Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary
 The office of Women in Development:...
 Agricultural development
 Agricultural development
 Agricultural development
 Employment and income generati...
 Education and training
 Energy and natural resource...
 Water, health, and sanitation
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Statistical data
 Back Cover

Group Title: Women in development : : the first decade 1975-1984 : report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs, United States House of Representitives
Title: Women in development
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078689/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in development the first decade 1975-1984 : report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs, United States House of Representitives
Physical Description: vi, 59 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Foreign Relations
United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Foreign Affairs
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: The Agency
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: [1985]
Subject: Women in development -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, Agency for International Development.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078689
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002276752
oclc - 12180725
notis - ALM9821

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Section 1
        Section 2
        Section 3
        Page i
        Page ii
    Executive summary
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    The office of Women in Development: Historical overview
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Agricultural development
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Agricultural development
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Agricultural development
        Page 16
    Employment and income generation
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Education and training
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Energy and natural resource conservation
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Water, health, and sanitation
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Statistical data
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Back Cover
        Page 61
Full Text


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Report to the Committee on Foreign
Relations United States Senate
and the Committee on Foreign
Affairs United States House of

Prepared by
Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523


I. Letters of Transmittal
II. Foreword by the Administrator ........ ii
III. Introduction ...................... iii
IV Executive Summary ................ iii
V The Office of Women in Development ... 1
VI. Issues and Approaches ............. 7
Agricultural Development
Employment and Income Generation
Education and Training
Energy and Natural Resources
Water, Health, and Sanitation
VII. Conclusion and Recommendations .... 46
Appendices: Statistical Data
Summary Table
Office of Women in Development
Regional Bureaus
USAID Missions by Region
Central Bureaus


April 11, 1985


Dear Mr. President:

In accordance with the request of the Senate Committee on
Foreign Relations and the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, I
am pleased to submit the 1984 Report on Women in Development,
The First Decade. This report updates information submitted to
the Congress on a biennial basis and charts the progress made
by the Agency for International Development during the United
Nations Decade for Women, 1974-1985.

A.I.D. will continue to build upon its achievements in
fulfilling Section 113 of the Foreign Assistance Act. This
report will be a benchmark by which the Agency can measure
future progress in integrating women into the economic
development of Third World societies. We hope it will be a
useful source of information for the Congress.


M. Peter McPherson

Enclosure: a/s

The Honorable George Bush
President of the Senate
United States Senate
Washington, D.C. 20510


April 11, 1985

Dear Mr. Speaker:

In accordance with the request of the Senate Committee on
Foreign Relations and the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, I
am pleased to submit tne 1984 Report on Women in Development,
The First Decade. Tnis report updates information submitted to
the Congress on a biennial oasis and charts the progress made
by the Agency for International Development during the United
Nations Decade for Women, 1974-1985.

A.I.D. will continue to build upon its achievements in
fulfilling Section 113 of the Foreign Assistance Act. This
report will be a benchmark by which the Agency can measure
future progress in integrating women into the economic
development of Third World societies. We hope it will be a
useful source of information for the Congress.


M. Peter McPherson

Enclosure: a/s

The Honorable Thomas P. O'Neill
Speaker of the House of Representatives
Washirgton, D.C. 20515


April 11, 1985


Dear Mr. Chairman:

In accordance with the request of the Senate Committee on
Foreign Relations and the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, I
am pleased to submit the 1984 Report on Women in Development,
The First Decade. This report updates information submitted to
the Congress on a biennial basis and charts the progress made
by the Agency for International Development during the United
Nations Decade for Women, 1974-1985.

A.I.D. will continue to build upon its achievements in
fulfilling Section 113 of the Foreign Assistance Act. This
report will be a benchmark by which the Agency can measure
future progress in integrating women into the economic
development of Third World societies. We hope it will be a
useful source of information for the Congress.


M. Peter McPherson

Enclosure: a/s

The Honorable Richard Lugar
Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate
Washington, D.C. 20510


April 11, 1985


Dear Mr. Chairman:

In accordance with the request of the Senate Committee on
Foreign Relations and the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, I
am pleased to submit the 1984 Report on Women in Development,
The First Decade. This report updates information submitted to
the Congress on a biennial basis and charts the progress made
by the Agency for International Development during the United
Nations Decade for Women, 1974-1985.

A.I.D. will continue to build upon its achievements in
fulfilling Section 113 of the Foreign Assistance Act. This
report will be a benchmark by which the Agency can measure
future progress in integrating women into the economic
development of Third World societies. We hope it will be a
useful source of information for the Congress.


M. Peter McPherson

Enclosure: a/s

The Honorable Dante B. Fascell
Committee on Foreign Affairs
House of Representatives
Washington, D.C. 20515


Ten years ago, when the U.N. Decade for Women
was initiated, many development professionals
wondered: "why women in development?"
While the same question may be heard today, it
isn't asked as frequently as it once was. That fact is
a mark of the growing success of the Agency for
International Development's (A.I.D.) Women in
Development (WID) program, and the acceptance
it has gained, particularly over the last few years.
In 1985, the world perceives that women are per-
forming more tasks, fulfilling more needs and
making more contributions to both family and
world economies than ever before. Part of this
progress is the result of growing opportunities for
women, but a great deal of it is due simply to ac-
knowledging the contributions that women always
have made. Recognition of women's contributions
has opened a variety of new opportunities for de-
velopment professionals to consider in their efforts
to aid the growth of Third World economies.
Critical policy decisions over the past four years
have led to the successful recognition of such op-
portunities by A.I.D. the most critical being that
WID concerns now are addressed primarily as an
economic issue that can increase the success of
many A.I.D. projects. Gender roles can be a key
variable to project success. Experience proves,
however, that this variable is often overlooked
when the projects considered are designed. It is for
this reason that Agency policy now requires the
collection of gender-disaggregated data, as well as
gender specific socioeconomic analysis, in the
earliest stages of project planning.
Once development professionals have seen the
"dollars and cents" importance of gender analysis,
they generally are eager to learn more about the
women in development concept, its implementa-
tion, and its results.
Foreign assistance dollars are scarce, and we must
do everything possible to ensure that the max-
imum benefit is derived from every dollar spent to
assist the Third World. We can maximize our re-
turn on the development dollars spent by:
- utilizing all LDC human and capital resources,
extending development benefits to the entire
LDC society.
It is these two strategies that constitute the cutting
edge of the Women in Development program. As
noted in the WID Policy Paper, "to pursue a devel-

opment planning strategy without a women in de-
velopment focus would be wasteful and self-
defeating- wasteful, because of the potential loss
of the contribution of vital human resources and
self-defeating because development which does
not bring its benefits to the whole society has
The Women in Development Program has reached
a watershed era as the United Nations Decade for
Women draws to a close. Like the Agency itself,
the program has sought to build upon the four
basic pillars of foreign assistance: private enter-
prise development, technology transfer, institution
building, and policy dialogue.
The 1984 Report to Congress details some of the
substantial achievements that have been built on
this solid foundation. Our goal for the future is to
integrate WID into every bureau and mission of
this Agency not just as a legitimate issue, for
A.I.D. policy makes it such-but as a develop-
ment tool with its own set of specialized skills,
techniques, and methodologies. It is with this ex-
citing mission ahead of us that we conclude the
First Decade of Women in Development drawing
from past experiences, and looking forward to the
challenges of the future with energy and
M. Peter McPherson


The First Decade is intended to report not only on
the women in development activities of the two
years since the last A.I.D. report to the Congress
was written, but on ten years of progress, includ-
ing the identification of issues and the design of
strategies to overcome constraints to economic par-
ticipation faced by women around the world.
Given the scope of this objective, it is impossible
to include in this report all the activities under-
taken by every bureau, office, and mission of the
Agency, though each has made a contribution to
the successes reported here. The activities that are
mentioned are highlights of what has been a
growing and productive effort by development
professionals around the world.

In the past decade, the women in development is-
sue has gained increasing acceptance within the
development community. Within A.I.D. it is recog-
nized as an important economic tool which can
help increase the potential for success in the
Agency's project portfolio. The Agency now is im-
plementing effectively a number of strategic meas-
ures to integrate WID concerns in bureau and
mission efforts, including special training, lever-
aged use of appropriations for women in develop-
ment to impact on larger bureau or mission
expenditures, and attention to the needs of the
private voluntary organizations and universities
with whom the Agency works.
The 1984 Report to Congress on Women in Develop-
ment examines A.I.D.'s efforts during the last sev-
eral years to design and implement women in
development activities in five principal sectoral
areas agriculture; employment and income gen-
eration; education and participant training; energy
and resource conservation; and water, health, and
sanitation. The 1984 Report is based on analyses
of policy trends and field project information pro-
vided by all missions and bureaus. The Report up-
dates information submitted to Congress on a
biennial basis and should serve as a benchmark by
which the Agency can measure future progress in
integrating women into development in Third
World societies.
The following highlights from the 1984 Report in-
dicate a number of emerging trends, as well as
provide considerable guidance as to effective
mechanisms for including WID in project
* Development professionals are learning the extent of
women' participation in agriculture. Experience has
proven that agricultural assistance programs must
reach women if they are to achieve their objectives


of increasing agricultural production and raising
rural incomes. Twenty-one African missions iden-
tified at least one major agricultural project involv-
ing women, and ten African countries reported
three or more such projects. One successful mech-
anism appears to be AID's farming systems ap-
proach, with its focus on the multiple enterprises
of the small farm household and its holistic per-
spective on both production and consumption ac-
tivities. Since the farming systems approach has
the potential of addressing gender concerns within
the household, it is more likely to consider the
needs of women working in agriculture. In
Rwanda, for example, where more than 70 percent
of all agricultural activities are performed by
women, the Farming Systems Improvement project
will put major emphasis on both serving women
farmers and employing women extension agents.
Efforts which improve women's access to agri-
cultural development services particularly
extension and promotion, provision of special
training and agricultural credit to local women,
and dissemination of technologies that help allevi-
ate the burden of many of women's chores such
as fetching water, and food processing appear
integral to ensuring the viability of agricultural
projects. A successful example of this is the LAC
Bureau's regionally funded Appropriate Tech-
nology for Women project which has been under-
way since 1979 in Bolivia and Ecuador. This
project was expanded to eight other LAC countries
in 1983. Success is attributed to a combination of
implementation techniques that stress careful se-
lection and training of project staff, as well as
training community members in skills needed to
assure management of their own projects. While
this is a women-specific project, it provides useful
lessons on how to address gender issues in the de-

sign of a larger agricultural effort. Many other
missions also reported agriculture projects with
explicit focus on women.

* Women have entered the labor force in unprecedented
numbers. Much of the work available to women,
however, remains low-paying and employment
opportunities extremely limited. Increasingly,
women are turning to self-generated employment
in the informal sector. All four regions support
projects to improve employment and incomes of
women through providing appropriate skills train-
ing programs, practical management training, and
accessible credit and marketing programs. In 1984,
both the Asia and LAC Bureaus adopted special
WID strategies which support a number of proj-
ects promoting women's income generation
through the provision of credit and training in
small enterprise development and management.
While the Asia projects are not specifically de-
signed for women, they provide good examples of
how projects which meet the needs of small en-
trepreneurs in general can be successful in assist-
ing women because so many low-income women
in LDCs are self-employed.
For instance, as reported by the mission, a large
portion of borrowers (60 percent) in the Indonesia
Provincial Area Development projects I and II are
female. In LAC, the Caribbean Credit Union De-
velopment Operational Program Grant has been
particularly successful, with women constituting
50 percent of its borrowers. Africa and Near East
missions also report several projects that provide
skills training for women. These include the
Djibouti Vocational Training for Adults project,
where two-thirds of the participants are women;
the Vocational Training for Productivity project in
Egypt; and the Morocco Industrial and Commer-
cial Job Training for Women project. The two NE
projects are particularly noteworthy as they in-
clude a job placement service which can be critical
for women who are often unfamiliar with pro-
cedures for obtaining formal sector employment.
* Lack of educational opportunities reduces the social
and economic options women have in LDCs and also
reduces the potential socioeconomic returns of develop-
ing countries' investments in education. The number
of children enrolled in primary schools in LDCs
has increased markedly, but neither the goal of

universal primary education for girls and boys,
nor the goal of equal access to primary education
for both sexes has been realized. A.I.D. projects at-
tempt to address the various constraints to girls'
education through school construction, curricula
development, and teacher training programs, as
well as participant training programs which give
attention to ensuring substantial female participa-
tion. All regions report increased efforts to im-
prove educational opportunities for women and
girls. Among examples are the Improved Effi-
ciency of Learning project in Liberia, which is de-
veloping teaching materials for primary schools
that provide positive role models for girls, and the
National University of Lesotho project where life-
long adult education projects are being developed
for a student audience that is over 50 percent
female. In Asia, several missions have developed
innovative means of motivating women to pursue
education and motivating governments to nomi-
nate qualified women for participant training. In
Bangladesh, for example, a special pilot project
scholarship program was established under the
Family Planning project to enroll 3,000 girls in 22
secondary schools. Five projects in the LAC region
which focus on improving educational oppor-
tunities are expected to have an impact on
women. These include an innovative Bilingual Ed-
ucation Project in Guatemala, in which half of the
selected teachers are female. Female access to edu-
cation is being improved by increasing the prox-
imity of schools in rural areas. Women and girls
are being employed in the actual building and
construction of primary and preparatory schools.
* In most LDCs, women and girls are responsible for
providing for their household energy needs. Projects
that improve energy supplies can free women's
time for other responsibilities. A.I.D. reforestation

projects and fuel stove projects in particular, are
good examples of activities which can provide
major benefits to women. Strategies include intro-
ducing a range of technologies designed to im-
prove efficiency in energy use among the rural

* Women play a central part in strategies to improve
health, raise nutritional levels, and control their own
fertility. While women's roles in these areas tradi-
tionally have been recognized, development
efforts have not always addressed them in the
widest or most productive ways possible. Until re-
cently this was also the case with most water and
sanitation projects. Now, a handful of Agency
projects are setting examples for the wide range of
benefits and roles for women which can be de-
rived from water and sanitation efforts. Time sav-
ings for women is identified as a major project
benefit, allowing women to pursue other produc-
tive activities. Other projects directly benefit
women by improving access to water, health care
and family planning, including training for
women managers of family planning/health proj-
ects in various countries.


Successes in social and economic development
efforts as ambitious as the Women in Develop-
ment Program often can be measured best only
from generation to generation.
As the Agency's Washington bureaus have become
more attuned to WID concerns over the past few
years, the emphasis on implementation has moved
to the field missions. Independent mission interest
in WID has increased notably since 1982.
The impact of recent WID activities will not be re-
alized fully for several years, but future strategies
are emerging: emphasis on the integrative ap-
proach should continue, with select women-spe-
cific activities complementing the effort; an
institutional set of incentives and penalties should
be implemented to encourage the Agency's ad-
herence to WID policies; the role of WID officers
should be expanded; "early intervention" WID
program support for bureaus and missions should
be emphasized; and, sector-specific technical re-
sources should be developed for use by the
Agency and its development partners.
Development is as much an art of recognizing and
utilizing existing resources as it is an art of creat-
ing new resources.
The Women in Development Program offers gov-
ernmental and non-governmental development
partners the opportunity to identify and expand
the roles of women to benefit not only themselves,
but their families, their home countries, and the



4r ,^ ;

The Office of Women

in Development


The policy of the Agency for International Devel-
opment on women in development is derived from
what now generally is known as the "Percy
Amendment," Section 113 of the Foreign Assist-
ance Act of 1961, as amended. In 1977, this section
was restated to recognize women's roles in "eco-
nomic production, family support, and the overall
development process'. It directed that the United
States government's bilateral assistance be admin-
istered "so as to give particular attention to those
programs, projects, and activities which tend to
integrate women into the national economies of
developing countries."
A portion of assistance funds was designated to
be used "primarily to support activities which will
increase the economic productivity and income
earning capacity of women." The Office of Women
in Development (WID) administers these funds,
carrying through the basic emphasis of the
Agency's Women in Development policy of inte-
grating women and girls into the overall develop-
ment process.
Economic Approach to WID:
The emphasis of A.I.D. policy is to focus on
women without isolating them from the main-
stream of development. The Agency has begun to
move away from doing women-specific projects.
Experience has shown that a more effective strat-
egy is to plan integrated projects which include

the role of women in the initial project design to
assure balanced economic development.
Role of the WID Office:
The Office of Women in Development program di-
rectives are based on the concept of WID as set
forth by the United States Congress and A.I.D.'s
own strong commitment to women in develop-
ment as mandated in the Agency's Women in De-
velopment Policy Paper. The WID Office acts as a
catalyst to ensure that the Agency's women in de-
velopment concerns are addressed at the policy
and project level. The Office's strategic location in
the Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
allows for its involvement in these activities at the
earliest stage possible.
The Focus of the WID Office:
In the decade since its creation, the WID Office
first moved from a strategy of designing projects to
benefit women only (known as women-specific
projects) to a strategy of designing women's com-
ponents as add-ons to larger projects undertaken
by the Agency (women-integrated projects).
The emphasis of the WID Office now is to take the
latter strategy one step further by institutionaliz-
ing within the Agency the ability for its personnel
to address women's needs and talents from the

outset of project design through completion of
evaluation of project effectiveness. Areas of con-
centration include:
- increased employment in the private sector
- management training
- education and skills training
- credit and technical assistance
- agricultural development, and
- technology transfer
The WID Office therefore now emphasizes sup-
port of Agency personnel in their efforts to include
women in development concerns in the work of all
bureaus, offices, and missions. This delineation of
responsibility is set out in the Agency's Policy Pa-
per on Women in Development. The Office's 1985
program calls for increased emphasis on field
efforts, as independent mission implementation
efforts have increased notably since 1982.
Policy Paper Goals:
The Women in Development Office is continuing
the following strategies and programs to assist the
Agency in implementing the WID Policy Paper
* provides technical assistance, research and train-
ing to enhance the integration of women into the
Agency's multi-sectoral development programs;
* plays a central and coordinating role to ensure
that the Agency's country programs and individ-
ual project designs reflect distinct roles and func-
tions of LDC women;
* develops mechanisms within A.I.D. to institu-
tionalize the concept of integrating women into
development programs;
* assists PVOs, Title XII institutions, and other de-
velopment organizations in the integration of
WID into overall programs;
* suggests strategies for enhancing women's pro-
ductivity in agricultural development, micro-en-
terprise development and income generation
through credit programs, and training activities
(non-formal education; mid-level management,
administrative, business, financial and market-
ing instruction); and,
* continues liaison with and participation in devel-
opment activities to encourage integration of
women through development programs of the
international donor community; i.e., OECD/
DAC and U.N. (Commission on Status of

Women, ILO, FAO, UNDP, Voluntary Fund,
Gender Distinctions in Project Documentation:
The Agency recognizes, as outlined in the Policy
Paper, that gender distinctions constitute a key
variable in any economic development program,
and that the disaggregation of data by sex must be
included in all critical Agency development docu-
ments. This includes:
First disaggregating by sex all data collected for
A.I.D.'s country strategy formulation, project de-
sign and evaluation papers, and other project
Second explicitly describing in these same docu-
ments strategies to include women in the develop-
ment effort; and,
Third introducing gender distinctions in the ter-
minology employed in all of A.I.D.'s program and
project documents in order to define more pre-
cisely the socioeconomic context and impact of
A.I.D.'s work.
In this regard, guidance cables from the A.I.D. Ad-
ministrator to the field missions have mandated
the inclusion of women's roles in project designs
and policy documents. The WID Office staff par-
ticipates in the review of project design documents
in order to monitor the inclusion of women's is-
sues, and encourages central and regional bureau
personnel to monitor their projects in the same
Technical Assistance to AI.DMissions
and US. Institutions:
The WID staff has provided technical assistance
on women in development concerns to over 50
A.I.D. missions for portfolio review, project design
and evaluation. During the past three years the
WID Office has also continued to expand its activ-
ities with Title XII university consortia to ensure
placement of personnel on design teams so that
gender distinctions are included in socioeconomic
Leveraging of Funds:
A new and successful approach to women in de-

velopment involves leveraging funds with bureaus
and missions to support specific women in devel-
opment initiatives in major, on-going projects. In
recent years, A.I.D. missions, bureaus, PVOs, and
indigenous institutions have developed innovative
measures to include women effectively in a credit
and loan guarantee project, an urban housing
project, and a water management synthesis
Some Successful WID Interventions:
As a bridge between Agency policy and the goal of
institutionalization of WID concerns, the WID Of-
fice has instituted projects in gender-disaggregated
data collection, technical assistance, training, and
research in order to build upon previous experi-
ence and to enhance the Agency-wide integration
of women. The following are highlights of on-
going WID-supported activities that are under-
taken in an effort to institutionalize concerns:
* Statistical Data on Women Project: To enhance gen-
der-disaggregated data collection, the WID Of-
fice, through a grant with the U.S. Bureau of
Census (BUCEN), is producing demographic data
on 120 countries in the developing world. This
project will have produced four regional hand-
books, Women of the World, compiling the most re-
cent sex disaggregated data by country and
sector for the developing world. These hand-
books are designed for use by development prac-
titioners and planners, both in developing
countries and in multilateral and bilateral assist-
ance programs. A computer tape containing all
the data in the WID data base will be made
available to the public. Future comparison with
this base set of figures will document the impact
Agency programs are having on women.
* Women' Roles in Yemen: The Office is cooperating
with the Yemen mission and the Near East Bu-
reau to develop a Resources for the Awareness of
Population Impacts on Development (RAPID)
presentation for Yemen. This presentation
focuses on women's existing roles and provides a
graphic computer model demonstrating women's
potential impact on the future economic develop-
ment of the country. The information will not
only assist A.I.D. development planners, but also
will provide important statistical information to
the Government of Yemen. Further, similar mod-
els can be replicated for other USAID missions.
Yemen was chosen specifically because of the

cultural challenges it offers development plan-
ners where integration of women is concerned.
* Home Economics Revitalization Project: In Uganda,
WID Office funds are assisting the Ministry of
Agriculture's Home Economics Division in staff
training in the areas of food production, process-
ing, and nutrition, encouraging the cultivation of
vegetables and other foods essential to a bal-
anced diet. Project activities include conducting
training courses for agricultural officers in the
Home Economics Division, conducting a national
conference for home economics officers, training
field personnel, producing nutrition education
handbooks, and developing a simplified way of
analyzing the nutritive value of food.
* Women' World Banking: In conjunction with the
Bureau for Private Enterprise (PRE), the WID Of-
fice has been co-funding Women's World Bank-
ing (WWB) for two years. WWB is a program
designed to assist low-income women primarily
through the generation of income and jobs, by
strengthening local affiliates which will provide
guaranties to banks to facilitate commercial
loans to women-owned or run small businesses.
Women's World Banking is currently working in
Ghana, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Nigeria,
Liberia, Colombia, Brazil, Uruguay, Costa Rica,
Honduras, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica,
India, Thailand, the Philippines, and Malaysia.
A number of other countries are actively trying
to start local affiliates.
* Solanda Housing Project: In Ecuador, the WID Of-
fice provided funds to a non-profit organization
to conduct a study of female applicants to an
A.I.D. housing project. The study showed that
nearly 40 percent of all housing applicants were
female heads of households and too poor to
qualify for the project's credit program. This ma-
jor A.I.D. project has been redesigned to take into
account the special needs of women borrowers.
The project represents an example of successful
intervention at the early stages of project design
and development, as well as successful coordina-
tion between an A.I.D. Mission, a Bureau, the
WID Office, and private voluntary organizations,
both international and indigenous.
* The WID Office funds the Women in Develop-

ment Centers of the Consortium for International
Development and the Southeast Consortium for Inter-
national Development to provide technical assist-
ance from U.S. universities to missions that request
support for their integration efforts. The benefits
of these projects are two-fold the chance for
mission efforts' success is enhanced, and the res-
ervoir of WID specialists in the academic com-
munity is enlarged. Approximately twenty-five
university technical personnel will have provided
missions with WID-specialized assistance in a
number of sectors by the end of FY 1985.
Other WID Office activities include:
* Women: Partnership in Development Program: The
Office provided three-year funding to Partners of
the Americas to initiate an effort that integrates
women into Partners programs through technical
assistance and training on project development,
as well as through seed money for innovative
* Women's Socioeconomic Participation Project: The Of-
fice of Women in Development and the Bureau
for Science and Technology co-funded this proj-
ect, which enabled technical assistants from the
International Center for Research on Women to
provide assistance to 19 missions worldwide in
areas ranging from employment and income
generation to agricultural development and local
institution building.
* WIDTech II: This project offers short-term tech-
nical assistance to local development organiza-
tions in Africa and Latin America through the
Overseas Education Fund. Needs assessments
are followed by preparation of training materials
and provision of workshops for low-income
women to aid income generation efforts.
* Marketing Management: LDC women working in
mid-level positions in non-traditional economic
sectors and smaller enterprises were brought to
the U.S. for training in marketing, finance, and
strategic planning with the International Market-
ing Institute.
Access to Credit: A 30-month project linked to a
USAID/Ecuador urban entrepreneur credit pro-
gram will assure women's access to credit in
Quito. The International Center for Research on
Women will provide technical assistance to local
implementing agencies, as well as collect data on
this pilot project to determine its replicability in
other countries.
Factory Women: The WID Office is collaborating

with USAID/Haiti in funding the Overseas Ed-
ucation Fund to design a project that will provide
skills training and support activities for women
in the light assembly export industry in Haiti.
* Women in African Trade Unions: This funding to the
African American Labor Center was initiated by
the WID Office to assist AALC in undertaking a
comprehensive program to stimulate, organize,
and facilitate development of programs to benefit
working women.
* Video Training in India: A series of "train the
trainer" workshops keying on the use of video as
a tool for teaching organizational and income
generation skills was conducted for the staff of
the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA)
of India.
* Water Management Synthesis II: Women's pre-
viously unrecognized roles in irrigated agri-
culture were the focal points of this project "add-
on," which the WID Office co-funded with the
Bureau for Science and Technology.
* Street Foods Project: Street foods provide as much
as 35 percent of the diet of many urban poor,
and are a substantial income generation oppor-
tunity for much of the informal sector (a majority
of which is women) in the Third World. This
study was undertaken by the Equity Policy Cen-
ter to identify ways to increase the nutritional
content of these foods, and boost the income po-
tential for both urban and rural women.
* Women's Agricultural School: The WID Office funds
activities of the Nyangahanga women's agri-
cultural school in Rwanda through a marshland
reclamation project. This project will enable the
women to clear, plant, and harvest 20 hectares of
reclaimed land, test crop varieties, meet con-
sumption needs of the school, and generate in-
come for operating costs.
* Agricultural Research in Peru: WID Office funds
supported research on the roles of women in ag-
ricultural production and marketing. Results will
be used by USAID/Peru to better integrate gen-
der concerns into rural projects.
* "SEEDS" Publication Series: This series describes
successful innovative small-scale income genera-

tion projects for women, complete with visual
"how to" information suitable for replication. Se-
lected parts of the series have been translated
and distributed throughout LDC countries under
WID funding.
SUN. Voluntary Fund: Funds earmarked by Con-
gress for international programs that support the
goals of the U.N. Decade for Women were allo-
cated by the WID Office to projects approved by
the Voluntary Fund and the UNDP Consultative
Committee. Projects selected were those that
focused on A.I.D.'s priority sectors, including
"Improvement of Agricultural Production in Af-
rica,"'Assistance to Women's Training Centre" in
Bangladesh, "Marketing Network for Women's
Handicrafts" in Thailand, and "Increased Milk
Production" in Bolivia.
Specialized Training:
Within the last two years A.I.D. has trained 120
senior Agency personnel as well as 40 representa-
tives of Title XII institutions, private voluntary or-
ganizations (PVOs) and Agency contractors, in
women in development concerns using the Har-
vard Institute for International Development's
(HIID) training workshops. Under a grant from
the WID Office, HIID conducted four intensive
women in development workshops based on
HIID-developed case studies on Agency field proj-
ects. These training sessions have provided A.I.D.
senior staff and PVOs staff with analytical skills
to deal more effectively with women-related is-
sues in a broad spectrum of projects. Two regional
field workshops for mission personnel are planned
for 1985 in Asia and Latin America, with Near
East and Africa sessions envisioned in 1986.
Bureau WID Initiatives:
It is a major milestone that the LAC Bureau re-
cently has begun to formulate its own action plan
for implementing women in development concerns
throughout the bureau and missions. The bureau
has set up a task force to address women in devel-
opment concerns within specific bureau programs
and will develop a special education packet on de-
velopment issues affecting women in Latin Amer-
ica and the Caribbean for both field and A.I.D./
Washington personnel.
The Asia Bureau has adopted a WID strategy that
was cabled to missions to provide guidance in
their integration efforts. This strategy includes tar-
gets for female participation in training efforts,

and requirement of a justification for failure to
meet such targets.
A number of missions in other regions also have
developed strategies for integrating women into
their project portfolios.
UN Decade Conference:
A major United Nations conference on women
will take place in July, 1985 in Nairobi, Kenya.
This conference marks the conclusion of the
United Nations Decade for Women. Formal dele-
gations from all member nations will attend to re-
view progress achieved and obstacles encountered
in attaining the goals of the UN Decade.
The Office of Women in Development is funding a
major macro-economic study of Third World policies
and their effect on women for use at Nairobi. The
office also has undertaken publication of a census
report containing demographics on women in 120
countries. The data will serve as a benchmark by
which future decades' development efforts can be
The Office also is providing organizational funds
to the Conference of Non-Governmental Organi-
zations (CONGO) and the Kenya NGO organizing
committee to assist with the concurrent NGO
Forum, provide English translation of activities
there, and help defray costs of LDC women's par-
ticipation at the Forum.
Long Range Benefits of WID Initiatives:
During the past three and a half years, A.I.D. has
made some critical and successful decisions to in-
tegrate women into all of its development strat-
egies. Women in Development continues to be a
priority area for A.I.D. The primary thrust of
A.I.D.'s women in development policy, as stated in
the 1982 policy paper, is that "it is critical now for
A.I.D. to move beyond its initial activities and
take an active role and provide leadership in en-
suring that women have access to the oppor-
tunities and the benefits of economic
development." The emphasis of the WID Office
now is working directly with A.I.D. missions and
the regional bureaus to strengthen their capacities
to undertake a wider and more effective range of
women in development interventions in all devel-
opment strategies.



". .. Women Farmers
Grow at Least 50 Percent
of the World's Food."

n -


Until recently, lack of knowledge regarding
women's participation in agriculture reinforced the
erroneous notion that men, not women, are the
principal farmers in developing countries. Now,
development professionals know differently.
In developing countries, agricultural assistance
programs must reach women if they are to achieve
their objectives of increasing agricultural produc-
tion and raising rural incomes. Rural women are
involved extensively in agriculture, providing la-
bor essential for food and cash crop production.
Women constitute 38 percent of the agricultural
labor force of developing countries, according to
official FAO data although it is recognized that
these statistics systematically undercount the
numbers of women in agriculture and also often
fail to record women's multiple and seasonal roles
in subsistence and market production.
Large numbers of women are active in agriculture
as farmers in their own right in parts of Africa,
more than 40 percent of the farms are managed by
women while 90 percent of the food produced for
home consumption is grown by women farmers;
in areas of Latin America, over 20 percent of rural
women are farmers; and in regions of the Carib-
bean, women represent 44 percent of the farmers.
The vast majority of women working in agri-
culture, however, are classified as unpaid family
workers. Although their roles and decision making
in many farm activities are often limited, these
women perform essential functions in the agri-
cultural production process. They are involved in
nearly all aspects of field cultivation including se-
lecting seeds, planting, weeding, fertilizing, and
harvesting; they undertake the bulk of crop proc-
essing and storage, and are often active in market-
ing as well. Women are engaged in animal, fishery,
and forestry production and it is women who are
primarily responsible for the production of subsis-
tence food crops. Nonetheless, they are frequently
excluded from labor force statistics since their

tasks are seasonal and include activities often con-
sidered "housework;' such as crop processing and
A third major category of women active in agri-
culture includes those working as wage laborers.
The increasing problem of landlessness
throughout the Third World has forced both rural
women and men to seek wage labor -in areas of
Asia over 85 percent of all rural households are
landless or near landless. Female participation as
wage laborers in commercial agriculture is also
quite high. For example, 50 percent of the tea
plantation laborers in India are women and in
Honduras, women make up 40 percent of the
wage laborers in tobacco and almost 90 percent in

Unfortunately, however, women's limited access
and control over agricultural resources such as
land, technology, credit, and training, their general
absence from production and marketing societies,
and their concentration in food crop production
rather than cash crops have contributed signifi-
cantly to the relative invisibility of their roles in
Until recently, agricultural development programs
concentrated primarily on cash crop production
(often to the exclusion of food crops) which was
generally considered the domain of men. Most re-
search, extension, credit, marketing and other
services were directed to these crops. Research on
women in development, however, has begun to
provide a picture of the multiple roles women play
in agriculture for both market and household use
and has also led to an awareness of the interre-
lated tasks women shoulder in meeting the de-
mands of child care, household chores, and
agricultural work often doing several tasks si-
multaneously. In addition, a number of recent
shifts in agricultural programs hold promise to ad-
dress more effectively the needs of women within
Developing countries, which face both staggering
foreign debts and burgeoning populations, cannot

afford an increasing dependence on food imports,
and have begun to recognize the necessity of im-
proving their domestic food production. With
women producing over 50 percent of the world's
food (over 90 percent in parts of Africa), reaching
women with services to improve their productivity
in food cropping has become imperative.
The farming systems approach now in use seeks
to improve farm productivity as a whole and of-
fers hope for better addressing women's needs be-
cause it builds on an understanding of the roles of
women as well as men within the farm household.
Efforts which focus on the multiple enterprises of
the small farm and target assistance to the specific
producers are more likely to address the needs of
women working in agriculture.
In addition to these broad shifts in agricultural as-
sistance, three main strategies have emerged for
meeting the particular needs of women in agri-
cultural programs. Under one strategy, projects are
undertaken which are exclusively directed toward
women. Typically, these are small scale efforts
which assist a limited number of women in a local
area and are undertaken by a women's organiza-
tion or special women's unit; a variation on this
can be a 'women's component' undertaken within
a larger project. Such efforts sometimes demon-
strate new ways to target rural women, although
generally they cannot be expected to provide
women access to mainstream agricultural
Under a second strategy, project designers take
into account the roles played by women in agri-
culture and expect that women will benefit from
the project because they constitute half of the tar-
get population; no special provisions are made to
facilitate women's participation.
The third and most successful strategy identifies
tasks that women undertake, stressing their roles
as farm managers and workers and defines special
measures to overcome barriers which limit
women's benefit from agricultural assistance pro-
grams. Studies are often undertaken during proj-
ect design to determine how best to address the
needs of women. Research relevant to tasks under-
taken by farm women may also be carried out
during the project. Similarly, women's participa-

tion in the project itself becomes a key issue in
monitoring and evaluating the project.
Specific mechanisms which foster an active role
for and outreach to women may also be initiated.
The mechanism most frequently identified to im-
prove women's access to agricultural development
services is the use of female extension agents and
promoters. While women field agents may be more
likely than men to establish contact with women
farmers, they cannot be effective unless they can
offer a service or "product" that will yield tangible
benefits to these farmers. Examining existing de-
livery systems for credit and other resources can
lead to innovative and successful outreach serv-
ices to women. Other specific measures include
provision of special training to local women.
Training courses are designed to take account of
the special constraints women face limited time
and mobility, and their multiple farming/house-
hold roles. Dissemination of technologies that help
alleviate the burden of many of women's chores
such as fetching water and fuelwood, or food
processing and preparation, can further ensure
that women are able to take part in other dimen-
sions of a project.
Given the size of USAID's agricultural portfolio,
involving women actively in agricultural assist-
ance programs is an important concern. The proj-
ects of many missions reflect the priority given to
testing, developing and evaluating strategies for
reaching women. Following are highlights of these


Africa Bureau and Missions
The Africa region provides the richest portfolio of
reported WID efforts within agriculture
development projects, which is not surprising
given the recognized role that women play in
agriculture in Africa.
The Africa Bureau reports a number of bureau-
wide project efforts that include women's
components. The Strengthening African
Agricultural Research Project has included as a
priority research into better understanding of
women's roles in agricultural production. Specific
recommendations that have emerged include
increased training efforts, greater targeting of
extension efforts to women, and greater access to
land and credit resources.
The Bureau also reported that it has been given
special recommendations by evaluators on how to
assess more accurately the labor contributions of
women and the constraints faced by them. In the
Bureau's Semi-Arid Food Grains Research and
Development Project a farming systems unit was
established. A recent evaluation of the unit's
activities recommended a number of ways to
enhance the consideration of women's roles,
including the basic approach of including women
among those interviewed by researchers, rather
than limiting interviews to male heads of

Twenty-one of the twenty-six missions identify at
least one major agriculture project including a
WID effort, and ten countries report three or more
such projects. Within many larger scale projects,
separate activities or services are targeted to
women. For example, the Small Farmer Livestock
Project in the Cameroon will train women in
rabbit raising; a Soil and Water Conservation
Project in the Gambia focuses on women as rice
cultivators and a Range Management Project in
Somalia targets women for services as the herders
of small livestock.
Agricultural extension is a key area of many
projects. The Rural Women Extension Project in
Kenya provides personnel, transportation, training
and materials to monitor and evaluate the
extension services and make them more
responsive to rural women's needs. In the
Cameroon, the Extension Support Centers Project
will be the final of three components combining
research, education and extension in a long-term
strategy to sustain self-sufficiency in food
production. Since, traditionally, women have been
the major producers of food crops, the
improvements in the extension system will focus
on the needs of these women farmers and
emphasis will be given to employing women in
the food crop programs.
The farming systems approach is another main
element of many projects in Africa. The primary
focus of the Farming Systems Research Project in
Lesotho is the development of appropriate
enterprise mixes for small farms. Given the fact
that a large number of farm units will be managed
by women, special attention will focus on their
needs. In Rwanda, where more than 70 percent of
all agricultural activities are performed by women,
the Farming Systems Improvement Project will put
major emphasis on both serving women farmers
and employing women extension agents. Small
farmers will be the ultimate target group for the

Agricultural Technology Improvement Project in
Botswana, which is designed to improve the
government's research and extension capacity.
Given the large proportion of women who are
small farmers, a minimum of 40 percent of the
beneficiaries will be women. Another example of
technology transfer is in Niger's Niamey
Department Development Phase II Project, where
women are provided improved technology in the
cultivation of major food grains as well as off-
season vegetable gardens, and in Gambia, the
Mixed Farming and Resource Management Project
where improved technology for maize production
to women is being introduced.
Two projects in Senegal offer a somewhat different
approach to serving women clients. The Cereals II
Project and the Casamance Regional Development
Project, have both institutionalized special WID
units within the implementing agencies. These
WID units monitor the implementation of the
projects and, through female agents, provide
services to women's groups in productive
In a number of countries, missions have only just
begun to integrate a focus on women into their
agricultural programs. Studies under the Adaptive
Crop Research and Extension project in Sierre
Leone focus on farm family food preparation, crop
processing and storage, and have been utilized to
direct specific attention to the needs of women in
future efforts. An extensive study of
agriculturalists in Zaire under the Area Food and
Market Development Project provides detailed
data on women's roles necessary to better address
the needs of women farmers in on-going and new
A number of countries include the provision of
agricultural credit to women farmers as part of
other services and resources.

A final set of agricultural projects are those aimed
primarily at planning, institutional development
and education. Under these projects, in most
countries, women are included as participant
trainees for local and international training in
agricultural fields; some emphasis is given to
hiring professional women and to increasing the
numbers of women within the agricultural
research and teaching institutions. Increased
enrollment of female students in agriculture
education programs is also promoted through
quotas and provision of housing facilities for
women. In Kenya, for example, one component of
the Agricultural Systems Support Project involves
institution building for Egerton College, the only
diploma-granting agricultural college in Kenya.
Enrollment of women in all areas of study is
As observed by several missions, a focus on
integrating women into the mainstream
agricultural development portfolio in Africa can
make a major contribution to overall efforts. In
keeping with a broad focus on rural and
agricultural development, the distinct roles and
functions of women are conceived not only in
terms of their impact on the quality of
socioeconomic standards, but also in terms of how
gender roles set certain limits to the productive
relationships in rural areas. These, in turn, may
condition the success of USAID financed
development activities.

Asia Bureaus and Missions
In the Asia Region, six of the nine missions
reported a total of twenty-one projects with a
focus on women. These projects (ranging from
integrated area development efforts to irrigation
and land management and to specialized
agricultural crops) attempt to address the role of
women through various means. Promotion of
women as agricultural extensionists is the most
frequently identified mechanism incorporated into
project efforts.
In Nepal, research under the Integrated Cereals
Production Project demonstrated the importance
of female extension agents for reaching female
farmers. A follow-on project calls for the active
recruitment of female students into the agricultural
science institutes. The project has also attempted
to utilize female extension agents, although their
numbers have been limited to date. Similarly,
recruitment and training of female extension
agents is employed under the Farming Systems
Project in the Philippines and the Agricultural
Extension Outreach Project in Thailand.
Different and apparently successful approaches to
providing services to women are incorporated in
several projects. The Mae Chaem Watershed
Development Project in Thailand includes

"interface" teams who live and work in local
villages. These teams are made up of both men
and women. Women work primarily with local
women, but with the direct cooperation and
support of their male team members. The Small
Farmers Systems Project in the Philippines which
provides integrated services including irrigation,
technology, marketing, processing and production,
has trained small farmers, including women, in
management skills and has promoted women's
participation in irrigation cooperatives, as well as
introduced various income-generation schemes
such as poultry and piggery production.
In a number of projects, the focus is on directly
training local women in special skills such as seed
processing, storage and marketing, as well as
vegetable production. The Rapti Integrated Rural
Development Project, in Nepal, aims to train
women farm leaders who can then act as local
innovators and para-professional extension agents
in training other local women. Also in the Rapti
Project, special women in development officers
from the participating ministry have been
instituted to act as promoters of women's needs
and to work with local women's groups.
In Indonesia, part of the Provincial Area
Development Program includes the training of
home extension workers who in turn provide
training in backyard poultry and duck raising and
gardening. Women are also the primary
beneficiaries of the rural credit program in Central
There are a number of projects in Thailand and
India which are cited as women in development
efforts. These projects recognize that women make
up a significant portion of the agricultural labor
force, or that a high proportion of households are
headed by women; it is expected that women will
benefit as part of the general target population
because these factors are recognized.

Latin America and the Caribbean Bureau and Missions
The introduction of technology yields both im-
proved food production and a reduction in the
"double-day" required of most women farmers.
The Latin America and the Caribbean Bureau's re-
gionally funded Appropriate Technology for Rural
Women Project seeks to transfer useful technology
to the daily lives of rural women.
Under the direction of the Inter-American Com-
mission of Women of the Organization of Amer-
ican States, this project has operated since 1979 in
Bolivia and Ecuador seeking to raise the incomes,
productivity and living standards of rural women
and their families through the introduction of
technologies appropriate to women's daily tasks.
As a result, national institutions have developed a
deeper appreciation of rural women's social and
economic roles and contributions at the family,
community and national levels.
Success is attributed to a combination of imple-
mentation techniques that stress careful selection
and training of project staff, particularly pro-
moters; thorough gender-specific data collection;
motivation and preparation of community groups
in organizational and group decision-making prior
to introducing technologies; and training com-
munity members in skills needed to assure they
can manage their own projects. Examples of activ-
ities stimulated by the project include commercial
production of honey, cheese, fruit products and
baked goods, improvement and diversification of
crops, improved livestock production, and build-
ing access roads and bridges to previously isolated
In September 1983, the project was extended to co-
operating communities in Argentina, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hon-
duras, and Venezuela.
Agricultural projects constitute part of the women
in development portfolios of all but one AID mis-
sion in Latin America and the Caribbean, al-
though most countries report only one or two
project activities improving the availability of agri-
cultural services to women. Mechanisms include

increasing the number of female extension agents,
training of local women producers, and support-
ing local women promoters. Research focused on
development of improved domestic technology as
well as a general recognition of women's roles
within specific sectors or activities are also cited as
mechanisms which integrate women into projects.
In Guatemala, for example, extension efforts di-
rected to women under the Small Farmer Diver-
sification System Project, provide training for
women in production and storage technology and
"homemaking skills." Women are expected to play
new and greater roles in family farm production
not only through their labor but through technical
management of new or enhanced farm enterprises
(small livestock, vegetables, fruits, etc.). The Fam-
ily Fish Ponds Development Project, has a separate
component aimed at enhancing women's par-
ticipation in the project. Rural women are selected
and trained as promoters/extensionists to extend
services to other local women with the aim of es-
tablishing fish ponds as a non-crop farm
The Belize Livestock Development Project, which
includes six main production components, directs
services related to swine production to women,
who traditionally are responsible for local piggery.
Women are being trained as extension agents, and
services to local women include credit, and im-
proved technologies and assistance with market-
ing in addition to extension services.
Projects in several other countries cite women's
role in relation to specific crops potato produc-

tion in Peru, rice production in Guyana, swine
production in Haiti. In a number of cases, atten-
tion to women is limited to a traditional focus on
their family/household roles.
Projects in Honduras, Paraguay, Peru and Bolivia,
which aim at delivery of services to small farmers
and settlers, target efforts for women to home gar-
dening, family management, or health-and nutri-
tion objectives, and frequently hire female pro-
moters or home extensionists to provide services
to women. In Peru, one project emphasizes the use
of radio at specific times of day most likely to
reach women farmers.
Under the Agrarian Settlement and Productivity
Project in Costa Rica, a special section for women
has been established within the implementing
agency (Agrarian Development Institute). This sec-
tion conducts orientation and training courses for
women and coordinates seminars focused on
women in agriculture. As the mission in Peru con-
cluded, however, integrating women is not just a
matter of benevolent attitudes. Closing the gap be-
tween good intentions and appropriate actions re-
quires a realistic understanding of the actual
involvement of women in the development proc-
ess. In addition, efforts must be carefully evalu-
ated to ensure that mechanisms achieve desired
aims and actually deliver needed agricultural serv-
ices to women.

Near East Bureau and Missions
The Near East Bureau reports a general agri-
cultural development assistance project aimed at 31
institutions in the West Bank and Gaza. The bu-
reau cites women as constituting 20 percent of the
project's beneficiaries in areas of agricultural de-
velopment, land reclamation, sheep breeding, live-
stock development and technical training.
Five of the six missions in the Near East and
North African Region report having agricultural
projects which incorporate a focus on women.
This newly emerging concern for assisting women
active in agriculture is reflected by special research
efforts in specific agricultural projects.
In Egypt, women have emerged as participants in
several projects although they were not originally
included in the design. As women's role in the
Small Farmer Production Project became evident,
a special survey was undertaken to identify varia-
bles that affected women's access to the project.
The findings have led to increased outreach efforts
to women and an experiment in upper Egypt, in
which a female extension agent will serve women
in one local area rather than the typical model of
serving a more dispersed population. The farming
systems component of the Major Cereals Improve-
ment Project, has determined that female par-
ticipation in storage, fertilization, harvesting and
marketing of cereal and forage crops exceeds 50
percent. The project will use sex-disaggregated
data to develop an extension program that is more
responsive to women agricultural producers.
The Highland Agricultural Development Project,
in Jordan, will attempt for the first time to intro-
duce a focus on women in an agricultural project.
In the design stage, critical issues regarding
women in agriculture were identified and a special
study undertaken. The project will aim to ensure
that extension services are available to rural
women, and will provide for the training of
women agricultural officers.

In Morocco, two projects the Range Management
Improvement Project, and the Dryland Agriculture
Project have attempted to incorporate a focus on
women. Recognition of roles women play in herd
management is important to the success of better
range management, although no specific efforts
are cited as being directed to women. Farming sys-
tems research related to dryland agriculture
should help expand the recognition and under-
standing of women's participation. A key objective
of these two projects, as well as two other projects
- Agricultural Planning and Statistics and the
Agronomic Institute is the development of in-
stitutional capacity in the field of agriculture.
Through these projects, selected women have par-
ticipated in training programs in Morocco and
abroad, as well as undertaken research as mem-
bers of participating institutions.
The Agriculture Research Project, in Tunisia, sup-
ports the development of institutional capacity for
research on mixed farming production practices.
Women may make up 15 to 20 percent of students,
teachers and researchers trained, and the project
may ultimately increase the recognition of
women's role in agriculture. Through the experi-
ence of the Agricultural Credit Project, in which
only 7 out of 100 extension agents were female, the
mission recognized that increased recruitment of
women extensionists was important to effectively
provide agricultural services to women, particu-
larly in livestock management. Efforts are being
made to encourage the Tunisian Ministry of Agri-
culture to recruit women and to train all extension
workers regarding the key role women play in the
family production unit.

Finally, the experience from Yemen with the poul-
try subproject of the larger Agricultural Support
Program provides an important lesson for project
design and implementation. Women were included
in the original project design as a primary bene-
ficiary group, because of their traditional role as
keepers of household and village flocks. Over the
initial years of implementation, however, this
focus was lost, partially because of the difficulty
experienced by the (all male) project team in
reaching village women, and partially because
larger, commercial components of the growing
Yemen poultry industry increasingly commanded
the attention of the project team. A recent evalua-
tion concluded that, for the project to achieve its
objectives, it needed to re-focus on providing ex-
tension services and training to the traditional sec-
tor poultry producers, most of whom are women.
In response to this recommendation, the mission
will recruit a female poultry technician to conduct
short-term training and provide extension services
to village women.

(serving all regions)

Science and Technology Bureau
Through the Office of Agriculture (S&T/AGR), the
bureau has made a concerted effort to improve the
lives of women in the developing world, whom it
regards as an integral part of the farm team. The
bureau notes that it attempts "to promote the same
opportunities in farm enterprises to women as
men;' including training for all aspects of the farm
S&T/AGR activities relevant to women in devel-
opment include:
1. Projects designed to increase the production of
food crops and livestock, including farming sys-
tems research.
2. As a result of S&T/AGR supported professional
networking, a major agrarian reform program by
the Government of El Salvador, the Rural Poor
Survey Project, was redesigned to include an anal-
ysis of potential benefits of the reform to rural
poor women.
3. Under the Collaborative Research Support Pro-
grams (CRSP) in Sorghum and Millet, and Beans

and Cowpeas, LDC women will be encouraged to
participate in research and training. The develop-
ment coordinator of the Beans and Cowpeas
CRSP is identifying the needs of LDC women and
initiating activities designed to meet these needs.
4. Under the Aquaculture Technology Develop-
ment Project, Auburn University is training LDC
women as extension agents in both graduate pro-
grams and short-term training sessions. These in-
clude processing techniques, often the domain of
females, as well as certain production aspects.
5. The research project on Spring and Winter
Wheat involving Oregon State University includes
research on the human-nutrition aspects of de-
veloping wheat foods in the LDCs and the role of
women in increasing the utilization of wheat
6. Under the Social Progress Indicators Project,
completed in December 1983, professional women
were helped to identify indicators which will per-
mit planners to assess the comparative status of
women in the employment field. The information
will also help planners to analyze the female con-
tribution to total household incomes and develop a
profile of female-headed households which will
include the number of household members, and
urban/rural status.

Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
The agricultural development activities of the Of-
fice of Women in Development are listed in a separate
section of this report.


-7 '-

,)I I

". Economic Potential
is Being Sacrificed by
Limiting Women's Roles
in Society."


In the past three decades, women have entered the
labor force in unprecedented numbers. In 1950, the
International Labor Office reported 344 million
women as "economically active." In 1975, that
number had risen to 576 million about 35 per-
cent of the global labor force.
These sharply increased levels of economic ac-
tivity have occurred to some extent because of
women's improved educational attainment and so-
ciety's changing mores, but have perhaps been
much more directly the result of growing pres-
sures on women to become increasingly responsi-
ble for the economic well-being of their families.
Nonetheless, in many developing countries, paid
employment opportunities for women have been
limited to marginal jobs that tend to provide low
wages, few fringe benefits, poor working condi-
tions, and little chance of advancement. The num-
bers of jobs available to women have typically
increased in low skill areas, primarily through the
establishment of multinational corporations and
domestic export-oriented industries. The work
available to women remains low-paying, making
the quality of employment opportunities desper-
ately low. In some regions, notably in Latin Amer-
ica, the development of industry and agriculture
has been capital-intensive, limiting the number of
jobs available in the modern sector. Intense com-
petition for jobs, combined with sex discrimina-
tion in employment, has meant that the small
number of jobs available go to men unless women
are much less expensive to hire.
Unable to afford either unemployment or very low
paid formal-sector employment, increasing num-
bers of women have turned to self-generated em-
ployment in the informal sector. In urban areas,
women take up occupations such as street vending
and domestic services. In rural areas, women proc-
ess and market produce or use local raw materials
in handicraft production. Earnings and mobility
are low in these informal sector activities, but for
most poor women access to this sector is relatively
easy compared to the problems they face in ob-
taining formal-sector employment.

Development interventions to improve the employ-
ment and incomes of women are being directed
along two lines.
For improving women's formal employment situa-
tion, appropriate and effective skills training pro-
grams are needed; for improving women's produc-
tivity and returns from informal sector activities,
practical management training, accessible credit
and marketing programs are required.
There are, however, several constraining factors
women may face in obtaining access to training
programs or utilizing the training they receive.
First, vocational training programs often impose
prerequisites which de facto exclude the vast major-
ity of women. For example, programs frequently
require potential trainees to have completed all or
part of secondary school, even when only a small
proportion of the population ever reaches second-
ary school. This is a particularly onerous require-
ment for women, who tend to have lower school
participation rates than men, and higher school
drop-out rates.
Second, information regarding available training
programs is often distributed through channels
which traditionally exclude women such as male-
dominated community organizations, or employ-
ment exchanges in which few women participate.
Finally, the areas in which women are trained
often are limited to those considered "appropriate"
for women typically extensions of women's
household roles such as industrial sewing and
knitting, and clerical/secretarial vocations. Little
or no attention is paid to the marketability of these
skills, so that women often end up being trained
for jobs in which there is an excess supply of
(female) workers.
Even in skills and management training projects,
which are less formal than vocational training
projects, women face difficulties. Since these
efforts use more active outreach and extension
strategies, women have easier access to the pro-
grams and are often specifically targeted as main
beneficiaries. Unfortunately, however, the infor-
mal nature of these programs can cut two ways:
instructors may be volunteers from upper- or mid-
dle-class women's organizations with no technical
expertise, or professionals such as social workers
and social scientists who are not experts in the
skills they teach. This can lead to a frequent proj-

ect pitfall little or no consideration is given to
the marketability of skills, and no access to credit
and other productive resources may be provided
for trainees to become self-employed.
In order to be effective for women, training proj-
ects must avoid these constraining factors and, in
addition, must take into account women's limited
time and mobility when determining the location
and timing of training.
Access to credit is another problem for women be-
cause they are often new and small borrowers. In-
terest payments make up only a part of the costs
of credit. Additional costs include payment for pa-
perwork, travel costs to visit the lender, and the
cost of time taken to negotiate and repay loans.
For women, who must allocate substantial time to
household duties, these loan transaction costs may
be several times as great as the amount of interest
In addition, the hours of operation of credit in-
stitutions may be inappropriate for most women
borrowers who are responsible for cooking, clean-
ing, and child care in addition to their work out-
side the home.
Women are less likely than men to be able to meet
collateral requirements for borrowing because
these often assume land or other property
ownership. In many countries women are still de-
nied the right to hold property in their own
names, making women's independent access to
formal credit sources impossible. When businesses
are accepted as collateral, women may not be con-
sidered good credit risks because they are engaged
predominantly in small-scale informal enterprises
and do not have the documentation of formally
registered businesses. Where regular salaries are
required as collateral, women again fare badly be-
cause they predominate in precisely those sectors
of the economy where regular salaries are the
Elaborate application procedures may be required
of potential borrowers, inhibiting women's access
to credit because of their high illiteracy rates and
low educational attainment relative to men. Most
poor women are incapable of completing applica-
tion forms that require more than rudimentary
reading and writing skills.
In addition, women often face social and cultural
constraints that further restrict their access to
credit. For example, it may be considered inap-

propriate for a woman to travel alone long dis-
tances between her home in a rural area and the
banks in town, or to offer the occasionally neces-
sary bribe to a male official in charge of credit
Innovative credit programs have shown that proj-
ects that are most effective in reaching women in-
corporate the following features:
* Several repayment options, allowing a choice of
repaying the loan in frequent small payments or
fewer large payments, depending on the ex-
pected income stream of the borrowers.
* Reduced collateral requirements through heavier
reliance on repayment capacity of the borrower
or through broadening the concept of collateral
to encompass security for a loan through group
lending or guarantees by members of the bor-
rowers' community.
* Use of information and credit distribution chan-
nels to which women have access. Large banks,
agricultural cooperatives, and extension services
have not been successful in distributing either
information about credit or actual credit funds to
the vast majority of women who need credit.
Thus, credit projects should make information
and funds available at the marketplace, through
religious groups, small savings associations, and
grassroots organizations that tend to be more
aware of and responsive to the economic roles of
A.I.D. has, in many instances, been quite suc-
cessful in incorporating innovative features into
credit projects, and in seeking innovative alter-
natives to traditional skills training projects. High-
lights of income generation and employment
projects involving women are given below. These
constitute only a representative sampling of the
worldwide efforts underway.


Africa Bureau and Missions
The Africa region supports several projects di-
rected toward training in income-generation and/
or employment skills, such as the Workforce and
Skills Training Project in Botswana, Vocational
Training for Young Adults in Djibouti, the Oppor-
tunities Industrialization Center Grant in Ghana
(OICG), and the OICI Phase II Project in Sierra
These projects are attempting to provide women
and men with useful training. In the Botswana
Workforce and Skills Training Project, 23 out of
150 people in training were women in FY 82-83. In
FY 84, however, eight out of twenty-one new long-
term participants were women, indicating an in-
crease in the percentage of female participation. In
the Djibouti Vocational Training for Adults Project,
two-thirds of the participants are women. The
Opportunities Industrialization Center Grant Proj-
ect in Ghana is providing practical training to
school leavers. Most female participants are being
trained in traditionally female areas catering and
office routines. However, there are a few women in
carpentry and plumbing, and the caterers appar-
ently have no trouble finding employment or start-
ing their own small enterprises. In Sierra Leone,
training for school leavers keyed on vocational,
secretarial, and (most importantly) management
In Gambia, technical assistance for income-gener-
ation projects is provided, mostly to women,
through the Integrated Rural Development PVO
Project. The assistance is given by community de-
velopment and home craft assistants in small ani-
mal raising, vegetable gardening, and tie-dying. In
Kenya, the Partnership for Productivity Project
provides business advisory and lending services to
women and promotes women's organizations for
community development as well as for some via-
ble income-generation projects.

Several credit projects in the region are also assist-
ing women with income generation. In Botswana,
the Rural Sector Grant gives women entrepreneurs
"preferential treatment" in the provision of capital.
In Burkina-Faso, the Small Economy Activity De-
velopment Project extends loans to women, mostly
on the artisan level. Loans to women represent 11
percent of total lending in the Burkina-Faso
Review of mission reports suggests a tendency to
focus on assisting women in groups in this region.
In Lesotho, for example, the Structuring Non-For-
mal Education Project provides modest loans to
small income-generating groups. In Togo, the La
Kara Skills Project organized and trained over 22
women's groups. This emphasis on mobilizing
women to work cooperatively in groups for the
good of the community can become a constraint to
income-generation goals, however, if not admin-
istered with long-term goals in mind, since such
labor often is expected to be performed on a vol-
unteer basis without remuneration.

Asia Bureau and Missions
In 1984, the Asia Bureau adopted its own special
WID strategy that includes attention to employ-
ment and income generation. In addition to its
mission projects, the Asia Bureau has placed par-
ticular emphasis on gender-disaggregated data col-
lection and analysis.
The Asia Region missions are supporting a
number of projects that promote women's income
generation through the provision of credit and
training in small enterprise development and
management. Most of these projects are not de-
signed specifically for women, but provide good
examples of how projects designed to meet the
needs of small entrepreneurs in general can be
successful in assisting women because so many
low-income women in LDCs are self-employed.
In Indonesia, for example, the Provincial Area De-
velopment (PDP) Projects I and II are designed, in
part, to provide credit for small-scale enterprises
and trade. Loan size is small, and the terms of
lending and repayment schedules are tailored to

trading and small-business cycles. As a result, 60
percent of the borrowers are female since women
are quite active in small enterprise and trade in
Java. There are, in addition, a few PDP sub-proj-
ects specifically designed for women. The Indone-
sian Financial Institutions Development Project,
designed to enable village lending units to expand
their loan portfolios, also benefits women because
the majority of loans are made for trading.
In the Philippines, the Small and Medium Enter-
prise Development (SMED) Project also has im-
portant benefits for women. Some PVOs work
with women in a way that emphasizes community
development goals rather than income generation.
The Micro-enterprise Development Component of
the SMED Project, however, provides assistance to
PVOs to help them meet the credit and marketing
assistance needs of small enterprises. This compo-
nent will increase the likelihood that PVOs will
assist women in developing viable individual
small enterprises, since women constitute 85 per-
cent of microentrepreneurs.
Other examples of projects benefiting women are
the Bangladesh Rural Industries I Project, which
has provided credit and technical assistance to
3771 women entrepreneurs through its Women's
Small Entrepreneur Development Project; the
Nepal Rapti Integrated Rural Development Project,
which will attempt to increase women's participa-
tion in training and credit for income-generating
activities by adding a female extension agent to
work with women whose husbands are working
outside the country; and the Thailand PVO-cofi-
nanced "Self-Employed Women" Project, designed
to develop self-employment for women by provid-
ing management and skills training, marketplace
facilities, credit, and support for women who are
ready to "graduate" to more established small

Latin America and the Caribbean Bureau and Missions
The Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean
has taken special interest in the Women in Devel-
opment programs as exhibited by the 1984 crea-
tion of a bureau WID Task Force.

In the employment and income generation sector,
a number of LAC region missions report projects
that promote income generation by providing
credit to small business owners, including women.
USAID/Peru reports exceptional results in this
sector through its grant to Accion Comunitaria:
approximately ninety percent of the micro com-
mercial enterprises and thirty percent of the micro
industries receiving credit and technical assistance
are women-owned. Women are expected to fill
seventy-five percent of the new jobs created by
this assistance over the three years of the project.
In addition, USAID/Peru has worked extensively
with the Banco Industrial de Peru to secure the
participation of low income women in the bank's
urban small enterprise credit program, through a
PVO intermediary. Approximately fifty percent of
the new jobs created are expected to be filled by
In Dominica, the National Development Founda-
tion of Dominica Project has disbursed 30 percent
of all loans for small businesses to women. Thus
far, in 1984, 44 percent of loan recipients have
been women. In this project, women have tended
to request and respond to technical assistance
more readily than men, and have demonstrated a
higher payback rate.

In Costa Rica, about 30 percent of the loans made
under the Urban Development and Community
Improvement Project have gone to women. In the
Guatemala Rural Enterprises Development Project
and the Haitian Development Foundation Proj-
ects, 20 percent of the borrowers have been
women. In the Jamaican National Development
Foundation Expansion Project, it is expected that
about 35 percent of loans will be made to women
entrepreneurs with no access to formal credit re-
sources. The Caribbean Credit Union Develop-
ment OPG has been particularly successful, with
women constituting 50 percent of its borrowers.
Most of these percentages do not, of course, match
the high proportions of self-employed women in
the labor force in Latin America, but they indicate
that progress is being made in incorporating
women's needs into small enterprise credit
Review of mission reports suggests there has been
a tendency in the region to focus on assistance to
women that is somewhat traditional, and may not
reach the poorest group. In the Special Develop-
ment Activity Fund in Costa Rica, for example,
the women's component in FY 83 consisted of
funding three workshops for sewing a tradi-
tionally "female" activity that is rarely lucrative
without prior identification of markets. In the
Ecuador Secondary Cities Development Project,
women are receiving training (without credit) in
artisan activities, and in Honduras, the Special
Development Activities Project is providing fund-
ing for housewives' clubs interested in day care
centers for children.

In Jamaica, the Basic Skills Training Project to im-
prove employment opportunities is open to
women, but without special mechanisms to allow
women's training in non-traditional areas, and
they will be limited for the most part to the typical
garment trades and commercial skills areas.
On the other hand, there is also a project in Ja-
maica that is making a noteworthy attempt to
break traditional barriers in skills training. The
Operation Friendship Vocational Skills Project is
providing training to both men and women (150
women per year) in air conditioning and refrigera-
tion servicing, electrical installation, small ap-
pliance repair, and lithography.

Near East Bureau and Missions
The Near East Bureau has worked extensively
with the Office of Women in Development in an
effort to introduce the economic concept of WID
into the region through various USAID missions.
Near East missions report several projects that are
improving women's employment and income-gen-
eration opportunities through the provision of
skills training. In Egypt, the Vocational Training
for Productivity Project has a specific program of
industrial skills training for women. It is notewor-
thy that this program includes a job placement
service which can be critical for women, who are
often unfamiliar with the procedures for obtaining
formal sector employment. In Morocco, the Indus-
trial and Commercial Job Training for Women
Project has trained 640 women in industrial and
commercial skills and, as in the Egyptian project,
provides job placement services. The Moroccan
Social Services Training Project provides three
types of training for women: non-traditional voca-
tional skills for participants to improve employ-
ability; administrative and management training
for women instructors at traditional vocational
centers; and professional training in social work at
an institute being established by the project.

(Serving all regions)

Other support is being provided to PVO projects,
which are somewhat more oriented to traditional
artisan skills, such as the Catholic Relief Services
income generation project in Jordan and the Save
the Children program to teach weaving skills in
It is worth noting that USAID/Yemen currently
has no project that directly benefits women's in-
come-generation opportunities because of the dif-
ficulties of trying to have men work with Yemeni
women as well as the Yemeni government's
(YARG) traditional resistance to WID as an issue.
The Mission's attitude is quite constructive, how-
ever, emphasizing that "a society with such a
small base of trained manpower, and such limited
resources other than male workers' remittances,
can ill afford to ignore the potential of women's
contributions to the national economy....
"It will take much time and effort on the part of
western donors, and some fundamental changes
in Yemeni society, before the YARG knows or cares
what a gender distinction is. In some parts of the
world, the greatest possible contribution we can
make is showing governments what economic po-
tential is being sacrificed by limiting women's roles
in society," the Mission notes.
The WID Office and the Near East Bureau are
working together on an innovative simulation
model that will demonstrate women's contribu-
tions to a number of non-traditional sectors of the
Yemen economy. This project (known as the
RAPID project) is described in detail under the
section of this report detailing the Office of
Women in Development. This project may be repli-
cated in other countries.

Science and Technology Bureau
Through the Office of Rural and Institutional Devel-
opment, the Science and Technology Bureau (S&T/
RD) since 1979 has been building a program deal-
ing with problems and opportunities for women in
A small exploratory study completed in 1978 ex-
amined the economic role of women, identified
principal occupations, pointed out problems and
constraints, and suggested a number of oppor-
tunities to help improve women's economic par-
ticipation. An in-depth study documenting the
history, economic impact and administrative sys-
tem of the Self Employed Women's Association of
Ahmedabad, India was published in March 1982;
it was jointly financed by the Office of Rural and
Institutional Development, USAID India and the
Government of India.
As a follow-up to these two studies the office un-
dertook work in FY 1981 to develop technical as-
sistance strategies to enhance the capacity of
A.I.D. and local PVOs to design and implement
programs that increase women's access to employ-
ment and income opportunities. During the past
four years, this project has been jointly managed
by S&/RD and the Office of Women in Develop-
ment and implemented through a contract with
the International Center for Research on Women.
The project has provided technical assistance to
LDCs and local PVOs in seventeen countries in
Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Activities have
focused on project design and evaluation of em-
ployment income generating projects, institutional
assessment of PVOs, review of labor force and
employment strategies, and information dis-
semination of experience gained through this proj-
ect. A September, 1984 evaluation of the project
indicates that it has had an important role in in-
creasing awareness, within A.I.D. and the devel-
opment community, of women in development
issues and has developed strategies for integrating
women into mainstream development projects that
focus on employment and income generation.

S&T/RD also offers field service in the social sci-
ences to A.I.D. Missions to assist their rural devel-
opment and development administration efforts,
particularly on issues of participation, income,
equity, and improved management and adminis-
tration. The variety of specialists who carry out
these functions in many different kinds of set-
tings, concentrate significantly on the women in
development aspects of the programs and projects
under consideration. Most commonly this means
disaggregating data by sex (a less-than-common
practice), and encouraging host countries to in-
clude women in training programs and other de-
velopment opportunities.

Bureau for Private Enterprise
Since September 1982, the Office of Investment has
provided two loans totalling $500,000 to Women's
World Banking (WWB). The A.I.D. loans are
providing partial guaranties on loans made by
host country financial institutions to micro and
small businesses open to the participation of
women. To date, loans have been provided in the
areas of health care, handicrafts, retailing and
services, with the monies channelled through
WWB affiliates located in 13 LDCs including Co-
lombia, the Dominican Republic, Thailand and
During October, 1984 PRE and WID jointly
funded a feasibility study for a WWB marketing
program and for an evaluation which will deter-
mine the development impact of these projects.
The evaluation is expected to be completed in
Spring, 1985.
In addition, the bureau is evaluating the impact of
a loan project in Thailand and Kenya, where
women entrepreneurs were not targeted in initial
project design.

Bureau for Food for Peace and Vluntary Assistance
The bureau works with a variety of PVOs in an
effort to strengthen their institutional capacities to
meet the needs of LDCs.
Through two projects with the Overseas Educa-
tion Fund (OEF), the Bureau targeted the employ-
ment and income generation needs of women.
In FY 82-83, OEF was assisted in its efforts to
work with local organizations by developing an
income generation and enterprise development
project for low-income women and by providing
short-term technical assistance in management
and technical skills.
In FY 84-86, OEF is refining its approach to such
projects by researching new strategies and testing
them through pilot projects. In addition, OEF is
developing training materials in small enterprise
development for use with women by local

Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
Through the Office of Policy Development and Pro-
gram Review (PDPR), the Bureau has funded two
especially noteworthy projects. The Pathfinder
Fund: Promoting Women's Opportunities Project
supported five women's income generating projects
in four Latin America/Caribbean countries. The
project included research into the impact that par-
ticipation has on women's attitudes and on their
families. Under the Social and Institutional Profile
Program, missions can investigate constraints to
economic development. Gender often has emerged
as a key variable in these investigations.
PDPRs Human Rights Program has funded legal
education efforts for women in Indonesia and
Ivory Coast, human rights education for women in
Mauritius and Swaziland, training sessions in co-
operative assistance, and free enterprise assistance
projects for black women in South Africa-- all in
an effort to address constraints that hinder
women's economic participation.
Programs to encourage employment and income
generation undertaken by the Office of Women in
Development are described in a separate section of
this report.


". .. The Under-Representation of
Females in the School Systems
of Most Developing Countries
is One of the Major Contributors
to Poverty in the Third World."


Socioeconomic development is a primary goal of
all developing countries. One important reason for
the development community's emphasis upon
achieving universal primary school enrollment
throughout the world has been the realization that
in order to achieve the broad aims of socio-
economic development, all citizens should acquire
literary and basic educational skills. Such skills
not only facilitate development participation, but
accelerate understanding of societal goals.
The underrepresentation of females in the primary
school systems of most developing countries is one
of the major contributors to poverty in the Third
World. Lower national levels of female educational
attainment are associated with higher rates of fer-
tility and infant mortality and lower levels of
socioeconomic development. Lack of educational
opportunities certainly reduces the social and eco-
nomic options women have in developing coun-
tries and also reduces the potential socioeconomic
returns of developing countries' investments in
The number of children enrolled in primary
schools in the developing world has increased
markedly in the last twenty years, but neither the
goal of universal primary education for girls and
boys nor the goal of equal access to primary edu-
cation for both sexes has been realized. With the
exception of Latin America, the noteworthy in-
creases in enrollment continue to be characterized
by lower rates for girls than for boys. In many
countries, even when enrolled, girls are less likely
than boys to complete primary school.
The education of women and girls has been called
by the World Bank "one of the best investments a

country can make in its future growth and wel-
fare" for the following reasons:
* the better educated the mother, the less likely the
child is to die in infancy. The children of edu-
cated mothers are better nourished and healthier.
* the children of educated mothers are more likely
to succeed in school, more so than if only the fa-
ther is educated.
* educated women are more receptive to family
planning and tend to have later marriages and
fewer children.
* primary education opens the way to further edu-
cation or vocational training in agriculture,
health services, etc., and thereby increases the
opportunities to find remunerated employment.
All these facts are increasingly recognized, yet the
number of female illiterates grows at a pace faster
than males.

Girls' lower attendance rates are largely the result
* national educational policies concerning univer-
sal enrollment and school fees that affect boys
and girls differently.
* the uneven distribution of primary schools, es-
pecially in rural areas, leading to greater losses of
girls from the educational system since girls are
not typically allowed to travel as far as are boys
for schooling.
a lack of schools for girls when education is sex-
a shortage of female teachers and a general reluc-
tance among certified female teachers to work in
isolated rural areas or in urban slum areas where
girls' school participation is exceptionally low.
the demand for girls' household labor and school
hours that conflict with girls' household work,
seasonal labor responsibilities in agricultural and
other types of production.
late entry of girls into primary schools compli-
cated by the increased likelihood of pregnancy

and/or preparation for marriage, and increased
restrictions placed upon the physical mobility of
older girls in some societies, and
rigid and unreasonable examination and promo-
tion requirements (considering the child's living
and work environment) that lead to higher
wastage rates or grade repetition.

Large numbers of boy repeaters occupy class
space that potentially could be utilized for new
girl recruits who are of the appropriate age for pri-
mary school attendance.
A.I.D. projects attempt to address these constraints
through school construction, curricula develop-
ment, and teacher training programs.
In addition to basic education, the Agency recog-
nizes that skills training for the workforce is es-
sential for the development of the private sector in
developing countries.
In assisting developing countries to improve edu-
cation and training systems, A.I.D. focuses its at-
tention on increasing:
* the efficiency with which education resources
are used;
* the quantitative and qualitative outputs of edu-
cation and training efforts; and,
* the effectiveness of the education and training
systems in supporting economic and social de-
velopment objectives.
Agency policy is to give educational assistance to
countries that encourage equal access to educa-
tional facilities. A.I.D. does not support education
programs which do not increase opportunities for
girls, poor and rural children.
For most developing countries, improvements in
basic education must also be supplemented by in-
creases in the supply of well-trained technical and
professional personnel. The Agency's participant
training programs are designed to contribute to

that goal and have the potential to ensure that
women are given the opportunity to participate
fully in their countries' development by filling crit-
ical planning and technical positions in govern-
ment and the private sector.
A.I.D. emphasizes the training of developing
country scientists, technicians, administrators and
managers as well as the improvement of spe-
cialized training capacities in developing coun-
tries. "Development training" includes both
external participant training and training in local
institutions. A.I.D. policy encourages participant
training for three purposes:
* staff development for A.I.D.-assisted projects;
* strengthening of key development institutions;
* establishment of local training capacities.
All participant training programs are expected to
provide opportunities for women. While A.I.D.'s
policy does not yet require any specific percentage
or formula for measuring female participation, it
does affirm that all training programs are expected
to give attention to means of ensuring substantial
participation of women. Where only a few women
are expected to participate, additional justification
and explanation of why alternatives providing
greater female participation are not recommended
may be required.
An overview of A.I.D. projects in both education
and participant training follows.


Africa Bureau and Missions
The Africa Bureau supports human resources de-
velopment for women through a number of bu-
reau-funded education and training projects.
The African Manpower Development Phase II
(AMDP-II) Project makes funds available to about
25 African countries for academic or technical
training in the U.S. and in Third World countries,
as well as for in-country seminars and short
courses. It is estimated that about 10 percent of
U.S. training and 30 percent of training in Africa
have been allocated to women participants.
The African Graduate Fellowship Program II
(AFGRAD-II) provides scholarships to enable stu-
dents from about 40 African countries to obtain
agricultural, business and other development-re-
lated higher level degrees in U.S. colleges and uni-
versities. Increased women's participation in this
program is envisioned through more aggressive
recruitment efforts and through career counseling
to inform women of job opportunities in agri-
culture, business and other areas requiring higher-
level training.
The Bureau's Regional Rural Development Training
Project provides funds to the Pan African Institute
for Development (PAID) which provides training,
research and other support services for rural de-
velopment programs in about 35 African coun-
tries. Each of PAID's four regional institutes
conducts at least one women in development pro-
gram each year.
The African Labor Development Project provides
assistance through the African-American Labor
Center (AALC), in the development of democratic,
effective trade union organizations in various Af-
rican countries through educational and other ma-
terial assistance. Countries benefiting from the
AALC project are Lesotho, Kenya, Sierra Leone,
Liberia and Zaire. Women have been provided
training in producing and marketing handicrafts,
developing other income generating projects, and
in setting up a health center.
Improved educational opportunities for girls and
women are being provided through several mis-
sion-funded projects in the Africa region. The Pri-

mary Education Improvement Project in Botswana
and the Support to Primary Education Project in
Cameroon are both contributing to improved
training for primary school teachers. Improved
quality and supply of teachers are important to in-
creasing girls' access to primary education. In Lib-
eria, the Improved Efficiency of Learning Project is
developing teaching materials for primary schools
that provide positive role models for girls, as is the
Instructional Materials Resource Center Project in
Lesotho, where 60 percent of primary and second-
ary school students are female.
Adult education is being provided through the
National University of Lesotho Project where life-
long adult education projects are being developed
for a student audience that is over 50 percent
female; and in Gambia, numeracy and literacy
training is being provided to members of the
Women's Cooperative Thrift and Credit Societies.
In Zimbabwe, the Books for New Literates Project
is making a major impact on the availability of in-
expensive, but high quality, reading materials for
new literates and semi-literates who are mostly
women. Over 70 percent of those reached by this
project are women.
Finally, the Zimbabwe Basic Education and Skills
Training Sector Assistance Project (BEST) is aim-
ing to provide additional budgetary, technical as-
sistance and training resources to the government
of Zimbabwe to address major constraints to the
quantitative and qualitative improvement of for-
mal education and vocational/technical training.
This sector program, although not specifically
focused on women, is having a major impact on
the access of young women to formal secondary
education and post secondary training.
The expansion of these training and educational
programs in Zimbabwe since independence in
1980 has had a greater impact on women than
men. Not only are more women enrolled in educa-
tional and training programs, they are also becom-
ing involved in fields not previously open to
women. For example, the new 2,500 teacher train-
ing college developed by A.I.D. emphasizes the
training of secondary school teachers in the sci-
ences, vocational, and technical subjects. Since its
inception in 1982, the enrollment of women teach-
ers in these subjects has increased from less than
ten to more than one hundred.
The various technical colleges being financed un-
der BEST are being designed and developed to
cater to female trainees in automotive, mechanical,

electrical and business fields. Women are also
being sent as participants for training under the
Participant Training Programs in the region are
placing an increasing emphasis on the recruitment
of women. These programs include Sahel Man-
power Development in Burkina Faso and Senegal,
where two of five trainees were women in FY 83;
Manpower Development and Training in Lesotho,
where 210 women will receive overseas and in-
country training; Development Leadership Train-
ing in Mali; Human Resources Development in
Mauritania; Manpower Training in Swaziland,
where half of the long-term training funds will go
to women; Development Manpower Training in
Zaire, where ten women were sent to a regionally
funded training project on agri-business develop-
ment; Agricultural Development in Zambia, where
11 percent of long-term trainees in the U.S. were
female; and Manpower Development in Zim-
babwe, where 50 of 150 trainees were women. In
Uganda, almost 25 percent of the participant
trainees since 1981 have been women.

Asia Bureau and Missions
In the education sector, and in participant training
related to projects in all sectors, the Asia Bureau is
continuing its exemplary efforts to increase the
level of involvement of women. While cultural
forces in some countries make it difficult for mis-
sions to meet the bureau's 25 percent female par-
ticipation goals, some missions actually have
exceeded it. Several innovative means of motivat-
ing women to pursue education and motivating
governments to nominate qualified women for
training are being tried in the region. In
Bangladesh, for instance, A.I.D. waives the re-
quirement for the Bangladesh government to fi-
nance the international travel costs for female
participants under certain projects.
Projects that contribute to improved education for
girls and women in the Asia Region involve direct
attempts to improve girls' enrollments, teacher
training to indirectly improve girls' access, and
construction of school facilities. In Bangladesh, for
example, a special pilot scholarship program was
established under the Family Planning Project to
enroll 3,000 girls in 22 secondary schools. The
scholarships are less than $2 (US) per month and
are sufficient to cover all school expenses. Al-
though the program has only been in existence for
the past 18 months, preliminary statistics indicate:
(1) a significant increase in enrollments in 1982-83,

and therefore, much greater continuation rates for
girls from primary to secondary school; (2) lower
dropout rates and, (3) overall higher continuation
rates from one academic year to the next.
In Nepal, primary school teachers are being up-
graded through the Radio Education Teacher
Training II Project; in Pakistan, U.S. training is
being provided to two female educators in non-
formal education under the Northwest Frontier
Area Development Project. Under the same proj-
ect, twenty girls' primary and middle schools are
being upgraded or constructed, and non-formal
education for girls is being undertaken at thirty
additional locations. In the Philippines, a nation-
wide school construction program is being funded
by the Regional Development Fund Project.
Participant training programs in the region that
provide women with an opportunity for overseas
or in-country training include Development Man-
agement Training in India, where at least 15 per-
cent of the trainees will be women; Technical
Resources in Bangladesh, which has a specific
"women's training" component for management
and related training; and Training Development Is-
sues in the Philippines, in which half of overseas
and in-country trainees in FY 84 were women. In
Indonesia, about 20 percent of overseas trainees
are women; in Burma, women have constituted 21
percent of trainees. In Thailand, the percentage of
female participants trained has increased from 12
percent in FY 81 to 36 percent in FY 84. In Nepal,
despite strong efforts, the percentage of female
trainees remains low. However, A.I.D./Nepal has
recently asked the government of Nepal to nomi-
nate 15 female candidates under the FY 1984 India
Training Program for either short- or long-term
training in virtually any academic field as one
means of increasing the overall percentage of
women. A new general participant training project
to be developed in Nepal for FY 86 will broaden
training opportunities; at least 25 percent of all
training positions will be for women under this

Latin America and the Caribbean Bureau and Missions
This year the Latin America and the Caribbean
(LAC) Bureau is responding to WID concerns with
a major effort in the education and training sector.
The Caribbean and Latin American Scholarship
Program (CLASP) is a participant training pro-
gram for approximately 8,000 LAC participants
over five years. Under this program, the LAC Bu-
reau plans to increase the female participation
from 20 percent (women's traditional participation
level) to 40 percent, thus benefitting 3,200 women.
In addition, the LAC Bureau works with a number
of Private Voluntary Organizations, such as Part-
ners of Americas, to encourage participation by
females in Partners programs operating in 27 LAC
Five projects in the LAC region focus on improv-
ing educational opportunities. None are specific to
women, but all can be expected to have an impact
on women.
In Bolivia, the Rural Education II Project is de-
veloping the skills of rural teachers. This will im-
prove the quality of education and may improve
girls' enrollment rates; in addition, the women,
who constitute 40 percent of rural teachers, bene-
fit from receiving training. In Honduras, the Rural
Primary Education Project is expanding and im-
proving the physical infrastructure of the rural pri-
mary educational system to train supervisors,
school principals and elementary school teachers,
and to develop a management information system
within the Ministry of Education. As of June 1984,
about 4,000 persons had been trained. The major-
ity of these trainees were women.
An innovative project in Guatemala is the Bi-
lingual Education Project. Under this project, forty
new positions for bilingual promoters were created
and eighty elementary teachers were appointed for
the project schools, with fifty-nine women filling
these positions. As pointed out in the project pa-
per, case studies in 1978 showed that the attend-
ance of more females can be achieved by the
promoter or bilingual titled teacher if she is also
female. A 1983 evaluation of education sector
achievements during the past twelve years also
produced positive findings in regard to female

school attendance. The evaluation compared the
school attendance of Indian girls taught by bi-
lingual Indian promoters versus Indian girls
taught by Ladino teachers. The evaluation con-
cluded that bilingual promoters are able to attract
the attendance of more female pupils with lower
drop-out rates as well.
A Non-Formal Education Project is also being,
supported in Guatemala. The project assists the
national board of non-formal education to coordi-
nate non-formal education activities directed to
the rural poor and increase the geographic
coverage of NFE services. Sixty-seven percent of
all community beneficiaries over the life of the
program have been female. Females tend to re-
main close to home, where most NFE activities
are likely to take place. Female community pro-
moters and institutional extensionists are being
trained in methods to motivate the participation of
women in non-traditional activities.
In Peru, the mission's activities are aimed at in-
creasing efficiency and output of existing pro-
grams. The "Fe y Alegria" vocational training
program is not only equally accessible to male and
female secondary students from the slums of Lima
and principal cities, but includes a complementary
program for low-income women from the service
The mission has funded construction of 24 com-
munity centers where a local PVO not only offers
training for women, but also is seeking to secure
credit for women graduates.
The identification of the need for a better linkage
between training and the labor market has led
USAID/Peru to work with local business leaders
to ensure relevancy of training efforts. Special at-
tention to including women in this analysis is
identified by the mission as an area for oversight.
Participant training programs involving women
in the region include Regional Development Train-
ing I, in which 71 out of 254 participants were
women; Central American Democratic Develop-
ment in Costa Rica, which requires 30 percent of
all participants to be women; and participant
training programs in Guatemala in which the
number of female participants has risen from 9 in
FY 81 to 25 in FY 83.

Near East Bureau and Missions
The Near East Bureau has funded a number of on-
going projects in the West Bank and Gaza which

(serving all regions)

focus on education and training, such as the
Human Resources Development and Gaza Pre-
school Education projects. These projects address
institutional development in post secondary edu-
cation and manpower training, and testing and
dissemination of pre-school teaching curricula re-
spectively. A separate human resources project
provides scholarships to enable faculty members
of four West Bank universities to obtain advanced
degrees in their specialities. Women's participation
ranges from 20-33 percent in these projects.
In Lebanon, the centrally-funded Basic Living
Skills (Phase II) Project geared to illiterate and
semi-illiterate women supports the development of
non-formal education training modules in literacy
and numeracy, and a vocational training project
teaches building skills to a target group that is 30
percent women.
In the Near East region, two projects are contribut-
ing to the enhancement of women's educational
opportunities. In Egypt, the Basic Education Proj-
ect is building 620 primary and preparatory
(grades 7-9) schools in the ten governorates where
girls' enrollment is lowest. Female access to educa-
tion is being improved by increasing the proximity
of schools and by reducing the number of late ses-
sions held. In addition, 40 percent of the basic ed-
ucation teachers are women. Women and girls are
employed in school construction. In Oman, the
School Construction Project will finance 50 per-
cent of 50 schools. Of this total, twelve will be all
girls' schools and nineteen will be for both boys
and girls. Altogether, the schools financed under
the project will provide space for primary and sec-
ondary school-aged girls. In addition, USAID/Jor-
dan has in the past financed school construction
projects that have benefited women.
Near East Participant Training programs that ben-
efit women include the Peace Fellowship Program
in Egypt, in which 21 percent of the fellows have
been women; Development Administration Train-
ing in Jordan; Sector Training Support in Morocco,
in which 20 percent of participant slots are re-
served for women; Scholarship and Training in
Oman, in which women generally constitute 25
percent of the students sent abroad; and Develop-
ment Training II and III in Yemen. In Tunisia, the
FY 84 Participant Training Program includes ten
women. In the Sudan, during FY 84, eight women
have received training in the U.S. and third

Science and Technology Bureau
The Office of Education addresses gender issues and
the role of women in development by working to
improve female access to education. Increased ac-
cess will be achieved through improved planning
and diversified approaches to education. These
measures particularly consider the specific learn-
ing needs of women which may result from lim-
ited access.
The Improving the Efficiency of Education Sys-
tems Project helps host governments to improve
educational planning and policy analysis. It also
assists public and private host country institutions
in conducting research aimed at testing and de-
veloping new solutions to problems of educational
inefficiency and inequity, and in devising and fol-
lowing alternative approaches.
The project is completing country education sector
assessments to facilitate improvement in educa-
tional planning. Among other issues, these assess-
ments address equity and access issues at all levels
of education. If the sector assessment identifies
low levels of equity and access, project staff will
develop specific recommendations for alleviating
the problems. The project is getting underway in
four African countries plus Haiti and Yemen.
The Mass Media/Health Practices Project, cur-
rently underway in Honduras and Gambia, works
predominantly with rural mothers, grandmothers,
and older female children. A diversified project
approach combines the use of radio, graphic mate-
rials and interpersonal communication to train
rural mothers in use of Oral Rehydration Therapy
to prevent and treat infant diarrhea. Female proj-
ect participants are also given access to informa-
tion on rural water use, sanitation practices, infant
feeding, food preparation and personal hygiene.
The Radio Community Basic Education Project
uses radio to provide a primary education curricu-

lum to girls and boys who lack access to schools.
In the Dominican Republic, the project is demon-
strating how direct radio broadcasts combined
with community para-professionals can be used to
educate out-of-school children. Women participate
at all levels from technical coordination and
broadcast preparation to monitoring community
education centers.
The Office of International Training (S&T/IT) has a
number of initiatives to involve women more fully
in international training opportunities.
The Office prepared A.I.D.'s Development Training
Strategy paper, which puts strong emphasis on
women in development by including language de-
signed to promote training opportunities for
women generally and for participants' spouses
(traditionally women).
Consideration of gender distinctions was provided
by one of S&T/IT's contractors, Partners for Inter-
national Education and Training. They arranged a
four-week training program in the United States
for 25 high-level professional women from Mo-
rocco. The program included two weeks of man-
agement training specifically designed for women
administrators, followed by two weeks of profes-
sional meetings with successful American women
and visits to a variety of national women's organi-
zations. The group met with two U.S. officials,
both women, the Assistant Administrator of the
Near East Bureau and the Director of the Bureau's
Office of International Training. In addition to
helping them become more effective admin-
istrators, the program sought to clarify the cultural
obstacles to women which greatly impede integra-
tion of women into the national economy.

In October 1983, the Office arranged for 14 women
from developing countries to attend the First Na-
tional Conference of the Association for Women in
Development in Washington, D.C. The conference
addressed the reasons and strategies for focusing
on women in all phases of economic assistance. It
also celebrated accomplishments during the dec-
ade since passage of the 1973 Percy Amendment to
the Foreign Assistance Act requiring the integra-
tion of women into the development process.
The women who attended the conference were al-
ready in the U.S. taking long-term academic train-
ing. The Office decided to fund the small
additional cost to assure their attendance. They
were from Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Somalia,
Swaziland, Cameroon, the Philippines, Indonesia,
Nepal, and Yemen studying in such diverse fields
as environmental health, agronomy and plant
breeding/pathology, soil science, swine nutrition,
home economics and nutrition, rural sociology,
population and demography, economics, jour-
nalism, and communications.

Bureau for Food, Peace and Voluntary Assistance
The Office of Voluntary Assistance has several on-
going projects which focus on educational oppor-
tunities. The World Education, Inc., Overseas Edu-
cation Fund, and Centre for Development and
Population Activities Projects, through training,
prepare women for greater participation in the de-
velopment process in numerous sectors.

Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
The Office of Policy Development and Program Review
supports a grant to the Center for Development
and Population Activities to train women man-
agers for health and family planning projects as
well as to provide technical assistance in com-
munity development projects.
Education and training activities of the Office of
Women in Development are reported in a separate


". .. Projects That Improve
Energy Supplies Can Free Women's
Time for Income Generation."


It is women and girls who, in developing coun-
tries, are mainly responsible for providing for their
households' energy needs. It is usually females
who collect wood, crop residue, and dung to be
used as fuel for warmth and cooking. Many hours
are spent on these tasks daily and, as fuelwood
shortages grow, more and more time must be de-
voted to traveling greater distances in search of
fuel. Projects that improve energy supplies can
free women's time for their other responsibilities,
including income-generation. In addition, such
projects, if approached properly, can reinforce
women's control over the proceeds of their work,
as opposed to reinforcing the expectation that
women should volunteer their efforts to fulfill
civic obligations.

A.I.D's reforestation projects can provide not only
fuel but food, fodder, medicines, and cash returns.
Rural women are quite knowledgeable about the
attributes of familiar forest products and can
quickly become expert with regard to new rapid-
growing trees for forest plantations. However,
projects must be designed to ensure that women,
who contribute their labor to resource conserva-
tion, share in the control of forest product
In the design and implementation of fuel stove
projects, and other energy- and labor-saving proj-
ects as well, precautions must be taken to guard
against factors that constrain women's incentives
to participate:
* solar cookers are designed to be used in the heat
of the day when women may prefer not to cook
or might be working away from the house.
biogas digesters provide energy, but require
women to spend time either providing fodder for
penned animals or collecting the dung of range
labor-saving technologies may displace destitute
women laborers from their traditional means of
generating income if technology is introduced to
men rather than women.
An overview of A.I.D. energy and conservation
projects, and how they incorporate these concerns,
is given below.


Africa Bureau and Missions:
Energy and natural resource conservation con-
tinue to be an area of critical importance to the
Africa Bureau. Deforestation, oil import depen-
dence, and under-developed indigenous resources
are all critical aspects of Africa's situation. In the
Energy Initiatives for Africa Project, an under-
standing of women's roles in this area is being
sought to help develop and implement national
policies and programs for effectively addressing
the pressing energy problems of sub-Saharan Af-
rica. The importance of working with women in
projects dealing with deforestation and inefficient
energy use is recognized. In addition, this project
identifies necessary policy or other interventions
needed to facilitate the expected economic impact
on women when labor time spent on fuelwood
collection is reduced.
Four missions in the African region are currently
funding energy projects that affect women directly
or indirectly. The Botswana Renewable Energy
Technology Project is introducing a range of tech-
nologies designed to improve efficiency in energy
use among the rural population. Improved wood
burning stoves, for example, benefit women di-
rectly by reducing the amount of firewood (which
women must collect) needed for heating and
The Gambia Forestry Project is designed to in-
crease the production and efficient utilization of
wood products, and thus avoid impending de-
forestation. The women's component of the project
consists of providing more efficient means of ob-
taining fencing, firewood, and fruit tree species for
women's gardens. To date, two gardens involving
about sixty women have been assisted. These gar-
dens provide sources of firewood, fruits, vegeta-
bles, herbal medicines, spices, tools, and furniture
for the village households.
In Kenya, a Renewable Energy Development Proj-
ect is being supported to help the Government of
Kenya develop appropriate energy policies, with
an emphasis on renewable and non-conventional
energy resources and technologies for rural areas.
Fuel efficient cookstoves are being developed, as
are agro-forestry techniques that increase the
proximity of fuelwood. Once made available in
the rural areas, these technologies will reduce
women's time and labor spent in collecting fuel.

In Senegal, the Energy Conservation Cookstove
Program is a pilot activity by the Center for
Renewable Energy Research, a government agency
that is aiming to have improved cookstoves dis-
tributed through the private sector. Rural women
can save wood by use of this technology, which is
appropriate and inexpensive. The impact of the
project on women will, of course, depend on how
inexpensive the stoves are and whether they are
widely available and publicized.

Asia Bureau and Missions
The bulk of WID activities in Asia, including
those related to energy and natural resource con-
servation, are funded under the bilateral-country
programs. One project which is centrally funded
through the Asia Regional Bureau and includes a
significant women in development component is
the Sri Lanka Tea Worker project. This project,
funded under the Asian American Free Labor In-
stitute Program, involves 22 female specialists in
community development who are responsible for
the oversight of a comprehensive development
program at 16 tea plantations. Among other
things, these women play a leading role in forestry
education and activities.
The Asia Region is supporting seven energy proj-
ects: four in India, one in Nepal, and two in
Pakistan. Two projects in India are essentially re-
search projects that will eventually benefit women
through the development of efficient energy tech-
nologies. One of the projects, the Forestry Re-
search, Training and Extension Project, is also
providing some training to women in forestry re-
search and extension, thus supporting the greater
participation of women in forestry sector activi-
ties. One project in Maharashtra is designed to im-
prove the institutional capability of the state
government to assist villagers in managing for-
ested lands. Again to the extent that this project
eventually improves forestation, women will bene-
fit (by travelling shorter distances to collect fire-
wood). The Madhya Pradesh Social Forestry
Project, however, is most likely to benefit women
directly. The project is actually developing renew-
able sources of firewood, small timber, and fodder
on degraded forest reserves for the benefit of
neighboring villages. In addition, women are
being incorporated into the project as part of an
extension service for social forestry.

In India, the vital importance of local forest re-
sources for women for firewood, as well as for
food and income generation is recognized in two
forestry projects. Under the projects, which at-
tempt to ensure that domestic as well as industrial
needs are accounted for, women will be recruited
and trained in the forestry extension service vir-
tually for the first time and are expected to make
up between 5 to 10 percent of the project agents. It
is hoped that this will both open forestry up to
women's employment and promote an active role
for local women in such efforts.
In Nepal, the Resources Conservation and Utiliza-
tion Project is being supported a multifaceted
project designed to arrest soil erosion and de-
forestation through watershed management. A
number of activities to benefit women have been
implemented: (1) a technique of organizing par-
ticipation in community decision-making to in-
clude women; (2) smokeless stove development
and distribution (women benefit from the estab-
lishment of a healthy cooking environment and a
decrease in fuelwood consumption); (3) a female
radio education component that broadcasts news
and information of concern to women in the target
area; and, (4) coordination with local officials to
place three women development officers in the site
In Pakistan, the Forestry Planning and Develop-
ment Project focuses on the time spent and dis-
tances travelled by women to collect fuelwood, as
well as offering income-generating opportunities
for rural women in seedling production.

(serving all Regions)

Science and Technology Bureau
Several Science and Technology Bureau (S&T)
projects demonstrate the incorporation of WID
concerns into energy and natural resource conser-
vation projects. One good example is the Pho-
tovoltaic Development and Support Project in
Burkina Faso (Upper Volta). A solar water pump
and grain grinder has now drastically reduced the
amount of time traditionally spent by women on
water collection and food grinding. In another
S&T project in Burkina Faso, implemented
through Volunteers for International Technical As-
sistance (VITA), women are part owners of a wood
stove business which employs women to dissemi-
nate information on the use of such stoves in sur-
rounding villages. Also under this project, S&T
has produced a film strip in Guatemala to teach
women how to use efficient clay Lorena stoves.
Like the Photovoltaic Project, the Bioenergy Sys-
tems and Technology Project, which aims to de-
velop low-cost household energy, emphasizes the
reduction of women's fuel collecting burdens as
the initial step toward free time for income-gener-
ation activities.

Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
The Office of Women in Development's work in the
energy sector is described in a separate section of
this report.


~**- v ;

". .. Water for Domestic Use is
Essentially the Responsibility
of Women in the Third World."


Among the most important goals of development
are better health and sanitation. One of the best
ways through which development agencies can
meet these goals is to ensure the availability of an
adequate, safe water supply.
In their multiple roles, women play a central part
in strategies to improve health, raise nutritional
levels and control their own fertility. While
women's roles in these areas traditionally have
been recognized, development efforts have not al-
ways addressed them in the broadest and most
productive ways possible.
Experience with health and sanitation programs
has demonstrated the critical linkage between suc-
cess in these areas and efforts that address a clean,
safe water supply. What has not been well recog-
nized is that water for domestic use is essentially
the concern and responsibility of women. Women,
therefore, provide opportunities for development
efforts that may go unaddressed in the absence of
a thorough examination of roles in Third World
USAID's development assistance has long sup-
ported rural and village water supply programs
and, in recent years, similar objectives have been
incorporated into urban development efforts
focused on low-income areas. Experience with
these programs has demonstrated the critical rela-
tion between success of water and sanitation pro-
grams and the commitment and ability of people
to use, operate, and maintain the systems.
Water for domestic needs is used for drinking,
food preparation, cleaning utensils, washing
clothes, personal hygiene, and other household
needs. Domestic water is also used for livestock
and poultry near the home and for irrigation of
household gardens. Women are almost exclusively
responsible for the tasks for which domestic water
is needed and it is women and children who bear
the principal, if not the exclusive, responsibility for
seeking, drawing, and carrying water. Therefore,
understanding and addressing the interrelated
roles women play in both the physical and the eco-
nomic well-being of the family is essential to un-
dertake effective water and sanitation programs.

Key project design and implementation issues re-
garding women include:
* Time savings. Improvements in water supply and
sanitation have important ramifications in areas
other than health, including employment, agri-
culture, industry, education, housing, and the
environment. These areas are affected through
reducing the time required for a household to se-
cure its basic domestic water needs. The time
that women save as a result of improved water
access may be used in income-producing activi-
ties such as growing and processing food for sale
and operating cottage industries or other produc-
tive activities, all of which can contribute to im-
proved health and increased family income.
Other indirect benefits of time savings may be
equally important. For instance, many studies in-
dicate that the rate at which girls drop out of
school is often directly linked to the burden of do-
mestic responsibilities they bear; carrying water
competes directly with school attendance since it
can take anywhere from one-half hour daily in ur-
ban areas to four to six hours in difficult rural ter-
rain during the dry season, or when numerous
trips and substantial waiting time are required.
* Economic Opportunities. Not only does the provi-
sion of safe, reliable water make a major contri-
bution to family health and reduce a substantial
demand on women's time, but it can be a critical
resource for productive enterprises such as food
processing, raising of livestock and poultry, or
dairying. When a water supply system is intro-
duced into a village a number of questions can
be raised regarding its potential use. Projects can
be narrowly envisioned as providing water only
for drinking and cooking; or can encompass the
provision of water for a wide range of domestic
needs, ensuring that water is available for house-
hold tasks as well as other productive enter-
prises. When economic as well as health benefits
are incorporated into a project, provisions are
more readily made for complementary facilities
such as animal watering troughs, utilization of
water run-off, or other productive uses.
Another second category of issues that must be
addressed by project designers are those dealing
with implementation and management of water

Water and sanitation programs are most likely to
succeed when they respond to the needs of the
community. Local residents must have a strong in-
terest in keeping the system functioning. They
must use the system and be able to support the
bulk of the costs for operating and maintaining it
in the form of cash, labor, or in-kind contribu-
tions. It is their contribution that will help ensure
commitment to maintaining the system over the
long run. In this regard, and considering a stake
women have in meeting household water needs,
women are key to ensuring that local needs and
commitments are understood and built upon in
implementing successful water systems.
Women are well aware of the time and energy
spent in obtaining this basic necessity which is
lost from more productive tasks. They are, how-
ever, the least likely members of the community to
be involved in the planning and implementation
of projects to improve water access.
Although research seems to indicate that com-
munity participation greatly increases the like-
lihood that water systems will be maintained, it
does not, however, necessarily follow that com-
munity participation in itself is beneficial to
women. Community participation and voluntary
labor in the construction and maintenance of
water systems could exploit rather than benefit
poor women, particularly if women's water access
needs are not well accounted for in the design of
the project. In addition, contrary to a common as-
sumption in projects that use women's labor, the
cost of women's time (even for those who do not
work for wages) is not negligible; in fact, the cost
of using women's presumably free labor can be
substantial and may outweigh the benefits derived
from their participation.
Women are most frequently targeted for health ed-
ucation projects in general and health education
components of water supply and sanitation proj-
ects in particular, since, as mothers, they are pri-
marily responsible for the health and training of
their children. Their participation in such pro-

grams and the adaptation of new habits and prac-
tices are determined by the direct and tangible
benefits to their families. For most women, par-
ticipation in traditional programs in sanitation
and hygiene, nutrition, etc., is a luxury they can-
not afford. Unless the time women spend away
from their household and agricultural chores can
bring some visible contribution to the family in-
come, neither they nor their households feel that
the time is justified.
When feasible, water, health, and sanitation proj-
ects should include plans to train community
workers women as well as men in the crea-
tion, construction, operation, and maintenance of
water, sanitation, and health systems. Teaching
women to maintain such resources can lead to
long-term cost savings. When women feel a vested
interest in the system in terms of both the provi-
sion of resources and the management of the sys-
tem they will play a key role in maintaining the
systems, identifying problems that develop, and
working to formulate appropriate solutions.
During the past decade, A.I.D. has made a consid-
erable commitment of resources to water, health,
and sanitation efforts. Despite the level of com-
mitment and the essential role women play in
these areas, WID concerns only recently have been
identified with water and sanitation programs.
Until very recently, few projects were con-
ceptualized and undertaken with women's roles in
mind. Now, a handful of projects are setting ex-
amples for the broad range of benefits and roles
for women which can be derived from water and
sanitation efforts.


Africa Bureau and Missions
Women's multiple roles in the handling and use of
water are recognized in several facets of the Africa
Bureau's activities. One example is the Health
Constraints to Rural Production Project in Sudan
and Cameroon. This project's goal is to help con-
trol schistosomiasis, a parasitic tropical disease
that is a major constraint to rural development.
The Strengthening Health Delivery Systems proj-
ect seeks to improve skills and utilization of health
personnel providing general health care services in
Central and West African countries.
In the African region, six countries identify water
and sanitation programs in their women in devel-
opment efforts. Given the evidence of the sub-
stantial time which women in Africa invest in
providing water for family needs, it is not surpris-
ing that of the eight African projects, all but two
identify time savings for women as a major project
benefit. Women's role in health education training
is also stressed as a key WID concern, and in two
projects in the Sudan, women's involvement in
health education is cited as their sole benefit and
role in the project.
The Northern Wells Project Phase II in the Cam-
eroon provides for the construction of drilled and
hand-dug wells in the target area. It also provides
for the continued development of a health educa-
tion program to transfer hygienic water use and
waste disposal practices and ensure proper protec-
tion of improved water sources. The close prox-
imity to villages of protected water sources in the
mountainous areas of northern Cameroon has al-
ready relieved women of the major burden of

transporting water, and studies have shown a de-
crease in water-borne diseases as a result of the
health education program. Similarly, a rural water
supply project in Burkina Faso provides rural vil-
lages with potable water systems which will meet
their minimum daily water requirements. The
water system is coupled with a community health
education program designed to demonstrate the
positive health implications of an improved water
system. Women benefit from easier access to water
by acquiring more free time, which can be used
for other more productive activities. Secondly,
women are the primary targets for the health edu-
cation training activities. Projects in Mali and Togo
have similar objectives and time savings is cited as
the benefit to women.

Asia Bureau and Missions
Three Asian countries identify projects that incor-
porate women in development concerns. In Nepal,
water services are part of an integrated health
project carried out by Save the Children Federa-
tion. The project directly benefits women by im-
proving access to water, thereby accruing a time
savings for women and girls. As the project in-
volves a range of activities and services health
care and family planning, training, resource con-
servation, and agricultural and economic develop-
ment opportunities have been enhanced for
time savings from improved access to water to en-
able women to engage in other project compo-
nents, particularly income-generating activities.
The Sri Lanka Tea Workers Community Develop-
ment Project assists women (who comprise half of
all tea pickers in Sri Lanka) in participating on de-
velopment committees to address health and sani-
tation concerns (in addition to the forestry
component mentioned earlier) on 16 tea planta-
tions. This effort is funded under the Asia Bu-
reau's, Asian American Free Labor Institute

In the Philippines, the Barrangay Water II Project
provides an example of the multiple roles and
benefits that a water project can provide for
women. The aim of the project is to institu-
tionalize the capacity of national and local govern-
ment units to plan, organize, finance, and install
cooperative water systems. Management and
maintenance are the responsibility of the local
groups. In the completed subprojects, local women
have stated that they have benefited from more
water and more time for such economic activities
as gardening and pig and poultry raising. The
project also benefits women through the partici-
pant training component. About 50 percent of the
water service cooperative staff are women who re-
ceive training in bookkeeping, cashiering, and bill
collections. In addition, the project includes a tech-
nical assistance component that enables women to
participate in economic development efforts. Sev-
eral professional women have been contracted to
strengthen the research, training, and evaluation
capability of the project through the development
of new strategies in water resource planning and
management, monitoring of operational projects,
and the establishment of a management informa-
tion system.

Latin America and the Caribbean Bureau and Missions
The LAC Bureau is funding an FY 85 sanitation
and health effort known as the Technology Devel-
opment and Transfer in Health Project, which in-
cludes training and technical assistance to women
in vector control and management of essential
LAC mission reports also indicate instances of
growing awareness of the linkage between
women's roles and water and sanitation concerns.
Previous years' surveys indicated no WID efforts
in this sector of activity, other than pro forma rec-
ognition that approximately half of a water sys-
tem's beneficiaries would be female.

For example, in Guatemala, the Rural Water and
Sanitation Project is designed to improve the
health and life status of the rural population
through the construction of wells, aqueducts,
sewage systems, and latrines. With the provision
of household connections, women and girls are
expected to save the substantial time previously
required for hauling water to the home. In addi-
tion, women constitute the main target group for
the health and hygiene training provided under
the project.

Near East Bureau and Missions
One project in the Near East cites a water supply
project as having a direct development benefit to
women. The Basic Village Services Project in
Egypt is designed to enable communities to under-
take local infrastructure development efforts by
providing financial and technical assistance and
project design and management training. Local
community response has been very positive, and
the project has succeeded in reaching a majority of
the villages in Egypt. Among the projects most
frequently undertaken by local councils have been
village water supply efforts (roughly 60 percent of
the subprojects). An important benefit cited by lo-
cal community members is the substantial time
savings for women two or more hours per day,
on average.

(serving all regions)

Science and Technology Bureau
Besides a general emphasis by the S&T Bureau on
maternal and child health, some S&T/Health
projects contribute directly to the goal of increas-
ing LDC women's economic activity. Under the
Primary Health Care Operations Research Project,
women make up a major proportion of the com-
munity organizers, health workers, nutrition mon-
itors and trainers used in the program.
In the Technology for Primary Health Care Proj-
ect, many women have been trained as promoters
of improved health care technologies. In the area
of population where consideration and utilization
of women is more traditional, S&T offers several
programs which have as a major objective the
training of women as paramedical, auxiliary and
community workers as well as professional practi-
tioners in the area of family planning. Some proj-
ects estimate over 50 percent of their trainees to be
women. One project, Family Planning Services, is
designed to increase the participation of women in
managerial positions of family planning

Food for Peace and Voluntary Assistance Bureau
The FVA Bureau is funding and initiating a health
program with a comprehensive WID component
through the Centre for Development and Popula-
tion Activities project. The purpose of this project
is to help establish local women's organizations
and to support projects by these organizations in
extension and improvement of integrated family
planning, health and nutrition services to women.

Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
A project entitled, Impact of Training Oppor-
tunities for Women on Fertility is currently being
funded by the Office of Policy Development and Pro-
gram Review This assistance, in the form of a
grant, supports training for women managers of
family planning/health projects in various coun-
tries. The second phase of this project will be to
establish local follow-up units to institutionalize
this kind of in-country training for women and to
give technical assistance to local women establish-
ing family planning/health delivery and com-
munity development projects.
Projects of the Office of Women in Development are
described in a separate section of this report.



Successes in social and economic development
efforts that are as ambitious as the Women in De-
velopment program often can be measured best
only from generation to generation.
In the ten years since the U.N. Decade for Women
began, notable progress has been made toward in-
creasing the awareness of women's resources, con-

tributions, and concerns around the world. The
Agency for International Development is particu-
larly proud of its recent efforts to address the de-
velopment role of women in Third World nations.
While the impact of this first decade of activity
cannot be assessed fully for several more years,
directions for the future are evident:

- the integrative approach should continue, as it
holds greater potential for long term benefits to
present and future generations of women than
the limited women-specific approach empha-
sized in earlier years;
women-specific projects should be utilized as
"stepping stones" to address particular targets
of opportunity with innovative approaches that
will accelerate integration of women into main-
stream development;
a more systematic statistical gathering approach
is needed to allow the Agency to track both
short-term and generational gains by and be-
cause of women;
- WID training efforts must be integrated into
permanent training efforts of the Agency to as-
sure that both current and new generations of
development professionals (both in U.S. and
LDCs) are skilled in integrating women into
projects from the earliest design stage;
- mechanisms for rewarding accomplishments in
WID should be developed as additional incen-
tive to speed policy conformity, both on an in-
dividual professional level and an institutional
- clearance authority should be conferred on WID
officers at bureau and mission levels to allow

project documents not conforming to Agency
WID policy to be returned for revision;
WID officer positions should be added to AID/
Washington country desks;
Agency staff should have access to a concise se-
ries of sectorally specific guidelines to be devel-
oped by the Agency for properly addressing
gender issues in project design.
remedial assistance to bureaus and missions
should be de-emphasized, with co-funding the
maximum financial assistance considered by the
WID program for such actions. The WID Office
should continue to leverage its funds to impact
upon the work of the bureaus and missions to
the greatest extent possible.
- policy dialogue efforts with host governments
should integrate women in development con-
cerns into all relevant topics.
Development is as much an art of recognizing and
utilizing available resources as it is an art of creat-
ing new resources. The Women in Development
program continues to offer both governmental and
non-governmental development partners the op-
portunity to identify and expand the roles of half
the human race to benefit not only women them-
selves, but their families, their home countries,
and the world.


-- A -^ ^
r^ -,.


The following tables are based on submissions
from the Agency's regional and central bureaus
and the overseas missions. The portions of proj-
ects involving women (the WID portion) is the as-
sessment of the supporting bureau or mission. The
projects listed likewise were designated one of
three types by the bureau or mission:

Type I Women-specific projects, designed to
meet specific needs of women or girls. Type I proj-
ects are often designed to test ideas about how to
reach women isolated from conventional delivery
systems by unique cultural constraints, lack of
mobility, etc. These projects frequently provide
models for Type II projects.

Type II Projects that incorporate initiatives di-
rected at women. These are projects that include
activities specifically geared to enable women to
participate in development efforts. Type II projects
represent the kinds of initiatives the Agency en-

courage to integrate women into their national
Type III Projects in health, nutrition, and popu-
lation that train women or enhance their income
generating capacities in ways that extend beyond
women's traditional beneficiary roles in these

Data for FY 85 represents only incremental fund-
ing of previously initiated projects in most cases,
as information on new starts was not uniformly
available at the time of data collection.
It should be noted that the more successful the
Agency's bureaus and missions become in inte-
grating women into their projects, the more diffi-
cult it will be to assess a dollar figure to the WID
portion of a project, because addressing women as
both resources and beneficiaries will have been an
integral part of the development strategy at every


Funding Source
PPC (except PPC/WID)

FY 1982
Total WID
28,164 N/A'
4,700 175
111 111
9,551 3,574
154,807 32,1561
271,529 21,863
76,810 5,409
42,245 4,300





FY 1983
Total WID
38,181 N/A'
4,775 198
45 45
15,294 4,741
179,159 28,9681
315,977 38,432
75,193 9,793
45,104 9,145





FY 1984
Total WID
45,792 N/A'
5,100 272
105 105
8,705 3,014
159,872 16,2261
319,038 63,497
113,520 12,970
145,842 26,000



FY 1985**
*Total WID
40,600 N/A'
4,100 38
100 100
6,396 2,179
97,476 18,0251
176,589 9,415
93,476 11,616
72,140 6,265





FY 1986**
*Total WID
30,920 N/A1
4,100 38

360 95
78,060 13,5811
186,349 8,663
45,467 4,526
39,248 2,150





1. Africa Bureau and many Afria missions reported inability to assess WID portion, especially of Type II portions.
**Figures for FY 85 and FY 86 include only incremental funding of projects begun during reporting period of FY 83-84.


FY 1982-1986


930-0300 Women & Ag. Dev. in Malawi
930-0100 Training for Dev. Planning
and Women in Tanzania

930-0200 Trickle Up Program
930-0200 Integration of Women into the
Labor Force
930-0100/0200 Street Foods
930-0300 Women Socio-Economic
Participation Project
930-0100400400/0200/0300 SEEDS
930-0100 Summary Status of Women
in Nepal
930-0100/0200 International
Fellowships in Technical Assistance
930-0200 Case Study Women Orgns.
and Voluntary Sector in Uganda
930-0400/0300 Data Base of
Demographic and Socioeconomic
930-0100 Casewriting Guidelines for
WID Issues
930-0100 WID Publication Series
930-0200 Baseline Data Collection in
Kenya (Maendeleo ya Wanawake)
930-0300 USDA RSSAs Technical
Svc. Personnel
930-0100/0200 Development of Trng.
Materials and Workshops for WID
930-0200/0300 Women's World
930-0100/0200/0300 Marketing
Feasibility Study
930-0300/0200/0100 Women in
Management Training Course
930-0300 Reprint of Income Generation
930-0300 Rehabilitation Program in
930-0300 Moroccan Legal Journal
930-0200 Basic Living Skills Project in
930-0100/0300 Marketing Mgmt.
930-0500 UN Decade for Women
930-0300 Feasibility Study-Jordan
930/0100/0400 Water Mgmt. Synthesis
II Project
930-0200/0100/0300 Women in
Development: Technical Advisory
930-0300 Videotapes As A Dvl. Tool
930-0100 Niger Case Study
930-0300 WIDTECH Evaluation
930-0300/0200 Haiti Factory Women
930-0100 Printing of WID Reading
Materials for Kenya Literacy Program
930-0100 Science, Technology &
Women Conf. AAAS
930-0300 Study of Women in Ag.
930-0100/0300 Support for CID/WID
930-0100 Marshland Reclamation
930-0200 Preparation of UN
Questionnaire Lesotho
930-0200 Women and Food Network
930-0100/0200/0300 UN Decade
Activities -CONGO
930-0300/0200/0100 Kenya NGO
Activities E
930-0300 Study- Assessment of Haiti
Factory Women Project S
930-0100 Evaluation of Women's
Socioeconomic Participation Project S
930-0300 Access to Credit S
930-0100 Analysis of Thailand
Sericulture Project S
930-0400 Women Refugees -A
Resource for Development S
930-0400 RAPID Presentation for
Yemen S
930-0300 Evaluation of Women:
Partners in Development Project S
930-0100 Reprint of French/Arabic
Pamphlet on Rural Women in
Morocco S




































Life of
Project FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985"*
Type Total WID Total WID Total WID Total WID 'Total WID
I 139,777 139,777 125,766 125,766 14,011 14,011 -

1 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 -

I 72,200 72,200 72,200 72,200 .

1 54,000 54,000 54,000 54,000 -
1 444,914 444,914 239,479 239,479 165,840 165,840 39,595 39,595 -

I 289,072 289,072 57,072 57,072 116,000 116,000 116,000 116,000 -

I 88,780 88,780 88,780 88,780 -

I 3,840 3,840 3,840 3,840 -

I 599,770 599,770 90,838 90,838 127,771 127,771 179,280 179,280 201,881 201,881

I 3,395 3,395 3,395 3,395 -

1 442,556 442,556 183,000 183,000 229,556 229,556 30,000 30,000 -

I 2,852 2,852 2,852 2,852 -
1 8,868 8,868 8,868 8,868 -

I 42,800 42,800 42,800 42,800 -

I 157,822157,822 113,000 113,000 44,822 44,822 -

I 264,223 264,223 188,393 188,393 23,655 23,655 52,175 52,175 -

1 362,845 362,845 262,845 262,845 100,000 100,000 -

I 58,125 58,125

I 399,167 399,167

I 6,554 6,554

I 81,494 81,494
1 2,000 2,000

1 148,000 148,000

I 414,940 414,940
I 500,000 500,000
1 59,144 59,144

1 16,000 16,000

242,668 242,668
41,372 41,372 -
4,630 4,630 -
17,353 17,353 -
46,605 46,605 -

2,000 2,000 -

9,990 9,990 -

8,000 8,000 -
477,473 477,473
83,000 83,000 -

500 500 -

500 500 -

237,987 237,987 -

25,000 25,000

16,452 16,452 -

15,468 15,468 -
284,989 284,989 -

3,000 3,000 -

15,000 15,000 -

10,000 10,000 -

7,606 7,606 -

1,000 1,000 -

FY 1986"
*Total WID

58,125 58,125

95,060 95,060 164,098 164,098 140,009 140,009

- 6,554 6,554 -

- 81,494 81,494 -
- 2,000 2,000 -

- 148,000 148,000 -

- 156,000 156,000 258,940 258,940
- 500,000 500,000 -
- 59,144 59,144 -

- 16,000 16,000 -

- 24,575
- 41,372
- 4,630
- 17,353
- 25,000

- 2,000

- 9,990

- 8,000

24,575 218,093 218,093
41,372 -
4,630 -
17,353 -
25,000 21,605 21,605

2,000 -

9,990 -

- 235,702 235,702 241,771 241,771
- 53,000 53,000 30,000 30,000

- 500 500 -

- 500 500 -

- 112,990 112,990 124,997 124,997

- 25,000 25,000 -

- 16,452 16,452 -

15,468 15,468 -
- 135,640 135,640 149,349 149,349

- 3,000 3,000 -

15,000 15,000 -

- 10,000 10,000 -

- 7,606 7,606 -

- 1,000 1,000 -

FY 1982-1986




Life of
Project FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985** FY 1986**
T/pe Total WID Total WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID

930-0200/0300/0100 Women: Partners EH/SDA
in Development ARDN I 823,843 823,843 214,128 214,128 344,932 344,932 264,783 264,783 -
A. 930-0200 Sri Lankan Women in IAW
Conf. (Helsinki) SDA I 5,700 5,700 5,700 5,700 -
B. 930-0300 CED Conf. (Islamabad) SDA I 9,485 9,485 9,485 9,485 -
C. 930-0200 UN Decade Work Conf. SDA I 1,835 1,835 1,835 1,835 -
D. 930-0100 Arusha Conference SDA I 7,844 7,844 7,844 7,844 -
930-0100 Economic Interdependence
Women and Work Conf. EH I 47,244 47,244 47,244 47,244 -
930-0100 Assessment of Ageny's
Evaluation Reports EH I 5,260 5,260 5,260 5,260 -
930-0100 Women in the African Trade
Union Movement (AALC) EH 1 95,245 95,245 95,245 95,245 -
930-0100 Planning Session for OPG to
Ecuador EH I 13,512 13,512 13,512 13,512 -
930-0100 Tanzania Case Study (Socio-
economic conditions of women) EH I 2,600 2,600 2,600 2,600 -
930-0200 Moroccan Women's Union
OPG EH I 45,318 45,318 45,318 45,318 -
930-0300/0100 OPG Ecuador-
Solanda Project EH/SDA 1 240,000 240,000 240,000 240,000 -
930-0100 Case Study- Egypt ARDN 1 9,943 9,943 9,943 9,943 -
930-0100 Case Study Dominican
Republic ARDN I 2,689 2,689 2,689 2,689 -
930-0100 Case Study- Indonesia ARDN I 2,352 2,352 2,352 2,352 -
OfficeofWomeninDevelopmentTotal 7,586.5 7,586.5 2,361.2 2,361.2 2,357.3 2,357.3 2,120.1 2,120.1 748.0 748.0 -

*Figures for FY 85 and FY 86 include only projects begun during reporting period.


FY 1982-1986




Africa Regional
698-0435 Strengthening African
Agricultural Research ARDN/SDP
698-0393 Semi-Arid Food Grains
Research & Dev. ARDN
698-0433 African Manpower Dev., EHRD
698-0433 African Graduate EHRD/
Fellowship Program II SDP
698-0405 Regional Rural Dev.
Training EHRD
698-0442 African Labor Dev. II EHRD
698-0424 Energy Initiatives for
Africa SDP
690-0224 Regional Sorghum &
Millet Research. ESF
698-0662 Family Health Initiatives POP
698-0398 Strengthening Health
Delivery Systems HE
698-0408 Health Constraints to
Rural Production HE
698-0412 Health Institutions
Improvement, 122 HE
698-0421 Combatting Childhood
Communicable Diseases HE/SDP
Asia Regional
498-0258-04 ASEAN/AIT ARDN/
Scholarship & Research SDA/HE
498-0263 Asian American Free
Labor Institute EHR
Latin America and
Caribbean Regional
598-0600 Appropriate Tech. for
Rural Women
598-0631 Family Planning
Resource Initiatives POP
598-0632 Technology Dev. &
Transfer in Health HE
Near East Regional
298-0147 Human Resources Dev. ESF
298-0154 Dev. Assistance ESF
298-0172 Human Resources Dev. ESF
298-0162 Dev. Assistance ESF
298-0155 Rural Dev. ESF
298-01661 Rural Community Dev. ESF
298-0183 Rural Community Dev. ESF
298-0180 Handicapped Services
West Bank/Gaza ESF
298-0182 Services for Handicapped ESF
298-0157 Gaza Preschool Educ. ESF
298-0171 Gaza Preschool Educ. ESF
298-0186 Cooperatives for Dev. ESF
298-0156 Health Education ESF
268-0313 Reconstruction & Rehab. ESF
268-0317 Credit Cooperatives ESF
268-0318 Vocational Trng. in
Building Trades ESF
298-0048 Near East Regional Pop. ESF/DA


1. Project consists of sub-projects of all types.
2. On-going project. This is annual figure.

Life of
Project FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Type Total WID Total WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID

II 45,000 1,502 1,000 3,050 5,849 7,270 -

II 19,100 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 -

11 23,500 4,075 3,494 4,578 5,700 5,700 -

II 29,700 4,377 2,156 3,200 4,200 4,300 -

II 7,200 950 1,000 650 500 350 -
II 33,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 -

11 17,500 468 2,420 2,298 750 1,500 -

II 14,800 6,083 8,270 447 -
I11 1,620 4,990 5,112 3,200 -

III 26,800 4,000 2,500 2,500 3,100 -

Ill 9,500 2,122 1,500 2,000 3,854 -

Ill 5,900 1,050 38 567 550 -

III 47,000 2,000 7,000 7,567 6,450 5,800 -
279,000 N/A 28,164 N/A 38,181 N/A 45,792 N/A 40,600 N/A 30,920 N/A

II 4,125 1,031 600 150 675 169 1,000 250 -

II 4,1002 4,100 25 4,100 29 4,100 22 4,100 38 4,100 38
- 8,225 1,031 4,700 175 4,775 198 5,100 272 4,100 38 4,100 38

I 687

III 5,000

III 850

II 5,036
II 2,100
II 8,796
11 3,266
II 2,154
II 5,980
II 2,000

III 391
III 681
II 266
II 215
III 325
III 1,824
II 11,824
II 8,060

III 10,000
- 64,573


111 111 45 45 105 105 100 100

687 111 111 45 45 105 105 100 100

1,622 347 115 -
420 -
2,902 2,203 727 2,990 987 3,603 1,189 3,500 1,155 -
673 173 35 544 109 417 83 1,000 200 -
1,077 573 287 -
2,965 3,085 544 2,170 1,085 675 337 1,400 700
1,000 2,000 1,000 -

95 391 95 496 124 -
170 681 170 -
25 266 25 -
55 215 55 360 95
..- 325 -
1,824 552 552 530 530 -
5,912 639 319 -
4,030 2,111 1,055 4,060 2,030 -

5,000 -

22,770 9,551 3,574 15,294 4,741 8,705 3,014 6,396 2,179 360 95

FY 1982-1986

Life of
Project FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Type Total WID Total WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID

633-0077 Rural Sector Grant ESF
633-0209 Renewable Energy
Tech. ESF
633-0222 Primary Educ.
Improvement ESF
633-0231 Botswana Workforce &
Skills Training ESF
633-0078 Health Services Dev. -
633-0238 Gaborone West Housing
& Facilities ESF/HG
633-9801 Legal Status of Women
in Botswana2
633-0221 Agri. Tech.
Improvement ESF
633-0074 Agri. College Expansion ESF
Burkina Faso (Upper Volta)
686-0228 Rural Water Supply -
686-0249 Small Economic Activity
Dev. OPG
625-0936 Sahel Manpower Dev. I -
686-0231 Sequenega IRD
686-0260 Burkina Assistance in
Population Planning -
631-0008 Agri. Mngmt. &
Planning ARDN
631-0013 Nat'l Cereals Research
& Extension ARDN
631-0015 Small Farmer
Livestock/Poultry Dev. ARDN
631-0031 Agri. Education ARDN
631-0033 Support to Primary
Education EHR
631-0044 Credit Union Dev. ARDN
631-0051 Northern Wells, Phase
631-0052 Nat'l Cereals Research
& Extension Phase II ARDN
Central African Republic
676-0016 Post-Harvest Food Sys. ARDN
679-0001 Smallholder Agri. Dev. I DA
679-0002 Smallholder Agri. Dev.
698-0410.39 Primary Health Care DA
698-421.79 Combatting
Childhood Communicable
Diseases DA
603-0014 Food & Nutrition Grant ESF
603-0006 Human Resources Dev. DA
635-0205 Gambia Forestry SDP
635-0202 Soil & Water Mngmt. SDP
635-0203 Mixed Farming &
Resource Management SDP
938-0193 Primary Health Care Matching
Training Grant
641-0108 Opportunities
Industrialization Center/G EHR
686-0662 Family Health Regional
Initiatives/Ghana DHA/HE
698-0433.21 African Manpower
Dev. Program2
675-0204 Smallhldrs. Production.
675-0212 Private Agribusiness
615-0169 Agri. Systems Support ARDN
615-0172 Agri. & Semi-Arid
Lands ARDN
615-0220 Rural Pvt. Enterprise ARDN
Kawangware Health Care PN
Saradidi Health PN
632-0218 Agri. Planning ARDN
632-0080 Nat'l Univ. of Lesotho EHR
632-0061 Instructional Materials

9,3491 1,280 1,569 2,473 -

3,304 1,579 -

7,293 1,289 1,360 1,650 -

14,558 200 4,372 3,617 -
4,607 4,607 -

16,070 -

9,180 2,298 2,049 3,060 -
8,430 -

13,500 2,700 4,003 -

2,300 805 650 -
762 2253 56 -
5,955 1,191 1,599 -

4,400 1,760 -

8,800 817 -

7,697 1004 475 2,000 100 2,547 -

1,285 313 -
43,021 1504 10,300 8,731 150 12,630 -

27,629 3,425 -
1,600 798 -

820 820 -

39,025 1004 -

3,700 1,200 -

1,160 -

4,313 2,056 -

1,012 -

2,400 -

2,200 2,000 -

2,500 4,000 -

5,600 11,960 -

2,850 100 3,700 -

2,000 800 -

3,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

3,000 1,500 1,000 500 1,000 500 1,000 500 -
500 400 336 269 164 131 -

Ill 647 388 -

986 739 -

7 164 204 122 110


- 986 739 -

1,575 157 -
2,747 275 750 710 -

9,000 1,350 1,471 804 1,697 -

356 178 256 -

1,372 1,368 -

500 500 500 500 -

- 48 -
- 2,2005 -

8005 -

II 49,800 7,600 5,077 -

II 13,000 7,600 6,822 -
II 36,000 14,600 16,400 5,000 -
III 155 155 119 35 -
III 118 -

II 6,200 724 1,610 1,000 -
II 5,246 1,510 1,420 461 -





FY 1982-1986


Country/Project Funding
No./Title Source

Resource EHR
632-0065 Farming Sys. Research ARDN
931-1054 Strengthening Non-
Formal Educ. Resources EHR
632-0069 Manpower Dev. & Trng. EHR
632-0058 Rural Health Dev. HP
632-0215 Land Conservation &
Range Dev. ARDN
669-0134 Rural Info. Sys. ARD
669-0153 Rural Dev. Trng. ARDN
669-0163 Nimba Country Rural
Technology ARD
110 669-0130 Improved Efficiency
of Learning I EHR
669-0165 Primary Health Care HE
688-0225 Training Center for
Rural Women AID
688-0207 Agricultural Officers
Training. AID
688-0221 Dev. Leadership Trng. AID
625-0960 Sahel Mngmt. Dev.
Trng. AID
625-0955 Manantali Resettlement AID
688-0229 Sahel Wells OPG
625-0957.098 Telimani/
Tambacara Wells AID
625-0927 Demographic Data
Collection & Analysis AID
612-0211 Health Inst. Dev. HE/PN
682-0230 Rural Health Services FAA
682-0233 Human Resource Dev. Sec. 121
930-0100.96 Marshland
Reclamation PPC/WID
696-0109 Agricultural Education ARDN
696-0110 Farming Systems
Improvement ARDN
696-0113 Maternal Child Health/
Family Planning POP
685-0235 Cereals Production II SDP/GOS
685-0205 Casamance Regional
685-0242 Rural Health SDP/GOS
625-0960.85 Sahel Manpower
Dev. Regional
685-0256 ENEA Rural Mngmt.
Trng. 605
Sierra Leone
636-0102 Adaptive Crop Research
& Extension Grant
698-0410.40 Inland Fisheries Dev. Grant
636-0169 OICI Phase II Grant
698-0662 Family Health
Initiatives Grant
936-5542 Crop Storage System in
Sierra Leone Grant
649-0108 Central Rangelands
Dev. Bilateral
649-0112 Agri. Delivery Sys. Bilateral
649-0113 Bay Region Int. Dev. Bilateral
649-0102 Rural Health Delivery Bilateral
649-0131 Family Health Services -
650-0041 Sudan Renewable
Energy SDA Grant
650-0030 Rural Health Support POP/DA
650-0064 Eastern Refugee
Reforestation OPG
650-0065 Gedaref Water Supply Grant
650-0050 Port Sudan Water
Supply Grant
645-0218 Manpower Training EHR
645-0213 Pig Production &
Cooperative Dev. for Women ARDN

Life of
Project FY 19,
Type Total WID Total

II 2,909 391
II 11,194 2,100

11 2,690 -
II 9,970 1,670
III 3,300 -

II 12,000 1,200

11 11,700 1,755 -
II 5,730 860 -

II 4,995 454 -

II 7,500 1,125 -
III 15,000 2,250 -

I 500 500 -

II 7,800 1,000 -
II 4,566 400 1,000

11 1,098 150 -
11 18,500 -
III 410 300 243

III 155 155 1,225

III 6,932 3,500 -

III 8,200 3,280 -

III 5,000 40 -
II 6,0005 -

83 -
5,126 1,500 866

13,000 6,500 -

6,250 1,700

7,700 550 3,400

23,700 2,300 -

10,000 -

3,365 -

82 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID
300 -
1,782 1,656 -

300 300 -
1,607 889 -
495 40 -

2,969 1,609 -

1,000 150 901 136 -
850 128 -

693 105 749 113 731 -

1,000 150 -
1,342 202 3,000 450 3,500 525

330 480 1,700 -
832 1,398 -

274 274 -
16,000 2,500 -
167 -

3,400 907 -

2,500 2,000 2,000 -

5,000- -
2,369 960 1,660 -

53 53 30 30 -
289 363 -

1,200 3,500 3,500 -

1,500 1,800 -

120 1,118 120 -

4,000 400 4,894 564 -
5,336 1,331 1,331 -

9,063 200 2,143 100 1,000 50 1,000 50 -
252 50 242 50 -
679 150 379 75 300 75 -

500 500 -

- 95 -

8,635 -
11,171 -
15,200 -

4,600 2,300 1,500 5,500
18,000 1,800 -

4,550 3,640 4,500 -
9,900 6,930 7,500 2,400 -

16,200 8,100 3,000 1,000 2,900 1,100

II 19,630 500 -

I 383 383 -

- 2,085 3,000 -

- 72 72 -

FY 1982-1986




698-0388.12 LaKara Skills Dev. WID
Training Regional
693-0210 Rural Water &
Sanitation HE
698-0421.02 Combatting
Childhood Communicable
Diseases Regional
693-0226 Agricultural Training &
Extension Central
617-0102 Food Production
Support AID
617-0107 Oral Rehydration
Therapy AID
660-0102 Area Food & Market
660-0068 Dev. Manpower Trng. EHR
660-0059 North Shaba Rural Dev. ARDN
660-0091 Applied Agricultural
Research & Outreach ARDN
660-0094 Family Plng. Services POP
660-0079 Area Nutrition
Improvement ARDN
660-0097 PVO Economic Support ESF
660-0077 Cassava Outreach ARDN
660-0080 Fish Culture Expansion ARDN
611-0201 Agricultural Dev. ESF
613-0215 Zimbabwe Manpower

Dev. ESF
3-0224 Books for New Literates ESF
613-K-603 & K-605 Commodity
Import Program ESF
3-K-604 Zimbabwe Agricultural
Sector Assistance Program ESF
613-K-605 Basic Education &
Skills Trng. Sector Assistance ESF
613-0219 Child Spacing & Facility ESF
Ivory Coast Johns Hopkins Prog.
for Int'l Educ. in Obstetrics &
Gynecology Cent

Life of
Project FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Type Total WID Total WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID

I 612 612 95 95 -

II 11,739 7,900 1,530 1,530 1,530 1,530 1,905 1,690 1,790 1,790 160 160

1,140 -

3,237 162 -

- 1,140 342 -

- 2,148 107 1,088 54

8,999 66 3,000 22 3,999 -

1,200 1,000

44 -

210 -

15,000 7,500 5,800 2,900 5,000 2,500
2,544 307 232 40 232 386 7 490 175 525 30
18,625 7,450 634 254 2,000 800 1,900 760 1,300 520 -

10,000 1,000 1,988 199 2,800 280 1,714 171 4,900 490
3,940 2,364 348 224 2,000 940 1,592 1,200 -

4,300 2,898 1,014 798 2,000 1,200 1,286 900 -
5,000 2,000 5,000 2,000 -
4,500 500 850 94 -
950 95 286 29 464 46 -

II 12,515 1,698 2,583 3,932

II 8,000 3,200 4,000 1,600 4,000 1,600 -
- 11,500 4,500 5,100 2,000 6,500 2,5006
II 300 210 300 210 -

II 106,800 42,300 50,000 20,000 37,000 14,400 10,000 4,000 9,800 3,9006

II 45,000 6,000 15,000 2,500 3,700 500 15,000 1,000 11,300 2,500 -

- 38,400 9,500 15,000 3,000 15,000 5,000 2,300 5,100 1,500
II 6,600 3,300 6,600 3,300 -
Ill 5,500 3,300 3,000 1,800 3,000 1,800

116 -
1,040.5 171,072 153,043 32,156 179,159 28,986 159,872 16,226 92,478 18,025 78,060 13,581



1. Mission stated that it could not disaggregate WID portion for this and other Type II projects.
2. Project discontinued for political reasons.
3. WID portion stated to be less than 5%.
4. Long-term training portion only.
5. Project in preparation. Type II, but no WID portion as yet determined.
6. 30% of the participants between 1980 and 1984 were women.


FY 1982-1986




338-0042 Rural Industries I Proj. ARDN
338-0027 Technical Resources EHR
338-0050 Family Plan. Services PN
482-0003 Development Training EHR
482-0004 Primary Health Care II HE
386-0488 Forestry Research Trng.
& Extension ARDN
386-0485 Family Planning
Communications & Marketing PN
386-0478 Maharashtra Social
Forestry ARDN
386-0474 Alternate Energy
Resource Dev.
386-0469 PVOs for Health
PL 480 Title II Maternal Child
Health & Int. Child Dev. -
386-0470 Agricultural Research ARDN
386-0475 Madhya Pradesh Social
Forestry ARDN
386-0476 Int. Child Dev. Serves. EHR/HE
386-0489 Hill Area Land & Water
386-0487 Dev. & Mngmt. Trng. EHR
497-0267 Provincial Area Dev.
Program I ARDN
497-0276 Provincial Area Dev.
Program II ARDN
497-0290 Graduate Agri. School ARDN
497-0293 Eastern Islands
Agricultural Education ARDN
497-0297 Western Universities
Agricultural Education ARDN
497-0305 Village Family
Planning/ Mother, Child
Welfare HE
497-0328 General Participant
Training EHR
497-0329 Private Sector Dev. ARDN/SDA
497-0336 PVO Co-Financing II EH/HE
497-0341 Financial Institutions
497-0345 Private Sector
Management Dev. EHR
367-0144 World Education PN
367-0144 Save The Children
Federation HE
367-0144 Volunteer Village
Health Workers HE/SD
367-0146 Radio Education
Teacher Training II EHR
367-0150 Strengthening the Legal
System 116(e)
367-0114 Int. Cereals Production FN
367-0118 Seed Production &
Input Storage FN
367-0129 Rapti Zone Int. Rural
Dev. PN
367-0130 Population Policy Dev. PN
367-0132 Resources Conservation
& Utilization FN
367-0135 Int. Rural Health/
Family Planning Services PN/HE
391-0481 Forestry Planning &
Dev. ESF
391-0475 Primary Health Care ESF
391-0485 Northwest Frontier Area
Dev. ESF
391-0469 Population Welfare
Planning ESF
391-0484 Social Marketing of
Contraceptives ESF

Life of
Project FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Type Total WID Total WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID

II 3,300 730 450 300 550 -
II 11,000 1,350 1,500 900 300 1,700 300
III 114,215 10,203 24,461 55 24,800 100 25,000 3,169 27,000 3,200 28,000 3,500

II 200 25 1,000 12 1,000 12 -
III 7,100 900 5,100 600 2,000 300 -

20,0001 -

47,000 16,600 500 10,400 500 -

30,000 3,000 30,000 3,000 -

5,000 500 5,000 -
20,000 4,000 -

- 73,600 72,500 78,100 69,400 -
20,000 2,000 -

25,000 5,000 10,000 11,000 -
16,000 2,000 11,000 -

54,000 5,400 17,000 -
62,000 9,300 2,400 1,200 2,600 -

17,600 2,143 5,000 279 3,800 853 -

41,500 8,075 500 125 14,150 2,400 2,850 -
7,500 1,125 7,550 1,125 -

7,500 1,197 7,500 1,197 -

9,850 1,480 2,400 360 500 75 -

10,000 6,650 2,000 1,800 -

12,750 1,402 10,150 1,116 2,600 286
4,600 650 3,500 100 1,100 550
1,750 300 2,250 300 2,500 400

18,500 9,300 16,500 2,000

4,500 200 1,000 100

774 136 299 53 100 18

693 286 43 12 175 93

50 10 50 10

1,619 170 950 100

280 140 150 75
8,184 400 1,980 150 268 25

4,031 430 -

26,700 475 1,450 38 3,200 41 4,149 70
2,000 2,000 -

27,498 1,700 3,450 172 4,800 240 4,200 210

34,200 18,619 6,972 2,951 4,900 2,992 4,050 3,068

8,000 -


17,900 -

2,500 400

1,500 -

- 186 31

- 175 98

2,900 -

3,000 -

2,500 400

1,000 100

669 70

3,000 80

4,200 315

3,800 2,300

II 25,000 1,000 1,852 1,522 -
III 20,000 8,000 5,500 8,000 6,500 -

II 30,000 260 2,500 9,500 7,200 -

III 45,600 869 4,300 4,800 14,800 6,700 -

III 20,000 N/A -

2,500 120

3,000 300

3,750 2,564

2,621 -

5,800 -

5,000 -



FY 1982-1986


Life of
Funding Project FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Source Type Total WID Total WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID


391-0481 Forestry Planning &
391-0475 Primary Health Care ESF Ill
391-0485 Northwest Frontier Area
391-0469 Population Welfare
Planning ESF III
391-0484 Social Marketing of
Contraceptives ESF III
391-0472 Malaria Control II ESF III
391-0478 Energy Planning& Dev. ESF II
492-0304 Rural Serv. Centers ARDN II
492-0356 Farming Systems Dev. ARDN II
492-0366 Rainfed Resources Dev. ARDN II
492-0333 Barangay Water 11 HE II
492-0334 Farmers Systems II ARDN II
492-0359 Small & Medium
Enterprise Dev. ARDN II
492-0361 Municipal Dev. Fund ESF II
492-0374 Regional Dev. Fund ESF II
492-0383 Rural Productivity
Support Program ESF II
492-0371 Primary Health Care
Financing HE III
492-0386 Biomedical Research HE III
492-0341 Population Planning IlI POP/HE Ill

492-0345 PVO Co-Financing I ARDN/HE II
492-0367 PVO Co-Financing II EHR/SD II
492-0340 Training & Dev. Issues EHR II
383-0043 Malaria Control HE III
383-0062 Nat'l Institute of Health
Sciences HE III
383-0082 Private Enterprise
Promotion ARDN/SDA II
383-0063 Jaffna Market Town
Water Supply HE III
383-0058 Diversified Agri. ARDN II
383-0288 Water Supply &
Sanitation Sector HE Ill
338-0057 Water Management ARDN II
338-0049 Agri. Educ. Dev. II
338-0055 Reforestation &
Watershed Management ARDN II
338-0060 PVO Co-Financing II
383-0044 Dev. Serves. & Trng. ARDN 1, II
493-0370 Seed Dev. I ARDN II
493-0326 Seed Dev. II ARDN II
493-0308 Northeast Rainfed
Agricultural Dev. ARDN II
493-0280 Agricultural Extension
Outreach ARDN II
493-0317 Agricultural Planning ARDN II
493-0289 Land Settlements ARDN II
493-0312 Northeast Small Scale
Irrigation ARDN II
493-0294 Mae Chaem Watershed
493-0272 Lam Nam Don IRD ARDN II
493-0249 Program Dev. &
Support I
493-0296 PVO Co-Financing Int'l
Human ARDN/EHR 11
Assistance Program I


25,000 1,000 1,852 1,522 2,621 -
20,000 8,000 5,500 8,000 6,500 -

30,000 '260 2,500 9,500 7,200 5,800 -

45,600 869 4,300 4,800 14,800 6,700 500 -

20,000 N/A 5,500 5,500 5,000 -
44,200 11 1,500 17,700 6,700 9,600 8,700 -
24,000 N/A 3,000 N/A 5,000 N/A 5,000 N/A N/A 5,000 N/A

2,987 300 500 800 -
3,000 540 358 467 -
23,000 8,985 1,800 3,015 600 11,000 2,200 -
22,137 9,957 4,550 914 -
7,600 1,000 -

15,000 1,019 15,000 1,019 -
55,000 6,646 13,000 1,605 20,000 2,240 -
- 20,000 4,620 15,000 4,200 50,000 -

47,500 47,500 -

12,000 9,800 2,000 200
5,000 -
56,750 28,375 16,685 4,453 5,300 -

6,709 2,350 1,890 662 1,949 682 -
10,000 3,500 2,120 742 2,000 700

4,500 2,250 1,000 180 3,500 174 -

30,000 500 4,852 200 4,148 300 4,000 -

2,200 1,400 1,700 1,200 -

4,100 4,000 -

8,000 50 483 -
11,4002 2,750 3,290 -

12,300 1,915 2,800 75 5,100 200
15,900 20 4,600 15 1,500 5 -
7,500 750 1,500 100 -

10,450 700 3,743 100 2,357 100 -
6,483 2,000 517 150 500 200 943 200 1,202 200
6,500 418 800 75 800 181 800 27 -

5,000 -

2,000 700

1,000 -

1,460 -

1,900 200

898 250

3,700 805 75 -
6,100 1,525 429 1,056 -

6,300 19 33 333 -

3,000 507 -
3,200 1,600 35 75 75 50 50 -
4,000 2,000 296 390 3,007 306 -

8,600 2,580 541 454 1,774 2,672 4,009 -

10,000 4,500 1,200 600 1,700 800 2,100 1,000 2,100 1,000 500 200
3,500 1,400 110 244 303 278 -

3,912 3,912 3,912 3,912 -

5,000 3,500 1,200 1,000 1,135 -

1,349,084 188,345 271,529 21,863 315,977 38,432 319,038 63,497 176,589 9,415 186,349 8,663

1. No specific amount attributed to WID as yet- estimate 5-10%. Project begins in 1986.
2. Project in preparation. Type II but no WID portion as yet determined.


FY 1982-1986


538-0025 Women in Dev. OPG
538-0079 Nat'l Dev. Foundation of
Dominica OPG
538-0068 Caribbean Agricultural
Extension II
538-0038 Youth Skills Trng. OPG
538-0014 Regional Dev. Trng. I
538-0039 Population & Dev.
505-0006 Livestock Dev.
505-0018 Increased Productivity
through Better Health Funding
505-0020 Trng. for Employment







511-0452 Small Farmer Organizations ARDN
511-0482 Rural Education II EHR
511-0536 Tiwanaku Rural Health HE
511-0523/PL480 Title II Food for
511-0522/PL480 Title III Food for
Diet Other
511-0543 Chapare Regional Dev. ARDN
511-0412 Special Dev. Activities SDA
Costa Rica
515-0130 Urban Dev. & Comm. Loan
Improvement AID
515-0148 Agrarian Settlement &
Productivity ARDN
Information Surveys Title I
515-0168 Family Plan. Self-Reliance POP
515-0133 Special Activity Dev. Fund SD
515-0130 Urban Employment &
Comm. Improvement Housing
Component SD
515-0188 Priv. Sect. Low Cost Shelter SD
515-0186 ESF/Housing Program ESF
515-D3 Peace Corps Two Step Self- Trust
Help Rural Housing Funds
518-0026-3 Social Security PN
518-HG-006, 518-0028 Secondary
Cities Dev. HG/SD
518-0032 Rural Technology transfer
System ARDN
518-0026-1 Int. MCH Program HE
518-0026 Cooperative Agreement PN
518-HG-005, 518-0022 Int. Shelter &
Urban Dev. HG
518-0015 Int. Rural Health Delivery
System HE
918-0018 Fundacion 4-F Rural Youth
518-0026-2 Ministry of Defense
Subproject PN
518-0038 Voc. Educ. Dev. EH
518-0045 Spec. Educ. Res. Ctrs. SD
518-0033 Strengthening Community
Organizations OPG
520-0145 Special Dev. Fund SDA
520-0238 Small Farmer Marketing ARDN
520-0245 Rural Enterprises Dev. ARDN
520-0251 Community Based Health &
Nutrition Systems HE
520-0255 Small Farmer
Diversification Systems ARDN
520-0258 Bilingual Education EHR
520-0263 Int. Family Plng. Serv. POP
520-0274 Highlands Agricultural Dev. ARDN
520-0281 Non-Formal Education EHR
520-0284 Women in Dev. SDA
520-0288 Expansion of Family
Planning Service POP
520-0290 Family Fish Pond Dev. ARDN
Limon Community Dev. SDA
520-0298 Rural Potable Water &
Sanitation HE
520-0299 Training for Rural Dev.
Promoters ARDN
520-0000-4 Program Dev. & Support SDA

Life of
Project FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Type Total WID Total WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID

I 453 453 373 373 80 80 -

II 300 100 100 100 -

II 5,400 2,172 700 1,388 1,140 -
II 788 700 88 -
II 4,000 2,467 722 500 311 -
III 3,500 500 600 700 900 800 -

II 3,250 200 1,300 100 1,950 100 -

III 3,000 2,000 500 300 1,100 700
II 1,000 500 250 125 250 125

II 11,629 1,369 -
II 12,129 2,000 200 50 400 80 254 20 -
111 300 150 100 50 200 100 -


16,400 400 -

5,391 50 5,250 50 3,900 50 1,859 50
75 5 100 12 150 18 150 20

4,041 960 1,383 302 1,841 442 402 119 -

10,000 65 358 2,346 10 1,782 25 5,514 30 -
34 34 34 34 -
2,500 90 950 20 450 35 1,100 35 -
100 7 100 9 100 19 100 21 100 23

11,400 1,709 300 45 2,800 420 2,335 350 5,965 894 -
18,000 1,260 4,000 280 7,000 490 7,000 490
5,000 350 2,181 153 2,819 197 -

340 238 340 238 -

350 44 100 200 25 50 19 -

300 83 100 30 135 40 65 13 -

1,220 5,969 5,969 240 700 210 600 180 1,000 300 831 290
190 205 205 104 309 191
400 274 35 960 55 681 53 687 31 -

630 146 430 86 200 60 -

8,365 600 8,065 500 100 60 70 40 -

448 268 299 179 149 89 -

378 2 368 1 1 -
328 50 200 40 128 10 -
50 20 50 20 -

500 300 426 255 74 45 -

1 50 12 50 12 50 14 50 16 50 18
3,400 1,202 1,200 900 500 -
6,850 1,301 817 163 654 131 950 190 2,216 443 2,212 442

195 778 100 958 85 3,869 45 -

8,1002 10 314 1,910 2,630 2,650 -
1,850 740 348 139 557 223 350 140 -
1,800 1,350 260 195 213 160 260 195 -
9,000 10 1,710 1,310 -
3,860 2,586 160 107 -
305 305 39 39 135 135 131 131 -

10,737 8,052 84 63 425 319 626 470 676 507
343 44 24 3 115 15 104 14 102 13
483 241 344 172 139 70 -

500 15 260 12 240 7 -

420 84 184 46 100 25 -
17 17 -

FY 1982-1986



504-0066 Rural Health Systems
504-0072 Rice Modernization II
504-0073 Weaning Food Dev.


521-0181 NGO Support II ESF I
521-0182 NGO Support III ESF I
521-0181 NGO Support II HDF ESF II
521-0159 Urban Health & Community
521-0129 Groupement Pilot ARDN II
521-0151 Chambellan Comm. Dev. DA/SDA II
521-0170 Interim Swine Repop. DA/ARDN II
521-0181 NGO Support II Grant
Improvement SF II
521-0091 Rural Health Del. Sys. DA/HE III
521-0172 Targeted Community Health
Outreach HE III
521-0124 Family Ping. Outreach POP III
522-0153 Health Sector I HE/POP III
522-0157 Rural Technologies ARDN II
522-0166 Rural Water & Sanitation HE III
522-0167 Rural Primary Educ. EHR III
522-0168 Natural Resources Mngmt. ARDN II
522-0169 Spec. Dev. Activities SDA I/II
522-0173 Small Farmer Titling ARDN II
522-0207 Export Promo. & Srvcs. ARDN II
522-0251 Small Scale Livestock II
532-0082 Agricultural Educ. II
532-0069 Population & Family Bilateral
Planning Services Grant III
532-0064 Health Management Loan/
Improvement Grant III
532-0108 Nat'l Dev. Foundation GOJ
Expansion Grant II
532-0079 Technical Consultations &
Training Grant Grant II
532-0060 Agricultural Marketing Loan II
Basic Skills Training Grant II
532-0070 Operation Friendship
Vocational Skills OPG II
532-0094 Rural Services Dev. for
Special Children OPG III
532-0029 Spec. Dev. Activity Fund Grant II

525-0229 Employment Trng. for
529-7-029 Small Farm Technology
527-0247 Expanded Feeding Prog.
527-0274 Micro-Enterprise Promo.
527-0248 Feeding Program
527-0061 Special Dev. Activities
527-0241 Urban Small Enterprise Dev.
527-0249 Community Trng. Ctr.
521-0234 Expanded Voc. Trng.
527-0266 Voc. Educ. in PP. JJ.
527-0161 Pre-school Education
527-0230 Int. Health & Family Plan.
527-0245 Women's Dev./Urban
Family Planning
527-0219 Extension of Int. Primary
527-0277 Disaster Relief, Rehab. &
598-0622 LAC Trng. Initiatives
527-0192 Agricultural, Research
Extension Education



Life of
Project FY 1982
Type Total WID Total WID

4,700 1,880 1,261 504
3,853 769 -
1,175 12 -

500 500 -
750 750 -
3,365 673 365 -

2,100 1,470 -
791 119 -
362 72 -
3,000 2,100 -

1,000 60 -
17,500 3,500 3,150 630

13,000 2,600 -
9,615 480 600 30

18,900 7,560 5,180 -
9,000 3,000 250 -
20,500 4 -
16,100 2,400 350 -
15,000 1,500 250 -

12,500 1,500 11,000 -
9,600 -
700 700 -

12,850 6,425 -

5,000 650 1,089 200

9,571 200 5,146 200

970 145 250 50

3,460 -
13,800 9,100 -
13,400 5,360 -

500 -

500 -
1503 97 -

668 668 -

FY1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID

476 191 505 202 1,818 735 -
315 246 530 -
15 7 647 -

- -

1,000 200

126 13
162 16
1,500 1,050

2,871 574

1,500 75

250 -
3,800 -
500 -
2,500 -

500 -

1,100 100

622 -


5,950 2,380

500 500 -
- 750 750 -
2,000 500 -

450 315 689 480 713 500
240 24 -

1,500 1,200 -

1,000 60 -
2,960 592 1,291 258 -

- 1,250 250 3,055 611
2,800 140 2,464 123 530 26

1,470 5,500 4,000 -
1,300 1,500 1,200 -
500 3,300 5,700 -
800- -
500 700 3,000 -

500 500 -
7,250 750 500 -
30 30 500 500 170 170

8,650 2,300 1,000 -

1,500 150 1,311 200 -

250 50 220 22 -

4,500 5,000 5,000 -

3,950 1,580 1,350 540 -

240 240 668 668 -

II 5,000 250

OPG III 720 250 188 250 188 220 165 -
OPG II 714 200 130 514 334 -
OPG III 350 175 105 175 105 -
SDA I/II 100 100 50 100 50 100 50 100 50 100 50
- II 10,000 5,000 500 5,000 500 -
II 425 350 140 75 30 -
OPG II 350 200 50 150 75 -
OPG II 180 126 180 126 -
II 730 530 300 200 112 -
III 5,553 704 300 599 300 1,700 800 1,950 900 600 300

OPG III 100 100 50 -

- III -

II 65,000 11,301 39,728 2,800 13,971 2,500 -
Regional III 1,087 357 30 343 30 387 40 -

II 4,200 500 50 400 40 200 30 -
501,948 74,802 76,810 5,409 75,193 9,793 113,520 12,970 93,476 11,616 45,467 4,526

1. On-going project.
2. No direct WID component but 50% of trainees are scheduled to be women.
3. On-going project.... this is an annual figure.
4. $12 million is for water systems and $1 million for health training, elements either benefiting women or requiring their involvement as change agents.

--- ---


FY 1982-1986




263-0079 Small Farmer Production ESF II
263-0090 Vocational Training for
Productivity ESF II
263-0139 Basic Education ESF II
263-0015 Strengthening Rural
Health Delivery ESF III
263-0065 Urban Health Delivery
Systems ESF III
263-0137 Control of Diarrheal
Diseases ESF III
263-0029 Population/Family
263-0110 Peace Fellowship Prog. ESF II
263-00FTGOO-4005-00 Revival of Trust
Raw Silk Production in Egyptl Fund II
263-0042G00-3044-00 Nutrition ESF Trust
Education Fund III
278-0258 Tech. Services &
Feasibility Studies III ESF I
278-0261 Tech. Services &
Feasibility Studies IV ESF I
278-0257 Development Admin.
Training III ESF II
278-0264 Highland Agri. Dev. ESF II
278-0267 Development Admin.
Training IV II
278-0200 Health Management &
Services Dev. ESF II
278-0245 Health Education ESF III
608-0155 Population/Family
Planning Support Plan II HE/PN III
608-0171 Population/Family
Planning Support Phase II PN III
608-0162 Statistical Sources EHR II
608-0147 Industrial &
Commercial Job Training for
Women EHR 1
608-0151 Health Management
Improvement HE III
608-0157 Social Services Trng. EHR II
608-0154 Social & Economic
Research EHR II
608-0178 Sector Support Trng. HE/EHR II
608-0160 Agronomic Institute 103 II
608-0182 Agriculture Planning &
Statistics FN II
608-0145 Range Management
Improvement FN II
608-0136 Dryland Agriculture FN II

272-0101.3 Scholarship & Trng. ESF
272-0103 School Construction ESF
664-0327 Agriculture Research ESF
664-0328 Private Sector Dev. &
Technology Transfer ESF
279-0049 Development Trng. II EHR
279-0080 Development Trng. III EHR
279-0052 IBB Subproject ARDN
279-0052 Poultry Subproject ARDN
279-0065 Tihama Primary Health
Care HE
279-0075 Family Health Services POP

Life of
Project FY 1982
Type Total WID Total WID

49,000 4,900 -

17,500 2,450 -
85,000 34,000 -

14,900 7,450 -

37,253 6,333 -

26,000 9,100 -

67,000 10,110 22,400 3,400
54,000 10,800 -

113 33 -

263 236 -

5,000 160 -

5,000 40 -

3,000 250 -
20,000 2,900 -

5,000 500 -

2,875 287 -
980 50 -

4,7052 3,528 -

5,260 3,945 -
1,500 200 -

3,000 2,700 236 -

3,880 2,328 600

450 112 -
8,426 1,685 -
18,500 2,850 3,100 -

12,567 2,513 -

5,075 1,268 1,000 -
26,323 9,213 1,000 -

FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID

24,000 240 -

46,000 18,400 -

4,500 2,250 26,000 1,300 8,300 1,400 -

33 -

263 236 -

5,000 160 -

4,000 1,000 40 -

98 40 60 52 -
11,000 1,000 9,000 600

2,000 100

1,000 60 -

- 5,260 3,000 -
300 -

600 -

1,620 -
3,421 -

536 -

1,400 -

3,105 1,800 -
2,255 2,000

3,000 1,405 -

- 875 -
3,645 5,000 -

II 31,950 8,000 7,300 1,100 4,500 1,100 4,500 1,100
II 37,500 8,100 12,500 4,500 10,000 3,600 15,000 -

3,500 600 3,500 -

7,650 765 2,000 1,200

1,596 -
4,000 -

2,000 -

5,000 -

4,500 -

3,000 -

II 20,174 2,000 5,200 500 4,268 425 -
II 40,000 6,000 4,650 800 7,000 1,050 -
II 20,200 2,000 2,109 100 1,558 100 1,900 200 2,000 200 3,000 450
II 6,185 1,260 1,900 200 2,317 460 268 50 1,700 500 -

III 14,000 2,800 1,000 100 1,423 250 750 150 3,000 600 2,500 500
III 6,400 1,600 1,500 375 2,000 500

- 670,129 152,866 42,245 4,300 45,104 9,145 145,842 26,000 72,140 6,265 39,248 2,150

1. Funds listed in Egyptian pounds only.
2. This figure represents both bilateral and AID/W funds.


FY 1982-1986


Life of
Type Total WID

FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Total WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID

Food for Peace
938-0167 Nat'l Council of Negro
Women FN
938-0173 World Education Inc. EH
938-0197 Overseas Educ. Fund EH
938-0241 Center for Dev. &
Population Activities SD
938-0253 Overseas Educ. Fund EH
Science & Technology
931-1254 Sorghum/Food & Millet
Collaborative Research Support
Program FN
931-1310 Bean/Cowpea
Collaborative Research Support
Program FN
931-1314 Aqua. Tech. Dev. FN
931-1328 Small Ruminants CRSP FN
936-4023 Aqua. Pond Dynamics
Collaborative Rsch. Support FN
936-4024 Fishery Dev. Support
Services FN
936-4026 Fisheries Stock
Assessment Collaborative
Research Support FN
936-4099 Farming Sys. Support FN
936-4111 Int'l Agri. Research
Centers FN
936-4127 Water Management
Synthesis II FN
936-4142 IPM & Environmental
Protection FN
931-1160 Energy Mngmt. Trng. SDA
936-5701 Low Cost Tech. for the
Rural Poor FN
936-5709 Bioenergy Systems &
Technology FN
936-5710 Photo-voltaic Dev. &
Support SDA
936-5716 Alternative Energy Trng. FN
931-0227 Nutrition: Iron
Deficiency Prog. Support FN/HE
931-0262 Nutrition: Scientific,
Technical & Ping. Support FN
931-1010 Nutrition: Improvement of
Maternal/Infant Diet FN/HE
931-1309 Functional Implications
of Malnutrition FN
932-0604 Trng. in Reproductive POP
Health Health
932-0632 Fertility Impact: EP. POP
Programs Health
932-0643 Population Policy Rsch. POP
932-0644 Paramedical Auxilary
Family Ping. Personnel Trng. POP/HE
932-0807 Family Ping. Services
Pathfinder POP/HE
936-3000 Demographic Data for
Dev. POP
936-3030 Strategies for Improving
Service Delivery POP/HE
936-3031 Paramedical Auxilary
Family Ping. Personnel Training POP/HE
Private Enterprise
940-0002-09 SDA

I 1,000 124 124 325 325 -
I 405 105 105 -
I 489 165 165 324 324 -

III 350 100 250 -
I 955 300 300 330 330 325 325
- 3,199 270 270 548 448 875 625 330 330 325 325

II 3,500 350 3,500 325 3,600 330 3,250 300 3,800 350

II 2,600 200 4,164 500 3,000 300 3,750 350
II 340 60 400 70 350 65 360 70 360 70
II 4,150 350 3,950 350 4,645 400 3,550 350 4,000 400

II 140 25 750 150 700 100 1,050 200 1,300 250

II 300 60 300 60 260 50 300 60

7,888 1,200

9,950 1,000

4,750 400
3,492 280

6,800 2,500

9,320 2,500

3,671 1,500
3,917 310

3,933 613

- 431

19,997 5,000

11,800 1,450

73,890 14,000

29,580 7,400
8,519 1,000

30,456 10,000

77,344 3,000

7,500 1,436

39,654 10,000

28,584 7,000

110 20 750 140
10 400 80 1,050 200 1,200 200 1,100 200

41,590 1,000 44,610 1,000 47,659 1,500 48,000 1,500 50,000 1,500

2,600 200 1,860 200 2,300 250 1,500 150 1,300 150

890 80 1,100 100
725 400 -

800 200 1,000 100 400 50 400 75 400 75

1,277 900 896 1,500 1,800 -

250 -
863 716 373 -

200 275 138 300 150 300 150 375 175

450 700 95 750 186 700 150

1,350 1,000 1,200 975 800 453 1,100 720 1,350 1,000

1,400 600 2,600 975 2,650 975 2,500 900 1,600 700

5,500 825 5,500 1,325 6,500 1,625 5,100 1,275 5,300 1,325

5,374 1,774 4,988 1,646 2,689 664 -
1,550 340 1,540 340 1,200 240 350 70

3,300 1,066 5,068 1,672 1,605 600 -

6,880 300 7,000 587 7,000 308 7,000 435 8,000 450

354 1,332 266 2,050 410 1,700 380 1,700 380

5,587 1,844 5,800 1,914 7,900 2,607

3,761 1,231 3,550 1,324 5,000 1,865

- 381,045 74,020 82,228 7,950 93,238 10,759 98,075 11,650 94,070 11,494 102,235 12,367

II 150 350 350 58 58 -
- 150 350 350 58 58 -




FY 1982-1986


Life of
Funding Project FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986
Source Type Total WID Total WID Total WID Total WID *Total WID *Total WID


Program and Policy
Coordination (except PPC/WID)
930-0068 Pathfinder Fund PPC
930-0068 CEDPA Training PPC
930-0097 Social and Institutional
Profile SDA
690-9801.74 S.Africa Annual
Convention SDA/HR
690-9801.74 S.Africa Agri. Coop. SDA/HR
690-9801.74 S.Africa Coop. Deve. SDA/HR
690-9801.74 S.Africa Women's Org. SDA/HR
690-9801.74 S. Africa Legal Status SDA/HR
690-9801.74 S.Africa Worker's
Assoc. SDA/HR
690-9801.74 S.Africa Dressmaking
School SDA/HR
497-0336 Indonesia Legal Educ. SDA/HR
-- Ivory Coast Legal Educ. SDA/HR
-- Mauritius Legal Resources SDA/HR
-- Swaziland Legal Educ. SDA/HR


I 747 747 -
I 811 811 -

747 747 -
811 811 -

1 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 -

6 6 -
8 8 -
46 46 -
10 10 -
6 6 -

1 1

6 6 -
8 8
46 46 -
10 10- -
6 6 -

1 1 -

I 8 8 8 8
I 40 40 40 40 -
I 11 11 11 11 -
I 26 26 26 26
I 4 4 4 4 -
3,224 3,224 3,224 3,224 -
387,618 77,244 82,498 8,220 93,786 11,207 102,204 15,499 94,400 11,149 102,560 12,692

c_ r

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