Citation
Through magic glasses, and other lectures

Material Information

Title:
Through magic glasses, and other lectures a sequel to 'The fairyland of science'
Creator:
Buckley, Arabella B ( Arabella Burton ), 1840-1929
Stanford, Edward, 1827-1904 ( Publisher, Printer )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Edward Stanford
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiv, 234 p., [2] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Science -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Physical sciences -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Science -- History -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1890 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1890
Genre:
Textbooks ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Arabella B. Buckley (Mrs. Fisher) ; with numerous illustrations.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
026610403 ( ALEPH )
ALG3178 ( NOTIS )
04038647 ( OCLC )
33000041 ( LCCN )

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Full Text
lw = ==
CALUCS aae ]





The Baldwin Library





_

A I ee eee ee

Ranee

(sins: 1892.







THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES













Wak O UGH
Mea Glee ser ASSES

AND OTHER LECTURES

A SEQUEL TO

‘THE FAIRYLAND OF SCIENCE’

BY

ARABELLA B. BUCKLEY
(MRS. FISHER)

AUTHOR OF ‘LIFE AND HER CHILDREN,’ ‘WINNERS IN LIFE’S RACE,’
“A SHORT HISTORY OF NATURAL SCIENCE,’ ETC.

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON: EDWARD STANFORD
26 & 27 COCKSPUR STREET, CHARING Cross, S.W.

1890

(The right of translation is reserved]



PREFACE.

THE present volume is chiefly intended for those of
my young friends who have read, and been interested
in, the Fazryland of Science. It travels over a wide
field, pointing out a few of the marvellous facts which
can be studied and enjoyed by the help of optical
instruments. It will be seen at a glance that any
one of the subjects dealt with might be made the
study of a lifetime, and that the little information
given in each lecture is only enough to make the
reader long for more.

In these days, when moderate-priced instruments
and good books and lectures are so easily accessible,
I hope some eager minds may be thus led to take up
one of the branches of science opened out to us by
magic glasses ; while those who go no further will at
least understand something of the hitherto unseen

world which is now being studied by their help.



vi PREFACE

The two last lectures wander away from this path,
and yet form a natural conclusion to the Magician’s
lectures to his young Devonshire lads. They have
been published before, one in the Youth's Companion of
Boston, U.S., and the other in A/¢alenéa, in which the
essay on Fungi also appeared in a shorter form.
All three lectures have, however, been revised and
fully illustrated, and I trust that the volume, as a
whole, may prove a pleasant Christmas companion.

For the magnificent photograph of Orion’s nebula,
forming the Frontispiece, I am indebted to the courtesy
of Mr. Isaac Roberts, F.R.A.S., who most kindly lent
me the plate for reproduction ; and I have had the
great good fortune to obtain permission from MM.
Henri of the Paris Observatory to copy the illustra-
tion of the Lunar Apennines from a most beautiful
and perfect photograph of part of the moon, taken by
them only last March. My cordial thanks are also
due to Mr. A. Cottam, F.R.A.S., for preparing the
plate of coloured double stars, and to my friend
Mr. Knobel, Hon. Sec. of the R.A.S., for much
valuable assistance; to Mr. James Geikie for the

loan of some illustrations from his Geology ; and to



PREFACE vii
Messrs. Longman for permission to copy Herschel’s
fine drawing of Copernicus.

With the exception of these illustrations and a
few others, three of which were kindly given me
by Messrs. Macmillan, all the woodcuts have been
drawn and executed under the superintendence of
Mr. Carreras, jun., who has made my task easier by
the skill and patience he has exercised under the
difficulties incidental to receiving instructions from a

distance.
ARABELLA B. BUCKLEY.

Upcott AVENEL, Océ. 1890.











TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

THE MAGICIAN’s CHAMBER BY MOONLIGHT

CHAPTER TT

MAGIC GLASSES AND HOW TO USE THEM

CHAPTER III

FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

CHAPTER IV

THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES .

CHAPTER -V.

THE HISTORY OF A LAVA STREAM .

CHAPTER VI

AN HOvuR WITH THE SuN

PAGE

to
NI

unt
ur

NI
we

96

117



x CONTENTS

CHAPTER VII

AN EVENING AMONG THE STARS

CHAPTER VIII

LITTLE BEINGS FROM A MINIATURE OCEAN

CHAPTER [X

THE DARTMOOR PONIES .

CHAPTER X

THE MAGICIAN’S DREAM OF ANCIENT Days

PAGE
145

ond
w

209



Eis OR ILEUS PRAT TONS

PLATES
PHOTOGRAPH OF THE NEBULA OF ORION : . Frontispiece
TABLE OF COLOURED SPECTRA . . Plate I. facing p. 127
COLOURED DOUBLE STARS : : seed Le ne 167

WOODCUTS. IN: THE TEXT

PAGE
PARTIAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON 5 . Lnitial letter I
A ROY ILLUSTRATING THE PHASES OF THE MOON. : 6
COURSE OF THE MOON IN THE HEAVENS 3 : : 8
CHART OF THE MOON. 2 3 : : are1O)
FACE OF THE FULL MOON : : ; : Saw
TYCHO AND HIS SURROUNDINGS (from a photograph by De
la Rue) 4 13
PLAN OF THE PEAK OF TENERIFFE 15
THE CRATER COPERNICUS : : ‘ Comer,
THE LUNAR APPENNINES (from a photograph by MM. Henri) 19
THE CRATER PLATO SEEN SOON AFTER SUNRISE 20
DIAGRAM OF TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON ‘ $7123
Boy AND MICROSCOPE . ‘ : . Lnitial letter 27
EYE-BALL SEEN FROM THE FRONT 50
SECTION OF AN EYE LOOKING AT A PENCIL Sees
IMAGE OF A CANDLE-FLAME THROWN ON PAPER BY A LENS. 33
ARROW MAGNIFIED BY A CONVEX LENS 35



xil LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

STUDENT'S MICROSCOPE .

SKELETON OF A MICROSCOPE

Fossil, DIATOMS SEEN UNDER THE MICROSCOPE

AN ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE

Two SKELETONS OF TELESCOPES : 3 : ‘
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA

KIRCHHOFF’S SPECTROSCOPE

PASSAGE OF RAYS THROUGH THE SPECTROSCOPE “
A GROUP OF FAIRY-RING MUSHROOMS . . Lnitiad letter
THREE FORMS OF VEGETARLE MOULD MAGNIFIED

Mecor JIUCEDO GREATLY MAGNIFIED .

YEAST CELLS GROWING UNDER THE MICROSCOPE

EARLY STAGES OF THE MUSHROOM

LATER STAGES OF THE MUSHROOM , : : :
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF MUSHROOM GILLS ; :
A GROUP OF CUP LICHENS z ; . Lnitial letter
EXAMPLES OF LICHENS FROM LIFF.

SINGLE-CELLED PLANTS GROWING

SECTIONS OF LICHENS .

FRUCTIFICATION OF A LICHEN . : ; ; ;
A STEM OF FEATHERY MOSS FROM LIFE

Moss-LEAF MAGNIFIED .

POLYTRICHUM COMMUNE, A LARGE HAIR-MOSS .
FRUCTIFICATION OF A MOSS a

SPHAGNUM MOss FROM A DEVONSHIRE BOG ; ‘
SURFACE OF A LAVA-FLOW ; ‘ . Lnitial letter
VESUVIUS AS SEEN IN ERUPTION

Top or Vesuvius In 1864 é
DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION OF AN ACTIVE VOLCANO

SECTION OF A LAVA-FLOW

VOLCANIC GLASS WITH CRYSTALLITES AND MICROLITHS
VOLCANIC GLASS WITH WELL-DEVELOPED MICROLITHS

A PIECE OF DARTMOOR GRANITE ; : ; ‘
VOLCANIC GLASS SHOWING LARGE INCLUDED CRYSTALS
A TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. . . Lnitial letter

FACE OF THE SUN PROJECTED ON A PIECE OF CARDBOARD

105
108
109
110
112
rts
117
120



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PHOTOGRAPH OF THE SUN’S FACE, taken by Mr. Selwyn
(Secchi, Ze So/er/) . 5 ‘

TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, SHOWING CORONA AND PRO-
MINENCES (Guillemin, Ze Cye/)

KIRCHHOFF’S EXPERIMENT ON THE DARK SODIUM LINE

THE SPECTROSCOPE ATTACHED TO THE TELESCOPE FOR SOLAR
WORK . . . .

SUN-SPECTRUM AND PROMINENCE SPECTRUM COMPARED

RED PROMINENCES, as drawn by Mr. Lockyer 1869

A QUIET SUN-SPOT

A TUMULTUOUS SUN-SPOT ‘i 7 :

A STAR-CLUSTER . : ; ; . Lnitial letter

SOME CONSTELLATIONS SEEN ON LOOKING SOUTH IN MarcH
FROM SIX TO NINE O'CLOCK

THE CHIEF STARS OF ORION, WITH ALDEBARAN

THE TRAPEZIUM @ ORIONIS

SPECTRUM OF ORION’S NEBULA AND SUN-SPECTRUM COM-
PARED .

SOME CONSTELLATIONS SEEN ON LOOKING NORTH IN MARCH
FROM SIX TO NINE O'CLOCK

THE GREAT BEAR, SHOWING POSITION OF THE BINARY STAR
DRIFTING OF THE SEVEN STARS OF CHARLES’S WAIN
CASSIOPEIA AND THE HEAVENLY BODIES NEAR

€ LYR.£, A DOUBLE-BINARY STAR é 5 :
«A SEASIDE POOL . : : i . Lnitial letter
A GROUP OF SEAWEEDsS (natural size)

CLVA LACTUCA, a piece greatly magnified

SEAWEEDS, magnified to show fruits .

A CORALLINE AND SERTULARIAN COMPARED .

SERTULARIA TENELLA HANGING IN WATER

THURICOLLA FOLLICULATA AND CHILOMONAS AMYGDALUM

A GROUP OF LIVING DIATOMS .

A DIATOM GROWING :

CYDIPPE PILEUS, ANIMAL AND STRUCTURE

THE SEA-MAT, FLUSTRA FOLIACEA

DIAGRAM OF THE FLUSTRA ANIMAL

xili
PAGE

122

124
128

132
134

140

149
150

157
159
162
166
172
175
176
177
179
180
182
184
185
187
191
192





xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE
DARTMOOR PONIES : . 2 . Initial letter 195
EQUUS HEMIONUS, THE HORSE-ASS OF TARTARY AND TIBET . 201
PRZEVALSKY’S WILD HORSE : ; : : ar Oe
SKELETON OF AN ANIMAL OF THE HORSE-TRIBE : 5200:
PALEOLITHIC MAN CHIPPING FLINT Toots . Jnitial letter 209
SCENE IN PALOLITHIC TIMES . : : ‘: PALOLITHIC RELICS—NEEDLE, TOOTH, IMPLEMENT . eHaig
MAMMOTH ENGRAVED ON IVORY > ‘ ; aL
NEOLITHIC IMPLEMENTS—HATCHET, CELT, SPINDLE WHORL. 219
A BURIAL IN NEOLITHIC TIMES : ; 3 722i
BRITISH RELICS—COIN, BRONZE CELT, AND BRACELET BS eh:

IRITONS TAKING REFUGE IN THE CAVE . . . 224



THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

CHAPTER I

THE MAGICIAN’S CHAMBER BY MOONLIGHT

HE full moon was shining in all
its splendour one lovely August
night, as the magician sat in
his turret chamber bathed in
her pure white beams, which
streamed upon him through the
open shutter in the wooden
dome above. It is true a faint
gleam of warmer light shone
from below through the open

door, for this room was but an offshoot at the top

of the building, and on looking down the turret

stairs a lecture-room might be seen below where a

bright light was burning. Very little, however, of

this warm glow reached the magician, and the im-

plements of his art around him looked like weird

gaunt skeletons as they cast their long shadows
across the floor in the moonlight.
&





to

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The small observatory, for such it was, was a
circular building with four windows in the walls, and
roofed with a wooden dome, so made that it could
be shifted round and round by pulling certain cords.
One section of this dome was a shutter, which now
stood open, and the strip, thus laid bare to the night,
was so turned as to face that part of the sky along
which the moon was moving. In the centre of the
room, with its long tube directed towards the opening,
stood the largest magic glass, the TELESCOPE, and in
the dead stillness of the night, could be heard distinctly
the tick-tick of the clockwork, which kept the instru-
ment pointing to the face of the moon, while the
room, and all in it, was being carried slowly and
steadily onwards by the earth's rotation on its anis.
It was only a moderate-sized instrument, about six
feet long, mounted on a solid iron pillar firmly fixed
to the floor and fitted with the clockwork, the sound
of which we have mentioned ; yet it looked like a
giant as the pale moonlight threw its huge shadow
on the wall behind and the roof above.

Far away from this instrument in one of the
windows, all of which were now closed with shutters,
another instrument was dimly visible. This was
a round iron table with clawed feet, and upon it,
fastened by screws, were three tubes, so arranged
that they all pointed towards the centre of the table,
where six glass prisms were arranged in a semicircle,
each one fixed on a small brass tripod. A strange
uncanny-looking instrument this, especially as the
prisms caught the edge of the glow streaming up the
turret stair, and shot forth faint beams of coloured



THE MAGICIAN’S INSTRUMENTS 3

light on the table below them. Yet the magician’s
pupils thought it still more uncanny and mysterious
when their master used it to read the alphabet of
light, and to discover by vivid lines even the faintest
trace of a metal otherwise invisible to mortal eye.

For this instrument was the SPECTROSCOPE, by
which he could break up rays of light and make them
tell him from what substances they came. Lying
around it were other curious prisms mounted in
metal rims and fitted with tubes and many strange
devices, not to be understood by the uninitiated, but
magical in their effect when fixed on to the telescope
and used to break up the light of distant stars and
nebulz.

Compared with these mysterious glasses the PHOTO-
GRAPHIC CAMERA, standing in the background, with
its tall black covering cloth, like a hooded monk,
looked comparatively natural and familiar, yet it, too,
had puzzling plates and apparatus on the table near
it, which could be fitted on to the telescope, so that
by their means pictures might be taken even in the
dark night, and stars, invisible with the strongest lens,
might be forced to write their own story, and leave
their image on the plate for after study.

All these instruments told of the Magician’s
power in unveiling the secrets of distant space and
exploring realms unknown, but in another window,
now almost hidden in the shadow, stood a fourth
and highly-prized helpmate, which belonged in one
sense more to our earth, since everything examined
by it had to be brought near, and lie close under its
magnifying-glass, Yet the MICROSCOPE too could

B



4 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

carry its master into an unseen world, hidden to
mortal eye by minuteness instead of by distance.
If in the stillness of night the telescope was his most
cherished servant and familiar friend, the microscope
by day opened out to him the fairyland of nature.

As he sat on his high pedestal stool on this
summer night with the moonlight full upon him, his
whole attention was centred on the telescope, and
his mind was far away from that turret-room,
wandering into the distant space brought so near to
him; for he was waiting to watch an event which
brought some new interest every time it took place
—a total eclipse of the moon. To-night he looked
forward to it eagerly, for it happened that, just as
the moon would pass into the shadow of our earth,
it would also cross directly in front of a star, causing
what is known as an “ occultation” of the star, which
would disappear suddenly behind the rim of the
dark moon, and after a short time flash out on the
other side as the satellite went on its way.

How he wished as he sat there that he could
have shown this sight to all the eager lads whom he
was teaching to handle and Jove his magic glasses.
For this magician was not only a student himself,
he was a rich man and the Founder and Principal
of a Jarge public school for boys of the artisan class.
He had erected a well-planned and handsome build-
ing in the midst of the open country, and received
there, on terms within the means of their parents,
working-lads from all parts of England, who, besides
the usual book-learning, received a good technical
education in all its branches. And, while he left to



THE MAGICIAN’S PUPILS 5

other masters the regular school lessons, he kept for
himself the intense pleasure of opening the minds of
these lads to the wonders of God’s universe around
them.

You had only to pass down the turret stairs, into
the large science class-room below, to see at once
that a loving hand and heart had furnished it Not
only was there every implement necessary for
scientific work, but numerous rough diagrams cover-
ing the walls showed that labour as well as money
had been spent in decorating them. It was a large
oblong room, with four windows to the north, and four
to the south, in each of which stood a microscope
with all the tubes, needles, forceps, knives, etc.,
necessary for dissecting and preparing objects ;
and between the windows were open shelves, on which
were ranged chemicals of various kinds, besides many
strange-looking objects in bottles, which would have
amused a trained naturalist, for the lads collected
and preserved whatever took their fancy.

On some of the tables were photographic plates
laid ready for printing off; on others might be seen
drawings of the spectrum, made from the small
spectroscope fixed at one end of the room; on
others lay small direct spectroscopes which the
lads could use for themselves. But nowhere was
a telescope to be seen. This was not because
there were none, for each table had its small
hand - telescope, cheap but good. The truth is
that each of these instruments had been spirited
away into the dormitories that night, and many
heads were lying awake on their pillows, listening



6 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

for the strike of the clock to spring out and see the
eclipse begin.

A mere glance round the room showed that the
moon had been much studied lately. On the black-
board was drawn a rough diagram, showing how a
boy can illustrate for himself the moon's journey
round the earth, by taking a ball and holding it a
little above his head at arm’s length, while he turns
slowly round on ‘his heel in a darkened room before



boy illustrating the phases of the moon.

a lighted lamp, or better still before the lens of a
magic lantern (Fig. 1). The lamp or lens then re-
presents the sun, the ball is the moon, the boy’s
head is the earth. Beginning with the ball between
him and the source of light, but either a little above,

or a little below the direct line between his eye and



THE PHASES OF THE MOON 7

it, he will see only the dark side of the ball, and
the moon will be on the point of being “new.” Then
as he turns slowly, a thin crescent of light will creep
over the side nearest the sun, and by degrees en-
croach more and more, so that when he has turned
through one quarter of the round half the disc will
be light. When he has turned another quarter,
and has his back to the sun, a full moon will face
him. Then as he turns on through the third quarter
a crescent of darkness creeps slowly over the side
away from the sun, and gradually the bright disc is
eaten away by shadow till at the end of the third
quarter half the disc again only is light ; then, when
he has turned through another quarter and completed
the circle, he faces the light again and has a dark
moon before him. But he must take care to keep
the moon a little above or a little below his eye at
new and full moon. If he brings it exactly on a
line with himself and the light at new moon, he will
shut off the light from himself and see the dark
body of the ball against the light, causing an eclipse
of the sun; while if he does the same at full moon
his head will cast a shadow on the ball causing an
eclipse of the moon.

There were other diagrams showing how and why
such eclipses do really happen at different times in
the moon’s path round the earth; but perhaps the
most interesting of all was one he had made to
explain what so few people understand, namely, that
though the moon describes a complete circle round
our earth every month, yet she does not describe
a circle in space, but a wavy line inwards and out-



17th

Fig. 2.

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wards across the
earth’s path round the
sun. This is because
the earth is moving
on all the while, carry-
ing the moon with it,
and it is only by see-
ing it drawn before
our eyes that we can
I". realise how it happens.
: Thus suppose, in
order to make the
dates as simple as
possible, that there is
a new moon on the
Ist of some month.
Then by the goth (or
roughly speaking in
7% days) the moon
will have described a
quarter of a circle
round the earth as
shown by the dotted
line (Fig. 2), which
marks her position
night after night with
regard to us. Yet
because she is carried
onwards al] the while
by the earth, she will
really have passed
along the interrupted






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2
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dotted curved



THE MOON’S JOURNEY IN SPACE 9

line --- between us and the sun. During the next
week her quarter of a circle will carry her round be-
hind the earth, so that we see her on the 17th asa
full moon, yet her actual movement has been onwards
along the interrupted line on the farther side of the
earth. During the third week she creeps round
another quarter of a circle so as to be in advance of
the earth on its yearly journey round the sun, and
reaches the end of her third quarter on the 24th.
In her last quarter she gradually passes again
between the earth and the sun ; and though, as regards
the earth, she appears to be going back round to the
same place where she was at the beginning of the
month, and on the 31st is again a dark new moon,
yet she has travelled onwards exactly as much as
we have, and therefore has really not described a
circle in the Aeavens but a wavy line.

Near to this last diagram hung another, well loved
by the lads, for it was a large map of the face of
the moon, that is of the side which is a/ways turned
towards us, because the moon turns once on her
axis during the month that she is travelling round
the earth. On this map were marked all the different
craters, mountains, plains and shining streaks which
appear on the moon’s face; while round the chart
were pictures of some of these at sunrise and sunset
on the moon, or during the long day of nearly a
fortnight which each part of the face enjoys in its
turn.

By studying this map, and the pictures, they
were able, even in their small telescopes, to recognise
Tycho and Copernicus, and the mountains of the



10 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

moon, after they had once grown accustomed to the



Chart of the moon,

Craters—
1 Tycho. ¢q Aristarchus. 7 Plato. 10 Petavius.
2 Copernicus. 5 Eratosthenes. 8 Eudoxus. tr Ptolemy.
3 Kepler. 6 Archimedes. 9 Aristotle.
Grey plains formerly believed to be seas—

A- Mare Crisium. O Mare Imbrium.

C —— Frigoris. ( Oceanus Procellarum.

G —— Tranquillitatis, X Mare Forcunditatis.

H —— Serenitatis. T —— Humorum.

strange changes in their appearance which take



THE FACE OF THE FULL MOON II

place as daylight or darkness creeps over them.
They could not however pick out more than some of
the chief points. Only the magician himself knew
every crater and ridge under all its varying lights,



The full moon. (From Ball's Starland.)

and now, as he waited for the eclipse to begin, he
turned to a lad who stood behind him, almost hidden
in the dark shadow—the one fortunate boy who had
earned the right to share this night’s work.



12 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“We have still half an hour, Alwyn,” said he,
“ before the eclipse will begin, and I can show you the
moon’s face well to-night. Take my place here and
look at her while I point out the chief features.
See first, there are the grey plains (A, C, G, etc.)
lying chiefly in the lower half of the moon. You
can often see these on a clear night with the
naked eye, but-you must remember that then they
appear more in the upper part, because in the tele-
scope we see the moon’s face inverted or upside down.

“These plains were once thought to be oceans, but
are now proved to be dry flat regions situated at
different levels on the moon, and much like what
deserts and prairies would appear on our earth if seen
from the same distance. Looking through the
telescope, is it not difficult to imagine how people
could ever have pictured them as a man’s face? But
not so difficult to understand how some ancient
nations thought the moon was a kind of mirror, in
which our earth was reflected as in a looking-glass,
with its seas and rivers, mountains and valleys ; for
it does look something like a distant earth, and as
the light upon it is really reflected from the sun it
was very natural to compare it to a looking-glass.

“Next cast your eye over the hundreds of craters,
some large, others quite small, which cover the moon's
face with pitted marks, like a man with small-pox ;
while a few of the larger rings look like holes
made in a window-pane, where a stone has passed
through, for brilliant shining streaks radiate from
them on all sides like the rays of a star, covering
a large part of the moon. Brightest of all these



TYCHO AND HIS SURROUNDINGS

13
starred craters is Tycho, which you will easily find
near the top of the moon (1, Fig. 3), for you have
often seen it in the small telescope. How grand it
looks to-night in the full moon (Fig. 3a)! It is
true you see all the craters better when the moon
is in her quarters, because the light falls sideways
upon them and the shadows are more sharply defined ;
yet even at the full the bright ray of light on
Tycho's rim marks out the huge cavity, and you can
even see faintly the magnificent terraces which run
round the cup within, one below the other.

“This cavity measures fifty-four miles across,



Tycho and his surroundings.
(From a photograph of the moon taken by Mr. De la Rue, 1863.)

so that if it could be moved down to our earth
it would cover by far the largest part of Devon-
shire, or that portion from Bideford on the north,



14 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to the sea on the south, and from the borders of
Cornwall on the east, to Exeter on the west, and
it is 17,000 feet or nearly three miles in depth.
Even in the brilliant light of the full moon this
enormous cup is dark compared to the bright rim,
but it is much better seen in about the middle of the
second quarter, when the rising sun begins to light
up one side while the other is in black night.
The drawing on the wall (Fig. 4), which is taken
from an actual photograph of the moon’s face, shows
Tycho at this time surrounded by the numerous
other craters which cover this part of the moon.
You may recognise him by the gleaming peak in the
centre of the cup, and by his bright rim which is so
much more perfect than those of his companions.
The gleaming peak is the top of a steep cone or hill
rising up 6000 feet, or more than a mile from the base
of the crater, so that even the summit is about two
miles below the rim.

“There is one very interesting point in Tycho,
however, which is seen at its very best at full moon.
Look outside the bright rim and you will see that
from the shadow which surrounds it there spring
on all sides those strange brilliant streaks (see Fig.
3a) which I spoke of just now. There are others
quite as bright, or even brighter, round other craters,
Copernicus (Fig. 6), Kepler, and Aristarchus, lower
down on the right-hand side of the moon; but
these of Tycho are far the most widely spread, cover-
ing almost all the top of the face.

“What are these streaks? We do not know.
During the second quarter of the moon, when the sun



LUNAR AND TERRESTRIAL CRATERS I5

is rising slowly upon Tycho, lighting up his peak and
showing the crater beautifully divided into a bright
cup in the curve to the right, while a dense shadow lies
in the left hollow, these streaks are only faint, and
among the many craters around (see Fig. 4) you
might even have some difficulty at first in finding
the well-known giant. But as the sun rises higher
and higher they begin to appear, and go on increasing
in brightness till they shine with that wonderfully
silvery light you see now in the full moon.

Fig. 5.



Plan of the Peak of Teneriffe, showing how it resembles
a lunar crater. (A. Geikie.)

“Here is a problem for you young astronomers to
solve, as we learn more and more how to use the
telescope with all its new appliances.



16 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The crater itself is not so difficult to explain, for
we have many like it on our earth, only not nearly
so large. In fact, we might almost say that our earthly
volcanoes differ from those in the moon only by their
smaller size and by forming mountains with the crater
or cup on the top; while the Junar craters lie flat on
the surface of the moon, the hollow of the cup forming
a depression below it. The peak of Teneriffe (Fig. 5),
which is a dormant volcano, is a good copy in minia-
ture on our earth of many craters on the moon. The
large plain surrounded by a high rocky wall, broken
in places by lava streams, the smaller craters nestling
in the cup, and the high peak or central crater
rising up far above the others, are so like what we
see on the moon that we cannot doubt that the same
causes have been at work in both cases, even though
the space enclosed in the rocky wall of Teneriffe
measures only eight miles across, while that of Tycho
measures fifty-four.

“But of the streaks we have no satisfactory expla-
nation. They pass alike over plain and valley and
mountain, cutting even across other craters with-
out swerving from their course. The astronomer
Nasmyth thought they were the remains of cracks
made when the volcanoes were active, and filled
with molten lava from below, as water oozes up
through ice-cracks on a pond. But this explana-
tion is not quite satisfactory, for the lava, forcing
its way through, would cool in ridges which ought to
cast a shadow in sunlight. These streaks, however,
not only cast no shadow, as you can sce at the full
moon but when the sun shines sideways upon them



THE CRATER COPERNICUS 17

in the new or waning moon they disappear as we
have seen altogether. Thus the streaks, so brilliant
at full moon in Tycho, Copernicus, Kepler, and
Aristarchus, remain a puzzle to astronomers still.

Fig. 6.



\ A

The crater Copernicus.
(As given in Herschel’s Astronomy, from a drawing taken ina
reflecting telescope of 20 feet focal length. )

“We cannot examine these three last-named craters
well to-night with the full sun upon them ; but mark
their positions well, for Copernicus, at least, you must



18 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

examine on the first opportunity, when the sun is
rising upon it in the moon’s second quarter. It is
larger even than Tycho, measuring fifty-six miles
across, and has a hill in the centre with many peaks;
while outside, great spurs or ridges stretch in all
directions sometimes for more than a hundred miles,
and between these are scattered innumerable minute
craters. But the most striking feature in it is the
ring, which is composed inside the crater of mag-
nificent terraces divided by deep ravines. These
terraces are in some ways very like those of the
great crater of Teneriffe, and astronomers can best
account for them by supposing that this immense
crater was once filled with a lake of molten lava
rising, cooling at the edges, and then falling again,
leaving the solid ridge behind. The streaks are
also beautifully shown in Copernicus (see Fig. 6),
but, as in Tycho, they fade away as the sun sets
on the crater, and only reappear gradually as mid-
day approaches.

“ And now, looking a little to the left of Copernicus,
you will see that grand range of mountains, the
Lunar Apennines (Fig. 7), which stretches 400 miles
across the face of the moon. Other mountain
ranges we could find, but none so like mountains
on our own globe as these, with their gentle sunny
slope down to a plain on the left, and steep
perpendicular cliffs on the right. The highest
peak in this range, called Huyghens, rises to the
height of 21,000 feet, higher than Chimborazo in
the Andes. Other mountains on the moon, such as
those called the Caucasus, south of the Apennines,



THE MOUNTAINS OF THE MOON 19

are composed of disconnected peaks, while others
again stand as solitary pyramids upon the plains.
“ But we must hasten on, for I want you to observe
those huge walled crater-plains which have no hill
Fig. 7.



The Lunar Apennines.
(Copied by kind permission of MM. Henri from part of a magnificent photo-
graph taken by them, March 29, 1890, at the Paris Observatory. )

in the middle, but smooth steel-grey centres shining

like mirrors in the moonlight. One of these, called

Archimedes, you will find just below the Lunar

Apennines (Figs. 3 and 7), and another called Plato,

which is sixty miles broad, is still lower down the
Cc



20 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

moon’s face (Figs. 3 and 8). The centres of these broad
circles are curiously smooth and shining like quick-



The crater Plato as seen soon after sunrise. (After Neison. )

silver, with minute dots here and there which are
miniature craters, while the walls are rugged and
crowned with turret-shaped peaks.

“Tt is easy to picture to oneself how these may
once have been vast seas of lava, not surging as
in Copernicus, and heaving up as it cooled into
one great central cone, but seething as molten lead
does in a crucible, little bubbles bursting here and
there into minute craters ; and this is the explanation
given of them by astronomers.



THE CRATER-PLAINS AND THEIR ORIGIN 21

“And now that you have seen the curious rugged
face of the moon and its craters and mountains, you
will want to know how all this has come about. We
can only form theories on the point, except that
everything shows that heat and volcanoes have in
some way done the work, though no one has ever yet
clearly proved that volcanic eruptions have taken
place in our time. We must look back to ages long
gone by for those mighty volcanic eruptions which
hurled out stones and ashes from the great crater of
Tycho, and formed the vast seas of lava in Copernicus
and Plato.

“And when these were over, and the globe was
cooling down rapidly, so that mountain ranges
were formed by the wrinkling and rending of the
surface, was there then any life on the moon? Who
can tell? Our magic glasses can reveal what now
is, so far as distance will allow; but what has
been, except where the rugged traces remain, we
shall probably never know. What we now see is a
dead worn-out planet, on which we cannot certainly
trace any activity except that of heat in the past.
That there is no life there now, at any rate of the
kind on our own earth, we are almost certain ; first,
because we can nowhere find traces of water, clouds,
nor even mist, and without moisture no life like ours is
possible ; and secondly, because even if there is, as
perhaps there may be, a thin ocean of gas round
the moon there is certainly no atmosphere such as
surrounds our globe.

“One fact which proves this is, that there are
no half-shadows on the moon. If you look some



22 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

night at the mountains and craters during her first
and second quarters, you will be startled to see what
heavy shadows they cast, not with faint edges dying
away into light, but sharp and hard (see Figs. 6-8),
so that you pass, as it were by one step, from shadow
to sunshine. This in itself is enough to show that
there is no air to scatter the sunlight and spread it into
the edges of the shade as happens on our earth ; but
there are other and better proofs. One of these is,
that during an eclipse of the sun there is no reflec-
tion of his light round the dark moon as there
would be if the moon had an atmosphere ; another is
that the spectroscope, that wonderful instrument
which shows us invisible gases, gives no hint of air
around the moon; and another is the suddtn dis-
appearance or occultation of a star behind the moon,
such as I hope to see in a few minutes.

“See here! take the small hand telescope and turn
it on to the moon’s face while I take my place at
the large one, and I will tell you what to look for.
You know that at sunset we see the sun for some
time after it has dipped below the horizon, because
the rays of light which come from it are bent in our
atmosphere and brought to our eyes, forming in
them the image of the sun which is already gone.
Now in a short time the moon which we are watching
will be darkened by our earth coming between it
and the sun, and while it is quite dark it will pass
over a little bright star. In fact to us the star will
appear to set behind the dark moon as the sun sets
below the horizon, and if the moon had an atmo-
sphere like ours, the rays from the star would be bent



TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON 23

in it and reach our eyes after the star was gone, so
that it would only disappear gradually. Astronomers
have always observed, however, that the star is lost
to sight quite suddenly, showing that there is no
ocean of air round the moon to bend the light-rays.”

Here the magician paused, for a slight dimness
on the lower right-hand side of the moon warned
him that she was entering into the penumbra or

Fig. 9.



Diagram of total eclipse of the moon.

5, Sun. E, Earth. M, Moon passing into the earth's shadow
and passing out at M’,

R, R’, Lines meeting at a point U, U’ behind the earth and
enclosing a space within which all the direct rays of the
sun are intercepted by the earth, causing a black darkness
or umbra,

R, P and R’, P’, Lines marking a space within which, behind
the earth, part of the sun’s rays are cut off, causing a half-
shadow or fenuméra, P, P’.

a, a, Points where a few of the sun’s rays are bent or refracted
in the earth's atmosphere, so that they pass along the path
marked by the dotted lines and shed a lurid light on the
sun's face.

half-shadow (see Fig. 9) caused by the earth cutting
off part of the sun’s rays; and soon a deep black



24 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

shadow creeping over Aristarchus and Plato showed
that she was passing into that darker space or
umbra where the body of the earth is completely
between her and the sun and cuts off all his rays.
All, did I say? No! not all. For now was seen a
beautiful sight, which would prove to any one who
saw our earth from a great distance that it has a
deep ocean of air round it.

It was a clear night, with a cloudless sky, and
as the deep shadow crept slowly over the moon’s
face, covering the Lunar Apennines and Copernicus,
and stealing gradually across the brilliant streaks of
Tycho till the crater itself was swallowed up in dark-
ness, a strange lurid light began to appear. The
part of the moon which was eclipsed was not wholly
dark, but tinted with a very faint bluish-green light,
which changed almost imperceptibly, as the eclipse
went on, to rose-red, and then to a fiery copper-
coloured glow as the moon crept entirely into the
shadow and became all dark. The lad watching
through his small telescope noted this weird light, and
wondered, as he saw the outlines of the Apennines
and of several craters dimly visible by it, though
the moon was totally eclipsed. He noted, but was
silent. He would not disturb the Principal, for the
important moment was at hand, as this dark copper-
coloured moon, now almost invisible, drew near to
the star over which it was to pass.

This little star, really a glorious sun billions of miles
away behind the moon, was perhaps the centre of
another system of worlds as unknown to us as we to
them, and the fact of our tiny moon crossing between



LURID LIGHT DURING ECLIPSE 25

it and our earth would matter as little as if a grain
of sand was blown across the heavens. Yet to the
watchers it was a great matter—would the star give
any further clue to the question of an atmosphere
round the moon? Would its light linger even for
a moment, like the light of the setting sun? Nearer
and nearer came the dark moon; the star shone
brilliantly against its darkness ; one second and it was
gone. The long looked-for moment had passed, and
the magician turned from his instrument with a sigh.
“T have learnt nothing new, Alwyn,” said he, “ but at
least it is satisfactory to have seen for ourselves
the proof that there is no perceptible atmosphere
round the moon. We need wait no longer, for
before the star reappears on the other side the
eclipse will be passing away.”

“ But, master,” burst forth the lad, now the silence
was broken, “tell me why did that strange light of
many tints shine upon the dark moon ?”

“Did you notice it, Alwyn?” said the Principal,
with a pleased smile. “Then our evening’s work is
not lost, for you have made a real observation for
yourself. That light was caused by the few rays of
the sun which grazed the edge of our earth passing
through the ocean of air round it (see Fig. 9). There
they were refracted or bent, and so were thrown
within the shadow cast by our earth, and fell upon
the moon. If there were such a person as a ‘man
in the moon, that lurid light would prove to him
that our earth has an atmosphere. The cause of
the tints is the same which gives us our sunset
colours, because as the different coloured waves which



26 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

make white light are absorbed one by one, passing
through the denser atmosphere, the blue are cut off
first, then the green, then the yellow, till only the
orange and red rays reached the centre of the shadow,
where the moon was darkest. But this is too diffi-
cult a subject to begin at midnight.”

So saying, he lighted his lamp, and covering the
object-glass of his telescope with its pasteboard cap,
detached the instrument from the clockwork, and the
master and his pupil went down the turret stairs and
past through the room below. As they did so they
heard in the distance a scuffling noise like that of rats
in the wall. A smile passed over the face of the
Principal, for he knew that his young pupils, who
had been making their observations in the gallery
above, were hurrying back to their beds.



MAGIC GLASSES, AND HOW TO USE THEM 27

CHAPTER II

MAGIC GLASSES, AND HOW TO USE THEM

III- sun shone brightly in-
to the science class-room
at mid-day. No gaunt
shadows nor _ ghostly
moonlight now threw a
spell on the magic cham-

ber above. The instruments
looked bright and business-like,
and the Principal, moving
amongst them, heard the sub-
dued hum of fifty or more voices
rising from below. It was the
lecture hour, and the subject for the day was,
“Magic glasses, and how to use them.” As the
large clock in the hall sounded twelve, the Principal
gathered up a few stray lenses and prisms he had
selected, and passed down the turret stair to his
platform. Behind him were arranged his diagrams,
before him on the table stood various instruments,
and the rows of bright faces beyond looked up with
one consent as the hum quieted down and he began
his lecture.






28 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“T have often told you, boys, have I not? that I am
a Magician. In my chamber near the sky I work
spells as did the magicians of old, and by the help
of my magic glasses I peer into the secrets of nature.
Thus I read the secrets of the distant stars ; I catch
the light of wandering comets, and make it reveal
its origin; I penetrate into the whirlpools of the
sun; I map out the craters of the moon. Nor
can the tiniest being on earth hide itself from me.
Where others see only a drop of muddy water, that
water brought into my magic chamber teems with
thousands of active bodies, darting here and whirling
there amid a meadow of tiny green plants floating
in the water. Nay, my inquisitive glass sees even
farther than this, for with it I can watch the eddies
of water and green atoms going on in each of these
tiny beings as they feed and grow. Again, if I want
to break into the secrets of the rock at my feet, I
have only to put a thin slice of it under my micro-
scope to trace every crystal and grain; or, if I wish
to learn still more, I subject it to fiery heat, and
through the magic prisms of my spectroscope I read
the history of the very substances of which it is
composed. If I wish to study the treasures of the
wide ocean, the slime from a rock-pool teems with
fairy forms darting about in the live box imprisoned
in a crystal home. If some distant stars are in-
visible even in the giant glasses of my telescope, I
set another power to work, and make them print
their own image on a photographic plate and so
reveal their presence.

“ All these things you have seen through my magic



THE HUMAN EYE 29

glasses, and I promised you that one day I would
explain to you how they work and do my bidding.
But I must warn you that you must give all your
attention ; there is no royal road to my magician’s
power. Every one can attain to it, but only by
taking trouble. You must open your eyes and ears,
and use your intelligence to test carefully what your
senses show you.

“We have only to consider a little to see that we
depend entirely upon our senses for our knowledge
of the outside world. All kinds of things are going
on around us, about which we know nothing, because
our eyes are not keen enough to see, and our ears
not sharp enough to hear them. Most of all we
enjoy and study nature through our eyes, those
windows which let in to us the light of heaven, and
with it the lovely sights and scenes of earth; and
which are no ordinary windows, but most wonderful
structures adapted for conveying images to the brain.
They are of very different power in different people,
so that a long-sighted person sees a lovely land-
scape where a short-sighted one sees only a confused
mist ; while a short-sighted person can see minute
things close to the eye better than a long-sighted
one.

“Let us try to understand this before we go on to
artificial glasses, for it will help us to.explain how
these glasses show us many things we could never
see without them. Here are two pictures of the
human eyeball (Figs. 10 and 11), one as it appears
from the front, and the other as we should see the
parts if we cut an eyeball across from the front to



30 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the back. From these drawings we see that the
eyeball is round; it only looks oval, because it is
seen through the oval slit of the eyelids. It is really

Berries a hard, shining, white
ball with a thick nerve
cord (on, Fig. 11) pass-
ing out at the back,
and a dark glassy
mound ¢,cin the centre
of the white in front.
In this mound we
can easily distinguish
two parts—first, the
coloured ris or elastic
curtain (7, Fig. 10); and



Eye-ball seen from the front. secondly, the dark spot
(After Le Gros Clark.) or pupil in the centre.
w, White of eye. 7, Iris. £, Pupil.

The iris is the part
which gives the eye its colour; it is composed
of a number of fibres, the outer ones radiating to-
wards the centre, the inner ones forming a ring
round the pupil; and behind these fibres is a coat
of dark pigment or colouring matter, blue in some
people, grey, brown, or black in others. When the
light is very strong, and would pain the nerves inside
if too much entered the pupil or window of the eye,
then the ring of the iris contracts so as partly to
close the opening. When there is very little light,
and it is necessary to let in as much as possible, the
ring expands and the pupil grows large. The best
way to observe this is to look at a cat’s eyes in the
dusk, and then bring her near to a bright light ; for



HOW WE SEE 31

the iris of a cat’s eye contracts and expands much
more than ours does.

“ Now look at the second diagram (Fig. 1 1)andnotice
the chief points necessary in seeing. First you will



Section of an eye looking at a pencil. (Adapted from Kirke.)
¢,¢c, Cornea. w, White of eye. cm, Ciliary muscle. a,a, Aque-

ous humour. 7,7, Iris. /,/, Lens. 7,7, Retina. ov, Optic nerve.
1, 2, Pencil. 1’, 2’, Image of pencil on the retina.

observe that the pupil is not a mere hole; it is pro-
tected by a curved covering c. This is the cornea, a
hard, perfectly transparent membrane, looking much
like a curved watch-glass. Behind this is a small
chamber filled with a watery fluid a, called the
aqueous humour, and near the back of this chamber
is the dark ring or iris 7, which you saw from the
front through the cornea and fluid. Close behind
the iris again is the natural ‘magic glass’ of our
eye, the crystalline lens /, which is composed of per-
fectly transparent fibres and has two rounded or



32 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

convex surfaces like an ordinary magnifying glass.
This lens rests on a cushion of a soft jelly-like sub-
stance 7, called the vitreous humour, which fills the
dark chamber or cavity of the eyeball and keeps it
in shape, so that the retina 7, which lines the chamber,
is kept at a proper distance from the lens. This
retina is a transparent film of very sensitive nerves ;
it forms a screen at the back of the chamber, and has
a coating of very dark pigment or colouring matter
behind it. Lastly, the nerves of the retina all meet
in a bundle, called the optic nerve, and passing out
of the eyeball at a point on, go to the brain.
These are the chief parts we use in seeing ; now how
do we use them ?

“ Suppose that a pencil is held in front of the
eye at the distance at which we see small objects
comfortably. Light is reflected from all parts of the
surface of the pencil, and as the rays spread, a certain
number enter the pupil of the eye. We will follow
only two cones of light coming from the points 1
and 2 on the diagram Fig. 11. These you see enter
the eye, each widely spread over the cornea c. They
are bent in a little by this curved covering, and by
the liquid behind it, while the iris cuts off the rays
near the edges of the lens, which would be too much
bent to form a clear image. The rest of the rays
fall upon the lens 2 In passing through this lens
they are very much bent (or refracted) towards each
other, so much so that by the time they reach the
end of the dark chamber 7, each cone of light has
come to a point or focus 1’ 2’, and as rays of this
kind have come from every point all over the pencil,



IMAGE FORMED AT FOCAL DISTANCE 33

J

exactly similar points are formed on the retina, and
a real picture of the pencil is formed there between
1’ and 2’.

‘We will make a very simple and pretty experi-
ment to illustrate this. Darkening the room I light
a candle, take a square of white paper in my hand,
and hold a simple magnifying glass between the two
(see Fig. 12) about three inches away from the candle.
Then I shift the paper nearer and farther behind the
lens, till we get a clear image of the candle-flame

Fig. 12



Image of a candle-flame thrown on paper by a lens,

upon it. This is exactly what happens in our eye.
I have drawn a dotted line c round the lens and the
paper on the diagram to represent the eyeball in
which the image of the candle-flame would be on the
retina instead of on the piece of paper. The first
point you will notice is that the candle-flame is upside
down on the paper, and if you turn back to Fig. 11
you will see why, for it is plain that the cones of
light cross in the lens 4 1 going to 1’ and 2 to 2’.
Every picture made on our retina is upside down.



34 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“ But it is not there that we see it. As soon as the
points of light from the pencil strike upon the retina,
the thrill passes on along the optic nerve ov, through
the back of the eye to the brain; and our mind,
following back the rays exactly as they have come
through the lens, sees a pencil, outside the eye, right
way upwards.

“This is how we see with our eyes, which adjust
themselves most beautifully to our needs. For
example, not only is the iris always ready to expand
or contract according as we need more or less light,
but there is a special muscle, called the ciliary muscle
(cm, Fig. 11), which alters the lens for us to see things
far or near. In all, or nearly all, perfect eyes the
lens is flatter in front than behind, and this enables
us to see things far off by bringing the rays from them
exactly to a focus on the retina. But when we look
at nearer things the rays require to be more bent or
refracted, so without any conscious effort on our part
this ciliary muscle contracts and allows the lens to
bulge out slightly in front. Instantly we have a
stronger magnifier, and the rays are brought to the
right focus on the retina, so that a clear and full-size
image of the near object is formed. How little we
think, as we turn our eyes from one thing to another,
and observe, now the distant hills, now the sheep
feeding close by; or, as night draws on, gaze into
limitless space and see the stars millions upon
millions of miles away, that at every moment the
focus of our eye is altering, the iris is contracting
or expanding, and myriads of images are being
formed one after the other in that little dark cham-



FAR SIGHT AND NEAR SIGHT 35

ber, through which pass all the scenes of the outer
world !

“Yet even this wonderful eye cannot show us every-
thing. Some see farther than others, some see more
minutely than others, according as the lens of the eye
is flatter in one person and more rounded in another.
But the most long-sighted person could never have
discovered the planet Neptune, more than 2700
millions of miles distant from us, nor could the keenest-
sighted have known of the existence of those minute
and beautiful little plants, called diatoms, which live
around us wherever water is found, and form delicate
flint skeletons so infinitesimally small that thousands
of millions go to form one cubic inch of the stone
called tripoli, found at Bilin in Bohemia.

“It is here that our ‘magic glasses’ come to our
assistance, and reveal to us what was before invisible.

Fig. 13.



Arrow magnified by a convex lens,
a, 6, Real arrow. C, D, Magnifying-glass. A, B, Enlarged
image of the arrow.

We learnt just now that we see near things by the
lens of our eye becoming more rounded in front ; but
D



36 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

there comes a point beyond which the lens cannot
bulge any more, so that when a thing is very tiny,
and would have to be held very close to the eye for
us to see it, the lens can no longer collect the rays
to a focus, so we see nothing but a blur. More than
800 years ago an Arabian, named Alhazen, explained
why rounded or convex glasses make things appear
larger when placed before the eye. This glass which
I hold in my hand is a simple
magnifying-glass, such as we
used for focusing the candle-
flame. It bends the rays in-
wards from any small object
(see the arrow a, 4, Fig. 13) so
that the lens of our eye can
use them, and then, as we
follow out the rays in straight
lines to the place where we
see clearly (at A, B), every
point of the object is magni-
fied, and we not only see it
much larger, but every mark
upon it is much more distinct.
You all know how the little
shilling magnifying - glasses
Student's microscope. you carry show the most
ei in flowers, on the wings of
butterflies, on the head of a bee or fly, and, in fact,
in all minute living things.
“ But this is only our first step. Those diatoms we
spoke of just now will only look like minute specks

Fig. 14





THE MICROSCOPE 37

under even the strongest magnifying-glass. So we
pass on to use two extra
lenses to assist our eyes,
and come to this com-
pound microscope (Fig. 14)
through which I have be-
fore now shown you the
delicate markings on shells
which were themselves so
minute that you could not
see them with the naked
eye. Now we have to dis-
cover how the microscope
performs this feat. Going
back again for a minute
to our candle and magnify-
ing-glass (Fig. 12), you will
find that the nearer you put
the lens to the candle the
farther away you will have

Fig. 15.

to put the paper to get a
clear image. When in a
microscope we put a
powerful lens 0, 7 close
down to a very minute
object, say a spicule of a
flint sponge s, s, quite in-



ie x Skeleton of a microscope, showing
visible to the unaided eye, how an object is magnified.
the rays from this spicule o, 7, Object-lens. ¢, g, Eye-glass.
are brought to a focus a“ Spicule. s,s’, Magnified
. F ‘ og image of same in the tube.
long way behind it at 5,5, 5,5, Image again enlarged by
making an enlarged image the lens of the eye-piece.

DS



38 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

because the lines of light have been diverging ever
since they crossed in the lens. If you could put a
piece of paper at s’ s’, as you did in the candle
experiment, you would see the actual image of the
magnified spicule upon it. But as these points of
light are only in an empty tube, they pass on, spread-
ing out again from the image, as they did before from
the spicule. Then another convex lens or eye-
glass e, g is put at the top of the microscope at
the proper distance to bend these rays so that they
enter our eye in nearly parallel lines, exactly as we
saw in the ordinary magnifying-glass (Fig. 13), and
our crystalline lens can then bring them to a focus
on our retina.

“ By this time the spicule has been twice magnified ;
or, in other words, the rays of light coming from it
have been twice bent towards each other, so that
when our eye follows them out in straight lines they
are widely spread, and we see every point of light so
clearly that all the spots and markings on_ this
minute spicule are as clear as if it were really as
large as it looks to us.

“This is simply the principle of the microscope.
When you come to look at your own instruments,
though they are very ordinary ones, you will find that
the object-glass 0, / is made of three lenses, flat on the
side nearest the tube, and each lens is composed of
two kinds of glass in order to correct the unequal
refraction of the rays, and prevent fringes of colour
appearing at the edge of the lens. Then again the
eye-piece will be a short tube with a lens at each
end, and halfway between them a black ledge will be



WHAT THE MICROSCOPE REVEALS 39

seen inside the tube which acts like the iris of our
eye (7, Fig. 11) and cuts off the rays passing through
the edges of the lens. All these are devices to cor-
rect faults in the microscope which our eye corrects
for itself, and they have enabled opticians to make
very powerful lenses.

“Look now at the diagram (Fig. 16) showing a
group of diatoms which you can see under the
microscope after the lecture. Notice the lovely
patterns, the delicate tracery, and the fine lines on
the diatoms shown there. Yet each of these minute
flint skeletons, if laid on a piece of glass by itself,
would be quite in-
visible to the naked
eye, while hundreds
of them together
only look like a
faint mist on the
slide on which they
lie. Nor are they
even here shown as
much magnified as
they might be;
under a stronger
power we should
see those delicate

lines on the diatoms Fossil diatoms seen under the microscope.
broken u Pp into The largest of these is an almost imperceptible
speck to the naked eye.

Fig. 16.



minute round cups.

“Ts it not wonderful and delightful to think that
we are able to add in this way to the power of our
eyes, till it seems as if there were no limit to the



40 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

hidden beauties of the minute forms of our earth, if
only we can discover them ?

“ But our globe does not stand alone in the universe,
and we want not only to learn all about everything
we find upon it, but also to look out into the vast
space around us and discover as much as we can
about the myriads of suns and planets, comets and
meteorites, star-mists and nebula, which are to be
found there. Even with the naked eye we can admire
the grand planet Saturn, which is more than 800
millions of miles away, and this in itself is very
marvellous. Who would have thought that our tiny
crystalline lens would be able to catch and focus
rays, sent all this enormous distance, so as actually
to make a picture on our retina of a planet, which,
like the moon, is only sending back to us the light
of the sun? For, remember, the rays which come to
us from Saturn must have travelled twice 800 millions
of miles—884 millions from the sun to the planet,
and less or more from the planet back to us, according
to our position at the time. But this is as nothing
when compared to the enormous distances over which
light travels from the stars to us. Even the nearest
star we know of, is at least twenty szl/ions of millions
of miles away, and the light from it, though travelling
at the rate of 186,300 miles in a second, takes four
years and four months to reach us, while the light from
others, which we can see without a telescope, is be-
tween twenty and thirty years on its road. Does not
the thought fill us with awe, that our little eye should
be able to span such vast distances ?

“But we are not yet nearly at the end of our



DHE TELESCOPE 41

wonder, for the same power which devised our eye
gave us also the mind capable of inventing an instru-
ment which increases the strength of that eye till we
can actually see stars so far off that their light takes
two thousand years coming to our globe. If the
microscope delights us in helping us to see things
invisible without it, because they are so small, surely
the telescope is fascinating beyond all other magic
glasses when we think that it brings heavenly bodies,
thousands of billions of miles away, so close to us
that we can examine them.

“A Telescope (Fig. 17) can, like the microscope, be
made of only two glasses: an object-glass to form
an image in the tube and ee z
a magnifying eye-piece
to enlarge it. But there
is this difference, that the
object lens of a micro-
scope is put close down
to a minute object, so
that the rays fall upon
it at a wide angle, and
the image formed in the
tube is very much larger
than the object outside.
In the telescope, on the
contrary, the thing we
look at is far off, so that An astronomical telescope.
the rays fall on the © Eye-piece. & Object-glass.
object-glass at such a Seserm es
very narrow angle as to be practically parallel, and the
image in the tube is of course very, very much smaller





42 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

than the house, or church, or planet it pictures.
What the object-glass of the telescope does for us, is
to bring a small rea/ zmage of an object very far off
close to us in the tube of the telescope so that we
can examine it.

“Think for a moment what this means. Imagine
that star we spoke of (p. 41), whose light, travelling
186,300 miles in one second, still takes 2000
years to reach us. Picture the tiny waves of light
crossing the countless billions of miles of space
during those two thousand years, and reaching us so
widely spread out that the few faint rays which
strike our eye are quite useless, and for us that star
has no existence; we cannot see it. Then go and
ask the giant telescope, by turning the object-glass
in the direction where that star lies in infinite space.
The widespread rays are collected and come to a
minute bright image in the dark tube. You put the
eye-piece to this image, and there, under your eye, is
a shining point: this is the image of the star, which
otherwise would be lost to you in the mighty
distance.

“Can any magic tale be more marvellous, or any
thought grander, or more sublime than this? From
my little chamber, by making use of the laws of light,
which are the same wherever we turn, we can pene-
trate into depths so vast that we are not able even
to measure them, and bring back unseen stars to tell
us the secrets of the mighty universe. As far as the
stars are concerned, whether we see them or not
depends entirely upon the number of rays collected
by the object-glass ; for at such enormous distances



HOW THE TELESCOPE MAGNIFIES 43

the rays have no angle that we can measure, and
magnify as you will, the brightest star only remains
a point of light. It is in order to collect enough
rays that astronomers have tried to have larger and
larger object-glasses ; so that while a small good
hand telescope, such as you use, may have an object-
glass measuring only an inch and a quarter across,
some of the giant telescopes have lenses of two and a
half feet, or thirty inches, diameter. These enormous
lenses are very difficult to make and manage, and have
many faults, therefore astronomical telescopes are
often made with curved mirrors to reffect the rays,
and bring them to a focus instead of refracting them
as curved lenses do.

“We see, then, that one very important use of the
telescope is to bring objects into view which otherwise
we would never see; for, as I have already said,
though we bring the stars into sight, we cannot
magnify them. But whenever an object is near
enough for the rays to fall even at a very small
perceptible angle on the object-glass, then we can
magnify them ; and the longer the telescope, and the
stronger the eye-piece, the more the object is magnified.

“T want you to understand the meaning of this, for
it is really very simple, only it requires a little thought.
Here are skeleton drawings of two telescopes (Fig.
18), one double the length of the other. Let us
suppose that two people are using them to look at
an arrow on a weathercock a long distance off. The
rays of light 7, 7 from the two ends of the arrow will
enter both telescopes at the same angle 7, x, 7, cross
in the lens, and pass on at exactly the same angle into



44



Skeletons of telescopes.

A, A one-foot telescope with
a three-inch eye-piece. B, A
two-foot telescope with a three-
inch eye-piece. ¢, /, Eye-piece.
Rays

which enter the telescopes and



0, g, Object-glass. r, 7,
crossing at x form an image
at 7, 7, which is magnified by
the lens ¢, /.
and 7, x, @ In

A the angle 7, 0, ¢ is four times

are the same.

greater than that of 7, x, 7. In

B it is eight times greater.

The angles 7, x, r
g

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the tubes. So far all is alike,
but now comes the difference.
In the short telescope A the
object-glass must be of sucha
curve as to bring the cones of
light in each ray to a focus at
a distance of one foot behind
it) and there a small image ¢, 7
of the arrow is formed. But B
being twice the length, allows
the lens to be less curved, and
the image to be formed two fect
behind the object-glass ; and
as the rays 7, r have been av-
verging ever since they crossed
at x, the real image of the
arrow formed at 7, zis twice the
size of the same image in A.
Nevertheless, if you could put
a piece of paper at 7, Zin both
telescopes, and look through
the odject-glass (which you
cannot actually do, because
your head would block out the
rays), the arrow would appear
the same size in both tele-
scopes, because one would be
twice as far off from you as
the other, and the angle 2, +, 7
is the same in both.

' Tn our Fig. 18 the distances are inches instead of feet, but the pro-

portions are the same,



WHAT SMALL TELESCOPES CAN DO 45

“But by going to the proper end of the telescope
you can get quite near the image, and can see and
magnify it, if you put a strong lens to collect the rays
from it to a focus. This is the use of the eye-piece,
which in our diagram is placed at a quarter of a
foot or three inches from the image in both tele-
scopes. Now that we are close to the images, the
divergence of the points 7, 7 makes a great difference.
In the small telescope, in which the image is only
one foot behind the object-glass, the eye-piece being
a quarter of a foot from it, is four times nearer, so
the angle 7, 0,2 is four times the angle 2, x, z, and the
man looking through it sees the image magnified
four times. But in the longer telescope the image
is two fect behind the lens, while the eye-piece is,
as before, a quarter of a foot from it. Thus the eye-
piece is now eight times nearer, so the angle Z, a, z is
eight times the angle z, 2, z, and the observer sees the
image magnified cight times.

“In real telescopes, where the difference between
the focal length of the object-glass and that of the
eye-glass can be made enormously greater, the
magnifying power is quite startling, only the object-
glass must be large, so as to collect enough rays to
bear spreading widely. Even in your small tele-
scopes, with a focus of eighteen inches, and an object-
glass measuring one and a quarter inch across, we
can put on a quarter of an inch eye-piece, and so
magnify seventy-two times ; while in my observatory
telescope, eight feet or ninety-six inches long, an
eye-piece of half an inch magnifies 192 times, and I
can put on a 21-inch eye-piece and magnify 768



46 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

times! And so we can go on lengthening the
focus of the object-glass and shortening the focus
of the eye-piece, till in Lord Rosse’s gigantic
fifty-six-foot telescope, in which the image is fifty-
four feet (648 inches) behind the object-glass, an
eye-piece one-eighth of an inch from the image
magnifies 5184 times! These giant telescopes, how-
ever, require an enormous object-glass or mirror, for
the points of light are so spread out in making the
large image that it is very faint unless an enor-
mous number of rays are collected. Lord Rosse’s
telescope has a reflecting mirror measuring six feet
across, and a man can walk upright in the telescope
tube. The most powerful telescope yet made is that
at the Lick Observatory, on Mount Hamilton, in
California. It is fifty-six and a half feet long, the
object-lens measures thirty-six inches across. star seen through this telescope appears 2000 times
as bright as when seen with the naked eye.

“You need not, however, wait for an opportunity
to look through giant telescopes, for my small
student’s telescope, only four feet long, which we
carry out on to the lawn, will show you endless
unseen wonders; while your hand telescopes, and
even a common opera-glass, will show many features
on the face of the moon, and enable you to see the
crescent of Venus, Jupiter’s moons, and Saturn’s
rings, besides hundreds of stars unseen by the naked
eye.

“ Of course you will understand that Fig. 18 only
shows the frinciple of the telescope. In all good
instruments the lenses and other parts are more



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA 47

complicated ; and in a terrestrial telescope, for looking
at objects on the earth, another lens has to be put
in to turn them right way up again. In looking at
the sky it does not matter which way up we see a
planet or a star, so the second glass is not needed,
and we lose light by using it.

“We have now three magic glasses to work for
us—the magnifying-glass, the microscope, and the
telescope. Besides these, however, we have two other
helpers, if possible even more wonderful. These are
the Photographic camera and the Spectroscope.

“Now that we thoroughly understand the use of
lenses, I need _— scarcely
explain this photographic
camera (Fig. 19), for it is
clearly an artificial eye. In
place of the crystalline lens
(compare with Fig. 11) the
photographer uses one, or
generally two lenses /, /, with
a black ledge or stop s be-
tween them, which acts like
the iris in cutting off the
rays too near the edge of the
lens. The dark camera ¢
answers to the dark chamber
of the eyeball, and the 7, 2, Lenses. s,s, Screen cut-
plate p, p at the back of ting off diverging rays. \ c, Slid-
the chamber, which is made i"§ box. , #, Picture formed.
sensitive by chemicals, answers our vetiza. The box
is formed of two parts, sliding one within the other
at c, so as to place the plate at a proper distance

Fig. 19.



Photographic camera.



48 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

from the lens, and then a screw adjusts the focus
more exactly by bringing the front lens back or for-
ward, instead of altering the curve as the ci/iary
muscle does in our eye. The difference between the
two instruments is that in our eye the message
goes to the brain, and the image disappears when
we turn our eyes away from the object; but in
the camera the waves of light work upon the
chemicals, and the image can be fixed and remain
for ever.

“ But the camera has at least one weak point. The
screen at the back is not curved like our retina, but
must be flat because of printing off the pictures, and
therefore the parts of the photograph near the edge
are a little out of proportion.

“In many ways, however, this photographic eye is
a more faithful observer than our own, and helps us
to make more accurate pictures. For instance, in-
stantaneous photographs have been taken of a
galloping horse, and we find that the movements are
very different from what we thought we saw with
our eye, because our retina does not throw off one
‘impression after another quickly enough to be quite
certain we see each curve truly in succession. Again,
the photograph of a face gives minute curves and
lines, lights and shadows, far more perfectly than
even the best artist can see them, and when the
picture is magnified we see more and more details
which escaped us before.

“But it is especially when attached to the micro-
scope or the telescope that the photographic
apparatus tells us such marvellous secrets; giving



WHAT PHOTOGRAPHS CAN SHOW 49

us, for instance, an accurate picture of the most
minute water-animal quite invisible to the naked eye,
so that when we enlarge the photograph any one can
see the beautiful markings, the finest fibre, or the
tiniest granule; or affording us accurate pictures,
such as the one at p. 19 of the face of the moon, and
bringing stars into view which we cannot otherwise
see even with the strongest telescope.

“Our own eye has many weaknesses. For ex-
ample, when we look through the telescope at the
sky we can only fix our attention on one part at
once, and afterwards on another; and the picture
which we see in this way, bit by bit, we must draw
as best we can. But if we put a sensitive photo-
graphic plate into the telescope just at the point (z, z,
Fig. 18), where the zmage of the sky is focused,
this plate gives attention, so to speak, to the whole
picture at once, and registers every point exactly as
it is; and this picture can be kept and enlarged so
that every detail can be seen.

“ Then, again, if we look at faint stars, they do not
grow any brighter as we look. Each ray sends its
message to the brain, and that is all; we cannot
heap them up in our eye, and, indeed, after a time
we see less, because our nerves grow tired. But on
a photographic plate in a telescope, each ray in its
turn does a little work upon the chemicals, and the
longer the plate remains, the stronger the picture
becomes. When wet plates were used they could
not be left long, but since dry plates have been
invented, with a film of chemically prepared gelatine,
they can be left for hours in the telescope, which is



50 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

kept by clockwork accurately opposite to the same
objects. In this way thousands of faint stars, which
we cannot see with the strongest telescope, creep
into view as their feeble rays work over and over
again on the same spot; and, as the brighter stars
as well as the faint ones are all the time making
their impression stronger, when the plate comes out
each one appears in its proper strength. On the
other hand, very bright objects often become blurred
by a long exposure, so that we have sometimes to
sacrifice the clearness of a bright object in order to
print faint objects clearly.

“We now come to our last magic glass—the
Spectroscope ; and the hour has slipped by so fast
that I have very little time left to speak of it. But
this matters less as we have studied it before.’ 1
need now only remind you of some of the facts. You
will remember that when we passed sunlight through
a three-sided piece of glass called a prism, we broke
up a ray of white light into a line of beautiful
colours gradually passing from red, through orange,
yellow, green, blue, and indigo, to violet, and that
these follow in the same order as we see them in the
rainbow or in the thin film of a soap-bubble. By
various experiments we proved that these colours are
separated from each other because the many waves
which make up white light are of different sizes, so
that because the waves of red light are slow and
heavy, they lag behind when bent in the three-sided
glass, while the rapid violet waves are bent more out

1 Fairyland of Science, Lecture II.; and Short History of Natural
Science, chapter xxxiv.



THE SPECTROSCOPE 51

of their road and run to the farther end of the line,
the other colours ranging themselves between.
“Now when the light falls through the open
window, or through a round hole or /arge slit, the
images of the hole made by each coloured wave
overlap each other very much, and the colours in
the spectrum or coloured band are crowded together.
But when in the spectroscope we pass the ray of light
through a very narrow slit, each coloured image of the

Fig. 20.



Kirchhoff’s spectroscope.
A, The telescope which receives the ray of light
through the slit in O.

upright slit overlaps the next upright image only
very little. By using several prisms one after the
other (see Fig. 21), these upright coloured lines are
separated more and more till we get a very long
band or spectrum. Yet, ‘as you know from our
experiments with the light of a glowing wire or of
molten iron, however much you spread out the light
E



52 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

given by a solid or liquid, you can never separate
these coloured lines from each other. It is only
when you throw the light of a glowing gas or vapour
into the slit that you get a few bright lines standing
out alone. This is because a// the rays of white light
are present in glowing solids and liquids, and they
follow each other too closely to be separated. But
a gas, such as glowing hydrogen for example, gives
out only a few separate rays, which, pouring through
the slit, throw red, greenish-blue, and dark blue lines
on the screen Thus
you have seen the
double, orange-yellow
sodium line (3, Plate I.
which starts out at
once when salt is held
in a flame and _ its
light thrown into the
spectroscope, and the
red line of potassium
vapour under the same
treatment; and we



Passage of rays through the spectroscope. shall observe these
S, S’, Slit through which the light falls again when we study

piiecrmit ce aoe egos cee De recryiee :
on the prisms. 1, 2, 3, 4, Prisms in the coloured lights of

which the rays are dispersed more and
the sun and stars.

more. a, 4, Screen receiving the spectrum,
of which the seven principal colours are “We see, then, that
ee the work of our magic

glass, the spectroscope, is simply to sift the waves
of light, and that these waves, from their colour
and their position in the long spectrum, actually tell
us what glowing gases have started them on their



WHAT THE SPECTROSCOPE CAN SHOW 33

road. Is not this like magic? I take a substance
made of I know not what ; I break it up, and, melting
it in the intense heat of an electric spark, throw its
light into the spectroscope. Then, as I examine this
light after it has been spread out by the prisms, I
can actually read by unmistakable lines what metals
or non-metals it contains. Nay, more; when I catch
the light of a star, or even of a faint nebula, in my
telescope, and pass it through these prisms, there,
written up on the magic-coloured band, I read off
the gases which are glowing in that star-sun or
star-dust billions of miles away.

“ Now, boys, I have let you into the secrets of my
five magic glasses—the magnifying-glass, the micro-
scope, the telescope, the photographic camera, and
the spectroscope. With these and the help of
chemistry you can learn to work all my spells. You
can peep into the mysteries of the life of the tiniest
being which moves unseen under your feet; you
can peer into that vast universe, which we can never
visit so long as our bodies hold us down to our
little earth ; you can make the unseen stars print
their spots of light on the paper you hold in your
hand, by means of light-waves, which left them
hundreds of years ago; or you can sift this light in
your spectroscope, and make it tell you what sub-
stances were glowing in that star when they were
started on their road. All this you can do on one
condition, namely, that you seek patiently to know
the truth.

“Stories of days long gone by tell us of true magi-
cians and false magicians, and the good or evil they



54 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wrought. Of these I know nothing, but I do know
this, that the value of the spells you can work with
my magic glasses depends entirely upon whether you
work patiently, accurately, and honestly. If you
make careless, inaccurate experiments, and draw
hasty conclusions, you will only do bad work, which
it may take others years to undo; but if you
question your instruments honestly and carefully,
they will answer truly and faithfully. You may
make many mistakes, but one experiment will correct
the other; and while you are storing up in your
own mind knowledge which lifts you far above this
little world, or enables you to look deep below the
outward surface of life, you may add your little
group of facts to the general store, and help to pave
the way to such grand discoveries as those of Newton
in astronomy, Bunsen and Kirchhoff in spectrum
analysis, and Darwin in the world of life.”



FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

un
wi

CHAPTER III

FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

T was a lovely warm day in
September, the golden corn
had been cut and carted,
and the waggons of the
farmers around were free
for the use of the college

lads in their yearly autumn

holiday. There they stood
in a long row, one behind
the other in the drive round the
grounds, each with a pair of

y sleek, powerful farm-horses, and
oo the waggoners beside them with

their long whips ornamented with coloured ribbons ;

and as each waggon drew up before the door, it
filled rapidly with its merry load and went on its

Way.

They had a long drive of seven miles before them,
for they were going to cross the wild moor, and then
descend gradually along a fairly good road to the
more wooded and fertile country. Their object that





56 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

day was to reach a certain fairy dell known to a few
only among the party as one of the loveliest spots in
Devon. It was a perfect day for a picnic. As
they drove over the wide stretches of moorland, with
tors to right and tors to the left, the stunted furze
bushes growing here and there glistened with spiders’
webs from which the dew had not yet disappeared,
and mosses in great variety carpeted the ground,
from the lovely thread-mosses, with their scarlet
caps, to the pale sphagnum of the bogs, where a halt
was made for some of the botanists of the party to
search for the little Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia).
Though this little plant had now almost ceased to
flower, it was not difficult to recognise by its rosette
of leaves glistening with sticky glands which it
spreads out in many of the Dartmoor bogs to catch
the tiny flies and suck out their life’s blood, and
several specimens were uprooted and carefully packed
away to plant in moist moss at home.

From this bog onwards the road ran near by one
of the lovely streams which feed the rivers below, and,
passing across a bridge covered with ivy, led through
a small forest of stunted trees round which the wood-
bine clung, hanging down its crimson berries, and the
bracken fern, already putting on its brown and yellow
tints, grew tall and thick on either side. Then, as
they passed out of the wood, they came upon the
dell, a piece of wild moorland lying in a hollow
between two granite ridges, with large blocks of
granite strewn over it here and there, and furze bushes
growing under their shelter, still covered with yellow
blossoms together with countless seed-bearing pods,



FAIRY RINGS IN A DELL 57

which the youngsters soon gathered for the shiny
black seeds within them.

Here the waggons were unspanned, the horses
tethered out, the food unpacked, and preparations for
the picnic soon in full swing. Just at this moment,
however, a loud shout from one part of the dell called
every one’s attention. “The fairy rings! the fairy
rings! we have found the fairy rings!” and there
truly on the brown sward might be seen three deli-
cate green rings, the fresh sprouting grass growing
young and tender in perfect circles measuring from
six feet to nearly three yards across.

“What are they?” The question came from many
voices at once, but it was the Principal who answered.

“Why, do you not know that they are pixie circles,
where the ‘elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and
groves’ hold their revels, whirling in giddy round,
and making the rings, ‘whereof the ewe not bites’?
Have you forgotten how Mrs. Quickly, in the Jerry
Wives of Windsor, tells us that

“ ‘nightly, meadow-fairies, look you sing,
Like to the Garter’s compass, in a ring :
The expressure that it bears, green let it be,
More fertile-fresh than all the field to see’ ?

“If we are magicians and work spells under magic
glasses, why should not the pixies work spells on the
grass? I brought you here to-day on purpose to
see them. Which of you now can name the pixie
who makes them?”

A deep silence followed. If any knew or guessed
the truth of the matter, they were too shy to risk
making a mistake.



58 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“Be off with you then,” said the Principal, “and
keep well away from these rings all day, that you
may not disturb the spell. But come back to me
before we return at night, and perhaps I may show
you the wonder-working pixie, and we may take him
home to examine under the microscope.”

The day passed as such happy days do, and the
glorious harvest moon had risen over the distant
tors before the horses were spanned and the waggons
ready. But the Principal was not at the starting
place, and looking round they saw him at the farther
end of the dell.

“Gently, gently,” he cried, as there was one general
rush towards him ; “look where you tread, for I stand
within a ring of fairies!”

And then they saw that just outside the green
circle in which he stood, forming here and there a
broken ring, were patches of a beautiful tiny mush-
room, each of which raised its pale brown umbrella
in the bright moonlight.

“Here are our fairies, boys. I am going to take
a few home where they can be spared from the ring,
and to-morrow we will learn their history.”

The following day saw the class-room full, and
from the benches eager eyes were turned to the
eight windows, in each of which stood one of the
elder boys at his microscope ready for work. For
under those microscopes the Principal always arranged
some object referred to in his lecture and figured in
diagrams on the walls, and it was the duty of each
boy, after the lecture was over, to show and explain



IMPS AND PIXIES OF PLANT-LIFE 59

to the class all the points of the specimen under
his care. These boys were always specially envied,
for though the others could, it is true, follow all the
descriptions from the diagrams, yet these had the
plant or animal always under their eye. Discussion
was at this moment running high, for there was a
great uncertainty of opinion as to whether a mush-
room could be really called a plant when it had no
leaves or flowers. All at once the hush came, as the
Principal stepped into his desk and began :-—

“Life is hard work, boys, and there is no being
in this world which has not to work for its living.
You all know that a plant grows by taking in gases
and water, and working them up into sap and living
tissue by the help of the sunshine and the green
matter in their leaves; and you know, too, that
the world is so full of green plants that hundreds
and thousands of young seedlings can never get a
living, but are stifled in their babyhood or destroyed
before they can grow up.

“Now there are many dark, dank places in the
world where plants cannot get enough sunlight
and air to make green colouring matter and manu-
facture their own food. And so it comes to pass
that a certain class of plants have found another
way of living, by taking their food ready made
from other decaying plants and animals, and so
avoiding the necessity of manufacturing it for them-
selves. These plants can live hidden away in dark
cellars and damp cupboards, in drains and pipes
where no light ever enters, under a thick covering of
dead leaves in the forest, under fallen trunks and



60 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

mossy stones; in fact, wherever decaying matter,
whether of plant or animal, can be found for them
to feed upon.

“Tt is to this class, called fuugz, which includes
all mushrooms and moulds, mildews, smuts, and
ferments, that the mushroom belongs which we
found yesterday making the fairy rings. And, in
truth, we were not so far wrong when we called
them pixies or imps, for many of them are indeed
imps of mischief, which play sorry pranks in our
stores at home and in the fields and forest abroad.
They grow on our damp bread, or cheese, or pickles ;
they destroy fruit and corn, hop and vine, and even
take the life of insects and other animals. Yet, on
the other hand, they are useful in clearing out un-
healthy nooks and corners, and purifying the air ;
and they can be made to do good work by those
who know how to use them; for without ferments
we could have neither wine, beer, nor vinegar, nor
even the yeast which lightens our bread.

“I am going to-day to introduce you to this large
vagabond class of plants, that we may see how they
live, grow, and spread, what good and bad work
they do, and how they do it. And before we come
to the mushrooms, which you know so well, we must
look at the smaller forms, which do all their work
above ground, so that we can observe them. For the
Jungi are to be found almost everywhere. The film
growing over manure-heaps, the yeast plant, the winc
fungus, and the vinegar plant; the moulds and mil-
dews covering our cellar-walls and cupboards, or
growing on decayed leaves and wood, on stale fruit,



MOULDS AND MILDEWS 61

bread, or jam, or making black spots on the leaves
of the rose, the hop, or the vine; the potato fungus,
cating into the potato in the dark ground and pro-
ducing disease ; the smut filling the grains of wheat
and oats with disease, the ergot feeding on the rye,
the rust which destroys beetroot, the rank toadstools
and puff-balls, the mushroom we eat, and the truffles
which form even their fruit underground,—all these
are fungi, or lowly plants which have given up mak-
ing their own food in the sunlight, and take it ready
made from the dung, the decaying mould, the root,
the leaf, the fruit, or the germ on which they grow.
Lastly, the diseases which kill the silkworm and the
common house-fly, and even some of the worst skin
diseases in man, are caused by minute plants of this
class feeding upon their hosts.

“In fact, the fungi are so widely spread over all
things living and dead, that there is scarcely any-
thing free from them in one shape or another. The

Fig. 22.



Three forms of vegetable mould magnified.

1, Mucor Mucedo. 2, Aspergillus glaucus. 3, Penicillium glaucum.

minute spores, now of one kind, now of another,
float in the air, and settling down wherever they
find suitable food, have nothing more to do than



62 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to feed, fatten, and increase, which they do with
wonderful rapidity. Let us take as an example
one of the moulds which covers damp leaves, and
even the paste and jam in our cupboard. I have
some here growing upon a basin of paste, and you
see it forms a kind of dense white fur all over the
surface, with here and there a bluish-green tinge
upon it. This white fur is the common mould, Mucor
Mucedo (1, Fig. 22), and the green mould happens in
this case to be another mould, Penicillium glaucum
(3, Fig. 22); but I must warn you that these minute
moulds look very much alike until you examine
them under the microscope, and though they are
called white, blue, or green moulds, yet any one of
them may be coloured at different times of its
growth. Another very common and beautiful mould,
Aspergillus glaucus (2, Fig. 22), often grows with
Mucor on the top of jam.

“All these plants begin with a spore or minute
colourless cell of living matter (s, Fig. 23), which
spends its energy in sending out tubes in all direc-
tions into the leaves, fruit, or paste on which it feeds,
The living matter, flowing now this way now that,
lays down the walls of its tubes as it flows, and by
and by, here and there, a tube, instead of working
into the paste, grows upwards into the air and
swells at the tip into a colourless ball in which
a number of minute seed-like bodies called spores are
formed. The ball bursts, the spores fall out, and each
one begins to form fresh tubes, and so little by little
the mould grows denser and thicker by new plants
starting in all directions.





HOW MOULDS GROW 63

Under the first microscope you will see a slide
showing the tubes which spread through the paste,
and which are called the mycelium (m, Fig. 23), and

amongst it are three upright
tubes, one just starting a,
another with the fruit ball
forming 6, and a third «¢,
which is bursting and throw-
ing out the spores. The
Aspergillus and the Penicil-
lium differ from the Mucor in
having their spores naked
and not enclosed in a spore-
case. In Penicillium they
grow like the beads of a
necklace one above the other
on the top of the upright
tube, and can very easily be
separated (see Fig. 22); while
Aspergillus, a most lovely
silvery mould, is more com-
plicated in the growth of its
spores, for it bears them on
many rows branching out
from the top of the tube like
the rays of a star.

“T want you to look at
each of these moulds care-
fully under the microscope,
for few people who hastily
scrape a mould away, vexed



Fig. 23.

Mucor Mucedo, greatly magni-
nified. (After Sachs and
Brefeld. )

m, Mycelium, or tangle of
threads. a, 6, c, Upright tubes
in different stages. c, Spore-
case bursting and sending out
spores. s, 1, 2, 3, A growing
spore, in different stages, start-
ing a new mycelium,

to find it on food or

damp clothing, have any idea what a delicate and



64 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

beautiful structure lies under their hand. These
moulds live on decaying matter, but many of the
mildews, rusts, and other kinds of fungus, prey upon
living plants such as the smut of oats (Ustilago carbo),
and the dunt (Tilletia carta) which eats away the
inside of the grains of wheat, while another fungus
attacks its leaves. There is scarcely a tree or herb
which has not one fungus to prey upon it, and many
have several, as, for example, the common lime-tree,
which is infested by seventy-four different fungi, and
the oak by no less than 200.

“So these colourless food-taking plants prey upon
their neighbours, while they take their oxygen for
breathing from air. The ‘ ferments, however, which
live zuséde plants or fluids, take even their oxygen
for breathing from their hosts.

“If you go into the garden in summer and pluck
an overripe gooseberry, which is bursting like this
one I have here, you will probably find that the pulp
looks unhealthy and rotten near the split, and the
gooseberry will taste tart and disagreeable. This is
because a small fungus has grown inside, and worked
a change in the juice of the fruit. At first this
fungus spread its tubes outside and merely fed upon
the fruit, using oxygen from the air in breathing ;
but by and by the skin gave way, and the fungus
crept inside the gooseberry where it could no longer
get any fresh air. In this dilemma it was forced to
break up the sugar in the fruit and take the oxygen
out of it, leaving behind only alcohol and carbonic
acid which give the fermented taste to the fruit.

“So the fungus-imp feeds and grows in nature,



THE GROWTH OF YEAST 65

and when man gets hold of it he forces it to do
the same work for a useful purpose, for the grape-
fungus grows in the vats in which grapes are crushed
and kept away from air, and tearing up the sugar,
leaves alcoho] behind in the grape-juice, which in
this way becomes wine. So, too, the yeast-fungus
grows in the malt and hop liquor, turning it into
beer ; its spores floating in the fluid and increasing
at a marvellous rate, as any housewife knows who,
getting yeast for her bread, tries to keep it in a
corked bottle.

“The yeast plant has never been found wild. It
is only known as a cultivated plant, growing on
prepared liquor. The brewer has to sow it by taking
some yeast from other beer, or by leaving the liquor
exposed to air in which yeast spores are floating ;
or it will sow itself in the same
way in a mixture of water, hops,
sugar, and salt, to which a handful
of flour is added. It increases at
a marvellous rate, one cell budding }
out of another, while from time to
time the living matter in a cell will
break up into four parts instead of |
two, and so four new cells will start Yeast cells growing
and bud. A drop of yeast will very under the microscope.
soon cover a glass slide with this cee eat
tiny plant, as you will see under . 4 group of cells where
the second microscope, where they division is going on in
are now at work (Fig. 24). een

“But perhaps the most curious of all the minute
fungi are those which grow inside insects and destroy





66 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

them. At this time of year you may often see a
dead fly sticking to the window-pane with a cloudy
white ring round it; this poor fly has been killed by
a little fungus called Empusa musce. A spore from
a former plant has fallen perhaps on the window-
pane, or some other spot over which the fly has
crawled, and being sticky has fixed itself under the
fly’s body. Once settled on a favourable spot it
sends out a tube, and piercing the skin of the fly,
begins to grow rapidly inside. There it forms little
round cells one after the other, something like the
yeast-cells, till it fills the whole body, feeding on its
juices ; then each cell sends a tube, like the upright
tubes of the Mucor (Fig. 23) out again through the
fly’s skin, and this tube bursts at the end, and so
new spores are set free. It is these tubes, and the
spores thrown from them, which you see forming a
kind of halo round the dead fly as it clings to the
pane. Other fungi in the same way kill the silk-
worm and the caterpillars of the cabbage butterfly.
Nor is it only the lower animals which suffer. When
we once realise that fungus spores are floating every-
where in the air, we can understand how the terrible
microscopic fungi called bacteria will settle on an
open wound and cause it to fester if it is not properly
dressed.

“Thus we see that these minute fungi are almost
everywhere. The larger ones, on the contrary, are
confined to the fields and forests, damp walls and
hollow trees; or wherever rotting wood, leaves, or
manure provide them with sufficient nourishment.
Few people have any clear ideas about the growth



HOW MUSHROOMS GROW 67

of a mushroom, except that the part we pick springs
up in a single night. The real fact is, that a whole
mushroom plant is nothing more than a gigantic
mould or mildew, only that it is formed of many
different shaped
cells, and spreads
its tubes under-
ground or through
the trunks of trees
instead of in paste
or jam, as in the
case of the mould.

“The part which
we gather and calla
mushroom, a_ toad-
stool, or a puffball is ;

. Early stages of the mushroom.
only the fruit, answer- (After Sachs.)
ing to the round balls —m, Mycelium. 1-3, Mushroom buds of
of the mould. The different ages. 74, Button mushroom. &
see ete ret yO Semin tn tebe tere ae
a thick network of
tubes, which you will see under the third micro-
scope. These tubes spread underground and suck
in decayed matter from the earth; they form the
mycelium (m, Fig. 25) such as we found in the
mould, The mushroom-growers call it ‘mushroom
spawn’ because they use it to spread over the
ground for new crops. Out of these underground
tubes there springs up from time to time a
swollen round body no bigger at first than a mustard
seed (61, Fig. 25). As it increases in size it comes
above ground and grows into the mushroom or
F

Fig. 25.





68 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

spore-case, answering to the round balls which
contain the spores of the mould. At first this
swollen body is egg-shaped, the top half being
largest and broadest, and the fruit is then called
a ‘button-mushroom’ 64. Inside this ball are
now formed a series of folds made of long cells,
some of which are soon to bear spores just as the

" "Fig. 26. 2



Later stages of the mushroom. (After Gautier. }
1, Button mushroom stage. c, Cap. v, Veil. g, Gills.
2, Full-grown mushroom, showing veil v after the cap is quite
free, and the gills or lamellx g, of which the structure is shown in
Fig. 27.

tubes in the mould did, and while these are forming
and ripening, a way out is preparing for them. For
as the mushroom grows, the skin of the lower part
of the ball (v, 64) is stretched more and more, till it
can bear the strain no longer and breaks away from
the stalk ; then the ball expands into an umbrella,
leaving a piece of torn skin, called the veil (v, Fig. 26),
clinging to the stalk.

“ All this happens in a single night, and the mush-
room is complete, with a stem up the centre and a



THE GROWTH OF MUSHROOM GILLS 69

broad cap, under which are the folds which bear the
spores. Thus much you can see for yourselves at any
time by finding a place where mushrooms grow and
looking for them late at night and early in the
morning so as to get the different stages. But now

Fig. 27.



1, One of the gills or lamella of the mushroom slightly magnified,
showing the cells round the edge. c, Cells which do not bear
spores. fc, Fertile cells. 2, A piece of the edge of the same
powerfully magnified, showing how the spores s grow out of the
tip of the fertile cells /.

we must turn to the microscope, and cutting off one
of the folds, which branch out under the cap like the
spokes of a wheel, take a slice across it (1, Fig. 27)
and examine.

“ First, under a moderate power, you will see the
cells forming the centre of the fold and the layer of
long cells (cand /c) which are closely packed all round
the edge. Some of these cells project beyond the
others, and it is they which bear the spores. We
see this plainly under a very strong power when you
can distinguish the sterile cells c and the fertile cells



70 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Je projecting beyond them, and each bearing four
spore-cells s on four little horns at its tip.

“These spores fall off very easily, and you can
make a pretty experiment by cutting off a large
mushroom head in the early morning and putting it
flat upon a piece of paper. In a few hours, if you
lift it very carefully, you will find a number of dark
lines on the paper, radiating from a centre like the
spokes of a wheel, each line being composed of the
spores which have fallen from a fold as it grew ripe.
They are so minute that many thousands would be
required to make up the size of the head of an ordin-
ary pin, yet if you gather the spores of the several
kinds of mushroom, and examine them under a strong
microscope, you will find that even these specks of
matter assume different shapes in the various species.

“You will be astonished too at the immense
number of spores contained in a single mushroom
head, for they are reckoned by millions; and when
we remember that each one of these is the starting
point of a new plant, it reminds us forcibly of the
wholesale destruction of spores and seeds which must
go on in nature, otherwise the mushrooms and their
companions would soon cover every inch of the
whole world.

“ As it is, they are spread abroad by the wind, and
wherever they escape destruction they lie waiting in
every nook and corner till, after the hot summer,
showers of rain hasten the decay of plants and leaves,
and then the mushrooms, toadstools, and puffballs,
grow at an astounding pace. If you go into the woods
at this season you may see the enormous deep-red liver



THE FAIRY-RING MUSHROOM 71

fungus (Fustulina hepatica) growing on the oak-trees,
in patches which weigh from twenty to thirty pounds ;
or the glorious orange-coloured fungus (Zvemella
mesenterica) growing on bare sticks or stumps of
furze ; or among dead leaves you may easily chance
on the little caps of the crimson, scarlet, snowy white,
or orange-coloured fungi which grow in almost every
wood. From white to yellow, yellow to red, red to
crimson and purple black, there is hardly any colour
you may not find among this gaily-decked tribe ; and
who can wonder that the small bright-coloured caps
have been supposed to cover tiny imps or elves, who
used the large mushrooms to serve for their stools
and tables?

“There they work, thrusting their tubes into twigs
and dead branches, rotting trunks and decaying
leaves, breaking up the hard wood and tough
fibres, and building them up into delicate cells,
which by and by die and leave their remains as food
for the early growing plants in the spring. So we
see that in their way the mushrooms and toadstools
are good imps after all, for the tender shoot of a
young seedling plant could take no food out of a
hard tree-trunk, but it finds the work done for it by
the fungus, the rich nourishment being spread around
its young roots ready to be imbibed.

“To find our fairy-ring mushrooms, however, we
must leave the wood and go out into the open
country, especially on the downs and moors and
rough meadows, where the land is poor and the grass
coarse and spare. There grow the nourishing kinds,
most of which we can eat, and among these is the



72 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

delicate little champignon or ‘Scotch-bonnet’ mush-
room, Marasmius Oreades,\ which makes the fairy-
rings. When a spore of this mushroom begins to.
grow, it sucks up vegetable food out of the earth and
spreads its tubes underground, in all directions from
the centre, so that the mycelium forms a round patch
like a thick underground circular cobweb. In the
summer and autumn, when the weather is suitable, it
sends up its delicate pale-brown caps, which we may
gather and eat without stopping the growth of the
plant.

“This goes on year after year underground, new
tubes always travelling outwards till the circle widens
and widens like the rings of water on a pond, only
that it spreads very slowly, making a new ring each
year, which is often composed of a mass of tubes as
much as a foot thick in the ground, and the tender
tubes in the centre die away as the new ones form a
larger hoop outside.

“But all this is below ground; where then are
our fairy rings? Here is the secret. The tubes, as
we have seen, take up food from the earth and
build it up into delicate cells, which decay very soon,
and as they die make a rich manure at the roots of
the grass. So each season the cells of last year’s ring
make a rich feeding-ground for the young grass,
which springs up fresh and green in a fairy ring,
while outside this emerald circle the mushroom tubes
are still growing and increasing underneath the grass,
so that next year, when the present ring is no longer
richly fed, and has become faded and brown like the

1 Shown in initial letter of this chapter.



HOW FAIRY RINGS ARE FORMED 73

rest of the moor, another ring will spring up outside
it, feeding on the prepared food below.

“In bad seasons, though the tubes go on spreading
and growing below, the mushroom fruit does not
always appear above ground. The plant will only
fruit freely when the ground has been well warmed
by the summer sun, followed by damp weather to
moisten it. This gives us a rich crop of mushrooms
all over the country, and it is then you can best
see the ring of fairy mushrooms circling outside the
green hoop of fresh grass. In any case the early
morning is the time to find them ; it is only in very
sheltered spots that they sometimes last through the
day, or come up towards evening, as I found them
last night on the warm damp side of the dell.

“ This is the true history of fairy rings, and now go
and look for yourselves under the microscopes,
Under the first three you will find the three different
kinds of mould of our diagram (Fig. 22). Under the
fourth the spores of the mould are shown in their
first growth putting out the tubes to form the
mycelium. The fifth shows the mould itself with its
fruit-bearing tubes, one of which is bursting. Under
the sixth the yeast plant is growing; the seventh
shows a slice of one of the folds of the common
mushroom with its spore-bearing horns; and under
the eighth I have put some spores from different
mushrooms, that you may see what curious shapes
” they assume.

“Lastly, let me remind you, now that the autumn
and winter are coming, that you will find mush-
rooms, toadstools, puffballs, and moulds in plenty



74 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wherever you go. Learn to know them, their differ-
ent shapes and colours, and above all the special
nooks each one chooses for its home. Look around
in the fields and woods and take note of the decay-
ing plants and trees, leaves and bark, insects and
dead remains of all kinds. Upon each of these you
will find some fungus growing, breaking up their
tissues and devouring the nourishing food they pro-
vide. Watch these spots, and note the soft spongy
soil which will collect there, and then when the
spring comes, notice what tender plants flourish upon
these rich feeding grounds. You will thus see for
yourselves that the fungi, though they feed upon
others, are not entirely mischief-workers, but also
perform their part in the general work of life.”



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES 75

CHAPTER IV

THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES

" HE autumn has passed away
and we are in the midst
of winter. In the long
winter evenings the stars
shine bright and clear, and
tempt us to work with the telescope
and its helpmates the spectroscope
and photographic plates. But at
first sight it would seem as though
our microscopes would have to stand
idle so far at least as plants are
concerned, or be used only to ex-
amine dried specimens and mounted
sections. Yet this is not the fact, as I remembered
last week when walking through the bare and leafless
wood. A startled pheasant rising with a whirr at
the sound of my footsteps among the dead leaves
roused me from my thoughts, and as a young rabbit
scudded across the path and I watched it disappear
among the bushes, I was suddenly struck with the







76 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

great mass of plant life flourishing underfoot and
overhead.

Can you guess what plants these were? I do
not mean the evergreen pines and firs, nor the few
hardy ferns, nor the lovely ivy clothing the trunks
of the trees. Such plants as these live and remain
green in the winter, but they do not grow. If you
wish to find plant life revelling in the cold damp
days of winter, fearing neither frost nor snow and
welcoming mist and rain, you must go to the mosses,
which as autumn passes away begin to cover the
wood-paths, to creep over the roots of the trees, to
suck up the water in the bogs, and even to clothe
dead walls and stones with a soft green carpet.
And with the mosses come the lichens, those curious
grey and greenish oddities which no one but a
botanist would think of classing among plants.

The wood is full of them now: the hairy lichens
hang from the branches of many of the trees, making
them look like old greybearded men; the leafy
lichens encircle the branches, their pale gray, green,
and yellow patches looking as if they were made of
crumpled paper cut into wavy plates ; and the crusty.
lichens, scarcely distinguishable from the bark of the
trees, cover every available space which the mosses
have left free.

As I looked at these lichens and thought of their
curious history I determined that we would study
them to-day, and gathered a basketful of specimens
(see Fig. 28). But when I had collected these I found
I had not the heart to leave the mosses behind. I
could not even break off a piece of bark with lichen



A GROUP OF LICHENS 77

upon it without some little moss coming too, especi-
ally the small thread-mosses (Brywm) which make a



Examples of Lichens. (From life.)
1, A hairy lichen. 2, A leafy lichen. 3, A crustaceous lichen.
A/S, the fruit.

home for themselves in every nook and corner of the
branches; while the feather-mosses, hair-mosses,
cord-mosses, and many others made such a lovely
carpet under my feet that each seemed too beautiful
to pass by, and they found their way into my basket,
crowned at the top with a large mass of the pale-
green Sphagnum, or bog-moss, into which I sank
more than ankle-deep as I crossed the bog in the
centre of the wood on my way home.

So here they all are, and I hope by the help of
our magic glass to let you into some of the secrets
of their lives. It is true we must study the structure
of lichens chiefly by diagrams, for it is too minute
for beginners to follow under the microscope, so we
must trust to drawings made by men more skilful in
microscopic botany, at any rate for the present. But
the mosses we can examine for ourselves and admire
their delicate leaves and wonderful tiny spore-cases.



78 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Now the first question which I hope you want to
ask is, how it is that these lowly plants flourish so
well in the depth of winter when their larger and
stronger companions die down to the ground. We
will answer this first as to the lichens, which are such
strange uncanny-looking plants that it is almost
difficult to imagine they are alive at all; and indeed
they have been a great puzzle to botanists. _

Before we examine them, however, look for a
minute at a small drop of this greenish film which I
have taken from the rain-water taken outside. I
have put some under each microscope, and those
who can ldok into them will
see the slide almost covered
with small round green cells
very much like the yeast
cells we saw when studying
the Fungi, only that instead
of being colourless they are
a bright green. Some of
these cells will I suspect be
longer than others, and these
Single-celled green plants grow- long cells will be moving

ing and dividing (Pleurococcus). gyer the slide very rapidly,

(Shel anaes end porn) swimming hither and thither,
and you will see, perhaps for the first time, that very
low plants can swim about in water. These green
cells are, indeed, the simplest of all plants, and
are merely bags of living matter which, by the help
of the green granules in them, are able to work up
water and gases into nourishing food, and so to live,
grow, and multiply.



’



*

WHERE SINGLE-CELLED PLANTS GROW 79

’ There are many kinds of these single-celled plants
in the world. You may find them on damp paths,
in almost any rain-water butt, in ponds and ditches,
in sparkling waterfalls, along the banks of flowing
rivers, and in the cold clear springs on the bleak
mountains. Some of them take the form of tangled
threads’ composed of long strings of cells, and these
sometimes form long streamers in flowing water, and
at other times are gathered together in a shapeless
film only to be disentangled under a microscope.
Other kinds * wave to and fro on the water, forming
dense patches of violet, orange-brown, or glossy green
scum shining in the bright sunlight, and these flourish
equally in the ponds of our gardens and in pools in
the Himalaya mountains, 18,000 feet above the sea.
Others again® seize on every damp patch on tree
trunks, rocks, or moist walls, covering them with a
green powder formed of single plant cells. Other
species of this family turn a bright red colour when
the cells are still; and one, under the name of Gory
Dew,* has often frightened the peasants of Italy, by
growing very rapidly over damp walls and then
turning the colour of blood. Another® forms the
“red snow” of the Arctic regions, where it covers
wide surfaces of snow with a deep red colour. Others °
form a shiny jelly over rocks and stones, and these
may be found almost everywhere, from the garden
path to the warm springs of India, from the marshes
of New Zealand up to the shores of the Arctic ocean,
and even on the surface of floating icebergs.

1 Conferva. 2 Oscillaria. 3 Protococcus.
+ Palmella cruenta. 5 Protococcus nivalis. 6 Nostoc.



80 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The reason why these plants can live in such very
different regions is that they do not take their food
through roots out of the ground, but suck in water
and gases through the thin membrane which covers
their cell, and each cell does its own work. So it
matters very little to them where they lie, so long as
they have moisture and sunlight to help them in
their work. Wherever they are, if they have these,
they can take in carbonic acid from the air and
work up the carbon with other gases which they
imbibe with the water, and so make living material.
In this way they grow, and as a cell grows larger
the covering is stretched and part of the digested
food goes to build up more covering membrane, and
by and by the cell divides into two and each mem-
brane closes up, so that there are two single-celled
plants where there was only one before. This will
sometimes go on so fast that a small pond may be
covered in a few hours with a green film formed of
new cells.

Now we have seen, when studying mushrooms, that
the one difference between these green plants and the
single-celled Fungi is that while the green cells make
their own food, colourless cells can only take it in
ready-made, and therefore prey upon all kinds of
living matter. This is just what happens in the
lichens; and botanists have discovered that these
curious growths are really the result of a partnership
between single-celled green plants and single-celled
fungi. The grey part is a fungus; but when it is
examined under the microscope we find it is not a
fungus only; a number of green cells can be seen



HOW LICHENS SUCCEED 81

scattered through it, which, when carefully studied,
prove to be some species of the green single-celled
plants.

Here are two drawings of sections cut through
two different lichens, and
enormously magnified so
that the cells are clearly
seen. i, Fig. 30 is part of
a hairy lichen (1, Fig. 28),
and 2 is part of a leafy
lichen (2, Fig.. 28). The
hairy lichen as you see has
a row of green cells all round
the tiny branch, with fungus |
cells on all sides of them. ||
The leafy lichen, which only *
presents one surface to the
sun and air while the other
side is against the tree, has
only one layer of green cells
near the surface, but pro-



Sections of Lichens. (Sachs. )

1, Section of a hairy lichen,
tected by the fungus above. Usnea barbata. 2, Section of a

The way the lichen has leafy lichen, Sticta Suliginosa.
grown is this. A green cell 3 Early growth of a lichen.

(gc 3, Fig. 30) falling on g¢, Green cells. /, Fungus.

some damp spot has begun to grow and spread,
working up food in the sunlight. To it comes
the spore of the fungus f first thrusting its tubes
into the tree-bark, or wall, and then spreading
round the green cells, which remain always in
such a position that sunlight, air, and moisture
can reach them. From this time the two classes of



82 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

plants live as friends, the fungus using part of the
food made by the green cells, and giving them in
return the advantage of being spread out to the
sunlight, while they are also protected in frosty or
sultry weather when they would dry up on a bare
surface. On the whole, however, the fungus probably
gains the most, for it has been found, as we should
expect, that the green cells can live and: grow if
separated out of the lichen, but the fungus cells die
when their industrious companions are taken from
them.

At any rate the partnership succeeds, as you will
see if you go into the wood, or into an orchard where
the apple-trees are neglected, for every inch of the
branches is covered by lichens if not already taken
up by mosses or toadstools.

There is hardly any part of the world except the
tropics where lichens do not abound. In the Alps
of Scandinavia close to the limits of perpetual snow,
in the sandy wastes of Arctic America, and over the
dreary Tundras of Arctic Siberia, where the ground
is frozen hard during the greater part of the year,
they flourish where nothing else can live.

The little green cells multiply by dividing, as we
saw them doing in the green film from the water-
butt. The fungus, however, has many different
modes of seeding itself. One of these is by form-
ing little pockets in the lichen, out of which, when
they burst, small round bodies are thrown, which
cover the lichen with a minute green powder. There
is plenty of this powder on the leafy lichen which
you have by you. You can see it with the magnify-



HOW LICHENS FRUIT 83

ing-glass, without putting it under the microscope.
As long as the lichen is dry these round bodies do
not grow, but as soon as moisture reaches them they
start away and become new plants.

A more complicated and beautiful process is shown
in this diagram (Fig. 31). If you look carefully at
the leafy lichen (2, Fig. 28) you will find here and
there some little cups 4 while others grow upon the



Fructification of a lichen, (From Sachs and Oliver.)
Apothecium or spore-chamber of a lichen. 1, Closed. 2, Open.
3, The spore-cases and filaments enlarged, showing the spores. /, Fila-
ments. sc, Spore-cases, 5, Spores.

tips of the hairy lichen. These cups, or fruits,
were once closed, flask-shaped chambers (1, Fig.
31) inside which are formed a number of oval
cells sc, which are spore-cases, with from four to eight
spores or seed-like bodies s3 inside them. When
these chambers, which are called afothecia, are ripe,
moist or rainy weather causes them to swell at the
G



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e43a74fc73271352c8ae6e5666d8069e5b9b5c4b
'2011-12-14T03:17:14-05:00'
describe
'273' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUQ' 'sip-files00008.txt'
e484dd08580d993c4a680710fbfab8b4
3cf515242bde79972817041d62bcfe48a5f69a37
'2011-12-14T03:21:02-05:00'
describe
'28509' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUR' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
d57a248855bae5676d1652e75100570b
411679338241a59a4082b105c1bdf302207b44e1
'2011-12-14T03:22:16-05:00'
describe
'335843' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUS' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
fa775bd7f2793cb8667b0999a43190e4
8db091e3a95279371397d763e4575f6b51b0b65b
'2011-12-14T03:16:05-05:00'
describe
'76536' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUT' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
b1a8dad65b5679b2a59b10b203649a3b
a732510b66432ee4d5a9806f13f8d42e5a2f54f4
describe
'10330' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUU' 'sip-files00009.pro'
8dbb531b0bf83300ee36f4372f1d165d
5b5c1146a3306dec36377418d296dfb5dc3c6c88
'2011-12-14T03:22:06-05:00'
describe
'38212' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUV' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
4425cf8d613e914f41f43ae8ed0e9eeb
4be2b72372313fee0190d3fcae0b07b5890557b5
'2011-12-14T03:21:46-05:00'
describe
'2706360' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUW' 'sip-files00009.tif'
034b8d9941de9df7c9480d8f402fb5d0
c9be67b4d0c4045d4fcbdc44d7f75553d0d85f87
'2011-12-14T03:15:57-05:00'
describe
'508' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUX' 'sip-files00009.txt'
8597e8ccc64ed899e6a86867dad2d124
a9cd70571250cf28478365c8d291c6c1800f59b0
'2011-12-14T03:19:33-05:00'
describe
'335915' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUY' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
3eb373797fe44322c36d197c7a0cfd48
77e84bf3baf08c6d7cd0dda94e646b02e948ba10
'2011-12-14T03:18:13-05:00'
describe
'24664' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACUZ' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
c847445a9af485a07244e1e68299e8ce
94c7ad62f631f3c2dab74be81aba925d25c6539c
'2011-12-14T03:21:23-05:00'
describe
'18970' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVA' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
b98c1a611fad97f5e7cce7f69c2cbce2
121571b9188fa5903e23c8ebb1f9dbbab966cfd4
'2011-12-14T03:18:52-05:00'
describe
'111114' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVB' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
f6332c709ab828c0fbe4fa695269406f
b102d41599b00f2288afe070b60e779df291829a
'2011-12-14T03:16:35-05:00'
describe
'22381' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVC' 'sip-files00011.pro'
caac7b72a99cfc6fed65325052ff4d02
edc692ac844633d20e7df3e627dd1976286b21ca
'2011-12-14T03:16:15-05:00'
describe
'51288' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVD' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
d12fc7f783ed181fabe66c3813805466
f4b92dff629a20b7d0d0fd2de2bc4fdae46ae867
'2011-12-14T03:16:39-05:00'
describe
'2707244' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVE' 'sip-files00011.tif'
987b20bd3469490a9f8ef8ef86d152ff
3c332f2ff6e851329b250cf4acb8ec66b640c69d
'2011-12-14T03:18:01-05:00'
describe
'903' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVF' 'sip-files00011.txt'
b86829c40c81daaa38e887f6ecbb2b84
9fd5cea1b9eb284618fe99160e9aa26b2fcba4c8
'2011-12-14T03:22:39-05:00'
describe
'28479' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVG' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
8b9f06d28a14ce4934ce029a6960754c
fa9654c11535fa095dce4edca30beece0667344f
'2011-12-14T03:20:00-05:00'
describe
'335882' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVH' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
f96c8d7dd7a5e7ee619c1805ea24436a
a8faca38d83451813b28d62d1a1618d0e2b9906d
'2011-12-14T03:18:41-05:00'
describe
'126674' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVI' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
3c80f3027c691a4d28c2aaeed5afd722
6ceceb52fb7dcd9fc0612292af0bdcef6a66f3a0
'2011-12-14T03:21:20-05:00'
describe
'31053' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVJ' 'sip-files00012.pro'
a8044f93540f10c474f844ea7eb70b51
96bc0d12bee438249de6702e178e11fb00d77314
describe
'59159' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVK' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
48978745171fe7738b7f48d648224912
6ad84bf29bee246e0a5837caa50494171e09bed2
'2011-12-14T03:16:11-05:00'
describe
'2708016' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVL' 'sip-files00012.tif'
33229c41d1fb715324bf4a4e3dfde3ec
60371d19bde4e61e7b2f4318fb6f5730d3d2929b
'2011-12-14T03:17:58-05:00'
describe
'1226' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVM' 'sip-files00012.txt'
4e87287169ffaf76b64ffb80155bc4c0
692360f9e684bf5ec0e247240725490a548a094d
'2011-12-14T03:17:20-05:00'
describe
'31597' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVN' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
ad0d381f8aa5230280588540deba30bc
6b4e4ac5cc9795b5b15c131d50bdf30d7479c064
'2011-12-14T03:18:55-05:00'
describe
'335794' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVO' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
cea559f305da8cc55569ad687b554ba4
26bc234e61bbef78b0f8614b3aa28f87693175b5
'2011-12-14T03:18:59-05:00'
describe
'82446' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVP' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
9e3346321fb39c29a0d5e3776a914e92
0a6ba6b57144b9a709e9ddb72f534eee86042382
'2011-12-14T03:20:39-05:00'
describe
'13409' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVQ' 'sip-files00013.pro'
9c01473ea997e692ddf2fc25f3a58b31
3bf0879034a68ee7bee60de5d914b46d1d314593
'2011-12-14T03:18:56-05:00'
describe
'38044' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVR' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
51b172a0169b6e96281ce649e1746aa6
289681375e60220e8d8bb2df03c8a16ff5e5f553
'2011-12-14T03:19:17-05:00'
describe
'2706100' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVS' 'sip-files00013.tif'
c1783baa1ad08a478ca4b9ae168af510
f0df822ec5a92fcf4e7f69587b40411eb840aaf5
'2011-12-14T03:21:04-05:00'
describe
'598' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVT' 'sip-files00013.txt'
556d3018ac7f4ab68c725ae41bcaa3d2
a270c111a0015af6b2149ab155f35b50ca7738d0
'2011-12-14T03:18:19-05:00'
describe
'24692' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVU' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
d4effa0f796dc0f986596e8a157c14e0
8d57d444a6b5fe22f404ca33d31d926027e34d70
describe
'335824' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVV' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
cb3bf9bee0b1ea8d2ff4b7db18e69bc7
6797a67591778c603053f8eed63bb42e585a7f61
'2011-12-14T03:22:14-05:00'
describe
'41949' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVW' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
f6388678a40cc4c350333d08ab41630a
e77370653c6da8cdcd0b673a070dc6894bc9521b
'2011-12-14T03:19:35-05:00'
describe
'22444' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVX' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
e5602d0331de74055fc111ca05ee44ad
d85919eb21c2950c91c1db8ce30afaece57da679
describe
'2704520' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVY' 'sip-files00014.tif'
3bee3e9e0d7fde8edd38026e7eb20b0a
9790be4e8ae28a1b47ea85331826583f747e6779
'2011-12-14T03:17:09-05:00'
describe
'18951' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACVZ' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
a3e087cee03d0c0df67e7ccdad122b95
88b8959a6b7933fc73405fb0dd853804fd795e8a
'2011-12-14T03:17:38-05:00'
describe
'335701' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWA' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
517e5d46c82b81f361912b97673d13a0
f96855f31f32c5eb1ef1a41f7ddd69d657692608
'2011-12-14T03:21:10-05:00'
describe
'72521' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWB' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
4fc3afb57fb79995f4b9703e3ff9a841
6e83d9ae020f5b1e8ae7690de953bb127ad90532
'2011-12-14T03:16:26-05:00'
describe
'9020' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWC' 'sip-files00015.pro'
7b0c55ab45e48935daa029904019bd68
37265974e510069d5a4649ac147b7a09449cf2fb
'2011-12-14T03:17:27-05:00'
describe
'35046' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWD' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
29aee435ac2f43e9760357f52724bfb7
ece49d075aaba173f1437adc44d465b9f2e35671
'2011-12-14T03:15:56-05:00'
describe
'2706088' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWE' 'sip-files00015.tif'
557fd66049dc53874b5f283d8dfdaf63
e3a78bba89b90c1e8a5fb898146e5386964f2bfc
'2011-12-14T03:17:28-05:00'
describe
'568' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWF' 'sip-files00015.txt'
439de84899575cd70eaef98544f7a708
5e59e65d28d0eee2e52bf37f9db67f1d6d54b858
describe
'23538' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWG' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
edca79899acf9a3e5ab3cf8598ea88b6
c4c2d1fdaad8de79d77ffd3c62eb55f9da9e2e5b
'2011-12-14T03:17:59-05:00'
describe
'335720' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWH' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
985dc07936a95f56745ac2895705964d
1447a2a4d9ff83321c706a5f4d4990c1772c5b11
'2011-12-14T03:19:10-05:00'
describe
'59727' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWI' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
fc35ceaaa53338bad6736e0500b90977
e903197b27c82c2c6d9cd14ff480c6bda3843f3f
'2011-12-14T03:21:49-05:00'
describe
'6375' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWJ' 'sip-files00016.pro'
9f8ef5aca494ab0bdc7fdd458f40256d
147a14313fcf53df909a8512861f67f37ba42f98
'2011-12-14T03:18:34-05:00'
describe
'30341' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWK' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
7ba96e57de59982b39fee0523ef85349
82412a76c536c1d93ca0d1f698762877796234c5
describe
'2705416' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWL' 'sip-files00016.tif'
76da73c22f63104e245a767a7eea043f
2a052579ff3383688bc59786f7c77a7d125569ee
'2011-12-14T03:22:12-05:00'
describe
'399' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWM' 'sip-files00016.txt'
07753bbae75117a1216a6fcc4109ebc4
fbc5ed1ef5bb1d1a3f62c7ed1d13592a9497eeb0
describe
'22269' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWN' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
f470845b89c44e673e4e5540dffaf293
5e21e18ebb3860363ac866571699e974ac57d33b
'2011-12-14T03:16:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWO' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
fcc4df0f93d9e843e69b61f01b2119ed
acb3b4b706b45a48af59aba0c515d3a7c39f1413
'2011-12-14T03:20:25-05:00'
describe
'95597' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWP' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
b2d9c5d1f9f6aadd59a0c8d59e9890b1
9c9f8ed26f0b333198815b90440bcfa7572ec84f
'2011-12-14T03:19:31-05:00'
describe
'25659' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWQ' 'sip-files00017.pro'
c1ef008ed81ffa826f87ce6ca78d2bce
59052a57450f67ddd1174ee285c0882f58364a87
'2011-12-14T03:19:46-05:00'
describe
'43882' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWR' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
643dfb2caec1e83fb634f5c43c746cc5
34aeb0ffd5466636e99cbf5e1b197886610c975c
'2011-12-14T03:20:54-05:00'
describe
'2706476' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWS' 'sip-files00017.tif'
2480ded167774e6dc7a593ffb61e7e8a
f2e11e37aeb26be64310a464eadb3e48bf90d6ac
'2011-12-14T03:18:58-05:00'
describe
'1323' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWT' 'sip-files00017.txt'
54e766d9266e9411bd2d86f94201d29c
7284de6639f08ce4cab6d309262da14426aee44f
'2011-12-14T03:18:21-05:00'
describe
'25907' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWU' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
ef73a2a8df71265e2cf56c9b33c46dc0
4ae5b67c30fe699b58f8f35d17f932c325d83450
describe
'335881' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWV' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
99ac19a8c2493500b9267cbe57575ed8
154dfcf54b4828e1de185b76127e2698fcc6ea93
'2011-12-14T03:18:23-05:00'
describe
'121098' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWW' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
730702d4002aff9b29ebdc463493b098
29f17688075ca1e93361f3427536657149cd9a37
describe
'45382' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWX' 'sip-files00018.pro'
8b6844b5856e95e5478ae04e2fd3e6b7
d4151942b30941aea2afdce67a465288995162eb
'2011-12-14T03:16:58-05:00'
describe
'55360' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWY' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
5b70c0970aa389df4d62774c45e26e4f
d99d3ca4be7437478cf569162e2ee4e3a05b4cb6
describe
'2707396' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACWZ' 'sip-files00018.tif'
9cdffad2dbb4d1adf24a9002f32216f0
f6b7f0a706fa7d6a8c21b2060298f34083c73c27
'2011-12-14T03:17:22-05:00'
describe
'2149' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXA' 'sip-files00018.txt'
df32a2eabd0c2b31e2b47431357956bd
d7e74be72036ce423ff66b0390a3fe3cf1be8cd1
'2011-12-14T03:17:11-05:00'
describe
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'29132' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXB' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
2da40d5f224a910620646cb20b7080c5
58eb7710d152d370709b173b9805411bf60f450a
describe
'335816' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXC' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
67b2e24a8dbbe7db36f8c07644626bd2
568d9f7cb25a941c89b39c923dcd25d268265d41
'2011-12-14T03:19:30-05:00'
describe
'125941' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXD' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
31cfeeff6129987d5c4a80cea8ba06a0
cc34dac07c22f978334c92cf828b82966c68f034
'2011-12-14T03:19:00-05:00'
describe
'42683' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXE' 'sip-files00019.pro'
f004d1dffe7f15a1a83af3e05c1b3579
30983115ab81e74676bd7b8ae154a301c6c41abc
'2011-12-14T03:20:30-05:00'
describe
'55685' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXF' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
63956ce69926e873837807e6078ef42e
83fa279ac746259ec876d5c31958adf2a3103ed5
'2011-12-14T03:17:52-05:00'
describe
'2707436' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXG' 'sip-files00019.tif'
b1546fda056b9b6c3902be5592801446
d4771c369c15c4b3be78cd06d45ecc5f234026c1
'2011-12-14T03:17:46-05:00'
describe
'2109' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXH' 'sip-files00019.txt'
74f5538ff2932b00489d4b69d0eb1416
2046649ac6da3ba04915d204c0a4065c384e458d
describe
'28981' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXI' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
1f68127587f510b14d781a82259e64e3
f0608e036251e7d0cbee6241d970e79c261f47e3
'2011-12-14T03:17:50-05:00'
describe
'335904' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXJ' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
c3ea18b35180cc6e743df69e74c66b56
4e6967a76d67d5720c94117c08c50e202ba10f8b
'2011-12-14T03:22:13-05:00'
describe
'74965' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXK' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
e32cd623299deaa9dbd92297d1e2d294
9bfdcfdd08279b6331957887a46693ccb5363034
'2011-12-14T03:18:28-05:00'
describe
'15830' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXL' 'sip-files00020.pro'
54e4ed27db5667a5620ea3c1d9fb5189
1cbb782afa6eada6ad5e6bcc503323230695a71f
'2011-12-14T03:21:30-05:00'
describe
'36133' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXM' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
3f4100b1e55376f59d4c09421a622e5b
e85df8221806f5ddeff9638a1ce6d59cb52330cc
'2011-12-14T03:22:20-05:00'
describe
'2705632' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXN' 'sip-files00020.tif'
a31c2e78611fe693fe73ed62896d5b0d
89f963a5ab9e01acef0e6bd153715a96f3ea4618
'2011-12-14T03:16:01-05:00'
describe
'651' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXO' 'sip-files00020.txt'
1aa96b1b8ae9a341a010c11bc799e2e3
93014ba5b2b1d98c86069a3822f4f463d5fb6bac
'2011-12-14T03:16:41-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'23117' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXP' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
5aa31aa99ed949a2d7c164a6bb244764
ae962907c6f58f6bac8ab1144840cdb4457c69bc
'2011-12-14T03:22:34-05:00'
describe
'335874' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXQ' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
fbf1939ef60b905857acacaa0eba0b8a
ce3ab8770f279e63efd1cf75da41bf429e502b0f
describe
'123174' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXR' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
0733cde30bdd2f86a0834e680e6aaeb1
a4105965211c5ffca89d7558fc8c97a7d45c4056
'2011-12-14T03:22:29-05:00'
describe
'19655' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXS' 'sip-files00021.pro'
21f0f57089231d94cecf31e51ff67514
4a8531fe392cff0ce8f2d3c1b55b363162836300
'2011-12-14T03:21:35-05:00'
describe
'53733' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXT' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
a9f00a936953342ab0db6236b1466c91
42c4c5e3542fb9094fa20dd8ccd6f76d965fe9a4
'2011-12-14T03:17:02-05:00'
describe
'2707480' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXU' 'sip-files00021.tif'
d2645add06cb6dcf993838aebd2d3a96
b5886b98776f6df38e15f519ef4fbd2d583b7e60
'2011-12-14T03:22:11-05:00'
describe
'1010' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXV' 'sip-files00021.txt'
2bf41930328fc830efdc1cb836db831a
971125face6a23020c1eac65dbe56e505eed2292
describe
'29295' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXW' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
05e8fea4a45ae26532c126eb41e4244b
b0c3c91b9c01ea6b1a9658b3528498add98694b1
describe
'335879' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXX' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
dce6f0335b81061f6f44b76112105f84
47de85d5a4fbae1dfdcea5fd58787118ff1b9fa3
'2011-12-14T03:22:03-05:00'
describe
'156656' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXY' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
463100e20b52fe18d059f40019ba0317
cb418bed374936a4383aa1ce4beeae94577769f3
'2011-12-14T03:18:07-05:00'
describe
'44027' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACXZ' 'sip-files00022.pro'
13828cbe83f1136e9ebe00caeffd68d2
1c795bca5e797eb41982d863f004f6957ea43302
'2011-12-14T03:21:40-05:00'
describe
'70109' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYA' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
46de1fdcdf51c6541a18df1ff58c3d6f
6798b860aa2edb2bd1f843a3605640232706ead1
'2011-12-14T03:19:51-05:00'
describe
'2708420' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYB' 'sip-files00022.tif'
b2c328cc3d90e4b8e3b1e34b15523df8
89e907cdfd67fff606879b656a7fb04da8c4a908
'2011-12-14T03:21:27-05:00'
describe
'1753' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYC' 'sip-files00022.txt'
546847a43c45cd9bf374c5799d3de9ec
d42ddab2ce0b9bd30f4e8c7f60ab0e8b2d770fd8
'2011-12-14T03:19:11-05:00'
describe
'32907' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYD' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
ffc54018817901fc7aed615b41b4d0de
1625b1dc7b7ce28aa0c057abe60f834e6e3e5815
'2011-12-14T03:21:15-05:00'
describe
'335885' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYE' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
8fbe2b780446109291d6c54cf68493cd
22bdbeaad307d05764f2ad14c723f428216fbfea
'2011-12-14T03:17:41-05:00'
describe
'166531' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYF' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
0aa40813fed23712dd09779259be4acc
004c17e4b1bee5aeaa9af566853e5355a306f1b4
describe
'41803' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYG' 'sip-files00023.pro'
66e4faaa4183acaef68f1fb0ef4b19bf
195301b06b3da4706f869334d04d0f9cac11d94f
'2011-12-14T03:17:04-05:00'
describe
'71523' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYH' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
d26d696b46ef2293d11a762f2c558115
f561f6bfe7759b18bd1ad4b164070acf53b007a1
'2011-12-14T03:15:55-05:00'
describe
'2708528' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYI' 'sip-files00023.tif'
207a2b102b9bfde64cceec2615b67cb1
b299042b05c98a96faba2899cb6c751df9ab5011
'2011-12-14T03:17:34-05:00'
describe
'1677' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYJ' 'sip-files00023.txt'
ea82e40ec9e42e884b8b9d2da447eff8
159609c5137e31f6df791ee425488ca9a3bf991d
'2011-12-14T03:21:54-05:00'
describe
'33277' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYK' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
acf154901ac65e7ba2b473fde4229024
6da8d0b494ca66a08083534e1eae381029effa1a
'2011-12-14T03:16:43-05:00'
describe
'335891' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYL' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
bb53161f972c994abb382e7ccb0a18cf
c269b963343d44e274fac109c1fdd3cda5c4b815
'2011-12-14T03:18:06-05:00'
describe
'154834' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYM' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
a834ce48efe0f941fdf3641704202851
856067f540f0df21482b8c5472937097dc3a44f9
'2011-12-14T03:17:56-05:00'
describe
'43148' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYN' 'sip-files00024.pro'
7eda4ac873808509a5f0b59755175585
bbe4483ff9c31a95038fed519afce8884c958400
'2011-12-14T03:21:43-05:00'
describe
'70703' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYO' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
939b35cd0c3f34e95840bedd1429d70e
b5041225337f7caaa90eb930befecb8e1e2df48b
'2011-12-14T03:19:36-05:00'
describe
'2708612' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYP' 'sip-files00024.tif'
07fd6d1e68eab074c35e170145a2cf3a
5298b04c1aae0566473e54c7d089da19dee9257e
'2011-12-14T03:22:40-05:00'
describe
'1700' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYQ' 'sip-files00024.txt'
9496b17572cf3fd4cc4e7fa2042fc99c
6e8f9d1b8f017806fb56ffb5f2a7b1653ffad2cf
'2011-12-14T03:21:16-05:00'
describe
'33401' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYR' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
ba23ff3bb181f191844b195046a5aa8a
92a38f46cc8b5f92c2ec317de3fddc1a9c020087
'2011-12-14T03:16:00-05:00'
describe
'335785' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYS' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
d5b06b33057d7185b59ed06d9503bd8c
29a6cd9b6a0733ec9f2cd5899b27b0d4ed7e525a
describe
'164913' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYT' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
ae22ca9411e8e5927ae027e8a083d225
c9b4ac77580607592a3acb738b495e14164753e4
'2011-12-14T03:21:45-05:00'
describe
'39486' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYU' 'sip-files00025.pro'
1c2da35c726c0c4b05d84d21c87321c6
f9272d3eafcc2a5e3f70e36d537582a32c887689
'2011-12-14T03:16:40-05:00'
describe
'70143' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYV' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
f0244b97a69473986320e4f629097d45
abdd1f9dc18482a20df0233622660818bfd4eaaa
'2011-12-14T03:20:49-05:00'
describe
'2708340' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYW' 'sip-files00025.tif'
d08058e75d6a3fb3ddf672dada0c3bf4
f78926787bf40f1d98c9f30b17658ec0f85e90cf
'2011-12-14T03:16:22-05:00'
describe
'1625' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYX' 'sip-files00025.txt'
00c36be8e5cc1c8af294525b623ba76c
010a7cf9f4ab8bf60e95526c54ac5db6359d548c
'2011-12-14T03:20:38-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYY' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
4f4b6ef7ccfa1ec3ac2049bfab8898e5
1ffe008aab1703e4d6caed69d3030db103122f73
'2011-12-14T03:20:17-05:00'
describe
'335853' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACYZ' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
36790b40ebdb8c2af4b68407b69c7439
40b21c3b2c188680a236e034f55df7b437a74f45
'2011-12-14T03:16:30-05:00'
describe
'148680' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZA' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
91e25b758b4c63bf8e9f9c16eeb4c568
e669f96d7ffd380d62ab7d9530941589ef0e6d1d
'2011-12-14T03:19:52-05:00'
describe
'21424' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZB' 'sip-files00026.pro'
c0d139180ab41b51bf38698c0778371a
3aee8cd94d9bb95f83b7726e9e5af4c54e221795
'2011-12-14T03:21:42-05:00'
describe
'60477' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZC' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
9b5b61bd5fc7baadaa81844cc97eb43c
b14e6b7c7edef076b059c67783d6c6e9ece23e19
describe
'2708064' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZD' 'sip-files00026.tif'
9b2a765b1d72b63f37ea421573d028ed
52a9289461486f2a7e5e47e45fe8dc63c726150a
describe
'886' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZE' 'sip-files00026.txt'
f21830b9e18190db7eee7ff7a67e0ec8
2a3ea888789192390a49b59565329da124b67d47
describe
'31121' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZF' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
eabb141ed457b0cee7b6596cbc0f802e
ef71f5f11348c8f31389d4885281dff965df0b29
'2011-12-14T03:22:38-05:00'
describe
'335735' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZG' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
6222738d18528f149db9366475d0e6ca
bff4ee927c5e6b702267d43ce434aa992bee826f
'2011-12-14T03:22:07-05:00'
describe
'167625' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZH' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
ac3bdbf0535d1cd3f1c03c247686b060
689a27d1364e107ebf001d983b4f6b36d407d63a
'2011-12-14T03:16:28-05:00'
describe
'42278' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZI' 'sip-files00027.pro'
b5feaf62b41ff56559054588829b1694
7da947187b253457a469733510610a9f1d8a0566
'2011-12-14T03:22:08-05:00'
describe
'71212' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZJ' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
3a45bb13afe443b351a7ba174c93d5ea
1116cd4d7aa91072303a07de7818922d50779138
'2011-12-14T03:18:30-05:00'
describe
'2708476' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZK' 'sip-files00027.tif'
5b4c79df83f395f91d0f6457920e15e1
5788a0655c9c1ba82ebbda2149875f163821c6be
describe
'1671' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZL' 'sip-files00027.txt'
6af63652760e01040d6a750d32ece54c
f1a1724065e5b025e581160121d7e4af1ea872aa
'2011-12-14T03:19:39-05:00'
describe
'32978' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZM' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
568c0f92893f60e7d8362bb942452aed
c9e69c004bdb7d0658b8fb4d8c93cf2f38299c8d
'2011-12-14T03:21:31-05:00'
describe
'335888' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZN' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
933cc3a8b12cb7c37f14f019330c06f1
48c1ccf9ec140873bee3b03ecdab050d934cae37
'2011-12-14T03:19:37-05:00'
describe
'138606' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZO' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
cd60dbb63ee7aae968de484ca19f9dbd
cf0e75268ea57c2ea208a1e571c93e8fa4ca66f0
describe
'22453' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZP' 'sip-files00028.pro'
855b6769f539cc9db5cfa8cd6aab8252
64e807ecedc8bb89ac826fc2731f393c247b85d3
'2011-12-14T03:20:42-05:00'
describe
'59803' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZQ' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
19ce7e4724eb1f003eac6c2aaa0c6696
7f5f6dbbd9d6f4a65d4da87dc55fd8be72c421cd
'2011-12-14T03:22:35-05:00'
describe
'2708076' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZR' 'sip-files00028.tif'
64c0a89f250fe78db5ae99c6b9e3257d
ff4e9de5406a5a489c1fe235b619b202f0551e09
describe
'1577' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZS' 'sip-files00028.txt'
1b9fb8e6910384232df3082f072b9622
279e8d90120b4c8e7659514ed26a048ee4dff052
describe
'31043' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZT' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
00d7f58593a4070cb4bacc8e800cd5a4
098e17f375070446c0a95660cd423a2d1934c033
describe
'335730' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZU' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
febec11175eb2299030346d75dc5bea9
b11862da2efff7f143c457268fcbd85cf8180a80
'2011-12-14T03:21:07-05:00'
describe
'158360' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZV' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
04c3316df176b316e41a91ababf58be4
698e72ec3e4396392d45dd669ba599e42d82d0da
describe
'41785' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZW' 'sip-files00029.pro'
bbda09fda3168a2107243093afec8011
b657a223f5d5523b03a73c7a595016b8cfc7f665
'2011-12-14T03:18:49-05:00'
describe
'69413' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZX' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
88523d41d37cf90cd40086724aeb3991
db2e4d9e5a6907ea446c892e3ac2f7979a504c68
describe
'2708508' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZY' 'sip-files00029.tif'
66bcda491d7fcf65cad172a7dd010b6e
666ddbe57c0f35398c13599781f1dbf87ecbf5af
describe
'1688' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAACZZ' 'sip-files00029.txt'
6dced96d9b755587366f1a4a64fc3662
5ca64c8b090ba09adc808760f43d17f97e322399
describe
'33103' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAA' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
5e7bb52bfb1243c02b47b339873c738e
9c974a78cbf9553f7bcd77601c19abf3880b1f7e
'2011-12-14T03:19:14-05:00'
describe
'335846' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAB' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
31ae5277142af060e4ab549059060c46
9d4582d08bdf3223c46e81cc9e6ca31324da6364
'2011-12-14T03:21:06-05:00'
describe
'90598' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAC' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
dc4b9297e24953f3327a591d74bbe55f
b64d92c24f9b8bb41a34f091f6893050ec8f9310
describe
'14478' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAD' 'sip-files00030.pro'
97aedef790fa8f2ed06bda2dcf7f1d16
8deabca36cc7fbc0c3a3a39f6d9c93e839f57983
'2011-12-14T03:20:20-05:00'
describe
'42504' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAE' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
77f2a15df02b4a5bd77dee1be2b376ba
ada39c5e4adfefbf9a3ce80809c30593ae802b77
'2011-12-14T03:22:22-05:00'
describe
'2706760' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAF' 'sip-files00030.tif'
2a9c80a3a4daea0e4f4b4e5c640a30a2
c3fc7b14f2c4627444ef9772b333b2274c28f413
describe
'642' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAG' 'sip-files00030.txt'
b6e8c12b83790d023eb68be7d5cf4fe7
09d9a3cf252d614713b6053372b5e233266e1e0f
'2011-12-14T03:20:51-05:00'
describe
'26374' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAH' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
61d0036c0f312e109e025362630ec283
efd7ba85668241d8a618aa455ad41316460b9bd2
'2011-12-14T03:21:58-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAI' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
9409eff39e26d77c9e562df4fe01974a
f26245475e531a7205d82fb98b27ecd0d64cdea8
'2011-12-14T03:18:05-05:00'
describe
'151972' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAJ' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
732e0f5c62615a54d9659f796376c2be
8639afee905e362d850a7a6478a841702dc921a6
'2011-12-14T03:18:47-05:00'
describe
'12637' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAK' 'sip-files00031.pro'
f100b1f5c68e667981e32be4d29a66f9
0ca07f4b3c2ea78b3817cf265fae7609fbc2108d
describe
'63556' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAL' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
d31ca2812c7da54c4db3cdf7c07c80ae
3771f981c089c5e6e1125f18afb5b8cab2c885e1
describe
'2708872' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAM' 'sip-files00031.tif'
938fbeac9f9fc4a33d0cc51d09fd5896
ebfaee5e2b4343dc0e751ca9b988cd334b2ab1b2
'2011-12-14T03:16:03-05:00'
describe
'557' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAN' 'sip-files00031.txt'
f7971ee283f4428ffcc9ff405ab17347
8dcd4c78c4902af75423d971050b799de237cdd1
'2011-12-14T03:16:54-05:00'
describe
'33051' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAO' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
0da539113d3549ca6520e7e2e39db9a0
dd450b1d7b442acaff1635d54a5ebc7e7c6a1ba0
'2011-12-14T03:19:18-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAP' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
7e6cb050dc61a52b82892de1b6fd8960
e6106394a2066585648cde9880286d9d3baa6fe5
'2011-12-14T03:18:33-05:00'
describe
'150804' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAQ' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
404d8ea51189b85689ff3adc0743daca
92a940fcb17008a556400bdf703cd82bb0ef78dc
'2011-12-14T03:22:30-05:00'
describe
'43531' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAR' 'sip-files00032.pro'
759191154f091fa7a6d5b2a293ab25db
f10dc82b0210fdf7e275edb0000441d488dcf255
describe
'69582' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAS' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
113c69dd639d2b181f09dd6711c20a40
c7d7fa58a1770fe371584c67417770b02964dd7b
describe
'2708352' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAT' 'sip-files00032.tif'
b5df579150a1976190ba85b66112a12a
376d316d99a7424e8fe949c1ccf578e0942f18e3
describe
'1715' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAU' 'sip-files00032.txt'
41f43bd9e4925957f3af6981d3ee3286
f7f1b0bd7da1947aed2a62e95bf68090f7802a1f
'2011-12-14T03:21:21-05:00'
describe
'32733' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAV' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
694babee3c9362e6757ff26c7d38827e
bff85be7b3fea3a5da6793e0f12cf7cbe4bc9b63
'2011-12-14T03:20:02-05:00'
describe
'335893' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAW' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
5f54da8678a6015c7b673fc0318eace9
9a754cd1a3d5aeddb24fe2faa39e53c5c02f8e25
'2011-12-14T03:19:25-05:00'
describe
'145072' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAX' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
0398ca72d114e8454791420d7ed4d8f2
00a09d00733372824af662115f574ecd93acc60a
'2011-12-14T03:16:06-05:00'
describe
'22868' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAY' 'sip-files00033.pro'
08e51a0761350b57f5ae7471e5ce1b34
77799f316d5a6b26a391797bd654cfe43878fd9d
'2011-12-14T03:18:39-05:00'
describe
'62781' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADAZ' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
f4a0c3a0caabc85feaf1be2da45689a8
c4fd0b2b2216e0f592ae50b6d0d964bbd5e91f97
'2011-12-14T03:19:19-05:00'
describe
'2708544' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBA' 'sip-files00033.tif'
a1797c4359afed362151a151ba86dc15
236200e14b3bb9825864b45178b495d9d200523a
describe
'960' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBB' 'sip-files00033.txt'
10a44ceff6a88f4f13082af8dc7affb8
0416f65b3aaf6b55a20192ca1f8082bb28d0ba2e
'2011-12-14T03:20:22-05:00'
describe
'32257' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBC' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
93773512f1d83d557cd436d6bfb8592f
e1e786f931d0f60799adbf40d4f7e011ce2bda84
describe
'335887' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBD' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
6f7fb7bf53d0b5fb5afae5f62663795f
81163e1bd0aaadedcccdeacd515aa47e5b6dd86f
'2011-12-14T03:17:17-05:00'
describe
'153011' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBE' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
fe7db497198e8c982974787c5770b30c
04c5d3b84c2197ce43cb4a8c245fd5509ed2c401
describe
'41964' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBF' 'sip-files00034.pro'
2c25125524cc833a4b87d374278ea675
97fc01707a9ad10dd0c7c00f6bc217dd935d2ff3
describe
'69948' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBG' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
3d0e9b0162119a6dfcaa5fe551378264
e27b547924711beb590bac92aabfae95536fdc1c
'2011-12-14T03:18:02-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBH' 'sip-files00034.tif'
88a9e3207acdf3f4ca81d62c7303851c
d07ab44091c3a711b6e21f23b7a77a540fcb3413
describe
'1649' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBI' 'sip-files00034.txt'
54d208ecf916895a9d43c3415929b57a
708507cde218e3a4333320ccc0f5879320283e41
'2011-12-14T03:17:19-05:00'
describe
'33147' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBJ' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
7f8ea0177ebfc7a24bf6511b047dd0cd
4c25be50b5c72483de8b5eb19af140e959303e61
'2011-12-14T03:16:53-05:00'
describe
'335912' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBK' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
a8f6a499b42bd330b7891d86a1518bad
b28688d06521de146a5b8d83c636d128bed3e785
'2011-12-14T03:15:58-05:00'
describe
'153027' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBL' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
072c7c6060afd2ed69058f8d1e7acad4
3e2f84decec74e79cafb9caa5388208bf676c9eb
describe
'20602' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBM' 'sip-files00035.pro'
bdeea5a614978edc5363b05ebb44ec07
c7ea03681dbbc38302f263308d7ed946bcb03adb
'2011-12-14T03:16:37-05:00'
describe
'62301' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBN' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
ebf33560ef2a7eb2051cce4a3f8174ab
0b352eb10a8961324cd0f23095b145c33e5c0848
'2011-12-14T03:19:05-05:00'
describe
'2708224' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBO' 'sip-files00035.tif'
d4fe3887411bc8d5e8c05d5ec33fe3bd
9a3ed7c38758b7e2f56e7df04b885889752bab22
'2011-12-14T03:21:55-05:00'
describe
'863' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBP' 'sip-files00035.txt'
ecdef7351354ac1210ab7f4cee2bd5c7
cfca4808f9f2e67b4d8179f0af3c85fa4219be91
'2011-12-14T03:16:19-05:00'
describe
'31655' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBQ' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
f7bc24ffe2c2a359d118c22ebb5533a5
c7b54f1f26ef810194604dbdc8de95fe69b32c23
describe
'335920' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBR' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
23a47e875438c962fb50247273d9c380
191a1bbec866a804b6bf7760c28ecad344f9cf79
describe
'154230' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBS' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
e643167add29fab25cc787becd3828fb
aeb3251095b05d5bf852e16c81faa3c3b6b1afe1
describe
'43213' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBT' 'sip-files00036.pro'
1e6ce96ffb95cda1b38b1bae1dd6713c
96796f7ba7a71ed6421aa34f41f20f8e45c92717
describe
'69101' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBU' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
15c51bf2a6336aded37ab5d7253f96bf
f123862ced4bcb5dda6382bf7e6d5aa2369c8964
describe
'2708424' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBV' 'sip-files00036.tif'
5829328b42bb7918911173171920c8dc
d8510d03c501bf5e56cf6d9fbe754be423cb062e
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBW' 'sip-files00036.txt'
5f040fc9c56d823a7509934f1678b6ad
7a3275efb90d5aa74e825858e724e67fdc6a0310
describe
'32849' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBX' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
8034562e7dd4230c2f8c12f0342cae92
a1a681cd623a55172071c66de00ebd478b8bb073
'2011-12-14T03:19:47-05:00'
describe
'335894' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBY' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
d24e936af8c5982487eb53b8db0bba9a
79ead3efc64c40b714f75037efd0bb6de54757d3
describe
'170355' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADBZ' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
1705f5c6478cb5a0e0eb608df0c986f0
481d15c0b41f5fbaae52a944680d6ad477e46c29
describe
'13815' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCA' 'sip-files00037.pro'
61dea34de1ec5dcd6447747d78189d4b
5e52c9b68b2c1259441e40dca2e6ac060f8f0dca
'2011-12-14T03:20:50-05:00'
describe
'67868' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCB' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
d2d75d8d0b38402b1a0c63e7fbc03c08
48e1d96769051299df80fd9fe07952a7d01d9c85
describe
'2709152' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCC' 'sip-files00037.tif'
dd3ad3c0fa7450176ca8305a3875cfa0
787fdd754ffd48af578997c315240a25b9729b9b
'2011-12-14T03:18:25-05:00'
describe
'624' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCD' 'sip-files00037.txt'
a789972e6db3a9eade153777dd5f4c66
54c5a86fe6f87dc6f084286b2ecf85d71e7ad12a
'2011-12-14T03:15:48-05:00'
describe
'34080' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCE' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
12b457fb3af68e0b7feff519b2858c32
c8b964ca4817a1ec2a7ec05b3f6e7a63dc467fd7
describe
'335859' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCF' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
c5155051bbbf3de82baf3a09ef7dcbc5
993d2e0ec10db4be5bf0973d1f59fb4e74b08b79
describe
'154862' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCG' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
cb17b537b629f3d9acec9c383b0c91be
006f80bb21f329b0de41ec68c104173b1f8fc4ce
describe
'41771' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCH' 'sip-files00038.pro'
cf0cdbe8174a6baa232d1d7c0030014c
b775b088e308c16c59d83d3ad6c217f66ed0d0bf
'2011-12-14T03:20:05-05:00'
describe
'66717' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCI' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
3c6c8a6570b48f526eb177f10b8cd70a
89c13a3e38e0989cac199a309b12bed76606ef7b
describe
'2707892' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCJ' 'sip-files00038.tif'
26dbb771a2d1fdf1e6fdd59e5668bc01
cc0db55953a90e3c3c2970efbe57e5ce17eac507
'2011-12-14T03:16:07-05:00'
describe
'1655' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCK' 'sip-files00038.txt'
afacb1d6b46302f1826a1c9cd555ea07
486af976cbd2089faae09dcafd22be34ab462563
'2011-12-14T03:21:19-05:00'
describe
'31358' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCL' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
34277fd6b9918a215e975e38dcaa4991
b900946e2e04887c4dd5eb8fdc4dc8b0dea15c4f
'2011-12-14T03:20:15-05:00'
describe
'335606' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCM' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
e2cb7962c69d1a17e69ad8d89ce944ce
54240ebd049ec5d1041f474d730c14e3da302183
describe
'164327' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCN' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
282d50a362506320bca63916c9c3fe61
2439bc9b51cfde186758dc294796f11d268df6c9
'2011-12-14T03:22:28-05:00'
describe
'16511' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCO' 'sip-files00039.pro'
a4d9da2462ff3b4d7966a1b0ed448f4e
f170b674e22e8f411496703d3699fb001c00cb2e
describe
'65694' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCP' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
00a1c06b9cfa643e1e5cda30cb430953
fe601a3e7e0cd721029e8dba01e72addaef5767a
describe
'2708988' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCQ' 'sip-files00039.tif'
2ff85ada145365dc3ff06f8f7a31aa16
a23caa74d9483f5df1730e1b01c03f1d41aeac17
'2011-12-14T03:21:28-05:00'
describe
'691' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCR' 'sip-files00039.txt'
3ac48f9cdbdf0342eaaf0b28754aa047
4c19566e1e07eaa42794be6c78392d7e81503a01
'2011-12-14T03:19:38-05:00'
describe
'33737' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCS' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
7197f00bc2dfd87662ce38f943a411c0
587abeb00c5ac3b204521700ebe37ebe63efca56
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCT' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
a3069632283a34d99ebb0432b7b590f2
fa40d7b8dc1037e17ce3771d9d30ef7982aa4dfc
'2011-12-14T03:19:32-05:00'
describe
'156394' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCU' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
2d59871be9505cf957c94ba2fe7f3f9e
28020b9a31fa2b8c3c884f34f7d22453baa27e3b
describe
'17668' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCV' 'sip-files00040.pro'
38a873592500c9f1b9fc081f2e1d020e
4cf02735c6a43ffc1f1f53b3a4fab9d9d2100aa3
'2011-12-14T03:16:13-05:00'
describe
'67731' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCW' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
118ff2a4d6fa31ae3a63d2547fe0a00c
c58c456ab81d903d4a4e4b305404d43347738498
'2011-12-14T03:21:52-05:00'
describe
'2709324' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCX' 'sip-files00040.tif'
81e930448074069a8889cf54f90c04b0
2678966b17b53917b2d14306e817883d20b62bba
'2011-12-14T03:16:29-05:00'
describe
'739' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCY' 'sip-files00040.txt'
36440f9c793d4d2ec6f682f88563b7e1
5a0c1151e5187a6b9c30b8d6ae9a7d64eda2a15c
describe
'34450' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADCZ' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
ac15a04d722cfe67a00d739535ee2a73
67db106aedb150cd1fc676ed5a1a57ff1b2b75fd
'2011-12-14T03:16:38-05:00'
describe
'335847' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDA' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
d36eb655a4e92a19be4fe38be5bc557c
b3c9ac8c65db1392e5701c986ac847016751b204
'2011-12-14T03:21:53-05:00'
describe
'163314' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDB' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
f998507dd24afc9b04630d36be3255bf
f378b5a8f42089043c0e0095972f2781f8d3a585
'2011-12-14T03:15:54-05:00'
describe
'40993' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDC' 'sip-files00041.pro'
6e7847cc08be650d01924d998038e4fe
00ee60fe7f41351753d877f6b9b333a7008b92fb
describe
'71968' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDD' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
2f28eb336fb822b409f0c713aeb31c55
cdf007a6d554201f57a88d50ac8e1013bda704c3
'2011-12-14T03:22:33-05:00'
describe
'2708816' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDE' 'sip-files00041.tif'
a0c5c87e85a406e0ec2a2ee685fa8844
7a91522db3c265f7fbd0034258af2eeca63d704b
'2011-12-14T03:21:11-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDF' 'sip-files00041.txt'
427585de7cf8c699cd8e28b94d121e4e
75f0e461a10ff656043b8209994f2133e2ac75fa
'2011-12-14T03:20:03-05:00'
describe
'33693' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDG' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
f6aad755a38f68c33b2f2798c834cd67
b197b7125950835916be7b08565388cbf08a3154
'2011-12-14T03:20:01-05:00'
describe
'335834' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDH' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
63b55f75b30e0a9c9d6ff83d15e5bec8
422a93e5426fdde34d249d2cf265d6d95de8ff7d
describe
'166982' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDI' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
74bfb56a8019ba38197675581d5a73b1
5b0ac5bdc952182c66eee9f9ed8df12f05ccf9cf
'2011-12-14T03:20:59-05:00'
describe
'43592' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDJ' 'sip-files00042.pro'
6b7f6c653b5b9f73f15a22612f4c8ebc
ad02cd39da3d451abc031098998d6e6ed651d006
'2011-12-14T03:22:23-05:00'
describe
'73595' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDK' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
cea1475b65b17562c4adca0b2261e9dd
52214639e5d9fe8348768c90798a1b014e232144
'2011-12-14T03:18:09-05:00'
describe
'2708948' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDL' 'sip-files00042.tif'
883b6e59a8abc07900965bf86989f332
6f2a42cda622565f525775107323ff619b2e796e
'2011-12-14T03:16:16-05:00'
describe
'1713' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDM' 'sip-files00042.txt'
b3a8fdeb7d2abfb26d1a0741172d5f3b
1918088f89c5c08edf663aae0ef33e140279f2ce
describe
'34390' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDN' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
d728f2570ae77d6c1621b8f0866fea87
b237b5ec6ff1e1374dea931dd4a898bd7f58489c
'2011-12-14T03:21:38-05:00'
describe
'335895' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDO' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
4db594a12f4e16051152c70cdfa564c2
53f68560bc6ef2188c67062f27ce4f388e58087a
describe
'132870' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDP' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
3ca376bf22b7d68083f3ff7869d23a60
5f5ddc1fc5b9d707cfe759717132588921db16c3
describe
'31945' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDQ' 'sip-files00043.pro'
75c6b7c1ad73ee34fb01cef2d9ef8c4f
d264b5755bffd8df303e8d6077f5658c53ee2502
describe
'57210' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDR' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
9b75fd6641137c8d7940960fa83a3d1a
2cce90e628d03253e5171b1e3cdd0d54752991bd
'2011-12-14T03:20:18-05:00'
describe
'2708160' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDS' 'sip-files00043.tif'
c660759064d4db12bff414b62086ae00
f58dcf2ee752c76d81a51e92cbbfea05916354ac
'2011-12-14T03:15:47-05:00'
describe
'1605' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDT' 'sip-files00043.txt'
bcde4c648f039622974a487780ead3c2
eec2da08aae76ef72f1225945c53419972e55f34
'2011-12-14T03:16:04-05:00'
describe
'30834' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDU' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
1521f25d16ae3702b7826afa20f1adeb
d20e67eb7a447420ea1fe18ffd6a7bcc70857208
'2011-12-14T03:16:14-05:00'
describe
'335830' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDV' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
5943b85be21059ad7118ecea18ae6834
ee298e1432130be6ee84a73750caaf8a5de18c94
'2011-12-14T03:17:10-05:00'
describe
'155824' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDW' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
b71fcb8bc659acf77b09889f5d5fd618
6d7617ae73af04cf89b137dfa7ae5bf998adeb0f
describe
'42233' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDX' 'sip-files00044.pro'
e43bbf8b0d29f6fcd5b911a1f57782e1
01078e2d89b855948335cff25368ff236e2b38e7
describe
'69997' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDY' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
d576351ab87cd4601fd421db462ebac9
8838ef92c49a216cb41b4d1fbef2b3563a7d4017
'2011-12-14T03:22:27-05:00'
describe
'2708416' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADDZ' 'sip-files00044.tif'
07cc6bbb8d2e0f145ee5d63a84e7bc81
3a7448d366680632642a743cd19785f1fbe8e1bf
describe
'1669' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEA' 'sip-files00044.txt'
c4dc287950aca5fb548fda426611420f
1ffd07e72eacb3b0e9bc914c72062dae7f29562d
describe
'32785' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEB' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
fed34fb7c26f2d1cbd679fcfbf6a432d
f266078d879bc35427f4268883fb7cfbd099e65d
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEC' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
13db589fd5ae4b31e4a8dfe8481beaee
6e3b848ebc3d8672f43c1ce30eeb81260fc140f3
describe
'170176' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADED' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
7e0ea67854c8ee6bb607e9836f67676b
c0ec90479812f69394564b4a89e08e3498566e3b
describe
'42339' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEE' 'sip-files00045.pro'
1e4b992ca13f3bcd47d8c3ce1dbcc48e
30fb9cf0e9f90497a576ea5b33cb2b57338f6a76
describe
'72188' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEF' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
72419414645dae685044a886ed78ed50
7cd2f3aadd91d6a60bb6084bd03718aa8c0b6986
'2011-12-14T03:18:15-05:00'
describe
'2708780' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEG' 'sip-files00045.tif'
2f67de6a6af59b69f7c4b4a1300d57ce
53e66a496985cc855475303a4260778d628eb3f1
'2011-12-14T03:17:44-05:00'
describe
'1679' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEH' 'sip-files00045.txt'
5e4c971f45ac4e56eef2d7e1ecf29c1b
7a3ccf7e686de49447781cae487c50e49886a03b
describe
'34134' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEI' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
ed90c43307cca9c77d8103778818c617
0985494c54fc569845fe1d78eb83ef31a51f27b3
'2011-12-14T03:19:01-05:00'
describe
'335896' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEJ' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
6c57566439c4144ba546c1fe368fb31e
5a26fd15260f8121977b6bccf4ee84c4b2c66cc0
'2011-12-14T03:19:40-05:00'
describe
'111249' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEK' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
77e9423891f2c08c52b60e2bcc545644
6f72e6da226d167175c10d0d7f5f143db9e31ad4
describe
'21834' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEL' 'sip-files00046.pro'
a74f594f18e7869e76dd211438cf2745
b9f9120da5ddadc881020860fc52c2d8e7f29dda
'2011-12-14T03:21:09-05:00'
describe
'48890' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEM' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
37f5ed04f7c3471b248c322a35559fb7
bcc775cdbcbf73ac97e1790537debb7a5e76a1d0
describe
'2706784' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEN' 'sip-files00046.tif'
0e3740983cb7c2330caf1ebc18907476
c4bf972d480966127534f4047f9f27df28314ff0
'2011-12-14T03:18:29-05:00'
describe
'869' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEO' 'sip-files00046.txt'
2d37140ed2402887b4053f7f489b4a62
ffbb7c81262f9b2de3a0298f0a6f762d310632ea
describe
'27017' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEP' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
9cbba381e3cef375c1ef8435571bd93e
4493c27f0468d9346a1e598badad0f58990efdad
describe
'335898' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEQ' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
996be6f2ddb070da68447c8f856ca1ba
1d932449cd5ad1ff945b6a968acf5e064910ca0c
describe
'133219' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADER' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
04fcb268a6656dee502266740bf4bc5d
2b67660da68fd6966bb22f7a7fba82df19d155cb
'2011-12-14T03:22:10-05:00'
describe
'22139' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADES' 'sip-files00047.pro'
d9cfc64d0dcd04f363d6c8803d74c176
c8c8f7f364b0487b4d356031a426ad5bff01b7f7
'2011-12-14T03:21:12-05:00'
describe
'58179' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADET' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
ae4a8539765296bddd8d3a9d44508b6c
4e7fe2e2e52aa883a7df0c75e6da2f6ef02762a0
'2011-12-14T03:22:26-05:00'
describe
'2707936' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEU' 'sip-files00047.tif'
cfbe24cf1b90ad247dd188377b11bf5f
d94fdcaa52021c501ca8a5e65e205c72395fe668
'2011-12-14T03:17:21-05:00'
describe
'1190' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEV' 'sip-files00047.txt'
d3423225704e05b0d6f1bf979aa1bfb2
86db2e72fe6f2242e9bad3eadd771e3adae6cc89
describe
'30634' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEW' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
cd22bf54f0ae68d88a654f3fc2b16705
9746f6abd7cdd8bfef1c935f45a28c42d037429f
'2011-12-14T03:19:16-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEX' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
0e643c11e5bf8619cddd1e553513b38d
097f267aee4c441a307e3b8b77ae9a8b9a53964c
describe
'160473' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEY' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
f8db7df6ff117007f5abb87906814193
6108370b7184df6b063ebcd63a634ca9ef0bc0b3
'2011-12-14T03:21:39-05:00'
describe
'42556' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADEZ' 'sip-files00048.pro'
8f98892c20c631b6c8d316e41e097470
362246bb30bb8a5789dd34091745f10189807cb6
describe
'70385' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFA' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
ff281b82aadff9299a0e5b70ce51dc24
7246821b6464dca2c09851ac45592b37b008a31f
'2011-12-14T03:22:25-05:00'
describe
'2708316' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFB' 'sip-files00048.tif'
9ca08d526436cb09b5afffdf96454ede
9fb4f90647bc0dfcba4f490e7c9acce8d377ec2b
describe
'1704' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFC' 'sip-files00048.txt'
8d4c10ecacc7dc7962d7c53d47db35cb
925b58da78b113bf299ea27c78c34ed3a3c58d9c
'2011-12-14T03:16:46-05:00'
describe
'32587' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFD' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
8caf41f541fedce2f2960899545b6d0a
9a4405fd10610301d3fa07f79fd02a6f0d5a8e94
'2011-12-14T03:20:14-05:00'
describe
'335661' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFE' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
e1cffb6b77ad79d2d074b07b6025b32e
31e12f47207980c5cbd992c7a019f8529b2b3a87
describe
'162753' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFF' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
afaaf38e463067c01f28d03e13a55fc5
f4855987195ce581e48d697bfeebb5aacef1da36
describe
'39587' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFG' 'sip-files00049.pro'
c352fb3c08914df9e744a8a8ed2b8400
a90c8b915280164a21201d04c2501200e6dd0bcd
describe
'70192' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFH' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
82e09447bfbc32ca8fa55717b94569bd
10e3965b23eff5042d0ab571ef025b7733c5d97c
'2011-12-14T03:16:52-05:00'
describe
'2708300' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFI' 'sip-files00049.tif'
3b5a08f6f8888b4cb68bd9244ff560a9
7c21167e73e8efb9fed55835921bc3a9ca221a6d
describe
'1630' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFJ' 'sip-files00049.txt'
88eb5ab22a2ed2afb8ca3ade63f81c41
0e2c88ce76ccd14a82299da1502996b228f19b67
'2011-12-14T03:18:53-05:00'
describe
'32657' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFK' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
407b213afc6f18be457f04ae52425e3d
ed50257b6cff6ef4b1cfd13fa42ad01a1f48eb0c
'2011-12-14T03:19:24-05:00'
describe
'335839' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFL' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
3c588058ca8270db6ffe41580e410eae
ab54c6fd649ad1017069cbcf35fc629e507a7d6a
'2011-12-14T03:20:11-05:00'
describe
'153368' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFM' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
33263b0ede62053a0d96b0c4efa4f255
9ca02e0787e21c15d11fd2e425ab0a54710a345e
'2011-12-14T03:19:21-05:00'
describe
'35402' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFN' 'sip-files00050.pro'
0f337b9972dd4330e21b99f0cbc899b9
8add69a34adb7199534f49763fa7bd8b45e51a5a
describe
'69023' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFO' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
9d6bc1f5df3022eb952a3e979fac0597
8035dff11ca008bb55c8b813cb67b3205f8de55a
'2011-12-14T03:21:37-05:00'
describe
'2708992' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFP' 'sip-files00050.tif'
0abe678246f5ba177d970be8fbe5f00c
2cc7ed34035d9beeef2243eb54b21471d6eaeb46
'2011-12-14T03:19:28-05:00'
describe
'1784' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFQ' 'sip-files00050.txt'
21a51ac157a7b10288cb3ca3e5711a76
38be3d23eaf98763a52cf7a2b7082f526f3dedb4
'2011-12-14T03:19:06-05:00'
describe
'33798' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFR' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
723326147b275adc7bf9e53e697da503
ecdb2834c92c2baccdd94f89eb59be9a84c7a153
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFS' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
18c83173814816792a0b8c351a057458
83687efcb43de60e192237da097e7d1d5bf89cd7
'2011-12-14T03:17:06-05:00'
describe
'133325' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFT' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
62287bee43dcc3add31359b971a87277
c4a80e8c8bbb20030b747d0bedb510bbb0607856
describe
'26287' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFU' 'sip-files00051.pro'
01b2ecfeff7583dd0e0ba3aa9821b552
843ea2655a314b09ae968495fd6becfe7d8680d6
'2011-12-14T03:21:47-05:00'
describe
'57899' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFV' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
2b8ba7484ee06d5aebc5030bf46e035a
f2cb48bbc39f0452a6c7027da68492c1708ef8bf
describe
'2708164' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFW' 'sip-files00051.tif'
a40fa1b5dbb4fb9408814d351df7da58
c9e4b208a566ddbc85f32b9d54b5be3ad970c89b
describe
'1129' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFX' 'sip-files00051.txt'
bc41f441de15b9dc5beb5a585eda3bf3
71563b3b9bc1cb9eb33c37eff78d0c4c6f9d8178
describe
'31230' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFY' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
3af402a1a878bc4bc8cdc773b2cfc963
cae7f25fd5641643ffc4c0563b69695c4e8677ac
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADFZ' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
62779b2b47ebcc80b2c771469ae7a081
4952fb7b9addf043d062e675f598c76937c12abd
'2011-12-14T03:17:55-05:00'
describe
'158134' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGA' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
57f11000ae274b0b7e2fa07d1d11bf1a
4090060b62797588444e7bf8466bda233eb78d44
describe
'43143' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGB' 'sip-files00052.pro'
4444b27a7d278045f2e2478d9f5825f5
7c59684e1e22cb0dab2c1c1d561fa1ea2406eaf1
'2011-12-14T03:17:42-05:00'
describe
'70817' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGC' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
69a16bbb46b02c99cc1d0eccfa3bf726
f152c9dbee9aa26b860cb93082dc9f35cfd83d8c
'2011-12-14T03:22:19-05:00'
describe
'2708436' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGD' 'sip-files00052.tif'
4d057cdadeaff1ac60548c6162893467
5bd9e731b4fefdbff0d11fa6309d1124fa1fecd4
'2011-12-14T03:17:25-05:00'
describe
'1699' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGE' 'sip-files00052.txt'
51fd642503c7de0d60d2ff4a95b822ab
eba7c07b5a36dfe1c6cb95bb8287cc110f3f6778
'2011-12-14T03:21:13-05:00'
describe
'33247' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGF' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
a4ce788eafb1a9ea7b9f9b863d2a2772
eabc86ef717f9ffdc26f9795443f1a85bfb446ca
'2011-12-14T03:20:32-05:00'
describe
'335770' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGG' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
a05f714825c41bf62e91f9d88869ea20
e080886713c14f61b6a010b5d07ccbdadf685e29
'2011-12-14T03:16:51-05:00'
describe
'134960' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGH' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
22a029f1ce569a083e0e5efe86debf4f
bf48d89a04ad5ca01c6667f09c9842b96b57d1e8
'2011-12-14T03:21:50-05:00'
describe
'28553' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGI' 'sip-files00053.pro'
30335a5f59b0106998bc979c921a997b
00ec15a0300d06c31004400eafd7a968212f7f97
'2011-12-14T03:19:42-05:00'
describe
'60285' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGJ' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
b3dbe8d5c0cf4e2fc29ed65430cff77f
8f115f20a6f4358094481a8877a87df9ca419d5c
describe
'2708048' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGK' 'sip-files00053.tif'
ac60a027d809d8990aa6e9a73b189149
110c8774ec0c9787fe5153bcb65e000f36cc668d
describe
'1197' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGL' 'sip-files00053.txt'
690301b6a88401c65e17a5488d8e1262
2f6f03cc43964f360d9488de14b52934657004cb
'2011-12-14T03:19:12-05:00'
describe
'31159' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGM' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
804eb5b1731295f7a67fafd468385286
68498da14f4c12a3d3c079d55ce931bb8909ba82
describe
'335919' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGN' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
37c69597a2aa2b901e3dc07f780f16a0
53efacce14d244e033606f41cd85083a577680f8
describe
'162518' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGO' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
d6ff410be048f8c0e4bfa88be2d7ccb0
4ce32dbc5609ff0c6a5b01d7544cac2a4b5c7137
describe
'43443' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGP' 'sip-files00054.pro'
b981d34de4601d46a32e8d273107ff0b
fed6e49a781c9bf9f16e90c8a8fa6ae8807aef9b
'2011-12-14T03:20:06-05:00'
describe
'73190' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGQ' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
4c37584a98960f3cc267db4a3fbba93b
a2934c5e816071fd2b29592b46ea5170c768db86
'2011-12-14T03:20:57-05:00'
describe
'2708840' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGR' 'sip-files00054.tif'
778c156914700df0bda31475c8b51416
9c81cd9df43681d00df5e493a136b38ea39efdbb
describe
'1744' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGS' 'sip-files00054.txt'
270d6eadc856e6cab6834ed9eb7ca76f
0847051491ef418fd2a16cff8cb66657ffe09f6c
describe
'33963' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGT' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
84fdf4d505f4a5d7403b03323f5328ef
348e7f2fef547e076c86b77fe3cf49ef8e463962
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGU' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
3360d9cda59dc9ec1245064e694567cd
d65d6550724bd0f40392214d06ceaee3d6b07c9b
describe
'133889' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGV' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
6e7af668cccdb12bd48ebc5f31c7d597
c2e189031a8da5f7d82b085dd846191311ffaadc
'2011-12-14T03:17:07-05:00'
describe
'28903' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGW' 'sip-files00055.pro'
110056d7f5e560738c9bd1631e2d8d22
eeefb611065fa39cec07e237051ba4ab3004c5c6
'2011-12-14T03:17:45-05:00'
describe
'58253' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGX' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
5017685a8737a70e0d78059d76067993
dc82ebb981315d0a312104c25d9a80ce000df793
'2011-12-14T03:20:55-05:00'
describe
'2707768' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGY' 'sip-files00055.tif'
b5b6d8266626b500cb3ce46440429949
bd7e80cc3230c1fb7696a39d9fd3c331cdba2936
describe
'1307' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADGZ' 'sip-files00055.txt'
5f2e9d905d6ea681683552fb69cc82fc
3c51f4933d11ae45ff574b4b98b20545b2b889d5
describe
'30288' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHA' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
aaa7764ab03fb20b5b88b9668faabdbe
6571db6ede5d66e8c3df786f565e5849f8aac22c
'2011-12-14T03:17:24-05:00'
describe
'335890' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHB' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
278ae622cbbbc79319880c6b02e5cacc
be580dcd8e1efebb57aa66cf8a0a88379e2eb6c6
describe
'144663' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHC' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
5583b66610656deb9ff20b91f2ab2b04
8c0e605818d1e3216693ca6da995c5502a613d75
'2011-12-14T03:20:40-05:00'
describe
'34012' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHD' 'sip-files00056.pro'
4a4a2dc637ace76b2437eb9ad1c13c96
cb931dacf0651fdcc639bf0baaed2c5688e7a00e
describe
'63665' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHE' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
ae6a17738ac89cb1f5eb15f8d8c790d7
19b31ed565194014f015b50dfec4fa6749b77e38
describe
'2708240' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHF' 'sip-files00056.tif'
ae9b12a39b33f437f67ccf3198076c39
b0ff9ac8a1024e12efc4c3ad93f2b65d99ba79bb
describe
'1710' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHG' 'sip-files00056.txt'
4f9d67ca6ddf9ab484f0c8f4cf0769e4
62f4bcb607c97162fb85d73f3df2fad13ab25cbd
'2011-12-14T03:15:49-05:00'
describe
'32147' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHH' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
f4c344736cf9b62681051692365f211f
6a466d8b32b192e553924a432bbf426098705530
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHI' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
7898e9006f0b7c04d4d08b4a1a38f795
1dec47d94a5ed319fae4539e8e289c55b3bf3132
describe
'128378' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHJ' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
126b381c6902af9d76b45785718d5344
a096093179dce32f6e6869f6536ee41d80ea4a38
describe
'28818' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHK' 'sip-files00057.pro'
50a8739babe70931ad83736eef3e07c6
bb3b590598fd2cbd68cc42073c7f2b28569d8614
'2011-12-14T03:16:56-05:00'
describe
'57549' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHL' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
73fab9a8d5af03a2de38ad3bd44ba2d8
c50f9bd50ac3795b11442bbe2e81fd5c02266b78
'2011-12-14T03:18:48-05:00'
describe
'2707596' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHM' 'sip-files00057.tif'
fb21cf30b36250a51727b3650eaf3d86
52e8632e05c20d79c99291bf382f5a0397b4ddff
'2011-12-14T03:22:36-05:00'
describe
'1243' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHN' 'sip-files00057.txt'
cd810d72591bc730174efb151e84cc71
ac2ec7cc7956122cdf1396cc7e7cf72b2a4e68c7
'2011-12-14T03:17:31-05:00'
describe
'30019' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHO' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
b0a595aa5673d3fd896fdad95c370568
b9cb2879af58ce75d451b1fbacc663cf0c6cbecf
describe
'335863' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHP' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
4f7fc3a28b7c991863445e0014dd61a2
cf7b68e25676faf6009eb3fee28bd2f8037d6674
describe
'160095' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHQ' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
f3ab0592c8a3f097341da21823e56bfc
348fcd3a993092dd5ea5fcfaa93a7ea6f50c1978
describe
'42201' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHR' 'sip-files00058.pro'
ca62879b38dc62d3372abcada0d74430
c1d4568bf00265a166f1c7b1121d66cbbeed3d30
describe
'71645' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHS' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
e882ac3677561dbd1bfe4b1f83bf1a98
b98536781936bc6c10cde38c7bf29becc466df7a
'2011-12-14T03:20:36-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHT' 'sip-files00058.tif'
bc3e0778a04eb59797d2a8f4d6ffe52c
f1ab9fd9ec3eae3e423a0c0527144884e06c93a7
'2011-12-14T03:18:50-05:00'
describe
'1665' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHU' 'sip-files00058.txt'
5282eb1619df91bea12ab594d11ee89d
11a6d41686c5196f402f872e74df8138582c38bf
describe
'33447' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHV' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
26c73ffc475098c1e8bfda3b36f6d630
49cf4c8de04e15b445b758829b5c72cb4900bfdc
'2011-12-14T03:22:17-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHW' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
f786ce6f8917b4d865384bdb54bc3dea
b3ac90ff8efee5008be0bba9e8b51d4221d656dc
describe
'155451' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHX' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
f794d3c347c194a95a766b9d568a5c1d
d2a15f1d81421b00156963ca8beccb4596499a98
'2011-12-14T03:19:03-05:00'
describe
'31758' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHY' 'sip-files00059.pro'
77107fc8c30e6f118a8ba7f2f6dbf04d
1088809903940e4d711e551ef7effc39e8d97168
describe
'67555' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADHZ' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
d42eef9e1428b877198d7187a9b2492d
444c416a7e0a4d6d5a3614a6e711bf727260720c
describe
'2708616' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIA' 'sip-files00059.tif'
a73ac2dd53962f30dc5dd0a178825d09
69ba9fd6c871bcd8fd1089569307213869e56b0d
'2011-12-14T03:20:37-05:00'
describe
'1328' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIB' 'sip-files00059.txt'
1bf2ad6a57d154aef446261598ba9ba2
1ee6f9dd1a89fc3bed46271759b7b500615126ac
'2011-12-14T03:20:28-05:00'
describe
'32971' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIC' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
7239b364a2512944a19eb4e00cbb0de2
c19efd9755a699a56a0ddde2e3117956eca1df0b
describe
'335910' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADID' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
b3593441fe7f0620144104af872cd65b
086f5f027a68934202fe1730354276edbf02cc41
'2011-12-14T03:21:18-05:00'
describe
'160845' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIE' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
98c7d5c93064eed2265dfa99ec679514
f8f84f3c79f1dfd163d336a5823e571409581102
'2011-12-14T03:17:29-05:00'
describe
'43125' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIF' 'sip-files00060.pro'
f2a8276f4c6bf11de98a69cfe7fb82a9
79fa2e281f01eb13e80249c725dacd50df87e0dd
describe
'71140' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIG' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
8bf32faf39f4d06297a363c52e780870
076841358b6a3548921eb582a5ea79898fc45c22
describe
'2708444' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIH' 'sip-files00060.tif'
ff2a7759ce62cd46cff2e0bcc8280d65
89a600cdc365a9f43f856ad653d58a394ac82921
'2011-12-14T03:21:14-05:00'
describe
'1730' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADII' 'sip-files00060.txt'
f216fb63d1ecf43f3acd4cf93f631c00
42bd3f2151db97397e3289c82fb629e4f5631bdc
describe
'33125' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIJ' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
c247c87bbed7939c8139a22a52d211ce
56a12308fdcf88df05ae834eff42c2428178486a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIK' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
80d3498d8f2defb43279719aefd86a7f
b99c92d13fec107fe1b65d36adc5473cf252d761
'2011-12-14T03:22:02-05:00'
describe
'145195' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIL' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
6022674c0e30df961a5aa71041e29abc
2bc61999bf4eca15af7c4e07db27cc95670b4171
describe
'33198' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIM' 'sip-files00061.pro'
b9f2f785e5bfc0831dda19908259a020
2eb66161f4246b62d88f5a270cf28a617c0fb39b
describe
'64191' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIN' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
a28fc38b643e2deea80aeee21cbd4a1c
cc699739d8cad904fb2b0ec27b477753ef1f23a3
describe
'2708360' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIO' 'sip-files00061.tif'
fceca5b3b92d800d3c3820ac320cf7ec
576229d6fb3d66791e504a5edc083d02c5697216
'2011-12-14T03:17:01-05:00'
describe
'1420' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIP' 'sip-files00061.txt'
6d9b2d4dcbe922b7a3bc6453de7d673c
c3a53ef9b9547f2e9be4e02144c54fc9e3227c3f
'2011-12-14T03:22:04-05:00'
describe
'32303' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIQ' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
5a3ed083e88ac3f4e0036a4fe9c5277d
cf85208ae94cb5d084bda80b0ed0309984ea0ec9
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIR' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
d99e7fb6458c703a2f8b1b69d7410cbc
f99cefd49b1cef895272846a6ed5a14f338931a4
'2011-12-14T03:19:22-05:00'
describe
'157750' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIS' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
b1dab5502dadf76a8a8618c12164b45e
0aef616912898942e4c33a5a32fa9c1c6be29e79
describe
'41447' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIT' 'sip-files00062.pro'
e8eb5b6ae6c71a0a09d3396d3939112a
f44c1ab10f45d7389b088a268fa5d6af9623291b
'2011-12-14T03:15:52-05:00'
describe
'69884' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIU' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
e4f36f8ed5d8e00b887e6c46d08168b8
3567e4c064d7001fe4d9bebc35d677f397416283
describe
'2708592' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIV' 'sip-files00062.tif'
1336861eefee11c3a3808d5308cb629f
0892153efdc52a4289a113a0f889b4901bc85ecb
'2011-12-14T03:18:37-05:00'
describe
'1657' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIW' 'sip-files00062.txt'
e5d44ac0bb58d48016075246c076d34b
e198cf13ddc2e56b07675c2506cc2bfd4ce8c315
'2011-12-14T03:19:50-05:00'
describe
'33303' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIX' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
1c5b31f66a52ea7b122299bc1b6d6493
0656e0283f5788994304e7e4025917214fc5c9c7
'2011-12-14T03:18:00-05:00'
describe
'335911' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIY' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
2b704c83d015bcf6d23e50cfc0efe344
973aa24641fd705ddbd717659ca5df84b766e342
describe
'172377' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADIZ' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
91ef7f7ee6f27bc5007e5a3145cb054f
97db4f47305af63ef822b04632ac3c3909771248
'2011-12-14T03:19:23-05:00'
describe
'41939' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJA' 'sip-files00063.pro'
e18c085e570e7675cfa40008e84213df
c85c51a616c6bf9114336f1b9aad16ce1ceabb42
describe
'73157' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJB' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
0d71eb2f3b1a373b1333c6999e6606b0
707049be25f796d40862566f2aac630c14c6fe43
'2011-12-14T03:19:41-05:00'
describe
'2708664' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJC' 'sip-files00063.tif'
d6976265e418c5ae46fe1e5cd03c8c89
cb97ad20549623e4e4ae147c74de72851e5bd6d4
'2011-12-14T03:21:25-05:00'
describe
'1722' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJD' 'sip-files00063.txt'
16a0cae4de7cffa54f361838516264d8
8c4e76bed6a7a1afb415b27ccde23e5597560c4a
'2011-12-14T03:21:22-05:00'
describe
'33786' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJE' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
3e596f6c73efd29733945e6371baa772
83760b8c4d0673f24294adc37c2fe12691261342
'2011-12-14T03:22:31-05:00'
describe
'335856' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJF' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
8b1f55dd55e2eab2f5fe16be5e656e01
7045f3632ac81e64a397d4fbf2d17221c366bfee
'2011-12-14T03:20:58-05:00'
describe
'136351' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJG' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
efc7567ef669c0a13eb32629189da88c
c284972db9f2138418e6456d6143f2d168463b5c
'2011-12-14T03:18:42-05:00'
describe
'38339' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJH' 'sip-files00064.pro'
65db898112384bffe33bc545591ad43a
9eff57779f9d28ca903bc6bd972304bc81de5d55
'2011-12-14T03:17:57-05:00'
describe
'61884' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJI' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
09889db27b155ed4732d5513b90a5180
56deae143f06aca462f26046030ea9364d2fa936
'2011-12-14T03:20:48-05:00'
describe
'2708044' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJJ' 'sip-files00064.tif'
f4b89343d49d241e2f3ab8ca3c2b560b
174b2b48cb92becd1aac0897aeacebff80f9c418
describe
'1549' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJK' 'sip-files00064.txt'
91cb91a072079a1daafb036ec7d8c4ac
42f1650d2af50120e09e7f5806846dbe0349d020
describe
'31267' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJL' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
d26eb4bc9552870f9f8487c26ef502d6
2b6ce20ae5601d5763c9039038d7faa3618ba4b6
'2011-12-14T03:20:29-05:00'
describe
'335872' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJM' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
ec0b3b6b8f948b5d7d828b2322b05ba8
b2a9eda45d541e7efc740188867391086a2a827d
describe
'161459' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJN' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
a55de6f0866a58b01cb2f4b2ec41416a
53308861ccc2ad13e78570c1c8be9587aac9ee4d
'2011-12-14T03:17:18-05:00'
describe
'43868' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJO' 'sip-files00065.pro'
d331f13f500e36f4500557184b79d3f4
09d3245fd31a7a81f8c43bb7c961b6c2a20bd093
'2011-12-14T03:18:38-05:00'
describe
'71115' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJP' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
1d56afb735908e75ff1ba17c12b6fb5d
1a4b446aae130e7c9e4d0ea9229ead02020681a2
describe
'2708604' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJQ' 'sip-files00065.tif'
7c58901fd2267424132e0dcdfd79ae68
06300089f734ba5e5fd9660255715dd437f8c820
'2011-12-14T03:22:32-05:00'
describe
'1750' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJR' 'sip-files00065.txt'
ad66e41544701db917237240e790befd
2a257b717e6c934ba2db3fb45b70604227d0ca5b
'2011-12-14T03:20:04-05:00'
describe
'33619' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJS' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
a9548fd6dc1f928cda6c2f51ff446364
8e43c542fb0ce3f14245981bd48e39a0f12a6d26
'2011-12-14T03:17:43-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJT' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
275b52330179193b61744a50584a41eb
a37261c8a56709f089889b59dcce190084babfc6
describe
'159558' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJU' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
4056c73019367566e597371914af2956
562001e0d14e9bf184e46a3cbfa25b49723510d1
describe
'41339' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJV' 'sip-files00066.pro'
030cd0742a2efb4d75ab2baa37c99273
0764dad4ec79c49d40bea3920f2344992c07b1f9
'2011-12-14T03:18:12-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJW' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
5631131432b24632eca9af28affe0091
c06fa375f06d28223bd2aa7d22733c852a4df558
describe
'2708564' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJX' 'sip-files00066.tif'
2a5dd8f8f26ad2c267543a9826ece276
7933e538ee00d0179678cade070ef457150b6332
'2011-12-14T03:16:12-05:00'
describe
'1635' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJY' 'sip-files00066.txt'
9afbef956bc7e301c9ef7fcbfffea7ae
08551db5bc6399a7e858e1042a0b11bc382e2a6b
describe
'33602' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADJZ' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
9188caec50a9191e5693086ffa831f9c
c75a08cd9466af156cdafe21b706ebd98a0b33d1
'2011-12-14T03:19:34-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKA' 'sip-files00067.jp2'
f2dbcbacbcf4d5f382df2a38ee6c1b2d
d80086782eafc4f231880430851fac13890cec0b
describe
'157073' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKB' 'sip-files00067.jpg'
5a6ab65e1a313e21a5cff55adb90751f
32252aa0607248cf8a806d530d38dc3338b69fc4
describe
'35570' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKC' 'sip-files00067.pro'
cc24c9ebb27b4fae3c007d85e8e5c080
7274e08dbc201a3a38d8a0feee7deba66dcdea04
describe
'68864' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKD' 'sip-files00067.QC.jpg'
3cbc3b0a05426057e3cbec4299580df4
6bc3d8879b485c67b41a64f4a5666d3774ac0d7f
describe
'2708820' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKE' 'sip-files00067.tif'
344f2b705b7a3e5d8849aff975806fb9
73c4dad9d70bd842fa04a0e1c5bb598d6196b09e
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKF' 'sip-files00067.txt'
3560ca0fd8f6e5abc2debf326dd8a780
e0a43df394114c068dbdbc0bf31835a37849cfd0
describe
'33379' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKG' 'sip-files00067thm.jpg'
46a6e815f2e1a334090cd3ac10aca405
5e0bc92aa82e1fa19052fb8563a3de14480cbb5e
describe
'335906' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKH' 'sip-files00068.jp2'
f58f2a6c2c88d6d54b6bf03d5d7c901f
76cf2603d01d51d957748c11cc0a98525a4ca056
describe
'153948' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKI' 'sip-files00068.jpg'
a497e450b172bcce8775859edf1a6afd
df927f0c17803d61f65e6585d64001f2d98ab4c2
'2011-12-14T03:17:23-05:00'
describe
'40430' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKJ' 'sip-files00068.pro'
53f145e8ca93cf4877de56e7bfea2796
6b4a81fb51060e5b621abe5a07b00dd52338082f
'2011-12-14T03:19:15-05:00'
describe
'68425' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKK' 'sip-files00068.QC.jpg'
efcd5b77d2d3733e1a65cc4bd456f3c6
d1c0d2a9c42f7cbaf01ceb5d01b453038824a279
'2011-12-14T03:18:17-05:00'
describe
'2708304' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKL' 'sip-files00068.tif'
f8a5038247eee3157c541f641fb5c496
2429a2638adf810e9654b3f2af06510dcbccdce4
describe
'1602' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKM' 'sip-files00068.txt'
08ae38d67ca981bcd5fda6e3f3b475a8
47baaa3ad9462d1ce5ee59dd9928c0650618b0b7
describe
'32293' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKN' 'sip-files00068thm.jpg'
dea07e18bd736fcd7bffcbcad034d751
c7e9de108e30ac77c6e35dd20d7d492345338da1
'2011-12-14T03:20:26-05:00'
describe
'335648' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKO' 'sip-files00069.jp2'
9594ca706d1d087bfc2f29260af07b7b
c46a6fb7e1be1797f677405b65937c7c7718b0f0
describe
'163534' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKP' 'sip-files00069.jpg'
79bbdc3ef4d76dddf60c19a781d6c099
abf07ce2496b10351e2f9d3cd6a25d9ebbcdf495
describe
'42490' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKQ' 'sip-files00069.pro'
16c1ec67e02ea4be2e429976347b120e
114834c93d2e98e09df2ad2e66c9c995eb82736a
describe
'72453' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKR' 'sip-files00069.QC.jpg'
b247c71d6284c33a1a54c46dfa23dcb5
5124b05b22ef670ff78fc268dd96c9ff47446684
describe
'2708804' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKS' 'sip-files00069.tif'
bbdea8ae8a3adbe9bc035de45f37bba0
9f5a050901cc22213af204cd1f68eea4c21d4c95
'2011-12-14T03:19:45-05:00'
describe
'1683' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKT' 'sip-files00069.txt'
95a1c528da58c951767ed448d328ae17
2fd4f8f78aed7814beed9321363753345ed0369c
'2011-12-14T03:20:45-05:00'
describe
'33815' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKU' 'sip-files00069thm.jpg'
cab42f0ea87ed9cdd91ccbd836174609
22f1b39f695d4cf9d9e35d4243a9c129ff17170d
'2011-12-14T03:19:07-05:00'
describe
'335899' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKV' 'sip-files00070.jp2'
c9a8595721eff4464042f34b8d73518c
df1fdb425f27f1f500daa7f55c66eacca0a0113a
describe
'158795' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKW' 'sip-files00070.jpg'
2c33cf26089ce3816b52be01dfe7106f
c43e35814f6d9c14ee511fb1dc3b60fa8b0c9d18
describe
'42364' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKX' 'sip-files00070.pro'
50fd6daa64b62c199e63915dfdaa9af8
c2dc188e21ca30b0f20bea71dab6c56370fca5cd
describe
'71046' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKY' 'sip-files00070.QC.jpg'
1b972ed20791043a85a6d9ae9bc0a555
1e9896a1e7402b004186144f2a5dcdce8dacbfd7
'2011-12-14T03:20:16-05:00'
describe
'2708556' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADKZ' 'sip-files00070.tif'
8d51dbc5960637cfbee600b34b220f60
131f85af34d8f701767abed5b34b7f8871906098
'2011-12-14T03:21:32-05:00'
describe
'1676' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLA' 'sip-files00070.txt'
3cb04042b1118e068c1c5c94c4a68ebe
41fd6a8a642ed58a8501a1281aa92e187feec982
describe
'33069' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLB' 'sip-files00070thm.jpg'
ed890fb10ff26ce11aa21641d4b10fd1
eb493cac1e8205f5e8608f8a03cf5ab9de7d16a5
'2011-12-14T03:16:44-05:00'
describe
'335779' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLC' 'sip-files00071.jp2'
cb2c99a083fe5270648b7331e149c6cc
9314f5d78edda13b29f8eff5645bf9e4ce3a542d
'2011-12-14T03:17:53-05:00'
describe
'134669' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLD' 'sip-files00071.jpg'
3268f3fa181b17fffffd432f3f05fd24
168b81b626f6397deddf13b4e1d26bac65067ba6
describe
'24251' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLE' 'sip-files00071.pro'
63928d038d81a911a76c755bafbb9093
8691fa60cfc442415d1cfa9e7c60dab91603b04e
'2011-12-14T03:18:57-05:00'
describe
'58524' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLF' 'sip-files00071.QC.jpg'
6022a37bf1cd7ab59672004a71e750d7
8c07b2038e26aeb311a7a1c33cbecaf95c8cc6ac
describe
'2708140' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLG' 'sip-files00071.tif'
8236e692f991a8ad2d2ea1d9f90a9f17
6d05a0657729f958e638b6a6ff30b1126db8941f
describe
'1073' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLH' 'sip-files00071.txt'
e278696fd5d8fffda7fdb4cb23a59abc
e7da21ba3701dd450488405b39d12fd5555c5dd9
describe
'30987' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLI' 'sip-files00071thm.jpg'
c8d8940186cb3bd660d411f0b4fb47a5
0c56526b000786c9cbb2a5f5bffbc541cebbf5b5
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLJ' 'sip-files00072.jp2'
05bd984c8217708890d218d9d6b9d54c
a835f7493a707b91c2de76878ae865a7e06245e2
describe
'146384' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLK' 'sip-files00072.jpg'
f1a1abf3fb1b34117286144000d6fd33
e2429832c86149f56c8a3e81a04ecd3403c0594f
'2011-12-14T03:15:53-05:00'
describe
'37041' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLL' 'sip-files00072.pro'
3b852f85ad33ee1987092b8892043ea1
c6da99f40a43a4a055a82f77451f625a2f16416a
describe
'63648' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLM' 'sip-files00072.QC.jpg'
9bc2b043971dfa729658499bb7b05894
4271c3fb1486258dc364ecb184fbc8ffc6f01b88
'2011-12-14T03:19:13-05:00'
describe
'2708468' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLN' 'sip-files00072.tif'
9fc3d7d5d6463f037f6aff0b433099bf
827618a3d6668e484841ef4bd110941f496d8bc0
describe
'1858' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLO' 'sip-files00072.txt'
6c3a349b8c1a55807533b19a6c383f2b
5fe21b58d3e5d945c30c1814205790754b581aa8
describe
'32305' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLP' 'sip-files00072thm.jpg'
bc680c812afc2f68dbfdecfb93cbf57c
026784f022280b1f35b1904b425f27e5b9a3f15d
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLQ' 'sip-files00073.jp2'
79499e7463dff1daaafa16a3f18d813c
0991219108897d06dc756bba05e179980d58633d
describe
'166206' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLR' 'sip-files00073.jpg'
5ea9639e7fdf0e2ed4243bdedb78f704
3db33cd5174ddff5010e80dab96908f17aa99b88
'2011-12-14T03:19:58-05:00'
describe
'42136' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLS' 'sip-files00073.pro'
7522e7eb4a9cfb159e11d5e54a84d306
8b6581a02596369035557d0a6113cd31d6b621bd
'2011-12-14T03:19:57-05:00'
describe
'69872' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLT' 'sip-files00073.QC.jpg'
fc262bed71fce41ca57d27b247c7a290
598227d2f489e667d8a4fa714438c6c0cb26a374
'2011-12-14T03:16:27-05:00'
describe
'2708428' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLU' 'sip-files00073.tif'
dc3e244db7e50d792ceb1fb5bd83786c
fb328184e4a3c10b7a61f368e6d28541278d5c5b
'2011-12-14T03:18:11-05:00'
describe
'1689' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLV' 'sip-files00073.txt'
c28ff6caa6389084417fd26fd5ed1d1f
d961292e51f10d071879a0e5b582ee6d527bf13a
describe
'33117' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLW' 'sip-files00073thm.jpg'
70fa75b449fe729245483bc03ed31a33
5aa1c276f1377197ba487054515faf4fa47aa42a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLX' 'sip-files00074.jp2'
0448a918893257426c11fd2b5ffe1020
3ce19f2fa51802ee3a37b0cb1805e0f4e8d77d3e
describe
'113939' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLY' 'sip-files00074.jpg'
1776290ece3d43633921120073d0373d
47cf5d3a591e23633554056c395fe58128220a6a
'2011-12-14T03:15:59-05:00'
describe
'24130' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADLZ' 'sip-files00074.pro'
885b206440b60cbca778793ce51d7dc6
b05f43bd2f4742438a3f1b2f69f6bd62f2ecb15d
'2011-12-14T03:20:31-05:00'
describe
'51471' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMA' 'sip-files00074.QC.jpg'
c6f00462200abafdc693d3ff0aa8c7de
93b974dd299b38f81cb88010d6f85c3586481860
describe
'2706992' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMB' 'sip-files00074.tif'
0b4fd9600a54d8d3849f885618b13ae9
d943f35aa123358f03f5361b6b106d05ff03b30a
'2011-12-14T03:19:43-05:00'
describe
'955' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMC' 'sip-files00074.txt'
c3f63e834bde9d04dba7fe90d85eac99
05bdd6fee23b9ec0810144d43bc9659d18615e1c
describe
'27630' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMD' 'sip-files00074thm.jpg'
555b19e2b313f304d3e4bdca3f58f52e
76a370d99a6fd7999b8f6cde13131f8dbe13a483
'2011-12-14T03:17:12-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADME' 'sip-files00075.jp2'
3f78f3c23e88d54c368634020cedcd00
85806724291b0f4428ab447b6b15e978cd2e3f38
describe
'132929' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMF' 'sip-files00075.jpg'
d502a7bc8d8dcc9c643bd068f8cee1e2
fc517555eb4a009785ca15d83c25389963ec75f9
describe
'21487' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMG' 'sip-files00075.pro'
b4114347d0f4cb19ad70800ef141d674
b7a7b9ac2bb2205fdf171fdba86a6ed360a7b947
describe
'57815' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMH' 'sip-files00075.QC.jpg'
c75833c7380a39f284a94e414b9c8d55
0842e2adc393971cd7fccb8cbde6b83a38a5793d
describe
'2707992' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMI' 'sip-files00075.tif'
df416de4df245e1dab565b38f4358a91
eaf3a6fa6cae9bd12dde02c202936702825528ee
describe
'1132' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMJ' 'sip-files00075.txt'
43ecf9e06a3ad23316afe985651927e3
aa0b46ca9e9c705d82496990f5b92c0eda465530
describe
'30776' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMK' 'sip-files00075thm.jpg'
70f1de8a9c1122b9ef5e5ea529d6450a
ae47d06d618cd00f85ecc26b3a7f952dc0e4e833
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADML' 'sip-files00076.jp2'
81e714626640d560ac7b5ba3d33623dc
b287e90eeebfa3a43f7239496458e11c0cc5d4ca
describe
'160247' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMM' 'sip-files00076.jpg'
a59ad65ea66864f3d926ec58effb55f1
1b74d6b04eece5f9df099b4114d708f7a1cb39e7
'2011-12-14T03:16:45-05:00'
describe
'43657' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMN' 'sip-files00076.pro'
baf75f1726346b113125031c009af77e
06c94eeeb466c0307262872867e7e979d29a829d
describe
'69466' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMO' 'sip-files00076.QC.jpg'
51ae639ffec968f498e385a6485cac4c
2ed1d192f5b4f1eb7071353d8958048e0dc052fe
'2011-12-14T03:18:14-05:00'
describe
'2708380' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMP' 'sip-files00076.tif'
1d4e79bbff702705a509ab1fd07de797
7436f624e5cf5599ea56a941e833849c545347aa
describe
'1721' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMQ' 'sip-files00076.txt'
4fec747b06128de06ee62658a5ba23c3
d416eb4a2ae172b377bc8fc8fc02211125302204
describe
'32696' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMR' 'sip-files00076thm.jpg'
a12154ac6ad3be4e636e4e8351c7204e
a27d7ff1c1fbb204b9ade959ab99d6996805fc0e
describe
'335841' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMS' 'sip-files00077.jp2'
c08e884b97a1acf0ceb4f457ba8ad3ba
3cb74c361b6fbf89d2b81f57d5e78e9ebccddda0
describe
'157146' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMT' 'sip-files00077.jpg'
fd233bca017f48d17cfb645fc6c18d7c
fe761a459de351ea85d4d6141db44b79377ec29f
describe
'39064' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMU' 'sip-files00077.pro'
4aade921d3754f695b39f7126129c291
7d0b52c2a38d68cda2762451a22ac984c313ffd6
describe
'67202' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMV' 'sip-files00077.QC.jpg'
965753dd6689d3598bd3f49097d92539
03e9d0dd04fd7d69180bbc5221e2508dc641764f
describe
'2708276' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMW' 'sip-files00077.tif'
2de652b7eb8aa9c3628dda51cb99f673
7427327f934f7f0cc24deb633f5bb8524bc9084e
describe
'1609' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMX' 'sip-files00077.txt'
0e9020cdbc6a30c61b2e27cf5cc51742
a7ba4d4dbeb3c823d33506f6b4e070f55ce72cd9
describe
'32566' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMY' 'sip-files00077thm.jpg'
937a8dba6c0cada7b4d6bf11c4ef85cb
ee574595c10ddd48c3f194678be5eb3bc57589dd
describe
'335903' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADMZ' 'sip-files00078.jp2'
8e1098614221b42fa08242bfc4eb320a
c9d352eddc8c6d3929d46c6440e4295c99d58748
describe
'155175' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNA' 'sip-files00078.jpg'
c8d4e1da753850a5553118e44b841f4f
bc718ff4f9a4d4f191520154a67d0c5481324c36
describe
'38821' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNB' 'sip-files00078.pro'
6315ba035ebbc466f475cba20fb6748f
88e38ed3d363b60fef062b95dd6041358b3c561b
describe
'69268' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNC' 'sip-files00078.QC.jpg'
a88359143fed70bd747220ccba0395ba
0429974eb740ca211ddb49a2c81cc606b78ada04
describe
'2708668' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADND' 'sip-files00078.tif'
5e851127370be9b0fbf1ce8e99c3f793
8a46f02a67d9310ce484dcaf2108eb2af37d7a7d
'2011-12-14T03:20:44-05:00'
describe
'1548' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNE' 'sip-files00078.txt'
b6e4b0198383936c5c565ab528ac1a5d
cb612c1fb70bd82da316407a8b3416b37bb340d8
describe
'33405' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNF' 'sip-files00078thm.jpg'
8e916805ebc6257693eb166851509d56
0e248b8cd8c9b586bf58ee87d781219f5199268a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNG' 'sip-files00079.jp2'
0b047d1e2cb9e3a27538a8933936a0b8
ea57404da8f7530b2c8e2b9591db7b595a57f81e
describe
'170180' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNH' 'sip-files00079.jpg'
b65873213bbcd2d2607a2cca113a84fb
a9f32821362418fe0213097aee63652170a87acd
'2011-12-14T03:16:32-05:00'
describe
'41883' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNI' 'sip-files00079.pro'
bd0cad5b28dadaf4bc454f17817321a7
e1907fd376e354373250e6956770448401390d90
'2011-12-14T03:16:55-05:00'
describe
'72694' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNJ' 'sip-files00079.QC.jpg'
3b51536797110585c65c68145c78044e
dbf1fae41fa299d2ec871f3c96c2f97af3280218
describe
'2708632' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNK' 'sip-files00079.tif'
35e09069edf8cb82038fb70091a034ff
a505dd8d987c1129dd1904b0cdc66aa9daa2435b
'2011-12-14T03:16:08-05:00'
describe
'1659' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNL' 'sip-files00079.txt'
fb0bb54777b1293609b1a56f72db7ccd
6ec290a126d48c5fe7047ff6da7225ca90815033
describe
'33961' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNM' 'sip-files00079thm.jpg'
c28ae1b795260a77340429fa7f129575
c7df538d926f8e3d5457a53006a960491f17f608
describe
'335901' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNN' 'sip-files00080.jp2'
7a6a8abe88aecf6bba053b5a6ecfcde3
1de65190fd1f6a9b4591f82a2f004fe4a1b12dd2
describe
'151328' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNO' 'sip-files00080.jpg'
bb394e8a93830d390cf556674e8ff25f
6bca7daf9d467b4c37df2478a3e4697b4e4bd9aa
describe
'41108' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNP' 'sip-files00080.pro'
f1561e3f50a6f3b01cb07ca0653e1254
b64f12be4966d009d3e6f797119f4b8812266e6a
describe
'68190' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNQ' 'sip-files00080.QC.jpg'
93f61ac8b42935ccdaaa25db828e16fe
4ff2ca65edab4dbf10662bcc1409fe3f197f0e42
'2011-12-14T03:17:54-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNR' 'sip-files00080.tif'
c0c027e3feea6de087c06d4d77ab1e1a
2ca57314ad15db12e4ac79d1def78795972073f3
'2011-12-14T03:21:24-05:00'
describe
'1627' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNS' 'sip-files00080.txt'
e075a451fb8402b8c6f606046210a584
52430492a17dd62bd6c7efe8f0c455a5b86bb53c
describe
'32979' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNT' 'sip-files00080thm.jpg'
9de2e42cd931d314123ee2af2159275e
6af85531d7ff5edbdb33f6cecb2428cef8a39bbc
describe
'335902' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNU' 'sip-files00081.jp2'
0db6305a836469689935e527c7799d9d
bb78523f2ddfcc0603da4c89595991608336d4da
describe
'142432' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNV' 'sip-files00081.jpg'
5023cf6d07694673fc6a9b72fd2faf08
31a4d83666c4cfd632f9b60e5b4dd938a7bac468
describe
'32761' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNW' 'sip-files00081.pro'
411a4e92a9713ee746fb5cccdd2ee4f7
2366ff97bd31197b23ecb9e6d9a360d8a0cc9433
'2011-12-14T03:20:09-05:00'
describe
'61604' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNX' 'sip-files00081.QC.jpg'
106d8a062e13ac52f366707780d186f9
54686845c19c21db33864824f5a6b15ee8d4d2ea
describe
'2708036' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNY' 'sip-files00081.tif'
db848851f609cd66c04ddc1fcf4f3183
b01e6f934c682d425d7807edc1d0d938e8459adf
'2011-12-14T03:15:45-05:00'
describe
'1359' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADNZ' 'sip-files00081.txt'
227198edfaf4064c1af083c95145603b
ae25da1b41cc1fed0a88799ccc7fdf550d67a5ff
describe
'31089' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOA' 'sip-files00081thm.jpg'
b257a161ea249b6f40cfd2afbe42fcce
766c9e25ef7da90efd5a8c6feb8aaa0a4e3585e5
'2011-12-14T03:19:55-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOB' 'sip-files00082.jp2'
92e2c24776dd8a2424b14e5ad96bb314
c7fc951e8739a9d3fbf051515c5754560aa39c7e
describe
'159934' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOC' 'sip-files00082.jpg'
6019fc76a92824d0f6150d5413ec6160
e495beb77ace552ab4555cfd96a81cd29f8652d5
'2011-12-14T03:17:15-05:00'
describe
'41684' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOD' 'sip-files00082.pro'
c84d1c2c12da60dac340898735ca05f9
4ef45cc7b2f23d2f421324fbe796a892523e7627
describe
'72409' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOE' 'sip-files00082.QC.jpg'
4b6bb3868fc77bf42bf489766200af6f
f6a2548184d8c20660bca8d47eadb1104f5f0d70
describe
'2708868' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOF' 'sip-files00082.tif'
6fbb0fc7db9ffa7f8aea77baa30dbfbc
b94c9910e82fa3897dddb677974e1e102ca32535
describe
'1641' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOG' 'sip-files00082.txt'
4b8653cc7a8bc15ddf6f2cc55d1eb5f8
7475c7a38330c3f97ebc7bd680991db0d36c5d7e
describe
'33807' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOH' 'sip-files00082thm.jpg'
69313e17cda85bd0b34cae189c528800
32db189536a51548814cbe6f3233212114b83732
describe
'335908' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOI' 'sip-files00083.jp2'
784992b0994834383e8f1ca7f42c5566
1a18647e39f7cf42da0c070631b54325c4d2cef7
'2011-12-14T03:17:30-05:00'
describe
'155795' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOJ' 'sip-files00083.jpg'
ec705ed4e201d12594be22cb6e0fdc2e
52eadc3421743320d8cd065511d1607839459218
'2011-12-14T03:18:46-05:00'
describe
'34076' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOK' 'sip-files00083.pro'
7450957b36143a601915eaac21adbfe5
924036c4cade8042d153d77310847bc49239165e
describe
'69375' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOL' 'sip-files00083.QC.jpg'
57f0b8a4e4a021051380f7eaef5c691a
c85eef8bd5f0b5cea3bb8276c66f2910d94290b0
describe
'2709048' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOM' 'sip-files00083.tif'
340e86014c99de65c978abaee1723ae1
e12d7424d336298b3c4519d6b895c7932c47982c
describe
'1397' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADON' 'sip-files00083.txt'
83269054b2fd2ec6180e5cdcd859cd51
ed078a513cd15d6e64e8479dfe708a0f508b2f3a
describe
'34413' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOO' 'sip-files00083thm.jpg'
a556d66135fd766e180fe53a224daa45
df3b52293ca9432da711d80d5ae0bfd92b17c598
describe
'335907' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOP' 'sip-files00084.jp2'
0bd4acfc856a247887cf05fa907ada07
d698620b403f81ed532cf77ed05bd4c4a48cb632
describe
'155025' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOQ' 'sip-files00084.jpg'
098d41a14140c2f7ed276674edfb5921
67b37d7f72eb6578337c3d41b0a93aac6f26acec
describe
'42647' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOR' 'sip-files00084.pro'
b8006f8da8acf5ad024cb35c9d462918
c98443d7b9443d723f517ba448aa4047c9ac4190
describe
'68788' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOS' 'sip-files00084.QC.jpg'
aef87873fa1dc7f3716f7426376d102e
51d9369c651bf787f3e2a6859843281214fab03d
'2011-12-14T03:16:49-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOT' 'sip-files00084.tif'
b2ea11de9f542cb7b95a758c17b8f403
20d3fd1295933d24c885a01703645bd7a3da1316
'2011-12-14T03:16:17-05:00'
describe
'1691' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOU' 'sip-files00084.txt'
565627f9336428a8b755209cf0071537
2b354b30d85cfa71eaa4e66df8df3da4433e7c01
describe
'32648' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOV' 'sip-files00084thm.jpg'
e2f2aa6f41d95814d9e222190a8b9dcd
ee07419a6ed10592267e29b53d8bb98564a28d32
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOW' 'sip-files00085.jp2'
bc5d4a4550593ceb14a09ca7e71b65e8
d8e26c1dd9a57e4e1e5d551668a05a0624095e16
describe
'158449' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOX' 'sip-files00085.jpg'
181164c4487a2d3487b8170512eb6815
a98ab62ddf7d3b07f9d12e857b8460d8101f4cc1
'2011-12-14T03:20:35-05:00'
describe
'40433' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOY' 'sip-files00085.pro'
9954bd54043caef023a85d00d5e5009a
b756047ee930509f10b1da4ec274e6f46935402a
describe
'69089' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADOZ' 'sip-files00085.QC.jpg'
7e8a45b202fdf83d8418634e33041d89
5a28ca8d7cce9ae917812b0cdc49e9596122493e
describe
'2708648' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPA' 'sip-files00085.tif'
3182f1df557d5f29519efe42fc82d957
7bdc0c60bcdcb150f88434898f662139a567d5a5
'2011-12-14T03:17:16-05:00'
describe
'1663' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPB' 'sip-files00085.txt'
7e992f4560491165ebc070a647d3e4e3
5d2dd29693e82a6d1f2e68a0202efb6c11e87c09
describe
'33393' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPC' 'sip-files00085thm.jpg'
53e8cda63f567d540f231370a3895300
d5162cae0585200d0ebe7fb416706e8fb088dc1e
describe
'335865' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPD' 'sip-files00086.jp2'
249a3438665f838c2965a14497b45298
759add9c0f6b8be832b107ad2c7d9dbd24c79198
describe
'163881' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPE' 'sip-files00086.jpg'
249a80c8a0831a3f0cb5d78df1075386
7566161ee1063cac3c7e43a3dcf02e697b185096
'2011-12-14T03:16:02-05:00'
describe
'42682' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPF' 'sip-files00086.pro'
e40d92215d4244d18d5e750f424562e2
ebf8ed8e8239ba5a6216bf9d74fd12875abfb5fa
describe
'72467' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPG' 'sip-files00086.QC.jpg'
50712bb5ab763903ceb4b0ebe2134999
0bf3bf8c7344247eb0b1b221d28a887cc70dff8b
describe
'2709104' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPH' 'sip-files00086.tif'
c3d527882ab857a5999a1e54fbdcaf07
ccaddfe91d50876eebf3eed5606853cd8636f91e
'2011-12-14T03:19:49-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPI' 'sip-files00086.txt'
45f71bbb427824dd70e0c32321c16cae
9fc58671111cc4f80ca260e1568a7bc6ed8f1628
describe
'34769' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPJ' 'sip-files00086thm.jpg'
6cea6b07d626cb55250905b78a963164
1cb95d596b16a6c4fce1d09a17646777aeb4a18a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPK' 'sip-files00087.jp2'
e24c0f26883d319cee3fe5ecde72e9b9
a5f7461f58fe28dec0fb2048d6c12542c5c21c1c
describe
'154663' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPL' 'sip-files00087.jpg'
a31d313d6ee4dbb17d0c16577f28afa9
73c7b3d791f56f3e92f108e75a0747b504e043e5
describe
'34251' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPM' 'sip-files00087.pro'
17000865d0bc2c4fcc0775490a29b622
4df395c7ff96e77cc871a309c989f728b86064ba
describe
'66966' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPN' 'sip-files00087.QC.jpg'
06ddb991459fbe9fb214d7b4da082fb0
0d42ace30dce6039e0fb4a564dba3e62e5569d1b
describe
'2708892' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPO' 'sip-files00087.tif'
5bda7a57eba21f7cdae0c66e1923f782
c9ed041a9ca45347b18b8e3e2c2b2007939b62af
'2011-12-14T03:18:22-05:00'
describe
'1431' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPP' 'sip-files00087.txt'
e34c339ac6f9d8db68cb3ff49a066c43
772a6527d7bd7a8a73811abaf74d29e23ae2ed7d
describe
'33326' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPQ' 'sip-files00087thm.jpg'
ecc764186418a307aa76324476771359
cd8192b676c1ccc68579d445f7b005bffadf2c5d
'2011-12-14T03:16:57-05:00'
describe
'335889' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPR' 'sip-files00088.jp2'
0e2920674d512f3ec9f4d062201f8d76
95374b2e092cafb9749f0ec20aa7a30c4bd5a7b4
describe
'134778' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPS' 'sip-files00088.jpg'
dbc6bdeb5d8f9ca9c955fcec24f10a9e
743097b36062e8355f26c952d6cc06212fbe6bbf
'2011-12-14T03:20:34-05:00'
describe
'29417' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPT' 'sip-files00088.pro'
3e6991c6a3e01b6e90ac2f3ffdf28b8f
7504a7e2c0e80cdb503ed93d31c5d909dc5a6901
describe
'59857' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPU' 'sip-files00088.QC.jpg'
b87fb4b3a6a02818bc48edd69849a8dc
ef019ace5591998748b32307e7cfbba8ce9fe23d
'2011-12-14T03:19:54-05:00'
describe
'2708132' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPV' 'sip-files00088.tif'
cae0a9391eb3cf6c97084328ae1707c2
c5e1c949770913aac2032774656226ecc297f813
describe
'1239' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPW' 'sip-files00088.txt'
9ed9b5a3a28a90b455467c2c058799e9
5a5bd7afe54d25dea12d8f1fd6cc019cc89f15a0
describe
'31177' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPX' 'sip-files00088thm.jpg'
f408e71b4d9972004d581c41a850fcc1
6b838e743ac735e6c33e44d901c92b6b60339457
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPY' 'sip-files00089.jp2'
590c359df2d597926ecd4277c9fa9849
6e6a660fb53fa1096dea19a44bcb192758a9d472
'2011-12-14T03:17:05-05:00'
describe
'146486' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADPZ' 'sip-files00089.jpg'
28c69ff1c6f816bfeebd8d44cf60a8c0
243821d4bf22f43faa1b994a284b904f8d9e8fb0
describe
'31335' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQA' 'sip-files00089.pro'
c5caa60379d59862091f18b8c2103bc0
8763b13eb3746b2070934c2745d49ce2ca2e664c
'2011-12-14T03:16:34-05:00'
describe
'61154' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQB' 'sip-files00089.QC.jpg'
146968ce86aca3e10404f4d44157623d
d5469913d83bceafb6b4bd6aec985bc7e24dd625
describe
'2708108' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQC' 'sip-files00089.tif'
13d09d3b85cd5095c52019b0d3b78288
975d212bf2bfcae860bf57cc4a9b302fb903a1b0
describe
'1429' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQD' 'sip-files00089.txt'
21d85198d2f6ad93f98b85007cdac0fd
b3eea5274712546dc42ede27ffcf56154dc23e6b
describe
Invalid character
'31309' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQE' 'sip-files00089thm.jpg'
b652faeff75faac37d70fd96003fee28
cc7ae7f6ab916441696d1970598e2cda910f2081
describe
'335809' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQF' 'sip-files00090.jp2'
cc718e95f58d541a364d9a41d6c82a7c
b229a914d97dcaa425175156c5ba4c0b796fc655
'2011-12-14T03:16:33-05:00'
describe
'199156' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQG' 'sip-files00090.jpg'
accc5fd2f495d44742b91e94e16f0601
9fd9b294a7b9d95cc36ffa1c1863bcebe472a596
describe
'42566' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQH' 'sip-files00090.pro'
6fd67847c037678855d41402ff86a6a8
04979d783931f4c27a70aad4c8fd4789e1616675
describe
'77309' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQI' 'sip-files00090.QC.jpg'
eba9b61b1fc31a6f7b5205d319f81938
7381b91d629e628f708d4fa79e27b741f1803e40
'2011-12-14T03:19:20-05:00'
describe
'2709332' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQJ' 'sip-files00090.tif'
972095c907bf4554365adf1e765bac66
083d07ee7f81eb3d58ef37365d615dcd036ad23a
'2011-12-14T03:16:23-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQK' 'sip-files00090.txt'
d5f1282e9e918c81c8c01c864c7b253c
5c2d3bbd73442e95359862fb948bb53b6e667fad
describe
'35406' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQL' 'sip-files00090thm.jpg'
ba1f2a96fd928b31b54d3ada7492441a
3c4965ac79d8c5f4050e742975c135d7788c2af0
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQM' 'sip-files00091.jp2'
8251d089beb819295222b644fc70b71b
618816d33cd20f5f22c8ca6803862ccd4472c0a4
describe
'200651' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQN' 'sip-files00091.jpg'
1d5b4957723283f82ff7ee81486a231d
e37ccfe99c2c166f545a73211e5cc0b35107924e
describe
'41522' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQO' 'sip-files00091.pro'
a1f92fb0c56e92497417f3184cd3ca03
e7051b320e08788283a415a6ffb8bb3671f58696
describe
'76740' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQP' 'sip-files00091.QC.jpg'
2f4d0c051b15804f87e5f9a323ef3326
8c8833a081beeedec3dcde5b1703d751b0883b74
describe
'2709272' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQQ' 'sip-files00091.tif'
caeef6f6248c26a75e4c15b49ddaec69
3fa8638bb2d04783f9f91f93ec46978ed4f2a0d0
describe
'1650' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQR' 'sip-files00091.txt'
9e1266dd3d616749d9f38eb6d8d05213
7b34047a27e71da8b56272d912c6b89a17e9c0b6
describe
'35013' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQS' 'sip-files00091thm.jpg'
dae7b5b06b6a3f65c01420391f68b9bf
fc053d7b7150a45170c47ef436400481935d092a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQT' 'sip-files00092.jp2'
d3091edbf67f5d45711c311b1f048d25
1d77dc57ef29db6d5aab135777cd7038cee80504
describe
'198818' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQU' 'sip-files00092.jpg'
5925c967970a796206ef025a84a4dc5c
642df10f1856607063d74840f71853bcda1cb405
describe
'41503' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQV' 'sip-files00092.pro'
cbfb3f0e7841d284aef29c14ac708ec6
633d3e979a4dbef6da53c07df9f28c96e108e5e8
describe
'75851' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQW' 'sip-files00092.QC.jpg'
5fea35588faf2d5da262b4a9f9ff8ca3
1d78d084699cbef1305f18aabfc1838a52fa0bb0
describe
'2709356' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQX' 'sip-files00092.tif'
08d1dfb050be003d93d5f792f3885a12
905bde0b3b03b39408ec7a9ae34fc1548d50ceaa
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQY' 'sip-files00092.txt'
967d7d58040bf50e47862c154d6ca6a4
af9f31b9558ba7a1f1577c048780cecfe5f91f9d
describe
'34975' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADQZ' 'sip-files00092thm.jpg'
2b50c1b57cfe7f1ce8954c1e4f848d70
68546ce0a35e2c5bd43ba5f718b1916d74508066
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRA' 'sip-files00093.jp2'
d9a3418e5e8683d101bcea8eeefd309d
b6cdc67001ca8ada29a1fad4fc4c380e6463f925
describe
'199971' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRB' 'sip-files00093.jpg'
121b2b78ebefa69220df7507238dda1c
a99a5c4c05060df291bec694cd256a913f0333fd
describe
'40844' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRC' 'sip-files00093.pro'
61c449e015ab66afa405674ec142e041
aa72fbdff6fe92a0b7c1e6fbe2a171065a7bad97
describe
'77098' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRD' 'sip-files00093.QC.jpg'
b038505acf81f5c58d101729d216dee7
2fcd69f87b47b99fe48e5f06572e9a3a4c605a8a
'2011-12-14T03:21:56-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRE' 'sip-files00093.tif'
2ad10b9e41d85d4b9133e997c5d18c9d
fb704887d87df9c6c0e757bbeb71a4a2f0616b5f
'2011-12-14T03:19:04-05:00'
describe
'1652' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRF' 'sip-files00093.txt'
51d16231ce425896ee587d30264f6fe4
46efff6fdd0ff6f1dedc38cb124813e19bc8e24f
describe
'34989' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRG' 'sip-files00093thm.jpg'
1cfdafcb415dcac3fad680999730bc40
0cf6dfaa471265b1e8ac693dd9e0e33bc292a62f
'2011-12-14T03:20:10-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRH' 'sip-files00094.jp2'
b334454f06e601647ef3f0d6f0ade8a1
ca590693c4af540feeb555abcc80d6503b420993
describe
'127890' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRI' 'sip-files00094.jpg'
477e228c219ca873795e53f8fb8b3774
5c8bde8a33557c45f57f4bdd32a16c4004ad8e42
describe
'20619' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRJ' 'sip-files00094.pro'
7bf7681e267a7ccb8653ff8af2e010de
ab3b43e8ec4e8e97b7e3d2c7cee5fbde64a1788b
'2011-12-14T03:19:09-05:00'
describe
'50351' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRK' 'sip-files00094.QC.jpg'
12c5971a2682e52b018e829fa7a12335
8fb55e6a765fd35cf4785fc23dee8e454ba7909e
'2011-12-14T03:15:51-05:00'
describe
'2706928' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRL' 'sip-files00094.tif'
5084dabebbe3cb2858c25e46998592aa
c78feb3cd14254b6c30eb83f1cff03b577977318
describe
'817' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRM' 'sip-files00094.txt'
9648f9641163dcb2bc8f7fc1095c56aa
f4cd368d8f46c453e6eed4734cd121d4ddfb5039
describe
'27265' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRN' 'sip-files00094thm.jpg'
a254f9d722311fe0a2ccd13907e77fca
754203dcc96763b05ecdb87357df74ab9f3715c6
describe
'335867' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRO' 'sip-files00095.jp2'
c2d57a7204f73c0e33ee953f80c49a62
38e473cdd7284add87a862105fbd50c3f28ab8a0
describe
'162704' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRP' 'sip-files00095.jpg'
8aa52a2e79d1b7746976cffab05cba70
871d9a7b1e9f57b350cfe19de9a3c1b2f1f78340
describe
'22908' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRQ' 'sip-files00095.pro'
491516dbd8ceeddd7671f8acbbc51aa1
254b62dd93c6d53b79f973f6e279d53e378e4839
describe
'61695' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRR' 'sip-files00095.QC.jpg'
308c9c189669bdcc9acdbc55586db9fc
f2cf93daa89fb368f911684fa053544ecacb7a1e
describe
'2708144' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRS' 'sip-files00095.tif'
4b8c9b8e91ff60e3965c0344ad5ea18e
9a00a013a6487e0c7c84d3763fae8e45a3e21e90
describe
'1143' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRT' 'sip-files00095.txt'
170c97ea9585be1026706973681e9bd7
86d20dbaa4dc7bab1fa4cbedb984282524807701
describe
'31298' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRU' 'sip-files00095thm.jpg'
e3f32480581d6a8726a8cc532d2b70a7
e0d94eb3f1f4795302a518e7e9cdcaa6010d20d4
describe
'335914' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRV' 'sip-files00096.jp2'
20b1ae26141ab4344ba3ab54573d714b
791f94191822d507475107d16d3db88f0922f679
describe
'196697' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRW' 'sip-files00096.jpg'
daa91a4e39d86112104db7dd26a6e488
33c8b51d5eb1a186b861411a6b7373a1dc21cd8c
describe
'39468' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRX' 'sip-files00096.pro'
5b4d2a14716d9913475804d6db7de27b
877d2d82a52723c53c77f4d2b3b7f9a939afd612
'2011-12-14T03:21:48-05:00'
describe
'76213' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRY' 'sip-files00096.QC.jpg'
2b4bd4fa8fe438ec70b642a1655de2a0
ee20d92f6ef5bcb36fa970ff76aca33ad4ee08d7
describe
'2709208' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADRZ' 'sip-files00096.tif'
fa8da62b75b08e5e8b7c1a76c50ed2d9
6c0996f6759069093a59ec085698ce41249df0ac
describe
'1631' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSA' 'sip-files00096.txt'
d03ad439a8dd933d8a5b8f32e73b9025
8c22b62083a42645f105ea0b4ba815cfaa82d96c
describe
'34979' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSB' 'sip-files00096thm.jpg'
247a841dc4b65676672bdfc57aa25c1c
cb6bc6390f35dfb5c3a82f39b6db7bf1a1c636f8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSC' 'sip-files00097.jp2'
22b9bb613b6b38b440b1f4956a464f40
39c4e0392158d4e2d202820b4359f6b13d1cee08
'2011-12-14T03:22:00-05:00'
describe
'184002' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSD' 'sip-files00097.jpg'
22027290a489d3218c15a426b9d1ee84
021f8b31964528a0b9bacc328c63829f80bffd79
describe
'29992' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSE' 'sip-files00097.pro'
8fdc460be9dbec3daf54e8b768d8d891
1a5043b586084a598e000f8abfa8fef11b2c949a
'2011-12-14T03:22:01-05:00'
describe
'69686' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSF' 'sip-files00097.QC.jpg'
dc9c8b5f1544a2eda94c92bdbd0d9fc4
89a0956cfcf0ed5eb0218fb229019ef386ba068d
'2011-12-14T03:21:01-05:00'
describe
'2708824' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSG' 'sip-files00097.tif'
8a89bc9d8d409bb68b0d9850d965e9f7
a8e38e4dbc11498b1ba2f26df1a291a566e0f24b
describe
'1271' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSH' 'sip-files00097.txt'
cdc899ec47a5e3d1be6b90cbc8223615
b5126b59f51fb5f10059b705cf98a57a10d48466
describe
'33606' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSI' 'sip-files00097thm.jpg'
d0b9f85e855e44319af1a6a59965719e
d6ccaae6ee381006d57bfe55126fdb603dccccd4
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSJ' 'sip-files00098.jp2'
7535b106754a9609e92e1e861fe7deb7
22c06bad37596264669f7cca42395de0b7c728f5
describe
'193943' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSK' 'sip-files00098.jpg'
1197485fc6ad047e731fb2ee721846f7
203ebcfe29971b7abbfd0471335922ba40f0bcf8
describe
'37117' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSL' 'sip-files00098.pro'
95efd809670359f95ea9eb8e5869694c
364c41537e7f4b6cfe5abb76bfe0fc39100b869f
describe
'74863' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSM' 'sip-files00098.QC.jpg'
b1fb7a1a0bea69a580abaa423138b42b
793d741c347abceaae43093fad884da41569c2ba
describe
'2709192' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSN' 'sip-files00098.tif'
117ac6a8c1983951c555cb6a349fe856
7343d9708b986cd933829f05974e4618a6802927
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSO' 'sip-files00098.txt'
155351b86670b925bcd7e6b90382bdfa
0d4307511cb6811b2b39cf15dfa69846794a0908
'2011-12-14T03:17:13-05:00'
describe
'34781' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSP' 'sip-files00098thm.jpg'
714477ddf82fa242cdadbd21b8f2a683
36ba63de0d4b6cf80b01502d585fcf84829a800a
describe
'335860' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSQ' 'sip-files00099.jp2'
78af63fae77ee95ced3fabdb33e6a765
730e272d9ffcf215f331d0490f541cf3d169fc4d
describe
'205365' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSR' 'sip-files00099.jpg'
feecd732db3998b9bc6d3c6aa84b4ce4
c01f3dfbe87429485c25a78a9e4f4c9c65766d74
describe
'44019' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSS' 'sip-files00099.pro'
5da818014127c2f0cfa0d310a4385228
11714e83c1123cd120627eaed4dfe503bae0a479
describe
'78455' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADST' 'sip-files00099.QC.jpg'
744f3911e2408e3b5415d78d4ef11632
97d75c0c309401b840a8948e6f26f888d6718d36
describe
'2709232' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSU' 'sip-files00099.tif'
7d8502abbc708b81a52ad8721d93d4d7
b4a485661a187a9cc24ff693b31c6c08698142c4
'2011-12-14T03:20:53-05:00'
describe
'1748' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSV' 'sip-files00099.txt'
bf960452218fb226bd0221a067381ad5
64f4930bc6a20e30c05cea7f61fd9053301ebb6e
describe
'35231' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSW' 'sip-files00099thm.jpg'
3654d96edf7300bae1d7f3900de83522
84b54ab3757b57fbb349269430dc2246f620be2d
describe
'335812' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSX' 'sip-files00100.jp2'
0bd0e7542bd90c7e809291545f10f16d
0334accacb72d92a15b3e339fd18350c5a970a89
describe
'199292' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSY' 'sip-files00100.jpg'
0a27e39df962730941a5f8ec686ae8a3
f881ba48c7aa0004297f6573b13e06f7e0d5fcd3
describe
'41855' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADSZ' 'sip-files00100.pro'
54e2b18fd167331a6266f4afbd38fe64
f9313949c42840ebbdf658d6e87940e7a5ec691e
describe
'75908' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTA' 'sip-files00100.QC.jpg'
f71082de23a12cfad1428e5ee02f7e5f
1137325dc37440db6104bfd4693e82ed6f34c140
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTB' 'sip-files00100.tif'
a21df73797d0eca0929644a8a6d66ca0
23ba1e5714375d21a420de7c0a72a8a060b8ca33
describe
'1661' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTC' 'sip-files00100.txt'
77f2c80ad5c2991acdeb5dc1f0ec528d
521d52d8491c84878f62807df305a908a9b0e26b
describe
'34774' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTD' 'sip-files00100thm.jpg'
93f18346f0144d5f22b8b1c4e73a7823
e760da2441d6b74627d849126591740fc58ca5b8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTE' 'sip-files00101.jp2'
65176d977ae5d99f54a7fa478ba1b4cb
6ee1613f70e18b9107c8c5508cf72d8548480bee
describe
'192220' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTF' 'sip-files00101.jpg'
6146856c23c2fb88b94e485b66a03371
179da17fb23eb793da4233da7ee54a2a2127e6e4
'2011-12-14T03:21:57-05:00'
describe
'36131' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTG' 'sip-files00101.pro'
59c82efd2d8cf86574f938fb0fdac63e
c9d10e37691400d479e1f78d2982bbf334f9c98b
'2011-12-14T03:17:36-05:00'
describe
'71692' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTH' 'sip-files00101.QC.jpg'
d691144ef748d555fffbbf8c1a886c59
519b800737346185185417f226c0a4eb9b1f7252
describe
'2709016' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTI' 'sip-files00101.tif'
23aa1986ff78cd5a0bfecdf115418c13
321cc05ee9f92805b83dacb7b3d141db1206579c
describe
'1620' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTJ' 'sip-files00101.txt'
332292982a095583862b3c96da8dfedb
ffb9a7325f3795ac8a87ff095c5460202c759a51
describe
Invalid character
'34470' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTK' 'sip-files00101thm.jpg'
0ca413953a9ac9041180226450c1e4a0
5509ec23eb79d177be816108540361c7ceb6cb5c
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTL' 'sip-files00102.jp2'
06524da7e9189fa95f02d3cd03e4bff6
08079f37b33d960e7d7d1af2c68e9b66a689ce6b
describe
'196432' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTM' 'sip-files00102.jpg'
aa6b6ceee049d39f33291ae28674d045
27b478cad1006175affbddd18709664d4e58d1be
describe
'41363' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTN' 'sip-files00102.pro'
6b5d8045599696c4d60d8a403b6af42e
a1f341c0135902f41e67edd01ff6e6b74ab258d7
describe
'75836' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTO' 'sip-files00102.QC.jpg'
e33099e8a8a55453b649570fa28e768f
1a90948b2ca97c8f3ae88979194e61533e0ab100
describe
'2709384' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTP' 'sip-files00102.tif'
15b673bff39ff88f3eb500807b755983
42e66dfeeefa75e8537666e2a4a7977f870b834c
'2011-12-14T03:17:40-05:00'
describe
'1632' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTQ' 'sip-files00102.txt'
c0b2e0fc35a1e6a52086b342cc93b067
ab1895d03ffffff28a09fcfda7ddeebb4089b299
describe
'35278' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTR' 'sip-files00102thm.jpg'
81e29e17e8e615e78d9507c6f616704a
60980cf1c40cef2aa68d23f348a8d99e691ce713
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTS' 'sip-files00103.jp2'
67e236b24c8318c0ef8a0ef6542145db
c24f930cb94bc4007ce08140ee26963f63a80717
describe
'164887' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTT' 'sip-files00103.jpg'
e21877d2b4bc72c5825226a6c72bcb25
6f275cdaea880309e266158a411bdd74d7ed41ed
describe
'25694' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTU' 'sip-files00103.pro'
f63058d395d46e3b2934ea74a5904828
1bcf84a6f005fa8df14826b1c0a905297cfaf9d9
describe
'62160' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTV' 'sip-files00103.QC.jpg'
28036660fc77d2991ea076a25a47eb05
dad41cef3791aa9d78ddaaca3dccefbbc552d10a
describe
'2708280' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTW' 'sip-files00103.tif'
50938809114a994bfef14507a42cc7d2
31d9598443961dd4ac75d1e28bcffe8513424181
describe
'1078' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTX' 'sip-files00103.txt'
b3a0ce390148d61be6e74becbdc50b6f
4994e24eb88968c4a37b655fde83c08fbcaed589
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTY' 'sip-files00103thm.jpg'
995516e240b81eb1ff8bc0e375c0ed02
c9a6ca20c21fe522522be0b20b9566c85e6ec7f8
'2011-12-14T03:21:36-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADTZ' 'sip-files00104.jp2'
5c96c4d692c55d2232cf6ea346807be2
b46c52c71c3fea86ce8467c52aff2dc69fd8d7cd
'2011-12-14T03:16:36-05:00'
describe
'196773' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUA' 'sip-files00104.jpg'
b79c01f3f51115a344f1d886a45df233
c4a1a69e0414c7da424caca5d951e78df54f1abe
'2011-12-14T03:21:08-05:00'
describe
'41531' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUB' 'sip-files00104.pro'
52ff1a3948e464c25fd4de78fbcda414
2ebb2f93ad39c0ecf9a5aa68408f6cbb9c1404c1
describe
'76006' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUC' 'sip-files00104.QC.jpg'
d7a99cb2937a5bc32bc094b74426cfa6
fa323c5ee0f314f28a6843794780df400a51af18
describe
'2709224' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUD' 'sip-files00104.tif'
df35f06aedf5b03feb1cc9d7a590c5d2
becdb86eb1c84e8e4129487d7803cd1a2a1774ea
describe
'1660' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUE' 'sip-files00104.txt'
4a553eca5414c23c3154afb9129ad49e
760b7a6d5d0da2214cdfce4c898267d7378846e9
describe
'35040' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUF' 'sip-files00104thm.jpg'
5ecd849733c1f01981e60a9ee8e43bb6
d2fd9f0a58279d22b61a82c0a7d2c21dbfc1b9e4
describe
'335918' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUG' 'sip-files00105.jp2'
79b85ca678002eb705ca227a5762585e
f38efa7d7819a605fd7230e83956888f68ce8e89
describe
'191836' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUH' 'sip-files00105.jpg'
8bd7d32c180ea0a997eaacdb6411a1fd
7aa50a49c8c622e24dc32b5ae0f4d57974443395
describe
'36897' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUI' 'sip-files00105.pro'
0ba5da9b2261fc5110e86df4589c6fe2
349d68282df362070967d53d3043de3aaa304499
describe
'74283' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUJ' 'sip-files00105.QC.jpg'
8786ff70720040f72ffa3a8368bf7c7c
66e1816d85c097b251eb8830c24aff0f34dee12d
describe
'2709216' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUK' 'sip-files00105.tif'
67b914da27d9f98f2075e2845f1bed81
916f368ba2141f3573f1c81d250fecd381045983
describe
'1560' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUL' 'sip-files00105.txt'
b3e9b17154ebd3879569d59e15b0ad27
af1d469ee0f3bae0879fdc65bcf6b729c0012ca4
describe
'34677' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUM' 'sip-files00105thm.jpg'
49408aaf1447f1d9fd9ef77109cca083
e11bc739c5b29ed2895cdbd76b61fcc224015b37
'2011-12-14T03:17:49-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUN' 'sip-files00106.jp2'
6a672f3132af63a0fb655d2cac354a39
71d51f373466d7f411c76f46d22f5773ab3dc440
describe
'194619' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUO' 'sip-files00106.jpg'
ec4c47b4854c0aca4243e122df185ac3
197147871886599d6e9afcd2c446ff91860ad8cf
describe
'40834' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUP' 'sip-files00106.pro'
ef41eb7f5a2d18dd92e81525017b8d25
6af4eaa69df7ff7d5c13fe096cca6ee98f3e4361
describe
'75898' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUQ' 'sip-files00106.QC.jpg'
1c11bb646f7110b34bb29bbf2fabcfb0
3f59bd340a9b6514ce9f6065c61f16345a6c4aa2
describe
'2709136' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUR' 'sip-files00106.tif'
2da7337929cc64095f98d2ba030ee0d7
0b9f45425a3e1cea4b6af30eef30fbde09614a6a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUS' 'sip-files00106.txt'
9f998cf8ea7fd7187e7a35d5de17f0db
3179df617869f1f31f0377c8e313667d6077bc5a
describe
'34692' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUT' 'sip-files00106thm.jpg'
fd5a7f6ef348fd5c8e78c1659c3f7a50
7d081a35a5181b2334c53b26c797b52608266bfa
'2011-12-14T03:17:00-05:00'
describe
'335892' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUU' 'sip-files00107.jp2'
d737833374fe3da53a6280dde53b0444
fd218e58bfe0956715b5b20462911c9d7bb2825f
describe
'187791' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUV' 'sip-files00107.jpg'
ff47d8c43ca81a6b4c5234b4746c2990
dc19bfb355a5d249f7f44a0bc8699305c3d3db71
describe
'36072' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUW' 'sip-files00107.pro'
3d66eda680305b1872c1f116bd4ee2f6
9a2fe36b55b30b9d29df8426594ef109d0434da8
describe
'71744' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUX' 'sip-files00107.QC.jpg'
69a63e7385dcf1b2c516a10b5a0029dc
2324ac0998e834ac254bb8527979149a1e7aa626
describe
'2709116' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUY' 'sip-files00107.tif'
3f9b5b4a59729956764d17645bf87a13
7e88598dca36d0dc7febe70478bb641ed00b8b9c
'2011-12-14T03:18:03-05:00'
describe
'1538' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADUZ' 'sip-files00107.txt'
362c5b7db30decd72cb9f45cbd8cce0c
6011dd4704a213506408043dc7dc5a6b51dff860
describe
'34219' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVA' 'sip-files00107thm.jpg'
d2a1c5b0722b237d9ba1ae30264e5305
3ba17a71c985f34004404ea313bced01b1254553
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVB' 'sip-files00108.jp2'
7e82324a523b1a670e53cad9f544cc2f
9d2a689f79dc449d879e7fb4435fb354e8df2f8d
describe
'176221' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVC' 'sip-files00108.jpg'
b2b20ac15e710167da2a38e5cd8fec91
7e2ee86c1acd381a9c3e0da26324d04a59020ed9
describe
'33633' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVD' 'sip-files00108.pro'
5a6b72b09dd0dba46fbbfeb1d17d6501
c20249f7a1813c37a8f739f2b4775dfd0b844278
'2011-12-14T03:20:13-05:00'
describe
'67711' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVE' 'sip-files00108.QC.jpg'
4d597603a1fe0fbfcede3e860e2d0660
9a02e5a04f80cd680e18718ef10e90e620965994
describe
'2708904' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVF' 'sip-files00108.tif'
341ef8f68e1e9625aca30e7d826d4d11
ec2f549b426a0f0bbf9b7bc08412251f4a793dd8
describe
'1423' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVG' 'sip-files00108.txt'
cd36ca63b763fb813c437afb1bbc24e8
8329d353bf3ac7fd55e2d38fe9f4e18ab390de5e
describe
'33371' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVH' 'sip-files00108thm.jpg'
654929a6003ceb12a478c386a6f82614
3983db511176a476364a4015d99dfa7776303ee3
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVI' 'sip-files00109.jp2'
8f62ae32b9a7f2dfae0647eb554f1b35
b7da11866b986ece7ad77abc7202925532fb62a7
describe
'181967' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVJ' 'sip-files00109.jpg'
16b351c4e4304ac9c8f79927641a26fd
849f2ae9c64bb9a6de24bc73cfe26141c4a89be7
describe
'34089' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVK' 'sip-files00109.pro'
8abe5cad1aab06bce30f7e805c80b53d
5c32b8a717aa38f24416ac358e659de829c492da
'2011-12-14T03:18:51-05:00'
describe
'68087' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVL' 'sip-files00109.QC.jpg'
5bf5211625c458b9f64efb2c77d97d1b
aa85a0846998e15d79919356c19d92fdc0823e13
describe
'2708908' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVM' 'sip-files00109.tif'
a5ba8d4218ed9709215cd06420a998e6
4b51d4ed83ef85958ff51c69a0c284c9b8666e09
describe
'1455' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVN' 'sip-files00109.txt'
5660664ca41880b19a6dbeceb42f2b2e
07e56adbf82611aa75cebd5fc4ed30e7043c9c95
describe
'33517' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVO' 'sip-files00109thm.jpg'
6fd6853602995784b7eb57d7408dd2fa
58dcb609ea6d2c0f76e3331ba1790d057729ed43
describe
'335913' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVP' 'sip-files00110.jp2'
c9329ca4c4e177d40e89a8f70a649447
5a4ab908f3ae08f8ecdbac9e2924aaa55f0b2850
describe
'199889' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVQ' 'sip-files00110.jpg'
075f51a18b39e10daff42d5cfe3259ea
90d4667790eccee23f6244ea239cd6ad0907e094
describe
'42023' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVR' 'sip-files00110.pro'
83043f9b13c5af7b5e5266b347f3f805
9cb4c448839bea6c4ea0bc4c8a10764c4448e32a
describe
'76273' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVS' 'sip-files00110.QC.jpg'
00c11a1b94ad452d33a059eeec91dccc
b8f003ca0606699eb23d9881c022a70d49b1ef35
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVT' 'sip-files00110.tif'
0a1054c5cb6f286c870f354bbb8e7fb4
5a778a31cb67081839aa77d5b7591e79612c9365
'2011-12-14T03:19:56-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVU' 'sip-files00110.txt'
79d090d8da707e164e2e607a7d054f40
69715a71636100488f16687df61e6a261d6baa9f
describe
'34972' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVV' 'sip-files00110thm.jpg'
60fefd50e40078cb0c543dc605658c07
69e7ec28864f44b690c5f2bb3b972bcce3d93a22
'2011-12-14T03:19:53-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVW' 'sip-files00111.jp2'
b13d7900ba33af30f6ec94d3f63be8f2
0b315f5c8c02225dc18fac595cce4a1f6d1993b7
describe
'195952' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVX' 'sip-files00111.jpg'
b6f6ea0d09650375285e0507a13d8f9e
eb47ce87d7487b20a798d4bec3f1aab67b3c9af1
describe
'42520' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVY' 'sip-files00111.pro'
bf64170cf670217134b29a2c8dd99297
6157bb63f617d6ebc2b827daeb489d1261d980a0
describe
'76276' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADVZ' 'sip-files00111.QC.jpg'
2c2fa243340db4b96609e1d015e0fc9d
c5443a71adf3c9319fe22daf85b92c1616358ade
'2011-12-14T03:20:19-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWA' 'sip-files00111.tif'
1c39155ecef2368a87df86cd54b2f208
6f3aace0372f21cfddc942a0e876c7eff0a46ec8
describe
'1690' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWB' 'sip-files00111.txt'
87f6191d7a02986b67448a8b7c336262
daa9a8bebba77a130f0f9f06a1e391ffa9cdcf70
'2011-12-14T03:22:15-05:00'
describe
'34806' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWC' 'sip-files00111thm.jpg'
02e9d3248a45bf6df099c79c401d531f
2f62365cc2df65afaf331bf726c861394536c026
'2011-12-14T03:18:45-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWD' 'sip-files00112.jp2'
a893f1f7d93a526793a3fabf64643289
f3fe9281993f85a01d8ed4c91b2d7d7aab11cb31
describe
'193145' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWE' 'sip-files00112.jpg'
ce8ddd0a130434561498242d08c61b12
3c8925f5f9642b2e788898574e8903d1c249338c
describe
'42177' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWF' 'sip-files00112.pro'
af61ebdf3266b7dcbd117bc26d9e4d1a
daa20d9a4be1bc137045f00d5fa6acc5a9692230
describe
'75116' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWG' 'sip-files00112.QC.jpg'
c639ef69c42d2a1214884a43a627531e
86520cb4ad739e60044f193d3d1c289645bd8456
describe
'2709124' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWH' 'sip-files00112.tif'
1b40bfefcd7e0bbc83579c8a4e0aefde
dd7694ae88bf2b35e29ca76d547bf8700230a502
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWI' 'sip-files00112.txt'
dc884a7309d6001458dd56f27c2b7c0a
856838f0314184eaefe88230451a1349a52a6d01
describe
'34952' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWJ' 'sip-files00112thm.jpg'
cdf862ae634d08bc8dc1e8f4278dc461
7dd1e9583e5feda6637c0845c9cb43ec8da81f63
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWK' 'sip-files00113.jp2'
e88c171ed31572e43fa01bf178b2f90c
b4361d899283ba33fb14db6108617b47fe5b83cc
describe
'187767' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWL' 'sip-files00113.jpg'
4c34f1f0014a9eafeac7ba7e4c62f0d2
e5b573a5462b03b07756ee248b8b6b7f52bdf3e8
'2011-12-14T03:22:18-05:00'
describe
'33255' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWM' 'sip-files00113.pro'
dbabfd628f26db46f54246357fe1cd88
d112e2f7f514d178a787ca464afa2ef7c2847855
describe
'72286' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWN' 'sip-files00113.QC.jpg'
48bc2b88ad639cebccf17a19e0d246b8
08793eeff425231d5e0d8a2f37686fb48736a42e
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWO' 'sip-files00113.tif'
d7974d0ebb71a1ccbbe2a79a3ec49ae5
822fcfc5dff51f5bce91ea52fb9b760d70b88613
describe
'1417' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWP' 'sip-files00113.txt'
6fd3cfd4c8109c33656cc06eee3e40c3
854eef2443c7c367be59d7ebe77f3b4d2c60597d
describe
'34393' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWQ' 'sip-files00113thm.jpg'
84d449c4c0570e040741d24114b74578
7844d010e533bed399a96bbaee9bcf975fee0eea
describe
'335828' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWR' 'sip-files00114.jp2'
b565b9a793b157248e17471453a6944b
bda183550d190095b1ade428ae0958f5e0213f13
describe
'198373' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWS' 'sip-files00114.jpg'
f40c650a5b0b9e8908a52f39c4aa8090
31291cc7113aa897aab187a01385efe9de917ce6
'2011-12-14T03:22:37-05:00'
describe
'42353' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWT' 'sip-files00114.pro'
c3f34cbfcc561a971a2a831f3c076de1
16e924a4b4ce99f28328e650966da82c542e7273
'2011-12-14T03:17:08-05:00'
describe
'76504' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWU' 'sip-files00114.QC.jpg'
75315b4581487409df9c50e1c4ac5699
e692dc13698fc0298fc38aff0e9d470370de8ace
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWV' 'sip-files00114.tif'
47289686cefc52b551d5a818410be3e5
acd4c58d73b833fe385762498c553ba5809aae2b
describe
'1668' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWW' 'sip-files00114.txt'
f9432ac4e146fbd22503640bbf9d1be4
20bd040cebb1171f45369cbd5e82eb3a35085649
describe
'35145' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWX' 'sip-files00114thm.jpg'
c3d62b28de1b5093d208f3cd588f4892
114b57936f76d960c7d51a934e1ea075a2eff940
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWY' 'sip-files00115.jp2'
9faf7eaa6a1b73a59e14db205d77b0ac
7f049ba57789f4260c20770684454550b6581c2d
describe
'132437' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADWZ' 'sip-files00115.jpg'
db4565065c3f1cd5cd39446c6e609223
3dfbcee8606c34c829c9af33ce4b9af776232a20
describe
'21867' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXA' 'sip-files00115.pro'
fba937454806d82e71f899a28354b1d6
885682532cf39308a845d156365b584ba56699a8
describe
'53034' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXB' 'sip-files00115.QC.jpg'
090fdc09255b58c7ba39cc05b1974037
86394a50a4979543495a3c33ceba4bf360933ff7
describe
'2707108' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXC' 'sip-files00115.tif'
bebad5984de1cacf8043dd33030d196c
7fbcb65c35f76f62c8267be34232b3eb94a212c7
describe
'912' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXD' 'sip-files00115.txt'
85c98513d5cc441ad28ec537fcda459c
983b6638aa69d6db22b780538fb2d273034d837e
describe
'27837' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXE' 'sip-files00115thm.jpg'
09cea01cc62e52e6b1be05f667cce310
896dda692b33fe061fcb32567f8ec28a6d1a6bb2
describe
'335909' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXF' 'sip-files00116.jp2'
4e439043a1098c9dcaaa72d50cab4bed
db4fc536bc60518f2cdd2e6f8937b56493559653
describe
'166837' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXG' 'sip-files00116.jpg'
6044e276d80053331219ea8b73c242e1
e01534076ba0ac69cf1c03e9dc8c1bec6b58e377
describe
'22757' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXH' 'sip-files00116.pro'
f994b05a078b786445469ed7847d913a
4d67595e4562f4b603cea1570c9bd90f0cd10cf1
'2011-12-14T03:16:24-05:00'
describe
'62075' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXI' 'sip-files00116.QC.jpg'
dfd61f7999f367a4f7add1b3a27c8ca9
3ab108703a03b4a1a679f5c0f8d56911d2c5bf08
describe
'2708168' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXJ' 'sip-files00116.tif'
16a52a55904ded280b417e83c6451e25
eac4856fef53b3b98814ae9a0a38334f1843c849
describe
'1171' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXK' 'sip-files00116.txt'
f7b4ec02f2a7fc41cdf1acb9070c45f4
6a31831ccb771eb8c1d9cb244cb0c53870f8ab0c
'2011-12-14T03:17:39-05:00'
describe
'31235' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXL' 'sip-files00116thm.jpg'
c392cd66c716cf1d9e37366663feec29
48578d35774eabed926bce69b757688133aad2d2
'2011-12-14T03:18:24-05:00'
describe
'335719' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXM' 'sip-files00117.jp2'
5f1652d5f0e3f3c8b774dfe2272312dc
837163a3fe11fd48dda285b2b9502e35fb658ea6
describe
'183237' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXN' 'sip-files00117.jpg'
fd92cc18b5cb5500346d12cab9a433ec
ff91ba8f699e45f79b2b6725915c6baa71da09a2
'2011-12-14T03:17:48-05:00'
describe
'21251' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXO' 'sip-files00117.pro'
04fda97bbc7a3b5119969f9323f57c66
f66e0dc5ebef3bcbca7c232e2ee90eae73a9a1fb
'2011-12-14T03:20:43-05:00'
describe
'64633' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXP' 'sip-files00117.QC.jpg'
13d53b98152643ebae86a33f3fa6096e
85969e139454754ebcd4373a6750d8a8ce8a3d6c
describe
'2708452' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXQ' 'sip-files00117.tif'
acec81e0826af826a545171783329746
e830db97f14ff06d4f20081ab4e2faffc1f2b30a
describe
'904' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXR' 'sip-files00117.txt'
17f87ad0377e2750056f658aff610858
f35e3bc0d9796c27a7945c6162eb1ffbe820f9a8
describe
'31956' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXS' 'sip-files00117thm.jpg'
69461ce1fdcb082b13e931ec70ed1257
6aeecae2337c4e4f88ca8bdcd6570e339953bc4d
'2011-12-14T03:17:33-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXT' 'sip-files00118.jp2'
8dd547b5ca377a05e01cefebf8c84cb0
6cb1543a30c80456379b4aec6c66bc54488c7417
describe
'202387' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXU' 'sip-files00118.jpg'
465dece273e8630bf4f7f8d12e4ac02e
bf571950f5417843222f4d795d0295b94c8f5f2e
describe
'40566' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXV' 'sip-files00118.pro'
392dcaeeda0f7db1e1fd3b632485d0c1
f3e5764ae8779b264dd5d23a1ef7cad0163027ed
describe
'77614' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXW' 'sip-files00118.QC.jpg'
c37054aecf981b64e29eee6e247e7566
09a37de8c9077221ecb113d2a93456662933533c
'2011-12-14T03:21:03-05:00'
describe
'2709336' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXX' 'sip-files00118.tif'
2557d02e36e4302c2635ba45de8ecf9a
3d7af14d951fb54c11b95119e4760f55ace88828
describe
'1664' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXY' 'sip-files00118.txt'
94312be5bd8529f86bbdcdc3dfe49ca5
c672b84a5e0df7345c95ff089fce2c7fd913f7ae
describe
'35284' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADXZ' 'sip-files00118thm.jpg'
75c2adda7b49e0f4e06e0a2f573b1909
a8b59d5114d30f321504899e77511e372cc82343
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYA' 'sip-files00119.jp2'
e1284ae7746f8f4de1bc125703645b04
b6ac0bd7fde7fc81cd8efc51d1b6cfd6a5620ce3
describe
'203642' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYB' 'sip-files00119.jpg'
53d8f2c5e75d9046bda051bbba077a38
bbbebc7fbde718e19204e70c653fd0a138188af5
describe
'40948' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYC' 'sip-files00119.pro'
41f4b6d59391be714a1885174764604a
aaadfcad8bd164e8500726d32d3a27406880c205
'2011-12-14T03:20:47-05:00'
describe
'76756' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYD' 'sip-files00119.QC.jpg'
e7d4ca8a311a881b571dd9ce811069ac
45ea384f786afb4818dc088e7d347b417543de84
describe
'2709404' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYE' 'sip-files00119.tif'
07e2b7d196d46251f68cb57c9ccf4968
2a2dfdfbabdbe4ce20df13a10321fe9f359d006f
'2011-12-14T03:16:31-05:00'
describe
'1640' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYF' 'sip-files00119.txt'
0ec797f937c903c0ca12b933b5ce5e58
18bbfa4af07bbf0236ac73266c3cd9fd98c4846d
describe
'35033' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYG' 'sip-files00119thm.jpg'
2f1f9246c8e73e30865763136d7ebdd2
76ce077eeafbf3496099e7cc5d0dec6da6135f97
describe
'335850' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYH' 'sip-files00120.jp2'
2aa8399217c7282ef0b0949aa98876f5
7438d69c66d1113a78ce450d356d06a8e752dc9f
describe
'179481' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYI' 'sip-files00120.jpg'
b23253c3a991379a85b9e799bf2c2f3e
071f0b32ff19c500aa851bfca50b88adcda51b3c
describe
'28324' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYJ' 'sip-files00120.pro'
ddfaf38431e13212870d047bd2552639
6a8339b17d7ed0fdde5397d5d09fbc4a45afdb01
describe
'67769' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYK' 'sip-files00120.QC.jpg'
0c7467bfa9a1ae124d68b856bc049698
8d565ab601d0b18c28c3fd26f92161b3eaf1eca8
describe
'2708792' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYL' 'sip-files00120.tif'
693f0a055121d4ab85ccb7c986dabc56
59a4e79cb1037433b932af39402d248ea604c126
describe
'1172' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYM' 'sip-files00120.txt'
a12f93e0e6fbadd80380db0c87b6f81b
f43a26f25271ed4507af44e3a40a3e06f485b2c7
describe
'33012' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYN' 'sip-files00120thm.jpg'
d4f23850cbb78d1c9dcaebc53fcec160
7ddcaf4326badeaa68e7a85c4766972872f0238c
describe
'335807' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYO' 'sip-files00121.jp2'
0170744bba70a91ef6531924480a71a8
e76a8f22f7238719fcc5978866d535ea1d7d4523
describe
'204181' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYP' 'sip-files00121.jpg'
e1c13c94a49159fe0c850ada0bf0240e
fa973dba15bb131f0b75ad40999a1a56fb6b4556
describe
'42907' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYQ' 'sip-files00121.pro'
84a5275853a430977156826f53779314
d170db6e984bf639ed7b282014062c2efba12d41
describe
'76887' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYR' 'sip-files00121.QC.jpg'
5f80a5259ca50c5f2bb26e5bc026b8ba
6c002d0250e3b3cd9d1faf7b167130267f644458
describe
'2709108' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYS' 'sip-files00121.tif'
46064fef4b3ae7ebfdeaaa5eea348d4b
7ccf24896ab6a6e03b1743048399ff913c172540
describe
'1732' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYT' 'sip-files00121.txt'
ef7b48a4426c0ad2019d14f97ad67983
0dad0f7ea1637f4244bd966afdd040ef1f31234d
describe
'34885' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYU' 'sip-files00121thm.jpg'
cf88dd7b8c0c5eb5a5f632e5911af0f1
8fcf3390af405c57476a76e725b74fc117aa28f1
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYV' 'sip-files00122.jp2'
a55507fd6b6201cc0bbff14b8394177e
ec62e15ee17942913ba33c244303015301ecbfc3
'2011-12-14T03:21:44-05:00'
describe
'196334' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYW' 'sip-files00122.jpg'
bfd4e1b06197857109c7a1451ea6f2c8
829b82fed6847173e1d635a0eecb3c907e19f1ae
'2011-12-14T03:20:21-05:00'
describe
'41717' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYX' 'sip-files00122.pro'
b424636131f5b085170f471318a430e9
7db40b16c5ccfcbbc727acf47ea8bf86e45da096
describe
'75334' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYY' 'sip-files00122.QC.jpg'
08e2dd0a30d7a908a0d591b78a32c20c
597eb354d74d90c1d8c710799075e1ec2c4fdf42
describe
'2709040' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADYZ' 'sip-files00122.tif'
379d98985f3f22b661191c140a8fdf60
89af9a7646d8dc43f8ee582909c504705cdd9cca
'2011-12-14T03:21:00-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZA' 'sip-files00122.txt'
35a282e65b16756818cd7964510806e6
388cdda99462244dbf54709f44257bdc3cc11d5a
describe
'34531' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZB' 'sip-files00122thm.jpg'
5e3c749cb21d03514850b22b2c6a284b
95d4d2953e531914d22ace39dadc27fbe60f786a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZC' 'sip-files00123.jp2'
05dd0c3b17c18a230276cc2815bbd5c6
c51f4cd074316596e55949f4286bbed9cb4da260
describe
'194486' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZD' 'sip-files00123.jpg'
141df4c4fb24816e48b34cc1f8377821
7f2b98e74349b4f0a4d8f4a5b65baf644758fbc4
describe
'40367' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZE' 'sip-files00123.pro'
219e2f33a9645743a6baebb1f165f073
5a15be019805883ca2b860947387c01032e9e3f7
describe
'73708' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZF' 'sip-files00123.QC.jpg'
112fb28819e3072e54e0543c8fdc2223
94bae035f0de74aa612e2df1d81e5053e5dcd4dc
'2011-12-14T03:16:59-05:00'
describe
'2708776' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZG' 'sip-files00123.tif'
226c8fdb3f36e96538785787b3c7ba48
e8ba97cb87626b8d4ad420de0106519d2e5b3517
describe
'1675' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZH' 'sip-files00123.txt'
788607108129d6a5ed76860a329c5c55
9f5fe1412003e31d4d20aef8d5485fe1513c469a
describe
'33924' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZI' 'sip-files00123thm.jpg'
d8242f8df4b748843da080b1afad47be
5fca57313f676dde926c2aafb4446080bd24d65b
describe
'335799' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZJ' 'sip-files00124.jp2'
4a2faafd3bec619b5172e30c9ed6e380
45938dcfa7ab7db1da21fd3316cbe956fb19e215
describe
'196111' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZK' 'sip-files00124.jpg'
45e4d4d19c2e004429feb34715843194
172a37e556ea7546963355819ac53cf8fc0ab83d
describe
'42319' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZL' 'sip-files00124.pro'
d9a5b28e9d5901f6e4d87e09d7a31a6a
ea105c16cbce35458f3ab4e41be86cf40b55c6a8
describe
'75314' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZM' 'sip-files00124.QC.jpg'
b565e87deae1739558eab3eb2f1cbbd3
9b481ef62ff1a6b13e29ef6f7aa468fca78e45fd
describe
'2709052' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZN' 'sip-files00124.tif'
b2e56c1a6bc4d54573e840a1dba8a90a
e454f64dbc8ec3bb96435ca16d81b0ef0e567c1f
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZO' 'sip-files00124.txt'
996b8a1c31c7f7cbea8d079385db2868
a4b7dd646fdbeccbe7453b2f1719b3735b1dc6ea
'2011-12-14T03:18:54-05:00'
describe
'34585' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZP' 'sip-files00124thm.jpg'
f75662d75fb4d9802333193acdd4fd93
095ad7e55c817d60607483cbf96312ae72389e80
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZQ' 'sip-files00125.jp2'
d9aafd3218f77ce8e01c3f4c480d0e11
827f931cf8bb40dcd022d7b2174dcd7cc52e656d
describe
'168979' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZR' 'sip-files00125.jpg'
1d174a7c113c584ebcc0a6f724333ad7
951341c644611c85731c2e9c40d3f1d02255abab
describe
'21038' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZS' 'sip-files00125.pro'
7e8ccf2c9e55cfc50aa6650743f20a73
b3ce853922cfd0a10e2efcfc1c76d420fe958207
describe
'59349' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZT' 'sip-files00125.QC.jpg'
44464ed02293c6148d9fa744d8a56e3b
a180d10dad4dc8076bf9e4e34aad0eaff1fbfe22
describe
'2708124' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZU' 'sip-files00125.tif'
fc0da91b86ee23c31c0f8ad5713a104b
f07c1f12a00b4969863f1408247388c890853974
'2011-12-14T03:18:27-05:00'
describe
'897' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZV' 'sip-files00125.txt'
78a32bc87e2d1286e7b23beddd449339
b93d663bc4fbfbf46832d49a1dbb9c12b9ca6d05
describe
'31033' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZW' 'sip-files00125thm.jpg'
e432fe44d73d71401a1724c1319e6317
46b4eac0a9b15f4a74b4a94c8cd09d71ee4d7d92
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZX' 'sip-files00126.jp2'
ba837df7c6ea5f8687dc9dc2913d7ccc
e9f84bb4f47734b855293ecb16fb452c1c70ec36
'2011-12-14T03:20:46-05:00'
describe
'198453' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZY' 'sip-files00126.jpg'
4f603817d8aa84dcf771c8b644d3e605
91918cc0dedec2c0bfff688d6493b081fd4ac617
describe
'43658' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAADZZ' 'sip-files00126.pro'
8f7b1cedda632aac11421007995c30fe
a2ad1686973ff3112272931ef3aeed20bdc914fc
describe
'76972' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAA' 'sip-files00126.QC.jpg'
71433e9384e30984adfa1fcacd3d4396
e8e678feeaba0ed3dfab63ca29b791237d1fbd36
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAB' 'sip-files00126.tif'
47b2e74261710c906d5eebfeea7986e1
75075f66f45b3224f518973825d15cfbc0e33835
describe
'1727' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAC' 'sip-files00126.txt'
c538837777142b26ddc222b7456f3559
1c23e2d089823dae621347b630f12d541d328181
describe
'35140' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAD' 'sip-files00126thm.jpg'
a06d12af1edcc8c6741949c65a674eb6
8f4a707d194c3221cf7635dc2b5dbea9de131731
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAE' 'sip-files00127.jp2'
644e32b7ad984ba816640b621e51542c
5c6894cb89e97f928450b4c5725eef86e0c3168b
describe
'188877' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAF' 'sip-files00127.jpg'
3114ebaf3e6e15dea0eee1546eec7924
fb0f368de6240995a397423eb0e17b3977605468
describe
'40561' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAG' 'sip-files00127.pro'
f00db9d98b5947fa88f790b5fb6b7577
6d4aa5192191b406326b60149d5ecefe3079a2ed
'2011-12-14T03:16:50-05:00'
describe
'74764' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAH' 'sip-files00127.QC.jpg'
940fedef83c96987a453284b0d520a32
3875bb24617c474a11be95d34327781819b4900b
describe
'2708828' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAI' 'sip-files00127.tif'
85bc03f21b256d45d4d4ae7f60e2e852
5908cbfabce2e60351e90c6baa282940041c7364
describe
'1687' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAJ' 'sip-files00127.txt'
42fa9450efa4d8d58f2e5d156af09bd5
f64da996c8dccabf0c8970259518b8b12f6830d5
describe
'34268' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAK' 'sip-files00127thm.jpg'
6807524c3baadb3205b2eb643bda881a
b9f75151c3f67127de0f4a3ff192052e8e30b3d8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAL' 'sip-files00128.jp2'
bd040f1ff70324064d67799f0c6964af
0390e640b6991a4d4cf8bc3cf31888f25cc50dba
describe
'180486' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAM' 'sip-files00128.jpg'
a6bf95e7782e6fe3dd9f5c05c8dd4945
3f31f8f671d8b70943d1244abc9ed000d6fa94f2
describe
'33840' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAN' 'sip-files00128.pro'
3c807241419a243f371242b50e75ff0a
d5524015fa4ddbd705e7d30f16a170851f6084c3
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAO' 'sip-files00128.QC.jpg'
7b70ee4f9d61ce5d165e138f3ac16d6f
ac70dd03e6e038bda64a6ba5a9aba42eb9523698
describe
'2709036' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAP' 'sip-files00128.tif'
79b7a058f37e0700a0ad349f46d4c01f
3dac4b90c991ee030628e36710685434b6436866
describe
'1433' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAQ' 'sip-files00128.txt'
054874e33a8c3ee757bfc0d279eddcf0
1a706d5b390495e2aec7f36efc18c44678a009e0
describe
'33958' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAR' 'sip-files00128thm.jpg'
d83e8c7a05b85be2eb03b5c0599910f1
86469224215e331f65e9daf9fd5ae9a75a8e89ac
describe
'335845' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAS' 'sip-files00129.jp2'
6030e8bf11d4a2e7f05a3950f2f368fb
5b177478693ca331dc82ee3211c9ec3e8b171fa2
describe
'198074' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAT' 'sip-files00129.jpg'
6dde23465409265e51e75170e5ddbc8b
90f8f012edc17cdfd7befebb1b9660f97c7fabcf
describe
'31708' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAU' 'sip-files00129.pro'
3853d74c9e4c22ca74e3b71df17d1f40
a068322a436ee1134ca6465a75d794e6280f77fb
describe
'71903' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAV' 'sip-files00129.QC.jpg'
12e8b828aaa3ed2b5d27dca09b74058f
f4173e7666fce466bc34981339f6aabf537761af
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAW' 'sip-files00129.tif'
4b0940833a6df4ec4dcd3a9c1999128c
3f3e40008278ba974337bef3292e2d5444055641
describe
'1302' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAX' 'sip-files00129.txt'
90145540b59c6066bc60ae14145c5beb
777a5426d5d06d10c18dc07ba3353d21a5b9c4d7
describe
'33566' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAY' 'sip-files00129thm.jpg'
3a28202278ce02faa9e411ddc1fcc558
70178c368d9419e58c9525d5b9ded0cda81f81a3
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEAZ' 'sip-files00130.jp2'
8680fd6af68d6e04113dcdb172659ab8
32cb4dc3ea7ee7c154a359cde3c919c149fe78bb
describe
'184285' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBA' 'sip-files00130.jpg'
aef3ed22520270115b96737c4455c728
48f6251f3300c74a6390f6474bd829e65a04a57c
describe
'28830' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBB' 'sip-files00130.pro'
d404afa1d67f7c22ef28d6918468dede
0a37a3b2f07649378eb3db959e3a19142d80b0ac
describe
'70260' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBC' 'sip-files00130.QC.jpg'
f2023f69c240388f1205d91858def403
43dcf8883fb25a2a31d18d244c7c463392d8d9a7
describe
'2709248' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBD' 'sip-files00130.tif'
49f6dcfac208d9f7498d9f7955bb3fac
63a450850606f41c2f702c0fa357596d9ca5ada9
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBE' 'sip-files00130.txt'
aa68337e593642cd07150d832e3b6591
1679b064490cf9e3665f28843a9260e671798ccd
describe
'34399' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBF' 'sip-files00130thm.jpg'
9c36bf0dbe5e82d70a78687ddd454f56
a79d674531e4d8aaa08397ab1e3759e9d24a72ba
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBG' 'sip-files00131.jp2'
5eae646f0d22b1a4d8cfe74a890bdc88
b1da32713ebd2cc422e1e18c35533141e8b13e27
describe
'201511' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBH' 'sip-files00131.jpg'
7cef5ebbaf81837c7f5427ba6f27d6d4
1c9420dc90708a0833ebd4c27e3461d1ca299631
describe
'42922' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBI' 'sip-files00131.pro'
b1d8f76ecb2d2c8a26dc301c62ffef06
f0fee1c9aec8bb263a03e1d4c9879c0a652d86d9
describe
'76671' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBJ' 'sip-files00131.QC.jpg'
0a7dde8897dc0b3a43a3283f8d098de0
c7c07c08260373f4a6a876e75fd3fb4a3f9802e5
'2011-12-14T03:16:20-05:00'
describe
'2708900' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBK' 'sip-files00131.tif'
c1777ab35602eac6f47b132d968f9052
58eddff925e01275a0a6b96a17cea0238901cece
describe
'1703' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBL' 'sip-files00131.txt'
789a0937cd8cb81b43b0d91231074c75
c187e9236430071b930b0d9b9fe110a962019639
describe
'34666' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBM' 'sip-files00131thm.jpg'
c374e773d24c1fa7ef6042223ef422d1
4d1ba14d71f0040174d29a3b33c1b19f1014428d
describe
'335868' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBN' 'sip-files00132.jp2'
541e671dac3be24319a863d3f922c61b
1bc6e69a28b0be9f1c7801c1cfffc6e5e4a7ccc8
describe
'192924' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBO' 'sip-files00132.jpg'
f4a931d23665c987a9c40deb485d21d4
4e001c0a3da670b7e76e05335caf8e05aaa14e55
describe
'36233' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBP' 'sip-files00132.pro'
877ab5ae34951255b8b6ad1372ae7362
008eac026266af09945003ec374496e3864ecfcb
describe
'72785' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBQ' 'sip-files00132.QC.jpg'
331022bde467918291ac160265e2cc67
6d4987158d4dec01c6e2803627f7a10881cf9198
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBR' 'sip-files00132.tif'
2422aead56f2ce2109f98593de7b4282
39393d8eb940e1a7d45fb29a9ec8d9cbe8c4be42
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBS' 'sip-files00132.txt'
1751b1e39cfccbae9a4046cdb4e1978e
e71b4005732499e94ad359ad31c902a491e1575b
describe
'34430' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBT' 'sip-files00132thm.jpg'
9ccaacd37680a00aa70e3a1d96d60cf1
e2b64d0caab9d4efa16ac684316d19a8bb782823
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBU' 'sip-files00133.jp2'
95705cbbd722f5ff45751aac1529874e
30a19d46182632b789836efb0f14d7b1254034f8
describe
'191810' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBV' 'sip-files00133.jpg'
0b47bd9e4413f0992c59f20d82208909
f9a6e1c67683f9954f45a5cce190cf92bb5beeeb
'2011-12-14T03:21:51-05:00'
describe
'41817' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBW' 'sip-files00133.pro'
3798879a0dcc180c2bc8015c561590f5
a10df414e4b8ef34c40596dbeec913a061d419e8
describe
'74022' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBX' 'sip-files00133.QC.jpg'
60f72ef6f7658dc81012eefa20159c16
85394cbf34fe38b8b74a198c9ab73eda01529b0f
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBY' 'sip-files00133.tif'
464cc89670b405579cd28cb22c33802c
4b7b165aae5f40a3a44b4cca6777813af47d2271
describe
'1714' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEBZ' 'sip-files00133.txt'
5a499c0dc65ce3b2c4083a55c367dbdb
77d696418450f2c113d1604969d57d463ea0d0a0
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECA' 'sip-files00133thm.jpg'
d8fc7d0e3e40937ac88c0c02c810fb1b
440a926a1abfdd29d523296c5aab34614b0ba571
describe
'335815' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECB' 'sip-files00134.jp2'
8b76f87532ff8738e6b0c10108946ffa
439b2417f7bdca97621ecc21debe88d1a975a6d3
describe
'206860' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECC' 'sip-files00134.jpg'
7c23bd1870c9ef75114d668f605f614b
950e7ec099b36a0cd2932498bc6b7573d443d074
describe
'42209' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECD' 'sip-files00134.pro'
ba649fb5bd9cda5d5e0b4c615fe110e3
8d169c84ee534c6d01923ebd040a3eff1b63546c
describe
'77703' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECE' 'sip-files00134.QC.jpg'
b683886cb7feb5a7cdd1fecfc20d3ee2
19b30b3032d3feefa9d49e6cd83bd83786153d16
describe
'2709260' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECF' 'sip-files00134.tif'
2c285ba121a070e350e7a57ffe5d26f4
23860bbb497d19e17522680c94505cdc5ac5ba5b
'2011-12-14T03:19:59-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECG' 'sip-files00134.txt'
0cbf95ed6a0a5d8cb2b6d4d271f8ddf6
1d795be054e13facd3b3a9c40ce511f6daff0110
describe
'35124' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECH' 'sip-files00134thm.jpg'
26d7cd3d822cd0f615c6ba0301e81d26
b984fd450b5c7de3c7e4768d08e49c116902b790
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECI' 'sip-files00135.jp2'
525279d6505e5e1a011864fa503fda9b
3c854efaf31150294929184408e6461c4377ec59
describe
'201095' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECJ' 'sip-files00135.jpg'
5a5509b6a0fa598449b2d9f6b63346a5
648ea1bc5ada0ea65f91b06a41690c364950e84b
describe
'32837' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECK' 'sip-files00135.pro'
8f4647bd03f6008cccb094d809944481
402cee585396e1776d67bd4972c271c654c4285b
describe
'73033' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECL' 'sip-files00135.QC.jpg'
a998e3db24385dc64116cc5dbf4efa62
6f243be254b044557e3e3ac2ea7dea26d8d3bbb5
describe
'2709176' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECM' 'sip-files00135.tif'
be693283739e737411897b087d26381b
4074834c6143fd6ec0698e0c53d2becbd7e4aa40
'2011-12-14T03:16:42-05:00'
describe
'1460' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECN' 'sip-files00135.txt'
666b271acd57e2d8d10ecf20c9d3e5d1
2a1310520ffacea1e5babced422bf5813f059cbb
describe
'34010' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECO' 'sip-files00135thm.jpg'
3405e2cee3532e90bb77c275b26c7c7c
cefdc0b90d9738964ad866e8fedd32ecd682c328
describe
'335823' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECP' 'sip-files00136.jp2'
4fac3832b92da9692e6b5c0211488358
74ffc88e8b94a83f98cf37b185900835c52f77c5
'2011-12-14T03:21:05-05:00'
describe
'182914' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECQ' 'sip-files00136.jpg'
daf97af17f3961f02deccb94d3549c39
6a32534f7439ad35bb37451a3c7e67dc106431c5
describe
'39447' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECR' 'sip-files00136.pro'
a4bd51cbe39ca8ee5e2fc38072e8c44d
4847e0d21e39ee0a6e8cca99043206fce46bebb7
describe
'71416' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECS' 'sip-files00136.QC.jpg'
ddcd33069f4627ffa0345ba2243d7e14
91219f1e6ecfed9f25a8d3ce11826b30f17650dc
describe
'2708460' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECT' 'sip-files00136.tif'
3c3c790acdfd2478e7d59ed4d28cd468
78f36d6e4c1a4b244be8053dd90dd4a8226f768c
describe
'1552' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECU' 'sip-files00136.txt'
e5ac6991cd4915b2bcb209c0a2e31c53
0896025ae415dd4a33df95a6188349b64105626c
describe
'32852' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECV' 'sip-files00136thm.jpg'
65af3df10877e32d3bc370e525fc7d15
4e918645c06fce10b4a2f6ef842296eac7f66136
describe
'335917' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECW' 'sip-files00137.jp2'
d6d38137ae732242dc57fcb34f887a08
f41e19522cbfc24120cf012af5e65296d47ad46b
describe
'155396' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECX' 'sip-files00137.jpg'
bd285aef6e54a38efa07e375e9af3fb7
938c960836cf576b311411426a3fe8ea8581296f
describe
'22257' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECY' 'sip-files00137.pro'
07605e0a8d4f836eb1736b333bbb46d7
c248662d0fce618cf8161c76921007cca5189096
describe
'58953' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAECZ' 'sip-files00137.QC.jpg'
cf15f806540ee9eb313fb5b4744cf39a
46f44e107f2d7e10bf17163ea8b388120ef4a349
describe
'2707744' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDA' 'sip-files00137.tif'
00562310d12946fa879ebc669575ae8d
f9e1bf72d1df8a6a5773bf90d24915b390a223e7
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDB' 'sip-files00137.txt'
6aef2d2a2c1f8e5e7758808e808e981d
ec16f042e078a5f1d7e4b2913c0627ea25265f02
describe
'29937' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDC' 'sip-files00137thm.jpg'
b53e4217c336182d82b282c6ffb20ebb
80a2586c6ec631dc407209776d06be4867b9aa70
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDD' 'sip-files00138.jp2'
b2b79bcbd47bdc4430fd1b551f4872ae
9ed57538f096e4ac1281120a443c07232cd00e9e
describe
'203822' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDE' 'sip-files00138.jpg'
5a30549b1f6615280c14f093dec69832
532990d2716bf66c2321228d9ecff13c1c2522a8
describe
'41602' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDF' 'sip-files00138.pro'
bb5b60e16cfaa7b3d7c09f3a35806220
6c609fc379d19f7420e871b7728699335560ae49
describe
'76493' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDG' 'sip-files00138.QC.jpg'
05c37ed9f7326beda28347b762329ba8
bb1ad3a722b4bb4be6df618c4a60341a3fcc2f40
describe
'2708984' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDH' 'sip-files00138.tif'
e9d7940e03634fe03853b2d90fb0d20e
f245005cf5824c674a1a65ad35621b669858a386
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDI' 'sip-files00138.txt'
b6524bdffcf98b85b265a358d467bc92
8b330b6ce5798a4b89d7844884765d881a7fee9d
describe
'34524' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDJ' 'sip-files00138thm.jpg'
cfee4728bb91342b7b661678acc268e2
f97727a5ec806bfa40d54c2f59a49f2c2ca810cb
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDK' 'sip-files00139.jp2'
116192b461a06aa065efba3102cc3b4f
059594f152c2e99dc32649f7f57552faac00e5ce
'2011-12-14T03:19:02-05:00'
describe
'196132' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDL' 'sip-files00139.jpg'
02c878c1e8e5b948a3edb4c63301f3dc
10654a2082b38ad3d10350542b6001ee27b913ea
describe
'42615' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDM' 'sip-files00139.pro'
7dff68506a829fadcb7898bb64e0fa2a
1abb357e3767d954dc9e984978a57ea423c29cdf
describe
'75381' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDN' 'sip-files00139.QC.jpg'
6d852203e6d3690fc05cde029d0830eb
3f13f28aab8be9609e303a1fba070011e76ad264
describe
'2708912' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDO' 'sip-files00139.tif'
77735078d5263f7a7fbab0983fc42f83
a91eb760bc3eb217cdcfcedd605e841b0ab87086
describe
'1706' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDP' 'sip-files00139.txt'
41e7db0639a90eb7af716af5fee2591a
d9e03ab3474fb361c5e3541f3a3b489e10509f63
describe
'34209' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDQ' 'sip-files00139thm.jpg'
c1575932afb8ad2b0396230321518492
c648fa5c63d1526141664865fee29155e5712893
'2011-12-14T03:21:33-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDR' 'sip-files00140.jp2'
bd52b28e9f4e8ddb949f08c5d8dc5f2f
aeae7978ad60480878ace6dcb65367c7dddcee6f
describe
'157281' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDS' 'sip-files00140.jpg'
83986aed7cc48a81efb5499d57ca9e9f
1f0b1b3d1089a518c16661751e422ad6b64ba744
describe
'21459' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDT' 'sip-files00140.pro'
4012eccba1cedd5c38e2c3906d3a038d
430f3d97f2f09707302e357070cd15e93b852b34
describe
'58915' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDU' 'sip-files00140.QC.jpg'
c6e0782cda8b0d123acf51ca4d66c1c8
8b45638fdfbee0c5818bc63689f3ca894520c14b
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDV' 'sip-files00140.tif'
07f88e8aaf79092be5fc8198c5874fe2
ea37ff9e61bcd780ea1f1a177f166ab5677d9187
'2011-12-14T03:20:23-05:00'
describe
'908' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDW' 'sip-files00140.txt'
6e867a2b9911b937adbca9cabf9f383f
d79f9bdde53dce7afb360293db28237b6e4b7ed7
describe
'30955' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDX' 'sip-files00140thm.jpg'
fd4f73048baaec25a2a6865fbf61417a
d4088b308fbf8d36e1ccc8a3c5caf12b371bb9a1
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDY' 'sip-files00141.jp2'
30d851c3a160c84b5cccb88a7b950093
cedaa4648fc6287e5151639c17cfcce266dce60a
describe
'204882' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEDZ' 'sip-files00141.jpg'
2a0440c2abe14bccedde3156ee491565
499cfbf207b79869acd910657714584a8d01c3b7
describe
'42313' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEA' 'sip-files00141.pro'
e1837a10e092f66c68b35148036f0368
0e29084ef759ed1112afc195b7ef6adfb494259a
describe
'77039' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEB' 'sip-files00141.QC.jpg'
858c3407d675973bf6f86d71f662fb03
14b61cc88c967ff26cea09bb18a846806702d71d
describe
'2709080' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEC' 'sip-files00141.tif'
b4d886bf51e5983d989da17c55e1d440
d20b3c72d93a7e75bf5ea7163f75e69756fd30fa
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEED' 'sip-files00141.txt'
2c369c18e350512f8448b934eeec0edb
841de0fa7a6c66549104fae3bbe8150262a3fb4c
describe
'34879' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEE' 'sip-files00141thm.jpg'
edee20266edf1525496be0be57936cbe
cd1895bdbce0511cee1cb775220e2b1e75192503
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEF' 'sip-files00142.jp2'
3022d2e0eae956ca9314830d9abc5938
ca147abda21c69a9914e88b76c12337d10cfe4ca
describe
'156391' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEG' 'sip-files00142.jpg'
7aaa92491e9be8edcdd4875d8e21404b
7580d28ff1a5ff2d67a7ad803cd7914c65720e15
'2011-12-14T03:16:18-05:00'
describe
'22107' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEH' 'sip-files00142.pro'
d753d99d35750358c92edfcd89defdfb
f46bb432cb60f7d461d73c0f123cc1c3b98e0837
describe
'58426' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEI' 'sip-files00142.QC.jpg'
0b143fe4e1c9ef4e63cc7189d3ff6c80
7ae7067dbf94ce9f44634acf67180a3dfe4ba635
describe
'2707832' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEJ' 'sip-files00142.tif'
c4e3ea85d8703d078ca0b8fda5c43d3f
b4f5495c076e3d37da29cfbd8f0a7482d0261455
describe
'922' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEK' 'sip-files00142.txt'
4a11d44b353680d9b89d0d09d429abbb
9cffa3d58d12296ff4f95660e432c4317d5a62cf
describe
'30297' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEL' 'sip-files00142thm.jpg'
2723c34b9b570e85679a70161b911a77
63e8d064c71ae901f0f985b3d84f8ff19a5444d2
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEM' 'sip-files00143.jp2'
49ee562f50a46df734bb78563e8c4d25
1a620063f5f23aa512ed44d998ef251a490fbb29
describe
'203700' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEN' 'sip-files00143.jpg'
617319b2e44d38a65e25cde49f92ce33
5f056a962e6d78c9bdd5e9b5491211b0135f0541
describe
'43387' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEO' 'sip-files00143.pro'
1e11edc89eba636087f93819a72b0655
aefabdcf8d96e799a7c79bfcea5476a5fad95bf4
describe
'76623' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEP' 'sip-files00143.QC.jpg'
cbb40d99b716e7ae81b74836d2fd642d
964464b90c3890e9efa58f2b8daf2886e58e6ff1
describe
'2709056' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEQ' 'sip-files00143.tif'
7ec92aea448871165bc062ae1a3e42e0
c1f4218f3a9e342e4524741302cd7962dc0f92c5
describe
'1731' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEER' 'sip-files00143.txt'
bd828c5e45c9a1d1a5668aafab4b958f
7dc2b49421e90c303267a2b856e55012fcac87bd
describe
'34501' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEES' 'sip-files00143thm.jpg'
976fd224b51201b54f91bfcd5d5b6c75
6da49a9508a4dd034259e51b22ac75b89fa0c9d0
'2011-12-14T03:20:07-05:00'
describe
'335870' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEET' 'sip-files00144.jp2'
f0ba4060b3106fbb0a9aa35a0b18f566
e8d4be267cffb8e931dad89ba43605b1d6cfbd48
describe
'155235' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEU' 'sip-files00144.jpg'
021ce9c76e9f731038455ed91392ca67
3876af3b6ca035b83920c253d9e4d961b898d6be
describe
'16319' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEV' 'sip-files00144.pro'
429d2533da28365e1c761951f4c61242
7b8cda3d5ee91eabdbd0770a1cc189054dc0c647
describe
'55113' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEW' 'sip-files00144.QC.jpg'
801bac6691fe19cd4baf9ce413047397
4bc7703b25d4d5dcd61dafd020fab1402a3e30a2
describe
'2707512' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEX' 'sip-files00144.tif'
c8a72dd47dd75fd612d1f8ff62eec811
bd7c5230e7e7447c993d173456fb891340eefcae
describe
'696' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEY' 'sip-files00144.txt'
08e8d580c6e15e746b99da9c4bd7422b
891ebbee9efbbd0b3883d1eeb12d115c18d72c94
'2011-12-14T03:15:46-05:00'
describe
'29684' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEEZ' 'sip-files00144thm.jpg'
ef815c9d2a97da73986fcef9241d9024
620702646fbfc51363afc4c1f98ed4e56349287c
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFA' 'sip-files00145.jp2'
f88b4267070682583ed7f044d6ff0413
ad352ab3dd317e865bddf83a67a870cbd9a146b1
describe
'192406' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFB' 'sip-files00145.jpg'
5dc11087f01d5d0d229a63ede407695b
bfca57e0cafba6bc828d0b3b56485a38f013cbd3
describe
'41690' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFC' 'sip-files00145.pro'
f5b752f1251d5c54340405ea86fc9143
78caf4737e0d3730df077cbccffd9efe6fcd3e77
describe
'72814' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFD' 'sip-files00145.QC.jpg'
1cec77ca80fe205106295477d77e67fe
6f12029926f1ae4497ca60db177cf481013277fe
describe
'2708764' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFE' 'sip-files00145.tif'
da351ec00e35e68bcd37c3caca7542a3
55f38521b9c8dd995637eb6a8a8799c0ada897a0
describe
'1685' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFF' 'sip-files00145.txt'
944dcf599149320fb5f1025569944670
f276af520e6ea4e6e9421cf9150e75c440572bb2
describe
'33891' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFG' 'sip-files00145thm.jpg'
97a50e4e9dbf866e89bc4dc72775f1bd
b75828332c56357506cad1ee52c4d1ed7169dda5
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFH' 'sip-files00146.jp2'
43cabe4e7bf788d7d616ff30b26a8382
134df002cdf273f5750b853add79b4bc918af45b
describe
'195303' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFI' 'sip-files00146.jpg'
642a49f06c9b5e68c640e15a205dc2cb
1c94c97579f30ce79659070443149b5eb41fa5fd
describe
'43370' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFJ' 'sip-files00146.pro'
5047d475bd3752209afcb1759dcedb1d
6946e7a62b3d36d0db3eb4f8cedd05a752edb492
describe
'75362' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFK' 'sip-files00146.QC.jpg'
ca0dcbe890213d420d9f86eaa05ccf34
73587c3d792b8f1c994d034a4a837c3c7c1263b0
describe
'2708964' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFL' 'sip-files00146.tif'
8faded264d318989424163bca768afc2
d2b9432d03a45070e970c94b1639f9929b689e11
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFM' 'sip-files00146.txt'
79e0ec697411d5d21c916e7e01938636
ec43f783dbf1d6aab8306be753f0f77b68a84b12
describe
'34431' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFN' 'sip-files00146thm.jpg'
d184fc7b6f8ea3d236020a03b1bab20b
39cbb6ac5f649ab524e04efd28bce36be615d606
describe
'19610' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFO' 'sip-files00147thm.jpg'
532e111e10f5aef7e9bc437d2838d950
245d24c45bc842535b19447514713e23e840607a
describe
'328839' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFP' 'sip-files00148.jp2'
eb94171e911aef5680f8da03cecca312
a9e06986c77e6e6045b65efa6eb53fd44d09a5c3
describe
'64924' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFQ' 'sip-files00148.jpg'
25b6ab7c6b0c88992d4c42f318ed3561
71dad74c74d291f973c86cb4484fdb280688ff1e
describe
'4798' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFR' 'sip-files00148.pro'
08a719ee0cbaa278dcae7ef4944d8046
b25c1ed132790f317a7910e708a1b8e9789b4f4f
describe
'32541' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFS' 'sip-files00148.QC.jpg'
415cf9165f9993c61f18f0a391daf9c2
b032d4cd44e808c08d86d87713b36581dfd4233b
describe
'7911120' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFT' 'sip-files00148.tif'
ddb9dcb6e462878cb8287a3ae0ba0879
c9e510e86d32e0176b6cc414f1fe7afb295760bd
describe
'404' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFU' 'sip-files00148.txt'
6173ab1c8b9d46fd18752cb44fa428b4
a1cac397f5436854b62380c952ebbd057cf66b16
describe
'24234' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFV' 'sip-files00148thm.jpg'
ff1e1a13e798bd4f758540bb2e95cff1
1c68133f5f2d36f390fcdbc1e57eaf4be3cc7678
describe
'335848' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFW' 'sip-files00149.jp2'
c2490be2afddadb1e134d2c75807ba0e
80d57d8de3a20d12c8917ea51ea93c9a3cb7f965
describe
'201806' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFX' 'sip-files00149.jpg'
601b27afd9409e3e6c5fc94556e01a66
562dba5c692e18bef313bedd2ef61dbc8ac1594b
describe
'45597' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFY' 'sip-files00149.pro'
78f9caf8aa46b7d179f7de67820d0dea
a40f890b56f0ef2bca9f12533a8b86f52521cd3e
describe
'75938' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEFZ' 'sip-files00149.QC.jpg'
0dffdacaeb0b8dcd5c05ec049024aa6c
dc0359f8ead7271a65e977faa09d9a74ecc0089a
'2011-12-14T03:17:03-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGA' 'sip-files00149.tif'
2d7d564f787431138d107b3c6289629a
3857c382be8eae9606e658cce4af4d4c4271d0ed
describe
'1828' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGB' 'sip-files00149.txt'
f36f7199a5cc450ebe27671e00ca4da5
c1781dc67ca29906c1630a65163cf6d09e7480d5
describe
'34220' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGC' 'sip-files00149thm.jpg'
0a6d867913ec5e0e364d2b530e453acb
4b926bf6e64913b46305a9303c3c3dac828ef491
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGD' 'sip-files00150.jp2'
46d26c1938b86acb03808b8f761b89c8
a8dfde0b80eebcc3375d079df646a601f37ef4d5
describe
'148762' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGE' 'sip-files00150.jpg'
a6bfda747bea9d95231d34cd93dcdb41
2b81f4749af14e957bab0ef71916f8a01de5560f
describe
'22801' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGF' 'sip-files00150.pro'
2728b3b366eb088d49d22865dd79092a
03ee5a87b9302f5535f97310fcaf244b67889dc6
describe
'56576' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGG' 'sip-files00150.QC.jpg'
6ab0dc453d01575e9daa18ad07f7e58e
2d56695274d9a01cbe9f69eea97b8fffd75ac54d
describe
'2707824' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGH' 'sip-files00150.tif'
d55ca934081401acaaadb72b0a54adac
4695ce24f0db5c89d7b824071369bb2da5080f3f
describe
'983' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGI' 'sip-files00150.txt'
4d976fc4b662f5be63ec898c1d6d5b5a
ad0431fed0b187bcfe58013b3798b6ed22541653
describe
'30091' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGJ' 'sip-files00150thm.jpg'
6f9cc022295124df9f39e82faef8a65d
7a4d3bbb31e0497098751d287639b4f2eafa3b08
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGK' 'sip-files00151.jp2'
2ce28de68b91d62eab213e5dd2c40d4e
219d17fc4ed0aa9160ecfb85d65a8215caab1882
describe
'197684' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGL' 'sip-files00151.jpg'
a29e37ce2cea118682ffbeebf0ad9454
8e4c7cf18915b0532274948822662f2c0ef02ada
'2011-12-14T03:20:24-05:00'
describe
'43055' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGM' 'sip-files00151.pro'
e47148a3f19f1619baacfe1ad2cbd301
34de93ee0157efc649e1ef0c4ca27654e6bba349
'2011-12-14T03:17:51-05:00'
describe
'75577' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGN' 'sip-files00151.QC.jpg'
c351b464745094cfe0b70a17272c92aa
1d06cb8c98c72946a2d1b35ecefd250fa13f4784
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGO' 'sip-files00151.tif'
308d3a637a3fe36092ac4fda93e296a1
6bfb6cb649a1ba2b73c09eb348cffc2a8b0c46e8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGP' 'sip-files00151.txt'
eb3ab148eb3f33e39846b6d0c9d1a568
4de661228d404453ded1a6a628960121d2abf85e
describe
'34250' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGQ' 'sip-files00151thm.jpg'
ee5400378f0aad3869e6989c72d6527c
bac053f9d38723c02e327cbc74d6aa8425fbd744
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGR' 'sip-files00152.jp2'
8e15eb7ff587a355186077305cf99623
979c1f24bb1682bdeeed9c0cb796edffd2c89a40
describe
'201762' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGS' 'sip-files00152.jpg'
329b0d37187b80bd520aed755a07418b
a8f3d172911047372a25520900cd03a573b68756
describe
'44001' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGT' 'sip-files00152.pro'
6be04549eece8102ebf332412dbd8618
18d2a27ed56114ad62c9529a8cc30181938bf6c8
describe
'76937' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGU' 'sip-files00152.QC.jpg'
3dd9bf1931169ef49a54df40142a0b22
36195d13958e75215784392a00bb8c196113f6be
describe
'2708960' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGV' 'sip-files00152.tif'
0ce858c4776539b19a7409ba8f6e206b
c218abcb5080831d7c466a38d89f86d8c674ca4b
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGW' 'sip-files00152.txt'
0d218abac78b7f6df647824b970d7b40
c5c89da21f00b3a439e28ae11a70a4ccd2f2a841
describe
'34411' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGX' 'sip-files00152thm.jpg'
4e2fa70eb09454fc29537b9fa7430cc4
a48dcb67ad677755e01cbfc3ff75cbf6bb773a1d
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGY' 'sip-files00153.jp2'
7b83cb69f53080db4f5953c3396651fd
31a6428e963e13c5c9675ac1927b487f0ce57aa1
describe
'203223' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEGZ' 'sip-files00153.jpg'
5174eacd3cc7b762645f3e1493c893ca
802f06f57ced0df4b992e2368e756abd69e2063f
describe
'42889' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHA' 'sip-files00153.pro'
8f63c107a34ed0d849b2e8b5c77ac570
8e3dfb78d78a91cee8b44d4b4c045e4007ea45ba
describe
'76452' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHB' 'sip-files00153.QC.jpg'
ab8e81a2ff4f18ac0fc7f19045f329ee
09ea18ee95f456943c6527c61b1f223df71c2255
describe
'2709236' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHC' 'sip-files00153.tif'
595fcebf31db8c334af1e89867ef2816
11c1076bbe202e9c698fdc6a277347ae7709565c
describe
'1717' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHD' 'sip-files00153.txt'
a01ce29fa510f9beab4107add1ac9aeb
16fa030b075f3f612f168245a98155a4cfac3218
describe
'34753' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHE' 'sip-files00153thm.jpg'
8c8a8cdbf143e0877e93d7be7200e36f
93dab812bc0ff0c5f604b9e91789dee0e4f2971c
describe
'335751' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHF' 'sip-files00154.jp2'
f8ec7af3fc738b58556ec0608c3d2ff6
51516163a005448ff96f3445e6bafa0aa0d18673
describe
'156228' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHG' 'sip-files00154.jpg'
d41bc949f70bd13e87a416ee7dd00502
8d6f16f6717b84567c91a16b205f71964a21eb49
describe
'19685' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHH' 'sip-files00154.pro'
693a72dfb8ec634e0bd5d0fdff41d01e
89b3876e562b4ffecc10334c31b1857bbff10bb0
describe
'55643' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHI' 'sip-files00154.QC.jpg'
938468f9ef55c526126ab428b385cfb8
f39d79942bcef5f98caea8f0692218d10a71dc4e
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHJ' 'sip-files00154.tif'
59beb66055869f8ed1a01339008f6f13
83c888e7eaa581bd69c67cdc4fab2b2d1d6153ff
describe
'868' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHK' 'sip-files00154.txt'
e30cc4ba5ca4cac5f5962c8ebdbecb9b
c12c168e027e745b63b25fc78658bccc386f3862
describe
'30308' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHL' 'sip-files00154thm.jpg'
71fbadfb184e90ffecbbc0d1e21a331a
0f84d3cf86f3a53bdbaf3f21bfa918009224bf03
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHM' 'sip-files00155.jp2'
a0ffddc59b527488babf94c44459aa0f
e8f3690b0f9fcf01210b517772e9939f3cc530f0
describe
'198771' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHN' 'sip-files00155.jpg'
3a7ad82548aa491a10be21c30a60f550
aeb350e82d3d644cd1e8e6f6d52c7b0757e8e186
describe
'41765' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHO' 'sip-files00155.pro'
1872c40cd3c7adf63222990e2d481611
de7c526a67acd87fb8f453845ec28fec4e64076b
describe
'75099' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHP' 'sip-files00155.QC.jpg'
20cd5a87129ab4efe49089a9cc8a6e21
c7dda26f6246bf1f1fd4dcd7eacc37f077e4f7c5
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHQ' 'sip-files00155.tif'
7031262bde2a59b01529457293039b82
4f0e85330e85abaf4ff5663794f9f05e1741f808
'2011-12-14T03:18:08-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHR' 'sip-files00155.txt'
28e499bdcb890dc964838b8d7420d76f
a0862dc7b9c495e2f4423a37ea0ce52c000b5b86
describe
'34308' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHS' 'sip-files00155thm.jpg'
d86fc0e0593eccd105ed22dd7a6f3d2b
2d1a73ae7d7e08d90f9c8e1cb69d99a620f2a5c7
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHT' 'sip-files00156.jp2'
99d90de4a3fdaafdec7bd93f2dd045b9
057870615be3de974186ede2a933658173891eef
describe
'180563' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHU' 'sip-files00156.jpg'
2afabbab1a90ab1eacd77c7dbbf44265
dd33ce5a2883266771c815335eab1a760de0748d
describe
'32860' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHV' 'sip-files00156.pro'
e9cef7da19999ae9896d461e11eb8beb
2cfd5d9ca70ae47b119ef117dc0ea6724cbc3d47
describe
'69302' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHW' 'sip-files00156.QC.jpg'
d7de2f8fbad1d1ce34b514c7efd03069
13e3b73857a142a81c0020fbf9d094a5a8f487fe
describe
'2708884' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHX' 'sip-files00156.tif'
68e99f93f428533ad3cd644f633e87a1
a929e7df3baf7121558ac80c64d389caf6957744
describe
'1369' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHY' 'sip-files00156.txt'
8eff8863833e9e5b8290e2ddf1a105a3
96629f9ca92ac457ec9f1dfd850728dc812ab7a9
describe
'33475' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEHZ' 'sip-files00156thm.jpg'
473af5eac8ec34476d73c64f1bcd32c7
9720d803d225c60dfad4d13db77ffcfd5c81e25c
describe
'335897' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIA' 'sip-files00157.jp2'
5b2dc505d87e6cc6ba06d3aefca2a97f
87f6fe49bee371b57a845f5676e008f52c1db181
describe
'193888' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIB' 'sip-files00157.jpg'
fa037305a509ce65cf376b99dab40aa7
d6fdde1d2751b18f89f15752ca2e8c9ccddd33e9
describe
'42347' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIC' 'sip-files00157.pro'
1a6e971195882d61006c413d2185922b
4b3dfad4a49f3e7d999a90c6a28ddabdee1b839b
describe
'74552' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEID' 'sip-files00157.QC.jpg'
05d9cde6e60affbd539325c173e6550d
a5698d9e51b9e788757031ef45e852b21efd9177
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIE' 'sip-files00157.tif'
6c30f27c0b8f3aad644671e3ca91950a
e3997e05ad1d386b26fed48b4adb85f037e22686
describe
'1692' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIF' 'sip-files00157.txt'
2047d089927e1adf3d87215927a4c8be
cb562c1ead094443eabbfcf81ab879b2405b58eb
describe
'33896' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIG' 'sip-files00157thm.jpg'
0b928d6b9cb1344e0c575f336dd81d79
15bd6865305e5c9382d760478a503489540bf978
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIH' 'sip-files00158.jp2'
0e7152801b29b9182c6836ba0408de1c
83a80e00727b604d6825670033cdc9ee47d7ab75
describe
'162938' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEII' 'sip-files00158.jpg'
73fb10be6b8d65cab63bd7e16f5a70bf
ddbd4a6cfcb535f1d97bd60ab37599b5cc256224
describe
'17555' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIJ' 'sip-files00158.pro'
8bfb62b642bd4e12087d499781062757
5b16a829a8ce8384e473bd674527218863108230
describe
'60787' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIK' 'sip-files00158.QC.jpg'
fd10bd77a4722465ae58e0f6ed80e8d2
e00a770928ab000fc83a72200e709210db475ef6
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIL' 'sip-files00158.tif'
a5fc134542a4e01001b93203d4b41f0f
4aa01971e435d4c07d2518a1695ca52b10b32b0f
describe
'785' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIM' 'sip-files00158.txt'
cfda9a0419e70b259561607ce018321c
a3e022c1eaf73dfbea9736abed02e2d296ba3009
describe
'31747' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIN' 'sip-files00158thm.jpg'
331ef9bafac7806bf2270b86c704c711
e036d5786ada59c530224383982cb342cc018f5b
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIO' 'sip-files00159.jp2'
785e2f921b194493491a9b8cb61d1009
db61dacfb5004c632e260895066ccd5c346660bb
describe
'200826' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIP' 'sip-files00159.jpg'
d3ce922b059d10f01347875e46b9136d
a6f00226aafe55c5ffdd26d53daefb7ab5b094ca
describe
'42282' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIQ' 'sip-files00159.pro'
aa684673053c6ca25b05e19bb0155fd8
e952b6ce990da20964b071a2da5f73b3bb8e68fb
describe
'76097' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIR' 'sip-files00159.QC.jpg'
b6dc3a017158faf5e2e1cf942c163670
8a32e8bc8726e6ac12f637cbf30dae3012412556
describe
'2709148' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIS' 'sip-files00159.tif'
31d45209a7256bb5a729a25fb9f92a5d
ba7d1192c4c19ebd768e17ed8301e52b74c10c7f
describe
'1705' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIT' 'sip-files00159.txt'
f9a3bbce29b67fc183ecd2438dcdb109
2555b5deeecf282ff29a534cd7160e69e5766399
describe
'34829' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIU' 'sip-files00159thm.jpg'
e0e09e7ed20a1f280e4d23352cb31694
db536c5aa2d661d91a0efacf08c5368e3041766a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIV' 'sip-files00160.jp2'
f073b465e8fbaf64dc03487c69606068
20103d5f215a0335ff1797c75292e97297a56917
describe
'202581' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIW' 'sip-files00160.jpg'
5217fcb0725b3b69ba7391f76774aaa5
f44c6b4da30a7c417d158867a363d9922d00cee3
describe
'42813' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIX' 'sip-files00160.pro'
90045e07bd4c172f19365e37c9fbf1c3
6bd699c4daeff836c0ea9e11c204dd8d00d8ecf5
describe
'76197' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIY' 'sip-files00160.QC.jpg'
ef44a97bc547d532c5d93c29588ca2ac
fdd3900918c9ad4719eeafc6b2e28a8d05cc5d97
describe
'2709220' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEIZ' 'sip-files00160.tif'
10a97fcd1157a006d07fbab3ec06938e
fea343d28d0205e9d53adc455bd7c54aaa337dc9
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJA' 'sip-files00160.txt'
e84e9eaeae1becb6ce9734f6a3aca5da
713798e13dea7c9d27db2e42c9ea5b1ec3116fe1
describe
'35208' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJB' 'sip-files00160thm.jpg'
d58fde3b430ad837d8034121a603641b
5282090350870305a740e998a0831e107d6b6894
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJC' 'sip-files00161.jp2'
9b564382762809aedce5086d86edc2a3
0ee312e5c160df07429f1c8e710d33480809ac01
describe
'202977' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJD' 'sip-files00161.jpg'
68115f32e78a006fabffea1031f88be4
beb9fb269f0aeafcd2e4dc404919d7ac9315453d
describe
'42914' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJE' 'sip-files00161.pro'
5b412e8c373d488f97f499cd01eb35bd
9106687fcd1de791593ad7f77c4fe3d5054122c6
describe
'77792' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJF' 'sip-files00161.QC.jpg'
3c4b12f585f2e5cbdd336b0f923f7095
b3d3d858cc12f3f739035f66ecf8354df85466e2
describe
'2709168' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJG' 'sip-files00161.tif'
058ecd662d587cc9db13545e946380bf
bb7d0ca874767fc7230eb2e62919a50794dc54a9
'2011-12-14T03:20:08-05:00'
describe
'1701' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJH' 'sip-files00161.txt'
08477e8b3fa910780de7f37e7625abae
236713225f62f2127d93e1e27e8f5aa133d67d38
describe
'35005' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJI' 'sip-files00161thm.jpg'
135ea59bb8ecfc820ab046e8f40c7d95
579d020ab9e7545a1fd0d2bd8ed422e9403a4070
'2011-12-14T03:16:47-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJJ' 'sip-files00162.jp2'
2099d3259d02c972e733eb22e9b4a3b3
1bbb394ae87d9f71993e3f4bfd8994e910810829
describe
'189956' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJK' 'sip-files00162.jpg'
382fc36021f4a92ab3dfb2f3fd6638ed
ebeced99251b0513091ba476ceaa60f87e58594c
describe
'21409' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJL' 'sip-files00162.pro'
e745942799eb50c72e9797b0f37f10f2
72b02117f6f572e31f6a5abb7993b1c24e5b19c5
describe
'67018' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJM' 'sip-files00162.QC.jpg'
5dee38a6d78bc948ccca38f84fc9297a
42fd54030c052e42a07c0e11fac24eb04897ddd3
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJN' 'sip-files00162.tif'
ca2017ec9b5754769327fc22ba32b89b
64ce3316269bfecde80ce1f9ef42a49f58cb7a29
describe
'888' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJO' 'sip-files00162.txt'
1c201dbd5926becd46ed669e0e625a74
09fab84b115ecb9f784c0f1f535db43f7ffbb168
describe
'33131' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJP' 'sip-files00162thm.jpg'
1b37a7e9031cc84c9416e35ecc91c919
8d7444b2fefa74123ad83c9f5074ad820f8117bf
describe
'335875' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJQ' 'sip-files00163.jp2'
adae23d4a6cccd852f184fa594437b33
b77d47dd87ecb857efc72762fa3a3fc41ae977b0
describe
'219012' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJR' 'sip-files00163.jpg'
14ff984207fde4b6620ebbd1601b7374
27e85ddaec5c736b974772fac40b12d11826a7a1
describe
'19063' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJS' 'sip-files00163.pro'
42c88c3efc5790d59de3985bf1a58b73
2ea5165a8ec36b366d8111cafa1407fec18d3fbc
describe
'75430' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJT' 'sip-files00163.QC.jpg'
201e546fad20ddfeb31b2a68ecfdfb5d
5748014327e3d8a0b85179058f53774d43e279ce
describe
'2709516' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJU' 'sip-files00163.tif'
e3e6b37e3a8fbc8888e88b10e5a6747f
eb048b918ebcaf7fb8df16fcdda4bff3062c703c
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJV' 'sip-files00163.txt'
8cb5f7f29f0f75df12bdedd5bf15b5e5
b0a6e208c9d429d33af3e8b517061df94db5590b
describe
'35375' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJW' 'sip-files00163thm.jpg'
17023465db3731f8437086e5ca985068
25bd44e58ca2bf10bd47d655d0afb4f633992313
'2011-12-14T03:18:10-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJX' 'sip-files00164.jp2'
8ef76a17cfa393c94ea617346f971849
9ddf4607cc9d635e53440ba0b8740e738b432ca8
describe
'196271' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJY' 'sip-files00164.jpg'
edc5dff19603f9e35862903a4c9fcb61
4b2e6fad9c71d69fbacac298d74954463bc2283b
describe
'42107' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEJZ' 'sip-files00164.pro'
7423176a6a9adc63d99076b039eb6dae
15ba78739b01be4d2b7723b7261b72ab69324222
describe
'75900' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKA' 'sip-files00164.QC.jpg'
8945cc8656e1c21f50c1a8751a1335b4
6e8b6c9cce9fee41095c27b7dc4043a85c955c39
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKB' 'sip-files00164.tif'
ab40ad75e26b326efdabfa8ba83dbdbb
acbcab860289a37358682c601bbd7de86e7ce063
describe
'1656' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKC' 'sip-files00164.txt'
3354e9f9c0ec89cfb75855f290e2474d
1cdc9a30c00b966b95e69a4ab3905e7d0b267f77
describe
'34116' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKD' 'sip-files00164thm.jpg'
99a9fae32a1a0d7f7194df5f2d928390
c04a4c199879f67d7658d8f661de927ee20ea4f9
describe
'335877' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKE' 'sip-files00165.jp2'
3a3587057fdb94a4f8d0d6dd45ef7c6f
3bf34f4ab0d1fbf67a0440b155f6b490238ab3ec
describe
'196816' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKF' 'sip-files00165.jpg'
c44252449aee32cec579c4744ccf9f93
b9a9fa0472ac5e35e4c9ee32bd0ff4de94e46248
describe
'43116' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKG' 'sip-files00165.pro'
26df91101c3a94ac18d863c5f053c027
3a08ce52a4457ad10af58a2a10b40d22799ae54f
describe
'75942' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKH' 'sip-files00165.QC.jpg'
06ae1b7c5a964354d76d10d75e966a7f
3ad4c60e121e47a9fb27b36d586ba154a54c09d7
describe
'2709044' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKI' 'sip-files00165.tif'
f8c3644dca187c31d51bba6e8aa83cee
03ce750e1578c5e1a329c8020a72785d20db417c
'2011-12-14T03:21:34-05:00'
describe
'1756' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKJ' 'sip-files00165.txt'
30e24cfb03d83ae8d9b7ba2009b9f1b4
827e99ee02b9b57728886639b0545f172854b6bc
describe
'34484' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKK' 'sip-files00165thm.jpg'
95dcc26b750bdeb65e0adb212ad7e69b
3ceba0b4ce4aaebe09006d30682079b3903c7040
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKL' 'sip-files00166.jp2'
fd3ebb9c08e26764d302d7c56d87353a
2485500149d14642408156955b9521b11c394ac9
describe
'94218' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKM' 'sip-files00166.jpg'
1200535ae4a70982c6948c7164d235ef
79a2ebe08bf8440379fc014f92e00849bc96f406
describe
'9892' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKN' 'sip-files00166.pro'
58837a380975aee2b7dbac81ec2baa78
8351267c6531f4dab5f1e951b68d7a9d7704dfa7
describe
'37471' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKO' 'sip-files00166.QC.jpg'
60b7e39b974e0fe955f59458a447dc3e
e15ac5fa82960a48520ac21509a5a0e22b253d9d
describe
'2705612' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKP' 'sip-files00166.tif'
3dc1992c00025af9f03c87f0f4933b8a
b280d630537889234ab3ca3f4e2d0756b195e733
describe
'395' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKQ' 'sip-files00166.txt'
81d8f105515e784b6ddb14485d0b1798
127db84ad23e4876765a1c19a9be74923a64e3d2
describe
'23051' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKR' 'sip-files00166thm.jpg'
1ed2a6c61e4d0fb4c5a4894db483b8ce
55145f09ee40d572bd347a886bd349abfda0050e
describe
'335717' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKS' 'sip-files00167.jp2'
d07f37182b4b93c8bcabd27ed0653632
00ccd5caa68973cbdb011a61e714558b7028303a
describe
'159800' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKT' 'sip-files00167.jpg'
e22d9a463a113f80a284a5883d38a228
aa3fd5e1794313abc4c24a92c81e527e996127b7
describe
'24101' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKU' 'sip-files00167.pro'
b5b513d5b9d861db82d1d76a81955838
c99dbddcd19c6a54621a3c3008878e7d1c6219b4
describe
'61429' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKV' 'sip-files00167.QC.jpg'
308c43ac517c9b4fe184d5e3a05a1420
846190f499ecf4eaaac6fa308363ba262949c99c
describe
'2707980' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKW' 'sip-files00167.tif'
90ffc23401c2352f363ade1f769101f3
18a994c54524ebd5be537193b18554212b327a98
describe
'1251' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKX' 'sip-files00167.txt'
693d66646796b2a91e10582a38032bdc
74fadefe2035b042cf51a3ca5b0b4fb492f2efda
describe
'30862' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKY' 'sip-files00167thm.jpg'
6f9d1c8f0812b1f0dd7b97e197fd263a
7d43cdc3b1c4f3824a91af4237f6c7848308b8b3
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEKZ' 'sip-files00168.jp2'
e886bad740f379fc4e9fa3a2648f8572
59e6272803c71b4e4eb860a6f10ce437a22d5bd9
describe
'200235' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELA' 'sip-files00168.jpg'
83adffe3757edc390ac8ccce6533fc92
15673a3628db44791465e3d7d44959eb059347a9
describe
'43005' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELB' 'sip-files00168.pro'
c6c955930bd8535ab1e8856ab37a72a2
01a31f73755796b3a4786e1b22424cee3fc303f2
describe
'75766' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELC' 'sip-files00168.QC.jpg'
2e409c5b4e5d056ebe40864233a78714
df70fd57807c509e78079729a6e06da818f32528
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELD' 'sip-files00168.tif'
26f107c20b0b0d02a2cef4f3af94b016
820e5c379d26fd40af0d033a03230b23ebad49d8
describe
'1698' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELE' 'sip-files00168.txt'
12cc3349b44d70c6a393bb55d85f74f6
043f91866ce9f797f7e9c70cb5e430b1d0307cd9
describe
'34452' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELF' 'sip-files00168thm.jpg'
4fd1d8e2ec4335139602eed062a3e3d5
587cea21114b95994926889720924ebc722475a9
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELG' 'sip-files00169.jp2'
b4b4c9a8ffe359f381e2ac13980e21bc
d224a3ac1d8bdcf8097a2bc0c0a0dedf9bbb4a46
describe
'190963' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELH' 'sip-files00169.jpg'
90d0277139dbee181a23401c910a9b92
64ca95b1eb79162cf71cb489f703be6a172bc0a7
describe
'39644' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELI' 'sip-files00169.pro'
90e8ffacb6cc0b6d43d3c26ca3fdd9b8
7f5913071ef29abc484181fc01db6fbf104ef24b
describe
'73958' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELJ' 'sip-files00169.QC.jpg'
83d43c5ba5c8adcf07e8288874c7a26c
99b88eee029af90dd592d508696e2b678cffa3e3
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELK' 'sip-files00169.tif'
144205e91b6a9962d5c8746672b83386
ef896e76fef071cbc536dfdc269de769dbbf3850
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELL' 'sip-files00169.txt'
ffda3f59ab9aeae4168a4c34025de9be
0564a26bb54faa81ba71faa6247add59bad8c2d2
describe
'34337' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELM' 'sip-files00169thm.jpg'
f922b089218260a8cf4a57e24544ce09
d2820b6ff344a75308142d458a17ef6992837347
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELN' 'sip-files00170.jp2'
e64e7d1d43426d4385142a2fb07257d8
6473a8b23fcab2767d156de6d31d75abe70e086f
describe
'53544' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELO' 'sip-files00170.jpg'
86f277ec88b9299cebbd87f3af75c4fa
7aba75a90cf07c6ed57e3427a41698358586546a
describe
'2669' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELP' 'sip-files00170.pro'
141a22f578ebb71bd1d00054d0a2285d
d07b7acd1c6431e9f02ee2555eb3a1e20cffe34d
describe
'30468' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELQ' 'sip-files00170.QC.jpg'
a2fe355071e7bbc83efb1dbd340b731b
0ffbde9d33fe082a6f61783cf94bbeb2ad5dece5
describe
'2707308' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELR' 'sip-files00170.tif'
309c4c68b512145d881e4b97225fe36b
2e94765bcb79550e0c3e725642df1091c12ca70c
describe
'118' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELS' 'sip-files00170.txt'
f43ede9c340265c804d60a2b2a9053a4
d0e0d43e32d9cd296adc21101e2549e1e3733760
describe
'23602' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELT' 'sip-files00170thm.jpg'
559802ea829b0c49c4bf02ea88a20bf3
8b3334832c67d6190e7cb10926e441455ae3871a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELU' 'sip-files00171.jp2'
9d245ea49ed2163ffa480d9d7c04c6ed
50b4484875ee5ee82d116aeb2d40f069ccf77f59
describe
'176770' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELV' 'sip-files00171.jpg'
f25e3e8e15c038c550fa0054c6d81bdb
dc361f56981ae2af7027aaf76b56958a5497a2e7
describe
'31695' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELW' 'sip-files00171.pro'
57b79c9c84df5a556ff4ea04f08c6fc8
c3e40786b8553bbb4ae47eda034cc2c6d81d578f
describe
'67999' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELX' 'sip-files00171.QC.jpg'
461755b831e6a26be1717a32f90cbf48
0d4d81626a2b56311b05274fca3a2eadb6ede0f3
describe
'2708680' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELY' 'sip-files00171.tif'
665ae50d0e5d80060724edf0410fdab8
25a03a76adc182ed543d23b06ce53597ae8841dc
describe
'1343' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAELZ' 'sip-files00171.txt'
41b85bc7528aa7e00486e456a1f3c235
d730a0f397a5a2ba187efb4a63c25f244394ff1b
describe
'32727' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMA' 'sip-files00171thm.jpg'
2b4c2478d2280b6cfc01829fe6851db9
81466d36efc4a455041d84fe38f89b152a54a0a7
describe
'335836' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMB' 'sip-files00172.jp2'
fbcf2fab5240d1ea73e516360ebc71cf
b6bb284b3b1b7e7c5b5b30b65c0c672ade3ff667
describe
'175898' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMC' 'sip-files00172.jpg'
bf7382c3e81ca77e5bcf4b28e610f30d
debb9b12fd20e4a897c64eceff407692bade322a
describe
'35702' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMD' 'sip-files00172.pro'
2b41e905fa088e246fc25976c851cd56
1de0db41aad25e4685c7c62476480f1264908d5e
describe
'70443' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEME' 'sip-files00172.QC.jpg'
12771fcbc6aee7f15d15203a7db370b4
bdbc7c54b688030fc81ffff4d86b341558ab3f14
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMF' 'sip-files00172.tif'
37cd492a6f7c2b3a724d62cebc7d495e
c767e71ef6cf2261812feb73a7bad3464f5ba99f
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMG' 'sip-files00172.txt'
0c784545250785b5702d5dfa06f42b57
1e8a71d55e80318dd5ce4f031f104be4c8a4320e
describe
'33710' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMH' 'sip-files00172thm.jpg'
d387de0774801eafbe792343933ae5c7
f507f1cbf89d66cc50851477f7127e3eb3680b88
'2011-12-14T03:19:27-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMI' 'sip-files00173.jp2'
c7767f78e33f2ca72019a0425aecc160
a7323357fb8e386a7393a6d4a844985d04669887
describe
'173949' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMJ' 'sip-files00173.jpg'
a43a2f00b55be6beaa8e8ea6876062f2
aa8f970a20b96bf39d26eeb01ea0eb91d75eeff1
describe
'32128' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMK' 'sip-files00173.pro'
9e6d8cb2295ee5687cf755e6e3135066
88b88cad259ab1aa65715f8cf8e29faacc54740c
describe
'68589' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEML' 'sip-files00173.QC.jpg'
46b7aeaaf91504277879fd6a58dc4bd5
98426ce3f13376f047aa44985e8a27d02b0baa0d
'2011-12-14T03:21:41-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMM' 'sip-files00173.tif'
17c64c48c743d399c2b61dd674b9240b
05f9b9a724899a0579e54b022c4e38972e833943
describe
'1382' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMN' 'sip-files00173.txt'
4e7050fa9fc07846f5ced0c47d4069b1
b8fdf5b9cd783985e1f9278ca531ea9888a610f3
describe
'33512' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMO' 'sip-files00173thm.jpg'
1c9f38dbdb0744073f2810d5116be190
026a483357d3c0210a5509e4748af5d2fd4447fd
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMP' 'sip-files00174.jp2'
9813c4e64c37bc6757026444f3536fcf
6facd4953a6450b96c6bdb3f06ba735ad48cca68
'2011-12-14T03:20:12-05:00'
describe
'191739' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMQ' 'sip-files00174.jpg'
096b4695bbf9728302de6be06232103e
5356fa1cc8e4f23c67c7a0b50e92ef2c1f8db9ef
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMR' 'sip-files00174.pro'
f8f66ff6811da0c26a8080c2092a4791
61c45828d0606105596bf05a2a018976159a56ba
describe
'74816' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMS' 'sip-files00174.QC.jpg'
c40daed578ce114229a14f09ee246355
daa4895df7d539c72256ec9eaebb4e4e398075e1
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMT' 'sip-files00174.tif'
f4635f83a73d259f34694971e0470bc9
4f7ec590a79a197d24e3dcc65dd90858ac7b34b2
describe
'1738' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMU' 'sip-files00174.txt'
a374900ac82bf8cb669786e86c84ee9e
3045ae0a25af521413b66ec4e03207084002f6cd
describe
'34300' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMV' 'sip-files00174thm.jpg'
79a1abde5edf376cc38f3369539baff8
5eba9390f765a618af7e91180bba382bd0820690
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMW' 'sip-files00175.jp2'
9eddd65d11dc60f01c80025719c6939b
faf94d3e765a658ed4560dd3964ce02e414e07de
describe
'199918' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMX' 'sip-files00175.jpg'
c554c814aeb9f8da79ce093f9fe6af40
cd9bb194547f61570ad3889bf9f295afbb328052
describe
'43268' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMY' 'sip-files00175.pro'
ebc02210d135366a4c0a942c6cf034cd
018c0ea78c564296817d99c98b29203085c6ddf8
describe
'77824' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEMZ' 'sip-files00175.QC.jpg'
74a31b94d6b832b2a7580edf914e76c3
2212a0d26a4917ffea14077af3c294e2b472ceba
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENA' 'sip-files00175.tif'
f01c8ff13e0fb1c5d54d7dcab00b3af1
4faadd00f9a5402b18474e821838cfd90c5015ee
describe
'1712' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENB' 'sip-files00175.txt'
55d866e6c78a3642d3f6cdf75b520f30
04f13297ffe78c96b66b262c95c428aa5f1fef09
describe
'34930' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENC' 'sip-files00175thm.jpg'
de1b4f4ac400de8ed45d9cac8811e9a8
9fb046b6a8e7315f39ab52490c48a9bd2b1f0ea6
'2011-12-14T03:21:26-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEND' 'sip-files00176.jp2'
2f8194191656116669345494d78cc1f2
38f1e1003727c845bd7e99c685c9e73598eaff3c
describe
'202685' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENE' 'sip-files00176.jpg'
a4400e75b65e15f3ddb5bf0cf1db16e1
e51274820d6375cf910587150a869d1226b40643
describe
'42888' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENF' 'sip-files00176.pro'
8ed210bac6298a1b9210df1a2aa55d0b
34dafd00b89972a11a71819eb73a882cc29a4637
describe
'78654' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENG' 'sip-files00176.QC.jpg'
06d7a05de1e66b04182c7994e49a397e
5a4bea5a16c90438fd39f6da23305d7da1a9ae75
describe
'2709328' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENH' 'sip-files00176.tif'
9ad21c28b7a33a4757299612704f4815
c337bae846daab503b1495863d50f6bfc656a929
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENI' 'sip-files00176.txt'
9009debeb1d6220196d947c1412ee9e6
34959b4dae1e99666b3ec958b52cb93cd2481eee
describe
'35366' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENJ' 'sip-files00176thm.jpg'
596f799448f6891521148fb0682fb27f
2307d8bee749d5c1dac99eeacabdbc668cd285f6
describe
'335832' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENK' 'sip-files00177.jp2'
1ff1a893858b9d88858280daa7a5f14a
099b96fede4584b3a2e0d038872281ccc66f4bda
describe
'192076' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENL' 'sip-files00177.jpg'
6f65340ae818d47a525f159f8a46a36c
9200c4b6b06326a007ee0912cf77e97b19b2e0ea
describe
'42333' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENM' 'sip-files00177.pro'
07e2115be366a742bb5270097ca49f6b
8ed3d3dcd0f517775baac2240a2e35e11b30a200
describe
'74127' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENN' 'sip-files00177.QC.jpg'
ce0ea81d245eb5a66b0c41bd4f08caf0
b8365a3e3d3898802c9f53e01b7b6db5af9be814
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENO' 'sip-files00177.tif'
9f51fb44fa7f507e64ba356c4656f867
35d2811d57f7d36ac92d7d26e2991c0ab07e42f3
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENP' 'sip-files00177.txt'
abe9de2da130ac05b9eb1e2e25907ef1
d1b0b2b7036cb1fedd1fee60438a6fc4ee9e448e
describe
'33928' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENQ' 'sip-files00177thm.jpg'
3d7aa669ecd74e33d04f8b8d8b7d84d6
b87d5460fab06acb5137d78950db3abdbd5e2af9
describe
'335818' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENR' 'sip-files00178.jp2'
302417326d47027cb98e7f7debbd7d7b
e6f4508c87a0c39c898d6c17aeb00c423e694727
describe
'53594' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENS' 'sip-files00178.jpg'
3ba1966ceb06e58867540ec1c9e96c29
7b91133e615ce47238120d12055aef14aee46cdd
describe
'2694' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENT' 'sip-files00178.pro'
cbe25e646f90e150e107d387976dcda9
e3cd3bc773a642bcac546817e375837ec104cf75
describe
'30623' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENU' 'sip-files00178.QC.jpg'
3cc4e467bf133a1f9def6dc2e376c072
4f6fcf58bb6e585d4401c073f67806316f78cc06
describe
'2707356' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENV' 'sip-files00178.tif'
eaf6f45f6ca6767b12c565446e277193
757095f8348dbc39d420449d4caef8cb84057651
describe
'117' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENW' 'sip-files00178.txt'
6857585d72b1ec339a292e20430a7b91
cfd7af99ff4800e6f1a34c29ab6c032b2d70de90
describe
'23775' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENX' 'sip-files00178thm.jpg'
b0a38dd4be7cf64d738a8abc2f1df24b
77e4c69e18bbce144694882854845146f9a77563
describe
'335635' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENY' 'sip-files00179.jp2'
99333ef9e89ec709497186dfd88b01e6
2ab7f772b5f463716d8c3539426f4ce8dade51a9
describe
'142246' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAENZ' 'sip-files00179.jpg'
3eda67443909e8ae375b96e79314b9ef
d293fe07758b1c6e5e4a05daef3276724b352c42
describe
'23821' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOA' 'sip-files00179.pro'
3e757ff68ac0dfc1900ae9be348055b6
232c6818b2e9676c26daabfd142ef3b9e0cc71c1
describe
'57753' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOB' 'sip-files00179.QC.jpg'
6b72e525bb1bbfed8f5c9698b7439707
6d4abd7e33972a8e8873096f74efc827140a8a8c
describe
'2707960' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOC' 'sip-files00179.tif'
22d920389e407b725473d271f78d5e08
6d54c2684181ad585ac6b630d63155d0c5fbb28a
describe
'986' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOD' 'sip-files00179.txt'
0136865e81172763d28ab9dba889696c
3744d5627c93c807ccacc2f87cb91d753133f43f
describe
Invalid character
'30675' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOE' 'sip-files00179thm.jpg'
6926b41c6f63f9c92b63af8c1f0f1148
643a4614b240052c52f7c3bff378bb00d2723483
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOF' 'sip-files00180.jp2'
c3c6fd8dcf2f01929d5615dcc0bb0354
44cd5e7aa1aaca0337f1e273254754110db2ef44
describe
'195459' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOG' 'sip-files00180.jpg'
a860e39722334f51d25589eafc17a110
b081d1f715a1a3169a17240f3ab95e6aaec88896
describe
'42392' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOH' 'sip-files00180.pro'
6bd20fe646aa19a90c6587db23ee3dcf
6148db4b56b451a7227d4ae10c14e045e55fd720
describe
'75436' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOI' 'sip-files00180.QC.jpg'
06143be51f6443a5d9931623e7f3d288
2a69614c972deb97d2add799359e6f65a6339938
describe
'2709076' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOJ' 'sip-files00180.tif'
235c479cbbaa11ecca923bb411c640b2
8c944a3d8a25f04fced5569d0cb3ac6c0c35812f
describe
'1673' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOK' 'sip-files00180.txt'
751de6146d8d35bdf63f8f151f5934d4
de53839ce9b0834ee36a21a48493246c965c85b9
describe
'34748' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOL' 'sip-files00180thm.jpg'
295c42c7325801c12966e2f871cab6c3
bf10c0fa36da0c365908a1e3e0fbe80b942604f2
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOM' 'sip-files00181.jp2'
a27245aa33860df68f03e9b75caac2e4
0e4855cdcb42f53fd2d7dae418d2cfb1f9eff9fb
describe
'150926' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEON' 'sip-files00181.jpg'
b747d00092667b37f51d7b169dcdb18e
ecc3097c79e2600e2f7e0e70988466bfe2bc47df
describe
'26820' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOO' 'sip-files00181.pro'
d0c7adf746c643cffc2b9711c736fd65
277da2a3a70cd64693102c4170a3c0360c76ee74
describe
'60229' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOP' 'sip-files00181.QC.jpg'
38b500b2450345b60a45ce485115ea47
ccffd6ed37a4e04b49f3b308da160228a1ff7ffd
'2011-12-14T03:22:09-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOQ' 'sip-files00181.tif'
146af1234c81155e69310338fbd0f6d2
cccaa28d9e8364287b8d36640c371f75f327cac7
describe
'1201' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOR' 'sip-files00181.txt'
420dd34c9c1982b751db54f0755f8637
ea8450119683f1b916a4a4bce076f94035a92b91
describe
'31546' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOS' 'sip-files00181thm.jpg'
4b553c1aa09198124b9339f42de8fc91
2c071510d20be0b9c3a6dd530ecf3553afac21b0
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOT' 'sip-files00182.jp2'
34d10b98f980ff4bf5ab6cea046f2f52
6483800de2ddc99fd720d6c826d7d7f99886e336
describe
'202547' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOU' 'sip-files00182.jpg'
7a6d6650538dc3f12dab8ad7d2258df3
6a8d4b5c4d8d34930d728e013fcd887d93547e3c
describe
'42673' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOV' 'sip-files00182.pro'
6fee0988939febe108fce2c862d501a2
908cd6b67ef79f2dccf46b754b51088ce8624fb4
describe
'77620' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOW' 'sip-files00182.QC.jpg'
1c140877cf5e888e62df277a71c26c99
ff8c59dec4679ae626ee400c76cb5bfeecfad9a7
describe
'2709256' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOX' 'sip-files00182.tif'
b3a55f71e83c52d6f903e10961254a3b
69edcc5de1b7dd9690d1a1c6578fa136f23ba847
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOY' 'sip-files00182.txt'
c6246f510d6848348b77b5926000e2d3
7b54fa1375b26ad6d48c5493943b05cf3480bedc
describe
'35222' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEOZ' 'sip-files00182thm.jpg'
04c06dec7c9ee51a8a0a2559062271b0
c85e51e5953e9e6d9e7aa114645174341ae07d7d
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPA' 'sip-files00183.jp2'
ba0ed53995c6d54e6fc6fccae84e1388
35c0bedf4b72973c01a8ae4b815fde8b80cb2008
describe
'200421' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPB' 'sip-files00183.jpg'
1b1569e75d4239e97f2133effa918af5
5ef5e8fa5c382498faec7dea28f4d703e9e62be4
describe
'43158' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPC' 'sip-files00183.pro'
85a95ff2c81230fe07928dd5145c826b
53bd164ecc570f65add8b3a132f848ad140d9207
describe
'75477' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPD' 'sip-files00183.QC.jpg'
3514a8404fd8d5c7fee1c2389c781844
98d47bf26438086e80581b5bcd44dd5e5793e6a1
'2011-12-14T03:16:09-05:00'
describe
'2708940' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPE' 'sip-files00183.tif'
21f5f481bd2b5d4c4f85c4dcccab6f06
0c2311a673bd931df1cb47f13b844fb643a1a43b
describe
'1724' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPF' 'sip-files00183.txt'
7839d8a5d0628d735d7161e7fdfab999
af8ae922c841fd1a89601eac52b554b7632dfb40
describe
'34577' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPG' 'sip-files00183thm.jpg'
2309b65f0343f125d8549ec165080ed8
2e119c61bf939f2f0105a3b3bcb8ccbaa7aae090
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPH' 'sip-files00184.jp2'
d64af172538b658576951c4b899d5519
94f161de7a8dbab34a02b53023b5f07dd57d9105
describe
'144122' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPI' 'sip-files00184.jpg'
e61d000716566747efc7a57c23d09912
f75685560f21ad012f193e916d56a9ff5353cba8
describe
'24149' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPJ' 'sip-files00184.pro'
86c916d1847b97c960ebac4ae56e7725
d623685c28551cc49df71d8ed9e4c0e37f97e998
describe
'56921' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPK' 'sip-files00184.QC.jpg'
194369e3f7c3816f728b37964682d5de
6dfa73984631368f14ce663355851286594162fe
describe
'2708068' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPL' 'sip-files00184.tif'
b9fe9090957448381fc83e4bf4e2dff6
c8c7cb6609e9edb34e5121542968eebb7512fe03
describe
'1050' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPM' 'sip-files00184.txt'
8724121004a72071e583088aa4a776e2
2e7b26dff4c411719349c6ad58c4e94f347c2bdc
describe
'30270' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPN' 'sip-files00184thm.jpg'
5dc568aed047bb828b3e2885183f9707
01944df8cb45efa6f9d1bd1b78dca821c383f3a3
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPO' 'sip-files00185.jp2'
7c988eb65f531477d0a5561bf1e18da1
54aca7c4539e9b018da61fea1e013f31b789320b
describe
'202881' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPP' 'sip-files00185.jpg'
a73a23417dbf95230a821b0cc1c21aa6
c1ec2df2d42373b9bae8669d38d1d94e06062c6c
describe
'43635' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPQ' 'sip-files00185.pro'
9c0fd4272bf261c270bfef02b365ddf0
2a21978810874a18ce26a0027f089f553ad92572
describe
'77612' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPR' 'sip-files00185.QC.jpg'
ec40949eefe5159e8e34a5b6cdc17426
088a7890e795f5fed854c1a14a45df754fc163e7
describe
'2709296' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPS' 'sip-files00185.tif'
110ccb68859c4ce357556847244684e7
8746eb0b2ef30bd87ee06f161bfbe592dea5970c
describe
'1797' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPT' 'sip-files00185.txt'
26f7cce2a4c0f1f084b18a731c6f767a
944b47503e4ae07df24d15779754daacc11d7063
describe
'35235' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPU' 'sip-files00185thm.jpg'
c0a9699916eeb61de08b663ebea32f89
72e9bda6d5877407eedb77928390e732bba328ea
describe
'335876' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPV' 'sip-files00186.jp2'
de1813aef77aff1ef45f558aef8a0276
57c07b867e14f14221f3c3b9a19c5f9b1367512d
describe
'196696' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPW' 'sip-files00186.jpg'
ba1e4095bcb3be16bedd48ee08ac13d3
21deda2d2859da73cce16032dc75472dfffe1b7c
describe
'41882' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPX' 'sip-files00186.pro'
70ce42e45782d08cceded42b6f992090
be689470298368e05ce74339c843beb245592715
describe
'74665' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPY' 'sip-files00186.QC.jpg'
6e5f70056079044170a02ca13d2a5588
f4bad2971c07fade85fde407026ef30edc949165
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEPZ' 'sip-files00186.tif'
0eb68d8833e543e168f9d8943f26f961
022ef429dfe0fb9d725bf9d1f21da07ded562705
describe
'1651' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQA' 'sip-files00186.txt'
0f565021580d6ba32f7e34ff02122df0
bff0e1648f395008e186c6d160b23c72a9f8d087
describe
'34006' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQB' 'sip-files00186thm.jpg'
ee423319bdec76bd1e0fff6b7167163b
b8d04cc50a725615ea5b863d57060f60b66d88b8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQC' 'sip-files00187.jp2'
e25ca145b2eefdffaa8d3aac63599ad0
7b6931c15c51c8f8052c5fcea7a4449c7a944c4b
describe
'193960' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQD' 'sip-files00187.jpg'
a48573dccf8160a392de51362ca75ab4
db15a59e7095230b83f33a90d8df5c0193fb99ee
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQE' 'sip-files00187.pro'
9330c71f7942c154f36c97be8bb9ac0a
99779fb75b6c6eefb3b5945ee12c0d3f527c674b
describe
'74981' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQF' 'sip-files00187.QC.jpg'
8e1157a5b249f7be53dc5751ab6e1c98
611143997df3e13ff19e8d6949121698640c9c4c
describe
'2709132' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQG' 'sip-files00187.tif'
a0960bd978361da7c1dcdb2e48db753f
f71dc34fd8b8e4eddb70bf5325b61b42a11c6185
describe
'1693' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQH' 'sip-files00187.txt'
7fb9ae157668029964e85d129b53e67f
e5a77bf98090a77c04b71f26cc8f032553ee61c5
describe
'34567' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQI' 'sip-files00187thm.jpg'
ff1258f939893d7dd83fb0cf193be514
ec1f5dbc1f7c780938bc31e06140429828a67532
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQJ' 'sip-files00188.jp2'
57aee330998b77ce4744c7f74b7e29f0
a3fb7396b1b9ff0ef38b022e0eaf17ac0a358d1e
describe
'175957' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQK' 'sip-files00188.jpg'
87a614564e33746173e9664de747d85c
a7b691a5b2174d82ba1a536611b45ea4f0b5ecb0
describe
'36255' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQL' 'sip-files00188.pro'
6a3749fdba0e1144afc301d3d84b4aba
adc110197bb0f5bcea4c65bc11d8b136995924d7
describe
'70643' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQM' 'sip-files00188.QC.jpg'
e5854773899483aa7e217f3be25d2610
e5b8f2b2037bef35d3551136c56ef548c04380f6
describe
'2708920' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQN' 'sip-files00188.tif'
c139c7f40bb9ebcb9a2d17a90c6bb2be
036dd68bdb42f82b1ae2b1ee8c649d91e3338770
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQO' 'sip-files00188.txt'
be4d54bb14b5f8e9a191cf167233b540
34e6913d92a7088a50e7eaa7b74b697353e0a039
describe
'33601' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQP' 'sip-files00188thm.jpg'
b06b86050c126932e139c50ca59831a3
3849dfce88515134537fa12170402a803d6317b4
describe
'19226' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQQ' 'sip-files00189thm.jpg'
4caffb8f05d0c03b5a955ce11c4793e8
b0d9edbb4256da455ca571640072544d7cfd23b6
describe
'328695' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQR' 'sip-files00190.jp2'
786ba7cbb42b446c76a8a4b3304e064c
241112f26a2a0b80b36a78e61aa7805564ddccbd
describe
'159805' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQS' 'sip-files00190.jpg'
309979f49f3cbdddbd727324d9322b88
774fbf969402992274f63acc2f5bae3f14860d5f
describe
'3197' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQT' 'sip-files00190.pro'
974d829aa325e0dd9bbbe2d85bf563a6
559de91f79cabaffc88d3ee0fc0749b1119ab1d0
describe
'48165' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQU' 'sip-files00190.QC.jpg'
f6afbcfa41f36079e43abe696d6e0eea
bbec52b69f0aa85ed2ab1e0f0b4bcb0b3b6bac46
describe
'7911612' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQV' 'sip-files00190.tif'
1281f8f7fadd2faf81192a0a5c548f38
78d1354cdfd42e3eed3c588659803b00345a189c
describe
'134' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQW' 'sip-files00190.txt'
92cd1f0f7e27c45e7dde06c191790b10
189e0d06fa7ad777579837515f9b4108081b2b1d
describe
'29631' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQX' 'sip-files00190thm.jpg'
718d3bd08a1316c1b1cc21347aa61aa3
7b63f1ca4e483e87d216ae07ea250e2dc54d910b
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQY' 'sip-files00191.jp2'
3f1398071386e7be85710a999a3795cb
2e7e490f96c0b2d23773da4f4e4524c911c31054
describe
'195120' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEQZ' 'sip-files00191.jpg'
e027c6add983c42f51b7c427675f16e1
776ff0e8a970879afbae5a4071599602cd5b2462
describe
'42674' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERA' 'sip-files00191.pro'
cb5289f8f2d7cbdae9129ab56de91a06
5005bcb826f9b4b46ae387cdeb233a54afe35f59
describe
'76798' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERB' 'sip-files00191.QC.jpg'
da9e85d360e780be0bc4f8bdc383d4ed
19ab022a9ce87a67806b061bd38dd6f050ecb30d
describe
'2709532' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERC' 'sip-files00191.tif'
c71300be71492ee808e58594bb310d1a
07ab5b2a6b31cc0806ab59aa48f23d532294c8b8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERD' 'sip-files00191.txt'
58c667b582bcbaf94cf6ca9db4088178
cbeb429a2348605b4dd1732fd4d67922bd28fdbe
describe
'35138' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERE' 'sip-files00191thm.jpg'
0b5a5fd4f10586987f7a5f14da07a55c
2429c301c9f1dfaa16c2f7cf9e49723858226d5f
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERF' 'sip-files00192.jp2'
46a818e7218c10476d6567217d275ad2
b49f3bddd30962bd07f31330bb9751b3ccf4ab35
describe
'198929' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERG' 'sip-files00192.jpg'
ed813d4c161298481ea8d222fc253725
9129ee1c574febcf1d9e990103d14cafe5eeaac2
describe
'42611' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERH' 'sip-files00192.pro'
8691136ceb07009b936106b50cae3195
9d282f5f96c5a0a22a62fa5114ca475881c20bc6
describe
'75196' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERI' 'sip-files00192.QC.jpg'
fd8285da6ab6c870512e283a9d5ccb4d
f7873c543f495e16bd363d3a0670b944640d12e2
describe
'2708832' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERJ' 'sip-files00192.tif'
b68b6b905bb1cb66ce674e5c5fd37c31
9031b744dc3c7826e74f16a682cb08650bd7c072
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERK' 'sip-files00192.txt'
2da1e961d972b5f05e5ce7a86ac68382
c0a0fc245c9eb3ac6a0a5114e90f321c72f7b8cf
describe
Invalid character
'34099' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERL' 'sip-files00192thm.jpg'
91cb24674fc4a78c0eddc88ff72a8992
dafd765931de83d43f22ecfc66fe527c5396e917
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERM' 'sip-files00193.jp2'
0ebfee0b8699ca2bb9f22668593b7caf
b75d76c2882137bf3ff72db862bae576d7b1bd5c
describe
'197715' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERN' 'sip-files00193.jpg'
b93d6049bb2e7ca3bd282101039dc841
123ea742fb7343c432483d65ad6dc885027c664f
describe
'42102' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERO' 'sip-files00193.pro'
8c8c63e4313eae1595e391b4b5bed0d8
fa0159efca1df35b99476e7978f9f6ee8eaa928c
describe
'76234' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERP' 'sip-files00193.QC.jpg'
e59d62020a3a21160adbda5edde6cc07
8fb2e2576952aba4cc202e2db0f38e8e2b75a1bc
describe
'2709008' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERQ' 'sip-files00193.tif'
d9799805886327f53797eba866e642b4
a5067984f43bab05c1dbe960db28e87df61be84d
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERR' 'sip-files00193.txt'
df6b98e8714506e6e22be7522620548e
7b357d07bcd5f904113dc849bbc66913c62f4f67
describe
'34641' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERS' 'sip-files00193thm.jpg'
d67fa79e875ced4534c36d2bbe48cd07
d106a207b75b682bc0936f1f40f3c223f081847f
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERT' 'sip-files00194.jp2'
152d0446bab713abbe1e717fa75d6c53
6b3052416aa603f5a4c2eadfd0d87ee1322f25da
describe
'198628' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERU' 'sip-files00194.jpg'
66f41b65f139203a3c3c6699da505045
ba028e71dbe70a538c6e6eb9cd640a86e2403dfd
describe
'41566' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERV' 'sip-files00194.pro'
dedd5129df47bb9bb26e8284bebe6906
fb6e6f95f553bc918a68637684313b7f53b69165
describe
'76243' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERW' 'sip-files00194.QC.jpg'
55c16cdaf880e60bccd526e3834d8287
d7718f3d225293a5706004fbf34db52b1ef55e64
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERX' 'sip-files00194.tif'
ebcf6f7d712fb01998ead6e7c508f34f
7a34d073a9bb53d149e1cc228bc1b7dec574f5fe
describe
'1654' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERY' 'sip-files00194.txt'
197a74baa727bc2cf122f9a1f4bdbd85
a5421a523058d1934ffdeae7f120585395a928ca
describe
'35116' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAERZ' 'sip-files00194thm.jpg'
abb9e476c60b03484ff293eeefc499e1
aaf23619902bfe2207edd8626bf6a053e549379e
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESA' 'sip-files00195.jp2'
e31fb984dd6989479e8c66b819c0e518
3bf989e8c946ae910142c308f832f839b130857e
describe
'175063' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESB' 'sip-files00195.jpg'
837c5c68715ef636745f69038ce5c77e
2b12f9b34ae6997829c5cd880ecee6adff93bb2c
describe
'35865' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESC' 'sip-files00195.pro'
e464f9449ce1939d6963bcdd21c76cc9
936831dbc891bc45d7cb335b6faf3958d866c630
describe
'69368' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESD' 'sip-files00195.QC.jpg'
d40cc98e3496d49b91bb68a3e9ae4ead
a1afe735738fc121ff0d2e5ab9a1227ca69cb352
describe
'2708740' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESE' 'sip-files00195.tif'
9a0ea3b2eb844c06b6e945b630f99b4d
a007ad2592270ad0b8e921a73e1f276ebc5cb2d2
describe
'1422' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESF' 'sip-files00195.txt'
b0bcc57fb89acaad5832521050860cbe
5503f45924f814e866fa7de299b6ce5bca7c2c06
describe
'32825' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESG' 'sip-files00195thm.jpg'
adbb0b95b96a142ceacc15c38cb9b59e
0986ddfb3831da7766624b5684ca922f95a376da
describe
'335600' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESH' 'sip-files00196.jp2'
02fa2a1b8c6aadeb219993073f1b499c
8cecef1da38c05217531e19df4d529447a37f9fd
describe
'162790' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESI' 'sip-files00196.jpg'
5793e74b3395ae21321acb78605944c5
faeced26e8faa6284265a80252e423af1b2b664c
describe
'24208' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESJ' 'sip-files00196.pro'
cf70c68a3a47ae355cff52064697718f
c75d3bbb5c7412c83ad29c32825321a8e26ccb87
describe
'60725' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESK' 'sip-files00196.QC.jpg'
4b0815a054d2e3891eccfb8313b008ad
6c3a25a0a91a98101d1b0fce139da76a1bf285db
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESL' 'sip-files00196.tif'
931dbfe179280d6043b1f4db3ab245bd
5796900c5ffa7361bc4b40fb83ec6eb442bbf4db
describe
'1223' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESM' 'sip-files00196.txt'
c81a1868ca3bce17ccdccf368c379a9b
107647c9d43b759fa3e176b96d42e909facad6fa
describe
'30971' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESN' 'sip-files00196thm.jpg'
c97ef28ef3f4bfd13061d366a624efc0
95386a80b5334115ca93158a028681611c133789
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESO' 'sip-files00197.jp2'
82caae422eea923293ea3c9177efa390
3f7b45bded0398075ff35fc3d3bd7f976eec5184
describe
'191771' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESP' 'sip-files00197.jpg'
9baffd9ad5de3b9056055e117e0be84a
5f3014f44cc544106761430a2400bc40f413986c
describe
'41379' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESQ' 'sip-files00197.pro'
5c4fe58e0e257b9c102f1588ef31f619
3036f3f045d751af0aaec8a79221071a2a886296
describe
'74030' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESR' 'sip-files00197.QC.jpg'
e8383d8413b538ea7a2ccdaca41b701b
f565330f00ec00a3329b288d957ef5fbf2f96f0e
describe
'2709064' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESS' 'sip-files00197.tif'
393170545c583585f82a60af7f05ef25
c0649f869bd048a4057034146f0c8f6aad66c7c6
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEST' 'sip-files00197.txt'
6ab8c5d6b7b14ed8f6b2263a1a9113c1
b3088439efeaa36b4e87acd6fc57264cda417f17
'2011-12-14T03:15:50-05:00'
describe
'33987' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESU' 'sip-files00197thm.jpg'
da54aa4161ae4bb83aa9049757bb1d24
95ce012f4d1328d5baae6943da447ae2962c7914
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESV' 'sip-files00198.jp2'
c5cebd2725f6f298e7df3f78aa0ad5db
1f7f7f661882d61b4474d848d491b6f5ef1e6472
describe
'207555' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESW' 'sip-files00198.jpg'
a6f7a572b628385c01e659a433af239b
82fd9111d72c7325982dd3e8e5cdabbc9edcda14
describe
'43683' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESX' 'sip-files00198.pro'
dd6a3b650f191f244aaaa1467ddedfb5
0b7aabc1b3645577220d1653b0ab190a57aaca78
describe
'78999' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESY' 'sip-files00198.QC.jpg'
609e637e38d61db30c157e50ebb00069
657302dcfb6a4bc3f89bfcd8be31d73f6659d722
describe
'2709196' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAESZ' 'sip-files00198.tif'
28d16b2d6948375cd0d05256b1b06b87
6a0475fd6ecdb60b9d0fd20d8ecfef977e380496
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETA' 'sip-files00198.txt'
3f40b38b6467016497525bd73c8b6763
8528149d0cbe775244981aefcdefd42e7aa72a5a
describe
'35215' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETB' 'sip-files00198thm.jpg'
e8d9664a7fcc22a4533b859233807415
eb1083164b6b386da8cd4177c75d05bead0c55bb
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETC' 'sip-files00199.jp2'
e30f0e862ded805a2e609429dcce7df7
fe1650d549ea9ae0e0db77e9d31c056355ff0ec3
describe
'181539' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETD' 'sip-files00199.jpg'
42ba6d95a5e7913ae08173d11399c35e
0a90d5fd8ff022b69286fb109c612edd847acfbf
describe
'23016' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETE' 'sip-files00199.pro'
067430ba18a41e06cec1f7478209042e
fb85f66d5971dc5d12b803e90964343b4f5c64b8
describe
'67443' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETF' 'sip-files00199.QC.jpg'
1bc71b3ca11147749370533959f84bd4
de39fc9601170cab0c10e99972eafcfdf3906e4b
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETG' 'sip-files00199.tif'
436d78b76d597bcf3845911923f799d9
ab71261a6dfa640b8862b22df7dd9a51956157f7
describe
'1036' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETH' 'sip-files00199.txt'
1eceb91aa5e2d351577b803592398e9a
2a3d9d409e73e75ea674ec251a37e5199d22803a
describe
'33318' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETI' 'sip-files00199thm.jpg'
311dff1824bdcdc29311cabf6a2d12ae
9ea90192a837078e6e70912390948c52e2c558d4
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETJ' 'sip-files00200.jp2'
9c235c16bfab956945c8c3649bbe78f0
3f68da0dd57382c0752b23c4df32d4c306a73a5d
describe
'188848' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETK' 'sip-files00200.jpg'
ab183947084ce8778936c0d893c91878
9d9d9f873a2ac2020bd76f644e3d1c39968920b5
describe
'36938' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETL' 'sip-files00200.pro'
5e54ccba577bcd994f90ca4150897255
b4a6f86cfe21d057725c99854b7093b74cc01b64
describe
'72302' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETM' 'sip-files00200.QC.jpg'
60f018272f7d9ebe4b9ce4975c81e3b6
8ac3f1ca2d257e79123dc5b094236bbc1750b56f
describe
'2709068' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETN' 'sip-files00200.tif'
db56f13d0d12a51ff319d702ba14274f
b557b2f69941749e6fd3dfc7c24d449261a336e7
describe
'1829' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETO' 'sip-files00200.txt'
6001907abaa120a9754d017303e1c477
32e2bedf562050441b4cf36960d704678fc34484
describe
'34282' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETP' 'sip-files00200thm.jpg'
52c7a9943a55b702f1415ff8998399f6
bc1371a14e4ff958a98c05156182a847c50d0439
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETQ' 'sip-files00201.jp2'
09317090aef76b21c07272f89e00910b
cd5336699ddd02fbb1ce2392ba63078d666705e7
describe
'185108' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETR' 'sip-files00201.jpg'
510a33e3f992263f10d01b2a60f64f3f
b02749e9d7049cd04c73d0f941b3a2981a8d868f
describe
'32050' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETS' 'sip-files00201.pro'
f4f1d9b1f30f0c172183a47f9a47d9a4
31ffe195cd568905e1005724905384c698327d91
describe
'72023' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETT' 'sip-files00201.QC.jpg'
54bad6d4659849723c45a85bc31cb90e
1b923c502e510086e527038ed79b44badfdf5201
describe
'2709348' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETU' 'sip-files00201.tif'
796379a5a22f0b93020dfce879daa90c
cb560d1ef90fe2ce00101653cbb33da5a96f7ed3
describe
'1358' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETV' 'sip-files00201.txt'
84b82898c3b9050232dacd685498d902
15e39f505c51c03834e98f9666e45f8a8331acd2
describe
'34636' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETW' 'sip-files00201thm.jpg'
ec762f24661e137e0cfc7e8520b6a19b
3c193302f6a7c2b05e846a4fe91e0818e07466cb
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETX' 'sip-files00202.jp2'
ba7385d82daebab99c945d2f0ac9e580
38f3763f66a205953b6b09f78f068addc9c289c7
describe
'197816' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETY' 'sip-files00202.jpg'
f4f36c8942f9d9fa3740b785dcee065d
bd97ccccba781315d62df97ed4d248990e71fd2e
describe
'41168' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAETZ' 'sip-files00202.pro'
00d073910ae961ef39a4f1608ef08f8b
2b3e25960dbd72c8addee3330b6adad62fcaf716
describe
'77157' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUA' 'sip-files00202.QC.jpg'
a5d85c849c4d4e303cdee37ad6a301e0
defb550fdd2d78c38b8f09016a81c88c2567cb87
describe
'2709368' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUB' 'sip-files00202.tif'
ea6fd7b44cdaf58758f34478296dc5dc
82b354712cfb6f59402683ca60abe4135bceabe2
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUC' 'sip-files00202.txt'
1114daab2926aaaccd3ea6698fad3eae
cee301931f121eea1b8de9a4739b80036d2c29fb
describe
'35262' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUD' 'sip-files00202thm.jpg'
c8cf8070f2cca8e117552c52eaa19036
eba4ca065507fc29d439baf27638547c3d715e93
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUE' 'sip-files00203.jp2'
5f16c428623c44883f1ba46621294fae
10a13a8c068ef96a3bacc9c4223af695a2f9967f
describe
'197466' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUF' 'sip-files00203.jpg'
ec5bd5e82d39adf12ad0ac10cfb6fd41
5bd2ac0d13ced3141aa876027c181f63040cd3ac
describe
'29403' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUG' 'sip-files00203.pro'
354ae8a7b937712dcf55468b82d94ebe
ba076ed7aef52c87588918f26bea698f0417769b
describe
'73944' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUH' 'sip-files00203.QC.jpg'
88a212768e0c77127bf2baf449ad2052
98afe1dc1b267e95de11249ead843d3a9f9470e5
describe
'2709420' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUI' 'sip-files00203.tif'
3d69b03028e8e24be6500f28ab71ffb1
7ae3ca4c8e16ecfa55f3fdadc03155f9ab0c895d
describe
'1242' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUJ' 'sip-files00203.txt'
924703f7c019031de0ef79c1d3677e30
af48ca1fe328b57856614e8d03dd9c87c7ffa050
describe
'34818' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUK' 'sip-files00203thm.jpg'
f62cc7a61027e7d404f27986d1fc0b5c
391722145df6d2c1f7f32d8a68a528ffce0f3d52
describe
'335864' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUL' 'sip-files00204.jp2'
0a9a689e448a1e0291cf1af5b773b303
ef303d74a25e1bfa259a3c137140d4a406497746
describe
'194052' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUM' 'sip-files00204.jpg'
d913e223c63a8e7d46d0f4e8725646e1
7ff25304bcdc2a61acdf4af172d8be5442fbb025
describe
'37872' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUN' 'sip-files00204.pro'
1a1193ef91e2e4efcda478b1ec52dcd9
a3a4ea26fe581b5bf001a298f2a71face11ce0af
describe
'74929' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUO' 'sip-files00204.QC.jpg'
93cf5f56351650c8766eb616d1061f8f
f59e4f62adf57f7ad6313edb506baae8e08fdab0
describe
'2709144' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUP' 'sip-files00204.tif'
12b24112634c9bc20ce30c56c5ae57c5
c3938ddff51845a4e6b04d22364e3c256916ff1c
describe
'1783' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUQ' 'sip-files00204.txt'
c89c3401247d98b07ae1eeadf83f9747
3a122f95c5afb78828684368f702977bd8d935fa
describe
'34664' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUR' 'sip-files00204thm.jpg'
318a0a047ce02a47c34b6ac8df7a9ed1
486414b534530c6018faf938000529f0acd9e454
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUS' 'sip-files00205.jp2'
69082c72a5b621766e7ecea5a617677a
255c39643ae661f7c57f2cf71367ac7114de2881
describe
'194531' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUT' 'sip-files00205.jpg'
253e996c028c85d4c2e5698eb811268d
bd3579498c6086df7bd7f769679feedacb5facd1
describe
'41634' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUU' 'sip-files00205.pro'
d11d10321130823eba22688af190d7bf
8491d01f30967990329954e7abd65a906becd47c
describe
'77025' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUV' 'sip-files00205.QC.jpg'
5484f0ab0d0c6005922dcc6f97561aff
07d28302b6ca38f3cd19b70610215ed3edb7443b
describe
'2709292' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUW' 'sip-files00205.tif'
f69b79d4d5df02cb89289d7d7a85ce5a
2b49166607fccba3198084c37c6dd2a1e9652e03
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUX' 'sip-files00205.txt'
46a31d8635c41150a2e3ea7b346a8493
9ff131c7ec1e7ce1ac4aa821fcb68ce477c52d05
describe
'35378' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUY' 'sip-files00205thm.jpg'
93b09ceb7e08992b9dc67cc100c38271
d001fab7af91fad62a07662690739afa1e0445c1
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEUZ' 'sip-files00206.jp2'
56e90286607a77565551b1f09e2c7fed
01507b7d231ebf3499ff0e506e8aaa90e04ff7a2
describe
'185540' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVA' 'sip-files00206.jpg'
c5f6a03965a5570b1b63ec8a7d6c93df
36cbeff9fe2128ebe687d8966a03e55a1894bb32
describe
'35172' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVB' 'sip-files00206.pro'
c95e4522b535a04f4526a2f40dd55d6d
91b0092810e12b44285a39cb217ed66f0c4b28ed
describe
'72862' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVC' 'sip-files00206.QC.jpg'
289c62fcf691f6af60f67b965fb65439
1d93258e749e262bf66f0fab648e1e167e610d48
'2011-12-14T03:20:56-05:00'
describe
'2709252' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVD' 'sip-files00206.tif'
2f9a0abf5b967296b9a3811ab93e4081
f3a58284fcae5bdc4034da436a2cad6267ee9f1e
describe
'1819' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVE' 'sip-files00206.txt'
95d95ffe705d6643f3a118997e8dfe6b
091bca524f73781536a0b3f2d2994e865b7bf758
describe
'34800' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVF' 'sip-files00206thm.jpg'
18c6d0f7264863e6fbd6100b0fcc6773
ee203164d0a6e42b82d434e630c733c0e005943f
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVG' 'sip-files00207.jp2'
1c73dd83d42f3fcd8346e0d3f7bed818
d40a5a4203119a7d1ca66306b78ca79963394fd0
describe
'194927' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVH' 'sip-files00207.jpg'
c5d41e5631018ce4cdfd0de5d8697910
6910177498c95f3688a0f7cf45bbc1ae97039a93
describe
'41761' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVI' 'sip-files00207.pro'
9825e8c6c3c01dbf8b7611de68b75770
6f2d6be61be22768042cf21458c9f9bda3ea4fb7
describe
'77431' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVJ' 'sip-files00207.QC.jpg'
587550d76f529627151ed6f7bbe2ddb1
8050b7b147611e3d79ff533af2fa6397f9206c87
describe
'2709284' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVK' 'sip-files00207.tif'
df995774ff97b79d68d1f56a4153cd36
94df1af5cad378b38a399edf9a01e477ea94447c
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVL' 'sip-files00207.txt'
dfc61df0bd68b629800d5149e3575100
3c7f1776a777dc7736a8b374e0ea50ed75105820
describe
'35087' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVM' 'sip-files00207thm.jpg'
7b642f32d3010805a81acf461c27a34c
d8535219e00473f2a4ef62d8d3b7734bf4478710
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVN' 'sip-files00208.jp2'
fa2f553dd8c5b853180b1cdc9eacf8b6
e579adb4086d952cfd992fadd24aefa8085986e7
describe
'179493' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVO' 'sip-files00208.jpg'
c7921be47c571308dbd235bb527e7364
9d07054670bae0047995c07b181e57bc1a405428
describe
'31937' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVP' 'sip-files00208.pro'
919609f55eaf2e979655041926cfeedc
c4dd95758fe81ba4c48a64a96389a2599e511b95
describe
'69609' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVQ' 'sip-files00208.QC.jpg'
d3af29d533eb77ada3fd4036aaf2c2e4
daa362b73bce91dbeacd52827a4c7f9523ad5bca
describe
'2708944' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVR' 'sip-files00208.tif'
1e7d84f4bcb22a81701b761287a3f568
f94eff3aabb926df0038082e5f1eaaa580c4b42e
describe
'1818' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVS' 'sip-files00208.txt'
23433f7fc5d42c8e8e1369796524da15
2a5b77850d281e21830bac9dc78ebb148fb3fe1c
describe
'33627' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVT' 'sip-files00208thm.jpg'
f7072648d28b6e28ac64eebe9fd77f92
2bfe5f2a2621738a6479011b573c898f3065ac65
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVU' 'sip-files00209.jp2'
360929d65b80cae6cc9217d4b68890e7
abd0fefa38230b17675a964fb85f26df70f9e2b9
describe
'185940' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVV' 'sip-files00209.jpg'
67ca558adbc79e3dc7628adb49fa9073
f876b0ee8fdb4779bdbd74a0d18de182f98274cf
describe
'39910' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVW' 'sip-files00209.pro'
f535c542581050e8824c70ed9e8eb71f
eb1e40dd502b1cf05aa6356886458457249c8009
describe
'73886' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVX' 'sip-files00209.QC.jpg'
300633fd57dcd78a8a95823efac8971d
2057ea1da5650146084d314aeaa104da2d49dbb8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVY' 'sip-files00209.tif'
fb630e013c8e889312d6a52555931b35
dc3532e5ce56c6df402e6f96f977b883615678a8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEVZ' 'sip-files00209.txt'
02457bf689c13977fa20a1f169a6fc35
754dea5959858d97816dd39b35841d37f9960cd0
describe
'34842' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWA' 'sip-files00209thm.jpg'
e36c6ac6fba8685b7ef843411ecf59ea
0bf5e8aecdf0cbe41a3cb80787341fa5cfba028a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWB' 'sip-files00210.jp2'
f20338f35df1529e6d87d3c9edacf0a1
a727b51219ef5e0ac0f79aa6eb4368958a6ad1f8
describe
'192570' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWC' 'sip-files00210.jpg'
d4bd9fb99f96dd6b0ba399e403b5aaa6
e8b0d4888a9257356dded7c9169f9ec4552474db
describe
'40244' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWD' 'sip-files00210.pro'
6ab85a669fa95c6b9ee7361d1fe5dfae
147979e3ed38d8c7abaf59ddf42a0cca52b8a974
describe
'75002' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWE' 'sip-files00210.QC.jpg'
2496c1544b9938eebe8422407bd2376b
e6656fc2f1afdebf044b2cdfba6629683da6712c
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWF' 'sip-files00210.tif'
1601c7d15d8b98ee4abeddf82c858671
83418b50dd0f1d11bea6441c07f62d264cad673e
describe
'1597' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWG' 'sip-files00210.txt'
a685d7e295fcd14b5e857fc56bdf81bf
4496e3dbf99cdb35d9d1f35a4b3f7c7e6eff4bd9
describe
'34642' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWH' 'sip-files00210thm.jpg'
6bbbff2bc8eeff4d49e8ec64276ed13d
74f045083797502f0ea6216e4d55e96d38b41138
describe
'335831' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWI' 'sip-files00211.jp2'
7f8d35700755dfb41d570676d95b5e54
bce6ad7dd621686f28a692f3596d4a6ed2901b93
describe
'175779' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWJ' 'sip-files00211.jpg'
d35c162acafba75313b1aa99d7d0c550
7c4b52d6a3cacaaa1676582cde4c56a2575f568f
describe
'30211' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWK' 'sip-files00211.pro'
a79dca4d2896529399f715e62f33bdf1
ec0bdb36be7a103af2cd8d1c8d3f6ddb752c826f
describe
'67107' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWL' 'sip-files00211.QC.jpg'
54e79ab2e0949d943301af782a9706b3
2906feb846ca1ca2306734d52ee45dae1b903d6c
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWM' 'sip-files00211.tif'
311c78c0c1e6d308cafca21b58bda154
4dfceb947edac5ff6ff51563cfbddfdcc0937729
describe
'1299' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWN' 'sip-files00211.txt'
55bf3eb0046d447b5a0bc18ded40ede4
27525513df640109eac61e876170d72d5c872ecb
describe
'33150' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWO' 'sip-files00211thm.jpg'
9dfee7f8b30b9b73cd9792b528730ae8
9090a4567a874d3584bd18c1781582d8fc32bd81
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWP' 'sip-files00212.jp2'
6be1f4212a6a53d77595949256bedda8
baf38b333bb85889838fb4e7f38251f246400038
describe
'195537' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWQ' 'sip-files00212.jpg'
f7ea4e335a4878903b4351da3ed5c5fd
177eb2fc1ff3ec8da96d4c12a2c8fceb83a23df0
describe
'42545' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWR' 'sip-files00212.pro'
3f685c3cd6953b1c4df74d7dfcbb5ff4
6c83ecafdcb5583e69694803c755456de5eff149
describe
'75741' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWS' 'sip-files00212.QC.jpg'
ed06975a67bbf77c8912688d6ee32773
48b9a30bd82f718e0259b1a7a2e8e8dbec3c0c55
describe
'2709264' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWT' 'sip-files00212.tif'
8f9325d64f85aaedc1f12e5e55383ab1
620004b0f4011e46ae5475ca13539412448fb770
describe
'1695' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWU' 'sip-files00212.txt'
dc5b9a4f48871afac8beff1669099038
4b9eadcd2bbc57112c4790f11d874e98de09874e
describe
'35130' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWV' 'sip-files00212thm.jpg'
2cf19145b65a1cbc620bd358da698dee
4cd4ee1a6853d18df6b344e891c36102bc3f90e0
describe
'335883' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWW' 'sip-files00213.jp2'
389aae4d457212a1774e4bc2eaccc444
d70878eff234cf630d04b78438983e3f259922e1
describe
'198554' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWX' 'sip-files00213.jpg'
f3dd5b59e24dc480c6a37073a87169f5
c8eb9ccca36c0c187d423b299af4d3b076cc270c
describe
'43816' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWY' 'sip-files00213.pro'
fe16a4b11100caf75110d4cac88d0cb9
f3440f49edda70783a469dbf550a5209007121d5
describe
'78001' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEWZ' 'sip-files00213.QC.jpg'
64267c9e0ac9675567b312b9b4b0b5b3
548ea4c993ab305f1639a677107fc22e0deeea90
describe
'2709276' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXA' 'sip-files00213.tif'
8725d2f14d5d4c2d24bbb8bbe4539fa9
be3e1d2162dca42d4a9e01de72919f04b8df21d2
'2011-12-14T03:20:52-05:00'
describe
'1749' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXB' 'sip-files00213.txt'
1229435de105603de1e99c29f6d98b1b
735bef487f675c7dac57abcb6bceff15c8d21918
describe
'35218' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXC' 'sip-files00213thm.jpg'
ca7bbb5003f2c4092d4906f4514f1275
b5c204621cfb80e07ff20fc46038aa43fb1a7026
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXD' 'sip-files00214.jp2'
e157f1adff32eb6abd323ebe2b3bf33a
d69e594d2fe46e7d79064b6526141a83c653c50a
describe
'196146' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXE' 'sip-files00214.jpg'
63674e52f7f1ed290d801678328c3263
f0099b85567782734a4744a31c4e39e02f652978
describe
'42491' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXF' 'sip-files00214.pro'
267a12b49a6bb23306a8cd81c5990e3f
2b27a0c986cb8e3847f3c9d972b8393986e394e5
describe
'76153' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXG' 'sip-files00214.QC.jpg'
c6f306a8a4690d546af874e79d87cc39
5a4ae7f6c1a8f38892094ac676242bc58ad039b0
describe
'2709376' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXH' 'sip-files00214.tif'
1b1c9bed7f35a6cf6ce71a719c159819
fd1d4e371cc54955ed5a766a03ed828958fcfcae
describe
'1696' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXI' 'sip-files00214.txt'
c8f11f17a88e11b4d006d20f8b27038a
5c1283c1774220dc607bf988c533338e1623062f
describe
'35309' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXJ' 'sip-files00214thm.jpg'
528885e5fd388aafddcd8de8ab5a7b91
87f7ba6a661badb1da76f35b2b8d81d7f064a43c
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXK' 'sip-files00215.jp2'
cbd7f37ca12f56d36f53b94c1e1b91dc
17296863f76a461e12aaeb16d6eff20af28098a9
describe
'190941' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXL' 'sip-files00215.jpg'
8114610430529542c0fea549d14c3e3c
2e82d4e2bd73ab349fb8f95790c6c5cf4e454c2f
describe
'36203' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXM' 'sip-files00215.pro'
3d9cdc98739877b073e88eb375f24b24
4bd1ff9d16070cba7d51a84370142d0a19ff9885
describe
'74043' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXN' 'sip-files00215.QC.jpg'
7ee8952a48912ee6caf015700020699e
2ea38fe7a1a4ad12792c56c8c79aa6e82495bed2
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXO' 'sip-files00215.tif'
fa1c5d084107fd3bbfed70ce2cce429b
1bd25bde6ea3857a713caf567660431f40c4bfa3
describe
'1525' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXP' 'sip-files00215.txt'
5c44e1e784cc2f97cf828ced1c714e81
1b5b267d2d74402db7878234cf5ed47418401100
describe
'34944' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXQ' 'sip-files00215thm.jpg'
7bcf65ee7c4b8e189f02f9cfcffe8195
5e6c63d2080b055f6aad3fef46e233dcd59ec25e
describe
'335884' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXR' 'sip-files00216.jp2'
de9e6733fe61727c74678951e76da8cf
b1e35fe86df5dc66799b71528e58e436a26fcdc1
describe
'186612' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXS' 'sip-files00216.jpg'
7ffa9b6697a4fee88d1d7c80af755bd9
7b97e7bdcc9dff85bd68291ab0820dc34c140429
describe
'37323' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXT' 'sip-files00216.pro'
c2e4055c4d684d8d85c7e6cb736e9078
ef542a2398937a18d1d8b44afed4664de645c3c7
describe
'71858' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXU' 'sip-files00216.QC.jpg'
b05097691b896d6b3735680b00e856ef
03aabd072a8e9e0301f8d5ea95a8353795f4d32d
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXV' 'sip-files00216.tif'
85270578023cf11b2b47b89c619be09a
83f094df254f590d9e20dfe7438af1b48113665d
describe
'1876' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXW' 'sip-files00216.txt'
7c83c1af7b14d242db72b18ea078571d
d0eac56da5dba4105a9728590f8e07bd973654f4
describe
'34298' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXX' 'sip-files00216thm.jpg'
9f2c652e1e31bfc6512cdc69dab86dae
e463c8f6296adca5f6886fa6ca8c126c72e28d63
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXY' 'sip-files00217.jp2'
b7d6e75254202eae1fd034b7f391416d
80ea7969782809e44588f026eadec91c7807455e
describe
'201459' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEXZ' 'sip-files00217.jpg'
b9c4cc0710cefd7fb7482c4ad7a31b1e
c86879b8e4176674fef845e937e44e45b64b9010
describe
'43488' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYA' 'sip-files00217.pro'
b9b3f7945b46e51d91e63ec5713eba71
2e66e7fff7e4ad1d77fe70985a5e8e9237b104f5
describe
'78284' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYB' 'sip-files00217.QC.jpg'
808d3742b71f52b449e3d78a4a1b2a91
ea138ae7ac1f0c25a77fc89f0b29953a560a3e7e
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYC' 'sip-files00217.tif'
fd568c4abfbddf0fe38a783851d3f570
acd878de17877d35111ca2a3d53d285c22c7f879
describe
'1767' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYD' 'sip-files00217.txt'
0a4ae8bc5fa99dcc790faba413817d90
6916f02e66ef2764b5fcffda332ff2c303df8e55
describe
'35338' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYE' 'sip-files00217thm.jpg'
7fb7f2583dc00c06eaf86baf82124db1
fd1a4734aff42d8b6cc9213c1cf5bb015f884633
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYF' 'sip-files00218.jp2'
9113f3997ff11fd23f6754863f3468b2
6fd36c296f681cff02efb5c727f3c37e5d9207a8
describe
'182750' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYG' 'sip-files00218.jpg'
ab9cef7b6c7ead15092fd86df92042c6
6c7466d6ee739626e9c6a43f73ddaa0d775a7ccb
describe
'35273' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYH' 'sip-files00218.pro'
13d427a27950caff121389d202016799
87cb793e562a875dfa07130537a14f837277929b
describe
'70885' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYI' 'sip-files00218.QC.jpg'
5c42be07f8b7a973f22d196b76d4fe12
9067f3046b86111c52e2f95ae036f5de120af6cd
describe
'2708684' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYJ' 'sip-files00218.tif'
fa0c4a6fefbead71b820e938c5bae599
186259b64be7217f8fadc2d3f3ca87c13c6ca99f
describe
'1390' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYK' 'sip-files00218.txt'
1be1afc5d7da079bc68ae96dd3c7fe6d
0c6944f469ebdfeae7508031dff80cc3a5e38951
describe
'33278' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYL' 'sip-files00218thm.jpg'
24b809190d07c7b923da0bf10b3a29fe
16d8b7b2eeb4340c3862825365f4038336f322f2
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYM' 'sip-files00219.jp2'
d41c5b8f1e5ccfab14aa321b54899209
5cdd505b3e314c35d3e29ba4db9635a9f0666daf
describe
'148170' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYN' 'sip-files00219.jpg'
f3ea76f591aef1779e2bca0e4aaddcc6
3d8023627867d4bae591d898234d12c7ce62ebf1
describe
'20780' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYO' 'sip-files00219.pro'
fd36ab25f2256df1ada1713a45d11c7e
bdf24621ba130d53701b4ef3c4301b5b006fc33d
describe
'57043' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYP' 'sip-files00219.QC.jpg'
496e4ecff54cfa6d1b7939681bc10ec6
0af872e146f62354f95c09ea7cc83d90d6f69328
describe
'2707636' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYQ' 'sip-files00219.tif'
6b984c93b5b5c5ba9b1058e44c970b51
c4c8a94acd294a24b39cbd2898b51e36eaa265c4
describe
'1087' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYR' 'sip-files00219.txt'
7953326545f38d37162068b9b89b5ad4
40392dece82fde5ec1c021e6407fddd01a395a5e
describe
'29783' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYS' 'sip-files00219thm.jpg'
cdcc184a843a089ff6fa81e0f00e6e58
63c715c8d7a457acaadf6d81883a9160be3cbd8b
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYT' 'sip-files00220.jp2'
e9a6a5a5f5f650d60a467fc6aef777c7
c30dd9afdbbd961f79d94d3fc2c1328320e89e99
describe
'200773' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYU' 'sip-files00220.jpg'
15e44f3f97198aa6dccd08c3261f526d
6c443d2d00908c9e39f55e8ecf344419e9d10b24
describe
'40913' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYV' 'sip-files00220.pro'
d43636adb9a537f72c38bd578a63c9db
690ce0b043b8f831a26992e169211829a309b778
describe
'75238' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYW' 'sip-files00220.QC.jpg'
e890cbb8d469ef05396984b65e473503
22c0060fbcc1540a76dab8541aad927257fdd650
describe
'2708752' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYX' 'sip-files00220.tif'
379912ab21865881492701f605d817f9
11cbe669d539034d9b10abac9cb74d77f69b4a77
describe
'1686' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYY' 'sip-files00220.txt'
7dccf91ac65de0f58ba7c11d1bcdb722
1af95a0b15476591c24ca9993058a0f547c2de64
describe
'33982' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEYZ' 'sip-files00220thm.jpg'
8723688983140728814bfce1cceae7f8
39c62838e2ac825d7184f2ca7a4432c6e1e2c118
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZA' 'sip-files00221.jp2'
e67dbdf51e238e35df42645ee22c176d
b61eb87b43187c950f64741d0cdf5c26ea53b7d6
describe
'189608' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZB' 'sip-files00221.jpg'
ef5c51b17e4283d516b190d3dc7b7c83
e8eed050f301534254167da58696e2b5a88297ae
describe
'41959' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZC' 'sip-files00221.pro'
dde521479615f5f6ffde914992ef9fde
135f27b5b0b1a601d0a34a1ef6bbfd4027c4c978
describe
'74045' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZD' 'sip-files00221.QC.jpg'
112243b3e55dc9a59d650a8435afc282
bd3d80c0beb2742871d4cafdd92833cc4bb8efa3
describe
'2708760' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZE' 'sip-files00221.tif'
97c20fd5c4349480c92c6784d0dbd02e
d4b2397f3eb672b3fe7ddc17600c73f3cdf360e1
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZF' 'sip-files00221.txt'
48a43e0797329dab6e98d4c4dcc7e8f2
ee5a03cd441973e35c69de8d1e2b5b94adebc7d2
describe
'33631' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZG' 'sip-files00221thm.jpg'
986bd2754678850f806771f140788ec7
8d9bba6811ff2a72adca5dfd624f6e78c37d379d
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZH' 'sip-files00222.jp2'
b5faa2cfbc756ddc0fcf4b78c36b889c
be16dab9610c0decc77f355235eba5e6ef1c71a6
describe
'195950' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZI' 'sip-files00222.jpg'
0cdbb633bdc47d882dba20d0d3c04e3f
08de8dbdd78e748d7a4d5327bafcdc30e6b8dbff
describe
'42105' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZJ' 'sip-files00222.pro'
5e565bea6a931aa7111a7417b7237e71
dc75d7bd7ba391e647114f5f572f968b7af2e09b
describe
'75343' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZK' 'sip-files00222.QC.jpg'
428796f93ee1d5162a2d6cff7c09723d
7b79a84aa110abc871eae936ac314db842f7ebc2
describe
'2708928' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZL' 'sip-files00222.tif'
edef25afd86819233b6d26896b6b9c0a
ee0e2d306e9f5070627ebcc2e7b33ec454411311
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZM' 'sip-files00222.txt'
e4f8d881c557d35b4079be3ac13a62a9
bf7123dad8f96735b217689c2ba03791b9315507
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZN' 'sip-files00222thm.jpg'
849df419fd8de61088083b41906813d5
8b85f4b0b8fb21878e3c9cf6725faef50530b6ca
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZO' 'sip-files00223.jp2'
fb2f06c2cf3b7c75056dc92a00f1f13a
d5a9fc59db9531c8cd71291292d42bc56156159e
describe
'201833' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZP' 'sip-files00223.jpg'
aaeb69df544a5847740e09e1ffc54c61
6ad83798857688008285817e52045126939ac900
describe
'40847' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZQ' 'sip-files00223.pro'
b7054bb625971615a52121e4aeac406a
0423c8b0b0cc310703304c5a6596345ef162e664
describe
'77166' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZR' 'sip-files00223.QC.jpg'
9c8b3abd709601cac71e6cbce485b48f
5673258094e43167ff7a990da346462011c5cad2
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZS' 'sip-files00223.tif'
65d36ff5095707a40bdf5aa12acef230
816b96b1c0f2792b785259235334751f89c97ea3
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZT' 'sip-files00223.txt'
18e21bce57594fa1f837a93dd3cc9de4
6c97e781502c2b5de300ebf2ba95eea28f7946e5
describe
'34527' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZU' 'sip-files00223thm.jpg'
e5ff2470fc463dca34cf2340c403deb5
29c3a4bf7ba739d9b97fe66fa55ad8d1b14a02aa
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZV' 'sip-files00224.jp2'
933b497506dbd33014b336b2a2839486
8d13793ec37176548cdf1209fae18b97b25c3f16
describe
'174362' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZW' 'sip-files00224.jpg'
c179642ca3cc8f3a02d7fb100fd2d912
c52d0bf80b876b385d62724b1fc6534ca540a5fd
describe
'36327' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZX' 'sip-files00224.pro'
d4661c08c23865957d46d1f19157e9a2
64389ee3e646cf4e226407fc2d1e89a4495919d2
describe
'66476' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZY' 'sip-files00224.QC.jpg'
02ce540d43083c8bc75e5208de556f7f
f0b74d27ae32df2ef52f53848cc02d96a2c16263
describe
'2708320' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAEZZ' 'sip-files00224.tif'
864ed158f9f7959c07284fb70bc668c6
6b7a51bbbdf9e59c3e6c9f22cb030afded45d8cd
describe
'1568' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAA' 'sip-files00224.txt'
681872210268a70c2c09c12d8c6bc62e
e681bbcaeb02d928d34d39bd82386dab3211b01e
describe
'32290' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAB' 'sip-files00224thm.jpg'
24b56cc6eff18d66e0875495e8603265
a6800662bc10a596780452d52da5c1bc8e993634
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAC' 'sip-files00225.jp2'
adeaaeb4efd09f985419b5be073e853f
e5201d7d54fefb9724322493d685e507efe78403
describe
'173652' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAD' 'sip-files00225.jpg'
92ba9264c6a20ad7023312a238c70ec9
1837fb0a8ce5c67359be18e4209e3e470e0c2199
describe
'24255' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAE' 'sip-files00225.pro'
a7a5841ce1df835c1681a3df8d4270d4
69401ee6dc78af64343b38ff27eb4a63e22b3ed3
describe
'64420' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAF' 'sip-files00225.QC.jpg'
ef1fb26da5fd03569120818e83a8bda5
57f851e99bebf5fd13d31bae14f978aaa0149fef
describe
'2708448' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAG' 'sip-files00225.tif'
e267b3f5857651a01d0bcef03a9e08f4
4ba7662d282022000cb4b5bded810c9660f6b6cc
describe
'1039' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAH' 'sip-files00225.txt'
a8a980c90fb76a563c48eba420236eb0
2d75845b9d669c6a08269763b6452ce28addbdd7
describe
'32071' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAI' 'sip-files00225thm.jpg'
3d78fb927a9872a537cbdecaacbeaea4
9cd8e1df2659a8b58d5066fc71bf84e539b0ff03
describe
'335806' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAJ' 'sip-files00226.jp2'
54a46644dfef5da6f935d635bd487e43
fe75728b0d14918f58a6c677b9ade1e61c890d8f
describe
'176100' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAK' 'sip-files00226.jpg'
bb4e6d2d57c66cf2208f18cec4db3301
dc98be4bc2bd8a182bacc70e7898d470771d9a23
describe
'25140' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAL' 'sip-files00226.pro'
0ac77ca02c2e9a7b83552753b016fd86
25a680500af5ba3d9c19dfc7309501035748723a
describe
'64370' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAM' 'sip-files00226.QC.jpg'
a40005625c4b1710a3451755a7a0d689
c93a0b351c874f4b9959c1e585b071c22f4b3122
describe
'2708484' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAN' 'sip-files00226.tif'
1bd68f67f59ee3778f4619538eb0d891
f28141e638bea4d0dbb6053a5ffafd07a6d3bb1a
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAO' 'sip-files00226.txt'
06035d13d90ebb9d44663eba8ba2a415
44985ba50c996fc9788392b00b54033c26e9575f
describe
'32316' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAP' 'sip-files00226thm.jpg'
d6ffeb5ef639e1c67359753adc6a1579
f275861200f196c8795ca8291c5e76a3aaa21a20
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAQ' 'sip-files00227.jp2'
c70bf7d0fdf2f2c02e5390f1b1f4b6d5
af1fecbb4f176faae235f9b2e4fec1a45605c263
describe
'188613' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAR' 'sip-files00227.jpg'
c1acc90e58821696350b2423a3f55bf1
ba379ea19e2525b3ede51df7258d54c27c5cfa83
describe
'40132' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAS' 'sip-files00227.pro'
e6ec3cdb3c0d9643c4c52b4a4767c415
f36b7ef0a0a7948651ff94fadad6dcfb4a0a6981
describe
'74046' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAT' 'sip-files00227.QC.jpg'
9e3635008084a1ae6f57b5395e972f02
49744d3ec4f3f067804caa9c0edf142f3b023241
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAU' 'sip-files00227.tif'
131cbc609a4c08a3dd1b670e6406c078
9282de467f5e1dac4b054d6b998c8d121a714d5c
describe
'1612' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAV' 'sip-files00227.txt'
6698a60084de92ea3995bb52896af2ec
bcdcc126efcf848416049d64ed60fc0c39898a8b
describe
'33813' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAW' 'sip-files00227thm.jpg'
d972dfc3ec57acafcefcddd9cc7c14fa
1c536858cf682afd25c778413bd98402b197033e
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAX' 'sip-files00228.jp2'
93930c000438572dc727abdbff5713ee
ce4bc1bb828484b289dd1fcd40af6e1836bd3377
describe
'193579' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAY' 'sip-files00228.jpg'
22ca4de69ae72b07c8fbfb45f97588e3
b8357841cbdc953e864772327d2ba324de6e1c3f
describe
'41783' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFAZ' 'sip-files00228.pro'
5502a759884406a37b41f5cbd1286e6e
66a3b157a0ed57093e738d906887b09e415dbd1c
describe
'74478' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBA' 'sip-files00228.QC.jpg'
53ea5cc209791b1872686ac54f90e4ed
bb52f90973df1fceaa43b4921116a95538b21d24
describe
'2708972' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBB' 'sip-files00228.tif'
3c92243ef8e0867c72bfad958ff55f70
44f94fbb1f924f278973a218bbe309a174d5ceb7
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBC' 'sip-files00228.txt'
b6d330021ce8c278fd20f988f10efd11
9bbf07c84dd70c060c2a6d975c9319b4189277f8
describe
'34122' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBD' 'sip-files00228thm.jpg'
3f87cfdaa7df048c8a6c1e851234752e
4bdc1cebf5b399827ac1b87092984600143b3197
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBE' 'sip-files00229.jp2'
d83222990c64c69ce3407c1ea163b6e9
93c2c6513bd2298c9c2c75056285f8c0dcf902be
describe
'195959' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBF' 'sip-files00229.jpg'
b9c91a972b1f5fad515db242122f26a0
91700ac50d9af712ffe5e0a7d18258eb2dd77290
describe
'41115' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBG' 'sip-files00229.pro'
20a4396b27f4bc38730def87c7651e93
d00ae6f78e796bdef164c8c1f96c150edaa52c6d
describe
'74949' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBH' 'sip-files00229.QC.jpg'
23f98806143c2158ecb1cf26cbefbeb6
2498473a5e8c195a66e67ba5d4e2e7003b3b8e22
describe
'2708808' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBI' 'sip-files00229.tif'
ecda3eeedb863a6b9c468994e6eccd85
ad51530a3c3243874c946f1186376e183c481e18
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBJ' 'sip-files00229.txt'
44cade36f26841cf1ac683cc9123c802
43fd96b2e86afad31f63acabb54d8409453c10cb
describe
'34114' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBK' 'sip-files00229thm.jpg'
ee69bf7ddbb99efc32efc7420d4b3a40
a04a9663af2790e57de1c0072ce5a9f6c3b14e66
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBL' 'sip-files00230.jp2'
c5b054c55122ca23529cebf03121223c
140c6124cad25233d290c31dd2f843c6031054c6
describe
'164719' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBM' 'sip-files00230.jpg'
b5052610f715db9d53950d09421b2bab
96f880951141e95c9bf4c2f6067377c896e7d546
describe
'25808' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBN' 'sip-files00230.pro'
643339a872fd26cb16c715ca873b29a4
d221cc47cf7ddea2e19ad155f6a3567cf6efa27d
describe
'61770' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBO' 'sip-files00230.QC.jpg'
3df84a4ea5864a1344da37ccf0b9b606
54315eb178a1adcea4d7a858c82c261a3645f6b3
describe
'2708332' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBP' 'sip-files00230.tif'
569a390aede945a00e1901bf6f995ff4
e58802fbfad40dc534b7757f908a43178053b2fc
describe
'1095' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBQ' 'sip-files00230.txt'
0be15bc452418d52dd98a119ddcb792c
79e4e7d1df4da8242269e1cb5d0d82af73638d0f
describe
'31457' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBR' 'sip-files00230thm.jpg'
36250959e53af71853163eaddf3befa4
aca8d47265d443ad15c092a47266e338df2cc2e8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBS' 'sip-files00231.jp2'
c03a5d0f75683ed672039709b8205807
57ac545ebc51e751bbc8d6661ba9e7dffc6b8649
describe
'194195' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBT' 'sip-files00231.jpg'
2130e0f177077329751cf0d4da58946d
5e265394d7b6eb5896b4f1209907c182ee98dfb9
describe
'40369' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBU' 'sip-files00231.pro'
f5697083609b6158c8afeb3ed9a406df
6592f87a3844016f52352db084c6d9ecb7c3ec40
describe
'75347' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBV' 'sip-files00231.QC.jpg'
254f15df40d2021a37d397e9f78a4445
1720e28c19e29f32422a399c3285b60dbb7aa671
describe
'2708796' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBW' 'sip-files00231.tif'
ac91610fcfb87a70d2a765f262cf04f2
5e4bdec899e3bc22498ba4145b3d98a7a590f762
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBX' 'sip-files00231.txt'
bcc5c681829294523c70f1e5236d61b0
55c180af39191aa0dac2969393c484008e0da17d
describe
'34335' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBY' 'sip-files00231thm.jpg'
a20ae1f42ef2693b2fa4f527df3f427d
0b275dda7bf5248391e5c9b2f45ea50a30d10503
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFBZ' 'sip-files00232.jp2'
a1452fe44767fa7fd0ea9c08d2d51a1c
cfd50b9cb3e32b3f15440f2bbde7c748efcccb51
describe
'93448' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCA' 'sip-files00232.jpg'
03c0f5fe77a6c84002d538c7cd264cec
d36bbcec9b3c226e01b42b6fe97033556138c967
describe
'11059' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCB' 'sip-files00232.pro'
8035611af0104cdd9e34e9f098456326
2a710f436adbab84bf9f052e66f024dec95e6a4f
describe
'37871' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCC' 'sip-files00232.QC.jpg'
acd902e842f84231151048fe39eab25b
194f04b43fbe1ee7e4d13a664d11c3b5d698f1bf
describe
'2705792' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCD' 'sip-files00232.tif'
8cea130d0dfd2a3914a3ccea6526f90d
a2f2efac7122a22339f15ba10c3c108e60df8827
describe
'445' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCE' 'sip-files00232.txt'
f3d4c35653e7e1a3e81b54669110304f
47b967ec3b4d3f7820d39beb89e05a3953e67d66
describe
'23488' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCF' 'sip-files00232thm.jpg'
1a1ff7815a1415b00b6d802c91ec3a43
7f2c7b2925fe0901aa1e83abbb8a16afa45fe60f
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCG' 'sip-files00233.jp2'
fb47d673aea21efd5e65fbd747cd7853
3c305153ef6a82a81a6e14a8cb17f30333e4b593
describe
'155475' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCH' 'sip-files00233.jpg'
ce8e61ebdd9744c742878c74de23490f
62f49805a4064fdfd18bdc0b01812830039e0e37
describe
'22743' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCI' 'sip-files00233.pro'
da4468578d71aeb24aba04342ae51afd
c4067c6c809a6c0939827f0b06b94bc888268021
describe
'59529' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCJ' 'sip-files00233.QC.jpg'
efa4adebf0af5e1b9e4b2fffdff737cd
7aa48830c25a9dd45412c0d5fa6a75c0c6958344
describe
'2707872' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCK' 'sip-files00233.tif'
44d679198b169c7b1b6b6033ec145888
af0eee782071ecda29dd9cac749ad571b222b5e6
describe
'1181' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCL' 'sip-files00233.txt'
e29a88a01a3e1dcdae24ad9b372b1c81
474620006832beebde557f82c961fdec7688a142
describe
'30592' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCM' 'sip-files00233thm.jpg'
fc81324c8f82423361655280a57a4a66
f2f4e2b6e61218c0df54bbd26ec836a1da1324d7
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCN' 'sip-files00234.jp2'
045f08faad9bd56af8848d8e038074a6
87f36d7c2a5fd72c715b963126bc2aeea0fe283a
describe
'194189' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCO' 'sip-files00234.jpg'
8d3f8c9f0cfc6ddd78a0aad306f0b037
0c77ba49c0ddef68974090f2ef028c0def95ca09
describe
'39155' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCP' 'sip-files00234.pro'
0b49ed1db4d45fb8c8f459674769ad8e
29af61367c9771c06dcf4b2c906aa1033f548a0c
describe
'73503' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCQ' 'sip-files00234.QC.jpg'
954ea757180369bd115b2f64990ceb4d
9de835f47aa233c7be76f69eb334df66a7ae387c
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCR' 'sip-files00234.tif'
1c0a6df6bbea18243202c8a8de0e516f
669102a82f80273dd98f7dea64a7e6be754a9236
describe
'1619' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCS' 'sip-files00234.txt'
3f8ba90789d6b2322be16d690f0ac4cd
b8b32817fc17ba3871e32183b281af05cbd2af37
describe
'34305' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCT' 'sip-files00234thm.jpg'
557e81db79fda2d5a9eaa215d1827ace
a5f93bcb29b8507ec1d8c8bec3123020cdf2d6d1
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCU' 'sip-files00235.jp2'
5266dee2b17d3d38cfa4a9b2d1b9884a
a1011103e0279fcfdacfe4e8a9ea568139ee1ba6
describe
'204300' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCV' 'sip-files00235.jpg'
91c6d65dc2b99e00afe6e560af844cff
0ea399dcdbc98a756e27dbd606daded7cce08fd1
describe
'40226' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCW' 'sip-files00235.pro'
b8e7f1e3c051a677908d2b1d1a6a3be3
23f4be77f9dd91c396ce6908d5d5be70d02f374f
describe
'77668' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCX' 'sip-files00235.QC.jpg'
33b10e5a4b3860ccfe0e58552bdec0b4
0875a09c8768028b7e5a4839c78752492ca88faa
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCY' 'sip-files00235.tif'
792f6e4e6bf91f4b611d62e986fe1b70
79356d5c9c778319f85b14b81ef58d5e78657870
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFCZ' 'sip-files00235.txt'
99b4d0f0440715167a5599a8246d399c
6b4892a66100fbb47b927d9c419e2a238e4a907f
describe
'34902' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDA' 'sip-files00235thm.jpg'
50d307823878d508a42a585cc65fdf91
4e4f658a193680ca17a12055efed4f3e48c24aad
describe
'335837' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDB' 'sip-files00236.jp2'
b112e73c34b8fd241b5600f78328b4d5
0e282deade47da8d3566dc78112de9458c2b03f3
describe
'206327' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDC' 'sip-files00236.jpg'
8e7cb25fce12a8d6ab4ac2e1807d6816
e80a366d5f95f371988d9865f36bc243e18a9895
describe
'15930' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDD' 'sip-files00236.pro'
1baa943f461da96a59ba9de8292affdb
109cd0f26fe0f1ff0f01e1afffd850c1ad08e944
describe
'69886' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDE' 'sip-files00236.QC.jpg'
f421cb96fd1e4dcc89f00ff41173b665
79cc48a78564d64e278eb0975ee743b092a15c2d
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDF' 'sip-files00236.tif'
f150892db405afb42bf09acad5da832f
f40aadedaa0a8b4e0ce2ca13c40d6f8eee692532
describe
'684' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDG' 'sip-files00236.txt'
eef2a8157f822a1baba2ba006cbfeec4
84cfc4ffbb2b56bb11665dbfdc226066dbdc3eaa
describe
'33933' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDH' 'sip-files00236thm.jpg'
e45d3495ece92d2f850f08a9bf3c1c89
307e4c2acc11bc84cde85e871000de0f0ac4c133
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDI' 'sip-files00237.jp2'
3742624229e419ad3def1d8e8deb9283
d72ac8124762e878a4eb39b3e88c6de603e0a1b4
describe
'184057' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDJ' 'sip-files00237.jpg'
f36b021377cd7d30214baf66e2eed325
8075d96a4bd66c2cfa952f7813b136a1aa4edc9a
describe
'32901' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDK' 'sip-files00237.pro'
06739abe6138971b3bbd45aa4d9ee108
2f11f65d7eb179bf9535687f50a9b00a08bfe038
describe
'70084' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDL' 'sip-files00237.QC.jpg'
c57e681f3ee7d9a82948a4065f8eafc2
037ed671a19eae53805c870b31273462fb5d72ac
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDM' 'sip-files00237.tif'
88d00fe4773754d02ee8558189e187f1
9e9f63ab2d6d66b668dabe47e76e03cba6d68900
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDN' 'sip-files00237.txt'
6ac076903460bc7dff9e203408fd6de7
5fdbd36569f63c9be412c4c710537945d6da4618
describe
'33949' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDO' 'sip-files00237thm.jpg'
e770bffdfa213f0bac9c67ac7d7755f9
3991d385a1ff6e0482c03dfdb39aeeab673cdea2
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDP' 'sip-files00238.jp2'
07a7bee55e171371219a2865b6ceb6f2
d9957f1d8cc137c66ab101a91d073f4bbe03866c
describe
'206642' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDQ' 'sip-files00238.jpg'
33bad099c969123b429d3cf38b0242e3
221104e3ced4130e8b6c7ebb5ce7e868ad21ed34
describe
'41894' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDR' 'sip-files00238.pro'
eb4a434866c968dc6e934ca5ccc72bce
54a89230512e0f7df31aa548875d9f4ac5a47ba3
describe
'77560' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDS' 'sip-files00238.QC.jpg'
6bf1b4cd3f2daedfcbaab836bc7e10cc
21c62121c7b9f8cc0c61440b19dfbc130f68ce45
describe
'2709352' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDT' 'sip-files00238.tif'
d5495301005bd42dc25a8cf6119558bb
6e1dc404f7c4bf0a59e238bab23cbe2a0f878b4b
describe
'1708' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDU' 'sip-files00238.txt'
cf49cb1329d2f17519f94d974548601c
b2cb42f1cc19443402274f76b37f0ffdcc277d8a
describe
'35411' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDV' 'sip-files00238thm.jpg'
ec8c9f2a8b493886b4277aa030815755
5e60cd4e3c99b766996f651f97cd6a1557bccc5d
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDW' 'sip-files00239.jp2'
15b74171db9f9c491ddecb272ecaae6f
cdba15ef0227827cf640e1f18c7c192348e29939
describe
'197841' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDX' 'sip-files00239.jpg'
16ba443db35e9966b764508954048b44
b53a3fc515ebd844485fa234c9dfbfb641927a6d
describe
'40731' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDY' 'sip-files00239.pro'
b43e6076c06dc3920f473290bafb7e7d
38ae83b999deef3928633aa48ad524be1dc5c068
describe
'76530' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFDZ' 'sip-files00239.QC.jpg'
784a4f5e368aef76168984881c7331bf
87d6de89a2594b9eee5e6d0d5ce635ab1f0bf19a
describe
'2709128' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEA' 'sip-files00239.tif'
c766349e73b50aaf801bf4dd9bb6ae36
ce4ac69b7e79e0ef6f76521392d48bf8017d6bb4
describe
'1643' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEB' 'sip-files00239.txt'
1f7aaaacef3ead744fb0d82d8630282b
2cd9bf3687444f64c6822c2bee1fa930989b29f8
describe
'35014' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEC' 'sip-files00239thm.jpg'
1a10868faaa1dcea917270f024a40279
e1a8928a9e52d227a61b86ff96472080ab1df44f
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFED' 'sip-files00240.jp2'
457af6cb47e07b21c8e4a3c5524f7aaf
4b6916ac12a7bbb86d2d704402e5e442cc5a1c08
describe
'193073' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEE' 'sip-files00240.jpg'
10549ff87016dbf385b0960fae063df6
321d6a426c72e34c48daf1a4c41968e85cc0d589
describe
'30714' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEF' 'sip-files00240.pro'
61bd5ffb0316b8606a8413cb444c29c0
a8fe2d2b9b5812e4f06c04527460204cf9fc185b
describe
'71834' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEG' 'sip-files00240.QC.jpg'
8acc4fff87dcb26e5d4bb40713dca0a4
68a1f0db0dffca36e1593433e0b281cb81d809d4
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEH' 'sip-files00240.tif'
8f8adf238e97e9d3d0802fe41a6f68f3
43eb70424f17e59858b613b61d52b2b50b661058
describe
'1273' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEI' 'sip-files00240.txt'
c594d9cd4caf1a8089250b13ac126f1a
39285fc5361ffec66cdf67d84db7522d656acf65
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEJ' 'sip-files00240thm.jpg'
6a7d099bb97d34a627b7ebd5600cc1db
6c6693ecbb93fb3cd5ce960e0f4450808a9249aa
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEK' 'sip-files00241.jp2'
975a8069335d30922a39dc823d33cd1f
9439fa396ae0fe33058689aa6fcb947db446fd35
describe
'199893' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEL' 'sip-files00241.jpg'
c6121619cf13dae46b5c12c726143774
81dc368e6b0e4994264645ce18cf29e547c0f10c
describe
'41364' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEM' 'sip-files00241.pro'
4e41aad4ec1815f526ead75cff272cbe
05a9a73d3fc856d19d744a525e59b7c2f0eefa81
describe
'76487' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEN' 'sip-files00241.QC.jpg'
f0913de687e51eea50dd4686ddec8bf3
9d09114b2dd8b04bd44858193714811dbf89e347
describe
'2708996' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEO' 'sip-files00241.tif'
1a9b2f722f1915d08a235e4ac2ecaba6
d07eff35a93664d6421f1bb9877e394708e53bdc
describe
'1647' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEP' 'sip-files00241.txt'
439983462539829bbf72d7732c31ac3d
962c5a890c2bc733a515c78bc9f9f427b42fcf76
describe
'34668' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEQ' 'sip-files00241thm.jpg'
a81062a871203f398c84fd4c0414d6e4
3bbc6fe5ab89d9edc9ac8257f7d17d025a385b59
'2011-12-14T03:17:37-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFER' 'sip-files00242.jp2'
6abce6234f32c978cdd8b914ebcbabad
fdd79335ad1cd665fa755a07eceee8b0cf794324
describe
'193585' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFES' 'sip-files00242.jpg'
4c4bc036a1e90f4a98417feb8d252cad
e2fe0004849a276eb9ac6bfa7ed75ccb37abbf53
describe
'39158' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFET' 'sip-files00242.pro'
06ae31f17d0b24983b3bbefb36903735
7cf909d1b4f149e6a8561c76301e0eb29d8ac5a6
describe
'74083' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEU' 'sip-files00242.QC.jpg'
3b67deb48aad201d1e5ebd84cdf33a7b
1684a8f6e0a81787f0e297805f962d2b6ea40642
describe
'2708876' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEV' 'sip-files00242.tif'
5fe2c830760411db544391a3aec87bfb
480451405a49f10252e59dc1b46dd616b37b9ede
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEW' 'sip-files00242.txt'
51339be5225665d12f6a3d51df3192a1
3cb19e882d5f2456e6a3c7e759a2fd7b9bfe9cf3
describe
'34142' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEX' 'sip-files00242thm.jpg'
39e4a1e39727865650e245f157b4f55f
a3e33401676de37137cbf76de1e47e84cc617b3b
describe
'335810' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEY' 'sip-files00243.jp2'
c48817c630bae27a830ca868c25f58a9
b195321d9f22070630702981119bbab66d73bf79
describe
'170018' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFEZ' 'sip-files00243.jpg'
32d3c4d33a0bc6cf2b5dc3f1f6066d47
48ea4bc30115054f191d6df9f7d81809a2fdf3be
describe
'29623' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFA' 'sip-files00243.pro'
f43579e07d76c9770bfd790075cab166
bfc8ae957235dc914a86d6e4f85b623d90ad08d4
describe
'64953' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFB' 'sip-files00243.QC.jpg'
96745941657bc3d4c2e94dbdb0524223
8c8709bbb4580663a9e0b699ac42c0201d5b26db
describe
'2708560' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFC' 'sip-files00243.tif'
3b326e6de90cf0b5514ccd6d115930a2
69225d50511796a0ed3fc6d029a37beba418add4
'2011-12-14T03:21:17-05:00'
describe
'1260' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFD' 'sip-files00243.txt'
01cb1037a141db10aef74889a02e8dcc
7d526d5a05658214d4b8c998f7d562461e7138c8
describe
'32667' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFE' 'sip-files00243thm.jpg'
9d359dc23252d73eb3ad4695dde22495
f6c9ed91c51ecd78c9a847d4be210ec4b206c33a
describe
'335886' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFF' 'sip-files00244.jp2'
698a16d5c2a2f242ca83d08de2006b0e
125177d8d048c61598b01562636b652001fbbd2a
describe
'199338' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFG' 'sip-files00244.jpg'
fc9f399fc853fe865a2ad542673c52f4
f0b2b6942d230b70107aa1e359235a8ddd5dbbf6
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFH' 'sip-files00244.pro'
f9856bd39ac95be6f70a0132d6035746
1accefcea3bba74daeed76bd77fc4a02a0657e2b
describe
'76796' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFI' 'sip-files00244.QC.jpg'
137505203eb2801aa15157fd11caf96a
e28913cc0927ab01748f8b695613d0afde052b71
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFJ' 'sip-files00244.tif'
1d24b7b4ec733286e7dc742a3864732e
754f5515008b1f1a36529f96fd31041f6756dd37
describe
'1682' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFK' 'sip-files00244.txt'
f0101bcc81528b712c5842609e136147
9787d55d6f4a3bb9abbc3b1b8ff082bed937e03e
describe
'34966' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFL' 'sip-files00244thm.jpg'
459d279357f43a8ffc4e5da052c438d0
3f28e48c5af568292c4203bcd8393de4624ef0f6
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFM' 'sip-files00245.jp2'
783af9a6d95cfa8da15e54e4aaab4b69
2027d650ee86922cd8a051105984143e4f2f44ae
describe
'201405' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFN' 'sip-files00245.jpg'
44b48e3a6d699f26c6c2b841d134ffed
398560f6e65d744eba3289bb47d971411964826f
describe
'16217' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFO' 'sip-files00245.pro'
91ddde64a112b1cbbfeaa6cd9853b665
5075d4867cc10d55c18c39b6b427b910c1ce1f60
describe
'67875' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFP' 'sip-files00245.QC.jpg'
c916a82319a7268dc0fbedef673586a5
08d43d980992a7ebcae361e86d07345e05c3e15e
describe
'2708952' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFQ' 'sip-files00245.tif'
103253174e9e23dea3dff037be463442
3b46576fb3f65c0897c7bf31df99092c235dce2d
describe
'676' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFR' 'sip-files00245.txt'
ad870edbea0302173a7dcb6366e24738
445e0fbd19ec6428dcbf50b1966a41239e3f55ce
describe
'33200' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFS' 'sip-files00245thm.jpg'
37ddbb26f3f2e08df5bb0679b5055b3b
85543e27242e442c13b24e9fd163ecb434a7a187
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFT' 'sip-files00246.jp2'
e6a1554043a0f787e263bcf9b2131b3c
3b0556d66f619b4ba690d1b26dd88c56b6dda43b
describe
'199207' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFU' 'sip-files00246.jpg'
125987e1c93a7dd0e1024e079aeb281b
6328d19f0640cee92ebbeca53d25874f01d89f47
describe
'42627' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFV' 'sip-files00246.pro'
8ab4dbe5ee315897502d89bf48b5245f
26b58f6a8e6aad27d8493553126213e1fc539346
describe
'76567' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFW' 'sip-files00246.QC.jpg'
49bddb17435da509c6a7c94b1b282632
3e73535a30cf74c0475fbb9784234437569420fe
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFX' 'sip-files00246.tif'
244332798a3273d94673316a89351511
c63856f264c2f910f41d65dcc61df268cd84e523
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFY' 'sip-files00246.txt'
aa047011cd88b3bb29b573c78d8dea1f
a2b65466aceab69cb0135e8cdd010591366f6f62
describe
'34687' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFFZ' 'sip-files00246thm.jpg'
cbc206be5f644d57d4767b22c34af868
1300d3585684a6112bd26b51b0c76653a58bf89a
describe
'335829' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGA' 'sip-files00247.jp2'
e95eb7a7bfc0d563e63b29743780db2a
5be75440559d8eb276b9f67ee2b4cd468e132b36
describe
'181823' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGB' 'sip-files00247.jpg'
dfce2faf536b596b37373f7ab4155da7
df3aeed7477f32d9f192704213b52b5946038e43
describe
'27147' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGC' 'sip-files00247.pro'
20882245deda22a492ad04c0b092333e
52ffe939a501b8754fd3d2c8345e74c065fa90c0
describe
'67958' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGD' 'sip-files00247.QC.jpg'
f463108a900b6705d3db2c65d4e7058d
bf19807f64fadc84f5c95f726205f45d0559ab95
describe
'2709060' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGE' 'sip-files00247.tif'
3318a9e008887ce39417823a5f88dacf
f0bd7666605dea5d00db9410a799c2483acb3a06
describe
'1178' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGF' 'sip-files00247.txt'
af125945828daecb886d29fb428ababc
8480ee3b568109032f06eb527e514c7e6f5bad31
describe
'33551' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGG' 'sip-files00247thm.jpg'
d80b3a6b16d4c9d0b0cb927cc33b05b6
ae5841eae378eb38bdc9ba86e03e909eb744ec61
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGH' 'sip-files00248.jp2'
fbb5e786588127dc33aa16e601210c0f
c483a1fcf1d61c06c6ec677dc73d31859540ebba
describe
'204485' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGI' 'sip-files00248.jpg'
5e314ba2b14304f0800fda9cae4491a7
311a71cd330bb9dec7aeaa4b36951a11598c111e
describe
'17992' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGJ' 'sip-files00248.pro'
81b6fd3f82e1d26b4cd953756c3c6d7e
515c7acdbc18aef24e4fdcdad3857d8bbcce07f6
describe
'69498' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGK' 'sip-files00248.QC.jpg'
7c6cd801873a5f3f699de280e60849c3
de3f4f9c1ee908c30b3325f9bae89ebc7171e7be
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGL' 'sip-files00248.tif'
dcd498524f1a128c4dbdcab9ffe73318
5159820b5b87e48e0ad254737e7a092bf217e354
describe
'775' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGM' 'sip-files00248.txt'
825cfcfb4791707b818c08c23591645e
40c8cad709b67306a9bd63510fac2e192ce9bf80
describe
Invalid character
'34117' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGN' 'sip-files00248thm.jpg'
c49b4519d372b03287732c3470212926
70b198ef6b624471d5be77f2f745c8d7b85a77ab
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGO' 'sip-files00249.jp2'
bc844e083848941ee120d3dee8bf426d
38c2eb9d1371f9a415e91b7a383e248abcc62775
describe
'194877' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGP' 'sip-files00249.jpg'
6d9731fd4dd4da1a0ebb8893ecf3e568
3d0d273e4eb1e289dc68ed3187542859df014ac9
describe
'39339' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGQ' 'sip-files00249.pro'
4649c3a1e2654e6a775796ea7f15ac2e
4f4cc2a90acafeb559a3e52f9cbe3f1377038e9b
describe
'75716' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGR' 'sip-files00249.QC.jpg'
1cc0b901fa44e70789d82de4914e50ce
1e40f912627c84fdc52fe41afc3a4af71f2525e6
describe
'2709024' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGS' 'sip-files00249.tif'
363d110ff86843d0d7ef0c18398f89be
584cc57694c00b67a7308462d594d311fb7c987b
describe
'1558' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGT' 'sip-files00249.txt'
95ef5526e367e1c08aab37679e819026
31b115e79388ed0755977b9341eaa4cc8953f344
describe
'34561' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGU' 'sip-files00249thm.jpg'
1216f21c3f2401874b1ffef34f9b147a
51d03dc9c73fb6333d98569b878208709df017e7
describe
'335878' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGV' 'sip-files00250.jp2'
cdd339656855a5208160f5a557aeb976
873c9bdd583ebcd94de5e7eb90324c5746733ecd
describe
'88335' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGW' 'sip-files00250.jpg'
dec05545468f616b21c5f633408481b6
c1ee7874d02d6b24fbbdc3a3221404889564663e
describe
'7148' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGX' 'sip-files00250.pro'
a66736b829f367d314b955b7647d69af
27b90c42fde88c7aaa6ed79e286c8f391771637b
describe
'34505' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGY' 'sip-files00250.QC.jpg'
b1381f4826713a89750232b50ec1b923
a088c8de2d1ed9878e1258df6e34887650abe998
describe
'2705548' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFGZ' 'sip-files00250.tif'
305bcd0770d58df5f2c4d9670907510b
a98f58cc7d64c2ec49edfd362841fa652b8d5581
describe
'291' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHA' 'sip-files00250.txt'
c5ed1305616a49e33698097f16523874
8a26bfb9098d2cc4f3cf805e29ff4a7d094f18df
describe
'22589' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHB' 'sip-files00250thm.jpg'
192d286a01e2178a865de23d82cddb71
2b0cad9b9385853dc09f9f69c7f4f77b207d5340
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHC' 'sip-files00251.jp2'
1d5f23bccf00e8767ae3df1ebc7503d8
34031fb78173a54b37d76a1f88075c4254b9e76e
describe
'157353' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHD' 'sip-files00251.jpg'
9c90e914f4951aab9ab14924bbd4d27f
610d166464829b600a0282d6dd1df0e27b92e0b0
describe
'47731' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHE' 'sip-files00251.pro'
cb3af56d4b365c0a1d26c35b5b04a909
3d20c8d65dd24ab9aec0a4eb5145c6708f5c5a91
describe
'54850' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHF' 'sip-files00251.QC.jpg'
8d65f96a53c01b73d279da087ae97b24
2b54917052e7b92ddd96bc418d2250032c0fd29b
describe
'2707328' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHG' 'sip-files00251.tif'
91d1f7a19b7824eac27c31a23cec8cbd
d75aaad3274008090fdc71a7e8482a7e19e70ef8
describe
'2067' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHH' 'sip-files00251.txt'
5f9afd4d8f8e140c65dab386c763d65b
bcd41b81a920955bea990cb8930c417e99604c7c
describe
'28542' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHI' 'sip-files00251thm.jpg'
a73e5c2765e3209469b5c741d45dba1b
4a55d40662c8ffa1607d737b99340e784a5489a8
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHJ' 'sip-files00252.jp2'
8b7aa0201ca638d42d12535882513154
8759a1c494e10ce504595f6d4e2664e4f025dfba
describe
'207697' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHK' 'sip-files00252.jpg'
d9fb46df9da4cf27f7b0f015caa6261d
2b321990c894946ea4809aaec236e09e81c76fa2
describe
'68488' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHL' 'sip-files00252.pro'
716876081b07275611f15627d0c33b82
f3bfcae6ad2e5446ed645c5007f00cbc25d5b648
describe
'72163' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHM' 'sip-files00252.QC.jpg'
4d34c4110128458c1b6b9c1b9b5c1cb0
870cdfcb1d7adc544e5bc03920f5844508ec7abf
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHN' 'sip-files00252.tif'
5431e5739e4627e54fa16f795a17f8e4
5a379aefd4894185e7023ba12296ef4a2bd2d106
describe
'2941' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHO' 'sip-files00252.txt'
d80ed3d6fc828df0a3cd3ac8e6059e62
b16bba4aed1915446c5d6c53571437b339258377
describe
'33742' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHP' 'sip-files00252thm.jpg'
00368e74746728b922cd8ac0f88e923b
9b1ae9267eb3958dbca999693531a6f5f21199e7
describe
'335855' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHQ' 'sip-files00253.jp2'
f878013a7714425195ab1bc33c1e5079
fceea2645328b9fc90de8b465ab92732023e11f8
describe
'201898' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHR' 'sip-files00253.jpg'
4faaa17c59c38feafda5db40269b7418
727589a0ce89e3554746b54555958e68391ba6dd
describe
'67247' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHS' 'sip-files00253.pro'
7495415de3cc0e90e509f32a7ec1b119
5038d547c69fea5e03a862cf7d2fe399c12632a5
describe
'69640' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHT' 'sip-files00253.QC.jpg'
1762047a615bb81288b4f2af81b5cf54
0505e786eacdbd27be43878271404d239db80bda
describe
'2708480' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHU' 'sip-files00253.tif'
0b536f9a00e3689a633d19a9a0b2b7b3
54eb7742414b3d2c875f3ccec3393a365977c0fc
describe
'2914' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHV' 'sip-files00253.txt'
07a9fc66413783f9d1768763771ef44f
edc1d245e63142789c7e9f87b95c4739ddbc0fc7
describe
'32653' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHW' 'sip-files00253thm.jpg'
89a588a46afdc810d11845ea07b0e2ee
140b8187c7e1a8586d673e1e9c9384ca584227ba
describe
'335844' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHX' 'sip-files00254.jp2'
85d6c8f4859a34fbe9e21d034598b1ed
5988b7d86ede0b70db2e4cdeac99754e16962d54
describe
'194431' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHY' 'sip-files00254.jpg'
560b2a80534da1d1f53701a4b71c1ef4
b2e88711b1d45e375093cd4a936381c8de5e1ff4
describe
'65306' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFHZ' 'sip-files00254.pro'
31fc23c48266bb1d22b98b38c0d521e0
6f723da17eaa6df4cf81a10494c8b1d5b216f72a
describe
'67024' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIA' 'sip-files00254.QC.jpg'
7ad890f2cbf283942e411ea4de57f347
9a7ef1649d9e05fbd630e97c5304d2680361eaa7
describe
'2708496' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIB' 'sip-files00254.tif'
cbb1c58e0064d8b04aab15715113c3fd
73bd0264ab743e6a4294017be57a93390d88d125
describe
'2867' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIC' 'sip-files00254.txt'
6bdd73625b390f195321ac4900fc0752
b5462d086fc1c72b09674d0704e910d553d032b3
describe
'32618' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFID' 'sip-files00254thm.jpg'
e77ff1363ac180e4023f9a2a5ccf301e
bc641630deca52640eb1e1560cb0a007dbb9f949
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIE' 'sip-files00255.jp2'
3f83c7c652614f234337fcc1e53b0989
c25532ebdf5219418c738eb8c732f8315fcfd4a9
describe
'199718' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIF' 'sip-files00255.jpg'
618fb9827ba52a368d3f33b89656f27f
fd7d8666cb27a006f8e2712f505e430492b4a8f7
describe
'67217' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIG' 'sip-files00255.pro'
5a57331191b692da449448751f6fc0c0
d135600d32077579067d2c12199f85a0b88f7848
describe
'69083' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIH' 'sip-files00255.QC.jpg'
6fd288451bef180c820345dbaec8518d
0d82c7b228f52b91b23b228d644b579ad77c35bc
describe
'2708568' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFII' 'sip-files00255.tif'
5ca75a0db2374fc08870ad78f30b4dfb
2bc2ff9bfccffeba4a269638e9c166683e7aad12
describe
'2938' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIJ' 'sip-files00255.txt'
e0a37d1fae34f412629960926c457439
675e0c4877155bc8aa9e397a3e940aa3f43468eb
describe
'32886' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIK' 'sip-files00255thm.jpg'
cfe81bb0333d509386860b40598cb446
1a950fb8d9e41247865b2e3a87890773fc303894
describe
'335880' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIL' 'sip-files00256.jp2'
1f2a055065d2fcb2f1525774de3c3b1c
e78e204a28f5c3b4b197954ff7c6ac208c91e68b
describe
'193129' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIM' 'sip-files00256.jpg'
88f2ee0771ed086a57d75d011138ae88
f10d6e25b3064164742a3b575daae7d91be52df8
describe
'63802' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIN' 'sip-files00256.pro'
a1e6941a3b185da51142f3c8a15466ad
15e1fc2a8319157b33348883726fd59c19b71ef7
describe
'67959' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIO' 'sip-files00256.QC.jpg'
eb781146fa1c24daf4ac4554967a4d70
df18b540f3f3b5fd5b1058887e92c362e28a02a8
describe
'2708516' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIP' 'sip-files00256.tif'
867a32f68fedd842365a6cfa74b39eac
a4772b5229543aa95af33f5ef1b2d5981a48307a
describe
'2722' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIQ' 'sip-files00256.txt'
cfdaadc7edf5e2370c617f76e32357fd
1d6c6df36a46356787c35d32d7669394bfcb6432
describe
'32759' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIR' 'sip-files00256thm.jpg'
f874c71fa6bb3b5068140be47c17f3c3
d1ebcefee2fad3554247050f916183089895e93f
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIS' 'sip-files00257.jp2'
c8285e6ce2bc99c226fc7d0780b625c4
d25eb712d582cd452ee2fc8a233d9df00002fbc8
describe
'203128' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIT' 'sip-files00257.jpg'
bcbdf4e7c3a3a441307d29b618da455e
889ba635e478a4d6a42bd45b0f8214a674e2c02b
describe
'70330' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIU' 'sip-files00257.pro'
57948ae7f83670ac256cc716587563d9
7b7fc9b2f871933d24dc2ca9d364a00a9a4a0b22
describe
'69081' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIV' 'sip-files00257.QC.jpg'
931bdbb1d8aec645ff50be034b29838b
dd465e7cc25cd3f9fc1f36476ba7380ef5cd7127
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIW' 'sip-files00257.tif'
c360be55cd0163ef625d4814f4329224
0fcd4f2e78b291a51ed945cc712ae031b5d1052e
describe
'3020' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIX' 'sip-files00257.txt'
5008fb04e108798fda3b4da1b642cc8a
3c4fb2eaeb4d7bfaf67f4acf7cc56fbee43fe9c6
describe
'32925' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIY' 'sip-files00257thm.jpg'
3cdcaecac2f97523a69d2a45f456245f
50f29462f80bb7da715412d66d0a27c698fa076e
describe
'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFIZ' 'sip-files00258.jp2'
6039a0e594d65829582c4c98c8dc472d
9c291f6040b515d77a9f24c4559dee3e03ea071b
describe
'99327' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFJA' 'sip-files00258.jpg'
de50028e3122c45fe4a5b98c2c1e2ebe
a09600e6d357bb46b712fbb5f1a52722b7ba4a7b
describe
'20053' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFJB' 'sip-files00258.pro'
ee161eaeafac9d4278a304e6399628a1
efabd3a090e2b819317e9059ffaf2cfc878f6063
describe
'39645' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFJC' 'sip-files00258.QC.jpg'
0a87dc4dbad62ec9444ce784e3ebd070
df60828c161c0ca8aee1ebfe355543c9b7810cda
describe
'2706020' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFJD' 'sip-files00258.tif'
acb1bfcee6c13a042f07c8ee73f4765b
c44bdb282ace96d20a8c0be6e6ab3c7ab956edb9
describe
'873' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFJE' 'sip-files00258.txt'
acbb8273e17a204cbce86c9f0bd3f308
128b8fb1a8358b8d8e7038a70e5e9489880c3909
describe
'24237' 'info:fdaE20080520_AAAACYfileF20080521_AAAFJF' 'sip-files00258thm.jpg'
79482cccbf2b8bf95a20386ed697347d
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describe
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lw = ==
CALUCS aae ]


The Baldwin Library


_

A I ee eee ee

Ranee

(sins: 1892.




THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES




Wak O UGH
Mea Glee ser ASSES

AND OTHER LECTURES

A SEQUEL TO

‘THE FAIRYLAND OF SCIENCE’

BY

ARABELLA B. BUCKLEY
(MRS. FISHER)

AUTHOR OF ‘LIFE AND HER CHILDREN,’ ‘WINNERS IN LIFE’S RACE,’
“A SHORT HISTORY OF NATURAL SCIENCE,’ ETC.

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON: EDWARD STANFORD
26 & 27 COCKSPUR STREET, CHARING Cross, S.W.

1890

(The right of translation is reserved]
PREFACE.

THE present volume is chiefly intended for those of
my young friends who have read, and been interested
in, the Fazryland of Science. It travels over a wide
field, pointing out a few of the marvellous facts which
can be studied and enjoyed by the help of optical
instruments. It will be seen at a glance that any
one of the subjects dealt with might be made the
study of a lifetime, and that the little information
given in each lecture is only enough to make the
reader long for more.

In these days, when moderate-priced instruments
and good books and lectures are so easily accessible,
I hope some eager minds may be thus led to take up
one of the branches of science opened out to us by
magic glasses ; while those who go no further will at
least understand something of the hitherto unseen

world which is now being studied by their help.
vi PREFACE

The two last lectures wander away from this path,
and yet form a natural conclusion to the Magician’s
lectures to his young Devonshire lads. They have
been published before, one in the Youth's Companion of
Boston, U.S., and the other in A/¢alenéa, in which the
essay on Fungi also appeared in a shorter form.
All three lectures have, however, been revised and
fully illustrated, and I trust that the volume, as a
whole, may prove a pleasant Christmas companion.

For the magnificent photograph of Orion’s nebula,
forming the Frontispiece, I am indebted to the courtesy
of Mr. Isaac Roberts, F.R.A.S., who most kindly lent
me the plate for reproduction ; and I have had the
great good fortune to obtain permission from MM.
Henri of the Paris Observatory to copy the illustra-
tion of the Lunar Apennines from a most beautiful
and perfect photograph of part of the moon, taken by
them only last March. My cordial thanks are also
due to Mr. A. Cottam, F.R.A.S., for preparing the
plate of coloured double stars, and to my friend
Mr. Knobel, Hon. Sec. of the R.A.S., for much
valuable assistance; to Mr. James Geikie for the

loan of some illustrations from his Geology ; and to
PREFACE vii
Messrs. Longman for permission to copy Herschel’s
fine drawing of Copernicus.

With the exception of these illustrations and a
few others, three of which were kindly given me
by Messrs. Macmillan, all the woodcuts have been
drawn and executed under the superintendence of
Mr. Carreras, jun., who has made my task easier by
the skill and patience he has exercised under the
difficulties incidental to receiving instructions from a

distance.
ARABELLA B. BUCKLEY.

Upcott AVENEL, Océ. 1890.





TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

THE MAGICIAN’s CHAMBER BY MOONLIGHT

CHAPTER TT

MAGIC GLASSES AND HOW TO USE THEM

CHAPTER III

FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

CHAPTER IV

THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES .

CHAPTER -V.

THE HISTORY OF A LAVA STREAM .

CHAPTER VI

AN HOvuR WITH THE SuN

PAGE

to
NI

unt
ur

NI
we

96

117
x CONTENTS

CHAPTER VII

AN EVENING AMONG THE STARS

CHAPTER VIII

LITTLE BEINGS FROM A MINIATURE OCEAN

CHAPTER [X

THE DARTMOOR PONIES .

CHAPTER X

THE MAGICIAN’S DREAM OF ANCIENT Days

PAGE
145

ond
w

209
Eis OR ILEUS PRAT TONS

PLATES
PHOTOGRAPH OF THE NEBULA OF ORION : . Frontispiece
TABLE OF COLOURED SPECTRA . . Plate I. facing p. 127
COLOURED DOUBLE STARS : : seed Le ne 167

WOODCUTS. IN: THE TEXT

PAGE
PARTIAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON 5 . Lnitial letter I
A ROY ILLUSTRATING THE PHASES OF THE MOON. : 6
COURSE OF THE MOON IN THE HEAVENS 3 : : 8
CHART OF THE MOON. 2 3 : : are1O)
FACE OF THE FULL MOON : : ; : Saw
TYCHO AND HIS SURROUNDINGS (from a photograph by De
la Rue) 4 13
PLAN OF THE PEAK OF TENERIFFE 15
THE CRATER COPERNICUS : : ‘ Comer,
THE LUNAR APPENNINES (from a photograph by MM. Henri) 19
THE CRATER PLATO SEEN SOON AFTER SUNRISE 20
DIAGRAM OF TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON ‘ $7123
Boy AND MICROSCOPE . ‘ : . Lnitial letter 27
EYE-BALL SEEN FROM THE FRONT 50
SECTION OF AN EYE LOOKING AT A PENCIL Sees
IMAGE OF A CANDLE-FLAME THROWN ON PAPER BY A LENS. 33
ARROW MAGNIFIED BY A CONVEX LENS 35
xil LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

STUDENT'S MICROSCOPE .

SKELETON OF A MICROSCOPE

Fossil, DIATOMS SEEN UNDER THE MICROSCOPE

AN ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE

Two SKELETONS OF TELESCOPES : 3 : ‘
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA

KIRCHHOFF’S SPECTROSCOPE

PASSAGE OF RAYS THROUGH THE SPECTROSCOPE “
A GROUP OF FAIRY-RING MUSHROOMS . . Lnitiad letter
THREE FORMS OF VEGETARLE MOULD MAGNIFIED

Mecor JIUCEDO GREATLY MAGNIFIED .

YEAST CELLS GROWING UNDER THE MICROSCOPE

EARLY STAGES OF THE MUSHROOM

LATER STAGES OF THE MUSHROOM , : : :
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF MUSHROOM GILLS ; :
A GROUP OF CUP LICHENS z ; . Lnitial letter
EXAMPLES OF LICHENS FROM LIFF.

SINGLE-CELLED PLANTS GROWING

SECTIONS OF LICHENS .

FRUCTIFICATION OF A LICHEN . : ; ; ;
A STEM OF FEATHERY MOSS FROM LIFE

Moss-LEAF MAGNIFIED .

POLYTRICHUM COMMUNE, A LARGE HAIR-MOSS .
FRUCTIFICATION OF A MOSS a

SPHAGNUM MOss FROM A DEVONSHIRE BOG ; ‘
SURFACE OF A LAVA-FLOW ; ‘ . Lnitial letter
VESUVIUS AS SEEN IN ERUPTION

Top or Vesuvius In 1864 é
DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION OF AN ACTIVE VOLCANO

SECTION OF A LAVA-FLOW

VOLCANIC GLASS WITH CRYSTALLITES AND MICROLITHS
VOLCANIC GLASS WITH WELL-DEVELOPED MICROLITHS

A PIECE OF DARTMOOR GRANITE ; : ; ‘
VOLCANIC GLASS SHOWING LARGE INCLUDED CRYSTALS
A TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. . . Lnitial letter

FACE OF THE SUN PROJECTED ON A PIECE OF CARDBOARD

105
108
109
110
112
rts
117
120
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PHOTOGRAPH OF THE SUN’S FACE, taken by Mr. Selwyn
(Secchi, Ze So/er/) . 5 ‘

TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, SHOWING CORONA AND PRO-
MINENCES (Guillemin, Ze Cye/)

KIRCHHOFF’S EXPERIMENT ON THE DARK SODIUM LINE

THE SPECTROSCOPE ATTACHED TO THE TELESCOPE FOR SOLAR
WORK . . . .

SUN-SPECTRUM AND PROMINENCE SPECTRUM COMPARED

RED PROMINENCES, as drawn by Mr. Lockyer 1869

A QUIET SUN-SPOT

A TUMULTUOUS SUN-SPOT ‘i 7 :

A STAR-CLUSTER . : ; ; . Lnitial letter

SOME CONSTELLATIONS SEEN ON LOOKING SOUTH IN MarcH
FROM SIX TO NINE O'CLOCK

THE CHIEF STARS OF ORION, WITH ALDEBARAN

THE TRAPEZIUM @ ORIONIS

SPECTRUM OF ORION’S NEBULA AND SUN-SPECTRUM COM-
PARED .

SOME CONSTELLATIONS SEEN ON LOOKING NORTH IN MARCH
FROM SIX TO NINE O'CLOCK

THE GREAT BEAR, SHOWING POSITION OF THE BINARY STAR
DRIFTING OF THE SEVEN STARS OF CHARLES’S WAIN
CASSIOPEIA AND THE HEAVENLY BODIES NEAR

€ LYR.£, A DOUBLE-BINARY STAR é 5 :
«A SEASIDE POOL . : : i . Lnitial letter
A GROUP OF SEAWEEDsS (natural size)

CLVA LACTUCA, a piece greatly magnified

SEAWEEDS, magnified to show fruits .

A CORALLINE AND SERTULARIAN COMPARED .

SERTULARIA TENELLA HANGING IN WATER

THURICOLLA FOLLICULATA AND CHILOMONAS AMYGDALUM

A GROUP OF LIVING DIATOMS .

A DIATOM GROWING :

CYDIPPE PILEUS, ANIMAL AND STRUCTURE

THE SEA-MAT, FLUSTRA FOLIACEA

DIAGRAM OF THE FLUSTRA ANIMAL

xili
PAGE

122

124
128

132
134

140

149
150

157
159
162
166
172
175
176
177
179
180
182
184
185
187
191
192


xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE
DARTMOOR PONIES : . 2 . Initial letter 195
EQUUS HEMIONUS, THE HORSE-ASS OF TARTARY AND TIBET . 201
PRZEVALSKY’S WILD HORSE : ; : : ar Oe
SKELETON OF AN ANIMAL OF THE HORSE-TRIBE : 5200:
PALEOLITHIC MAN CHIPPING FLINT Toots . Jnitial letter 209
SCENE IN PALOLITHIC TIMES . : : ‘: PALOLITHIC RELICS—NEEDLE, TOOTH, IMPLEMENT . eHaig
MAMMOTH ENGRAVED ON IVORY > ‘ ; aL
NEOLITHIC IMPLEMENTS—HATCHET, CELT, SPINDLE WHORL. 219
A BURIAL IN NEOLITHIC TIMES : ; 3 722i
BRITISH RELICS—COIN, BRONZE CELT, AND BRACELET BS eh:

IRITONS TAKING REFUGE IN THE CAVE . . . 224
THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

CHAPTER I

THE MAGICIAN’S CHAMBER BY MOONLIGHT

HE full moon was shining in all
its splendour one lovely August
night, as the magician sat in
his turret chamber bathed in
her pure white beams, which
streamed upon him through the
open shutter in the wooden
dome above. It is true a faint
gleam of warmer light shone
from below through the open

door, for this room was but an offshoot at the top

of the building, and on looking down the turret

stairs a lecture-room might be seen below where a

bright light was burning. Very little, however, of

this warm glow reached the magician, and the im-

plements of his art around him looked like weird

gaunt skeletons as they cast their long shadows
across the floor in the moonlight.
&


to

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The small observatory, for such it was, was a
circular building with four windows in the walls, and
roofed with a wooden dome, so made that it could
be shifted round and round by pulling certain cords.
One section of this dome was a shutter, which now
stood open, and the strip, thus laid bare to the night,
was so turned as to face that part of the sky along
which the moon was moving. In the centre of the
room, with its long tube directed towards the opening,
stood the largest magic glass, the TELESCOPE, and in
the dead stillness of the night, could be heard distinctly
the tick-tick of the clockwork, which kept the instru-
ment pointing to the face of the moon, while the
room, and all in it, was being carried slowly and
steadily onwards by the earth's rotation on its anis.
It was only a moderate-sized instrument, about six
feet long, mounted on a solid iron pillar firmly fixed
to the floor and fitted with the clockwork, the sound
of which we have mentioned ; yet it looked like a
giant as the pale moonlight threw its huge shadow
on the wall behind and the roof above.

Far away from this instrument in one of the
windows, all of which were now closed with shutters,
another instrument was dimly visible. This was
a round iron table with clawed feet, and upon it,
fastened by screws, were three tubes, so arranged
that they all pointed towards the centre of the table,
where six glass prisms were arranged in a semicircle,
each one fixed on a small brass tripod. A strange
uncanny-looking instrument this, especially as the
prisms caught the edge of the glow streaming up the
turret stair, and shot forth faint beams of coloured
THE MAGICIAN’S INSTRUMENTS 3

light on the table below them. Yet the magician’s
pupils thought it still more uncanny and mysterious
when their master used it to read the alphabet of
light, and to discover by vivid lines even the faintest
trace of a metal otherwise invisible to mortal eye.

For this instrument was the SPECTROSCOPE, by
which he could break up rays of light and make them
tell him from what substances they came. Lying
around it were other curious prisms mounted in
metal rims and fitted with tubes and many strange
devices, not to be understood by the uninitiated, but
magical in their effect when fixed on to the telescope
and used to break up the light of distant stars and
nebulz.

Compared with these mysterious glasses the PHOTO-
GRAPHIC CAMERA, standing in the background, with
its tall black covering cloth, like a hooded monk,
looked comparatively natural and familiar, yet it, too,
had puzzling plates and apparatus on the table near
it, which could be fitted on to the telescope, so that
by their means pictures might be taken even in the
dark night, and stars, invisible with the strongest lens,
might be forced to write their own story, and leave
their image on the plate for after study.

All these instruments told of the Magician’s
power in unveiling the secrets of distant space and
exploring realms unknown, but in another window,
now almost hidden in the shadow, stood a fourth
and highly-prized helpmate, which belonged in one
sense more to our earth, since everything examined
by it had to be brought near, and lie close under its
magnifying-glass, Yet the MICROSCOPE too could

B
4 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

carry its master into an unseen world, hidden to
mortal eye by minuteness instead of by distance.
If in the stillness of night the telescope was his most
cherished servant and familiar friend, the microscope
by day opened out to him the fairyland of nature.

As he sat on his high pedestal stool on this
summer night with the moonlight full upon him, his
whole attention was centred on the telescope, and
his mind was far away from that turret-room,
wandering into the distant space brought so near to
him; for he was waiting to watch an event which
brought some new interest every time it took place
—a total eclipse of the moon. To-night he looked
forward to it eagerly, for it happened that, just as
the moon would pass into the shadow of our earth,
it would also cross directly in front of a star, causing
what is known as an “ occultation” of the star, which
would disappear suddenly behind the rim of the
dark moon, and after a short time flash out on the
other side as the satellite went on its way.

How he wished as he sat there that he could
have shown this sight to all the eager lads whom he
was teaching to handle and Jove his magic glasses.
For this magician was not only a student himself,
he was a rich man and the Founder and Principal
of a Jarge public school for boys of the artisan class.
He had erected a well-planned and handsome build-
ing in the midst of the open country, and received
there, on terms within the means of their parents,
working-lads from all parts of England, who, besides
the usual book-learning, received a good technical
education in all its branches. And, while he left to
THE MAGICIAN’S PUPILS 5

other masters the regular school lessons, he kept for
himself the intense pleasure of opening the minds of
these lads to the wonders of God’s universe around
them.

You had only to pass down the turret stairs, into
the large science class-room below, to see at once
that a loving hand and heart had furnished it Not
only was there every implement necessary for
scientific work, but numerous rough diagrams cover-
ing the walls showed that labour as well as money
had been spent in decorating them. It was a large
oblong room, with four windows to the north, and four
to the south, in each of which stood a microscope
with all the tubes, needles, forceps, knives, etc.,
necessary for dissecting and preparing objects ;
and between the windows were open shelves, on which
were ranged chemicals of various kinds, besides many
strange-looking objects in bottles, which would have
amused a trained naturalist, for the lads collected
and preserved whatever took their fancy.

On some of the tables were photographic plates
laid ready for printing off; on others might be seen
drawings of the spectrum, made from the small
spectroscope fixed at one end of the room; on
others lay small direct spectroscopes which the
lads could use for themselves. But nowhere was
a telescope to be seen. This was not because
there were none, for each table had its small
hand - telescope, cheap but good. The truth is
that each of these instruments had been spirited
away into the dormitories that night, and many
heads were lying awake on their pillows, listening
6 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

for the strike of the clock to spring out and see the
eclipse begin.

A mere glance round the room showed that the
moon had been much studied lately. On the black-
board was drawn a rough diagram, showing how a
boy can illustrate for himself the moon's journey
round the earth, by taking a ball and holding it a
little above his head at arm’s length, while he turns
slowly round on ‘his heel in a darkened room before



boy illustrating the phases of the moon.

a lighted lamp, or better still before the lens of a
magic lantern (Fig. 1). The lamp or lens then re-
presents the sun, the ball is the moon, the boy’s
head is the earth. Beginning with the ball between
him and the source of light, but either a little above,

or a little below the direct line between his eye and
THE PHASES OF THE MOON 7

it, he will see only the dark side of the ball, and
the moon will be on the point of being “new.” Then
as he turns slowly, a thin crescent of light will creep
over the side nearest the sun, and by degrees en-
croach more and more, so that when he has turned
through one quarter of the round half the disc will
be light. When he has turned another quarter,
and has his back to the sun, a full moon will face
him. Then as he turns on through the third quarter
a crescent of darkness creeps slowly over the side
away from the sun, and gradually the bright disc is
eaten away by shadow till at the end of the third
quarter half the disc again only is light ; then, when
he has turned through another quarter and completed
the circle, he faces the light again and has a dark
moon before him. But he must take care to keep
the moon a little above or a little below his eye at
new and full moon. If he brings it exactly on a
line with himself and the light at new moon, he will
shut off the light from himself and see the dark
body of the ball against the light, causing an eclipse
of the sun; while if he does the same at full moon
his head will cast a shadow on the ball causing an
eclipse of the moon.

There were other diagrams showing how and why
such eclipses do really happen at different times in
the moon’s path round the earth; but perhaps the
most interesting of all was one he had made to
explain what so few people understand, namely, that
though the moon describes a complete circle round
our earth every month, yet she does not describe
a circle in space, but a wavy line inwards and out-
17th

Fig. 2.

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wards across the
earth’s path round the
sun. This is because
the earth is moving
on all the while, carry-
ing the moon with it,
and it is only by see-
ing it drawn before
our eyes that we can
I". realise how it happens.
: Thus suppose, in
order to make the
dates as simple as
possible, that there is
a new moon on the
Ist of some month.
Then by the goth (or
roughly speaking in
7% days) the moon
will have described a
quarter of a circle
round the earth as
shown by the dotted
line (Fig. 2), which
marks her position
night after night with
regard to us. Yet
because she is carried
onwards al] the while
by the earth, she will
really have passed
along the interrupted






ng onwards in


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SUNS RAYS

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Diagram showing the moon's course dur



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3
2
5
a
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dotted curved
THE MOON’S JOURNEY IN SPACE 9

line --- between us and the sun. During the next
week her quarter of a circle will carry her round be-
hind the earth, so that we see her on the 17th asa
full moon, yet her actual movement has been onwards
along the interrupted line on the farther side of the
earth. During the third week she creeps round
another quarter of a circle so as to be in advance of
the earth on its yearly journey round the sun, and
reaches the end of her third quarter on the 24th.
In her last quarter she gradually passes again
between the earth and the sun ; and though, as regards
the earth, she appears to be going back round to the
same place where she was at the beginning of the
month, and on the 31st is again a dark new moon,
yet she has travelled onwards exactly as much as
we have, and therefore has really not described a
circle in the Aeavens but a wavy line.

Near to this last diagram hung another, well loved
by the lads, for it was a large map of the face of
the moon, that is of the side which is a/ways turned
towards us, because the moon turns once on her
axis during the month that she is travelling round
the earth. On this map were marked all the different
craters, mountains, plains and shining streaks which
appear on the moon’s face; while round the chart
were pictures of some of these at sunrise and sunset
on the moon, or during the long day of nearly a
fortnight which each part of the face enjoys in its
turn.

By studying this map, and the pictures, they
were able, even in their small telescopes, to recognise
Tycho and Copernicus, and the mountains of the
10 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

moon, after they had once grown accustomed to the



Chart of the moon,

Craters—
1 Tycho. ¢q Aristarchus. 7 Plato. 10 Petavius.
2 Copernicus. 5 Eratosthenes. 8 Eudoxus. tr Ptolemy.
3 Kepler. 6 Archimedes. 9 Aristotle.
Grey plains formerly believed to be seas—

A- Mare Crisium. O Mare Imbrium.

C —— Frigoris. ( Oceanus Procellarum.

G —— Tranquillitatis, X Mare Forcunditatis.

H —— Serenitatis. T —— Humorum.

strange changes in their appearance which take
THE FACE OF THE FULL MOON II

place as daylight or darkness creeps over them.
They could not however pick out more than some of
the chief points. Only the magician himself knew
every crater and ridge under all its varying lights,



The full moon. (From Ball's Starland.)

and now, as he waited for the eclipse to begin, he
turned to a lad who stood behind him, almost hidden
in the dark shadow—the one fortunate boy who had
earned the right to share this night’s work.
12 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“We have still half an hour, Alwyn,” said he,
“ before the eclipse will begin, and I can show you the
moon’s face well to-night. Take my place here and
look at her while I point out the chief features.
See first, there are the grey plains (A, C, G, etc.)
lying chiefly in the lower half of the moon. You
can often see these on a clear night with the
naked eye, but-you must remember that then they
appear more in the upper part, because in the tele-
scope we see the moon’s face inverted or upside down.

“These plains were once thought to be oceans, but
are now proved to be dry flat regions situated at
different levels on the moon, and much like what
deserts and prairies would appear on our earth if seen
from the same distance. Looking through the
telescope, is it not difficult to imagine how people
could ever have pictured them as a man’s face? But
not so difficult to understand how some ancient
nations thought the moon was a kind of mirror, in
which our earth was reflected as in a looking-glass,
with its seas and rivers, mountains and valleys ; for
it does look something like a distant earth, and as
the light upon it is really reflected from the sun it
was very natural to compare it to a looking-glass.

“Next cast your eye over the hundreds of craters,
some large, others quite small, which cover the moon's
face with pitted marks, like a man with small-pox ;
while a few of the larger rings look like holes
made in a window-pane, where a stone has passed
through, for brilliant shining streaks radiate from
them on all sides like the rays of a star, covering
a large part of the moon. Brightest of all these
TYCHO AND HIS SURROUNDINGS

13
starred craters is Tycho, which you will easily find
near the top of the moon (1, Fig. 3), for you have
often seen it in the small telescope. How grand it
looks to-night in the full moon (Fig. 3a)! It is
true you see all the craters better when the moon
is in her quarters, because the light falls sideways
upon them and the shadows are more sharply defined ;
yet even at the full the bright ray of light on
Tycho's rim marks out the huge cavity, and you can
even see faintly the magnificent terraces which run
round the cup within, one below the other.

“This cavity measures fifty-four miles across,



Tycho and his surroundings.
(From a photograph of the moon taken by Mr. De la Rue, 1863.)

so that if it could be moved down to our earth
it would cover by far the largest part of Devon-
shire, or that portion from Bideford on the north,
14 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to the sea on the south, and from the borders of
Cornwall on the east, to Exeter on the west, and
it is 17,000 feet or nearly three miles in depth.
Even in the brilliant light of the full moon this
enormous cup is dark compared to the bright rim,
but it is much better seen in about the middle of the
second quarter, when the rising sun begins to light
up one side while the other is in black night.
The drawing on the wall (Fig. 4), which is taken
from an actual photograph of the moon’s face, shows
Tycho at this time surrounded by the numerous
other craters which cover this part of the moon.
You may recognise him by the gleaming peak in the
centre of the cup, and by his bright rim which is so
much more perfect than those of his companions.
The gleaming peak is the top of a steep cone or hill
rising up 6000 feet, or more than a mile from the base
of the crater, so that even the summit is about two
miles below the rim.

“There is one very interesting point in Tycho,
however, which is seen at its very best at full moon.
Look outside the bright rim and you will see that
from the shadow which surrounds it there spring
on all sides those strange brilliant streaks (see Fig.
3a) which I spoke of just now. There are others
quite as bright, or even brighter, round other craters,
Copernicus (Fig. 6), Kepler, and Aristarchus, lower
down on the right-hand side of the moon; but
these of Tycho are far the most widely spread, cover-
ing almost all the top of the face.

“What are these streaks? We do not know.
During the second quarter of the moon, when the sun
LUNAR AND TERRESTRIAL CRATERS I5

is rising slowly upon Tycho, lighting up his peak and
showing the crater beautifully divided into a bright
cup in the curve to the right, while a dense shadow lies
in the left hollow, these streaks are only faint, and
among the many craters around (see Fig. 4) you
might even have some difficulty at first in finding
the well-known giant. But as the sun rises higher
and higher they begin to appear, and go on increasing
in brightness till they shine with that wonderfully
silvery light you see now in the full moon.

Fig. 5.



Plan of the Peak of Teneriffe, showing how it resembles
a lunar crater. (A. Geikie.)

“Here is a problem for you young astronomers to
solve, as we learn more and more how to use the
telescope with all its new appliances.
16 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The crater itself is not so difficult to explain, for
we have many like it on our earth, only not nearly
so large. In fact, we might almost say that our earthly
volcanoes differ from those in the moon only by their
smaller size and by forming mountains with the crater
or cup on the top; while the Junar craters lie flat on
the surface of the moon, the hollow of the cup forming
a depression below it. The peak of Teneriffe (Fig. 5),
which is a dormant volcano, is a good copy in minia-
ture on our earth of many craters on the moon. The
large plain surrounded by a high rocky wall, broken
in places by lava streams, the smaller craters nestling
in the cup, and the high peak or central crater
rising up far above the others, are so like what we
see on the moon that we cannot doubt that the same
causes have been at work in both cases, even though
the space enclosed in the rocky wall of Teneriffe
measures only eight miles across, while that of Tycho
measures fifty-four.

“But of the streaks we have no satisfactory expla-
nation. They pass alike over plain and valley and
mountain, cutting even across other craters with-
out swerving from their course. The astronomer
Nasmyth thought they were the remains of cracks
made when the volcanoes were active, and filled
with molten lava from below, as water oozes up
through ice-cracks on a pond. But this explana-
tion is not quite satisfactory, for the lava, forcing
its way through, would cool in ridges which ought to
cast a shadow in sunlight. These streaks, however,
not only cast no shadow, as you can sce at the full
moon but when the sun shines sideways upon them
THE CRATER COPERNICUS 17

in the new or waning moon they disappear as we
have seen altogether. Thus the streaks, so brilliant
at full moon in Tycho, Copernicus, Kepler, and
Aristarchus, remain a puzzle to astronomers still.

Fig. 6.



\ A

The crater Copernicus.
(As given in Herschel’s Astronomy, from a drawing taken ina
reflecting telescope of 20 feet focal length. )

“We cannot examine these three last-named craters
well to-night with the full sun upon them ; but mark
their positions well, for Copernicus, at least, you must
18 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

examine on the first opportunity, when the sun is
rising upon it in the moon’s second quarter. It is
larger even than Tycho, measuring fifty-six miles
across, and has a hill in the centre with many peaks;
while outside, great spurs or ridges stretch in all
directions sometimes for more than a hundred miles,
and between these are scattered innumerable minute
craters. But the most striking feature in it is the
ring, which is composed inside the crater of mag-
nificent terraces divided by deep ravines. These
terraces are in some ways very like those of the
great crater of Teneriffe, and astronomers can best
account for them by supposing that this immense
crater was once filled with a lake of molten lava
rising, cooling at the edges, and then falling again,
leaving the solid ridge behind. The streaks are
also beautifully shown in Copernicus (see Fig. 6),
but, as in Tycho, they fade away as the sun sets
on the crater, and only reappear gradually as mid-
day approaches.

“ And now, looking a little to the left of Copernicus,
you will see that grand range of mountains, the
Lunar Apennines (Fig. 7), which stretches 400 miles
across the face of the moon. Other mountain
ranges we could find, but none so like mountains
on our own globe as these, with their gentle sunny
slope down to a plain on the left, and steep
perpendicular cliffs on the right. The highest
peak in this range, called Huyghens, rises to the
height of 21,000 feet, higher than Chimborazo in
the Andes. Other mountains on the moon, such as
those called the Caucasus, south of the Apennines,
THE MOUNTAINS OF THE MOON 19

are composed of disconnected peaks, while others
again stand as solitary pyramids upon the plains.
“ But we must hasten on, for I want you to observe
those huge walled crater-plains which have no hill
Fig. 7.



The Lunar Apennines.
(Copied by kind permission of MM. Henri from part of a magnificent photo-
graph taken by them, March 29, 1890, at the Paris Observatory. )

in the middle, but smooth steel-grey centres shining

like mirrors in the moonlight. One of these, called

Archimedes, you will find just below the Lunar

Apennines (Figs. 3 and 7), and another called Plato,

which is sixty miles broad, is still lower down the
Cc
20 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

moon’s face (Figs. 3 and 8). The centres of these broad
circles are curiously smooth and shining like quick-



The crater Plato as seen soon after sunrise. (After Neison. )

silver, with minute dots here and there which are
miniature craters, while the walls are rugged and
crowned with turret-shaped peaks.

“Tt is easy to picture to oneself how these may
once have been vast seas of lava, not surging as
in Copernicus, and heaving up as it cooled into
one great central cone, but seething as molten lead
does in a crucible, little bubbles bursting here and
there into minute craters ; and this is the explanation
given of them by astronomers.
THE CRATER-PLAINS AND THEIR ORIGIN 21

“And now that you have seen the curious rugged
face of the moon and its craters and mountains, you
will want to know how all this has come about. We
can only form theories on the point, except that
everything shows that heat and volcanoes have in
some way done the work, though no one has ever yet
clearly proved that volcanic eruptions have taken
place in our time. We must look back to ages long
gone by for those mighty volcanic eruptions which
hurled out stones and ashes from the great crater of
Tycho, and formed the vast seas of lava in Copernicus
and Plato.

“And when these were over, and the globe was
cooling down rapidly, so that mountain ranges
were formed by the wrinkling and rending of the
surface, was there then any life on the moon? Who
can tell? Our magic glasses can reveal what now
is, so far as distance will allow; but what has
been, except where the rugged traces remain, we
shall probably never know. What we now see is a
dead worn-out planet, on which we cannot certainly
trace any activity except that of heat in the past.
That there is no life there now, at any rate of the
kind on our own earth, we are almost certain ; first,
because we can nowhere find traces of water, clouds,
nor even mist, and without moisture no life like ours is
possible ; and secondly, because even if there is, as
perhaps there may be, a thin ocean of gas round
the moon there is certainly no atmosphere such as
surrounds our globe.

“One fact which proves this is, that there are
no half-shadows on the moon. If you look some
22 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

night at the mountains and craters during her first
and second quarters, you will be startled to see what
heavy shadows they cast, not with faint edges dying
away into light, but sharp and hard (see Figs. 6-8),
so that you pass, as it were by one step, from shadow
to sunshine. This in itself is enough to show that
there is no air to scatter the sunlight and spread it into
the edges of the shade as happens on our earth ; but
there are other and better proofs. One of these is,
that during an eclipse of the sun there is no reflec-
tion of his light round the dark moon as there
would be if the moon had an atmosphere ; another is
that the spectroscope, that wonderful instrument
which shows us invisible gases, gives no hint of air
around the moon; and another is the suddtn dis-
appearance or occultation of a star behind the moon,
such as I hope to see in a few minutes.

“See here! take the small hand telescope and turn
it on to the moon’s face while I take my place at
the large one, and I will tell you what to look for.
You know that at sunset we see the sun for some
time after it has dipped below the horizon, because
the rays of light which come from it are bent in our
atmosphere and brought to our eyes, forming in
them the image of the sun which is already gone.
Now in a short time the moon which we are watching
will be darkened by our earth coming between it
and the sun, and while it is quite dark it will pass
over a little bright star. In fact to us the star will
appear to set behind the dark moon as the sun sets
below the horizon, and if the moon had an atmo-
sphere like ours, the rays from the star would be bent
TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON 23

in it and reach our eyes after the star was gone, so
that it would only disappear gradually. Astronomers
have always observed, however, that the star is lost
to sight quite suddenly, showing that there is no
ocean of air round the moon to bend the light-rays.”

Here the magician paused, for a slight dimness
on the lower right-hand side of the moon warned
him that she was entering into the penumbra or

Fig. 9.



Diagram of total eclipse of the moon.

5, Sun. E, Earth. M, Moon passing into the earth's shadow
and passing out at M’,

R, R’, Lines meeting at a point U, U’ behind the earth and
enclosing a space within which all the direct rays of the
sun are intercepted by the earth, causing a black darkness
or umbra,

R, P and R’, P’, Lines marking a space within which, behind
the earth, part of the sun’s rays are cut off, causing a half-
shadow or fenuméra, P, P’.

a, a, Points where a few of the sun’s rays are bent or refracted
in the earth's atmosphere, so that they pass along the path
marked by the dotted lines and shed a lurid light on the
sun's face.

half-shadow (see Fig. 9) caused by the earth cutting
off part of the sun’s rays; and soon a deep black
24 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

shadow creeping over Aristarchus and Plato showed
that she was passing into that darker space or
umbra where the body of the earth is completely
between her and the sun and cuts off all his rays.
All, did I say? No! not all. For now was seen a
beautiful sight, which would prove to any one who
saw our earth from a great distance that it has a
deep ocean of air round it.

It was a clear night, with a cloudless sky, and
as the deep shadow crept slowly over the moon’s
face, covering the Lunar Apennines and Copernicus,
and stealing gradually across the brilliant streaks of
Tycho till the crater itself was swallowed up in dark-
ness, a strange lurid light began to appear. The
part of the moon which was eclipsed was not wholly
dark, but tinted with a very faint bluish-green light,
which changed almost imperceptibly, as the eclipse
went on, to rose-red, and then to a fiery copper-
coloured glow as the moon crept entirely into the
shadow and became all dark. The lad watching
through his small telescope noted this weird light, and
wondered, as he saw the outlines of the Apennines
and of several craters dimly visible by it, though
the moon was totally eclipsed. He noted, but was
silent. He would not disturb the Principal, for the
important moment was at hand, as this dark copper-
coloured moon, now almost invisible, drew near to
the star over which it was to pass.

This little star, really a glorious sun billions of miles
away behind the moon, was perhaps the centre of
another system of worlds as unknown to us as we to
them, and the fact of our tiny moon crossing between
LURID LIGHT DURING ECLIPSE 25

it and our earth would matter as little as if a grain
of sand was blown across the heavens. Yet to the
watchers it was a great matter—would the star give
any further clue to the question of an atmosphere
round the moon? Would its light linger even for
a moment, like the light of the setting sun? Nearer
and nearer came the dark moon; the star shone
brilliantly against its darkness ; one second and it was
gone. The long looked-for moment had passed, and
the magician turned from his instrument with a sigh.
“T have learnt nothing new, Alwyn,” said he, “ but at
least it is satisfactory to have seen for ourselves
the proof that there is no perceptible atmosphere
round the moon. We need wait no longer, for
before the star reappears on the other side the
eclipse will be passing away.”

“ But, master,” burst forth the lad, now the silence
was broken, “tell me why did that strange light of
many tints shine upon the dark moon ?”

“Did you notice it, Alwyn?” said the Principal,
with a pleased smile. “Then our evening’s work is
not lost, for you have made a real observation for
yourself. That light was caused by the few rays of
the sun which grazed the edge of our earth passing
through the ocean of air round it (see Fig. 9). There
they were refracted or bent, and so were thrown
within the shadow cast by our earth, and fell upon
the moon. If there were such a person as a ‘man
in the moon, that lurid light would prove to him
that our earth has an atmosphere. The cause of
the tints is the same which gives us our sunset
colours, because as the different coloured waves which
26 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

make white light are absorbed one by one, passing
through the denser atmosphere, the blue are cut off
first, then the green, then the yellow, till only the
orange and red rays reached the centre of the shadow,
where the moon was darkest. But this is too diffi-
cult a subject to begin at midnight.”

So saying, he lighted his lamp, and covering the
object-glass of his telescope with its pasteboard cap,
detached the instrument from the clockwork, and the
master and his pupil went down the turret stairs and
past through the room below. As they did so they
heard in the distance a scuffling noise like that of rats
in the wall. A smile passed over the face of the
Principal, for he knew that his young pupils, who
had been making their observations in the gallery
above, were hurrying back to their beds.
MAGIC GLASSES, AND HOW TO USE THEM 27

CHAPTER II

MAGIC GLASSES, AND HOW TO USE THEM

III- sun shone brightly in-
to the science class-room
at mid-day. No gaunt
shadows nor _ ghostly
moonlight now threw a
spell on the magic cham-

ber above. The instruments
looked bright and business-like,
and the Principal, moving
amongst them, heard the sub-
dued hum of fifty or more voices
rising from below. It was the
lecture hour, and the subject for the day was,
“Magic glasses, and how to use them.” As the
large clock in the hall sounded twelve, the Principal
gathered up a few stray lenses and prisms he had
selected, and passed down the turret stair to his
platform. Behind him were arranged his diagrams,
before him on the table stood various instruments,
and the rows of bright faces beyond looked up with
one consent as the hum quieted down and he began
his lecture.



28 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“T have often told you, boys, have I not? that I am
a Magician. In my chamber near the sky I work
spells as did the magicians of old, and by the help
of my magic glasses I peer into the secrets of nature.
Thus I read the secrets of the distant stars ; I catch
the light of wandering comets, and make it reveal
its origin; I penetrate into the whirlpools of the
sun; I map out the craters of the moon. Nor
can the tiniest being on earth hide itself from me.
Where others see only a drop of muddy water, that
water brought into my magic chamber teems with
thousands of active bodies, darting here and whirling
there amid a meadow of tiny green plants floating
in the water. Nay, my inquisitive glass sees even
farther than this, for with it I can watch the eddies
of water and green atoms going on in each of these
tiny beings as they feed and grow. Again, if I want
to break into the secrets of the rock at my feet, I
have only to put a thin slice of it under my micro-
scope to trace every crystal and grain; or, if I wish
to learn still more, I subject it to fiery heat, and
through the magic prisms of my spectroscope I read
the history of the very substances of which it is
composed. If I wish to study the treasures of the
wide ocean, the slime from a rock-pool teems with
fairy forms darting about in the live box imprisoned
in a crystal home. If some distant stars are in-
visible even in the giant glasses of my telescope, I
set another power to work, and make them print
their own image on a photographic plate and so
reveal their presence.

“ All these things you have seen through my magic
THE HUMAN EYE 29

glasses, and I promised you that one day I would
explain to you how they work and do my bidding.
But I must warn you that you must give all your
attention ; there is no royal road to my magician’s
power. Every one can attain to it, but only by
taking trouble. You must open your eyes and ears,
and use your intelligence to test carefully what your
senses show you.

“We have only to consider a little to see that we
depend entirely upon our senses for our knowledge
of the outside world. All kinds of things are going
on around us, about which we know nothing, because
our eyes are not keen enough to see, and our ears
not sharp enough to hear them. Most of all we
enjoy and study nature through our eyes, those
windows which let in to us the light of heaven, and
with it the lovely sights and scenes of earth; and
which are no ordinary windows, but most wonderful
structures adapted for conveying images to the brain.
They are of very different power in different people,
so that a long-sighted person sees a lovely land-
scape where a short-sighted one sees only a confused
mist ; while a short-sighted person can see minute
things close to the eye better than a long-sighted
one.

“Let us try to understand this before we go on to
artificial glasses, for it will help us to.explain how
these glasses show us many things we could never
see without them. Here are two pictures of the
human eyeball (Figs. 10 and 11), one as it appears
from the front, and the other as we should see the
parts if we cut an eyeball across from the front to
30 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the back. From these drawings we see that the
eyeball is round; it only looks oval, because it is
seen through the oval slit of the eyelids. It is really

Berries a hard, shining, white
ball with a thick nerve
cord (on, Fig. 11) pass-
ing out at the back,
and a dark glassy
mound ¢,cin the centre
of the white in front.
In this mound we
can easily distinguish
two parts—first, the
coloured ris or elastic
curtain (7, Fig. 10); and



Eye-ball seen from the front. secondly, the dark spot
(After Le Gros Clark.) or pupil in the centre.
w, White of eye. 7, Iris. £, Pupil.

The iris is the part
which gives the eye its colour; it is composed
of a number of fibres, the outer ones radiating to-
wards the centre, the inner ones forming a ring
round the pupil; and behind these fibres is a coat
of dark pigment or colouring matter, blue in some
people, grey, brown, or black in others. When the
light is very strong, and would pain the nerves inside
if too much entered the pupil or window of the eye,
then the ring of the iris contracts so as partly to
close the opening. When there is very little light,
and it is necessary to let in as much as possible, the
ring expands and the pupil grows large. The best
way to observe this is to look at a cat’s eyes in the
dusk, and then bring her near to a bright light ; for
HOW WE SEE 31

the iris of a cat’s eye contracts and expands much
more than ours does.

“ Now look at the second diagram (Fig. 1 1)andnotice
the chief points necessary in seeing. First you will



Section of an eye looking at a pencil. (Adapted from Kirke.)
¢,¢c, Cornea. w, White of eye. cm, Ciliary muscle. a,a, Aque-

ous humour. 7,7, Iris. /,/, Lens. 7,7, Retina. ov, Optic nerve.
1, 2, Pencil. 1’, 2’, Image of pencil on the retina.

observe that the pupil is not a mere hole; it is pro-
tected by a curved covering c. This is the cornea, a
hard, perfectly transparent membrane, looking much
like a curved watch-glass. Behind this is a small
chamber filled with a watery fluid a, called the
aqueous humour, and near the back of this chamber
is the dark ring or iris 7, which you saw from the
front through the cornea and fluid. Close behind
the iris again is the natural ‘magic glass’ of our
eye, the crystalline lens /, which is composed of per-
fectly transparent fibres and has two rounded or
32 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

convex surfaces like an ordinary magnifying glass.
This lens rests on a cushion of a soft jelly-like sub-
stance 7, called the vitreous humour, which fills the
dark chamber or cavity of the eyeball and keeps it
in shape, so that the retina 7, which lines the chamber,
is kept at a proper distance from the lens. This
retina is a transparent film of very sensitive nerves ;
it forms a screen at the back of the chamber, and has
a coating of very dark pigment or colouring matter
behind it. Lastly, the nerves of the retina all meet
in a bundle, called the optic nerve, and passing out
of the eyeball at a point on, go to the brain.
These are the chief parts we use in seeing ; now how
do we use them ?

“ Suppose that a pencil is held in front of the
eye at the distance at which we see small objects
comfortably. Light is reflected from all parts of the
surface of the pencil, and as the rays spread, a certain
number enter the pupil of the eye. We will follow
only two cones of light coming from the points 1
and 2 on the diagram Fig. 11. These you see enter
the eye, each widely spread over the cornea c. They
are bent in a little by this curved covering, and by
the liquid behind it, while the iris cuts off the rays
near the edges of the lens, which would be too much
bent to form a clear image. The rest of the rays
fall upon the lens 2 In passing through this lens
they are very much bent (or refracted) towards each
other, so much so that by the time they reach the
end of the dark chamber 7, each cone of light has
come to a point or focus 1’ 2’, and as rays of this
kind have come from every point all over the pencil,
IMAGE FORMED AT FOCAL DISTANCE 33

J

exactly similar points are formed on the retina, and
a real picture of the pencil is formed there between
1’ and 2’.

‘We will make a very simple and pretty experi-
ment to illustrate this. Darkening the room I light
a candle, take a square of white paper in my hand,
and hold a simple magnifying glass between the two
(see Fig. 12) about three inches away from the candle.
Then I shift the paper nearer and farther behind the
lens, till we get a clear image of the candle-flame

Fig. 12



Image of a candle-flame thrown on paper by a lens,

upon it. This is exactly what happens in our eye.
I have drawn a dotted line c round the lens and the
paper on the diagram to represent the eyeball in
which the image of the candle-flame would be on the
retina instead of on the piece of paper. The first
point you will notice is that the candle-flame is upside
down on the paper, and if you turn back to Fig. 11
you will see why, for it is plain that the cones of
light cross in the lens 4 1 going to 1’ and 2 to 2’.
Every picture made on our retina is upside down.
34 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“ But it is not there that we see it. As soon as the
points of light from the pencil strike upon the retina,
the thrill passes on along the optic nerve ov, through
the back of the eye to the brain; and our mind,
following back the rays exactly as they have come
through the lens, sees a pencil, outside the eye, right
way upwards.

“This is how we see with our eyes, which adjust
themselves most beautifully to our needs. For
example, not only is the iris always ready to expand
or contract according as we need more or less light,
but there is a special muscle, called the ciliary muscle
(cm, Fig. 11), which alters the lens for us to see things
far or near. In all, or nearly all, perfect eyes the
lens is flatter in front than behind, and this enables
us to see things far off by bringing the rays from them
exactly to a focus on the retina. But when we look
at nearer things the rays require to be more bent or
refracted, so without any conscious effort on our part
this ciliary muscle contracts and allows the lens to
bulge out slightly in front. Instantly we have a
stronger magnifier, and the rays are brought to the
right focus on the retina, so that a clear and full-size
image of the near object is formed. How little we
think, as we turn our eyes from one thing to another,
and observe, now the distant hills, now the sheep
feeding close by; or, as night draws on, gaze into
limitless space and see the stars millions upon
millions of miles away, that at every moment the
focus of our eye is altering, the iris is contracting
or expanding, and myriads of images are being
formed one after the other in that little dark cham-
FAR SIGHT AND NEAR SIGHT 35

ber, through which pass all the scenes of the outer
world !

“Yet even this wonderful eye cannot show us every-
thing. Some see farther than others, some see more
minutely than others, according as the lens of the eye
is flatter in one person and more rounded in another.
But the most long-sighted person could never have
discovered the planet Neptune, more than 2700
millions of miles distant from us, nor could the keenest-
sighted have known of the existence of those minute
and beautiful little plants, called diatoms, which live
around us wherever water is found, and form delicate
flint skeletons so infinitesimally small that thousands
of millions go to form one cubic inch of the stone
called tripoli, found at Bilin in Bohemia.

“It is here that our ‘magic glasses’ come to our
assistance, and reveal to us what was before invisible.

Fig. 13.



Arrow magnified by a convex lens,
a, 6, Real arrow. C, D, Magnifying-glass. A, B, Enlarged
image of the arrow.

We learnt just now that we see near things by the
lens of our eye becoming more rounded in front ; but
D
36 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

there comes a point beyond which the lens cannot
bulge any more, so that when a thing is very tiny,
and would have to be held very close to the eye for
us to see it, the lens can no longer collect the rays
to a focus, so we see nothing but a blur. More than
800 years ago an Arabian, named Alhazen, explained
why rounded or convex glasses make things appear
larger when placed before the eye. This glass which
I hold in my hand is a simple
magnifying-glass, such as we
used for focusing the candle-
flame. It bends the rays in-
wards from any small object
(see the arrow a, 4, Fig. 13) so
that the lens of our eye can
use them, and then, as we
follow out the rays in straight
lines to the place where we
see clearly (at A, B), every
point of the object is magni-
fied, and we not only see it
much larger, but every mark
upon it is much more distinct.
You all know how the little
shilling magnifying - glasses
Student's microscope. you carry show the most
ei in flowers, on the wings of
butterflies, on the head of a bee or fly, and, in fact,
in all minute living things.
“ But this is only our first step. Those diatoms we
spoke of just now will only look like minute specks

Fig. 14


THE MICROSCOPE 37

under even the strongest magnifying-glass. So we
pass on to use two extra
lenses to assist our eyes,
and come to this com-
pound microscope (Fig. 14)
through which I have be-
fore now shown you the
delicate markings on shells
which were themselves so
minute that you could not
see them with the naked
eye. Now we have to dis-
cover how the microscope
performs this feat. Going
back again for a minute
to our candle and magnify-
ing-glass (Fig. 12), you will
find that the nearer you put
the lens to the candle the
farther away you will have

Fig. 15.

to put the paper to get a
clear image. When in a
microscope we put a
powerful lens 0, 7 close
down to a very minute
object, say a spicule of a
flint sponge s, s, quite in-



ie x Skeleton of a microscope, showing
visible to the unaided eye, how an object is magnified.
the rays from this spicule o, 7, Object-lens. ¢, g, Eye-glass.
are brought to a focus a“ Spicule. s,s’, Magnified
. F ‘ og image of same in the tube.
long way behind it at 5,5, 5,5, Image again enlarged by
making an enlarged image the lens of the eye-piece.

DS
38 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

because the lines of light have been diverging ever
since they crossed in the lens. If you could put a
piece of paper at s’ s’, as you did in the candle
experiment, you would see the actual image of the
magnified spicule upon it. But as these points of
light are only in an empty tube, they pass on, spread-
ing out again from the image, as they did before from
the spicule. Then another convex lens or eye-
glass e, g is put at the top of the microscope at
the proper distance to bend these rays so that they
enter our eye in nearly parallel lines, exactly as we
saw in the ordinary magnifying-glass (Fig. 13), and
our crystalline lens can then bring them to a focus
on our retina.

“ By this time the spicule has been twice magnified ;
or, in other words, the rays of light coming from it
have been twice bent towards each other, so that
when our eye follows them out in straight lines they
are widely spread, and we see every point of light so
clearly that all the spots and markings on_ this
minute spicule are as clear as if it were really as
large as it looks to us.

“This is simply the principle of the microscope.
When you come to look at your own instruments,
though they are very ordinary ones, you will find that
the object-glass 0, / is made of three lenses, flat on the
side nearest the tube, and each lens is composed of
two kinds of glass in order to correct the unequal
refraction of the rays, and prevent fringes of colour
appearing at the edge of the lens. Then again the
eye-piece will be a short tube with a lens at each
end, and halfway between them a black ledge will be
WHAT THE MICROSCOPE REVEALS 39

seen inside the tube which acts like the iris of our
eye (7, Fig. 11) and cuts off the rays passing through
the edges of the lens. All these are devices to cor-
rect faults in the microscope which our eye corrects
for itself, and they have enabled opticians to make
very powerful lenses.

“Look now at the diagram (Fig. 16) showing a
group of diatoms which you can see under the
microscope after the lecture. Notice the lovely
patterns, the delicate tracery, and the fine lines on
the diatoms shown there. Yet each of these minute
flint skeletons, if laid on a piece of glass by itself,
would be quite in-
visible to the naked
eye, while hundreds
of them together
only look like a
faint mist on the
slide on which they
lie. Nor are they
even here shown as
much magnified as
they might be;
under a stronger
power we should
see those delicate

lines on the diatoms Fossil diatoms seen under the microscope.
broken u Pp into The largest of these is an almost imperceptible
speck to the naked eye.

Fig. 16.



minute round cups.

“Ts it not wonderful and delightful to think that
we are able to add in this way to the power of our
eyes, till it seems as if there were no limit to the
40 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

hidden beauties of the minute forms of our earth, if
only we can discover them ?

“ But our globe does not stand alone in the universe,
and we want not only to learn all about everything
we find upon it, but also to look out into the vast
space around us and discover as much as we can
about the myriads of suns and planets, comets and
meteorites, star-mists and nebula, which are to be
found there. Even with the naked eye we can admire
the grand planet Saturn, which is more than 800
millions of miles away, and this in itself is very
marvellous. Who would have thought that our tiny
crystalline lens would be able to catch and focus
rays, sent all this enormous distance, so as actually
to make a picture on our retina of a planet, which,
like the moon, is only sending back to us the light
of the sun? For, remember, the rays which come to
us from Saturn must have travelled twice 800 millions
of miles—884 millions from the sun to the planet,
and less or more from the planet back to us, according
to our position at the time. But this is as nothing
when compared to the enormous distances over which
light travels from the stars to us. Even the nearest
star we know of, is at least twenty szl/ions of millions
of miles away, and the light from it, though travelling
at the rate of 186,300 miles in a second, takes four
years and four months to reach us, while the light from
others, which we can see without a telescope, is be-
tween twenty and thirty years on its road. Does not
the thought fill us with awe, that our little eye should
be able to span such vast distances ?

“But we are not yet nearly at the end of our
DHE TELESCOPE 41

wonder, for the same power which devised our eye
gave us also the mind capable of inventing an instru-
ment which increases the strength of that eye till we
can actually see stars so far off that their light takes
two thousand years coming to our globe. If the
microscope delights us in helping us to see things
invisible without it, because they are so small, surely
the telescope is fascinating beyond all other magic
glasses when we think that it brings heavenly bodies,
thousands of billions of miles away, so close to us
that we can examine them.

“A Telescope (Fig. 17) can, like the microscope, be
made of only two glasses: an object-glass to form
an image in the tube and ee z
a magnifying eye-piece
to enlarge it. But there
is this difference, that the
object lens of a micro-
scope is put close down
to a minute object, so
that the rays fall upon
it at a wide angle, and
the image formed in the
tube is very much larger
than the object outside.
In the telescope, on the
contrary, the thing we
look at is far off, so that An astronomical telescope.
the rays fall on the © Eye-piece. & Object-glass.
object-glass at such a Seserm es
very narrow angle as to be practically parallel, and the
image in the tube is of course very, very much smaller


42 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

than the house, or church, or planet it pictures.
What the object-glass of the telescope does for us, is
to bring a small rea/ zmage of an object very far off
close to us in the tube of the telescope so that we
can examine it.

“Think for a moment what this means. Imagine
that star we spoke of (p. 41), whose light, travelling
186,300 miles in one second, still takes 2000
years to reach us. Picture the tiny waves of light
crossing the countless billions of miles of space
during those two thousand years, and reaching us so
widely spread out that the few faint rays which
strike our eye are quite useless, and for us that star
has no existence; we cannot see it. Then go and
ask the giant telescope, by turning the object-glass
in the direction where that star lies in infinite space.
The widespread rays are collected and come to a
minute bright image in the dark tube. You put the
eye-piece to this image, and there, under your eye, is
a shining point: this is the image of the star, which
otherwise would be lost to you in the mighty
distance.

“Can any magic tale be more marvellous, or any
thought grander, or more sublime than this? From
my little chamber, by making use of the laws of light,
which are the same wherever we turn, we can pene-
trate into depths so vast that we are not able even
to measure them, and bring back unseen stars to tell
us the secrets of the mighty universe. As far as the
stars are concerned, whether we see them or not
depends entirely upon the number of rays collected
by the object-glass ; for at such enormous distances
HOW THE TELESCOPE MAGNIFIES 43

the rays have no angle that we can measure, and
magnify as you will, the brightest star only remains
a point of light. It is in order to collect enough
rays that astronomers have tried to have larger and
larger object-glasses ; so that while a small good
hand telescope, such as you use, may have an object-
glass measuring only an inch and a quarter across,
some of the giant telescopes have lenses of two and a
half feet, or thirty inches, diameter. These enormous
lenses are very difficult to make and manage, and have
many faults, therefore astronomical telescopes are
often made with curved mirrors to reffect the rays,
and bring them to a focus instead of refracting them
as curved lenses do.

“We see, then, that one very important use of the
telescope is to bring objects into view which otherwise
we would never see; for, as I have already said,
though we bring the stars into sight, we cannot
magnify them. But whenever an object is near
enough for the rays to fall even at a very small
perceptible angle on the object-glass, then we can
magnify them ; and the longer the telescope, and the
stronger the eye-piece, the more the object is magnified.

“T want you to understand the meaning of this, for
it is really very simple, only it requires a little thought.
Here are skeleton drawings of two telescopes (Fig.
18), one double the length of the other. Let us
suppose that two people are using them to look at
an arrow on a weathercock a long distance off. The
rays of light 7, 7 from the two ends of the arrow will
enter both telescopes at the same angle 7, x, 7, cross
in the lens, and pass on at exactly the same angle into
44



Skeletons of telescopes.

A, A one-foot telescope with
a three-inch eye-piece. B, A
two-foot telescope with a three-
inch eye-piece. ¢, /, Eye-piece.
Rays

which enter the telescopes and



0, g, Object-glass. r, 7,
crossing at x form an image
at 7, 7, which is magnified by
the lens ¢, /.
and 7, x, @ In

A the angle 7, 0, ¢ is four times

are the same.

greater than that of 7, x, 7. In

B it is eight times greater.

The angles 7, x, r
g

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the tubes. So far all is alike,
but now comes the difference.
In the short telescope A the
object-glass must be of sucha
curve as to bring the cones of
light in each ray to a focus at
a distance of one foot behind
it) and there a small image ¢, 7
of the arrow is formed. But B
being twice the length, allows
the lens to be less curved, and
the image to be formed two fect
behind the object-glass ; and
as the rays 7, r have been av-
verging ever since they crossed
at x, the real image of the
arrow formed at 7, zis twice the
size of the same image in A.
Nevertheless, if you could put
a piece of paper at 7, Zin both
telescopes, and look through
the odject-glass (which you
cannot actually do, because
your head would block out the
rays), the arrow would appear
the same size in both tele-
scopes, because one would be
twice as far off from you as
the other, and the angle 2, +, 7
is the same in both.

' Tn our Fig. 18 the distances are inches instead of feet, but the pro-

portions are the same,
WHAT SMALL TELESCOPES CAN DO 45

“But by going to the proper end of the telescope
you can get quite near the image, and can see and
magnify it, if you put a strong lens to collect the rays
from it to a focus. This is the use of the eye-piece,
which in our diagram is placed at a quarter of a
foot or three inches from the image in both tele-
scopes. Now that we are close to the images, the
divergence of the points 7, 7 makes a great difference.
In the small telescope, in which the image is only
one foot behind the object-glass, the eye-piece being
a quarter of a foot from it, is four times nearer, so
the angle 7, 0,2 is four times the angle 2, x, z, and the
man looking through it sees the image magnified
four times. But in the longer telescope the image
is two fect behind the lens, while the eye-piece is,
as before, a quarter of a foot from it. Thus the eye-
piece is now eight times nearer, so the angle Z, a, z is
eight times the angle z, 2, z, and the observer sees the
image magnified cight times.

“In real telescopes, where the difference between
the focal length of the object-glass and that of the
eye-glass can be made enormously greater, the
magnifying power is quite startling, only the object-
glass must be large, so as to collect enough rays to
bear spreading widely. Even in your small tele-
scopes, with a focus of eighteen inches, and an object-
glass measuring one and a quarter inch across, we
can put on a quarter of an inch eye-piece, and so
magnify seventy-two times ; while in my observatory
telescope, eight feet or ninety-six inches long, an
eye-piece of half an inch magnifies 192 times, and I
can put on a 21-inch eye-piece and magnify 768
46 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

times! And so we can go on lengthening the
focus of the object-glass and shortening the focus
of the eye-piece, till in Lord Rosse’s gigantic
fifty-six-foot telescope, in which the image is fifty-
four feet (648 inches) behind the object-glass, an
eye-piece one-eighth of an inch from the image
magnifies 5184 times! These giant telescopes, how-
ever, require an enormous object-glass or mirror, for
the points of light are so spread out in making the
large image that it is very faint unless an enor-
mous number of rays are collected. Lord Rosse’s
telescope has a reflecting mirror measuring six feet
across, and a man can walk upright in the telescope
tube. The most powerful telescope yet made is that
at the Lick Observatory, on Mount Hamilton, in
California. It is fifty-six and a half feet long, the
object-lens measures thirty-six inches across. star seen through this telescope appears 2000 times
as bright as when seen with the naked eye.

“You need not, however, wait for an opportunity
to look through giant telescopes, for my small
student’s telescope, only four feet long, which we
carry out on to the lawn, will show you endless
unseen wonders; while your hand telescopes, and
even a common opera-glass, will show many features
on the face of the moon, and enable you to see the
crescent of Venus, Jupiter’s moons, and Saturn’s
rings, besides hundreds of stars unseen by the naked
eye.

“ Of course you will understand that Fig. 18 only
shows the frinciple of the telescope. In all good
instruments the lenses and other parts are more
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA 47

complicated ; and in a terrestrial telescope, for looking
at objects on the earth, another lens has to be put
in to turn them right way up again. In looking at
the sky it does not matter which way up we see a
planet or a star, so the second glass is not needed,
and we lose light by using it.

“We have now three magic glasses to work for
us—the magnifying-glass, the microscope, and the
telescope. Besides these, however, we have two other
helpers, if possible even more wonderful. These are
the Photographic camera and the Spectroscope.

“Now that we thoroughly understand the use of
lenses, I need _— scarcely
explain this photographic
camera (Fig. 19), for it is
clearly an artificial eye. In
place of the crystalline lens
(compare with Fig. 11) the
photographer uses one, or
generally two lenses /, /, with
a black ledge or stop s be-
tween them, which acts like
the iris in cutting off the
rays too near the edge of the
lens. The dark camera ¢
answers to the dark chamber
of the eyeball, and the 7, 2, Lenses. s,s, Screen cut-
plate p, p at the back of ting off diverging rays. \ c, Slid-
the chamber, which is made i"§ box. , #, Picture formed.
sensitive by chemicals, answers our vetiza. The box
is formed of two parts, sliding one within the other
at c, so as to place the plate at a proper distance

Fig. 19.



Photographic camera.
48 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

from the lens, and then a screw adjusts the focus
more exactly by bringing the front lens back or for-
ward, instead of altering the curve as the ci/iary
muscle does in our eye. The difference between the
two instruments is that in our eye the message
goes to the brain, and the image disappears when
we turn our eyes away from the object; but in
the camera the waves of light work upon the
chemicals, and the image can be fixed and remain
for ever.

“ But the camera has at least one weak point. The
screen at the back is not curved like our retina, but
must be flat because of printing off the pictures, and
therefore the parts of the photograph near the edge
are a little out of proportion.

“In many ways, however, this photographic eye is
a more faithful observer than our own, and helps us
to make more accurate pictures. For instance, in-
stantaneous photographs have been taken of a
galloping horse, and we find that the movements are
very different from what we thought we saw with
our eye, because our retina does not throw off one
‘impression after another quickly enough to be quite
certain we see each curve truly in succession. Again,
the photograph of a face gives minute curves and
lines, lights and shadows, far more perfectly than
even the best artist can see them, and when the
picture is magnified we see more and more details
which escaped us before.

“But it is especially when attached to the micro-
scope or the telescope that the photographic
apparatus tells us such marvellous secrets; giving
WHAT PHOTOGRAPHS CAN SHOW 49

us, for instance, an accurate picture of the most
minute water-animal quite invisible to the naked eye,
so that when we enlarge the photograph any one can
see the beautiful markings, the finest fibre, or the
tiniest granule; or affording us accurate pictures,
such as the one at p. 19 of the face of the moon, and
bringing stars into view which we cannot otherwise
see even with the strongest telescope.

“Our own eye has many weaknesses. For ex-
ample, when we look through the telescope at the
sky we can only fix our attention on one part at
once, and afterwards on another; and the picture
which we see in this way, bit by bit, we must draw
as best we can. But if we put a sensitive photo-
graphic plate into the telescope just at the point (z, z,
Fig. 18), where the zmage of the sky is focused,
this plate gives attention, so to speak, to the whole
picture at once, and registers every point exactly as
it is; and this picture can be kept and enlarged so
that every detail can be seen.

“ Then, again, if we look at faint stars, they do not
grow any brighter as we look. Each ray sends its
message to the brain, and that is all; we cannot
heap them up in our eye, and, indeed, after a time
we see less, because our nerves grow tired. But on
a photographic plate in a telescope, each ray in its
turn does a little work upon the chemicals, and the
longer the plate remains, the stronger the picture
becomes. When wet plates were used they could
not be left long, but since dry plates have been
invented, with a film of chemically prepared gelatine,
they can be left for hours in the telescope, which is
50 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

kept by clockwork accurately opposite to the same
objects. In this way thousands of faint stars, which
we cannot see with the strongest telescope, creep
into view as their feeble rays work over and over
again on the same spot; and, as the brighter stars
as well as the faint ones are all the time making
their impression stronger, when the plate comes out
each one appears in its proper strength. On the
other hand, very bright objects often become blurred
by a long exposure, so that we have sometimes to
sacrifice the clearness of a bright object in order to
print faint objects clearly.

“We now come to our last magic glass—the
Spectroscope ; and the hour has slipped by so fast
that I have very little time left to speak of it. But
this matters less as we have studied it before.’ 1
need now only remind you of some of the facts. You
will remember that when we passed sunlight through
a three-sided piece of glass called a prism, we broke
up a ray of white light into a line of beautiful
colours gradually passing from red, through orange,
yellow, green, blue, and indigo, to violet, and that
these follow in the same order as we see them in the
rainbow or in the thin film of a soap-bubble. By
various experiments we proved that these colours are
separated from each other because the many waves
which make up white light are of different sizes, so
that because the waves of red light are slow and
heavy, they lag behind when bent in the three-sided
glass, while the rapid violet waves are bent more out

1 Fairyland of Science, Lecture II.; and Short History of Natural
Science, chapter xxxiv.
THE SPECTROSCOPE 51

of their road and run to the farther end of the line,
the other colours ranging themselves between.
“Now when the light falls through the open
window, or through a round hole or /arge slit, the
images of the hole made by each coloured wave
overlap each other very much, and the colours in
the spectrum or coloured band are crowded together.
But when in the spectroscope we pass the ray of light
through a very narrow slit, each coloured image of the

Fig. 20.



Kirchhoff’s spectroscope.
A, The telescope which receives the ray of light
through the slit in O.

upright slit overlaps the next upright image only
very little. By using several prisms one after the
other (see Fig. 21), these upright coloured lines are
separated more and more till we get a very long
band or spectrum. Yet, ‘as you know from our
experiments with the light of a glowing wire or of
molten iron, however much you spread out the light
E
52 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

given by a solid or liquid, you can never separate
these coloured lines from each other. It is only
when you throw the light of a glowing gas or vapour
into the slit that you get a few bright lines standing
out alone. This is because a// the rays of white light
are present in glowing solids and liquids, and they
follow each other too closely to be separated. But
a gas, such as glowing hydrogen for example, gives
out only a few separate rays, which, pouring through
the slit, throw red, greenish-blue, and dark blue lines
on the screen Thus
you have seen the
double, orange-yellow
sodium line (3, Plate I.
which starts out at
once when salt is held
in a flame and _ its
light thrown into the
spectroscope, and the
red line of potassium
vapour under the same
treatment; and we



Passage of rays through the spectroscope. shall observe these
S, S’, Slit through which the light falls again when we study

piiecrmit ce aoe egos cee De recryiee :
on the prisms. 1, 2, 3, 4, Prisms in the coloured lights of

which the rays are dispersed more and
the sun and stars.

more. a, 4, Screen receiving the spectrum,
of which the seven principal colours are “We see, then, that
ee the work of our magic

glass, the spectroscope, is simply to sift the waves
of light, and that these waves, from their colour
and their position in the long spectrum, actually tell
us what glowing gases have started them on their
WHAT THE SPECTROSCOPE CAN SHOW 33

road. Is not this like magic? I take a substance
made of I know not what ; I break it up, and, melting
it in the intense heat of an electric spark, throw its
light into the spectroscope. Then, as I examine this
light after it has been spread out by the prisms, I
can actually read by unmistakable lines what metals
or non-metals it contains. Nay, more; when I catch
the light of a star, or even of a faint nebula, in my
telescope, and pass it through these prisms, there,
written up on the magic-coloured band, I read off
the gases which are glowing in that star-sun or
star-dust billions of miles away.

“ Now, boys, I have let you into the secrets of my
five magic glasses—the magnifying-glass, the micro-
scope, the telescope, the photographic camera, and
the spectroscope. With these and the help of
chemistry you can learn to work all my spells. You
can peep into the mysteries of the life of the tiniest
being which moves unseen under your feet; you
can peer into that vast universe, which we can never
visit so long as our bodies hold us down to our
little earth ; you can make the unseen stars print
their spots of light on the paper you hold in your
hand, by means of light-waves, which left them
hundreds of years ago; or you can sift this light in
your spectroscope, and make it tell you what sub-
stances were glowing in that star when they were
started on their road. All this you can do on one
condition, namely, that you seek patiently to know
the truth.

“Stories of days long gone by tell us of true magi-
cians and false magicians, and the good or evil they
54 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wrought. Of these I know nothing, but I do know
this, that the value of the spells you can work with
my magic glasses depends entirely upon whether you
work patiently, accurately, and honestly. If you
make careless, inaccurate experiments, and draw
hasty conclusions, you will only do bad work, which
it may take others years to undo; but if you
question your instruments honestly and carefully,
they will answer truly and faithfully. You may
make many mistakes, but one experiment will correct
the other; and while you are storing up in your
own mind knowledge which lifts you far above this
little world, or enables you to look deep below the
outward surface of life, you may add your little
group of facts to the general store, and help to pave
the way to such grand discoveries as those of Newton
in astronomy, Bunsen and Kirchhoff in spectrum
analysis, and Darwin in the world of life.”
FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

un
wi

CHAPTER III

FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

T was a lovely warm day in
September, the golden corn
had been cut and carted,
and the waggons of the
farmers around were free
for the use of the college

lads in their yearly autumn

holiday. There they stood
in a long row, one behind
the other in the drive round the
grounds, each with a pair of

y sleek, powerful farm-horses, and
oo the waggoners beside them with

their long whips ornamented with coloured ribbons ;

and as each waggon drew up before the door, it
filled rapidly with its merry load and went on its

Way.

They had a long drive of seven miles before them,
for they were going to cross the wild moor, and then
descend gradually along a fairly good road to the
more wooded and fertile country. Their object that


56 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

day was to reach a certain fairy dell known to a few
only among the party as one of the loveliest spots in
Devon. It was a perfect day for a picnic. As
they drove over the wide stretches of moorland, with
tors to right and tors to the left, the stunted furze
bushes growing here and there glistened with spiders’
webs from which the dew had not yet disappeared,
and mosses in great variety carpeted the ground,
from the lovely thread-mosses, with their scarlet
caps, to the pale sphagnum of the bogs, where a halt
was made for some of the botanists of the party to
search for the little Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia).
Though this little plant had now almost ceased to
flower, it was not difficult to recognise by its rosette
of leaves glistening with sticky glands which it
spreads out in many of the Dartmoor bogs to catch
the tiny flies and suck out their life’s blood, and
several specimens were uprooted and carefully packed
away to plant in moist moss at home.

From this bog onwards the road ran near by one
of the lovely streams which feed the rivers below, and,
passing across a bridge covered with ivy, led through
a small forest of stunted trees round which the wood-
bine clung, hanging down its crimson berries, and the
bracken fern, already putting on its brown and yellow
tints, grew tall and thick on either side. Then, as
they passed out of the wood, they came upon the
dell, a piece of wild moorland lying in a hollow
between two granite ridges, with large blocks of
granite strewn over it here and there, and furze bushes
growing under their shelter, still covered with yellow
blossoms together with countless seed-bearing pods,
FAIRY RINGS IN A DELL 57

which the youngsters soon gathered for the shiny
black seeds within them.

Here the waggons were unspanned, the horses
tethered out, the food unpacked, and preparations for
the picnic soon in full swing. Just at this moment,
however, a loud shout from one part of the dell called
every one’s attention. “The fairy rings! the fairy
rings! we have found the fairy rings!” and there
truly on the brown sward might be seen three deli-
cate green rings, the fresh sprouting grass growing
young and tender in perfect circles measuring from
six feet to nearly three yards across.

“What are they?” The question came from many
voices at once, but it was the Principal who answered.

“Why, do you not know that they are pixie circles,
where the ‘elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and
groves’ hold their revels, whirling in giddy round,
and making the rings, ‘whereof the ewe not bites’?
Have you forgotten how Mrs. Quickly, in the Jerry
Wives of Windsor, tells us that

“ ‘nightly, meadow-fairies, look you sing,
Like to the Garter’s compass, in a ring :
The expressure that it bears, green let it be,
More fertile-fresh than all the field to see’ ?

“If we are magicians and work spells under magic
glasses, why should not the pixies work spells on the
grass? I brought you here to-day on purpose to
see them. Which of you now can name the pixie
who makes them?”

A deep silence followed. If any knew or guessed
the truth of the matter, they were too shy to risk
making a mistake.
58 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“Be off with you then,” said the Principal, “and
keep well away from these rings all day, that you
may not disturb the spell. But come back to me
before we return at night, and perhaps I may show
you the wonder-working pixie, and we may take him
home to examine under the microscope.”

The day passed as such happy days do, and the
glorious harvest moon had risen over the distant
tors before the horses were spanned and the waggons
ready. But the Principal was not at the starting
place, and looking round they saw him at the farther
end of the dell.

“Gently, gently,” he cried, as there was one general
rush towards him ; “look where you tread, for I stand
within a ring of fairies!”

And then they saw that just outside the green
circle in which he stood, forming here and there a
broken ring, were patches of a beautiful tiny mush-
room, each of which raised its pale brown umbrella
in the bright moonlight.

“Here are our fairies, boys. I am going to take
a few home where they can be spared from the ring,
and to-morrow we will learn their history.”

The following day saw the class-room full, and
from the benches eager eyes were turned to the
eight windows, in each of which stood one of the
elder boys at his microscope ready for work. For
under those microscopes the Principal always arranged
some object referred to in his lecture and figured in
diagrams on the walls, and it was the duty of each
boy, after the lecture was over, to show and explain
IMPS AND PIXIES OF PLANT-LIFE 59

to the class all the points of the specimen under
his care. These boys were always specially envied,
for though the others could, it is true, follow all the
descriptions from the diagrams, yet these had the
plant or animal always under their eye. Discussion
was at this moment running high, for there was a
great uncertainty of opinion as to whether a mush-
room could be really called a plant when it had no
leaves or flowers. All at once the hush came, as the
Principal stepped into his desk and began :-—

“Life is hard work, boys, and there is no being
in this world which has not to work for its living.
You all know that a plant grows by taking in gases
and water, and working them up into sap and living
tissue by the help of the sunshine and the green
matter in their leaves; and you know, too, that
the world is so full of green plants that hundreds
and thousands of young seedlings can never get a
living, but are stifled in their babyhood or destroyed
before they can grow up.

“Now there are many dark, dank places in the
world where plants cannot get enough sunlight
and air to make green colouring matter and manu-
facture their own food. And so it comes to pass
that a certain class of plants have found another
way of living, by taking their food ready made
from other decaying plants and animals, and so
avoiding the necessity of manufacturing it for them-
selves. These plants can live hidden away in dark
cellars and damp cupboards, in drains and pipes
where no light ever enters, under a thick covering of
dead leaves in the forest, under fallen trunks and
60 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

mossy stones; in fact, wherever decaying matter,
whether of plant or animal, can be found for them
to feed upon.

“Tt is to this class, called fuugz, which includes
all mushrooms and moulds, mildews, smuts, and
ferments, that the mushroom belongs which we
found yesterday making the fairy rings. And, in
truth, we were not so far wrong when we called
them pixies or imps, for many of them are indeed
imps of mischief, which play sorry pranks in our
stores at home and in the fields and forest abroad.
They grow on our damp bread, or cheese, or pickles ;
they destroy fruit and corn, hop and vine, and even
take the life of insects and other animals. Yet, on
the other hand, they are useful in clearing out un-
healthy nooks and corners, and purifying the air ;
and they can be made to do good work by those
who know how to use them; for without ferments
we could have neither wine, beer, nor vinegar, nor
even the yeast which lightens our bread.

“I am going to-day to introduce you to this large
vagabond class of plants, that we may see how they
live, grow, and spread, what good and bad work
they do, and how they do it. And before we come
to the mushrooms, which you know so well, we must
look at the smaller forms, which do all their work
above ground, so that we can observe them. For the
Jungi are to be found almost everywhere. The film
growing over manure-heaps, the yeast plant, the winc
fungus, and the vinegar plant; the moulds and mil-
dews covering our cellar-walls and cupboards, or
growing on decayed leaves and wood, on stale fruit,
MOULDS AND MILDEWS 61

bread, or jam, or making black spots on the leaves
of the rose, the hop, or the vine; the potato fungus,
cating into the potato in the dark ground and pro-
ducing disease ; the smut filling the grains of wheat
and oats with disease, the ergot feeding on the rye,
the rust which destroys beetroot, the rank toadstools
and puff-balls, the mushroom we eat, and the truffles
which form even their fruit underground,—all these
are fungi, or lowly plants which have given up mak-
ing their own food in the sunlight, and take it ready
made from the dung, the decaying mould, the root,
the leaf, the fruit, or the germ on which they grow.
Lastly, the diseases which kill the silkworm and the
common house-fly, and even some of the worst skin
diseases in man, are caused by minute plants of this
class feeding upon their hosts.

“In fact, the fungi are so widely spread over all
things living and dead, that there is scarcely any-
thing free from them in one shape or another. The

Fig. 22.



Three forms of vegetable mould magnified.

1, Mucor Mucedo. 2, Aspergillus glaucus. 3, Penicillium glaucum.

minute spores, now of one kind, now of another,
float in the air, and settling down wherever they
find suitable food, have nothing more to do than
62 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to feed, fatten, and increase, which they do with
wonderful rapidity. Let us take as an example
one of the moulds which covers damp leaves, and
even the paste and jam in our cupboard. I have
some here growing upon a basin of paste, and you
see it forms a kind of dense white fur all over the
surface, with here and there a bluish-green tinge
upon it. This white fur is the common mould, Mucor
Mucedo (1, Fig. 22), and the green mould happens in
this case to be another mould, Penicillium glaucum
(3, Fig. 22); but I must warn you that these minute
moulds look very much alike until you examine
them under the microscope, and though they are
called white, blue, or green moulds, yet any one of
them may be coloured at different times of its
growth. Another very common and beautiful mould,
Aspergillus glaucus (2, Fig. 22), often grows with
Mucor on the top of jam.

“All these plants begin with a spore or minute
colourless cell of living matter (s, Fig. 23), which
spends its energy in sending out tubes in all direc-
tions into the leaves, fruit, or paste on which it feeds,
The living matter, flowing now this way now that,
lays down the walls of its tubes as it flows, and by
and by, here and there, a tube, instead of working
into the paste, grows upwards into the air and
swells at the tip into a colourless ball in which
a number of minute seed-like bodies called spores are
formed. The ball bursts, the spores fall out, and each
one begins to form fresh tubes, and so little by little
the mould grows denser and thicker by new plants
starting in all directions.


HOW MOULDS GROW 63

Under the first microscope you will see a slide
showing the tubes which spread through the paste,
and which are called the mycelium (m, Fig. 23), and

amongst it are three upright
tubes, one just starting a,
another with the fruit ball
forming 6, and a third «¢,
which is bursting and throw-
ing out the spores. The
Aspergillus and the Penicil-
lium differ from the Mucor in
having their spores naked
and not enclosed in a spore-
case. In Penicillium they
grow like the beads of a
necklace one above the other
on the top of the upright
tube, and can very easily be
separated (see Fig. 22); while
Aspergillus, a most lovely
silvery mould, is more com-
plicated in the growth of its
spores, for it bears them on
many rows branching out
from the top of the tube like
the rays of a star.

“T want you to look at
each of these moulds care-
fully under the microscope,
for few people who hastily
scrape a mould away, vexed



Fig. 23.

Mucor Mucedo, greatly magni-
nified. (After Sachs and
Brefeld. )

m, Mycelium, or tangle of
threads. a, 6, c, Upright tubes
in different stages. c, Spore-
case bursting and sending out
spores. s, 1, 2, 3, A growing
spore, in different stages, start-
ing a new mycelium,

to find it on food or

damp clothing, have any idea what a delicate and
64 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

beautiful structure lies under their hand. These
moulds live on decaying matter, but many of the
mildews, rusts, and other kinds of fungus, prey upon
living plants such as the smut of oats (Ustilago carbo),
and the dunt (Tilletia carta) which eats away the
inside of the grains of wheat, while another fungus
attacks its leaves. There is scarcely a tree or herb
which has not one fungus to prey upon it, and many
have several, as, for example, the common lime-tree,
which is infested by seventy-four different fungi, and
the oak by no less than 200.

“So these colourless food-taking plants prey upon
their neighbours, while they take their oxygen for
breathing from air. The ‘ ferments, however, which
live zuséde plants or fluids, take even their oxygen
for breathing from their hosts.

“If you go into the garden in summer and pluck
an overripe gooseberry, which is bursting like this
one I have here, you will probably find that the pulp
looks unhealthy and rotten near the split, and the
gooseberry will taste tart and disagreeable. This is
because a small fungus has grown inside, and worked
a change in the juice of the fruit. At first this
fungus spread its tubes outside and merely fed upon
the fruit, using oxygen from the air in breathing ;
but by and by the skin gave way, and the fungus
crept inside the gooseberry where it could no longer
get any fresh air. In this dilemma it was forced to
break up the sugar in the fruit and take the oxygen
out of it, leaving behind only alcohol and carbonic
acid which give the fermented taste to the fruit.

“So the fungus-imp feeds and grows in nature,
THE GROWTH OF YEAST 65

and when man gets hold of it he forces it to do
the same work for a useful purpose, for the grape-
fungus grows in the vats in which grapes are crushed
and kept away from air, and tearing up the sugar,
leaves alcoho] behind in the grape-juice, which in
this way becomes wine. So, too, the yeast-fungus
grows in the malt and hop liquor, turning it into
beer ; its spores floating in the fluid and increasing
at a marvellous rate, as any housewife knows who,
getting yeast for her bread, tries to keep it in a
corked bottle.

“The yeast plant has never been found wild. It
is only known as a cultivated plant, growing on
prepared liquor. The brewer has to sow it by taking
some yeast from other beer, or by leaving the liquor
exposed to air in which yeast spores are floating ;
or it will sow itself in the same
way in a mixture of water, hops,
sugar, and salt, to which a handful
of flour is added. It increases at
a marvellous rate, one cell budding }
out of another, while from time to
time the living matter in a cell will
break up into four parts instead of |
two, and so four new cells will start Yeast cells growing
and bud. A drop of yeast will very under the microscope.
soon cover a glass slide with this cee eat
tiny plant, as you will see under . 4 group of cells where
the second microscope, where they division is going on in
are now at work (Fig. 24). een

“But perhaps the most curious of all the minute
fungi are those which grow inside insects and destroy


66 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

them. At this time of year you may often see a
dead fly sticking to the window-pane with a cloudy
white ring round it; this poor fly has been killed by
a little fungus called Empusa musce. A spore from
a former plant has fallen perhaps on the window-
pane, or some other spot over which the fly has
crawled, and being sticky has fixed itself under the
fly’s body. Once settled on a favourable spot it
sends out a tube, and piercing the skin of the fly,
begins to grow rapidly inside. There it forms little
round cells one after the other, something like the
yeast-cells, till it fills the whole body, feeding on its
juices ; then each cell sends a tube, like the upright
tubes of the Mucor (Fig. 23) out again through the
fly’s skin, and this tube bursts at the end, and so
new spores are set free. It is these tubes, and the
spores thrown from them, which you see forming a
kind of halo round the dead fly as it clings to the
pane. Other fungi in the same way kill the silk-
worm and the caterpillars of the cabbage butterfly.
Nor is it only the lower animals which suffer. When
we once realise that fungus spores are floating every-
where in the air, we can understand how the terrible
microscopic fungi called bacteria will settle on an
open wound and cause it to fester if it is not properly
dressed.

“Thus we see that these minute fungi are almost
everywhere. The larger ones, on the contrary, are
confined to the fields and forests, damp walls and
hollow trees; or wherever rotting wood, leaves, or
manure provide them with sufficient nourishment.
Few people have any clear ideas about the growth
HOW MUSHROOMS GROW 67

of a mushroom, except that the part we pick springs
up in a single night. The real fact is, that a whole
mushroom plant is nothing more than a gigantic
mould or mildew, only that it is formed of many
different shaped
cells, and spreads
its tubes under-
ground or through
the trunks of trees
instead of in paste
or jam, as in the
case of the mould.

“The part which
we gather and calla
mushroom, a_ toad-
stool, or a puffball is ;

. Early stages of the mushroom.
only the fruit, answer- (After Sachs.)
ing to the round balls —m, Mycelium. 1-3, Mushroom buds of
of the mould. The different ages. 74, Button mushroom. &
see ete ret yO Semin tn tebe tere ae
a thick network of
tubes, which you will see under the third micro-
scope. These tubes spread underground and suck
in decayed matter from the earth; they form the
mycelium (m, Fig. 25) such as we found in the
mould, The mushroom-growers call it ‘mushroom
spawn’ because they use it to spread over the
ground for new crops. Out of these underground
tubes there springs up from time to time a
swollen round body no bigger at first than a mustard
seed (61, Fig. 25). As it increases in size it comes
above ground and grows into the mushroom or
F

Fig. 25.


68 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

spore-case, answering to the round balls which
contain the spores of the mould. At first this
swollen body is egg-shaped, the top half being
largest and broadest, and the fruit is then called
a ‘button-mushroom’ 64. Inside this ball are
now formed a series of folds made of long cells,
some of which are soon to bear spores just as the

" "Fig. 26. 2



Later stages of the mushroom. (After Gautier. }
1, Button mushroom stage. c, Cap. v, Veil. g, Gills.
2, Full-grown mushroom, showing veil v after the cap is quite
free, and the gills or lamellx g, of which the structure is shown in
Fig. 27.

tubes in the mould did, and while these are forming
and ripening, a way out is preparing for them. For
as the mushroom grows, the skin of the lower part
of the ball (v, 64) is stretched more and more, till it
can bear the strain no longer and breaks away from
the stalk ; then the ball expands into an umbrella,
leaving a piece of torn skin, called the veil (v, Fig. 26),
clinging to the stalk.

“ All this happens in a single night, and the mush-
room is complete, with a stem up the centre and a
THE GROWTH OF MUSHROOM GILLS 69

broad cap, under which are the folds which bear the
spores. Thus much you can see for yourselves at any
time by finding a place where mushrooms grow and
looking for them late at night and early in the
morning so as to get the different stages. But now

Fig. 27.



1, One of the gills or lamella of the mushroom slightly magnified,
showing the cells round the edge. c, Cells which do not bear
spores. fc, Fertile cells. 2, A piece of the edge of the same
powerfully magnified, showing how the spores s grow out of the
tip of the fertile cells /.

we must turn to the microscope, and cutting off one
of the folds, which branch out under the cap like the
spokes of a wheel, take a slice across it (1, Fig. 27)
and examine.

“ First, under a moderate power, you will see the
cells forming the centre of the fold and the layer of
long cells (cand /c) which are closely packed all round
the edge. Some of these cells project beyond the
others, and it is they which bear the spores. We
see this plainly under a very strong power when you
can distinguish the sterile cells c and the fertile cells
70 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Je projecting beyond them, and each bearing four
spore-cells s on four little horns at its tip.

“These spores fall off very easily, and you can
make a pretty experiment by cutting off a large
mushroom head in the early morning and putting it
flat upon a piece of paper. In a few hours, if you
lift it very carefully, you will find a number of dark
lines on the paper, radiating from a centre like the
spokes of a wheel, each line being composed of the
spores which have fallen from a fold as it grew ripe.
They are so minute that many thousands would be
required to make up the size of the head of an ordin-
ary pin, yet if you gather the spores of the several
kinds of mushroom, and examine them under a strong
microscope, you will find that even these specks of
matter assume different shapes in the various species.

“You will be astonished too at the immense
number of spores contained in a single mushroom
head, for they are reckoned by millions; and when
we remember that each one of these is the starting
point of a new plant, it reminds us forcibly of the
wholesale destruction of spores and seeds which must
go on in nature, otherwise the mushrooms and their
companions would soon cover every inch of the
whole world.

“ As it is, they are spread abroad by the wind, and
wherever they escape destruction they lie waiting in
every nook and corner till, after the hot summer,
showers of rain hasten the decay of plants and leaves,
and then the mushrooms, toadstools, and puffballs,
grow at an astounding pace. If you go into the woods
at this season you may see the enormous deep-red liver
THE FAIRY-RING MUSHROOM 71

fungus (Fustulina hepatica) growing on the oak-trees,
in patches which weigh from twenty to thirty pounds ;
or the glorious orange-coloured fungus (Zvemella
mesenterica) growing on bare sticks or stumps of
furze ; or among dead leaves you may easily chance
on the little caps of the crimson, scarlet, snowy white,
or orange-coloured fungi which grow in almost every
wood. From white to yellow, yellow to red, red to
crimson and purple black, there is hardly any colour
you may not find among this gaily-decked tribe ; and
who can wonder that the small bright-coloured caps
have been supposed to cover tiny imps or elves, who
used the large mushrooms to serve for their stools
and tables?

“There they work, thrusting their tubes into twigs
and dead branches, rotting trunks and decaying
leaves, breaking up the hard wood and tough
fibres, and building them up into delicate cells,
which by and by die and leave their remains as food
for the early growing plants in the spring. So we
see that in their way the mushrooms and toadstools
are good imps after all, for the tender shoot of a
young seedling plant could take no food out of a
hard tree-trunk, but it finds the work done for it by
the fungus, the rich nourishment being spread around
its young roots ready to be imbibed.

“To find our fairy-ring mushrooms, however, we
must leave the wood and go out into the open
country, especially on the downs and moors and
rough meadows, where the land is poor and the grass
coarse and spare. There grow the nourishing kinds,
most of which we can eat, and among these is the
72 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

delicate little champignon or ‘Scotch-bonnet’ mush-
room, Marasmius Oreades,\ which makes the fairy-
rings. When a spore of this mushroom begins to.
grow, it sucks up vegetable food out of the earth and
spreads its tubes underground, in all directions from
the centre, so that the mycelium forms a round patch
like a thick underground circular cobweb. In the
summer and autumn, when the weather is suitable, it
sends up its delicate pale-brown caps, which we may
gather and eat without stopping the growth of the
plant.

“This goes on year after year underground, new
tubes always travelling outwards till the circle widens
and widens like the rings of water on a pond, only
that it spreads very slowly, making a new ring each
year, which is often composed of a mass of tubes as
much as a foot thick in the ground, and the tender
tubes in the centre die away as the new ones form a
larger hoop outside.

“But all this is below ground; where then are
our fairy rings? Here is the secret. The tubes, as
we have seen, take up food from the earth and
build it up into delicate cells, which decay very soon,
and as they die make a rich manure at the roots of
the grass. So each season the cells of last year’s ring
make a rich feeding-ground for the young grass,
which springs up fresh and green in a fairy ring,
while outside this emerald circle the mushroom tubes
are still growing and increasing underneath the grass,
so that next year, when the present ring is no longer
richly fed, and has become faded and brown like the

1 Shown in initial letter of this chapter.
HOW FAIRY RINGS ARE FORMED 73

rest of the moor, another ring will spring up outside
it, feeding on the prepared food below.

“In bad seasons, though the tubes go on spreading
and growing below, the mushroom fruit does not
always appear above ground. The plant will only
fruit freely when the ground has been well warmed
by the summer sun, followed by damp weather to
moisten it. This gives us a rich crop of mushrooms
all over the country, and it is then you can best
see the ring of fairy mushrooms circling outside the
green hoop of fresh grass. In any case the early
morning is the time to find them ; it is only in very
sheltered spots that they sometimes last through the
day, or come up towards evening, as I found them
last night on the warm damp side of the dell.

“ This is the true history of fairy rings, and now go
and look for yourselves under the microscopes,
Under the first three you will find the three different
kinds of mould of our diagram (Fig. 22). Under the
fourth the spores of the mould are shown in their
first growth putting out the tubes to form the
mycelium. The fifth shows the mould itself with its
fruit-bearing tubes, one of which is bursting. Under
the sixth the yeast plant is growing; the seventh
shows a slice of one of the folds of the common
mushroom with its spore-bearing horns; and under
the eighth I have put some spores from different
mushrooms, that you may see what curious shapes
” they assume.

“Lastly, let me remind you, now that the autumn
and winter are coming, that you will find mush-
rooms, toadstools, puffballs, and moulds in plenty
74 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wherever you go. Learn to know them, their differ-
ent shapes and colours, and above all the special
nooks each one chooses for its home. Look around
in the fields and woods and take note of the decay-
ing plants and trees, leaves and bark, insects and
dead remains of all kinds. Upon each of these you
will find some fungus growing, breaking up their
tissues and devouring the nourishing food they pro-
vide. Watch these spots, and note the soft spongy
soil which will collect there, and then when the
spring comes, notice what tender plants flourish upon
these rich feeding grounds. You will thus see for
yourselves that the fungi, though they feed upon
others, are not entirely mischief-workers, but also
perform their part in the general work of life.”
THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES 75

CHAPTER IV

THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES

" HE autumn has passed away
and we are in the midst
of winter. In the long
winter evenings the stars
shine bright and clear, and
tempt us to work with the telescope
and its helpmates the spectroscope
and photographic plates. But at
first sight it would seem as though
our microscopes would have to stand
idle so far at least as plants are
concerned, or be used only to ex-
amine dried specimens and mounted
sections. Yet this is not the fact, as I remembered
last week when walking through the bare and leafless
wood. A startled pheasant rising with a whirr at
the sound of my footsteps among the dead leaves
roused me from my thoughts, and as a young rabbit
scudded across the path and I watched it disappear
among the bushes, I was suddenly struck with the




76 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

great mass of plant life flourishing underfoot and
overhead.

Can you guess what plants these were? I do
not mean the evergreen pines and firs, nor the few
hardy ferns, nor the lovely ivy clothing the trunks
of the trees. Such plants as these live and remain
green in the winter, but they do not grow. If you
wish to find plant life revelling in the cold damp
days of winter, fearing neither frost nor snow and
welcoming mist and rain, you must go to the mosses,
which as autumn passes away begin to cover the
wood-paths, to creep over the roots of the trees, to
suck up the water in the bogs, and even to clothe
dead walls and stones with a soft green carpet.
And with the mosses come the lichens, those curious
grey and greenish oddities which no one but a
botanist would think of classing among plants.

The wood is full of them now: the hairy lichens
hang from the branches of many of the trees, making
them look like old greybearded men; the leafy
lichens encircle the branches, their pale gray, green,
and yellow patches looking as if they were made of
crumpled paper cut into wavy plates ; and the crusty.
lichens, scarcely distinguishable from the bark of the
trees, cover every available space which the mosses
have left free.

As I looked at these lichens and thought of their
curious history I determined that we would study
them to-day, and gathered a basketful of specimens
(see Fig. 28). But when I had collected these I found
I had not the heart to leave the mosses behind. I
could not even break off a piece of bark with lichen
A GROUP OF LICHENS 77

upon it without some little moss coming too, especi-
ally the small thread-mosses (Brywm) which make a



Examples of Lichens. (From life.)
1, A hairy lichen. 2, A leafy lichen. 3, A crustaceous lichen.
A/S, the fruit.

home for themselves in every nook and corner of the
branches; while the feather-mosses, hair-mosses,
cord-mosses, and many others made such a lovely
carpet under my feet that each seemed too beautiful
to pass by, and they found their way into my basket,
crowned at the top with a large mass of the pale-
green Sphagnum, or bog-moss, into which I sank
more than ankle-deep as I crossed the bog in the
centre of the wood on my way home.

So here they all are, and I hope by the help of
our magic glass to let you into some of the secrets
of their lives. It is true we must study the structure
of lichens chiefly by diagrams, for it is too minute
for beginners to follow under the microscope, so we
must trust to drawings made by men more skilful in
microscopic botany, at any rate for the present. But
the mosses we can examine for ourselves and admire
their delicate leaves and wonderful tiny spore-cases.
78 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Now the first question which I hope you want to
ask is, how it is that these lowly plants flourish so
well in the depth of winter when their larger and
stronger companions die down to the ground. We
will answer this first as to the lichens, which are such
strange uncanny-looking plants that it is almost
difficult to imagine they are alive at all; and indeed
they have been a great puzzle to botanists. _

Before we examine them, however, look for a
minute at a small drop of this greenish film which I
have taken from the rain-water taken outside. I
have put some under each microscope, and those
who can ldok into them will
see the slide almost covered
with small round green cells
very much like the yeast
cells we saw when studying
the Fungi, only that instead
of being colourless they are
a bright green. Some of
these cells will I suspect be
longer than others, and these
Single-celled green plants grow- long cells will be moving

ing and dividing (Pleurococcus). gyer the slide very rapidly,

(Shel anaes end porn) swimming hither and thither,
and you will see, perhaps for the first time, that very
low plants can swim about in water. These green
cells are, indeed, the simplest of all plants, and
are merely bags of living matter which, by the help
of the green granules in them, are able to work up
water and gases into nourishing food, and so to live,
grow, and multiply.



’
*

WHERE SINGLE-CELLED PLANTS GROW 79

’ There are many kinds of these single-celled plants
in the world. You may find them on damp paths,
in almost any rain-water butt, in ponds and ditches,
in sparkling waterfalls, along the banks of flowing
rivers, and in the cold clear springs on the bleak
mountains. Some of them take the form of tangled
threads’ composed of long strings of cells, and these
sometimes form long streamers in flowing water, and
at other times are gathered together in a shapeless
film only to be disentangled under a microscope.
Other kinds * wave to and fro on the water, forming
dense patches of violet, orange-brown, or glossy green
scum shining in the bright sunlight, and these flourish
equally in the ponds of our gardens and in pools in
the Himalaya mountains, 18,000 feet above the sea.
Others again® seize on every damp patch on tree
trunks, rocks, or moist walls, covering them with a
green powder formed of single plant cells. Other
species of this family turn a bright red colour when
the cells are still; and one, under the name of Gory
Dew,* has often frightened the peasants of Italy, by
growing very rapidly over damp walls and then
turning the colour of blood. Another® forms the
“red snow” of the Arctic regions, where it covers
wide surfaces of snow with a deep red colour. Others °
form a shiny jelly over rocks and stones, and these
may be found almost everywhere, from the garden
path to the warm springs of India, from the marshes
of New Zealand up to the shores of the Arctic ocean,
and even on the surface of floating icebergs.

1 Conferva. 2 Oscillaria. 3 Protococcus.
+ Palmella cruenta. 5 Protococcus nivalis. 6 Nostoc.
80 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The reason why these plants can live in such very
different regions is that they do not take their food
through roots out of the ground, but suck in water
and gases through the thin membrane which covers
their cell, and each cell does its own work. So it
matters very little to them where they lie, so long as
they have moisture and sunlight to help them in
their work. Wherever they are, if they have these,
they can take in carbonic acid from the air and
work up the carbon with other gases which they
imbibe with the water, and so make living material.
In this way they grow, and as a cell grows larger
the covering is stretched and part of the digested
food goes to build up more covering membrane, and
by and by the cell divides into two and each mem-
brane closes up, so that there are two single-celled
plants where there was only one before. This will
sometimes go on so fast that a small pond may be
covered in a few hours with a green film formed of
new cells.

Now we have seen, when studying mushrooms, that
the one difference between these green plants and the
single-celled Fungi is that while the green cells make
their own food, colourless cells can only take it in
ready-made, and therefore prey upon all kinds of
living matter. This is just what happens in the
lichens; and botanists have discovered that these
curious growths are really the result of a partnership
between single-celled green plants and single-celled
fungi. The grey part is a fungus; but when it is
examined under the microscope we find it is not a
fungus only; a number of green cells can be seen
HOW LICHENS SUCCEED 81

scattered through it, which, when carefully studied,
prove to be some species of the green single-celled
plants.

Here are two drawings of sections cut through
two different lichens, and
enormously magnified so
that the cells are clearly
seen. i, Fig. 30 is part of
a hairy lichen (1, Fig. 28),
and 2 is part of a leafy
lichen (2, Fig.. 28). The
hairy lichen as you see has
a row of green cells all round
the tiny branch, with fungus |
cells on all sides of them. ||
The leafy lichen, which only *
presents one surface to the
sun and air while the other
side is against the tree, has
only one layer of green cells
near the surface, but pro-



Sections of Lichens. (Sachs. )

1, Section of a hairy lichen,
tected by the fungus above. Usnea barbata. 2, Section of a

The way the lichen has leafy lichen, Sticta Suliginosa.
grown is this. A green cell 3 Early growth of a lichen.

(gc 3, Fig. 30) falling on g¢, Green cells. /, Fungus.

some damp spot has begun to grow and spread,
working up food in the sunlight. To it comes
the spore of the fungus f first thrusting its tubes
into the tree-bark, or wall, and then spreading
round the green cells, which remain always in
such a position that sunlight, air, and moisture
can reach them. From this time the two classes of
82 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

plants live as friends, the fungus using part of the
food made by the green cells, and giving them in
return the advantage of being spread out to the
sunlight, while they are also protected in frosty or
sultry weather when they would dry up on a bare
surface. On the whole, however, the fungus probably
gains the most, for it has been found, as we should
expect, that the green cells can live and: grow if
separated out of the lichen, but the fungus cells die
when their industrious companions are taken from
them.

At any rate the partnership succeeds, as you will
see if you go into the wood, or into an orchard where
the apple-trees are neglected, for every inch of the
branches is covered by lichens if not already taken
up by mosses or toadstools.

There is hardly any part of the world except the
tropics where lichens do not abound. In the Alps
of Scandinavia close to the limits of perpetual snow,
in the sandy wastes of Arctic America, and over the
dreary Tundras of Arctic Siberia, where the ground
is frozen hard during the greater part of the year,
they flourish where nothing else can live.

The little green cells multiply by dividing, as we
saw them doing in the green film from the water-
butt. The fungus, however, has many different
modes of seeding itself. One of these is by form-
ing little pockets in the lichen, out of which, when
they burst, small round bodies are thrown, which
cover the lichen with a minute green powder. There
is plenty of this powder on the leafy lichen which
you have by you. You can see it with the magnify-
HOW LICHENS FRUIT 83

ing-glass, without putting it under the microscope.
As long as the lichen is dry these round bodies do
not grow, but as soon as moisture reaches them they
start away and become new plants.

A more complicated and beautiful process is shown
in this diagram (Fig. 31). If you look carefully at
the leafy lichen (2, Fig. 28) you will find here and
there some little cups 4 while others grow upon the



Fructification of a lichen, (From Sachs and Oliver.)
Apothecium or spore-chamber of a lichen. 1, Closed. 2, Open.
3, The spore-cases and filaments enlarged, showing the spores. /, Fila-
ments. sc, Spore-cases, 5, Spores.

tips of the hairy lichen. These cups, or fruits,
were once closed, flask-shaped chambers (1, Fig.
31) inside which are formed a number of oval
cells sc, which are spore-cases, with from four to eight
spores or seed-like bodies s3 inside them. When
these chambers, which are called afothecia, are ripe,
moist or rainy weather causes them to swell at the
G
84 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

top, and they burst open and the spore-cases throw
out the spores to grow into new fungi. .

In some lichens the chambers remain closed and
the spores escape through a hole in the top, and they
are then called perithecia, while in others, as these
which we have here, they open out into a cup-shape.

This, then, is the curious history of lichens; the
green cells and fungi flourishing together in the damp
winter and bearing the hardest frost far better than
the summer drought, so that they have their good
time when most other plants are dead or asleep.
Yet though some of them, such as the hairy
lichens, almost disappear in the summer, they are by
no means dead, for, like all these very low plants,
they can bear being dried up for a long time, and then,
when moisture visits them again, each green cell sets
to work, and they revive. There is much more to be
learnt about them, but this will be sufficient to make
you feel an interest in their simple lives, and when
you look for them in the wood you will be surprised to
find how many different kinds there are, for it is most
wonderful that such lowly plants should build up such
an immense variety of curious and grotesque forms.

And yet, when we turn to the mosses, I am half
afraid they will soon attract you away from the dull
grey lichens, for of all plant histories it appears to
me that the history of the moss-plant is most
fascinating.

As this history is complicated by the moss having,
as it were, two lives, you must give me your whole
attention, and I will explain it first from diagrams,
THE HISTORY OF A MOSS 85

though you can see all the steps under the micro-
scope.

Take in your hands, in the first place, a piece of
this green moss which I have brought. How thick
it is, like a rich felted carpet! and yet,
if you pull it apart carefully, you will
find that each leafy stem is separate,
and can be taken away from the
others without breaking anything.
In this dense moss each stem is
single and clothed with leaves
wrapped closely round it (see Fig,
33); in some mosses the stem is
branched, and in others the leaves
grow on side stalks, as in this
feathery moss (Fig. 32). But in each A stem of feathery
case every stem is like a separate â„¢Ss (Fromlife.)
plant, with its own tuft of tender ” eee ne
roots 7, "

What a delicate growth it is! The stem is
scarcely more than a fine thread, the leaves minute,
transparent, and tender. In this pale sphagnum or
bog-moss (Fig. 36, p. 93), which is much larger and
stouter, you can see better how each one of these
leaves, though they are so thickly packed, is placed
so that it can get the utmost light, air, and moisture.
Yet so closely are the leaves of each stem entangled
in those of the next that the whole forms a thick
springy green carpet under our feet.

How is it, then, that these moss stems, though
each independent, grow in such a dense mass?
Partly because moss multiplies so rapidly that new


86 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

stems are always thrusting themselves up to the
light, but chiefly because the stems were not always
separate, but in very early life sprang from a
common source.

If, instead of bringing the moss home and tearing
it apart, you went to a spot in the wood where fresh
moss was growing, and looked very carefully on
the surface of the ground or among the water
of a marsh, you would find a spongy green mass
below the growing moss, very much like the green
scum ona pond. This film, some of which I
have brought home, is seen under the microscope
to be a mass of tangled green threads (¢, Fig. 34,
p. 88) like those of the Conferve (see p. 79), com-
posed of rows of cells, while here and there upon
these threads you would find a bud (smd, Fig. 34)
rising up into the air.

This tangled mass of green threads, called the
protonema, is the first growth, from which the moss
stems spring. It has itself originated from a moss-
spore, as we shall see by and by. As soon as it has
started it grows and spreads very rapidly, drinking
in water and air through all its cells and sending up
the moss buds which swell and grow, giving out roots
below and fine stems above, which soon become
crowded with leaves, forming the velvety carpet we
call moss. Meanwhile the soft threads below die
away, giving up all their nourishment to the moss-
stems, and this is why, when you take up the moss,
you find each stem separate. But now comes the
question, How does each stem live after the nourishing
threads below have died? It is true each stem has
A MOSS LEAF 87

a few hairy roots, but these are very feeble, and not
at all like the roots of higher plants. The fact is,
the moss is built up entirely of tender cells, like the
green cells in the lichen, or in
the film upon the pond. These
cells are not shut in behind a
thick skin as in the leaves of
higher plants, but have every
one of them the power to take
in water and gases through their
tender membrane.

I made last night a rough
drawing of the leaf of the
feathery moss put under the
microscope, but you will see it
far better by putting a leaf with — Moss-leaf magnified.

a little water on a glass slide ey)

zi Showing the cells c,
under the covering glass and ex- each of which can take in
amining it for yourself. You and work up its own food.
will see that it is composed of ”” Long cells of the mid-
a number of oval-shaped cells a
packed closely together (c Fig. 33), with a few long
narrow ones my in the middle of the leaf forming the
midrib. Every cell is as clear and distinct as if it
were floating in the water, and the tiny green
grains which help it to work up its food are clearly
visible.

Each of these cells can act as a separate plant,
drinking in the water and air it needs, and feeding
and growing quite independently of the roots below.
Yet at the same time the moss stem has a great
advantage over single-celled plants in having root-


88.

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

hairs, and being able to grow upright and expose
its leaves to the sun and air.

Fig. 34.



Polytrichum commune.
hair-moss.

7, t, Threads of green cells forming

the Zrotonema out of which moss-buds

A large

spring. 2b, Buds of moss-stems.
a, Minute green flower in which the
antherozoids are formed (enlarged in
Fig. 35). 2, £1, £2, £3, Minute green
flower in which the ovules are formed,
and urn-plant springing out of it (en-
larged in Fig. 35). ws, Urn stems.
c, Cap. z, Urn after cap has fallen off,
still protected by its lid.

Now youwill no longer »
wonder that moss grows
so fast and so thick, and
another curious fact fol-
lows from the independ-
ence of each cell, namely,
that new growths can
start from almost any
part of the plant. For
example, pieces will often
break off from the
tangled mass or pro-
tonema below, and, start-
ing on their own account,
form other thread masses,
Then, after the moss
stems have grown, a
new mass of threads may
grow from one of the
tiny root-hairs of a stem
and make a fresh tangle ;
nay, a thread will some-
times even spring out
of a damp moss leaf
and make a new begin-
ning, while the moss
stems themselves often
put forth buds and
branches, which grow

root-hairs and settle down on their own account.
MOSS- FLOWERS 89

All this comes from the simple nature of the plants,
each cell doing its own work. Nor are the mosses in
any difficulty as to soil, for as the matted threads
decay they form a rich manure, and the dying moss-
stems themselves, being so fragile, turn back very
readily into food. This is why mosses can spread
over the poorest soil where even tough grasses cannot
live, and clothe walls and roofs with a rich green.

So far, then, we now understand the growth of the
mossy-leaf stems, but this is only half the life of the
plant. After the moss has gone on through the
damp winter spreading and growing, there appear in
the spring or summer tiny moss flowers at the tip of



Fructification of a moss.

A, Male moss-flower stripped of its outer leaves, showing jointed fila-
ments and oval sacs os and antherozoid cells sc swarming out of a sac.
sc’, Antherozoid cell enlarged. z, Free antherozoid. P, Female flower
with bottle-shaped sacs Js. ds-c, Bottle-shaped sac, with cap being pushed
up. «#, Urn of Funaria hygrometrica, with small cap. x’, Urn, from
which the cap has fallen, showing the teeth ¢ which keep in the spores.

some of the stems. These flowers (a, /, Fig. 34) are
formed merely of a few green leaves shorter and stouter
than the rest, enclosing some oval sacs surrounded by
go THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

jointed hairs or filaments (see A and P, Fig. 35).
These sacs are of two different kinds, one set being
short and stout os, the others having long necks
like bottles 6s. Sometimes these two kinds of sac
are in one flower, but more often they are in separ-
ate flowers, as in the hair-moss, Polytrichum commune
(a and g, Fig. 34). Now when the flowers are ripe the
short sacs in the flower A open and fling out myriads
of cells zc, and these cells burst, and forth come
tiny wriggling bodies z, called by botanists authero-
soids, one out of each cell. These find their way
along the damp moss to the flower P, and entering
the neck of one of the bottle-shaped sacs ds, find
out each another cell or ovale inside. The two cells
together then form a plant-egg, which answers to the
germ in the seeds of higher plants.

Now let us be sure we understand where we are
in the life of the plant. We have had its green-
growing time, its flowering, and the formation of
what we may roughly call its seed, which last in
ordinary higher plants would fall down and grow
into a new green plant. But with the moss there is
more to come. The egg does not shake out of the
bottle-necked sac, but begins to grow inside it, send-
ing down a little tube into the moss stem, and using
it as other plants use the ground to grow in.

As soon as it is rooted it begins to form a delicate
stem, and as this grows it pushes up the sac ds,
stretching the neck tighter and tighter till at last it
tears away below, and the sac is carried up and hangs
like an extinguisher or cap (¢ Figs. 34, 35) over the
top of the stem. Meanwhile, under this cap the top
MOSS -URNS 91

of the stalk swells into a knob which, by degrees, be-
comes a lovely little covered urn w, something like a
poppy head, which has within it a number of spores.
The growth of this tiny urn-plant often occupies several
months, for you must remember that it is not merely
a fruit, though it is often called so, but a real plant,
taking in food through its tubes below and working
for its living.

When it is finished it is a most lovely little object
(ws, Fig. 3.4), the fine hairlike stalk being covered with
a green, yellow, or brilliant red fool’s cap on the top,
yet the whole in most mosses is not bigger than an
ordinary pin, You may easily see them in the spring
or summer, or even sometimes in the winter. I have
only been able to bring you one very little one to-
day, the Funaria hygrometrica, which fruits early in
the year. This moss has only a short cap, but
in many mosses they are very conspicuous. I have
often pulled them off as you would pull a cap from
a boy’s head. In nature they fall off after a time,
leaving the urn, which, though so small, is a most
complicated structure. First it has an outer skin,
with holes or mouths in it which open and close to
let moisture in and out. Then come two layers of
cells, then an open space full of air, in which are
the green chlorophyll grains which are working
up food for the tiny plant as the moisture comes
in to them. Lastly, within this again is a mass
of tissue, round which grow the spores which are
soon to be sown, and which in Polytrichum com-
mune are protected by a lid. Even after the
extinguisher and the lid have both fallen off, the
92 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

spores cannot fall out, for a thick row of teeth (¢, Fig.
35) is closed over them like the tentacles of an
anemone. So long as the air is damp these teeth
remain closed ; it is only in fine dry weather that they
open and the spores are scattered on the ground.
Funaria hygrometrica has no lid under its cap, and
after the cap falls the spores are only protected by
the teeth.

When the spores are gone, the life of the tiny urn-
plant is over. It shrivels and dies, leaving ten,
fifteen, or even more spores, which, after lying for
some time on the ground, sprout and grow into a
fresh mass of soft threads.

So now we have completed the life-history of the
moss and come back to the point at which we started.
I am afraid it has been rather a difficult history to
follow step by step, and yet it is perfectly clear when
once we master the succession of growths. Starting
from a spore, the thread-mass or protonema gives
rise to the moss-stems forming the dense green
carpet, then the green flowers on some of the leaf-
stems give rise to a plant-egg, which roots itself in the
stem, and grows into a perfect plant without leaves, .
bearing’ merely the urn in which fresh spores are
formed, and so the round goes on from year to year.

There are a great number of different varieties of
moss, and they differ in the shape and arrangement
of their stems and leaves, and very much in the
formation of their urns, yet this sketch will enable
you to study them with understanding, and when
you find in the wood the nodding caps of the fruit-
ing plants, some red, some green, some yellow, and
SPHAGNUM OR BOG-MOSS 93

some a brilliant orange, you will feel that they are
acquaintances, and by the help of the microscope
may soon become friends.

Among them one of the most interesting is the
sphagnum or bog-moss (Fig. 36), which spreads
its thick carpet over all the bogs
in the woods. Youcannot miss —_—*Fig. 36
its little orange-coloured spore- ,
cases if you look closely, for they ~Â¥ ay
contrast strongly with its pale *
green leaves, out of which they “Ng Rs
stand on very short stalks. I
wish we could examine it, for it
differs much from other mosses,
both in leaves and fruit, but it .
would take us too long. At %
least, however, you must put «4
one of its lovely transparent 4
leaves under the microscope,
that you may see the large
air-cells which lie between the
growing cells, and admire the Sp See
lovely glistening bands which (From life. )
run across and across their
covering membrane, for the sphagnum leaf is so
extremely beautiful that you will never forget it
when once seen. It is through these large cells in
the edge of the stem and leaf that the water rises
up from the swamp, so that the whole moss is like a
wet sponge.

And now, before we part, we had better sum
up the history of lichens and mosses. With the





94 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

lichens we have seen that the secret of success
seems to be mutual help. The green cells provide
the food, the fungus cells form a surface over
which the green cells can spread to find sunlight
and moisture, and protection from extremes of heat
or cold. With the mosses the secret lies in their
standing on the borderland between two classes of
plant life. On the one hand, they are still tender-
celled plants, each cell being able to live its own
life and make its own food; on the other hand,
they have risen into shapely plants with the begin-
nings of feeble roots, and having stems along which
their leaves are arranged so that they are spread to
the light and air. Both lichens and mosses keep
one great advantage common to all tender-celled
plants; they can be dried up so that you would
think them dead, and yet, because they can work all
over their surface whenever heat and moisture reach
them, each cell drinks in food again and the plant
revives. So when a scorching sun, or a dry season,
or a biting frost kills other plants, the mosses and
lichens bide their time till moisture comes again.

In our own country they grow almost every-
where—on walls, on broken ground, on sand-heaps,
on roofs and walls, on trees living and dead, and
over all pastures which are allowed to grow poor
and worn out. They grow, too, in all damp, marshy
spots ; especially the bog-mosses forming the peat-
bogs which cover a large part of Ireland and many
regions in Scotland; and these same bog-mosses
occur in America, New Zealand, and Australia.

In the tropics mosses are less abundant, probably
WIDE RANGE OF LICHENS AND MOSSES 95

because other plants flourish so luxuriantly ; but in
Arctic Siberia and Arctic America both lichens and
mosses live on the vast Tundras. There, during the
three short months of summer, when the surface of
the ground is soft, the lichens spread far and wide
where all else is lifeless, while in moister parts the
Polytrichums or hair-mosses cover the ground, and
in swampy regions stunted Sphagnums form peat-
bogs only a few inches in depth over the frozen
soil beneath. If, then, the lichens and mosses can
flourish even in such dreary latitudes as these, we
can understand how they defy even our coldest
winters, appearing fresh and green when the snow
melts away from over them, and leave their cells
bathed in water, so that these lowly plants clothe
the wood with their beauty when otherwise all
would be bare and lifeless.
96 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

CUA INIT We

THE HISTORY OF A LAVA STREAM

T is now just twenty-
two years ago, boys,
since I saw a wonder-
ful sight, which is still
so fresh in my mind
that I have to look
round and remember that it was
before any of you were born, in
order to persuade myself that it
can be nearly a quarter of a century
since I stood with my feet close to
a flowing stream of red-hot lava.

It happened in this way. I was spending the
winter with friends in Naples, and we were walking
quietly one lovely afternoon in November along the
Villa Reale, the public garden on the sea-shore,
when one of our party exclaimed, “ Look at Vesuvius!”
We did so, and sawin the bright sunlight a dense
dark cloud rising up out of the cone. The mountain
had been sending out puffs of smoke, with a booming
noise, for several days, but we thought nothing of








HOW WE SAW AN ERUPTION 97

that, for it had been common enough for slight
eruptions to take place at intervals ever since the
great eruption of 1867. This cloud, however, was far
larger and wider-spread than usual, and as we were
looking at it we saw a thin red line begin some way
down the side of the mountain and creep onwards





Vesuvius, as seen in eruption by the author, November 1868.

toward the valley which lies behind the Hermitage
near where the Observatory is built (see Fig. 37).
“A crater has broken out on the slope,” said our
host ; “it will be a grand sight to-night. Shall we go
up and see it?” No sooner proposed than settled,
and one of the party started off at once to secure
horses and men before others engaged them.

It was about eight o’clock in the evening when we
98 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

started in a carriage for Resina, and alighting there,
with buried Herculaneum under our feet, mounted
our horses and set forward with the guides. Then
followed a long ascent of about two hours and a half
through the dark night. Silently and carefully we
travelled on over the broad masses of slaggy lava of
former years, along which a narrow horse-path had
been worn; and ever and anon we heard the distant
booming in the crater at the summit, and caught
sight of fresh gleams of light as we took some turn-
ing which brought the glowing peak into view.

Our object was to get as close as possible to the
newly-opened crater in the mountain-side, and when
we arrived on a small rugged plain not far from the
spot, we alighted from our horses, which were growing
frightened with the glare, and walked some distance
on foot till we came to a ridge running down the slope,
and upon this ridge the lava stream was flowing.

Above our heads hung a vast cloud of vapour
which reflected the bright light from the red-hot
stream, and threw a pink glow all around, so that,
where the cloud was broken and we could see the
dark sky, the stars looked white as silver in contrast.
We could now trace clearly the outline of the summit
towering above us, and even watch the showers of
ashes and dust which burst forth from time to time,
falling back into the crater, or on to the steep slopes
of the cone. .

If the night had not been calm, and such a breeze
as there was blowing away from us, our position
would scarcely have been safe; and indeed we were
afterwards told we had been rash. But I would
A RED-HOT LAVA STREAM 99

have faced even a greater risk to see so grand a
spectacle, and when the guide helped me to scramble
up on to the ledge, so that I stood with my feet
within a few yards of the lava flow, my heart bounded
with excitement. I could not stay more than a few
seconds, for the gases and vapour choked me; but
for that short time it felt like a dream to be standing
close to a river of molten rock, which a few hours be-
fore had been lying deep in the bowels of the earth.
Glancing upwards to where this river issued from
the cone in the mountain-side, I saw it first white-
hot, then gradually fading to a glowing red as it
crept past my feet; and then looking down the slope
I saw it turn black and gloomy as it cooled rapidly
at the top, while through the cracks which opened
here and there as it moved on, puffs of gas and
vapour rose into the air, and the red lava beneath
gleamed through the chinks.

We did not stay long, for the air was suffocating,
but took our way back to the Hermitage, where
another glorious sight awaited us. Some way
above and behind the hill on which the Observatory
stands there is, or was, a steep cliff, and over this
the lava stream, now densely black, fell in its way to
the valley below, and as it fell it broke into huge
masses, which heeling over exposed the red-hot lava
under the crust, thus forming a magnificent fiery
cascade in which black and red were mingled in wild
confusion.

This is how I saw a fresh red-hot lava stream.
I had ascended the mountain some years before,
when it was comparatively quiet, with only two

H
100 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

small cones in its central crater sending out miniature
flows of lava (see Fig. 38). But the crater was too
hot for me to cross over to these cones, and I could
only marvel at the mass of ashes of which the top of
the mountain was composed, and plunge a stick into
an old lava stream to see how hot it still remained

Fig. 38.







The top of Vesuvius in 1864. (After Nasmyth.)

below. Peaceful and quiet as the mountain seemed
then, I could never have imagined such a glorious
outburst as that of November 1868 unless I had
seen it, and yet this was quite a small eruption com-
pared to those of 1867 and 1872, which in their
turn were nothing to some of the older eruptions in
earlier centuries.

Now it is the history of this lava stream which I
saw, that we are going to consider to-day, and you
will first want to know where it came from, and what
caused it to break out on the mountain-side. The
truth is, that though we know now a good deal about
volcanoes themselves, we know very little about the
mighty cauldrons deep down in the earth from which
HEAT DEEP DOWN IN THE EARTH 101

they come. Our deepest mines only reach to a depth
of a little more than half a mile, and no borings even
have been made beyond three-quarters of a mile, so
that after this depth we are left very much to guess-
work.

We do know that the temperature increases as we
go farther down from the surface, but the increase is
very different in different districts—in some places
being five times greater than it is in others at an
equal depth, and it is always greatest in localities where
volcanoes have been active not long before. Now if
there were an ocean of melted rock at a certain distance
down below the crust all over the globe, there could
scarcely be such a great difference between one place
and another, and for this and many other reasons
geologists are inclined to think that, from some un-
known cause, great heat is developed at special points
below the surface at different times. This would
account for our finding volcanic rocks in almost all
parts of the world, even very far away from where

_there are any active volcanoes now.

But, as I have said, we do not clearly know why
great reservoirs of melted rock occur from time to
time deep under our feet. We may perhaps one day
find the clue from the fact that nearly all, if not all,
volcanoes occur near to the water’s edge, either on
the coast of the great oceans or of some enormous
inland sea or lake. But at present all we can say is,
that in certain parts of the globe there must be from
time to time great masses of rock heated till they
are white-hot, and having white-hot water mingled
with them. These great masses need not, however,
102 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

be liquid, for we know that under enormous pressure
white-hot metals remain solid, and water instead of
flashing into steam is kept liquid, pressing with
tremendous force upon whatever keeps it confined.

But now suppose that for some reason the mass of
solid rock and ground above one of these heated
spots should crack and become weak, or that the
pressure from below should become so great as to
be more powerful than the weight above, then the
white-hot rock and water quivering and panting to
expand, would upheave and burst the walls of their
prison. Cannot you picture to yourselves how
when this happened the rock would swell into a
liquid state, and how the water would force its way
upwards into cracks and fissures expanding into
steam as it went. Then would be heard strange
rumbling noises underground, as all these heavily
oppressed white-hot substances upheaved and rent
the crust above them. And after a time the country
round, or the ground at the bottom of the sea, would
quake and tremble, till by and by a way out would
be found, and the water flashing into vapour would
break and fling up the masses of rock immediately
above the passage it had made for itself, and
following after these would come the molten rock
pouring out at the new opening.

Such outbursts as these have been seen at sea
many times near volcanic islands. In 1811 a new
island called Sabrina was thrown up off St. Michael’s
in the Azores, and after remaining a short time
was washed away by the waves. In the same way
Graham’s Island appeared off the coast of Sicily in
HOW MONTE NUOVO WAS FORMED 103

1831, and as late as 1885 Mr. Shipley saw a
magnificent eruption in the Pacific near the Tonga
Islands when an island about three miles long was
formed.

Another very extraordinary outburst, this time on
land, took place in 1538 on the opposite side of the
Bay of Naples to where Vesuvius stands. There, on
the shores of the Bay of Baiz, a mountain 440 feet
high was built up in one week, where all had before been
quiet in the memory of man. For two years before
the outburst came, rumblings and earthquakes had
alarmed the people, and at last one day the sea drew
back from the shore and the ground sank about four-
teen feet, and then on the night of Sunday, September
29, 1538, it was hurled up again, and steam, fiery
gases, stones, and mud burst forth, driving away the
frightened people from the village of Puzzuoli about
two miles distant. For a whole week jets of lava,
fragments of rock, and showers of ashes were poured
out, till they formed the hill now called Monte Nuovo,
440 feet high and measuring a mile and a half round
the base. And there it has remained till the present
day, perfectly quiet after the one great outburst had
calmed down, and is now covered with thickets of
stone-pine trees.

These sudden outbursts show that some great
change must occur in the state of the earth’s crust
under the spots where they take place, and we know
that eruptions may cease for centuries in any par-
ticular place and then begin afresh quite unexpectedly.
Vesuvius was a peaceable mountain overgrown with
trees and vines in the time of the Greeks till in the
104 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

year “A.D. 79 occurred the terrific outburst which
destroyed Herculaneum and Pompeii, shattering old
Vesuvius to pieces, so that only the cliffs on the north-
west remain and are called Somma (see Fig. 37), while
the new Vesuvius has grown up in the lap, as it were,
of its old self. Yet when we visit the cliffs of Somma,
and examine the old lava streams in them, we ‘see
that the ancient peaceful mountain was itself built
up by volcanic outbursts of molten rock, and showers
of clinkers or scoriz, long before man lived to record it.

Meanwhile, when once an opening is made, we
can understand how after an eruption is over, and
the steam and lava are exhausted, all quiets down
for awhile, and the melted rock in the crater of the
mountain cools and hardens, shutting in once more
the seething mass below. This was the state of the
crater when I saw it in 1864, though small streams
still flowed out of two minute cones ; but since then at
least one great outburst had taken place in 1867,
and now on this November night, 1 868, the imprisoned
gases rebelled once more and forced their way through
the mountain-side.

At this point we can leave off forming conjectures
and really study what happens; for we do know a
great deal about the structure of volcanoes themselves,
and the history of a lava-flow has been made very
clear during the last few years, chiefly by the help of
the microscope and chemical experiments. If we
imagine then that on the day of the eruption we
could have seen the inside of the mountain, the
diagram (Fig. 39) will fairly represent what was
taking place there.
INSIDE OF A VOLCANO 105

In the funnel @ which passes down from the
crater or cup 8, 6, white-hot lava was surging up,
having a large quantity of water and steam en-
tangled in it. The lava, or melted rock, would be

Fig. 39.

































































































Diagrammatic section of an active volcano.

a, Central pipe or funnel. 4, 4, Walls of the crater or cup. ¢, c, Dark
turbid cloud formed by the ascending globular clouds d, d. e, Rain-
shower from escaped vapour. /, f, Shower of blocks, cooled bombs,
stones, and ashes falling back on to the cone. g, Lava escaping through
a fissure, and pouring out of a cone opened in the mountain side.

in much the same state as melted iron-slag is, in the
huge blast-furnaces in which iron-rock is fused, only
it would have floating in it great blocks of solid
rock, and rounded stones called bombs which have
106 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

been formed from pieces of half- melted rock
whirled in air and falling back into the crater, to-
gether with clinkers or scorizw, dust and sand, all
torn off and ground down from the walls of the fun-
nel up which the rush was coming. And in the
pipe of melted rock, forcing the lava upwards, enormous
bubbles of steam and gas d,d@ would be rising up one
‘after another as bubbles rise in any thick boiling
substances, such as boiling sugar or tar.

In the morning before the eruption, when only a
little smoke was issuing from the crater, these
bubbles rose very slowly through the loaded funnel
and the half-cooled lava in the basin, and the booming
noise, like that of heavy cannon, heard from time to
time, was caused by the bursting of one of these
globes of steam at the top of the funnel, as it brought
up with it a feeble shower of stones, dust, and
scorie. Meanwhile the lava surging below was
forcing a passage g for itself in a weak part of the
mountain-side and, just at the time when our atten-
tion was called to Vesuvius, the violent pressure from
below rent open a mouth or crater at %, so that the
lava began to flow down the mountain in a steady
stream. This, relieving the funnel, enabled the
huge steam bubbles d, d@ to rise more quickly, and to
form the large whitish-grey cloud ¢ into which from
time to time the red-hot blocks, scoriz, and pumice
were thrown up by the escaping steam and gases.
These blocks and fragments then fell back again in
a fiery shower f, f either into the cup, to be thrown up
again by the bursting of the next bubble, or on to the
sides of the cone, making it both broader and higher.
THE COMPOSITION OF A LAVA STREAM 107

Only one feature in the diagram was fortunately
absent the evening we went up, namely, the rain-
shower ¢. The night, as I said, was calm, and the air
dry, and the steam floated peacefully away. The
next night, however, when many people hurried
down from Rome to see the sight they were wofully
disappointed, for rain-showers fell heavily from the
cloud, bringing down with them the dust and ashes,
which covered the unfortunate sight-seers.

This was what happened during the eruption, and
the result after a few days was that the cone was a
little higher, with a fresh layer of rough slaggy
scoriz on its slopes, and that on the side of the
mountain behind the Hermitage a new lava stream
was added to the many which have flowed there of
late years. What then can we learn from this
stream about the materials which come up out of
the depths of the earth, and of the manner in which
volcanic rocks are formed ?

The lava as I saw it when coming first out of
the newly-opened crater is, as I have said, like white-
hot iron slag, but very soon the top becomes black
and solid, a hard cindery mass full of holes and
cavities with rough edges, caused by the steam and
sulphur and other gases breaking through it! In
fact, there are so many holes and bubbles in it that
it is very light and floats on the top of the heavier
lava below, falling over it on to the mountain-side
when it comes to the end of the stream. Still, how-
ever, the great mass moves on, so that the stream

1 For the cindery nature of the surface of such a stream see the initial
letter of this chapter.
108 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

slides over these fallen clinkers or scorie. Thus
after an eruption a new flow consists of three layers ; at
the top the cooled and broken crust of clinkers, then

Fig. 40.



Section of a lava-flow. (J. Geikie. )
x, Slaggy crust, formed chiefly of scorize of a glassy nature. 2, Middle
portion where crystals form. 3, Slaggy crust which has slipped down and
been covered by the flow.

the more solid lava, which often remains hot for years,
and lastly another cindery layer beneath, formed of
the scoriz which have fallen from above (see Fig. 40).

You would be surprised to see how quickly the top
hardens, so that you can actually walk across a
stream of lava a day or two after it comes out from
the mountain. But you must not stand still or
your shoes would soon be burnt, and if you break the
crust with a stick you will at once see the red-hot
lava below ; while after a few days the cavities become
filled with crystals of common salt, sulphur or soda,
as the vapour and gases escape.

Then as time goes on the harder minerals grad-
ually crystallise out of the melted mass, and iron-
pyrites, copper-sulphate, and numerous other forms of
crystal appear in the lower part of the stream. In
the clinkers above, where the cooling goes on very
MICROLITHS AND CRYSTALLITES 109

rapidly, the lavas formed are semi-transparent and
look much like common bottle-glass. In fact, if you

take this piece of rie

obsidian or vol-
canic glass in your
hand, you might
think that it had
come out of an
ordinary glass
manufactory and
had nothing re-
markable in it.
But the micro-
scope tells another
tale. I have put
a thin slice under

the first micro- A slice of volcanic glass showing the lines of
scope and this crystallites and microliths which are the be-
2 ginnings of crystals.!_ (J. Geikie.)



diagram (Fig. 41)
shows what you will see. Nothing, you say, but
a few black specks and some tiny dark rods.
True, but these specks and rods are the first be-
ginnings of crystals forming out of the ground-
mass of glassy lava as it cools down. They are
not real crystals, but the first step toward them,
and by a careful examination of glassy lavas
which have cooled at different rates, they have
been seen under the microscope in all stages of
growth, gradually building up different crystalline
forms. When we remember how rapidly the top
of many glassy lavas cool down we can under-

1 This arrangement in lines is called flidal structure in lava.
110 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

stand that they have often only time to grow
very small.

The smaller specks are called crystallites, the
rods are called mzzcroliths.1 Under the next micro-
scope you can see the microliths much more dis-
tinctly (Fig. 42) and observe that they grow in very
regular shapes.

Our first slice, however (Fig. 41), tells us some-
thing more of their history, for the fact that they are
arranged in lines
shows that they
have grown while
the lava was flow-
ing and carrying
them along in
streams. You
will notice that
each one has its
greatest length in
the direction of
the lines, just as
pieces of stick
are carried along

A slice of volcanic glass under the microscope, lengthways in a
showing well-developed microliths. (After rjyer, In the
Cohen. )



second specimen
(Fig. 42) the microliths are much larger and the
stream has evidently not been flowing fast, for they
lie in all directions.

This is what we find in the upper part of the
stream, but if we look at a piece of underlying lava

1 Micros, little ; lithos, stone.
OLD VOLCANOES LAID BARE III

we find that it is much more coarse-grained, and the
magnifying-glass shows many crystals in it, as well
as a number of microliths. For this lava, covered
by the crust above, has remained very hot for a long
time, and the crystals have had time to build them-
selves up out of the microliths and crystallites.

Still there is much glassy groundwork even in
these lavas. If we want to find really stony masses
such as porphyry and granite made up entirely of
crystals we must look inside the mountain where the
molten rock is kept intensely hot for long periods, as
for example in the fissure g, Fig. 39.

Such fissures sometimes open out on the surface
like the one I saw, and sometimes only penetrate part
of the way through the hill; but in either case when
the lava in them cools down, it forms solid walls
called dykes which help to bind the loose materials
of the mountain together. We cannot, of course,
examine these in an active volcano, but there are
many extinct volcanoes which have been worn and
washed by the weather for centuries, so that we can
see the inside. The dykes laid bare in the cliffs of
Somma are old fissures filled with molten rock which
has cooled down, and they show us many stony lavas ;
and Mr. Judd tells us of one beautiful example of a
ruined volcano which composes the whole island of
Mull in the Hebrides, where such dykes can be
traced right back to a centre. This centre must
once have been a mass of melted matter far down
in the earth, and as you trace the dykes back
deeper and deeper into it, the rocks grow more and
more stony, till at last they are composed entirely of
112 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

large crystals closely crowded together without any
glassy matter between them. You know this crystal-
line structure well, for we have
plenty of blocks of granite
scattered about on Dartmoor,
showing that at some time long
ago molten matter must have
been at work in the depths
under Devonshire.

We see then that we can
trace the melted rock of vol-
canoes right back—from the
surface of the lava stream which
cools quickly at the top, hurry-
ing the crystallites and microliths along with it—down
through the volcano to the depths of the earth, where
the perfect crystals form slowly and deliberately in
the underground lakes of white-hot rock which are
kept in a melted state at an intense heat.

But I promised you that we would have no guess-
work here, and you will perhaps ask how I can be
certain what was going on in the depths when
these crystals were formed. A few years ago I
could not have answered you, but now chemists, and
especially two eminent French chemists, MM. Fouqué
and Levy, have actually made lavas and shown us
how it is done in Nature.

By using powerful furnaces and bellows they
have succeeded in getting temperatures of all degrees,
from a dazzling white heat down to a dull red, and
to keep any temperature they like for a long time,
so as to imitate the state of a mass of melted rock

Fig. 43.



A piece of Dartmoor Granite,
drawn from a specimen,
HOW ARTIFICIAL LAVAS ARE MADE 113

at different depths in the earth, and in this way they
have actually made lavas in their crucibles. For
example, there is a certain whitish rock common
in Vesuvius called Jeucotephrite;’ which is made
up chiefly of crystals of the minerals called leucite,
Labrador felspar, and augite. This they pro-
posed to make artificially, so they took proper
quantities of silica, alumina, oxide of iron, lime,
potash, and soda, and putting them in a crucible,
melted them by keeping them at a white heat.
Then they lowered the temperature to an orange-
heat, that is a heat sufficient to melt steel. They
kept this heat for forty-eight hours, after which they
took out some of the mixture and, letting it cool,
examined a slice under the microscope. Within it
they found crystals of /eucite already formed, showing
that these are the first to grow while the melted
rock is still intensely hot. The rest of the mixture
they kept red-hot, or at the melting-point of copper,
for another forty-eight hours, and when they took it
out and examined it they found that the whole
of it had been transformed into microliths of the
two other forms of crystals, Labrador felspar and
augite, except some small eight-sided crystals of
magnetite and picotite which are also found in the
natural rock.

There is no need for you to remember all these
names. What I do want you to remember is, that, at
the different temperatures, the right crystals and
beginnings of crystals grew up to form the rock
which is found in Vesuvius. And what is still more

1 Leucos, white ; tephra, ashes.
114 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

interesting, they grew exactly to the same stages as
in the natural rock, which is composed of crystals
of leucite and mzcroliths of the two other minerals.

This is only one among numerous experiments
by which we have learnt how volcanic rocks are
formed and at what heat the crystals of different
substances grow. We are only as yet at the begin-
ning of this new study, and there is plenty for you
boys to do by and by when you grow up. Many
expériments have failed as yet to imitate certain
rocks, and it is remarkable that these are usually
rocks of very ancient eruptions, when perhaps our
globe may have been in a different state to what it
is now; but this remains for us to find out.

Meanwhile I have still another very interesting
slide to show you which tells us something of what
is going on below the volcano. Under the third
microscope I have put a slice of volcanic glass (Fig.
44) in which you will see really large crystals with
‘dark bands curving round them. These crystals have
clearly not been formed in the glass while the lava
was flowing, first because they are too large to have
grown up so rapidly, and secondly because they are
broken at the edges in places and sometimes partly
melted. They have evidently come up with the
lava as it flowed out of the mountain, and the dark
bands curving round them are composed of micro-
liths which have been formed in the flow and have
swept round them, as floating straws gather round a
block of wood in a stream.

Such crystals as these are often found in lava
streams, and in fact they make a great difference in
TWO PERIODS OF CRYSTALLISATION 115

the rate at which a stream flows, for a thoroughly
melted lava shoots along at a great pace and often
travels several
miles in a very
short time; but
an imperfectly
melted lava full
of crystals creeps
slowly along, and
often does not
travel far from
the crater out of
which it flows.
So you see we
have proof in this
slice of volcanic



glass of two Slice of volcanic glass under the microscope,
separate periods showing large included crystals brought up
of crystallisation from inside the volcano in uae fluid lava. The
E dark bands are lines of microliths formed as
—the period the tava cooled. (J. Geikie.)
when the large
crystals grew in the liquid mass under the mountain,
and the period when the microliths were formed after
it was poured out above ground. And as we know
that different substances form their crystals at very
different temperatures, it is not surprising that some
should be able to take up the material they require
and grow in the underground lakes of melted matter,
even though the rest of the lava was sufficiently
fluid to be forced up out of the mountain.
And here we must leave our lava stream. The
microscope can tell us yet more, of marvellous tiny
I
116 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

cavities inside the crystals, millions in a single inch,
and of other crystals inside these, all of which have
their history; but this would lead us too far. We
must be content for the present with having roughly
traced a flow of lava from the depths below, where
large crystals form in subterranean darkness, to the
open air above, where we catch the tiny beginnings
of crystals hardened into glassy lava before they have
time to grow further.

If you will think a little for yourselves about these
wonderful discoveries made with the magic-glass, you
will see how many questions they suggest to us about
the minerals which we find buried in the earth and
running through it in veins, and you -will want to
know something about the more precious crystals,
such as rubies, diamonds, sapphires, and garnets, and
many others which Nature forms far away out of
our sight. All these depend, though indirectly,
upon the strange effects of underground heat, and
if you have once formed a picture in your minds of
what must have been going on before that magnifi-
cent lava stream crept down the mountain-side and
added its small contribution to the surface of the
earth, you will study eagerly all that comes in your
way about crystals and minerals, and while you
ask questions with the spectroscope about what is
going on in the sun and stars’ millions of miles away,
you will also ask the microscope what it has to tell
of the work going on at depths many miles under
your feet.
AN HOUR WITH THE SUN 117

CHAPTER VI

AN HOUR WITH THE SUN

EFORE beginning upon
the subject of our lecture
to-day I want to tell you
the story of a great puzzle
which presented itself to
me when I was a very
young child. I happened to
come across a little book—I
can see it now as though it were
yesterday—a small square green
book called World without End,
which had upon the cover a little
gilt picture of a stile with trees on each side of
it. That was all. I do not know what the book
was about, indeed I am almost sure I never opened
it or saw it again, but that stile and the title
“World without End” puzzled me terribly. What was
on the other side of the stile? If I could cross
over it and go on and on should I be in a world
which had no ending, and what would be on the other
side? But then there could be no other side if it was





32
x
“118 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

a world without any end. I was very young, you
must remember, and I grew confused and bewildered
as I imagined myself reaching onwards and onwards
beyond that stile and never, never resting. At last
I consulted my greatest friend, an old man who did .
the weeding in my father’s garden, and whom I be-
lieved to be very wise. He looked at first almost
as bewildered as I was, but at last light dawned upon
him. “I ‘tell you. what it is, Master Arthur,” said
he, “I do not rightly know what happens when there
is no end, but I do know that there is a mighty lot
to be found out in this world, and I’m thinking we
had better learn first all about that, and perhaps it
may teach us something which will help us to under-
stand the other.”

I daresay you will wonder what this anecdote can
have to do with a lecture on the sun—I will tell you.
Last night I stood on the balcony and looked out
far and farther away into the star-depths of the mid-
night sky, marvelling what could be the history of
those countless suns of which we see ever more and
more as we increase the power of our telescopes, or
catch the faint beams of those we cannot see and
make them print their image on the photographic
plate. And, as I grew oppressed at the thought of
this never-ending expanse of suns and at my own
littleness, I remembered all at once the little square
book of my childish days with its gilt stile, and my
old friend’s advice to learn first all we can of that
which lies nearest.

So to-day, before we travel away to the stars, we
had better inquire what: is known about the one star
THE SUN A STAR 119

in the heavens which is comparatively near to us, our
own glorious sun, which sends us all our light and
heat, causes all the movements of our atmosphere,
draws up the moisture from the ground to return in
refreshing rain, ripens our harvests, awakens the seeds
and sleeping plants into vigorous growth, and in a
word sustains all the energy and life upon our earth.
Yet even this star, which is more than a million times
as large as our earth, and bound so closely to us
that a convulsion on its surface sends a thrill right
through our atmosphere, is still so far off that it is
only by questioning the sunbeams it sends to us, that
we can know anything about it.

You have already learnt’ a good deal as to the
size, the intense heat and light, and the photographic
power of the sun, and also how his white beams of
light are composed of countless coloured rays which
we can separate in a prism. Now let us pass on to
the more difficult problem of the nature of the sun
itself, and what we know of the changes and com-
motions going on in that blazing globe of light.

We will try first what we can see for ourselves.
If you take a card and make a pin-hole in it, you
can look through this hole straight at the sun with-
out injuring your eye, and you will see a round shin-
ing disc on which, perhaps, you may detect a few
dark spots. Then if you take your hand telescopes,
which I have shaded by putting a piece of smoked
glass inside the eye-piece, you will find that this
shining disc is really a round globe, and moreover,
although the object-glass of your telescopes measures

1 Fairyland of Science, Chapter I.
120 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

only two-and-a-half inches across, you will be able to
see the dark spots very distinctly and to observe that
they are shaded, having a deep spot in the centre
with a paler shadow round it.

As, however, you cannot all use the telescopes, and
those who can will find it difficult to point them truly
on to the sun, we will adopt still another plan. I
will turn the object-glass of my portable telescope

Fig. 45.



Face of the sun projected on a sheet of cardboard C.
T, Telescope. 7, Finder. ag, Object-glass. ef, Eye-piece. S, Screen
shutting off the diffused light from the window.

full upon the sun’s face, and bringing a large piece
of cardboard on an easel near to the other end,
draw it slowly backward till the eye-piece forms a
clear sharp image upon it (see Fig. 45). This you


THE SUN’S FACE PHOTOGRAPHED 121

can all see clearly, especially as I have passed the
eye-piece of the telescope through a large screen s,
_ which shuts off the light from the window.

You have now an exact image of the face of the
sun and the few dark spots which are upon it, and
we have brought, as it were, into our room that great
globe of light and heat which sustains all the life
and vigour upon our earth.

This small image can, however, tell us very little.
Let us next see what photography can show us.
The diagram (Fig. 46) shows a photograph of the sun
taken by Mr. Selwyn in October 1860. Let me
describe how this is done. You will remember that
there is a point in the telescope tube where the rays
of light form a real image of the object at which the
telescope is pointed (see p. 44). Now an astronomer
who wishes to take a photograph of the sun takes
away the eye-piece of his telescope and puts a
photographic plate in the tube exactly at the place
where this real image is formed. He takes care to
blacken the frame of the plate and shuts up this end
of the telescope and the plate in a completely dark
box, so that no diffused light from outside can
reach it. Then he turns his telescope upon the sun
that it may ane its image.

But the sun’s light is so strong that even in a a sccond
of time it would print a great deal too much, and all
would be black and confused. To prevent this he has
a strip of metal which slides across the tube of the
telescope in front of the plate, and in the upper part
of this strip a very fine slit is cut. Before he begins,
he draws the metal up so that the slit is outside the
122 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

tube and the solid portion within, and he fastens it
in this position by a thread drawn through and tied
to a bar outside. Then he turns his telescope on the ,
sun, and as soon as he wishes to take the photograph
he cuts the thread. The metal slides across the
tube with a flash, the slit passing across it and out
again below in the hundredth part of a second, and

Fig. 46.



Photograph of the face of the sun, taken by Mr. Selwyn, October 1860,
showing spots, faculze, and mottled surface.

in that time the sun has printed through the slit the
picture before you.

In it you will observe at least two things not
visible on our card-image. The spots, though in a
different position from where we see them to-day,
look much the same, but round them we see also
some bright streaks called faculg, or torches, which
PHOTOSPHERE AND CORONA 123

often appear in any region where a spot is forming,
while the whole face of the sun appears mottled with
bright and darker spaces intermixed. Those of you
who have the telescopes can see this mottling quite
distinctly through them if you look at the sun. The
bright points have been called by many names, and
are now generally known as “ light granules,” as good
a name, perhaps, as any other.

This is all our photograph can tell us, but the
round disc there shown, which is called the photosphere,
or light-giving sphere, is by no means the whole of
the sun, though it is all we see daily with the naked
eye. Whenever a total eclipse of the sun takes place—
by the dark body of the moon coming between us
and it, so as to shut out the whole of this disc—a
brilliant white halo, called the crown or corona, is seen
to extend for many thousands of miles all round the
darkened globe. It varies very much in shape, some-
times forming a kind of irregular square, sometimes
a circle with off-shoots, as in Fig. 47, which shows
what Major Tennant saw in India during the total
eclipse of August 18, 1868, and at other times it
shoots out in long pearly white jets and sheets of
light with dark spaces between. On the whole it
varies periodically. At the time of few sun-spots its
extensions are equatorial ; but when the sun’s face is
much covered with spots, they are diagonal, stretching
away from the spot-zones, but not nearly so far.

And besides this corona there are seen very
curious flaming projections on the edge of the sun,
_ which begin to appear as soon as the moon covers
the bright disc. In our diagram (Fig. 47) you see them
124 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

on the left side where the moon is just creeping over
the limits of the photosphere and shutting out the
strong light of the sun as the eclipse becomes total.
A very little later they are better seen on the other



Total eclipse of the sun, as drawn by Major ‘Tennant at Guntoor in India,
August 18, 1868, showing corona and the protuberances seen at the
beginning of totality.

side just before the bright edge of the sun is un-
covered as the moon passes on its way. These pro-
jections in the real sun are of a bright red colour, and.
they take on all manners of strange shapes, sometimes
RED JETS SEEN DURING ECLIPSES 125

looking like ranges of fiery hills, sometimes like
gigantic spikes and scimitars, sometimes even like
branching fiery trees. They were called prominences
before their nature was well understood, and will prob-
ably always keep that name. It would be far better,
however, if some other name such as “ glowing
clouds” or “red jets” could be used, for there is now
no doubt that they are jets of gases, chiefly hydrogen,
constantly playing over the face of the sun, though
only seen when his brighter light is quenched. They
have been found to shoot up 20,000, $0,000, and even
as much as 350,000 miles beyond the edge of the
shining disc ; and this last means that the flames were
so gigantic that if they had started from our earth
they would have reached beyond the moon. We shall
see presently that astronomers are now able by the help
of the spectroscope to see the prominences even
when there is no eclipse, and we know them to be
permanent parts of the bright globe.

This gives us at last the whole of the sun, so far
as we know. There is, indeed, a strange faint
zodiacal light, a kind of pearly glow seen after sun-
set or before sunrise extending far beyond the region
of the corona; but we understand so little about this
that we cannot be sure that it actually belongs to
the sun.

And now how shall I best give you an idea of
what little we do know about this great surging
monster of light and heat which shines down upon
us? You must give me all your attention, for I want
to make the facts quite clear, that you may take a
firm hold upon them.
126 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Our first step is to question the sunlight which
comes to us; and this we do with the spectroscope.
Let me remind you how we read the story of light
through this instrument. Taking in a narrow beam
of light through a fine slit, we pass the beam through
a lens to make the rays parallel, and then throw it
upon a prism or row of prisms, so that each set of
waves of coloured light coming through the slit is
bent on its own road and makes an upright image
of the slit on any screen or telescope put to receive
it (see Fig. 21, p. 52). . Now when the light we
examine comes from a glowing solid-like white-hot
iron, or a glowing liquid, or a gas under such enormous
pressure that it behaves like a liquid, then the images
of the slit always overlap each other, so that we see a
continuous unbroken band of colour. However much
you spread out the light you can never break up or
separate the spectrum in any part.' But when
you send the light, of a glowing gas such as
hydrogen through the spectroscope, or of a substance
melted into gas or vapour, such as sodium or iron
vaporised by great heat, then it is a different story.
Such gases give only a certain number of bright
lines quite separate from each other on the dark back-
ground, and each kind of gas gives its own peculiar
lines ; so that even when several are glowing together
there is no confusion, but when you look at them
through the spectroscope you can detect the presence
of each gas by its own lines in the spectrum.

To make quite sure of this’ we will close the

1! Two rare earths, Erbia and Didymium, form an exception to this,
but they do not concern us here.
ERSACB eles ee Outen eelin Cipless Plate 1.

I. CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM,

170







CHEMICAL

HEAT
RAYS

RAYS





WOAYLIAdS



WAIdoOS

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Stanfords Geogr Estab! London
SUNLIGHT IN THE SPECTROSCOPE 127

shutters and put a pinch of salt in a spirit - flame.
Salt is chloride of sodium, and in the flame the sodium
glows with a bright yellow light. Look at this light
through your small direct-vision spectroscopes? and
you see at once the bright yellow double-line of sodium
(No. 3, Plate I.) start into view across the faint con-
tinuous spectrum given by the spirit-flame. Next
I will show you glowing hydrogen. I have here a
glass tube containing hydrogen, so arranged that
by connecting two wires fastened to it with the in-
duction coil of our electric battery it will soon glow
with a bright red colour. Look at this through your
spectroscopes and you will see three bright lines, one
red, one greenish blue, and one indigo blue, standing
out on the dark background (No. 4, Plate I.)

Think for a moment what a grand power this
gives you of reading as in a book the different gases
which are glowing in the sky even billions of miles
away. You would never mistake the lines of hydro-
gen for the line of sodium, but when looking at a
nebula or any mass of glowing gas you could say at
once “sodium is glowing there,” or “that cloud must
be composed of hydrogen.”

Now, opening the shutters, look at the sunlight
through your spectroscopes. Here you have some-
thing different from either the continuous spectrum of
solids, or the bright separate lines of gases, for while
you have a bright-coloured band you have also some
dark lines crossing it (No. 2, Plate I.) It is those

1 A direct-vision spectroscope is like a small telescope with prisms
arranged inside the tube. The object-glass end is covered by two
pieces of metal, which slide backwards and forwards by means of a
screw, so that a narrow or broad slit can be opened.
128 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

dark lines which enable us to guess what is going on
in the sun before the light comes to us. In 1859
Professor Kirchhoff made an experiment which ex-
plained those dark lines, and we will repeat it now.
Take a good look at the sunlight spectrum, to fix
the lines in your memory, and then Close the shutters
again.

I have here our magic-lantern with its lime-light,




iM lr

f | ara





Kirchhoff's experiment, explaining the dark lines in sunlight.

A, Limelight dispersed through a prism. s, Slit through
which the beam of light comes. 72, Lens bringing it to a focus
on the prism g. sf, Continuous spectrum thrown on the wall.
B, The same light, with the flame f containing glowing sodium
placed in front of it. D, Dark sodium line appearing in the
spectrum,

in which the solid lime glows with a white heat, in
consequence of the jets of oxygen and hydrogen
KIRCHHOFE’S EXPERIMENT WITH SUNLIGHT 129

burning round it. This was the light Kirchhoff used,
and you know it will give a continuous bright band
in the spectroscope. I put a cap with a narrow slit
in it over the lantern tube, so as to get a narrow
beam of light ; in front of this I put a lens /, and in
front of this again the prism ~. The slit and the
prism act exactly like your spectroscopes, and you
can all see the continuous spectrum on the screen
(sf, A, Fig. 48). Next I put a lighted lamp of very
weak spirit in front of the slit, and find that it
makes no difference, for whatever light it gives only
strengthens the spectrum. But now notice carefully.
I am going to put a little salt into the flame, and
you would expect that the sodium in it, when turned
to glowing vapour, causing it to look yellow, would
strengthen the yellow part of the spectrum and give
a bright line. This is what Kirchhoff expected, but
to his intense surprise he saw as you do now a dark
fine D start out where the bright line should have
been,

What can have happened? It is this. The oxy-
hydrogen light is very hot indeed, the spirit flame with
the sodium is comparatively weak and cool. So when
those special coloured waves of the oxyhydrogen light
which agree with those of the sodium light reached
the flame, they spent all their energy in heating up
those waves to their own temperature, and while all
the other coloured rays travelled on and reached the
screen, these waves were stopped or adsorbed on the
way, and consequently there was a blank, black space
in the spectrum where they should have been. If I
could put a hydrogen flame cooler than the original
130 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

light in the road, then there would be three dark lines
where the bright hydrogen lines should be, and so
with every other gas. The cool vapour in front of
the hot light cuts off from the white ray exactly those
waves which it gives out itself when burning.

Thus each black line of the sun-spectrum (No. 2,
Plate I.), tells us that some particular ray of sunlight
has been absorbed by a cooler vapour of zts own kind
somewhere between the sun and us, and it must be
in the sun itself, for when we examine other stars we
often find dark lines in their spectrum different from
those in the sun, and this shows that the missing rays
must have been stopped close at home, for if they were
stopped in our atmosphere they would all be alike.

There are, by the bye, some lines which we know
are caused by our atmosphere, especially when
it is full of invisible water vapour, and these we
easily detect, because they show more distinctly when
the sun is low and shines through a thicker layer of
air than when he is high up and shines through less.

But to return to the sun. In your small spectro-
scopes you see very few dark lines, but in larger and
more perfect ones they can be counted by thousands,
and can be compared with the bright lines of glowing
gases burnt here on earth. In the spectrum of
glowing iron vapour 460 lines are found to agree
with dark lines in the sun-spectrum, and other gases
have nearly as many. Still, though thousands of
lines can now be explained, by matching them with
the bright lines of known gases, the whole secret
of sunlight is not yet solved, for the larger number
of lines still remain a riddle to be read.
RED JETS SEEN IN FULL DAYLIGHT 131

We see then that the spectroscope teaches us that
the round light-giving disc or photosphere of the sun
consists of a bright and intensely hot light shining
behind a layer of cooler though still very hot vapours,
which form a kind of shell of luminous clouds around it,
and in this shell, or reversing layer—as it is often
called, because it turns light to darkness—we have
proved that iron, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, magnes-
ium, potassium, sodium, carbon, hydrogen, and many
other substances common to our earth, exist in a
state of vapour for a depth of perhaps 1000 miles.

You will easily understand that when the spectro-
scope had told so much, astronomers were eager to
learn what it would reveal about the prominences
or red jets seen during eclipses, and they got an
answer in India during that same eclipse of August
1868 which is shown in our diagram (Fig. 47).
Making use of the time during which the prominences
were seen, they turned the telescope upon them with
a spectroscope attached to it, and saw a number of
bright lines start out, of which the chief were the
three bright lines of hydrogen, showing that these
curious appearances are really flames of glowing gas.

In the same year Professor Jannsen and Mr.
Lockyer succeeded in seeing the bright lines of the
prominences in full sunlight. This was done in a very
simple way, when once it was discovered to be possible,
and though my apparatus (Fig. 49) is very primitive
compared with some now made, it will serve to explain
the method.

When an astronomer wishes to examine the
Spectrum of any special part of the sun, he takes off

K
132 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the eye-piece of his telescope and screws the spectro-



































The spectroscope attached to the telescope for the examination

of the sun, (Lockyer.)

P, Pillar of Telescope. T, Telescope. S, Finder or small
telescope for pointing the telescope in position. a, a, 4, Supports
fastening the spectroscope to the telescope. @, Collimator or tube
carrying the slit at the end nearest the telescope, and a lens at the
other end to render the rays parallel. ¢, Plate on which the prisms
are fixed. e, Small telescope through which the observer examines
the spectrum after the ray has been dispersed in the prisms. 2,
Micrometer for measuring the relative distance of the lines.

scope upon the draw-tube. The spectroscope is
SPECTRA OF RED PROMINENCES 133

made exactly like the large one for ordinary work.
The tube @ (Fig. 49) carries the slit at the end
nearest the telescope, and this slit must be so
placed as to stand precisely at the principal focus
of the lens where the sun’s image is formed (sce 4, 7,
p- 44). This comes to exactly the same thing
as if we could put the slit close against the face
of the sun, so as to show only the small strip
which it covers, and by moving it to one part or
another of the image we can see any point that we
wish and no other. The light then passes through
the tube d into the round of prisms standing on the
tray c, and the observer looking through the small
telescope é sees the spectrum as it emerges from the
last prism. In this way astronomers can examine
the spectrum of a spot, or part of a spot, or of a
bright streak, or any other mark on the sun’s
face.

Now in looking at the prominences we have seen
that the difficulty is caused by the sunlight, between
us and them, overpowering the bright lines of the
gas, nor could we overcome this if it were not for a
difference which exists between the two kinds of light.
The more you disperse or spread out the continuous
sun-spectrum the fainter it becomes, but in spreading
out the bright lines of the gas you only send them
farther and farther apart; they themselves remain
almost as bright as ever. So, when the telescope
forms an image of the red flame in front of the slit,
though the glowing gas and the sunlight both send
rays into the spectroscope, you have only to use
enough prisms and arrange them in such a way that
134 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the sunlight is dispersed into a very long faint spec-
trum, and then the bright lines of the flames will
stand out bright and clear. Of course only a small part
of the long spectrum can be seen at once, and the lines
must be studied separately. On the other hand, if
you want to compare the strong light of the sun with
the bright lines of the prominences, you place the slit
just at the edge of the sun’s image in the telescope,
so that half the slit is on the sun’s face and half on
the prominence. The prisms then disperse the sun-
light between you and the prominences, while they
only lessen the strong light of the sun itself, which still
shows clearly. In this way the two spectra are seen
side by side and the dark and bright lines can be
compared accurately together (see Fig. 50).

Fig. 50.
Bright lines of prominences.

Weta i AUR aed

Mn I in Hn

a ae PT PA raat 4 Toe iad) Pe a ee Orr



Sun-spectrum with dark lines.

Wherever the telescope is turned all round the
sun the lines of luminous gas are seen, showing that
they form a complete layer outside the photosphere,
or light-giving mass, of the sun. This layer of
Juminous gases is called the chromosphere, or coloured
sphere. Itlies between the photosphere and the corona,
and is supposed to be at least 5000 miles deep, while,
SHAPE OF PROMINENCES 135

as we have seen, the flames shoot up from it to
fabulous heights.

The quiet red flames are found to be composed
of hydrogen and another new metal called helium ;
but lower down, near the sun’s edge, other bright lines
are seen, showing that sodium, magnesium, and other
metals are there, and when violent eruptions occur
these often surge up and mingle with the purer gas
above. At other times the eruptions below fling the
red flames aloft with marvellous force, as when Pro-
fessor Young saw a long low-lying cloud of hydrogen,
100,000 miles long, blown into shreds and flung up
to a height of 200,000 miles, when the fragments
streamed away and vanished in two hours. Yet all
these violent commotions and storms are unseen by
us on earth unless we look through our magic glasses.

You will wonder no doubt how the spectroscope
can show the height and the shape of the flames. I
will explain to you, and I hope to show them you
one day. You must remember that the telescope
makes a small real image of the flame at its focus,
just as in one of our earlier experiments you saw the
exact image of the candle-flame upside down on the
paper (see p. 33). The reason why we only see a strip
of the flame in the spectroscope is because the slit is so
narrow. But when once the sunlight was dispersed
so as no longer to interfere, Dr. Huggins found that
it is possible to open the slit wide enough to take
in the image of the whole flame, and then, by turn-
ing the spectroscope so as to bring one of the bright
hydrogen lines into view, the actual shape of the
prominence is seen, only it will look a different
136 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

colour, either red, greenish - blue, or indigo - blue,
according to the line chosen. As the image of the
whole sun and its appendages in the telescope is so very
small, you will understand that even a very narrow slit
will really take in a very large prominence several
thousand miles in length. Fig 51 shows a drawing
by Mr. Lockyer of a group of flames he observed

Fig. 51.



Red prominences, as drawn by Mr. Lockyer during the
total eclipse of March 14, 1869.

very soon after Dr. Huggins suggested the open slit,
and these shapes did not last long, for in another
picture he drew ten minutes later their appearance
had already changed.
SUN-SPOT PERIODS 137

These then are some of the facts revealed to us
by our magic glasses. I scarcely expect you to
remember all the details I have given you, but you
will at least understand now how astronomers
actually penetrate into the secrets of the sun by
bringing its image into their observatory, as we
brought it to-day on the card-board, and then making
it tell its own tale through the prisms of the spectro-
scope; and you will retain some idea of the central
light of the sun with its surrounding atmosphere of
cooler gases and its layer of luminous lambent gases
playing round it beyond.

Of the corona I cannot tell you much, except
that it is far more subtle than anything we have
spoken of yet ; that it is always strongest when the
sun is most spotted ; that it is partly made up of self-
luminous gases whose bright lines we can see,
especially an unknown green ray ; while it also shines
partly by reflected light from the sun, for we can
trace in it faint dark lines ; lastly it fades away into
the mysterious zodiacal light, and so the sun ends in
mystery at its outer fringe as it began at its centre.

And now at last, having learnt something of the
material of the sun, we can come back to the spots
and ask what is known about them. As I have
said, they are not always the same on the sun’s face.
On the contrary, they vary very much both in number
and size, In some years the sun’s face is quite free
from them, at others there are so many that they form
two wide belts on each side of the sun’s equator, with
a clear space of about six degrees between. No spots
ever appear near the poles. Herr Schwabe, who
138 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

watched the sun’s face patiently for more than thirty
years, has shown that it is most spotted about every
eleven years, then the spots disappear very quickly
and reappear slowly till the full-spot time comes round
again.

Some spots remain a very short time and then
break up and disappear, but others last for days,
weeks, and even months, and when we watch these,
we find that a spot appears to travel slowly across
the face of the sun from east to west and then round
the western edge so that it disappears. It is when it
reaches the edge that we can convince ourselves
that the spot is really part of the sun, for there is no
space to be seen between them, the edge and the
spot are one, as the last trace of the dark blotch
passes out of sight. In fact, it is not the spot which
has crossed the sun’s face, but the sun itself which
has turned, like our earth, upon its axis, carrying the
spot round with it. As some spots remain long
enough to reappear, after about twelve or thirteen days,
on the opposite edge, and even pass round two or three
times, astronomers can reckon that the sun takes
about twenty-five days and five hours in performing
one revolution. You will wonder why I say only
about twenty-five, but I do so because all spots do
not come round in exactly the same time, those
farthest from the equator lag rather more than a
day behind those nearer to it, and this is explained
by the layer of gases in which they are formed,
drifting back in higher latitudes as the sun turns.

It is by watching a spot as it travels across the
sun, that we are able to observe that the centre part
NATURE OF SUN-SPOTS 139

lies deeper in the sun’s face than the outer rim.
There are many ways of testing this, and you can
try one yourselves with a telescope if you watch
day after day. I will explain it by a simple ex-
periment. I have here a round lump of stiff dough,
in which I have made a small hollow and blackened
the bottom with a drop of ink. As I turn this round,
so that the hollow facing you moves from right to
left, you will see that after it passes the middle of
the face, the hole appears narrower and narrower till
it disappears, and if you observe carefully you will note
that the dark centre is the first thing you lose sight
of, while the edges of the cup are still seen, till just
before the spot disappears altogether. But now I
will stick a wafer on, and a pea half into, the dough,
marking the centre of each with ink. Then I turn
the ball again. This time you lose sight of the
foremost edge first, and the dark centre is seen
almost to the last moment. This shows that if the
spots were either flat marks, or hillocks, on the sun’s
face, the dark centre would remain to the last, but
as a fact it disappears before the rim. Father Secchi
has tried to measure the depth of a spot-cavity, arid
thinks they vary from 1000 to 3000 miles deep.
But there are many difficulties in interpreting the
effects of light and shadow at such an enormous
distance, and some astronomers still doubt whether
spots are really depressions.

Formany centuries now the spots have been watched
forming and dispersing, and this is roughly speaking
what is seen to happen. When the sun is fairly
clear and there are few spots, these generally form
140 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

quietly, several black dots appearing and disappear-
ing with bright streaks or facu/e round their edge,
till one grows bigger than the rest, and forms a large
dark nucleus, round which, after a time, a half-shadow
or penumbra is seen and we have a sun-spot com-

Fig. 52.



A quiet sun-spot. (Secchi.)

plete, with bright edges, dark shadow, and deep black
centre (Fig. 52). This lasts for a certain time and
then it becomes bridged over with light streaks, the
dark spot breaks up and disappears, and last of all
the half-shadow dies away.

But things do not always take place so quietly.
When the sun’s face is very troubled and full of
spots, the bright facu/e, which appear with a spot,
seem to heave and wave, and generally several dark
centres form with whirling masses of light round
QUIET AND TUMULTUOUS SPOTS 141

them, while in some of them tongues of fire appear
to leap up from below (Fig. 53). Such spots change
quickly from day to day, even if they remain for a
long time, until at last by degrees the dark centres
become less distinct, the half-shadows disappear,





A tumultuous sun-spot. (Langley.)

leaving only the bright streaks, which gradually settle
down into luminous points or dight granules. These
light granules are in fact supposed by astronomers to
be the tips of glowing clouds heaving up everywhere,
while the dark spaces between them are cooler
currents passing downwards.

Below these clouds, no doubt, the great mass of
the sun is in a violent state of heat and commotion,
142 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

and when from time to time, whether suddenly or
steadily, great upheavals and eruptions take place,
bright flames dart up and luminous clouds gather and
swell, so that long streaks or facu/e surge upon the
face of the sun.

Now these hot gases rising up thus on all sides
would leave room below for cooler gases to pour
down from above, and these, as we know, would
cut off, or absorb, much of the light coming from
the body of the sun, so that the centre, where
the down current was the strongest, would appear
black even though some light would pass through.
This is the best explanation we have as yet of the
formation of a sun-spot, and many facts shown in the
spectroscope help to confirm it, as for example the
thickening of the dark lines of the spectrum when
the slit is placed over the centre of a spot, and the
flashing out of bright lines when an uprush of
streaks occurs either across the spots or round it.

And now, before you go, I must tell you of one
of these wonderful uprushes, which sent such a thrill
through our own atmosphere, as to tell us very
plainly the power which the sun has over our globe.
The year 1859 was remarkable for sun-spots, and on
September 1, when two astronomers many miles
apart were examining them, they both saw, all at
once, a sudden cloud of light far brighter than the
general surface of the sun burst out in the midst of
a group of spots, The outburst began at eight minutes
past eleven in the forenoon, and in five minutes it
was gone again, but in that time it had swept across
a space of 35,000 miles on the sun! Now both
LINKS BETWEEN SUN AND EARTH 143

before and after this violent outburst took place a
magnetic storm raged all round the earth, brilliant
auroras were seen in all parts of the world, sparks
flashed from the telegraph wires, and the telegraphic
signalmen at Washington and Philadelphia received
severe electric shocks. Messages were interrupted,
for the storm took possession of the wires and sent
messages of its own, the magnetic needles darting to
and fro as though seized with madness. At the
very instant when the bright outburst was seen in
the sun, the self- registering instruments at Kew
marked how three needles jerked all at once wildly
aside ; and the following night the skies were lit up
with wondrous lights as the storm of electric agita-
tion played round the earth.

We are so accustomed to the steady glow of sun-
shine pouring down upon us that we pay very little
heed to daylight, though I hope none of us are quite
so ignorant as the man who praised the moon above
the sun, because it shone in the dark night, whereas
the sun came in the daytime when there was light
enough already! Yet probably many of us do not
actually realise how close are the links which bind
us to our brilliant star as he carries us along with
him through space. It is only when an unusual out-
burst occurs, such as I have just described, that we
feel how every thrill which passes through our atmo-
sphere, through the life-current of every plant, and
through the fibre and nerve of every animal has some
relation to the huge source of light, heat, electricity,
and magnetism at which we are now gazing across a
space of more than 93,000,000 miles, Yet it is well
144 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to remember that the sudden storm and the violent
eruption are the exceptional occurrences, and that
their use to us as students fs chiefly to lead us to
understand the steady and constant thrill which,
never ceasing, never faltering, fulfils the great pur-
pose of the unseen Lawgiver in sustaining all move-
ment and life in our little world.
AN EVENING AMONG THE STARS 145

CHAPTER VII

AN EVENING AMONG THE STARS

O you love the stars ?” asked
the magician of his lads, as
they crowded round him
on the college green, one
evening in March, to look
through his portable telescope.
“Have you ever sat at the
window on a clear frosty night,
or in the garden in summer,
and looked up at those wondrous
lights in the sky, pondering what
they are, and what purpose they serve?”

I will confess to you that when I lived in London
I did not think much about the stars, for in the
streets very few can be seen at a time even on a
clear night ; and during the long evenings in summer,
when town people visit the country, you must stay
up late to see a brilliant display of starlight. It is
when driving or walking across country on a winter’s
evening week after week, and looking all round the
sky, that the glorious suns of heaven force you to
take notice of them; and Orion becomes a com-









146 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

panion with his seven brilliant stars and his magni-
ficent nebula, which appears as a small pale blue
patch, to eyes accustomed to look for it, when the
night is very bright and clear. It is then that
Charles’s Wain becomes quite a study in all its
different positions, its horses now careering upwards,
now plunging downwards, while the waggon, whether
upwards or downwards, points ever true, by the two
stars of its tail-board, to the steadfast pole-star.

It is on such nights as these that, looking southward
from Orion, we recognise the dog-star Sirius, bright
long before other stars have conquered the twilight,
and feast our eye upon his glorious white beams;
and then, turning northwards, are startled by the soft
lustrous sheen of Vega just appearing above the
horizon. ca

But stop, I must remember that I have not yet
introduced you to these groups of stars ; and moreover
that, though we shall find them now in the positions
I mention, yet if you look for them a few hours later
to-night, or at the same hour later in the year, you
will not find them in the same places in the sky.
For as our earth turns daily on its axis, the stars
appear to alter their position hour by hour, and in
the same way as we travel yearly on our journey
round the sun, they agpear to move in the sky month
by month. Yet with a little practice it is easy to
recognise the principal stars, for, as it is our move-
ment and not theirs which makes us see them in
different parts of the sky, they always remain in the
same position with regard to each other. In a very
short time, with the help of such a book as Proctor’s
SIRIUS, THE DOG-STAR 147

Star Atlas, you could pick out all the chief constella-
tions and most conspicuous stars for yourselves.

One of the best ways is to take note of the stars
each night as they creep out one by one after sunset.
If you take your place at the window to-morrow
night as the twilight fades away, you will see them
gradually appear, now in one part, now in another of
the sky, as

** One by one each little star
Sits on its golden throne.”

The first to appear will be Sirius or the dog-star
(see Fig. 54), that pure white star which you can
observe now rather low down to the south, and
which belongs to the constellation Canés Mayor.
As Sirius is one of the most brilliant stars in
the sky, he can be seen very soon after the sun
is gone at this time of year. If, however, you had
any doubt as to what star he was, you would not
doubt long, for in a little while two beautiful stars
start into view above him more to the west, and
between them three smaller ones in a close row,
forming the cross in the constellation of Orion,
which is always very easy to recognise. Now the
three stars of Orion’s belt which make the short
piece of the cross always point to Sirius, while
Betelgeux in his right shoulder, and Rigel in his
left foot (see Figs. 54 and 55), complete the long
piece, and these all show very early in the twilight.
You would have to wait longer for the other two
leading stars, Bellatrix in the right shoulder and
« Orionis in the right leg, for these stars are feebler
and only seen when the light has faded quite away.

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Some of the constellations seen when looking south in March from six to nine o'clock.



grr

SASSY TID WOFW HOQOVHL
THE CONSTELLATION OF ORION 149

By that time you would see that there are an im-
mense number of stars in Orion visible even to the
naked eye, besides the veil of misty, tiny stars called the
“Milky Way” which passes over his arm and club.
Yet the figure of the huntsman is very difficult to trace,
and the seven bright stars, the five of the cross and
those in the leftarm and knee, are all you need remember.

No! not altogether all, for on a bright clear night
like this you can detect _
a faint greenish blue
patch (N, Fig. 54) just
below the belt, and
having a bright star in
the centre. This is
called the “Great Ne-
bula” or mist of Orion
(see Frontispiece). With
your telescopes it looks
very small indeed, for
only the central and
brightest part is seen.
Really, however, it is
so widespread that our
whole solar system is as
nothing compared to it.
Buteven your telescopes
will show, somewhere
near the centre, what appears to be a bright and very
beautiful star (see Fig. 55) surrounded by a darker
space than the rest of the nebula, while in my tele-
scope you will see many stars scattered over the mist.

Now first let me tell you that these last stars do

Fig. 55.

Aldebaran®



Chief stars of Orion, with Aldebaran.
(After Proctor. )
150 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

not, so far as we know, lie zz the nebula, but are
scattered about in the heavens between us and
it, perhaps millions of miles nearer our earth. But
with the bright star in the centre it is different,
for the spectroscope tells us that the mist passes
; over it, so that it is either
Fig. 56. behind or in the nebula.
Moreover, this star is very
interesting, for it is not
really one star, but six
arranged in a group (see
Fig. 56). You can see
four distinctly through my
telescope, forming a tra-
pezium or four-sided figure,
and more powerful instru-
The trapezium, @ Orionis, inthe Ments show two smaller
nebula of Orion. (Herschel.) ones. So @ Orionis, or the
Trapezium of Orion, is a
multiple star, probably lying in the midst of the
nebula.

The next question is, What is the mist itself
composed of? For a long time telescopes could give
us no answer. At last one night Lord Rosse, looking
through his giant telescope at the densest part of the
nebula, saw myriads of minute stars which had never
been seen before. “Then,” you will say, “ it is after all
only a cluster of stars too small for our telescopes
to distinguish.” Wait a bit; it is always dangerous
to draw hasty conclusions from single observations.
What Lord Rosse said was true as to that particular
part of the nebula, but not the whole truth even


THE NEBULA OF ORION 151

there, and not at all true of other parts, as the
spectroscope tells us.

For though the light of nebulz, or luminous mists,
is so faint that a spectrum can only be got by most
delicate operations, yet Dr. Huggins has succeeded
in examining several. Among these is the nebula
of Orion, and we now know that when the light of
the mist is spread out it gives, not a continuous band

Fig. 57.

Nebula-spectrum.

F fo h #H é

Sun-spectrum.







Spectrum of Orion's Nebula, showing bright lines, with sun-spectrum
below for comparison.

of colour such as would be given by stars, but fazut
coloured lines on a dark ground (see Fig. 57). Such
lines as these we have already learnt are always
given by gases, and the particular bright lines thrown
by Orion’s nebula answer to those given by nitrogen
and hydrogen, and some other unknown gases. So
we learn at last that the true mist of the nebula is
formed of glowing gas, while parts have probably a
great number of minute stars in them.

Till within a very short time ago only those people
who had access to very powerful telescopes could
see the real appearance of Orion, for drawings made
of it were -necessarily very imperfect; but now that
telescopes have been made expressly for carrying
152 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

photographic appliances, even these faint mists print
their own image for us. In 1880 Professor Draper
of America photographed the nebula of Orion, in
March 1881 Mr. Common got a still better effect,
and last year Mr. Isaac Roberts succeeded in taking
the most perfect and beautiful photograph?! yet
obtained, in which the true beauty of this wonderful
mist stands out clearly. I have marked on the edge
of our copy two points @ and 6’, and if you follow
out straight lines from these points till they meet,
you will arrive at the spot where the multiple star
lies. It cannot, however, be seen here, because the
plate was exposed for three hours and a half, and
after a time the mist prints itself so densely as to
smother the light of the stars. Look well at this
photograph when you go indoors and fix it on your
memory, and then on clear nights accustom your eye
to find the nebula below the three stars of the belt,
for it tells a wonderful story.

More than a hundred years ago the great
German philosopher Kant suggested that our
sun, our earth, and all the heavenly bodies might
have begun as gases, and the astronomer Laplace
taught this as the most likely history of their
formation. After a few years, however, when power-
ful telescopes showed that many of the nebule
were only clusters of very minute stars, astronomers
thought that Laplace’s teaching had been wrong.
But now the spectroscope has revealed to us glowing

1 Reproduced in the Frontispiece with Mr. Roberts’s kind per-
mission. The star-halo at the top of the plate is caused by diffraction
of light in the telescope, and comes only from an ordinary star.
THE PLEIADES 153

gas actually filling large spaces in the sky, and every
year accurate observations and experiments tell us
more and more about these marvellous distant mists.
Some day, though perhaps not while you or I are
here to know it, Orion’s nebula, with its glowing gas
and minute star-dust, may give some clue to the
early history of the heavenly bodies; and for this
reason I wish you to recognise and ponder over it, as
I have often done, when it shines down on the rugged
moor in the stillness of a clear frosty winter’s night.
But we must pass on for, while I have been talk-
ing, the whole sky has become bespangled with
hundreds of stars. - That glorious one to the west,
which you can find by following (Fig. 54) a curved
line upwards from Betelgeux, is the beautiful red star
Aldebaran or the hindmost ; so called by the Arabs,
because he drives before him that well-known cluster,
the Pleiades, which we reach by continuing the curve
westwards and upwards. Stop to look at this cluster
through your telescopes, for it will delight you ; even
with the naked eye you can count from six to ten
stars in it, and an opera-glass will show about thirty,
though they are so scattered you will have to
move the glass about to find them. Yet though my
telescope shows a great many more, you cannot even
count all the chief ones through it, for in powerful
telescopes more than 600 stars have been seen in the
single cluster! while a photograph taken by Mr.
Roberts shows also four lovely patches of nebula.
And now from the Pleiades let us pass on directly
overhead.to the beautiful star Capella, which once
was red but now is blue, and drop down gently to
154 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the south-east, where Castor and Pollux, the two most
prominent stars in the constellation “Gemini” or
the twins, show brilliantly against the black sky.
Pause here a moment, for I want to tell you some-
thing about Castor, the one nearest to Capella. If
you look at Castor through your telescopes, some of
you may possibly guess that it is really two stars, but
you will have to look through mine to see it clearly.
These two stars have been watched carefully for
many years, and there is now no doubt that one of
them is moving slowly round the other. Such stars
as these are called “binary,” to distinguish them from
stars that merely afpear double because they stand
nearly in a line one behind the other in the heavens, ©
although they may be millions of miles apart. But
“binary” stars are actually moving in one system,
and revolve round each other as our earth moves
round the sun.

1 wonder if it strikes you what a grand discovery
this is? You will remember that it is gravitation
which keeps the moon held to the earth so that it
moves round in a circle, and which keeps the earth
and other planets moving round the sun. But till
these binary stars were discovered we had no means
of guessing that this law had any force beyond our
own solar system. Now, however, we learn that the
same law and order which reigns in our small group
of planets is in action billions of miles away among
distant suns, so that they are held together and move
round each other as our earth moves round our sun.
I will repeat to you what Sir R. Ball, the Astronomer-
Royal of Ireland, says about this, for his words
BINARY STARS 155

have remained in my mind ever since I read them,
and I should Jike them to linger in yours till you
are old enough to feel their force and grandeur.
“This discovery,” he writes, “gave us knowledge we
could have gained from no other source. From the
binary stars came a whisper across the vast abyss of
space. That whisper told us that the law of gravi-
tation is not peculiar to the solar system. It gives
us grounds for believing that it is obeyed throughout
the length, the breadth, the depth, and the height of
the entire universe.” !

And now, leaving Castor and going round to the
east, we pass through the constellation Leo or the
' Lion, and I want you particularly to notice six stars
in the shape of a sickle, which form the front part of
the lion, the brightest, called Regulus, being the end
of the handle” This sickle is very interesting,
because it marks the part of the heavens from which
the brilliant shower of November meteors radiates
once in thirty-three years. This is, however, too
long a story to be told to-night, so we will pass
through Leo, and turning northwards, look high up
in the north-east (Fig. 58), where “ Charles’s Wain”
stretches far across the sky. I need not point this
out to you, for every country lad knows and delights
in it. You could not have seen it in the twilight
when Sirius first shone out, for these stars are not so
powerful as he is. But they come out very soon
after him, and when once fairly bright, the four stars
which form the waggon, wider at the top than at the

1 The Story of the Heavens.
2 In Fig. 54 the sickle alone comes within the picture.
Fig. 58.

WM AMS Ca
Cd
C

om
%
S

oar)
uards

G

r)
lo Aon) BUR) A Tory
E ic eth oad Tes Apcturus
OM é

tJ
LYRA PTY ie dey

Some of the constellations seen when looking north in March from six to nine o'clock.



gSi

SISSVTID WOVW HONOVAL
CHARLES’S IAIN 157

bottom, can never be mistaken, and the three stars in
front, the last bending below the others, are just in
the right position for the horses. For this reason I
prefer the country people’s name of Charles’s Wain or
Waggon to that of the “ Plough,” which astronomers
generally give to these seven stars. They really
form part of an enormous constellation called the
“Great Bear” (Fig. 59), but, as in the case of Orion,
it is very difficult to make out the whole of Bruin
in the sky.

Now, although most people know Charles’s Wain
when they see it, we may still learn a good deal



The Great Bear, showing the position of Charles's Wain, and also
the small binary star & in the hind foot, whose period
has been determined.

about it. Look carefully at the second star from
the waggon and you will see another star close to it,
called by country people “ Jack by the second horse,”
158 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

and by astronomers “ Alcor.” Even in your small
telescopes you can see that Jack or Alcor is not so
close as he appears to the naked eye, but a long way
off from the horse, while in my telescope you will
find this second horse (called Mizar) split up into two
stars, one a brilliant white and the other a pale
emerald green. We do not know whether these two
form a binary, for they have not yet been observed
to move round each other.

Take care in looking that you do not confuse the
stars one with another, for you must remember that
your telescope makes objects appear upside down,
and Alcor will therefore appear in it delow the two
stars forming the horse.

But though we do not know whether Mizar is
binary, there is a little star a long way below the
waggon, in the left hind paw of the Great Bear (£, Figs.
58 and 59), which has taught us a great deal, for it
is composed of two stars, one, white and the other
grey, which move right round each other once in
sixty years,.so that astronomers have observed more
than one revolution since powerful telescopes were
invented. You will have to look in my telescope to
see the two stars divided, but you can make an
interesting observation for yourselves by comparing
the light of this binary star with the light of Castor,
for Castor is such an immense distance from us that
his light takes more than a hundred years to reach
us, while the light of this smaller star comes in sixty-
one years, yet see how incomparably brighter Castor
is of the two. This proves that brilliant stars are
not always the nearest, but that a near star may
DRIFTING OF THE WAGGON-STARS 159

be small and faint and a far-off one large and
bright.

There is another very interesting fact known to us
about Charles’s Wain which I should like you to
remember when you look at it. This is that the
seven stars are travelling onwards in the sky, and not
all in the same direction. It was already suspected
centuries ago that, besides the apparent motion of
all the stars in the heavens caused by our own
movements, they have each also a veal motion and
are travelling in space, though they are so in-
conceivably far off that we do not notice it. It
has now been proved, by very accurate observa-
tions with powerful instruments, that three of
the stars forming the waggon and the two horses

Fig, 60.



The seven stars of Charles's Wain, showing the directions in which they
are travelling. (After Proctor.)

nearest to it, together with Jack, are drifting forwards
(see Fig. 60), while the top star of the tailboard of
the waggon and the leader of the horses are drifting
the other way. Thus, thousands of years hence
160 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Charles’s Wain will most likely have quite altered its
shape, though so very slowly that each generation
will think it is unchanged.

One more experiment with Charles’s Wain, before
we leave it, will help you to imagine the endless
millions of stars which fill the universe. Look up at
the waggon and try to count how many stars you
can see inside it with the naked eye. You may, if
your eye is keen, be able to count twelve. Now
take an opera-glass and the twelve become two hun-
dred. With your telescopes they will increase again in
number. In my telescope upstairs the two hundred
become hundreds, while in one of the giant telescopes,
such as Lord Rosse’s in Ireland, or the great telescope
at Washington in the United States, thousands of stars
are brought into view within that four-sided space !

Now this part of the sky is not fuller of stars than
many others ; yet at first, looking up as any one might
on a clear evening, we thought only twelve were
there. Cast your eyes all round the heavens. Ona
clear night like this you may perhaps, with the naked
eye, have in view about 3000 stars; then con-
sider that a powerful telescope can multiply these
by thousands upon thousands, so that we can reckon
about 20,000,000 where you see only 3000. If
you add to these the stars that rise later at night,
and those of the southern hemisphere which never
rise in our latitude, you would have in all about
50,000,000 stars, which we are able to see from our
tiny world through our most powerful telescopes.

But we can go farther yet. When our telescopes
fail, we turn to our other magic seer, the photographic
THE POLE-STAR 161

camera, and trapping rays of light from stars invisible
in the most powerful telescope, make them print their
image on the photographic plate, and at once our
numbers are so enormously increased that if we could
photograph the whole of the heavens as visible from
our earth, we should have impressions of at least
170,000,000 stars !

These numbers are so difficult to grasp that we
had better pass on to something easier, and our next
step brings us to the one star in the heavens which
never appears to move, as our world turns. To find
it we have only to draw a line upwards through the
two stars in the tailboard of the waggon and on into
space. Indeed these two stars are called “the
Pointers,” because a line prolonged onwards from
them will, with a very slight curve, bring us to the
“Pole-star” (see Fig. 58). This star, though not one of
the largest, is important, because it is very near that
spot in the sky towards which the North Pole of our
earth points. The consequence is, that though all the
other stars appear to move in a circle round the heavens,
and to be in different places at different seasons, this
star remains always in the same place, only appearing
to describe a very tiny circle in the sky round the
exact spot to which our North Pole points.

Month after month and year after year it shines
exactly over that thatched cottage yonder, which you
see now immediately below it ; and wherever you are
in the northern hemisphere, if you once note a certain
tree, or chimney, or steeple which points upwards to
the Pole-star, it will guide you to it at any hour on
any night of the year, though the other constella-
162 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

tions will be now on one side, now on the other
side of it.

The Pole-star is really the front horse of a small
imitation of Charles’s Wain, which, however, has never
been called by any special name, but only part of the
“Little Bear.” Those two hind stars of the tiny
waggon, which are so much the brightest, are called
the “Guards,” because they appear to move in a
circle round the Pole-star night after night and year
after year like sentries.

Opposite to them, on the farther side of the Pole-
star, is a well-marked constellation, a widespread W
written in the sky by five large stars; the second V

Fig. 61.

i
Pe

the Variable Star

tt tan

Great Nebula



The constellation of Cassiopeia, and the heavenly bodies which
can be found by means of it.2

of the W has rather a longer point than the first, and
as we see it now the letter is almost upside down (see

1 For Almach see Fig. 58, it has been accidentally omitted from
this figure.
CASSIOPEITA AND ITS NEIGHBOURS 163

Fig. 58). These are the five brightest stars in the
constellation Cassiopeia, with a sixth not quite so
bright in the third stroke of the W. You can never
miss them when you have once seen them, even
though they lie in the midst of a dense layer of the
stars of the Milky Way, and if you have any difficulty
at first, you have only to look as far on the one
side of the Pole-star as the top hind star of Charles’s
Wain is on the other, and you must find them. I
want to use them to-night chiefly as guides to find
two remarkable objects which I hope you will look at
again and again. The first is a small round misty
patch not easy to see, but which you will find by
following out the second stroke of the first V of the
W. Beginning at the top, and following the line to
the point of the V, continue on across the sky, and
then search with your telescope till you catch a
glimpse of this faint mist (c, Fig. 58; star-cluster,
Fig. 61). You will see at once that it is sparkling
all over with stars, for in fact you have actually before
you in that tiny cluster more stars than you can see
with the naked eye all over the heavens! Think for
a moment what this means. One faint misty spot
in the constellation Perseus, which we should have
passed over unheeded without a telescope, proves to
be a group of more than 3000 suns!

The second object you will find more easily, for it
is larger and brighter, and appears as a faint dull spot
to the naked eye. Going back to Cassiopeia, follow
out the second V in the W from the top to the point
of the V and onwards till your eye rests upon this
misty cloud, which is called the Great Nebula of

M
164 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Andromeda, and has sometimes been mistaken for a
comet (Figs. 58 and 61). You will, however, be
disappointed when you look through the telescope,
for it will still only appear a mist, and you will be
able to make nothing of it, except that instead of
being of an irregular shape like Orion, it is elliptical ;
and in a powerful telescope two dark rifts can be
seen separating the streams of nebulous matter.
These rifts are now shown in a photograph taken by
Mr. Roberts, 1st October 1888, to be two vast dusky
rings lying between the spiral stream of light, which
winds in an ellipse till it ends in a small nucleus at
the centre.

Ah! you will say, this must be a cloud of gas like
Orion’s nebula, only winding round and round.
No! the spectroscope steps in. here and tells us that
the light shows something very much like a con-
tinuous spectrum, but not as long as it ought to be
at the red end. Now, since gases give only bright
lines, this nebula cannot be entirely gaseous. Then
it must be made of stars too far off to see? If so,
it is very strange that though it is so dense and
bright in some parts, and so spread out and clear in
others, the most powerful telescopes cannot break it
up into stars. In fact, the composition of the great
nebula of Andromeda is still a mystery, and remains
for one of you boys to study when he has become a
great astronomer.

Still one more strange star we will notice before
we leave this part of the heavens. You will find it,
or at least go very near it, by continuing northwards
the line you drew from Cassiopeia to the Star
VARIABLE STARS 165

Cluster (¢, Fig. 58), and as it is a bright star, you
will not miss it. That is to say, it is bright to-night
and will remain so till to-morrow night, but if you
come to me about nine o’clock to-morrow evening I
will show you that it is growing dim, and if we had
patience to watch through the night we should find,
three or four hours later still, that it looks like one of
the smaller stars. Then it will begin to brighten
again, and in four hours more will be as bright as at first.
It will remain so for nearly three days, or, to speak
accurately, 2 days, 20 hours, 48 minutes, and 55
seconds, and. then will begin to grow dull again.
This star is called Algol the Variable. There are
several such stars in the heavens, and we do not
know why they vary, unless perhaps some dark globe
passes round them, cutting off part of their light for
a time. »

And now, if your eyes are not weary, let us go
back to the Pole-star and draw a line from it straight
down the horizon due north. Shortly before we arrive
there you will see a very brilliant bluish-white star a
little to the east of this line. This is Vega, one of
the brightest stars in the heavens except Sirius. It
had not risen in the earlier part of the evening, but
now it is well up and will appear to go on, steadily
mounting as it circles round the Pole-star, till at four
o'clock to-morrow morning it will be right overhead
towards the south.

But beautiful as Vega is, a still more interesting
star lies close to it (see Fig. 58). This small star,
called « Lyre by astronomers, looks a little longer in
one direction than in the other, and even with the naked
166 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

eye some people can see a division in the middle divid-
ing it into two stars. Your telescopes will show them

Fig. 62. easily, and a powerful tele-
scope tells a wonderful
story, for it reveals that
each of these two stars is
again composed of two
stars, so that e« Lyre (Fig.
62) is really a double-
double star. There is no
doubt that each pair is a
binary star, that is, the two
stars move round each other
very slowly, and possibly



e Lyre. A double-binary star.
Each couple revolves, and Fi
the couples probably also re- both pairs may also revolve

volve round each other, (After round a common centre.

Chambers. ) There are at least 10,000

double stars in the heavens; though, as we have
seen, they are not all binary. The list of binary
stars, however, increases every year as they are
carefully examined, and probably about one star
in three over the whole sky is made up of more
than one sun.

Let us turn the telescope for a short time
upon a few of the double stars and we shall
have a great treat, for one of the most interesting
facts about them is that both stars are rarely
of -the same colour. It seems strange at first to
speak of stars as coloured, but they do not by
any means all give out the same kind of light.
Our sun is yellow, and so are the Pole-star and
Pollux; but Sirius, Vega, and Regulus are dazzling
COLOURED DOUBLE STARS.

a Hercults

€ Bootis

1 Casslopeve


COLOURED STARS 167

white or bluish-white, Arcturus is a yellowish-white,
Aldebaran is a bright yellow-red, Betelgeux a deep
orange-red, as you may see now in the telescope, for
he is full in view ; while Antares, a star in the con-
stellation of the Scorpion, which at this time of year
cannot be seen till four in the morning, is an intense
ruby red.

It appears to be almost a rule with double stars
to be of two colours. Look up at Almach (y An-
dromedz), a bright star standing next to Algol the
Variable in the sweep of four bright stars behind
Cassiopeia (see Fig. 58). Even to the naked eye he
appears to flash in a strange way, and in the telescope
he appears as two lovely stars, one a deep orange and
the other a pale green, while in powerful telescopes
the green one splits again into two (Plate II.) Then
again, 7 Cassiopee, the sixth star lying between the
two large ones in the second V of Cassiopeia, divides
into a yellow star and a small rich purple one, and
8 Geminorum, a bright star not far from Pollux in the
constellation Gemini, is composed of a large green
star and a small purple one. Another very famous
double star (@ Cygni), which rises only a little later
in the evening, lies below Vega a little to the left.
It is composed of two lovely stars; one an orange
yellow and the other blue; while e Bodtis, just
visible above the horizon, is composed of a large
yellow star and a very small green one.!

There are many other stars of two colours even
among the few constellations we have picked out to-

1 The plate of coloured stars has been most kindly drawn to scale
and coloured for me by Mr. Arthur Cottam, F.R.A.S.
168 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

night, as, for example, the star at the top of the tail-
board of Charles’s Waggon and the second horse Mizar.
Rigel in Orion, and the two outer stars of the belt,
a Herculis, which will rise later in the evening, and
the beautiful triple star (¢ Cancer) near the Beehive
(see Fig. 54), are all composed of two or more stars
of different colours.

Why do these suns give out such beautiful coloured
light? The telescope cannot tell us, but the spectro-
scope again reveals the secrets so long hidden from
us. By a series of very delicate experiments, Dr.
Huggins has shown that the light of all stars is sifted
before it comes to us, just as the light of our sun is;
and those.rays which are least cut off play most
strongly on our eyes, and give the colour to the star.
The question is a difficult one but I will try to give
you some idea of it, that you may form some picture
in your mind of what happens,

We learnt in our last lecture (p. 131) that the light
from our sun passes through the great atmosphere of
vapours surrounding him before it goes out into space,
and that many rays are in this way cut off; so that
when we spread out his light in a long spectrum
there are dark lines or spaces where no light falls.’
Now in sunlight these dark lines are scattered pretty
evenly over the spectrum, so that about as much light
is cut off in one part as in another, and no one
colour is stronger than the rest.

Dr. Huggins found, however, that in coloured stars
the dark spaces are often crowded into particular
parts of the long band of colour forming the spectrum ;

1 See No. 1 in Table of Spectra, Plate I.
WHY STARS ARE COLOURED 169

showing that many of those light-rays have been cut
off in the atmosphere round the star, and thus their
particular colours are dimmed, leaving the other colour
or colours more vivid. In red stars, for example, the
yellow, blue, and green parts of the spectrum are
much lined while the red end is strong and clear.
With blue stars it is just the opposite, and the violet
end is most free from dark lines. So there are
really brilliantly coloured suns shining in the heavens,
and in many cases two or more of these revolve round
each other.

And now I have kept your attention and strained
your eyes long enough, and you have objects to
study for many a long evening before you will learn
to see them plainly. You must not expect to find
them every night, for the lightest cloud or the
faintest moonlight will hide many of them from view;
and, moreover, though you may learn to use the
telescope fairly, you will often not know how to get
a clear view with it. Still, you may learn a great
deal, and before we go in I want to put a thought
into your minds which will make astronomy still
more interesting. We have seen that the stronger
our telescopes the more stars, star-clusters, and
nebulz we see, and we cannot doubt that there are
still countless heavenly bodies quite unknown to us.
Some years ago Bessel the astronomer found
that Sirius, in its real motion through the heavens,
moves irregularly, travelling sometimes a little more
slowly than at other times, and he suggested that
some unseen companion must be pulling at him.

Twenty-eight years later, in 1862, two celebrated
170 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

opticians, father and son, both named Alvan Clark,
were trying a new telescope at Chicago University,
when suddenly the son, who was looking at Sirius,
exclaimed, “ Why, father, the star has a companion !”
And so it was. The powerful telescope showed
what Bessel had foretold, and proved Sirius to be
a “binary” star—that is, as we have seen, a star
which has another moving round it.

It has since been proved that this companion is
twenty-eight times farther from Sirius than we are
from our sun, and moves round him in about forty-
nine years. It is seven times as heavy as our sun,
and yet gives out so little light that only the keenest
telescopes can bring it into view.

Now if such a large body as this can give so very
faint a light that we can scarcely see it, though
Sirius, which is close to it, shines brightest of any star
in the heavens, how many more bodies must there be
which we shall never see, even among those which
give out light, while how many there are dark like
our earth, who can tell ?

Now that we know each of the stars to be a
brilliant sun, many of them far, far brighter than
ours, yet so like in their nature and laws, we can
scarcely help speculating whether round these glorious
suns, worlds of some kind may not be moving. If
so, and there are people in them, what a strange effect
those double coloured suns must produce with red
daylight one day and blue daylight another !

Surely, as we look up at the myriads of stars
bespangling the sky, and remember that our star-sun
has seven planets moving round it of which one at
OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS 171

least—our own earth—is full of living beings, we must
picture these glorious suns as the centres of unseen
systems, so that those twinkling specks become as
suggestive as the faint lights of a great fleet far out
at sea, which tell us of mighty ships, together with
frigates and gunboats, full of living beings, though we
cannot see them, nor even guess what they may be like.
How insignificant we feel when we look upon that
starlit sky and remember that the whole of our solar
system would be but a tiny speck of light if seen as
far off as we see the stars! If our little earth and
our short life upon it were all we could boast of we
should be mites indeed.

But our very study to-night lifts us above these
and reminds us that there is a spirit within us
which even now can travel beyond the narrow
bounds of our globe, measure the vast distances
between us and the stars, gauge their brightness,
estimate their weight, and discern their movements.
As we gaze into the depths of the starlit sky,
and travel onwards.and onwards in imagina-
tion to those distant stars which photography alone
reveals to us, do not our hearts leap at the thought
of a day which must surely come when, fettered and
bound no longer to earth, this spirit shall wander
forth and penetrate some of the mystery of those
mighty suns at which we now gaze in silent awe.
172 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

CHAPTER VIII
LITTLE BEINGS FROM A MINIATURE OCEAN

N our last lecture we soared
far away into boundless
space, and lost ourselves
for a time among seen
and unseen suns. In this
lecture we will come back
not merely to our little world,
nor even to one of the widespread
a oceans which cover so much of it,

YS. but to one single pool lying just
See above the limits of low tide, so
“~ that it is only uncovered for a very
short time every day. This pool is to be found in a
secluded bay within an hour’s journey by train from
this college, and only a few miles from Torquay.
It has no name, so far as I know, nor do many people
visit it, otherwise I should not have kept my little
pool so long undisturbed. As it is, however, for many
years past I have had only to make sure as to the
time of low tide, and put myself in the train; and then,
unless the sea was very rough and stormy, I could





INHABITANTS OF MY POOL 173

examine the little inhabitants of my miniature ocean
in peace.

The pool lies in a deep hollow among a group of
rocks and boulders, close to the entrance of the cove,
which can only be entered at low water ; it does not
measure more than two feet across, so that you can
step over it, if you take care not to slip on the
masses of green and brown seaweed growing over
the rocks on its sides, as I have done many a time
when collecting specimens for our salt-water aquarium.
I find now the only way is to lie flat down on the
rock, so that my hands and eyes are free to observe
and handle, and then, bringing my eye down to the
edge of the pool, to lift the seaweeds and let the
sunlight enter into the chinks and crannies. In this way
I can catch sight of many a small being either on the
seaweed or the rocky ledges, and even creatures
transparent as glass become visible by the thin out-
line gleaming in the sunlight. Then I pluck a piece
of seaweed, or chip off a fragment of rock with a
sharp-edged collecting knife, bringing away the speci-
men uninjured upon it, and place it carefully in its
own separate bottle to be carried home alive and
well.

Now though this little pool and I are old friends,
I find new treasures in it almost every time I go,
for it is almost as full of living things as the heavens
are of stars, and the tide as it comes and goes brings
many a mother there to find a safe home for her
little ones, and many a waif and stray to seek shelter
from the troublous life of the open ocean.

You will perhaps find it difficult to believe that
174 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

in this rock-bound basin there can be millions of
living creatures hidden away among the fine feathery
weeds ; yet so it is. Not that they are always the
same. At one time it may be the home of myriads
of infant crabs, not an eighth of an inch long, at
another of baby sea-urchins only visible to the
naked eye as minute spots in the water, at another
of young jelly-fish growing on their tiny stalks, and
splitting off one by one as transparent bells to float
away with the rising tide. Or it may be that the
whelk has chosen this quiet nook to deposit her
leathery eggs; or young barnacles, periwinkles, and
limpets are growing up among the green and brown
tangles, while the far-sailing velella and the stay-at-
home sea-squirts, together with a variety of other
sea-animals, find a nursery and shelter in their youth
in this quiet harbour of rest. ~

And besides these casual visitors there are number-
less creatures which have lived and multiplied there,
ever since I first visited the pool. Tender red, olive-
coloured, and green seaweeds, stony corallines, and
acorn-barnacles lining the floor, sea-anemones clinging
to the sides, sponges tiny and many-coloured hiding
under the ledges, and limpets and mussels wedged
in the cracks. These can be easily seen with the naked
eye, but they are not the most numerous inhabit-
ants ; for these we must search with a magnifying-
glass, which will reveal to us wonderful fairy-forms,
delicate crystal vases with tiny creatures in them
whose transparent lashes make whirlpools in the
water, living crystal bells so tiny that whole branches
of them look only like a fringe of hair, jelly globes
RED, GREEN, AND BROWN SEAWEEDS 175

rising and falling in the water, patches of living jelly
clinging to the rocky sides of the pool, and a hundred
other forms, some so minute that you must examine
the fine sand in’ which they lie under a powerful
microscope before you can even guess that they are
there.

So it has proved a rich hunting-ground, where
summer and winter, spring and autumn, I find some
form to put under my magic glass. There I can
watch it for weeks growing and multiplying under
my care; moved only from the aquarium, where I
keep it supplied with healthy sea-water, to the tiny
transparent trough in which I place it for a few

Fig, 63.



Group of seaweeds (natural size).

1, Ulva Linza. 2, Sphacelaria filicina. 3, Polysiphonia urceolata.
4, Corallina officinalis.

hours to see the changes it has undergone. I could
tell you endless tales of transformations in these
176 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES.

tiny lives, but I want to-day to show you a few
of my friends, most of which I brought yesterday
fresh from the pool, and have prepared for you to
examine.

Let us begin with seaweeds. I have said that
there are three leading colours in my pool—green,
olive, and red—and these tints mark roughly three
kinds of weed, though they occur in an endless
variety of shapes. Here is a piece of the beautiful
pale green seaweed, called the Laver or Sea-lettuce,
Ulva Linza (1, Fig. 63), which grows in long ribbons

in a sunny nook in the
Fig. 64. water. Ihave placed under
the first microscope a piece
of this weed which is just
sending out young sea-
weeds in the shape of tiny
cells, with lashes very like
those we saw coming from
the moss-flower, and I have
pressed them in the position
in which they would natur-
Ulva lactuca, a green seaweed, ally leave the plant (ss,
greatly magnified to show struc- Fig, 64.) You will also
ates) see on this slide several
5, Spores in the cells. ss, Spores z : i
swimming out. 4, Holes through cells in which these tiny
which spores have escaped. spores s are forming, ready
to burst out and swim ; for
this green weed is merely a collection of cells,



1 The slice given in Fig. 64 is from a broader-leaved form, U.
lactuca, because this species, being composed of only one layer of cells,
is better seen. Ulva linza.is composed of two layers of cells.
LRUITS OF SEAWEEDS 177

like the single-celled plants on land. Each cell can
work as a separate plant; it feeds, grows, and can
send out its own young spores.

This deep olive-green feathery weed (2, Fig. 63),
of which a piece is magnified under the next micro-
scope (2, Fig. 65), is very different. It is a higher
plant, and works harder for its living, using the
darker rays of sunlight which penetrate into shady
parts of the pool. So it comes to pass that its cells
divide the work. Those of the feathery threads
make the food, while others, growing on short stalks
on the shafts of the feather make and send out the
young spores.

Lastly, the lovely red threadlike weeds, such as
this Polysiphonia
urceolata (3, Fig.
63), carry actual
urns on their
stems like those
of mosses. In
fact, the history
of these urns (see
No. 3, Fig. 65) is
much the same in
the two classes of
plants, only that
instead of the urn



Three seaweeds of Fig. 63 much magnified to
i show fruits. (Harvey.)

being pushed up 2, Sphacelaria filicina. 3, Polysiphonia
on a thin stalk as urceolata. 4, Corallina officinalis,

in the moss, it re-

mains on the seaweed close down to the stem,
when it grows out of the plant-egg, and the tiny
178 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES .

plant is shut in till the spores are ready to
swim out.

The stony corallines (4, Figs. 63 and 65), which
build so much carbonate of lime into their stems,
are near relations of the red seaweeds. There are
plenty of them in my pool. Some of them, of a
deep purple colour, grow upright in. stiff groups
about three or four inches high; and others, which
form crusts over the stones and weeds, are a pale
rose colour; but both kinds, when the plant dies,
leaving the stony skeleton (1, Fig. 66), are a pure
white, and used to be mistaken for corals. They
belong to the same order of plants as the red weeds,
which all live in shady nooks in the pools, and are
the highest of their race.

My pool is full of different forms of these four
weeds. The green ribbons float on the surface rooted
to the sides of the pool and, as the sun shines upon
it, the glittering bubbles rising from them show that
they are working up food out of the air in the
water, and giving off oxygen. The brown weeds
lie chiefly under the shelves of rocks, for they can
manage with less sunlight, and use the darker rays
which pass by the green weeds; and last of all, the
red weeds and corallines, small and delicate in form,
line the bottom of the pool in its darkest nooks.

And now if I hand round two specimens—one a
coralline, and the other something you do. not yet
know—I am sure you will say at first sight that
they belong to the same family, and, in fact, if you
buy at the seaside a group of seaweeds gummed on
paper, you will most likely get both these among
STONY PLANTS AND ANIMAL-TREES 179

them. Yet the truth is, that while the coralline
(1, Fig. 66) is a plant, the other specimen (2) which
is called Ser-
tlaria fili-
cula, is an
animal.

This special
sertularian
grows upright
in my pool on

Fig. 66.



stonesor often P 4 x

on seaweeds, Coraline and Sertularia, to show likeness between the
animal Sertularia and the plant Coralline.

but I have

1, Corallina officinalis, 2, Sertularia filicula,
here (Fig. 67)

another and much smaller one which lives literally in
millions hanging its cups downwards. I find it not only
under the narrow ledges of the pool sheltered by the
seaweed, but forming a fringe along all the rocks on
each side of the cove near to low-water mark, and
for a long time I passed it by thinking it was of no
interest.. But I have long since given up thinking
this of anything, especially in my pool, for my magic
glass has taught me that there is not even a living
speck which does not open out into something
marvellous and beautiful. So I chipped off a small
piece of rock and brought the fringe home, and
found, when I hung it up in clear sea water as
I have done over this glass trough (Fig. 67) and
looked at it through the lens, that each thread of
the dense fringe, in itself not a quarter of an inch
deep, turns out to be a tiny sertularian with at least
twenty mouths. You can see this with your pocket
N
180 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

lens even as it hangs here, and when you have
examined it you can by and by take off one thread
and put it carefully
in the trough. I
promise you a sight
of the most beautiful
little beings which
exist in nature.

Come and look at
Sertularia tenella, hanging from a splint of jt after the lecture.
rock over a water trough. Also piece en-
larged to show the animal protruding.

Fig. 67.



It is a horny
branched stem with
a double row of tiny cups all along each side
(see Fig. 67). Out of these cups there appear
from time to time sixteen minute transparent ten-
tacles as fine as spun glass, which wave about
in the water. If you shake the glass a little, in
an instant each crystal star vanishes into its cup,
to come out again a few minutes later; so that now
here, now there, the delicate animal-flowers spread
out on each side of the stem, and the tree is covered
with moving beings. These tentacles are feelers,
which lash food into a mouth and stomach in each
cup, where it is digested and passed, through a hole
in the bottom, along a jelly thread which runs down
the stem and joins all the mouths together. In this
way the food is distributed all over the tree, which is,
in fact, one animal with many feeding-cups. Some
day I will show you one of these cups with the
tentacles stretched out and mounted on a slide, so
that you can examine a tentacle with a very strong
magnifying power. You will then see that it is
LARGE AND SMALL SERTULARIANS 181

dotted over with cells, in which are coiled fine
threads. The animal uses these threads to paralyse
the creatures on which it feeds, for at the base of
each thread there is a poison gland.

In the larger Sertularia (2, Fig. 66) the whole
branched tree is connected by jelly threads running
through the stem, and all the thousands of mouths
are spread out in the water. One large form called
the sea-fir Sertularia cupressina grows sometimes
three feet high, and bears as many as a hundred
thousand cups, with living mouths, on its branches.

The next of my minute friends I can only show to
the class in a diagram, but you will see it under the
fourth microscope by and by. I had great trouble
in finding it yesterday, though I knew its haunts
upon the green weed, for it is so minute and trans-
parent that even when the weed is in a trough a
magnifying-glass will scarcely detect it. And I
must warn you that if you want to know any of the
minute creatures we are studying, you must visit one
place constantly. You may in a casual way find
many of them on seaweed, or in the damp ooze and
mud, but it will be by chance only ; to look for them
with any certainty you must take trouble in making
their acquaintance,

Turning then to the diagram (Fig. 68) I will
describe it as I hope you will see it under the
microscope—a curious tiny, perfectly transparent
open-mouthed vase standing upright on the weed,
and having an equally transparent being rising up
in it and waving its tiny lashes in the water. This
is really all one animal, the vase ic being the horny
182 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

covering or carapace of the body, which last stands
up like a tube in the centre. If you watch carefully,
you may even see
the minute atoms of
food twisting round
inside the tube until
they are digested,
after they have been
swept in at the wide
open mouth by the
whirling lashes. You
will see this more
j clearly if you puta
Thuricolla folliculata and Chilomonas little rice-flour, very

amygdalum. (Saville Kent.) minutely powdered

% _Thuricolla erect ; 2, retracted; 3, and coloured by car-
dividing. 4, Chilomonas amygdalum. he, : 3 | :
Horny carapace. cv, Contractile vesicle. mine, into thewater )
v, Closing valves. for you can _ trace

these red atoms into
some round spaces called wacuoles which are dotted
over the body of the animal, and are really globules
of watery fluid in which the food is probably partly
digested.

You will notice, however, one round clear space
(cv) into which they do not go, and after a time you
will be able to observe that this round spot closes up
or contracts very quickly, and then expands again
very slowly. As it expands it fills with a clear fluid,
and naturalists have not yet decided exactly what work
it does. It may serve the animal either for breath-
ing, or as a very simple heart, making the fluids
circulate in the tube. The next interesting point


INFUSORIA 183

about this little being is the way it retreats into its
sheltering vase. Even while you are watching, it is
quite likely it may all at once draw itself down to
the bottom as in No. 2, and folding down the valves
v, v Of horny teeth which grow on each side, shut
itself in from some fancied danger. Another very
curious point is that, besides sending forth young
ones, these creatures multiply by dividing in two
(see No. 3, Fig. 68), each one closing its own part
of the vase into a new home.

There are hundreds of these Jnfusoria, as they are
called, in my pond, some with vases, some without,
some fixed to weeds and stones, others swimming
about freely. Even in the water-trough in which
this Thuricolla stands, I saw several smaller forms,
and the next microscope has a trough filled with the
minutest form of all, called a Monad (No. 4, Fig.
68). These are so small that 2000 of them would
lie side by side in an inch; that is, if you could
make them lie at all, for they are the most restless
little beings, darting hither and thither, scarcely even
halting except to turn back. And yet though there
are so many of them, and as far as we know they
have no organs of sight, they never run up against
each other, but glide past more cleverly than any
clear-sighted fish. These creatures are mostly to be
found among decaying seaweed, and though they
are so tiny, you can still see distinctly the clear
space (cv) contracting and expanding within them.

But if there are so many thousands of mouths
to feed, on the tree-like Sertudarz@ as well as in all
these Jufusoria, where does the food come from?
184 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Partly from the numerous atoms of decaying life
all around, and the minute eggs of animals and
spores of plants; but besides these, the pool is
full of minute living plants—small jelly masses with
solid coats of flint which are moulded into most lovely
shapes. Plants formed of jelly and flint! You
will think I am joking, but I am not. These
plants, called Dzatoms, which live both in salt and
fresh water, are single cells feeding and growing just
like those we took from the water-butt (Fig. 29, p.
78), only that instead of a soft covering they build

up a flinty skeleton.

Mig. 69. They are so small,
that many of them
must be magnified
to fifty times their
real size before you
can even see them
distinctly. Yet the
skeletons of these
almost invisible
plants are carved
and chiselled in the
most delicate pat-
terns. I showed



Living diatoms. you a group of
a, Cocconema lanceolatum. 6, Bacillaria these in our lecture
paradoxa. ¢, Gomphonema marinum. d,

on magic glasses (p.
39), and now I have
brought a few living ones that we may learn to know
them. The diagram (Fig. 69) shows the chief forms
you will see on the different slides.

Diatoma hyalina.
PLANTS WITH FLINT SKELETONS 185

The first one, Baczllaria paradoxa (6, Fig. 69), looks
like a number of rods clinging one to another in a
string, but each one of these is a single-celled plant
with a jelly cell surrounding the flinty skeleton.
You will see that they move to and fro over each
other in the water.

The next two forms, a and c, look much more
like plants, for the cells arrange themselves on a
jelly stem, which by and by
disappears, leaving only the
separate flint skeletons such as
you see in Fig. 16, The last
form, dis something midway
between the other forms, the
separate cells hang on to each
other and also on to a straight a diatom (Diatoma
jelly stem. vulgare) growing.

Another species of Diatoma __% & Mint skeleton in-

ns side the jelly-cell. a, c
(Fig. 70) called Dzatoma vulgare, ana d, 6, Two flint skele-
is a very simple and common tons formed by new
form, and will help to explain valves, ¢ and d, forming
within the first skeleton.

how these plants grow. The
two flinty valves a, d inside the cell are not quite
the same size; the older one a@ is larger than the
younger one 4 and fits over it like the cover of
a pill-box. As the plant grows, the cell enlarges
and forms two more valves, one ¢ fitting into the
cover a, so as to make a complete box ac, and
a second, d, back to back with «, fitting into the
valve 4, and making another complete box dd.
This goes on very rapidly, and in this plant
each new cell separates as it is formed, and the

Fig. 70.


186 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

free diatoms move about quite actively in the
water.

If you consider for a moment, you will see that,
as the new valves always fit into the old ones, each
must be smaller than the last, and so there comes
a time when the valves have become too small to
go on increasing. Then the plant must begin afresh.
So the two halves of the last cell open, and throwing
out their flinty skeletons, cover themselves with a
thin jelly layer, and form a new cell which grows
larger than any of the old ones. These, which are
spore-cells, then form flinty valves inside, and the
whole thing begins again.

Now though the plants themselves die, or be-
come the food of minute animals, the flinty
skeletons are not destroyed, but go on accumulating
in the waters of ponds, lakes, rivers, and seas, all over
the world. Untold millions have no doubt crumbled
to dust and gone back into the waters, but untold
millions also have survived. The towns of Berlin
in Europe and of Richmond in the United States
are actually built upon ground called “infusorial
earth,’ composed almost entirely of valves of these
minute diatoms which have accumulated to a thick-
ness of more than eighty feet! Those under Berlin
are fresh-water forms, and must have lived in a lake,
while those of Richmond belong to salt-water forms.
Every inch of the ground under those cities repre-
sents thousands and thousands of living plants which
flourished in ages long gone by, and were no larger
than those you will see presently under the micro-
scope.
CYDIPPE PILEUS 187

These are a very few of the microscopic inhabitants
of my pond, but, as you will confuse them if I show
you too many, we will conclude with two rather
larger specimens, and examine them carefully. The
first, called the Cydippe, is a lovely, transparent living
ball, which I want to explain to you because it is so
wondrously beautiful. The second, the Sea-mat or
Flustra, looks like a crumpled drab-coloured seaweed,



Cydippe Pileus.
xz, Animal with tentacles z, bearing small tendrils 7’. 2, Body of animal
enlarged. 2, Mouth. , Digestive cavity. ~s, Sac into which the ten-
tacles are withdrawn. , Bands with comb-like plates. 3, Portion of a
band enlarged to show the moving plates 9.

but is really composed of many thousands of grottos,
the homes of tiny sea-animals.

Let us take the Cydippe first (1, Fig. 71). I have
six here, each in a separate tumbler, and could have
brought: many more, for when I dipped my net in the
pool yesterday such numbers were caught in it that I
believe the retreating tide must just have left a shoal
behind. Put a tumbler on the desk in front of you,
and if the light falls well upon it you will see a
188 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

transparent ball about the size of a large pea marked
with eight bright bands, which begin at the lower end
of the ball and reach nearly to the top, dividing the
outside into sections like the ribs of a melon. The
creature is so perfectly transparent that you can
count all the eight bands.

At the top of the ball is a slight bulge which is
the mouth (# 2, Fig. 71), and from it, inside the
ball, hangs a long bag or stomach, which opens
below into a cavity c from which two canals branch
out, one on each side, and these divide again
into four canals which go one into each of the tubes
running down the bands. From this cavity the
food, which is digested in the stomach, is carried by
the canals all over the body. The smaller tubes
which branch out of these canals cannot be seen
clearly without a very strong lens, and the only
other parts you can discern in this transparent ball
are two long sacs on each side of the lower end.
These are the tentacle sacs, in which are coiled up
the tentacles, which we shall describe presently.
Lastly, you can notice that the bands outside the
globe are broader in the middle than at the ends,
and are striped across by a number of ridges.

In moving the tumblers the water has naturally
been shaken, and the creature being alarmed will
probably at first remain motionless, But very soon
it will begin to play in the water, rising and falling,
and swimming gracefully from side to side. Now
you will notice a curious effect, for the bands will
glitter and become tinged with prismatic colours, till,
as it moves more and more rapidly these colours,
AN IRIDESCENT LIVING BALL 189

reflected in the jelly, seem to tinge the whole ball
with colours like those on a soap-bubble, while from
the two sacs below come forth two long transparent
threads like spun glass, At first these appear to
be simple threads, but as they gradually open out
to about four or five inches, smaller threads uncoil
on each side of the line till there are about fifty
on each line. These short ¢endrils are never still
for long; as the main threads wave to and fro, some
of the shorter ones coil up and hang like tiny beads,
then these uncoil and others roll up, so that these
graceful floating lines are never two seconds alike.
We do not really know their use. Sometimes
the creature anchors itself by them, rising and falling
as they stretch out or coil up; but more often they
float idly behind it in the water. At first you
would perhaps think that they served to drive the
ball through the water, but this is done by a
special apparatus. The cross ridges which we
noticed on the bands are really flat comb-like plates
(A, Fig. 71), of which there are about twenty or thirty
on each band ; and these vibrate very rapidly, so that
two hundred or more paddles drive the tiny ball
through the water. This is the cause of the pris-
matic colours ; for iridescent tints are produced by
the play of light upon the glittering plates, as they
incessantly change their angle. Sometimes they
move all at once, sometimes only a few at a time,
and it is evident the creature controls them at will.
This lovely fairy-like globe, with its long floating
tentacles and rainbow tints, was for a long time
classed with the jelly-fish ; but it really is most nearly
190 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

related to sea-anemones, as it has a true central
cavity which acts as a stomach, and many other
points in common with the Actinozoa. We cannot
help wondering, as the little being glides hither and
thither, whether it can see where it is going. It has
nerves of a low kind which start from a little dark
spot (mg), exactly at the south pole of the ball, and
at that point a sense-organ of some kind exists, but
what impression the creature gains from it of the
world outside we cannot tell.

I am afraid you may think it dull to turn from
such a beautiful being as this, to the grey leaf which
looks only like a dead dry seaweed ; yet you will be
wrong, for a more wonderful history attaches to this
crumpled dead-looking leaf than to the lovely jelly-
globe.

First of all I will pass round pieces of the dry leaf
(1, Fig. 72), and while you are getting them I will tell
you where I found the living ones. Great masses of
the Flustra, as it is called, line the bottom and sides
of my pool. They grow in tufts, standing upright
on the rock, and looking exactly like hard grey
seaweeds, while there is nothing to lead you to
suspect that they are anything else. Yesterday I
chipped off very carefully a piece of rock with a tuft
upon it, and have kept it since in a glass globe by
itself with sea-water, for the little creatures living in
this marine city require a very good supply of healthy
water and air. I have called it a “marine city,” and
now I will tell you why. Take the piece in your
hand and run your finger gently up and down it;
you will glide quite comfortably from the lower to
THE SEA-MAT OR FLUSTRA IgI

the higher part of the leaf, but when you come back
you will feel your finger catch slightly on a rough
surface. Your pocket lens will show why this is,
for if you look
through it at the
surface of the leaf
you will see it is
not smooth, but
composed of hun-
dreds of tiny al-
coves with arched
tops ; and on each
side of these tops
stand two short The Sea-mat or Flustra (Flustra foliacea.)
blunt spines (see t, Natural size. 2 Much magnified.

. 2 5, Slit caused by drawing in of the animal a.
2, Fig. 72), making
four in all, pointing upwards, so as partly to cover
the alcove above. As your finger went up it glided
over the spines, but on coming back it met their
points. This is all you can see in the dead specimen ;
I must show you the rest by diagrams, and by and
by under the microscope.

First, then, in the living specimen which I have here,
those alcoves are not open as in the dead piece, but
covered over with a transparent skin, in which, near
the top of the alcove just where the curve begins, is
a slit (s 2, Fig. 72). Unfortunately the membrane
covering this alcove is too dense for you to distinguish
the parts within. Presently, however, if you are
watching a piece of this living leaf in a flat water-
cell under the microscope, you will see the slit slowly
open, and begin to turn as it were inside out, exactly

Fig. 72.


192 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

like the finger of a glove, which has been pushed in
at the tip, gradually rises up when you put your
finger inside it. As this goes on, a bundle of threads
appears, at first closed like a bud, but gradually
opening out into a crown of tentacles (a, Fig. 72), each
one clothed with hairs. Then you will see that the
slit was not exactly a slit after all, but the round edge
where the sac was pushed in. Ah! you will say, you are
now showing me a polyp like those on the sertularian
tree. Not so fast, my
friend ; you have not yet
studied what is still under
the covering skin and
hidden in the living ani-
mal. I have, however,
prepared a slide with this
membrane removed (see
Fig. 73), and there you
can observe the different
parts, and learn that each
one of these alcoves
contains a complete



Diagram of the animal in the
Flustra or Sea-mat. animal, and not merely

1, Animal protruding. 2, Animal one among many mouths,

retracted in the sheath. 5s, Cover- Ge th 1 tiie
ing sheath. s, Slit. ¢, Tentacles. Ike € polyp on

m, Mouth. ¢h, Throat. s¢, Stomach. Sertularia.
z, Intestine. 7, Retractor muscle. Each of these little
Hoo . i y Ve- e . . .

é, Egg forming parts. jg, Nerve beings (a, Fig 72) living
ganglion. Breet

in its alcove has a mouth,
throat, stomach, intestine, muscles, and nerves start-
ing from the ganglion of nervous matter, besides
all that is necessary for producing eggs and send-
A POPULOUS SQUARE INCH 193

ing forth young ones. You can trace all these
under the microscope (see 2, Fig. 73) as the creature
lies curiously doubled up in its bed, with its body
bent in a loop; the intestine z, out of which the
refuse food passes, coming back close up to the slit.
When it is at rest, the top of the sac in which it
lies is pulled in by the retractor muscle 7, and looks,
as I have said, like the finger of a glove with the
top pushed in. When it wishes to feed, this top
is drawn out by muscles running round the sac, and
the tentacles open and wave in the water (1, Fig. 73).

Look now at the alcoves, the homes of these
animals; see how tiny they are and how closely they
fit together. Mr. Gosse, the naturalist, has reckoned
that there are 6720 alcoves in a square inch; then
if you turn the leaf over you will see that there is
another set, fixed back to back with these, on the
other side, making in all 13,440 alcoves. Now a
moderate-sized leaf of flustra measures about three
square inches, taking all the rounded lobes into
account, so you will see we get 40,320 asa rough
estimate of the number of beings on this one leaf.
But if you look at this tuft I have brought, you will
find it is composed of twelve such leaves, and this
after all is a very small part of the mass growing
round my pool. Was I wrong, then, when I said
that my miniature ocean contains as many millions
of beings as there are stars in the heavens?

You will want to know how these leaves grew, and
it isin this way. First a little free swimming animal,
a mere living sac provided with lashes, settles down
and grows into one little horny alcove, with its live
194 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

creature inside, which in time sends off from it
three to five buds, forming alcoves all round the
top and sides of the first one, growing on to it.
These again bud out, and you can thus easily under-
stand that, in this way, in time a good-sized leaf is
formed. Meanwhile the creatures also send forth
new swimming cells, which settle down near to
begin new leaves, and thus a tuft is formed; and
long after the beings in earlier parts of the leaf
have died and left their alcoves empty, those round
the margin are still alive and spreading.

With this history we must stop for to-day, and I
expect it will be many weeks before you have
thoroughly examined the specimens of each kind
which I have put in the aquarium. If you can trace
the spore-cells and urns in the seaweeds, observe the
polyps in the Sertularia, and count the number of
mouths on a branch of my animal fringe (Sertularia
tenella); if you make acquaintance with the Thuricolla
in its vase, and are fortunate enough to see one
divide in two; if you learn to know some of the
beautiful forms of diatoms, and can picture to your-
selves the life of the tiny inhabitants of the Flustra ;
then you will have used your microscope with some
effect, and be prepared for an expedition to my pool,
where we will go together some day to seek new
treasures,
DARTMOOR PONIES 195

CHAP TEREX

THE DARTMOOR PONIES,
OR

THE WANDERINGS OF THE HORSE TRIBE









Re, UT away the telescopes
4 and microscopes to-
day, boys, the holidays
are close at hand, and we
will take a rest from peep-
ing and peering till we come
back in the autumn laden
“with specimens for the micro-
i ‘scope, while the rapidly darken-
Se ing evenings will tempt us again
“=. on to the Jawn star-gazing. On
this our last lecture-day I want you
to take a journey with me which I took in imagina-
tion a few days ago, as I lay on my back on the
sunny moor and watched the Dartmoor ponies.

It was a calm misty morning one day last week,
giving promise of a bright and sunny day, when I
started off for a long walk across the moor to visit

oO
196 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the famous stone-circles, many of which are to be
found not far off the track, called Abbot’s Way,
leading from Buckfast Abbey, on the Dart, to the
Abbey of Tavistock, on the Tavy.

My mind was full of the olden times as I pictured
to myself how, seven hundred years or more ago, some
Benedictine monk from Tavistock Abbey, in his black
robe and cowl, paced this narrow path on his way to
his Cistercian brethren at Buckfast, meeting some of
them on his road as they wandered over the desolate
moor in their white robes and black scapularies in
search of stray sheep. For the Cistercians were
shepherds and wool-weavers, while the Benedictines
devoted themselves to learning, and the track of about
twenty-five miles from one abbey to the other,
which still remains, was worn by the members of the
two communities. and their dependents, the only
variety in whose lives consisted probably in these
occasional visits one to the other.

Yet even these monks belonged to modern times
compared to the ancient Britons who raised the stone-
circles, and buried their dead in the barrows scattered
here and there over the moor; and my mind drifted
back to the days when, long before that pathway
was worn, men clad in the skins of beasts hunted
wild animals over the ground on which I was tread-
ing, and lived in caves and holes of the ground.

I wondered, as I thought of them, whether the
cultured monks and the uncivilised Britons delighted
as much in the rugged scenery of the moor as I did
that morning. For many miles in front of me the
moor stretched out wild and treeless; the sun was
DARTMOOR PONIES 197

shining brightly upon the mass of yellow furze and
deep-red heather, drawing up the moisture from the
ground, and causing a kind of watery haze to shim-
mer over the landscape; while the early mist was
rising off the ¢ors, or hill-tops, in the distance,
curling in fanciful wreaths around the rugged and
stony summits, as it dispersed gradually in the
increasing heat of the day.

The cattle which were scattered in groups here
and there feeding on the dewy grass were enjoying
the happiest time of the year. The moor, which in
winter affords them scarcely a bare subsistence, is
now richly covered with fresh young grass, and the
sturdy oxen fed solemnly and deliberately, while the
wild Dartmoor ponies and their colts scampered
joyously along, shaking their manes and long flowing
tails, and neighing to each other as they went; or
clustered together on some verdant spot, where the
colts teased and bit each other for fun, as they gam-
bolled round their mothers.

It was a pleasure, there on the open moor, with
the lark soaring overhead, and the butterflies and
bees hovering among the sweet-smelling furze blos-
soms, to see horses free and joyous, with no thought
of bit or bridle, harness or saddle, whose hoofs had
never been handled by the shoeing-smith, nor their
coats touched with the singeing iron. Those little
colts, with their thick heads, shaggy coats, and flow-
ing tails, will have at least two years more freedom
before they know what it is to be driven or beaten.
Only once a year are they gathered together, claimed
by their owners and branded with an initial, and then
198 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

left again to wander where they will. True, it is a
freedom which sometimes has its drawbacks, for if
the winter is severe the only food they can get will
be the furze-tops, off which they scrape the snow
with their feet ; yet it is very precious in itself, for
they can gallop when and where they choose, with
head erect, sniffing at the wind and crying to each
other for the very joy of life.

Now as I strolled across the moor and watched
their gambols, thinking how like free wild animals
they seemed, my thoughts roamed far away, and I
saw in imagination scenes where other untamed
animals of the horse tribe are living unfettered all
their lives long.

First there rose before my mind the level grass-
covered pampas of South America, where wild horses
share the boundless plains with troops of the rhea,
or American ostrich, and wander, each horse with
as many mares as he can collect, in companies of
hundreds or even thousands in a troop. These
horses are now truly wild, and live freely from youth
to age, unless they are unfortunate enough to be
caught in the more inhabited regions by the lasso
of the hunter. In the broad pampas, the home of
herds of wild cattle, they dread nothing. There, as
they roam with one bold stallion as their leader, even
beasts of prey hesitate to approach them, for, when
they form into a dense mass with the mothers and
young in their centre, their heels deal blows which
even the fierce jaguar does not care to encounter, and
they trample their enemy to death in a very short
time. Yet these are not the original wild horses we
WILD HORSES 199

are seeking, they are the descendants of tame animals,
brought from Europe by the Spaniards to Buenos
Ayres in 1535, whose descendants have regained
their freedom on the boundless pampas and prairies.
As I was picturing them careering over the plains,
another scene presented itself and took their place.
Now I no longer saw around me tall pampas-grass
with the long necks of the rheas appearing above it,
for I was on the edge of a dreary scantily covered
plain between the Aral Sea and the Balkash Lake
in Tartary. To the south lies a barren sandy
desert, to the north the fertile plains of the Kirghiz
steppes, where the Tartar feeds his flocks, and herds
of antelopes gallop over the fresh green pasture ; and
between these is a kind of no-man’s land, where low
scanty shrubs and stunted grass seemed to promise
but a poor feeding-ground.
Yet here the small long-legged but powerful
“Tarpans,” the wild horses of the treeless plains of
Russia and Tartary, were picking their morning
meal. Sturdy wicked little fellows they are, with
their shaggy light-brown coats, short wiry manes,
erect ears, and fiery watchful eyes. They might well
be supposed to be true wild horses, whose ancestors
had never been tamed by man; and yet it is more
probable that even they escaped in early times from
the Tartars, and have held their own ever since, over
the grassy steppes of Russia and on the confines of
the plains of Tartary. Sometimes they live almost
alone, especially on the barren wastes where they
have been seen in winter, scraping the snow off the
herbage as our ponies do on Dartmoor. At other
200 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

times, as in the south of Russia, where they wander
between the Dnieper and the Don, they gather in
vast herds and live a free life, not fearing even the
wolves, which they beat to the ground with their
hoofs. From one green oasis to another they travel
over miles of ground.

“ A thousand horse—and none to ride !
With flowing tail, and flying mane,
Wide nostrils—never stretch’d by pain,
Mouths bloodless to the bit or rein,
And feet that iron never shod,

And flanks unscarr’d by spur or rod.
A thousand horse, the wild, the free,
Like waves that follow o’er the sea,” 4



As I followed them in their course I fancied I
saw troops of yet another animal of the horse tribe,
the “ Kulan,” or Egumns hemionus, which is a kind of
half horse, half ass (Fig. 74), living on the Kirghiz
steppes of Tartary and spreading far beyond the
range of the Tarpan into Tibet. Here at last we
have a truly wild animal, never probably brought
into subjection by man. The number of names he
possesses shows how widely he has spread. The
Tartars call him “Kulan,” the Tibetans “Kiang,”
while the Mongolians give him the unpronounceable
name of “ Dschiggetai.” He will not submit to any
of them, but if caught and confined soon breaks
away again to his old life, a “free and fetterless
creature.”

No one has ever yet settled the question whether
he is a horse or an ass, probably because he repre-

1 Byron’s Aazeppa.
ORIGINAL WILD HORSES 201

sents an animal truly between the two. His head
is graceful, his body light, his legs slender and fleet,
yet his ears are long and ass-like; he has narrow
hoofs, and a tail with a tuft at the end like all the
ass tribe ; his colour is a yellow brown, and he has a
short dark mane and a long dark stripe down his
back as a donkey has, though this last character you
may also see in many of our Devonshire ponies.
Living often on the high plateaux, sometimes as

Fig. 74.



Equus hemionus, ‘‘ Kiang’’ or ‘‘ Kulan,”’ the Horse-ass of
Tartary and Tibet. (Brehm. )

much as 1500 feet above the sea, this “child of the
+ steppes” travels in large companies even as far as
the rich meadows of Central Asia; in summer
wandering in green pastures, and in winter seeking the
hunger-steppes where sturdy plants grow. And when
autumn comes the young steeds go off alone to the
mountain heights to survey the country around and
202 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

call wildly for mates, whom, when found, they will
keep close to them through all the next year, even
though they mingle with thousands of others.

Till about ten years ago the Eguus hemionus
was the only truly wild horse known, but in the
winter of 1879-80 the Russian traveller Przevalsky
brought back from Central Asia a much more horse-
like animal, called by the Tartars “Kertag” and by
the Mongols “Statur.” It is a clumsy, thick-set,
whitish-gray creature with strong legs and a large,

Fig. 75.



Przevalsky’s Wild Horse, the ‘‘ Kertag” or ‘‘Statur.”’

heavy, reddish-coloured head ; its legs have a red tint
down to the knees, beyond which they are blackish
down to the hoofs. But the ears are small, and it
has the broad hoofs of the true horse, and warts on
his hind legs, which no animal of the ass tribe has.
This horse, like the Kiang, travels in small troops of
from five to fifteen, led through the wildest parts of
ORIGINAL WILD ASSES 203

the Dsungarian desert, between the Altai and Tian-
schan Mountains, by an old stallion. They are
extremely shy, and see, hear, and smell very quickly,
so that they are off like lightning whenever anything
approaches them.

So having travelled over America, Europe, and
Asia, was my quest ended? No; for from the dreary
Asiatic deserts my thoughts wandered to a far
warmer and more fertile land, where between the
Blue Nile and the Red Sea rise the lofty highlands
of Abyssinia, among which the African wild ass
(Asinus teniopus), the probable ancestor of our
donkeys, feeds in troops on the rich grasses of the
slopes, and then onwards to the bank of a river in
Central Africa where on the edge of a forest, with
rich pastures beyond, elephants and_ rhinoceroses,
antelopes and buffaloes, lions and hyznas, creep
down in the cool of the evening to slake their thirst
in the flowing stream. There I saw the herds of
Zebras in all their striped beauty coming down
from the mountain regions to the north, and ming-
ling with the darker-coloured but graceful quaggas
from the southern plains, and I half-grieved at the
thought how these untamed and free rovers are
being slowly but surely surrounded by man closing
in upon them on every side.

I might now have travelled still farther in search
of the Onager, or wild ass of the Asiatic and
Indian deserts, but at this point a more interesting
and far wider question presented itself, as I flung
myself down on the moor to ponder over the early
history of all these tribes.
204 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Where have they all come from? Where shall
we look for the first ancestors of these wild and
graceful animals? For the answer to this question
I had to travel back to America, to those Western
United States where Professor Marsh has made such
grand discoveries in horse history. For there, in the
very country where horses were supposed never to
have been before the Spaniards brought them a few
centuries ago, we have now found the true birth-
place of the equine race.

Come back with me to a time so remote that we
cannot measure it even by hundreds of thousands of
years, and let us visit the territories of Utah and
Wyoming. Those highlands were very different
then from what they are now. Just risen out of the
seas of the Cretaceous Period, they were then clothed
with dense forests of palms, tree-ferns, and screw-
pines, magnolias and laurels, interspersed with wide-
spreading lakes, on the margins of which strange and
curious animals fed and flourished. There were
large beasts with tecth like the tapir and the bear,
and feet like the elephant; and others far more
dangerous, half bear, half hyzena, prowling around
to attack the clumsy paleotherium or the anoplo-
therium, something between a rhinoceros and a
horse, which grazed by the waterside, while graceful
antelopes fed on the rich grass. And among these
were some little animals no bigger than foxes, with
four toes and a splint for the fifth, on their front
feet, and three toes on the hind ones.

These clumsy little animals, whose bones have
been found in the rocks of Utah and Wyoming,
ANCIENT HORSES WITH TOES 205

have been called Hohippus, or horses of the dawn, by
naturalists. They were animals with real toes, yet
their bones and teeth show that. they belonged to
the horse tribe, and already the fifth toe common to
most other toed animals was beginning to disappear.

This was in the Eocene period, and before it passed
away with its screw-pines and tree-ferns, another
rather larger animal, called the Orohippus, had taken
the place of the small one, and he had only four
toes on his front feet. The splint had disappeared,
and as time went on still other animals followed,
always with fewer toes, while they gained slender
fleet legs, together with an increase in size and in
gracefulness. First one as large as a sheep (Meso-
hippus) had only three toes and a splint. Then the
splint again disappeared, and one large and two
dwindling toes only remained, till finally these two
became mere splints, leaving one large toe or hoof
with almost imperceptible splints, which may be
seen on the fetlock of a horse’s skeleton.

The diagram (Fig 76) shows these splints in the
horse’s or ass’s foot of to-day. For you must notice
that a horse’s foot really begins at the point w which
we call his knee in the front legs, and at his hock % in
the hind legs. His true knee % and elbow é¢ are close
up to the body. What we call his foot or hoof is
really the end of the strong, broad, middle toe ¢
covered with a hoof, and farther up his foot at s and
s we can feel two small splints, which are remains of
two other toes.

Meanwhile during these long succeeding ages
while the foot was lengthening out into a slender
206 . DLHROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

limb the animals became larger, more powerful, and
more swift, the neck and head became longer and
more graceful, the brain-case larger in front and the
teeth decreased in number, so that there is now a
large gap between the biting teeth z and the grinding

Fig. 76.





Skeleton of Horse or Ass.

z, Incisor teeth. g, Grinding teeth, with the gap between the two as in
all grass-feeders. £, Knee. 4, Hock or heel. f, Foot. ss, Splints or
remains of the two lost toes. e, Elbow. w, Wrist. %, Hand-bone.
z, middle toe of three joints, 1, 2, 3 forming the hoof,

teeth g of ahorse. Their slender limbs too became
more flexible and fit for running and galloping, till
we find the whole skeleton the same in shape, though
not in size, as in our own horses and asses now.
They did not, however, during all this time remain
confined to America, for, from the time when they
arrived at an animal called M/zohippus, or lesser
MIGRATION FROM AMERICA TO EUROPE 207

horse, which came after the Mesohippus and had
only three toes on each foot, we find their remains
in Europe, where they lived in company with the
giraffes, opossums, and monkeys which roamed over
these parts in those ancient times. Then a little
later we find them in Africa and India; so that the
horse tribe, represented by creatures about as large
as donkeys, had spread far and wide over the world.

And now, curiously enough, they began to forsake,
or to die out in, the land of their birth. Why they
did so we do not know; but while in the old world
as asses, quaggas, and zebras, and probably horses,
they flourished in Asia, Europe, and Africa, they
certainly died out in America, so that ages after-
wards, when that land was discovered, no animal
of the horse tribe was found in it.

And the true horse, where did he arise? Born
and bred probably in Central Asia from some animal
like the “Kulan,” or the “Kertag,” he proved too
useful to savage tribes to be allowed his freedom,
and it is doubtful whether in any part of the world
he escaped subjection. In our own country he
probably roamed as a wild animal till the savages,
who fed upon him, learned in time to put him to
work ; and when the Romans came they found the
Britons with fine and well-trained horses.

Yet though tamed and made to know his master
he has, as we have seen, broken loose again in
almost all parts of the world—in America on the
prairies and pampas, in Europe and Asia on the
steppes, and in Australia in the bush. And even in
Great Britain, where so few patches of uncultivated
208 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

land still remain, the young colts of Dartmoor, Ex-
moor, and Shetland, though born of domesticated
mothers, seem to assert their descent from wild and
free ancestors as they throw out their heels and toss
up their heads with a shrill neigh, and fly against
the wind with streaming manes and outstretched
tails as the Kulan, the Tarpan, and the Zebra do in
the wild desert or grassy plain.
THE MAGICIAN’S DREAM 209

CHP Rew
THE MAGICIAN’S DREAM OF ANCIENT DAYS.

HE magician sat in his arm-
" chair in the one little room
in the house which was his,
_ and his only, besides the ob-
-servatory. And a_ strange
room it was. The walls were
hung with skulls and bones of
men and animals, with swords,
daggers, and shields, coats of mail,
and bronze spear-heads. The
drawers, many of which stood
open, contained flint-stones chipped
and worn, arrowheads of stone, jade hatchets beauti-
fully polished, bronze buckles and iron armlets ;
while scattered among these were pieces of broken
pottery, some rough and only half-baked, others
beautifully finished, as the Romans knew how to
finish them. Rough needles made of bone lay
beside bronze knives with richly-ornamented handles
and, most precious of all, on the table by the
magician’s side lay a reindeer antler, on which





210 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

was roughly carved the figure of the reindeer
itself.

He had been enjoying a six weeks’ holiday, and
he had employed it in visiting some of the bone
caves of Europe to learn about the men who lived
in them long, long ago. He had been to the south
of France to see the famous caves of the Dordogne,
to Belgium to the caves of Engis and Engihoul,
to the Hartz Mountains and to Hungary. Then
hastening home he had visited the chief English
caves in Yorkshire, Wales, and Devonshire.

Now that he had returned to his college, his
mind was so full of facts, that he felt perplexed how
to lay before his class the wonderful story of the life
of man before history began. And as the day was
hot, and the very breeze which played around him
made him feel languid and sleepy, he fell into a
reverie—a waking dream.

First the room faded from his sight, then the trim
villages disappeared ; the homesteads, the corn-fields,
the grazing cattle, all were gone, and he saw the
whole of England covered with thick forests and
rough uncultivated land. From the mountains in
the north, glaciers were to be seen creeping down
the valleys between dense masses of fir and oak, pine
and birch; while the wild horse, the bison, and the
Irish elk were feeding on the plains. As he looked
southward and eastward he saw that the sea no
longer washed the shores, for the English and Irish
Channels were not yet scooped out. The British
Isles were still part of the continent of Europe, so
PAL#OLITHIC TIMES 211

that animals could migrate overland from the far
south, up to what is now England, Scotland, and
Ireland. Many of these animals, too, were very
different from any now living in the country, for in
the large rivers of England he saw the hippopotamus
playing with her calf, while elephants and rhinocer-
oses were drinking at the water’s edge. Yet these
strange creatures did not have all the country to
themselves—wolves, bears, and foxes prowled in the
woods, large beavers built their dams across the
streams, and here and there over the country human
beings were living in caves and holes of the earth.

It was these men chiefly who attracted the magi-
cian’s attention, and being curious to know how
they lived, he turned towards a cave, at the mouth
of which was a group of naked children who were
knocking pieces of flint together, trying to strike off
splinters and make rough flint tools, such as they saw
their fathers use. Not far off from them a woman
with a wild beast’s skin round her waist was gather-
ing firewood, another was grubbing up roots, and
another, venturing a little way into the forest, was
searching for honey in the hollows of the tree
trunks,

All at once in the dusk of the evening a low
growl and a frightened cry were heard, and the
women rushed towards the cave as they saw near
the edge of the forest a huge tiger with sabre-shaped
teeth struggling with a powerful stag. In vain the
deer tried to stamp on his savage foe or to wound
him with his antlers; the strong teeth of the tiger
had penetrated his throat, and they fell struggling

P
212 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

together as the stag uttered his death-cry. Just at
that moment loud shouts were heard in the forest,
and the frightened women knew that help was near.



























Palzeolithic times.

One after another, several men, clothed in skins
hung over one shoulder and secured round the waist,
rushed out of the thicket, their hair streaming in the
wind, and ran towards the tiger. They held in their
hands strange weapons made of rough pointed flints
fastened into handles by thongs of skin, and as the
tiger turned upon them with a cry of rage they met
him with a rapid shower of blows. The fight raged
ANCIENT STONE WEAPONS 213

fiercely, for the beast was strong and the weapons of
the men were rude, but the tiger lay dead at last by
the side of his victim. His skin and teeth were
the reward of the hunters, and the stag he had killed
became their prey.

How skilfully they hacked it to pieces with their
stone axes, and then loading it upon their shoulders
set off up the hill towards the cave, where they were
welcomed with shouts of joy by the women and
children !

Then began the feast. First fires were kindled
slowly and with diffi-
culty by rubbing a
sharp-pointed stick in
a groove of softer wood
till the wood-dust burst
into flame ; then a huge
pile was lighted at the |
mouth of the cave to |
cook the food and keep
off wild beasts. How
the food was cooked
the magician could not
see, but he guessed that
the flesh was cut off the 1, Bone needle, from a cave at La
bones and thrust in the Madeleine, 4size. 2, Tooth of Machairo-
glowing embers, and he dus or Sess or os nee
watched the men after- Baer Keches Geen
wards splitting open the
uncooked bones to suck out the raw marrow which
savages love.

After the feast was over he noticed how they left

Fig. 78.



Palzeolithic relics.
214 _ DLHROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

these split bones scattered upon the floor of the cave
mingling with the sabre-shaped teeth of the tiger, and
this reminded him of the bones of the stag and the
tiger’s tooth which he had found in Kent’s Cavern
in Devonshire only a few days before.

By this time the men had lain down to sleep, and
in the darkness strange cries were heard from the
forest. The roar of the lion, mingled with the howl-
ing of the wolves and the shrill laugh of the hyzenas,
told that they had come down to feed on the remains
of the tiger. But none of these animals ventured
near the glowing fire at the mouth of the cavern,
behind which the men slept in security till the sun
was high in the heavens. Then all was astir again,
for weapons had been broken in the fight, and some
of the men sitting on the ground outside the cave
placed one flint between their knees, and striking
another sharply against it drove off splinters, leaving
a pointed end and cutting edge. They spoiled
many before they made one to their liking, and the
entrance to the cave was strewn with splintered
fragments and spoilt flints, but at last several useful
stones were ready. Meanwhile another man, taking
his rude stone axe, set to work to hew branches from
the trees to form handles, while another, choosing a
piece remaining of the body of the stag, tore a sinew
from the thigh, and threading it through the large
eye of the bone needle, stitched the tiger’s skin
roughly together into a garment.

“ This, then,’ said the magician to himself, “zs
how ancient man lived in the summer-time, but how
would he fare when winter came?” As he mused
LIFE IN ANCIENT TIMES 215

the scene gradually changed. The glaciers crept
far lower down the valleys, and the hills, and even
the lower ground, lay thick in snow. The hippo-
potamus had wandered away southward to warmer
climes, as animals now migrate over the continent
of America in winter, and with him had gone the
lion, the southern elephant, and other summer
visitors. In their place large herds of reindeer and
shaggy oxen had come down from the north and
were spread over the plains, scraping away the snow
with their feet to feed on the grass beneath. The
mammoth, too, or hairy elephant, of the same extinct
species as those which have been found frozen in
solid ice under a sandbank in Siberia, had come
down to feed, accompanied by the woolly rhinoceros ;
and scattered over the hills were the curious horned
musk-sheep, which have long ago disappeared off the
face of the earth. Still, bitterly cold as it was, the
hunter clad in his wild-beast skin came out from
time to time to chase the mammoth, the reindeer,
and the oxen for food, and cut wood in the forest to
feed the cavern fires.

This time the magician’s thoughts wandered down
to the south-west of France, where, on the banks of
a river in that part now called the Dordogne, a
number of caves not far from each other formed the
home of savage man. Here he saw many new
things, for the men used arrows of deer-horn and of
wood pointed with flint, and with these they shot
the birds, which were hovering near in hopes of
finding food during the bitter weather. By the side
of the river a man was throwing a small dart of
216 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

deer-horn fastened to a cord of sinews, with which
from time to time he speared a large fish and drew
it to the bank.

But the most curious sight of all, among such a
rude people, was a man sitting by the glowing fire at
the mouth of one of the caves scratching a piece of
reindeer horn with a pointed flint, while the children
gathered round him to watch his work. What was
he doing? .See! gradually the rude scratches began
to take shape, and two reindeer fighting together
could be recognised upon the horn handle. This
he laid carefully aside, and taking a piece of ivory,
part of the tusk of a mammoth, he worked away





Mammoth engraved on ivory by Paleolithic man.

slowly and carefully till the children grew tired of
watching and went off to play behind the fire. Then
the magician, glancing over his shoulder, saw a true
figure of the mammoth scratched upon the ivory,
his hairy skin, long mane, and up-curved tusks dis-
tinguishing him from all elephants living now. “Af,”
exclaimed the magician aloud, “ that zs the drawing
on tvory found in the cave of La Madeleine in Dor-
dogne, proving that man existed ages ago, and even
A LAPSE OF AGES 217

knew how to draw figures, at a time when the mam-
moth, or hairy elephant, long since extinct, was still
living on the earth !”

With these words he started from his reverie, and
knew that he had been dreaming of Paleolithic man
who, with his tools of rough flints, had lived in
Europe so long ago that his date cannot be fixed by
years, or centuries, or even thousands of years.
Only this is known, that, since he lived, the mam-
moth, the sabre-toothed tiger, the cave-bear, the
woolly rhinoceros, the cave-hyzna, the musk-sheep,
and many other animals have died out from off the
face of the earth; the hippopotamus and the lion
have left Europe and retired to Africa, and the sea has
flowed in where land once was, cutting off Great
Britain and Ireland from the continent.

How long all these changes were in taking place
no one knows. When the magician drifted back
again into his dream the land had long been
desolate, and the hyznas, which had always taken
possession of the caves whenever the men deserted
them for awhile, had now been undisturbed for a
long time, and had left on the floor of the cave
gnawed skulls and bones, and jaws of animals, more
or less scored with the marks of their teeth, and
these had become buried in a thick layer of earth.
The magician knew that these teeth marks had been
made by hyzenas, both because living hyznas leave
exactly such marks on bones in the present day, and
because the hyena bones alone were not gnawed,
showing that no animals preyed upon their flesh. He
knew too that the hyznas had been there long after
218 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

man had ceased to use the caves, because no flint
tools were found among the bones. But now the
age of hyzenas, too, was past and gone, and the caves
had been left so long undisturbed that in many of
them the water dripping from the roof had left film
after film of carbonate of lime upon the floor, which
as the centuries went by became a layer of stalag-
mite many feet thick, sealing down the secrets of the
past. :

The face of the country was now entirely changed.
The glaciers were gone, and so, too, were all the
strange animals. True, the reindeer, the wild ox,
and even here and there the Irish elk, were still feed-
ing in the valleys; wolves and bears still made the
country dangerous, and beavers built their dams
across the streams, which were now much smaller
than formerly, and flowed in deeper channels, carved
out by water during the interval; but the elephants,
rhinoceroses, lions, and tigers were gone never to
return, and near the caves in which some of the
people lived, and the rude underground huts which
formed the homes of others, tame sheep and goats
were lying with dogs to watch them. Also, though
the land was still covered with dense forests, yet here
and there small clearings had been made, where
patches of corn and flax were growing. Naked
children still played about as before, but now they
were moulding cups of clay like those in which food
was being cooked on the fire outside the caves or
huts. Some of the women, dressed partly in skins
of beasts, partly in rough woven linen, were spinning
NEOLITHIC IMPLEMENTS 219

flax into thread, using as a spinning-whorl a small
round stone with a hole in the middle tied to the end
of the flax, as a weight to enable them to twirl it.
Others were grinding corn in the hollow of a large
stone by rubbing another stone within it.

The men, while they still spent much time in
hunting, had now other duties in tending the sheep
and goats, or looking after the hogs as they turned
up the ground in the forest for roots, or sowing and
reaping their crops. Yet still all the tools were
made of stone, no longer rough and merely chipped
like the old stone weapons, but neatly cut and



Neolithic implements.
x, Stone hatchet mounted in wood. 2, Jade celt, a polished stone
weapon, from Livermore in Suffolk, } size. 3, Spindle whorl, 4
size.

polished. Stone axes with handles of deer-horn,
stone spears and javelins, stone arrowheads beauti-
fully finished, sling-stones and scrapers, were among
their weapons and tools, and with them they made
many delicate implements of bone. On the broad
lakes which here and there broke the monotony of
the forests, canoes, made of the trunks of trees
220 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

hollowed out by fire, were being paddled by one
man, while another threw out his fishing line armed
with delicate bone-hooks ; and on the banks of the
lakes, nets weighted with drilled stones tied on to
the meshes were dragged up full of fish.

For these Neolithic men, or men of the New
Stone Period, who used polished stone weapons,
were farmers and shepherds and fishermen. They
knew how to. make rude pottery, and kept domestic
animals. Moreover, they either came from the east
or exchanged goods by barter with tribes living
more to the eastward, now that canoes enabled them
to cross the sea; for many of their weapons were
made of greenstone or jade, and of other kinds of
stone not to be found in Europe, and their sheep and
goats were animals of eastern origin. They under-
stood how to unite to protect their homes, for they
made underground huts by digging down several feet
into the ground and roofing the hole over with wood
coated with clay; and often long passages under-
ground united these huts, while in many places on
the hills, camps, made of ramparts of earth surrounded
by ditches, served as strongholds for the women and
children and the flocks and herds, when some neigh-
bouring tribe attacked their homesteads.

Still, however, where caves were ready to hand
they used them for houses, and the same shelter
which had been the home of the ancient hunters,
now resounded with the voices of the shepherds,
who, treading on the sealed floor, little dreamt that
under their feet lay the remains of a bygone age.

And now, as our dreamer watched this new race
A NEOLITHIC BURIAL 221

of men fashioning their weapons, feeding their oxen,
and hunting the wild stag, his attention was arrested
by a long train of people crossing a neighbouring
plain, weeping and wailing as they went. At the
head of this procession, lying on a stretcher made of

Fig. 81.









A burial in Neolithic times,

tree-boughs, lay a dead chieftain, and as the line
moved on, men threw down their tools, and women
their spinning, and joined the throng. On they
went to where two upright slabs of stone with
another laid across them formed the opening to a
long mound or chamber. Into this the bearers
222 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

passed with lighted torches, and in a niche ready
prepared placed the dead chieftain in a sitting
posture with the knees drawn up, placing by his
side his flint spear and polished axe, his necklace of
shells, and the bowl from which he had fed. Then
followed the funeral feast, when, with shouts and
wailing, fires were lighted, and animals slaughtered
and cooked, while the chieftain was not forgotten,
but portions were left for his use, and then the earth
was piled up again around the mouth of the chamber,
till it should be opened at some future time to place
another member of his family by his side, or till in
after ages the antiquary should rifle his resting-place
to study the mode of burial in the Neolithic or
Polished Stone Age.

Time passed on in the magician’s dream, and little
by little the caves were entirely deserted as men
learnt to build huts of wood and stone. And as
they advanced in knowledge they began to melt
metals and pour them into moulds, making bronze
knives and hatchets, swords and spears; and they
fashioned brooches and bracelets of bronze and gold,
though they still also used their necklaces of shells
and their polished stone weapons. They began, too,
to keep ducks and fowls, cows and horses ; they knew
how to weave in looms, and to make cloaks and tunics ;
and when they buried their dead it was no longer in
a crouching position. They laid them decently to
rest, as if in sleep, in the barrows where they are
found to this day with bronze weapons by their side.

Then as time went on they learnt to melt even
hard iron, and to beat it into swords and plough-
LATER AGES 223

shares, and they lived in well-built huts with stone
foundations. Their custom of burial, too, was again
changed, and they burnt their dead, placing the ashes
in a funeral urn.

By this time the Britons, as they were now called,
had begun to gather together in villages and towns,
and the Romans ruled over them. Now when men
passed through the wild country they were often finely

Fig. 82.



British relics.
1, A coin of the age of Constantine. 2, Bronze weapon from a Suffolk
barrow. 3, Bronze bracelet from Liss in Hampshire.

dressed in cloth tunics, wearing arm rings of gold,
some even driving in war-chariots, carrying shields
made of wickerwork covered with leather. Still many
of the country people who laboured in the field kept
their old clothing of beast skins; they grew their
corn and stored it in cavities of the rocks ; they made
basket-work boats covered with skin, in which they
ventured out to sea. So things went on for a long
period till at last a troubled time came, and the quiet
valleys were disturbed by wandering people who fled
224 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

from the towns and took refuge in the forests; for
the Romans after three hundred and fifty years of
rule had gone back home to Italy, and a new and
barbarous people called the Jutes, Angles, and
Saxons, came over the sea from Jutland and drove
the Britons from their homes.

And so once more the caves became the abode of
man, for the harassed Britons brought what few things



Britons taking refuge in the Cave.

they could carry away from their houses and hid
themselves there from their enemies. How little
they thought, as they lay down to sleep on the
cavern floor, that beneath them lay the remains of
THE BRITONS TAKING REFUGE 225

two ages of men! They knew nothing of the
woman who had dropped her stone spindle- whorl
into the fire, on which the food of Neolithic man
had been cooking in rough pots of clay ; they never
dug down to the layer of gnawed bones, nor did
they even in their dreams picture the hyzena haunt-
ing his ancient den, for a hyena was an animal
they had never seen. Still less would they have
believed that at one time, countless ages before,
their island had been part of the continent, and
that men, living in the cave where they now lay,
had cut down trees with rough flints, and fought
with such unknown animals as the mammoth and
the sabre-toothed tiger.

But the magician saw it all passing before him,
even as he also saw these Britons carrying into the
cave their brooches, bracelets, and finger rings, their
iron spears and bronze daggers, and all their little
household treasures which they had saved in their
flight. And among these, mingling in the heap, he
recognised Roman coins bearing the inscription of
the Emperor Constantine, and he knew that it was
by these coins that he had, a few days before in
Yorkshire, been able to fix the date of the British
occupation of a cave,

And with this his dream ended, and he found
himself clutching firmly the horn on which Palzo-
lithic man had engraved the figure of the reindeer.
He rose, and stretching himself crossed the sunny
grass plot of the quadrangle and entered his class-
room. The boys wondered as he began his lecture
226 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

at the far-away look in his eyes. They did not know
how he had passed through a vision of countless
ages ; but that afternoon, for the first time, they real-
ised, as he unfolded scene after scene, the history of
“The Men of Ancient Days.”
LN DIE xX

ABBOT’S Way across Dartmoor, 196

Absorption of rays of sunlight, 129

Abyssinia, wild ass of, 203

Actinozoa, Cydippe allied to the, rg0

Ages, lapse of between old and new
stone age, 217

Alcor, or Jack, 158

Aldebaran, 149; called so by the
Arabs, 153; colour of, 167

Algol the Variable, 162, 165

Almach, y Andromedee,
coloured double star, 167

America, extinction of original horse
in, 207

Andromeda, the great nebula of,
162, 164; double coloured star in,
167

Animal of the Sea-mat, 19x ; number
in one leaf, 193

Animal-trees and stony plants, 178

Animals, extinct, living with man, 211

Antares, a ruby-red star, 167

Antherozoids of mosses, 89

Apothecia of lichens, 83

Apennines, Lunar, figured, 19

Archimedes, a lunar crater, 10 ; smooth
centre of, 19

Arctic lands, lichens in, 82

Arcturus, colour of, 166

Aristarchus, a lunar crater, 10, 24 ;
streaks around, 17

Aristotle, a lunar crater, 10

Arrows, old stone, 215

Asia, horse of Central, 201

156; a

Asinus teniopas, 203

Aspergillus glaucus, 61; growth of, 63

Ass tribe, forms allied to the, 201

——., wild of Africa, 203

Atmosphere, absence of in the moon,
2I

Australia, wild horses of, 207

BACILLARIA PARADOXA, a diatom,
185

Bacteria growing on wounds, 66

Baize, hill thrown up on Bay of, 103

Ball, Sir R., on binary stars, 154

Beehive, triple star near the, 168

Beer, fermentation of, 65

Bellatrix, a star in Orion, 148

Berlin, ground beneath, formed of
diatoms, 186

Bessel, on movements of Sirius, 169

Betelgeux, a star in Orion, 148

Binary star in Great Bear, 157, 158

—— stars, 154, 166, 170

Bog-moss or Sphagnum, 93

Bog-mosses, distribution of, 94

Bombs, volcanic, 105

Bodtis e, a coloured double star, 167

Britons inhabiting caves, 224; orna-~
ments and customs of, 223

of Dartmoor, 196

Bronze weapon and bracelet, 223

Bryum or thread moss, 77

Buckfast Abbey, monks of, 196

Bunt, a fungus, 64

Burial in Neolithic times, 221


228

CASSIOPEIA, the constellation, 162;
coloured double star in, 167

Castor, a binary star, 154

Camera, photographic, 47; attached
to the telescope, r2r

Cancer ¢, a triple coloured star, 168

Candle-flame, image of, formed by
lens, 33

Canis Major, constellation of, 148

Capella, colour of the star, 153

Castor, light of compared with a near
star, 158

Caterpillars destroyed by fungus, 66

Caucasus Mountains on the Moon, 18

Cave, the three periods of a, 225

Caves, Palzolithic and Neolithic,
210; Paleeolithic life in, err;
hyzenas roamed in, 217; Neolithic
life in, 218; Britons took refuge
in, 224

Cells, fertile of mushroom, 69; of
moss-plant, 89

Celt, jade, from Suffolk, 219

Chambers, Mr., his drawing of ¢
Lyree, 166

Charles’s Wain, 155; part of Great
Bear, 157; stars of drifting, 159;
stars visible in waggon of, 160;
double coloured star in, 158, 167

Chilomonas amygdalum, a monad,
182

Ciliary muscle, action of the, 34

Clark, Alvan, on companion of Sirius,
169

Clockwork of telescope, 2 ~

Cocconema lanceolatum, a diatom, 184

Coin of age of Constantine, 223

Conferve, growth of, 79

Commons, Mr., photographed Orion’s
nebula, 152

Constantine, coin of age of, 223

Constellations, maps of, 148, 156

Copernicus, a lunar crater, 10, 24;
figured, 17; bright streaks around,
18

Copper-sulphate in lava, 108

Corallina, a stony seaweed, 175 ;
fruit of, 477; appearance like
Sertularia, 179







INDEX ~ |

Cornea of the eye, 31

Corona, nature of the sun’s, 123,137

Cottam, Mr. A., his plate of coloured
stars, 167

Crater, lava flowing ‘from a, 98; in-
terior of Vesuvius, 100

Crater-plains, 19-21

Craters on the moon, Io, 13, 17, 19,
20 ; of earth andmooncompared, 16

Crystallites in volcanic glass, 109

Crystallisation, two periods of, in
lava, I15

Crystals forming in artificial lavas,
I14; precious, 116

Cydippe pileus, a living jelly-ball,
187; structure of, 188-190

Cygni 8, a coloured double star, 167

DaRTMooR, fairy rings on, 57, 58;
the Sundew on, 56; granite
figured, 112; ponies, 195

Dela Rue, his photograph of moon, 13

Devonshire ponies, black stripe on,
201

Diatom, a growing, 185

Diatoma hyalina, 184

Diatoms, magnified fossil, 39 ; living
marine, 184

Didymium, giving a broken spectrum,
126

Dordogne, caves of the, 210, 215

Draper, Prof., photographed Orion's
nebula, 152

Drosera rotundifolia on Dartmoor, 56

Dschiggetai, horse-ass of Tibet, 200

Dsungarian desert, wild horse of the,
203

Dykes, nature of volcanic, 111

EARTH, path of the moon round the,
8; magnetic storm on, caused by
sun, 34; reservoirs of melted
matter in the, ror

Earthquakes accompanying volcanic
outbursts, 102

Eclipse of sun, red jets and corona
seen during, 125

——, total, of the moon, 23; lurid
light during, 25
3 INDEX 229

Eclipses, how caused, 7

Elephant, hairy, engravedon ivory, 216

Lmpusa musce, 66

Engis and. Engihoul caves, 210

England, ancient caves in, 210; in
Palzeolithic times, 211

Eocene, toed horses of the, 20 5

Lohippus, or horse of the dawn, 20 5

Lquus hemionus, the horse-ass, 202

Eratosthenes, a lunar crater, 10

Erbia, giving a broken spectrum, 126

Ergot, a fungus, 61

Eruptions of Vesuvius, 97, 100, 104

Eudoxus, a lunar crater, 10

Experiments, necessity for accurate,
54

Eye, structure of the, 29-32; mode
of seeing with the, 32; short-
sighted, 29, 35; distances spanned
by the naked, 40

FACUL# on the sun’s face, 122, 140

‘Fairy rings, 55; mentioned in Merry
Wives of Windsor, 57; growth
of, 71-73

Ferments caused by fungi, 60, 64

Fishing in ancient times, 215, 220

fistulina hepatica, a fungus, 71

Flint skeletons of plants, 185

Flustra or sea-mat, 187; structure of,
IQI-193

Fly, fungus killing a, 66

Focal images, 33; distances, 44

Fouqué, M., artificial lava made by,
112

Fructification of mushrooms, 69 ; of
lichens, 83; of mosses, 91; of
seaweeds, 177

Funaria hygrometrica, urn of the, 89,
git; has no urn lid, 92

Fungi, nature of, 59; different
kinds of, 60; attacking insects,
66; growing on wounds, 66; the
use of, 74

Fungus and green cells in lichen, 8z

GARDENER, advice of the old, 118
Gas, spectrum of a, 126
Gases revealed by spectroscope, 52



Gemini, the constellation, 154

Geminorum, 6, a double coloured
star, 167

Gills of mushroom, 69

Gomphonema marinum, 184

Gooseberry, fermentation in a, 64

Gory dew, Palmella cruenta, 79

Graham's island thrown up, 102

Granular appearance of sun's face,
123

Grape fungus, 65

Great Bear, the constellation,
binary star in, 158;
double star in, 158, 168

Greenstone, Neolithic weapons of, 220

Guards, the, inthe Little Bear, 162

1573
coloured

HARTZ MOUNTAINS, caves of the,
210

Hatchet, a Neolithic stone, 219

Hebrides, volcanic islands of, 112

Henri, MM., photograph of moon’s
face by, 19

Herculaneum, buried, 98, 104

Herculis a, a coloured double star,
168

Hermitage, lava stream flowing behind
the, 97, 99

Herschel’s drawing of Copernicus, 17

Huggins, Dr., on shape of promin-
ences, 135; on spectra of nebule,

I51; on cause of colour in Stars,
168
Himalayas, single-celled plants in the,
Horse, wild, of the Pampas, 198;

of Tartary, 199; of Kirghiz steppes,
200; Przevalsky's, 202; early
history of toed, 204; structure of
foot and hoof of, 205; skeleton
of, 206; origin and migration of
early, 207

Hungary, ancient caves of, 210

Huyghens, the highest peak in Lunar
Apennines, 19

IMAGE formed at focus of lens, 33;
of sky in telescope, 49

Implements, old stone, 213; new
stone, 219
230

Imps of plant-life, 59

India, low plants in springs of, 79;
solar eclipse seen in, 124 ; wild ass
of, 203

Infusorial earth, 186

Infusorians in a seaside pool, 183

Inhabitants of a seaside pool, 172-174

Iris of the eye, 30

Iron pyrites in lava, 108

Iron slag, lava compared to, 105

Islands, volanic thrown up, 102

JACK by the second horse, 157

Jade, Neolithic weapons of, 220

Jannsen, Prof., on sun prominences,
131

Judd, Mr., on volcano of Mull, 111

Jutes and Angles invading Britain,
224

KANT on nebular hypothesis, 152

Kent’s Cavern, rough stone imple-
ment from, 213

Kepler, a lunar crater, 10; streaks
around, 17

Kertag, or wild horse, 202

Kew, sun-storm registered at, 143

Kiang or Kulan, 200

Kirchhoff, Prof., on sunlight, 128

Kulan or Kiang, 200

LABRADOR felspar artificially made,
113

Langley, Prof., sun-spot drawn by,
141

Laplace, nebular hypothesis of, 152

Lava, aspect of flowing, 99; reser-
voirs of molten, 101; nature of,
107; artificially made, 113; two
periods of crystallisation in, 115

Lava-stream, history of a, 100; sec-
tion of a, 108; rapid cooling of
surface, 108

Laver or sea-lettuce, structure of,
176

Leo, the constellation, 155

Leucotephrite artificially made, 113

Lens, natural, of the eye, 31; simple
magnifying, 35



INDEX

Levy, M., artificial lava made by,
112

Lichens, specimens of from life, 77 ;
the life-history of, 80-84; sections
of, 81; distribution of 82, 95;
fructification of, 83; causes of
success of, 94

Lick telescope, magnifying power of,
46

Light, lurid, on moon during eclipse,
24; sifted by spectroscope, 126

Light-granules on sun's face, 123;
supposed explanation of, 141

Lime-tree, fungi on the, 64

Liss, bronze bracelet from, 223

Little Bear, pole-star and guards in
the, 162

Lockyer, Mr.,'on sun-prominences,
I3I, 136

Lunar Apennines figured, 19

Lyrze ¢, a double-binary star, 166

MACHAIRODUS, tooth of, 213

Madeleine, La, carvings from cave of,
216

Magic glasses and how to use them,
27; what can be done by, 28, 53

Magician’s chamber, 1; his pupils,
4; Spells, 28; his dream of ancient
days, 209

Magnetic connection of sun and earth,
142

Magnifying-glass, action of a, 35

Mammoth engraved on ivory, 216

Maps of constellations, 148, 156

Marasmus oreastes, fairy-ring mush-
room, 55, 72

AMaszeppa, quotation from Byron's, 201

Men of older stone age, 212; of
Neolithic age, 218

Mesohippus, a toed horse, 205

Microliths in volcanic glass, 109, IIo,
113, 115; formed in artificial lava,
113

Microscope, 3 ; action of the, 36-38

Mildews are fungi, 60

Milky Way, 149; Cassiopeia in the,
163

Minerals crystallising inlava, 108
INDEX

Mines, increase of temperature in,
Iot

Miohippus, or lesser toed horse, 206

Mizar, a double-coloured star in the
Great Bear, 158, 168

Monads, size and activity of, 183

Monks, ancient, of Dartmoor, 196

Monte Nuovo thrown up in 1538, 103

Moon, phases of the, 6; course in
the heavens, 8; map of the, 10;
craters of the, 10, 13, 17, 19, 20;
face of full, rz ; a worn-out planet,
2I; no atmosphere in the, 21;
diagram of eclipse of, 23; lurid
light on during eclipse, 24

Moss-leaf magnified, 87

Moss, life-history of a,-84, 92; a stem
of feathery, 85; protonema of a,
86; modes of new growth of a,
88 ; fructification of a, 89; urns of
a, 89, 91

Mosses, different kinds of, 77; ad-
vantages and distribution of, 94

Moulds are fungi, 60; how they
grow, 63

Mountains of the moon, rg; forma-
tion of, 21

UWucor Mucedo, figured, 61; growth
of, 63

Mull, volcanic dykes in the island of,
IItr

Mushroom, early stages and spawn
of, 67; mycelium of, 67; later
stages of, 68; section of gills of,
69; spores of, 70; fairy or Scotch
bonnet, 72

Mycelium of mould, 63; of mush-
room, 67; of fairy rings, 72

NAPLES, volcanic eruption seen at,
96 ; Monte Nuovo thrown up near,
Io

Nasmyth on bright lunar streaks, 16

Nebula of Orion, 149; spectrum
of, 151; photographs of, 152; of
Pleiades, 153 ; of Andromeda, 163-
164

Needle, bone, from a cave, 212

Neolithic implements, 219; indus-



231

tries and habits, 218-220 ; burials,
221

Neptune, invisible to naked eye,
35

Neison, Mr., his drawing of Plato,
20

Nostoc, growing on stones, 79

Oak, fungi on the, 64
Observatory, the Magician's,
astronomical on Vesuvius,
cascade of lava behind the, 99
Obsidian, or volcanic glass, 109
Occultation of a star, 22, 25
Onager, or wild ass of Asia, 203
Optic nerve of eye, 34
Orion, constellation of, 147, 149;
great nebula of, 149 ; photographs
of Nebula of, 152 ; cgloured double
stars in, 168
Orionis 6, or Trapezium, 150
Ornaments of ancient Britons, 222
Orohippus, a toed horse, 205
Oscillarie, growth of, 79

25
975

PALEOLITHIC man, relics,
213; life, 214, 216

Pampas, wild horses of the, 198

Penicillium glaucum, figured, 61 ;
growth of, 63

Penumbra of an eclipse, 23; of sun-
spots, 140

Perithecia of lichens, 84

Petavius, a lunar crater, 10

Photographic camera, 3, 47; attached
to telescope, 121 :

Photographs of the moon, 13, 19; of
galloping horse, 48; of the stars,
49, 161; of the sun, rar

Photosphere of the sun, 123

Philadelphia, electric shocks at during
sun-storm, 143

Pixies of plant life, 59

Plains of the moon, 10; nature of
the, 12

Plants, colourless, single-celled, 65 ;
single-celled green, 78 ; two kinds
of in lichens, 80; with flint skele-
tons, 185.

212;
232
Plato, a lunar crater, 10, 24;
figured, 20

Pleiades, the, 153; nebule in, 153
Pleurococcus, a single-celled plant, 78
Plough, the, or Charles’s Wain, 157
Pointers, in Charles’s Wain, 161
Pole-star, the, 161 ; a yellow sun, 166
Pollux, a yellow sun, 166
Polysiphonia, a red seaweed, 175;
fruit of, 177
Polytrichum commune, a hair moss,
88; its urns protected by a lid,

gI

Pool, inhabitants of a seaside, 172-74

Precious stones, formation of, 116

Proctor, his star atlas, 146; on drift-
ing of Charles’s Wain, 159

Prominence-spectrum and sun-spec-
trum compared, 134

Prominences, red, of the sun, 125;
seen in full daylight, 131-133;
shape of, 135

Protococcus nivalis, 79

Protonema of a moss, 86

Przevalsky’s wild horse, 202

Ptolemy, a lunar crater, 10

Puff-balls, 67, 70; use of in nature,

73
Pupil of the eye, 30
Puzzuoli, eruption near, 1538, 103

QuaaGas, herds of, 203

RAIN-BAND in the solar spectrum,
130

Rain-shower during volcanic eruption,
107

Readings in the sky, 53, 127, 151,
168

Red snow, a single-celled plant, 79

Regulus, the star, 155, 166

Reindeer, carving on horn of, 216

Reservoirs of molten rock under-
ground, ror

Resina, ascent of Vesuvius from, 98

Retina of the eye, 31; image of ob-
ject on the, 33

Richmond, Virginia, infusorial earth
of, 186



INDEX

Rigel, a star in Orion,
coloured double star, 168

Rings, growth of fairy, 73

Roberts, Mr. I., his photograph of
Orion’s nebula, 152 ; and of nebula
of the Pleiades, 153; and of
nebula of Andromeda, 164

Rosse, Lord, his telescope, 46; on
Orion’s nebula, 150; stars visible
in his telescope, 160

Rue, De Ia, his photograph of the
moon, 13

Rust on plants, 61

149; a

SABRINA island formed, ro2

Saturn, distance of, 40

Saxons, invasion of the,224

Schwabe, Herr, on sun-spots cycle,
137

Scorize of volcanoes, 108

‘Scotch bonnet '’ mushroom, 72

Sea-mat, see Flustra

‘«Seas’’ lunar, so-called, 10

Seaweeds, a group of, 175; fruits of,
177

Secchi, Father, on depth of a sun-
spot, 139

Selwyn, Mr., photograph of sun by,
122

Senses alone tell us of outer world,
29

Sertularia tenella, structure of, 180 ;
cupressina, 181

Sertularian and coralline, resemblance
of, 179

Shakespeare on fairy rings, 57

Shipley, Mr., saw volcanic
formed, 103

Sight, far and near, 35

Silkworm destroyed by fungi, 66

Sirius, 146 ; a bluish white sun, 166;
irregularities of caused by a com-
panion, 169

Skeleton of the horse, 206

Skin diseases caused by fungi, 61, 66

Sky, light readings in the, 53, 127,
I5I, 168

Smut, a fungus, 61

Sodium lime in the spectrum, 128

island
INDEX

Somma, part of ancient Vesuvius, 97,
Io4

Spawn of mushroom, 67

Spectra, plate of coloured, 127

Spectroscope, 3; Kirchhoff’s, 51;
gases revealed by the, 52; direct
vision, 127; sifting light, 126; at-
tached to telescope, 132

Spectrum of sunlight, 127, 130

Sphacelaria, a brown-green seaweed,
175; fruit of, 177

Sphagnum or bog moss,
structure of leaves of, 93

Spindle-whorl from Neolithic caves,
219

Spore-cases of mosses, 89, 91, 93

Spores of moulds, 63 ; of mushroom,
70 ; of lichens, 83 ; of mosses, 91

Star, occultation of, by the moon,
24; a double-binary, 166; a dark,
travelling round Sirius, 169

Star-cluster in Perseus, 162

Star-depths, 160, 171

Stars, light from the, 40, 42; visible
in the country, 145; apparent
motion of the, 146; mapsof, 148,
156; of milky way, 149; bin-
ary, 154; real motion of, 159;
drifting, 159; number of known
and estimated, 161; colours of,
166; double coloured, 167; cause
of colour in, 168; are they centres
of solar systems? 170

Statur or wild horse, 202

Streaks, bright, on the moon, 14-17

Suffolk, bronze weapon from barrow
in, 223

Sun, path of the moon round the, 8 ;
one of the stars, 119 ; how to look
at the, 119; face of, thrown on a
screen, 120; photograph of the,
122; prominences, corona, and
faculee of, 122-125; mottling of
face of, 123; total eclipse of,
124; zodiacal line round, 125;
dark lines in spectrum of, 128;
reversing layer of, 131; metals in
the, 131; sudden outburst in the,
142; magnetic connection with

77) 935



233

the earth,
166

Sun's rays touching moon during
eclipse, 24

Sun-spots, cycle of, 137; proving
sun’s rotation, 138 ; nature of, 139 ;
quiet and unquiet, 140; formation
of, 142

Sundew on Dartmoor, 56

143; a yellow star,

TARPAN, a wild horse, 199

Tartary, wild horses of, 199

Tavistock Abbey, monks of, 196

Telescope, clock-work, adjusting a,
2; an astronomical, 41; magni-
fying power of the, 43-46; giant,
46; terrestrial, 47; what can be
seen in a small, 46; how the sun
is photographed in the, 122; how
the spectroscope is worked with
the, 132

Teneriffe, peak of compared to lunar
craters, 15

Tennant, Major, drawing of eclipsed
sun by, 123

Temperature, underground, ror

Thuricolla follicuda, a transparent
infusorian, 182

Tiger, sabre-toothed, 211, 213

Tilletia caria or bunt, 64

Toadstools, 67, 70; use of in nature,

73

Tools, of ancient stone period, 214,
215

Tooth of machairodus, 213

Torquay, the Magician's pool near, 172

Tors of Dartmoor, 197

Trapezium of Orion, 150

Tremella mesenterica fungus, 71

Tripoli formed of diatoms, 35

Tundras, lichens and mosses of the,
82, 95

Tycho, a lunar crater, 10; descrip-
tion of, 13; bright streaks of, 14

ULv4d, a green seaweed, 175; a sec-
tion magnified, 176

Umbra of an eclipse, 23

Urns of mosses, 89, 91

Ustilago carbo, or smut, 64
234

VARIABLE Stars, 165

Vega, a bluish-white sun,
double-binary star near, 165

Veil of mushroom, 68

Vesuvian lavas imitated, 113

Vesuvius, eruption of 1868 described,

166 ;

97, 99, 104; dormant, 103;
eruption of in A.D. 79;
104 .

Volcanic craters of earth and moon
compared, 16; eruptions in the
moon, 21; glass under the micro-
scope, I09, IIO, 115

Volcano, diagram of an _ active,
I05

INDEX

Volcanoes, the cause of discussed,
IOI, 102; ancient, laid bare, 111

WASHINGTON, electric shocks at
during sun-storm, 143

Winter in Palzeolithic times, 215

Wood, winter growth in a, 76

‘«World without End,” 115

YEAST, growth of, 65
Yorkshire, Roman coins in caves of,
225

ZEBRA, herds of, 203
Zodiacal light, 125

THE END

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OUTLINES OF GEOLOGY: an Introduction to the Science for Junior
Students and General Readers. By James GEikiz, LL.D., F.R.S., Murchison
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy at the University of Edinburgh. With 400
Illustrations. Second Edition, Revised. Large Post 8vo. Cloth. 12s.

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» ROCK HisToRY: a Concise Note-Book of Geology, having special
reference to the English and Welsh Formations. By C. L. Barnes, M.A.,
late Scholar of Balliol College, Oxford; Science Master at Bromsgrove School.
With Coloured Maps of Strata, and Illustrations of Fossils. Crown 8vo. Cloth. 6s.

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A CENTURY OF CONTINENTAL HISTORY, 1780-1880. By J. H. Ross,
M.A., formerly Classical Scholar of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Crown 8yo.
420 pages. With 3 Maps, and 5 Plans of Battles in the text. Cloth. Price 6s.

“ Accurate, fair, and moderate in tone.”—Saturday Review.

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“*Succinct, able, and clear summary.”—Sfectator.

HOUSEHOLD SCIENCE: Readings in Necessary Knowledge for Girls
and Young Women. Edited by Rev. J. P. Fauntuorre, M.A., Principal of
Whitelands Training College. Fifth Edition. Post 8vo. Cloth. 3s. 6d.

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Libraries, your inestimable Books.” —FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE.

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