T IrrCP~ mna~r~
AND RAILWAYS OF
Scale of Miles
0 6 10
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN
ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO
NORTHERN AND CENTRAL MEXICO, CAMPEACHEY, AND YUCATAN, WITH A
DESCRIPTION OF THE REPUBLICS OF CENTRAL AMERICA
AND OF THE NICARAGUA CANAL
THOMAS W. KNOX
"THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST" "IN SOUTH AMERICA" "IN RUSSIA"
"ON THE CONGO" AND "IN AUSTRALASIA" "THE YOUNG NIMRODS"
"THE VOYAGE OF THE 'VIVIAN"' ETC.
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
BY THOMAS W. KNOX.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST. Five Vol-
umes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
I. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO JAPAN AND CHINA.
II. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO SIAM AND JAVA. With
Descriptions of Cochin-China, Cambodia, Sumatra, and the Malay Archipelago.
III. ADVENTURES OF Two YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO CEYLON AND INDIA. With
Descriptions of Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and Burmah.
IV. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO EGYPT AND PALESTINE.
V. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY THROUGH AFRICA.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA. Adven-
tures of Two Youths in a Journey through Ecuador, Peru,
Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentine Republic, and Chili; with
Descriptions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and Voyages
upon the Amazon and La Plata Rivers. Copiously Illustrated.
8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey in European and
Asiatic Russia, with Accounts of a Tour across Siberia, Voy-
ages on the Amoor, Volga, and other Rivers, a Visit to Central
Asia, Travels among the Exiles, and a Historical Sketch of the
Empire from its Foundation to the Present Time. Copiously
Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO. Adventures of
Two Youths in a Journey with Henry M. Stanley "Through
the Dark Continent." Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA. Adventures of
Two Youths in a Journey to the Sandwich, Marquesas, Society,
Samoan, and Feejee Islands, and through the Colonies of New
Zealand, New South Wales, Queensland,Victoria,Tasmania, and
South Australia. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO. Adventures of Two
Youths in a Journey to Northern and Central Mexico, Cam-
peachey, and Yucatan, with a Description of the Republics of
Central America, and of the .Nicaragua Canal. Copiously
Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN" TO THE NORTH POLE
AND BEYOND. Adventures of Two Youths in the Open
Polar Sea. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50.
HUNTING ADVENTURES ON LAND AND SEA. Two
Volumes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
I. Tas YomrU NIMRODS IN NORTH AMERICA.
II. THE YOUNG NIMRODS AROUND THE WORLD.
PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK.
6r Any of the above volumes sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the United
States or Canada, on receipt of the price.
Copyright, 1889, by HARPFR & BROTHERS.-All rights reserved.
U NTIL within the past few years, Mexico was a country not easily
reached from the principal cities of the United States, and our rela-
tions with it were by no means intimate. Since the completion of the
railway from the frontier of Texas to the heart of the. most northerly of
the Spanish-American republics, there has been a rapid development of
commercial and social relations between Mexico and the United States,
and the tide of travel from one country to the other is steadily increasing
year by year. These circumstances have led the author of "The Boy
Travellers" to believe that his young friends everywhere would welcome
a book describing the land of the Aztecs, its history and resources, the
manners and customs of its people, and the many curious things to be
seen, and adventures passed through, in a journey from one end of that
country to the other.
In this belief lie sought the aid of his and their friends, Frank and
Fred, immediately after their return from Australasia. Ever ready to be
of service, the youths assented to his request to make a tour of the Mexi-
can republic, in company with their guide and mentor, Doctor Bronson,
and the result of their journey is set.forth in the following pages. It is
confidently hoped that the narrative will be found in every particular
fully equal to any of its predecessors in the series to which it belongs.
The methods on which the Boy Travellers have hitherto performed
their work have been adhered to in the present volume. In addition to
his personal acquaintance with Mexico and travels in that country, the
author has drawn upon the observations of those who have preceded and
followed him there. He has consulted books of history, travel, and sta-
tistics in great number, has sought the best and most accurate maps, and
while his work was in progress he consulted many persons familiar with
Mexico, and was in frequent correspondence with gentlemen now residing
there. He has sought to bring the social, political, and commercial his-
tory of the country down to the latest date, and to present a truthful
picture of the present status of our sister republic. The result of his
efforts he submits herewith to the judgment of his readers.
Many of the works that have been consulted are named in the text,
but it has not been convenient to refer to all. Among those to which the
author is indebted may be mentioned the following: Bishop's "Old Mex-
ico and her Lost Provinces," Griffin's "Mexico of To-day," Haven's "Our
Next-door Neighbor," Charnay's "Ancient Cities of the New World,"
Squier's "Nicaragua" and "Central America," Wells's "Honduras," Ste-
phens's "Travels in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan," Baldwin's
"Ancient America," Wilson's "Mexico and its Religions," Abbott's "Her-
nando Cortez," Prescott's "Conquest of Mexico," Ober's "Travels in Mex-
ico," Geiger's "Peep at Mexico," Gooch's "Face to Face with the Mexi-
cans," Chevalier's "Mexique Ancien et Moderne," and the hand-books of
Janvier, Conkling, and Hamilton.
As in the other "Boy Traveller" volumes, the author is indebted to
the liberality of his publishers, Messrs. Harper & Brothers, for the use of
engravings that have appeared in previous publications relative to Mexico
and Central America, in addition to those specially prepared for this book.
As a result of their generosity, he has been enabled to add greatly to the
interest of the work, particularly to the younger portion of his readers,
for whom illustrations always have an especial charm.
T. W. K.
NEW YoRK, June, 1889.
PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE.-PLANS FOR THE JOURNEY.-TO MEXICO BY RAIL.-BAGGAGE, AND
BOOKS ON THE COUNTRY.-BRUSHING UP THEIR KNOWLEDGE OF SPANISH.--WESTWARD FROM NEW
YORK.--A HALT At ST. LOUIS.--SAN ATONIO, TEXAS.-VISIT TO THE ALAMO.-REMINISCENCES
OF THE FALL OF THE ALAMO.-BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO AND INDEPENDENCE OF TEXAS.-NOTES
ON THE RAILWAYS OF NORTHERN MEXICO.-OLD TEXAS AND MODERN CHANGES.-" G. T. T."-
PRESENT WEALTH OF THE STATE.-ARRIVAL ON THE FRONTIER OF MEXICO .............. Pge 1
HOTELS ON THE FRONTIER.-ACCOMMODATIONS AT LAREDO.-SMUGGLING OVER THE BORDER.-LAREDO
AS A RAILWAY CENTRE.-THE RIO GRANDE AND ITS PECULIARITIES.-RIVERS BENEATH THE
SANDS.-ENTERING MEXICAN TERRITORY.-EXAMINATIONS AT THE CUSTOM-HOUSE.--MEXICAN
TARIFFS.-BRIBERY AMONG OFFICIALS.-LEAVING NUEVO LAREDO.-A DREARY PLAIN.-FELLOW-
PASSENGERS WITH OUR FRIENDS.-A MEXICAN IRISHMAN.-PEOPLE AT THE STATIONS.-ADOBE
HOUSES; HOW THEY ARE MADE.-THE LAND OF MANANA.-POCO TIEMPO AND QUIEN SABE.-
LAMPASAS.-MESA DE LOS CARTUJANOS. -PRODUCTS OF NUEVO LEON.-SADDLE AND MITRE
MOUNTAINS.-MONTEREY ......................................................... 15
THE AMERICAN INVASION OF TO-DAY.-MONTEREY AS A HEALTH RESORT; ITS SITE AND SURROUNDINGS.
-THE CATHEDRAL AND OTHER PUBLIC BUILDINGS.-CAPTURE OF MONTEREY BY GENERAL TAY-
LOR -SHORT HISTORY OF THE MEXICAN WAR.-FROM CORPUS CHRISTI TO MONTEREY.-THE AT-
TACK ON THE CITY.-CAPTURE OF THE FORTS AND THE BISHOP'S PALACE.-FRANK RECITES A
POEM.-LIEUT. U. S. GRANT AND WHAT HE DID AT MONTEREY.-A STORY ABOUT JEFFERSON DAVIS.
--HRO JOHN PHOENIX ESCAPED CASHIERING.-SIGHTS OF THE CITY.-THE MARKET-PLACE AND
WHAT WAS SEEN THERE.-FRUITS, BIRDS, POTTERY, ETC.-IN A MONTEREY HOUSE.-A PALATIAL
RESIDENCE............................... .. ........................ ............ 31
SOUTHWARD TO SALTILLO.-SANTA CATERINA.-REMARKABLE CAVES.-SCENERY OF THE SIERRA MADRE.
-WAY-SIDE ATTRACTIONS.-THE CACTUS; ITS FLOWERS AND MANY VARIETIES.-SALTILLO.-THE
ALAMEDA.--MEXICAN CURRENCY.-THE BATTLE-FIELD OF BUENA VISTA.-BY CARRIAGE AND
SADDLE.-A NIGHT AT A HACIENDA.-MEXICAN COOKERY.-TORTILLAS, PUCHERO, FRIJOLES, TA.
MALES, AND OTHER EDIBLES.-HISTORY OF THE MEXICAN WAR FROM MONTEREY TO BUENA VISTA.
-5000 AMERICANS DEFEAT 20,000 MEXICANS.-DESCRIPTION OF THE FIELD.-COTTON FACTORY
AT SALTILLO.-COTTON MANUFACTURES IN MEXICO ................ ...... ...... 48
FROM SALTILLO TO JARAL.-A JOURNEY BY DILIGENCE.-PECULIARITIES OF DILIGENCE TRAVEL.-
BRIGANDAGE; HOW THE GOVERNMENT SUPPRESSED IT.-ROBBERS TURNED INTO SOLDIERS.-STO-
RIES OF BRIGANDS AND THEIR WORK; THEIR TREATMENT OF PRISONERS.-A CASE OF POLITENESS.
-DINNER AT A WAY-SIDE INN.-CHILE CON CARNE.--DESCRIPTION OF CHIHUAHUA.-THE SANTA
EULALIA MINES; ROMANTIC STORY OF THEIR DISCOVERY.-TORREON AND LERDO.-COTTON IN
TRANSIT.-STATISTICS OF COTTON IN MEXICO.-FRESNILLO.-CALERA.-A BAD BREAKFAST.--AR-
RIVAL AT ZACATECAS.-LODGED IN AN OLD CONVENT ..............................Page 66
NAME, POPULATION, AND PECULIARITIES OF ZACATECAS.-THE PILGRIMAGE CHAPEL.-A WEALTHY
CATHEDRAL.-STREET SCENES.-MINES OF ZACATECAS.-A DANGEROUS DESCENT.-THE PATIO
PROCESS OF REDUCING ORES.-TREADING ORE WITH MULES AND HORSES.-A SORRY SIGHT.-
THE MINERS; HOW THEY LIVE AND WORK.-STATSTSICS OF SILVER-MINING IN MEXICO.-ASTOUND-
ING CALCULATIONS.--FROM ZACATECAS TO AUAS CALIENTES.-FARM SCENS.--FARMING IN MEX-
ICO.-CONDITION OF LABORERS.-MEN AS BEASTS OF BURDEN.-AGUAS CALIENTES.-A BEAUTIFUL
CITY.-A PICTURESQUE POPULATION.-WOMEN OF MEXICO.............................. 8
SOUTHWARD AGAIN.-CROSSING A BARRANCA.-BARRANCAS IN MEXICO.-LAGOS AND ITS PECULIARI-
TIES.-LEON, THE MANUFACTURING CITY OF MEXICO.-SILAO.-ARRIVAL AT GUANAJUATO.-A
SILVER CITY.-THE VALENCIANO MINE.-AN UNHEALTHY PLACE.-BAD DRAINAGE.-A SYSTEM
OF RESERVOIRS.-THE CASTILLO DEL GRENADITAS.-AN INDIAN'S ARMOR.-EXPERT THIEVES.-
STEALING A GRINDSTONE.-MARKET SCENES.-HEADS OF SHEEP AND GOATS. -SCHOOLS AT GUANA-
JUAT.--EDUCATION IN MEXIC.--DOWN IN THE RAYAS MINE.-SIGHTS UNDERGROUND.-AN IND-
IAN WATER-CARRIER.-HOW A SKIN IS TAKEN WHOLE FROM A PIG.-THE REDUCTION HACIENDA.
-MR. PARKMAN'S MACHINE.-QUERETARO.-THE HERCULES AND OTHER COTTON-MILLS..... 102
AQUEDUCT AT QUERETARO.-THE RESULT OF A BANTER.-THE HILL OF THE BELLS.-PLACE WHERE
MAXIMILIAN WAS SHOT.-REVOLUTIONS IN MEXICO.-FOREIGN INTERVENTION.-MAXIMILIAN BE-
COMES EMPEROR.-THE "BLACK DECREE."-WITHDRAWAL OF FRENCH TROOPS FROM MEXICO.-
MAXIMILIAN'S DEFEAT, CAPTURE, AND DEATH.-HOW A FRENCH NEWSPAPER CIRCUMVENTED THE
LAWS.-PRONUNCIAMENTOS.-JUAREZ AS PRFSIDENT.-THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN OF MEXICO.-A
WONDERFUL PROPHECY.-PERSONAL APPEARANCE OF JUARE.--RELIGION IN MEXICO.-FORMER
POWER OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.-THE LAWS OF THE REFORM.-PROTESTANT CHURCHES AND
PROTESTANT WORK.-MISSIONARY MARTYRS.-MURDER OF REV. J. L. STEPHENS.-RELIGIOUS AF-
FAIRS AT PRESENT ....... .................................................... 116
FROM QUERETARO TO THE CAPITAL.-PLAIN OF THE CAZADERO.-TULA.-THE GREAT SPANISH DRAIN-
AGE-CUT.-DISASTROUS INUNDATIONS OF MEXICO CITY.-A PUZZLE FOR ENGINEERS.--ARRIVAL AT
THE CAPITAL.-HOTEL LIFE.-RESTAURANTS AND THE MODE OF LIVING.-AMUSING STORIES OF
HOTEL MANAGEMENT.-FONDAS AND FONDITAS.-MEN FOR CHAMBER-MAIDS.-ALMUERZO.-A
MORNING STROLL ALONG THE STREETS.-WOMEN ON THEIR WAY TO MASS.-THE MANTILLA.-
SELLERS OF SACRED THINGS.-DEALERS IN LOTTERY TICKETS.-LOTTERIES RUN BY GOVERNMENT.
-ATTENDING A DRAWING.-HOW THE AFFAIR WAS CONDUCTED.-FLOWER-SELLERS .......... 132
THE CATHEDRAL OF MEXICO.--ITE OF THE AZTBC TEOCALLI.--IUMAN SACRIFICES.--PANORAMA OF
THE VALLEY OF MEXICO.-EXTENT AND COST OF THE CATHEDRAL; CHAPELS AND ALTARS.-TOMB
OF ITURBIDE.-TIIE CAREER AND TRAGIC END OF ITURBIDE.-TIE RICHEST ALTAR IN TIIE WORLD.
-GOLDEN CANDLESTICKS A MAN COULD NOT LIFT.-THE AZTEC CALENDAR-STONE; ITS INTERESTING
FEATURES; INSCRIPTION ON THE STONE.-BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE AZTECS.--TE TRIBE CALLED
MEXICANS.-AZTEC LAWS AND CUSTOMS.-PREVALENCE OF TIE DEATH PENALTY.-AZTEC POST-
ING SYSTEM.-PICTURE-WRITING.--FLOWER-SHOW IN TIE ZOCALO.-A FASHIONABLE ASSEMBLAGE.
-WONDERFUL WORK IN FEATHERS ........................................ ....Pag 117
LOST ARTS IN MEXICO.-GOLDSMITHS' WORK IN THE TIME OF CORTEZ.-SILVER FILIGREE.-MODELLING
IN WAX AND CLAY.-NATIVE TASTE FOR MUSIC.--NATIONAL CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC.-MUSEUM3
oF ANTIQUITIES.-THE SACRIFICIAL STONE.-SACRIFICES AMONG THE ANCIENT MRXICANS.-GLAD-
IATORIAL STONE.-A BRAVE SOLDIER.-OBSIDIAN KNIVES AND RAZORS.--AZTEC METALLURGY.-
STATUE OF THE GOD OF WAR.-SHIELD AND CLOAK OF MONTEZUMA.--AZTEC WARFARE AND Do-
MESTIC LIFE.-RELICS OF HIDALGO AND MAXIMILIAN.-MAX'S STATE COACH.-NATIONAL PALACE.
-HALL OF THE AMBASSADORS.--MEXICAN PAINTINGS.-THE MONTE E IFEDAD.-AN EXTENSIVE
PAWN-SHOP.-LoCKING UP MEN AS SECURITY.-FORMALITIES OF THE SALESROOM ........... 103
MEXICAN POLITENESS.-FREE GIFTS OF HOUSES AND OTHER PROPERTY.-AWKWARD MISTAKES.-AN
ENGLISIWOMAN'S DILEMMA, AND HOW SHE GOT OUT OF IT.-UNCLE FREDDY AND TIIE GOVERNOR
OF ACAPULCO.--THE GREAT MARKET; SIGHTS AND SCENES THERE.-ON TIE CANAL.-EXTENSIVE
LOCAL COMMERCE.-THE CHINAMPAS, OR FLOATING GARDENS.-AN EXCURSION ON THE LAKES.-
SANTA ANITA, A PLACE OF RECREATION.-EXPERTS IN DIVING.--TII HILL OF ESTRELLA.--TII
FESTIVAL OF FIRE; PRESCOTT'S DESCRIPTION OF TIE FEARFUL CEREMONY.-FISHING IN THE
LAKES.-THE AXOLOTL.-FISH OR REPTILE ?-FLIES' EGGS AS AN ARTICLE OF FOOD....... 179
COURTSHIP IN MEXICO.-" PLAYING TIE BEAR."--LOVERS' TROUBLES.-- SORT ROAD TO MATRI-
MONY.-PRESENTS TO THE EXPECTANT BRIDE.-THE MARRIAGE CEREMONY.-TEDIOUS PRELIMINA-
RIES.-CIVIL AND RELIGIOUS MARRIAGES.-DIFFERENCES OF MARRIAGE AMONG THE COMMON PEO-
PLE AND THE UPPER CLASSES.-A HAND-BOOK FOR LOVERS.-FUNERALS; HOW THEY ARE MAN-
AGED.-CARDS OF CONDOLENCE.-CEMETERIES.-MONUMENT TO AMERICAN SOLI)IERS.-ANNUAL
DEATH-RATE IN MEXICO CITY.-PREVALENT DISEASES.-DOMESTIC SERVANTS; THEIR NUMBER.
WAGES, AND MODE OF LIFE.-A PECULIAR LAUNDRY SYSTEM. .......................... 198
SCULPTURE AND PAINTING IN MEXICO.-NATIONAL SCHOOL OF TIIE FINE ARTS.-BRIEF HISTORY OF
MEXICAN ART.-CELRBRATED PAINTINGS.-"LAS CASAS PROTECTING TIIE AZTECS."--"TIE
DEATH OF ATALA."-HOW AN ARTIST MANAGED TO SELL A PICTURE.-FROM ART TO PULQUERIAS,
-THE NATIONAL BEVERAGE OF MEXICO.-TI E MAGUEY fLANT.-- OW PULQUE IS MADE.-COL-
LECTING TIE SAP.-FERMENTING AGUAMIEL.-DAILY CONSUMPTION OF PULQUE IN TIE CITY OF
MEXICO.-MANAGEMENT OF THE SIOPS.-ROMAN'IC HISTORY OF THE INVENTION OF PCLQUE.-
MEXICAN POLICE-dOURTS.-NOVEL MODE OF TRYING CASES.-THE BELEM PRISON.-CATALOGUE
OF OFFENCES AGAINST THE LAW.-AN ADROIT TIIEF.-RUNNING THE GANTLET .......... 212
THE PASEO DE LA REFORMA.- BRIANDAGE NEAR THE CITY.-STATUE OF CHARLES IV. OF SPAIN.-
STATUE OF COLUMBUS.-A RELIC OF MAXIMILIAN.--AQUEDUCTS FROM CIIAPULTEPEC.-MONTE-
ZUMA'S TREE.- CIIAPULTEPEC; ITS HIEIGHIT AND EXTENT.--MONTEZUMA'S BAT.--TIIE PAL-
ACE.-"THE FEAST OF BELSHAZZAR."- NATIONAL MILITARY COLLEGE.--MOLINO DEL REY.-
GENERAL SCOTT'S ADVANCE UPON \MEXICO.-CAPTURE OF VERA CRUZ.-BATTLE OF CERRO
GORDO.-ENTERING THE VALLEY.-- CONTRERAS AND CHURUBUSCO.- FALL OF CHAPULTEPEC.-
GENERAL SCOTT'S ENTRANCE INTO THE CITY.-TREATY OF PEACE.-GENERAL GRANT ON THE
MEXICAN WAR .. ..... .... ...... .. ........... ...............Page 229
THE NOCHE TRISTE TREE.-A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CONQUEST OP MEXICO.-DEPARTURE OF CORTEZ
FROM CUBA.-HE LANDS IN YUCATAN.-FOUNDING THE CITY OF VERA CRUZ.-DEFEATING THE
TLASCALANS.-ENTRANCE TO TENOCHTITLAN.- RECEPTION BY MONTEZUMA.- RETURN TO THE
COAST.-EXPULSION OF TIE SPANIARDS.-BESIEGING THE CITY WITI TIE AID OF TIE TLASCA-
LANS.-CAPTURE OF THE CITY, AND DEATH OF GUATEMOZIN.-BEGINNING OF THE RULE OF THE
VICEROYS.-THE CHURCH OF GUADALUPE.-STORY OF THE MIRACULOUS APPARITION.-RELIGIOUS
AND POLITICAL HOLIDAY.-PILGRIMAGE TO GUADALUPE.-PENITENTES; THEIR SELF-INFLICTED
TORTURES ............ .. ..... .. ............... .. ................. 248
AREA AND INHABITANTS OF MEXICO.-CHARACTER OF THE POPULATION.-INDIANS, EUROPEANS, AND
MESTIZOS ; THEIR RESPECTIVE NUMBERS AND CHARACTERISTICS.-INCLINATIONS OF THE MIXED
RACES.-TENDENCIES OF EDUCATED INDIANS.-PRESIDENT JUAREZ AS AN EXAIPLE.-HOW THE
INDIANS LIVE.-HOW THE SPANIARDS TOOK POSSESSION OF THE LAND.-CREOLES AND THEIR
ORIGIN.--THE MESTIZOS.--LEPEROS AND THEIR CHJARACTER.-ADROIT TIHIEVES.-PAWNING A
CHURCH ORGAN.-THE LEPEROS AND THE BRIGANDS.--CHURCH OF SAN DOMINGO.--SHORT HIs-
TORY OF THE INQUISITION IN MEXICO.-THE AUTO-DA-FE ........ ..................... 264
ASCENT OF POPOCATEPETL.-" THE WHITE WO.EAN."-GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF TIHE VOLCANO.-
FIRST ASCENT BY WHITE MEN.-AMECAMECA.--HIRING HORSES AND BUYING PROVISIONS.--
EQUIPMENT FOR THE EXCURSION.-DANGIR OF ROBBERS.-PEONS AND VOLCANEROS.-FIELDS OF
BARLEY AND FORESTS OF PINE.-AN INDIAN TRADITION.-FATE OF TIE GIANT AND GIANTESS.-
ICE FROM POPOCATEPETL FOR THE CITY OF MEXICO.-SULPIIUR FROM TIE CRATER.--SLEEPING AT
TLAMACAS.-ARRIVAL AT LA CRUZ.-THE ASCENT ON FOOT.--DIFFICULTIES OF CLIMBING IN THE
RAREFIED AIR.-THE PICO DEL FRAILE.-CAUGHT IN A CLOUD ......................... 279
THIE ASCENT OF POPOCATEPETL CONTINUED.-LAST STEPS OF THE UPWARD JOURNEY.--LOSS OF LIFE
ON THE MOUNTAIN.-How THREE INDIANS PERISIED.-THE CRATER OF TIE VOLCANO.--HOW THE
SULPHUR-MINERS EXIST.--DANGERS OF TIE CRATER.-THE SOLFATARAS.-CAUGHT IN A STORM.-
VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT.-SCENES IN THE CRATER.--A RAPID DESCENT.-TOBOGGANING ON A
GRAND SCALE.--HOW THE SULPHUR-MINE ORIGINATED.--NO ERUPTION IN SEVEN THOUSAND
YEARS.-RETURN TO AMECAMECA.-EXPLORATION OF TIE SURROUNDING COUNTRY.-TOMBS AND
THEIR CONTENTS.-CURIOUS INSTANCE OF PRESERVATION.-MONTE SACRO.-"MODERN ANTIQUI-
TIES."-INDIANS WORSHIPPING THE VOLCANO.-EXPERIENCE WITH A RATERO.............. 296
RAPACIOUS CARGADORES.-OLD BOOK-STORES IN THE PORTALES.-PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN THE MEXICAN
CAPITAL; THE PUPILS IN ATTENDANCE.-THEATRES AND HOSPITALS.--A THEATRE SUPPORTING A
HOSPITAL.-THE BROTHERS OF CHARITY.-INSIDE THE TIIEATRES.-A PERFORMANCE OF OPERA.-
A MINOR THEATRE.-LISTENING TO A MEXICAN PERFORMANCE.-BULL-FIGHTING IN MEXICO.-A
DISGRACEFUL SPORT.-ORIGIN OF TIE BULL-FIGIIT.-MARIONETTE THEATRES.-THIE PROCESSIONS.
-MEXICAN LOVE FOR COCK-FIGHTING.-COMMINGLING OF RELIGIOUS CEREMONIALS AND AMUSL-
MENTS.-THE POSADA AND THE PASTORELA; THEIR PECULIARITIES.-KILLING JUDAS..Page 312
ExcURSION TO TULA.-AN ANCIENT CITY OF THE TOLTECS.-CHURCH OF THE TIME OF CORTEZ.-MAN-
NERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE TOLTECS.-TOLTEC KINGS, COURTS, AND KNIGHTIIOOD.-RUINS OF THE
TEMPLE AND PALACE.-JOURNEY TO MORELOS.-INTEROCEA IC RAILWAY.--MORELOS AND HlIS
SERVICES TO MEXICO.-CUAUTLA AND ITS ATTRACTIONS.-TERRIBLr RAILWAY ACCIDENT.-DOWN
THE SOUTHERN SLOPE.-IN TIERRA CALIENTE.-VISITING A SUGAR ESTATE.-TO YAUTEPEC AND
CUERNAVACA.-RIDE OVER THE MOUNTAINS.-SITUATION OF CUERNAVACA.--OLD CHURCH AND
PALACE OF CORTEZ.-A FORTUNATE FRENCHMAN.-ROMANTIC INCIDENT IN THE CAPTURE OF
CUERNAVACA ..... ..... .................................................... 328
OVERLAND TO ACAPULCO.-SCENES OF LONG AGO.-PRESENT MODE OF TRAVEL.-TEN DAYS ON
HORSEBACK.-WAY-SIDE ACCOMMODATIONS.-- CAPULCO'S HARBOR.--RETURN TO TIE CAPITAL.-
EXCURSION TO GUADALAJARA.-DOCTOR BRONSON LEFT BEHIND.-OLD BRIDGES AND TIEIR HIS-
TORY.-BATTLE BETWEEN HIDALGO AND THE SPANIARDS.-STORIES ABOUT BRIGANDS.-SLAUGII-
TER BY PRIVATE ENTERPRISE.-How SEROR PEREZ SECURED PEACE.-ATTRACTIONS OF GUA-
DALAJARA.-THE CATHEDRAL AND OTHER CHURCHES.--THE GREAT HOSPICIO.--WHAT THE
EARTHQUAKE DID.-PUBLIC SCHOOLS.-A DAY ON A CATTLE HACIENDA.-A RODEO.-RETURN
TO THE CAPITAL ............... ... ............................... ............. 348
INTERVIEW WITH PRESIDENT DIAZ; IIS PERSONAL APPEARANCE AND HISTORY.-A CHECKERED CA-
REER.-SAVED FROM THE SEA.-TIE FAITHFUL PURSER AND HIS REWARD.-CHARACTERISTICS OF
DIAZ'S ADMINISTRATION.-- ADAME DIAZ.--A DIPLOMATIC MARRIAGE.-THE ARMY AND NAVY
OF MEXICO.-THE POSTAL SERVICE.-NEWSPAPEIIS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS.-PRINCIPAL WRIT-
ERS OF FICTION.-FROM MEXICO TO PUEBLA.-HOW TIE MEXICAN RAILWAY WAS BUILT.-DIF-
FICULTIES OF ENGINEERING.-APIZACO.-THE CITY OF THE ANGELS; ITS CATHEDRAL AND OTIER
CURIOSITIES.-MANUFACTURES OF PUEBLA.-BATTLE-FIELD OF CINCO DE MAYO ........... 364
FURTHER SIGHTS IN PUEBLA.-ECCLESIASTICAL BUILDINGS.-SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS, ASYLUMS, AND
OTHER PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.-CHOLULA AND ITS GREAT PYRAMID.-FIRST SIGHT OF TIE PYR-
AMID; ITS CHARACTER, SIZE, AND PECULIARITIES.-ANCIENT CIIOLULA.-MASSACRE OF INIABI-
TANTS BY CORTEZ.-RUMORS OF BURIED TREASURES.--IOW A CRAFTY PRIEST WAS FOILED.-
VISIT TO TLASCALA.-THE STATE LEGISLATURE IN SESSION.-BANNER CARRIED BY CORTEZ.-
FIRST CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA.-ANCIENT PULPIT AND BAPTISMAL FONT.-A REVERED
SIIRINE.-FROM TLASCALA TO APIZACO AND ONWARD TOWARDS THE GULF ............... 380
DOWN THE CUMBRES.-A MONSTER LOCO\MOTIVE.-MALTRATA.--EL BARRANCA DEL INFERNILLO.-IN
TIE TIERRA TEMPLADA.-PEAK OF ORIZABA; HoW IT WAS ASCENDED.-AN OLD AND QUAINT
TOWN.-EXCURSIONS IN THE ENVIRONS OF OOIZABA.-FALLS OF THE RINCON GRANDE.-MAN-
UFACTURING INDUSTRIES-CERRO DEL BORREGO.--TE MEXICAN ARMY ROUTED.--CORDOBA.--
HOW TO RUN A COFFEE PLANTATION.-BARRANCA OF MIETLAC.-PASO DEL MACIIO.-TIERRA
CALIENTE.-DRY LANDS NEAR THE SEA-COAST.-VERA CRUz.-ZOPILOTES AND THEIR USES.-
YELLOW FEVER; ITS SEASONS AND PECULIARITIES.-NORTHERS AND THEIR BENEFITS..Page 394
THE ALAMEDA OF VERA CRUZ.-TROPICAL GROWTHS.-THE PALO DE LECHE AND ITS PECULIARITIES.
-A DANGEROUS PLANT.-FOUNTAINS AND WATER-CARRIERS.-GOVERNOR'S PALACE.--BRIEF
HISTORY OF VERA CRUZ.-PILLAGED BY PIRATES AND CAPTURED IN WARS.-FORTRESS OF SAN
JUAN BE ULLOA.-HORRORS OF A MEXICAN PRISON.-EXCURSION TO JALAPA.-TIHE NATIONAL
BRIDGE.-CERRO GORDO.-GENERAL SCOTT'S VICTORY.-JALAPA.-A CITY OF MISTS.-STAPLE
PRODUCTS OF THE REGION.-JALAP AND ITS QUALITIES.-PRETTY WOMEN.-PECULIARITIES OF
THE STREETS.--ORIZABA AND PEROTE.-NEW RAILWAY CONNECTIONS.-TAMPICO AND ANTON
LIZARDo.--DELAYED BY A NORTHER.-DEPARTURE BY STEAMER.-FAREWELL TO VERA CRUZ. 410
THE COATZACOALCOS RIVER.-ISTHMIUS OF TEHUANTEPEC.-TERUANTEPEC RAILWAY AND SHIP-CANAL.
-THE EADS SHIP-RAILWAY.-AN IDEA OF CORTEZ.-PLANS OF CAPTAIN EADS.-A RAILWAY-
CARRIAGE WITH 1200 WHEELS.-SHIPS CARRIED IN TANKS.-ENGINEERING AND OTHER FEATURES
OF THE SHIP-RAILWAY.-MAHOGANY TRADE.-FIFTEEN THOUSAND DOLLARS FOR THREE LOGS.-
FRONTERA AND TABASCO.-RUINS OF PALENQUE.-LORILLARD CITY.-EXPLORATIONS BY STE-
PHENS AND CHARNAY.-PALACE OF PALENQUE.-TEMPLE OF THE CROSS.--TEMPLE OF LORIL-
LARD.-REMARKABLE IDOL.-A REGION ABOUNDING IN RUINS.-REMAINS OF MITLA.-PILLAR
OF DEATHI ........... .................................................. 42
"THE MYSTERIOUS CITY;" STORIES AND RUMORS CONCERNING IT.-ACCOUNTS OF STEPHENS AND
MORELET.-FATE OF Two YOUNG AMERICANS.-DON PEDRO VELASQUEZ.-CARMEN AND CAM-
PEACHY.-UNDERGROUND CAVES.-How LOGWOOD IS GATHERED; ITS COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE.
-THE QUEZAL AND ITS WONDERFUL PLUMAGE.-SNAKES AND SNAKE STORIES.-TRAVELLERS'
TALES.-PROGRESO AND SISAL.-HOW THE YUCATAN RAILWAY WAS BUILT.-AGAYE SISALANA.
-DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST OF YUCATAN.-A FEROCIOUS POPULATION.-REBELLIOUS INDIANS
IN YUCATAN; How THEY TREAT VISITORS.-TOWNS AND VILLAGES DEPOPULATED ........ 439
RAILWAY-STATION AT MERIDA.-PUBLIC CONVEYANCES.-THE CALESA.-A RIDE THROUGH THE
STREETS.-WHIEN MERIDA WAS FOUNDED.--PRACTICAL MODE OF DESIGNATING STREETS.-PUBLIC
BUILDINGS.-CASA MUNICIPAL.-DRESS AND MANNERS OF THE PEOPLE.-INDIANS, SPANIARDS,
AND MESTIZOS.-A CITY OF PRETTY WOMEIN.-CITARACTERISTICS OF THE MAYA RACE.-THE MES-
TIZO QUARTER.-SCENES IN THE MARKET.-BREAKFASTING AT A MEDIO RESTAURANT.-EUCIRE
OR YUCCA.-USES OF TIE YUCCA PLANT.-GAMBLING IN YUCATAN.-LA LOTERIA; HOW IT IS
PLAYED.--AMERICAN COUNTERPART OF TIE YUCATEO GAME.--A POPULAR ASSEMBLAGE.... 454
POTTERY AND HAMMOCK MARKETS.-HAMMOCKS IN YUCATAN; THEIR GENERAL USE FOR SLEEPING
PURPOSES.-YUCATEO SALUTATIONS.-AN AWKWARD SITUATION.-FASHIONABLE, MESTIZO, AND
INDIAN BALLS.-CHARACTERISTIC INDIAN DANCES.--WORSHIP OF THE SUN AMONG THE ANCIENT
YUCATEOS.--NATIVE MUSIC.--ZOPILOTE DANCE.-VISIT TO A HENEQUIN HACIENDA.--TIE VOLAN
CocIa.-A VEHICLE OF THE COUNTRY.-A RACE AND HOW IT ENDED.-ARRIVAL AT THE HA-
CIENDA.-THE SCRAPING AND BALING MACHINERY.-STARTING A PLANTATION.--PICE OF THE
FIBRE IN THE MARKET.--'' NO MONEY IN THE BUSINESS."-FIBRE-FACTORIES IN YUCATAN.--IHO
THE OWNERS OF ESTATES LIVE ................................................ Page 468
FIRST NIGHT IN THE HAMIMOCKS.-INSPECTING A CENOTi.-UNDERGROUND WATERCOURSES AND LAKES.
--HOW CENOTES ARE FORMED.-A SUBTERRANEAN BATH-HOUSE.-A NORIA.-WATER TAX ON
A DIRECT SYSTEM.-NATIVE SUPERSTITIONS.-A LIZARD THAT SHAKES IIlS TAIL OFF.-BITING
A SHADOW, AND WHAT COMES OF IT.-JOURNEY TO THE RUINS OF UXMAL.-A IHEIETZMEK.-
--YUCATEO MODE OF CARRYING INFANTS.-BREAKFAST AT A HACIENDA.-GARDEN AT UAYAIKE.
EATING TROPICAL LIZARDS.-FRED'S OPINION OF LIZARD STEWS.-BEES OF TIE COUNTRY.-
SUPERFLUOUS INDUSTRY OF YUCATEO BEES.-EVENING PRAYER AT A HACIENDA.-ARRIVAL AT
UXMAL .............. .. ................................... ..... ............... 483
A ROMANTIC LEGEND.-HOW THE KING WAS OVERCOME BY THE WITCH:-VISITING THE DWARF'S
HOUSE; ITS POSITION AND PECULIARITIES.-IIOUSE OF THE NUNS ; ITS EXTENT AND CONSTRUC-
TION.-CASA DEL GOBERNADOR.-DESTRUCTIVE AGENCIES AT WOP.K.-AT HOME IN A ROYAL
PALACE.-MAYA ARCHES.-TROPICAL TREES AND PLANTS.-DOUBLE-HEADED DOG OF UXMAL.--
GARAPATAS AND THE ANNOYANCE THEY CAUSED.-INSECT PESTS OF YUCATAN.-DR. LE PLON-
GEON AND THE STATUE OF CHAC-MOOL.-GHOSTS AND GHOST STORIES.-BIRDS OF YUCATAN.-AN
ANCIENT WATERING-PLACE ...................................................... 498
A CHAPTER ON ARCHLEOLOGY.-NUMBER AND EXTENT OF THE RUINED CITIES OF YUCATAN.-MAYA-
PAN, THE ANCIENT CAPITAL.--PYRAMID OF MAYAPAN.-AKE AND ITS PICOTE.-AN ANCIENT
WHIPPING-POST.-PYRAMIDS AT AKT -HISTORICAL CONUNDRUAMS.-KABAII AND ITS MOUND.-
SCULPTURE OF A MAN ON IIORSEBACK.-CIIICIIEN-ITZA.-CIIURCH, NUNNERY, CASTLE, AND TENNIS-
COURT AT CHICIIEN.-EXTENT AND CHARACTER OF THE SCULPTURES.--STORY 01 TIIE CONQUEST
OF CHICIIEN.-SKILFUL RETREAT OF THE SPANISII CAPTAIN.-OTHER RUINED CITIES.-IDOLS OF
COPAN.-PROBABILITIES OF CITIES YET TO BE DISCOVERED. ........................... 513
CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE REPUBLICS COMPOSING IT; A SKETCH OF THEIR HISTORY; AREA AND POP-
ULATION.-SNAKES, LIZARDS, AND OTHER CREEPING TIINGS.--OSTA RICA AND ITS REVOLUTIONS.
-- PRESIDENT WHO COULDN'T READ.-HONDURAS AND ITS RESOURCES.-VISIT TO TEGUCIGALA.
--YSCARAN AND ITS MINERAL WEALTII.-UNFORTUNATE FINANCIERING.-INTERESTING SOCIAL
CUSTOMS.-INTEROCEANIC CANALS; THEIR PRESENT STATUS.-THE NICARAGUA CANAL; SURVEYS,
ESTIMATES, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE ROUTE; PROBABLE ADVANTAGES TO TIE WORLD'S COM-
MERCE; TERMS OF THE CONCESSION; ESTIMATED COST, REVENUES, AND SAVING OF DISTANCES.
-FAREWELL TO MEXICO.-THE END .......... ........ ........................ 530
View of Popocatepetl ...... ... ............. ............... Frontispiece.
Map of Mexico with its Railways ........ ...... ...................... Front Cover.
Route of the Boy Travellers in Mexico....................................Back Cover.
A Next-door Neighbor................
The Mexican Frontier ...............
Scene on the Pennsylvania Railroad...
Street in El Paso...................
Bridge over the Mississippi at St. Louis
The Alamo Mission, San Antonio......
General Sam Houston, Liberator of
Texas ................... ..........
"G. T. T."..........................
Mexico, showing Present and Old Fron-
A Group of Texan Hunters............
View in San Antonio, Texas...........
On the Banks of the Rio Grande.......
Indian W ater-carriers ................
An old Mexican Chapel by Moonlight..
View in Nuevo Laredo................
Watching the Frontier................
Landscape near the Border............
A Mexican Muleteer .................
A Solid Silver Spur..................
A Group of Adobe Houses............
The Land of Mafiana .................
The Threshing-floor .................
Saddle Mountain, Monterey ..........
View of the Sierras...................
View of Monterey...................
The Plaza de Zaragoza ...............
General Taylor's Attack on Monterey,
September 21, 1846 .................
The Bishop's Palace .................
Z. Taylor ............................
Officers' Uniforms in 1860............
Mountain Scene near Monterey........ 41
The Alameda, Monterey .............. 42
Native Pottery....................... 43
A Scene in the Market............... 44
A Court-yard in Monterey............. 45
A Window in Monterey............... 46
View of Sierras from Bishop's Palace .. 47
Santa Caterina, near Monterey......... 49
The Organ Cactus.................... 50
Varieties of Cactus ................... 51
In the San Juan Valley ............... 52
A Solid Citizen ...................... 53
On the Road to Buena Vista .......... 55
A Servant at the Hacienda............ 56
Near the Kitchen..................... 57
Making Tortillas ...................... 58
A Primitive Kitchen................. 59
The Guide on the Battle-field.......... 61
The Battle of Buena Vista ........... 63
Boll of Mexican Cotton Plant ......... 64
Picking Cotton....................... 65
Departure of the Diligence ........... 67
On the Road....................... 68
Fight between Brigands and Soldiers.. 69
Encampment of Brigands............ 71
A King of the Road ................. 72
Cavalry Pursuing a Band of Robbers... 73
Hotel by the Way-side ................ 75
Street Scene at Jaral.................. 77
El Real de Santa Eulalia .............. 78
The Ravine where the Outcasts Lived.. 79
On the Edge of the Cotton Field....... 80
"Cotton is King".................... 81
View in the Mining Region ...........
Convent and Fountain ................
A Silver-producing Valley ............
Cactus Growths near Zacatecas........
Field with Adobe Walls ..............
A Mexican Arastra ..................
Carrying Ore to the Reduction-works ..
A Mexican Crusher ..................
Bringing Ore from the Mines...........
Mexican Bellows .................. ..
Mexican Smelting-furnace ............
An Old-fashioned Plough.............
Farm-laborer in a Grass Cloak.........
Hacienda near the City ...............
Prisoners at Work in the Jail..........
Of Spanish Blood ................. ..
Indian Girls at a Spring ..............
A Dry Barranca. ................... ..
Church of San Diego, Guanajuato.....
Court-yard of a Mexican Tenement-
Superintendent's House at Silver Reduc-
A Ton of Silver ......................
A Mexican Beggar....................
Old Convent now used as Barracks ....
A Leading Citizen ...................
Prisoners Breaking Ore ..............
Sloping Ladders in a Silver-mine......
Opening a New Mine .................
Entrance of a Mine Not in Operation ..
A Cotton Factory, Queretaro.........
Aqueduct of Queretaro ...............
A Mexican Cavalry Soldier............
A Mexican Infantry Soldier...........
Line of Defence held by Maximilian dur-
ing the Siege of Queretaro ..........
First Protestant Church in Mexico.....
Pueblo at Taos, New Mexico..........
Garden of a Mexican Convent........
Interior of the First Methodist Episco-
pal Church, City of Mexico .........
Rev. John L. Stephens, a Martyr Mis-
In the Cathedral......................
Mexican Priests .......................
Comparative Level of Lakes..........
83, The Great Spanish Drainage-cut....... 133
84 Young Girls of Tula ................. 135
86 Environs of Mexico .................. 137
87 A Member of the Church Party........ 139
88 Transcontinental Profile of Mexico .... 140
89 Interior Court-yard of a Mexican Hotel 141
90 Street View in the Capital............ 142
91 On the Way to Morning Mass ......... 143
93 A Modern Street Front ............... 144
94 Mexican Lottery Ticket............... 145
95 Flower-girl ............... .......... 146
96 The Cathedral, City of Mexico......... 148
97 Moonlight View of Plaza and Cathedral 149
98 Augustin de Iturbide, Grandson of the
99 Liberator ........................... 151
100 Granting Absolution in the Cathedral.. 153
101 Ready for Mass ..................... 154
103 Old Spanish Palace in the Calle de Jesus 154
104 Church built by Cortez ............... 155
The Aztec Calendar-stone ............. 156
105 Indian Picture-writing................ 157
Tenochtitlan, A.D. 1517................ 158
106 First Cavalry Charge by Cortez........ 158
107 A Flower-show in the Zocalo.......... 159
108 How the Mantilla is Worn ............ 160
109 The Trogon.......................... 161
110 Near the Plaza ....................... 162
111 Wax Model of Water-carrier .......... 163
112 Ancient Indian Pottery ............... 164
113 Mexican House-maid and Children..... 165
114 The Sacrificial Stone ................. 166
115 One Form of Sacrificial Stone ......... 167
116 Sacrificial Collar ..................... 167
118 The Form of Sacrifice ................ 168
120 Sculptures from Tizoc's Stone......... 169
121 Gladiatorial Stone-from an Aztec Draw-
ing ................................ 170
123 Huitzilopochtli, the God of War....... 171
125 The National Palace ................. 173
126 Gen. Manuel Gonzales, former President
127 of Mexico........................... 174
Collateral in the Monte de Piedad...... 175
128 To the Pawn-shop................... 176
Occasional Patrons of the Monte de Pie-
129 dad..................... ......... 177
130 A Gift to Fred ....................... 179
131 "My house and all it contains are yours" 181
132 Seeing and Being Seen .............. 182
The Market-place, City of Mexico......
Interior of a House near the Market-place
View on the Canal ..................
Residence on the Banks of the Canal...
Sunday Diversions at Santa Anita.....
Crew of a Cargo-boat.................
Chinampas, or Floating Gardens.......
Peon's House on a Chinampa..........
Cactus Growths near the Hill of Estrella
Rock Inscriptions made by Ancient Az-
tecs................ ... ..........
Home Scene near the Lake.............
A Dead Fly..........................
Ruins of a Toltec House..............
A Fortunate Bear ....................
Mexican Courtship ...................
Code-signalling with the Fan..........
" There he is"........................
A Student of "El Secretario" ........
Mexican Wedding in the Country......
Flowers for a Lady ...................
Funeral of General Doblado, Guanajuato
Soldiers' Monument in the American
Taking Things Easy.................
A Charcoal Peddler ..................
A Mexican Wash-house..............
The Landing of Columbus ............
Mexican Sculpture-Door-way of Church
of San Jos6 ........................
Las Casas Protecting the Aztecs.......
The Death of Atala ..................
A Successful Artist at Work ..........
The Tachiquero ....................
Extracting Aguamiel ................
A Glass of Aguardiente ..............
"Not caught yet"........... ........
A M magistrate .........................
An Old Offender .....................
Scene of the Capture .................
A Corner of Chapultepec..............
Statue of Columbus on the Paseo de la
San Cosine Aqueduct.................
Chapultepec and its Gardens.......... 235
El Salto del Agua .................... 236
An Aztec Relic................. ...... 237
The Valley of Mexico, from the Ameri-
can Official Map .................... 289
View of the Fort of San Juan de Ulloa
from Vera Cruz .................... 240
Battle of Cerro Gordo ................ 241
General Santa Anna .................. 242
Battle of Churubusco -Charge of the
Storming of Molino del Rey........... 244
General Scott's Entrance into Mexico .. 245
Captured at Chapultepec ............. 246
A Scene of Peace ................... 247
The Noche Triste Tree ............... 248
Departure of Cortez from Cuba.......... 249
The First Mass in the Temples of Yuca.
Battle with the Indians ............... 251
First View of the Mexican Capital..... 252
The Meeting of Cortez and Montezuma. 253
The Battle upon the Causeway ........... 255
The Capture of Guatemozin........... 256
Ponce de Leon ....................... 257
The Church of Guadalupe ............ 258
Statuette of the Virgin Mary .......... 259
Making a Pilgrimage Comfortably..... 261
The Penitentes Walking on Cactus-leaves 262
San Franciscan Mission ............... 263
Indian of Northern Mexico............ 264
A Mestizo Woman .................... 265
Indian Girl Spinning Cotton .......... 267
Peddler of Wooden Trays............ 268
Charcoal Vender ..................... 269
Of the Old Aristocracy................ 270
A Creole Residence ................... 271
Group of Mexican Horsemen.......... 272
A Society Belle ...................... 273
A Mexican Grandee ................. 274
A Sermon in the Church.............. 275
Church of San Domingo .............. 276
Torture Chamber .................... 277
Prisoners of the Inquisition ........... 278
A Residence in the Foot-hills.......... 279
The Valley of Amecameca ............ 280
Iztaccihuatl, the White Woman........ 282
Along the Trail ...................... 284
Dwarf Pines at a High Elevation...... 285
The Dome of Popocatepetl from Tlama-
Mexican Saw-mill..................... 287
Hacienda of Tomacoco ............... 288
Volcaneros (Miners) .................. 289
In the Pine Region ................... 291
El Pico del Fraile ...................... 292
Not a Good Climber ................ 294
"No mountain for me!" .............. 295
"Hurrah for the top!"................ 296
The Crater of Popocatepetl ........... 297.
Bringing Ice from the Mountain....... 299
Pack-train from Tlamacas ............ 301
An Improved Refinery............... 303
Looking from the Top of Popocatepetl. 304
A Dangerous Place................. 305
Ruins of Tlalmanalco................ 307
Burial-ground of Tenenepanco ........... 308
Vases Found at Tenenepanco.......... 309
Caricature of an Aztec Warrior........ 310
Ancient Aztec Vases................ 11
Wants a Souvenir ................... 312
Ruins of San Lazero ................. 313
On the Way to Church............... 314
Monks at their Musical Exercise....... 315
A Belle of the Opera ................. 316
A Stage Brigand .................... 317
Tivoli Garden, San Cosme ............ 319
Teasing the Bull ..................... 320
Picadores..................... ....... 320
The Matador's Triumph .............. 320
The Final Blow ...................... 321
Scenes at a Bull-fight ................. 322
A Bull-ring of the Highest Class....... 323
A School on the Old Model............ 324
Figure of Joseph (Procession of the Po-
sada) ............ ... ............ .. 325
The Railway Judas ................. 327
Warrior's Profile, found at Tula....... 329
Church and Part of Plaza at Tula .....'330
Toltec King and his Throne........... 331
Ruins of a Toltec Palace.............. 332
The Pyramid of the Sun at Tula....... 333
Parts of a Column, Tula .............. 335
Toltec Caryatid, Tula................ 336
Native Hut on a Sugar Estate ......... 337
Henequin Plant ...................... 338
Fight between Regulars and Insurgents 339
Railway Crossing a Barranca......... 340
A Product of Cuautla ................ 341
Travellers Resting ................ ... 34
Over the Hills........................ 343
A Scorpion of Cuernavaca ............ 343
A Church Going to Decay ............ 344
Mexican House with Tiled Roof....... 345
Climbing the Heights ................ 347
A Way-side Shrine.................. 348
On the Road to Acapulco............. 349
A Country Hotel ..................... 350
Galleon of the Sixteenth Century...... 351
Town and Castle of Acapulco ......... 353
A Scene on the Diligence Road........ 354
An Interior Town .................... 355
At the Hacienda ..................... 356
A Corner of the Market-place ......... 357
Court-yard of a Private House ........ 359
In the Poor Quarters ................. 360
Mexicans Planting Corn ............. 361
A Rodeo ........................... 362
Driving a Herd ................ ...... 363
President Porfirio Diaz ............. 365
View in Oajaca .................... 366
Saved from the Sea ................. 367
House with Tile Front................ 369
American Residents of Mexico........ 371
A Military Post ..................... 372
A Country Post-office ................ 373
Compositor for The Two Republies ..... 374
Surveying under Difficulties........... 376
Ruins of the Covered Way to the Inqui-
sition ............... ............. 377
Cathedral of Puebla .................. 378
Street Scene in Puebla ................ 379
Part of Puebla ....................... 380
Pyramid of Cholula .................. 382
View from the Top of the Pyramid.... 383
Sport at Cholula .................. .. 384
Local Freight Train .................. 385
A Relic of the Past................... 386
Indian Farm Laborers ................ 387
An Aztec Relic ........................ 388
Interior of an Old Church ............ 389
First Christian Pulpit in America..... 390
Old Baptismal Font, Tlascala.......... 391
Ancient Bells ........................ 392
A Native Ploughman ................. 393
The "Portales," or Covered Walks .... 394
Map of Railway between City of Mexico
and Vera Cruz ..................... 395
Double-euder Locomotive on Mexican
Railway ........................... 397
View of Orizaba....................... 398
The River at Orizaba ................. 399
Hill of El Barrago. .................... 401
Orange Grove in Cordoba ............. 402
Bridge of Attoyac .................... 405
In Tierra Caliente .................... 406
Vera Cruz, looking seaward........... 407
After the Vomito ..................... 409
A Coffee-carrier .................... 410
Fountain at Vera Cruz ............... 412
The Governor's Palace ............... 413
On the Way to the Fort ............. 414
The National Bridge.-Robbing a Coach 416
Sketched at Rinconada ............... 417
Part of Jalapa........................ 418
A Narrow Street ..................... 419
Exterior of a Church ................ 421
A Tourist .............. .............. 422
On the River's Bank ................. 423
A Steamship on a Platform Car ..... .424
Plane and Elevation of Terminus...... 425
Tank Carriage ........ ......... .... 426
Section of Part of Cradle Carriage..... 427
Map of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 429
Mahogany Hunters ................. 430
Travelling in Tabasco ................ 431
Plan of Part of the Palace at Palctique. 433
Medallion Bass-relief ................ 434
Idol in Temple at Lorillard City ....... 435
The Cross of Palenque............... 436
Grand Hall at Mitla .................. 437
Exterior of Temple at Mila ........... 438
In the Forest ......................... 439
John L. Stephens ..................... 440
Seeking the Mysterious City .......... 441
Campeachy Tobacco ................. 443
The Quezal ......................... 444
Difficulties of Travel in Campeachy.... 445
Map of Yucatan ..................... 447
Tropical Railway Train and Station.... 448
Flock of Pelicans .................... 449
Sisal-hem p ........................... 450
Indians of Yucatan ................. 451
Retreating from Hostile Indians ....... 453
In the Outskirts ...................... 454
The Calesa.-Entrance of a Merida
House. ............................. 455
House built by Montejo............... 457
Musical Instruments.................. 458
Municipal Palace and Square, Merida .. 459
Dancing Scene........................ 460
Native Village in the Interior.......... 461
Fruit-sellers in the Market-place ...... 463
Sitting for her Portrait ............... 464
In the Market-place .................. 465
No more "Loteria".................. 467
Hammock Lodgings in the Country.... 468
View on a Back Street .............. 469
Scene in a Ball-room ................ 471
Indians Dancing ..................... 473
Preparing for the Ball ................. 475
A Volan Coch6 ....................... 476
A Street in Merida ................... 477
A Primitive Sugar-mill............... 479
: 'i.1 .' -station in the Henequin District 480
Storehouse at the Hacienda .......... 481
A Morning Run ..................... 482
A Corner of the Hacienda ........... 483
An Underground Walk ............... 484
Formation of Stalactites .............. 485
At a Noria. ...................... 487
At Home in Merida .................. 489
Scene of the Heetzmek ............... 490
Garden of the Hacienda............... 491
Native Village near Uxmal............ 493
Hunting the Iguana ................ 494
What Perfumes the Honey............ 495
The Sierra from the Garden of the Ha-
cienda ............................. 496
Side of Ancient Altar ................ 497
Archway of Las Monjas, Uxmal....... 408
Hacienda of Uxmal................... 499
Dwarf's House and East Wing of the
Casa de las Monjas ................. 501
Facade of West Wing of Casa de las
M onjas ............................ 503
Ground-plan of Las Monjas .......... 504
Casa del Gobernador ................. 505
Ground-plan of Casa del Gobernador... 506
Statue of Double-headed Dog, Uxmal.. 507 Government Palace, San Jos6 ...
Decorations over Door-way of Casa del
Gobernador ................ ... .... 509
An Unwelcome Visitor ............... 510
Statue of Chac-Mool ................. 511
Maya Arches......................... 512
Yucateo Sculpture .................. 513
Great Mound at Mayapan ............ 514
Circular Edifice at Mayapan........... 515
Sculptured Head of Yucatan.......... 517
Pillars of Great Gallery, Ak........... 519
Head of Incense-burner ............... 520
Maya Sculpture (Profile).............. 520
Ruined Arch at Kabah ............... 521
Fagade of El Castillo ................ 522
Bass-relief, Chichen-Itza .............. 523
Door-posts in Tennis-court ........... 524
Casa Colorada........................ 525
Head of War-god, from Copan ........ 526
Idol of Copan (from Stephens) ......... 527
Decoration over Door-way ............. 528
Map of Central America.......;...... 529
In a Central American Forest......... 530
Central American Lodgings ........... 533
Banana Plantation in Costa Rica....... 534
Don Bernardo do Soto, President of
Costa Rica........................ 535
Gen. Luis Bogran, President of Hondu-
ras ............................. 536
Tegucigalpa, Capital of Honduras ..... 537
Street in Yuscaran ................... 538
Old Bridge at Tegucigalpa ........... 539
Statue of Morazan, Tegucigalpa ....... 540
Bird's-eye View of the Nicaragua Canal 541
Profile of Nicaragua Canal............ 542
A Section of the Canal................ 543
River San Juan at Toro Rapids ....... 544
Street in Greytown .................. 545
El Castillo, San Juan River .............. 546
View of Lake Nicaragua............. 547
Mozo in Full Dress ................... 548
Fort San Carlos ................... ... 549
Native Boats, Lake Nicaragua......... 550
Central American Hacienda........... 551
Birds of Nicaragua................... 552
THE BOY TRAVELLERS
PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE.--PLANS FOR THE JOURNEY.--TO MEXICO BY
RAIL.-BAGGAGE, AND BOOKS ON THE COUNTRY.- BRUSHING UP THEIR
KNOWLEDGE OF SPANISII.-WESTWARD FROM NEW YORK.-A HALT AT ST.
LOUIS.-SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS.-VISIT TO THE ALAMO.-REMINISCENCES OF
THE FALL OF THE ALAMO.-BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO AND INDEPENDENCE OF
TEXAS.-NOTES ON THE RAILWAYS OF NORTHERN MEXICO.-OLD TEXAS AND
MODERN CHANGES.--"G. T. T."-PRESENT WEALTH OF THE STATE.-ARRIVAL
ON THE FRONTIER OF MEXICO.
"I'VE news for you, Frank !"
_I "Well, what is it ?"
"We're going to Mexico next
week," answered Fred; "at any
rate, that is uncle's plan, and he
will tell us all about it this even-
"The news is good news," was
the reply; "for Mexico is one of
the countries that just now I want
very much to see. We have heard
a great deal about it since the rail-
way was completed to the capital;
and then, you know, the Mexicans
are our neighbors."
"That is true," said Fred; "here
we've been going all over the rest A NEXT-DOOR NEIGHBOR.
of the world, and haven't yet called
on our neighbors, and next-door neighbors too. But we're not alone in
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
this, as it is probable that for every inhabitant of the Northern States who
has visited Mexico, a hundred have been across the Atlantic."
This conversation occurred between Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson
shortly after returning from their tour among the islands of the Pacific
Ocean and through New Zealand, Tasmania, and Australia. The accounts
of their journeys have appeared in several volumes, with which our readers
are or should be familiar.*
The youths waited with some impatience until evening, when they
were to hear from Doctor Bronson the details of the proposed trip. In
the mean time they devoted themselves to their Spanish grammars and
dictionaries, which they had not seen for months, owing to their occupa-
tion with other matters. And we may here add that until their departure
and while they were on the road, every moment that could be applied to
the study of the language of the country whither they were bound was
industriously employed. By the time they crossed the border they were
able to speak Spanish very well, and had very little need of interpreters.
We shall go to Mexico by rail," said the Doctor, "and return by sea;
at any rate, that is my plan at present, but circumstances may change it.
It is my intention to visit the principal cities and other places of interest,
and also to give some attention to the antiquities of the country and of
Central America; exactly what places we shall see I cannot say at this
moment, nor how long we shall be absent."
What shall we need in the way of baggage ?" one of the youths asked.
"About what you need for a long journey north and south in the
United States," was the reply. "You will need clothing for hot weather
as well as for cold. We shall find it quite chilly in certain parts of the
tierra fria, or highlands, and warm enough in the tierra caliente, or low-
lands along the coast. You must have outer and under clothing adapted
to warm and cool climates, and your ulsters may be placed for convenience
in the same bundle with your linen dusters. I-ave a good supply of under-
clothing, as the facilities for laundry-work are not the best, even in the
large cities; but do not load yourselves with anything not absolutely neces-
sary, as the Mexican railways allow only thirty-three pounds of baggage to
a local passenger, and the charges for extra weight are high. Passengers
with through tickets from the United States are entitled to one hundred
and fifty pounds of baggage free.
"The Boy Travellers in the Far East" (five volumes), and "The Boy Travellers in
South America," "The Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire," "The Boy Travellers on
the Congo," and "The Boy Travellers in Australasia" (four volumes). See complete list
at the end of this book.
AUTHORITIES ON MEXICO.
vI.. i I I t lI tI :'.i t r LI l
was written by Mr. Janvier, and there is an-
THE MEXICAN FRONTIER. other by Mr. Conkling; get them both, and
also Old Mexico and her Lost Provinces,'
by Mr. Bishop, 'Mexico of To-day,' by Mr. Griffin, and Our Next-door
Neighbor,' by Bishop Haven. Don't forget Charnay's 'Ancient Cities of
the New World,' and Prescott's Conquest of Mexico.' You can read the
latter book before we go; it is inconveniently large for travelling pur-
poses, and so we will leave it behind us, as we can easily find it in the City
of Mexico, in case we wish to refer to it again. Abbott's 'Life of Her-
nando Cortez' is at more portable work, and will serve to refresh your
memory concerning what you read in Prescott's volumes."
The conversation lasted an hour or more, and by the time it ended the
boys almost felt that they were already in the land of the Aztecs. Their
dreams through the night were of ancient temples and modern palaces,
Aztec and Spanish warriors, snowy mountains and palm-covered plains,
mines of silver and other metals, fortresses, cathedrals, haciendas and hov-
els, and of many races and tribes of men that dwell in the land they were
about to see. Fred declared in the morning that he had dreamed of Mon-
tezuma and Maximilian walking arm in arm, and Frank professed to have
had a similar vision concerning Cortez and General Scott.
For the next few days the youths had no spare time on their hands,
and when the start was made for the proposed journey they were well
prepared for it both mentally and materially. They had followed Doctor
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
Bronson's directions as to their outfit of clothing and other things, had
procured the books which he named, and, as we have already seen, had
made a vigorous overhauling of their Spanish grammars and phrase-books.
From New York there are several routes westward, as our readers are
pretty well aware, and the youths were a little puzzled to know which one
SCENE ON THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD.
would be chosen. The mystery was solved by the Doctor on the day
before their departure. He announced that they would go to St. Louis
by the Pennsylvania Railroad, and from there to the frontier of Mexico by
the Missouri Pacific and Southern Pacific lines. "And now," said he, "I
ON THE WAY TO THE SOUTH-WEST.
STREET IN EL PASO.
will leave you to choose the route to the capital city, and you need not
decide until we reach St. Louis."
The Doctor's suggestion compelled a study of the maps and a careful
reading of the guide-books and other literature pertaining to the journey.
The result of their study may be summed up as follows from an entry
which Frank made in his note-book :
"The first railway which was opened from the United States to the
City of Mexico was the Mexican Central, which runs from El Paso, Texas,
or rather from Paso del Norte, Mexico, which is opposite to El Paso, on
the other side of the Rio Grande. Its length is 1224 miles, and it was
completed March 8, 1884, at the station of Fresnillo, 750 miles from Paso
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
del Norte, the line having been built from both ends at the same time.
Three years and six months were required for its construction, and the
line is said to have cost more than thirty-two millions of dollars; eight
miles of track were laid during the last day of the work before the two
ends of the line were brought together; and considering all the disadvan-
tages of the enterprise, it reflects great credit upon those who managed it.
"For more than four years the Mexican Central was the only all-rail
route for travellers from the United States to the City of Mexico, and it
had a practical monopoly of business. In 1888 two other lines were
opened; or perhaps we might say, another line and half of a third. These
are the Mexican National Railway, from Laredo, Texas, to Mexico City, a
distance of 825 miles, and the International Railway, from Piedras Negras,
Mexico, opposite Eagle Pass, Texas, to a point on the Mexican Central,
about half-way between El Paso and Mexico. The International is the
one which we call half a line, as it makes a new route into Mexico, and
from all we can learn a very good one too.
"The Central is a standard-gauge road, four feet eight and one-half
inches wide, while the National is a narrow-gauge line, three feet between
the rails; the advantage of the National line is that it is much shorter than
the Central, as I will proceed to show.
From St. Louis to Mexico City, by way of Laredo, the distance is
1823 miles, while by the Central line it is 2584 miles; there is thus a sav-
ing of 761 miles, or about thirty hours in time. But the Central will take
us through five or six interesting cities, while the National only goes near
Monterey, San Luis Potosi, and Toluca.
"Fred and I have decided to ask uncle to go by neither one route nor
the other, but to travel by both of them, and the International line in
addition; and this is the way we propose to do it:
"We'll go from St. Louis to Laredo because of the saving of time and
distance, and then we'll go to Monterey, which is an interesting city, by
the National Railway. After we've done Monterey we'll go farther on, to
Saltillo, and there we can cross over to Jaral, about forty miles, and find
ourselves on the main line of the International Railway. There the train
will pick us up and carry us to Torreon, on the Mexican Central Railway,
and from there we can continue to the capital, seeing the best part of the
Central line, or rather of the country through which it runs. The north-
ern part of the route of the Central is said to be dreary and uninteresting,
and so we shall be able to avoid it by the plan we have made."
The scheme was duly unfolded to the Doctor, who promptly gave his
approval and commended the youths for the careful study. they had made
FIRST GLIMPSE OF MEXICAN LIFE.
i i u t h e r p ir t s ,: if M _. x i : -, ,, 1 I m '. ":
you will be able to make some inter- BRIDGE OVER THIE MISSISSIPPI AT ST: LOUIS.
testing notes about it for your friends
at home. Mexico was for a long time very backward in railway enter-
prises, but in the past few years she has gone ahead very rapidly. Ten
years ago there were not five hundred miles of railway in the country;
now there are nearly, if not quite, five thousand miles, and in ten years
from this time there will be double that number. The Mexico of to-day
is very different from the Mexico of a quarter of a century ago."
Our friends stopped a day in St. Louis, and another at San Antonio,
Texas, partly for sight-seeing purposes and partly for rest. At the former
city the great bridge over the Mississippi excited the wonder and admira-
tion of the youths, who heard with much interest the story of its construc-
tion and the difficulties which the engineers encountered in laying the
foundations. At San Antonio they had their first glimpse of Mexican life,
as the city is quite Mexican in character, and at one time was almost
wholly so. Doctor Bronson told them that about one-third of the inhabi-
tants are of Mexican origin, and they could easily believe it as they saw
the Mexican features all about them on the streets, and heard the Spanish
language quite as often as any other.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
The object of greatest interest to them was the Alamo, the old fort
which, in 1836, the Texans, who were fighting for independence, so he-
roically but unsuccessfully defended. They were disappointed to find
that there is not much remaining of the fort, which originally consisted of
an oblong enclosure, about an acre in extent, with walls three feet thick,
and eight or ten feet high. There were 144 men in the Alamo, and they
were besieged by 4000 Mexican troops under General Santa Anna," said
a gentleman who accompanied them to the spot. The Mexicans had ar-
tillery, and the Texans had none, and against such odds it was hopeless to
resist. Santa Anna sent a summons for them to surrender, and throw
themselves upon Mexican mercy, but they refused to do so, and defied him
and his army."
As he paused a moment, Fred asked why they refused to surrender
when the odds were so much against them.
"They knew what Mexican mercy was," said the gentleman. "It was
illustrated not long afterwards at Goliad, where Colonel Fannin surren-
dered with 412 men as prisoners of war. They were promised to be re-
leased under the rules of war, and one Sunday morning, when they were
singing Home, sweet home,' they were marched out and massacred, every
THE ALAMO MISSION, SAN ANTONIO.
man of them. The slaughter lasted from six till eight, and then the bodies
of the slain were burned by orders of the general. It is proper to say that
the Mexican officers were generally disgusted with the terrible business,
but they were obliged to obey the orders of Santa Anna, or be themselves
SIEGE OF THE ALAMO.
shot down. His policy was one of extermination, and he could have
said on his death-bed that he left no enemies behind him, as he had killed
"Well," continued their informant, "the siege of the Alamo began on
the 23d of February, 1836, and lasted for thirteen days. Over 200 shells
GEN. SAM HOUSTON, THE LIBERATOR OF TEXAS.
were thrown into the fort in the first twenty-four hours, but not a man
was injured by them, while the Texan sharp-shooters picked off a great
number of the Mexicans. Santa Anna made several assaults, but was
driven back each time, and it is believed that he lost fully 1500 men in
the siege. On the morning of the 6th of March a final assault was made,
and the fort was captured; every man was killed in the fighting except-
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
ing six who surrendered, and among the six was the famous Col. David
Crockett. Santa Anna ordered all of them to be cut to pieces, and. Crock-
ett fell with a dozen sword-wounds after his own weapons had been given
up. Colonel Travis, who commanded the fort, was also killed, and so was
Colonel Bowie, who was ill in bed at the time, and was shot where he lay.
He was the inventor of the bowie-knife, which has been famous through
the West and South-west for a good many years. Only three persons were
spared from death, a woman, a child, and a servant."
"How long was that before the battle of San Jacinto ?" one of the
Less than seven weeks," was the reply, and never was there a more
complete victory than at that battle. Gen. Sam Houston retreated slow-
ly, and was followed by the Mexican army. He burned a bridge behind
his enemies, and suddenly attacking them on the afternoon of April 21st,
he killed half their number and captured nearly all the rest. The war-
cry of the Texans was 'Remember the Alamo! remember Goliad!' and
maddened by the recollection of the cruelties of the Mexicans, they fought
like tigers, and carried everything before them. Santa Anna, disguised
as a soldier, was captured the next day; Houston had hard work to save
him from the fury of the Texans, but he was saved, and lived to fight
again ten years later. But the battle of San Jacinto ended the war, and
made Texas independent of Mexico."
A ride of a hundred and fifty miles to the south-west from San An-
tonio brought our friends to Laredo, on the banks of the Rio Grande, the
dividing line between the United States and Mexico. The ride was
through a thinly settled country, devoted principally to grazing, and there
were few objects of interest along the route. The time was varied with
looking from the windows of the car, with the perusal of books, and by
conversation concerning the Texan war for independence, to which the
thoughts of the party had naturally turned through their visit to the
Alamo at San Antonio.
"Texas was a province of Mexico," said the Doctor, "in the early part
of the present century, the Spaniards having established missions and sta-
tions there at the same time that the French established missions and mili-
tary posts in Louisiana. The territorial boundaries between France and
Spain were never very clearly defined; the two countries were in a con-
stant quarrel about their rights, and when we purchased the Louisiana ter-
ritory from France we inherited the dispute about the boundaries. Ad-
venturers from various parts of the United States poured into the country,
and the population was more American than Mexican; there were many
"GONE TO TEXAS."
respectable men among the American settlers, but there was also a consid-
erable proportion of what might be called 'a bad lot.'"
"I have read somewhere," said Frank, "a couplet which is said to
have been composed by a resident of the country fifty years ago, and to
have given the State its name.
"'When every other land rejects us,
This is the land that freely takes us.'"
"And I," said Fred, "have read somewhere that when a man ran away
to cheat his creditors, or for any more serious reason, it was commonly
said that he had gone to Texas.' When the sheriffs looked for somebody
whom they wished to arrest and were
unable to find him, they indorsed the
warrant with the initial letters 'G. T. -
T.' before returning it to the authori- I '
ties who issued it. Sometimes an ab-
sconding debtor saved his friends the i
trouble of looking for him by leaving / ,
on his door a card bearing these inter-
esting letters." il
"Undoubtedly," continued the Doc-
tor," there was a rough population in
Texas in those days, but the men cor- .
posing it were not deficient in bravery,
and they had the spirit of independence
in the fullest degree. While the United _
States and Mexico were disputing about
the boundaries, the Texans set up a claim
for independence, and the war which was
ended by the battle of San Jacinto was ". '. T."
like our Revolutionary War a hundred
and more years ago. After Texas had secured her independence, she set
up a government of her own; she had a president and all the other officials
pertaining to a republic, and was recognized by England, France, and other
European countries. This did not last long, as her finances fell into a de-
plorable condition, and the preponderance of Americans among the popu-
lation naturally led to a movement for annexation to the United States.
Annexation was followed by war with Mexico, and it grew out of the old
dispute about the boundaries. Mexico claimed all land west of the Nneces
River, while Texas claimed to own as far west as the Rio Grande. Each
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
country believed it was right, and our war with Mexico resulted in the
defeat of the Mexican armies, the occupation of their capital, and the
establishment of the right of the United States to all territory east of the
"Texas is therefore one of the lost provinces of Mexico," said Frank.
try of great future possibilities. But Texas was by no means the greatest
was signed and the session of territory made, gold was discovered in Cali-
'"' '"", 1 ^ ;, '1 '. .-.
The boys made a careful inspection of te map, and as it will be inter-
i VA ".
estg to their frien I h we here reproduce it.
She e an were Iseverely pushed f their rety to the Te
was._ s-ged d. t"eceo ad, gol- w. d. "
--' '2 t --- T > ... '-' :1-
J, wa ap- d 'e. -I e __- i .
.. ..I ,-
Tha aea bof ne.ar ,e h e t aio n sua an s ,i is cn-
f ,Tloses Mexic o he wa rasClforn Nev uth, Arizon
ain rn was rapily dree lop=ed Loon the map-in Mr. Bisho' book-
e"stigtei fnd s at- home, we hererepr io du i-t
"T he Mexicans were severely punished for their cruelty to tle Tex-
THE MASSACRE AT GOLIAD.
A GROUP OF TEXAN HUNTERS.
ans," said Fred, "and were probably sorry for their butcheries at Goliad
and the Alamo when they sat down to think of the war and how it turned
The responsibility for those butcheries rests rather upon General
Santa Anna than on the officers and soldiers who executed his orders. iHe
started out in a war of extermination, and there is abundant evidence that
his officers loathed the work they had to perform. One of them, writing
from Goliad at the time of the massacre of Colonel Fannin and his men,
said, 'This day, Palm Sunday, has been to me a day of heart-felt sorrow.
What an awful scene did the field present when the prisoners were exe-
cuted and fell in heaps, and what spectator could view it without horror!'
It has been said that the feeble resistance that Santa Anna's men made at
the battle of San Jacinto was in consequence of the willingness of officers
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
and soldiers to be captured so that the terrible war could come to an
"Texas is now a very prosperous State," continued the Doctor; the
value of its taxable property is nearly seven hundred millions of dollars,
and some authorities say it is more, and it has seven millions of cattle, ten
millions of sheep, and horses and mules in proportion. By the census of
1880 it had a population of more than one and a half millions, and it is
probable that 1890 will give it more than two millions. Its area would
make five States as large as New York, thirty-three as large as Massachu-
setts, and two hundred and.twelve of the size of Rhode Island. That it
has changed greatly from the days before the annexation, and is favorable
to peace and good order, is shown by its liberal appropriation for schools,
its laws relative to the sale of intoxicating drinks, the fines it imposes for
carrying pistols and bowie-knives, and its penalties for using them."
There was further conversation about the south-west and its peculiari-
ties, when the train reached the frontier and attention was turned to Mex-
ico and the new land that they were about to visit.
VIEW IN SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS.
OVER THE BORDER.
HOTELS ON THE FRONTIER.-ACCOMMODATIONS AT LAREDO.-SMUGGLING OVER
THE BORDER.-LAREDO AS A RAILWAY CENTRE.-THE RIO GRANDE AND ITS
PECULIARITIES.-RIVERS BENEATH THE SANDS.-ENTERING MEXICAN TERRI-
TORY.-EXAMINATIONS AT THE CUSTOM-HOUSE.-MEXICAN TARIFFS.-BRIBERY
AMONG OFFICIALS.-LEAVING NUEVO LAREDO.-A DREARY PLAIN.-FELLOW-
PASSENGERS WITH OUR FRIENDS.-A MEXICAN IRISHMAN.-PEOPLE AT THE
STATIONS.-ADOBE HOUSES; HOW THEY ARE MADE.-THE LAND OF MANANA.
-POCO TIElfPO AND QUIEN SABE.-LAMPASAS.-MESA DE LOS ARTIU-
JANOS.-PRODUCTS OF NUEVO LEON.-SADDLE AND MITRE MOUNTAINS.-MON-
T was nine o'clock in the evening when the train reached Laredo from
San Antonio, and our friends found that they would have to pass the
night in the town. They had been recommended to patronize the Com-
mercial Hotel; their informant said he could not speak loudly in its
t .j--* -_ -.
ON THE BANKS OF THE RIO GRANDE.
praise. "It is the least bad of the hotels in the place," said he, "and a
great deal better than sleeping on the ground in the open air, as you would
have been obliged to do here only a few years ago. In the language of
the far West, it beats nothing all out of sight."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
There was a sign of civilization in the shape of an omnibus, rather a
rickety and weak-springed affair, it is true, but still an omnibus, and it car-
ried them safely to the hotel, whither their baggage followed in a wagon.
The crowd around the station when the train arrived was a mixture of
American and Mexican, with a few Indians by way of variety. The pop-
ulation of the frontier is quite a puzzle to the ethnologist at times, and
the work of classification is by no means easy. Some of the patrons of
the hotel were Mexicans of the better sort, and they mingled freely with
the Americans who had lived long enough in Texas to feel at home. The
Texas towns along the border contain a goodly number of residents who
are engaged in defrauding the revenue of Mexico by engaging in the busi-
ness of smuggling goods into that country; there is also a fair amount of
smuggling from Mexico into the United States, and the customs officials
on both sides are kept reasonably busy in seeing that the rights of their
respective nations are defended. The peculiarity of revenue laws all the
world over is that every country considers it quite proper to violate those
of any other, but is very indignant if its own regulations are not re-
Supper at the hotel was endurable by hungry travellers, but would
have failed to meet the desires of the epicure ; and the same may be said
of breakfast on the following morning. As the train for Mexico started
at eight o'clock,* there was not much time for sight-seeing after breakfast,
though sufficient to discover that Laredo was a comparatively new town,
whose existence was mainly due to the railways that lead to it. There
was a town there in the early days of the Spanish colonization, but it was
completely destroyed in the frontier troubles, and the site was deserted
until Texas became one of the United States. The International and Great
Northern Railway runs to San Antonio and beyond : one division of the
Mexican National Railway, known as the Texas-Mexican, connects Laredo
with Corpus Christi, on the Gulf of Mexico, 160 miles away; and the
next, called the Northern Division, unites it with the City of Mexico.
Other railways are projected, and those who have corner or other lots in
Laredo predict a great future for the city.
The Rio Grande is not an imposing river at Laredo, and our young
Since the Boy Travellers made their journey through Mexico the time-table of the
Mexican National Railway has been changed. The express train leaves Laredo at 6.35
P.r., and Nuevo Laredo at 8.20. Monterey is reached at 2.40 A.M., and Saltillo, where
passengers take breakfast, at 6.20. They dine at Catorce, sup at San Luis Potosi, and
reach the City of Mexico at 9.50 on the second morning after their departure from the
friends were disappointed when they saw it. They had looked for a stream
of magnitude, as implied by the name, and were not prepared for one that
could be forded without much danger, and was so diminutive as to remind
them of those rivers of the Western States where it is necessary to use a
sprinkling-pot at certain seasons of the year to let strangers know where
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
the stream is. The Doctor told them that the Rio Grande was known as
the Rio Bravo in the lower part of its course, and Frank suggested that
it was because the river was very brave to come so far with such poor
"But the stream which now looks so insignificant," Doctor Bronson ex-
plained, "is subject to periodical floods, owing to the melting of the snows
in the mountains where it takes its rise. They begin in April, reach their
greatest height in May, and subside in June, and while they last they fill
the whole bed of the stream, and overflow the banks wherever they are
low. Some of its tributaries at such times are roaring floods, while ordi-
narily they are only dry beds, where not a drop of water can be seen for
many miles. But if you dig a few feet into the sandy bed of these streams
you will find water; emigrants travelling through this country carry an
empty barrel from which both heads are removed, and by sinking this bar-
rel into the sand they obtain a plentiful supply of water. A knowledge
of this fact has saved many lives, and ignorance of it has caused deaths by
thirst when suffering might easily have been avoided."
The first bridge erected by the railway company at Laredo was of
wood; it served its purpose until the first flood, when it was torn from.its
foundations and carried away. The present bridge is a substantial one of
iron, and promises to last a long time.
From Laredo the train moved slowly across the river, along a bridge
whose height was intended to make it secure against the severest floods,
until it reached the station of Nuevo Laredo, on the Mexican side, two or
three miles from Texan Laredo. Here there was an examination of bag-
gage by the Mexican customs officials; they were polite, and our friends
had learned from long experience in custom-houses to be polite in return.
The result was that the examination of their belongings was very slight,
while that of some of the passengers who displayed ill manners was much
more severe. The Doctor and the youths produced the keys of their
trunks and opened them before being asked to do so, and promptly an-
nounced the contents of the receptacles. They had nothing dutiable, and
in a very few minutes the ordeal was ended.
Frank made the following note about the Mexican custom-house:
Mexico is a land of high tariffs, and pretty nearly everything that
can be imported is taxed. Machinery was formerly imported free, but'it
is now subject to duty, and so is almost everything except agricultural and
scientific instruments and books. There is also a duty on packages apart
from their contents, and there is a heavy duty on all kinds of carriages.
Baggage for personal use is admitted free of duty, unless there is reason
THE MEXICAN CUSTOM-HOUSE.
to suspect that the owner has an intention to sell; two or three suits of
clothing will pass without question, but ten or twelve would be liable to
detention and duty. The laws require that the examination of bag-
gage shall be conducted liberally, and with prudence and moderation,'
and certainly we have no occasion to complain of discourtesy. In addi-
tion to clothing 'not excessive in quantity,' a traveller may have two
watches with their chains, a cane, an umbrella, one or two pistols with
equipment and cartridges, one hundred cigars, forty small packages of
cigarettes, a rifle or fowling-piece, one pound of smoking tobacco or snuff,
and any musical instruments in actual use except pianos and organs. When
AN OLD MEXICAN CHAPEL BY MOONLIGHT.
a resident of the United States crosses the Rio Grande into Mexican ter-
ritory with his own carriage he must pay the duties on the vehicle, or
give a bond for their payment in case he does not return to the United
"As the relations of the United States and Mexico increase in intima-
cy, it is probable that there will be a reciprocity treaty; negotiations to
that end have been going on for some time, but are delayed by the usual
'hitches' that arise in such matters. At the entrance of Mexican cities
there is an examination something like the octroi of European cities, but
so far as tourists are concerned it is very slight. They merely declare
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
that they have nothing dutiable, and are allowed to pass on. There is an
examination on leaving Mexico, as there is an export duty of five per cent.
on bullion, and a prohibition against taking antiquities from the country.
As a matter of fact, a good many antiquities are carried away, but as the
greater part of them are fictitious the restriction is not rigidly enforced.
VIEW IN NUEVO LAREDO.
"We have heard several stories about how the Mexican custom-house
is defrauded by the bribery of officials, but have no means of knowing if
they are true or false. Certainly we did not offer any money to the men
at the custom-house, and none of them intimated that he desired to be
bribed. If a quarter of the stories have any truth at all, there must be a
great deal of dishonesty along the frontier, but it is not confined to the
Pack-trains loaded with dutiable goods start openly from the fron-
tier towns of Texas, ford the river, and make their way into the interior
of Mexico. The trade is so large that it could hardly be carried on
without official connivance. The author of 'Mexico of To-day' says in
regard to this subject: Those well informed with regard to trade inter-
ests agree that a great deal of smuggling exists, owing to the high tariff
and the great frontier stretch that invites law-breakers. It'is said that
S ,It'll" L~
MEXICO FROM A PARLOR-CAR.
millions more of American goods find their way into Mexico than show
in the statistics prepared by either Government.'
"Another writer says: 'The traveller is permitted to. enter all his
personal apparel free of duty; in fact everything that he really needs.
A great many things he does not need may be taken in also, for the
official's pay is meagre and he loves to gaze on the portraits of Amer-
ican worthies as depicted on our national currency. It is well to caution
the traveller that he must, if requested, state to the proper authorities
his name and profession.' "
In due time the train rolled out of Nuevo Laredo, and our friends
were contemplating the scenery of northern Mexico. For the first fifty
or sixty miles there was not much to
contemplate, as the country consists
of a plain covered with chaparral, and
one mile of it is very much like any
other. "A little of it goes a great
ways," said Frank to Fred; and after
a brief study of the cactus and mes-
quite landscape, the youths turned to
their books or to observations upon the
train and the passengers accompany-
As stated elsewhere, the National Lli-
Railway is of three feet gauge, and
therefore it was to be expected that i _'
the cars would be narrow and possibly
inconvenient. But our friends found
them roomy and comfortable; there
was a parlor-car with reclining-chairs,
for which an extra price was charged, '-. J-
and sleeping-cars all the way from
SLaredo to the City of Mexico, just as WATCHING THE FRONTIER.
sleeping-cars are run on other lines.
The passengers included several tourists like themselves, a few railway
agents, some mysterious characters who could not be placed," and six or
eight men of business who cared nothing for scenery, politics, or anything
else pertaining to Mexico, except the facilities for commerce and the
duties upon imported goods. One of these individuals loudly denounced
the protective duties in the Mexican tariff system, and declared that the
country would never amount to anything until it abolished its restrictions
22 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
upon importations and opened its markets to the world. In the discus-
sion that followed, the fact was revealed that he was a citizen of the
United States, and interested in manufactures; concerning the tariff
system of his own country, he favored protection, as it encouraged
American industries and was the only system under which the people
who worked with their hands could make a living. Frank wanted to
LANDSCAPE NEAR THE BORDER.
ask him why he favored one system for Mexico and another for the
United States, but he modestly refrained from so doing; another passen-
ger asked the question, but it remained unanswered; and to this day the
youth has not been enlightened on the subject.
Among the passengers were several Mexicans, whose nationality was
readily shown by their swarthy complexions and the peculiarities of their
dress. They wore the sombrero, or wide-brimmed hat of the country, but
it may here be remarked that of late years the American hat has come
somewhat into fashion and is less unpopular than of yore. Some of them
proved to be naturalized Mexicans rather than native born; one in par-
ticular was a jolly Irishman who had been thirty years in Mexico, spoke
its language fluently, and had been so browned by the sun that his com-
plexion was fully up to the national standard. He joined Doctor Bron-
son and the youths in conversation, and cordially invited them to make a
break in their journey and visit his hacienda.
He had a Mexican wife, and was the owner of a large area of land,
on which he had so many cattle that he was unable to give their num-
ber within two or three hundred. He said he came from Ireland to
DRESS OF A HACIENDADO.
the United States, drifted down to the frontier of Mexico just before
the American Civil War, and in order to avoid being mixed up in the
troubles, he crossed the boundary and sought shelter under a neutral flag.
There he had remained and prospered
to such an extent that he had no wish
to return either to the United States
or his native land.
Fred made note of the dress of a
haciendado, or ranch-owner, who was
seated near him and might fairly be
taken as the type of the dandy horse-
man of Mexico. The man wore a
suit of dark blue or blue-black cloth,
the suit consisting of two garments,
a jacket and trousers. The jacket
was short and well fitted, and it was
ornamented with large buttons of sil- -
ver; the trousers were close-fitting, -'' .
and on the outer seams were rows -
of silver buttons smaller than those ..
that decorated the jacket. The feet A MEXICAN MULETEER.
were incased in top-boots with high
heels, and each boot carried a large spur of solid silver; the spur is a
cruel weapon, with long rowels upon wheels as large as a half-dollar. The
man's jacket was open in front, display-
ing a frilled or ruffled shirt, white as
snow, and connected to the trousers at
the waist by a faja, or sash, whose pre-
.. dominating color was red. The Mexi-
cans are fond of gaudy colors, and the
S. taste for them runs through all classes
of the population. Though it was not
worn in the railway-train, we must not
forget the serape, or Mexican blanket,
which is carried over the shoulders or
on the arm, or in the case of a mounted
A SOLID SILVER SPUR. horseman, is thrown across the front of
The sombrero of this haciendado was of a light gray color; the head-
covering may be of almost any color under the sun, but the preference is
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
nearly always for something bright. The crown may be rounded off
like'the large end of an egg, or form a truncated cone, like the crown of
the hat worn by the Puritans, and it is encircled by three or four turns of
silver or gold cord. Gold or silver trimming around the brim completes
the ornamentation; altogether there is considerable weight to the Mexi-
can sombrero, but nobody seems to mind it.
At the stations where the train halted from time to time, the travel-
lers obtained glimpses of men and things peculiar to the country. Horse-
men were in goodly proportion, as no Mexican who can afford a horse
will be without one; and sometimes when he cannot afford it, he manages
to possess the steed of his desires by the simple process of stealing it.
Wagons and pack-trains were not infrequent; and one of the picturesque
spectacles in connection with them was the muleteers, or mule-drivers,
who were almost invariably barefooted, wore but little clothing, and car-
ried the ropes and other apparatus needed for their professions in bags
slung over their shoulders or hung at their sides. Some of the stations
were frail buildings of wood, while others were of the adobe, or sun-dried
brick, the favorite construction material of Mexico and the countries that
once belonged to her.
Fred was interested in the adobe, and learned on inquiry that its use
is a matter of great antiquity. The Mexican Indians made sun-dried
bricks long before Columbus discovered America, and it should be borne
in mind that some of the pyramids of Egypt, which have stood for thou-
sands of years, were of the same material. The bricks that the Egyptians
compelled the Israelites to make without straw were dried in the sun, and
therefore identical with the Mexican adobe.
Fred asked his Irish-Mexican acquaintance how an adobe house was
made, and the gentleman kindly explained.
"An adobe house," said he, "costs very little, and it is warmer in
winter and cooler in summer than either wood or brick. It will last as
long as anybody can want it to. I know some adobe houses that are said
to be a hundred years old, and many that have stood twenty or thirty
years without any sign of decaying.
"Adobe bricks are made of one-third clay-dust and two-thirds fine
sand, and it takes four men to form a brick-making team. One mixes
the mass with a little water so as to form it into a heavy mortar, two
men carry it in a hand-barrow to the place where the bricks are to be
spread out and dried, and the fourth man shapes the bricks in the mould.
After drying somewhat while flat on the ground, which has been pre-
viously levelled and made smooth as a floor, the adobes are set up edge-
ADOBE AND MANANA.
wise, and stay so until the sun finishes them completely. They are laid in
mortar made from mud; and when a wall is two feet high, the work stops
for a week, to allow the mortar to be firmly set before putting more press-
ure on it. When a week has passed, another height of two feet may be
laid, and so the work goes on until the building is finished. Then it must
wait a week before the roof is put on. You see, it takes time for building
an adobe house; but time is of no consequence in the land of ma ana."
"What is the meaning of manana one of the youths asked.
"It means 'to-morrow,'" was the reply; "and as you go through
Mexico you will hear the word in constant use. Ask a Mexican when he
will do anything-pay a bill, return the horse he borrowed, build a sheep-
pen or a corral for his cattle, get married, buy a new saddle, in fact do
-. -- .- -__-- -. : _
A GROUP OF ADOBE HOUSES.
anything that can be done-his answer is, 'Mafiana.' Mexico is the land
of manlana, and the habit of procrastination is exasperating to a man of
any other nationality. You'll get used to it in time, but it takes a long
while to do so. It wouldn't be so bad if the man literally meant what
he said, and when to-morrow comes would do as he promised. The
word is used like the coming, sir' of the English waiter, or the 'tout de
suite' of the French one, and means 'next week,' or next year,' or more
properly an indefinite time in the future."
There's another word, or rather two words, where the meaning is
identical with manana, and the use the same. You'll hear them often in
Mexico, but more frequently in Central America and farther south."
Mexie%, but more frequently in Central America and farther south."
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
"What are they ?"
"Poco tiempo," was the reply; "the literal meaning is 'in a little while,'
but the practical usage is the same as that of mafiana. Then there's an-
other lesson in language you may have gratis; ask a man any question
THE LAND OF MANANA.
for which he does not know the answer, and his response will be, 'Quien
sabe (who knows ?). It is less exasperating than the other words I've
told you of, as it is simply a form of saying 'I don't know.'"
The youths made proper acknowledgment for the instruction they had
received, and took good care to remember it.
The dreary plain ceased at length, and the mountains began to be visi-
ble. About seventy-five miles from Laredo Frank's attention was called
to a mesa, or high table-land, a little beyond the station of Lampasas. It
is a mountain which spreads out flat like a table, and the area on the top
is said to be not far from 80,000 acres; its sides are 1400 feet high, and so
nearly perpendicular that it is impossible to ascend them, except in a few
places. There is a path three miles long leading to the summit; it is
impassable for wheeled vehicles, and can only be traversed by sure-footed
FROM LAMPASAS TO MONTEREY.
quadrupeds or men. It is called the Mesa de los Cart'janos (Carthusians),
a tribe of Indians who probably derived their name from a Benedictine
monastery which was once established there. The mesa is well watered,
and its surface is divided between forest and grass-land in such proportion
as to make it an excellent pasture. No fences are needed beyond a single
gate at the top of the path to keep the cattle from straying into the coun-
try below, unless we include the division fences for the separation of
From Lampasas to Monterey the country improved greatly, and for a
hundred miles or so the train wound through a valley where the scenery
was almost constantly picturesque, and the land showed signs of agricult-
ure and stock-raising. Near one of the stations the boys caught sight of
a threshing-floor, where horses were driven around in a circle to tread out
the grain With their hoofs. This is the primitive mode of threshing, to
which reference is made in the Bible; it is still in use in various parts
of southern Europe and also in Asia and northern Africa. The Ameri-
can invasion of Mexico will doubtless introduce the threshing-machine; in
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
fact the machine has already been introduced, and many of the raisers of
wheat on a large scale have adopted it.
In the cultivated districts many fruit-trees were seen, and Fred made
note of the fact that the orchards produced figs, pomegranates, lemons,
oranges, aguacates, and chirimoyas, in addition to most of the fruits of the
temperate zones. He learned that the State of Nuevo Leon, which they
were then traversing, produced tobacco, sugar, Indian-corn, wheat, Mexican
hemp, and similar things, and contained a million dollars' worth of cattle
and horses. It elevation is from 1000 to 2300 feet above the level of the
sea, and its climate ranks as temperate or semi-tropical.
Lampasas is said to be a great resort for smugglers, who carry on a
regular business, with comparatively little disturbance by the authorities.
Probably the railway has interfered with them, and they can hardly be
expected to look upon it with a kindly eye. About thirty miles beyond
Lampasas is Bustamente, a town founded two hundred years ago by the
Spaniards as a frontier post against the Indians of the north, and now the
seat of a manufacturing interest that promises to increase. The cloth of
Bustamente has a high reputation throughout Mexico, and the town con-
tains a tribe of Indians descended from the Tlascalans, who helped Cortez
to conquer the Aztecs.and make Guatemozin a prisoner.
As the train approached Monterey, about four o'clock in the afternoon,
a mountain shaped like a saddle was pointed out on the left of the line.
" What do you suppose is the name of that mountain ?" said the gentle-
man who called attention to it, while the eyes of Frank and Fred were
turned in its direction.
"I don't know, I'm sure," said Fred; "perhaps they named it for its
shape, and call it Saddle Mountain."
"That's exactly what it is," was the reply; "it is called La Silla, or
The Saddle, and is a prominent landmark around Monterey."
Then the gentleman pointed to a mountain on the right which he said
was called Cerro de la JIitra (Mountain of the Mitre), from its resemblance
to the mitre worn by a bishop. Then between them, and farther away, he
pointed out the chain of the Sierras, and the youths realized that they
were in a region of mountains.
The train wound through a cleft in the hills, and came to a halt at the
station of Monterey, a mile and a half from the city. It is proper to re-
mark that most of the towns and cities of Mexico require the railways to
stop outside the walls or limits, but for what especial reason, unless to
give occupation to the inhabitants in transporting passengers, baggage,
and freight, our young friends were unable to ascertain. The custom is
HINDERANCES TO BUSINESS IN MEXICO.
Spanish as well as Mexican, as the traveller in Spain will vividly re-
There is a good supply of cabs and omnibuses at the station, and there
is a horse-railway connecting the city and the railway-station, so that trav-
ellers have a choice of conveyances. The horse-railway was built by an
American, who obtained a concession from the Government and thought
he was making a wonderfully profitable investment. But the local author-
ities hampered him with many restrictions; they compelled him to carry
a policeman on every car, and the policeman generally took the side of
those who did not pay their fare. It was fashionable to ride in the cars,
but not fashionable to pay, or, at any rate, it was optional to pay or not.
_-_ ___ '- "*- '7 .. ..
SADDLE MOUNTAIN, MONTEREY.
A good many foreigners who have settled in Mexico complain that
their enterprises are seriously interfered with by the authorities, national,
State, and local. Every town and village, according to the old Spanish
law and custom, has the right to levy tolls or taxes on everything that
passes through it, and on all business conducted within its limits. Then
the State or district can levy a tax, and the national government comes
in for a levy of its own in addition. The result is that every enterprise is
liable to be "taxed to death," and many a man who has carried money
to Mexico to engage in what promised to be a profitable business has left
it behind him in the hands of the various authorities. Taxes, forced
loans, and various expenses that can never be foreseen swallow up all the
profits and altogether too often the original investment. Very few silver-
mines in Mexico pay dividends to their stockholders, and the few that
are worth owning have no stock for sale. The American saying that "it
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
VIEW OF THE SIERRAS.
takes a gold-mine to work a silver-mine" is as true of Mexico as of any
Our friends went to the Hotel Hidalgo, and found it endurable; it
had been recommended by one of their fellow-passengers on the train,
who showed his good faith in his recommendation by accompanying them
thither. Immediately after securing rooms and completing arrangements
for their stay, the party started for a drive around the city, which boasts
an age of more than three hundred years, having been founded in 1560,
though it did not receive its present name until 1596.
Monterey means "king mountain," or "mountain of the king," and
the name of the city was given in honor of Don Gaspar de Zuniga, Conde
de Monterey, who was Viceroy of Mexico in 1596. The name given to
the settlement in 1560 was Santa Lucia; a little stream which crosses the
city from west to east preserves the original appellation, but comparatively
few of the inhabitants are aware of its origin.
THE STREETS OF MONTEREY.
THE AMERICAN INVASION OF TO-DAY.-MONTEREY AS A HEALTH RESORT; ITS
SITE AND SURROUNDINGS.-THE CATHEDRAL AND OTHER PUBLIC BUILDINGS.
-CAPTURE OF MONTEREY BY GENERAL TAYLOR.-SHORT HISTORY OF THE
MEXICAN WAR.-FROM CORPUS CHRISTI TO MONTEREY.-THE ATTACK ON THE
CITY.-CAPTURE OF THE FORTS AND THE BISHOP'S PALACE.-FRANK RECITES
A POEM.-LIEUT. U. S. GRANT AND WHAT HE DID AT MONTEREY.-A STORY
ABOUT JEFFERSON DAVIS.-HOW JOHN PHOENIX ESCAPED CASHIERING.-SIGHTS
OF THE CITY.-THE MARKET-PLACE AND WHAT WAS SEEN THERE.-FRUITS,
BIRDS, POTTERY, ETC.-IN A MONTEREY HOUSE.-A PALATIAL RESIDENCE.
THE first opportunity to see a Mexican city was afforded to our friends
at Monterey, and they fully enjoyed it. Every walk along the streets
and every drive in the city and its vicinity was full of interest, and there
was little that escaped their observation. Being the most northern city of
;^ .< ----2|W ^ ^ /2^ .
VIEW OF MONTEREY.
Mexico, Monterey has been much invaded by Americans during the last
decade, and many citizens of the United States are established there in
various lines of business.
The city has been extensively advertised as a health resort, and consid-
erable numbers of invalids have gone there; a fair proportion of them
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
have breathed their last in Monterey or its neighborhood, but the same
may be said of many other health resorts in different parts of the world.
For the present, invalids would do well to think twice before going to
Monterey or any other part of Mexico in the hope of recovering their
health, as the accommodations for them are hardly such as they require.
: .. -
.: .-. ,. _' ..
THE PLAZA DE ZARAGOZA.
A Mexican hotel may do well enough for a vigorous man, but it is ill-
suited to one who should be shielded from draughts, needs to sit in front
of a comfortable fire, and has a dread of damp walls and similar adver-
sities. The cooking is suited to robust stomachs rather than to delicate
ones, and the attendance leaves much to be desired.
Monterey is built in a plain surrounded by mountains, and the ground
on which it stands is somewhat broken or undulating in places. It has a
population of about forty thousand, and is said to be increasing every
year, in consequence of the impulse which the opening of the railway has
given it. Our friends visited the Ojo de Agua, a great spring that opens
in the centre of the city, and furnishes a copious supply of water; then
they went to the Plaza Mayor, a pretty garden, with an interesting fount-
ain in its centre; then to the Plaza de Zaragoza; and then to the cathe-
dral, which looks upon it, and has the Church of San Francisco as a near
neighbor. The church is the oldest religious edifice in the city. It is
said to have been founded in 1560, and though there is some obscurity
about the exact date, it is pretty certain to owe its beginning to the six-
-I e~-- -g1-I
-L=-L-~r 9 -'pE--.s.. -~-- C
0 ~IdI t.I- C
H~Si .L \%
GENERAL TAYLOR'S ATTACK ON MONTEIREY, SEPTEMBER 21, 1846.
34 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
teenth century. But of the old structure only the foundations remain,
the present building having been erected about 1730, and it has under-
gone alterations at various periods since that time.
The cathedral is quite modern. It was dedicated in 1833, and at the
time of its dedication had been about thirty years in process of erection.
The walls are very thick, and its constructors must have possessed the gift
of foresight, and had in mind its possible uses for war purposes, as it was
converted into a powder-magazine at the time of General Taylor's attack
in 1846. Shot and shell fell thickly around it, but the massive walls pre-
served it from destruction or serious injury, and saved its contents frolA
being blown up. The original site selected for the cathedral was at the
north of the city, and work was begun upon it, but the place was aban-
doned for the present one. A fort was erected on the abandoned site,
and it was one of the chief obstacles to the capture of the city by the
Frank and Fred were especially interested in the war history of Mon-
terey; and as soon as the inspection of the Plaza Mayor and the edifices
around it had been completed, they asked to be taken to the scene of tlhe
fighting between the American and Mexican armies. Their guide took
them first to the bridge of the Purisima, in the north-eastern quarter cf
the city, where there was a sharp battle, in which the Mexicans success-
fully resisted the Americans, and then to the old citadel-the fort already
mentioned. It is now in a ruinous condition, and is generally spoken of
as "the Black Fort."
On the way to the citadel, Doctor Bronson tested the knowledge of
the youths concerning the events which made Monterey's name so well
known in the United States. In reply to his questions, Frank and Fred
alternated with each other in telling the following, Frank being the first
"General Taylor's army landed at Corpus Christi, in Texas, and
marched from there to Matamoras, on the Rio Grande, early in 1846.
Before crossing the Rio Grande they fought two battles-that of Palo
Alto on the 8th of May, and the battle of Resaca de la Palma on the
following day. General Taylor defeated the Mexicans in both battles,
though his army was much smaller than theirs, the Mexicans having
about 6000 men and the Americans 3000. After capturing Matamoras
he advanced into northern Mexico. On the Rio Grande he had been
joined by a reinforcement of troops, and when he came in front of
Monterey he had between six and seven thousand men."
"Yes," said Fred, "the historians say he had 6645 officers and men
TWO INVASIONS OF MEXICO. 35
-L .-.-r ,tS~*
!,l t,,:,.;t ', :, n.l I .i t t i ,e M ,..- ,i, III
Ampudia contained fully lu,uuu
You have evidently been THE BISIOP'S PALACE.
studying the History of the Mex-
ican War very carefully," the Doctor remarked, as the youths paused.
"We've tried to, certainly," responded Fred, "as we believe we ought
to know what the relations have been between this country and ours,
in order to understand intelligently what we see. If we study to-day
the peaceful invasion of Mexico, we ought to know about the warlike
.L.,:. .m '
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN. MEXICO.
Doctor Bronson nodded assent to this view, and the story of the war
"General Taylor came in sight of Monterey on September 20th," said
Frank, "and immediately rode forward till he was within range of one of
the forts. A cannon was fired upon the group of officers that surrounded
the general, and immediately the army was ordered to advance and form
a camp opposite the city, but far enough away from the forts to be out of
range of the cannon.
"The battle began the next morning, the 21st, the city being attacked
on the west by a division commanded by General Worth, whose monu-
ment stands in front of Madison Square, in New York, and on the west
THE CAPTURE OF MONTEREY.
by the rest of the army under General Taylor. The Americans had no
artillery heavier than six-pounders, while the Mexicans had their forts
filled with large cannon; and they had a strong force of cavalry, while the
Americans had a very small one. The forts were attacked first, and one
after the other they were taken, till the only remaining one outside the
city was the Bishop's Palace, as it was called, though it was really a fort,
as we shall see when we get to it.
"Partly by means of a cannon that was dragged up a hill which conm-
manded the Bishop's Palace, and partly by an attack of the infantry, the
place was captured, and our flag was over all the heights that overlooked
the city. It had taken two days to accomplish this, and a great many of
our soldiers had fallen, but the army had no idea of giving up the attack;
and when they had possession of the heights, they felt as sure of the vic-
tory as though it was already won.
"On the morning of the 23d of September, the third day of the battle,
a fire was opened on the city from the Bishop's Palace on the west, and
from two forts on the east, and at the same time the troops on each side
of the city began to force their way inside towards the Gran Plaza, in the
centre. The Mexicans fought desperately, and swept the streets with such
Sa fire of musketry that our men had to take shelter in the houses and cut
their way from house to house towards the Gran Plaza. It was slow work,
Sand when night came the troops had still two blocks to cut through before
getting to the plaza. They were getting ready for work early the next
morning when a flag of truce came from General Ampudia, and the city
What was the loss of the Americans in the battle ?" queried Doctor
Bronson, as Frank paused.
"They lost 158 killed, and 368 wounded," answered Fred, "and the
Mexican loss was said to be fully one thousand."
"And to what was the disparity of the losses attributed ?"
"It was thought," said Fred, "at least so I read in the account pub-
lished at that time, that the Western and South-western men who fought
under General Taylor were better marksmen than the Mexicans. The
STexas riflemen in particular were famous for their skill in shooting, and
their weapons were better than those of their enemies."
"You've made a very good short history of the capture of Monterey,"
said the Doctor, "and must write it down for the benefit of your friends
The youths followed this bit of practical advice, and we are permitted
to publish their story.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
By the time the talk about the war was ended the party had reached
the citadel, which they visited with interest, and then proceeded to tle
Bishop's Palace, now occupied as a military barrack, and in a bad state of
repair. While they stood looking down upon the city and the grassy and
bushy slope of the hill, Frank recited the following piece of verse, which
was written by Charles Fenno IIoffman shortly after the stirring event
commemorated in the lines:
"We were not many-we who stood
Before the iron sleet that day;
Yet many a gallant spirit would
Give half his years, if he but could
Have been with us at Monterey.
"Now here, now there, the shot it hailed
In deadly drifts of fiery spray;
Yet not a single soldier quailed
SWhen wounded comrades round them wailed
Their dying shouts at Monterey.
"And on, still on, our columns kept,
Through walls of flame, its withering way;
Where fell the dead, the living stept,
Still charging on the guns that swept
The slippery streets of Monterey.
"The foe himself recoiled aghast
When, striking where he strongest lay,
We swooped his Hfanking batteries past,
And, braving full their murderous blast,
Stormed home the towers of Monterey.
Our banners on those turrets wave,
And there our evening bugles play,
Where orange-boughs above their grave
Keep green the memory of the brave
Who fought and fell at Monterey.
We were not many-we who pressed
Beside the brave who fell that day;
But who of us hath not confessed
He'd rather share their warrior rest
Than not have been at Monterey ?"
"There is one thing we must mention in our account of the battle,"
said Fred, as they were returning from the Bishop's Palace to the city.
What is that ?" Frank asked.
"Why, we must say that there was a young officer here named IT. S.
Grant; he was a second lieutenant of the Fourth Infantry, and was one of
LIEUT. U. S. GRANT.
those who charged up the side of the hill to the Bishop's Palace. He after-
wards became General Grant, whom all the world knows of, and whose
name will be remembered in America for all time."
"I didn't think of that when I was talking about the battle," Frank
answered, but I remember it all now. And I have read in one of the
books on Mexico that lie was offered promotion for his conduct in the
battle, but declined it because another man was promoted at the same
time. In declining the offer he said, 'If Lieutenant deserves promo-
tion I do not.'"
"And there's another thing that needs explanation," continued the
youth, "and that is the uniform of the officers and soldiers of our army in
OFFICERS' UNIFORMS IN 1S60.
the pictures of the battles in Mexico. It is quite unlike the uniform worn
in the Civil War fifteen years later, and now in use."
"I will explain that," said the Doctor, and he did so in these words:
"After peace had been declared and our army returned from Mexico,
the War Department realized that there were certain features of the uni-
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
form and equipment of the men that might be changed to advantage. No
action was taken in the matter until Jefferson Davis was Secretary of
War, between 1853 and 1857; and I will here remark that Jefferson Davis
commanded a regiment of Mississippi Volunteers during the Mexican
War, and fought in this very battle of Monterey we have just been talk-
ing about. Well, Mr. Davis sent a circular letter to the officers of the
army, stating that changes were contemplated, and asking for suggestions
from them, and the inducement was held out that those who -i..-ti..1
changes which were adopted would be liberally compensated.
"One of the circulars was received by Lieut. George H. Derby, who
afterwards obtained considerable literary reputation as 'John Phenix.'
Derby was a born humorist, and generally saw the ludicrous side of a sub-
ject before anything else. In a short time after receiving the circular he
sent a variety of suggestions to the Department which were very funny, to
say the least.
"IHe designed a hat which, in addition to covering the head, could be
used as a camp-kettle, a water-bucket, and a feed-bag for a horse, and with
the design for the article, which was to be made of sheet-iron, there was a
picture representing it applied to each of its proposed uses.
"Instead of the shoulder cross-belts, he proposed that the soldier should
have a leather belt around his waist, and to this belt should be attached a
stout hook with a shank six inches long, and the point of the hook stand-
ing outward from the man's back. On this hook the soldier could hang
his knapsack or equipment when on the march. He could be harnessed
by means of it so as to drag a wagon or a cannon; and in an assault on a
fortress he could be made to drag a scaling-ladder up the walls by means
of this hook. Derby also proposed that the officers should be provided
with poles like rake-handles, ten or twelve feet long, with rings at one end,
and if a soldier should try to run away in battle he could be dragged back
to duty by means of the hook.
"Derby was skilful with the pencil, and he sent a sketch of a battle-field
in which the various uses of' the hook were depicted. To say that Jeffer-
son Davis was angry when he read the letter is to put the case mildly; he
turned red and blue with rage, and took the document to a cabinet meet-
ing that was being held on the afternoon of the day he received Derby's
communication. The members of the cabinet laughed over the sug-
gestions and pictures, and when Davis declared he would have Derby
cashiered for disrespect to the Secretary of War, they advised him to say
nothing. 'If the story gets out,' said one of them, 'you'll be the laugh-
ing-stock of the country from one end to the other, and will never hear the
LIEUT. DERBY AND JEFFERSON DAVIS.
MOUNTAIN SCENE NEAR MONTEREY.
end of it. And, besides, there's some originality about the man, and he
may yet send something that will be really useful.'
"Mr. Davis cooled down, and the story didn't come out until years
afterwards. The result of the recommendations of various officers of the
army was that the old 'bellows-top' cap disappeared, and so did other
features of the soldier's uniform and equipment. That is why the picture
of the battle of Monterey is so unlike that of any of the battles of the
Civil War, so far as the uniforms of officers and men are concerned."
The youths had a hearty laugh over the story of Lieutenant Derby's
suggestions. Frank thought they were too good to be lost, and he decided
to write them down at the first opportunity.
On their return to the city the party visited the Alameda, which forms
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
a very pretty promenade and is well shaded with trees, though Frank
thought it appeared in rather a neglected condition. Then they drove to
the hot springs at Topo Chico, about three miles out from the city in a
northerly direction, and indulged in the luxury of a hot bath in natural
water. The manager of the establishment said that the baths had a tem-
perature of 106 degrees Fahrenheit, and possessed a high reputation fcr
THE ALAMEDA, MONTEREY,
curing nervous, rheumatic, and other diseases. The arrangements for bathl-
ing were formerly very poor, but a new bath-house was erected in 1887,
and resulted in a great increase of patronage.
Of course a visit was paid to the market-place, and the novelties of the
spot received due attention. The most interesting features were the fruit
and flower markets. Doctor Bronson told the youths that the Indians of
Mexico had a passionate fondness for flowers long before the arrival of
their Spanish conquerors, and it continues to the present time. There
was a fine display of flowers, and the prices were so low that Frank and
Fred regretted that they did not know some fair ones to whom they could
send baskets and bouquets. Determined to do something by way of
patronizing the flower-sellers, they bought a quantity of flowers and sent
them to a hospital which their guide pointed out. "They may serve to
cheer some poor invalid," said Frank, "and the market is so attractive
that I want to encourage the trade."
The semi-tropical character of Monterey was shown by the fruits,
which seemed to comprise the principal products of two zones, the tropi-
THE MARKET OF MONTEREY.
-cal and the temperate. There were all the fruits named in the last chap-
ter as growing in the region. near Lampasas, together with three or four
others. Monterey is situated 1800 feet above the level of the sea, so that
it is cooler than other places in the same latitude but at a lower elevation.
Some of the fruits sold in the market of the city were not grown in the
immediate neighborhood, but in the lower regions to the eastward.
Fred called Frank's attention to the bird-sellers with their wares in
large wooden cages, evidently of home construction. The canary seems
to have spread pretty well over the world; his singing powers have made
him welcome everywhere he goes, and our young friends were not at all
surprised to find him in the market of Monterey. Several other varieties
of singing-birds were displayed, and the prices which were asked for them
seemed very low; but the Doctor whispered to the youths that if they
bought anything in the market they should not offer more than a quarter
of what was demanded, and gradually advance their figures to a half or
possibly three-fourths. In a country where time is of no value every-
body who has anything to sell expects to haggle about the price.
Some of the pottery in the market was so good that the boys consulted
Doctor Bronson as to the advisability of sending home a few specimens
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
of it. The Doctor checked their enthusiasm by reminding them that they
were just then at the beginning of their journey, and it would be prudent
to delay purchases until reaching the capital. A few jars and pots were
selected and bargained for, more by way of practice in the language and
customs than for any other purpose,
and they were left with an Amer-
ican merchant, who undertook to
ship them to New York. They
'were all of Indian workmanship,
S i the best-having come, so the deal-
S.' er said, from Guadalajara. Mexi-
can pottery deserves a higher rank
among ceramics than it has hith-
erto enjoyed, and some of the
\ handiwork of the descendants of
Sthe Aztecs would be worthy of
admiration in any collection.
There were scores and scores of
Patient mules standing with droop-
ing ears and waiting for their bur-
/,- C- dens to be removed. They were
,,l'' laden with everything that an in-
habitant of Monterey could want
A SCENE XI THE MARKET. to buy-milk, vegetables, fruits,
fuel, hides, sugar, beans, wheat,
iron-work, in fact anything and everything that has a place in a market.
Donkeys are the beasts of burden at Monterey, and almost in the same
category belong the cargadores, or porters, who are licensed and numbered
exactly like cabs or drays in an American city. These men are identical
with the Turkish hamals; they carry heavy burdens'with apparent ease,
and it is no uncommon sight to see one of them slowly creeping along
with a piano, an iron safe, or a barrel of wine on his back, or a lighter
burden on his head in the same way that the negro carries it. A gentle-
man who was stopping at the hotel said he had known a cargador to
transport a safe weighing six hundred pounds without any apparent suf-
fering a distance of half a mile without stopping to rest.
But the donkeys and cargadores do not have a monopoly of the local
carrying trade, as there are great numbers of carts drawn by oxen, that
have come in from the country with loads of produce seeking a market.
These carts are of rude construction, and their axles are rarely, if ever,
A COURT-YARD IN MONTEREY.
greased. They creak and groan in a manner that falls unpleasantly on
the ear and often suggests that the vehicles are animated beings suffering
beneath their burdens and endeavoring to make their grief known. And
this reminds us of something which Fred remarked to Frank when the
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
latter was wondering how the Mexicans could endure such a continued
complaint of the axles of their carts.
"I've been thinking of the same thing," was the reply, especially
as the Mexicans are opprobriously termed 'greasers' by the people of
Texas and the South-west generally. It's a sort of lucus d non lucendo,
that appellation of greaser, at
least so far as their cart-axles are
i After seeing the market, they
i.-' strolled along some of the nar-
'' row streets, which appeared
*rtil' '&'jI Egloomy enough, with their long
Stretches of masonry, broken
only here and there with a
... grated window or a balcony
S which seemed to be a part of a
prison, so heavily was it barred
,'_ i with iron. Some of the larger
JI,1 'I and finer buildings have hand-
some windows, whose design
i "' i was evidently brought from Old
S. Spain, and in turn obtained from
; i the MAoors. Our friends were
invited to a house which had
formerly belonged to one of the
i__ ',lltlrl Spanish residents, but is now the
Ir l'.1 i't.r of an American merchant. Fred
-; Lil:- a;ll tiie better class of houses in Monte-
S.---v. tl his,. one iis l.ilt in the form of a hollow square.
Ti -._ ty le:.t architecturee was brought from Spain
by the conquerors of the country, and it reminded
A WINDOW IN MONTEREY. us of houses in Damascus and other cities of the
Oriental world. The square encloses a patio, or
court-yard, and the rooms of the lower story open on the patio; there is a
colonnade surrounding the yard, and it is freely ornamented with tropical
plants and flowers, so that you seem at first glance to have entered a con-
servatory. Vines climb around most of the columns of the colonnade, and
in the.centre is a well in which hangs, not the 'old oaken bucket' made
famous in song, but an equally substantial bucket of leather. The water
A PALATIAL RESIDENCE.
drawn from the well is cool and sweet, and from the length of the rope it
is evident that the excavation goes down to a great depth. Monterey is
abundantly supplied with water, and in this respect as well as in the ap-
pearance of some of the interiors of the houses, it is entitled to be called
the Damascus of Mexico.
"There is one house in Monterey, the residence of Don Patricio Milmo,
which has a double-arched court-yard and gallery, and is most liberally sup-
plied with plants and flowers, among which a botanist would enjoy himself
for many hours, and an ordinary mortal with no scientific knowledge need
not be far behind him. There are some very pretty marbles in the neigh-
borhood of Monterey, and they have been liberally used in the ornamenta-
tion of this and other houses. Don Patricio is a wealthy banker, and the
owner of an immense area of land in Nuevo Leon, including much of the
building-ground in and around Monterey."
VIEW OF SIERRAS FROM BISHOP'S PALACE.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
SOUTHWARD TO SALTILLO.-SANTA CATERINA.-REMARKABLE CAVES.-SCENERY
OF THE SIERRA MADRE.-WAY-SIDE ATTRACTIONS.-THE CACTUS; ITS FLOWERS
AND MANY VARIETIES.-SALTILLO.-THE ALAMEDA.-MEXICAN CURRENCY.-
THE BATTLE-FIELD OF BUENA VISTA.-BY CARRIAGE AND SADDLE.-A NIGHT
AT A HACIENDA.-MEXICAN COOKERY.-TORTILLAS, PUCHERO, FRIJOLES, TA-
MALES, AND OTHER EDIBLES.-HISTORY OF THE MEXICAN WAR FROM MONTE-
REY TO BUENA VISTA.-5,000 AMERICANS DEFEAT 20,000 MEXICANS.-DESCRIP-
TION OF THE FIELD.-COTTON FACTORY AT SALTILLO.-COTTON MANUFACTURES
O N resuming their journey through Mexico, Doctor Bronson and his
young companions proceeded by the railway southward to Saltillo,
sixty-seven miles from Monterey.
As they passed Santa Caterina, eight or ten miles beyond Monterey,
one of their fellow-passengers told them that there were some interesting
caves not very far from the station, and also near Garcia, thirteen miles
farther on. A remarkable hole in the mountain near Santa Caterina was
pointed out by the same gentleman, but in spite of his voluble account of
the attractive features of a journey there, they did not consent to stop for
the excursion.' They also decided to allow the caves of Garcia to take care
of themselves, much to the disappointment of their informant.
The beauty of the scenery along the railway, almost from the very mo-
ment of leaving Monterey, kept their eyes busy on both sides of the train.
The railway for some distance follows the San Juan Valley, which dimin-
ishes in width as it ascends. The labored puffing of the locomotive told
that the grade was a steep one, and it was evident that the engine was ex-
erting all its powers. On most trains two locomotives are required, and
an extra one is always added unless the number of carriages is small and
their cargoes are light.
The scenery of the Sierra Madre is remarkably fine, and surpassed by
that of very few railway routes in the world. Frank compared it to that
of the Brenner or Semmering passes of the Alps, and Fred said he was re-
minded of the Blue Mountains in Australia, and the route traversed by the
railway between Colombo and Kandy, in Ceylon. But they agreed that it
A RIDE AMONG THE MOUNTAINS. 49
differed in some respects from all these routes, and had a beauty and gran-
deur of its own, just as did each of the places they had mentioned. On
each side of the valley the mountains rose very steeply, and in many places
they were nearly, if not quite, perpendicular. The rocks were of various
shades, in which red had a prominent place, and on the steepest part of
the slopes there was no place where vegetation could cling.
-- ,. -- -, .
SANTA CATERINA, NEAR MONTEREY.
The best of the scenery was in the neighborhood of Garcia; beyond
that point it became less grand, as the mountains were farther away in
the widening valley, and the steep cliffs were less numerous. But the
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
ascent was steady, and brought the train to the plateau and to a much
higher elevation than that of Monterey. Monterey, as before stated, is
1800 feet above sea-level; Saltillo is at an elevation of 5200 feet, and con-
sequently the railway ascends 3400 feet in passing from the former to the
THE ORGAN CACTUS.
The old route of the diligence before the railway was built afforded an
exciting ride from San Gregario to Rinconada, as the descent was very
rapid and the coach went down the incline with great rapidity. At one
turn in the road there was a point where a misstep would have sent the
whole conveyance down a precipitous slope of a thousand feet into the
valley below. A thoughtful American who travelled that route years ago
regarded the possibilities of such a slide, and estimated that the diligence,
passengers and all, would be worth not more than nineteen cents a bushel
after making the descent into the yawning gulf.
Frank and Fred wished they could gather some of the bright cactus-
flowers which abounded along the route. There are many varieties of
cactus in Mexico; in fact the country may be said to be the land of the
cacti. Botanists have described more than sixty species; they vary in
height and size-from the little plant hardly larger than a spray of clover
THE CACTUS FAMILY.
up to the gigantic growths that rise more than thirty feet above the
ground. The flowers run from pure white to a deep scarlet and purple,
and some of the flowers are of great beauty. A peculiarity of the cactus
is that it thrives best in poor soils, and on a great part of the ground
where it grows few other vegetable products could maintain an existence.
The largest of the cactus family is scientifically known as the Candela-
brunm, but the Mexicans call it the Organo, or organ; it grows in straight
hexagonal columns, and when many of these columns are clustered to-
gether it bears quite a resemblance to a church organ with its pipes. One
variety of cactus nourishes the cochineal insect; another is used for hedges,
and owing to the sharp spines for which the plant is noted, it forms an im-
pervious barrier to man or quadruped. The cactus generally has inside
its flower a mass of edible substance, and in some localities this cactus-
fruit is collected and sold in the markets.
The cactus plant is not wholly inedible, as the donkeys of Mexico feed
on some of them, and the goat will also make a meal of the leaves and
stalks. But this is not to be wondered at when it is borne in mind that
the goat is popularly credited with
dining upon tomato-cans, scraps of
tin, old boots, newspapers, umbrellas,
and other articles not ordinarily in-
cluded among esculents. Of late i
years the cactus has been found use- i I ii' -
ful for paper-making, and thousands ,-
of tons of it are annually converted l' "' -'
into paper fibre. w i-.
A little past eight o'clock in the -
evening the train rolled into Saltil-
lo, a city containing from fifteen to
twenty thousand inhabitants, the cap- VARIETIES OF CACTUS.
ital of the State of Cohahuila, and for
some years the terminus of the National Railway. There are several
cotton factories at Saltillo or in its immediate vicinity, and the place
boasts of its serapes. Evidently the boast is justified, as the serapes of
Saltillo have a reputation all through northern Mexico. Our friends im-
proved the opportunity to provide themselves with these needed articles
of Mexican travel, and through the rest of their journey they carried their
souvenirs of Saltillo and were well satisfied with them.
They had been advised to go to the Hotel Tomasichi, but with the con-
dition that they must not expect anything remarkable in the way of a hotel.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
The Doctor secured a carriage which was so rickety that it threatened dis-
solution before reaching the Plaza Mayor, where the hotel is situated, but
by good-fortune it held together and landed them safely. The proprietor
of the hotel told them that, there was only one good carriage in the city,
and if they wanted it for the next day it would be well to order it at once.
' 'I =-
IN THE SAN JUAN VALLEY.
It belonged to Senor Sada, the owner of the diligence that would take
them to Jaral, where it connected with the trains on the International Rail-
way. The advice was taken, and the one good carriage of Saltillo was or-
dered for the next day's driving in and around the city. Six reals, or
seventy-five cents, an hour was the price of the vehicle, with a gratifica-
tion to the driver.
By this time Frank and Fred were able to make all their financial
calculations in the currency of the country. Here is the list of values
which they had noted down and committed to memory:
The peso, or dollar, is divided into eight reals or reales, of the value
of 12j cents each. A medio real is 60 cents, a cuartillo is 3 cents, and a
tlaco is 1- cents; 2 reals make a peseta (25 cents), and 4 reals a toston
(50 cents). Values are reckoned in centavos (100 centavos make 1 peso),
reals, or pesos until large sums are reached, when they are counted in
gold. Of gold coins there are the escudito de oro, $1; escudo de oro, $2;
pistola, $4; media onza de oro, $8; and onza de oro (gold ounce), $16."
American currency can be used without difficulty in the large cities,
but not elsewhere. Notes of the Banco Nacional and the Bank of Lon-
don, Mexico, and South America can be carried in place of silver, which
is inconveniently heavy; but our friends were advised not to rely upon
bank-notes of any kind away from the lines of railway.
Doctor Bronson told the youths that a metric system of coinage was
established some years ago, but the common people were prejudiced
A SOLID CITIZEN.
against it, and it had made comparatively little progress. Half and
quarter dollars are never spoken of as fifty and twenty-five centavos,
but as quatro reals or dos reals.
We will return to Saltillo, where we left our friends while we made an
excursion among Mexican currency values. Their supper was a composite
of Mexican and Italian cookery, Tomasichi being an Italian and his cook a
native of Mexico. The chief had instructed the subordinate in the ways
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
of the kitchens of Rome and Naples, but not sufficiently to drive out the
ideas of the land of the Aztecs, Stimulated by curiosity and also by a
good appetite, the Doctor and his nephews made an excellent meal, or at
least it was good enough to make them wish to taste a dinner entirely
Mexican in character. We will see later on how they succeeded in their
The next morning they started in good season to inspect the city and
its surroundings. They found the Alameda much prettier than that of
Monterey, and some travellers have pronounced it the most attractive one
to be found in Mexico. The inhabitants are deservedly proud of it. It
is a popular resort at all hours, and especially in the evening, when every-
body goes out for a promenade. The Plaza Mayor is also an attractive
spot, and the youths wished to make a sketch of it from the side opposite
the cathedral, but decided not to take the time to do so, as a photograph
would answer their purpose.
The general features of Saltillo are much like those of Monterey, and
consequently a detailed description of them is unnecessary.
Before starting on the round of sight-seeing, Doctor Bronson made in-
quiries concerning a visit to the battle-field of Buena Vista, which is some
ten miles south of Saltillo. The inquiries resulted in an arrangement to
see the spot made famous in the history of the Mexican War, where 5000
Americans put 20,000 Mexicans to flight.
The battle-field lies two or three miles south of the hacienda of Buena
Vista, and the road from Saltillo rises nearly a thousand feet before reach-
ing that place; consequently a journey thither must be done at a slow
pace, and it was decided to take two days, or rather a night and part of
two days, for the excursion.
Early in the afternoon the party started from Saltillo for the hacienda
of Bnena Vista, which they reached before nightfall. The youths were
happy at the prospect of passing a night in a hacienda, and obtaining a
glimpse of rural Mexican life.
The building where they were received was in the form of a hollow
square, like the houses of Monterey, already described. The entrance was
sufficiently broad to permit the admission of vehicles, and the carriage
was driven inside before the travellers alighted. According to Mexican
custom, a mozo, or servant, had been sent in advance to give notice of the
advent of the strangers and have the house in readiness. The visitors
were shown to rooms on the lower floor: the Doctor was assigned to a
room by himself, while the boys were lodged together in a large room
very meagrely furnished. The beds were straw-filled mattresses, laid
A NIGHT IN A HACIENDA.
upon strips of rawhide stretched tightly across a frame, and the boys pro-
nounced it an excellent substitute for some of the "patent spring mat-
tresses" which are sold in American cities. The linen was scrupulously
clean, which is not always the case in Mexico, but the supply of blankets
was so light that it was evident the travellers were expected to make use
of their scrapes to keep off the chill of the night air.
They did not stay long inside the room, as they were anxious to see
the surroundings of the place. So they wandered about, their first visit
being to the stable, which they found commodious enough for the most
fastidious horse in the world. I have heard," said Fred, that the peo-
ple of this country are more particular about their horses than about them-
selves; a Mexican will take good care of his horse, but leave his wife and
children to go hungry and half clothed."
"To judge by the difference between the rooms of the hacienda and
the stable," responded Frank, the statement seems to be well founded.
ON THE ROAD TO BUENA VISTA.
The stable is certainly better ventilated, and the horses have no reason to
complain of their quarters. A Mexican depends so much on his horse
that he ought from very selfishness to be very careful of him."
From the stable they wandered to the kitchen, where three or four
native women were at work preparing the meal which the strangers were
The first thing to attract Frank's attention was a woman kneeling on
the floor over a flat stone raised at one end, on which she was rolling
some dough into very thin sheets. That must be a tortilla-maker," said
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
Frank; "we have had tortillas several times since we came into the coun-
try, but this is the first good chance I've had to see them made."
From his observation at this kitchen, and from subsequent informa-
tion, the youth made the follow-
Tortillas, or cakes, are made
S from corn-meal, which is ground
by hand on a flat stone called a
metatee, a word of Aztec origin.
The corn is soaked in lime-water
till the hull can be separated
from it, and then it is pounded
and rolled upon the netate until
S.,. it is ground into meal. In this
Siwork the woman uses a cylinder
T CL ', o of stone something like the
SAmerican rolling-pin, or very
ir,,l. often she uses a flat or slightly
w ow.... rounded stone, with which she
Pounds and twists for hours.
i" t When the meal is sufficiently
s l ground a little water is added,
and it is worked into dough; the
Sdough is then rolled or patted in
e T. we d n the hand until it is almost as
A SERVANT AT THE HACIENDA. thin as a knife-blade and formed
into circular cakes. The cakes
are baked on an iron comal, or griddle, which has been previously held over
the fire until it is so hot that the cooking is done in a few moments. They
are not allowed to brown, and are best when served hot. They are gen-
erally without salt or other seasoning, and are very tasteless at first to a'
stranger; but after one has become accustomed to tortillas he prefers them
to any other kind of corn-cake."
The equipment of the kitchen was exceedingly simple, and the youths
wondered how a French cook would get along with none but Mexican
utensils to get up a meal with. The stove, or cooking range, consisted
simply of a wall or bank of solid adobe about two feet high, and of the
same width; this bank was built up against one side of the kitchen, which
was ten or twelve feet square, and it extended the whole length of that
side. There were depressions in the bank, in which small fires of char-
SCENE IN A PATIO.
." ", ; :..* ., r, !1
' *" ^ ".' ', ." !"(; fj
Im l' 'i ; '
| ,. ..*..^ .
i. "i~/. "' :. 1
NEAR THE KITCHEN.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
coal or wood were burning; on these fires the pots, pans, and griddles
were placed, and the process of cooking went on. There was no chimney,
the smoke escaping, or being supposed to escape, through an opening in
the roof directly over the cooking range.
But the kitchen of the common people is less elaborate than this. It
consists simply of a mound of clay, perhaps a foot in height and a yard in
diameter, and depressed in the centre. Little fires in this depression fnr-
nish the heat for cooking the food placed in the pots and kettles, which
are of common unglazed -earthen-ware. The cook sits or squats on the
floor close by this primitive range, while the mistress of the kitchen pre-
viously described stands, and can walk about at will without the trouble
In some parts of Mexico the cooking is done out-of-doors. This is par-
ticularly the case in the southern portion, and in the season of rains the
A MEXICAN DINNER.
weather often reduces culinary operations to a very limited quantity. The
more rain the less dinner, unless the food is eaten raw ; but as it consists
largely of fruits, the inconvenience is less serious than it might be other-
When our young friends went to dinner they found a repast that was
entirely Mexican in character. After it was over they made notes of
what they had seen and eaten, and this was the result:
"We had tortillas, of course, and very good they were. The dinner
began with a soup, which was so good that we asked how it was made, as
A PRIMITIVE KITCHEN.
we thought it might be tried by some of our cooks at home. Here is
what they told us :
"' We start this soup with a chicken broth just as chicken broth is
made anywhere else. Then we take the meat of the chicken, the white
part only, after it has been boiled very tender, and pick it into little bits
of shreds. We take some pounded almonds, the yolks of hard-boiled
eggs, a little bread which has been soaked in milk, a little spice of some
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
kind, and plenty of pepper, and we mix the whole up together till it
forms a hard paste. We make this paste into little balls and drop them
into the soup when it is boiling hot and just before it is brought to the
"If you want a good soup and a new one just try this. You may not
hit the seasoning the first time, but when you do you'll find you've some-
thing worth eating.
After the soup we had a pucl~ero, which is said to be a very popular
dish with the Mexicans, but we 'were not particularly fond of it. They
begin it by boiling mutton to make a broth, and then they throw in every
sort of garden vegetable cut in small pieces-apples, pears, squashes, toma-
toes, green corn, onions, potatoes, carrots, parsnips, red or green peppers,
in fact any and everything from the garden that is edible. There is so
much pepper in the mess that it burns your mouth like an East Indian
curry, but it is said to be good for the stomach and climate. They tell us
we'll like it after a while; and perhaps we shall, but we certainly don't
now. It's a good deal like the down East stew, with the addition of the
hashed peppers and tree-fruits.
"Next we had a tanml de casuella, which was translated into 'corn-
meal pot-pie.' As nearly as we could make out, it is made by putting
a mixture of scalded meal, flour, eggs, and melted lard into a broth in
which chicken and pork have been boiled, so as to make a thin paste.
Then make a mixture of the boiled pork and chicken hashed reason-
ably fine, along with red peppers and tomatoes, and cook them in lard.
Next you spread the paste on the bottom and sides of a dish that has
been well greased so as to prevent sticking, lay in your meat mixture,
cover with more of the paste, and bake it gently but thoroughly. For a
hungry man the dish ought to be very satisfying.
Our dinner ended with frijoles, or beans; arnd we remark here that
beans are the principal food of the Mexicans of the lower ranks of life,
and are largely used by the middle and upper classes. The great major-
ity of Mexicans eat them twice a day, and a dinner would be incomplete
without them. The annual crop of these beans in Mexico must be some-
thing enormous, and its failure would be as bad as that of wheat in our
Northern States, potatoes in Ireland, or codfish along the New England
"They cook them in various ways, but the favorite form is in a stew.
They are usually considered unwholesome if eaten on the day they are
cooked; they are always prepared with pepper, either green or red, and
the preparation is so hot with pepper that one seems to be eating
THE BATTLE OF BUENA VISTA. 61
melted lead while partaking of f 'joles d la iMexican. Peppers enter into
nearly all the Mexican cookery; an American who does not like them
told us that the proportions for a Mexican stew were one pound of meat,
one quart of water, and one pound of hashed peppers. It is a common
remark in Texas and Colorado that a wolf will not eat a dead Mexican
because he is so impregnated with pepper that even the stomach of that
voracious animal can't stand it."
The Mexican dinner proved a digestible one; at all events Frank and
Fred slept soundly and were fully refreshed for the visit to the battle-
field on the following day. Saddle-horses were in readiness as soon as
THIE GUIDE ON THE BATTLE-FIELD.
breakfast was over, and the party made a good start. We will listen to
Fred's account of the excursion:
"After the capture of Monterey, General Taylor remained for a while
at that city, and then marched upon Saltillo, which he occupied without
opposition. General Scott ordered the divisions of Worth and Twiggs to
join him at Vera Cruz for the advance upon the City of Mexico, and this
reduced Taylor's force to 5000 men, nearly all of them volunteers. The
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
Mexicans assembled a large army at San Luis Potosi, and advanced upon
Saltillo with 20,000 men, expecting to drive the Americans out of the
"On the 22d of February, 1847-Washington's birthday-General
Taylor met them at Buena Vista, or rather at the pass of La Angostura
(the narrows), three miles south of the hacienda which gives the name to
the battle. He occupied a position where he had great advantage, as a
single battery of artillery protected the entire front, while the flanks were
defended by steep gullies and ravines that the Mexicans could not hope to
pass, and by the mountains that rose on the east to a height of 2000 feet.
"There is a plateau to the east which Santa Anna, the Mexican com-
mander, tried to reach, as by gaining it he would be able to turn the pass
where the Americans were posted. Some of his troops advanced to it
during the afternoon of the 22d, but were driven back by the Americans;
during the night the Mexican army gained the plateau, and the Ameri-
cans then changed their position to the plain at the base; but continuing
to hold the entrance of the pass.
"On the morning of the 23d the fighting began in full earnest, the
Mexicans attacking in three heavy columns, which were directed on the
American left. The American line was broken on that side, but the cen-
tre and right held their ground and drove the enemy back. Then the
Americans attacked the Mexican infantry on the right and drove it back.
As a last move, Santa Anna formed his whole force into a single column,
which drove the Americans back for some distance, until the Mexicans
were checked by the artillery. In this last part of the battle, when the
cause of the Americans seemed lost, General Taylor gave the celebrated
order, which has, pasted into history,' Give them a little more grape, Cap-
tain Bragg.' Captain Bragg's battery of artillery was stationed on one of
the little mounds or hillocks at the entrance of the defile, and from that
point he threw an iron hail among the advancing Mexicans that drove
them into disorder and flight.
"The battle lasted all day, and when night came the two armies occu-
pied very nearly the same positions they held in the morning. The men
slept where they were, and General Taylor was uncertain whether the bat-
tle would be resumed the next morning or not. When morning came it
was seen that the Mexican army had fled, and the whole ground where
they were at sunset was deserted. About 20,000 men had been beaten
by less than 5000. Their losses were placed at 2000, while that of the
Americans was 746, or about one-sixth their entire number. Gen. Lew.
Wallace, in writing about the battle, says that by every rule of scientific
P~: .: -. I
Tv -. I-
H -=- IiIII
- _- '.
M .- I-k,
-.- --- ----- -- -
-. ---- .
liii II ~-~----;~- -
'l 1.11 111 -
11' ... 4-1 '--
i~~~aetI q~L(L l J5C-
Si- ~ q-
S!,.'t- T ;" -S-dI
'..-iV `YZo^ -t,- -.
TIHE BATTLE OF BI'WENA VISTA.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
warfare the Americans were beaten oftener than there were hours in the
day, but they did not know it; they rallied and fought, and rallied and
fought again, till they finally wrung victory from the hands of assured
"We spent two or three hours on the battle-field, visiting all the points
of interest and listening to the story as it was told by our guide, an intelli-
gent Mexican who was born in the vicinity, and has latterly made it his
business to show strangers over the ground. He said there had been very
few changes since the battle. The public road runs straight through the
battle-field, and it is easy to understand the positions of the opposing
BOLL OF MEXICAN COTTON PLANT.
armies. One thing we understood, after seeing the ground, which we did
not comprehend before: we had wondered why the Mexicans made so
little use of their cavalry, of which they had 4000, and the Mexican
horsemen are among the best in the world. When we saw how the
ground is cut up with barrancas, or deep ravines, making it impossible
for companies and regiments of mounted men to preserve their formation,
we did not wonder any more.
EXTENT OF THE COTTON INDUSTRY.
"We returned to the hacienda in time for the mid-day meal, and in the
afternoon went back to Saltillo. The journey to Saltillo was quickly
made, as the road descends a good deal, and the horses went along at an
The rest of the day was spent in sight-seeing about Saltillo, including
visits to some of the cotton and other factories, for which the place is
famed. The machinery in the cotton factories is of foreign make-some
of it from England and some from the United States. The cloth made
there is of ordinary quality, and sells for a price that ought to give a fine
profit to the owners of the establishment. Frank asked about the wages
of the laborers in the mills, and found that they received from thirty to
fifty cents a day for twelve or fourteen hours' work, according to their
skill and the amount of labor they performed.
It is estimated that about 30,000,000 pounds, or 60,000 bales, of cotton
are annually converted into cloth in Mexico. Most of the raw cotton is
grown in the country; and what with the cultivation of the product and
its manufacture into textiles, it is thought that 50,000 families are sup-
ported by the cotton industry. Where the mills are carefully managed
they are profitable, and make a liberal return for the investment of capital.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
FROM SALTILLO TO JARAL.-A JOURNEY BY DILIGENCE.-PECULIARITIES OF DIL-
IGENCE TRAVEL.-BRIGANDAGE; HOW THE GOVERNMENT SUPPRESSED IT.-
ROBBERS TURNED INTO SOLDIERS.-STORIES OF BRIGANDS AND THEIR WORK;
THEIR TREATMENT OF PRISONERS. A CASE OF POLITENESS.-DINNER AT A
WAY-SIDE INN.-CHILE CON CARNKE. -DESCRIPTION OF CHIHUAHUA.-THE
SANTA EULALIA MINES; ROMANTIC STORY OF THEIR DISCOVERY.--TORREON
AND LERDO.-COTTON IN TRANSIT.-STATISTICS OF COTTON IN MEXICO.-FRES-
NILLO.-CALERA.-A BAD BREAKFAST.-ARRIVAL AT ZACATECAS.--LODGED
IN AN OLD CONVENT.
SRIGHT and early the next morning our friends were ready for the
journey to Jaral, where they were to connect with the train on the
International Railway to carry them farther into Mexico. The distance
is about forty miles, and was to be made by diligence, as the railway from
Jaral to Saltillo was not then completed. They by no means regretted
this, as a ride in one of these vehicles would be a novelty. The boys had
read and heard a great deal about diligence travel in Mexico, and were
more than willing to have an experience of it.
The start was made about seven o'clock in the morning, and there was
a considerable crowd in the street to see them off. The arrival and de-
parture of the diligence is an event in a Mexican town, though less so
than it was before the days of the railway. It is probable that by the
time this book is in the hands of the reader, the locomotive will have a
finished track between Saltillo and Jaral, and the diligence will be known
no more, except as a relic of past days. Those who have been jolted for
hours and days in these heavily built carriages and over bad roads will
give the heartiest kind of a welcome to the new order of things. The dil-
igence will long continue on many of the side roads in Mexico, where it
will not pay to build the railway, just as the stage-coach still exists in parts
of the United States; but the great through routes have lost it for all time.
Immediately on their arrival at Saltillo, before going to Buena Vista,
Doctor Bronson secured places for the trio in the diligence for Jaral; at
the diligence offices all through Mexico, the rule of "first come first.
served" is followed as in a steamship or a Pullman car, and when the ve-
DEPARTURE OF THE DILIGENCE.
hicleis full the traveller whose place is unsecured must wait for the next
journey, extra carriages being very rarely put on. If the weather is good,
an outside seat (e pesccante) is decidedly preferable, as it affords a much
better view of the scenery along the route. American tourists generally
take the chances of the weather, and select outside places; but the native,
who does not care for the prospect, and desires nothing beyond making
the journey as speedily as possible, is quite content with the inside (el
Mexican roads are bad, and Mexican carriages are constructed with a
view to withstanding all the shaking that a rough road can give. The
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
result is that at the end of a long journey the traveller feels very much as
though he had been passed through a patent clothes-wringer or an im-
proved threshing-machine. But no such fear troubled our friends, as the
distance to Jaral was but forty-two miles, and the schedule time for the
journey seven hours. The road was bad enough, it is true, but the youths
heeded the advice of Doctor Bronson, and consoled themselves with the
reflection that it might have been a great deal worse than it was.
= u -- = -
ON TUE ROAD.
They had read so much about brigandage in Mexico that the possibili-
ties of an encounter with highwaymen naturally came into their minds.
At the first opportunity they asked an American resident of Saltillo about
the state of the country through which they were to pass, and the liability
to an unpleasant encounter.
There is hardly any danger on this line now," was the reply, and it
is a long time since a robbery was committed. There is less brigandage
in Mexico to-day than there was a few years ago, but there is still too
much of it to make travelling altogether agreeable. The Government has
put down the system of robbery as much as possible, partly by capturing
and killing the brigands, and partly by hiring them to quit the business
and become respectable citizens."
That's a curious way to suppress crime," said one of the youths, to
FIGHT BETWEEN BRIGANDS AND SOLDIERS.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
hire a man to be honest, after he has spent a good part of his life in
"It doesn't harmonize with our ideas of propriety," said the gentle-
man, "but it had the desired effect at all events. General Diaz, when he
became President, induced the robber chiefs to quit the business they
were in, and enter the service of the Government; they were pardoned
for their misdeeds, commissioned as officers in the army, and appointed to
preserve order in certain districts. Their followers were enlisted as sol-
diers to serve under their old leaders; each soldier receives $40 a month,
and furnishes his own horse and equipment. As they know the whole
country where they are on duty, they have effectually put down brigand-
age in their districts; they are the best horsemen in the world, and there's
no finer body of cavalry anywhere than the Mexican Rurales-the re-
"Doesn't it sometimes happen that they turn robbers temporarily, just
to keep themselves in practice ?"
Yes, they have done so in several instances, but on the whole these
converted highwaymen have kept faith with the Government very fairly.
You must remember that brigandage has been a regular occupation for
centuries, and it cannot be broken up in a hurry. In some parts of the
country it was organized as a business, and many men who stood well in
the community were associated with the robbers, and received a percent-
age of their earnings."
"Did they take any part in the robberies ?"
ot exactly with their own hands; but they used to notify the brig-
ands when valuable trains were to be on the road, and at what time they
would start; they acted as scouts or spies, if you please, and in this way
earned their right to a share of the plunder.
"I was once captured and carried into the mountains by a party of
brigands who held me for a ransom. In the old times before Maximilian
came here, the Mexican brigands simply robbed travellers who made no
resistance, and killed those who resisted unsuccessfully. Maximilian im-
ported some Italians, who very soon turned robbers, and affiliated with the
Mexican bandits; they taught the Mexicans the Italian trick of holding
prisoners for ransom, and it was practised very extensively.
Well, the rascals carried me off to their retreat in the hills, and made
me write to my brother demanding five thousand dollars as ransom for
me. They threatened that in case it was not paid by a certain day I
would be shot, and my friends would receive my head as a proof that the
threat had been carried out.
ENCAMPMENT OF BRIGANDS.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
The letter was delivered by a respectable citizen, who was on friendly
terms with my brother and myself. I had dined at his house and he at
mine, and we had had several business transactions. It had been intimated
that he was friendly with the brigands, and this circumstance proved it.
i~ ,.) f .-- _-_-.
A KING OF THE ROAD.
My brother paid the money to him, and I was released and allowed to
come home. They treated me well while I was with them, but kept a
guard over me all the time with orders to kill me instantly in case I
attempted to escape."
"I suppose they made you promise not to reveal the name of that man
to the authorities?"
"Not at all; I could have done so, and he would have been tried and
convicted on the evidence of myself and brother. He would have been
CAVALRY PURSUING A BAND OF ROBBERS.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
shot without mercy, but the matter would not have ended there; the brig-
ands would have avenged his death and assassinated both of us within a
"In some respects the brigands were not so bad as they have been
painted," the gentleman continued. "The diligence companies have an ar-
rangement whereby a traveller can buy a letter of credit to pay his bills
with along the road, instead of carrying money, which would be a tempta-
tion to robbers. His expenditures are indorsed on the letter of credit by
the company's agents, or he can draw a few dollars every night upon his
letter to pay his hotel bill with. But it is necessary to carry some money
in your pocket to pay the robbers for the trouble of stopping and examin-
ing you; if they find absolutely nothing to reward them for their efforts,
you will very likely be killed as a warning to be more considerate the next
time you travel. If they should rob you of your letter of credit, you can
write or telegraph back to the agency where you obtained it, and a tele-
graphic transfer will be made for the amount remaining.
"Their usual plan of operations is to rush out suddenly from the road-
side, and present pistols and guns in the faces of passengers and drivers,
with a suddenness that prevents resistance. The passengers are ordered to
alight, hold their hands in the air, then to lie down and place their mouths
to the ground, and in this attitude their pockets are searched. The brig-
ands are generally polite but firm, and in the American phrase, 'they won't
stand any nonsense.' When the examination of pockets is completed they
order the passengers to lie still for five or ten minutes, perhaps for a quar-
ter of an hour, and during that time the fellows disappear from sight. If
no resistance is offered no one is harmed, except once in a while when a
blood-thirsty brigand kills for the sheer pleasure of it; but such fellows are
soon apprehended, and generally they are betrayed by their followers, who
do not relish the crimes that may be visited on their heads.
"Sometimes they build a barricade across the road at a place where
there is a sharp turn, and in the confusion that follows the arrival of the
coach at the barricade they perform their work. In such cases the robbers
are concealed in the bushes all along the road-side, and the passengers sud-
denly discover a dozen or more guns bearing on them at once. Discretion
is always advisable under such circumstances, and the traveller who is pru-
dent will surrender his valuables at once.
"A friend of mine tells a story," he continued, "that illustrates the
politeness of the Mexican robbers.
"He was travelling on horseback with a friend and a servant, and fell
into the hands of a band of brigands whose leader was named Manuel.
The fellows took everything of value that the travellers had, and then the
chief told the sufferers that he would give them a pass which would save
them from further molestation. Perhaps he was not altogether disinter-
ested in so doing, as the exhibition of the pass would save his friends the
trouble of searching an array of empty pockets and getting nothing for
"Thereupon he wrote on a leaf of my friend's note-book something
like the following:
"'DEAR Go iEz,-This party has been thoroughly examined, and
we've left them nothing you want. Please allow them to go on without
"Then he told them where they would be stopped, and was about to
bid them good-by when my friend suggested that he had nothing with
which to pay his expenses on the road. Manuel suggested that the trav-
ellers ought not to want for anything, and immediately gave them five
dollars, which he placed in a neat pocket-book that he had taken from
another traveller the day before. They met the other robbers at the
place designated, and on presenting the pass were not interfered with in
HOTEL BY THE WAY-SIDE.
any way. My friend's horse had become lame, and Gomez generously
gave him a fresh horse, stolen, no doubt, from somebody else, and turned
the lame steed out by the road-side."
Other stories of the same sort were told, and the interview ended with
an account of how the American owner of a line of coaches between Vera
Cruz and Mexico City, away back in the forties, before the days of the
railway, made a bargain with the chief of the brigands commanding the
route, by which, in consideration of an annual subsidy, they were not to
molest his coaches or passengers. The subsidy was regularly paid, and
the brigands faithfully regarded their side of the bargain. When General
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN MEXICO.
Scott was advancing from Yera Cruz upon the capital he made a contract
with this same American to supply the army with beef; and through the
efficient aid of his friends the brigands, he had no difficulty in carrying
out his contract. They stole cattle from all the haciendas within a hun-
dred miles of the route and kept him well supplied.
The road from Saltillo to Jaral follows a picturesque valley, and in the
forty-two miles between the two places makes a descent of nearly four-
teen hundred feet. Consequently there was more down-hill than up, and
the diligence went along in fine style. The driver was an accomplished
whip, and managed his team admirably. For a part of the way the
vehicle was drawn by horses; at the first station mules were substituted,
and our friends were unable to say which were the better for the work.
The driver explained that he preferred mules for the reason that in case
they ran away they would keep to the middle of the road, while horses
were apt to shy and turn to one side, thereby endangering the safety of
the diligence and its passengers. This difference between horses and
mules has been noted by drivers in other parts of the world, and is said
to be correct.
The driver had an assistant, whose duty it was to throw stones at the
leading animals to encourage them to their work. He was a skilled
marksman and rarely missed his aim. Sometimes he threw the missiles
while seated on the box at the driver's side, and at others he ran alongside
the team or kept near the wheels of the coach. In either case the result
was the same, and the conveyance under his manipulations made good
Crosses at several points on the road showed where travellers had been
killed by robbers. On all the roads of Mexico these crosses can be seen,
and on some routes they are painfully numerous.
At noon a halt was made at a hacienda sufficiently long to enable the
passengers to have something to eat. They were supplied with chile con
care, a stew of meat and peppers, very hot in two ways, and with the
ever-present tortillas and frijoles. The jolting over the road, combined
with the pure air of the Sierras, gave the travellers a vigorous appetite,
and they heartily enjoyed their road-side repast. The service was some-
what primitive in character, and reminded our friends of Delmonico's, in
New York, solely by its contrasts.
No brigands came to disturb the progress or the minds of the trav-
ellers, and in due time they reached Jaral and were landed in safety.
Fred made the following practical note for the information of future
THE INTERNATIONAL RAILWAY.
"The fare between Saltillo and Jaral is $3.75. Twenty-five pounds
of baggage may be carried free by each passenger; for all excess he must
pay seventy-five cents for each twenty-five pounds. There is a daily de-
parture each way, and sometimes when the business demands it there are
There was not a great deal to be seen at Jaral, but the youths did not
waste their time. They devoted themselves to obtaining information
" : '
STREET SCENE AT JARAL.
about the country to the northward along the line of the International
and Central railways, and here is substantially what they ascertained:
"A hundred miles to the north of where we now are is the city of
Monclova, which was for some time the terminus of the International Rail-
way. It was the capital of Texas and Cohahuila when they both formed
one State, before the war which gave Texas her independence. It is the
centre of a region rich in minerals, and of late years several enterprising
Americans have established themselves there, and are developing the re-