Ehrlich & Ehrlich, 1961) notes for its range: Nova Scotia and the Gasp6 west
to Minnesota, south to Virginia and montane northern Georgia, Missouri and
Kansas. It has also been reported from Cass Co., North Dakota (Puckering &
Post, 1960). In fresh specimens, the base color is a clear coppery red and not at
all brassy. Excepting the tails on the secondaries, americana closely resembles the
northern European butterfly. Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate L. p. phlaeas from Europe.
L. p. americana is illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5. The larval foodplants are noted
as Rumex acetosella L., R. acetosa L., and R. crispus L. (Klots, 1951).
On a worldwide basis, the recorded larval foodplants for Lycaena phaleas are
all members of the Polygonaceae and are primarily species of Rumex and Oxyria.
In North America, the arctic-alpine races of phlaeas are restricted to the areas in
which these two plant genera are found, although there are many areas in
which the plants occur, but from which phlaeas has not been recorded.
The distribution and variation of L. p. americana is well documented in works
such as Klots (1951) and Clench (in Erhlich & Ehrlich, 1961) and no further
discussion of this subspecies will be attempted here. The ensuing treatment deals
with the arctic and arctic-alpine races of phlaeas in North America. In these
races, the ground color tends toward a brassy or bronze cast and is not nearly so
bright as in americana. The insects are frequently rather dusky in aspect. The
three described geographic races are: feildeni [T.L.: Ellesmere Island, Lat. 810
45' N], hypophlaeas [T.L.: "northern California" (see discussion below)]; arethusa
[T.L.: S. Fk. Sheep Ck., 35 mi. SW of Calgary, Alberta].
Lycaena phlaeas feildeni was described from two males and a female taken by
Capt. H. W. Feilden during the 1875-86 arctic voyage of H.M.S. Alert. The
butterflies were taken in an area where Rumex reniformis = Oryria digyna (L.)
grew. In correspondence with A. O. Shields in January, 1968, J. A. Downes of the
Entomology Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, mentioned that he
had caged several female L. p. feildeni over O. digyna plants in July, 1962 at Lake
Hazen on Ellesmere Is. The butterflies oviposited on the leaves and petioles. "The
larvae hatched and fed on the Oxyria leaves and were taken into 2nd and 3rd
instars, but did not survive a rather imperfect attempt to hibernate them. The
adults flew in areas where Oxyria was found, and in the course of one short search
I found one egg on Oxyria in nature." Specimens from western Greenland and
arctic Canada south to Baker Lake, Northwest Territory appear to be this sub-
species. The insect is poorly represented in collections with the few extant
specimens placed primarily in the Canadian National Collection and the
British Museum (Natural History). The butterfly is shown in Figs. 10-11.
Lycaena phlaeas arethusa appears restricted to the Canadian Rocky Mountains
in the region from Calgary to Jasper in Alberta and along the associated Alberta -
British Columbia border. On Plateau Mtn. south of Banff, it flies in small grassy
meadows at 8200' in association with Oxyria digyna and Rumex alpestris (Scop.)
Love (J.A. Legg, Jr. and C.D. Bird, in litt.). The flight period is typically the first
two weeks in August. The butterfly is shown in Figs. 8-9.
To date, L. p. hypophlaeas is restricted to the Sierra Nevada Mountains in
California. Localities are noted in the Appendix. Shields & Montgomery (1966)
show the range as extending roughly in a straight line from Bishop Pass to
Cathedral Lake, 70 miles to the north. Collection sites generally follow the John
Muir Trail. Elevations range from 9,000 to 12,000' with dates from 27.vii-14.viii.
In the Sonora Pass area, Mono Co., oviposition has been observed upon 0. digyna
(J.R. Mori and A.O. Shields, in litt.).
There has been much confusion over hypophlaeas because of an apparent
mistranslation of Boisduval's locality description, "Nord de la California". This
was interpreted by some workers as "North of California" rather than "The
northern [part] of California". This matter was set straight by Shields (1967).
Boisduval's description appeared in Annales de la Societe Entomologique de
France. Deuxieme Serie, Tome Dixieme, Paris, 1852: 291. Translation of the text
reads: "23. Polyommatus hypophlaeas. Very close to our Phlaeas; but smaller,
with the spots more strongly marked, the wings more rounded; the underside
of the hindwings ashy-gray-whitish, with the tawny marginal band well marked.
"Northern part of California. It is found throughout the northern United States."
Boisduval's type of hypophlaeas is in the collection of the United States
National Museum. The type was collected by P. J. M. Lorquin but does not bear
exact locality information. Shields (1967) suggested that the type locality for
hypophlaeas should be in the Sierra Nevada Mountains based upon research by
L. M. Martin and F. M. Brown.
To Boisduval's description, one can add the following information with respect
to the other races of phlaeas found in North America: The ground color of the fore-
wings dorsally is a distinct brassy-orange-copper color. There is a suggestion of
dusky overscaling in many males. The dark FW marginal borders are the narrowest
of the N. A. subspecies, with americana having the widest borders. The marginal
orange band on the upperside of the hindwings is well developed in both sexes.
A postmedian row of blue spots is frequently present just inside of this band.
On the underside of the secondaries, the crenulate orange [Boisduval's "tawny"]
band is distinct.
In addition to the areas cited above, populations of L. phlaeas are found in
the high mountains of Oregon, Idaho, northwest Wyoming-southwest Montana,
and in various localities in British Columbia, the Yukon Territory, and Alaska.
Figure 1 shows the presently known distribution of arctic-alpine phlaeas in
Too few specimens exist from most of these areas to permit in-depth study.
These must be considered isolates until additional material is available. Further
discussion appears later in this paper.
Until 1973, a handful of Wyoming-Montana specimens existed in a few museum
and private collections. Although phlaeas has been taken at high altitude in
Teton Co. and Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, and Sweet Grass Co..
Montana (Crazy Mtns.), the population center, at this writing, appears to be the
Beartooth Plateau, which extends from northern Park Co., Wyoming into southern
Carbon Co., Montana.
The butterfly is extremely local and adults do not stray more than a few yards
from the suspected larval foodplant. Ferris located a habitat on the Beartooth
Plateau in 1972 and he and S. Kohler of Missoula, Montana collected a series of
well over 100 specimens during the 1973 season. Specimens from this region
are distinct from the other North American phlaeas and a new subspecies is
Lycaena phlaeas arctodon, new subspecies
The main differences between the new subspecies and the other named sub-
species of L. phlaeas from North America are enumerated in Table 1. The subspecies
which are phenotypically closest to arctodon are hypophlaeas and arethusa.
In arctodon the DFW spots are more prominent and the dark borders wider than
in hypophlaeas. The copper color is redder than in hypophlaeas. L. p. arctodon
does not exhibit the wide dark DFW borders of arethusa nor the smoky cast of the
males. It is, by contrast, a very bright appearing insect and worthy of the name
"copper". The DHW blue spots are more prominent than in arethusa. Very few
specimens from the type series lack the blue spots. On the ventral surface, the HW
submarginal red band is narrow, but strongly developed and strongly crenulate.
The females show very little variation in faces, and all manifest the DHW
blue spots. The males exhibit more size variation than the females. The blue DHW
spots are absent in some males, and others exhibit a dusky cast, but not so
pronounced as in arethusa.
The critical spot varies in the type series as follows: concave inward 86 66%,
99 22%; concave outward SS 27%, 99 40%, double 68 7%, 99 38%.
Size variation in the type series (coastal FW length from thorax to apex):
6 12 15 mm; 99 14 16 mm.
The name for the new subspecies is derived from the Greek for "beartooth"
and was suggested by Harry K. Clench of the Carnegie Museum.
Holotype male. The holotype was collected on the Beartooth Plateau and
bears pin labels with the following data: a red label machine-printed in black ink:
L. phlaeas arctodon / Ferris / HOLOTYPE Male; a white label, machine-printed
in black with handlettered date in black ink: E. SIDE BEARTOOTH / PASS,
CUSTER NF / CARBON CO. MONT. / 10,300' 3-viii-73; a white label, machine-
printed in black ink: Leg: C. D. Ferris. The holotype is shown in Fig. 17. FW
length = 13.5 mm.
Allotype female. The female allotype bears a green label, machine-printed in
black ink: L. phlaeas arctodon / Ferris / ALLOTYPE Female; a white label,
machine-printed in black with handlettered date in black ink: E. SIDE BEAR-
TOOTH / PASS, CUSTER NF / CARBON CO. MONT. / 10,300' 1-viii-73; a white
label, machine-printed in black ink: Leg: C.D. Ferris. The allotype is shown in
Fig. 18. FW length = 14.5 mm.
Type series. The type series, including holotype and allotype, consists of 98
specimens from the following localities: Montana, E. side of Beartooth Pass,
Custer NF, Carbon Co., 31.vii 3.viii.74, 4688, 39 99; 5.viii.72, 18 ; leg: C.D. Ferris;
Beartooth Mtns., [Carbon Co.], 9 12.viii.41, 5 8, leg. G. H. & J. L. Sperry (AMNH);
15.viii.42, 1 9, leg. 0. Buchholz (AMNH); Wyoming, Teton Co.: Teton Glacier,
Teton Mtns., 19.vii.31, 1 6, 1 9, leg. J. D. Gunder (AMNH); Yellowstone N. P.:
Mt. Washburn, 16.vii.34, 1 9, leg. H. H. & F. M. Brown (AME); 8.viii.35, 1 9, leg.
P. S. & C. L. Remington: (AME); 22.vii.36, 1 6, leg. F. M. Brown (AME), Idaho,
Lemhi Co., Meadow Creek Lake, 4 mi. W. of Gilmore, Lemhi Range, 1.viii.72, 1 6,
leg. S. Ellis (AME).
The hollotype and allotype will be deposited in the collection of the Allyn
Museum of Entomology. Paratypes have been placed in the collection of the Allyn
Museum of Entomology, the American Museum of Natural History, Carnegie
Museum, the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, and will be placed
in additional museum collections.
Distribution. To date, L. p. arctodon is known from the Beartooth Plateau on
the Park Co., Wyoming Carbon Co., Montana border, the Teton Mtns., Teton
Co., Wyoming, Yellowstone National Park on Mt. Washburn, and from the Lemhi
Range, Lemhi Co., Idaho. The specimens cited in the Appendix from Sweet Grass
Co., Montana are presently referred to arctodon.
The insect flies at treeline or above in areas where the presumed foodplant,
Rumex acetosa is found. At the type locality, R. acetosa grows in depressions in
open meadows where some moisture remains from the spring snow melt. Adults
of arctodon do not stray more than 5 to 10 yards from the Rumex plant. Numerous
females were collected from the flower heads while they were resting in the
characteristic head-down, wings-folded-over-back Lycaena resting position. During
cloudy periods, the females could be removed easily with forceps from the
The region from which arctodon has been described is not frequented by many
collectors. The butterfly undoubtedly occurs elsewhere in the contiguous areas
in appropriate habitat, but has not yet been collected. A single male phlaeas
from the Wallowa Mts., Wallowa Co., Oregon is tentatively assigned to arctodon.
As shown in Fig. 13, the specimen is rather worn and appears to be slightly aberrant.
The FW subapical spots are slightly elongated.
Figs. 19 and 20 illustrate the type locality for L. p. arctodon. Fig. 21 shows a
mature R. acetosa plant growing at the type locality when the type series was
collected. The mature plants varied from about 12 to 18 inches in height.
OTHER RACES OF L. PHLAEAS IN NORTH AMERICA
As shown in Fig. 1 collection records exist for various geographic areas in
northwestern North America. Specimens from the Mackenzie Delta area
(Tuktoyaktuk) are not typical feildeni. The copper color is brighter and the dorsal
black spots are more distinct. Material from Meade River, Alaska (70o29' N) is
close to americana in faces. The black spots on both wing surfaces are not quite
so large as in americana. The specimens from Circle and Fairbanks, Alaska
resemble feildeni, except that the dark FW border is much wider, and the subterminal
orange band on the underside is quite well developed. Some specimens present
quite a dusky aspect. McKinley Park specimens are somewhat larger in size than
specimens from other Alaskan areas. The subterminal orange band (VHW) is
pronounced and the specimens show slight but distinct tails. The copper color is
Several unplaced specimens exist. In the collection of the Carnegie Museum
is a specimen labeled "Trinidad, B.W.I." This is a very improbable locality for
L. phlaeas, unless the specimen was imported. The butterfly appears to be typical
L. p. daimio Seitz from Japan. The specimen has probably been mislabeled at
some point in its history. The entomological collection at the University of
California, Davis contains a male phlaeas from Wyoming taken 7.viii.35. A ranch
locality is noted by its brand, but no country is listed. A search by the Wyoming
Livestock Board back to 1909 has not found a registered Wyoming brand of the
form shown on the label. The specimen appears to be americana rather than
arctodon. The butterfly may have been an introduced specimen, or more probably
was taken in another state and mislabeled.
F. M. Brown of Colorado Springs, has taken two specimens of L. phlaeas at
the Fountain Valley School in El Paso Co., Colorado. Both were collected in
October several years apart. Both are presumed to be imported L. p. americana
(Brown, in litt.). The reason for this supposition is the collection date and locality.
Many of the students at the school come from the Midwest and bring their own
horses with them when they return to school in the fall and it is quite possible that
SUBSPECIES BLACK SPOTS ORANGE BORDERS HW COLOR
Dorsal FW Ventral HW SLACK BORDERS FW Dorsal Ventral DFW VHW
americana Distinct. Critical Distinct. Postmedlan Wide, up to 15.51 Wide & Narrow, bright. Bright red Warm gray
spot (CS) frequently row distally edged i of wing width, distinct. & strongly copper. with suggest-
fused. Cell-end spot white. measured along crenulate. ion of tan or
(CES) 1-1.5 m wide. vein Cul. light brown.
hypophlaeas Distinct. CS double Distinct. Postmedian Moderately narrow Wide & Very narrow, Brassy Ashy-gray.
or only slightly row with only sug- 7.7% of wing distinct. strongly copper,
fused. CES = I am. gestion of white width maximum. crenulate & dusky
edging distally. bright. aspect
feildeni Delicate. CS double. Vry small some- Narrow 7.2 of Rel- Very narrow & Dull brass Dark ashy-
small & concave if times indistinct; wing width, tively frequently copper, gray.
fused. CES less distal white maximum. narrow indistinct. smoky but
than 1 mm. edging present. but washed out
arethusa Distinct. CS double Very small; distal Wide, up to Wide & Narrow & rather Dull, red- Mam ashy-
& distinct. General white edging 14.3Z of distinct. faint income brassy gray, lighter
concave out if fused present, wing width, specimens, copper, areas in
CES 1 am. very smoky postdiscal
or dusky cell spaces.
arctodon Distinct. CS (see Distinct; white Moderately Wide & Very narrow. Bright Cool pale
text). CES 1 mm. edging nearly wide, up to distinct, delicate, but brassy gray.
obsolete innost 10.6% of wing distinct. copper
specimens. width, tending to
northern Alaska & Northern populations as in feildeni, specimens tend to become
western NWT races larger, more heavily and brightly marked in south central
Alaska (McKinley National Park). Orange band on both surfaces
of the hindwing becomes quite wide and very distinct in
McKinley Park specimens.
pupae of americana were contained in hay bales brought with the horses. Rumex
is frequently found growing in hay fields. The specimens were sent to two museums
when the Brown collection was distributed. They have, however, disappeared
in transit and cannot be located in the two museum collections involved.
Hooper (1973) has listed L. p. arethusa for Saskatchewan based upon one
specimen collected in a prairie region near Regina. The specimen was unavailable
for examination, but it is undoubtedly americana based upon the locality.
When more material from Alaska becomes available for study, it will probably
be found that one or more of those populations merit nomenclatural recognition.
At the present time, insufficient study material is available. Dr. K. W. Philip,
Fairbanks, Alaska, is working on these populations.
L. phlaeas is frequently sympatric and synchronic with L. cupreus (Edwards).
J. F. Emmel (in litt.) has noted that cupreus in California replaces phlaeas in
similar habitates in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. In that area, L. cupreus uses
Rumex paucifolius Nuttall and R. acetosella L. as larval hostplants. In Colorando,
Bruce (1896) found a larva of L. cupreus snowi (Edwards) on Oxyria digyna. On
the Beartooth Plateau, cupreus and phlaeas fly together within exactly the same
meadow. When the type series of L. p. arctodon was collected in 1973, several
specimens of L. cupreus were taken concurrently. The specimens were some-
what worn, suggesting that cupreus may appear slightly earlier in the season.
Rumex acetosa is the suspected larval foodplant for cupreus in this locality.
Work needs to be done on the habits of cupreus in the Rocky Mountains. In
Colorado, snowi has been reported only from above timberline. In Wyoming and
Montana, both low altitude (Transition Zone) and high altitude (Arctic-Alpine
Zone) populations exist. The author has also collected cupreus in the Transition
Zone near Sun Valley, Idaho.
It has been suggested by some workers that cupreus and phlaeas may be con-
specific. Gunder (1926) in his discussion of cupreus commented: "Note: An aberrant
cupreus has been taken at Mammoth which is identical with hypophlaeas."
Elrod (1906) reported L. phlaeas from Miles City, Custer Co., Montana. He
commented "Not rare at Miles City (Wiley). We have not taken it." The butterfly
has not been reported in recent years from this area. Presumably L. p. americana
would be the species found at Miles City.
Figure 1. Distribution of arctic-alpine L. phlaeas in North America. The open
circles represent unnamed races; solid circles = feildeni; circles with top half solid =
arethusa; circles with bottom half solid = hypophlaeas; circles with left half solid
= westernmost extension of americana; circles with right half solid = arctodon.
The author wishes to thank the following people for providing information
and loan specimens used in this study: F. M. Brown, Colorado Springs, Colo.,
H. K. Clench, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa., J. P. Donahue, Los Angeles
County Museum of Natural History, J. A. Ebner, Okauchee, Wisc., J. F. Emmel,
Santa Monica, Calif., W. D. Field, United States National Museum, Washington,
D.C., L. D. Miller, Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Fla., J. R. Mori, Modesto,
Calif., C. W. Nelson, Beaverton, Ore., K. W. Philip, Fairbanks, Alaska, F. H. Rindge,
American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y., A. O. Shields, Univ. of
The determination of Rumex acetosa, the presumed larval foodplant of
L. p. arctodon was made by the staff of the Rocky Mountain Herbarium located
at the University of Wyoming.
Mr. N. V. Blakeslee of the National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.,
kindly provided geographic coordinates for some of the little known arctic
localities cited in Fig. 1.
The author would like to express his appreciation to Dr. Lee D. Miller and Mr.
A. C. Allyn for making publication of this paper possible.
CANADA. ALBERTA: Plateau Mtn., 8200', large series 1-22.viii.68-71.
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES: Tuktoyaktuk (Port Brabant), Mackenzie Delta,
25.vii.42, 25, 9 (CM); Baker Lake, 9.vii.73, a, 16.vii.73, 8 (CDF). Southampton
Is., 1.viii.30, 2 8, 3.viii.30, 8, 5.viii.30, 9 (CM).
GREENLAND. McCormick's Bay, 4.viii.92, 9, 6.viii.92, 9; Robertson's Bay,
2.vii.92, 9 (CM).
ALASKA. Meade River, 70o29' N, 15724' W, 22.vii.73, S, 9 (CDF); McKinley
Park, Toklat River, 3050'-4250', 19.20.vii.62, 26, 2 9 (JAL); Circle, no date, 2 8,
2 9 (CM); Fairbanks, 31.vii.05, 9 (CM).
CALIFORNIA. Mono Co.: Mammoth Mtn., 27.vii.34, a (LACMNH); Barney
Lake, 4.viii.35, & (LACMNH); S. of Sonora Pass, 10,600', 21.viii.71, a (CDF),
Tuolumne Co.: Yosemite N.P., N. slope Mt. Dana, 11,000'-11,500', 6.viii.60, 9,
7.viii.60, S, 8.viii.60, 8, 9.viii.60, 9, 13.viii.60, S, 9 (LACMNH); 9.viii.60, S, 9 (CDF);
6.viii.66, 3, 3 9 (LACMNH); Kuna Crest, 11,000', 6.viii.33, a; Mt. Maclure, 12,500',
5.viii.33, a (LACMNH).
IDAHO. Lemhi Co.; Meadow Ck. Lake, 4 mi. W. of Gilmore, 9000', Lemhi
Range, 1.viii.72, a (AME).
MONTANA. Carbon Co.; Beartooth Pass and Beartooth Plateau, 10,300'-
10,900', 9-12.viii.41, 5 (AMNH); 15.viii.42, 9 (AMNH); 5.viii.72, a; 31.vii-3.viii.73,
46 S, 39 9 (CDF).
OREGON. Wallowa Co.: Eagle Cap Wilderness Area, E. side of Matterhorn,
Wallowa Mts., 16.viii.64, a (CWN).
WYOMING. Teton Co.: Teton Glacier, Teton Mts., 19.vii.31, S, 9 (AMNH);
Yellowstone N. P., Mt. Washburn, 10,300', 16.vii.34, 9, (AME); 10,366', 8.viii.35,
9 (AME); 10,000.', 22.vii.36, 8 (AME).
Records of specimens examined by photograph or not examined:
CANADA. ALBERTA: Banff, 23-25.vii, "1" (AMNH); nr. Billings Lumber Mill,
Calgary, 19.vii.03, "1" (AMNH); Brobokton Ck., btwn, Lake Louise and Jasper,
8,12,13,16.vii.07 (BMNH & CNC); nr. the spruce woods, 20 or 25 mi. SW Calgary,
5.vii-20-? 4 8, 8 9 Dod, 1907, 6 arethusa paratypes in CNC, 3 & 9 "types" in USNM);
Crow's Nest Pass, S. Alberta (G. Geddes in Dod, 1907); Fallentimber Ck., 51045' N,
114o39' W, 5500' (JAL); Foothills, Lineham's lower log camp, S. Fk. Sheep Ck., ca.
35 mi. SW Calgary, S (Dod, 1907); Peyto Lake, Banff N.P., 51043' N, 116031' W
(fide J. Scott). BRITISH COLUMBIA: Atlin, 4000', 2.viii.55 (CNC); Moosehorn
Lake, 58010' N, 132007' W, 4500' (CNC); Western slope, Mt. Sidney Williams,
540N, 1250W, ca. 5500', 31.vii.53, 8 (BMNH); Spray Lake, "2" (in Anon., 1962).
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES: Arctic Bay, Baffin Land, 2.viii.42, "1" (AMNH);
Baker Lake, 30.vi-7.vii.51 (CNC), "2", F.H. Chermock; Bathurst Inlet, 1.viii.51
(CNC), "1", (Wyatt, 1957); Bernard Harbour, 68'45' N, 114045' W, 6.viii.15 (CNC);
Caribou valley, head of Clyde Inlet, Baffin Is., 29.vii.50, 2 6, 9, 31.vii.50, S (BMNH);
Chesterfield Inlet, vii.66, "1" (Anon., 1967); 7.viii.58 (CNC); Coppermine, 2.viii.51
(CNC), late vii. 55, "series" (Wyatt, 1957); Cockburn Point, Coronation Coast,
68052' N, 11500' W, 1,2.ix.14 (CNC); S. slopes of Dyke Mtn., head of Clyde Inlet,
Baffin Is., 26.vii.50, (BMNH); Eskimo Point, "2" (F.H. Chermock); Falcon Hollow,
head of Clyde Inlet, Baffin Is., 27.vii.50 (BMNH); Frobisher Bay, Baffin Is.,
6-20.vii.48 (CNC), viii.64, S (BMNH); Grinnell Land, W. side of Smith Sound,
81045' N (Capt. Feilden, holotype 8, allotype 9, and paratype 6 in (BMNH), in
M'Lachlan, 1878, TL of feildeni); Hazen Camp, Ellesmere Is., 81049' N, 7118' W,
29,30.vii.66, 23.vi-31.vii.61 (CNC); Holman, Victoria Is., 5.vii.52 (CNC); Lake
Harbour, Baffin Is., 7.vii.35 (CNC); Mellville Pen., 56051' N (probably 66051' N),
84051' W, 19.vii.48 (CNC); Pelly Bay, 19.vii.52 (CNC); Penny Highland area,
Cumberland Pen., Baffin Is., 5.viii.53, a (BMNH); Repulse Bay, 28.vii-9.viii.50
(CNC); Southampton Is., 5.vii.30, "1" (AMNH); "2" (CM); Wagner River, NW
Hudson Bay, 65026' N, 88040' W, "1" (F.H. Chermock). YUKON: Dawson (CNC);
nr. Haines Jct., 1966; 64031' N, 138030' W, 1916 (CNC).
GREENLAND. Qanaq, MacCormick Fjord, 77041', 26.viii.41, 9 (Wolff, 1964).
ALASKA. Arctic Village, 15,20.vii.64 (Anon., 1965); Cape Thompson,
26-29.vii.61 (CNC); Driftwood, 68049' N, 161009' W, 6.viii.52 (CNC); Highway Pass,
McKinley N.P. (Legge, 1965); McKinley N.P., 4.vii.31, S (LACMNH); 20.vii-1.
viii.31, "20" (AMNH), Toklat River (Legge, 1965).
CALIFORNIA. Fresno Co.: nr. Baboon Lake, 1.viii.60, sight record by J.C.
Montgomery; ridge S. of Golden Trout Lake, 4.viii.60, 4 6 (JCM); N. side of peak
12,492', Wahoo Lake, 3.viii.60, 5 S, 3 9 (JCM); S. side of peak 12,492', Wahoo Lake,
5.viii.60, 2 a (JCM); Mt. Starr nr. Mono Pass, 12,800', 27.viii.69, "1" (R.L. Langston);
Fresno-Inyo Co. line: Bishop Pass, 12,000', 31.vii.60, 9 (JCM); Mono Pass (CDM);
Inyo Co.: Ruby Lake, 13.viii.57, 6 (UCB); Mono Pass, 12,500', 3.ix.65, 2 Y (UCB);
Madera Co.: W. Slope above Emerald Lake, 10,000', 1A mi. S. Thousand Is. Lake,
14.viii.61, "1" (T.P. Webster); Tuolumne Co.: Bert Lake below Mt. Maclure,
11,700', 6.viii.33, 6, (LACMNH), (Garth, 1935); Cathedral Lake, 9000-9500',
16.vii.29, "1" (AMNH).
MONTANA. Carbon Co.: Upper Rocky Ck., Red Lodge, 4.viii.54, 6 (UCB);
Sweet Grass Co.: Halfmoon Park, Crazy Mtns., ca. 15-20 mi. NW Big Timber,
3,4.vii.66, 2 6, 9 (J. Scott).
WYOMING. Teton Co.: Amphitheater Lake, Teton Mtns., viii.49, 9, (UCM,
Nabokov, 1950); Park Co.: Beartooth Lake, 21.viii.49, 6 (UCM).
Abbreviations Used: AME = Allyn Museum of Entomology; AMNH = American
Museum of Natural History; ANSP = Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia;
BMNH = British Museum (Natural History); CDF = C. D. Ferris collection;
CDM = C.D. MacNeill collection; CM = Carnegie Museum; CNC = Canadian
National Collection; CWN = C.W. Nelson collection; JAL = J.A. Legge, Jr., collection;
JCM = J.C. Montgomery collection; UCB = University of California, Berkeley,
collection; UCD = University of California, Davis, collection; UCM = University
of Colorado Museum; USNM = United States National Museum.
Anonymous. 1962. Season summary. News Lepid. Soc., 3:4.
Anonymous. 1965. Season summary. News Lepid. Soc., 3:12.
Anonymous. 1967. Season summary. News Lepid. Soc., 3:15.
Bruce, D. 1896. Collecting on "the crest of the continent." Ent. News 7:162-167.
Clench, H.K. 1961. In P.R. & A.H. Ehrlich, How to Know the Butterflies. Brown,
Dod, F.H.W. 1907. Notes on Chrysophanus hypophlaeas and its allies, with
description of a new species. Canadian Entomol., 39:169-171.
Elrod, J.M. 1906. The Butterflies of Montana. Bull. No. 10 Biological Series.
Ford, E.B. 1923. The geographical races of Heodes phlaeas L. Trans. Entomol.
Soc. London, 71:692-743.
Garth, J.S. 1935. Butterflies of Yosemite National Park. Bull. So. California Acad.
Gunder, J.D. 1926. Several new aberrant Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera). Ent.
Hopper, R.R. 1973. The Butterflies of Saskatchewan. Museum of Nat. Hist.,
Klots, A.B. 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Legge, A.H. 1965. A collecting trip in Yukon and Alaska. J. Lepid. Soc., 19:57-62.
M'Lachlan, R. 1878. Report on the Insecta (including Archnida) collected by Captain
Feilden and Mr. Hart between the parallels of 780 and 830 north latitude,
during the recent arctic expedition. J. Linnean Soc. Zool., 14:98-122.
dos Passos, C.F. 1964. A synonymic list of Nearctic Rhopalocera. Memoir No. 1.
The Lepidoterists' Society.
Puckering, D.L. & R.L. Post. 1960. Butterflies of North Dakota. Dept. of Agri.
Entomol., N.D. Ag. Coll., Fargo.
Robertson, T.S. 1969. Homoeosis and related phenomena in the small copper
butterfly, Lycaena phlaeas L. Proc. Brit. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc., 2:76-102.
Shields, 0. 1967. Fixation of the type locality of Lycaena phlaeas hypophlaeas
(Boisduval) and a foodplant correction. J. Res. Lepid., 6(1):22.
Shields, O. & J.C. Montgomery, 1966. The distribution and bionomics of arctic-
alpine Lycaena phlaeas subspecies in North America. J. Res. Lepid.,
Wolff, N.L. 1964. The Lepidoptera of Greenland. C.A. Reitzels Forlag, Kobenhaven.
Wyatt, C. 1957. Collecting on the Mackenzie and in the western arctic. Lepid.
Figure 2. L. p. phlaeas, N. Knin, Bohemia, viii,55, S. Fig. 3. L. p. phlaeas, Vendee,
France, 13.ix.54, 9. Fig. 4 L. p. americana, Lincoln, Penobscot Co., Maine, 3.vi.64,
S. Fig. 5. L. p. americana, Hoosick, Rensselaer Co., N.Y., 6.vi.67, 9, Fig. 6. L. p.
hypophlaeas, N. slope Mt. Dana, Yosemite N.P., 13.viii.60, 8, (LACMNH).
Fig. 7. Same, 9, (LACMNH). Fig. 8. L. p. arethusa, Plateau Mtn., Alberta, l.viii.69,
3. Fig. 9. Same, 22.viii.68, 9. Upperside shown at left; underside at right.
Figure 10. L. p. feildeni, Southampton Is., 3.viii.30, 6, (CM). Fig. 11. Same.
5.viii.30, 9, (CM). Fig. 12. L. phlaeas ssp., Toktoyaktuk (Port Brabant), Mackenzie
Delta, NWT, 25.vii.42, S, (CM). Fig. 13. L. phlaeas ssp. (see text), Eagle Cap
Wilderness Area. E. side Matterhorn, Wallowa Co., Ore., 16.viii.64, S (CWN).
Fig. 14. L. phlaeas ssp., Meade River, Alaska, 22.vii.73, S. Fig. 15. Same, 9. Fig. 16.
Same as 12, 9, (CM). Upperside shown at left; underside at right.
Figure 17. L. p. arctodon Ferris, holotype 6, Beartooth Pass Area, 10,300',
Carbon Co., Mont., 3.viii.73. Fig. 18. L. p. arctodon Ferris allotype 9, same locality,
1.viii.73. Upperside at left; underside at right. Fig. 19. Type locality meadow on E.
side of Beartooth Pass viewed from Hwy. 212. Fig. 20. Beartooth Mtns. viewed
from W. summit of Beartooth Pass along Hwy. 212. Fig. 21. Rumex acetosa plant
photographed at type locality of L. p. arctodon.