Citation
Through magic glasses and other lectures

Material Information

Title:
Through magic glasses and other lectures a sequel to The fairyland of science
Creator:
Buckley, Arabella B ( Arabella Burton ), 1840-1929
D. Appleton and Company ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
D. Appleton and Company
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
"Authorized ed." 1st English ed., 1890.
Physical Description:
xiv, 234 p., [2] leaves of plates : ill., (some col.) ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Science -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Physical sciences -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Science -- History -- Juvenile literature ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1890 ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1890
Genre:
Textbooks ( rbgenr )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Includes index.
General Note:
10 chapters on astronomy, biology, etc.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Arabella B. Buckley (Mrs. Fisher).

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
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ALG3173 ( NOTIS )
49265592 ( OCLC )

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Full Text




RmB

The Baldwin Library





University
of
Florida





THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES



For Description see Page 152 Frontispiece



THE GREAT NEBULA OF ORION
From a photooraph taken on February 4 1889
by Mf Isaac Roberts.



THROUGH
MAGIC GLASSES

AND OTHER LECTURES

A SEQUEL TO THE FAIRYLAND OF SCIENCE

BY
ARABELLA B. BUCKLEY

(MRS. FISHER)

AUTHOR OF LIFE AND HER CHILDREN, WINNERS IN LIFE’S RACE,
A SHORT HISTORY OF NATURAL SCIENCE, ETC.

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
1890



Authorized Editton.



PREFACE,

THE present volume is chicfly intended for those of
my young friends who have read, and been interested
in, the Fairyland of Science. It travels over a wide
field, pointing out a few of the marvellous facts which
can be studied and enjoyed by the help of optical
instruments. It will be seen at a glance that any
one of the subjects dealt with might be made the
study of a lifetime, and that the little information
given in each lecture is only enough to make the
reader long for more.

In these days, when moderate-priced instruments
and good books and lectures are so easily accessible,
I hope some eager minds may be thus led to take up
one of the branches of science opened out to us by
magic glasses ; while those who go no further will at
least understand something of the hitherto unseen

world which is now being studied by their help.



vi PREFACE

The two last lectures wander away from this path,
and yet form a natural conclusion to the Magician’s
lectures to his young Devonshire lads. They have
been published before, one in the Youth's Companion of
Boston, U.S., and the other in Azadanta, in which the
essay on Fungi also appeared in a shorter form.
All three lectures have, however, been revised and
fully illustrated, and I trust that the volume, as a
whole, may prove a pleasant Christmas companion.

For the magnificent photograph of Orion’s nebula,
forming the Frontispiece, I am indebted to the courtesy
of Mr. Isaac Roberts, F.R.A.S., who most kindly lent
me the plate for reproduction; and I have had the
great good fortune to obtain permission from MM.
Henri of the Paris Observatory to copy the illustra-
tion of the Lunar Apennines from a most beautiful
and perfect photograph of part of the moon, taken by
them only last March. My cordial thanks are also
due to Mr. A. Cottam, F.R.A.S., for preparing the
plate of coloured double stars, and to my friend
Mr. Knobel, Hon. Sec. of the R.A.S., for much
valuable assistance ; to Mr. James Geikie for the

loan of some illustrations from his Geology ; and to



PREFACE vii

Messrs. Longman for permission to copy Herschel’s
fine drawing of Copernicus.

With the exception of these illustrations and a
few others, three of which were kindly given me
by Messrs. Macmillan, all the woodcuts have been
drawn and executed under the superintendence of
Mr. Carteras, jun, who has made my task easier by
the skill and patience he has exercised under the
difficulties incidental to receiving instructions from a

distance.
ARABELLA B. BUCKLEY.

Upcott AVENEL, Oct. 1890.







TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

THE MAGICIAN’S CHAMBER BY MOONLIGHT

CHAPTER II

MAGIC GLASSES AND HOW TO USE THEM

CHAPTER III

FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

CHAPTER IV

THE LiFrE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSEs .

CHAPTER V

THE HISTORY OF A LAVA STREAM ,

CHAPTER VI

An Hour WITH THE SUN

PAGE

27

55

75

96

Tele 7en8



x CONTENTS

CHAPTER VII

AN EVENING AMONG THE STARS

CHAPTER VIII

Litre BEINGS FROM A MINIATURE OCEAN

CHAPTER IX

‘THE DARTMOOR PONIES .

CHAPTER X

THE MAGICIAN’S DREAM OF ANCIENT Days

PAGE

145



List OF TEE US RA LIONS

PLATES
PHOTOGRAPH OF THE NEBULA OF ORION 5 . Frontispiece
TABLE OF COLOURED SPECTRA . : Plate I. facing p. 127
COLOURED DOUBLE STARS 2 : jpeLds Ps 167

WOODCUTS IN THE TEXT

PAGE
PARTIAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON : . Lnittial letter I
A BOY ILLUSTRATING THE PHASES OF THE MOON , : 6
COURSE OF THE MOON IN THE HEAVENS . z . 8
CHART OF THE MOON . 3 . . ‘ : Io
FACE OF THE FULL MOON : i ; ; : II
TYCHO AND HIS SURROUNDINGS (from a photograph by De
la Rue) é : : ; : 3 : 13
PLAN OF THE PEAK OF TENERIFFE . ‘ : i 15
THE CRATER COPERNICUS 7 . 5 5 , 17
THE LUNAR APPENNINES (from a photograph by MM. Henri) 19
THE CRATER PLATO SEEN SOON AFTER SUNRISE j ; 20
DIAGRAM OF TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON . : Seeye23
i BOY AND MICROSCOPE . : . . Lnitial letter 27
EYE-BALL SEEN FROM THE FRONT : : : Sees 0)
SECTION OF AN EYE LOOKING AT A PENCIL . : aero
IMAGE OF A CANDLE-FLAME THROWN ON PAPER BY A LENS. 33

ARROW MAGNIFIED BY A CONVEX LENS . . . 35





xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

STUDENT’S MICROSCOPE . .

SKELETON OF A MICROS OPE

FossIL DIATOMS SEEN UNDER THE MICROSCOPE

AN ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE . i :

TWO SKELETONS OF TELESCOPES a : 5

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA . 5 ; P
KIRCHHOFF’S SPECTROSCOPE

PASSAGE OF RAYS THROUGH THE SPECTROSCOPE :
A GROUP OF FAIRY-RING MUSHROOMS , | - Lritial letter
THREE FORMS OF VEGETABLE MOULD MAGNIFIED 2
Mucor MUCEDO GREATLY MAGNIFIED. :

YEAST CELLS GROWING UNDER THE MICROSCOPE

EARLY STAGES OF THE MUSHROOM : ;

LATER STAGES OF THE MUSHROOM

MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF MUSHROOM GILLS :
A GROUP OF CUP LICHENS F : . Lnitial letter
EXAMPLES OF LICHENS FROM LIFE

SINGE-CELLED PLANTS GROWING

SECTIONS OF LICHENS . : 4 ' :
FRUCTIFICATION OF A LICHEN... : :

A STEM OF FEATHERY MOSS FROM LIFE

Moss-LEAF MAGNIFIED : .

POLYTRICHUM COMMUNE, A LARGE HAIR-MOSS
FRUCTIFICATION OF A MOSS. : ‘ ; :
SPHAGNUM MOSS FROM A DEVONSHIRE BOG . : ;
SURFACE OF A LAVA-FLOW : é . Lnitial letter
VESUVIUS AS SEEN IN ERUPTION ’ 5 i :
Top oF VESUVIUS IN 1864 g F J :
DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION OF AN ACTIVE VOLCANO. :
SECTION OF A LAVA-FLOW ; : :

VOLCANIC GLASS WITH CRYSTALLITES AND MICROLITHS
VOLCANIC GLASS WITH WELL-DEVELOPED MICROLITHS

A PIECE OF DARTMOOR GRANITE ‘ ‘ .
VOLCANIC GLASS SHOWING LARGE INCLUDED CRYSTALS ;
A TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN : ‘ . Lnittial letter
FACE OF THE SUN PROJECTED ON A PIECE OF CARDBOARD ,

PAGE
36
37
39
41
44
47
Si
52
55
61
63
65
67
68
69
75
77
78
81
83
85
87
88

93

96

97
100
105
108
109
110
112
115
1i7
120







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PHOTOGRAPH OF THE SUN’sS FACE, taken by Mr. Selwyn
(Secchi, Le Solez?) . 2 5 z - %
TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE’ SUN, SHOWING CORONA AND PRO-
MINENCES (Guillemin, Ze Cze/) c ‘
KIRCHHOFF’S EXPERIMENT ON THE DARK SODIUM LINE i
THE SPECTROSCOPE ATTACHED TO THE TELESCOPE FOR SOLAR
WORK ‘ ; : 3 2 . a

SUN-SPECTRUM AND PROMINENCE SPECTRUM COMPARED
RED PROMINENCES, as drawn by Mr. Lockyer 1869

A QUIET SUN-SPOT ‘i : 5

A TUMULTUOUS SUN-sPoT 3 A

A STAR-CLUSTER . ; : " . Lnttial letter

SOME CONSTELLATIONS SEEN ON LOOKING SOUTH IN MarcH
FROM SIX TO NINE O’CLOCK : ;

THE CHIEF STARS OF ORION, WITH ALDEBARAN
THE TRAPEZIUM @ ORIONIS .
SPECTRUM OF ORION’S NEBULA AND SUN-SPECTRUM COM-

; PARED 5 : ; 3 3 ; :
SOME CONSTELLATIONS SEEN ON LOOKING NORTIL IN MARCH
FROM SIX TO NINE O’CLOCK 5 : ; .
Tue GREAT BEAR, SHOWING POSITION OF THE BINARY STAR
DRIFTING OF THE SEVEN STARS OF CHARLES’S WAIN f
CASSIOPEIA AND THE HEAVENLY BODIES NEAR :
e LYRA, A DOUBLE-BINARY STAR a ; : ¢
A SEASIDE POOL. 5 es ¢ . Lnitial letter
A GROUP OF SEAWEEDS (natural size). : :
ULVA LACTUCA, a piece greatly magnified
SEAWEEDS, magnified to show fruits &

A CORALLINE AND SERTULARIAN COMPARED .
SERTULARIA TENELLA HANGING IN WATER. :
ZHURICOLLA FOLLICULATA AND CHILOMONAS AMYGDALUM
A GROUP OF LIVING DIATOMS : : 7
A DIATOM GROWING : . %
CYDIPPE PILEUS, ANIMAL AND STRUCTURE
THE SEA-MAT, PLUSTRA FOLIACEA .
DIAGRAM OF THE FLUSTRA ANIMAL

2

xiii
PAGE

122

151

156
157
159
162
166
172
175
176
177
179

10
182
184
185
187
I9QI

192



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE
DARTMOOR PONIES : ‘i A |. Mnétial letter 195
£QUUS HEMIONUS, THE HORSE-ASS OF TARTARY AND TIBET. 201
PRZEVALSKY’S WILD HORSE : ae : eel ZO2
SKELETON OF AN ANIMAL OF THE HORSE-TRIBE i » 206
PALOLITHIC MAN CHIPPING FLINT TOOLS . Jnitial letter 209
SCENE IN PAL@OLITHIC TIMES . ; : : TRa2T2
PAL#OLITHIC RELICS—NEEDLE, TOOTH, IMPLEMENT . eZ)
MAMMOTH ENGRAVED ON IVORY ‘A 5 : 22216
NEOLITHIC IMPLEMENTS—HATCHET, CELT, SPINDLE WHORL. 219
A BURIAL IN NEOLITHIC TIMES ; : : » 221
BRITISH RELICS—COIN, BRONZE CELT, AND BRACELET E228

BRITONS TAKING REFUGE IN THE CAVE : : » 224



THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

CHAPTER I

THE MAGICIAN’S CHAMBER BY MOONLIGHT

PSQ HE full moon was shining in all
its splendour one lovely August
night, as the magician sat in
his turret chamber bathed in
her pure white beams, which
streamed upon him through the

- open shutter in the wooden
dome above. It is true a faint
gleam of warmer light shone
from below through the open

door, for this room was but an offshoot at the top

of the building, and on looking down the turret

stairs a lecture-room might be seen below where a

bright light was burning. Very little, however, of

this warm glow reached the magician, and the im-

plements of his art around him looked like weird

gaunt skeletons as they cast their long shadows
across the floor in the moonlight.







2 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The small observatory, for such it was, was a
circular building with four windows in the walls, and
roofed with a wooden dome, so made that it could
be shifted round and round by pulling certain cords.
One section of this dome was a shutter, which now
stood open, and the strip, thus laid bare to the night,
was so turned as to face that part of the sky along
which the moon was moving. In the centre of the
room, with its long tube directed towards the opening,
stood the largest magic glass, the TELESCOPE, and in
the dead stillness of the night, could be heard distinctly
the tick-tick of the clockwork, which kept the instru-
ment pointing to the face of the moon, while the
room, and all in it, was being carried slowly and
steadily onwards by the earth’s rotation on its axis.
It was only a moderate-sized instrument, about six
feet long, mounted on a solid iron pillar firmly fixed
to the floor and fitted with the clockwork, the sound
of which we have mentioned; yet it looked like a
giant as the pale moonlight threw its huge shadow
on the wall behind and the roof above.

Far away from this instrument in one of the
windows, all of which were now closed with shutters,
another instrument was dimly visible. This was
a round iron table with clawed fect, and upon it,
fastened by screws, were three tubes, so arranged
that they all pointed towards the centre of the table,
where six glass prisms were arranged in a semicircle,
each one fixed on a small brass tripod. A strange
uncanny-looking instrument this, especially as the
prisms caught the edge of the glow streaming up the
turret stair, and shot forth faint beams of coloured







THE MAGICIAN’S INSTRUMENTS 3

light on the table below them. Yet the magician’s
pupils thought it still more uncanny and mysterious
when their master used it to read the alphabet of
light, and to discover by vivid lines even the faintest
trace of a metal otherwise invisible to mortal eye.

For this instrument was the SPECTROSCOPE, by
which he could break up rays of light and make them
tell him from what substances they came. Lying
around it were other curious prisms mounted in
‘metal rims and fitted with tubes and many strange
devices, not to be understood by the uninitiated, but
magical in their effect when fixed on to the telescope
and used to break up the light of distant stars and
nebule.

Compared with these mysterious glasses the PHOTO-
GRAPHIC CAMERA, standing in the background, with
its tall black covering cloth, like a hooded monk,
looked comparatively natural and familiar, yet it, too,
had puzzling plates and apparatus on the table near
it, which could be fitted on to the telescope, so that
by their’: means pictures might be taken even in the
dark night, and stars, invisible with the strongest lens,
might be forced to write their own story, and leave
their image on the plate for after study.

All these instruments told of the magician’s
power in unveiling the secrets of distant space and
exploring realms unknown, but in another window,
now almost hidden in the shadow, stood a fourth
and highly-prized helpmate, which belonged in one
sense more to our earth, since everything examined
by it had to be brought near, and lie close under its
magnifying-glass. Yet the MICROSCOPE too could



4 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

carry its master into an unseen world, hidden to
mortal eye by minuteness instead of by distance.
If in the stillness of night the telescope was his most
cherished servant and familiar friend, the microscope
by day opened out to him the fairyland of nature.

As he sat on his high pedestal stool on this
summer night with the moonlight full upon him, his
whole attention was centred on the telescope, and
his mind was far away from that turret-room,
wandering into the distant space brought so near to
him ; for he was waiting to watch an event which
brought some new interest every time it took place
—a total eclipse of the moon. To-night he looked
forward to it eagerly, for it happened that, just as
the moon would pass into the shadow of our earth,
it would also cross directly in front of a star, causing
what is known as an “occultation” of the star, which
would disappear suddenly behind the rim of the
dark moon, and after a short time flash out on the
other side as the satellite went on its way.

How he wished as he sat there that he could
have shown this sight to all the cager lads whom he
was teaching to handle and love his magic glasses.
For this magician was not only a student himself,
he was a rich man and the Founder and Principal
of a large public school for boys of the artisan class.
He had erected a well-planned and handsome build-
ing in the midst of the open country, and received
there, on terms within the means of their parents,
working-lads from all parts of England, who, besides
the usual book-learning, received a good technical
education in all its branches. And, while he left to





THE MAGICIAN’S PUPILS - 5

other masters the regular school lessons, he kept for
himself the intense pleasure of opening the minds of
these lads to the wonders of God’s universe around
them.

You had only to pass down the turret stairs, into
the large science class-room below, to see at once
that a loving hand and heart had furnished it. Not
only was there every implement necessary for
scientific work, but numerous rough diagrams cover-
ing the walls showed that labour as well as money
had been spent in decorating them. It was a large
oblong room, with four windows to the north, and four
to the south, in each of which stood a microscope
with all the tubes, needles, forceps, knives, etc.,
necessary for dissecting and preparing objects;
and between the windows were open shelves, on which
were ranged chemicals of various kinds, besides many
strange-looking objects in bottles, which would have
amused a trained naturalist, for the lads collected
and preserved whatever took their fancy.

On some of the tables were photographic plates
laid ready for printing off; on others might be seen
drawings of the spectrum, made from the small
spectroscope fixed at one end of the room; on
others lay small direct spectroscopes which the
lads could use for themselves. But nowhere was
a telescope to be seen. This was not because
there were none, for each table had its small
hand - telescope, cheap but good. The truth is
that each of these instruments had been spirited
away into the dormitories that night, and many
heads were lying awake on their pillows, listening



6 ‘THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

for the strike of the clock to Bee out and see the
eclipse begin.

A mere glance round the room showed that the
moon had been much studied lately. On the black-
board was drawn a rough diagram, showing how a
boy can illustrate for himself the moon's journey
round the earth, by taking a ball and holding it a
little above his head at arm’s length, while he turns
slowly round on his heel in a darkened room before

Fig. 3.









A boy illustrating the phases of the moon.

a lighted lamp, or better still before the lens of a
magic lantern (Fig. 1). The lamp or lens then re-
presents the sun, the ball is the moon, the boy’s
head is the earth. Beginning with the ball between
him and the source of light, but either a little above,
or a little below the direct line between his eye and







THE PHASES OF THE MOON 7

it, he will see only the dark side of the ball, and
the moon will be on the point of being “new.” Then
as he turns slowly, a thin crescent of light will creep
over the side nearest the sun, and by degrees en-
croach more and more, so that when he has turned
through one quarter of the round half the disc will
be light. When he has turned another quarter,
and has his back to the sun, a full moon will face
him. Then as he turns on through the third quarter
a crescent of darkness creeps slowly over the side
away from the sun; and gradually the bright: disc is
eaten away by shadow till at the end of the third
quarter half the disc again only is light; then, when
he has turned through another quarter and completed
the circle, he faces the light again and has a dark
moon before him. But he must take care to keep
the moon a little above or a little below his eye at
new and full moon. If he brings it exactly on a
line with himself and the light at new moon, he will
shut off the light from himself and see the dark
body of the ball against the light, causing an eclipse
of ‘the sun; while if he does the same at full moon
his head will cast a shadow on the ball causing an
eclipse of the moon.

There were other diagrams showing how and why
such eclipses do really happen at different times in
the moon’s path round the earth; but perhaps the
most interesting of all was one he had made to
explain what so few people understand, namely, that
though the moon describes a complete circle round
our earth every month, yet she does not describe
a circle in space, but a wavy line inwards and out-





THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

‘The moon and the earth are both moving onwards in

Diagram showing the moon’s course during one month

the direction of the arrows.



The

The earth moves along the dark line, the moon along the interrupted line - - --.

shows the circle gradually described by the moon round the earth as they move onwards,

dotted curved line....

wards across the
earth’s path round the
sun. This is because
the earth is moving
on all the while, carry-
ing the moon with it,
and it is only by see-
ing it drawn before
our eyes that we can
realise how it happens.

Thus suppose, in
order to make the
dates as simple as
possible, that there is
a new moon on the
Ist of some month.
Then by the oth (or
roughly speaking in
74 days) the moon
will have described a
quarter of a circle
round the earth as
shown by the dotted
line (Fig. 2), which
marks her position
night after night with
regard to us. Yet
because she is carried
onwards all the while
by the earth, she will
really have passed
along the interrupted







THE MOON'S JOURNEY IN SPACE 9

line --- between us and the sun. During the next
week her quarter of a circle wiJl carry her round be-
hind the earth, so that we see her on the 17th asa
full moon, yet her actual movement has been onwards
along the interrupted line on the farther side of the
earth. During the third week she creeps round
another quarter of a circle so as to be in advance of
the earth on its yearly journey round the sun, and
reaches the end of her third quarter on the 24th.
In her last quarter she gradually passes again
between the earth and the sun ; and though, as regards
the earth, she appears to be going back round to the
same place where she was at the beginning of the
month, and on the 31st is again a dark new moon,
yet she has travelled onwards exactly as much as
we have, and therefore has really not described a
circle in the heavens but a wavy line.

Near to this last diagram hung another, well loved
by the lads, for it was a large map of the face of
the moon, that is of the side which is a/zways turned
towards us, because the moon turns once on her
axis during the month that she is travelling round
the earth. On this map were marked all the different
craters, mountains, plains and shining streaks which
appear on the moon’s face; while round the chart
were pictures of some of these at sunrise and sunset
on the moon, or during the long day of nearly a
fortnight which each part of the face enjoys in its
turn.

By studying this map, and the pictures, they
were able, even in their small telescopes, to recognise
Tycho and Copernicus, and the mountains of the



10 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

moon, after they had once grown accustomed to the

Fig. 3.



Chart of the moon.

Craters—
1 Tycho. 4 Aristarchus. 7 Plato. to Petavius.
2 Copernicus. 5 Eratosthenes, 8 Eudoxus. r1 Ptolemy.
3 Kepler. 6 Archimedes, g Aristotle.
Grey plains formerly believed to be seas—

A Mare Crisium, O Mare Imbrium.

C ——- Frigoris. Q Oceanus Procellarum.

G —. Tranquillitatis. X Mare Feecunditatis.

H —— Serenitatis. a Humorum,



strange changes in their appearance which take



THE FACE OF THE FULL MOON II

place as daylight or darkness creeps over them.
They could not however pick out more than some of
the chief points. Only the magician himself knew
every crater and ridge under all its varying lights,

Fig. 3a.

















































































































The full moon, (From Ball’s Starland.)

and now, as he waited for the eclipse to begin, he
turned to a lad who stood behind him, almost hidden
in the dark shadow—the one fortunate boy who had

earned the right to share this night’s work.
3





12 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“We have still half an hour, Alwyn,” said he,
“ before the eclipse will begin, and I can show you the
moon’s face well to-night. Take my place here and
look at her while I point out the chief features.
See first, there are the grey plains (A, C, G, etc.)
lying chiefly in the lower half of the moon. You
can often see these on a clear night with the
naked eye, but you must remember that then they
appear more in the upper part, because in the tele-
scope we see the moon’s face inverted or upside down.

“ These. plains were once thought to be oceans, but
are now proved to be dry flat regions situated at
different levels on the moon, and much like what
deserts and prairies would appear on our earth if seen
from the same distance. Looking through the
telescope, is it not difficult to imagine how people
could ever have pictured them asa man’s face? But
not so difficult to understand how some ancient
nations thought the moon was a kind of mirror, in
which our earth was reflected as in a looking-glass,
with its seas and rivers, mountains and valleys; for
it does look something like a distant earth, and as
the light upon it is really reflected from the sun it
was very natural to compare it to a looking-glass.

“Next cast your eye over the hundreds of craters,
some large, others quite small, which cover the moon’s
face with pitted marks, like a man with small-pox ;
while a few of the larger rings look like holes
made in a window-pane, where a stone has passed
through, for brilliant shining streaks radiate from
them on all sides like the rays of a star, covering
a large part of the moon. Brightest of all these





TYCHO AND HIS SURROUNDINGS 13

starred craters is Tycho, which you will easily find
near the top of the moon (1, Fig. 3), for you have
often seen it in the small telescope. How grand it
looks to-night in the full moon (Fig. 3a)! It is
true you see all the craters better when the moon
is in her quarters, because the light falls sideways
upon them and the shadows are more sharply defined ;
yet even at the full the bright ray of light on
Tycho’s rim marks out the huge cavity, and you can
even see faintly the magnificent terraces which run
round the cup within, one below the other.

“This cavity measures fifty-four miles across,























































































































































































































































































































Tycho and his surroundings.
(From a photograph of the moon taken by Mr. De la Rue, 1863.)

so that if it could be moved down to our earth
it would cover by far the largest part of Devon-
shire, or that portion from Bideford on the north,



14 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to the sea on the south, and from the borders of
Cornwall on the east, to Exeter on the west, and
it is 17,000 feet or nearly three miles in depth.
Even in the brilliant. light of the full moon this
enormous cup is dark compared to the bright rim,
but it is much better seen in about the middle of the
second quarter, when the rising sun begins to light
up one side while the other is in black night.
The drawing on the wall (Fig. 4), which is taken
from an actual photograph of the moon’s face, shows
Tycho at this time surrounded by the numerous
other craters which cover this part of the moon.
You may recognise him by the gleaming peak in the
centre of the cup, and by his bright rim which is so
much more perfect than those of his companions.
The gleaming peak is the top of a steep cone or hill
rising up 6000 feet, or more than a mile from the base
of the crater, so that even the summit is about two
miles below the rim.

“There is one very interesting point in Tycho,
however, which is seen at its very best at full moon.
Look outside the bright rim and you will see that
from the shadow which surrounds it there spring
on all sides those strange brilliant streaks (see Fig.
3@) which I spoke of just now. There are others
quite as bright, or even brighter, round other craters,
Copernicus (Fig. 6), Kepler, and Aristarchus, lower
down on the right-hand side of the moon; but
these of Tycho are far the most widely spread, cover-
ing almost all the top of the face.

“What are these streaks? We do not know:
During the second quarter of the moon, when the sun





LUNAR AND TERRESTRIAL CRATERS 15

is rising slowly upon Tycho, lighting up his peak and
showing the crater beautifully divided into a bright
cup in the curve to the right, while a dense shadow lies
in the left hollow, these streaks are only faint, and
among the many craters around (see Fig. 4) you
might even have some difficulty at first in finding
the well-known giant. But as the sun rises higher
and higher they begin to appear, and go on increasing
in brightness till they shine with that wonderfully
silvery light you see now in the full moon.





| I
PTH Ta
a
ae

i
a

H



Plan of the Peak of Teneriffe, showing how it resembles
a lunar crater. (A. Geikie.)

“Here is a problem for you young astronomers to
solve, as we learn more and more how to use the
j : i 3
télescope with all its new appliances.



16 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The crater itself is not so difficult to explain, for
we have many like it on our earth, only not nearly
so large. In fact, we might almost say that our earthly
volcanoes differ from those in the moon only by their
smaller size and by forming mountains with the crater
or cup on the top; while the lunar craters lie flat on
the surface of the mocn, the hollow of the cup forming
a depression below it. The peak of Teneriffe (Fig. 5),
which is a dormant volcano, is a good copy in minia-
ture on our earth of many craters on the moon The
large plain surrounded by a high rocky wall, broken
in places by lava streams, the smaller craters nestling
in the cup, and the high peak or central crater
rising up far above the others, are so like what we
see on the moon that we cannot doubt that the same
causes have been at work in both cases, even though
the space enclosed in the rocky wall of Teneriffe
measures only eight miles across, while that of Tycho
measures fifty-four.

“But of the streaks we have no satisfactory expla-
nation. They pass alike over plain and valley and
mountain, cutting even across other craters with-
out swerving from their course. The astronomer
Nasmyth thought they were the remains of cracks
made when the volcanoes were active, and filled
with molten lava from below, as water oozes up
through ice-cracks on a pond. But this explana-
tion is not quite satisfactory, for the Java, forcing
its way through, would cool in ridges which ought to
cast a shadow in sunlight. These streaks, however,
not only cast no shadow, as you can see at the full
moon but when the sun shines sideways upon them



THE CRATER COPERNICUS 17

in the newor waning moon they disappear as we
have seen altogether. Thus the streaks, so brilliant
at full moon in Tycho, Copernicus, Kepler, and
Aristarchus, remain a puzzle to astronomers still.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































The crater Copernicus.
(As given in Herschel’s Astronomy, from a drawing taken ina
reflecting telescope of 20 feet focal length.)



“ We cannot examine these three last-named craters
well to-night with the full sun upon them; but mark
_their positions well, for Copernicus, at least, you must



18 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

examine on the first opportunity, when the sun is
rising upon it in the moon’s second quarter. It is
larger even than Tycho, measuring fifty-six miles
across, and has a hill in the centre with many peaks;
while outside, great spurs or ridges stretch in all
directions sometimes for more than a hundred miles,
and between these are scattered innumerable minute
craters. But the most striking feature in it is the
ring, which is composed inside the crater of mag-
nificent terraces divided by deep ravines. These
terraces are in some ways very like those of the
great crater of Teneriffe, and astronomers can best
account for them by supposing that this immense
crater was once filled with a lake of molten lava
rising, cooling at the edges, and then falling again,
leaving the solid ridge behind. The streaks are
also beautifully shown in Copernicus (see Fig. 6),
but, as in Tycho, they fade away as the sun sets
on the crater, and only reappear gradually as mid-
day approaches.

“And now, looking a little to the left of Copernicus,
you will see that grand range of mountains, the
Lunar Apennines (Fig. 7), which stretches 400 miles
across the face of the moon. Other mountain
ranges we could find, but none so like mountains
on our own globe as these, with their gentle sunny
slope down to a plain on the left, and steep
perpendicular cliffs on the right. The highest
peak in this range, called Huyghens, rises to the
height of 21,000 feet, higher than Chimborazo in
the Andes. Other mountains on the moon, such as
those called the Caucasus, south of the Apennines,



THE MOUNTAINS OF THE MOON 19

are composed of disconnected peaks, while others
again stand as solitary pyramids upon the plains.

“ But we must hasten on, for I want you to observe
those huge walled crater-plains which have no hill



















































































































































































































































































































































The Lunar Apennines.
(Copied by kind permission of MM. Henri from part of a magnificent photo-
graph taken by them, March 29, 18go, at the Paris Observatory. }
in the middle, but smooth steel-grey centres shining
like mirrors in the moonlight. One of these, called
Archimedes, you will find: just below the Lunar
Apennines (Figs. 3 and 7), and another called Plato,
which is sixty miles broad, is still lower down the





20 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

moon’s face (Figs. 3 and 8). The centres of these broad
circles are curiously smooth and shining like quick-

Fig. 8.























































































































































































































The crater Plato as seen soon after sunrise, (After Neison. )

silver, with minute dots here and there which are
miniature craters, while the walls are rugged and
crowned with turret-shaped peaks.

“It is easy to picture to oneself how these may
once have been vast seas of lava, not surging as
in Copernicus, and heaving up as it cooled into
one great central cone, but seething as molten lead
does in a crucible, little bubbles bursting here and
there into minute craters ; and this is the explanation
given of them by astronomers.



THE CRATER-PLAINS AND THEIR ORIGIN 21

“ And now that you have seen the curious rugged
face of the moon and its craters and mountains, you
will want to know how all this has come about. We
can only form theories on the point, except that
everything shows that heat and volcanoes have in
some way done the work, though no one has ever yet
clearly proved that volcanic eruptions have taken
place in our time. We must look back to ages long
gone by for those mighty volcanic eruptions which
hurled out stones and ashes from the great crater of
Tycho, and formed the vast seas of lava in Copernicus
and Plato.

“And when these were over, and the globe was
cooling down rapidly, so that mountain ranges —
were formed by the wrinkling and rending of the
surface, was there then any life on the moon? Who
can tell? Our magic glasses can reveal what now
is, so far as distance will allow; but what has
been, except where the rugged traces remain, we
shall probably never know. What we now see is a
dead worn-out planet, on which we cannot certainly
trace any activity except that of heat in the past.
That there is no life there now, at any rate of the
kind on our own earth, we are almost certain ; first,
because we can nowhere find traces of water, clouds,
nor even mist, and without moisture no life like ours is
possible ; and secondly, because even if there is, as
perhaps there may be, a thin ocean of gas round
the moon there is certainly no atmosphere such as
surrounds our globe.

“One fact which proves this is, that there are
no half-shadows on the moon. If you look some



22 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

night at the mountains and craters during her first
and second quarters, you will be startled to see what
heavy shadows they cast, not with faint edges dying
away into light, but sharp and hard (see Figs. 6-8),
so that you pass, as it were by one step, from shadow
to sunshine. This in itself is enough to show that
there is no air to scatter the sunlight and spread it into
the edges of the shade as happens on our earth ; but
there are other and better proofs. One of these is,
that during an eclipse of the sun there is no reflec-
tion of his light round the dark moon as there
would be if the moon had an atmosphere; another is
that the spectroscope, that wonderful instrument
which shows us invisible gases, gives no hint of air
around the moon; and another is the sudden dis-
appearance or occulfation of a star behind the moon,
such as I hope to see in a few minutes.

“See here! take the small hand telescope and turn
it on to the moon’s face while I take my place at
the large one, and I will tell you what to look for.
You know that at sunset we see the sun for some
time after it has dipped below the horizon, because
the rays of light which come from it are bent in our
atmosphere and brought to our eyes, forming in
them the image of the sun which is already gone.
Now in a short time the moon which we are watching
will be darkened by our earth coming between it
and the sun, and while it is quite dark it will pass
over a little bright star. In fact to us the star will
appear to set behind the dark moon as the sun sets
below the horizon, and if the moon had an atmo-
sphere like ours, the rays from the star would be bent



TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON 23

in it and reach our eyes after the star was gone, so
that it would only disappear gradually. Astronomers
have always observed, however, that the star is lost
to sight quite suddenly, showing that there is no
ocean of air round the moon to bend the light-rays.”

Here the magician paused, for a slight dimness
on the lower right-hand side of the moon warned
him that she was entering into the penumbra or



P

Diagram of total eclipse of the moon.

S, Sun. E, Earth. M, Moon passing into the earth’s shadow
and passing out at M’,

R, R’, Lines meeting at a point U, U’ behind the earth and
enclosing a space within which all the direct rays of the
sun are intercepted by the earth, causing a black darkness
or umobra,

R, Pand R’, P’, Lines marking a space within which, behind
the earth, part of the sun’s rays are cut off, causing a half-
shadow or penumbra, P, P’.

a, a, Points where a few of the sun's rays are bent or refracted
in the earth’s atmosphere, so that they pass along the path
marked by the dotted lines and shed a lurid light on the
sun's face.

half-shadow (see Fig. 9) caused by the earth cutting
off part of the sun’s rays; and soon a deep black
4



24 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

shadow creeping over Aristarchus and Plato showed
that she was passing into that darker space or
umbra where the body of the earth is completely
between her and the sun and cuts off all his rays.
All, did I say? No! not all. For now was seen a
beautiful sight, which would prove to any one who
saw our earth from a great distance that it has a
deep ocean of air round it.

It was a clear night, with a cloudless sky, and
as the deep shadow crept slowly over the moon’s
face, covering the Lunar Apennines and Copernicus,
and stealing gradually across the brilliant streaks of
Tycho till the crater itself was swallowed up in dark-
ness, a strange lurid light began to appear. The
part of the moon which was eclipsed was not wholly
dark, but tinted with a very faint bluish-green light,
which changed almost imperceptibly, as the eclipse
went on, to rose-red, and then to a fiery copper-
coloured glow as the moon crept entirely into the
shadow and became all dark. The lad watching
through his small telescope noted this weird light, and
wondered, as he saw the outlines of the Apennines
and of several craters dimly visible by it, though
the moon was totally eclipsed. He noted, but was
silent. He would not disturb the Principal, for the
important moment was at hand, as this dark copper-
coloured moon, now almost invisible, drew near to
the star over which it was to pass.

This little star, really a glorious sun billions of miles
away behind the moon, was perhaps the centre of
another system of worlds as unknown to us as we to
them, and the fact of our tiny moon crossing between



LURID LIGHT DURING ECLIPSE 25

it and our earth would matter as little as if a grain
of sand was blown across the heavens. Yet to the
watchers it was a great matter—would the star give
any further clue to the question of an atmosphere
round the moon? Would its light linger even for
a moment, like the light of the setting sun? Nearer
and nearer came the dark moon; the star shone
brilliantly against its darkness ; one second and it was
‘gone. The long looked-for moment had passed, and
the magician turned from his instrument with a sigh.
“T have learnt nothing new, Alwyn,” said he, “but at
least it is satisfactory to have seen for ourselves
the proof that there is no perceptible atmosphere
round the moon. We need wait no longer, for
before the star reappears on the other side the
eclipse will be passing away.”

“ But, master,” burst forth the lad, now the silence
was broken, “tell me why did that strange light of
many tints shine upon the dark moon?”

“Did you notice it, Alwyn?” said the Principal,
with a pleased smile. “Then our evening’s work is
not lost, for you have made a real observation for
yourself, That light was caused by the few rays of
the sun which grazed the edge of our earth passing
through the ocean of air round it (see Fig. 9). There
they were refracted or bent, and so were thrown
within the shadow cast by our earth, and fell upon
the moon. If there were such a person as a ‘man
in the moon,’ that lurid light would prove to him
that our earth has an atmosphere. The cause of
the tints is the same which gives us our sunset
colours, because as the different coloured waves which



26 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

make white light are absorbed one by one, passing
through the denser atmosphere, the blue are cut off
first, then the green, then the yellow, till only the
orange and red rays reached the centre of the shadow,
where the moon was darkest. But this is too diffi-
cult a subject to begin at midnight.”

So saying, he lighted his lamp, and covering the
object-glass of his telescope with its pasteboard cap,
detached the instrument from the clockwork, and the
master and his pupil went down the turret stairs and
past through the room below. As they did so they
heard in the distance a scuffling noise like that of rats
in the wall. A smile passed over the face of the
Principal, for he knew that his young pupils, who
had been making their observations in the gallery
above, were hurrying back to their beds.



MAGIC GLASSES, AND HOW TO USE THEM 27

CHAPTER II

MAGIC GLASSES, AND HOW TO USE THEM

HE sun shone brightly in-
to the science class-room
at mid-day. No gaunt
shadows nor ghostly
moonlight now threw a
spell on the magic cham-

ber above. The instruments
looked bright and business-like,
and the Principal, moving
amongst them, heard the sub-
dued hum of fifty or more voices
rising from below. It was the
lecture hour, and the subject for the day was,
“Magic glasses, and how to use them.” As the
large clock in the hall sounded twelve, the Principal
gathered up a few stray lenses and prisms he had
selected, and passed down the turret stair to his
platform. Behind him were arranged his diagrams,
before him on the table stood various instruments,
and the rows of bright faces beyond looked up with
one consent as the hum quieted down and he began
his lecture,






28 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“T have often told you, boys, have I not ? that lam
a Magician. In my chamber near the sky I work
spells as did the magicians of old, and by the help
of my magic glasses I peer into the secrets of nature.
Thus I read the secrets of the distant stars ; I catch
the light of wandering comets, and make it reveal
its origin; I penetrate into the whirlpools of the
sun; I map out the craters of the moon. Nor
can the tiniest being on earth hide itself from me.
Where others see only a drop of muddy water, that
water brought into my magic chamber teems with
thousands of active bodies, darting here and whirling
there amid a meadow of tiny green plants floating
in the water. Nay, my inquisitive glass sees even
farther than this, for with it I can watch the eddies
of water and green atoms going on in cach of these
tiny beings as they feed and grow. Again, if I want
to break into the secrets of the rock at my feet, I
have only to put a thin slice of it under my micro-
scope to trace every crystal and grain; or, if I wish
to learn still more, I subject it to fiery heat, and
through the magic prisms of my spectroscope I read
the history of the very substances of which it is
composed. If I wish to study the treasures of the
wide ocean, the slime from a rock-pool teems with
fairy forms darting about in the live box imprisoned
in a crystal home. If some distant stars are in-
visible even in the giant glasses of my telescope, I
set another power to work, and make them print
their own image on a Blotoeraphie plate and so
reveal their presence.

“ All these things you have seen through my magic



THE HUMAN EVE - 29

glasses, and I promised you that one day I would
explain to you how they work and do my bidding.
But I must warn you that you must give all your
attention ; there is no royal road to my magician’s
power. Every one can attain to it, but only by
taking trouble. You must open your eyes and ears,
and use your intelligence to test carefully what your
senses show you.

“We have only to consider a little to see that we
depend entirely upon our senses for our knowledge
of the outside world. All kinds of things are going
on around us, about which we know nothing, because
our eyes are not keen enough to see, and our ears
not sharp enough to hear them. Most of all we
enjoy and study nature through our eyes, those
windows which let in to us the light of heaven, and
with it the lovely sights and scenes of earth; and
which are no ordinary windows, but most wonderful
structures adapted for conveying images to the brain.
They are of very different power in different people,
so that a long-sighted person sees a lovely land-
scape where a short-sighted one sees only a confused
mist ; while a short-sighted person can see minute
things close to the eye better than a long-sighted
one.

“Let us try to understand this before we go on to
artificial glasses, for it will help us to explain how
these glasses show us many things we could never
see without them. Here are two pictures of the
human eyeball (Figs. 10 and 11), one as it appears
from the front, and the other as we should see the
parts if we cut an eyeball across from the front to



30 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the back. From these drawings we see that the
eyeball is round; it only looks oval, because it is
seen through the oval slit of the eyelids. It is really
Fig. x0. a hard, shining, white

ball with a thick nerve
cord (oz, Fig. 11) pass-
ing out at the back,
and a dark glassy
mound c,cin the centre
of the white in front.
In this mound we
can easily distinguish
two parts—first, the
Bi coloured 77s or elastic
| curtain (2, Fig. 10); and
Eye-ball seen from the front, secondly, the dark spot
(After Le Gros Clark. ) or pupil # in the centre.

w, White of eye. 72, Iris. 4, Pupil. The iris is the part
which gives the eye its colour; it is composed
of a number of fibres, the outer ones radiating to-
wards the centre, the inner ones forming a ring
round the pupil; and behind these fibres is a coat
of dark pigment or colouring matter, blue in some
people, grey, brown, or black in others. When the
light is very strong, and would pain the nerves inside
if too much entered the pupil or window of the eye,
then the ring of the iris contracts so as partly to
close the opening. When there is very little light,
and it is necessary to let in as much as possible, the
ring expands and the pupil grows large. The best
way to observe this is to look at a cat’s eyes in the
dusk, and then bring her near to a bright light; for





HOW WE SEE 31

the iris of a cat’s eye contracts and expands much
more than ours does,

“Now look at the second diagram (Fig. 11)and notice
the chief points necessary in seeing. First you will

Fig. TT;



Section of an eye looking at a pencil. (Adapted from Kirke.)
¢,¢, Cornea, w, White of eye. cm, Ciliary muscle. a,a, Aque-

ous humour. 2,7, Iris. 7,2, Lens. 7,7, Retina, on, Optic nerve.

i, 2, Pencil, 1’, 2’, Image of pencil on the retina,

observe that the pupil is not a mere hole; it is pro-
tected by a curved covering c. This is the cornea, a
hard, perfectly transparent membrane, looking much
like a curved watch-glass. Behind this is a small
chamber filled with a watery fluid a, called the
aqueous humour, and near the back of this chamber
is the dark ring or iris 4, which you saw from the
front through the cornea and fluid. Close behind
the iris again is the natural ‘magic glass’ of our
eye, the crystalline lens 4 which is composed of per-
fectly transparent fibres and has two rounded or



32 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

convex surfaces like an ordinary magnifying glass.
This lens rests on a cushion of a soft jelly-like sub-
stance v, called the vitreous humour, which fills the
dark chamber or cavity of the eyeball and keeps it
in shape, so that the retina 7, which lines the chamber,
is kept at a proper distance from the lens. This
retina is a transparent film of very sensitive nerves ;
it forms a screen at the back of the chamber, and has
a coating of very dark pigment or colouring matter
behind it. Lastly, the nerves of the retina all meet
in a bundle, called the optic nerve, and passing out
of the eyeball at a point on, go to the brain.
These are the chief parts we use in seeing ; now how
do we use them?

“Suppose that a pencil is held in front of the
eye at the distance at which we see small objects
comfortably. Light is reflected from all parts of the
surface of the pencil, and as the rays spread, a certain
number enter the pupil of the eye We will follow
only two cones of light coming from the points 1
and 2 on the diagram Fig. 11. These you see enter
the eye, each widely spread over the cornea c. They
are bent in a little by this curved covering, and by
the liquid behind it, while the iris cuts off the rays
near the edges of the lens, which would be too much
bent to form a clear image. The rest of the rays
fall upon the lens 2 In passing through this lens
they are very much bent (or refracted) towards each
other, so much so that by the time they reach the
end of the dark chamber v, each cone of light has
‘come to a point or focus 1’ 2’, and as rays of this
kind have come from every point all over the pencil,



IMAGE FORMED AT FOCAL DISTANCE — 33

exactly similar points are formed on the retina, and
a real picture of the pencil is formed there between
Iand= 2%

“We will make a very simple and pretty experi-
ment to illustrate this. Darkening the room I light
a candle, take a square of white paper in my hand,
and hold a simple magnifying glass between the two
(see Fig. 12) about three inches away from the candle.
Then I shift the paper nearer and farther behind the

‘lens, till we get a clear image of the candle-flame

Fig. 12.



Image of a candle-flame thrown on paper by a lens.

upon it. This is exactly what happens in our eye.
I have drawn a dotted line ¢ round the lens and the
paper on the diagram to represent the eyeball in
which the image of the candle-flame would be on the
retina instead of on the piece of paper. The first
point you will notice is that the candle-flame is upside
down on the paper, and if you turn back to Fig. 11
you will see why, for it is plain that the cones of
light cross in the lens 4 1 going to 1’ and 2 to 2’.
Every picture made on our retina is upside down.



34 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“ But it is not there that we see it. As soon as the
points of light from the pencil strike upon the retina,
the thrill passes on along the optic nerve on, through
the back of the eye to the brain; and our mind,
following back the rays exactly as they have come
through the lens, sees a pencil, outside the eye, right
way upwards.

“This is how we see with our eyes, which adjust
themselves most beautifully to our needs, For
example, not only is the iris always ready to expand
or contract according as we need more or less light,
but there is a special muscle, called the ciliary muscle
(em, Fig. 11), which alters the lens for us to see things
far or near. In all, or nearly all, perfect eyes the
lens is flatter in front than behind, and this enables
us to see things far off by bringing the rays from them
exactly to a focus on the retina, But when we look
at nearer things the rays require to be more bent or
refracted, so without any conscious effort on our part
this ciliary muscle contracts and allows the lens to
bulge out slightly in front. Instantly we have a
stronger magnifier, and the rays are brought to the
right focus on the retina, so that a clear and full-size
image of the near object is formed. How little we
think, as we turn our eyes from one thing to another,
and observe, now the distant hills, now the sheep
feeding close by; or, as night draws on, gaze into
limitless space and see the stars millions upon
millions of miles away, that at every moment the
focus of our eye is altering, the iris is contracting
or expanding, and myriads of images are being
formed one after the other in that little dark cham-



FAR SIGHT AND NEAR SIGHT 35

ber, through which pass all the scenes of the outer
world |

“Yet even this wonderful eye cannot show us every-
thing. Some see farther than others, some see more
minutely than others, according as the lens of the eye
is flatter in one person and more rounded in another.
But the most long-sighted person could never have
discovered the planet Neptune, more than 2700
millions of miles distant from us, nor could the keenest-
sighted have known of the existence of those minute
and beautiful little plants, called diatoms, which live
around us wherever water is found, and form delicate
flint skeletons so infinitesimally small that thousands
of millions go to form one cubic inch of the stone
called tripoli, found at Bilin in Bohemia.

“Tt is here that our ‘magic glasses’ come to our
assistance, and reveal to us what was before invisible.
Fig. 13.

woh



7
i
BID nnn nnn eee

i)

Arrow magnified by a convex lens,
a, 6, Real arrow, C, D, Magnifying-glass, A, B, Enlarged
z image of the arrow,

We learnt just now that we see near things by the

lens of our eye becoming more rounded in front ; but
5



36 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

there comes a point beyond which the lens cannot
bulge any more, so that when a thing is very tiny,
and would have to be held very close to the eye for
us to see it, the lens can no longer collect the rays
to a focus, so we see nothing but a blur. More than
800 years ago an Arabian, named Alhazen, explained
why rounded or convex glasses make things appear
larger when placed before the eye. This glass which
I hold in my hand is a simple
magnifying-glass, such as we
@ used for focusing the candle-
flame. It bends the rays in-
wards from any small object
(see the arrow a, 4, Fig. 13) so
that the lens of our eye can
use them, and then, as we
follow out the rays in straight
lines to the place where wé
see clearly (at A, B), every
point of the object is magni-
fied, and we not only see it
much larger, but every mark
upon it is much more distinct.
You all know how the little
— shilling magnifying - glasses
Student’s microscope. you carry show the most
ce, Eyepiece. 0, g, Object. lovely and delicate structures
cass in flowers, on the wings of
butterflies, on the head of a bee or fly, and, in fact,
in all minute living things.
“ But this is only our first step. Those diatoms we
spoke of just now will only look like minute specks

Fig. 14.





THE MICROSCOPE

under even the strongest magnifying-glass.

pass on to use two extra
lenses to assist our eyes,
and come to this com-
pound microscope (Fig. 14)
through which I have be-
fore now shown you the
delicate markings on shells
which were themselves so
minute that you could not
see them with the naked
eye. Now we have to dis-
cover how the microscope
performs this feat. Going
back again for a minute
to our candle and magnify-
ing-glass (Fig. 12), you will
find that the nearer you put
the lens to the candle the
farther away you will have
to put the paper to get a

clear image. When in a
microscope we put a
powerful lens 0, Z close

down to a very minute
object, say a spicule of a
flint sponge s, s, quite in-
visible to the unaided eye,
the rays from this spicule
are brought to a focus a
long way behind it at s’, s’,
making an enlarged image

37

So we

Fig. 15.



Skeleton of a microscope, showing
how an object is magnified,

o, Z, Object-lens. e, g, Eye-glass.

Spicule. 5’, s’, Magnified

image of same in the tube.

S, S, Image again enlarged by

the lens of the eye-piece,

J,5,



38 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

because the lines of light have been diverging ever
since they crossed in the lens. If you could put a
piece of paper at s’ 5’, as you did in the candle
experiment, you would see the actual image of the
magnified spicule upon it. But as these points of
light are only in an empty tube, they pass on, spread-
ing out again from the image, as they did before from
the spicule. Then another convex lens or eye-
glass e,g is put at the top of the microscope at
the proper distance to bend these rays so that they
enter our eye. in nearly parallel lines, exactly as we
saw in the ordinary magnifying-glass (Fig. 13), and
our crystalline lens can then bring them to a focus
on our retina.

“ By this time the spicule has been twice magnified ;
or, in other words, the rays of light coming from it
have been twice bent towards each other, so that
when our eye follows them out in straight lines they
are widely spread, and we see every point of light so
clearly that all the spots and markings on this
minute spicule are as clear as if it were really as
large as it looks to us.

“This is simply the principle of the microscope.
When you come to look at your own instruments, -
though they are very ordinary ones, you will find that
the object-glass 0, / is made of three lenses, flat on the
side nearest the tube, and each lens is composed of
two kinds of glass in order to correct the unequal
refraction of the rays, and prevent fringes of colour
appearing at the edge of the lens. Then again the
eye-piece will be a short tube with a lens at each
end, and halfway between them a black ledge will be



WHAT THE MICROSCOPE REVEALS 39

seen inside the tube which acts like the iris of our
eye (¢, Fig. 11) and cuts off the rays passing through
the edges of the lens. All these are devices to cor-
rect faults in the microscope which our eye corrects
for itself, and they have enabled opticians to make
very powerful lenses.

“Look now at the diagram (Fig. 16) showing a
group of diatoms which you can see under the
microscope after the lecture. Notice the lovely
patterns, the delicate tracery, and the fine lines on
the diatoms shown there. Yet each of these minute
flint ‘skeletons, if laid on a piece of glass by itself,
would be quite in- Fig. 16,
visible to the naked
eye, while hundreds
of them together
only look like a
faint mist on the
slide on which they
lie. Nor are they
even here shown as
much magnified as
they might be;
under a stronger
power we should
see those delicate

lines on the diatoms Fossil diatoms seen under the microscope.
broken u p into The largest of these is an almost imperceptible
speck to the naked eye,



minute round cups.

“Is it not wonderful and delightful to think that
we are able to add in this way to the power of our
eyes, till it seems as if there were no limit to the



40 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

hidden beauties of the minute forms of our earth, if
only we can discover them ?

“ But our globe does not stand alone in the universe,
and we want not only to learn all about everything
we find upon it, but also to look out into the vast
space around us and discover as much as we can
about the myriads of suns and planets, comets and
meteorites, star-mists and nebula, which are to be
found there. Even with the naked eye we can admire
the grand planet Saturn, which is more than 800
millions of miles away, and this in itself is very
marvellous. Who would have thought that our tiny
crystalline lens would be able to catch and focus
rays, sent all this enormous distance, so as actually
to make a picture on our retina of a planet, which,
like the moon, is only sending back to us the light
of the sun? For, remember, the rays which come to
us from Saturn must have travelled twice 800 millions
of miles—884 millions from the sun to the planet,
and less or more from the planet back to us, according
to our position at the time. But this is as nothing
when compared to the enormous distances over which
light travels from the stars to us. Even the nearest
star we know of, is at least twenty wzz/lions of millions
of miles away, and the light from it, though travelling
at the rate of 186,300 miles in a second, takes four
years and four months to reach us, while the light from
others, which we can see without a telescope, is be-
tween twenty and thirty years on its road. Does not
the thought fill us with awe, that our little eye should
be able to span such vast distances ?

“But we are not yet nearly at the end of our



THE TELESCOPE 41

wonder, for the same power which devised our eye
gave us also the mind capable of inventing an instru-
ment which increases the strength of that eye till we
can actually see stars so far off that their light takes
two thousand years coming to our globe. If the
microscope delights us in helping us to see things
invisible without it, because they are so small, surely
the telescope is fascinating beyond all other magic
glasses when we think that it brings heavenly bodies,
thousands of billions of miles away, so close to us
that we can examine them.

“A Telescope (Fig. 17) can, like the microscope, be
made of only two glasses: an object-glass to form

an image in the tube and
Peg
Ld

Fig. 17.

a magnifying eye-piece
to enlarge it. But there
is this difference, that the
object lens of a micro-
scope is put close down
to a minute object, so
that the rays fall upon
it at a wide angle, and
the image formed in the .
tube is very much larger
than the object outside.
In the telescope, on the
contrary, the thing we \
look at is far off, so that An astronomical ieeecones
the rays fall on the & Eye-piece. cs Object-glass.
object-glass at such a Jere:

very narrow angle as to be practically parallel, and the
image in the tube is of course very, very much smaller





42 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

than the house, or church, or planet it pictures.
What the object-glass of the telescope does for us, is
to bring a small real cmage of an object very far off
close to us in the tube of the telescope so that we
can examine it.

“Think for a moment what this means. Imagine
that star we spoke of (p. 41), whose light, travelling
186,300 miles in one second, still takes 2000
years to reach us. Picture the tiny waves of light
crossing the countless billions of miles of space
during those two thousand years, and reaching us so
widely spread out that the few faint rays which
strike our eye are quite useless, and for us that star
has no existence ; we cannot see it. Then go and
ask the giant telescope, by turning the object-glass
in the direction where that star lies in infinite space.
The widespread rays are collected and come to a
minute bright image in the dark tube. You put the
eye-piece to this image, and there, under your eye, is
a shining point: this is the image of the star, which
otherwise would be lost to you in the mighty
distance.

“Can any magic tale be more marvellous, or any
thought grander, or more sublime than this? From
my little chamber, by making use of the laws of light,
which are the same wherever we turn, we can pene-
trate into depths so vast that we are not able even
to measure them, and bring back unseen stars to tell
us the secrets of the mighty universe. As far as the
stars are concerned, whether we see them or not
depends entirely upon the number of rays collected
by the object-glass ; for at such enormous distances



HOW THE TELESCOPE MAGNIFIES 43

the rays have no angle that we can measure, and
magnify as you will, the brightest star only remains
a point of light. It is in order to collect enough
rays that astronomers have tried to have larger and
larger object-glasses ; so that while a small good
hand telescope, such as you use, may have an object-
glass measuring only an inch and a quarter across,
some of the giant telescopes have lenses of two anda
half feet, or thirty inches, diameter. These enormous
lenses are very difficult to make and manage, and have
many faults, therefore astronomical telescopes are
often made with curved mirrors to reflect the rays,
and bring them to a focus instead of refracting them
as curved lenses do.

“We see, then, that one very important use of the
telescope is to bring objects into view which otherwise
we would never see; for, as I have already said,
though we bring the stars into sight, we cannot
magnify them. But whenever an object is near
enough for the rays to fall even at a very small
perceptible angle on the object-glass, then we can
magnify them ; and the longer the telescope, and the
stronger the eye-piece, the more the object is magnified.

“T want you to understand the meaning of this, for
it is really very simple, only it requires a little thought.
Here are skeleton drawings of two telescopes (Fig.
18), one double the length of the other. Let us
suppose that two people are using them to look at
an arrow on a weathercock a long distance off. The
rays of light 7, 7 from the two ends of the arrow will
enter both telescopes at the same angle +, x, ~ cross
in the lens, and pass*on at exactly the same angle into



44

Fig. 18.



Skeletons of telescopes.

A, A one-foot telescope with
a three-inch eye-piece. B, A
two-foot telescope with a three-
inch eye-piece. e, 9, Eye-piece.
0, g, Object-glass. 7, 7, Rays
which enter the telescopes and
crossing at x form an image
at z, z, which is magnified by
the lense, #. The angles”, x, r
and z, x,z are the same. In
A the angle z, 0, 7 is four times
greater than that of z, x, z. In
B it is eight times greater.

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the tubes. So far all is alike,
but now comes the difference.
In the short telescope A the
object-glass must be of such a
curve as to bring the cones of
light in each ray to a focus at
a distance of one foot behind
it! and there a small image 2, z
of the arrow is formed. But B
being twice the length, allows
the lens to be less curved, and
the image to be formed ¢zvo feet
behind the object-glass ; and
as the rays 7, 7 have been d-
verging ever since they crossed
at x, the real image of the
arrow formed at 2, zis twice the
size of the same image in A.
Nevertheless, if you could put
a piece of paper at z,zin both
telescopes, and look through
the object-glass (which you
cannot actually do, because
your head would block out the
rays), the arrow would appear
the same size in both tele-
scopes, because one would be
twice as far off from you as
the other, and the angle z, x, 7
is the same in both.

1 In our Fig. 18 the distances are inches.,instead of feet, but the pro-

portions are the same.



WHAT SMALL TELESCOPES .CAN DO 45

“But by going to the proper end of the telescope
you can get quite near the image, and can see and
magnify it, if you put a strong lens to collect the rays
from it toa focus, This is the use of the eye-piece,
which in our diagram is placed at a quarter of a
foot or three inches from the image in both tele-
scopes. Now that we are close to the images, the
divergence of the points ¢, 7 makes a great difference.
In the small telescope, in which the image is only
one foot behind the object-glass, the eye-piece being
a quarter of a foot from it, is four times nearer, so
the angle 2, 0,7 is four times the angle 7, x, z, and the
man looking through it sees the image magnified
four times. But in the longer telescope the-image
is two feet behind the lens, while the eye-piece is,
as before, a quarter of a foot from it. Thus the eye-
piece is now eight times nearer, so the angle 2, a, z is
eight times the angle z, x, 4, and the observer sees the
image magnified eight times.

“In real telescopes, where the difference between
the focal length of the object-glass and that of the
eye-glass can be made enormously greater, the
magnifying power is quite startling, only the object-
glass must be large, so as to collect enough rays to
bear spreading widely. Even in your small tele-
scopes, with a focus of eighteen inches, and an object-
glass measuring one and a quarter inch across, we
can put on a quarter of an inch eye-piece, and so
magnify seventy-two times ; while in my observatory
telescope, eight feet or ninety-six inches long, an
eye-piece of half an inch magnifies 192 times, and I
can put on a 4-inch eye-piece and magnify 768



46 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

times! And so we can go on lengthening the
focus of the object-glass and shortening the focus
of the eye-piece, till in Lord Rosse’s gigantic
fifty-six-foot telescope, in which the image is fifty-
four feet (648 inches) behind the object-glass, an
eye-piece one-eighth of an inch from the image
magnifies 5184 times! These giant telescopes, how-
ever, require an enormous object-glass or mirror, for
the points of light are so spread out in making the
large image that it is very faint unless an enor-
mous number of rays are collected. Lord Rosse’s
telescope has a reflecting mirror measuring six feet
across, and a man can walk upright in the telescope
tube. The most powerful telescope yet made is that
at the Lick Observatory, on Mount Hamilton, in
California. It is fifty-six and a half feet long, the
object-lens measures thirty-six inches across. A
star seen through this telescope appears 2000 times
as bright as when seen with the naked eye.

“You need not, however, wait for an opportunity
to look through giant telescopes, for my small
student’s telescope, only four feet long, which we
carry out on to the lawn, will show you endless
unseen wonders; while your hand telescopes, and
even a common opera-glass, will show many features
on the face of the moon, and enable you to see the
crescent of Venus, Jupiter’s moons, and Saturn’s
rings, besides hundreds of stars unseen by the naked
eye.

“Of course you will understand that Fig. 18 only
shows the principle of the telescope. In all good
instruments the lenses and other parts are more



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA 47

complicated ; and ina terrestrial telescope, for looking
at objects on the earth, another lens has to be put
in to turn them right way up again. In looking at
the sky it does not matter which way up we see a
planet or a star,.so the second glass is not needed,
and we lose light by using it.

“We have now three magic glasses to work for
us—the magnifying-glass, the microscope, and the
telescope. Besides these, however, we have two other
helpers, if possible even more wonderful. These are
the Photographic camera and the Spectroscope.

“Now that we thoroughly understand the use of
lenses, I need — scarcely
explain this photographic
camera (Fig. 19), for it is
clearly an artificial eye.. In
place of the crystalline lens
(compare with Fig. 11) the
photographer uses one, or
generally two lenses Z 2, with
a black ledge or stop s be-
tween them, which acts like
the iris in cutting off the
rays too near the edge of the
lens. The dark camera ¢
" answers to the dark chamber
of the eyeball, and the Z, 2, Lenses, s,s, Screen cut-
plate p, p at the back of ting off diverging rays, cc, Slid-
the chamber, which is made i" >o% #, #, Picture formed.
sensitive by chemicals, answers our vetiva. The box
is formed of two parts, sliding one within the cther
at ¢, so as to place the plate at a proper .distance

6





Photographic camera.



48 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

from the lens, and then a screw adjusts the focus
more exactly by bringing the front lens back or for-
ward, instead of altering the curve as the cary
muscle does in our eye. The difference between the
two instruments is that in our eye the message
goes to the brain, and the image disappears when
we turn our eyes away from the object; but in
the camera the waves of light work upon the
chemicals, and the image can be fixed and remain
for ever.

“ But the camera has at least one weak point. The
screen at the back is not curved like our retina, but
must be flat because of printing off the pictures, and
therefore the parts of the photograph near the edge
are a little out of proportion.

“In many ways, however, this photographic eye is
a more faithful observer than our own, and helps us
to make more accurate pictures. For instance, in-
stantaneous photographs have been taken of a
galloping horse, and we find that the movements are
very different from what we thought we saw with
our eye, because our retina does not throw off one
impression after another quickly enough to be quite
certain we see each curve truly in succession. Again,
the photograph of a face gives minute curves and
lines, lights and shadows, far more perfectly than
even the best artist can see them, and when the
picture is magnified we see more and more details
which escaped us before.

“But it is especially when attached to the micro-
scope or the telescope that the photographic
apparatus tells us such marvellous secrets; giving



WHAT PHOTOGRAPHS CAN SHOW 49

us, for instance, an accurate picture of the most
minute water-animal quite invisible to the naked eye,
so that when we enlarge the photograph any one can
see the beautiful markings, the finest fibre, or the
tiniest granule; or affording us accurate pictures,
such as the one at p. 19 of the face of the moon, and
bringing stars into view which we cannot otherwise
sce even with the strongest telescope.

“Our own eye has many weaknesses. For ex-
ample, when we look through the telescope at the
sky we can only fix our attention on one part at
once, and afterwards on another; and the picture
which we see in this way, bit by bit, we must draw
as best we can. But if we put a sensitive photo-
graphic plate into the telescope just at the point (Z, 7,
Fig. 18), where the zwage of the sky is focused,
this plate gives attention, so to speak, to the whole
picture at once, and registers every point exactly as
it is; and this picture can be kept and enlarged so
that every detail can be seen.

“ Then, again, if we look at faint stars, they do not
grow any brighter as we look. Each ray sends its
message to the brain, and that is all; we cannot
heap them up in our eye, and, indeed, after a time
we see less, because our nerves grow tired. But on
a photographic plate in a telescope, each ray in its
turn does a little work upon the chemicals, and the
longer the plate remains, the stronger the picture
becomes. When wet plates were used they could
not be Icft long, but since dry plates have been
invented, with a film of chemically prepared gelatine,
they can be left for hours in the telescope, which is



50 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

kept by clockwork accurately opposite to the same
objects. In this way thousands of faint stars, which
we cannot see with the strongest telescope, creep
into view as their feeble rays work over and over
again on the same spot; and, as the brighter stars
as well as the faint ones are all the time making
their impression stronger, when the plate comes out
each one appears in its proper strength. On the
other hand, very bright objects often become blurred
by a long exposure, so that we have sometimes to
sacrifice the clearness of a bright object in order to
print faint objects clearly.

“We now come to our last magic glass—the
Spectroscope ; and the hour has slipped by so fast
that I have very little time left to speak of it. But
this matters less as we have studied it before! 1
need now only remind you of some of the facts. You
will remember that when we passed sunlight through
a three-sided piece of glass called a prism, we broke
-up a ray of white light into a line of beautiful
colours gradually passing from red, through orange,
yellow, green, blue, and indigo, to violet, and that
these follow in the same order as we see them in the
rainbow or in the thin film of a soap-bubble. By
various experiments we proved that these colours are
separated from each other because the many waves
which make up white light are of different sizes, so
that because the waves of red light are slow and
heavy, they lag behind when bent in the three-sided
glass, while the rapid violet waves are bent more out

l Fairyland -of Science, Lecture 1I.; and Short History of Natural
Science, chapter xxxiv,



THE SPECTROSCOPE 5l

of their road and run to the farther end of the line,
the other colours ranging themselves between.
“Now when the light falls through the open
window, or through a round hole or J/arge slit, the
images of the hole made by each coloured wave
overlap each other very much, and the colours in
the spectrum or coloured band are crowded together.
But when in the spectroscope we pass the ray of light
through a very narrow slit, each coloured image of the

Fig. 20.





























































Kirchhoff’s spectroscope,
A, The telescope which receives the ray of light
through the slit in O,

upright slit overlaps the next upright image only
very little. By using several prisms one after the
other (see Fig. 21), these upright coloured lines are
separated more and more till we get a very long
band or spectrum. Yet, as you know from our
experiments with the light of a glowing wire or of
molten iron, however much you spread out the light



52 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

given by a solid or liquid, you can never separate
these coloured lines from each other. It is only
‘when you throw the light of a glowing gas or vapour
into the slit that you get a few bright lines standing
out alone. This is because a@// the rays of white light
are present in glowing solids and liquids, and they
follow each other too closely to be separated. But
a gas, such as glowing hydrogen for example, gives
out only a few separate rays, which, pouring through
the slit, throw red, grcenish-blue, and dark blue lines
on the screen. Thus
you have seen the
double, orange-yellow
sodium line (3, Plate I.)
which starts out at
once when salt is held
in a flame and _ its
light thrown into the
spectroscope, and the
red line of potassium
vapour under the same
ee a treatment; and we
Passage of rays through the spectroscope. shall observe these

S, S’, Slit through which the light falls again when we study
on the prisms. 1, 2, 3, 4, Prisms in
which the rays are dispersed more and
more. a, 4, Screen receiving the spectrum, the sun and stars.
of which the seven principal colours are “We See,. then, that

marked. the work of our magic
glass, the spectroscope, is simply to sift the waves
of light, and that these waves, from their colour
and their position in the long spectrum, actually tell
us what glowing gases have started them on their





the coloured lights of



WHAT THE SPECTROSCOFPE CAN SHOW 353

road. Is not this like magic? I take a substance
made of I know not what ; I break it up, and, melting
it in the intense heat of an electric spark, throw its
light into the spectroscope. Then, as I examine this
light after it has been spread out by the prisms, I
can actually read by unmistakable lines what metals
or non-metals it contains. Nay, more; when I catch
the light of a star, or even of a faint nebula, in my
telescope, and pass it through these prisms, there,
written up on the magic-coloured band, I read off
the gases which are glowing in that star-sun or
star-dust billions of miles away.

“ Now, boys, I have let you into the secrets of my
five magic glasses—the magnifying-glass, the micro-
scope, the telescope, the photographic camera, and
the spectroscope. With these and the help. of
chemistry you can learn to work all my spells. You
can peep into the mysteries of the life of the tiniest
: being which moves unseen under your feet; you
can peer into that vast universe, which we can never
visit so long as our bodies hold us down to our
little earth; you can make the unseen stars print
their spots of light on the paper you hold in your
hand, by means of light-waves, which left them
hundreds of years ago; or you can sift this light in
your spectroscope, and make it tell yow what sub-
stances were glowing in that star when they were
started on their road. All this you can do on one
condition, namely, that you seek patiently to know
the truth.

“Stories of days long gone by tell us of true magi-
cians and false magicians, and the good or evil they



54 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wrought. Of these I know nothing, but I do know
this, that the value of the spells you can work with
my magic glasses depends entirely upon whether you
work patiently, accurately, and honestly. If you
make careless, inaccurate experiments, and draw
hasty conclusions, you will only do bad work, which
it may take others years to undo; but if you
question your instruments honestly and carefully,
they will answer truly and faithfully. You may
make many mistakes, but one experiment will correct
the other; and while you are storing up in your
own mind knowledge which lifts you far above this

little world, or enables you to look deep below the
‘ outward surface of life, you may add your little
group of facts to the general store, and help to pave
the way to such grand discoveries as those of Newton
in astronomy, Bunsen and Kirchhoff in spectrum
analysis, and Darwin in the world of life.”



FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE 355

CHAPTER III

FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

fi) was a lovely warm day in
September, the golden corn
had been cut and carted,
and the waggons of the
farmers around were frce
for the use of the college
lads in their yearly autumn
holiday. There they stood
in a long row, one behind
the other in the drive round the
grounds, each with a pair of
sleek, powerful farm-horses, and
: the waggoners beside them with
their long whips ornamented with coloured ribbons ;
and as each waggon drew up before the door, it
filled rapidly with its merry load and went on its
way.

They had a long drive of seven miles before them,
for they were going to cross the wild moor, and then
descend gradually along a fairly good road to the
more wooded and fertile country. Their object that





56 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

day was to reach a certain fairy dell known to a few
only among the party as one of the loveliest spots in
Devon. It was a perfect day for a picnic. As
they drove over the wide stretches of moorland, with
tors to right and tors to the left, the stunted furze
bushes growing here and there glistened with spiders’
webs from which the dew had not yet disappeared,
and mosses in great variety carpeted the ground,
from the lovely thread-mosses, with their scarlet
caps, to the pale sphagnum of the bogs, where a halt
was made for some of the botanists of the party to
search for the little Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia).
Though this little plant had now almost ceased to
flower, it was not difficult to recognise by its rosette
of leaves glistening with sticky glands which it
spreads out in many of the Dartmoor bogs to catch
the tiny flies and suck out their life’s blood, and
several specimens were uprooted and carefully packed
away to plant in moist moss at home.

From this bog onwards the road ran near by one
of the lovely streams which feed the rivers below, and,
passing across a bridge covered with ivy, led through
a small forest of stunted trees round which the wood-
bine clung, hanging down its crimson berries, and the
bracken fern, already putting on its brown and yellow
tints, grew tall and thick on either side. Then, as
they passed out of the wood, they came upon the
dell, a piece of wild moorland lying in a hollow
between two granite ridges, with large blocks of
granite strewn over it here and there, and furze bushes
growing under their shelter, still covered with yellow
blossoms together with countless seed-bearing pods,



FAIRY RINGS IN A DELL 57

which the youngsters soon gathered for the shiny
black seeds within them.

Here the waggons were unspanned, the horses
tethered out, the food unpacked, and preparations for
the picnic soon in full swing. Just at this moment,
however, a loud shout from one part of the dell called
every one’s attention. “The fairy rings! the fairy
rings! we have found the fairy rings!” and there
truly on the brown sward might be seen three deli-
cate green rings, the fresh sprouting grass growing
young and tender in perfect circles measuring from
six feet to nearly three yards across.

“What are they?” The question came from many
voices at once, but it was the Principal who answered.

“ Why, do you not know that they are pixie circles,
where the ‘elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and
groves’ hold their revels, whirling in giddy round,
and making the rings, ‘whereof the ewe not bites’?
Have you forgotten how Mrs. Quickly, in the AZerry
Wives of Windsor, tells us that

“nightly, meadow-fairies, look you sing,
Like to the Garter’s compass, in a ring:
The expressure that it bears, green let it be,
More fertile-fresh than all the field to see’?

“If we are magicians and work spells under magic
glasses, why should not the pixies work spells on the
grass? I brought you here to-day on purpose to
see them. Which of you now can name the pixie
who makes them ?”

A. deep silence followed. If any knew or guessed
the truth of the matter, they were too shy to risk
making a mistake,



58 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“Be off with you then,” said the Principal, “and
keep well away from these rings all day, that you
may not disturb the spell. But come back to me
before we return at night, and perhaps I may show
you the wonder-working pixie, and we may take him
home to examine under the microscope.”

The day passed as such happy days do, and the
glorious harvest moon had risen over the distant
tors before the horses were spanned and the waggons
ready. But the Principal was not at the starting
place, and looking round they saw him at the farther
end of the dell.

“Gently, gently,” he cried, as there was one general
rush towards him ; “look where you tread, for I stand
within a ring of fairies!”

And then they saw that just outside the green
circle in which he stood, forming here and there a
broken ring, were patches of a beautiful tiny mush-
room, each of which raised its pale brown umbrella
in the bright moonlight.

“Here are our fairies, boys. I am going to take
a few home where they can be spared from the ring,
and to-morrow we will learn their history.”

The following day saw the class-room full, and
from the benches eager eyes were turned to the
eight windows, in each of which stood one of the
elder boys at his microscope ready for work. For
under those microscopes the Principal always arranged
some object referred to in his lecture and figured in
diagrams on the walls, and it was the duty of each
boy, after the lecture was over, to show and explain



IMPS AND PIXIES OF PLANI-LIFE 59

to the class all the points of the specimen under
his care. These boys were always specially envied,
for though the others could, it is true, follow all the
descriptions from the diagrams, yet these had the
plant or animal always under their eye. Discussion
was at this moment running high, for there was a
great uncertainty of opinion as to whether a mush-
room could be really called a plant when it had no
leaves or flowers. All at once the hush came, as the
Principal stepped into his desk and began :—

“Life is hard work, boys, and there is no being
in this world which has not to work for its living.
You all know that a plant grows by taking in gases
and water, and working them up into sap and living
tissue by the help of the sunshine and the green
matter in their leaves; and you know, too, that
the world is so full of green plants that hundreds
and thousands of young seedlings can never get a
living, but are stifled in their babyhood or destroyed
before they can grow up.

“Now there are many dark, dank places in the
world where plants cannot get enough sunlight
and air to make green colouring matter and manu-
facture their own food. And so it comes to pass
that a certain class of plants have found another
way of living, by taking their food ready made
from other decaying plants and animals, and so
avoiding the necessity of manufacturing it for them-
selves. These plants can live hidden away in dark
cellars and damp cupboards, in drains and pipes
where no light ever enters, under a thick covering of
dead leaves in the forest, under fallen trunks and

7



60 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

mossy stones; in fact, wherever decaying matter,
whether of plant or animal, can be found for them
to feed upon.

“It is to this class, called fwagz, which includes
all mushrooms and moulds, mildews, smuts, and
ferments, that the mushroom belongs which we
found yesterday making the fairy rings. And, in
truth, we were not so far wrong when we called
them pixies or imps, for many of them are indeed
imps of mischief, which play sorry pranks in our
stores at home and in the fields and forest abroad.
They grow on our damp bread, or cheese, or pickles ;
they destroy fruit and corn, hop and vine, and even
take the life of insects and other animals. Yet, on
the other hand, they are useful in clearing out un-
healthy nooks and corners, and purifying the air;
and they can be made to do good work by those
who know how to use them; for without ferments
we could have neither wine, beer, nor vinegar, nor
even the yeast which lightens our bread.

“Tam going to-day to introduce you to this large
vagabond class of plants, that we may see how they
live, grow, and spread, what good and bad work
they do, and how they do it. And before we come
to the mushrooms, which you know so well, we must
look at the smaller forms, which do all their work
above ground, so that we can observe them. For the
fungi are to be found almost everywhere. The film
growing over manure-heaps, the yeast plant, the wine
fungus, and the vinegar plant; the moulds and mil-
dews covering our cellar-walls and cupboards, or
growing on decayed leaves and wood, on stale fruit,



MOULDS AND MILDEWS 61

bread, or jam, or making black spots on the leaves
of the rose, the hop, or the vine; the potato fungus,
eating into the potato in the dark ground and pro-
ducing disease ; the smut filling the grains of wheat
and oats with disease, the ergot feeding on the rye,
the rust which destroys beetroot, the rank toadstools
and puff-balls, the mushroom we eat, and the truffles
which form even their fruit underground,—all these
are fungt, or lowly plants which have given up mak-
ing their own food in the sunlight, and take it ready
made from the dung, the decaying mould, the root,
the leaf, the fruit, or the germ on which they grow.
Lastly, the diseases which kill the silkworm and the
common house-fly, and even some of the worst skin
diseases in man, are caused by minute plants of this
class feeding upon their hosts.

“In fact, the fungi are so widely spread over all
things living and dead, that there is scarcely any-
thing free from them in one shape or another. The

Fig. 22.



Three forms of vegetable mould magnified.
1, Mucor Mucedo. 2, Aspergillus glaucus. 3, Penicillium glaucum,

minute spores, now of one kind, now of another,
float in the air, and settling down wherever they
find suitable food, have nothing more to do than



62 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to feed, fatten, and increase, which they do with
wonderful rapidity. Let us take as an example
one of the moulds which covers damp leaves, and
even the paste and jam in our cupboard. I have
some here growing upon a basin of paste, and you
see it forms a kind of dense white fur all over the
surface, with here and there a bluish-green tinge
upon it. This white fur is the common mould, Mucor
Mucedo (1, Fig. 22), and the green mould happens in
this case to be another mould, Penicillium glaucum
(3, Fig. 22); but I must warn you that these minute
moulds look very much. alike until you examine
them under the microscope, and though they are
called white, blue, or green moulds, yet any one of
them may be coloured at different times of its
growth. Another very common and beautiful mould,
Aspergillus glaucus (2, Fig. 22), often grows with
Mucor on the top of jam.

“All these plants begin with a spore or minute
colourless cell of living matter (s, Fig. 23), which
spends its energy in sending out tubes in all direc-
tions into the leaves, fruit, or paste on which it feeds,
The living matter, flowing now this way now that,
lays down the walls of its tubes as it flows, and by
and by, here and there, a tube, instead of working
into the paste, grows upwards into the air and
swells at the tip into a colourless ball in which
a number of minute seed-like bodies called spores are
formed. The ball bursts, the spores fall out, and each
one begins to form fresh tubes, and so little by little
the mould grows denser and thicker by new plants
starting in all directions.



HOW MOULDS GROW 63

“Under the first microscope you will see a slide
showing the tubes which spread through the paste,
and which are called the mycelium (m, Fig. 23), and

amongst it are three upright
tubes, one just starting a,
another with the fruit ball
forming 6, and a third «,
which is bursting and throw-
ing out the spores. The
Aspergillus and the Peuicil-
lium differ from the Mucor in
having their spores naked
and not enclosed in a spore-
case. In Penzcillium they
grow like the beads of a
necklace one above the other
on the top of the upright
tube, and can very easily be
separated (see Fig. 22); while
Aspergillus, a most lovely
silvery mould, is more com-
plicated in the growth of its
spores, for it bears them on
many rows branching out
from the top of the tube like
the rays of a star.

“T want you to look at
each of these moulds care-
fully under the microscope,
for few people who hastily
scrape a mould away, vexed

Fig. 23.



Afucor Mucedo, greatly magni-
nified. (After Sachs and
Brefeld. )

m, Mycelium, or tangle of
threads. a, 4, c, Upright tubes
in different stages. c, Spore-
case bursting and sending out
spores. 5,1, 2, 3, A growing
spore, in different stages, start-
ing a new mycelium,

to find it on food or

damp clothing, have any idea what a delicate and



64 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

beautiful structure lies under their hand. These
moulds live on decaying matter, but many of the
mildews, rusts, and other kinds of fungus, prey upon
living plants such as the suz of oats (Ustilago carbo),
and the dunt (Lilletia caria) which eats away the
inside of the grains of wheat, while another fungus
attacks its leaves. There is scarcely a tree or herb
which has not one fungus to prey upon it, and many
have several, as, for example, the common lime-tree,
which is infested by seventy-four different fungi, and
the oak by no less than 200.

“So these colourless food-taking plants prey upon
their neighbours, while they take their oxygen for
breathing from air. The ‘ferments, however, which
live zusede plants or fluids, take even their oxygen
for breathing from their hosts.

“If you go into the garden in summer and. pluck
an overripe gooseberry, which is bursting like this
one I have here, you will probably find that the pulp
looks unhealthy and rotten near the split, and the
gooseberry will taste tart and disagreeable. This is
because a small fungus has grown inside, and worked
a change in the juice of the fruit. At first this
fungus spread its tubes outside and merely fed upon
the fruit, using oxygen from the air in breathing;
but by and by the skin gave way, and the fungus
crept inside the gooseberry where it could no longer
get any fresh air. In this dilemma it was forced to
break up the sugar in the fruit and take the oxygen
out of it, leaving behind only alcohol and carbonic
acid which give the fermented taste to the fruit.

“So the fungus-imp feeds and grows in nature,



THE GROWTH OF YEAST 65

and when man gets hold of it he forces it to do
the same work for a useful purpose, for the grape-
fungus grows in the vats in which grapes are crushed
and kept away from air, and tearing up the sugar,
leaves alcohol behind in the grape-juice, which in
this way becomes wine. So, too, the yeast-fungus
grows in the malt and hop liquor, turning it into
beer; its spores floating in the fluid and increasing
at a marvellous rate, as any housewife knows who,
getting yeast for her bread, tries to keep it in a
corked bottle.

“The yeast plant has never been found wild. It
is only known as a cultivated plant, growing on
prepared liquor. The brewer has to sow it by taking
some yeast from other beer, or by leaving the liquor
exposed to air in which yeast spores are floating ;
or it will sow itself in the same Fig. 24.
way in a mixture of water, hops,
sugar, and salt, to which a handful
of flour is added. It increases at
a marvellous rate, one cell budding
out of another, while from time to
time the living matter in a cell will
break up into four parts instead of
_ two, and so four new cells will start — Veast cells growing
and bud. A drop of yeast will very under the microscope.
soon cover a glass slide with this %Sisle cells. 4, Two
4 : cells forming by division,
tiny plant, as you will see under ¢, A group of cells where
the second microscope, where they division is going on in
are now at work (Fig. 24). enc reihons:

“But perhaps the most curious of all the minute
fungi are those which grow inside insects and destroy





66 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

them. At this time of year you may often see a
dead fly sticking to the window-pane with a cloudy
white ring round it; this poor fly has been killed by
a little fungus called Empusa musce. A spore from
a former plant has fallen perhaps on the window-
pane, or some other spot over which the fly has
crawled, and being sticky has fixed itself under the
fly’s body. Once settled on a favourable spot it
sends out a tube, and piercing the skin of the fly,
begins to grow rapidly inside. There it forms little
round cells one after the other, something like the
yeast-cells, till it fills the whole body, feeding on its
juices ; then each cell sends a tube, like the upright
tubes of the Mucor (Fig. 23) out again through the
fly’s skin, and this tube bursts at the end, and so
new spores are set free. It is these tubes, and the
spores thrown from them, which you see forming a
kind of halo round the dead fly as it clings to the
pane. Other fungi in the same way kill the silk-
worm and the caterpillars of the cabbage butterfly.
Nor is it only the lower animals which suffer. When
we once realise that fungus spores are floating every-
where in the air, we can understand how the terrible
microscopic fungi called dacterta will settle on an
open wound and cause it to fester if it is not properly
dressed.

“Thus we see that these minute fungi are almost
everywhere. The larger ones, on the contrary, are
confined to the fields and forests, damp walls and
hollow trees; or wherever rotting wood, leaves, or
manure provide them with sufficient nourishment.
Few people have any clear ideas about the growth



HOW MUSHROOMS GROW. 67

of a mushroom, except that the part we pick springs
up in a single night. The real fact is, that a whole
mushroom plant is nothing more than a gigantic
mould or mildew, only that it is formed of many
different shaped
cells, and spreads
its tubes wnzder-
ground or through
the trunks of trees
instead of in paste
or jam, as in the
case of the mould.
“The part which
we gather and calla
mushroom, a_ toad-
stool, or a puffball is
only the fruit, answer-



Early stages of the mushroom.
(After Sachs. )
ing to the round balls x, Mycelium. 41-3, Mushroom buds of

of the mould. The different ages. 74, Button mushroom. &

Gills forming inside before lower attach.
ment of the cap gives way at v.

rest of the plant is
a thick network of
tubes, which you will see under the third micro-
scope. These tubes spread’ underground and suck
in decayed matter from the earth; they form the
mycelium (ut, Fig. 25) such as we found in the
mould, The mushroom-growers call it ‘mushroom
spawn’ because they use it to spread over the
ground for new crops. Out of these underground
tubes there springs up from time to time a
swollen round body no bigger at first than a mustard
seed (61, Fig. 25). As it increases in size it comes
above ground and grows into the mushroom or



68 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

spore-case, answering to the round balls which
contain the spores of the mould. At first this
swollen body is egg-shaped, the top half being
largest and broadest, and the fruit is then called
a ‘button-mushroom’ 64. Inside this ball are
now formed a series of folds made of long cells,
some of which are soon to bear spores just as the

id



Later stages of the mushroom. (After Gautier.)
rt, Button mushroom stage. c, Cap. v, Veil. & Gills.
2, Full-grown mushroom, showing veil v after the cap is quite
free, and the gills or lamella g, of which the structure is shown in
Fig. 27.

tubes in the mould did, and while these are forming
and ripening, a way out is preparing for them. For
as the mushroom grows, the skin of the lower part
of the ball (w, 64) is stretched more and more, till it
can bear the strain no longer and breaks away from
the stalk ; then the ball expands into an umbrella,
leaving a piece of torn skin, called the veil (v, Fig. 26),
clinging to the stalk.

“ All this happens in a single night, and the mush-
room is complete, with a stem up the centre and a



THE GROWTH OF MUSHROOM GILLS -69

broad cap, under which are the folds which bear the
spores. Thus much you can see for yourselves at any
time by finding a place where mushrooms grow and
‘looking for them late at night and early in the
morning so as to get the different stages. But now



1, One of the gills or lamellze of the mushroom slightly magnified,
showing the cells round the edge. c, Cells which do not bear
spores. fc, Fertile cells. 2, A piece of the edge of the same
powerfully magnified, showing how the spores s grow out of the
tip of the fertile cells 7. ,

we must turn to the microscope, and cutting off one
of the folds, which branch out under the cap like the
spokes of a wheel, take a slice across it (1, Fig. 27)
and examine.

“ First, under a moderate power, you will see the
cells forming the centre of the fold and the layer of
long cells (¢and fc) which are closely packed all round
the edge. Some of these cells project beyond the
others, and it is they which bear the spores. We
see this plainly under a very strong power when you
can distinguish the sterile cells c and the fertile cells



70 - THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

fe projecting beyond them, and each bearing four
spore-cells s on four little horns at its tip.

“These spores fall off very easily, and you can
make a pretty experiment by cutting off a large
mushroom head in the early morning and putting it
flat upon a piece of paper. In a few hours, if you
lift it very carefully, you will find a number of dark
lines on the paper, radiating from a centre like the
spokes of a wheel, each line being composed of the
spores which have fallen from a fold as it grew ripe.
They are so minute that many thousands would be
required to make up the size of the head of an ordin-
ary pin, yet if you gather the spores of the several
kinds of mushroom, and examine them under a strong
microscope, you will find that even these specks of
matter assume different shapes in the various species.

“You will be astonished too at the immense
number of spores contained in a single mushroom
head, for they are reckoned by millions; and when

-we remember that each one of these is the starting
point of a new plant, it reminds us forcibly of the
wholesale destruction of spores and seeds which must
go on in nature, otherwise the mushrooms and their
companions would soon cover every inch of the
whole world.

“ As it is, they are spread abroad by the wind, and
wherever they escape destruction they lie waiting in
every nook and corner till, after the hot summer,
showers of rain hasten the decay of plants and leaves,
and then the mushrooms, toadstools, and puffballs,
grow at an astounding pace. If you go into the woods
at this season you may see the enormous deep-red liver



THE FAIRY-RING MUSHROOM 71

fungus (/%stulina hepatica) growing on the oak-trees,
in patches which weigh from twenty to thirty pounds ;
or the glorious orange-coloured fungus (Tvemella
mesenterica) growing on bare sticks or stumps of
furze ; or among dead leaves you may easily chance
on the little caps of the crimson, scarlet, snowy white,
or orange-coloured fungi which grow in almost every
wood. From white to yellow, yellow to red, red to
crimson and purple black, there is hardly any colour
you may not find among this gaily-decked tribe ; and
who can wonder that the small bright-coloured caps
have been supposed to cover tiny imps or elves, who
used the large mushrooms to serve for their stools
and tables?

“There they work, thrusting their tubes into twigs
and dead branches, rotting trunks and decaying
leaves, breaking up the hard wood and_ tough
fibres, and building them up into delicate cells,
which by and by die and leave their remains as food
for the early growing plants in the spring. So we
see that in their way the mushrooms and toadstools
are good imps after all, for the tender shoot of a
young seedling plant could take no food out of a
hard tree-trunk, but it finds the work done for it by
the fungus, the rich nourishment being spread around
its young roots ready to be imbibed.

“To find our fairy-ring mushrooms, however, we
must leave the wood and go out into the open
country, especially on the downs and moors and
rough meadows, where the land is poor and the grass
coarse and spare. There grow the nourishing kinds,
most of which we can eat, and among these is the

8



72 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

delicate little champignon or ‘Scotch-bonnet’ mush-
room, Marasmzius Oreades,: which makes the fairy-
rings. When a spore of this mushroom begins to
grow, it sucks up vegetable food out of the earth and
spreads its tubes underground, in all directions from
the centre, so that the mycelium forms a round patch
like a thick underground circular cobweb. In the
summer and autumn, when the weather is suitable, it
sends up its delicate pale-brown caps, which we may
gather and eat without stopping the growth of the
plant.

“This goes on year after year underground, new
tubes always travelling outwards till the circle widens
and widens like the rings of water on a pond, only
that it spreads very slowly, making a new ring each
year, which is often composed of a mass of tubes as
much asa foot thick in the ground, and the tender
tubes in the centre die away as the new ones form a
larger hoop outside.

“But all this is below ground; where then are
our fairy rings? Here is the secret. The tubes, as
we have seen, take up food from the earth and
build it up into delicate cells, which decay very soon,
and as they die make a rich manure at the roots of
the grass. So each season the cells of last year’s ring
make a rich feeding-ground for the young grass,
which springs up fresh and green in a fairy ring,
while ouéside this emerald circle the mushroom tubes
are still growing and increasing underneath the grass,
so that next year, when the present ring is no longer
richly fed, and has become faded’ and brown like the

1 Shown in initial letter of this chapter.



HOW FAIRY RINGS ARE FORMED 73

rest of the moor, another ring will spring up outside
it, feeding on the prepared food below.

“In bad seasons, though the tubes go on spreading
and growing below, the mushroom fruit does not
always appear above ground. The plant will only
fruit freely when the ground has been well warmed
by the summer sun, followed by damp weather to
moisten it- This gives us a rich crop of mushrooms
all over the country, and it is then you can best
see the ring of fairy mushrooms circling outside the
green hoop of fresh grass. In any case the early
morning is the time to find them ; it is only in very
sheltered spots that they sometimes last through the
day, or come up towards evening, as I found them
last night on the warm damp side of the dell.

“This is the true history of fairy rings, and now go
and look for yourselves under ‘the microscopes.
Under the first three you will find the three different
kinds of mould of our diagram (Fig. 22). Under the
fourth the spores of the mould are shown in their
first growth putting out the tubes to form the
mycelium. The fifth shows the mould itself with its
fruit-bearing tubes, one of which is bursting. Under
the sixth the yeast plant is growing; the seventh
shows a slice of one of the folds of the common
mushroom with its spore-bearing horns; and under
the eighth I have put some spores from different
mushrooms, that you may see what curious shapes
they assume.

“Lastly, let me remind you, now that the autumn
and winter are coming, that you will find mush-
rooms, toadstools, puffballs, and moulds in plenty



74 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wherever you go. Learn to know them, their differ-
ent shapes and colours, and above all the special
nooks each one chooses for its home. Look around
in the fields and woods and take note of the decay-
ing plants and trees, leaves and bark, insects and
dead remains of all kinds. Upon each of these you
will find some fungus growing, breaking up their
. tissues and devouring the nourishing food they pro-
vide. Watch these spots, and note the soft spongy
soil which will collect there, and then when the
spring comes, notice what tender plants flourish upon
these rich feeding grounds. You will thus see for
yourselves that the fungi, though they feed upon
others, are not entirely mischief-workers, but also
perform their part in the general work of life.”



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES 75

CHAPTER IV

THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES

* HE autumn has passed away
and we are in the midst
of winter. In the long
winter evenings the stars
shine bright and clear, and
tempt us to work with the telescope
and its helpmates the spectroscope
and photographic plates. But at
first sight it would seem as though
our microscopes would have to stand
idle so far at least as plants are
concerned, or be used only to ex-
amine dried specimens and mounted
sections. Yet this is not the fact, as I remembered
Jast week when walking through the bare and leafless
wood. the sound of my footsteps among the dead leaves
roused me from my thoughts, and as a young rabbit
scudded across the ._path and I watched it disappear
among the bushes, I. was suddenly struck with the






76 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

great mass of plant life flourishing underfoot and
overhead.

Can you guess what plants these were? I do
not mean the evergreen pines and firs, nor the few
hardy ferns, nor the lovely ivy clothing the trunks
of the trees. Such plants as these live and remain
green in the winter, but they do not grow. If you
wish to find plant life revelling in the cold damp
days of winter, fearing neither frost nor snow and
welcoming mist and rain, you must go to the mosses,
which as autumn passes away begin to cover the
wood-paths, to creep over the roots of the trees, to
suck up the water in the bogs, and even to clothe
dead walls and stones with a soft green carpet.
And with the mosses come the lichens, those curious
grey and greenish oddities which no one but a
botanist would think of classing among plants.

The wood is full of them now: the hairy lichens
hang from the branches of many of the trees, making
them look like old greybearded men; the leafy
lichens encircle the branches, their pale gray, green,
and yellow patches looking as if they were made of
crumpled paper cut into wavy plates ; and the crusty
lichens, scarcely distinguishable from the bark of the
trees, cover every. available space which the mosses
have left free.

As I looked at these lichens and thought of their
curious history I determined that we would study
them to-day, and gathered a basketful of specimens
(see Fig. 28). But when I had collected these I found
I had not the heart to leave the mosses behind. I
could not even break off a piece of bark with lichen



A GROUP OF LICHENS 77

upon it without some little moss coming too, especi-
ally the small thread-mosses (Bryuiz) which make a



Examples of Lichens. (From life.)
1, Ahairy lichen. 2, A leafy lichen. 3, A crustaceous lichen.
S/S, the fruit.

home for themselves in every nook and corner of the
branches ; while the feather-mosses, hair-mosses,
cord-mosses, and many others made such a lovely
carpet under my fect that each seemed too beautiful
to pass by, and they found their way into my basket,
crowned at the top with a large mass of the pale-
green Sphagnum, or bog-moss, into which I sank
more than ankle-deep as I crossed the bog in the
centre of the wood on my way home.

_ So here they all are, and I hope by the help of
our magic glass to let you into some of the secrets
of their lives. It is true we must study the structure
of lichens chiefly by diagrams, for it is too minute
for beginners to follow under the microscope, so we
must trust to drawings made by men more skilful in
microscopic botany, at any rate for the present. But
the mosses we can examine for ourselves and admire
their delicate leaves and wonderful tiny spore-cases.



78 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Now the first question which I hope you want to
ask is, how it is that these lowly plants flourish so
well in the depth of winter when their larger and
stronger companions die down to the ground. We
will answer this first as to the lichens, which are such
strange uncanny-looking plants that it is almost
difficult to imagine they are alive at all; and indeed
they have been a great puzzle to botanists.

Before we examine them, however, look for a
minute at a small drop of this greenish film which I
have taken from the rain-water taken outside. I
have put some under each microscope, and those
who can look into them will
see the slide almost covered
with small round green cells
very much like the yeast
cells we saw when studying
the Fungi, only that instead
of being colourless they are
a bright green. Some of
these cells will I suspect be
longer than others, and these
Single-celled green plants grow- long cells will be moving.

ing and dividing (Pleurococeus). Over the slide very rapidly,

Ceara swimming hither and thither,
and you will see, perhaps for the first time, that very
low plants can swim about in water. These green
cells are, indeed, the simplest of all plants, and
are merely bags of living matter which, by the help
of the green granules in them, are able to work up
water and gases into nourishing food, and so to live,
grow, and multiply.

Fig. 29.





WHERE SINGLE-CELLED PLANTS GROW 79

There are many kinds of these single-celled plants
in the world. You may find them on damp paths,
in almost any rain-water butt, in ponds and ditches,
in sparkling’ waterfalls, along the banks of flowing
rivers, and in the cold clear springs on the bleak
mountains. Some of them take the form of tangled
threads + composed of long strings of cells, and these
sometimes form long streamers in flowing water, and
at other times are gathered together in a shapeless
film only to be disentangled under a microscope.
Other kinds * wave to and fro on the water, forming
dense patches of violet, orange-brown, or glossy green
scum shining in the bright sunlight, and these flourish
equally in the ponds of our gardens and in pools in
the Himalaya mountains, 18,000 feet above the sea.
Others again® seize on every damp patch on tree
trunks, rocks, or moist walls, covering them with a
green powder formed of single plant cells. Other
species of this family turn a bright red colour when
the cells are still; and one, under the name of Gory
Dew,* has often frightened the peasants of Italy, by
growing very rapidly over damp walls and then
turning the colour of blood. Another*® forms the
“red snow” of the Arctic regions, where it covers
wide surfaces of snow with a deep red colour. Others ®
. form a shiny jelly over rocks and stones, and these
may be found almost everywhere, from the garden
path to the warm springs of India, from the marshes
of New Zealand up to the shores of the Arctic ocean,
and even on the surface of floating icebergs.

1 Conferva. 2 Oscillarve. 8 Protococcus.
+ Palmella cruenta. * Protococeus nivalis, 8 Nostoc.



Sone THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The reason why these plants can live in such very
different regions is that they do not take their food
through roots out of the ground, but suck in water
and gases through the thin membrane which covers
their cell, and each cell does its own work. So it
matters very little to them where they lie, so long as
they have moisture and sunlight to help them in
their work. Wherever they are, if they have these,
they can take in carbonic acid from the air and
work up the carbon with other gases which they
imbibe with the water, and so make living material.
In this way they grow, and as a cell grows larger
the covering is stretched and part of the digested
food goes to build up more covering membrane, and
by and by the cell divides into two and each mem-
brane closes up, so that there are two single-celled
plants where there was only one before. This will
sometimes go on so fast that a small pond may be
covered in a few hours with a green film formed of
new cells.

Now we have seen, when studying mushrooms, that
the one difference between these green plants and the
single-celled Fungi is that while the green cells make
their own food, colourless cells can only take it in
ready-made, and therefore prey upon all kinds of
living matter. This is just what happens in the
lichens; and botanists have discovered that these
curious growths are really the result of a partnership
between single-celled green plants and single-celled

‘fungi. The grey part is a fungus; but when it is
examined under the microscope we find it is not a
fungus only; a number of green cells can be seen



HOW LICHENS SUCCEED 81

scattered through it, which, when carefully studied,
prove to be some species of the green single-celled
plants.

Here are two drawings of sections cut through
two different lichens, and
enormously magnified so
that the cells are clearly
seen. 1, Fig. 30 is part of
a hairy lichen (1, Fig. 28),
and 2 is part of a leafy
lichen (2, Fig. 28). The
hairy lichen as you see has
a row of green cells all round
the tiny branch, with fungus
cells on all sides of them.
The leafy lichen, which only
presents one surface to the
sun and air while the other
side is against the tree, has
only one layer of green cells
near the surface, but pro-

ae Sune

YES We
oe ne
xy Bae



Sections of Lichens. (Sachs.)
1, Section of a hairy lichen,
tected by the fungus above. Usnea barbata. 2, Section of a

The way the lichen has leafy lichen, Sticta fuliginosa.
grown is this. A green cell 3 Early growth of a lichen.

(ge 3 Fig. 30) falling on ge, Green cells. 7, Fungus.

some damp spot has begun to grow and spread,
working up food in the sunlight. To it comes
the spore of the fungus f first thrusting its tubes
into the tree-bark, or wall, and then spreading
round the green cells, which remain always in
such a position that sunlight, air, and moisture
can reach them. From this time the two classes of



82 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

plants live as friends, the fungus using part of the
food made by the green cells, and giving them in
return the advantage of being spread out to the
sunlight, while they are also protected in frosty or
sultry weather when they would dry up on a bare
surface. On the whole, however, the fungus probably
gains the most, for it has been found, as we should ©
expect, that the green cells can live and grow if
separated out of the lichen, but the fungus cells die
when their industrious companions are taken from
them.

At any rate the partnership succeeds, as you will
see if you go into the wood, or into an orchard where
the apple-trees are neglected, for every inch of the
branches is covered by lichens if not already taken
up by mosses or toadstools.

There is hardly any part of the world except the
tropics where lichens do not abound. In the Alps
of Scandinavia close to the limits of perpetual snow,
in the sandy wastes of Arctic America, and over the
dreary Tundras of Arctic Siberia, where the ground
is frozen hard during the greater part of the year,
they flourish where nothing else can live.

The little green cells multiply by dividing, as we
saw them doing in. the green film from the water-
butt. The fungus, however, has many different
modes of seeding itself. One of these is by form-
ing little pockets in the lichen, out of which, when
they burst, small round bodies are thrown, which
cover the lichen witha minute green powder. There
is plenty of this powder on the leafy lichen which
you have by you. You can see it with the magnify-



_- HOW .LICHENS FRUIT. 83

ing-glass, without putting it under the microscope.
As long as the lichen is dry these round bodies do
not grow, but as soon as moisture reaches them they
start away and become new plants.

A more complicated and beautiful process is shown
in this diagram (Fig. 31). If you look carefully at
the leafy lichen (2, Fig. 28) you will find here and
there some. little cups 74 while others grow upon the



Fructification of a lichen. (From Sachs and Oliver.)
Apothecium or spore-chamber of a lichen. 1, Closed. 2, Open.
3, The spore-cases and filaments enlarged, showing the spores. /, Fila-
ments. s¢, Spore-cases. 5, Spores.

tips of the hairy lichen. These cups, or fruits,
were once closed, flask-shaped chambers (1, Fig.
31) inside which are formed a number of oval
cells se, which are spore-cases, with from four to eight
spores or seed-like bodies s3 inside them. When
these chambers, which are called afothecia, are ripe,
moist or rainy weather causes them to swell at the
9



84 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

top, and they burst open and the spore-cases throw
out the spores to grow into new fungi.

In some lichens the chambers remain closed and
the spores escape through a hole in the top, and they
are then called perithecia, while in others, as these
which we have here, they open out into a cup-shape.

This, then, is the curious history of lichens ; the
green cells and fungi flourishing together in the damp
winter and bearing the hardest frost far better than
the summer drought, so that they have their good
time when most other plants are dead or asleep.
Yet though some of them, such as the hairy
lichens, almost disappear in the summer, they are by
no means dead, for, like all these very low plants,
they can bear being dried up for a long time, and then,
when moisture visits them again, each green cell sets
to work, and they revive. There is much more to be
learnt about them, but this will be sufficient to make
you fee] an interest in their simple lives, and when
you look for them in the wood you will be surprised to
find how many different kinds there are, for it is most
wonderful that such lowly plants should build up such
an immense variety of curious and grotesque forms.

And yet, when we turn to the mosses, I am_ half
afraid they will soon attract you away from the dull
grey lichens, for of all plant historics it appears to
me that the history of the moss-plant is most
fascinating.

As this history is complicated by the moss having,
as it were, two lives, you must give me your whole
attention, and I will explain it first from diagrams,



Full Text



RmB

The Baldwin Library





University
of
Florida


THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES
For Description see Page 152 Frontispiece



THE GREAT NEBULA OF ORION
From a photooraph taken on February 4 1889
by Mf Isaac Roberts.
THROUGH
MAGIC GLASSES

AND OTHER LECTURES

A SEQUEL TO THE FAIRYLAND OF SCIENCE

BY
ARABELLA B. BUCKLEY

(MRS. FISHER)

AUTHOR OF LIFE AND HER CHILDREN, WINNERS IN LIFE’S RACE,
A SHORT HISTORY OF NATURAL SCIENCE, ETC.

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
1890
Authorized Editton.
PREFACE,

THE present volume is chicfly intended for those of
my young friends who have read, and been interested
in, the Fairyland of Science. It travels over a wide
field, pointing out a few of the marvellous facts which
can be studied and enjoyed by the help of optical
instruments. It will be seen at a glance that any
one of the subjects dealt with might be made the
study of a lifetime, and that the little information
given in each lecture is only enough to make the
reader long for more.

In these days, when moderate-priced instruments
and good books and lectures are so easily accessible,
I hope some eager minds may be thus led to take up
one of the branches of science opened out to us by
magic glasses ; while those who go no further will at
least understand something of the hitherto unseen

world which is now being studied by their help.
vi PREFACE

The two last lectures wander away from this path,
and yet form a natural conclusion to the Magician’s
lectures to his young Devonshire lads. They have
been published before, one in the Youth's Companion of
Boston, U.S., and the other in Azadanta, in which the
essay on Fungi also appeared in a shorter form.
All three lectures have, however, been revised and
fully illustrated, and I trust that the volume, as a
whole, may prove a pleasant Christmas companion.

For the magnificent photograph of Orion’s nebula,
forming the Frontispiece, I am indebted to the courtesy
of Mr. Isaac Roberts, F.R.A.S., who most kindly lent
me the plate for reproduction; and I have had the
great good fortune to obtain permission from MM.
Henri of the Paris Observatory to copy the illustra-
tion of the Lunar Apennines from a most beautiful
and perfect photograph of part of the moon, taken by
them only last March. My cordial thanks are also
due to Mr. A. Cottam, F.R.A.S., for preparing the
plate of coloured double stars, and to my friend
Mr. Knobel, Hon. Sec. of the R.A.S., for much
valuable assistance ; to Mr. James Geikie for the

loan of some illustrations from his Geology ; and to
PREFACE vii

Messrs. Longman for permission to copy Herschel’s
fine drawing of Copernicus.

With the exception of these illustrations and a
few others, three of which were kindly given me
by Messrs. Macmillan, all the woodcuts have been
drawn and executed under the superintendence of
Mr. Carteras, jun, who has made my task easier by
the skill and patience he has exercised under the
difficulties incidental to receiving instructions from a

distance.
ARABELLA B. BUCKLEY.

Upcott AVENEL, Oct. 1890.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

THE MAGICIAN’S CHAMBER BY MOONLIGHT

CHAPTER II

MAGIC GLASSES AND HOW TO USE THEM

CHAPTER III

FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

CHAPTER IV

THE LiFrE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSEs .

CHAPTER V

THE HISTORY OF A LAVA STREAM ,

CHAPTER VI

An Hour WITH THE SUN

PAGE

27

55

75

96

Tele 7en8
x CONTENTS

CHAPTER VII

AN EVENING AMONG THE STARS

CHAPTER VIII

Litre BEINGS FROM A MINIATURE OCEAN

CHAPTER IX

‘THE DARTMOOR PONIES .

CHAPTER X

THE MAGICIAN’S DREAM OF ANCIENT Days

PAGE

145
List OF TEE US RA LIONS

PLATES
PHOTOGRAPH OF THE NEBULA OF ORION 5 . Frontispiece
TABLE OF COLOURED SPECTRA . : Plate I. facing p. 127
COLOURED DOUBLE STARS 2 : jpeLds Ps 167

WOODCUTS IN THE TEXT

PAGE
PARTIAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON : . Lnittial letter I
A BOY ILLUSTRATING THE PHASES OF THE MOON , : 6
COURSE OF THE MOON IN THE HEAVENS . z . 8
CHART OF THE MOON . 3 . . ‘ : Io
FACE OF THE FULL MOON : i ; ; : II
TYCHO AND HIS SURROUNDINGS (from a photograph by De
la Rue) é : : ; : 3 : 13
PLAN OF THE PEAK OF TENERIFFE . ‘ : i 15
THE CRATER COPERNICUS 7 . 5 5 , 17
THE LUNAR APPENNINES (from a photograph by MM. Henri) 19
THE CRATER PLATO SEEN SOON AFTER SUNRISE j ; 20
DIAGRAM OF TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON . : Seeye23
i BOY AND MICROSCOPE . : . . Lnitial letter 27
EYE-BALL SEEN FROM THE FRONT : : : Sees 0)
SECTION OF AN EYE LOOKING AT A PENCIL . : aero
IMAGE OF A CANDLE-FLAME THROWN ON PAPER BY A LENS. 33

ARROW MAGNIFIED BY A CONVEX LENS . . . 35


xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

STUDENT’S MICROSCOPE . .

SKELETON OF A MICROS OPE

FossIL DIATOMS SEEN UNDER THE MICROSCOPE

AN ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE . i :

TWO SKELETONS OF TELESCOPES a : 5

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA . 5 ; P
KIRCHHOFF’S SPECTROSCOPE

PASSAGE OF RAYS THROUGH THE SPECTROSCOPE :
A GROUP OF FAIRY-RING MUSHROOMS , | - Lritial letter
THREE FORMS OF VEGETABLE MOULD MAGNIFIED 2
Mucor MUCEDO GREATLY MAGNIFIED. :

YEAST CELLS GROWING UNDER THE MICROSCOPE

EARLY STAGES OF THE MUSHROOM : ;

LATER STAGES OF THE MUSHROOM

MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF MUSHROOM GILLS :
A GROUP OF CUP LICHENS F : . Lnitial letter
EXAMPLES OF LICHENS FROM LIFE

SINGE-CELLED PLANTS GROWING

SECTIONS OF LICHENS . : 4 ' :
FRUCTIFICATION OF A LICHEN... : :

A STEM OF FEATHERY MOSS FROM LIFE

Moss-LEAF MAGNIFIED : .

POLYTRICHUM COMMUNE, A LARGE HAIR-MOSS
FRUCTIFICATION OF A MOSS. : ‘ ; :
SPHAGNUM MOSS FROM A DEVONSHIRE BOG . : ;
SURFACE OF A LAVA-FLOW : é . Lnitial letter
VESUVIUS AS SEEN IN ERUPTION ’ 5 i :
Top oF VESUVIUS IN 1864 g F J :
DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION OF AN ACTIVE VOLCANO. :
SECTION OF A LAVA-FLOW ; : :

VOLCANIC GLASS WITH CRYSTALLITES AND MICROLITHS
VOLCANIC GLASS WITH WELL-DEVELOPED MICROLITHS

A PIECE OF DARTMOOR GRANITE ‘ ‘ .
VOLCANIC GLASS SHOWING LARGE INCLUDED CRYSTALS ;
A TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN : ‘ . Lnittial letter
FACE OF THE SUN PROJECTED ON A PIECE OF CARDBOARD ,

PAGE
36
37
39
41
44
47
Si
52
55
61
63
65
67
68
69
75
77
78
81
83
85
87
88

93

96

97
100
105
108
109
110
112
115
1i7
120




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PHOTOGRAPH OF THE SUN’sS FACE, taken by Mr. Selwyn
(Secchi, Le Solez?) . 2 5 z - %
TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE’ SUN, SHOWING CORONA AND PRO-
MINENCES (Guillemin, Ze Cze/) c ‘
KIRCHHOFF’S EXPERIMENT ON THE DARK SODIUM LINE i
THE SPECTROSCOPE ATTACHED TO THE TELESCOPE FOR SOLAR
WORK ‘ ; : 3 2 . a

SUN-SPECTRUM AND PROMINENCE SPECTRUM COMPARED
RED PROMINENCES, as drawn by Mr. Lockyer 1869

A QUIET SUN-SPOT ‘i : 5

A TUMULTUOUS SUN-sPoT 3 A

A STAR-CLUSTER . ; : " . Lnttial letter

SOME CONSTELLATIONS SEEN ON LOOKING SOUTH IN MarcH
FROM SIX TO NINE O’CLOCK : ;

THE CHIEF STARS OF ORION, WITH ALDEBARAN
THE TRAPEZIUM @ ORIONIS .
SPECTRUM OF ORION’S NEBULA AND SUN-SPECTRUM COM-

; PARED 5 : ; 3 3 ; :
SOME CONSTELLATIONS SEEN ON LOOKING NORTIL IN MARCH
FROM SIX TO NINE O’CLOCK 5 : ; .
Tue GREAT BEAR, SHOWING POSITION OF THE BINARY STAR
DRIFTING OF THE SEVEN STARS OF CHARLES’S WAIN f
CASSIOPEIA AND THE HEAVENLY BODIES NEAR :
e LYRA, A DOUBLE-BINARY STAR a ; : ¢
A SEASIDE POOL. 5 es ¢ . Lnitial letter
A GROUP OF SEAWEEDS (natural size). : :
ULVA LACTUCA, a piece greatly magnified
SEAWEEDS, magnified to show fruits &

A CORALLINE AND SERTULARIAN COMPARED .
SERTULARIA TENELLA HANGING IN WATER. :
ZHURICOLLA FOLLICULATA AND CHILOMONAS AMYGDALUM
A GROUP OF LIVING DIATOMS : : 7
A DIATOM GROWING : . %
CYDIPPE PILEUS, ANIMAL AND STRUCTURE
THE SEA-MAT, PLUSTRA FOLIACEA .
DIAGRAM OF THE FLUSTRA ANIMAL

2

xiii
PAGE

122

151

156
157
159
162
166
172
175
176
177
179

10
182
184
185
187
I9QI

192
xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE
DARTMOOR PONIES : ‘i A |. Mnétial letter 195
£QUUS HEMIONUS, THE HORSE-ASS OF TARTARY AND TIBET. 201
PRZEVALSKY’S WILD HORSE : ae : eel ZO2
SKELETON OF AN ANIMAL OF THE HORSE-TRIBE i » 206
PALOLITHIC MAN CHIPPING FLINT TOOLS . Jnitial letter 209
SCENE IN PAL@OLITHIC TIMES . ; : : TRa2T2
PAL#OLITHIC RELICS—NEEDLE, TOOTH, IMPLEMENT . eZ)
MAMMOTH ENGRAVED ON IVORY ‘A 5 : 22216
NEOLITHIC IMPLEMENTS—HATCHET, CELT, SPINDLE WHORL. 219
A BURIAL IN NEOLITHIC TIMES ; : : » 221
BRITISH RELICS—COIN, BRONZE CELT, AND BRACELET E228

BRITONS TAKING REFUGE IN THE CAVE : : » 224
THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

CHAPTER I

THE MAGICIAN’S CHAMBER BY MOONLIGHT

PSQ HE full moon was shining in all
its splendour one lovely August
night, as the magician sat in
his turret chamber bathed in
her pure white beams, which
streamed upon him through the

- open shutter in the wooden
dome above. It is true a faint
gleam of warmer light shone
from below through the open

door, for this room was but an offshoot at the top

of the building, and on looking down the turret

stairs a lecture-room might be seen below where a

bright light was burning. Very little, however, of

this warm glow reached the magician, and the im-

plements of his art around him looked like weird

gaunt skeletons as they cast their long shadows
across the floor in the moonlight.




2 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The small observatory, for such it was, was a
circular building with four windows in the walls, and
roofed with a wooden dome, so made that it could
be shifted round and round by pulling certain cords.
One section of this dome was a shutter, which now
stood open, and the strip, thus laid bare to the night,
was so turned as to face that part of the sky along
which the moon was moving. In the centre of the
room, with its long tube directed towards the opening,
stood the largest magic glass, the TELESCOPE, and in
the dead stillness of the night, could be heard distinctly
the tick-tick of the clockwork, which kept the instru-
ment pointing to the face of the moon, while the
room, and all in it, was being carried slowly and
steadily onwards by the earth’s rotation on its axis.
It was only a moderate-sized instrument, about six
feet long, mounted on a solid iron pillar firmly fixed
to the floor and fitted with the clockwork, the sound
of which we have mentioned; yet it looked like a
giant as the pale moonlight threw its huge shadow
on the wall behind and the roof above.

Far away from this instrument in one of the
windows, all of which were now closed with shutters,
another instrument was dimly visible. This was
a round iron table with clawed fect, and upon it,
fastened by screws, were three tubes, so arranged
that they all pointed towards the centre of the table,
where six glass prisms were arranged in a semicircle,
each one fixed on a small brass tripod. A strange
uncanny-looking instrument this, especially as the
prisms caught the edge of the glow streaming up the
turret stair, and shot forth faint beams of coloured




THE MAGICIAN’S INSTRUMENTS 3

light on the table below them. Yet the magician’s
pupils thought it still more uncanny and mysterious
when their master used it to read the alphabet of
light, and to discover by vivid lines even the faintest
trace of a metal otherwise invisible to mortal eye.

For this instrument was the SPECTROSCOPE, by
which he could break up rays of light and make them
tell him from what substances they came. Lying
around it were other curious prisms mounted in
‘metal rims and fitted with tubes and many strange
devices, not to be understood by the uninitiated, but
magical in their effect when fixed on to the telescope
and used to break up the light of distant stars and
nebule.

Compared with these mysterious glasses the PHOTO-
GRAPHIC CAMERA, standing in the background, with
its tall black covering cloth, like a hooded monk,
looked comparatively natural and familiar, yet it, too,
had puzzling plates and apparatus on the table near
it, which could be fitted on to the telescope, so that
by their’: means pictures might be taken even in the
dark night, and stars, invisible with the strongest lens,
might be forced to write their own story, and leave
their image on the plate for after study.

All these instruments told of the magician’s
power in unveiling the secrets of distant space and
exploring realms unknown, but in another window,
now almost hidden in the shadow, stood a fourth
and highly-prized helpmate, which belonged in one
sense more to our earth, since everything examined
by it had to be brought near, and lie close under its
magnifying-glass. Yet the MICROSCOPE too could
4 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

carry its master into an unseen world, hidden to
mortal eye by minuteness instead of by distance.
If in the stillness of night the telescope was his most
cherished servant and familiar friend, the microscope
by day opened out to him the fairyland of nature.

As he sat on his high pedestal stool on this
summer night with the moonlight full upon him, his
whole attention was centred on the telescope, and
his mind was far away from that turret-room,
wandering into the distant space brought so near to
him ; for he was waiting to watch an event which
brought some new interest every time it took place
—a total eclipse of the moon. To-night he looked
forward to it eagerly, for it happened that, just as
the moon would pass into the shadow of our earth,
it would also cross directly in front of a star, causing
what is known as an “occultation” of the star, which
would disappear suddenly behind the rim of the
dark moon, and after a short time flash out on the
other side as the satellite went on its way.

How he wished as he sat there that he could
have shown this sight to all the cager lads whom he
was teaching to handle and love his magic glasses.
For this magician was not only a student himself,
he was a rich man and the Founder and Principal
of a large public school for boys of the artisan class.
He had erected a well-planned and handsome build-
ing in the midst of the open country, and received
there, on terms within the means of their parents,
working-lads from all parts of England, who, besides
the usual book-learning, received a good technical
education in all its branches. And, while he left to


THE MAGICIAN’S PUPILS - 5

other masters the regular school lessons, he kept for
himself the intense pleasure of opening the minds of
these lads to the wonders of God’s universe around
them.

You had only to pass down the turret stairs, into
the large science class-room below, to see at once
that a loving hand and heart had furnished it. Not
only was there every implement necessary for
scientific work, but numerous rough diagrams cover-
ing the walls showed that labour as well as money
had been spent in decorating them. It was a large
oblong room, with four windows to the north, and four
to the south, in each of which stood a microscope
with all the tubes, needles, forceps, knives, etc.,
necessary for dissecting and preparing objects;
and between the windows were open shelves, on which
were ranged chemicals of various kinds, besides many
strange-looking objects in bottles, which would have
amused a trained naturalist, for the lads collected
and preserved whatever took their fancy.

On some of the tables were photographic plates
laid ready for printing off; on others might be seen
drawings of the spectrum, made from the small
spectroscope fixed at one end of the room; on
others lay small direct spectroscopes which the
lads could use for themselves. But nowhere was
a telescope to be seen. This was not because
there were none, for each table had its small
hand - telescope, cheap but good. The truth is
that each of these instruments had been spirited
away into the dormitories that night, and many
heads were lying awake on their pillows, listening
6 ‘THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

for the strike of the clock to Bee out and see the
eclipse begin.

A mere glance round the room showed that the
moon had been much studied lately. On the black-
board was drawn a rough diagram, showing how a
boy can illustrate for himself the moon's journey
round the earth, by taking a ball and holding it a
little above his head at arm’s length, while he turns
slowly round on his heel in a darkened room before

Fig. 3.









A boy illustrating the phases of the moon.

a lighted lamp, or better still before the lens of a
magic lantern (Fig. 1). The lamp or lens then re-
presents the sun, the ball is the moon, the boy’s
head is the earth. Beginning with the ball between
him and the source of light, but either a little above,
or a little below the direct line between his eye and




THE PHASES OF THE MOON 7

it, he will see only the dark side of the ball, and
the moon will be on the point of being “new.” Then
as he turns slowly, a thin crescent of light will creep
over the side nearest the sun, and by degrees en-
croach more and more, so that when he has turned
through one quarter of the round half the disc will
be light. When he has turned another quarter,
and has his back to the sun, a full moon will face
him. Then as he turns on through the third quarter
a crescent of darkness creeps slowly over the side
away from the sun; and gradually the bright: disc is
eaten away by shadow till at the end of the third
quarter half the disc again only is light; then, when
he has turned through another quarter and completed
the circle, he faces the light again and has a dark
moon before him. But he must take care to keep
the moon a little above or a little below his eye at
new and full moon. If he brings it exactly on a
line with himself and the light at new moon, he will
shut off the light from himself and see the dark
body of the ball against the light, causing an eclipse
of ‘the sun; while if he does the same at full moon
his head will cast a shadow on the ball causing an
eclipse of the moon.

There were other diagrams showing how and why
such eclipses do really happen at different times in
the moon’s path round the earth; but perhaps the
most interesting of all was one he had made to
explain what so few people understand, namely, that
though the moon describes a complete circle round
our earth every month, yet she does not describe
a circle in space, but a wavy line inwards and out-


THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

‘The moon and the earth are both moving onwards in

Diagram showing the moon’s course during one month

the direction of the arrows.



The

The earth moves along the dark line, the moon along the interrupted line - - --.

shows the circle gradually described by the moon round the earth as they move onwards,

dotted curved line....

wards across the
earth’s path round the
sun. This is because
the earth is moving
on all the while, carry-
ing the moon with it,
and it is only by see-
ing it drawn before
our eyes that we can
realise how it happens.

Thus suppose, in
order to make the
dates as simple as
possible, that there is
a new moon on the
Ist of some month.
Then by the oth (or
roughly speaking in
74 days) the moon
will have described a
quarter of a circle
round the earth as
shown by the dotted
line (Fig. 2), which
marks her position
night after night with
regard to us. Yet
because she is carried
onwards all the while
by the earth, she will
really have passed
along the interrupted




THE MOON'S JOURNEY IN SPACE 9

line --- between us and the sun. During the next
week her quarter of a circle wiJl carry her round be-
hind the earth, so that we see her on the 17th asa
full moon, yet her actual movement has been onwards
along the interrupted line on the farther side of the
earth. During the third week she creeps round
another quarter of a circle so as to be in advance of
the earth on its yearly journey round the sun, and
reaches the end of her third quarter on the 24th.
In her last quarter she gradually passes again
between the earth and the sun ; and though, as regards
the earth, she appears to be going back round to the
same place where she was at the beginning of the
month, and on the 31st is again a dark new moon,
yet she has travelled onwards exactly as much as
we have, and therefore has really not described a
circle in the heavens but a wavy line.

Near to this last diagram hung another, well loved
by the lads, for it was a large map of the face of
the moon, that is of the side which is a/zways turned
towards us, because the moon turns once on her
axis during the month that she is travelling round
the earth. On this map were marked all the different
craters, mountains, plains and shining streaks which
appear on the moon’s face; while round the chart
were pictures of some of these at sunrise and sunset
on the moon, or during the long day of nearly a
fortnight which each part of the face enjoys in its
turn.

By studying this map, and the pictures, they
were able, even in their small telescopes, to recognise
Tycho and Copernicus, and the mountains of the
10 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

moon, after they had once grown accustomed to the

Fig. 3.



Chart of the moon.

Craters—
1 Tycho. 4 Aristarchus. 7 Plato. to Petavius.
2 Copernicus. 5 Eratosthenes, 8 Eudoxus. r1 Ptolemy.
3 Kepler. 6 Archimedes, g Aristotle.
Grey plains formerly believed to be seas—

A Mare Crisium, O Mare Imbrium.

C ——- Frigoris. Q Oceanus Procellarum.

G —. Tranquillitatis. X Mare Feecunditatis.

H —— Serenitatis. a Humorum,



strange changes in their appearance which take
THE FACE OF THE FULL MOON II

place as daylight or darkness creeps over them.
They could not however pick out more than some of
the chief points. Only the magician himself knew
every crater and ridge under all its varying lights,

Fig. 3a.

















































































































The full moon, (From Ball’s Starland.)

and now, as he waited for the eclipse to begin, he
turned to a lad who stood behind him, almost hidden
in the dark shadow—the one fortunate boy who had

earned the right to share this night’s work.
3


12 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“We have still half an hour, Alwyn,” said he,
“ before the eclipse will begin, and I can show you the
moon’s face well to-night. Take my place here and
look at her while I point out the chief features.
See first, there are the grey plains (A, C, G, etc.)
lying chiefly in the lower half of the moon. You
can often see these on a clear night with the
naked eye, but you must remember that then they
appear more in the upper part, because in the tele-
scope we see the moon’s face inverted or upside down.

“ These. plains were once thought to be oceans, but
are now proved to be dry flat regions situated at
different levels on the moon, and much like what
deserts and prairies would appear on our earth if seen
from the same distance. Looking through the
telescope, is it not difficult to imagine how people
could ever have pictured them asa man’s face? But
not so difficult to understand how some ancient
nations thought the moon was a kind of mirror, in
which our earth was reflected as in a looking-glass,
with its seas and rivers, mountains and valleys; for
it does look something like a distant earth, and as
the light upon it is really reflected from the sun it
was very natural to compare it to a looking-glass.

“Next cast your eye over the hundreds of craters,
some large, others quite small, which cover the moon’s
face with pitted marks, like a man with small-pox ;
while a few of the larger rings look like holes
made in a window-pane, where a stone has passed
through, for brilliant shining streaks radiate from
them on all sides like the rays of a star, covering
a large part of the moon. Brightest of all these


TYCHO AND HIS SURROUNDINGS 13

starred craters is Tycho, which you will easily find
near the top of the moon (1, Fig. 3), for you have
often seen it in the small telescope. How grand it
looks to-night in the full moon (Fig. 3a)! It is
true you see all the craters better when the moon
is in her quarters, because the light falls sideways
upon them and the shadows are more sharply defined ;
yet even at the full the bright ray of light on
Tycho’s rim marks out the huge cavity, and you can
even see faintly the magnificent terraces which run
round the cup within, one below the other.

“This cavity measures fifty-four miles across,























































































































































































































































































































Tycho and his surroundings.
(From a photograph of the moon taken by Mr. De la Rue, 1863.)

so that if it could be moved down to our earth
it would cover by far the largest part of Devon-
shire, or that portion from Bideford on the north,
14 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to the sea on the south, and from the borders of
Cornwall on the east, to Exeter on the west, and
it is 17,000 feet or nearly three miles in depth.
Even in the brilliant. light of the full moon this
enormous cup is dark compared to the bright rim,
but it is much better seen in about the middle of the
second quarter, when the rising sun begins to light
up one side while the other is in black night.
The drawing on the wall (Fig. 4), which is taken
from an actual photograph of the moon’s face, shows
Tycho at this time surrounded by the numerous
other craters which cover this part of the moon.
You may recognise him by the gleaming peak in the
centre of the cup, and by his bright rim which is so
much more perfect than those of his companions.
The gleaming peak is the top of a steep cone or hill
rising up 6000 feet, or more than a mile from the base
of the crater, so that even the summit is about two
miles below the rim.

“There is one very interesting point in Tycho,
however, which is seen at its very best at full moon.
Look outside the bright rim and you will see that
from the shadow which surrounds it there spring
on all sides those strange brilliant streaks (see Fig.
3@) which I spoke of just now. There are others
quite as bright, or even brighter, round other craters,
Copernicus (Fig. 6), Kepler, and Aristarchus, lower
down on the right-hand side of the moon; but
these of Tycho are far the most widely spread, cover-
ing almost all the top of the face.

“What are these streaks? We do not know:
During the second quarter of the moon, when the sun


LUNAR AND TERRESTRIAL CRATERS 15

is rising slowly upon Tycho, lighting up his peak and
showing the crater beautifully divided into a bright
cup in the curve to the right, while a dense shadow lies
in the left hollow, these streaks are only faint, and
among the many craters around (see Fig. 4) you
might even have some difficulty at first in finding
the well-known giant. But as the sun rises higher
and higher they begin to appear, and go on increasing
in brightness till they shine with that wonderfully
silvery light you see now in the full moon.





| I
PTH Ta
a
ae

i
a

H



Plan of the Peak of Teneriffe, showing how it resembles
a lunar crater. (A. Geikie.)

“Here is a problem for you young astronomers to
solve, as we learn more and more how to use the
j : i 3
télescope with all its new appliances.
16 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The crater itself is not so difficult to explain, for
we have many like it on our earth, only not nearly
so large. In fact, we might almost say that our earthly
volcanoes differ from those in the moon only by their
smaller size and by forming mountains with the crater
or cup on the top; while the lunar craters lie flat on
the surface of the mocn, the hollow of the cup forming
a depression below it. The peak of Teneriffe (Fig. 5),
which is a dormant volcano, is a good copy in minia-
ture on our earth of many craters on the moon The
large plain surrounded by a high rocky wall, broken
in places by lava streams, the smaller craters nestling
in the cup, and the high peak or central crater
rising up far above the others, are so like what we
see on the moon that we cannot doubt that the same
causes have been at work in both cases, even though
the space enclosed in the rocky wall of Teneriffe
measures only eight miles across, while that of Tycho
measures fifty-four.

“But of the streaks we have no satisfactory expla-
nation. They pass alike over plain and valley and
mountain, cutting even across other craters with-
out swerving from their course. The astronomer
Nasmyth thought they were the remains of cracks
made when the volcanoes were active, and filled
with molten lava from below, as water oozes up
through ice-cracks on a pond. But this explana-
tion is not quite satisfactory, for the Java, forcing
its way through, would cool in ridges which ought to
cast a shadow in sunlight. These streaks, however,
not only cast no shadow, as you can see at the full
moon but when the sun shines sideways upon them
THE CRATER COPERNICUS 17

in the newor waning moon they disappear as we
have seen altogether. Thus the streaks, so brilliant
at full moon in Tycho, Copernicus, Kepler, and
Aristarchus, remain a puzzle to astronomers still.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































The crater Copernicus.
(As given in Herschel’s Astronomy, from a drawing taken ina
reflecting telescope of 20 feet focal length.)



“ We cannot examine these three last-named craters
well to-night with the full sun upon them; but mark
_their positions well, for Copernicus, at least, you must
18 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

examine on the first opportunity, when the sun is
rising upon it in the moon’s second quarter. It is
larger even than Tycho, measuring fifty-six miles
across, and has a hill in the centre with many peaks;
while outside, great spurs or ridges stretch in all
directions sometimes for more than a hundred miles,
and between these are scattered innumerable minute
craters. But the most striking feature in it is the
ring, which is composed inside the crater of mag-
nificent terraces divided by deep ravines. These
terraces are in some ways very like those of the
great crater of Teneriffe, and astronomers can best
account for them by supposing that this immense
crater was once filled with a lake of molten lava
rising, cooling at the edges, and then falling again,
leaving the solid ridge behind. The streaks are
also beautifully shown in Copernicus (see Fig. 6),
but, as in Tycho, they fade away as the sun sets
on the crater, and only reappear gradually as mid-
day approaches.

“And now, looking a little to the left of Copernicus,
you will see that grand range of mountains, the
Lunar Apennines (Fig. 7), which stretches 400 miles
across the face of the moon. Other mountain
ranges we could find, but none so like mountains
on our own globe as these, with their gentle sunny
slope down to a plain on the left, and steep
perpendicular cliffs on the right. The highest
peak in this range, called Huyghens, rises to the
height of 21,000 feet, higher than Chimborazo in
the Andes. Other mountains on the moon, such as
those called the Caucasus, south of the Apennines,
THE MOUNTAINS OF THE MOON 19

are composed of disconnected peaks, while others
again stand as solitary pyramids upon the plains.

“ But we must hasten on, for I want you to observe
those huge walled crater-plains which have no hill



















































































































































































































































































































































The Lunar Apennines.
(Copied by kind permission of MM. Henri from part of a magnificent photo-
graph taken by them, March 29, 18go, at the Paris Observatory. }
in the middle, but smooth steel-grey centres shining
like mirrors in the moonlight. One of these, called
Archimedes, you will find: just below the Lunar
Apennines (Figs. 3 and 7), and another called Plato,
which is sixty miles broad, is still lower down the


20 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

moon’s face (Figs. 3 and 8). The centres of these broad
circles are curiously smooth and shining like quick-

Fig. 8.























































































































































































































The crater Plato as seen soon after sunrise, (After Neison. )

silver, with minute dots here and there which are
miniature craters, while the walls are rugged and
crowned with turret-shaped peaks.

“It is easy to picture to oneself how these may
once have been vast seas of lava, not surging as
in Copernicus, and heaving up as it cooled into
one great central cone, but seething as molten lead
does in a crucible, little bubbles bursting here and
there into minute craters ; and this is the explanation
given of them by astronomers.
THE CRATER-PLAINS AND THEIR ORIGIN 21

“ And now that you have seen the curious rugged
face of the moon and its craters and mountains, you
will want to know how all this has come about. We
can only form theories on the point, except that
everything shows that heat and volcanoes have in
some way done the work, though no one has ever yet
clearly proved that volcanic eruptions have taken
place in our time. We must look back to ages long
gone by for those mighty volcanic eruptions which
hurled out stones and ashes from the great crater of
Tycho, and formed the vast seas of lava in Copernicus
and Plato.

“And when these were over, and the globe was
cooling down rapidly, so that mountain ranges —
were formed by the wrinkling and rending of the
surface, was there then any life on the moon? Who
can tell? Our magic glasses can reveal what now
is, so far as distance will allow; but what has
been, except where the rugged traces remain, we
shall probably never know. What we now see is a
dead worn-out planet, on which we cannot certainly
trace any activity except that of heat in the past.
That there is no life there now, at any rate of the
kind on our own earth, we are almost certain ; first,
because we can nowhere find traces of water, clouds,
nor even mist, and without moisture no life like ours is
possible ; and secondly, because even if there is, as
perhaps there may be, a thin ocean of gas round
the moon there is certainly no atmosphere such as
surrounds our globe.

“One fact which proves this is, that there are
no half-shadows on the moon. If you look some
22 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

night at the mountains and craters during her first
and second quarters, you will be startled to see what
heavy shadows they cast, not with faint edges dying
away into light, but sharp and hard (see Figs. 6-8),
so that you pass, as it were by one step, from shadow
to sunshine. This in itself is enough to show that
there is no air to scatter the sunlight and spread it into
the edges of the shade as happens on our earth ; but
there are other and better proofs. One of these is,
that during an eclipse of the sun there is no reflec-
tion of his light round the dark moon as there
would be if the moon had an atmosphere; another is
that the spectroscope, that wonderful instrument
which shows us invisible gases, gives no hint of air
around the moon; and another is the sudden dis-
appearance or occulfation of a star behind the moon,
such as I hope to see in a few minutes.

“See here! take the small hand telescope and turn
it on to the moon’s face while I take my place at
the large one, and I will tell you what to look for.
You know that at sunset we see the sun for some
time after it has dipped below the horizon, because
the rays of light which come from it are bent in our
atmosphere and brought to our eyes, forming in
them the image of the sun which is already gone.
Now in a short time the moon which we are watching
will be darkened by our earth coming between it
and the sun, and while it is quite dark it will pass
over a little bright star. In fact to us the star will
appear to set behind the dark moon as the sun sets
below the horizon, and if the moon had an atmo-
sphere like ours, the rays from the star would be bent
TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE MOON 23

in it and reach our eyes after the star was gone, so
that it would only disappear gradually. Astronomers
have always observed, however, that the star is lost
to sight quite suddenly, showing that there is no
ocean of air round the moon to bend the light-rays.”

Here the magician paused, for a slight dimness
on the lower right-hand side of the moon warned
him that she was entering into the penumbra or



P

Diagram of total eclipse of the moon.

S, Sun. E, Earth. M, Moon passing into the earth’s shadow
and passing out at M’,

R, R’, Lines meeting at a point U, U’ behind the earth and
enclosing a space within which all the direct rays of the
sun are intercepted by the earth, causing a black darkness
or umobra,

R, Pand R’, P’, Lines marking a space within which, behind
the earth, part of the sun’s rays are cut off, causing a half-
shadow or penumbra, P, P’.

a, a, Points where a few of the sun's rays are bent or refracted
in the earth’s atmosphere, so that they pass along the path
marked by the dotted lines and shed a lurid light on the
sun's face.

half-shadow (see Fig. 9) caused by the earth cutting
off part of the sun’s rays; and soon a deep black
4
24 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

shadow creeping over Aristarchus and Plato showed
that she was passing into that darker space or
umbra where the body of the earth is completely
between her and the sun and cuts off all his rays.
All, did I say? No! not all. For now was seen a
beautiful sight, which would prove to any one who
saw our earth from a great distance that it has a
deep ocean of air round it.

It was a clear night, with a cloudless sky, and
as the deep shadow crept slowly over the moon’s
face, covering the Lunar Apennines and Copernicus,
and stealing gradually across the brilliant streaks of
Tycho till the crater itself was swallowed up in dark-
ness, a strange lurid light began to appear. The
part of the moon which was eclipsed was not wholly
dark, but tinted with a very faint bluish-green light,
which changed almost imperceptibly, as the eclipse
went on, to rose-red, and then to a fiery copper-
coloured glow as the moon crept entirely into the
shadow and became all dark. The lad watching
through his small telescope noted this weird light, and
wondered, as he saw the outlines of the Apennines
and of several craters dimly visible by it, though
the moon was totally eclipsed. He noted, but was
silent. He would not disturb the Principal, for the
important moment was at hand, as this dark copper-
coloured moon, now almost invisible, drew near to
the star over which it was to pass.

This little star, really a glorious sun billions of miles
away behind the moon, was perhaps the centre of
another system of worlds as unknown to us as we to
them, and the fact of our tiny moon crossing between
LURID LIGHT DURING ECLIPSE 25

it and our earth would matter as little as if a grain
of sand was blown across the heavens. Yet to the
watchers it was a great matter—would the star give
any further clue to the question of an atmosphere
round the moon? Would its light linger even for
a moment, like the light of the setting sun? Nearer
and nearer came the dark moon; the star shone
brilliantly against its darkness ; one second and it was
‘gone. The long looked-for moment had passed, and
the magician turned from his instrument with a sigh.
“T have learnt nothing new, Alwyn,” said he, “but at
least it is satisfactory to have seen for ourselves
the proof that there is no perceptible atmosphere
round the moon. We need wait no longer, for
before the star reappears on the other side the
eclipse will be passing away.”

“ But, master,” burst forth the lad, now the silence
was broken, “tell me why did that strange light of
many tints shine upon the dark moon?”

“Did you notice it, Alwyn?” said the Principal,
with a pleased smile. “Then our evening’s work is
not lost, for you have made a real observation for
yourself, That light was caused by the few rays of
the sun which grazed the edge of our earth passing
through the ocean of air round it (see Fig. 9). There
they were refracted or bent, and so were thrown
within the shadow cast by our earth, and fell upon
the moon. If there were such a person as a ‘man
in the moon,’ that lurid light would prove to him
that our earth has an atmosphere. The cause of
the tints is the same which gives us our sunset
colours, because as the different coloured waves which
26 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

make white light are absorbed one by one, passing
through the denser atmosphere, the blue are cut off
first, then the green, then the yellow, till only the
orange and red rays reached the centre of the shadow,
where the moon was darkest. But this is too diffi-
cult a subject to begin at midnight.”

So saying, he lighted his lamp, and covering the
object-glass of his telescope with its pasteboard cap,
detached the instrument from the clockwork, and the
master and his pupil went down the turret stairs and
past through the room below. As they did so they
heard in the distance a scuffling noise like that of rats
in the wall. A smile passed over the face of the
Principal, for he knew that his young pupils, who
had been making their observations in the gallery
above, were hurrying back to their beds.
MAGIC GLASSES, AND HOW TO USE THEM 27

CHAPTER II

MAGIC GLASSES, AND HOW TO USE THEM

HE sun shone brightly in-
to the science class-room
at mid-day. No gaunt
shadows nor ghostly
moonlight now threw a
spell on the magic cham-

ber above. The instruments
looked bright and business-like,
and the Principal, moving
amongst them, heard the sub-
dued hum of fifty or more voices
rising from below. It was the
lecture hour, and the subject for the day was,
“Magic glasses, and how to use them.” As the
large clock in the hall sounded twelve, the Principal
gathered up a few stray lenses and prisms he had
selected, and passed down the turret stair to his
platform. Behind him were arranged his diagrams,
before him on the table stood various instruments,
and the rows of bright faces beyond looked up with
one consent as the hum quieted down and he began
his lecture,



28 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“T have often told you, boys, have I not ? that lam
a Magician. In my chamber near the sky I work
spells as did the magicians of old, and by the help
of my magic glasses I peer into the secrets of nature.
Thus I read the secrets of the distant stars ; I catch
the light of wandering comets, and make it reveal
its origin; I penetrate into the whirlpools of the
sun; I map out the craters of the moon. Nor
can the tiniest being on earth hide itself from me.
Where others see only a drop of muddy water, that
water brought into my magic chamber teems with
thousands of active bodies, darting here and whirling
there amid a meadow of tiny green plants floating
in the water. Nay, my inquisitive glass sees even
farther than this, for with it I can watch the eddies
of water and green atoms going on in cach of these
tiny beings as they feed and grow. Again, if I want
to break into the secrets of the rock at my feet, I
have only to put a thin slice of it under my micro-
scope to trace every crystal and grain; or, if I wish
to learn still more, I subject it to fiery heat, and
through the magic prisms of my spectroscope I read
the history of the very substances of which it is
composed. If I wish to study the treasures of the
wide ocean, the slime from a rock-pool teems with
fairy forms darting about in the live box imprisoned
in a crystal home. If some distant stars are in-
visible even in the giant glasses of my telescope, I
set another power to work, and make them print
their own image on a Blotoeraphie plate and so
reveal their presence.

“ All these things you have seen through my magic
THE HUMAN EVE - 29

glasses, and I promised you that one day I would
explain to you how they work and do my bidding.
But I must warn you that you must give all your
attention ; there is no royal road to my magician’s
power. Every one can attain to it, but only by
taking trouble. You must open your eyes and ears,
and use your intelligence to test carefully what your
senses show you.

“We have only to consider a little to see that we
depend entirely upon our senses for our knowledge
of the outside world. All kinds of things are going
on around us, about which we know nothing, because
our eyes are not keen enough to see, and our ears
not sharp enough to hear them. Most of all we
enjoy and study nature through our eyes, those
windows which let in to us the light of heaven, and
with it the lovely sights and scenes of earth; and
which are no ordinary windows, but most wonderful
structures adapted for conveying images to the brain.
They are of very different power in different people,
so that a long-sighted person sees a lovely land-
scape where a short-sighted one sees only a confused
mist ; while a short-sighted person can see minute
things close to the eye better than a long-sighted
one.

“Let us try to understand this before we go on to
artificial glasses, for it will help us to explain how
these glasses show us many things we could never
see without them. Here are two pictures of the
human eyeball (Figs. 10 and 11), one as it appears
from the front, and the other as we should see the
parts if we cut an eyeball across from the front to
30 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the back. From these drawings we see that the
eyeball is round; it only looks oval, because it is
seen through the oval slit of the eyelids. It is really
Fig. x0. a hard, shining, white

ball with a thick nerve
cord (oz, Fig. 11) pass-
ing out at the back,
and a dark glassy
mound c,cin the centre
of the white in front.
In this mound we
can easily distinguish
two parts—first, the
Bi coloured 77s or elastic
| curtain (2, Fig. 10); and
Eye-ball seen from the front, secondly, the dark spot
(After Le Gros Clark. ) or pupil # in the centre.

w, White of eye. 72, Iris. 4, Pupil. The iris is the part
which gives the eye its colour; it is composed
of a number of fibres, the outer ones radiating to-
wards the centre, the inner ones forming a ring
round the pupil; and behind these fibres is a coat
of dark pigment or colouring matter, blue in some
people, grey, brown, or black in others. When the
light is very strong, and would pain the nerves inside
if too much entered the pupil or window of the eye,
then the ring of the iris contracts so as partly to
close the opening. When there is very little light,
and it is necessary to let in as much as possible, the
ring expands and the pupil grows large. The best
way to observe this is to look at a cat’s eyes in the
dusk, and then bring her near to a bright light; for


HOW WE SEE 31

the iris of a cat’s eye contracts and expands much
more than ours does,

“Now look at the second diagram (Fig. 11)and notice
the chief points necessary in seeing. First you will

Fig. TT;



Section of an eye looking at a pencil. (Adapted from Kirke.)
¢,¢, Cornea, w, White of eye. cm, Ciliary muscle. a,a, Aque-

ous humour. 2,7, Iris. 7,2, Lens. 7,7, Retina, on, Optic nerve.

i, 2, Pencil, 1’, 2’, Image of pencil on the retina,

observe that the pupil is not a mere hole; it is pro-
tected by a curved covering c. This is the cornea, a
hard, perfectly transparent membrane, looking much
like a curved watch-glass. Behind this is a small
chamber filled with a watery fluid a, called the
aqueous humour, and near the back of this chamber
is the dark ring or iris 4, which you saw from the
front through the cornea and fluid. Close behind
the iris again is the natural ‘magic glass’ of our
eye, the crystalline lens 4 which is composed of per-
fectly transparent fibres and has two rounded or
32 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

convex surfaces like an ordinary magnifying glass.
This lens rests on a cushion of a soft jelly-like sub-
stance v, called the vitreous humour, which fills the
dark chamber or cavity of the eyeball and keeps it
in shape, so that the retina 7, which lines the chamber,
is kept at a proper distance from the lens. This
retina is a transparent film of very sensitive nerves ;
it forms a screen at the back of the chamber, and has
a coating of very dark pigment or colouring matter
behind it. Lastly, the nerves of the retina all meet
in a bundle, called the optic nerve, and passing out
of the eyeball at a point on, go to the brain.
These are the chief parts we use in seeing ; now how
do we use them?

“Suppose that a pencil is held in front of the
eye at the distance at which we see small objects
comfortably. Light is reflected from all parts of the
surface of the pencil, and as the rays spread, a certain
number enter the pupil of the eye We will follow
only two cones of light coming from the points 1
and 2 on the diagram Fig. 11. These you see enter
the eye, each widely spread over the cornea c. They
are bent in a little by this curved covering, and by
the liquid behind it, while the iris cuts off the rays
near the edges of the lens, which would be too much
bent to form a clear image. The rest of the rays
fall upon the lens 2 In passing through this lens
they are very much bent (or refracted) towards each
other, so much so that by the time they reach the
end of the dark chamber v, each cone of light has
‘come to a point or focus 1’ 2’, and as rays of this
kind have come from every point all over the pencil,
IMAGE FORMED AT FOCAL DISTANCE — 33

exactly similar points are formed on the retina, and
a real picture of the pencil is formed there between
Iand= 2%

“We will make a very simple and pretty experi-
ment to illustrate this. Darkening the room I light
a candle, take a square of white paper in my hand,
and hold a simple magnifying glass between the two
(see Fig. 12) about three inches away from the candle.
Then I shift the paper nearer and farther behind the

‘lens, till we get a clear image of the candle-flame

Fig. 12.



Image of a candle-flame thrown on paper by a lens.

upon it. This is exactly what happens in our eye.
I have drawn a dotted line ¢ round the lens and the
paper on the diagram to represent the eyeball in
which the image of the candle-flame would be on the
retina instead of on the piece of paper. The first
point you will notice is that the candle-flame is upside
down on the paper, and if you turn back to Fig. 11
you will see why, for it is plain that the cones of
light cross in the lens 4 1 going to 1’ and 2 to 2’.
Every picture made on our retina is upside down.
34 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“ But it is not there that we see it. As soon as the
points of light from the pencil strike upon the retina,
the thrill passes on along the optic nerve on, through
the back of the eye to the brain; and our mind,
following back the rays exactly as they have come
through the lens, sees a pencil, outside the eye, right
way upwards.

“This is how we see with our eyes, which adjust
themselves most beautifully to our needs, For
example, not only is the iris always ready to expand
or contract according as we need more or less light,
but there is a special muscle, called the ciliary muscle
(em, Fig. 11), which alters the lens for us to see things
far or near. In all, or nearly all, perfect eyes the
lens is flatter in front than behind, and this enables
us to see things far off by bringing the rays from them
exactly to a focus on the retina, But when we look
at nearer things the rays require to be more bent or
refracted, so without any conscious effort on our part
this ciliary muscle contracts and allows the lens to
bulge out slightly in front. Instantly we have a
stronger magnifier, and the rays are brought to the
right focus on the retina, so that a clear and full-size
image of the near object is formed. How little we
think, as we turn our eyes from one thing to another,
and observe, now the distant hills, now the sheep
feeding close by; or, as night draws on, gaze into
limitless space and see the stars millions upon
millions of miles away, that at every moment the
focus of our eye is altering, the iris is contracting
or expanding, and myriads of images are being
formed one after the other in that little dark cham-
FAR SIGHT AND NEAR SIGHT 35

ber, through which pass all the scenes of the outer
world |

“Yet even this wonderful eye cannot show us every-
thing. Some see farther than others, some see more
minutely than others, according as the lens of the eye
is flatter in one person and more rounded in another.
But the most long-sighted person could never have
discovered the planet Neptune, more than 2700
millions of miles distant from us, nor could the keenest-
sighted have known of the existence of those minute
and beautiful little plants, called diatoms, which live
around us wherever water is found, and form delicate
flint skeletons so infinitesimally small that thousands
of millions go to form one cubic inch of the stone
called tripoli, found at Bilin in Bohemia.

“Tt is here that our ‘magic glasses’ come to our
assistance, and reveal to us what was before invisible.
Fig. 13.

woh



7
i
BID nnn nnn eee

i)

Arrow magnified by a convex lens,
a, 6, Real arrow, C, D, Magnifying-glass, A, B, Enlarged
z image of the arrow,

We learnt just now that we see near things by the

lens of our eye becoming more rounded in front ; but
5
36 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

there comes a point beyond which the lens cannot
bulge any more, so that when a thing is very tiny,
and would have to be held very close to the eye for
us to see it, the lens can no longer collect the rays
to a focus, so we see nothing but a blur. More than
800 years ago an Arabian, named Alhazen, explained
why rounded or convex glasses make things appear
larger when placed before the eye. This glass which
I hold in my hand is a simple
magnifying-glass, such as we
@ used for focusing the candle-
flame. It bends the rays in-
wards from any small object
(see the arrow a, 4, Fig. 13) so
that the lens of our eye can
use them, and then, as we
follow out the rays in straight
lines to the place where wé
see clearly (at A, B), every
point of the object is magni-
fied, and we not only see it
much larger, but every mark
upon it is much more distinct.
You all know how the little
— shilling magnifying - glasses
Student’s microscope. you carry show the most
ce, Eyepiece. 0, g, Object. lovely and delicate structures
cass in flowers, on the wings of
butterflies, on the head of a bee or fly, and, in fact,
in all minute living things.
“ But this is only our first step. Those diatoms we
spoke of just now will only look like minute specks

Fig. 14.


THE MICROSCOPE

under even the strongest magnifying-glass.

pass on to use two extra
lenses to assist our eyes,
and come to this com-
pound microscope (Fig. 14)
through which I have be-
fore now shown you the
delicate markings on shells
which were themselves so
minute that you could not
see them with the naked
eye. Now we have to dis-
cover how the microscope
performs this feat. Going
back again for a minute
to our candle and magnify-
ing-glass (Fig. 12), you will
find that the nearer you put
the lens to the candle the
farther away you will have
to put the paper to get a

clear image. When in a
microscope we put a
powerful lens 0, Z close

down to a very minute
object, say a spicule of a
flint sponge s, s, quite in-
visible to the unaided eye,
the rays from this spicule
are brought to a focus a
long way behind it at s’, s’,
making an enlarged image

37

So we

Fig. 15.



Skeleton of a microscope, showing
how an object is magnified,

o, Z, Object-lens. e, g, Eye-glass.

Spicule. 5’, s’, Magnified

image of same in the tube.

S, S, Image again enlarged by

the lens of the eye-piece,

J,5,
38 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

because the lines of light have been diverging ever
since they crossed in the lens. If you could put a
piece of paper at s’ 5’, as you did in the candle
experiment, you would see the actual image of the
magnified spicule upon it. But as these points of
light are only in an empty tube, they pass on, spread-
ing out again from the image, as they did before from
the spicule. Then another convex lens or eye-
glass e,g is put at the top of the microscope at
the proper distance to bend these rays so that they
enter our eye. in nearly parallel lines, exactly as we
saw in the ordinary magnifying-glass (Fig. 13), and
our crystalline lens can then bring them to a focus
on our retina.

“ By this time the spicule has been twice magnified ;
or, in other words, the rays of light coming from it
have been twice bent towards each other, so that
when our eye follows them out in straight lines they
are widely spread, and we see every point of light so
clearly that all the spots and markings on this
minute spicule are as clear as if it were really as
large as it looks to us.

“This is simply the principle of the microscope.
When you come to look at your own instruments, -
though they are very ordinary ones, you will find that
the object-glass 0, / is made of three lenses, flat on the
side nearest the tube, and each lens is composed of
two kinds of glass in order to correct the unequal
refraction of the rays, and prevent fringes of colour
appearing at the edge of the lens. Then again the
eye-piece will be a short tube with a lens at each
end, and halfway between them a black ledge will be
WHAT THE MICROSCOPE REVEALS 39

seen inside the tube which acts like the iris of our
eye (¢, Fig. 11) and cuts off the rays passing through
the edges of the lens. All these are devices to cor-
rect faults in the microscope which our eye corrects
for itself, and they have enabled opticians to make
very powerful lenses.

“Look now at the diagram (Fig. 16) showing a
group of diatoms which you can see under the
microscope after the lecture. Notice the lovely
patterns, the delicate tracery, and the fine lines on
the diatoms shown there. Yet each of these minute
flint ‘skeletons, if laid on a piece of glass by itself,
would be quite in- Fig. 16,
visible to the naked
eye, while hundreds
of them together
only look like a
faint mist on the
slide on which they
lie. Nor are they
even here shown as
much magnified as
they might be;
under a stronger
power we should
see those delicate

lines on the diatoms Fossil diatoms seen under the microscope.
broken u p into The largest of these is an almost imperceptible
speck to the naked eye,



minute round cups.

“Is it not wonderful and delightful to think that
we are able to add in this way to the power of our
eyes, till it seems as if there were no limit to the
40 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

hidden beauties of the minute forms of our earth, if
only we can discover them ?

“ But our globe does not stand alone in the universe,
and we want not only to learn all about everything
we find upon it, but also to look out into the vast
space around us and discover as much as we can
about the myriads of suns and planets, comets and
meteorites, star-mists and nebula, which are to be
found there. Even with the naked eye we can admire
the grand planet Saturn, which is more than 800
millions of miles away, and this in itself is very
marvellous. Who would have thought that our tiny
crystalline lens would be able to catch and focus
rays, sent all this enormous distance, so as actually
to make a picture on our retina of a planet, which,
like the moon, is only sending back to us the light
of the sun? For, remember, the rays which come to
us from Saturn must have travelled twice 800 millions
of miles—884 millions from the sun to the planet,
and less or more from the planet back to us, according
to our position at the time. But this is as nothing
when compared to the enormous distances over which
light travels from the stars to us. Even the nearest
star we know of, is at least twenty wzz/lions of millions
of miles away, and the light from it, though travelling
at the rate of 186,300 miles in a second, takes four
years and four months to reach us, while the light from
others, which we can see without a telescope, is be-
tween twenty and thirty years on its road. Does not
the thought fill us with awe, that our little eye should
be able to span such vast distances ?

“But we are not yet nearly at the end of our
THE TELESCOPE 41

wonder, for the same power which devised our eye
gave us also the mind capable of inventing an instru-
ment which increases the strength of that eye till we
can actually see stars so far off that their light takes
two thousand years coming to our globe. If the
microscope delights us in helping us to see things
invisible without it, because they are so small, surely
the telescope is fascinating beyond all other magic
glasses when we think that it brings heavenly bodies,
thousands of billions of miles away, so close to us
that we can examine them.

“A Telescope (Fig. 17) can, like the microscope, be
made of only two glasses: an object-glass to form

an image in the tube and
Peg
Ld

Fig. 17.

a magnifying eye-piece
to enlarge it. But there
is this difference, that the
object lens of a micro-
scope is put close down
to a minute object, so
that the rays fall upon
it at a wide angle, and
the image formed in the .
tube is very much larger
than the object outside.
In the telescope, on the
contrary, the thing we \
look at is far off, so that An astronomical ieeecones
the rays fall on the & Eye-piece. cs Object-glass.
object-glass at such a Jere:

very narrow angle as to be practically parallel, and the
image in the tube is of course very, very much smaller


42 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

than the house, or church, or planet it pictures.
What the object-glass of the telescope does for us, is
to bring a small real cmage of an object very far off
close to us in the tube of the telescope so that we
can examine it.

“Think for a moment what this means. Imagine
that star we spoke of (p. 41), whose light, travelling
186,300 miles in one second, still takes 2000
years to reach us. Picture the tiny waves of light
crossing the countless billions of miles of space
during those two thousand years, and reaching us so
widely spread out that the few faint rays which
strike our eye are quite useless, and for us that star
has no existence ; we cannot see it. Then go and
ask the giant telescope, by turning the object-glass
in the direction where that star lies in infinite space.
The widespread rays are collected and come to a
minute bright image in the dark tube. You put the
eye-piece to this image, and there, under your eye, is
a shining point: this is the image of the star, which
otherwise would be lost to you in the mighty
distance.

“Can any magic tale be more marvellous, or any
thought grander, or more sublime than this? From
my little chamber, by making use of the laws of light,
which are the same wherever we turn, we can pene-
trate into depths so vast that we are not able even
to measure them, and bring back unseen stars to tell
us the secrets of the mighty universe. As far as the
stars are concerned, whether we see them or not
depends entirely upon the number of rays collected
by the object-glass ; for at such enormous distances
HOW THE TELESCOPE MAGNIFIES 43

the rays have no angle that we can measure, and
magnify as you will, the brightest star only remains
a point of light. It is in order to collect enough
rays that astronomers have tried to have larger and
larger object-glasses ; so that while a small good
hand telescope, such as you use, may have an object-
glass measuring only an inch and a quarter across,
some of the giant telescopes have lenses of two anda
half feet, or thirty inches, diameter. These enormous
lenses are very difficult to make and manage, and have
many faults, therefore astronomical telescopes are
often made with curved mirrors to reflect the rays,
and bring them to a focus instead of refracting them
as curved lenses do.

“We see, then, that one very important use of the
telescope is to bring objects into view which otherwise
we would never see; for, as I have already said,
though we bring the stars into sight, we cannot
magnify them. But whenever an object is near
enough for the rays to fall even at a very small
perceptible angle on the object-glass, then we can
magnify them ; and the longer the telescope, and the
stronger the eye-piece, the more the object is magnified.

“T want you to understand the meaning of this, for
it is really very simple, only it requires a little thought.
Here are skeleton drawings of two telescopes (Fig.
18), one double the length of the other. Let us
suppose that two people are using them to look at
an arrow on a weathercock a long distance off. The
rays of light 7, 7 from the two ends of the arrow will
enter both telescopes at the same angle +, x, ~ cross
in the lens, and pass*on at exactly the same angle into
44

Fig. 18.



Skeletons of telescopes.

A, A one-foot telescope with
a three-inch eye-piece. B, A
two-foot telescope with a three-
inch eye-piece. e, 9, Eye-piece.
0, g, Object-glass. 7, 7, Rays
which enter the telescopes and
crossing at x form an image
at z, z, which is magnified by
the lense, #. The angles”, x, r
and z, x,z are the same. In
A the angle z, 0, 7 is four times
greater than that of z, x, z. In
B it is eight times greater.

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the tubes. So far all is alike,
but now comes the difference.
In the short telescope A the
object-glass must be of such a
curve as to bring the cones of
light in each ray to a focus at
a distance of one foot behind
it! and there a small image 2, z
of the arrow is formed. But B
being twice the length, allows
the lens to be less curved, and
the image to be formed ¢zvo feet
behind the object-glass ; and
as the rays 7, 7 have been d-
verging ever since they crossed
at x, the real image of the
arrow formed at 2, zis twice the
size of the same image in A.
Nevertheless, if you could put
a piece of paper at z,zin both
telescopes, and look through
the object-glass (which you
cannot actually do, because
your head would block out the
rays), the arrow would appear
the same size in both tele-
scopes, because one would be
twice as far off from you as
the other, and the angle z, x, 7
is the same in both.

1 In our Fig. 18 the distances are inches.,instead of feet, but the pro-

portions are the same.
WHAT SMALL TELESCOPES .CAN DO 45

“But by going to the proper end of the telescope
you can get quite near the image, and can see and
magnify it, if you put a strong lens to collect the rays
from it toa focus, This is the use of the eye-piece,
which in our diagram is placed at a quarter of a
foot or three inches from the image in both tele-
scopes. Now that we are close to the images, the
divergence of the points ¢, 7 makes a great difference.
In the small telescope, in which the image is only
one foot behind the object-glass, the eye-piece being
a quarter of a foot from it, is four times nearer, so
the angle 2, 0,7 is four times the angle 7, x, z, and the
man looking through it sees the image magnified
four times. But in the longer telescope the-image
is two feet behind the lens, while the eye-piece is,
as before, a quarter of a foot from it. Thus the eye-
piece is now eight times nearer, so the angle 2, a, z is
eight times the angle z, x, 4, and the observer sees the
image magnified eight times.

“In real telescopes, where the difference between
the focal length of the object-glass and that of the
eye-glass can be made enormously greater, the
magnifying power is quite startling, only the object-
glass must be large, so as to collect enough rays to
bear spreading widely. Even in your small tele-
scopes, with a focus of eighteen inches, and an object-
glass measuring one and a quarter inch across, we
can put on a quarter of an inch eye-piece, and so
magnify seventy-two times ; while in my observatory
telescope, eight feet or ninety-six inches long, an
eye-piece of half an inch magnifies 192 times, and I
can put on a 4-inch eye-piece and magnify 768
46 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

times! And so we can go on lengthening the
focus of the object-glass and shortening the focus
of the eye-piece, till in Lord Rosse’s gigantic
fifty-six-foot telescope, in which the image is fifty-
four feet (648 inches) behind the object-glass, an
eye-piece one-eighth of an inch from the image
magnifies 5184 times! These giant telescopes, how-
ever, require an enormous object-glass or mirror, for
the points of light are so spread out in making the
large image that it is very faint unless an enor-
mous number of rays are collected. Lord Rosse’s
telescope has a reflecting mirror measuring six feet
across, and a man can walk upright in the telescope
tube. The most powerful telescope yet made is that
at the Lick Observatory, on Mount Hamilton, in
California. It is fifty-six and a half feet long, the
object-lens measures thirty-six inches across. A
star seen through this telescope appears 2000 times
as bright as when seen with the naked eye.

“You need not, however, wait for an opportunity
to look through giant telescopes, for my small
student’s telescope, only four feet long, which we
carry out on to the lawn, will show you endless
unseen wonders; while your hand telescopes, and
even a common opera-glass, will show many features
on the face of the moon, and enable you to see the
crescent of Venus, Jupiter’s moons, and Saturn’s
rings, besides hundreds of stars unseen by the naked
eye.

“Of course you will understand that Fig. 18 only
shows the principle of the telescope. In all good
instruments the lenses and other parts are more
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA 47

complicated ; and ina terrestrial telescope, for looking
at objects on the earth, another lens has to be put
in to turn them right way up again. In looking at
the sky it does not matter which way up we see a
planet or a star,.so the second glass is not needed,
and we lose light by using it.

“We have now three magic glasses to work for
us—the magnifying-glass, the microscope, and the
telescope. Besides these, however, we have two other
helpers, if possible even more wonderful. These are
the Photographic camera and the Spectroscope.

“Now that we thoroughly understand the use of
lenses, I need — scarcely
explain this photographic
camera (Fig. 19), for it is
clearly an artificial eye.. In
place of the crystalline lens
(compare with Fig. 11) the
photographer uses one, or
generally two lenses Z 2, with
a black ledge or stop s be-
tween them, which acts like
the iris in cutting off the
rays too near the edge of the
lens. The dark camera ¢
" answers to the dark chamber
of the eyeball, and the Z, 2, Lenses, s,s, Screen cut-
plate p, p at the back of ting off diverging rays, cc, Slid-
the chamber, which is made i" >o% #, #, Picture formed.
sensitive by chemicals, answers our vetiva. The box
is formed of two parts, sliding one within the cther
at ¢, so as to place the plate at a proper .distance

6





Photographic camera.
48 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

from the lens, and then a screw adjusts the focus
more exactly by bringing the front lens back or for-
ward, instead of altering the curve as the cary
muscle does in our eye. The difference between the
two instruments is that in our eye the message
goes to the brain, and the image disappears when
we turn our eyes away from the object; but in
the camera the waves of light work upon the
chemicals, and the image can be fixed and remain
for ever.

“ But the camera has at least one weak point. The
screen at the back is not curved like our retina, but
must be flat because of printing off the pictures, and
therefore the parts of the photograph near the edge
are a little out of proportion.

“In many ways, however, this photographic eye is
a more faithful observer than our own, and helps us
to make more accurate pictures. For instance, in-
stantaneous photographs have been taken of a
galloping horse, and we find that the movements are
very different from what we thought we saw with
our eye, because our retina does not throw off one
impression after another quickly enough to be quite
certain we see each curve truly in succession. Again,
the photograph of a face gives minute curves and
lines, lights and shadows, far more perfectly than
even the best artist can see them, and when the
picture is magnified we see more and more details
which escaped us before.

“But it is especially when attached to the micro-
scope or the telescope that the photographic
apparatus tells us such marvellous secrets; giving
WHAT PHOTOGRAPHS CAN SHOW 49

us, for instance, an accurate picture of the most
minute water-animal quite invisible to the naked eye,
so that when we enlarge the photograph any one can
see the beautiful markings, the finest fibre, or the
tiniest granule; or affording us accurate pictures,
such as the one at p. 19 of the face of the moon, and
bringing stars into view which we cannot otherwise
sce even with the strongest telescope.

“Our own eye has many weaknesses. For ex-
ample, when we look through the telescope at the
sky we can only fix our attention on one part at
once, and afterwards on another; and the picture
which we see in this way, bit by bit, we must draw
as best we can. But if we put a sensitive photo-
graphic plate into the telescope just at the point (Z, 7,
Fig. 18), where the zwage of the sky is focused,
this plate gives attention, so to speak, to the whole
picture at once, and registers every point exactly as
it is; and this picture can be kept and enlarged so
that every detail can be seen.

“ Then, again, if we look at faint stars, they do not
grow any brighter as we look. Each ray sends its
message to the brain, and that is all; we cannot
heap them up in our eye, and, indeed, after a time
we see less, because our nerves grow tired. But on
a photographic plate in a telescope, each ray in its
turn does a little work upon the chemicals, and the
longer the plate remains, the stronger the picture
becomes. When wet plates were used they could
not be Icft long, but since dry plates have been
invented, with a film of chemically prepared gelatine,
they can be left for hours in the telescope, which is
50 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

kept by clockwork accurately opposite to the same
objects. In this way thousands of faint stars, which
we cannot see with the strongest telescope, creep
into view as their feeble rays work over and over
again on the same spot; and, as the brighter stars
as well as the faint ones are all the time making
their impression stronger, when the plate comes out
each one appears in its proper strength. On the
other hand, very bright objects often become blurred
by a long exposure, so that we have sometimes to
sacrifice the clearness of a bright object in order to
print faint objects clearly.

“We now come to our last magic glass—the
Spectroscope ; and the hour has slipped by so fast
that I have very little time left to speak of it. But
this matters less as we have studied it before! 1
need now only remind you of some of the facts. You
will remember that when we passed sunlight through
a three-sided piece of glass called a prism, we broke
-up a ray of white light into a line of beautiful
colours gradually passing from red, through orange,
yellow, green, blue, and indigo, to violet, and that
these follow in the same order as we see them in the
rainbow or in the thin film of a soap-bubble. By
various experiments we proved that these colours are
separated from each other because the many waves
which make up white light are of different sizes, so
that because the waves of red light are slow and
heavy, they lag behind when bent in the three-sided
glass, while the rapid violet waves are bent more out

l Fairyland -of Science, Lecture 1I.; and Short History of Natural
Science, chapter xxxiv,
THE SPECTROSCOPE 5l

of their road and run to the farther end of the line,
the other colours ranging themselves between.
“Now when the light falls through the open
window, or through a round hole or J/arge slit, the
images of the hole made by each coloured wave
overlap each other very much, and the colours in
the spectrum or coloured band are crowded together.
But when in the spectroscope we pass the ray of light
through a very narrow slit, each coloured image of the

Fig. 20.





























































Kirchhoff’s spectroscope,
A, The telescope which receives the ray of light
through the slit in O,

upright slit overlaps the next upright image only
very little. By using several prisms one after the
other (see Fig. 21), these upright coloured lines are
separated more and more till we get a very long
band or spectrum. Yet, as you know from our
experiments with the light of a glowing wire or of
molten iron, however much you spread out the light
52 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

given by a solid or liquid, you can never separate
these coloured lines from each other. It is only
‘when you throw the light of a glowing gas or vapour
into the slit that you get a few bright lines standing
out alone. This is because a@// the rays of white light
are present in glowing solids and liquids, and they
follow each other too closely to be separated. But
a gas, such as glowing hydrogen for example, gives
out only a few separate rays, which, pouring through
the slit, throw red, grcenish-blue, and dark blue lines
on the screen. Thus
you have seen the
double, orange-yellow
sodium line (3, Plate I.)
which starts out at
once when salt is held
in a flame and _ its
light thrown into the
spectroscope, and the
red line of potassium
vapour under the same
ee a treatment; and we
Passage of rays through the spectroscope. shall observe these

S, S’, Slit through which the light falls again when we study
on the prisms. 1, 2, 3, 4, Prisms in
which the rays are dispersed more and
more. a, 4, Screen receiving the spectrum, the sun and stars.
of which the seven principal colours are “We See,. then, that

marked. the work of our magic
glass, the spectroscope, is simply to sift the waves
of light, and that these waves, from their colour
and their position in the long spectrum, actually tell
us what glowing gases have started them on their





the coloured lights of
WHAT THE SPECTROSCOFPE CAN SHOW 353

road. Is not this like magic? I take a substance
made of I know not what ; I break it up, and, melting
it in the intense heat of an electric spark, throw its
light into the spectroscope. Then, as I examine this
light after it has been spread out by the prisms, I
can actually read by unmistakable lines what metals
or non-metals it contains. Nay, more; when I catch
the light of a star, or even of a faint nebula, in my
telescope, and pass it through these prisms, there,
written up on the magic-coloured band, I read off
the gases which are glowing in that star-sun or
star-dust billions of miles away.

“ Now, boys, I have let you into the secrets of my
five magic glasses—the magnifying-glass, the micro-
scope, the telescope, the photographic camera, and
the spectroscope. With these and the help. of
chemistry you can learn to work all my spells. You
can peep into the mysteries of the life of the tiniest
: being which moves unseen under your feet; you
can peer into that vast universe, which we can never
visit so long as our bodies hold us down to our
little earth; you can make the unseen stars print
their spots of light on the paper you hold in your
hand, by means of light-waves, which left them
hundreds of years ago; or you can sift this light in
your spectroscope, and make it tell yow what sub-
stances were glowing in that star when they were
started on their road. All this you can do on one
condition, namely, that you seek patiently to know
the truth.

“Stories of days long gone by tell us of true magi-
cians and false magicians, and the good or evil they
54 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wrought. Of these I know nothing, but I do know
this, that the value of the spells you can work with
my magic glasses depends entirely upon whether you
work patiently, accurately, and honestly. If you
make careless, inaccurate experiments, and draw
hasty conclusions, you will only do bad work, which
it may take others years to undo; but if you
question your instruments honestly and carefully,
they will answer truly and faithfully. You may
make many mistakes, but one experiment will correct
the other; and while you are storing up in your
own mind knowledge which lifts you far above this

little world, or enables you to look deep below the
‘ outward surface of life, you may add your little
group of facts to the general store, and help to pave
the way to such grand discoveries as those of Newton
in astronomy, Bunsen and Kirchhoff in spectrum
analysis, and Darwin in the world of life.”
FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE 355

CHAPTER III

FAIRY RINGS AND HOW THEY ARE MADE

fi) was a lovely warm day in
September, the golden corn
had been cut and carted,
and the waggons of the
farmers around were frce
for the use of the college
lads in their yearly autumn
holiday. There they stood
in a long row, one behind
the other in the drive round the
grounds, each with a pair of
sleek, powerful farm-horses, and
: the waggoners beside them with
their long whips ornamented with coloured ribbons ;
and as each waggon drew up before the door, it
filled rapidly with its merry load and went on its
way.

They had a long drive of seven miles before them,
for they were going to cross the wild moor, and then
descend gradually along a fairly good road to the
more wooded and fertile country. Their object that


56 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

day was to reach a certain fairy dell known to a few
only among the party as one of the loveliest spots in
Devon. It was a perfect day for a picnic. As
they drove over the wide stretches of moorland, with
tors to right and tors to the left, the stunted furze
bushes growing here and there glistened with spiders’
webs from which the dew had not yet disappeared,
and mosses in great variety carpeted the ground,
from the lovely thread-mosses, with their scarlet
caps, to the pale sphagnum of the bogs, where a halt
was made for some of the botanists of the party to
search for the little Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia).
Though this little plant had now almost ceased to
flower, it was not difficult to recognise by its rosette
of leaves glistening with sticky glands which it
spreads out in many of the Dartmoor bogs to catch
the tiny flies and suck out their life’s blood, and
several specimens were uprooted and carefully packed
away to plant in moist moss at home.

From this bog onwards the road ran near by one
of the lovely streams which feed the rivers below, and,
passing across a bridge covered with ivy, led through
a small forest of stunted trees round which the wood-
bine clung, hanging down its crimson berries, and the
bracken fern, already putting on its brown and yellow
tints, grew tall and thick on either side. Then, as
they passed out of the wood, they came upon the
dell, a piece of wild moorland lying in a hollow
between two granite ridges, with large blocks of
granite strewn over it here and there, and furze bushes
growing under their shelter, still covered with yellow
blossoms together with countless seed-bearing pods,
FAIRY RINGS IN A DELL 57

which the youngsters soon gathered for the shiny
black seeds within them.

Here the waggons were unspanned, the horses
tethered out, the food unpacked, and preparations for
the picnic soon in full swing. Just at this moment,
however, a loud shout from one part of the dell called
every one’s attention. “The fairy rings! the fairy
rings! we have found the fairy rings!” and there
truly on the brown sward might be seen three deli-
cate green rings, the fresh sprouting grass growing
young and tender in perfect circles measuring from
six feet to nearly three yards across.

“What are they?” The question came from many
voices at once, but it was the Principal who answered.

“ Why, do you not know that they are pixie circles,
where the ‘elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and
groves’ hold their revels, whirling in giddy round,
and making the rings, ‘whereof the ewe not bites’?
Have you forgotten how Mrs. Quickly, in the AZerry
Wives of Windsor, tells us that

“nightly, meadow-fairies, look you sing,
Like to the Garter’s compass, in a ring:
The expressure that it bears, green let it be,
More fertile-fresh than all the field to see’?

“If we are magicians and work spells under magic
glasses, why should not the pixies work spells on the
grass? I brought you here to-day on purpose to
see them. Which of you now can name the pixie
who makes them ?”

A. deep silence followed. If any knew or guessed
the truth of the matter, they were too shy to risk
making a mistake,
58 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

“Be off with you then,” said the Principal, “and
keep well away from these rings all day, that you
may not disturb the spell. But come back to me
before we return at night, and perhaps I may show
you the wonder-working pixie, and we may take him
home to examine under the microscope.”

The day passed as such happy days do, and the
glorious harvest moon had risen over the distant
tors before the horses were spanned and the waggons
ready. But the Principal was not at the starting
place, and looking round they saw him at the farther
end of the dell.

“Gently, gently,” he cried, as there was one general
rush towards him ; “look where you tread, for I stand
within a ring of fairies!”

And then they saw that just outside the green
circle in which he stood, forming here and there a
broken ring, were patches of a beautiful tiny mush-
room, each of which raised its pale brown umbrella
in the bright moonlight.

“Here are our fairies, boys. I am going to take
a few home where they can be spared from the ring,
and to-morrow we will learn their history.”

The following day saw the class-room full, and
from the benches eager eyes were turned to the
eight windows, in each of which stood one of the
elder boys at his microscope ready for work. For
under those microscopes the Principal always arranged
some object referred to in his lecture and figured in
diagrams on the walls, and it was the duty of each
boy, after the lecture was over, to show and explain
IMPS AND PIXIES OF PLANI-LIFE 59

to the class all the points of the specimen under
his care. These boys were always specially envied,
for though the others could, it is true, follow all the
descriptions from the diagrams, yet these had the
plant or animal always under their eye. Discussion
was at this moment running high, for there was a
great uncertainty of opinion as to whether a mush-
room could be really called a plant when it had no
leaves or flowers. All at once the hush came, as the
Principal stepped into his desk and began :—

“Life is hard work, boys, and there is no being
in this world which has not to work for its living.
You all know that a plant grows by taking in gases
and water, and working them up into sap and living
tissue by the help of the sunshine and the green
matter in their leaves; and you know, too, that
the world is so full of green plants that hundreds
and thousands of young seedlings can never get a
living, but are stifled in their babyhood or destroyed
before they can grow up.

“Now there are many dark, dank places in the
world where plants cannot get enough sunlight
and air to make green colouring matter and manu-
facture their own food. And so it comes to pass
that a certain class of plants have found another
way of living, by taking their food ready made
from other decaying plants and animals, and so
avoiding the necessity of manufacturing it for them-
selves. These plants can live hidden away in dark
cellars and damp cupboards, in drains and pipes
where no light ever enters, under a thick covering of
dead leaves in the forest, under fallen trunks and

7
60 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

mossy stones; in fact, wherever decaying matter,
whether of plant or animal, can be found for them
to feed upon.

“It is to this class, called fwagz, which includes
all mushrooms and moulds, mildews, smuts, and
ferments, that the mushroom belongs which we
found yesterday making the fairy rings. And, in
truth, we were not so far wrong when we called
them pixies or imps, for many of them are indeed
imps of mischief, which play sorry pranks in our
stores at home and in the fields and forest abroad.
They grow on our damp bread, or cheese, or pickles ;
they destroy fruit and corn, hop and vine, and even
take the life of insects and other animals. Yet, on
the other hand, they are useful in clearing out un-
healthy nooks and corners, and purifying the air;
and they can be made to do good work by those
who know how to use them; for without ferments
we could have neither wine, beer, nor vinegar, nor
even the yeast which lightens our bread.

“Tam going to-day to introduce you to this large
vagabond class of plants, that we may see how they
live, grow, and spread, what good and bad work
they do, and how they do it. And before we come
to the mushrooms, which you know so well, we must
look at the smaller forms, which do all their work
above ground, so that we can observe them. For the
fungi are to be found almost everywhere. The film
growing over manure-heaps, the yeast plant, the wine
fungus, and the vinegar plant; the moulds and mil-
dews covering our cellar-walls and cupboards, or
growing on decayed leaves and wood, on stale fruit,
MOULDS AND MILDEWS 61

bread, or jam, or making black spots on the leaves
of the rose, the hop, or the vine; the potato fungus,
eating into the potato in the dark ground and pro-
ducing disease ; the smut filling the grains of wheat
and oats with disease, the ergot feeding on the rye,
the rust which destroys beetroot, the rank toadstools
and puff-balls, the mushroom we eat, and the truffles
which form even their fruit underground,—all these
are fungt, or lowly plants which have given up mak-
ing their own food in the sunlight, and take it ready
made from the dung, the decaying mould, the root,
the leaf, the fruit, or the germ on which they grow.
Lastly, the diseases which kill the silkworm and the
common house-fly, and even some of the worst skin
diseases in man, are caused by minute plants of this
class feeding upon their hosts.

“In fact, the fungi are so widely spread over all
things living and dead, that there is scarcely any-
thing free from them in one shape or another. The

Fig. 22.



Three forms of vegetable mould magnified.
1, Mucor Mucedo. 2, Aspergillus glaucus. 3, Penicillium glaucum,

minute spores, now of one kind, now of another,
float in the air, and settling down wherever they
find suitable food, have nothing more to do than
62 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to feed, fatten, and increase, which they do with
wonderful rapidity. Let us take as an example
one of the moulds which covers damp leaves, and
even the paste and jam in our cupboard. I have
some here growing upon a basin of paste, and you
see it forms a kind of dense white fur all over the
surface, with here and there a bluish-green tinge
upon it. This white fur is the common mould, Mucor
Mucedo (1, Fig. 22), and the green mould happens in
this case to be another mould, Penicillium glaucum
(3, Fig. 22); but I must warn you that these minute
moulds look very much. alike until you examine
them under the microscope, and though they are
called white, blue, or green moulds, yet any one of
them may be coloured at different times of its
growth. Another very common and beautiful mould,
Aspergillus glaucus (2, Fig. 22), often grows with
Mucor on the top of jam.

“All these plants begin with a spore or minute
colourless cell of living matter (s, Fig. 23), which
spends its energy in sending out tubes in all direc-
tions into the leaves, fruit, or paste on which it feeds,
The living matter, flowing now this way now that,
lays down the walls of its tubes as it flows, and by
and by, here and there, a tube, instead of working
into the paste, grows upwards into the air and
swells at the tip into a colourless ball in which
a number of minute seed-like bodies called spores are
formed. The ball bursts, the spores fall out, and each
one begins to form fresh tubes, and so little by little
the mould grows denser and thicker by new plants
starting in all directions.
HOW MOULDS GROW 63

“Under the first microscope you will see a slide
showing the tubes which spread through the paste,
and which are called the mycelium (m, Fig. 23), and

amongst it are three upright
tubes, one just starting a,
another with the fruit ball
forming 6, and a third «,
which is bursting and throw-
ing out the spores. The
Aspergillus and the Peuicil-
lium differ from the Mucor in
having their spores naked
and not enclosed in a spore-
case. In Penzcillium they
grow like the beads of a
necklace one above the other
on the top of the upright
tube, and can very easily be
separated (see Fig. 22); while
Aspergillus, a most lovely
silvery mould, is more com-
plicated in the growth of its
spores, for it bears them on
many rows branching out
from the top of the tube like
the rays of a star.

“T want you to look at
each of these moulds care-
fully under the microscope,
for few people who hastily
scrape a mould away, vexed

Fig. 23.



Afucor Mucedo, greatly magni-
nified. (After Sachs and
Brefeld. )

m, Mycelium, or tangle of
threads. a, 4, c, Upright tubes
in different stages. c, Spore-
case bursting and sending out
spores. 5,1, 2, 3, A growing
spore, in different stages, start-
ing a new mycelium,

to find it on food or

damp clothing, have any idea what a delicate and
64 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

beautiful structure lies under their hand. These
moulds live on decaying matter, but many of the
mildews, rusts, and other kinds of fungus, prey upon
living plants such as the suz of oats (Ustilago carbo),
and the dunt (Lilletia caria) which eats away the
inside of the grains of wheat, while another fungus
attacks its leaves. There is scarcely a tree or herb
which has not one fungus to prey upon it, and many
have several, as, for example, the common lime-tree,
which is infested by seventy-four different fungi, and
the oak by no less than 200.

“So these colourless food-taking plants prey upon
their neighbours, while they take their oxygen for
breathing from air. The ‘ferments, however, which
live zusede plants or fluids, take even their oxygen
for breathing from their hosts.

“If you go into the garden in summer and. pluck
an overripe gooseberry, which is bursting like this
one I have here, you will probably find that the pulp
looks unhealthy and rotten near the split, and the
gooseberry will taste tart and disagreeable. This is
because a small fungus has grown inside, and worked
a change in the juice of the fruit. At first this
fungus spread its tubes outside and merely fed upon
the fruit, using oxygen from the air in breathing;
but by and by the skin gave way, and the fungus
crept inside the gooseberry where it could no longer
get any fresh air. In this dilemma it was forced to
break up the sugar in the fruit and take the oxygen
out of it, leaving behind only alcohol and carbonic
acid which give the fermented taste to the fruit.

“So the fungus-imp feeds and grows in nature,
THE GROWTH OF YEAST 65

and when man gets hold of it he forces it to do
the same work for a useful purpose, for the grape-
fungus grows in the vats in which grapes are crushed
and kept away from air, and tearing up the sugar,
leaves alcohol behind in the grape-juice, which in
this way becomes wine. So, too, the yeast-fungus
grows in the malt and hop liquor, turning it into
beer; its spores floating in the fluid and increasing
at a marvellous rate, as any housewife knows who,
getting yeast for her bread, tries to keep it in a
corked bottle.

“The yeast plant has never been found wild. It
is only known as a cultivated plant, growing on
prepared liquor. The brewer has to sow it by taking
some yeast from other beer, or by leaving the liquor
exposed to air in which yeast spores are floating ;
or it will sow itself in the same Fig. 24.
way in a mixture of water, hops,
sugar, and salt, to which a handful
of flour is added. It increases at
a marvellous rate, one cell budding
out of another, while from time to
time the living matter in a cell will
break up into four parts instead of
_ two, and so four new cells will start — Veast cells growing
and bud. A drop of yeast will very under the microscope.
soon cover a glass slide with this %Sisle cells. 4, Two
4 : cells forming by division,
tiny plant, as you will see under ¢, A group of cells where
the second microscope, where they division is going on in
are now at work (Fig. 24). enc reihons:

“But perhaps the most curious of all the minute
fungi are those which grow inside insects and destroy


66 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

them. At this time of year you may often see a
dead fly sticking to the window-pane with a cloudy
white ring round it; this poor fly has been killed by
a little fungus called Empusa musce. A spore from
a former plant has fallen perhaps on the window-
pane, or some other spot over which the fly has
crawled, and being sticky has fixed itself under the
fly’s body. Once settled on a favourable spot it
sends out a tube, and piercing the skin of the fly,
begins to grow rapidly inside. There it forms little
round cells one after the other, something like the
yeast-cells, till it fills the whole body, feeding on its
juices ; then each cell sends a tube, like the upright
tubes of the Mucor (Fig. 23) out again through the
fly’s skin, and this tube bursts at the end, and so
new spores are set free. It is these tubes, and the
spores thrown from them, which you see forming a
kind of halo round the dead fly as it clings to the
pane. Other fungi in the same way kill the silk-
worm and the caterpillars of the cabbage butterfly.
Nor is it only the lower animals which suffer. When
we once realise that fungus spores are floating every-
where in the air, we can understand how the terrible
microscopic fungi called dacterta will settle on an
open wound and cause it to fester if it is not properly
dressed.

“Thus we see that these minute fungi are almost
everywhere. The larger ones, on the contrary, are
confined to the fields and forests, damp walls and
hollow trees; or wherever rotting wood, leaves, or
manure provide them with sufficient nourishment.
Few people have any clear ideas about the growth
HOW MUSHROOMS GROW. 67

of a mushroom, except that the part we pick springs
up in a single night. The real fact is, that a whole
mushroom plant is nothing more than a gigantic
mould or mildew, only that it is formed of many
different shaped
cells, and spreads
its tubes wnzder-
ground or through
the trunks of trees
instead of in paste
or jam, as in the
case of the mould.
“The part which
we gather and calla
mushroom, a_ toad-
stool, or a puffball is
only the fruit, answer-



Early stages of the mushroom.
(After Sachs. )
ing to the round balls x, Mycelium. 41-3, Mushroom buds of

of the mould. The different ages. 74, Button mushroom. &

Gills forming inside before lower attach.
ment of the cap gives way at v.

rest of the plant is
a thick network of
tubes, which you will see under the third micro-
scope. These tubes spread’ underground and suck
in decayed matter from the earth; they form the
mycelium (ut, Fig. 25) such as we found in the
mould, The mushroom-growers call it ‘mushroom
spawn’ because they use it to spread over the
ground for new crops. Out of these underground
tubes there springs up from time to time a
swollen round body no bigger at first than a mustard
seed (61, Fig. 25). As it increases in size it comes
above ground and grows into the mushroom or
68 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

spore-case, answering to the round balls which
contain the spores of the mould. At first this
swollen body is egg-shaped, the top half being
largest and broadest, and the fruit is then called
a ‘button-mushroom’ 64. Inside this ball are
now formed a series of folds made of long cells,
some of which are soon to bear spores just as the

id



Later stages of the mushroom. (After Gautier.)
rt, Button mushroom stage. c, Cap. v, Veil. & Gills.
2, Full-grown mushroom, showing veil v after the cap is quite
free, and the gills or lamella g, of which the structure is shown in
Fig. 27.

tubes in the mould did, and while these are forming
and ripening, a way out is preparing for them. For
as the mushroom grows, the skin of the lower part
of the ball (w, 64) is stretched more and more, till it
can bear the strain no longer and breaks away from
the stalk ; then the ball expands into an umbrella,
leaving a piece of torn skin, called the veil (v, Fig. 26),
clinging to the stalk.

“ All this happens in a single night, and the mush-
room is complete, with a stem up the centre and a
THE GROWTH OF MUSHROOM GILLS -69

broad cap, under which are the folds which bear the
spores. Thus much you can see for yourselves at any
time by finding a place where mushrooms grow and
‘looking for them late at night and early in the
morning so as to get the different stages. But now



1, One of the gills or lamellze of the mushroom slightly magnified,
showing the cells round the edge. c, Cells which do not bear
spores. fc, Fertile cells. 2, A piece of the edge of the same
powerfully magnified, showing how the spores s grow out of the
tip of the fertile cells 7. ,

we must turn to the microscope, and cutting off one
of the folds, which branch out under the cap like the
spokes of a wheel, take a slice across it (1, Fig. 27)
and examine.

“ First, under a moderate power, you will see the
cells forming the centre of the fold and the layer of
long cells (¢and fc) which are closely packed all round
the edge. Some of these cells project beyond the
others, and it is they which bear the spores. We
see this plainly under a very strong power when you
can distinguish the sterile cells c and the fertile cells
70 - THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

fe projecting beyond them, and each bearing four
spore-cells s on four little horns at its tip.

“These spores fall off very easily, and you can
make a pretty experiment by cutting off a large
mushroom head in the early morning and putting it
flat upon a piece of paper. In a few hours, if you
lift it very carefully, you will find a number of dark
lines on the paper, radiating from a centre like the
spokes of a wheel, each line being composed of the
spores which have fallen from a fold as it grew ripe.
They are so minute that many thousands would be
required to make up the size of the head of an ordin-
ary pin, yet if you gather the spores of the several
kinds of mushroom, and examine them under a strong
microscope, you will find that even these specks of
matter assume different shapes in the various species.

“You will be astonished too at the immense
number of spores contained in a single mushroom
head, for they are reckoned by millions; and when

-we remember that each one of these is the starting
point of a new plant, it reminds us forcibly of the
wholesale destruction of spores and seeds which must
go on in nature, otherwise the mushrooms and their
companions would soon cover every inch of the
whole world.

“ As it is, they are spread abroad by the wind, and
wherever they escape destruction they lie waiting in
every nook and corner till, after the hot summer,
showers of rain hasten the decay of plants and leaves,
and then the mushrooms, toadstools, and puffballs,
grow at an astounding pace. If you go into the woods
at this season you may see the enormous deep-red liver
THE FAIRY-RING MUSHROOM 71

fungus (/%stulina hepatica) growing on the oak-trees,
in patches which weigh from twenty to thirty pounds ;
or the glorious orange-coloured fungus (Tvemella
mesenterica) growing on bare sticks or stumps of
furze ; or among dead leaves you may easily chance
on the little caps of the crimson, scarlet, snowy white,
or orange-coloured fungi which grow in almost every
wood. From white to yellow, yellow to red, red to
crimson and purple black, there is hardly any colour
you may not find among this gaily-decked tribe ; and
who can wonder that the small bright-coloured caps
have been supposed to cover tiny imps or elves, who
used the large mushrooms to serve for their stools
and tables?

“There they work, thrusting their tubes into twigs
and dead branches, rotting trunks and decaying
leaves, breaking up the hard wood and_ tough
fibres, and building them up into delicate cells,
which by and by die and leave their remains as food
for the early growing plants in the spring. So we
see that in their way the mushrooms and toadstools
are good imps after all, for the tender shoot of a
young seedling plant could take no food out of a
hard tree-trunk, but it finds the work done for it by
the fungus, the rich nourishment being spread around
its young roots ready to be imbibed.

“To find our fairy-ring mushrooms, however, we
must leave the wood and go out into the open
country, especially on the downs and moors and
rough meadows, where the land is poor and the grass
coarse and spare. There grow the nourishing kinds,
most of which we can eat, and among these is the

8
72 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

delicate little champignon or ‘Scotch-bonnet’ mush-
room, Marasmzius Oreades,: which makes the fairy-
rings. When a spore of this mushroom begins to
grow, it sucks up vegetable food out of the earth and
spreads its tubes underground, in all directions from
the centre, so that the mycelium forms a round patch
like a thick underground circular cobweb. In the
summer and autumn, when the weather is suitable, it
sends up its delicate pale-brown caps, which we may
gather and eat without stopping the growth of the
plant.

“This goes on year after year underground, new
tubes always travelling outwards till the circle widens
and widens like the rings of water on a pond, only
that it spreads very slowly, making a new ring each
year, which is often composed of a mass of tubes as
much asa foot thick in the ground, and the tender
tubes in the centre die away as the new ones form a
larger hoop outside.

“But all this is below ground; where then are
our fairy rings? Here is the secret. The tubes, as
we have seen, take up food from the earth and
build it up into delicate cells, which decay very soon,
and as they die make a rich manure at the roots of
the grass. So each season the cells of last year’s ring
make a rich feeding-ground for the young grass,
which springs up fresh and green in a fairy ring,
while ouéside this emerald circle the mushroom tubes
are still growing and increasing underneath the grass,
so that next year, when the present ring is no longer
richly fed, and has become faded’ and brown like the

1 Shown in initial letter of this chapter.
HOW FAIRY RINGS ARE FORMED 73

rest of the moor, another ring will spring up outside
it, feeding on the prepared food below.

“In bad seasons, though the tubes go on spreading
and growing below, the mushroom fruit does not
always appear above ground. The plant will only
fruit freely when the ground has been well warmed
by the summer sun, followed by damp weather to
moisten it- This gives us a rich crop of mushrooms
all over the country, and it is then you can best
see the ring of fairy mushrooms circling outside the
green hoop of fresh grass. In any case the early
morning is the time to find them ; it is only in very
sheltered spots that they sometimes last through the
day, or come up towards evening, as I found them
last night on the warm damp side of the dell.

“This is the true history of fairy rings, and now go
and look for yourselves under ‘the microscopes.
Under the first three you will find the three different
kinds of mould of our diagram (Fig. 22). Under the
fourth the spores of the mould are shown in their
first growth putting out the tubes to form the
mycelium. The fifth shows the mould itself with its
fruit-bearing tubes, one of which is bursting. Under
the sixth the yeast plant is growing; the seventh
shows a slice of one of the folds of the common
mushroom with its spore-bearing horns; and under
the eighth I have put some spores from different
mushrooms, that you may see what curious shapes
they assume.

“Lastly, let me remind you, now that the autumn
and winter are coming, that you will find mush-
rooms, toadstools, puffballs, and moulds in plenty
74 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

wherever you go. Learn to know them, their differ-
ent shapes and colours, and above all the special
nooks each one chooses for its home. Look around
in the fields and woods and take note of the decay-
ing plants and trees, leaves and bark, insects and
dead remains of all kinds. Upon each of these you
will find some fungus growing, breaking up their
. tissues and devouring the nourishing food they pro-
vide. Watch these spots, and note the soft spongy
soil which will collect there, and then when the
spring comes, notice what tender plants flourish upon
these rich feeding grounds. You will thus see for
yourselves that the fungi, though they feed upon
others, are not entirely mischief-workers, but also
perform their part in the general work of life.”
THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES 75

CHAPTER IV

THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LICHENS AND MOSSES

* HE autumn has passed away
and we are in the midst
of winter. In the long
winter evenings the stars
shine bright and clear, and
tempt us to work with the telescope
and its helpmates the spectroscope
and photographic plates. But at
first sight it would seem as though
our microscopes would have to stand
idle so far at least as plants are
concerned, or be used only to ex-
amine dried specimens and mounted
sections. Yet this is not the fact, as I remembered
Jast week when walking through the bare and leafless
wood. the sound of my footsteps among the dead leaves
roused me from my thoughts, and as a young rabbit
scudded across the ._path and I watched it disappear
among the bushes, I. was suddenly struck with the



76 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

great mass of plant life flourishing underfoot and
overhead.

Can you guess what plants these were? I do
not mean the evergreen pines and firs, nor the few
hardy ferns, nor the lovely ivy clothing the trunks
of the trees. Such plants as these live and remain
green in the winter, but they do not grow. If you
wish to find plant life revelling in the cold damp
days of winter, fearing neither frost nor snow and
welcoming mist and rain, you must go to the mosses,
which as autumn passes away begin to cover the
wood-paths, to creep over the roots of the trees, to
suck up the water in the bogs, and even to clothe
dead walls and stones with a soft green carpet.
And with the mosses come the lichens, those curious
grey and greenish oddities which no one but a
botanist would think of classing among plants.

The wood is full of them now: the hairy lichens
hang from the branches of many of the trees, making
them look like old greybearded men; the leafy
lichens encircle the branches, their pale gray, green,
and yellow patches looking as if they were made of
crumpled paper cut into wavy plates ; and the crusty
lichens, scarcely distinguishable from the bark of the
trees, cover every. available space which the mosses
have left free.

As I looked at these lichens and thought of their
curious history I determined that we would study
them to-day, and gathered a basketful of specimens
(see Fig. 28). But when I had collected these I found
I had not the heart to leave the mosses behind. I
could not even break off a piece of bark with lichen
A GROUP OF LICHENS 77

upon it without some little moss coming too, especi-
ally the small thread-mosses (Bryuiz) which make a



Examples of Lichens. (From life.)
1, Ahairy lichen. 2, A leafy lichen. 3, A crustaceous lichen.
S/S, the fruit.

home for themselves in every nook and corner of the
branches ; while the feather-mosses, hair-mosses,
cord-mosses, and many others made such a lovely
carpet under my fect that each seemed too beautiful
to pass by, and they found their way into my basket,
crowned at the top with a large mass of the pale-
green Sphagnum, or bog-moss, into which I sank
more than ankle-deep as I crossed the bog in the
centre of the wood on my way home.

_ So here they all are, and I hope by the help of
our magic glass to let you into some of the secrets
of their lives. It is true we must study the structure
of lichens chiefly by diagrams, for it is too minute
for beginners to follow under the microscope, so we
must trust to drawings made by men more skilful in
microscopic botany, at any rate for the present. But
the mosses we can examine for ourselves and admire
their delicate leaves and wonderful tiny spore-cases.
78 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Now the first question which I hope you want to
ask is, how it is that these lowly plants flourish so
well in the depth of winter when their larger and
stronger companions die down to the ground. We
will answer this first as to the lichens, which are such
strange uncanny-looking plants that it is almost
difficult to imagine they are alive at all; and indeed
they have been a great puzzle to botanists.

Before we examine them, however, look for a
minute at a small drop of this greenish film which I
have taken from the rain-water taken outside. I
have put some under each microscope, and those
who can look into them will
see the slide almost covered
with small round green cells
very much like the yeast
cells we saw when studying
the Fungi, only that instead
of being colourless they are
a bright green. Some of
these cells will I suspect be
longer than others, and these
Single-celled green plants grow- long cells will be moving.

ing and dividing (Pleurococeus). Over the slide very rapidly,

Ceara swimming hither and thither,
and you will see, perhaps for the first time, that very
low plants can swim about in water. These green
cells are, indeed, the simplest of all plants, and
are merely bags of living matter which, by the help
of the green granules in them, are able to work up
water and gases into nourishing food, and so to live,
grow, and multiply.

Fig. 29.


WHERE SINGLE-CELLED PLANTS GROW 79

There are many kinds of these single-celled plants
in the world. You may find them on damp paths,
in almost any rain-water butt, in ponds and ditches,
in sparkling’ waterfalls, along the banks of flowing
rivers, and in the cold clear springs on the bleak
mountains. Some of them take the form of tangled
threads + composed of long strings of cells, and these
sometimes form long streamers in flowing water, and
at other times are gathered together in a shapeless
film only to be disentangled under a microscope.
Other kinds * wave to and fro on the water, forming
dense patches of violet, orange-brown, or glossy green
scum shining in the bright sunlight, and these flourish
equally in the ponds of our gardens and in pools in
the Himalaya mountains, 18,000 feet above the sea.
Others again® seize on every damp patch on tree
trunks, rocks, or moist walls, covering them with a
green powder formed of single plant cells. Other
species of this family turn a bright red colour when
the cells are still; and one, under the name of Gory
Dew,* has often frightened the peasants of Italy, by
growing very rapidly over damp walls and then
turning the colour of blood. Another*® forms the
“red snow” of the Arctic regions, where it covers
wide surfaces of snow with a deep red colour. Others ®
. form a shiny jelly over rocks and stones, and these
may be found almost everywhere, from the garden
path to the warm springs of India, from the marshes
of New Zealand up to the shores of the Arctic ocean,
and even on the surface of floating icebergs.

1 Conferva. 2 Oscillarve. 8 Protococcus.
+ Palmella cruenta. * Protococeus nivalis, 8 Nostoc.
Sone THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

The reason why these plants can live in such very
different regions is that they do not take their food
through roots out of the ground, but suck in water
and gases through the thin membrane which covers
their cell, and each cell does its own work. So it
matters very little to them where they lie, so long as
they have moisture and sunlight to help them in
their work. Wherever they are, if they have these,
they can take in carbonic acid from the air and
work up the carbon with other gases which they
imbibe with the water, and so make living material.
In this way they grow, and as a cell grows larger
the covering is stretched and part of the digested
food goes to build up more covering membrane, and
by and by the cell divides into two and each mem-
brane closes up, so that there are two single-celled
plants where there was only one before. This will
sometimes go on so fast that a small pond may be
covered in a few hours with a green film formed of
new cells.

Now we have seen, when studying mushrooms, that
the one difference between these green plants and the
single-celled Fungi is that while the green cells make
their own food, colourless cells can only take it in
ready-made, and therefore prey upon all kinds of
living matter. This is just what happens in the
lichens; and botanists have discovered that these
curious growths are really the result of a partnership
between single-celled green plants and single-celled

‘fungi. The grey part is a fungus; but when it is
examined under the microscope we find it is not a
fungus only; a number of green cells can be seen
HOW LICHENS SUCCEED 81

scattered through it, which, when carefully studied,
prove to be some species of the green single-celled
plants.

Here are two drawings of sections cut through
two different lichens, and
enormously magnified so
that the cells are clearly
seen. 1, Fig. 30 is part of
a hairy lichen (1, Fig. 28),
and 2 is part of a leafy
lichen (2, Fig. 28). The
hairy lichen as you see has
a row of green cells all round
the tiny branch, with fungus
cells on all sides of them.
The leafy lichen, which only
presents one surface to the
sun and air while the other
side is against the tree, has
only one layer of green cells
near the surface, but pro-

ae Sune

YES We
oe ne
xy Bae



Sections of Lichens. (Sachs.)
1, Section of a hairy lichen,
tected by the fungus above. Usnea barbata. 2, Section of a

The way the lichen has leafy lichen, Sticta fuliginosa.
grown is this. A green cell 3 Early growth of a lichen.

(ge 3 Fig. 30) falling on ge, Green cells. 7, Fungus.

some damp spot has begun to grow and spread,
working up food in the sunlight. To it comes
the spore of the fungus f first thrusting its tubes
into the tree-bark, or wall, and then spreading
round the green cells, which remain always in
such a position that sunlight, air, and moisture
can reach them. From this time the two classes of
82 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

plants live as friends, the fungus using part of the
food made by the green cells, and giving them in
return the advantage of being spread out to the
sunlight, while they are also protected in frosty or
sultry weather when they would dry up on a bare
surface. On the whole, however, the fungus probably
gains the most, for it has been found, as we should ©
expect, that the green cells can live and grow if
separated out of the lichen, but the fungus cells die
when their industrious companions are taken from
them.

At any rate the partnership succeeds, as you will
see if you go into the wood, or into an orchard where
the apple-trees are neglected, for every inch of the
branches is covered by lichens if not already taken
up by mosses or toadstools.

There is hardly any part of the world except the
tropics where lichens do not abound. In the Alps
of Scandinavia close to the limits of perpetual snow,
in the sandy wastes of Arctic America, and over the
dreary Tundras of Arctic Siberia, where the ground
is frozen hard during the greater part of the year,
they flourish where nothing else can live.

The little green cells multiply by dividing, as we
saw them doing in. the green film from the water-
butt. The fungus, however, has many different
modes of seeding itself. One of these is by form-
ing little pockets in the lichen, out of which, when
they burst, small round bodies are thrown, which
cover the lichen witha minute green powder. There
is plenty of this powder on the leafy lichen which
you have by you. You can see it with the magnify-
_- HOW .LICHENS FRUIT. 83

ing-glass, without putting it under the microscope.
As long as the lichen is dry these round bodies do
not grow, but as soon as moisture reaches them they
start away and become new plants.

A more complicated and beautiful process is shown
in this diagram (Fig. 31). If you look carefully at
the leafy lichen (2, Fig. 28) you will find here and
there some. little cups 74 while others grow upon the



Fructification of a lichen. (From Sachs and Oliver.)
Apothecium or spore-chamber of a lichen. 1, Closed. 2, Open.
3, The spore-cases and filaments enlarged, showing the spores. /, Fila-
ments. s¢, Spore-cases. 5, Spores.

tips of the hairy lichen. These cups, or fruits,
were once closed, flask-shaped chambers (1, Fig.
31) inside which are formed a number of oval
cells se, which are spore-cases, with from four to eight
spores or seed-like bodies s3 inside them. When
these chambers, which are called afothecia, are ripe,
moist or rainy weather causes them to swell at the
9
84 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

top, and they burst open and the spore-cases throw
out the spores to grow into new fungi.

In some lichens the chambers remain closed and
the spores escape through a hole in the top, and they
are then called perithecia, while in others, as these
which we have here, they open out into a cup-shape.

This, then, is the curious history of lichens ; the
green cells and fungi flourishing together in the damp
winter and bearing the hardest frost far better than
the summer drought, so that they have their good
time when most other plants are dead or asleep.
Yet though some of them, such as the hairy
lichens, almost disappear in the summer, they are by
no means dead, for, like all these very low plants,
they can bear being dried up for a long time, and then,
when moisture visits them again, each green cell sets
to work, and they revive. There is much more to be
learnt about them, but this will be sufficient to make
you fee] an interest in their simple lives, and when
you look for them in the wood you will be surprised to
find how many different kinds there are, for it is most
wonderful that such lowly plants should build up such
an immense variety of curious and grotesque forms.

And yet, when we turn to the mosses, I am_ half
afraid they will soon attract you away from the dull
grey lichens, for of all plant historics it appears to
me that the history of the moss-plant is most
fascinating.

As this history is complicated by the moss having,
as it were, two lives, you must give me your whole
attention, and I will explain it first from diagrams,
THE HISTORY OF A MOSS 85

though you can see all the steps under the micro-
scope,

Take in your hands, in the first place, a piece of
this green moss which I have brought. Ilow thick
it is, like a rich felted carpet! and yet,
if you pull it apart carefully, you will
find that each leafy stem is separate,
and can be taken away from the
others without breaking anything. ,
In this dense moss each stem is
single and clothed with leaves
wrapped closely round it (see Fig.
33); in some mosses the stem is
branched, and in others the leaves
grow on side stalks, as in this
feathery moss (Fig. 32). But in each A stem of feathery
case every stem is like a separate Mss (From life.)
plant, with its own tuft of tender
roots 7”

What a delicate growth it is! The stem is
scarcely more than a fine thread, the leaves minute,
transparent, and tender. In this pale sphagnum or
bog-moss (Fig. 36, p. 93), which is much larger and
stouter, you can see better how each one of these
leaves, though they are so thickly packed, is placed
so that it can get the utmost light, air, and moisture.
Yet so closely are the leaves of each stem entangled
in those of the next that the whole forms a thick
springy green carpet under our feet.

How is it, then, that these moss stems, though
each independent, grow in such a dense mass?
Partly because moss multiplies so rapidly that new



Z, Leaves. 5s, Stem.
7, Roots.
86 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

stems are always thrusting themselves up to the
light, but chiefly because the stems were not always
separate, but in very early life sprang from a
common source.

If, instead of bringing the moss home and tearing
it apart, you went to a spot in the wood where fresh
moss was growing, and looked very carefully on
the surface of the ground or among the water
of a marsh, you would find a spongy green mass
below the growing moss, very much like the green
scum ona pond. This film, some of which I
have brought home, is seen under the microscope
to be a mass of tangled green threads (¢, Fig. 34,
p. 88) like those of the Conferve (see p. 79), com-
posed of rows of cells, while here and there upon
these threads you would find a bud (mmé, Fig. 34)
rising up into the air.

This tangled mass of green threads, called the
protonema, is the first growth, from which the moss
stems spring. It has itself originated from a moss-_
spore, as we shall see by and by. As soon as it has
started it grows and spreads very rapidly, drinking
in water and air through all its cells and sending up
the moss buds which swell and grow, giving out roots.
below and fine stems above, which soon become
crowded with leaves, forming the velvety carpet we
call. moss. Meanwhile the soft threads below die
away, giving up all their nourishment to the -moss-
stems, and this is why, when you take up the moss,
you find each stem separate. But now comes the
question, How does each stem live after the nourishing
threads below have. died? It is true each stem has
A MOSS LEAF 87

a few hairy roots, but these are very feeble, and not
at all like the roots of higher plants. The fact is,
the moss is built up entirely of tender cells, like the
green cells in the lichen, or in
the film upon the pond. These
cells are not shut in behind a
thick skin as in the leaves of
higher plants, but have every
one of them the power to take
in water and gases through their
tender membrane.

I made last night a rough
drawing of the leaf of the
feathery moss put under the
microscope, but you will see it
far better by putting a leaf with — Moss-leaf magnified.
a little water on a glass slide (rom ied

Z Showing the cells ¢,
under the covering glass and ex- each of which can take in
amining it for yourself, You and work up its own food.
will see that it is composed of 7”: Long cells of the mid-
a number of oval-shaped cells a
packed closely together (¢ Fig. 33), with a few long
narrow ones wz in the middle of the leaf forming the
midrib. Every cell is as clear and distinct as if it
were floating in the water, and the tiny green
grains which help it to work up its food are clearly
visible,

- Each of these cells can act as a separate plant,
drinking in the water and air it needs, and feeding
and growing quite independently of the roots below.
Yet at the same time the moss stem has a great
advantage over single-celled plants in having root-

Fig. 33.


88

THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

hairs, and being able to grow upright and expose
its leaves to the sun and air.

Fig. 34.



Polytrichum commune,
hair-moss,

. 4, 2, Threads of green cells forming

the protonema out of which moss-buds

A large

spring. md, Buds of moss-stems.
a, Minute green flower in which the
antherozoids are formed (enlarged in
Fig. 35). 2, AI, £2, £3, Minute green
flower in which the ovules are formed,
and urn-piant springing out of it (en-
larged in Fig. 35). ws, Urn stems.
Gi Cap. wu, Urn after cap has fallen off,
still protected by its lid.

Now youwill no longer
wonder that moss grows
so fast and so thick, and
another curious fact fol-
lows from the independ-
ence of each cell, namely,
that new growths can
start from almost any
part of the plant. For
example, pieces will often
break off from the
tangled mass or _ pro-
tonema below, and, start-
ing on their own account,
form other thread masses.
Then, after the moss
stems have grown, a
new mass of threads may
grow from one of the
tiny root-hairs of a stem
and make a fresh tangle ;
nay, a thread will some-
times even spring out
of a damp moss leaf
and make a new begin-

ning, while the moss
stems themselves often
put forth buds and
branches, which grow

root-hairs and settle down on their own account.
“MOSS-FLOWERS — - 89

"All this comes from the simple nature of the plants,
each cell doing its own work. Nor are the mosses in
any difficulty as to soil, for as the matted threads
decay they form a rich manure, and the dying moss-
stems themselves, being so fragile, turn back very
readily into food. This is why mosses. can spread
over the poorest soil where even tough grasses cannot
live, and clothe walls and roofs with a rich green.

So far, then, we now understand the growth of the
mossy-leaf stems, but this is only half the life of the
plant. After the moss has gone on through the
damp winter spreading and growing, there appear in
the spring or summer tiny moss flowers at the tip of



Fructification of a moss. :

A, Male moss-flower stripped of its outer leaves, showing jointed fila-
ments and oval sacs os and antherozoid cells s¢ swarming out of a sac.
sc’, Antherozoid cell enlarged. 2, Free antherozoid. P, Female flower
with bottle-shaped sacs ds. s-c, Bottle-shaped sac, with cap being pushed
up. zw, Urn of Funaria hygrometrica, with small cap. w', Urn, from
which the cap has fallen, showing the teeth ¢ which keep in the spores.

some of the stems. These flowers (a, A, Fig. 34) are
formed merely of a few green leaves shorter and stouter
than the rest, enclosing some oval sacs surrounded: by
go THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

jointed hairs or filaments (Seer Avvand: PysFig.235,).
These sacs are of two different kinds, one set being
short and stout os, the others having long necks
like bottles ds. Sometimes these two kinds of sac
are in one flower, but more often they are in separ-
ate flowers, as in the hair-moss, Polytrichum commune
(a and g, Fig. 34). Now when the flowers are ripe the
short sacs in the flower A open and fling out myriads
of cells zc, and these cells burst, and forth come
tiny wriggling bodies z, called by botanists anthero-
zoids, one out of each cell. These find their way
along the damp moss to the flower P, and entering
the neck of one of the bottle-shaped sacs ds, find
out each another cell or ovule inside. The two cells
together then form a plant-egg, which answers to the
germ in the seeds of higher plants.

Now let us be sure we understand where we are
in the life of the plant. We have had its green-
growing time, its flowering, and the formation of
what we may roughly call its seed, which last in
ordinary higher plants would fall down and grow
into a new green plant. But with the moss there is
more to come. The egg does not shake out of the
bottle-necked sac, but begins to grow inside it, send-
ing down a little tube into the moss stem, and using
it as other plants use the ground to grow in.

As soon as it is rooted it begins to form a delicate
stem, and as this grows it pushes up the sac és,
stretching the neck tighter and tighter till at last it
tears away below, and the sac is carried up and hangs
like an extinguisher or cap (c Figs. 34, 35) over the
top of the stem. Meanwhile, under this cap the top
MOSS- URNS gr

of the stalk swells into a knob which, by degrees, be-
comes a lovely little covered urn w, something like a
poppy head, which has within it a number of spores.
The growth of this tiny urn-plant often occupies several
months, for you must remember that it is not merely
a fruit, though it is often called so, but a real plant,
taking in food through its tubes below and working
for its living.

.- When it is finished it is a most lovely little object
(ws, Fig. 34), the fine hairlike stalk being covered with
a green, yellow, or brilliant red fool’s cap on the top,
yet the whole in most mosses is not bigger than an
ordinary pin. You may easily see them in the spring
or summer, or even sometimes in the winter. IJ have
only been able to bring you one very little one to-
day, the /unaria hygrometrica, which fruits early in
the year. This moss has only a short cap, but
in many mosses they are very conspicuous. I have
often pulled them off as you would pull a cap from
a boy’s head. In nature they fall off after a time,
leaving the urn, which, though so small, is a most
complicated structure. First it has an outer skin,
with holes or mouths in it which open and. close to
let moisture in and out. Then come two layers of
cells, then an open space full of air, in which are
the green chlorophyll grains which are working
up food for the tiny plant as the moisture comes
in to them. Lastly, within this again is a mass
of tissue, round which grow the spores which are
soon to be sown, and ‘which in Polytrichuim cont-
mune are protected by a lid. Even after the
extinguisher and-the lid have both fallen off, the
92 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

spores cannot fall out, for a thick row of teeth (4 Fig.
35) is closed over them like the tentacles of an
anemone. So long as the air is damp these teeth
remain closed ; it is only in fine dry weather that they
open and the spores are scattered on the ground.
Funartia hygrometrica has no lid under its cap, and
after the cap falls the spores are only protected by
the teeth.

When the spores are gone, the life of the tiny urn-
plant is over. It shrivels and dies, leaving ten,
fifteen, or even more spores, which, after lying for
some time on the ground, sprout and grow into a
fresh mass of soft threads.

So now we have completed the life-history of the
moss and come back to the point at which we started.
I am afraid it has been rather a difficult history to
follow step by step, and yet it is perfectly clear when
once we master the succession of growths. Starting
from a spore, the thread-mass or protonema gives
rise to the moss-stems forming the dense green
carpet, then the green flowers on some of the leaf-
stems give rise to a plant-egg, which roots itself in the
stem, and grows into a perfect plant without leaves,
bearing merely the urn in which fresh spores are
formed, and so the round goes on from year to year.

There are a-great number of different varieties of
moss, and they differ in the shape and arrangement
of their stems and leaves, and very much in the
formation of their urns, yet this sketch will enable
you to study them with understanding, and when
you find in the wood the nodding caps of the fruit-
ing plants, some red, some green, some yellow, and
SPHAGNUM OR BOG-MOSS 93

some a brilliant orange, you will feel that they are
acquaintances, and by the help of the microscope
may soon become friends,

Among them one of the most interesting is the
sphagnum or bog-moss (Fig. 36), which spreads
its thick carpet over all the bogs
in the woods. You cannot miss Fig. 36.
its little orange-coloured spore-
cases if you look closely, for they
contrast strongly with its pale
green leaves, out of which they
stand on very short stalks. I
wish we could examine it, for it
differs much from other mosses.
both in leaves and fruit, but it
would take us too long. At
least, however, you must put
one of its lovely transparent
leaves under the microscope,
that you may see the large
air-cells which lie between the
growing cells, and admire the



Sphagnum moss from a

: ‘ : Devonshire bog.
lovely glistening bands which (From life. )

run across and across. their

covering membrane, for the sphagnum leaf is so
extremely beautiful that you will never forget it
when once seen. It is through these large cells in
the edge of the stem and leaf that the water rises
up from the swamp, so that the whole moss is like a
wet sponge.

And now, before we part, we had better sum
up the history of lichens and mosses. With the
94 THROUGH. MAGIC. GLASSES

lichens we have seen that the secret of success
seems to be mutual help. The green cells provide
the food, the fungus cells form a surface over
‘which the green cells can spread to find sunlight
and moisture, and protection from extremes of heat
or cold. With the mosses the secret lies in their
standing on the borderland between two classes of
plant life. On the one hand, they are still tender-
celled plants, each cell being able to live its own
life and make its own food; on the other hand,
they have risen into shapely plants with the begin-
nings of feeble roots, and having stems along which
their leaves are arranged so that they are spread to
the light and air. Both lichens and mosses keep
one great advantage common to all tender-celled
plants; they can be dried up so that you would
think them dead, and yet, because they can work all
over their surface whenever heat and moisture reach
them, each cell drinks in food again and the plant
revives. So when a scorching sun, or a dry season,
or a biting frost kills other plants, the mosses and
lichens bide their time till moisture comes again.

In our own country they grow almost every-
where—on walls, on broken ground, on sand-heaps,
on roofs and walls, on trees living and dead, and
over all pastures which are allowed to grow poor
and worn out. They grow, too, in all damp, marshy
spots; especially the bog-mosses forming the peat-
bogs which cover a large part of Ireland and many
regions in Scotland; and these same bog-mosses
occur in America, New Zealand, and Australia.

In the tropics mosses are less abundant, probably
WIDE RANGE OF LICHENS AND MOSSES 95

because other plants flourish so luxuriantly ; but in
Arctic Siberia and Arctic America both lichens and
mosses live on the vast Tundras. There, during the
three short months of summer, when the surface of
the ground is soft, the lichens spread far and wide
where all else is lifeless, while in moister parts the
Polytrichums or hair-mosses cover the ground, and
in swampy regions stunted Sphagnums form peat-
bogs only a few inches in depth over the frozen
soil beneath. If, then, the lichens and mosses can
flourish even in such dreary latitudes as these, we
can understand how they defy even our coldest
winters, appearing fresh and green when the snow
melts away from over them, and leave their cells -
bathed in water, so that these lowly plants clothe
the wood with their beauty when otherwise all
would be bare and lifeless.

10
96 LHROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

CHAPTER V

THE HISTORY OF A LAVA STREAM



T is now just twenty-
two years ago, boys,
since I saw a wonder-
ful sight, which is still
so fresh in my mind
that I have to look

round and remember that it was

before any of you were born, in
order to persuade myself that it

. can be nearly a quarter of a century
since I stood with my feet close to

a flowing stream of red-hot lava.

It happened in this way. I was spending the
winter with friends in Naples, and we were walking
quietly one lovely afternoon in November along the
Villa Reale, the public garden on the sea-shore,
when one of our party exclaimed, “ Look at Vesuvius!”
We did so, and saw in the bright sunlight a dense
dark cloud rising up out of the cone. The mountain
had been sending out puffs of smoke, with a booming
noise, for several days, but we thought nothing of



HOW WE SAW AN ERUPTION 97

that, for it had been common enough for slight
eruptions to take place at intervals ever since the
great eruption of 1867. This cloud, however, was far
larger and wider-spread than usual, and as we were
looking at it we saw a thin red line begin some way
down the side of the mountain and creep onwards

Fig. 37.
Somma. Vesuvius.











































Vesuvius, as seen in eruption by the author, November 1868.

toward the valley which lies behind the Hermitage
near where the Observatory is built (see Fig. 37).
“A crater has broken out on the slope,” said our
host ; “it will be a grand sight to-night. Shall we go
up and see it?” No sooner proposed than settled,
and one of the party started off at once to secure
horses and men before others engaged them.

It was about eight o’clock in the evening when we

#
98 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

started in a carriage for Resina, and alighting there,
with buried Herculaneum under our feet, mounted
our horses and set forward with the guides. Then
followed a long ascent of about two hours and a half
through the dark night. Silently and carefully we
travelled on over the broad masses of slaggy lava of
former years, along which a narrow horse-path had
been worn; and ever and anon we heard the distant
booming in the crater at the summit, and caught
sight of fresh gleams of light as we took some turn-
ing which brought the glowing peak into view.

Our object was to get as close as possible to the
newly-opened crater in the mountain-side, and when
we arrived on a small rugged plain not far from the
spot, we alighted from our horses, which were growing
frightened with the glare, and walked some distance
on foot till we came to a ridge running down the slope,
and upon this ridge the lava stream was flowing.

Above our heads hung a vast cloud of vapour
which reflected the bright light from the red-hot
stream, and threw a pink glow all around, so that,
where the cloud was broken and we could see the
dark sky, the stars looked white as silver in contrast.
We could now trace clearly the outline of the summit
towering above us, and even watch the showers of
ashes and dust which burst forth from time to time,
falling back into the crater, or on to the steep slopes
of the cone.

If the night had not been calm, and such a breeze
as there was blowing away from us, our’ position
would scarcely have been safe; and indeed we were
afterwards told we had been rash. But I: would
A RED-HOT LAVA STREAM 99

have faced even a greater risk to see so grand a
spectacle, and when the guide helped me to scramble
up on to the ledge, so that I stood with my feet
within a few yards of the lava flow, my heart bounded
with excitement. I could not stay more than a few
seconds, for the gases and vapour choked me; but
for that short time it felt like a dream to be standing
close to a river of molten rock, which a few hours be-
fore had been lying deep in the bowels of the earth.
Glancing upwards to where this river issued from
the cone in the mountain-side, I saw it first white-
hot, then gradually fading to a glowing red as it
crept past my feet; and then looking down the slope
I saw it turn black and gloomy as it cooled rapidly
at the top, while through the cracks which opened
here and there as it moved on, puffs of gas and
vapour rose into the air, and the red lava beneath
gleamed through the chinks.

We did not stay long, for the air was suffocating,
but took our way back to the Hermitage, where
another glorious sight awaited us. Some way
above and behind the hill on which the Observatory
stands there is, or was, a steep cliff, and over this
the lava stream, now densely black, fell in its way to
the valley below, and as it fell it broke into huge
masses, which heeling over exposed the red-hot lava
under the crust, thus forming a magnificent fiery
cascade in which black and red were mingled in wild
confusion.

This is how I saw a fresh red-hot lava stream.
T had ascended the mountain some years before,
when. it was comparatively quiet, with only two
100 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

small cones in its central crater sending out miniature
flows of lava (see Fig. 38). But the crater was too
hot for me to cross over to these cones, and I could
only marvel at the mass of ashes of which the top of
the mountain was composed, and plunge a stick into
an old lava stream to see how hot it still remained

Fig. 38.



The top of Vesuvius in 1864. (After Nasmyth.)

_below. Peaceful and quiet as the mountain seemed
then, I could never have imagined such a glorious
outburst as that of November 1868 unless I had
seen it, and yet this was quite a small eruption com-
pared to those of 1867 and 1872, which in their
turn were nothing to some of the older eruptions in
earlier centuries.

Now it is the history of this lava stream which I
saw, that we are going to consider to-day, and you
will first want to know where it came from, and what
caused it to break out on the mountain-side. The
truth is, that though we know now a good deal about
volcanoes themselves, we know very little about the
mighty cauldrons deep down in the earth from which
HEAT DEEP DOWN IN THE EARTH 101

they come. Our deepest mines only reach to a depth
of a little more than half a mile, and no borings even
have been made beyond three-quarters of a mile, so
that after this depth we are left very much to guess-
work.

We do know that the temperature increases as we
go farther down from the surface, but the increase is
very different in different districts—in some places
being five times greater than it is in others at an
equal depth, and it is always greatest in localities where
volcanoes have been active not long before. Now if
there were an ocean of melted rock at a certain distance
down below the crust all over the globe, there could
scarcely be such a great difference between one place
and another, and for this and many other reasons
geologists are inclined to think that, from some un-
known cause, great heat is developed at special points
below the surface at different times. This would
account for our finding volcanic rocks in almost all
parts of the world, even very far away from where
there are any active volcanoes now.

But, as I have said, we do not clearly know why
great reservoirs of melted rock occur from time to
time deep under our feet. We may perhaps one day
find the clue from the fact that nearly all, if not all,
volcanoes occur near to the water's edge, either on
the coast of the great oceans or of some enormous
inland sea or lake.. But at present all we can say is,
that in certain parts of the globe there must be from
time to time great masses of rock heated till they
are white-hot, and having white-hot water mingled
with them: These: great masses need. not, however,
102 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

be liquid, for we know that under enormous pressure
white-hot metals remain solid, and water instead of
flashing into steam is kept liquid, pressing with
tremendous force upon whatever keeps it confined.
But now suppose that for some reason the mass of
solid rock and ground above one of these heated
spots should crack and become weak, or that the
pressure from below should become so great as to
be more powerful than the weight above, then the
white-hot rock and water quivering and panting to
expand, would upheave and burst the walls of their
prison. Cannot you picture to yourselves how
when this happened the rock would swell into a
liquid state, and how the water would force its way
upwards into cracks and fissures expanding into
steam as it went. Then would be heard strange
rumbling noises underground, as all these heavily
oppressed white-hot substances upheaved and rent
the crust above them. And after a time the country
round, or the ground at the bottom of the sea, would
quake and tremble, till by and by a way out would
‘be found, and the water flashing into vapour would
break and fling up the masses of rock immediately
above the passage it had made for itself, and
following after these would come the molten rock
pouring out at the new opening.

Such outbursts as these have been seen at sea
many times near volcanic islands. In 1811 a new
island called Sabrina was thrown up off St. Michael's
in the Azores, and after remaining a short time
was washed away by the waves. In the same way
Graham’s Island appeared off the coast of Sicily in
HOW MONTE NUOVO WAS FORMED 103

1831, and as late as 1885 Mr. Shipley saw a
magnificent eruption in the Pacific near the Tonga
Islands when an island about three miles long was
formed.

Another very extraordinary outburst, this time on
land, took place in 1538 on the opposite side of the
Bay of Naples to where Vesuvius stands. There, on
the shores of the Bay of Baia, a mountain 440 feet
high was built up in one week, where all had before been
quiet in the memory of man. For two years before
the outburst came, rumblings and earthquakes had
alarmed the people, and at last one day the sea drew
back from the shore and the ground sank about four-
teen feet, and then on the night of Sunday, September
29, 1538, it was hurled up again, and steam, fiery
gases, stones, and mud _ burst, forth, driving away the
frightened people from the village of Puzzuoli about
two miles distant. For a whole week jets of lava,
fragments of rock, and showers of ashes were poured
out, till they formed the hill now called Monte Nuovo,
440 feet high and measuring a mile and a half round
the base. And there it has remained till the present
day, perfectly quiet after the one great outburst had
calmed down, and is now covered with thickets of
stone-pine trees.

These sudden outbursts show that some great
change must occur in the state of the earth’s crust
under the spots where they take place, and we know
that eruptions may cease for centuries in any par-
ticular place and then begin afresh quite unexpectedly.
Vesuvius was a peaceable mountain overgrown with
trees and vines in the time of the Greeks till in the
104 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

year A.D. 79 occurred the terrific outburst which
destroyed Herculaneum and Pompeii, shattering old
Vesuvius to pieces, so that only the cliffs on the north-
west remain and are called Somma (see Fig. 37), while
the new Vesuvius has grown up in the lap, as it were,
of its old self. Yet when we visit the cliffs of Somma,
and examine the old lava streams in them, we see
that the ancient peaceful mountain was itself built
up by volcanic outbursts of molten rock, and showers
of clinkers or scorize, long before man lived to record it.

Meanwhile, when once an opening is made, we
can understand how after an eruption is over, and
the steam and lava are exhausted, all quiets down
for awhile, and the melted rock in the crater of the
mountain cools and hardens, shutting in once more
the seething mass below. This was the state of the
crater when I saw it in 1864, though small streams
still flowed out of two minute cones ; but since then at
least one great outburst had taken place in 1867,
and now on this November night, 1868, the imprisoned
gases rebelled once more and forced their way through
the mountain-side.

At this point we can leave off forming conjectures
and really study what happens; for we do know a
great deal about the structure of volcanoes themselves,
and the history of a lava-flow has been made very
clear during the last few years, chiefly by the help of
the microscope and chemical experiments. If we
imagine then that on the day of the eruption we
could have seen the inside of the mountain, the
diagram (Fig. 39) will fairly represent what was
taking place there.
INSIDE OF A VOLCANO 105

In the funnel @ which passes down from the
crater or cup 0, 4, white-hot lava was surging up,
having a large quantity of water and steam en-
tangled in it. The lava, or melted rock, would be

Fig. 39.































































































































Diagrammatic section of an active volcano.

a, Central pipe or funnel. 4, 6, Walls of the crater or cup. c, ¢, Dark
turbid cloud formed by the ascending globular clouds @, @. e, Rain-
shower from escaped vapour. f, f, Shower of blocks, cooled bombs,
stones, and ashes falling back on to the cone. yg, Lava escaping through
a fissure, and pouring out of a cone opened in the mountain side.

in much the same state as melted iron-slag is, in the
huge blast-furnaces in which iron-rock is fused, only
it would have floating in it great blocks of solid
rock, and rounded stones called bombs which have
106 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

been formed from pieces of half- melted rock
whirled in air and falling back into the crater, to-
gether with clinkers or scoriz, dust and sand, all
torn off and ground down from the walls of the fun-
nel up which the rush was coming. And in the
pipe of melted rock, forcing the lava upwards, enormous
bubbles of steam and gas d,@ would be rising up one
after another as bubbles rise in any thick boiling
substances, such as boiling sugar or tar.

In the morning before the eruption, when only a
little smoke was issuing from the crater, these
bubbles rose very slowly through the loaded funnel
and the half-cooled lava in the basin, and the booming
noise, like that of heavy cannon, heard from time to
time, was caused by the bursting of one of these
globes of steam at the top of the funnel, as it brought
up with it a feeble shower of stones, dust, and
scorie. Meanwhile the lava surging below was
forcing a passage g for itself in a weak part of the
mountain-side and, just at the time when our atten-
tion was called to Vesuvius, the violent pressure from
below rent open a mouth or crater at /, so that the
lava began to flow down the mountain in a steady
stream. This, relieving the funnel, enabled the
huge steam bubbles @, d to rise more quickly, and to
form the large whitish-grey cloud ¢, into which from
time to time the red-hot blocks, scoriz, and pumice
were thrown up by the escaping steam and gases,
These blocks and fragments then fell back again in
a fiery shower /, f cither into the cup, to be thrown up
again by the bursting of the next bubble, or on to the
sides of the cone, making it both broader and higher.
THE COMPOSITION OF A LAVA STREAM 107

Only one feature in the diagram was fortunately
absent the evening we went up, namely, the rain-
shower e. The night, as I said, was calm, and the air
dry, and the steam floated peacefully away. The
next night, however, when many people hurried
down from Rome to see the sight they were wofully
disappointed, for rain-showers fell heavily from the
cloud, bringing down with them the dust and ashes,
which covered the unfortunate sight-scers.

This was what happened during the eruption, and
the result after a few days was that the cone was a
little higher, with a fresh layer of rough slaggy
scoriz on its slopes, and that on the side cf the
mountain behind the Hermitage a new lava stream
was added to the many which have flowed there of
late years. What then can we learn from this
stream about the materials which come up out of
the depths of the earth, and of the manner in which
volcanic rocks are formed?

The lava as I saw it when coming first out of
the newly-opened crater is, as I have said, like white-
hot iron slag, but very soon the top becomes black
and solid, a hard cindery mass full of holes and
cavities with rough edges, caused by the steam and
sulphur and other gases breaking through it. In
fact, there are so many holes and bubbles in it that
it is very light and floats on the top of the heavier
lava below, falling over it on to the mountain-side
when it comes to the end of the stream. Still, how-
ever, the great mass moves on, so that the stream

1 For the cindery nature of the surface of such a stream see the initial
letter of this chapter.

11
108 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

slides over these fallen clinkers or scoria. Thus
after an eruption a new flow consists of three layers ; at
the top the cooled and broken crust of clinkers, then

Fig. 40.



Section of a lava-flow. (J. Geikie.)
1, Slaggy crust, formed chiefly of scorize of a glassy nature. 2, Middle
portion where crystals form, 3, Slaggy crust which has slipped down and
been covered by the flow.

the more solid lava, which often remains hot for years,
and lastly another cindery layer beneath, formed of
the scorize which have fallen from above (see Fig. 40).

You would be surprised to see how quickly the top
hardens, so that you can actually walk across a
stream of lava a day or two after it comes out from
the mountain. But you must not stand still or
your shoes would soon be burnt, and if you break the
crust with a stick you will at once see the red-hot
lava below ; while after a few days the cavities become
filled with crystals of common salt, sulphur or soda,
as the vapour and gases escape.

Then as time goes on the harder minerals grad-
ually crystallise out of the melted mass, and iron-
pyrites, copper-sulphate, and numerous other forms of
crystal appear in the lower part of the stream. In
the clinkers above, where the cooling goes on very
MICROLITHS AND CRYSTALLITES 10g

rapidly, the lavas formed are semi-transparent and
look much like common bottle-glass, In fact, if you
take this piece of
obsidian or vol-
canic glass in your
hand, you might
think that it had
come out of an
ordinary glass
manufactory and
had nothing re-
markable in it.
But the micro-
scope tells another
tale. Ihave put
a thin slice under

the first micro- A slice of volcanic glass showing the lines of
D> 5
scope and this crystallites and microliths which are the be-
: s

diagram (Fig. 41) ginnings of crystals.1_ (J. Geikie.)

shows what you will see. Nothing, you say, but
a few black specks and some tiny dark rods.
True, but these specks and rods are the first be-
ginnings of crystals forming out of the ground-
mass of glassy lava as it cools down. They are
not real crystals, but the first step toward them,
and by a careful examination of glassy lavas
which have cooled at different rates, they have
been seen under the microscope in all stages of
growth, gradually building up different crystalline
forms. When we remember how rapidly the top
of many glassy lavas cool down we can under-

Fig. 41.



1 This arrangement in lines is called feédal structure in lava.
110 LHROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

stand that they have often only time to grow
very small.

The smaller specks are called crystallites, the
rods are called szzcroliths! Under the next micro-
scope you can see the microliths much more dis-
tinctly (Fig. 42) and observe that they grow in very
regular shapes.

Our first slice, however (Fig. 41), tells us some-
thing more of their history, for the fact that they are
arranged in. lines
shows that they
have grown while
the lava was flow-
ing and carrying
them along in
streams. You
will notice that
each one has its
greatest length in
the direction of
the lines, just as
pieces of | stick
are carried along



A slice of volcanic glass under the microscope, lengthways in a
showing well-developed microliths, (After river, In the

oer) second specimen

(Fig. 42) the microliths are much larger and the
stream has evidently not been flowing fast, for they
lie in all directions.

This is what we find in the upper part of the
stream, but if we look at a piece of underlying lava

1 Aficros, little ; “thos, stone.
OLD VOLCANOES LAID BARE III

we find that it is much more coarse-grained, and the
magnifying-glass shows many crystals in it, as well
as a number of microliths. For this lava, covered
by the crust above, has remained very hot for a long
time, and the crystals have had time to build them-
selves up out of the microliths and crystallites.

Still there is much glassy groundwork even in
these lavas. If we want to find really stony masses
such as porphyry and granite made up entirely of
crystals we must look inside the mountain where the
molten rock is kept intensely hot for long periods, as
for example in the fissure g, Fig. 39.

Such fissures sometimes open out on the surface
like the one I saw, and sometimes only penetrate part
of the way through the hill; but in either case when
the lava in them cools down, it forms solid walls
called dykes which help to bind the loose materials
of the mountain together. We cannot, of course,
examine these in an active volcano, but there are
many extinct volcanoes which have been worn and
washed by the weather for centuries, so that we can
see the inside. The dykes laid bare in the cliffs of
Somma are old fissures filled with molten rock which
has cooled down, and they show us many stony lavas ;
and Mr. Judd tells us of one beautiful example of a
ruined volcano which composes the whole island of
Mull in the Hebrides, where such dykes can be
traced right back to a centre. This centre must
once have been a mass of melted matter far down
in the earth, and as you trace the dykes back
deeper and deeper into it, the rocks grow more and
more stony, till at last they are composcd entirely of
112 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

large crystals closely crowded together without any
glassy matter between them. You know this crystal-
line structure well, for we have
plenty of blocks of granite
scattered about on Dartmoor,
showing that at some time long
ago molten matter must have
been at work in the depths
under Devonshire.

We see then that we can
trace the melted rock of vol-
canoes right back——from the
surface of the lava stream which
cools quickly at the top, hurry-
‘ing the crystallites and microliths along with it—down
through the volcano to the depths of the earth, where
the perfect crystals form slowly and deliberately in
the underground lakes of white-hot rock which are
kept in a melted state at an intense heat.

But I promised you that we would have no guess-
work here, and you will perhaps ask how I can be
certain what was going on in the depths when
these crystals were formed. A few years ago I
could not have answered you, but now chemists, and
especially two eminent French chemists, MM. Fouqué
and Levy, have actually made lavas and shown us
how it is done in Nature.

By using powerful furnaces and bellows they
have succceded in getting temperatures of all degrees,
from a dazzling white heat down to a dull red, and
to keep any temperature they like for a long time,
so as to imitate the state of a mass of melted rock





A piece of Dartmoor Granite,
drawn from a specimen,
HOW ARTIFICIAL LAVAS ARE MADE 113

at different depths in the earth, and in this way they
have actually made lavas in their crucibles. For
example, there is a certain whitish rock common
in Vesuvius called Jlewcotcphritc which is made
up chiefly of crystals of the minerals called leucite,
Labrador felspar, and augite. This they pro-
posed to make artificially, so they took proper
quantities. of silica, alumina, oxide of iron, lime,
potash, and soda, and putting them in a crucible,
melted them by keeping them at a white heat.
Then they lowered the temperature to an orange-
heat, that is a heat sufficient to melt stecl. They
kept this heat for forty-cight hours, after which they
took out some of the mixture and, Jetting it cool,
examined a slice under the microscope. Within it
they found crystals of /ewcite already formed, showing
that these are the first to grow while the melted
rock is still intensely hot. The rest of the mixture
they kept red-hot, or at the melting-point of copper,
for another forty-eight hours, and when they took it
out and examined it they found that the whole
of it had been transformed into microliths of the
two other forms of crystals, Labrador felspar and
augite, except some small cight-sided crystals of
magnetite and picotite which are also found in the
natural rock.

There is no need for you to remember all these
names. What I do want you to remember is, that, at
the different temperatures, the right crystals and
beginnings of crystals grew up to form the rock
which is found in Vesuvius. And what is still more

1 Leucos, white ; tephra, ashes.
Y , *
114 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

interesting, they grew exactly to the same stages as
in the natural rock, which is composed of crystals
of leucite and mzcroliths of the two other minerals.

This is only one among numerous experiments
by which we have learnt how volcanic rocks are
formed and at what heat the crystals of different
substances grow. We are only as yet at the begin-
ning of this new study, and there is plenty for you
boys to do by and by when you grow up. Many
experiments have failed as yet to imitate certain
rocks, and it is remarkable that these are usually
rocks of very ancient eruptions, when ferhaps our
globe may have been in a different state to what it
is now; but this remains for us to find out.

Meanwhile I have still another very interesting
slide to show you which tells us something of what
is going on below the volcano. Under the third
microscope I have put a slice of volcanic glass (Fig.
44) in which you will sce really large crystals with
dark bands curving round them. These crystals have
clearly not been formed in the glass while the lava
was flowing, first because they arc too large to have
grown up so rapidly, and secondly because they are
broken at the edges in places and sometimes partly
melted. They have evidently come up with the
lava as it flowed out of the mountain, and the dark
bands curving round them are composed of micro-
liths which have been formed in the flow and have
swept round them, as floating straws gather round a
block of wood in a stream.

Such crystals as these are often found in lava
streams, and in fact they make a great difference in
TWO PERIODS OF CRYSTALLISATION 11s

the rate at which a stream flows, for a thoroughly
melted lava shoots along at a great pace and often
travels several
miles in a very
short time; but
an imperfectly
melted lava full
of crystals creeps
slowly along, and
often does not
travel far from
the crater out of
which it flows.
So you see we
have proof in this
slice of volcanic

Fig. 44.



glass of {WO Sjise-or voleahte glass under the microscope,
separate periods showing large included crystals brought up
from inside the volcano in the fluid lava. The
: dark bands are lines of microliths formed as
Stl pel iod the lava cooled. (J, Geikie.)
when the large
crystals grew in the liquid mass under the mountain,
and the period when the microliths were formed after
it was poured out above ground. And as we know
that different substances form their crystals at very
different temperatures, it is not surprising that some
should be able to take up the material they require
and grow in the underground lakes of melted matter,
even though the rest of the lava was sufficiently
fluid to be forced up out of the mountain.

And here we must leave our lava stream. The
microscope can tell us yet more, of marvellous tiny

of crystallisation
116 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

cavities inside the crystals, millions in a single inch,
and of other crystals inside these, all of which have
their history; but this would lead us too far. We
must be content for the present with having roughly
traced a flow of lava from the depths below, where
large crystals form in subterranean darkness, to the
open air above, where we catch the tiny beginnings
of crystals hardened into glassy lava before they have
time to grow further.

If you will think a little for yourselves about these
wonderful discoveries made with the magic-glass, you
will see how many questions they suggest to us about
the minerals which we find buried in the earth and
running through it in veins, and you will want to
_ know something about the more precious crystals,
such as rubies, diamonds, sapphires, and garnets, and
many others which Nature forms far away out of
our sight. All these depend, though indirectly,
upon the strange effects of underground heat, and
if you have once formed a picture in your minds of
what must have been going on before that magnifi-
cent lava stream crept down the mountain-side and
added its small contribution to the surface of the
earth, you will study eagerly all that comes in your
way about crystals and minerals, and while you
ask questions with the spectroscope about what is
going on in the sun and stars millions of miles away,
you will also ask the microscope what it has to tell
of the work going on at depths many miles under
your feet.
AN HOUR WITH THE SUN 117

CHAPTER VI

AN HOUR WITH THE SUN

“WEFORE beginning upon
” the subject of our lecture
to-day I want to tell you
the story of a great puzzle
which presented itself to
— me when I was a very
* young child. I happened to
come across a little book—lI
can see it now as though it were
yesterday—a small square green
book called World without End,
which had upon the cover a little
gilt picture of a stile with trees on each side of
it. That was all. I do not know what the book
was about, indeed I am almost sure I never opened
it or saw it again, but that stile and the title
“World without End” puzzled me terribly. What was
on the other side of the stile? If I could cross
over it and go on and on should I be in a world
which had no ending, and what would be on the other
side? But then there could be no other side if it was



118 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

a world without any end. I was very young, you
must remember, and I grew confused and bewildered
as I imagined myself reaching onwards and onwards
beyond that stile and never, never resting. At last
I consulted my greatest friend, an old man who did
the weeding in my father’s garden, and whom I be-
lieved to be very wise. He looked at first almost
as bewildered as I was, but at last light dawned upon
him. “I tell you what it is, Master Arthur,” said
he, “I do not rightly know what happens when there
is no end, but I do know that there is a mighty lot
to be found out in this world, and I’m thinking we
had better learn first all about that, and perhaps it
may teach us something which will help us to under-
stand the other.”

I daresay you will wonder what this anecdote can
have to do with a lecture on the sun—I will tell you.
Last night I stood on the balcony and looked out
far and farther away into the star-depths of the mid-
night sky, marvelling what could be the history of
those countless suns of which we see ever more and
more as we increase the power of our telescopes, or
catch the faint beams of those we cannot see and
make them print their image on the photographic
plate. And, as I grew oppressed at the thought of
this never-ending expanse of suns and at my own
littleness, I remembered all at once the little square
book of my childish days with its gilt stile, and my
old friend’s advice to learn first all we can of that
which lies nearest.

So to-day, before we travel away to the stars, we
had better inquire what is known about the one star
THE SUN A STAR 119

in the heavens which is comparatively near to us, our
own glorious sun, which sends us all our light and
heat, causes all the movements of our atmosphere,
draws up the moisture from the ground to return in
refreshing rain, ripens our harvests, awakens the seeds
and sleeping plants into vigorous growth, and in a
word sustains all the energy and life upon our earth.
Yet even this star, which is more than a million times
as large as our earth, and bound so closely to us
that a convulsion on its surface sends a thrill right
through our atmosphere, is still so far off that it is
only by questioning the sunbeams it sends to us, that
we can know anything about it.

You have already learnt’ a good deal as to the
size, the intense heat and light, and the photographic
power of the sun, and also how his white beams of
light are composed of countless coloured rays which
we can separate in a prism. Now let us pass on to
the more difficult problem of the nature of the sun
itself, and what we know of the changes and com-
motions going on in that blazing globe of light.

We will try first what we can see for ourselves.
If you take a card and make a pin-hole in it, you
can look through this hole straight at the sun with-
out injuring your eye, and you will sec a round shin-
ing disc on which, perhaps, you may detect a few
dark spots. Then if you take your hand telescopes,
which I have shaded by putting a piece of smoked
glass inside the eye-piece, you will find that this
shining disc is really a round globe, and moreover,
although the object-glass of your telescopes measures
1 Fairyland of Science, Chapter II.

12 :
120 THROUGH ALTAGIC GLASSES

only two-and-a-half inches across, you will be able to
see the dark spots very distinctly and to observe that
they are shaded, having a deep spot in the centre
with a paler shadow round it.

As, however, you cannot all use the telescopes, and
those who can will find it difficult to point them truly
on to the sun, we will adopt still another plan. I
will turn the object-glass of my portable telescope

Fig. 45.









Face of the sun projected on a sheet of cardboard C.
T, Telescope. /, Finder. og, Object-glass. ef, Eye-piece. S, Screen
shutting off the diffused light from the window.

full upon the sun’s face, and bringing a large piece
of cardboard on an easel near to the other end,
draw it slowly backward till the eye-piece forms a
clear sharp image upon it (see Fig. 45). This you
THE SUN’S FACE PHOTOGRAPHED 121

can all see clearly, especially as I have passed the
eye-piece of the telescope through a large screen s,
which shuts off the light from the window.

You have now an exact image of the face of the
sun and the few dark spots which are upon it, and
we have brought, as it were, into our room that great
globe of light and heat which sustains all the life
and vigour upon our earth.

This small image can, however, tell us very little.
Let us next see what photography can show us.
The diagram (Fig. 46) shows a photograph of the sun
taken by Mr. Selwyn in October 1860, Let me
describe how this is done. You will remember that
there is a point in the telescope tube where the rays
of light form a real image of the object at which the
telescope is pointed (see p. 44). Now an astronomer
who wishes to take a photograph of the sun takes
away the eye-piece of his telescope and puts a
photographic plate in the tube exactly at the place
where this real image is formed. He takes care to
blacken the frame of the plate and shuts up this end
of the telescope and the plate in a completely dark
box, so that no diffused light from outside can
reach it. Then he turns his telescope upon the sun
that it may print its image.

But the sun’s light is so strong that even in a second
of time it would print a great deal too much, and all
would be black and confused. To prevent this he has
a strip of metal which slides across the tube of the
telescope in front of the plate, and in the upper part
of this strip a very fine slit is cut. Before he begins,
he draws the metal up so that the slit is outside the
122 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

tube and the solid portion within, and he fastens it
in this position by a thread drawn through and _ tied
to a bar outside. Then he turns his telescope on the
sun, and as soon as he wishes to take the photograph
he cuts the thread. The metal slides across the
tube with a flash, the slit passing across it and out
again below in the hundredth part of a second, and

Fig. 46.



Photograph of the face of the sun, taken by Mr. Selwyn, October 1860,
showing spots, faculee, and mottled surface:

in that time the sun has printed through the slit the
picture before you.

In it you will observe at least two things not
visible on our card-image. The spots, though in a
different position from where we sec them to-day,
look much the samc, but round them we see also
some bright streaks called /acule, or torches, which
PHOTOSPHERE AND CORONA 123

often appear in any region where a spot is forming,
while the whole face of the sun appears mottled with
bright and darker spaces intermixed. Those of you
who have the telescopes can see this mottling quite
distinctly through them if you look at the sun. The
bright points have been called by many names, and
are now generally known as “ light granules,” as good
a name, perhaps, as any other.

This is all our photograph can tell us, but the
round disc there shown, which is called the pholospherc,
or light-giving sphere, is by no means the whole of
the sun, though it is all we see daily with the naked
eye. Whenever a total eclipse of the sun takes place—
by the dark body of the moon coming between us
and it, so as to shut out the whole of this disc—a
brilliant white halo, called the crown or corona, is seen
to extend for many thousands of miles all round the
darkened globe. It varies very much in shape, some-
times forming a kind of irregular square, sometimes
a circle with off-shoots, as in Fig. 47, which shows
what Major Tennant saw in India during the total
eclipse of August 18, 1868, and at other times it
shoots out in long pearly white jets and sheets of
light with dark spaces between. On the whole it
varies periodically. At the time of few sun-spots its
extensions are equatorial ; but when the sun’s face is
much covered with spots, they are diagonal, stretching
away from the spot-zones, but not nearly so far.

And_ besides this corona there are seen very
curious flaming projections on the edge of the sun,
which begin to appear as soon as the moon covers
the bright disc. In our diagram (Fig. 47) you see them
124 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

on the left side where the moon is just creeping over
the limits of the photosphere and shutting out the
strong light of the sun as the eclipse becomes total.
A very little later they are better seen on the other



Total eclipse of the sun, as drawn by Major Tennant at Guntoor in India,
August 18, 1868, showing corona and the protuberances seen at the
beginning of totality.

side just before the bright edge of the sun is un-
covered as the moon passes on its way. These pro-
jections in the real sun are of a bright red colour, and
they take on all manners of strange shapes, sometimes
RED JETS SEEN DURING ECLIPSES 125

looking like ranges of fiery hills, sometimes like
gigantic spikes and scimitars, sometimes even like
branching fiery trees. They were called prominences
before their nature was well understood, and will prob-
ably always keep that name. It would be far better,
however, if some other name such as “ glowing
clouds” or “red jets” could be used, for there is now
no doubt that they are jets of gases, chiefly hydrogen,
constantly playing over the face of the sun, though
only seen when his brighter light is quenched. They
have been found to shoot up 20,000, 80,000, and even
as much as 350,000 miles beyond the edge of the
shining disc ; and this last means that the flames were
so gigantic that if they had started from our earth
they would have reached beyond the moon. We shall
see presently that astronomers are now able by the help
of the spectroscope to see the prominences even
when there is no eclipse, and we know them to be
permanent parts of the bright globe.

This gives us at last the whole of the sun, so far
as we know. There is, indeed, a strange faint
zodiacal light, a kind of pearly glow seen after sun-
set or before sunrise extending far beyond the region
of the corona; but we understand so little about this
that we cannot be sure that it actually belongs to
the sun.

And now how shall I best give you an idea of
what little we do know about this great surging
monster of light and heat which shines down upon
us? You must give me all your attention, for I want
to make the facts quite clear, that you may take a
firm hold upon them.
126 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Our first step is to question the sunlight which
comes to us; and this we do with the spectroscope.
Let me remind you how we read the story of light
through this instrument. Taking in a narrow beam
of light through a fine slit, we pass the beam through
a lens to make the rays parallel, and then throw it
upon a prism or row of prisms, so that each set of
waves of coloured light coming through the slit is
bent on its own road and makes an upright image
of the slit on any screen or telescope put to receive
it (sec Fig. 21, p. 52). Now when the light we
examine comes from a glowing solid-like white-hot
iron, or a glowing liquid, or a gas under such enormous
pressure that it behaves like a liquid, then the images
of the slit always overlap each other, so that we see a
continuous unbroken band of colour. However much
you spread out the light you can never break up or
separate the spectrum in any part.’ But when
you send the light, of a glowing gas such as
hydrogen through the spectroscope, or of a substance
melted into gas or vapour, such as sodium or iron
vaporised by great heat, then it is a different story.
Such gases give only a certain number of bright
lines quite separate from each other on the dark back-
ground, and each kind of gas gives its own peculiar
lines ; so that even when several are glowing together
there is no confusion, but when you look at them
through the spectroscope you can detect the presence
of each gas by its own lines in the spectrum.

To make quite sure of this we will close the

t Two rare earths, Erbia and Didymium, form an exception to this,
but they do not concern us here.
TABLE OF SPECTRA. Plate 1.

|. CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM
° 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 no 120 130 (40 150 160170:



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VINGIN
SUNLIGHT IN THE SPECTROSCOPE 127

shutters and put a pinch of salt in a spirit - flame.
Salt is chloride of sodium, and in the flame the sodium
glows with a bright yellow light. Look at this light
through your small direct-vision spectroscopes ' and
you see at once the bright yellow double-line of sodium
(No. 3, Plate I.) start into view across the faint con-
tinuous spectrum given by the spirit-flame. Next
I will show you glowing hydrogen. I have here a
glass tube containing hydrogen, so arranged that
by connecting two wires fastened to it with the in-
duction coil of our electric battery it will soon glow
with a bright red colour. Look at this through your
spectroscopes and you will see three bright lines, one
red, one greenish blue, and one indigo blue, standing
out on the dark background (No. 4, Plate I.)

Think for a moment what a grand power this
gives you of reading as in a book the different gases
which are glowing in the sky even billions of miles
away. You would never mistake the lines of hydro-
gen for the line of sodium, but when looking at a
nebula or any mass of glowing gas you could say at
once “sodium is glowing there,” or “that cloud must
-be composed of hydrogen.”

Now, opening the shutters, look at the sunlight
through your spectroscopes. Here you have some-
thing different from either the continuous spectrum of
solids, or the bright separate lines of gases, for while
you have a bright-coloured band you have also some
dark lines crossing it (No. 2, Plate I.) It is those

1 A direct-vision spectroscope is like a small telescope with prisms
arranged inside the tube. The object-glass end is covered by two
pieces of metal, which slide backwards and forwards by means of a
screw, so that a narrow or broad slit can be opened,
128 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

dark lines which enable us to guess what is going on
in the sun before the light comes to us. In 1859
Professor Kirchhoff made an experiment which ex-
plained those dark lines, and we will repeat it now.
Take a good look at the sunlight spectrum, to fix
the lines in your memory, and then close the shutters
again.

I have here our magic-lantern with its lime-light,

Fig. 48.
A









Kirchhoff's experiment, explaining the dark lines in sunlight.

A, Limelight dispersed through a prism. s, Slit through
Which the beam of light comes. 4, Lens bringing it to a focus
on the prism #. 54, Continuous spectrum thrown on the wall.
B, The same light, with the flame f containing glowing sodium
placed in front of it. D, Dark sodium line appearing in the
spectrum,

in which the solid lime glows with a white heat, in
consequence of the jets of oxygen and hydrogen
KIRCHHOFF'’S EXPERIMENT WITH SUNLIGHT 129

burning round it. This was the light Kirchhoff used,
and you know it will give a continuous bright band
in the spectroscope. I put a cap with a narrow slit
in it over the lantern tube, so as to get a narrow
beam of light ; in front of this I put a Jens 4 and in
front of this again the prism g. The slit and the
prism act exactly like your spectroscopes, and you
can all see the continuous spectrum on the screen
(sp, A, Fig. 48). Next I put a lighted lamp of very
weak spirit in front of the slit, and find that it
makes no difference, for whatever light it gives only
strengthens the spectrum. But now notice carefully.
Iam going to put a little salt into the flame, and
you would expect that the sodium in it, when turned
to glowing vapour, causing it to look yellow, would
strengthen the yellow part of the spectrum and give
a bright line. This is what Kirchhoff expected, but
to his intense surprise he saw as you do now a dark
fine D start out where the bright line should have
been.

What can have happened? It is this. The oxy-
hydrogen light is very hot indeed, the spirit fame with
the sodium is comparatively weak and cool. So when
those special coloured waves of the oxyhydrogen light
which agree with those of the sodium light reached
the flame, they spent all their energy in heating up
those waves to their own temperature, and while all
the other coloured rays travelled on and reached the
screen, these waves were stopped or adsorbed on the
way, and consequently there was a blank, black space
in the spectrum where they should have been. If I
could put a hydrogen flame cooler than the original
130 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

light in the road, then there would be three dark lines
where the bright hydrogen lines should be, and so
with every other gas. The cool vapour in front of
the hot light cuts off from the white ray exactly those
waves which it gives out itself when burning.

Thus each black line of the sun-spectrum (No. 2,
Plate J.), tells us that some particular ray of sunlight
has been absorbed by a cooler vapour of its own kind
somewhere between the sun and us, and it must be
in the sun itself, for when we examine other stars we
often find dark lines in their spectrum different from
those in the sun, and this shows that the missing rays
must have been stopped close at home, for if they were
stopped in our atmosphere they would all be alike.

There are, by the bye, some lines which we know
are caused by our atmosphere, especially when
it is full of invisible water vapour, and these we
easily detect, because they show more distinctly when
the sun is low and shines through a thicker layer of
air than when he is high up and shines through less.

But to return to the sun. In your small spectro-
scopes you see very few dark lines, but in larger and
more perfect ones they can be counted by thousands,
and can be compared with the bright lines of glowing
gases burnt here on earth. In the spectrum of
glowing iron vapour 460 lines are found to agree
with dark lines in the sun-spectrum, and other gases
have nearly as many. Still, though thousands of
lines can now be explained, by matching them with
the bright lines of known gases, the whole secret
of sunlight is not yet solved, for the larger number
of lines still remain a riddle to be read.
RED JETS SEEN IN FULL DAYLIGHT 131

We see then that the spectroscope teaches us that
the round light-giving disc or photosphere of the sun
consists of a bright and intensely hot light shining
behind a layer of cooler though still very hot vapours,
which form a kind of shell of luminous clouds around it,
and in this shell, or reversing layer—as it is often
called, because it turns light to darkness—we have
proved that iron, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, magnes-
ium, potassium, sodium, carbon, hydrogen, and many
other substances common to our earth, exist in a
state of vapour for a depth of perhaps 1000 miles.

You will easily understand that when the spectro-
scope had told so much, astronomers were eager to
learn what it would reveal about the prominences
or red jets seen during eclipses, and they got an
answer in India during that same eclipse of August
1868 which is shown in our diagram (Fig. 47).
Making use of the time during which the prominences
were seen, they turned the telescope upon them with
a spectroscope attached to it, and saw a number of
bright lines start out, of which the chief were the
three bright lines of hydrogen, showing that these
curious appearances are really flames of glowing gas.

In the same year Professor Jannsen and Mr.
Lockyer succeeded in seeing the bright lines of the
prominences in full sunlight. This was done in a very
simple way, when once it was discovered to be possible,
and though my apparatus (Fig. 49) is very primitive
compared with some now made, it will serve to explain
the method,

When an astronomer wishes to examine the
spectrum of any special part of the sun, he takes off

18


132 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the eye-piece of his telescope and screws the spectro-


























hi
i

i
sth Og




i
i










































‘The spectroscope attached to the telescope for the examination

of the sun, (Lockyer.)

P, Pillar of Telescope. T, Telescope. S, Finder or small
telescope for pointing the telescope in position. a, a, 4, Supports
fastening the spectroscope to the telescope. @, Collimator or tube
carrying the slit at the end nearest the telescope, and a lens at the
other end to render the rays parallel. c, Plate on which the prisms
are fixed. e, Small telescope through which the observer examines
the spectrum after the ray has been dispersed in the prisms. 4%,
Micrometer for measuring the relative distance of the lines.

scope upon the draw-tube. The spectroscope is
SPECTRA OF RED PROMINENCES 133

made exactly like the large one for ordinary work.
The tube @ (Fig. 49) carries the slit at the end
nearest the telescope, and this slit must be so
placed as to stand precisely at the principal focus
of the lens where the sun’s image is formed (see 4, ,
p. 44). This comes to exactly the same thing
as if we could put the slit close against the face
of the sun, so as to show only the small. strip
which it covers, and by moving it to one part or
another of the image we can see any point that we
wish and no other. The light then passes through
the tube ¢@ into the round of prisms standing on the
tray c, and the observer looking through the small
telescope ¢ sees the spectrum as it emerges from the
last prism. In this way astronomers can examine
the spectrum of a spot, or part of a spot, or of a
bright .streak, or any other mark on the sun’s
face.

Now in looking at the prominences we have seen
that the difficulty is caused by the sunlight, between
us and them, overpowering the bright lines of the
gas, nor could we overcome this if it were not for a
difference which exists between the two kinds of light.
The more you disperse or spread out the continuous
sun-spectrum the fainter it becomes, but in spreading
out the bright lines of the gas you only send them
farther and farther apart; they themselves remain
almost as bright as ever. So, when the telescope
forms an image of the red flame in front of the slit,
though the glowing gas and the sunlight both send
rays into the spectroscope, you have only to use
enough prisms and arrange them in such a way that
134 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the sunlight is dispersed into a very long faint spec-
trum, and then the bright lines of the flames will
stand out bright and clear. Of course only a small part
of the long spectrum can be seen at once, and the lines
must be studied separately. On the other hand, if
you want to compare the strong light of the sun with
the bright lines of the prominences, you place the slit
just at the edge of the sun’s image in the telescope,
so that half the slit is on the sun’s face and half on
the prominence. The prisms then disperse the sun-
light between you and the prominences, while they
only lessen the strong light of the sun itself, which still
shows clearly. In this way the two spectra are seen
side by side and the dark and bright lines can be
compared accurately together (sec Fig. 50).
Tig. 50.
Bright lines of prominences.

eta, 1 s Ua Ed
i

DO wm we rl Wl

eae a bre ae Se Pena os Ce ce



Sun-spectrum with dark lines.

Wherever the telescope is turned all round the
sun the lines of luminous gas are seen, showing that
they form a complete layer outside the photosphere,
or light-giving mass, of the sun. This layer of
luminous gases is called the chromosphere, or coloured
sphere. Itlies between the photosphere and the corona,
and is supposed to be at least 5000 miles deep, while,
SHAPE OF PROALINENCES 135

as we have seen, the flames shoot up from it to
fabulous heights.

The quiet red flames are found to be composed
of hydrogen and another new metal called helium ;
but lower down, near the sun’s edge, other bright lines
are seen, showing that sodium, magnesium, and other
‘metals are there, and when violent eruptions occur
these often surge up and mingle with the purer gas
above. At other times the eruptions below fling the
red flames aloft with marvellous force, as when Pro-
fessor Young saw a long low-lying cloud of hydrogen,
100,000 miles long, blown into shreds and flung up
to a height of 200,000 miles, when the fragments
streamed away and vanished in two hours. Yet all
these violent commotions and storms are unseen by
us on earth unless we look through our magic glasses.

You will wonder no doubt how the spectroscope
can show the height and the shape of the flames. I
will explain to you, and I hope to show them you
one day. You must remember that the telescope
makes a small real image of the flame at its focus,
just as in one of our earlier experiments you saw the
exact image of the candle-flame upside down on the
paper (see p. 33). The reason why we only see a strip
of the flame in the spectroscope is because the slit is so
narrow. But when once the sunlight was dispersed
so as no longer to interfere, Dr. Huggins found that
it is possible to open the slit wide enough to take
in the image of the whole flame, and then, by turn-
ing the spectroscope so as to bring one of the bright
hydrogen lines into view, the actual shape of the
prominence is seen, only it will look a different
136 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

colour, either red, greenish - blue, or indigo - blue,
according to the line chosen. As the image of the
whole sun and its appendages in the telescope is so very
small, you will understand that even a very narrow slit
will really take in a very large prominence several
thousand miles in length. Fig 51 shows a drawing
by Mr. Lockyer of a group of flames he observed



Red prominences, as drawn by. Mr. Lockyer during the
total eclipse of March 14, 1869.

very soon after Dr. Huggins suggested the open slit,
and these shapes did not last long, for in another
picture he drew ten minutes later thcir appearance
had alrcady changed.
SUN-SPOT PERIODS 137

These then are some of the facts revealed to us
by our magic glasses. I scarcely expect you to
remember all the details I have given you, but you
will at least ‘understand now how astronomers
actually penetrate into the secrets of the sun by
bringing its image into their observatory, as we
brought it to-day on the card-board, and then making
it tell its own tale through the prisms of the spectro-
scope ; and you will retain some idea of the central
light of the sun with its surrounding atmosphere of
cooler gases and its layer of luminous lambent gases
playing round it beyond.

Of the corona I cannot tcll you much, except
that it is far more subtle than anything we have
spoken of yet; that it is always strongest when the
sun is most spotted; that it is partly made up of self-
luminous gases whose bright: lines we can_ see,
especially an unknown green ray ; while it also shines
partly by reflected light from the sun, for we can
trace in it faint dark lines; lastly it fades away into
the mysterious zodiacal light, and so the sun ends in
mystery at its outer fringe as it began at its centre.

And now at last, having learnt something of the
material of the sun, we can come back to the spots
. and ask what is known about them. As I have
said, they are not always the same on the sun’s face.
On the contrary, they vary very much both in number
and size. In some years the sun’s face is quite free
from them, at others there are so many that they form
two wide belts on cach side of the sun’s equator, with
a clear space of about six degrees between. No spots
ever appear near the poles. Herr Schwabe, who
138 THROUGH ALTAGIC GLASSES

watched the sun’s face patiently for more than thirty
years, has shown that it is most spotted about every
eleven years, then the spots disappear very quickly
and reappear slowly till the full-spot time comes round
again.

Some spots remain a very short time and then
break up and disappear, but others last for days,
weeks, and even months, and when we watch these,
we find that a spot appears to travel slowly across
the face of the sun from east to west and then round
the western edge so that it disappears. It is when it
reaches the edge that we can convince ourselves
that the spot is really part of the sun, for there is no
space to be seen between them, the edge and the
spot are one, as the last trace of the dark blotch
passes out of sight. In fact, it is not the spot which
has crossed the sun’s face, but the sun itself which
has turned, like our earth, upon its axis, carrying the
spot round with it. As some spots remain long
enough to reappear, after about twelve or thirteen days,
on the opposite edge, and even pass round two or three
times, astronomers can reckon that the sun takes
about twenty-five days and five hours in performing
one revolution. You will wonder why I say only
about twenty-five, but I do so because all spots do
not come round in exactly the same time, those
farthest from the equator lag rather more than a
day behind those nearer to it, and this is explained
by the layer of gases in which they are formed,
drifting back in higher latitudes as the sun turns,

It is by watching a spot as it travels across the
sun, that we are able to observe that the centre part
NATURE OF SUN-SPOTS 139

lies deeper in the sun’s face than the outer rim.
There are many ways of testing this, and you can
try one yourselves with a telescope if you watch

‘day after day. I will explain it by a simple ex-
periment. I have here a round lump of stiff dough,
in which I have made a small hollow and blackened
the bottom with a drop of ink. As I turn this round,
so that the hollow facing you moves from right to
left, you will see that after it passes the middle of
the face, the hole appears narrower and narrower till
it disappears, and if you observe carefully you will note
that the dark centre is the first thing you lose sight
of, while the edges of the cup are still seen, till just
before the spot disappears altogether. But now I
will stick a wafer on, and a pea half into, the dough,
marking the centre of each with ink. Then I turn
the ball again. This time you lose sight of the
foremost edge first, and the dark centre is scen
almost to the last moment. This shows that if the
spots were either flat marks, or hillocks, on the sun’s
face, the dark centre would remain to the last, but
as a fact it disappears before the rim. Father Secchi
has tried to measure the depth of a spot-cavity, and
thinks they vary from 1000 to 3000 miles deep.
But there are many difficulties in interpreting the
effects of light and shadow at such an enormous
distance, and some astronomers still doubt whether
spots are really depressions.

_ Formanycenturies now the spots have been watched
forming and dispersing, and this is roughly speaking
what is seen to happen. When the sun is fairly
clear and there are few spots, these generally form
140 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

quietly, several black dots appearing and disappear-
ing with bright streaks or facu/e round their edge,
till one grows bigger than the rest, and forms’ a large
dark nucleus, round which, after a time, a half-shadow
or penumbra is seen and we have a sun-spot com-

Fig. 52.



A quiet sun-spot. (Secchi.)

plete, with bright edges, dark shadow, and deep black
centre (Fig. 52). his lasts for a certain time. and
then it becomes bridged over with light streaks, the
dark spot breaks up and disappears, and last of all
the half-shadow dies away.

But things do not always take place so quietly.
When the sun’s face is very troubled and full of
spots, the bright facwle, which appear with a spot,
seem to heave and wave, and generally several dark
centres form with whirling masses of light round
QUIET AND TUMULTUOVUS SPOTS I4I

them, while in some of them tongues of fire appear
to leap up from below (Fig. 53). Such spots change
quickly from day to day, even if they remain for a
long time, until at last by degrees the dark centres
become less distinct, the half-shadows disappear,





A tumultuous sun-spot. (Langley. )

leaving only the bright streaks, which gradually settle
down into luminous points or Might granules, These
light granules are in fact supposed by astronomers to
be the tips of glowing clouds heaving up everywhere,
while the dark spaces between them are cooler
currents passing downwards,

Below these clouds, no doubt, the great mass of
the sun is in a violent state of heat and commotion,
142 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

and when from time to time, whether suddenly or
steadily, great upheavals and eruptions take place,
bright flames dart up and luminous clouds gather and
swell, so that long streaks or faci/e@ surge upon the
face of the sun.

Now these hot gases rising up thus on all sides
would leave room below for cooler gases to pour
down from above, and these, as we know, would
cut off, or absorb, much of the light coming from
the body of the sun, so that the centre, where
the down current was the strongest, would appear
black even though some light would pass through.
This is the best explanation we have as yet of the
formation of a sun-spot, and many facts shown in the
spectroscope help to confirm it, as for example the
thickening of the dark lines of the spectrum when
the slit is placed over the centre of a spot, and the
flashing out of bright lines when an uprush of
streaks occurs either across the spots or round it.

And now, before you go, I must tell you of one
of these wonderful uprushes, which sent such a thrill
through our own atmosphere, as to tell us very
plainly the power which the sun has over our globe.
The year 1859 was remarkable for sun-spots, and on
September 1, when two astronomers many miles
apart were examining them, they both saw, all at
once, a sudden cloud of light far brighter than the
general surface of the sun burst out in the midst of
a group of spots. The outburst began at eight minutes
past eleven in the forenoon, and in five minutes it
was gone again, but in that time it had swept across
a space of 35,000 miles on the sun! Now both
LINKS BETWEEN SUN AND EARTH 143

before and after this violent outburst took place a
magnetic storm raged all round the earth, brilliant
auroras were seen in all parts of the world, sparks
flashed from the telegraph wires, and the telegraphic
signalmen at Washington and Philadelphia received
severe electric shocks. Messages were interrupted,
for the storm took possession of the wires and sent
messages of its own, the magnetic needles darting to
and fro as though seized with madness. At the
very instant when the bright outburst was seen in
the sun, the self- registering instruments at Kew
marked how three needles jerked all at once wildly
aside ; and the following night the skies were lit up
with wondrous lights as the storm of electric agita-
tion played round the earth.

We are so accustomed to the steady glow of sun-
shine pouring down upon us that we pay very little
heed to daylight, though I hope none of us are quite
so ignorant as the man who praised the moon above
the sun, because it shone in the dark night, whereas
the sun came in the daytime when there was light
enough already! Yet probably many of us do not
actually realise how close are the links which bind
us to our brilliant star as he carries us along with
him through space. It is only when an unusual out-
burst occurs, such as I have just described, that we
feel how every thrill which passes through our atmo-
sphere, through the life-current of every plant, and
through the fibre and nerve of every animal has some
relation to the huge source of light, heat, electricity,
and magnetism at which we are now gazing across a
space of more than 93,000,000 miles, Yet it is well

14
144 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

to remember that the sudden storm and the violent
eruption are the exceptional occurrences, and that
their use to us as students is chiefly to lead us to
understand the steady and constant thrill which,
never ceasing, never faltering, fulfils the great pur-
pose of the unseen Lawgiver in sustaining all move-
ment and life in our little world.
AN EVENING AMONG THE STARS 145

CHAPTER VII

AN EVENING AMONG THE STARS






—xO you love the stars?” asked
the magician of his lads, as

they crowded round him
on the college green, one
evening in March, to lock
through his portable telescope.
“Have you ever sat at the
/ window on a clear frosty night,
or in the garden in summer,
and looked up at those wondrous
lights in the sky, pondering what
they are, and what purpose they serve?”
I will confess to you that when I lived in London

I did not think much about the stars, for in the
streets very few can be seen at a time even on a
clear night ; and during the long evenings in summer,
when town people visit the country, you must stay
up late to see a brilliant display of starlight. It is
when driving or walking across country on a winter's
evening week after week, and looking all round the
sky, that the glorious suns of heaven force you to
take notice of them; and Orion becomes a com-






146 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

panion with his seven brilliant stars and his magni-
ficent nebula, which appears as a small pale blue
patch, to eyes accustomed to look for it, when the
night is very bright and clear. It is then that
Charles’s Wain becomes quite a study in all its
different positions, its horses now careering upwards,
now plunging downwards, while the waggon, whether
upwards or downwards, points ever true, by the two
stars of its tail-board, to the steadfast pole-star.

It is on such nights as these that, looking southward
from Orion, we recognise the dog-star Sirius, bright
long before other stars have conquered the twilight,
and feast our eye upon his glorious white beams;
and then, turning northwards, are startled by the soft
lustrous sheen of Vega just appearing above the
horizon.

But stop, I must remember that I have not yet
introduced you to these groups of stars ; and moreover
that, though we shall find them now in the positions
I mention, yet if you look for them a few hours later
to-night, or at the same hour later in the year, you
will not find them in the same places in the sky.
For as our earth turns daily on its axis, the stars
appear to alter their position hour by hour, and in
the same way as we travel yearly on our journey
round the sun, they agfear to move in the sky month
by month, Yet with a little practice it is easy to
recognise the principal stars, for, as it is our move-
ment and not theirs which makes us see them in
different parts of the sky, they always remain in the
same position with regard to each other. In a very
short time, with the help of such a book as Proctor’s
STRIUS, THE DOG-STAR 147

Star Atlas, you could pick out all the chief constella-
tions and most conspicuous stars for yourselves.

One of the best ways is to take note of the stars
each night as they creep out one by one after sunset.
If you take your place at the window to-morrow
night as the twilight fades away, you will see them
gradually appear, now in one part, now in another of
the sky, as

“One by one each little star
Sits on its golden throne,”

The first to appear will be Sirius or the dog-star
(see Fig. 54), that pure white star which yoy can
observe now rather low down to the south, and
which belongs to the constellation Canis Mayor.
As Sirius is one of the most brilliant stars in
the sky, he can be seen very soon after the sun
is gone at this time of year. If, however, you had
any doubt as to what star he was, you would not
doubt long, for in a little while two beautiful stars
start into view above him more to the west, and
between them three smaller ones in a close row,
forming the cross in the constellation of Orion,
which is always very easy to recognise. Now the
three stars of Orion’s belt which make the short
piece of the cross always point to Sirius, while
Betelgeux in his right shoulder, and Rigel in his
left foot (see Figs. 54 and 55), complete the long
piece, and these all show very early in the twilight.
You would have to wait longer for the other two
leading stars, Bellatrix in the right shoulder and
« Orionis in the right leg, for these stars are feebler
and only seen when the light has faded quite away.
Fig. 54.
SOUTH Capella ®@
é e

ea aa

Castore
at Yih Dn)

Glace oh bees See ee ee ra

Sceme of the constellations seen when looking south in March from six to nine o'clock.



grr

SISSVTD WOFW HDQOVHL


THE CONSTELLATION OF ORION 149

By that time you would see that there are an im-
mense number of stars in Orion visible even to the
naked eye, besides the veil of misty, tiny stars called the
“ Milky Way” which passes over his arm and club.
Yet the figure of the huntsman is very difficult to trace,
and the seven bright stars, the five of the cross and
those in theleftarm and knee, are all you need remember.

No! not altogether all, for on a bright clear night
like this you can detect ;
a faint greenish blue
patch (N, Fig. 54) just
below the belt, and
having a bright star in
the centre. This is
called the “Great Ne-
bula” or mist of Orion
(see Frontispiece), With
your telescopes it looks
very small indeed, for
only the central and
brightest part is seen.
Really, however, it is
so widespread that our
whole solar system is as
nothing compared to it.
Butevenyour telescopes
will show, somewhere
near the centre, what appears to be a bright and very
beautiful star (see Fig. 55) surrounded by a darker
space than the rest of the nebula, while in my tele-
scope you will see many stars scattered over the mist.

Now first let me tell you that these last stars do

Fig. 55.

PEATE te



Chief stars of Orion, with Aldebaran.
(After Proctor. )




150. THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

not, so far as we know, lie zz the nebula, but are
scattered about in the heavens between us and
it, perhaps millions of miles nearer our earth. But
with the bright star in the centre it is different,
for the spectroscope tells us that the mist passes
over it, so that it is either

Fig. 56. behind or in the nebula.
Moreover, this star is very
interesting, for it is not
really one star, but six
arranged in a group (see
Fig. 56). You can see
four distinctly through my
telescope, forming a tra-
pezium or four-sided figure,
and more powerful instru-
ments show two smaller



The trapezium, @ Orionis, in the
nebula of Orion. (Herschel.) ones. So @ Orionis, or the

Trapezium of Orion, is a
multiple star, probably lying in the midst of the
nebula.

The next question is, What is the mist itself
composed of? Fora long time telescopes could give
us no answer. At last one night Lord Rosse, looking
through his giant telescope at the densest part of the
nebula, saw myriads of minute stars which had never
been seen before. “Then,” you will say, “ it is after all
only a cluster of stars too small for our telescopes
to distinguish.” Wait a bit; it is always dangerous
to draw hasty conclusions from single observations.
What Lord Rosse said was true as to that particular
part of the nebula, but not the whole truth even
“THE NEBULA OF ORION I51

‘there, and not at all true of other parts, as the
spectroscope tells us.

For though the light of nebule, or luminous mists,
is so faint that a spectrum can only be got by most
delicate operations, yet Dr. Huggins has succeeded
in examining several. Among these is the nebula
of Orion, and we now know that when the light of
the mist is spread out it gives, not a continuous band

- Fig. 57.

Nebula-spectrum.

H
Cy







Sun-spectrum.
Spectrum of Orion’s Nebula, showing bright lines, with sun-spectrum
below for comparison.

of colour such as would be given by stars, but fazz¢
coloured lines on a dark ground (see Fig. 57). Such
lines as these we have already learnt are always
given by gases, and the particular bright lines thrown
by Orion’s nebula answer to those given by nitrogen
and hydrogen, and some other unknown gases. So
we learn at last that the true mist of the nebula is
formed of glowing gas, while parts have probably a
great number of minute stars in them.

Till within a very short time ago only those people
who had access to very powerful telescopes could
see the real appearance of Orion, for drawings made
of it were necessarily very imperfect; but now that
telescopes have been made expressly for carrying
152 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

photographic appliances, even these faint mists print
their own image for us. In 1880 Professor Draper
of America photographed the nebula of Orion, in
March 1881 Mr. Common got a still better effect,
and last year Mr. Isaac Roberts succeeded in taking
the most perfect and beautiful photograph! yet
obtained, in which the true beauty of this wonderful
mist stands out clearly. J have marked on the edge
of our copy two points @ and 6’, and if you follow
out straight lines from these points till they meet,
you will arrive at the spot where the multiple star
lies. It cannot, however, be seen here, because the
plate was exposed for three hours and a half, and
after a time the mist prints itself so densely as to
smother the light of the stars. Look well at this
photograph when you go indoors and fix it on your
memory, and then on clear nights accustom your eye
to find the nebula below the three stars of the belt,
for it tells a wonderful story.

More than a hundred years ago’ the great
German philosopher Kant suggested that our
sun, our earth, and all the heavenly bodies might
have begun as gases, and the astronomer Laplace
taught this as the most likely history of their
formation. After a few years, however, when power-
ful telescopes showed that many of the nebule
were only clusters of very minute stars, astronomers
thought that Laplace’s teaching had been wrong.
But now the spectroscope has revealed to us glowing

1 Reproduced in the Frontispiece with Mr. Roberts’s kind per-
mission, The star-halo at the top of the plate is caused by diffraction
of light in the telescope, and comes only frum an ordinary star.
THE PLEIADES 153

gas actually filling large spaces in the sky, and every
year accurate observations and experiments tell us
more and more about these marvellous distant mists.
Some day, though perhaps not while you or I are
here to know it, Orion’s nebula, with its glowing gas
and minute star-dust, may give some clue to the
early history of the heavenly bodies; and for this
reason I wish you to recognise and ponder over it, as
I have often done, when it shines down on the rugged
moor in the stillness of a clear frosty winter’s night.
But we must pass on for, while I have been talk-
ing, the whole sky has become bespangled with
hundreds of stars. That glorious one to the west,
which you can find by following (Fig. 54) a curved
line upwards from Betelgeux, is the beautiful red star
Aldebaran or the hindmost ; so called by the Arabs,
because he drives before him that well-known cluster,
the Pleiades, which we reach by continuing the curve
westwards and upwards. Stop to look at this cluster
through your telescopes, for it will delight you ; even
with the naked eye you can count from six to ten
stars in it, and an opera-glass will show about thirty,
though they are so scattered you will have to
move the glass about to find them. Yet though my
telescope shows a great many more, you cannot even
count all the chief ones through it, for in powerful
telescopes more than 600 stars have been seen in the
single cluster! while a photograph taken by Mr.
Roberts shows also four lovely patches of nebula.
And now from the Pleiades let us pass on directly
overhead to the beautiful star Capella, which once
was red but now is blue, and drop down gently to
154 LHROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the south-east, where Castor and Pollux, the two most
prominent stars in the constellation “Gemini” or
the twins, show brilliantly against the black sky.
Pause here a moment, for I want to tell you some-
thing about Castor, the one nearest to Capella. If
you look at Castor through your telescopes, some of
you may possibly guess that it is really two stars, but
you will have to look through mine to see it clearly.
These two stars have been watched carefully for
many years, and there is now no doubt that one of
them is moving slowly round the other. Such stars
as these are called “binary,” to distinguish them from:
stars that merely agsear double because they stand
nearly in a line one behind the other in the heavens,
although they may be millions of miles apart. But
“binary” stars are actually moving in one system,
and revolve round each other as our earth moves
round the sun.

I wonder if it strikes you what a grand discovery
this is? You will remember that it is gravitation
which keeps the moon held to the earth so that it
moves round in a circle, and which keeps the earth
and other planets moving round the sun. But till
these binary stars were discovered we had no means
of guessing that this law had any force beyond our
own solar system. Now, however, we learn that the
same law and order which reigns in our small group
of planets is in action billions of miles away among
distant suns, so that they are held together and move
round each other as our earth moves round our sun.
I will repeat to you what Sir R. Ball, the Astronomer-
Royal of Ireland, says about this, for his words
BINARY STARS 155

have remained in my mind ever since I read them,
and I should like them to linger in yours till you
are old enough to feel their force and grandeur.
“This discovery,” he writes, “gave us knowledge we
could have gained from no other source. From the
binary stars came a whisper across the vast abyss of
space. That whisper told us that the law of gravi-
tation is not peculiar to the solar system. It gives
us grounds for believing that it is obeyed throughout
the length, the breadth, the depth, and the height of
the entire universe.”?

And now, leaving Castor and going round to the
east, we pass through the constellation Leo or the
Lion, and I want you particularly to notice six stars
in the shape of a sickle, which form the front part of
the lion, the brightest, called Regulus, being the end
of the handle* This sickle is very interesting,
because it marks the part of the heavens from which |
the brilliant shower of November meteors radiates
once in thirty-three years. This is, however, too
long a story to be told to-night, so we will pass
through Leo, and turning northwards, look high up
in the north-east (Fig. 58), where “ Charles’s Wain”
stretches far across the sky. I need not point this
out to you, for every country lad knows and delights
in it. You could not have seen it in the twilight
when Sirius first shone out, for these stars are not so
powerful as he is. But they come out very soon
after him, and when once fairly bright, the four stars
which form the waggon, wider at the top than at the

1 The Story of the Heavens.
? In Fig. 54 the sickle alone comes within the picture.

15
Fig. 58.

y
Cy
DUterd |

Pole Star
Ca

rer)

g
3
2a

ee
Guards

rd

aA cc eae Pere 00>
3 ase i (ay Fo 4
ate eee es s Arcturus

. ; far)
LYRA one ; HORTZON

Some of the constellations seen when looking north in March from six to nine o’clock,



gS!

SHSSVTI MWOVW HDQONXAL
CHARLES’S WAIN 157

bottom, can never be mistaken, and the three stars in
front, the last bending below the others, are just in
the right position for the horses. For this reason I
prefer the country people’s name of Charles’s Wain or
Waggon to that of the “Plough,” which astronomers
generally give to these seven stars. They really
form part of an enormous constellation called the
“Great Bear” (Fig. 59), but, as in the case of Orion,
it is very difficult to make out the whole of Bruin
in the sky.

Now, although most people know Charles’s Wain
when they see it, we may still learn a good deal

Fig. 59.



The Great Bear, showing the position of Charles’s Wain, and also
the small binary star £ in the hind foot, whose period
has been determined.

about it. Look carefully at the second star from
the waggon and you will see another star close to it,
called by country people “ Jack by the second horse,”
158 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

and by astronomers “ Alcor.” Even in your small
telescopes you can see that Jack or Alcor is not so
close as he appears to the naked eye, but a long way
off from the horse, while in my telescope you will
find this second horse (called Mizar) split up into two
stars, one a brilliant white and the other a pale
emerald green. We do not know whether these two
form a binary, for they have not yet been observed
to move round each other,

Take care in looking that you do not confuse the
stars one with another, for you must remember that
your telescope makes objects appear upside down,
and Alcor will therefore appear in it de/ow the two
stars forming the horse.

But though we do not know whether Mizar is
binary, there is a little star a long way below the
waggon, in the left hind paw of the Great Bear (&, Figs.
58 and 59), which has taught us a great deal, for it
is composed of two stars, one white and the other
grey, which move right round each other once in
sixty years, so that astronomers have observed more
than one revolution since powerful telescopes were
invented. You will have to look in my telescope to
see the two stars divided, but you can make an
interesting observation for yourselves by comparing
the light of this binary star with the light of Castor,
for Castor is such an immense distance from us that
his light takes more than a hundred years to reach
us, while the light of this smaller star comes in sixty-
one years, yet see how incomparably brighter Castor
is of the two. This proves that brilliant stars are
not always the nearest, but that a near star may
DRIFTING OF THE WAGGON-STARS 159

be small and faint and a far-off one large and
bright.

There is another very interesting fact known to us
about Charles’s Wain which I should like you to
remember when you look at it. This is that the
seven stars are travelling onwards in the sky, and not
all in the same direction. It was already suspected
centuries ago that, besides the apparent motion of
all the stars in the heavens caused by our own
movements, they have each also a veal motion and
are travelling in space, though they are so in-
conceivably far off that we do not notice it. It
has now been proved, by very accurate observa-
tions with powerful instruments, that three of
the stars forming the waggon and the two horses

Fig. 60



The seven stars of Charles's Wain, showing the directions in which they
are travelling. (After Proctor. )

nearest to it, together with Jack, are drifting forwards
(see Fig. 60), while the top star of the tailboard of
the waggon and the leader of the horses are drifting
the other way. Thus, thousands of years hence
160 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Charles’s Wain will most likely have quite altered its
shape, though so very slowly that each generation
will think it is unchanged.

One more experiment with Charles’s Wain, before
we leave it, will help you to imagine the endless
millions of stars which fill the universe. Look up at
the waggon and try to count how many stars you
can see inside it with the naked eye. You may, if
your eye is keen, be able to count twelve. Now
take an opera-glass and the twelve become two hun-
dred. With your telescopes they will increase again in
number. In my telescope upstairs the two hundred
become hundreds, while in one of the giant telescopes,
such as Lord Rosse’s in Ireland, or the great telescope
at Washington in the United States, thousands of stars
are brought into view within that four-sided space!

Now this part of the sky is not fuller of stars than
many others ; yet at first, looking up as any one might
on a clear evening, we thought only twelve were
there. Cast your eyes all round the heavens. Ona
clear night like this you may perhaps, with the naked
eye, have in view about 3000 stars; then con-
sider that a powerful telescope can multiply these
by thousands upon thousands, so that we can reckon
about 20,000,000 where you see only 3000. If
you add to these the stars that rise later at night,
and those of the southern hemisphere which never
rise in our Jatitude, you would have in all about
50,000,000 stars, which we are able to sce from our
tiny world through our most powerful telescopes.

But we can go farther yet. When our telescopes
fail, we turn to our other magic seer, the photographic
THE POLE-STAR 161

camera, and trapping rays of light from stars invisible
in the most powerful telescope, make them print their
image on the photographic plate, and at once our
numbers are so enormously increased that if we could
photograph the whole of the heavens as visible from
our earth, we should have impressions of at least
170,000,000 stars !

These numbers are so difficult to grasp that we
had better pass on to something easier, and our next
step brings us to the one star in the heavens which
never appears to move, as our world turns. To find
it we have only to draw a line upwards through the
two stars in the tailboard of the waggon and on into
space. Indeed these two stars are called “the
Pointers,” because a line prolonged onwards from
them will, with a very slight curve, bring us to the
“Pole-star” (see Fig. 58). This star, though not one of
the largest, is important, because it is very near that
spot in the sky towards which the North Pole of our
earth points. The consequence is, that though all the
other stars appear to move ina circle round the heavens,
and to be in different places at different seasons, this
star remains always in the same place, only appearing
to describe a very tiny circle in the sky round the
exact spot to which our North Pole’ points.

Month after month and year after year it shines
exactly over that thatched cottage yonder, which you
see now immediately below it ; and wherever you are
in the northern hemisphere, if you once note a certain
tree, or chimney, or steeple which points upwards to
the Pole-star, it will guide you to it at any hour on
any night of the year, though the other constella-
162 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

tions will be now on one side, now on the other
side of it. ;

The Pole-star is really the front horse of a small
imitation of Charles’s Wain, which, however, has never
been called by any special name, but only part of the
“Little Bear.” Those two hind stars of the tiny
waggon, which are so much the brightest, are called
the “Guards,” because they appear to move in a
circle round the Pole-star night after night and year
after year like sentries.

Opposite to them, on the farther side of the Pole-
star, is a well-marked constellation, a widespread W
written in the sky by five large stars; the second V

Fig. 62.

a
etry,

Mm eM ACMA

Great Nebulu

ye aaa ad



The constellation of Cassiopeia, and the heavenly bodies which
can be found by means of it.}

of the W has rather a longer point than the first, and
as we sec it now the letter is almost upside down (see

1 For Almach see Fig. 58, it has been accidentally omitted from
this figure.
CASSIOPEIA AND ITS NEIGHBOURS 163

Fig. 58). These are the five brightest stars in the
constellation Cassiopeia, with a sixth not quite so
bright in the third stroke of the W. You can never
miss them when you have once seen them, even
though they lie in the midst of a dense layer of the
stars of the Milky Way, and if you have any difficulty
at first, you have only to look as far on the one
side of the Pole-star as the top hind star of Charles’s
Wain is on the other, and you must find them. I
want to use them to-night chiefly as guides to find
two remarkable objects which I hope you will look at
again and again. The first is a small round misty
patch not easy to see, but which you will find by
following out the second stroke of the first V of the
W. Beginning at the top, and following the line to
the point of the V, continue on across the sky, and
then search with your telescope till you catch a
glimpse of this faint mist (c, Fig. 58; star-cluster,
Fig. 61). You will see at once that it is sparkling
all over with stars, for in fact you have actually before
you in that tiny cluster more stars than you can see
with the naked eye all over the heavens! Think for
a moment what this means. One faint misty spot
in the constellation Perseus, which we should have
passed over unheeded without a telescope, proves to
be a group of more than 3000 suns!

The second object you will find more easily, for it
is larger and brighter, and appears as a faint dull spot
to the naked eye. Going back to Cassiopeia, follow
out the secon¢ V in the W from the top to the point
of the V and onwards till your eye rests upon this
misty cloud, which is called the Great Nebula of
164 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Andromeda, and has sometimes been mistaken for a
comet (Figs. 58 and 61). You will, however, be
disappointed when you look through the telescope,
for it will still only appear a mist, and you will be
able to make nothing of it, except that instead of
being of an irregular shape like Orion, it is elliptical ;
and in a powerful telescope two dark rifts can be
seen separating the streams of nebulous matter.
These rifts are now shown in a photograph taken by
Mr, Roberts, 1st October 1888, to be two vast dusky
rings lying between the spiral stream of light, which
winds in an ellipse till it ends in a small nucleus at
the centre.

Ah! you will say, this must be a cloud of gas like
Orion’s nebula, only winding round and round.
No! the spectroscope steps in here and tells us that
the light shows something very much like a con-
tinuous spectrum, but not as long as it ought to be
at the red end. Now, since gases give only bright
lines, this nebula cannot be entirely gaseous. Then
it must be made of stars too far off to see? If so,
it is very strange that though it is so dense and
bright in some parts, and so spread out and clear in
others, the most powerful telescopes cannot break it
up into stars. In fact, the composition of the great
nebula of Andromeda is still a mystery, and remains
for one of you boys to study when he has become a
great astronomer.

Still one more strange star we will notice before
we leave this part of the heavens. You will find it,
or at least go very near it, by continuing northwards
the line you drew from Cassiopcia to the Star
VARIABLE STARS 165

Cluster (¢ Fig. 58), and as it isa bright star, you
will not miss it. That is to say, it is bright to-night
and will remain so till to-morrow night, but if you
come to me about nine o’clock to-morrow evening I
will show you that it is growing dim, and if we had
patience to watch through the night we should find,
three or four hours later still, that it looks like one of
the smaller stars. Then it will begin to brighten
again, and in four hours more will be as bright as at first.
It will remain so for nearly three days, or, to speak
accurately, 2 days, 20 hours, 48 minutes, and 55
seconds, and then will begin to grow dull again.
This star is called Algol the Variable. There are
several such stars in the heavens, and we do not
know why they vary, unless perhaps some dark globe
passes round them, cutting off part of their light for
a time.

And now, if your eyes are not weary, let us go
back to the Pole-star and draw a line from it straight
down the horizon due north. Shortly before we arrive
there you will see a very brilliant bluish-white star a
little to the east of this line. This is Vega, one of
the brightest stars in the heavens except Sirius. It
had not risen in the earlier part of the evening, but
now it is well up and will appear to go on, steadily
mounting as it circles round the Pole-star, till at four
o'clock to-morrow morning it will be right overhead
towards the south.

But beautiful as Vega is, a still more interesting
star lies close to it (see Fig. 58). This small star,
called « Lyre by astronomers, looks a little longer in
one direction than in the other, and even with the naked
166 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

eye some people can sce a division in the middle divid-
ing it into two stars. Your telescopes will show them
Fig. 62. easily, and a powerful tele-

scope tells a wonderful
story, for it reveals that
each of these two stars is.
again composed of two
stars, so that e Lyra (Fig.
62) is really a double-
double star. There is no
doubt that each pair is a
binary star, that is, the two
stars move round each other

Te oem very: slowly, and possibly
the couples probably also re- both pairs may also revolve
volve round each other. (After round a common centre.

Chambers.) There are at least 10,000
double stars in the heavens; though, as we have
seen, they are not all binary. The list of binary
stars, however, increases every year as they are
carefully examined, and probably about one star
in three over the whole sky is made up of more
than one sun,

Let us turn the telescope for a short time
upon a few of the double stars and we shall
have a great treat, for one of the most interesting
facts about them is that both stars are rarely
of the same colour. It seems strange at first to
speak of stars as coloured, but they do not by
any means all give out the same kind of light.
Our sun is yellow, and so are the Pole-star and
Pollux; but Sirius, Vega, and Regulus are dazzling


COLOURED DOUBLE STARS.

—€ Bootis

6 Geminorum. 4 Cassiopeia.


COLOURED STARS 167

white or bluish-white, Arcturus is a yellowish-white,
Aldebaran is a bright yellow-red, Betelgeux a deep
orange-red, as you may see now in the telescope, for
he is full in view ; while Antares, a star in the con-
stellation of the Scorpion, which at this time of year
cannot be seen till four in the morning, is an intense
ruby red.

It appears to be almost a rule with double stars
to be of two colours. Look up at Almach (y An-
dromedze), a bright star standing next to Algol the
Variable in the sweep of four bright stars behind
Cassiopeia (see Fig. 58). Even to the naked eye he
appears to flash in a strange way, and in the telescope
he appears as two lovely stars, one a deep orange and
the other a pale green, while in powerful telescopes
the green one splits again into two (Plate II.) Then
again, 7 Cassiopee, the sixth star lying between the
two large ones in the second V of Cassiopeia, divides
into a yellow star and a small rich purple one, and
6 Geminorum, a bright star not far from Pollux in the
constellation Gemini, is composed of a large green
star and a small purple one. Another very famous
double star (8 Cygni), which rises only a little later
in the evening, lies below Vega a little to the left.
It is composed of two lovely stars; one an orange
yellow and the other blue; while e¢ Bodtis, just
visible above the horizon, is composed of a large
yellow star and a very small green one.?

There are many other stars of two colours even
among the few constellations we have picked out to-

. + The plate of coloured stars has been most kindly drawn to scale
and coloured for me by Mr. Arthur Cottam, F.R.A.S.

16
168 ~ LHROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

night, as, for example, the star at the top of the tail-
board of Charles’s Waggon and the second horse Mizar.
Rigel in Orion, and the two outer stars of the belt,
a Herculis, which will rise later in the evening, and
the beautiful triple star (€ Cancer) near the Beehive
(see Fig. 54), are all composed of two or more stars
of different colours.

Why do these suns give out such beautiful coloured
light? The telescope cannot tell us, but the spectro-
scope again reveals the secrets so long hidden from
us. By a series of very delicate experiments, Dr.
Huggins has shown that the light of all stars is sifted
before it comes to us, just as the light of our sun is;
and those rays which are least cut off play most
strongly on our eyes, and give the colour to the star.
The question is a difficult one but I will try to give
you some idea of it, that you may form some picture
in your mind of what happens,

We learnt in our last lecture (p. 131) that the light
from our sun passes through the great atmosphere of
vapours surrounding him before it goes out into space,
and that many rays are in this way cut off; so that
when we spread out his light in a long spectuny
there are dark lines or spaces where no light falls.)
Now in sunlight these dark lines are scattered pretty
evenly over the spectrum, so that about as much light
is cut off in one part as in another, and no one
colour is stronger than the rest.

Dr. Huggins found, however, that in coloured stars
the dark spaces are often crowded into particular
parts of the long band of colour forming the spectrum;

1 See No. 1 in Table of Spectra, Plate I.
WHY STARS ARE COLOURED 169

showing that many of those light-rays have been cut
off in the atmosphere round the star, and thus their
particular colours are dimmed, leaving the other colour
or colours more vivid. In red stars, for example, the
yellow, blue, and green parts of the spectrum are
much lined while the red end is strong and clear.
With blue stars it is just the opposite, and the violet
end is most free from dark lines. So there are
really brilliantly coloured suns shining in the heavens,
and in many cases two or more of these revolve round
each other.

And now I have kept your attention and strained
your eyes long enough, and you have objects to
study for many a long evening before you will learn
to see them plainly. You must not expect to find
them every night, for the lightest cloud or the
faintest moonlight will hide many of them from view;
and, moreover, though you may learn ‘to use the
telescope fairly, you will often not know how to get
a clear view with it. Still, you may learn a great
deal, and before we go in I want to put a thought
into your minds which will make astronomy still
more interesting. We have seen that the stronger
our telescopes the more stars, star-clusters, and
nebulez we see, and we cannot doubt that there are
still countless heavenly bodies quite unknown to us.
Some years ago Bessel the astronomer found
that Sirius, in its real motion through the heavens,
moves irregularly, travelling sometimes a little more
slowly than at other times, and he suggested that
some unseen companion must be pulling at him.

Twenty-eight years later, in 1862, two celebrated
170 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

opticians, father and son, both named Alvan Clark,
were trying a new telescope at Chicago University,
when suddenly the son, who was looking at Sirius,
exclaimed, “ Why, father, the star has a companion!”
And so it was. The powerful telescope showed
what Bessel had foretold, and proved Sirius to be
a “binary” star—that is, as we have seen, a star
which has another moving round it.

It has since been proved that this companion is
twenty-eight times farther from Sirius than we are
from our sun, and moves round him in about forty-
nine years, It is seven times as heavy as our sun,
and yet gives out so little light that only the keenest
telescopes can bring it into view.

Now if such a large body as this can give so very
faint a light that we can scarcely see it, though
Sirius, which is close to it, shines brightest of any star
in the heavens, how many more bodies must there be
which we shall never see, even among those which
give out light, while how many there are dark like
our earth, who can tell ?

Now that we know each of the stars to be a
brilliant sun, many of them far, far brighter than
ours, yet so like in their nature and laws, we can
scarcely help speculating whether round these glorious
suns, worlds of some kind may not be moving. If
so, and there are people in them, what a strange effect
those double coloured suns, must produce with red
daylight one day and blue daylight another !

Surely, as we look up at the myriads of stars
bespangling the sky, and remember that our star-sun
has seven planets moving round it of which one at
OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS 171

least—our own earth—is full of living beings, we must
picture these glorious suns as the centres of unseen
systems, so that those twinkling specks become as
suggestive as the faint lights of a great fleet far out

at sea, which tell us of mighty ships, together with
frigates and gunboats, full of living beings, though we
cannot see them, nor even guess what they may be like.
How insignificant we feel when we.look upon that
starlit sky and remember that the whole of our solar
system would be but a tiny speck of light if seen as
far off as we see the stars! If our little earth and
our short life upon it were all we could boast of we
should be mites indeed.

But our very study to-night lifts us above these
and reminds us that there is a spirit within us
which ‘even now can travel beyond the narrow
bounds. of our globe, measure the vast distances
between us and the stars, gauge their brightness,
estimate their weight, and discern their movements.
As we gaze into the depths of the starlit sky,
and travel onwards and onwards in imagina-
tion to those distant stars which photography alone
reveals to us, do not our hearts leap at the thought
of a day which must surely come when, fettered and
bound no longer to earth, this spirit shall wander
forth and penetrate some of the mystery of those
mighty suns at which we now gaze in silent awe.
172 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

CHAPTER. VIII
LITTLE BEINGS FROM A MINIATURE OCEAN

BN our last lecture we soared
far away into boundless
space, and lost ourselves
for a time among seen
and unseen suns. In this
lecture we will come back
"not merely to our little world,
nor even to one of the widespread
oceans which cover so much of it,
but to one single pool lying just
above the limits of low tide, so
“that it is only uncovered for a very
short time every day. This pool is to be found in a
secluded bay within an hour’s journey by train from
this college, and only a few miles from Torquay.
It has no name, so far as I know, nor do many people
visit it, otherwise I should not have kept my little
pool so long undisturbed. As it is, however, for many
years past I have had only to make sure as to the
time of low tide, and put myself in the train ; and then,
unless the sea was very rough and stormy, I could



INHABITANTS OF MY POOL 173

examine the little inhabitants of my miniature ocean
in peace. ;

The pool lies in a deep hollow among a group of
rocks and boulders, close to the entrance of the cove,
which can only be entered at low water; it does not
measure more than two feet across, so that you can
step over it, if you take care not to slip on the
masses of green and brown seaweed growing over
the rocks on its sides, as I have done many a time
when collecting specimens for our salt-water aquarium.
I find now the only way is to lie flat down on the
rock, so that my hands and eyes are free to observe
and handle, and then, bringing my eye down to the
edge of the pool, to lift the seaweeds and let the
sunlight enter into the chinks and crannies. In this way
I can catch sight of many a small being either on the
seaweed or the rocky ledges, and even creatures
transparent as glass become visible by the thin out-
line gleaming in the sunlight. Then I pluck a piece
of seaweed, or chip off a fragment of rock with a
sharp-edged collecting knife, bringing away the speci-
men uninjured upon it, and place it carefully in its
own separate bottle to be carried home alive and
well.

Now though this little pool and I are old friends,
I find new treasures in it almost every time I go,
for it is almost as full of living things as the heavens
are of stars, and the tide as it comes and goes brings
many a mother there to find a safe home for her
little ones, and many a waif and stray to seek shelter
from the troublous life of the open ocean.

You will perhaps find it difficult to believe that
174 LHROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

in this rock-bound basin there can be millions of
living creatures hidden away among the fine feathery
weeds ; yet so it is. Not that they are always the
same. At one time it may be the home of myriads
of infant crabs, not an eighth of an inch long, at
another of baby sea-urchins only visible to the
naked eye as minute spots in the water, at another
of young jelly-fish growing on their tiny stalks, and
splitting off one by one as transparent bells to float
away with the rising tide. Or it may be that the
whelk has chosen this quiet nook to deposit her
leathery eggs ; or young barnacles, periwinkles, and
limpets are growing up among the green and brown
tangles, while the far-sailing velella and the stay-at-
home sea-squirts, together with a variety of other
sea-animals, find a nursery and shelter in their youth
in this quiet harbour of rest.

And besides these casual visitors there are number-
less creatures which have lived and multiplied there,
ever since I first visited the pool. Tender red, olive- .
coloured, and green seaweeds, stony corallines, and
acorn-barnacles lining the floor, sea-anemones clinging
to the sides, sponges tiny and many-coloured hiding
under the ledges, and limpets and mussels wedged
in the cracks. These can be easily seen with the naked
eye, but they are not the most numerous inhabit-
ants; for these we must search with a magnifying-
glass, which will reveal to us wonderful fairy-forms,
delicate crystal vases with tiny creatures in them
whose transparent lashes make whirlpools in the
water, living crystal bells so tiny that whole branches
of them look only like a fringe of hair, jelly globes
RED, GREEN, AND BROWN SEAWEEDS 175

rising and falling in the water, patches of living jelly
clinging to the rocky sides of the pool, and a hundred
other forms, some so minute that you must examine
the fine sand in which they lie under a powerful
microscope before you can even guess that they are
there.

So it has proved a rich hunting-ground, where
summer and winter, spring and autumn, I find some
form to put under my magic glass. There I can
watch it for weeks growing and multiplying under
my care; moved only from the aquarium, where I
keep it supplied with healthy sea-water, to the tiny
transparent trough in which I place it for a. few

Fig. 63.



Group of seaweeds (natural size).

1, Ulva Linsa. 2, Sphacelaria filicina. 3, Polysiphonia urceolata.
4, Corallina officinalis.

hours to see the changes it has undergone. I could
tell you endless tales of transformations in these
176 | QDTHROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

tiny lives, but I want to-day to show you a few
of my friends, most of which I brought yesterday
fresh from the pool, and have prepared for you to
examine.

Let us begin with seaweeds. I have said that
there are three leading colours in my pool—green,
olive, and red—and these tints mark roughly three
kinds of weed, though they occur in an endless
variety of shapes. Here is a piece of the beautiful
pale green seaweed, called the Laver or Sea-lettuce,
Ulva Lins (1, Fig. 63), which grows in long ribbons
in a sunny nook in the
water. I have placed under
the first microscope a piece
of this weed which is just
sending out young. sea-
weeds in the shape of tiny
cells, with lashes very like
those we saw coming from
the moss-flower, and I have
pressed them in the position
in which they would natur-
Ulva lactuca, a green seaweed, ally leave the plant (ss,

greatly magnified to show struc- Fig, 64.) You will also

LU aoe oe) see on this slide several
s, Spores in the cells. 55s, Spores i : 5

swimming out. 2, Holes through cells in which these tiny

which spores have escaped. spores s are forming, ready

to burst out and swim ; for

this green wecd is merely a collection of cells,



1 The slice given in Fig. 64 is from a broader-loaved form, U.
lactuca, because this species, being composed of only one layer of cells,
is better seen, Ulva linza is composed of two layers of cells.
FRUITS OF SEAWEEDS 177

like the single-celled plants on land. Each cell can
work as a separate plant; it feeds, grows, and can
send out its own young spores,

This deep olive-green feathery weed (2, Fig. 63),
of which a piece is magnified under the next micro-
scope (2, Fig. 65), is very different. It is a higher
plant, and works harder for its living, using the
darker, rays of sunlight which penetrate into shady
parts of the pool. So it comes to pass that its cells
divide the work. Those of the feathery threads
make the food, while others, growing on short stalks
on the shafts of the feather make and send out the
young spores,

Lastly, the lovely red threadlike weeds, such as
this Polysiphonia
urceolata (3, Fig.
63), carry actual
urns on their
stems like those
of mosses. In
fact, the history
of these urns (see
No. 3, Fig. 65) is
much the same in
the two classes of *#
plants, only that
instead of the urn



Three seaweeds of Fig. 63 much magnified to
show fruits. (Harvey.)

being pushed up 2, Sphacelaria filicina. 3, Polysiphonia

on a thin stalk as urceolata, 4, Corallina officinalis,

in the moss, it re-

mains on the seaweed close down to the stem,

when it grows out of the plant-egg, and the. tiny
178 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

plant is shut in till the spores are ready to
swim out.

The stony corallines (4, Figs. 63 and 65), which
build so much carbonate of lime into their stems,
are near relations of the red seaweeds. There are
plenty of them in my pool. Some of them, of a
deep purple colour, grow upright in stiff groups
about three or four inches high; and others, which
form crusts over the stones and weeds, are a pale
rose colour; but both kinds, when the plant dies,
leaving the stony skeleton (1, Fig. 66), are a pure
white, and used to be mistaken for corals. They
belong to the same order of plants as the red weeds,
which all live in shady nooks in the pools, and are
the highest of their race.

My pool is full of different forms of these four
weeds. The green ribbons float on the surface rooted
to the sides of the pool and, as the sun shines upon
it, the glittering bubbles rising from them show that
they are working up food out of the air in the
water, and giving off oxygen. The brown weeds
lie chiefly under the shelves of rocks, for they can
manage with less sunlight, and use the darker rays
which pass by the green weeds; and last of all, the
red weeds and corallines, small and delicate in form,
line the bottom of the pool in its darkest nooks.

And now if I hand round two specimens—one a
coralline, and the other something you do not yet
know—I am sure you will say at first sight that
they belong to the same family, and, in fact, if you
buy at the seaside a group of seaweeds gummed on
paper, you will most likely get both these among
STONY PLANTS AND ANIMAL-TREES 179

them. Yet the truth is, that while the coralline
(1, Fig. 66) is a plant, the other specimen (2) which
-is called Ser- ;

tularia fili eee:

cula, iS an
animal,

This special
sertularian
grows upright
in my pool on
stonesor often
on seaweeds,
but I have
here (Fig. 67)
another and much smaller one which lives literally in
millions hanging its cups downwards. I find it not only
under the narrow ledges of the pool sheltered by the
seaweed, but forming a fringe along all the rocks on
each side of the cove near to low-water mark, and
for a long time I passed it by thinking it was of no
interest. But I have long since given up thinking
this of anything, especially in my pool, for my magic
glass has taught me that there is not even a living
speck which does not open out into something
marvellous and beautiful. So I chipped off a small
piece of rock and brought the fringe home, and
found, when I hung it up in clear sea water as
I have done over this glass trough (Fig. 67) and
looked at it through the lens, that each thread of
the dense fringe, in itself not a quarter of an inch
deep, turns out to be a tiny sertularian with at least
twenty mouths. You can see this with your pocket

17



Coralline and Sertularia, to show likeness between the
animal Sertularia and the plant Coralline.
1, Corallina officinalis. 2, Sertularia filicula,
180 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

lens even as it hangs here, and when you have
examined it you can by and by take off one thread
and put it carefully
in the trough. I
promise you a sight
, ofthe most beautiful
* little beings which
exist in nature.

Come and look at
Sertularia tenella, hanging froma it of it after the lecture.
rock over a water trough. Also piece en-



It is a horny
-branched stem with
a double row of tiny cups all along each side
(see Fig. 67). Out of these cups there appear
from time to time sixteen minute transparent ten-
tacles as fine as spun glass, which wave about
in the water. If you shake the glass a little, in
an instant each crystal star vanishes into its cup,
to come out again a few minutes later; so that now
here, now there, the delicate animal-flowers spread
out on each side of the stem, and the tree is covered
with moving beings. These tentacles are feclers,
which lash food into a mouth and stomach in each
cup, where it is digested and passed, through a hole
in the bottom, along a jelly thread which runs down
the stem and joins all the mouths together. In this
way the food is distributed all over the tree, which is,
in fact, one animal with many feeding-cups. Some
day I will show you one of these cups with the
tentacles stretched out and mounted on a slide, so
that you can examine a tentacle with a very strong
magnifying power. You will then see that it is

larged to show the animal protruding.
LARGE AND SMALL SERTULARIANS 181

dotted over with cells, in which are coiled fine
threads. The animal uses these threads to paralyse
the creatures on which it feeds, for at the base of
each thread there is a poison gland.

In the larger Sertularia (2, Fig. 66) the whole
branched tree is connected by jelly threads running
through the stem, and all the thousands of mouths
are spread out in the water. One large form called
the sea-fir Sertzlaria cupressina grows sometimes
three feet high, and bears as many as a hundred
thousand cups, with living mouths, on its branches.

The next of my minute friends I can only show to
the class in a diagram, but you will see it under the
fourth microscope by and by. I had great trouble
in finding it yesterday, though I knew its haunts
upon the green weed, for it is so minute and trans-
parent that even when the weed is in a trough a
magnifying-glass will scarcely detect it. And I
must warn you that if you want to know any of the
minute creatures we are studying, you must visit one
place constantly. You may in a casual way find
many of them on seaweed, or in the damp ooze and
mud, but it will be by chance only ; to look for them
with any certainty you must take trouble in making
their acquaintance.

Turning then to the diagram (Fig. 68) I will
describe it as I hope you will see it under the
microscope—a curious tiny, perfectly transparent
open-mouthed vase standing upright on the weed,
and having an equally transparent being rising up
in it and waving its tiny lashes in the water. This
is really all one animal, the vase fc being the horny
182 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

covering or carapace of the body, which last stands
up like a tube in the centre. If you watch carefully,
you may even see

Higee: the minute atoms of

food twisting round
inside the tube until
they are digested,
after they have been
swept in at the wide
open mouth by the
whirling lashes. You
will see this more
clearly if you put a



Thuricolla folliculata and Chilomonas little rice-flour, very
amygdalum. (Saville Kent.) minutely powdered

au _Thuricolla erect ; 2, retracted ; 3, and coloured by car-
dividing. 4, Chélomonas amygdalum. he, 5 . os 7
Horny carapace. cv, Contractile vesicle. mine, into the water ,

v, Closing valves. for you can trace

these red atoms into
some round spaces called vacuoles which are dotted
over the body of the animal, and are really globules
of watery fluid in which the food is probably partly
digested.

You will notice, however, one round clear space
(cv) into which they do not go,.and after a time you
will be able to observe that this round spot closes up
or contracts very quickly, and then expands again
very slowly. As it expands it fills with a clear fluid,
and naturalists have not yet decided exactly what work
it does. It may serve the animal either for breath-
ing, or as a very simple heart, making the fluids
circulate in the tube. The next interesting point
INFUSORIA 183

about this little being is the way it retreats into its
sheltering vase. Even while you are watching, it is
quite likely it may all at once draw itself down to
the bottom as in No. 2, and folding down the valves
v, v of horny teeth which grow on each side, shut.
itself in from some fancied danger. Another very
curious point is that, besides sending forth young
ones, these creatures multiply by dividing in two
(see No. 3, Fig. 68), each one closing its own part
of the vase into a new home.

There are hundreds of these Jnfwsoria, as they are
called, in my pond, some with vases, some without,
some fixed to weeds and stones, others swimming
about freely. Even in the water-trough in which
this Thuricolla stands, I saw several smaller forms,
and the next microscope has a trough filled with the
minutest form of all, called a Monad (No. 4, Fig.
68). These are so small that 2000 of them would
lie side by side in an inch; that is, if you could
make them lie at all, for they are the most restless
little beings, darting hither-and thither, scarcely even
halting except to turn back. And yet though there
are so many of them, and as far as we know they
have no organs of sight, they never run up against
each other, but glide past more cleverly than any
clear-sighted fish. These creatures are mostly to be
found among decaying seaweed, and though they
are so tiny, you can still see distinctly the clear
space (cv) contracting and expanding within them.

But if there are so many thousands of mouths
to feed, on the tree-like Sertularie as well as in all
these Jufusoria, where does the food come from?
184 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Partly from the numerous atoms of decaying life
all around, and the minute eggs of animals and
spores of plants; but besides these, the pool is
full of minute living plants—small jelly masses with
solid coats of flint which are moulded into most lovely
shapes. Plants formed of jelly and flint! You
will think I am joking, but I am not. These
plants, called Diatoms, which live both in salt and
fresh water, are single cells feeding and growing just
like those we took from the water-butt (Fig. 29, p
78), only that instead of a soft covering they build
up a flinty skeleton,
They are so small,
that many of them
must be magnified
to fifty times their
. real size before you
can even see them
distinctly. Yet the
skeletons of these
almost invisible
plants are carved
and chiselled in the
most delicate pat-
terns. I showed

Fig. 69.



Living diatoms. you a group of
a, Cocconema lanceolatum. 6, Bacillaria these in our lecture
paradoxa. c, Gomphonema marinum. d,

on magic glasses (p.

39), and now I have
brought a few living ones that we may learn to know
them. The diagram (Fig. 69) shows the chief forms
you will see on the different slides.

Diatoma hyalina,
PLANTS WITH FLINT SKELETONS 185

The first one, Bacdlaria paradoxa (6, Fig. 69), looks
like a number of rods clinging one to another in a
string, but each one of these is a single-celled plant
with a jelly cell surrounding the flinty skeleton.
You will see that they move to and fro over each
other in the water.

The next two forms, @ and c, look much more
like plants, for the cells arrange themselves on a
jelly: stem, which by and by
disappears, leaving only the
separate flint skeletons such as
you see in Fig. 16. The last
form, @,is something midway
between the other forms, the
separate cells hang on to each ;
other and also on to a straight A diatom (Diatoma
jelly stem. vulgare) growing.

Another species of Diatoma , ae te dee
(Fig. 70) called Diatoma vulgare, ana a, 6, Two fit skele-
is a very simple and common tons formed by new
form, and will help to explain V@lves: ¢and@, forming

within the first skeleton,
how these plants grow. The
two flinty valves a, 6 inside the cell are not quite
the same size; the older one @ is larger than the
younger one 8 and fits over it like the cover of
a pill-box. As the plant grows, the cell enlarges
and forms two more valves, one ¢ fitting into the
cover a, so as to make a complete box ac, and
‘a second, @, back to back with c, fitting into the
valve 4, and making another complete box dd.
This goes on very rapidly, and in this plant
each new cell separates as it is formed, and the

Fig. 7o.


186 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

free diatoms move about quite actively in the
water,

If you consider for a moment, you will sce that,
as the new valves always fit into the old ones, each
must be smaller than the last, and so there comes
a time when the valves have become too small to
go on increasing. Then the plant must begin afresh.
So the two halves of the last cell open, and throwing
out their flinty skeletons, cover themselves with a
thin jelly layer, and form a new cell which grows
larger than any of the old ones. These, which are
spore-cells, then form flinty valves inside, and the
whole thing begins again.

Now though the plants themselves die, or be-
come the food of minute animals, the flinty
skeletons are not destroyed, but go on accumulating
in the waters of ponds, lakes, rivers, and seas, all over
the world. Untold millions have no’ doubt crumbled
to dust and gone back into the waters, but untold
millions also have survived. The towns of: Berlin
in Europe and of Richmond in the United States
are actually built upon ground called “ infusorial
earth,” composed almost entirely of valves of these
minute diatoms which have accumulated to a thick-
ness of more than eighty feet! Those under Berlin
are fresh-water forms, and must have lived in a lake,
while those of Richmond belong to salt-water forms.
Every inch of the ground under those cities repre-
sents thousands and thousands of living plants which
flourished in ages long gone by, and were no larger
than those you will sce presently under the micro-
“scope.
CYDIPPE PILEUS 187

These are a very few of the microscopic inhabitants
of my pond, but, as you will confuse them if I show
you too many, we will conclude with two rather
larger specimens, and examine them carefully. The
first, called the Cydippe, is a lovely, transparent living
ball, which I want to explain to you because it is so
wondrously beautiful. The second, the Sea-mat or
Flustra, looks like a crumpled drab-coloured seaweed,

Pigg r.



Cydippe Pileus,

1, Animal with tentacles ¢, bearing small tendrils 2. 2, Body of animal
enlarged. , Mouth. c, Digestive cavity. 5, Sac into which the ten-
tacles are withdrawn. , Bands with comb-like plates. 3, Portion of a
band enlarged to show the moving plates 4.

but is really composed of many thousands of grottos,
the homes of tiny sea-animals.

Let us take the Cydippe first (1, Fig. 71). I have
six here, each in a separate tumbler, and could have
brought many more, for when I dipped my net in the
pool yesterday such numbers were caught in it that I
believe the retreating tide must just have left a shoal
behind. Put a tumbler on the desk in front of you,
-and if the light falls well uponggit you will see a
188 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

transparent ball about the size of a large pea marked
with eight bright bands, which begin at the lower end
of the ball and reach nearly to the top, dividing the
outside into sections like the ribs of a melon. The
creature is so perfectly transparent that you can
count all the eight bands.

At the top of the ball is a slight bulge which is
the mouth ( 2, Fig. 71), and from it, inside the
ball, hangs a long bag or stomach, which opens
below into a cavity ¢ from which two canals branch
out, one on each side, and these divide again
into four canals which go one into each of the tubes
running down the bands. From this cavity the
food, which is digested in the stomach, is carried by
the canals all over the body. The smaller tubcs
which branch out of these canals cannot be seen
clearly without a very strong lens, and the only
other parts you can discern in this transparent ball
are two long sacs on each side of the lower end.
These are the tentacle sacs, in which are coiled up
the tentacles, which we shall describe presently.
Lastly, you can notice that the bands outside the
globe are broader in the middle than at the ends,
and are striped across by a number of ridges.

In moving the tumblers the water has naturally
been shaken, and the creature being alarmed will
probably at first remain motionless. But very soon
it will begin to play in the water, rising and falling,
and swimming gracefully from side to side. Now
you will notice a curious effect, for the bands will
glitter and become tinged with prismatic colours, till,
as it moves more and more rapidly these colours,
AN IRIDESCENT LIVING BALL 189

reflected in the jelly, seem to tinge the whole ball
with colours like those on a soap-bubble, while from
the two sacs below come forth two long transparent
threads like spun glass. At first these appear to
be simple threads, but as they gradually open out
to about four or five inches, smaller threads uncoil
on each side of the line till there are about fifty
on each line. These short tendrils are never still
for long ; as the main threads wave to and fro, some
of the shorter ones coil up and hang like tiny beads,
then these uncoil and others roll up, so that these
graceful floating lines are never two seconds alike.
We do not really know their use. Sometimes
the creature anchors itself by them, rising and falling
as they stretch out or coil up; but more often they
float idly behind it in the water, At first you
would perhaps think that they served to drive the
ball through the water, but this is done by a
special apparatus. The cross ridges which we
noticed on the bands are really flat comb-like plates
(A, Fig. 71), of which there are about twenty or thirty
on each band; and these vibrate very rapidly, so that
two hundred or more paddles drive the tiny ball
through the water. This is the cause of the pris-
matic colours ; for iridescent tints are produced by
the play of light upon the glittering plates, as they
incessantly change their angle. Sometimes they
move all at once, sometimes only a few at a time,
and it is evident the creature controls them at will.
This lovely fairy-like globe, with its long floating
tentacles and rainbow tints, was for a long time
classed with the jelly-fish ; but it really is most nearly
190 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

related to sea-anemones, as it has a true central
cavity which acts as a stomach, and many other
points in common with the Actinozoa, We cannot
help wondering, as the little being glides hither and
thither, whether it can see where it is going, It has
nerves of a low kind which start from a little dark
spot (zg), exactly at the south pole of the ball, and
at that point a sense-organ of some kind exists, but
what impression the creature gains from it of the
world outside we cannot tell.

I am afraid you may think it dull to turn from
such a beautiful being as this, to the grey leaf which
looks only like a dead dry seaweed ; yet you will be
wrong, for a more wonderful history attaches to this
crumpled dead-looking leaf than to the lovely jelly-
globe.

First of all I will pass round pieces of the dry leaf
(1, Fig. 72), and while you are getting them I will tell
you where I found the living ones. Great masses of
the Flustra, as it is called, line the bottom and sides
of my pool. They grow in tufts, standing upright
on the rock, and looking exactly like hard grey
seaweeds, while there is nothing to lead you to
suspect that they are anything else. Yesterday I
chipped off very carefully a piece of rock with a tuft
upon it, and have kept it since in a glass globe by
itself with sea-water, for the little creatures living in
this marine city require a very good supply of healthy
water and air. I have called it a “marine city,” and
now I will tell you why. Take the piece in your
hand and run your finger gently up and down it;
you will glide quite comfortably from the lower to
THE SEA-MAT OR FLUSTRA 191

the higher part of the leaf, but when you come back
you will feel your finger catch slightly on a rough
surface. Your pocket lens will show why this is,
for if you look
through it at the
surface of the leaf
you will see it is
not smooth, but
composed of hun-
dreds of tiny al-
coves with arched
tops ; and on each
side of these tops AH al
stand two short The Sea-mat or Flustra (Plustra foliacea.)
blunt spines (see 1, Natural size. 2, Much magnified.

. 5 5, Slit caused by drawing in of the animal a.
2, Fig. 72), making
four in all, pointing upwards, so as partly to cover
the alcove above. As your finger went up it glided
over the spines, but on coming back it met their
points. This is all you can see in the dead specimen ;
I must show you the rest by diagrams, and by and
by under the microscope.

First, then, in the living specimen which I have here,
those alcoves are not open as in the dead piece, but
covered over with a transparent skin, in which, near
the top of the alcove just where the curve begins, is
a slit (s 2, Fig. 72). Unfortunately the membrane
covering this alcove is too dense for you to distinguish
the parts within. Presently, however, if you are
watching a piece of this living leaf in a flat water-
cell under the microscope, you will see the slit slowly
open, and begin to turn as it were inside out, exactly

18



+
192 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

like the finger of a glove, which has been pushed in
at the tip, gradually rises up when you put your
finger inside it. As this goes on, a bundle of threads
appears, at first closed like a bud, but gradually
opening out into a crown of tentacles (a, Fig. 72), each
one clothed with hairs. Then you will see that the
slit was not exactly a slit after all, but the round edge
where the sac was pushed in. Ah! you will say, you are
now showing me a polyp like those on the sertularian
tree. Not so fast, my
friend ; you have not yet
studied what is still under
the covering skin and
hidden in the living ani-
mal. I have, however,
prepared a slide with this
membrane removed (see
Fig. 73), and there you
can observe the different
parts, and learn that each
one of these alcoves
contains a complete



Diagram of the animal in the
Flustra or Sea-mat. animal, and not merely

x, Animal protruding. 2, Animal one among many mouths,

retracted in the sheath. sf, Cover- Iie th = thie
ing sheath. s, Slit. ¢, Tentacles. SS E~ 5POly.P: JOU .

m, Mouth, zk, Throat, st, Stomach. Sertularia.

z, Intestine. 7, Retractor muscle. Each of these little

eee ce, parts. g, Nerve- beings (a, Fig 72) living
in its alcove has a mouth,

throat, stomach, intestine, muscles, and nerves _start-

ing from the ganglion of nervous matter, besides

all that is necessary for producing eggs and send-
A POPULOUS SQUARE INCH 193

ing forth young ones. You can trace all these
under the microscope (see 2, Fig. 73) as the creature
lies curiously doubled up in its bed, with its body
bent in a loop; the intestine z, out of which the
refuse food passes, coming back close up to the slit.
When it is at rest, the top of the sac in which it
lies is pulled in by the retractor muscle 7, and looks,
as I have said, like the finger of a glove with the
top pushed in. When it wishes to feed, this top
is drawn out by muscles running round the sac, and
the tentacles open and wave in the water (1, Fig. 73).

Look now at the alcoves, the homes of these
animals; see how tiny they are and how closely they
fit together. Mr. Gosse, the naturalist, has reckoned
that there are 6720 alcoves in a square inch; then
if you turn the leaf over you will see that there is
another set, fixed back to back with these, on the
other side, making in all 13,440 alcoves. Now a
moderate-sized leaf of flustra measures about three ©
square inches, taking all the rounded lobes into
account, so you will see we get 40,320 asa rough
estimate of the number of beings on this one leaf.
But if you look at this tuft I have brought, you will
find it is composed of twelve such leaves, and this
after all is a very small part of the mass growing
round my pool. Was I wrong, then, when I said
that my miniature ocean contains as many millions
of beings as there are stars in the heavens?

You will want to know how these leaves grew, and
it isin this way. First a little free swimming animal,
a mere living sac provided with lashes, settles down
and grows into one little horny alcove, with its live
194 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

creature inside, which in time sends off from it
three to five buds, forming alcoves all round the
top and sides of the first one, growing on to it.
These again bud out, and you can thus easily under-
stand that, in this way, in time a good-sized leaf is
formed. Meanwhile the creatures also send forth
new swimming cells, which settle down near to
begin new leaves, and thus a tuft is formed; and
long after the beings in earlier parts of the leaf
have died and left their alcoves empty, those round
the margin are still alive and spreading.

With this history we must stop for to-day, and I
expect it will be many weeks before you have
thoroughly examined the specimens of each kind
which I have put in the aquarium. If you can trace
the spore-cells and urns in the seaweeds, observe the
polyps in the Sertularia, and count the number of
mouths on a branch of my animal fringe (Sertularta
tenella); if you make acquaintance with the Thuricolla
in its vase, and are fortunate enough to see one
divide in two; if you learn to know some of the
beautiful forms of diatoms, and can picture to your-
selves the life of the tiny inhabitants of the Flustra ;
then you will have used your microscope with some
effect, and be prepared for an expedition to my pool,
where we will go together some day to seek new
treasures,
DARTMOOR PONIES 195

CTAPTER TX

THE DARTMOOR PONIES,
OR

THE WANDERINGS OF THE HORSE TRIBE

, UT away the telescopes
4 and microscopes _ to-
day, boys, the holidays
are close at hand, and we
will take a rest from peep-
ing and peering till we come
back in the autumn laden
with specimens for the micro-
7% scope, while the rapidly darken-
ing evenings will tempt us again
on to the lawn star-gazing. On
this our last lecture-day I want you
to take a journey with me which I took in imagina-
tion’a few days ago, as I lay on my back on the
sunny moor and watched the Dartmoor ponies.
It was a calm misty morning one day last week,
giving promise of a bright and sunny day, when I
started off for a long walk across the moor to visit






196 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

the famous stone-circles, many of which are to be
found not far off the track, called Abbot's Way,
leading from Buckfast Abbey, on the Dart, to the
Abbey of Tavistock, on the Tavy.

My mind was full of the olden times as I pictured
to myself how, seven hundred years or more ago, some
Benedictine monk from Tavistock Abbey, in his black
robe and cowl, paced this narrow path on his way to
his Cistercian brethren at Buckfast, meeting some of
them on his road as they wandered over the desolate
moor in their white robes and black scapularies in
search of stray sheep. For the Cistercians were
shepherds and wool-weavers, while the Benedictines
devoted themselves to learning, and the track of about
twenty-five miles from one abbey to the other,
which still remains, was worn by the members of the
two communities and their dependents, the only
variety in whose lives consisted probably in these
occasional visits one to the other.

Yet even these monks belonged to modern times
compared to the ancient Britons who raised the stone-
circles, and buried their dead in the barrows scattered
_here and there over the moor; and my mind drifted
back to the days when, long before that pathway
was worn, men clad in the skins of beasts hunted
wild animals over the ground on which I was tread-
ing, and lived in caves and holes of the ground.

I wondered, as I thought of them, whether the
cultured monks and the uncivilised Britons delighted
as much in the rugged scenery: of the moor as I did
that morning. For many miles in front of me the
moor stretched out wild and treeless; the sun was
DARTMOOR PONIES 197

shining brightly upon the mass of yellow furze and
deep-red heather, drawing up the moisture from the
ground, and causing a kind of watery haze to shim-
mer over the landscape; while the early mist was
rising off the ‘ors, or hill-tops, in the distance,
curling in fanciful wreaths around the rugged and
stony summits, as it dispersed gradually in the
increasing heat of the day.

The cattle which were scattered in groups here
and there feeding on the dewy grass were enjoying
the happiest time of the year. The moor, which in
winter affords them scarcely a bare subsistence, is
now richly covered with fresh young grass, and the
sturdy oxen fed solemnly and deliberately, while the
wild Dartmoor ponies and their colts scampered
joyously along, shaking their manes and long flowing
tails, and neighing to each other as they went; or
clustered together on some verdant spot, where the
colts teased and bit each other for fun, as they gam-
bolled round their mothers.

It was a pleasure, there on the open moor, with
the lark soaring overhead, and the butterflies and
bees hovering among the sweet-smelling furze blos-
soms, to see horses free and joyous, with no thought
of bit or bridle, harness or saddle, whose hoofs had
never been handled by the shoeing-smith, nor their
coats touched with the singeing iron. Those little
colts, with their thick heads, shaggy coats, and flow-
ing tails, will have at least two years more freedom
before they know what it is to be driven or beaten.
Only once a year are they gathered together, claimed
by their owners and branded with an initial, and then
198 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

left again to wander where they will. True, it is a
freedom which sometimes has its drawbacks, for if
the winter is severe the only food they can get will
be the furze-tops, off which they scrape the snow
with their feet; yet it is very precious in itself, for
they can gallop when and where they choose, with
head erect, sniffing at the wind and crying to each
other for the very joy of life,

Now as I strolled across the moor and watched
their gambols, thinking how like free wild animals
they seemed, my thoughts roamed far away, and I
saw in imagination scenes where other untamed
animals of the horse tribe are living unfettered all
their lives long.

First there rose before my mind the level grass-
covered pampas of South America, where wild horses
share the boundless plains with troops of the rhea,
or American ostrich, and wander, each horse with
as many mares as he can collect, in companies of
hundreds or even thousands in a troop. These
horses are now truly wild, and live freely. from youth
to age, unless they are unfortunate enough to be
caught in the more inhabited regions by the lasso
of the hunter. In the broad pampas, the home of
herds of wild cattle, they dread nothing. There, as
they roam with one bold stallion as their Icader, even
beasts of prey hesitate to approach them, for, when
they form into a dense mass with the mothers and
young in their centre, their heels deal blows which
even the fierce jaguar does not care to encounter, and
they trample their enemy to death in a very short
time. Yet these are not the original wild horses we
WILD HORSES 199

are seeking, they are the descendants of tame animals,
brought from Europe by the Spaniards to Buenos
Ayres in 1535, whose descendants have regained
their freedom on the boundless pampas and prairies.

As I was picturing them careering over the plains,
another scene presented itself and took their place.
Now I no longer saw around me tall pampas-grass
with the long necks of the rheas appearing above it,
for I was on the edge of a dreary scantily covered
plain between the Aral Sea and the Balkash Lake
in Tartary. To the south lies a barren sandy
desert, to the north the fertile plains of the Kirghiz
steppes, where the Tartar feeds his flocks, and herds
of antelopes gallop over the fresh green pasture ; and
between these is a kind of no-man’s land, where low
scanty shrubs and stunted grass seemed to promise
but a poor feeding-ground.

Yet here the small long-legged but powerful
“Tarpans,” the wild horses of the treeless plains of
Russia and Tartary, were picking their morning
meal. Sturdy wicked little fellows they are, with
their shaggy light-brown coats, short wiry manes,
erect ears, and fiery watchful eyes. They might well
be supposed to be true wild horses, whose ancestors
had never been tamed by man; and yet it is more
probable that even they escaped in early times from
the Tartars, and have held their own ever since, over
the grassy steppes of Russia and on the confines of
the plains of Tartary. Sometimes they live almost
alone, especially on the barren wastes where they
have been seen in winter, scraping the snow off the
herbage as our ponies do on Dartmoor. At other
200 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

times, as in the south of Russia, where they wander
between the Dnieper and the Don, they gather in
vast herds and live a free life, not fearing even the
wolves, which they beat to the ground with their
hoofs. From one green oasis to another they travel
over miles of ground.

“A thousand horse—and none to ride!
With flowing tail, and flying mane,
Wide nostrils—never stretch’d by pain,
Mouths bloodless to the bit or rein,
And feet that iron never shod,

And flanks unscarr’d by spur or rod.
A thousand horse, the wild, the free,
Like waves that follow o’er the sea,” 1

As I followed them in their course I fancied I
saw troops of yet another animal of the horse tribe,
the “ Kulan,” or ELguzzs hemitonus, which is a kind of
half horse, half ass (Fig. 74), living on the Kirghiz
steppes of Tartary and spreading far beyond the
_tange of the Tarpan into Tibet. Here at last we
have a truly wild animal, never probably brought
into subjection by man. The number of names he
possesses shows how widely he has spread. The
Tartars call him “Kulan,” the Tibetans “ Kiang,”
while the Mongolians give him the unpronounceable
name of “ Dschiggetai.” He will not submit to any
of them, but if caught and confined soon breaks
away again to his old life, a “free and fetterless
creature.”

No one has ever yet settled the question whether
he is a horse or an ass, probably because he repre-

1 Byron’s Aaszeppa,
ORIGINAL WILD HORSES 201

sents an animal truly between the two. His head
is graceful, his body light, his legs slender and fleet,
yet his ears are long and ass-like; he has narrow
hoofs, and a tail with a tuft at the end like all the
ass tribe; his colour is a yellow brown, and he has a
short dark mane and a long dark stripe down his
back as a donkey has, though this last character you
may also sce in many of our Devonshire ponies.
Living often on the high plateaux, sometimes as

Fig. 74.



Lguus hemionus, ‘* Siang ’’ or ‘‘ Kulan,” the Horse-ass of
Tartary and Tibet. (Brehm.)

much as 1500 feet above the sea, this “child of the
steppes” travels in large companies even as far as
the rich meadows of Central Asia; in summer
wandering in green pastures, and in winter seeking the
hunger-steppes where sturdy plants grow. And when
autumn comes the young steeds go off alone to the
mountain heights to survey the country around and
202 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

call wildly for mates, whom, when found, they will
keep close to them through all the next year, even
though they mingle with thousands of others.

Till about ten years ago the Lguus hemionus
was the only truly wild horse known, but in the
winter of 1879-80 the Russian traveller Przevalsky
brought back from Central Asia a much more horse-
like animal, called by the Tartars “Kertag” and by
the Mongols “Statur.” It is a clumsy, thick-set,
whitish-gray creature with strong legs and a large,

Fig. 75.







SAA BO Dt ty 1.
Przevalsky's Wild Horse, the ‘‘ Kertag” or ‘‘Statur.”

heavy, reddish-coloured head ; its legs have a red tint
down to the knees, beyond which they are blackish
down to the hoofs. But the ears are small, and it
has the broad hoofs of the true horse, and warts on
his hind. legs, which no animal of the ass tribe has.
This horse, like the Kiang, travels in small troops of
from five to fifteen, led through the wildest parts of
ORIGINAL WILD ASSES 203

the Dsungarian desert, between the Altai and Tian-
schan Mountains, by an old stallion. They are
extremely shy, and see, hear, and smell very quickly,
so that they are off like lightning whenever anything
approaches them.

So having travelled over America, Europe, and
Asia, was my quest ended? No; for from the dreary
Asiatic deserts my thoughts wandered to a far
warmer and more fertile land, where between the
Blue Nile and the Red Sea rise the lofty highlands
of Abyssinia, among which the African wild ass
(Asinus teniopus), the probable ancestor of our
donkeys, feeds in troops on the rich grasses of the
slopes, and then onwards to the bank of a river in
Central Africa where on the edge of a forest, with
rich pastures beyond, elephants and_ rhinoceroses,
antelopes and buffaloes, lions and hyzenas, creep
down in the cool of the evening to slake their thirst
in the flowing stream. There I saw the herds of
Zebras in all their striped beauty coming down
from the mountain regions to the north, and ming-
ling with the darker-coloured but graceful quaggas
from the southern plains, and I half-grieved at the
thought how these untamed and free rovers are
being slowly but surely surrounded by man closing
in upon them on every side.

I might now have travelled still farther in search
of the Onager, or wild ass of the Asiatic and
Indian deserts, but at this point a more interesting
and far wider question presented itself, as I flung
myself down on the moor to ponder over the early
history of all these tribes.

19
204 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

Where have they all come from? Where shall
we look for the first ancestors of these wild and
graceful animals? For the answer to this question
I had to travel back to America, to those Western
United States where Professor Marsh has made such
grand discoveries in horse history. For there, in the
very country where horses were supposed never to
have been before the Spaniards brought them a few
centuries ago, we have now found the true birth-
place of the equine race.

Come back with me to a time so remote that we
cannot measure it even by hundreds of thousands of
years, and let us visit the territories of Utah and
Wyoming. Those highlands were very different
then from what they are now. Just risen out of the
seas of the Cretaceous Period, they were then clothed
with dense forests of palms, tree-ferns, and screw-
pines, magnolias and laurels, interspersed with wide-
spreading lakes, on the margins of which strange and
curious animals fed and flourished. There were
large beasts with teeth like the tapir and the bear,
and feet like the elephant; and others far more
dangerous, half bear, half hyzena, prowling around —
to attack the clumsy paleotherium or the anoplo-
therium, something between a rhinoceros and a
horse, which grazed by the waterside, while graceful
antelopes fed on the rich grass. And among these
were some little animals no bigger than foxes, with
four toes and a splint for the fifth, on their front
feet, and three toes on the hind ones.

These clumsy little animals, whose bones have
been found in the rocks of Utah and Wyoming,
ANCIENT HORSES WITH TOES 205

have been called Eohzppus, or horses of the dawn, by
naturalists. They were animals with real toes, yet
their bones and teeth show that they belonged to
the horse tribe, and already the fifth toe common to
most other toed animals was beginning to disappear.

This was in the Eocene period, and before it passed
away with its screw-pines and tree-ferns, another
rather larger animal, called the Orohippus, had taken
the place of the small one, and he had only four
toes on his front feet. The splint had disappeared,
and as time went on still other animals followed,
always with fewer toes, while they gained slender
fleet legs, together with an increase in size and in
gracefulness. First one as large as a sheep (Jeso-
hippus) had only three toes and a splint. Then the
splint again disappeared, and one large and two
dwindling toes only remained, till finally these two
became mere splints, leaving one large toe or hoof
with almost imperceptible splints, which may be
seen on the fetlock of a horse’s skeleton.

The diagram (Fig 76) shows these splints in the
horse’s or ass’s foot of to-day. For you must notice
that a horse’s foot really begins at the point zv which
we call his knee in the front legs, and at his hock % in
the hind legs. His true knee & and elbow ¢ are close
up to the body. What we call his foot or hoof is
really the end of the strong, broad, middle toe ¢
covered with a hoof, and farther up his foot at s and
s we can feel two small splints, which are remains of
two other toes.

Meanwhile during these long succeeding ages
while the foot was lengthening out into a slender
206 ' THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

limb the animals became larger, more powerful, and
more swift, the neck and head became longer and
more graceful, the brain-case larger in front and the
teeth decreased in number, so that there is now a
large gap between the biting teeth z and the grinding



a eee
Skeleton of Horse or Ass.

z, Incisor teeth, g, Grinding teeth, with the gap between the two as in
all grass-feeders. %, Knee. #, Hock or heel. J, Foot. s, Splints or
remains of the two lost toes. ¢, Elbow. w, Wrist. hk, Hand-bone.
#, middle toe of three joints, 1, 2, 3 forming the hoof,







teeth ¢ of a horse. Their slender limbs too became
more flexible and fit for running and galloping, till
we find the whole skeleton the same in shape, though
not in size, as in our own horses and asses now.
They did not, however, during all this time remain
confined to America, for, from the time when they
arrived at an animal called Miohip~pus, or lesser
MIGRATION FROM AMERICA TO EUROPE 207

horse, which came after the Mesohippus and had
only three toes on each foot, we find their remains
in Europe, where they lived in company with the
giraffes, opossums, and monkeys which roamed over
these parts in those ancient times. Then a little
later we find them in Africa and India; so that the
horse tribe, represented by creatures about as large
as donkeys, had spread far and wide over the world.

And now, curiously enough, they began to forsake,
or to die out in, the land of their birth, Why they
did so we do not know; but while in the old world
as asses, quaggas, and zebras, and probably horses,
they flourished in Asia, Europe, and Africa, they
certainly died out in America, so that ages after-
wards, when that land was discovered, no animal
of the horse tribe was found in it.

And the true horse, where did he arise? Born
and bred probably in Central Asia from some animal
like the “Kulan,” or the “Kertag,” he proved too
useful to savage tribes to be allowed his freedom,
and it is doubtful whether in any part of the world
he escaped subjection. In our own country he
probably roamed as a wild animal till the savages,
who fed upon him, learned in time to put him to
work ; and when the Romans came they found the
Britons with fine and well-trained horses.

Yet though tamed and made to know his master
he has, as we have seen, broken loose again in
almost all parts of the world—in America on the
prairies and pampas, in Europe and Asia on the
steppes, and in Australia in the bush. And even in
Great Britain, where so few patches of uncultivated’
208 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

land still remain, the young colts of Dartmoor, Ex-
moor, and Shetland, though born of domesticated
mothers, seem to assert their descent from wild and
free ancestors as they throw out their heels and toss
up their heads with a shrill neigh, and fly against
the wind with streaming manes and outstretched
tails as the Kulan, the Tarpan, and the Zebra do in
the wild desert or grassy plain.
THE MAGICIANS DREAM 209

CHAP TE REX
TIIE MAGICIAN’S DREAM OF ANCIENT DAYS.

HE magician sat in his arm-
chair in the one little room
in the house which was his,
and his only, besides the ob-
servatory. And a_ strange
room it was. The walls were
hung with skulls and bones of
men and animals, with swords,
daggers, and shields, coats of mail,
and bronze spear-heads. The
drawers, many of which stood
open, contained flint-stones chipped
and worn, arrowheads of stone, jade hatchets beauti-
fully polished, bronze buckles and iron armlets ;
while scattered among these were pieces of broken
pottery, some rough and only half-baked, others
beautifully finished, as the Romans knew how to
finish them. Rough needles made of bone lay
beside bronze knives with richly-ornamented handles
and, most precious of all, on the table by the
magician’s side lay a reindeer antler, on which




210 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

was roughly carved the figure of the reindeer
itself.

He had been enjoying a six weeks’ holiday, and
he had employed it in visiting some of the bone
caves of Europe to learn about the men who lived
in them long, long ago. .He had been to the south
of France to see the famous caves of. the Dordogne,
to Belgium to the caves of Engis and Engihoul,
to the Hartz Mountains and to Hungary. Then
hastening home he had visited the chief English
caves in Yorkshire, Wales, and Devonshire.

Now that he had returned to his college, his
mind was so full of facts, that he felt perplexed how
to lay before his class the wonderful story of the life
of man before history began. And as the day was
hot, and the very breeze which played around him
made him feel languid and sleepy, he fell into a
reverie—a waking dream.

First the room faded from his sight, then the trim
villages disappeared ; the homesteads, the corn-fields,
the grazing cattle, all were gone, and he saw the
whole of England covered with thick forests and
rough uncultivated land. From the mountains in
the north, glaciers were to be seen creeping down
the valleys between dense masses of fir and oak, pine
and birch; while the wild horse, the bison, and the
Irish elk were feeding on the plains. As he looked
southward and eastward he saw that the sea no
longer washed the shores, for the English and Irish
Channels were not yet scooped out. The British
Isles were still part of the continent of Europe, so
PAL#OLITHIC TIMES 211

that animals could migrate overland from the far
south, up to what is now England, Scotland, and
Ireland. Many of these animals, too, were very
different from any now living in the country, for in
the large rivers of England he saw the hippopotamus
playing with her calf, while elephants and rhinocer-
oses were drinking at the water’s edge. Yet these
strange, creatures did not have all the country to
themselves—wolves, bears, and foxes prowled in the
woods, large beavers built their dams across the
streams, and here and there over the country human
beings were living in caves and holes of the earth.

It was these men chiefly who attracted the magi-
cian’s attention, and being curious to know how
they lived, he turned towards a cave, at the mouth
of which was a group of naked children who were
knocking pieces of flint together, trying to strike off
splinters and make rough flint tools, such as they saw
their fathers use. Not: far off from them a woman
with a wild beast’s skin round her waist was gather-
ing firewood, another was grubbing up roots, and
another, venturing a little way into the forest, was
searching for honey in the hollows of the tree
trunks,

All at once in the dusk of the evening a low
growl and a frightened cry were heard, and the
women rushed towards the cave as they saw near
the edge of the forest a huge tiger with sabre-shaped
teeth struggling with a powerful stag. In vain the
deer tried to stamp on his savage foe or to wound
him with his antlers; the strong teeth of the tiger
had penetrated his throat, and they fell struggling
'

212 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

together as the stag uttered his death-cry. Just at
that moment loud shouts were heard in the forest,
and the frightened women knew that help was near.

Fig. 77.

































































































Paleeolithic times.

One after another, several men, clothed in skins
hung over one shoulder and secured round the waist,
rushed out of the thicket, their hair streaming in the
wind, and ran towards the tiger. They held in their
hands strange weapons made of rough pointed flints
fastened into handles by thongs of skin, and as the
tiger turned upon them with a cry of rage they met
him with a rapid shower of blows. The fight raged
ANCIENT STONE WEAPONS 213

fiercely, for the beast was strong and the weapons of
the men were rude, but the tiger lay dead at last by
the side of his victim. His skin and teeth were
the reward of the hunters, and the stag he had killed
became their prey.

How skilfully they hacked it to pieces with their
stone axes, and then loading it upon their shoulders
set off up the hill towards the cave, where they were
welcomed with shouts of joy by the women and

‘children !

Then began the feast. First fires were kindled
slowly and with diff-
culty by rubbing a
sharp-pointed stick in
a groove of softer wood
till the wood-dust burst
into flame ; then a huge
pile was lighted at the
mouth of the cave to
cook the food and keep
off wild beasts. How
the food was cooked
the magician could not
see, but he guessed that
the flesh was cut off the r, Bone needle, from a cave at La
bones and thrust in the Madeleine, $size. 2, Tooth of Machairo-
glowing embers, and he dus or sabre-toothed tiger, from Kent's

. Cavern, 4 size. 3, Rough stone imple-
watched the men after- ment, from Kent's Cavern, } size,
wards splitting open the
uncooked bones to suck out the raw marrow which
savages love.

After the feast was over he noticed how they left

Fig. 78.



Palzeolithic relics.
214 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

these split bones scattered upon the floor of the cave
mingling with the sabre-shaped teeth of the tiger, and
this reminded him of the bones of the stag and the
tiger’s tooth which he had found in Kent’s Cavern
in Devonshire only a few days before.

By this time the men had lain down to sleep, and
in the darkness strange cries were heard from the
forest. The roar of the lion, mingled with the howl-
ing of the wolves and the shrill laugh of the hyenas,
told that they had come down to feed on the remains
of the tiger. But none of these animals ventured
near the glowing fire at the mouth of the cavern,
behind which the men slept in security till the sun
was high in the heavens. Then all was astir again,
for weapons had been broken in the fight, and some
of the men sitting on the ground outside the cave
placed one flint between their knees, and striking
another sharply against it drove off splinters, leaving
a pointed end and cutting edge. They spoiled
many before they made one to their liking, and the
entrance to the cave was strewn with splintered
fragments and spoilt flints, but at last several useful
stones were ready. Meanwhile another man, taking
his rude stone axe, set to work to hew branches from
the trees to form handles, while another, choosing a
piece remaining of the body of the stag, tore a sinew
from the thigh, and threading it through the large
eye of the bone needle, stitched the tiger’s skin
roughly together into a garment.

“ This, then, said the magician to himself, “ cs
how ancient man lived in the summer-time, but how
would he fare when winter came?” As he mused
LIFE IN ANCIENT TIMES 215

the scene gradually changed. The glaciers crept
far lower down the valleys, and the hills, and even
the lower ground, lay thick in snow. The hippo-
potamus had wandered away southward to warmer
climes, as animals now migrate over the continent
of America in winter, and with him had gone the
lion, the southern elephant, and other summer
visitors. In their place large herds of reindeer and
shaggy oxen had come down from the north and
were spread over the plains, scraping away the snow
with their fect to feed on the grass beneath, The
mammoth, too, or hairy elephant, of the same extinct
species as those which have been found frozen in
solid ice under a sandbank in Siberia, had come
down to feed, accompanied by the woolly rhinoceros ;
and scattered over the hills were the curious horned
musk-sheep, which have long ago disappeared off the
face of the earth. Still, bitterly cold as it was, the
hunter clad in his wild-beast skin came out from
time to time to chase the mammoth, the reindeer,
and the oxen for food, and cut wood in the forest to
feed the cavern fires.

This time the magician’s thoughts wandered down
to the south-west of France, where, on the banks of
a river in that part now called the Dordogne, a
number of caves not far from each other formed the
home of savage man. Here he saw many new
things, for the men used arrows of deer-horn and of
wood pointed with flint, and with these they shot
the birds, which were hovering near in hopes of
finding food during the bitter weather. By the side
of the river a man was throwing a small dart of

20
216 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

deer-horn fastened to a cord of sinews, with which
from time to time he speared a large fish and drew
it to the bank.

But the most curious sight of all, among such a
rude people, was a man sitting by the glowing fire at
the mouth of one of the caves scratching a piece of
reindeer horn with a pointed flint, while the children
gathered round him to watch his work. What was
he doing? See! gradually the rude scratches began
to take shape, and two reindeer fighting together
could be recognised upon the horn handle. This
he laid carefully aside, and taking a piece of ivory,
part of the tusk of a mammoth, he worked away

Fig. 79.









































Mammoth engraved on ivory by Paleolithic man.

slowly and carefully till the children grew tired of
watching and went off to play behind the fire. Then
the magician, glancing over his shoulder, saw a true
figure of the mammoth scratched upon the ivory,
his hairy skin, long mane, and up-curved tusks dis-
tinguishing him from all elephants living now. “AA,”
exclaimed the magician aloud, “chat zs the drawing
on ivory found in the cave of La Madeleine in Dor-
dogne, proving that man existed ages ago, and even
A LAPSE OF AGES 217

knew how to draw figures, at a time when the man-
moth, or hairy elephant, long since extinct, was still
living on the earth |”

With these words he started from his reverie, and
knew that he had been dreaming of Paleolithic man
who, with his tools of rough flints, had lived in
Europe so long ago that his date cannot be fixed by
years, or centuries, or even thousands of years.
Only this is known, that, since he lived, the mam-
moth, the sabre-toothed tiger, the cave-bear, the
woolly rhinoceros, the cave-hyzna, the musk-sheep,
and many other animals have died out from off the
face of the earth; the hippopotamus and the lion
have left Europe and retired to Africa, and the sea has
flowed in where land once was, cutting off Great
Britain and Ireland from the continent.

How long all these changes were in taking place
no one knows. When the magician drifted back
again into his dream the land had long been
desolate, and the hyzenas, which had always taken
possession of the caves whenever the men deserted
them for awhile, had now been undisturbed for a
long time, and had left on the floor of the cave.
gnawed skulls and bones, and jaws of animals, more
or less scored with the marks of their teeth, and
these had become buried in a thick layer of earth.
The magician knew that these teeth marks had been
made by hyzenas, both because living hyanas leave
exactly such marks on bones in the present day, and
because the hyzna bones alone were not gnawed,
showing that no animals preyed upon their flesh. He
knew too that the hyenas had been there long after
218 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

man had ceased to use the caves, because no flint
tools were found among the bones. But now the
age of hyenas, too, was past and gone, and the caves
had been left so long undisturbed that in many of
them the water dripping from the roof: had left film
after film of carbonate of lime upon the floor, which
as the centuries went by became a layer of stalag-
mite many feet thick, sealing down the secrets of the
past.

The face of the country was now entirely changed.
The glaciers were gone, and so, too, were all the
strange animals. True, the reindeer, the wild ox,
and even here and there the Irish elk, were still feed-
ing in the valleys; wolves and bears still made the
country dangerous, and beavers built their dams
across the streams, which were now much smaller
than formerly, and flowed in deeper channels, carved
out by water during the interval; but the elephants,
rhinoceroses, lions, and tigers were gone never to
return, and near the caves in which some of the
people lived, and the rude underground huts which
formed the homes of others, tame sheep and goats
were lying with dogs to watch them. Also, though
the land was still covered with dense forests, yet here
and there small clearings had been made, where
patches of corn and flax were growing. Naked
children still played about as before, but now they
were moulding cups of clay like those in which food
was being cooked on the fire outside the caves or
huts. Some of the women, dressed partly in skins
of beasts, partly in rough woven linen, were spinning ~
NEOLITHIC IMPLEMENTS 219

flax into thread, using as a spinning-whorl a small
round stone with a hole in the middle tied to the end
of the flax, as a weight to enable them to twirl it,
Others were grinding corn in the hollow of a large
stone by rubbing another stone within it.

The men, while they still spent much time in
hunting, had now other duties in tending the sheep
and goats, or looking after the hogs as they turned
up the ground in the forest for roots, or sowing and
reaping their crops. Yet still all the tools were
made of stone, no longer rough and merely chipped
like the old stone weapons, but neatly cut and

Fig. 80,



Neolithic implements.
I, Stone hatchet mounted in wood. 2, Jade celt, a polished stone
weapon, from Livermore in Suffolk, } size. 3, Spindle whorl, 4
size.

polished. Stone axes with handles of deer-horn,
stone spears and javelins, stone arrowheads beauti-
fully finished, sling-stones and scrapers, were among
their weapons and tools, and with them they made
many delicate implements of bone. On the broad
lakes which here and there broke the monotony of
the forests, canoes, made of the trunks of trees
220 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

hollowed out by fire, were being paddled by one
man, while another threw out his fishing line armed
with delicate bone-hooks ; and on the banks of the
lakes, nets weighted with drilled stones tied on to
the meshes were dragged up full of fish.

For these Neolithic men, or men of the New
Stone Period, who used polished stone weapons,
were farmers and shepherds and fishermen. They
knew how to make rude pottery, and kept domestic
animals. Moreover, they either came from the east
or exchanged goods by barter with tribes living
more to the eastward, now that canoes enabled them
to cross the sea; for many of their weapons were
made of greenstone or jade, and of other kinds of
stone not to be found in Europe, and their sheep and
goats were animals of eastern origin. They under-
stood how to unite to protect their homes, for they
made underground huts by digging down several feet
into the ground and roofing the hole over with wood
coated with clay; and often long passages under-
ground united these huts, while in many places on
the hills, camps, made of ramparts of earth surrounded
by ditches, served as strongholds for the women and
children and the flocks and herds, when some neigh-
bouring tribe attacked their homesteads.

Still, however, where caves were ready to hand
they used them for houses, and the same shelter
which had been the home of the ancient hunters,
now resounded with the voices of the shepherds,
who, treading on the sealed floor, little dreamt that
under their feet lay the remains of a bygone age.

And now, as our dreamer watched this new race
A NEOLITHIC BURIAL 221

of men fashioning their weapons, feeding their oxen,
and hunting the wild stag, his attention was arrested
by a long train of people crossing a neighbouring
plain, weeping and wailing as they went. At the
head of this procession, lying on a stretcher made of

Fig. 81.



























:\ burial in Neolithic times.

tree-boughs, lay a dead chieftain, and as the line
moved on, men threw down their tools, and women
their spinning, and joined the throng. On they
went to where two upright slabs of stone with
another laid across them formed the opening to a
long mound or chamber. Into this the bearers
222 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

. passed with lighted torches, and in a niche ready
prepared placed the dead chieftain in a sitting
posture with the knees drawn up, placing by his
side his flint spear and polished axe, his necklace of
shells, and the bowl from which he had fed. Then
followed the funeral feast, when, with shouts and
wailing, fires were lighted, and animals slaughtered
and cooked, while the chieftain was not forgotten,
but portions were left for his use, and then the earth
was piled up again around the mouth of the chamber,
till it should be opened at some future time to place
another member of his family by his side, or till in
after ages the antiquary should rifle his resting-place
to study the mode of burial in the Neolithic or
Polished Stone Age.

Time passed on in the magician’s dream, and little
by little the caves were entirely deserted as men
learnt to build huts of wood and stone. And as
they advanced in knowledge they began to melt
metals and pour them into moulds, making bronze
knives and hatchets, swords and spears; and they
fashioned brooches and bracelets of bronze and gold,
though they still also used their necklaces of shells
and their polished stone weapons. They began, too,
to keep ducks and fowls, cows and horses ; they knew
how to weave in looms, and to make cloaks and tunics ;
‘and when they buried their dead it was no longer in
a crouching position. They laid them decently to
rest, as if in sleep, in the barrows where they are
found to this day with bronze weapons by their side.

Then as time went on they learnt to melt even
hard iron, and to beat it into swords and plough-
LATER AGES 223

shares, and they lived in well-built huts with stone
foundations.’ Their custom of burial, too, was again
changed, and they burnt their dead, placing the ashes
in a funeral urn.

By this time the Britons, as they were now called,
had begun to gather together in villages and towns,
and the Romans ruled over them. Now when men
passed through the wild country they were often finely









ffm N

‘im



DS

>. aa

British relics.
1, A coin of the age of Constantine. 2, Bronze weapon from a Suffolk
barrow. 3, Bronze bracelet from Liss in Hampshire.









dressed in cloth tunics, wearing arm rings of gold,
some even driving in war-chariots, carrying shields
made of wickerwork covered with leather. Still many
of the country people who laboured in the field kept
their old clothing of beast skins; they grew their
corn and stored it in cavities of the rocks ; they made
basket-work boats covered with skin, in which they
ventured out to sea, So things went on for a long
period till at last a troubled time came, and the quiet
valleys were disturbed by wandering people who fled
224 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

from the towns and took refuge in the forests; for
the Romans after three hundred and fifty years of
rule had gone back home to Italy, and a new and
barbarous people called the Jutes, Angles, and
Saxons, came over the sea from Jutland and drove
the Britons from their homes.

And so once more the caves became the abode of
man, for the harassed Britons brought what few things

Fig. 83.



















Britons taking refuge in the Cave.

they could carry away from their houses and hid
themselves there from their enemies. How little
they thought, as they lay down to sleep on the
cavern floor, that beneath them lay the remains of
THE BRITONS TAKING REFUGE 225

two ages of men! They knew nothing of the
woman who had dropped her stone spindle-whorl
into the fire, on which the food of Neolithic man
had been cooking in rough pots of clay; they never
dug down to the layer of gnawed bones, nor did
they even in their dreams picture the hyzna haunt-
ing his ancient den, for a hywna was an animal
they had never seen. Still less would they have
believed that at one time, countless ages before,
their island had been part of the continent, and
that men, living in the cave where they now lay,
had cut down trees with rough flints, and fought
with such unknown animals as the mammoth and
the sabre-toothed tiger.

But the magician saw it all passing before him,
even as he also saw these Britons carrying into the
cave their brooches, bracelets, and finger rings, their
iron spears and bronze daggers, and all their little
household treasures which they had saved in their
flight. And among these, mingling in the heap, he
recognised Roman coins bearing the inscription of
the Emperor Constantine, and he knew that it was
by these coins that he had, a few days before in
Yorkshire, been able to fix the date of the British
occupation of a cave.

And with this his dream ended, and he found
himself clutching firmly the horn on which Paleo-
lithic man had engraved the figure of the reindeer.
He rose, and stretching himself crossed the sunny
grass plot of the quadrangle and entered his class-
room, The boys wondered as he began his lecture
226 THROUGH MAGIC GLASSES

at the far-away look in his eyes. They did not know
how he had passed through a vision of countless
ages ; but that afternoon, for the first time, they real-
ised, as he unfolded scene after scene, the history of
“The Men of Ancient Days.”
INDEX

ABBot’s Way across Dartmoor, 196

Absorption of rays of sunlight, 129

Abyssinia, wild ass of, 203

Actinozoa, Cydippe allied to the, 190

Ages, lapse of between old and new
stone age, 217

Alcor, or Jack, 158

Aldebaran, 149; called so by the
Arabs, 153; colour of, 167

Algol the Variable, 162, 165

Almach, y Andromedz, 156; a
coloured double star, 167

America, extinction of original horse
in, 207

Andromeda, the great nebula of,
162, 164; double coloured star in,
167

Animal of the Sea-mat, 191 ; number
in one leaf, 193

Animal-trees and stony plants, 178

Animals, extinct, living with man, 211

Antares, a ruby-red star, 167

Antherozoids of mosses, 89

Apothecia of lichens, 83

Apennines, Lunar, figured, 19

Archimedes, a lunar crater, 10 ; smooth
centre of, 19

Arctic lands, lichens in, 82

Arcturus, colour of, 166

Aristarchus, a lunar crater, 10, 24;
streaks around, 17

Aristotle, a lunar crater, 10

Arrows, old stone, 215

Asia, horse of Central, 201

21



Asinus teniopus, 203

Aspergillus glaucus, 61; growth of, 63

Ass tribe, forms allied to the, 201

——, wild of Africa, 203

-\tmosphere, absence of in the moon,
21

Australia, wild horses of, 207

BACILLARIA PARADONA, a diatom,
185

Bacteria growing on wounds, 66

Baize, hill thrown up on Bay of, 103

Ball, Sir R., on binary stars, 154

Beehive, triple star near the, 168

Beer, fermentation of, 65

Bellatrix, a star in Orion, 148

Berlin, ground beneath, formed of
diatoms, 186

Bessel, on movements of Sirius, 169

Betelgeux, a star in Orion, 148 ;

Binary star in Great Bear, 157, 158

—— stars, 154, 166, 170

Bog-moss or Sphagnum, 93

Bog-mosses, distribution of, 94

Bombs, volcanic, 105

BoGtis ¢, a coloured double star, 167

Britons inhabiting caves, 224; orna-
ments and customs of, 223

of Dartmoor, 196

Bronze weapon and bracelet, 223

Bryum or thread moss, 77

Buckfast Abbey, monks of, 196

Bunt, a fungus, 64

Burial in Neolithic times, 221


228

CASSIOPEIA, the constellation, 162;
coloured double star in, 167

Castor, a binary star, 154

Camera, photographic, 47; attached
to the telescope, rat

Cancer ¢, a triple coloured star, 168

Candle-flame, image of, formed by
lens, 33

Canis Major, constellation of, 148

Capella, colour of the star, 153

Castor, light of compared with a near
star, 158

Caterpillars destroyed by fungus, 66

Caucasus Mountains on the Moon, 18

Cave, the three periods of a, 225

Caves, Paleolithic and Neolithic,

210; Paleolithic life in, 2rr ; |
hyzenas roamed in, 217; Neolithic |
life in, 218; Britons took refuge |
in, 224 !

Cells, fertile of mushroom, 69; of |
moss-plant, 89 i

Celt, jade, from Suffolk, 219

Chambers, Mr., his drawing of ¢;
Lyrae, 166

Charles's Wain, 155; part of Great |
Bear, 157; stars of drifting, 159 ;
stars visible in waggon of, 160;
double coloured star in, 158, 167

Chilomonas amygdalum, a imonad,
182

Ciliary muscle, action of the, 34

Clark, Alvan, on companion of Sirius,
169

Clockwork of telescope, 2

Cocconema lanceolatum, a diatom, 184

Coin of age of Constantine, 223

Conferve, growth of, 79

Commons, Mr., photographed Orion’s
nebula, 152

Constantine, coin of age of, 223

Constellations, maps of, 148, 156

Copernicus, a lunar crater, 10, 24;
figured, 17; bright streaks around,
18

Copper-sulphate in lava, 108

Corallina, a stony seaweed, 175 ;
fruit of, 177; appearance like!
Sertularia, 179





INDEX

Cornea of the eye, 31

Corona, nature of the sun’s, 123, 137

Cottam, Mr. A., his plate of coloured
Stars, 167

Crater, lava flowing from a, 98; in-
terior of Vesuvius, 100

Crater-plains, 19-21

Craters on the moon, Io, 13, 17, I9,
20 ; of earth andmoon compared, 16

Crystallites in volcanic glass, 109

Crystallisation, two periods of, in
lava, 115

Crystals forming in artificial lavas,
II4; precious, 116

Cydippe pileus, a living jelly-ball,
187; structure of, 188-190

Cygni 8, a coloured double star, 167

DARTMOOR, fairy rings on, 57, 58;
the Sundew on, 56; granite
figured, 112; ponies, 195

De la Rue, his photograph of moon, 13

Devonshire ponies, black stripe on,
201

Diatom, a growing, 185

Diatoma hyalina, 184

Diatoms, magnified fossil, 39 ; living
marine, 184

Didymium, giving a broken spectrum,
126

Dordogne, caves of the, 210, 215

Draper, Prof., photographed Orion's
nebula, 152

Drosera rotundifolia on Dartmoor, 56

Dschiggetai, horse-ass of Tibet, 200

Dsungarian desert, wild horse of the,
203

Dykes, nature of volcanic, rz

EARTH, path of the moon round the,
8; magnetic storm on, caused by
san, I4; reservoirs of melted
matter in the, ror

Earthquakes accompanying volcanic
outbursts, 102

Eclipse of sun, red jets and corona
seen during, 125

——, total, of the moon, 23; lurid
light during, 25
INDEX

Eclipses, how caused, 7

Elephant, hairy, engraved on ivory, 216

Empusa musce, 66

ingis and Engihoul caves, 210

England, ancient caves in, 210; in
Paleeolithic times, 211

Eocene, toed horses of the, 205

Lohippus, or horse of the dawn, 205

Liquus hemionus, the horse-ass, 202

Eratosthenes, a lunar crater, 10

Erbia, giving a broken spectrum, 126

Ergot, a fungus, 61

Eruptions of Vesuvius, 97, 100, 104

Eudoxus, a lunar crater, 10

Experiments, necessity for accurate,
54

ye, structure of the, 29-32; mode
of seeing with the, 32; short-
sighted, 29, 35; distances spanned
by the naked, 40

FACUL& on the sun's face, 122, 140

Fairy rings, 55; mentioned in Aerry
Wives of Windsor, 57; growth
of, 71-73

Ferments caused by fungi, 60, 64

Fishing in ancient times, 215, 220

Fistulina hepatica, a fungus, 71

Flint skeletons of plants, 185

Flustra or sea-mat, 187; structure of,
TQI-193

Fly, fungus killing a, 66

Focal images, 33; distances, 44

Fouqué, M., artificial lava made by,
I12

Fructification of mushrooms, 69 ; of
lichens, 83; of mosses, 91; of
seaweeds, 177

Funaria hygrometrica, urn of the, 89,
gt; has no urn lid, 92

Fungi, nature of, 59; different
kinds of, 60; attacking insects,
66; growing on wounds, 66 ; the
use of, 74

Fungus and green cells in lichen, 81

GARDENER, advice of the old, 118
Gas, spectrum of a, 126
Gases revealed by spectroscope, 52

Gemini, the constellation, 154

Geminorum, 6, a double coloured
star, 167

Gills of mushroom, 69

Gomphonema marinum, 184

Gooseberry, fermentation in a, 64

Gory dew, Palmella cruenta, 79

Graham’s island thrown up, 102

Granular appearance of sun’s face,
123

Grape fungus, 65

Great Bear, the constellation, 157;
binary star in, 158; coloured
double star in, 158, 168

Greenstone, Neolithic weapons of, 220

Guards, the, in the Little Bear, 162

HARTZ MOUNTAINS, caves of the,
210

Hatchet, a Neolithic stone, 219

Hebrides, volcanic islands of, 111

Henri, MM., photograph of moon’s
face by, 19

Herculaneum, buried, 98, to4

Herculis a, a coloured double star,
168

Hermitage, lava stream flowing behind
the, 97, 99

Herschel’s drawing of Copernicus, 17

Huggins, Dr., on shape of promin-
ences, 135; on spectra of nebulae,
I5t; on cause of colour in stars,
168

Himalayas, single-celled plants in the,
79

Horse, wild, of the Pampas, 198 ;
of Tartary, 199; of Kirghiz steppes,
200; Przevalsky’s, 202; early
history of toed, 204; structure of
foot and hoof of, 205; skeleton
of, 206; origin and migration of
early, 207

Hungary, ancient caves of, 210

Huyghens, the highest peak in Lunar
Apennines, 19

IMAGE formed at focus of lens, 33;
of sky in telescope, 49

; Implements, old stone, 213 ;

"stone, 219



new
230

Imps of plant-life, 59

India, low plants in springs of, 79;
solar eclipse seen in, 124 ; wild ass
of, 203

Infusorial earth, 186

Infusorians in a seaside pool, 183

Inhabitants of a seaside pool, 172-174

Tris of the eye, 30

Iron pyrites in lava, 108

Tron slag, lava compared to, 105

Islands, volanic thrown up, 102

JACK by the second horse, 157

Jade, Neolithic weapons of, 220

Jannsen, Prof., on sun prominences,
131

Judd, Mr., on volcano of Mull, rrr

Jutes and Angles invading Britain,
224

INANT on nebular hypothesis, 152
Kent’s Cavern, rough stone imple-
ment from, 213

Kepler, a lunar crater, 10; streaks |

around, 17
Kertag, or wild horse, 202
Kew, sun-storm registered at, 143
Kiang or Kulan, 200
Kirchhoff, Prof., on sunlight, 128
Kulan or Kiang, 200

LABRADOR felspar artificially made,
113

Langley, Prof., sun-spot drawn by,
I4l

Laplace, nebular hypothesis of, 152

Lava, aspect of flowing, 99; reser-
voirs of molten, 101; nature of,
107; artificially made, 113; two
periods of crystallisation in, 115

Lava-stream, history of a, 100; sec-
tion of a, 108; rapid cooling of
surface, 108

Laver or sea-lettuce, structure of,
176

Ico, the constellation, 135

Leucotephrite artificially made, 113

Lens, natural, of the eye, 31 ; simple
magnifying, 35



INDEX

Levy, MT, artificial lava made by,
I1l2

Lichens, specimens of from life, 77;
the life-history of, 80-84; sections
of, 81; distribution of 82, 95;
fructification of, 83; causes of
success of, 94

Lick telescope, magnifying power of,
46

Light, lurid, on moon during eclipse,
24; sifted by spectroscope, 126

Light-granules on sun's face, 123;
supposed explanation of, 141

Lime-tree, fungi on the, 64

Liss, bronze bracelet from, 223

Little Bear, pole-star and guards in
the, 162

Lockyer, Mr., on sun-prominences,
I3I, 136

Lunar Apennines figured, 19

Lyre €, a double-binary star, 166

MACHAIRODUS, tooth of, 213

Madeleine, La, carvings from cave of,
216

Magic glasses and how to use them,
27; what can be done by, 28, 53

Magician’s chamber, 1; his pupils,
4; spells, 28; his dream of ancient
days, 209

Magnetic connection of sun and earth,
142

Magnifying-glass, action of a, 35

Mammoth engraved on ivory, 216

Maps of constellations, 148, 156

Marasmus oreastes, fairy-ring mush-
room, 55, 72

Maszeppa, quotation from Byron's, 201

Men of older stone age, 212; of
Neolithic age, 218

Mesohippus, a toed horse, 205

Microliths in volcanic glass, Tog, IIo,
113, 115; formed in artificial lava,
113

Microscope, 3 ; action of the, 36-38

Mildews are fungi, 60

Milky Way, 149; Cassiopeia in the,
163

Minerals crystallising in lava, 108
INDEX

Mines, increase of temperature in
IOL

Miohippus, or lesser toed horse, 206

Mizar, a double-coloured star in the
Great Bear, 158, 168

Monads, size and activity of, 183

Monks, ancient, of Dartmoor, 196

Monte Nuovo thrown up in 1538, 103

Moon, phases of the, 6; course in
the heavens, 8; map of the, 10;
craters of the, 10, 13, 17, 19, 20;
face of full, 11 ; a worn-out planet,
2I; no atmosphere in the, 21;
diagram of eclipse of, 23; lurid
light on during eclipse, 24

Moss-leaf magnified, 87

Moss, life-history of a, 84,92; a stem
of feathery, 85; protonema of a,
86; modes of new growth of a,
88 ; fructification of a, 89; urns of
a, 89, gt

Mosses, different kinds of, 77; ad-
vantages and distribution of, 94

Moulds are fungi, 60; how they
grow, 63

Mountains of the moon, 19; forma-
tion of, 21

Afucor Mucedo, figured, 61; growth
of, 63

Mull, volcanic dykes in the island of,
IIL

Mushroom, early stages and spawn
of, 67; mycelium of, 67; later
stages of, 68; section of gills of,
69; spores of, 70; fairy or Scotch
bonnet, 72

Mycelium of mould, 63; of mush-
room, 67; of fairy rings, 72

?

NAPLES, volcanic eruption seen at,
96 ; Monte Nuovo thrown up near,
103

Nasmyth on bright lunar streaks, 16

Nebula of Orion, 149; spectrum
of, 151; photographs of, 152; of
Pleiades, 153 ; of Andromeda, 163-
164

Needle, bone, from a cave, 212

Neolithic implements, 219; indus-



231

trics and habits, 218-220 ; burials,
221

Neptune, invisible to
35

Neison, Mr., his drawing of Plato,
20

Nostoc, growing on stones, 79

naked eye,

OAK, fungi on the, 64
Observatory, the Magician's,
astronomical on Vesuvius,
cascade of lava behind the, 99
Obsidian, or volcanic glass, tog
Occultation of a star, 22, 25
Onager, or wild ass of Asia, 203
Optic nerve of eye, 34
Orion, constellation of, 147, 149;
great nebula of, 149 ; photographs
of Nebula of, 152 ; coloured double
stars in, 168
Orionis @, or Trapezium, 150
Ornaments of ancient Britons, 222
Orohippus, a toed horse, 205
Oscillarie, growth of, 79

2;
975

PALAOLITHIC man, relics,
213; life, 214, 216

Pampas, wild horses of the, 198

Penicillium glaucum, figured, 61 ;
growth of, 63

Penumbra of an eclipse, 23; of sun-
spots, 140

Perithecia of lichens, 84

Petavius, a lunar crater, 10

Photographic camera, 3, 47; attached
to telescope, 121

Photographs of the moon, 13, 19 ; of
galloping horse, 48; of the stars,
49, 161; of the sun, 121

Photosphere of the sun, 123

Philadelphia, electric shocks at during
sun-storm, 143

Pixies of plant life, 59

Plains of the moon, 10; nature of
the, 12

Plants, colourless, single-celled, 65 ;
single-celled green, 78 ; two kinds
of in lichens, 80; with flint skele-
tons, 185

212;
232
Plato, a lunar crater, 10, 24;
figured, 20

Pleiades, the, 153; nebulz in, 153

Pleurococcus, a single-celled plant, 78

Plough, the, or Charles’s Wain, 157

Pointers, in Charles's Wain, 161

Pole-star, the, 161 ; a yellow sun, 166

Pollux, a yellow sun, 166

Polysiphonia, a red seaweed, 175 ;
fruit of, 177

Polytrichum commune, a hair moss,
88; its urns protected by a lid,
gi

Pool, inhabitants of a seaside, 172-74

Precious stones, formation of, 116

Proctor, his star atlas, 146; on drift-

ing of Charles's Wain, 159

Prominence-spectrum. and sun-spec-
trum compared, 134

Prominences, red, of the sun, 125;
seen in full daylight, 131-133;
shape of, 135

Protococcus nivalis, 79

Protonema of a moss, 86

Przevalsky's wild horse, 202

Ptolemy, a lunar crater, 10

Puff-balls, 67, 70; use of in nature,

73
Pupil of the eye, 30
Puzzuoli, eruption near, 1538, 103

QuaGGas, herds of, 203

RAIN-BAND in the solar spectrum,
130

Rain-shower during volcanic eruption,

“107

Readings in the sky, 53, 127, 151,
168

Red snow, a single-celled plant, 79

Regulus, the star, 155, 166

Reindeer, carving on horn of, 216

Reservoirs of molten rock under-
ground, Ior

Resina, ascent of Vesuvius from, 98

Retina of the eye, 31; image of ob-
ject on the, 33

Richmond, Virginia, infusorial earth
of, 186



INDEX

Rigel, a star in Orion,
coloured double star, 168

Rings, growth of fairy, 73

Roberts, Mr. I., his photograph of
Orion's nebula, 152; and of nebula
of the Pleiades, 153; and of
nebula of Andromeda, 164

Rosse, Lord, his telescope, 46; on
Orion’s nebula, 150; stars visible
in his telescope, 160

Rue, De la, his photograph of the
moon, 13

Rust on plants, 61

149; a

SABRINA island formed, 102

Saturn, distance of, 40

Saxons, invasion of the, 224

Schwabe, Herr, on sun-spots cycle,
137

Scoriae of volcanoes, 108

‘Scotch bonnet’? mushroom, 72

Sea-mat, see Flustra

‘*Seas’”’ lunar, so-called, 10

Seaweeds, a group of, 175 ; fruits of,
I

Secchi, Father, on depth of a sun-
spot, 139

Selwyn, Mr., photograph of sun by,
I22

Senses alone tell us of outer world,
29

Sertularia tenella, structure of, 180;
cupressina, 181

Sertularian and coralline, resemblance
of, 179

Shakespeare on fairy rings, 57

Shipley, Mr., saw volcanic
formed, 103

Sight, far and near, 35

Silkworm destroyed by fungi, 66

Sirius, 146 ; a bluish white sun, 166;
irregularities of caused by a com-
panion, 169

Skeleton of the horse, 206

Skin diseases caused by fungi, 61, 66

Sky, light readings in the, 53, 127,
I51, 168

Smut, a fungus, 61

Sodium lime in the spectrum, 128

island
INDEX

Somma, part of ancient Vesuvius, 97,
104

Spawn of mushroom, 67

Spectra, plate of coloured, 127

Spectroscope, 3; Kirchhoff’s, 51;
gases revealed by the, 52; direct
vision, 127; sifting light, 126; at-
tached to telescope, 132

Spectrum of sunlight, 127, 130

Sphacelaria, a brown-green seaweed,
175; fruit of, 177

Sphagnum or bog moss,
structure of leaves of, 93

Spindle-whorl from Neolithic caves,
219

Spore-cases of mosses, 89, 91, 93

Spores of moulds, 63 ; of mushroom,
70 ; of lichens, 83; of mosses, 91

Star, occultation of, by the moon,
24; a double-binary, 166; a dark,
travelling round Sirius, 169

Star-cluster in Perseus, 162

Star-depths, 160, 171

Stars, light from the, 40, 42; visible
in the country, 145; apparent
motion of the, 146; mapsof, 148,
156; of milky way, 149; bin-
ary, 154; real motion of, 159;
drifting, 159; number of known
and estimated, 161; colours of,
166; double coloured, 167; cause
of colour in, 168; are they centres
of solar systems ? 170

Statur or wild horse, 202

Streaks, bright, on the moon, 14-17

Suffolk, bronze weapon from barrow
in, 223

Sun, path of the moon round the, 8;
one of the stars, 119; how to look
at the, 119; face of, thrown on a
screen, 120; photograph of the,
122; prominences, corona, and
facule of, 122-125; mottling of
face of, 123; total eclipse of,
i243; zodiacal line round, 125;
dark lines in spectrum of, 128;
reversing layer of, 131; metals in
the, 131; sudden outburst in the,
142; magnetic

77s 935



connection with ;

233

the earth,
166

Sun's rays touching moon during
eclipse, 24

Sun-spots, cycle of, 3137; proving
sun's rotation, 138 ; nature of, 139 ;
quiet and unquiet, 140; formation
of, 142

Sundew on Dartmoor, 56

143; a yellow star,

TARPAN, a wild horse, 199

Tartary, wild horses of, 199

Tavistock Abbey, monks of, 196

Telescope, clock-work, adjusting a,
2; an astronomical, 41; magni-
fying power of the, 43-46; giant,
46; terrestrial, 47; what can be
seen in a small, 46; how the sun
is photographed in the, 122; how
the spectroscope is worked with
the, 132

Teneriffe, peak of compared to lunar
craters, 15 :

Tennant, Major, drawing of eclipsed
sun by, 123

Temperature, underground, rot

Thuricolla follicula, a transparent
infusorian, 182

Tiger, sabre-toothed, 211, 213

Tilletia caria or dunt, 64

Toadstools, 67, 70; use of in nature,
73

Tools, of ancient stone period, 214,
215

Tooth of machairodus, 213

Torquay, the Magician's pool near, 172

Tors of Dartmoor, .197

Trapezium of Orion, 150

Tremella mesenterica fungus, 7%

Tripoli formed of diatoms, 35

Tundras, lichens and mosses of the,
82, 95

Tycho, a lunar crater, 10; descrip-
tion of, 13; bright streaks of, 14

ULVA, a green seaweed, 175; a sec-
tion magnified, 176

Umbra of an eclipse, 23

Urns of mosses, 89, 91

Ustilago carbo, or smut, 64
234

VARIABLE Stars, 165

Vega, a bluish-white sun,
double-binary star near, 165

Veil of mushroom, 68

Vesuvian lavas imitated, 113

Vesuvius, eruption of 1868 described,

166;

97, 99, of; dormant, 103;
eruption of in A.D. 79;
104

Volcanic craters of earth and moon
compared, 16; eruptions in the
moon, 21; glass under the micro-
scope, I09, II0, 115

Volcano, diagram of
105

an active,

THE

INDEX

Volcanoes, the cause of discussed,
IOI, 102; ancient, laid bare, r11

, WASHINGTON, electric shocks
during sun-storm, 143
Winter in Palzeolithic times, 215
Wood, winter growth in a, 76
‘* World without End,” rr5

at

YEAST, growth of, 65
Yorkshire, Roman coins in caves of,
225

| ZEBRA, herds of, 203
| Zodiacal light, 125

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describe
'2960104' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQH' 'sip-files00007.tif'
5b6ef3cb7ab5263530d6176670f2943e
894cdffc8c76a1753d947a241589891b9af0daea
'2011-12-12T23:06:55-05:00'
describe
'62' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQI' 'sip-files00007.txt'
7b162fa8d1eb9f9a40be19583d06f615
50185080a1af1e2db73d1bdefdbdf60c32382e48
'2011-12-12T23:09:01-05:00'
describe
'19953' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQJ' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
32668360c8175763f598c5de95ca65a7
5318a8d32a77991003ba0fa45e639e516a005777
'2011-12-12T23:07:08-05:00'
describe
'367757' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQK' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
6091701c9d5ee5b733867f87b64d2caa
4494eb18af31aa6ecaa243fabddfc89a12e8edbd
'2011-12-12T23:07:21-05:00'
describe
'180226' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQL' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
3e1b485b600b44d2a0e5730a7e60894f
6c956e5a4efca9657e6bfc99220b58fe802de3f2
describe
'2453' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQM' 'sip-files00010.pro'
6b4b5cdb1061464158fe99b2aaf5c857
fbc5e3df541e817a339ce601fd719b3fa4c7eab1
'2011-12-12T23:05:58-05:00'
describe
'55454' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQN' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
87cc51be8155b00b5b74a2a09e509686
3fad7a26fad97d430d7f954dac4d366cef60ab38
'2011-12-12T23:06:14-05:00'
describe
'2963364' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQO' 'sip-files00010.tif'
1696efad62903d863364e923ec9a96ef
2d289d62232a92eed6dcf486132a76fb98b4de75
'2011-12-12T23:09:38-05:00'
describe
'227' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQP' 'sip-files00010.txt'
7b2759bc710c362f53549ccec1c75f30
03249ba369dcab5b77ce24d6f984f96d52d4d7ad
'2011-12-12T23:05:12-05:00'
describe
'29732' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQQ' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
af319b1b7b357727246bb4ddf25f6260
60380e14f1e2b58dbd532d4a38f8dbc44ae085ef
'2011-12-12T23:06:33-05:00'
describe
'367824' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQR' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
a789ee885b8b17f910057f863ed2e862
214dd7801c47d8227ac313afa44fef7dfe102ec7
'2011-12-12T23:05:07-05:00'
describe
'106410' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQS' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
d25639c1b7ea92733790667426d23d54
b699a3a4629bd0deed0008ac97a516a8a897a355
'2011-12-12T23:08:31-05:00'
describe
'7507' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQT' 'sip-files00011.pro'
93d7de012043daf9562bddfc8f8f1fca
f42178a83d0992ecaad549536bf65706843ce6c7
describe
'40462' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQU' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
0b6c894d53191e5780dc282221fde1ea
a5de3206be62594592a41dec8adce0a1e1b0d161
'2011-12-12T23:05:54-05:00'
describe
'2961816' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQV' 'sip-files00011.tif'
911e269093c9eed4547ab07710dc678d
61f4600008abe74a0e4971c3a5eb4fb060d6d146
'2011-12-12T23:10:29-05:00'
describe
'435' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQW' 'sip-files00011.txt'
c467fe5dd7596f79cedd3b69b8a0f986
ceacf34d433b40689ffb207dc1243775a5293227
'2011-12-12T23:10:24-05:00'
describe
'24923' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQX' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
706b823ff38f5badd0db59d35e8c72a0
0d07ea8465480cc229971dedd4e7bad385384c9a
'2011-12-12T23:06:00-05:00'
describe
'367482' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQY' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
9194b29664faced8af4f308aa27907f5
02f56f1b0f5c540daca3982be7cbd0b1c966bda3
'2011-12-12T23:09:00-05:00'
describe
'53950' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATQZ' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
93d04dd76ee8bc2d7bb2cd4983d438d3
de22edc3b919ca84c73f605879ca5bfa5d4d297a
'2011-12-12T23:10:19-05:00'
describe
'737' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRA' 'sip-files00012.pro'
9b598ed9d057618f6fcaf813ebfa4809
f71fc6e659a003c68d0a65835660bc68c1ef57d2
'2011-12-12T23:10:25-05:00'
describe
'23334' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRB' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
3c46272bb7a09307922465ca2d770c3a
7f2eaaac9467e5664fc849d8d3257547e92c9e84
'2011-12-12T23:10:47-05:00'
describe
'2959896' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRC' 'sip-files00012.tif'
cb52900f983bf54f0029970662bcad1b
5a00548488993c4f718de9de599415ac1bd780b2
'2011-12-12T23:07:51-05:00'
describe
'72' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRD' 'sip-files00012.txt'
172d9404a6f0f98f278d51b247e3a078
79385926a8ee8811e5ac2ac7dd4e67bfb5bf3ed0
'2011-12-12T23:05:25-05:00'
describe
'19032' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRE' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
4b822afea5d503e667ef034cfef84b65
f35814fbae7e5dd26d3e5eb7f6c575ce603101f5
'2011-12-12T23:09:17-05:00'
describe
'367771' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRF' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
88dd879c02cfbd35cdf60ffeba41934f
7a9cc8ea306d72b5227097e8e1172563c31fbf53
'2011-12-12T23:05:55-05:00'
describe
'141142' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRG' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
86451093a498956187cb28e1bf425b0d
3893918c47a76fee00da1b8f2b61be44ede93498
'2011-12-12T23:08:18-05:00'
describe
'22500' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRH' 'sip-files00013.pro'
fc6f46f3544d5e350eb1243a4dc911e0
e0d3d015c35375861b3c68d4e295650f76c92c4b
'2011-12-12T23:09:08-05:00'
describe
'50079' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRI' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
261db5446dc8e8a755eedfbe26cdd847
fce6a2d9f0a1192d29370c0fc54323b11e1595cb
'2011-12-12T23:09:05-05:00'
describe
'2962460' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRJ' 'sip-files00013.tif'
02a48da724f990c9b539f0dda089aa50
483d6ff331f9aa89fbbe1755579f15f5d22ee6be
'2011-12-12T23:09:12-05:00'
describe
'901' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRK' 'sip-files00013.txt'
27fc800c193af8b03e908b0cbe31edf6
889e7238add9a83bc7a361ec475e1ab37fb8c64e
describe
'27593' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRL' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
77ac15698a4073661701ada2e1eab9ec
be4b30d4a2479487729869cc8d3968f8cfe450e0
'2011-12-12T23:08:33-05:00'
describe
'367822' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRM' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
7016af0790a00e1032f82248477ad201
19039e88d9d6781a90c7253ada05de751d9cfb6a
'2011-12-12T23:06:37-05:00'
describe
'162890' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRN' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
c1c5d7a875a04edb65272ff6f9a2ae0e
382e0db758366ac800c96f4b42b6e6f9f21955e2
'2011-12-12T23:09:40-05:00'
describe
'31009' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRO' 'sip-files00014.pro'
0e05c999eced2d963371b0b411927f68
7aa8323a4d4c383c7842c18fbd5e9e9f2bb12c5c
'2011-12-12T23:05:38-05:00'
describe
'59757' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRP' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
7e253c0443d4b4dc7c5a5b1b2b38f251
5daa0162a5e3c76dcdfc395cb70f6b4874b6785e
'2011-12-12T23:07:09-05:00'
describe
'2963588' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRQ' 'sip-files00014.tif'
eb63abcc128fac4c25c573a7055f908e
d757978311beac20e6f5777f84725a3b65312e60
'2011-12-12T23:07:22-05:00'
describe
'1232' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRR' 'sip-files00014.txt'
f0c9ecd4bb50be5c071352e7218ed9fe
58e4e437d30fd67053e51d51180839f2fb641cfc
'2011-12-12T23:07:05-05:00'
describe
'31426' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRS' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
5da2144edc64106215417355da8cae2f
3adff5d975625d434e072f0bb33ebda9a632578d
'2011-12-12T23:04:41-05:00'
describe
'367717' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRT' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
be5f475bf85e49f710b6aa547fa581a7
9c35df5be68e66d4f316a171b2d649a9835a4e14
'2011-12-12T23:08:24-05:00'
describe
'100478' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRU' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
c4c5889cd7f330e7db01a40a921d0529
60c7ace7b60683c146a8aa42cc1cc95946281025
'2011-12-12T23:05:18-05:00'
describe
'13416' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRV' 'sip-files00015.pro'
1add0322f5581b94cb838b9eff818978
c4f3eb6811a91b041988e0e1b1ae6523c24f98cb
'2011-12-12T23:05:09-05:00'
describe
'42526' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRW' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
c1421b7bf2b9391942eb2061fe8b0950
1b89dfd630cadfbb54a58a6ecdaa7a8cd98b24ff
'2011-12-12T23:07:30-05:00'
describe
'2961572' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRX' 'sip-files00015.tif'
20cc6407cf7493cf90d74e3c936bbe41
a6852e46d38292e93face9379602110675fe7a1b
'2011-12-12T23:05:08-05:00'
describe
'594' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRY' 'sip-files00015.txt'
f8b81c357de26747ec26c85b6bdc7c50
3a2e440ab7d6ccb68fcb1b03c6b12caf708b275d
describe
'24805' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATRZ' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
2eb594083d8cdfd6c1ffec3f6d647638
c38c6aeea2a636e110bb38acb5f35616c35724a2
'2011-12-12T23:06:50-05:00'
describe
'367799' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSA' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
3e8952d96c1e7049e402d38ec6319a52
35dd64cc6c90072be98f6a49185e981db1e35c34
'2011-12-12T23:08:40-05:00'
describe
'61171' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSB' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
55a3f763d6a8968926a2cb5a21af0b3d
ee1f986993a07d50012df1231576f6758946c33a
'2011-12-12T23:04:57-05:00'
describe
'23818' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSC' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
9d02ef6dec1753abf0f22fb4598e9f9d
64f50dfb1b9806fb395244ab4a80a8753b58bd76
describe
'2959792' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSD' 'sip-files00016.tif'
18baac82b5fdc737bfd51ceee2165add
3b05ba37726855ae425ae28810f668d345b227ef
'2011-12-12T23:08:39-05:00'
describe
'18765' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSE' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
e4457e7bc33f519b0af7fda3d35331c6
eca06c3145ea6bfc98dc7cf57ec38a58501704eb
'2011-12-12T23:09:50-05:00'
describe
'367425' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSF' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
c6594f21ef21dee646c370937c144e20
3be252e3384ecb9e8c4aa6955944ac9ed8e85c08
'2011-12-12T23:10:17-05:00'
describe
'89837' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSG' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
94d8208aef84763e8854f10a790ef71d
dd55bfdcd0ded7ff4bb10c0fcf1223d9675fc390
'2011-12-12T23:09:47-05:00'
describe
'8723' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSH' 'sip-files00017.pro'
1dfc2055008c64a48f592eaa7f782142
8eff3cc4c41c609c66b821f380e1175dba3ef6a1
'2011-12-12T23:08:16-05:00'
describe
'36939' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSI' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
d86111a0d9ac98743aaa6356be234c14
fb3167de775b872162d3af3defbd43e8fcf05163
'2011-12-12T23:10:46-05:00'
describe
'2961656' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSJ' 'sip-files00017.tif'
335cd66d3e256145f73db6ad809580cf
e23702bc54124ef6bc97f737bf310b56b4c01876
'2011-12-12T23:05:57-05:00'
describe
'553' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSK' 'sip-files00017.txt'
293945ddb6dca464f82b6c3999e5b6a8
f06147a415145914cb4167b0cbe27d611d70345e
'2011-12-12T23:10:09-05:00'
describe
'24665' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSL' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
6006090c98086b50720e95e83006b573
7f5f73da68f0e680d2ae913f92abf92a8191d38c
describe
'367814' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSM' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
a1f3356f9b986f5492224f7d5d81dc43
0d3d6c0510b2ff0f74de826d6e0b48963826ab2e
describe
'85359' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSN' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
f554b7680f63df58d350b797766ada91
3983d95f7e401914ee6d42b6a5d34ff377007db4
'2011-12-12T23:10:02-05:00'
describe
'6292' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSO' 'sip-files00018.pro'
3fcadeb300bd2aec60dde3c44ed6f7b7
cb37fbe4c46cd2ec4f880b8d755f621ae22b44cc
'2011-12-12T23:09:48-05:00'
describe
'32683' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSP' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
72c4123c15e59b901e540592c0f37ed2
4dca771df24eb94acb6bc997738d96e5f033ab40
'2011-12-12T23:09:27-05:00'
describe
'2960852' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSQ' 'sip-files00018.tif'
07c2ee43ec85e31e42c2034a8e1952a2
ddfe2ca8d9cada865a777779fdc79fff00692d58
'2011-12-12T23:05:37-05:00'
describe
'405' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSR' 'sip-files00018.txt'
3095f8e7508e89708dbb2adf59140349
cbb0b13bab9c601c9561d07b7b1a73ece923116f
'2011-12-12T23:07:52-05:00'
describe
'22275' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSS' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
bee35dde042988801f2d72c25fa926c6
8860fd45f4933cdf55dc685ee7ee92e27f3750ed
'2011-12-12T23:06:31-05:00'
describe
'367526' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATST' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
b9ae8b47064bdf657445b49ee12652c5
893fd29c98c6abe4db76146c58c8cf0d57d713d1
'2011-12-12T23:05:10-05:00'
describe
'113544' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSU' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
7c7ddc1739faf062a5792df2e0d1d446
05ed0a9df736d7461c31b51ae0d620ce73a46045
'2011-12-12T23:10:40-05:00'
describe
'25901' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSV' 'sip-files00019.pro'
b34ea001a54e320c04471773bc8c28a7
a71940bf62d5ec628f04b61c4815947b09d4c194
describe
'46131' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSW' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
8f393c383dfb61185889027a2268fc96
bd63c149d22dbc6aba218721d96131b675fb7400
'2011-12-12T23:08:42-05:00'
describe
'2962108' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSX' 'sip-files00019.tif'
6f70bf2780e1f8957542cc915b8562f4
bceb12429521bbfe78bf9194efad2429e6c682fb
describe
'1308' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSY' 'sip-files00019.txt'
1f5566e066cdaa7686215088b580e417
91127df3752d0a2a1076f5677ee51c6f8c9ae40c
'2011-12-12T23:05:34-05:00'
describe
'26352' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATSZ' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
42e5e5adf393f406ce523e7af6faeb47
69e0ad56e38115af9916cc7a0b6697457fcfd17e
'2011-12-12T23:08:00-05:00'
describe
'367813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTA' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
ff28a194a3b93c66e6dee17f00794fa0
eb8afb940bb70e457bbb518c7665b33df09631cb
'2011-12-12T23:07:47-05:00'
describe
'145930' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTB' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
49ea9abfe77eba863802cae51d01f3c3
fe0a1d553c8fd598f494c790f1f967739edc72a1
describe
'42790' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTC' 'sip-files00020.pro'
f24bd063072e28fe709161e549a47fbb
50dc368f162cac22c54d0eef4ee7d442154a7521
describe
'58239' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTD' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
dd8ff66257f0e449eaf8e06549c06113
0b9c7cfb704532cc399ebd5ca93b96e7c14a7cc2
'2011-12-12T23:07:17-05:00'
describe
'2962960' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTE' 'sip-files00020.tif'
c4563a9b319047e0d7b55220c1253353
95f19c043eeb7c82f3311840e443e3e68a392b59
'2011-12-12T23:07:55-05:00'
describe
'2146' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTF' 'sip-files00020.txt'
700d29be41fd07dafb91a84100aa5252
f3f91d55b646356012b5ef982983922ee4693b75
'2011-12-12T23:10:03-05:00'
describe
'29230' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTG' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
08ba1e2af766f748bde7357d4dd8d7aa
9636ed8090aa8a768ac1e7a3bd6a45e25b99002d
'2011-12-12T23:08:12-05:00'
describe
'367789' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTH' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
a6dc4d56ffe27ac94c64a224309384c7
a4bd4d897001cb1d66987d4d4bad9b714cb380fd
'2011-12-12T23:08:02-05:00'
describe
'149969' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTI' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
d3e362862e65ee1058abdae07613d986
a800a752104f1fa1409878b339c5ba90285d3bf0
'2011-12-12T23:06:13-05:00'
describe
'43568' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTJ' 'sip-files00021.pro'
7aeb33f9a721c7812084f6d1d21d8953
e134e4297ea9aab6c508739d9ef972a98a891846
'2011-12-12T23:10:49-05:00'
describe
'57928' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTK' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
0d668f6607d03ce947f926196bc9bfb3
2914d377f121219db528f3f1ecaf9a074f63ab1a
'2011-12-12T23:06:41-05:00'
describe
'2962900' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTL' 'sip-files00021.tif'
45f0964e3d7e657653e961cfc318fd96
f57088de5515e8fbb881d02f9d0eca95ea052cc8
describe
'2185' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTM' 'sip-files00021.txt'
1b640a413885dee050f06490708e07d1
8727b1808ba8c19ecb1ee7c564b014371af5f976
'2011-12-12T23:09:58-05:00'
describe
'29388' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTN' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
9d3e567bd49fe81b551ed7b2d412d033
26e303e68ab2925f30e552cfa8f9bb8e059be593
'2011-12-12T23:04:56-05:00'
describe
'367800' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTO' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
5343bfd9bf2f7f1ae749db8c65323b60
d66b49cf3c9b70c928785c365cbff875da086103
'2011-12-12T23:09:28-05:00'
describe
'86503' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTP' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
840b287844c12ed94005a591fc95f6aa
9fd722794faabede55e448bf0e051bc45d270a13
'2011-12-12T23:06:10-05:00'
describe
'15977' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTQ' 'sip-files00022.pro'
ae0c139197a50842e0c79949df4605f8
6b7e1413bb47a71af68fff33e959d55e6c6fc781
'2011-12-12T23:09:11-05:00'
describe
'36111' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTR' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
0c94a5f1ed7b7cd868a57e5bab1f6bbd
7b20e2e452b49705de9963f4854bebdc6756def1
describe
'2961036' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTS' 'sip-files00022.tif'
4c172ef30af0848c73b08d16c6851c83
3ea8c5211d6b27b6c1e37643f17c8318500632f3
'2011-12-12T23:09:06-05:00'
describe
'790' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTT' 'sip-files00022.txt'
88807f6cd1ddf3dcbd5637f22607783c
5b34fa07455d38007af66452f5fdc9ff1467a17f
'2011-12-12T23:06:43-05:00'
describe
'22844' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTU' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
580ecd1c9948f2e64c80a97177185a4b
3543d29b968317d51bc1ee27f997db02110f2b94
'2011-12-12T23:06:44-05:00'
describe
'367732' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTV' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
09d1dd0ac1d226ad8799bcb87e182719
2b30d9dbdf5a047e4287d05096c89d5224217362
'2011-12-12T23:08:09-05:00'
describe
'132988' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTW' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
ea29c807240befc2db1891468e849832
70eddd65e4d40022e9bbf92be0aaf0d5f9e12b31
'2011-12-12T23:07:29-05:00'
describe
'19895' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTX' 'sip-files00023.pro'
33b95f201fecdb0cbea36b0f7ff4d6fc
10ffda4e609c443d5b61696927189c10b5bc9c6d
'2011-12-12T23:10:18-05:00'
describe
'52966' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTY' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
a1f1865eda34e6bad2fa70833cf77fc0
1e7ed5ed762dcd577ec807ee0365d127c5eb68aa
'2011-12-12T23:09:56-05:00'
describe
'2962680' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATTZ' 'sip-files00023.tif'
15a5f7b4c7904d1627ae50662ab909c9
a0fe4dd7e375bd543d16d4080b5d72ae0a00821f
'2011-12-12T23:09:19-05:00'
describe
'1017' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUA' 'sip-files00023.txt'
9d737a3617acd66af905b1f202d6fd52
c55e716948097ad6b3919657d11a53d6a8c704c8
describe
'27830' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUB' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
b6993947b0ca661a3f028d4d431ec7b6
0b05358208ea468a2370e50ee369976429ae09ba
'2011-12-12T23:09:39-05:00'
describe
'367820' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUC' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
74bca1dc969628f65fac847186fd9df9
b3b51355b71e599ce3a50a170d58f81323e9951e
'2011-12-12T23:05:39-05:00'
describe
'189233' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUD' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
9eb5bd102a454006420c76c24362c95e
a37ef8418faff75c236f557461bb0794c9d2cc54
'2011-12-12T23:09:22-05:00'
describe
'43863' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUE' 'sip-files00024.pro'
b7618ae72f60e6852929d77ac0be495e
bcf97aad3eb7e428c1bb6acc7634dc105f7d35e0
'2011-12-12T23:05:03-05:00'
describe
'70428' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUF' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
7e1e0b1aa99eef9838707b1515a70f83
b98447a81697dc73a387284e98873725108234d0
'2011-12-12T23:09:02-05:00'
describe
'2963680' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUG' 'sip-files00024.tif'
4020093b5d45c92d68bc91415e25783f
73a14162128451fa170ab54cb2c46fb2df37e5c3
'2011-12-12T23:05:04-05:00'
describe
'1721' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUH' 'sip-files00024.txt'
4f0b842ea4af22e8d33247482124c12d
9851beb8c92543800fad0a20784cdc8988ab2013
describe
'31613' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUI' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
57511cc26613685a0adf1fdeb80c0a6a
6a67598825991d97eb3a288f04f081ab486bcc0f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUJ' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
48b3b9a9c0b0da1bbbcfc320c9f4100b
31c7c6fb4c6b61a6de81d38deb9d3c132e08976d
'2011-12-12T23:05:19-05:00'
describe
'183605' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUK' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
ed04a9b790134f08402fe71256aabf49
6fe9d9c6db7fb6fec12534665c3df240718b9084
'2011-12-12T23:10:42-05:00'
describe
'42178' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUL' 'sip-files00025.pro'
5432600ad4e2f2cf9e68f2cb40890269
284d1bed1d1f64660a1bfaab39051e796f41e99c
'2011-12-12T23:05:44-05:00'
describe
'69936' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUM' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
5b2981dec88174bba309f446ea93a232
f283c52384398873a4113c6313d3ec5651f063f3
describe
'2963664' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUN' 'sip-files00025.tif'
1af79a58b592f1ab6f3fc9ecbe8f6f9c
fab3287b084eca4e4b165f77461e2b82b9f48729
describe
'1677' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUO' 'sip-files00025.txt'
5e30eb27f66e4e58a0d3a64f5bbbbdfc
764b8b37e373c5d371a556e4e1a76baa25f57d71
'2011-12-12T23:06:22-05:00'
describe
'31494' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUP' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
1a3510c729e9ed1c54ca78670c08b4d4
d69afa1728f1c4f5d35bc47e7be93262b0c9b0e3
describe
'367815' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUQ' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
4ba51673b0e60f39618c676e01a4789b
b3f9feb97b4ca294a276e084c691a223ee3db950
'2011-12-12T23:08:50-05:00'
describe
'188334' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUR' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
cef25ea0c5db392878db03976953d637
7a59d458b149a5031ed08647106e9d0ff49f9f6e
'2011-12-12T23:06:30-05:00'
describe
'43191' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUS' 'sip-files00026.pro'
f502ac5e6eb6c1b0aacb1dc0b91daa62
500ca185fe3729ff37f74d9345eeebcd19653679
'2011-12-12T23:06:03-05:00'
describe
'70937' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUT' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
862b83dbf76713a4926020316c773b47
7bed9db4330b3b31f9e62f9aa52119feb2c8fa3c
describe
'2963652' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUU' 'sip-files00026.tif'
2fa5e58d608b8675afc1cbac1ecff48a
cdf6be3c1d9524fae210810d2e5b999c24d2c4a4
describe
'1713' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUV' 'sip-files00026.txt'
7e4baa20dd1f19c7969dfa84d5a3164d
1637a480055b1f6c89d55ca6ad8ea52505a8a1dd
'2011-12-12T23:05:33-05:00'
describe
'31576' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUW' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
a6cc8139bb1d96bc3b36451b5ff14ee2
09ea3389fa544466cd32871489391f6343f5d2fb
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUX' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
97078baa67724812b7887a5c682d29b4
80ec5d80ed3ae5a55d7882cb29e05e44ec14d282
'2011-12-12T23:09:57-05:00'
describe
'182479' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUY' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
e81179310393dad63039573fb031362f
20b9c4f56f9a7d18cb0d7cbef67bbcf7207d38fe
describe
'39555' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATUZ' 'sip-files00027.pro'
d09067c53534f8e393bfbf57e71004a2
ff3dc3ffae7d95e23934685275334ffb9223f044
'2011-12-12T23:06:17-05:00'
describe
'68944' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVA' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
b0f365b76e9de33ef87b6ef681055bd2
63a3d8e4961a7a77c3d48fd82f73a82a6521d685
describe
'2963672' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVB' 'sip-files00027.tif'
7ad5d934a4ba836c28e1d1544f182384
7f8fef5ef0b722b3690c77369a06fef43a63a143
'2011-12-12T23:09:36-05:00'
describe
'1644' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVC' 'sip-files00027.txt'
eb6d1f86f4c63373ac1070ffca2ba7b1
aca65747dca699b5de602cbcbc28e13d6516ccb7
'2011-12-12T23:08:15-05:00'
describe
'31463' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVD' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
8e378cd27c5b48edeb5d2b868a47aa55
84600b5183675f55165aadfd5463314fca126cff
'2011-12-12T23:06:36-05:00'
describe
'361243' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVE' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
5ab8322333ba30cc5e498311cd43b7a5
3e00724621c048f969958b449dd6c0f29ccb840d
describe
'199524' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVF' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
cb7440acfb3ecdf0c734f4f1c9421f8d
a746111b55cbe1dfca73e2dc6aec9c4f9d1cfa77
'2011-12-12T23:07:04-05:00'
describe
'21598' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVG' 'sip-files00028.pro'
83bd440291412461f5daa77555f8899f
48af70f914675d2f02e96b19ec45bc8ea0367a28
describe
'65365' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVH' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
872585883cb1a2bc27e632d7b91e1e9f
48f4dbaa267d45810254f996c434d52745da4bbe
'2011-12-12T23:07:16-05:00'
describe
'2911532' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVI' 'sip-files00028.tif'
6a89822c015eb885229115453c0bdca9
7a54364b66825176eae72f203bff8cf63a6e407f
'2011-12-12T23:05:11-05:00'
describe
'944' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVJ' 'sip-files00028.txt'
2e799c15d29b8fe0033e0e807331cdee
5e0936077afecb9ec4d3660f45dfe7b989129990
'2011-12-12T23:05:53-05:00'
describe
'31208' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVK' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
563bd19ecb0d9627f768982846d95c47
c521f02f330b8fb77975064e9de5f7b0ba949978
describe
'367733' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVL' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
67555fafce7e167334c1856a6890c423
9bbd10043e41e280dc09debbb4ffe47d7e85ec34
'2011-12-12T23:05:29-05:00'
describe
'188046' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVM' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
48cac1776874a51b0ea5fada610add72
6142717e5d087141496074e5070f9837347c4f32
describe
'40968' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVN' 'sip-files00029.pro'
12c3399999fa14c5144431e652c36e73
1bd18e8cde7870f430ed53467dcd95a914f06cd3
'2011-12-12T23:04:48-05:00'
describe
'71581' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVO' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
9e9d0ed5621650ae83b0df003b8d723b
836574debc4f755cf1ecc373e3026ebc1f25b242
'2011-12-12T23:04:59-05:00'
describe
'2963852' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVP' 'sip-files00029.tif'
e1ed9e066e732964a16da8a4d5ef70b9
22a5e8eba1239b23a279e81c75ac4bdf6724417c
describe
'1672' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVQ' 'sip-files00029.txt'
368c2d91baaa8100606f65e2ccc8f9d9
539a2b305df631ee4e088693e307fbde0e05155a
'2011-12-12T23:08:07-05:00'
describe
'32243' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVR' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
aeb973e7bde293cb47cc1ec2ca243279
0e3c414a98bb123889ee5f04dd454c76e514aa0c
'2011-12-12T23:08:05-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVS' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
15ff199fdc7cf33a40a583cbf89bc608
ac122d8018a4251a210681fb69d3c8c1cd1a8d55
'2011-12-12T23:08:57-05:00'
describe
'165456' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVT' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
d15702489c5372a6f2c7a03b4bcb9c7e
09c098ffdf367e64b7f8e0c5c2a9f852a6ec55a2
'2011-12-12T23:09:09-05:00'
describe
'23335' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVU' 'sip-files00030.pro'
4563bdce1649ea27783d7b9ac33f1d6b
02ef3453e07243a7f8186e952403c660a35f8ef4
describe
'62922' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVV' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
98fa27321e61fc907d9072d1e034ed61
ac60f75a0694a6b0cbe424c05141092e51a92311
'2011-12-12T23:08:52-05:00'
describe
'2963436' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVW' 'sip-files00030.tif'
3cb76ce2317faf2b2d97642935d05624
7d285294fe715c36f79e3a04579d6d2921b5df14
describe
'1296' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVX' 'sip-files00030.txt'
87c92d1896faca1de00f835a90143610
358f2df254885f5003c8e66e87b381739cf1266a
describe
'30742' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVY' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
ca6a1887ba588fb71eca29927ea67cab
e7f812217efc251576eb3b210a9cd5f2bf5f42ce
'2011-12-12T23:09:14-05:00'
describe
'367823' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATVZ' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
13892c42775372b4ba1dfcd86ccc82d6
2982dae813e4b62c7bcb07f043aaa249e2e2bc60
'2011-12-12T23:09:34-05:00'
describe
'182072' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWA' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
0888a8efb6df74089290ddd2ee6ff925
b6f975b965f47d5cc3dbdc5f6a4091ae9bc4867f
'2011-12-12T23:08:51-05:00'
describe
'41995' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWB' 'sip-files00031.pro'
35cdebd0d29162dde0b40bd902b2902c
8301a2410f8a67bdbaaf98606018c325bdb528e0
'2011-12-12T23:07:00-05:00'
describe
'69854' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWC' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
cc7b8f6e0180b1beb9f54aaf9c150a20
421a1b4d70a12b5194fcb8b7f274366c68d8755e
'2011-12-12T23:07:41-05:00'
describe
'2963768' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWD' 'sip-files00031.tif'
ccd59a123db845c75abc144a8f1ede18
b65cc6701abc131d6b90d44737760adde5c7d43c
'2011-12-12T23:07:56-05:00'
describe
'1700' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWE' 'sip-files00031.txt'
4b034b1aa8c2646ebb4891d698808e8a
dc2c36b80844db93dbf0385f3837fe94b7545aec
'2011-12-12T23:08:48-05:00'
describe
'31595' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWF' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
d29fe8fbbde4823a6f69af20a9ade88f
6b50cbcdfe70b42c8b35630686f902ccd89b11f2
describe
'354767' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWG' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
c04ef94d91190540e1aa0e3996bffd88
49830b5979c48a1210b8581688d449476af80b13
'2011-12-12T23:06:51-05:00'
describe
'111631' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWH' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
b2a08ae4650b02c34415a7c5d2a5c6d3
c87d7c8df5e7fe731230eb128642c8bc1d4e6508
describe
'14267' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWI' 'sip-files00032.pro'
1190dc345d6671271d1f78f359925462
b7a091e7323745154c0d8863807d012b399840f5
'2011-12-12T23:08:34-05:00'
describe
'44200' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWJ' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
1ad922a9103b717ca02da657bdaa6d1f
952f648c3761b56603c7f29bb1148f6a903f4159
'2011-12-12T23:05:43-05:00'
describe
'2857980' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWK' 'sip-files00032.tif'
4e6ceafda45a49ae06062c8bf2425549
48d6cda216b4dbeb5d27aa972097a06a9d158648
describe
'636' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWL' 'sip-files00032.txt'
12da5e97ccd89f73d43d750f542e1b86
a6a95f66fba523afc12e85d4c71b277e2e7684a8
'2011-12-12T23:08:13-05:00'
describe
'26536' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWM' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
6f233f5dafbce88e3123624d7a260499
d7bc27069953e56bef1a87793a7fde34ba10b96b
'2011-12-12T23:08:49-05:00'
describe
'367721' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWN' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
2b1e5e94219f2d477e81706800018e8c
fb6d4c383d2536d84c5a7d3177c9ae15ae45d475
'2011-12-12T23:04:54-05:00'
describe
'200018' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWO' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
437b826f5b6664dfde77614874d98709
93fa27f38e6cb48ff5d95fc6493a66b343cea7ae
'2011-12-12T23:10:20-05:00'
describe
'12578' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWP' 'sip-files00033.pro'
605d5c88aa3ecf9c9515891478d8b5c0
f60e392d4dcc1ea07190b543dfe24555cee7b5bf
'2011-12-12T23:05:13-05:00'
describe
'64203' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWQ' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
8ed99442ce0549ee8cc81f10e358e838
b7549543cfff60bd9383edcff27a2a93c0e925c2
'2011-12-12T23:05:14-05:00'
describe
'2963612' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWR' 'sip-files00033.tif'
ab83e5d70e4b45ab91b34397c7916e79
8158243161b38c804f8502545b379664ef66bf86
'2011-12-12T23:05:24-05:00'
describe
'610' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWS' 'sip-files00033.txt'
2d2be22a6308a4e850fe1c2a01aeec46
a528f0f5aa4cdaf655d6a19a83101ea70c77577e
describe
'30845' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWT' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
7f5d60ae6435b4f7239c58fab0fb10be
22d6639c16e27319b7fa894b2715534cf7b0a9a4
describe
'354706' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWU' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
2ac387636dcc75a40cd565363be5f885
06e09d2113c448bf200811da714ded687fed8431
describe
'182637' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWV' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
839f43eb2435d2434ff984f1ef216f5f
94e998b2e95a48a97de712520326c3cbb0712269
'2011-12-12T23:06:06-05:00'
describe
'43540' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWW' 'sip-files00034.pro'
1a26dd41a7de9cda31d13c324ffebe29
95810954f4b4e6db613efe3c0ccadc28af935ef1
'2011-12-12T23:05:01-05:00'
describe
'70070' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWX' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
e0ce3f9c282d1c0603873e767827cab9
44a9fa3e90b47e225538b621b0d265c8c42235c7
'2011-12-12T23:04:52-05:00'
describe
'2859288' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWY' 'sip-files00034.tif'
87657ceb875d8285254db5e5f09554ec
7e7635486647fa70d942b4de1f34a676081d77a7
'2011-12-12T23:05:49-05:00'
describe
'1718' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATWZ' 'sip-files00034.txt'
033ab686e091ebd4e7c32fda61b0b725
dd134dd78587764e6a7e972faad9e2024b086a4d
describe
'32127' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXA' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
c29de56885fe4aeb3271fa97d6fcadf0
bef434a59d5782d456d53e73d0c26c20cbbd63c6
'2011-12-12T23:06:54-05:00'
describe
'361272' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXB' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
56c66c577a198c9442c7e0d27a8029ed
2f331b0d225f47d8ec5e4e801904de5a642eb044
'2011-12-12T23:09:41-05:00'
describe
'172823' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXC' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
d505dc0545b6f6aa698f761de37bff0a
f12f5260d0856c4453356b7f8f3f2b1ebdc7444a
describe
'22993' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXD' 'sip-files00035.pro'
dac8ef13cbceabf6a42659d69de2e459
3d11064ec4e4aa29a1cb6dc0594ed512b1379a54
'2011-12-12T23:08:30-05:00'
describe
'62186' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXE' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
86fd6d06c6a3e6e1b95d0bf697851b9c
f7c43d190e8bbbf78711e80b1aad007adfaafd81
'2011-12-12T23:04:43-05:00'
describe
'2911580' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXF' 'sip-files00035.tif'
bded454de2ca1928c0386cd5707468e8
65bbe96a5d44e8ddc47d77df06a4add4995d3cf4
'2011-12-12T23:05:59-05:00'
describe
'964' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXG' 'sip-files00035.txt'
1bdbcd99fc8552a409dbc3a9a3a13c06
e293b433c2364256a9dea55c40a39e209385dfa0
'2011-12-12T23:06:07-05:00'
describe
'31384' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXH' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
a80e34b466c8e166ab1b26d9e92a53a4
7ef909b9c22874295f57613f8e40e335f47450bc
'2011-12-12T23:06:26-05:00'
describe
'361308' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXI' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
23ecab01b522b4c58a4211359fe0e76a
a7deaf4ba2cd65fa14aca7238d5f8102a5369370
'2011-12-12T23:10:33-05:00'
describe
'180264' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXJ' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
202b6d467f52f49ab76a1c70fe3df6b8
a0d1814c6d612d32e5f2fe8e40d968a9a63f5425
describe
'41990' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXK' 'sip-files00036.pro'
4afe711395bcd8819bf2d915e3138065
00a8ccfd6a4272b93ac56ef142e549bed96c5643
describe
'70269' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXL' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
33d2b79a7bf0814f7297482b4440f282
083dd5686248c2e9d46d8dcb23beefd791c34820
describe
'2911624' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXM' 'sip-files00036.tif'
1aedab11ff6935143fb60ed67c25e414
4b8ebc4862331bdf25c38a12439c87367df7bc13
'2011-12-12T23:10:16-05:00'
describe
'1646' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXN' 'sip-files00036.txt'
0f46a287cbd2d47a713a9c4689597054
9d5122a6764bf48ea25af45b268209d526af8263
describe
'370630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXO' 'sip-files00036a.jp2'
b02c2c711ea9a02da12768fd2f7e6293
be99078b1e3f3326524e3082b6e440e5dfe9fe0e
'2011-12-12T23:09:54-05:00'
describe
'165064' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXP' 'sip-files00036a.jpg'
c7bc385cea8f4588420d11688b042730
d8fa768af66a73900e990ba0c8cdf61dc2a24d23
'2011-12-12T23:04:53-05:00'
describe
'23151' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXQ' 'sip-files00036a.pro'
7a5319b717595aa4908d2b84d24f4107
55549cf659b2bcbbe1ae583f7ef00d631cbe1eb0
describe
'61115' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXR' 'sip-files00036a.QC.jpg'
6cba9744ad2c6a89196e5583d754aaa3
cf8ee9726aed955cdf49b4560a6717b166dcb274
'2011-12-12T23:06:39-05:00'
describe
'2986568' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXS' 'sip-files00036a.tif'
bc7346853b1fdcde18fa1edc8df8c639
3fbbab84e3fdaf84ec0592a2e9bde249f3fff28c
'2011-12-12T23:04:38-05:00'
describe
'1064' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXT' 'sip-files00036a.txt'
93b94fc60b8c2d93f05144840c3db280
bd413c64724c51ddd3b651650687b8c0bf7649f4
'2011-12-12T23:09:26-05:00'
describe
'30556' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXU' 'sip-files00036athm.jpg'
cf19a77f890d12f42660a844ba000dde
662aa53ae6f1aaeec9f9449a53d7303a27e03430
describe
'32265' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXV' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
5dcd22beaa1e2309174458a23ba1077c
fc51dfb8aec4f1f3df43835dc729b2bed203bacd
'2011-12-12T23:04:45-05:00'
describe
'361289' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXW' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
9ae8c692d1e2afd25c2ae539513625a7
250d433c594f7c1740f1a5408a8980dee822ec09
describe
'183504' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXX' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
c9c6291c574f15663905cb329f29ee06
1a60b526c0b5eb4b6cb4845592c32549fb0720ea
describe
'43330' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXY' 'sip-files00037.pro'
076272a911ed323f46e723b5d98bed5f
91398fb858366587a28b459bbfd07137d1874a2e
describe
'71244' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATXZ' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
ed248ee5698685eeda786ec13edf2785
33750a8e058d9be54c7e0b984941f4d56ffae75c
'2011-12-12T23:05:56-05:00'
describe
'2911668' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYA' 'sip-files00037.tif'
8c0a99e5b4d39abdd06ed6d72b24de3f
45a288b03d15f03ce3f083d5b0795ba9a25c230e
describe
'1715' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYB' 'sip-files00037.txt'
c41e7cf457ae8fb1b797ca584df68ae1
c7df5214dc346c0d233c589c9d018a706a5d4d02
'2011-12-12T23:07:58-05:00'
describe
'32423' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYC' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
72cc69cfd2fbe26add0ff238f1387bff
ebb899abf71d87256e3812a2015aed993a4beb6b
describe
'361302' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYD' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
aadf50402f7ac520d13a1cc2066f461c
4f78c6e840ee9b2b9851c977648cb8824ad14e8d
describe
'206997' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYE' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
73a865d9096630ba07124f37d399a28f
b6d54a0739c272a027ba8dd4bae1c856fbfaf1fe
'2011-12-12T23:08:47-05:00'
describe
'14902' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYF' 'sip-files00038.pro'
d3d9536c23678696225e74d558087ab0
a6897a45bbc3987b8368a29a2ef3c32b583f6e54
describe
'66547' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYG' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
2b9adb2a3ff2928488f94e63ae6ae37d
a6997b2de04365236e4560e882bf68b7e984cd4e
'2011-12-12T23:08:27-05:00'
describe
'2911968' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYH' 'sip-files00038.tif'
e362e7bbaf90f8303fd205b3842f42a5
48e0cdfbd03f69253f024376432034a341b12112
describe
'662' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYI' 'sip-files00038.txt'
dd865553c3c14bf588eeb19f384cfe0c
12055e0803964cd5d0868a38bddfe43f53f2dc01
describe
'32226' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYJ' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
f12bafaabc27ab7a65f205bfbee027c6
4c4f339a9f39964b7740c67780a642ed6a8ee09e
'2011-12-12T23:10:26-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYK' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
776fbe6e88cb7fa5077ab8031480972a
083e98858f9b4186a4830126a09b80ae82864ba0
describe
'181856' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYL' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
535b80d1f60f2c2319515b9658eaf9a2
4951a44af2c47221d8e05b7f4034b1a768b797a3
'2011-12-12T23:07:12-05:00'
describe
'41894' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYM' 'sip-files00039.pro'
14c8dae980cc6731a75e1552a0d628a3
68861bb7c0d7a46138a355d73084e4ba540b535c
'2011-12-12T23:06:59-05:00'
describe
'69554' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYN' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
1fcfb02bc386beab4541295b2f2060c4
b0e6cbff4e526ac2cedc49664f7e2988409017d1
describe
'2911476' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYO' 'sip-files00039.tif'
24f3a2f5a21ff946bf9f2e681df878e8
5d3f7a80c995d07e481e5876285d08d84142ade4
'2011-12-12T23:07:50-05:00'
describe
'1647' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYP' 'sip-files00039.txt'
3ba0a9b5a3fc3d987265fa50ef0e7394
649d4d727c16acd43bf4d9b84e3996f5e58027da
describe
'31852' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYQ' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
3f278a7bab43616abfd1491960e960f6
f118c2d6fded2bbcdab603811cfc09adfe857a55
'2011-12-12T23:05:17-05:00'
describe
'361143' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYR' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
0478a12f0fec649d697677278b2f19e4
d2d45927ea52e7625388bcd7e19555c18ab5714c
'2011-12-12T23:07:18-05:00'
describe
'206502' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYS' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
39a86b16749ba17551370eccb39323cc
3f6c32047903fb0b7b7c7ec5930c0ad3375dc55d
describe
'16891' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYT' 'sip-files00040.pro'
a4e19ea30c8b19c5e0e5bb05c4a0dc45
9701295e5e0441775d11754dfcc0f30f52f08aa3
describe
'66271' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYU' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
59f1d82a1cb6badb17e3eb82738ecc0f
a28f7e87591a6c43787597cc02374b3380bb677d
describe
'2911740' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYV' 'sip-files00040.tif'
5df64fbd39aff9a6755cdb7b16cde089
c1561500bdbfb2b88051069b1a6e2b926a5d613c
describe
'752' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYW' 'sip-files00040.txt'
2f8c253ae0ee149103498b5c151bbc10
05d0fd9c670c8ec0c4d43aa881a0f7bd8641b31f
describe
'31857' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYX' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
b3781d58583fb954316016aec7f06669
b2b3ea251c65fe21ea912c0667ddead0d8646ba1
'2011-12-12T23:10:00-05:00'
describe
'361260' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYY' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
9d11abfae69800703840534fd36ad2d4
5a7ba53eccac17bbc54c35a011cdc51b14d489d5
'2011-12-12T23:09:45-05:00'
describe
'199656' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATYZ' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
1a71c9a10adbccf6030aaa47041a3bf9
0cb18548fb35977a542b1092d3b26af667503682
describe
'17822' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZA' 'sip-files00041.pro'
b7bf4712f4cbf4d9a2f634292549ee50
df60701fa857f3efe9e3a8c7bba6576b0fc3d5f6
'2011-12-12T23:06:47-05:00'
describe
'68245' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZB' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
ac36bc524efc79a998c107b730bdbe6d
eed544b08af95b3ad4afd92e73ed705c6f178348
describe
'2912164' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZC' 'sip-files00041.tif'
4abb1451ef47f44499cdbc4998889421
c90203bdc183edb0a8c9771d05e993c97484881e
describe
'742' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZD' 'sip-files00041.txt'
cfb237f2403620ee342da59246ffa15a
16894d33a070777d07f7e97abc2a7a960eeb2e8c
'2011-12-12T23:09:29-05:00'
describe
'33009' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZE' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
5548267860b92a7bd618f427856cfd47
31c26c28c0cc1f70cb598fe97fd8605f4b05bfe3
'2011-12-12T23:06:12-05:00'
describe
'361283' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZF' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
6ec899975326ebc7017416a89f294420
1572dd3fa7c0cf38becae1b9fb49d29410295896
'2011-12-12T23:04:44-05:00'
describe
'178595' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZG' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
857072e305affaaa9076267253c0dc42
00de009b27b6de6a9480408c42ba5239a0132b62
describe
'41115' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZH' 'sip-files00042.pro'
9d17e4970382ae8c3ca3515eafaf2604
a993e47be2f95a5c41d9de946a7fdda36428c413
'2011-12-12T23:09:16-05:00'
describe
'68889' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZI' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
9130b65aad4d09fb83dceea6b90f2dd7
dfb15a6c1d66e7bd1a210fe54725f0a73055f2ea
'2011-12-12T23:05:46-05:00'
describe
'2911520' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZJ' 'sip-files00042.tif'
26e4acec9bd15c79e6932789df9908c7
55e50d1e9f09f21e83c1ae6946a90cb881e81b37
describe
'1649' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZK' 'sip-files00042.txt'
de8c9ea1d10dbbd3d8fb62353dbc4dc1
dfb3c1bdb49f64178660a0fa0fd227528ef30521
describe
'31996' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZL' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
090cd18430db334e7be04e1fbbb502cf
c934bfaae7d172a63448a894012ff6f07f8276b7
describe
'361281' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZM' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
954b7f9f1c83dc14d6f5418cff044a90
6aea9418289882dc8dbbc46b494ff659ec0d10be
describe
'180513' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZN' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
81d60f4b813317b2b3e585317e9517a0
80db5f50f35c9b978487dfdae1129fafc8e794d8
describe
'43771' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZO' 'sip-files00043.pro'
491103af77ad1f948ad8cacc983f3f75
954c519399891872373de7832709526afdae6c96
'2011-12-12T23:07:31-05:00'
describe
'69912' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZP' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
27a6d55c6d8f7493b1f12e593c401a6f
206fa1073c47ec896939456d1bfdcd249949b080
'2011-12-12T23:04:39-05:00'
describe
'2911388' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZQ' 'sip-files00043.tif'
d778d77e4201e5b6794b8d2bc71a7adc
013a9e677101327358b1487031d0838291864e52
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZR' 'sip-files00043.txt'
b3a8fdeb7d2abfb26d1a0741172d5f3b
1918088f89c5c08edf663aae0ef33e140279f2ce
'2011-12-12T23:08:01-05:00'
describe
'31854' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZS' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
0d8d991b6808d8c8b2335729198a8e92
ced79fffeddef60a1f301de210d98e80149c3de1
describe
'361292' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZT' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
ab0de5057b281a75449eca00b58b861d
08ab4e4e65883ddf55b944008b5a4730d8d1c215
'2011-12-12T23:05:36-05:00'
describe
'144099' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZU' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
af8b8847ddb0537efa7cc0543c3777dc
62b1d3e76e41b88a93522fc60f0eb7e86a2d7b28
describe
'32094' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZV' 'sip-files00044.pro'
5070ad0ef113d843b42c8176839e425a
aca381c625c8941f5ec6f2795f50fb26860355c0
'2011-12-12T23:07:46-05:00'
describe
'56005' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZW' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
37ae802c2a930a2733544c2c186ead95
de7148618900163a6a736393d5ec26bc84cec9a6
describe
'2911092' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZX' 'sip-files00044.tif'
4d3c349b785c9781d5f6a6c88718befc
0ccb8d44e9c1445001ca75f3835111aa08a45741
describe
'1522' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZY' 'sip-files00044.txt'
4fc2ee719bdd9789c78757842b3e8ee5
c5734a84cac83853427b7737c745755532231ef0
'2011-12-12T23:09:32-05:00'
describe
'29654' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAATZZ' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
e5f77884f03e15c6e5b73b0b859d5152
80d50e22d586e8561a47311604142dcce6c0a9d5
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAA' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
92f907ad062879669fc80209df215e42
5c5d9cc672a679ffc577cd8aba8f937d85a4f79e
describe
'178340' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAB' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
e2f7289ac939195447cde77863530e90
d0d8d5fe46f4ad9260677806956ed8b024366087
'2011-12-12T23:08:45-05:00'
describe
'42436' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAC' 'sip-files00045.pro'
f713ef9cb86c002575536f0817ba4835
09996e93e1a3db8434958f3af33f67954f69c770
describe
'70042' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAD' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
3a739cc87428705fc8cd8faf809d0ca9
02634b7a5aaee8b3b0a6497810ef9680854bc4d6
'2011-12-12T23:05:51-05:00'
describe
'2911448' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAE' 'sip-files00045.tif'
693efcacc1c967c5204dc2f8740731ce
d350a8935ffd59b2f235384ef10229183927a158
describe
'1668' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAF' 'sip-files00045.txt'
385b58d9ac8b042ba71762a5a6edcea7
6afea3ac163c028b9d009ca03e53df2402cfb00f
describe
'32029' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAG' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
5ac9a6bef47096932493a7b82d81b374
b52ae146837a06a383892e153df5ad1293be7d4f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAH' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
e28354f99bcdb894d9b51944b4881330
b28a3cf812c4536ba63c6b92fa65c94c4a6b0a82
'2011-12-12T23:08:06-05:00'
describe
'179140' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAI' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
1df41b6b20e0edd2a08cfe89365c8500
274b2a7179ff59d76aca3eb7d2d57e99f2c52a46
describe
'40912' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAJ' 'sip-files00046.pro'
e2c4da02136d776cd4b881768be832dd
d36f4084ebd22b62c2f1f91fb9b90e216c17e064
describe
'70037' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAK' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
55c55f588a730ccf852ae39fe102ec96
2eb7c3ac877e9dc2f0aeaacddabfae56e8b955c9
describe
'2911700' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAL' 'sip-files00046.tif'
393e7d28beb98882971188908f5c748c
d760a18d7974f5e578bff6b30f5041461bcad359
describe
'1685' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAM' 'sip-files00046.txt'
9b4443cd95cc2a928459ada4908d0a07
3ef9266b3fc3b70b93c27b98a5a3552e1ce83d76
'2011-12-12T23:08:36-05:00'
describe
'32386' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAN' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
7f9181039b7e9e3f856dccd0101629db
0cdd86657d1d2d3e555f5dfdc8d050809765c941
describe
'360953' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAO' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
e7b0245ed202faf211fc55b454d66a3a
640a6e9344a62d0e9ddf5cf3240329e13a042b91
describe
'116947' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAP' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
f1d69f54c9ab87b59cdd4aeb9e3e12b0
d8096da6b5063745fd848b5c4eb6519d63b3f60b
'2011-12-12T23:04:40-05:00'
describe
'21980' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAQ' 'sip-files00047.pro'
21e2ee90292933b080233cb4265c2583
f20579530263c9c398e9664bb64b333d9fa8a15c
describe
'47552' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAR' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
b05a1e2fe23f6a9b083f35575da654c3
a3f63863d618b5cf6224128532f5ecc07c994c1a
'2011-12-12T23:05:05-05:00'
describe
'2909768' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAS' 'sip-files00047.tif'
e95242279d291f25d4a180f7c5e46e46
f6559ea6f41385ced1abc69bdad4ba0735c053f6
'2011-12-12T23:07:15-05:00'
describe
'871' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAT' 'sip-files00047.txt'
b2973065a2999264cc591d8b6b69f650
80cdf500c4b21b180080ee350f0fe4df3651af23
describe
'26007' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAU' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
924387f05313032f2516d5fb7a59b838
48baae7cb8eb945c2ca0e63c8ce0028da14daafa
describe
'361242' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAV' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
abcfe3c8fc15bdbe44ef87216c343bb4
710cc24f255e59f099025ac162a69c410903220b
'2011-12-12T23:10:30-05:00'
describe
'141201' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAW' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
1388aad8900af9f0ffc99e7987ac431e
0eb3aa36af0c2a367d94e2741a310cfc4c725124
'2011-12-12T23:05:41-05:00'
describe
'23651' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAX' 'sip-files00048.pro'
88e4fe49254209f8f82a908d252f000b
36cea726f403920e86bc3b9c3d116de1e7a73461
'2011-12-12T23:08:41-05:00'
describe
'55974' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAY' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
1ce650ec22d52cbdf5d0144eead65689
e85397a845e3928c01fdc878b0d1d011bbfb3414
'2011-12-12T23:08:56-05:00'
describe
'2910708' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUAZ' 'sip-files00048.tif'
d2255b8d70b821e3096ab5c6cc0c88b9
3b99a0ba609387465b35670b3b649bd9c7384472
describe
'1178' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBA' 'sip-files00048.txt'
7a3bd69e4c281a2db90c206cc01ea56b
8745325b982a8f69a65ffe7e3d7d2ff8069c63ba
'2011-12-12T23:07:11-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
'28865' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBB' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
c9a49cc7bc556a8f37883f4c01fa64e1
a8a1819dafa26484d4695c2b1dfa918411793ed2
describe
'361299' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBC' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
8fa46644f19f8a07a83347709e005148
2baafd86b7853b4e194b9d990c3798d2a19f1eef
'2011-12-12T23:06:32-05:00'
describe
'183949' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBD' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
ea5ffd66f2a4046039f2510810fae03a
2719857c10c073eb69dd269b3f6240aede4b01e9
describe
'42763' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBE' 'sip-files00049.pro'
2ad159e949af0533384fe234ced9e0ab
f6c18294c7826386b1c01ba80a4e85b14ea62b2b
'2011-12-12T23:09:55-05:00'
describe
'72145' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBF' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
3ae8228914d30fa737596c60b2fd8f01
e765f8a4da42119f289110a3025daba0a8818272
describe
'2911716' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBG' 'sip-files00049.tif'
5e9244adf9cf09e03a0c4fe7163df3cd
5613d06bcc327f9c048d165f5628e025aede4e09
'2011-12-12T23:05:45-05:00'
describe
'1678' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBH' 'sip-files00049.txt'
90aa9ed5ed809b103897e15097956780
3cf469895c704a857f2efb89d9ce9b61b6a6ec19
'2011-12-12T23:06:38-05:00'
describe
'32879' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBI' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
c4b1e15ada250c04c01249950701eedd
19f537b7e15c8b04bec33c2a2fe9b26cffbca124
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBJ' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
cdabe0e2390da0f1884c51c8415a51b8
59bb928f624beb320c12dd28470f5cb4379ac86f
'2011-12-12T23:10:31-05:00'
describe
'177157' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBK' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
6afa40cf6f6695bca972256ac1f6621e
1ffe36fc8817014b200a5e36266a8e7dbcef3e50
'2011-12-12T23:08:19-05:00'
describe
'40580' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBL' 'sip-files00050.pro'
5860f90d0513c2fcce857713cd91c064
bcb83ec444d9cb7c48c3fcc235affc56fbb9b54b
describe
'68560' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBM' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
1e3d1346674a99b4441f723595857d27
eb9a05a56eeb78b66fe33eae06f879305adbd9b2
'2011-12-12T23:07:35-05:00'
describe
'2911536' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBN' 'sip-files00050.tif'
171a0c012bc6f0300aa1872679c9659e
59b9f137d0c6fe3cb7a6d47c04022e2df49e8adc
describe
'1628' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBO' 'sip-files00050.txt'
dd6cd89f83d24af753eba39dedb994b2
8b22f20d59afdf0cad079d23123b94b07ab0b729
describe
'32119' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBP' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
7a2e31629e6ef3a91b49d2ffa6944b05
c0f9c9939203216c80b25b142fb63a18068719c9
'2011-12-12T23:08:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBQ' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
69e1c6a2e27bd509e867e06117dbbd86
8834c262ed4be24c2bdb2f52de072d88afdd40e0
'2011-12-12T23:09:13-05:00'
describe
'185048' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBR' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
5752a716861143b2851cec7730005c78
4a562d3bd497944b442d7df871687eaad43ba4f3
describe
'36084' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBS' 'sip-files00051.pro'
d86093c757a8e7734aaa85c52fa263f0
ee3ce75f70b442e280965476a0203fa8e345cae5
describe
'69458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBT' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
fb257701a08b9cb269d60e4b61f35453
3d4c0c7fc296cc05109471904fff4fc083508951
describe
'2912096' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBU' 'sip-files00051.tif'
a6285d22330532d0034a1ccffdff90b7
9fbcec5c1954f2ee013a18e4647b71219e4d99dd
'2011-12-12T23:06:40-05:00'
describe
'1778' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBV' 'sip-files00051.txt'
250ee815ed9c4c87ca012f0652e01b0e
2cb5c97f9ae166d17db531314778572c2ec518bf
'2011-12-12T23:07:01-05:00'
describe
'32837' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBW' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
e8a92025d3b0490b3909ee49dc6461aa
73625b8730b80d0c90221055323ae08d25fef5ce
describe
'361278' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBX' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
f73a65380a5aaa9fbe538f77b47c19c8
d1ec27c442b72e173d32615054f060e40892a5d5
'2011-12-12T23:10:14-05:00'
describe
'166972' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBY' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
9c40adb39ad49a12c7a89fccbe03d85a
e540f5f62f7788d1fe18745b98de5a6c3db15968
describe
'26247' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUBZ' 'sip-files00052.pro'
ca98a0ab89edb0a95c8790f8546acf21
a1d3ccaf317f7c0c4ec8d92c3866ea986b83c237
'2011-12-12T23:05:06-05:00'
describe
'60338' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCA' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
93b620066fc83716e0c2992ab4b2f790
f1b4b2652d9f41718cc85aa5f45dd43232badde7
'2011-12-12T23:05:31-05:00'
describe
'2911272' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCB' 'sip-files00052.tif'
f7c333631e58f20c617ad8e9732ecf27
13e355efb9252430a246d5e6f98c4ced4b781597
describe
'1124' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCC' 'sip-files00052.txt'
f662a9ebddf7c4cb227c0ed8109d8493
1a516941cd2eef8611349cf49f64b07330bcbeb5
'2011-12-12T23:10:12-05:00'
describe
'30192' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCD' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
4b943a0f8f52628791fb1472014ff427
2e06770718ffa96bd0cc4a8dbac539575950030d
describe
'361269' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCE' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
96ced08e0a3cb2fe85785a10c5f9eeab
11ad41f82f3439c920df3eee8383763b774e6d59
'2011-12-12T23:08:17-05:00'
describe
'183094' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCF' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
2e633a8099cec5a3aaaca91cebc1d888
1e3569e43e7e3cfe026a01c43cb07e5db901c0cf
describe
'43409' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCG' 'sip-files00053.pro'
d8bdeb29bd3fa0b8ebdb1344da863dd3
a0fcf302a7a68e5afcb596164b7147a1cfc219ed
describe
'71981' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCH' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
d956b2da7d3f1f482883108de8078549
7a0d4fd194271b57a9622dcd553ddae61a4ce032
'2011-12-12T23:06:48-05:00'
describe
'2911892' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCI' 'sip-files00053.tif'
abf7365de25ea131f1f2c887218cee25
7461b430ecb9144996280f61169375a8ca1edf32
describe
'1701' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCJ' 'sip-files00053.txt'
702398328af39c268c385e9920e00f06
031288b4b83c4248b3b452a2b75e5340113bfa89
'2011-12-12T23:07:26-05:00'
describe
'32997' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCK' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
951ba6a69dc9867866596aaf33c928d0
c6dc2d30e350668f9592bfb653b99513b02edb7d
describe
'361193' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCL' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
c00a3f3b6fe5ee580e2c0fa79727271e
513b10fe8aff790988c48266378f3ede306cbe06
'2011-12-12T23:09:53-05:00'
describe
'147332' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCM' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
e85476a4e3b9f5e5758b1750194fe1c4
64b1240d94edabe6a580817fa2e6f91b5f13f5cd
'2011-12-12T23:08:53-05:00'
describe
'27822' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCN' 'sip-files00054.pro'
895c4d3c563d728f8fbe09eed27865c8
9b681737b9a440849d0ab5b1346080da5749dc07
describe
'59407' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCO' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
2b41e1fe7831ae8842a25fe9d8e10c64
4118f94cd0b939ed54978f7b1597a26624ee4708
describe
'2911080' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCP' 'sip-files00054.tif'
8211f5a06beb95211c2f25314ebae5f0
381cbb91d2e05f7caee23f55c55286f4a3e8980e
'2011-12-12T23:10:22-05:00'
describe
'1239' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCQ' 'sip-files00054.txt'
2caaf21db231e44cc9f04f3aad5f9d51
f29df337381ceee10cb5ad05a9c727c45b8c79d4
'2011-12-12T23:07:38-05:00'
describe
'30149' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCR' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
712931bf5aacc66d0be755c090d7e5e3
b14581adda537ec44e0454299fe5ea51d663d27c
'2011-12-12T23:10:35-05:00'
describe
'361279' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCS' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
8fd8d7007b42ce1979627bfaa8601f2b
8d6c05d90ebef7808d53c5f39937c085dcdd537f
describe
'182620' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCT' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
8ef2824907409cdd6a1e9b844f0f747c
d34966f8a9a86e55664b8e1464135eb5aa9793d7
'2011-12-12T23:05:15-05:00'
describe
'43775' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCU' 'sip-files00055.pro'
0583f703687b99db134b269968099fe7
515927487d76208f0eaf312d5fc07b98f6eacefc
'2011-12-12T23:04:55-05:00'
describe
'71087' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCV' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
a49001ab3afff1817c95d9ca35b62f47
4fc175a5fabb12ee4d423bef325bb015ebb0e23a
describe
'2911556' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCW' 'sip-files00055.tif'
4aeb2a855b0e4c21b54bf6a2f81affad
ba57224ec6ebeb56d02c270a1ccb864850975544
'2011-12-12T23:07:42-05:00'
describe
'1749' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCX' 'sip-files00055.txt'
b7ed3b4ed5b366286703fa1625897d1d
250e712d106c4adc4e30451ef215e079a043d7c4
describe
'32297' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCY' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
d320aded6af60a2b9384256d03f617fd
a94919024697dd8d5f25c811176f0791baf1568b
describe
'361131' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUCZ' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
1e46b6acf51faca569373193595ed0fa
61403a9176d8a599e72315d7322e322bb35b5ae3
describe
'141340' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDA' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
190f8e370f54ddcae495a8b3e422ac5e
07af2b93078b7a0f72d02c0d28fce069844dfde0
describe
'28987' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDB' 'sip-files00056.pro'
92bc90e05a9693bd58613c5b6e6198aa
36525cc7da72e331cb95214fbdf58c39c700f0be
describe
'56294' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDC' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
5fd6ab9a3fe3cc3c186ff5f64d06cd17
e6a753457b2a3cd89e1d27491d8df6f7bda06512
describe
'2910660' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDD' 'sip-files00056.tif'
a95b8f104da3473b5e9edf721e5e9a80
dc30d1856626db8ed833f2b83f9725c02eb09fb7
describe
'1368' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDE' 'sip-files00056.txt'
0675df6ccb9f291f29e8abc0ef5f3f9a
237cd962f3774fec89cb13d4f63b4c4b65274330
describe
'28943' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDF' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
29eddc405e4dc944c29281a92a33b0fc
f97d4ef9a8fb9c269f4080b3d4b0eea50d44b0fb
'2011-12-12T23:09:31-05:00'
describe
'361254' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDG' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
8a4686bfa4384fa6dce51e4c44743dea
fb48d203cc8ea680366e5126717890da6a3e684d
'2011-12-12T23:07:32-05:00'
describe
'168323' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDH' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
8bd847e0d9fa7b0eeb79c5818b25be36
ef70f0b097d30d8b3034c1bbc750b933c9ae1d66
'2011-12-12T23:06:27-05:00'
describe
'35672' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDI' 'sip-files00057.pro'
e6e2096412618d63c5bfc0cd7868ca66
2caf9f5fcd8aab4fd6b7a5f6e067c29f9a4a551e
'2011-12-12T23:08:59-05:00'
describe
'64613' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDJ' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
49e2bcdf0b4230654e97ab590a7441ce
a0c26caff06d3a3af29370d609e59be83680ef4c
'2011-12-12T23:05:00-05:00'
describe
'2911496' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDK' 'sip-files00057.tif'
c9ea0eeb00422dd8fd75dfa6b3385983
a15b01122b3aa686bd0e9d23ff10bf45da8ca97f
describe
'1699' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDL' 'sip-files00057.txt'
5467d20f845ca33eee073d429c27175f
cd6ea26ffc02e0cabd97d5364612192b6636c7e6
describe
'31392' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDM' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
211daf043c674b3096dcb0fe31b6c900
5adcd9963afb422b64f7422b72057c14ca9f2fb9
describe
'361309' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDN' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
8658a5020a0370599dfcd5b3c6a72c5c
6f6e95642a9ffdb3b74055a1761849fa4ddaeee3
'2011-12-12T23:08:08-05:00'
describe
'178896' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDO' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
0f1ef50c4a78abf215a247d4a79243e4
d49c8c8e42c96339d87df2479c316db2dda1b0a3
'2011-12-12T23:09:43-05:00'
describe
'29377' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDP' 'sip-files00058.pro'
5e56cc5217daedacfe67625d1c58799f
ac8e4b8db2608552c719d8a1cf6bc8184be2acc3
'2011-12-12T23:08:46-05:00'
describe
'62568' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDQ' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
dd2067461748dbf69b4dc21fac2d4a13
cdf275ebfa5964da73b42fbb24e3072cf7d49156
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDR' 'sip-files00058.tif'
1226ff6f663e5d3822b8566793bb318f
d76346cce18264ba98e3120a27a3f371b4fcecea
describe
'1260' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDS' 'sip-files00058.txt'
aca8aca038d530fcc4d55b0aece91eb1
56f9f121a55352dd7194b144b988a838b8ec2033
describe
'30365' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDT' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
f5b49ff2f6719c55dc67596d2f7ef680
c0a9866cdca79cdc694cb27fa8e8d186b437aba3
describe
'361239' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDU' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
4e6e2bd760ac88e1ec0f6cebc7614691
25e0b7add85632043475dfbcfd1a39a6a786910a
describe
'178288' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDV' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
818e11e738b724a85611aa9d40d7bea3
4175a9bde1a5c127cc992bbcac7ae0ade09aea61
describe
'42540' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDW' 'sip-files00059.pro'
b718b4fc6c8a2c8393e45adb7794c632
33b3bc267cdc523903a44f80da0076f46ae7b4ba
'2011-12-12T23:10:38-05:00'
describe
'69959' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDX' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
96b793c4e7c8b30eda206eb33212d5a8
e9d3a7a21de540fe915d0bc5f51bdfcafc26db4c
describe
'2911784' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDY' 'sip-files00059.tif'
f62bae37d802e9f2a6aeef8ed80ceea1
0c1a85dce6dcac821e23cb4538b4f43baef34e89
'2011-12-12T23:08:28-05:00'
describe
'1679' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUDZ' 'sip-files00059.txt'
97a69fd8771d6410ce14ad131fe8a83c
c56979e1b85752d1dcf7890db9140448e8930589
describe
'32294' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEA' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
d52752bc1f7bf38816fa45ecd2546aac
e7fcece0eee07edf1defaddd3d2f442b0b3c9685
'2011-12-12T23:05:20-05:00'
describe
'361206' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEB' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
ad9d5a186c5886c7c38fd1875f36e735
437f5f8cadc859dbb0ea8681ae918237724dd95e
describe
'181936' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEC' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
c7f5dd70175850929c70728bf6bb18f1
507f5f9b8bff709556cce52e01b43d0af338b551
describe
'31817' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUED' 'sip-files00060.pro'
009a47e776d25da3b82aaa11aa5a61a0
629b0d524ba0457b7e8afa80d24b0192d2114457
describe
'67402' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEE' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
3ea43768eff651e14bd76679e3b4f893
8d102dcebd581d762bdaea7a9a9c1be6302c9e10
describe
'2911792' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEF' 'sip-files00060.tif'
b007ca7e70d3c3361d97ecf688ab2322
2131c149d66a529130a2a8aa768068f1cfd6ce25
describe
'1330' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEG' 'sip-files00060.txt'
99b504fd43036e04a1551c46a4d01fe4
482796bdb56d94ca6885f2d56e233a5b76928e5c
'2011-12-12T23:10:37-05:00'
describe
'32361' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEH' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
69fb9ac91bb78a558ac7a0f8053d20ba
c0158fe758d896855814360c4c82752254450f9f
'2011-12-12T23:07:43-05:00'
describe
'361267' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEI' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
6926c2f42867028aadb37a437af3d1d9
ce977c1e3d1bc6eb58c59c75aa748df54859a08c
describe
'180833' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEJ' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
100c54b7f7f08ca47c1e3727047fac48
9cbed7a59d819e9d8a95be8a485f61a3f463fd0d
describe
'43323' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEK' 'sip-files00061.pro'
b82d5d80e1f2a158ae7c57f9fdd732d4
2722acd947e0fe9ba8320b289570794580d8a47e
'2011-12-12T23:08:20-05:00'
describe
'69758' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEL' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
0c9e2ca449924e99c9a09ca32155ab1f
6b60fd7cd9ac448ac6ae080790448c8fe8a55359
'2011-12-12T23:07:53-05:00'
describe
'2911592' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEM' 'sip-files00061.tif'
76d843a4e413485ff099888243dd32a8
1fa3dcbddfa82adbc567deb897da29a814251bcf
describe
'1728' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEN' 'sip-files00061.txt'
300d429c01369ca69662c0d99b49275c
9a2fba30b17afc74b775311db4af94e6c7ae3742
'2011-12-12T23:09:20-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEO' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
eef5a23a660ea2401e67db7a7e792670
6b44aaf8c334b4308fc37420663d13956662ce56
'2011-12-12T23:09:46-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEP' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
fa496e2b16d6d78e5a2b029e71c3cccf
aef2cb4a82aee69ba1def4286ced516ae2a6aa32
describe
'162439' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEQ' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
ba698d501308ca05b5d558f6649506b9
8fa5034d35b0c1b47a0aea8eaa49e34697250d1f
describe
'33990' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUER' 'sip-files00062.pro'
d2922e6f4c20420057b320a119ac14d9
fda485b9df25b5ae5154421fd8c0fcda698075df
'2011-12-12T23:07:59-05:00'
describe
'64026' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUES' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
ea4d36853555b39c1653ec8a98186b98
6b83060933c3d7f4ca2fc38a0fbfb0a4c940de9a
'2011-12-12T23:07:34-05:00'
describe
'2911540' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUET' 'sip-files00062.tif'
595ac5c1f5f116678def4dc24a01d08f
a6fc66c23d33351d796eb78480ffdfd4825b366e
describe
'1391' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEU' 'sip-files00062.txt'
c2c68a29e43eec1ac4faf05e3992ab98
5f22c6730367a8ab8a47938896d7cbb2c9e72f7c
describe
'31339' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEV' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
0aa183e5e346919eb8524f8c05244335
f74035be94b2cfd558b920523ebcb5d8b90364cd
describe
'367760' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEW' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
ee0c8d56c375a80860fbf0ff73fbd3ea
cdd1481c91a4209a6fe90c2c4d6f320334d07c36
describe
'181698' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEX' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
7eac55522919b09e3d2e099fa68df6a9
717c66fc430ff2eefc8fd0a0f988dd4a3372a41f
'2011-12-12T23:08:22-05:00'
describe
'41632' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEY' 'sip-files00063.pro'
3e09c68178fae3a76fc4e2c7bc8152a3
3cdf08d64c121610e8a3be2715d36ac09b2eab4a
describe
'70677' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUEZ' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
4047ce6b75c5c257170db97991743b4f
77cb169b6254e3b1cb1e16008e2271e978b873dc
describe
'2964044' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFA' 'sip-files00063.tif'
0d94a717f7b0c6b55d2cfb11d02e3715
fe0a300ef02aa676b1f344950f048528353fa429
describe
'1656' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFB' 'sip-files00063.txt'
df38fe6ef60c7704876a6e7e245f0adc
f7f094f0eaf36d6bb7916f453c0dc19cb39e4e08
describe
'32310' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFC' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
f4ef84f775034a3654750365f5662cb8
f862ea1deda45b78b6417e08063212d368f7c62e
describe
'361290' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFD' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
ef9925f76899d4c4eb4a1b99f880efc1
cfe5bb74d32935a19a0b8a6e27cf718aabfe87d9
describe
'181317' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFE' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
7e2b43c899b4b8d4f2486d0c39c11452
9db9b2b446ef8ea4ffbcaf0d93f5fb8c8b61114c
'2011-12-12T23:10:07-05:00'
describe
'43731' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFF' 'sip-files00064.pro'
72277efa0df5669a93046282c1db0f28
50cb0773c78696bb341bf836b5d01795376d3abf
'2011-12-12T23:07:23-05:00'
describe
'70216' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFG' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
6a7805190a3ab26af2ae862efcccee26
d3b511620fa5c468bf4c9eadad027834ccb17af9
describe
'2911596' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFH' 'sip-files00064.tif'
aeb2ecb098ea98c398c00323885b3c02
176db560877bc6a8a0ec21785a6c9296908d0c6c
'2011-12-12T23:05:52-05:00'
describe
'1723' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFI' 'sip-files00064.txt'
7878d5d4f9ed64d425b6e4c982091488
16351d6c2187b10dd2723c61fb7624f388c6041d
'2011-12-12T23:06:05-05:00'
describe
'32253' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFJ' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
9cad7c52c71e47123484ef0bcc5b2977
9334446201348e3cb89cd56e9f25597255e670b4
'2011-12-12T23:07:49-05:00'
describe
'361256' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFK' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
ae1cd3616f575f4c4081c4f44f85b361
1026da180926518a7034982f75b7b8a00859d0d0
describe
'183350' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFL' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
fa12b8f0eb26e28140b3a2c4926668fd
cac76e571c6b57cf8dd8de32019149230bca0649
describe
'38314' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFM' 'sip-files00065.pro'
a1bb3caeeda2f284b8db2534f8ccb7f8
72695e65645175b9f480f5d30ec20f21b7c3651f
'2011-12-12T23:07:19-05:00'
describe
'66044' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFN' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
84b2ac67c399a58169b567dbe35df921
fa9bf2149141a51024dbe5f3cebe5b54007602c4
'2011-12-12T23:10:10-05:00'
describe
'2911424' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFO' 'sip-files00065.tif'
c858e32448336a368447eb694253c06f
cb4067a3b6497751b7a72b1a1fb5183ae7a6e852
describe
'1547' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFP' 'sip-files00065.txt'
7769dd042909c810c0e39b6e0a315f88
39dfc34f96d562f85f2ffc99beceed182aa59050
'2011-12-12T23:09:21-05:00'
describe
'31383' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFQ' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
fa22b3b46b6ac24899088e1f22f13af7
e5992b37ddd10dc8aa0d979d49e09e6455b652ba
describe
'361291' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFR' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
2d2f452f7578e4f9b8abd3dc279acc40
65337c8b0f53ba018d1b8651e9d1816424c1c944
describe
'188611' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFS' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
8f5078bb4573e14e7240a0bd561cd36e
bbe1d03fc610f58ab38916bc7bddbc604ba5dbd8
describe
'44100' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFT' 'sip-files00066.pro'
624b8a4fb0f5ac764988687a78f7ddb6
83127e4f41a7a06414c601f9af6568c83f03445f
describe
'72139' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFU' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
1660f1ffc007929c06ad4d352f191f98
b2b66f27b50b07169aef3579faac4e731717ffa4
describe
'2911840' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFV' 'sip-files00066.tif'
33f2c463fae6b7074e78a921e88d9250
83e7af65a4a4501c200299bde2fc9e59fc5490b1
'2011-12-12T23:10:05-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFW' 'sip-files00066.txt'
e306cd87e6a01b384f69eb2e2257c1e7
aaec84a5630b3ac5cd10ef454afa55806929376b
describe
'32831' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFX' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
c71f3e0682c0c88f07d6375c7131ad41
541925dafcda1beff4a07ba3dd9ad80cf632f8fc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFY' 'sip-files00067.jp2'
a9a30c884ffd7515e50b5908326c13ef
0893622c7432ff13bb158c60a242bdb42283e7b0
'2011-12-12T23:10:27-05:00'
describe
'177479' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUFZ' 'sip-files00067.jpg'
55ca9bdabb1c70111d5ac6ee7ea7bb08
b06f96631bfeae3d792a82748e3048d190c14f5f
'2011-12-12T23:07:44-05:00'
describe
'41426' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGA' 'sip-files00067.pro'
80c4b64986875ec14663b8411d929de5
d44b724259be301094cc1e88d50858481ea66411
describe
'69975' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGB' 'sip-files00067.QC.jpg'
5fe58ccafd8b2b745ce0325b29f007a8
1827ac9eb9c9f8081203b431febac94ac6411964
'2011-12-12T23:06:02-05:00'
describe
'2911560' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGC' 'sip-files00067.tif'
e1242a1a1b4c704040112113d713061f
22244f9ae75904ca1a780922fa9cc7f76c4fd19b
'2011-12-12T23:10:41-05:00'
describe
'1634' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGD' 'sip-files00067.txt'
bd70275142e236afea01e5d9a045e1dd
38b4f06143117f457928077ed8ec6218c40a539f
describe
'32076' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGE' 'sip-files00067thm.jpg'
2806f3e33bd15a5bb0cec3c4d1d28f7d
3348c8d7e3821e65ad2b60368e67d31604812fb9
describe
'361301' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGF' 'sip-files00068.jp2'
2e710a4d57b8642fbba449ca17ebc297
2d9cfa2aefeba2515902f5ad870d84a2bfe2b22a
describe
'169121' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGG' 'sip-files00068.jpg'
6934a6c20205456ae433e4b948d18995
e72d5af54cdb9f0cc9fef7176cfb72a292371001
'2011-12-12T23:06:49-05:00'
describe
'37352' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGH' 'sip-files00068.pro'
6a1c01aec12a4b8efafc4db4e2daf5f4
9f1835bb9f61cee242704414f68b2a2b235d3efd
describe
'65719' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGI' 'sip-files00068.QC.jpg'
42b9fab029be0430cf3da32075110b6b
3fbb9960a0273c286fa03afe3483e533dbbfd3e8
describe
'2911552' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGJ' 'sip-files00068.tif'
8bf6d63763031ebe8f43603c387985f5
0acadb9cc76bba5506de02e590b36aa7dfe3bf3b
describe
'1584' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGK' 'sip-files00068.txt'
4809378f5a5b979d8d96f2c2105fb12d
e95992e002da352edf8f2cefe4476eb4d4c541e9
describe
'31665' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGL' 'sip-files00068thm.jpg'
1dc6d25907d77e9c8ae187fb754835a1
5c53455cc09c0206ac18875d4f8b20de7f49e7b0
'2011-12-12T23:07:27-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGM' 'sip-files00069.jp2'
61817578ff85c96f0c8b8215b3cc113b
848f988104433e20daa9ca17df4231caf7eece49
'2011-12-12T23:05:47-05:00'
describe
'177007' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGN' 'sip-files00069.jpg'
b64ee8ce24e634e95662872c639a50b8
1fcddba2b494c3f9351b7f01acce39aa57ebc413
describe
'40693' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGO' 'sip-files00069.pro'
bf82406e3a988aa63080dd7976426bc5
66eb07427250fdd476c1cc39e69bce40ef064a62
describe
'68797' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGP' 'sip-files00069.QC.jpg'
69216fae09597f2cf4ff326981e2da8c
4b002bfe09ecf207a90bc6d007d4b4f433b1f647
'2011-12-12T23:05:35-05:00'
describe
'2911516' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGQ' 'sip-files00069.tif'
1fcd181f1414a237c143220a0ea239dd
2b99e5ca5078c82e7b51e61fcf7e999652a2c8f7
'2011-12-12T23:10:13-05:00'
describe
'1608' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGR' 'sip-files00069.txt'
7f07f27d62d0a5069b8db2f4c6c22864
eb6516d3611b51980ffbd0e94ccc8824d462ecb8
describe
'32001' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGS' 'sip-files00069thm.jpg'
0b39e00a9ff5580c29c29b8d924925c2
76e7b22b4203c294a9c454d91dcbb3f9400565c9
describe
'361251' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGT' 'sip-files00070.jp2'
10f9935ebcc88c4ac776a49c00fb4d35
a719e3739540618083ece6fe69a8244b1cb45a2d
describe
'181655' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGU' 'sip-files00070.jpg'
c4dd1dff1f2706e8b345c8ccd5e06eac
648a1f56f2d18ba8e92ae02b4c79d2f134a6356a
describe
'41202' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGV' 'sip-files00070.pro'
f57e2a50ae53886d58fce444ac62b767
e655562450576068a4a7eb5710996e18c3e6c3fb
'2011-12-12T23:10:04-05:00'
describe
'71020' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGW' 'sip-files00070.QC.jpg'
149dffa0bedbd1bf873a6e36e11e56c2
d64f112e6a6770004b619a1287bfbbd7a5da6602
describe
'2911712' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGX' 'sip-files00070.tif'
b5aad96d84e8c7a18ffafe0e7a54f69a
d31ca570b533cb0dfe2b29ccf4c2ba23d71e0191
'2011-12-12T23:10:43-05:00'
describe
'1697' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGY' 'sip-files00070.txt'
f48827f69b1ed2336f7069cf7f9f5783
302bee1b20f54a6a511c3ffaf77a20d79495e73f
describe
'32605' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUGZ' 'sip-files00070thm.jpg'
b36dc0cbc452fd29de1e3a293b60be2a
b8b9978d6d8fc538d60e294423a82479fac2847d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHA' 'sip-files00071.jp2'
4b869e424d280e22a59e1aa7d55795c1
83cb16ddeae6060536ca11c2554d4ca021c79f4b
describe
'175119' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHB' 'sip-files00071.jpg'
b6acf82401f837639de94abfe20e07dd
c886b6e9f6c4bce8408cdb271811f035eeaa2e36
'2011-12-12T23:05:32-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHC' 'sip-files00071.pro'
ef694f62cbbc1203a3930de291b7eee2
87eb06d23e87776520c2764650d5f92b8c55f44a
describe
'68828' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHD' 'sip-files00071.QC.jpg'
d77dd6ac37410aff657467fcb8e50fcc
d6b71624307c901a1383aec62bae78514ab8702c
describe
'2911472' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHE' 'sip-files00071.tif'
92445869f27670c9516bd58b1f8a61bc
38e2efc15dfa3558b8776eade8a4797d389ec80a
describe
'1680' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHF' 'sip-files00071.txt'
3ab06893ed40b733662a744179627c67
93e761dff61dbac34ba524e1b003ce668e38b18b
describe
'31702' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHG' 'sip-files00071thm.jpg'
9b3362bdf67fccd28e65f186bdff18aa
3a1a2420b97f2d2e1dc6ca9f6400fbb7ab1674a7
describe
'361099' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHH' 'sip-files00072.jp2'
374fe399c57d35387f714a588efb60bc
2a7bd3eadf341e7925600238ba63911f90ed52af
describe
'147823' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHI' 'sip-files00072.jpg'
3932fe439a32faee14e5b241c3032e83
a20f1a31f6efa24c19f52f3076fed5c22a510ced
describe
'24525' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHJ' 'sip-files00072.pro'
a37db0490ba684e64225cea69920ca22
342e74391d16313566dd973289865a750795de8a
describe
'57371' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHK' 'sip-files00072.QC.jpg'
5cfd0ebc23a44aa3a6e25ab84abe421c
b41a81c2935ac1c3bba3abef3056846667df172f
describe
'2911024' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHL' 'sip-files00072.tif'
438cc3a6586dd0d7f29a177616b3c7d5
6f7d600f04ee94d1c311f8f3ec7454eb19654ece
'2011-12-12T23:05:16-05:00'
describe
'1107' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHM' 'sip-files00072.txt'
7e5cf441b2c792a2e9ae7bcd503451bd
0dfc1ccf424e724fdf6bfd8e1d6d5d9431110c14
describe
'29438' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHN' 'sip-files00072thm.jpg'
8f376a29e02dae5ad87418af93575aab
556417aec639d145357594a0a4dc210da868ea5b
describe
'361226' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHO' 'sip-files00073.jp2'
3893c78ea1253a6fa219498dfd5579dc
79ad4fd029e67a68068451ccec7e5118243f2628
describe
'181127' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHP' 'sip-files00073.jpg'
dd25af8454302f47a0ff43b96ac6f4d0
a77ce897b5f65a18633e2afcbed65039228b4175
describe
'37858' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHQ' 'sip-files00073.pro'
2df2b4dd01f84b7ed952b3e298df2f03
f10720d3d28519bd4b18e8fc4d2c5f9821a1c0f1
describe
'66858' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHR' 'sip-files00073.QC.jpg'
86990ba9d7e8fa2dc2e3f40eec2d61e9
b481c6a75173a289449197b167b5d4538316eea2
describe
'2911664' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHS' 'sip-files00073.tif'
335e03d1e6ed0fd5c216d0031ccac921
c0822da9c4c2922892323d0ec066270a6e20d7d5
describe
'1896' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHT' 'sip-files00073.txt'
a54d7ea521321d374dda9548fca12c24
acfd3c171d7a9a1067f2eddff93a9b70490f1a75
describe
'31489' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHU' 'sip-files00073thm.jpg'
949e5e9138ceba6538ee7e4f1e0d39bb
5e62dee3b17ab41e585af0f72bdff9b5a7414f58
'2011-12-12T23:07:13-05:00'
describe
'361297' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHV' 'sip-files00074.jp2'
3f972f25699a7ac00776b629c1bf8968
4f5b8dc6dde42fbb4fd23b370db0ff6bd00a4744
'2011-12-12T23:04:50-05:00'
describe
'176363' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHW' 'sip-files00074.jpg'
dd46203165cf2a37c97333ef60784b2b
38a1586cfa22968b46a7060f2f7df5ca76debf7e
'2011-12-12T23:06:53-05:00'
describe
'42269' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHX' 'sip-files00074.pro'
832d0179d4b84275240092ef26915f79
f0f4dec845696b827a2f4158d5012330138519cc
'2011-12-12T23:10:32-05:00'
describe
'69218' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHY' 'sip-files00074.QC.jpg'
3e426b70577916c9298b4d60ea648c55
881dc2766176f09af38cd37fc150c47cefa92425
describe
'2911512' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUHZ' 'sip-files00074.tif'
966d0420893523a41d897d580491c93b
c2512d556915a788165c306d31cb30d7254d8e3d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIA' 'sip-files00074.txt'
b27993f0dac6cf855c162b32f4d6c1dc
c3d51aee7a09cefb2fe1a26e5f0f6ab809c4d5d3
describe
'31964' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIB' 'sip-files00074thm.jpg'
ce2e37d561acccc179b511270b5f6d39
ab5f13dca044e1e7af33731aabc6cac146a625ec
'2011-12-12T23:06:42-05:00'
describe
'361274' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIC' 'sip-files00075.jp2'
53541c123c39593688cc1119d4b374f9
039e2803ff5566c129ffda5e7e8cf4ccb4989886
'2011-12-12T23:06:15-05:00'
describe
'120617' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUID' 'sip-files00075.jpg'
a470fb1881da0b7ce472fcb20a40766e
2d33f8cc306da6ea4eb1be906d549a6ad40cae9b
describe
'24184' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIE' 'sip-files00075.pro'
38969f3cdc07cfdd1738d2d6b16e15a7
b405a2fe68f122d902c398235cf0604cfd7a02ff
'2011-12-12T23:07:07-05:00'
describe
'50134' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIF' 'sip-files00075.QC.jpg'
83dc109326a6d9acd1d300b47ea6f612
428db5c2ed1084b9fd5e453dfa3a3f27fe96d968
'2011-12-12T23:09:03-05:00'
describe
'2909880' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIG' 'sip-files00075.tif'
cbaaae1615da2856912e57f3a010745e
bf307583c8781d59bdf4894f3b656c47ad9b2bd7
describe
'955' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIH' 'sip-files00075.txt'
368f478e5ff556323128cd45d4457f2e
d4cd759241824d882606bdb3a357d25f6e92c93b
'2011-12-12T23:09:51-05:00'
describe
'26542' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUII' 'sip-files00075thm.jpg'
bd69c8e8001ede007c4e08b6bc496d5a
07102894c299afd5ab0f7b5a8ec8c47b6f141638
'2011-12-12T23:05:28-05:00'
describe
'361218' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIJ' 'sip-files00076.jp2'
f5264f969bd73a3f86e80155985e2b7f
b7819f10f55cbdd39b689fa62b28dae983ac3d8a
describe
'139593' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIK' 'sip-files00076.jpg'
828fb84db0a48c5b99b0d9954aaa850d
f5be93c47533ea5f5004c2a79fe6a4911fa9cbe0
describe
'23206' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIL' 'sip-files00076.pro'
12589e493c228a1b5e4cb7d09cfc5c8f
8b8fba576546abc0ff3f5b5d4976bcd4c286a3fa
describe
'54736' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIM' 'sip-files00076.QC.jpg'
14f8785cb52e3c1829a11a917ac50a54
9b247ce1c94451c02bcec7f9572db09d02326ef0
describe
'2910736' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIN' 'sip-files00076.tif'
417e4e8ebcfc7f43cef25e6afd1c9702
81dd0fd72402ea4762656fb28c205f072a404a4a
'2011-12-12T23:07:20-05:00'
describe
'1123' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIO' 'sip-files00076.txt'
1581d8e331532702f59204a4bee5afb5
efe7618b48c0f41a70d02351a164a6988cc1a27f
describe
'28893' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIP' 'sip-files00076thm.jpg'
662d57846c1b8141270809df341924e7
e16667eb556ecf9028edbf74bf198cbd3ec422fa
describe
'361275' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIQ' 'sip-files00077.jp2'
271172aba0b96d49d1f5410669fccbf9
01a5b3a122c544c26e746c3fc5feaf8b69966957
describe
'185518' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIR' 'sip-files00077.jpg'
7c1529ff8f9f0cd42df6307cd5c4c8c9
bb00d0b65687527d5e8965e54fa9960b7ea4f79a
describe
'43830' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIS' 'sip-files00077.pro'
193b81770d41c9d3eb0b6cfffd63d2fd
1c46cb34aa453964e87ff3ec5d69af4414ff2a85
describe
'71098' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIT' 'sip-files00077.QC.jpg'
05e4ffaa690eaf601eb35fba85399796
8fa800d204772cb2ff6affa2e33fbf97b3764aa0
'2011-12-12T23:09:35-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIU' 'sip-files00077.tif'
87ad852a8c7860c2635328e09eb4e202
9e23e13b37dc2156566b13f4b1dbab15c51dadd2
describe
'1722' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIV' 'sip-files00077.txt'
10af4ef5679fb6a76126ae828f6c99a5
c47b7763f0cf5b9ac461a97ab906c47dfc3982e8
'2011-12-12T23:04:58-05:00'
describe
'32210' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIW' 'sip-files00077thm.jpg'
a567e74a47a2f9db4b127ecfcf57c913
9692627d533385e9f9030b3062c84e35ee0ca3f0
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIX' 'sip-files00078.jp2'
d0ad7d54c03032a0b254ceb15556cf67
fa88b9be5cf1bff0eba2f0f3d9e5ea9489595c9e
'2011-12-12T23:07:45-05:00'
describe
'171107' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIY' 'sip-files00078.jpg'
8e699569bcd7dbc566ec61f3d98de968
3052d653de4df86676273ed46966e0499d51be50
describe
'39451' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUIZ' 'sip-files00078.pro'
fcb6659ccf6b1d05c3d655365a4ff0aa
36db8a73d463107b8b39dca25228c902843684a3
describe
'66338' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJA' 'sip-files00078.QC.jpg'
c7baca43d5d3e4cb88b4c3d83a3f9375
2d50cba08c36f64de2795aea8b1cecb683a2432b
describe
'2911340' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJB' 'sip-files00078.tif'
989a31cee0003b5360ce890eabb5b32c
c4ec0be7201ba92b3cf50a331f6b7018cba443c8
describe
'1610' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJC' 'sip-files00078.txt'
56d134337005c3479ba72993780af771
0c3751f27319e80278240386537dfff373511ed1
describe
'31180' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJD' 'sip-files00078thm.jpg'
d6d653291f61791296fdc3cfe84975f9
7255440f7b2e5d8ee99e4f23353603dd13bc2e64
'2011-12-12T23:08:54-05:00'
describe
'361311' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJE' 'sip-files00079.jp2'
c6b37ab060470809a4d86affce6ada04
8518498c2091cb0129ffb772497eef0dc60286b3
describe
'168055' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJF' 'sip-files00079.jpg'
e84686282620e6a4affdbb9def77d5db
d9ecf710f1db866ad94f184eb9e4d7ba2d290585
describe
'37616' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJG' 'sip-files00079.pro'
716769c27ffed561c9a54ac3de410b8c
a7bece399cfce83d2ac8c9f08e478365e7ba0d4a
describe
'67136' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJH' 'sip-files00079.QC.jpg'
ccbcf644e4d1af4fe7538f32dea2593f
5840243bc4b2884ca8e3ace158f68c8ded3d3a89
describe
'2911468' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJI' 'sip-files00079.tif'
65c9b9a3f166a3bce4f5faa32119561d
ee04d9b8b9eb0f19ddcceb4b59e9080d5826f2f3
describe
'1556' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJJ' 'sip-files00079.txt'
99a719cde5aa7b9c78bd42a56248eec6
3c9512bdf8001e18735fd934ad15a29a6c324f29
'2011-12-12T23:07:36-05:00'
describe
'31616' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJK' 'sip-files00079thm.jpg'
ee001742532e1c0bf96265713c480182
1a2b183b3e4e2ab4b5ecc7f28dd6c15f4b544662
describe
'361296' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJL' 'sip-files00080.jp2'
9291a95940fb551abeea92eb5d77d99d
6b66bf1abee7e3c285c259aba8eab532d9c46e9d
'2011-12-12T23:05:23-05:00'
describe
'179652' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJM' 'sip-files00080.jpg'
c59e82e4de72f73d34cfc5ca7fe26d6a
abd7e2f599ad911e8f61c59bb7c42c938a815327
'2011-12-12T23:06:21-05:00'
describe
'42060' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJN' 'sip-files00080.pro'
8461761cbce0d80c9aa80b8a2629ab99
5f55bd9e57dbc26b2fe728bd1daffe8628a1fca0
describe
'69819' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJO' 'sip-files00080.QC.jpg'
ee33ca833ed4e14406d00c6e5601cc31
87ffcf499b66fd6a7ee0a9d3dfad805d98476abf
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJP' 'sip-files00080.tif'
7840cf9b41e26beed8dd844447f807a2
bb2e994ee9d00836a5c4ce96c05957504cf0563b
'2011-12-12T23:07:25-05:00'
describe
'1659' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJQ' 'sip-files00080.txt'
ad357b34091c7b20af4ce9caed09c641
f3331d6142395ed8166f61c631f53fffa2b879d2
describe
'31943' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJR' 'sip-files00080thm.jpg'
73c8a31afa935215ce2d186d121d1882
3e28ea0a40d913517079f9670fcb930d006655f7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJS' 'sip-files00081.jp2'
d0cb6cd9545590df909c8ffffd7380d4
43e83561edc9463c1b6af1a04637e61c685af974
describe
'184403' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJT' 'sip-files00081.jpg'
687beb752a305bf4d1c454fe960b1060
4d57f9eabf307bedd0de68b1c3b5f91c1d47fc95
describe
'41470' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJU' 'sip-files00081.pro'
448b448836d20896dc471123b7ea4644
f0c91c6b9af84e0646eeaaa15755924f28504534
describe
'70772' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJV' 'sip-files00081.QC.jpg'
f79e67042f7abf8d37ae30d718eea106
8434a8e1e1d59626329e23119feb8c3a549191e3
describe
'2911748' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJW' 'sip-files00081.tif'
3927ef42883dd058099ff21ea513a7d4
974d13b83116e5e371a85bec1eb1b2266d7dd701
'2011-12-12T23:05:26-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJX' 'sip-files00081.txt'
54a3bb7c8f28e2c38fd9b87428ccb1ce
a4753668cf3b3101a2be46d3eaacd62f4b7bb3c3
describe
'32829' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJY' 'sip-files00081thm.jpg'
6c7364202f35b2d27f0ff598cea6beab
564547ae4f4133dc918423bf3d8933acea8840e6
describe
'361219' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUJZ' 'sip-files00082.jp2'
e8c35e4f17c5fcfe5a766ec266ff4d71
03e57518ed8ac26a54ab4be7e1bb90192ca6458c
'2011-12-12T23:04:47-05:00'
describe
'176277' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKA' 'sip-files00082.jpg'
507bbe5b901f5413c26ef3565d5f1008
ea6332ed371449c7dc3f9e998bfed1a05757bfd9
describe
'32630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKB' 'sip-files00082.pro'
dfcc3f3542430c64db83d1e696dad989
681bbf5be0b5e6c72db7065eb6dcd198b4ff640d
describe
'64219' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKC' 'sip-files00082.QC.jpg'
1077d655cc3a04b590e6f5406881e15f
caf96343df9449fe2e88869a1306c0d2792afbda
'2011-12-12T23:09:49-05:00'
describe
'2911504' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKD' 'sip-files00082.tif'
5894b926410c17c4ebaaf86b4f1c0da1
49dd84f9dda0e20aae489f5610c285955c7c1c3b
describe
'1344' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKE' 'sip-files00082.txt'
32778a27650c439dc16c9654883229c4
3c781608f3e70266e9027b0ffa256e2556fc5393
'2011-12-12T23:08:21-05:00'
describe
'31504' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKF' 'sip-files00082thm.jpg'
18e5a8a00273925e676830919827289e
cd57614622d4e67cb231909706580d722f1df019
describe
'361307' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKG' 'sip-files00083.jp2'
6b0c4d8438aba7787b7a5d55fc4b0539
9155df8dcae51102eab623241611b995e096cb4e
describe
'180190' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKH' 'sip-files00083.jpg'
b59b4eea22517ca2084621dc3c4ea62f
73c5613cb8b7fb75865b62371434b1a5eb3aaf41
describe
'41874' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKI' 'sip-files00083.pro'
5a06bdd85395f8c02935cd824accf8af
12bbe1d770f25d8a6f9921d9a35bc91e0e8fbad8
'2011-12-12T23:08:32-05:00'
describe
'69574' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKJ' 'sip-files00083.QC.jpg'
0cb635898e96b0eec4ee37a769423869
9b4e9b20dfa0e4a3c2d4f4f2991bee994ec78087
describe
'2911612' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKK' 'sip-files00083.tif'
93ea2a4a8715eb0c0da4864fa2771de4
78effe9cc0a5426f43074085a1cccc06de1da53d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKL' 'sip-files00083.txt'
f8a655fc5d64eca50a6e17f2887729a8
bfc032cf156e2a8a3093a7ac30822ded12e8103c
describe
'31935' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKM' 'sip-files00083thm.jpg'
5b4bf28b4d840c766bd8c256ecf519ae
27eae99d63a284ce064c5776dc140612cdeb98a5
describe
'374729' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKN' 'sip-files00084.jp2'
a293a83deaf2793421665b2590e576fd
660365e9825a1e316e3f2fccff3c29bd65018bea
describe
'191997' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKO' 'sip-files00084.jpg'
03f0e7220822937ffe58125b3dee0cc0
b8719eeb934eb4028cf9d926f9ded3e40a2e31b7
describe
'34464' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKP' 'sip-files00084.pro'
07b62ce5518d5e5c8b3aef9ff2318653
bb952414eb83d78e58dd693707bd6b86d0d2c758
describe
'70955' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKQ' 'sip-files00084.QC.jpg'
1802100016382e62c0b9d2e4322ab713
e650c4fe8a17e1120b31e0d9bcdf07cac9527189
describe
'3019876' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKR' 'sip-files00084.tif'
d1239330581f745e8e34dd6022bf83f4
3e2287c7bd3971b6b1cbd2e5d3f3276251008d19
'2011-12-12T23:07:28-05:00'
describe
'1487' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKS' 'sip-files00084.txt'
49541db909c47e264452c3d515e0a7a9
7a215ac0d58ead0182655fd975b8d379b628eee9
describe
'32477' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKT' 'sip-files00084thm.jpg'
bb593b23942ca79d4e5200cbe1f67e14
8812add01d6ff4f34f7c16b54c719b15c12c416c
describe
'361268' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKU' 'sip-files00085.jp2'
ba681ababae394273fa68c12f0fe0233
cc19ff82ed5d1b23719ac146df28eac1a8f47387
describe
'183082' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKV' 'sip-files00085.jpg'
b4367ffc5b9905a9041741ca172faa1a
8cf51ee079df159736fa05fe5fab66a5face2bee
describe
'42739' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKW' 'sip-files00085.pro'
e25c4572f6244a24bbe23d6ad8b63351
d94464e3268ac78d15e47888184c688de798526e
'2011-12-12T23:09:37-05:00'
describe
'69896' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKX' 'sip-files00085.QC.jpg'
842d42331d0c94126c8a469fa41eda90
107a40ce7d414f9a81de9a98b136cd111ac03a2e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKY' 'sip-files00085.tif'
e4cbd168521725ea33368cafb236b325
688ea8fe2e54270f9ed13fea28bef711b1c8c1d3
describe
'1702' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUKZ' 'sip-files00085.txt'
f05a21d2b0f43c3fb211b13b2b0bb16f
a2c1b9e327196c943f936c03cf847c0e98e4a222
describe
'31824' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULA' 'sip-files00085thm.jpg'
9f9ef31fe130fe23aff011357a140ad0
92a85f95b39a6507ca2e65436230067b21a68710
'2011-12-12T23:10:15-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULB' 'sip-files00086.jp2'
e82f7abfca97ef44a03e860b7d29313c
09573d8f6a9526b005ad242845e3fb275f95cbd9
describe
'179266' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULC' 'sip-files00086.jpg'
5e61eb6fd31d963be56fe37cb4fafca8
975076a8d3d314ec2c1a8537150e016d87616514
describe
'40259' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULD' 'sip-files00086.pro'
4e5fc26b6b649105b32b4ab2823aa272
7812dfeff8a4d0418ee1e73f78705f7d9e91e777
describe
'69799' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULE' 'sip-files00086.QC.jpg'
9052f255c5a6e7fb2f04c387b72a32d2
cbc9eb49be5af7f2ee0b5154cff09829219650f8
'2011-12-12T23:08:23-05:00'
describe
'2911788' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULF' 'sip-files00086.tif'
7ab5f933e6fd0f58a678767994b625d5
ca77a98db0130f8f16d44e9f23d59e478868700e
describe
'1657' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULG' 'sip-files00086.txt'
852307b51520e26e0e68fd4d8b2b8ccb
3f2bee4b4f5ab83a2046247de938f53b9f341be1
describe
'32767' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULH' 'sip-files00086thm.jpg'
9b963476a48f37f0ae79fa4053ab1c1d
9ec2b15374632a5ac744b024d8e2616ef5fa9ae5
'2011-12-12T23:10:06-05:00'
describe
'361305' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULI' 'sip-files00087.jp2'
d1f37bf6333b6ffed74b8fbebfbce372
2fb1f88cf6bc1d77c6a8a5e90d44cfdb9c4f4a30
describe
'182993' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULJ' 'sip-files00087.jpg'
16754f1402ffaad255fdde75c5e899fd
bbac80e675ae6fbfdd6bbfcfa91f19a1f9d8f9d2
describe
'42700' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULK' 'sip-files00087.pro'
87c5985c16c6583cbb9304edf1f48f4b
a7b7e2dab74d6e876f6e8d151497c3dc5db3689c
describe
'70570' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULL' 'sip-files00087.QC.jpg'
cc846e80d6397c183b0a4856f05c92c0
e1778d50d75ddf26640ba4fc8df29f66ee6df5ba
describe
'2911600' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULM' 'sip-files00087.tif'
8602a250f782514de977e4f3544fabfe
a57b3241f3169371cb9741cd5eb220217564220d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULN' 'sip-files00087.txt'
11310ca2ba4ab7fea66c292218baf699
d86f39b8d62dffd2b3382bf12381089e4aa869f7
describe
'32326' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULO' 'sip-files00087thm.jpg'
a09519b5f393334a85e49e453a3cf6e8
f632564cf36c5504b91a2903f13ab0f2e6ed7541
'2011-12-12T23:10:23-05:00'
describe
'361244' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULP' 'sip-files00088.jp2'
d1fb80f347b463b4426ca9042593b4c7
1939335a747fb6aa69356b4457330e5aa33d9eb9
describe
'166258' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULQ' 'sip-files00088.jpg'
9d9511d480dc3d6e64da5cbd13da5f84
4448609a7c4a19750c5801545799003dc1150372
describe
'36623' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULR' 'sip-files00088.pro'
aa24d090f4085a02618d99edfe9a983e
d75c17b46bdec5b2eb043b70e20845821d6b5b54
'2011-12-12T23:05:40-05:00'
describe
'66045' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULS' 'sip-files00088.QC.jpg'
928a7153154dc46004954d657d83b41e
8fd8c4f44043ec7b9e39389693bee2ef70d1c9a3
describe
'2911588' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULT' 'sip-files00088.tif'
baf604f63274cdd931822474b44dafec
bc55636527e1a3eb2ea1a7a540360e6b675fe335
describe
'1588' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULU' 'sip-files00088.txt'
93d4bf276b2b90a92f82167a0271ca5e
9c140294dbe5cbf0951cc580144ad32cb37b7b9d
describe
'31799' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULV' 'sip-files00088thm.jpg'
066748508222447f45cf4f27e7350079
fd2f30ce80b2b631319bcfdc1b77373e6948ca5e
describe
'361306' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULW' 'sip-files00089.jp2'
2580d90d24e4bbbefb1b3ac645aa08e7
d626ef704024ec66a6dd9bd72bc8994ae422127c
describe
'161823' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULX' 'sip-files00089.jpg'
dd03c964a9230d07220ca5bb688d4dfa
d6ef0832e566ee5a8c13df4e33ddbba3e5db9efe
describe
'29576' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULY' 'sip-files00089.pro'
88c3b5cf93df288178675a508183240e
5c9f6935280590b40418b3f880bae6dfc51c9f09
describe
'60920' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAULZ' 'sip-files00089.QC.jpg'
bfa7e6e351b3d6ef7c33b1081b9b2f8a
12538978455158fda077ae60c34f11ead89cfd0c
'2011-12-12T23:07:10-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMA' 'sip-files00089.tif'
bbc6a1c9380edc5ac2ac7deb2c5c95f2
eb4cf96ab0cc98d5e0ffdcc008a661ee6c60e548
'2011-12-12T23:07:14-05:00'
describe
'1267' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMB' 'sip-files00089.txt'
9315fe0bd9301dcea0f5a4d8f6453993
3ba994a0dd52f9d4eb947ea737d0b873a9d4bcff
describe
Invalid character
'30747' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMC' 'sip-files00089thm.jpg'
c1fee79109204f2ec4306152b75d5fb7
a360ed21358adce1f11f69c8c95fc334f42f0af1
describe
'361293' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMD' 'sip-files00090.jp2'
79220a735366056f38552ba1b4066489
65714d767e8ed409901648a19b64154e766cc998
describe
'169027' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUME' 'sip-files00090.jpg'
66980b691e9c4d436c57204c0a41340b
d5bdf4d7f2ab70726382d9d37548771386342d8d
describe
'29775' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMF' 'sip-files00090.pro'
09b2b13e52c4198bdc0812a104f5de67
731a559380e0ed815d8b675a5a572f209efece99
describe
'62520' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMG' 'sip-files00090.QC.jpg'
2110d21d9812b3696ee709e0e84782dc
0b91788d0b41e6c40a98c19b3716a0df2c2f65a0
'2011-12-12T23:10:45-05:00'
describe
'2911280' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMH' 'sip-files00090.tif'
0fda1598e5e347c140b40473ebb25fea
e6a52caad63f51060bc9a8adfd454deb6eb820fe
describe
'1291' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMI' 'sip-files00090.txt'
c97e5d947f5dd984717b657a3d20fdb2
44401bb8cb87f19b139414afc183beea3a6e4f7b
'2011-12-12T23:10:08-05:00'
describe
'30615' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMJ' 'sip-files00090thm.jpg'
5395bf78fd3d1960ea3e1ebad49d7d4c
bc61cee812056065bd6110ab8623dfc739ed93c9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMK' 'sip-files00091.jp2'
0fefcb81050634fef40ba58b1f2f37a1
fffa06b02fc987ee4ba304d5238e3dcc81d6ae58
describe
'181696' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUML' 'sip-files00091.jpg'
55139346f657a6cc719feedc1bd67cb1
693b6d0b16231986a27d45dc2b608f5ddb51e7f4
describe
'41010' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMM' 'sip-files00091.pro'
a08f1ce7e74756b97c610927fa31b7ad
d8ec7ddaa68d2a71d676316de6d569cf76e8eb76
describe
'71022' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMN' 'sip-files00091.QC.jpg'
ef4665501c731f0b22bb691186fa70f3
ec493446feaf73f48ef87748bf8d8d593dd1d63a
describe
'2911696' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMO' 'sip-files00091.tif'
230aabe548cb3e0a3e5315b7826ffbe8
beedfe05c06ff5b779dbdf76863f638f95b6e56e
describe
'1690' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMP' 'sip-files00091.txt'
037ca7d878a20259ebc1b108a7685047
aaf60535189cb0754f9f3292a5604ff71e940a88
describe
'32135' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMQ' 'sip-files00091thm.jpg'
580a6bd8852bee37a9926c78d36508f1
69fa1318a5e0df415994496d7302680f5eb64152
'2011-12-12T23:10:48-05:00'
describe
'361303' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMR' 'sip-files00092.jp2'
e95b107bd9588c503a273605bde69514
961a3cde4aa4cd6f86fe1218a2c91946a132be27
'2011-12-12T23:05:30-05:00'
describe
'181327' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMS' 'sip-files00092.jpg'
c05c25fd075713c3dae675bfd4c19640
cf7f39da7111343140cf3f5e38a73c2b7ee2353d
describe
'41761' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMT' 'sip-files00092.pro'
a939050afc046037643f1ed62d31cf68
aea582748fd81868886c9e943f1dcb6d776e66e8
describe
'69853' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMU' 'sip-files00092.QC.jpg'
1b0f926eaa1596e186626aaaa7715e37
34ec76b1c9798661c8aa9d75d74371ac4cc21d7a
'2011-12-12T23:05:50-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMV' 'sip-files00092.tif'
83fa865da83942a7596470337ee66cd6
6246f17c53c3edb16e576451941b03a5d8dea266
describe
'1665' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMW' 'sip-files00092.txt'
1ea52e638173b4f2a85961385ad064bb
68436f9edab3e40c4b13383c715dd85ef1fdd521
'2011-12-12T23:07:57-05:00'
describe
'32152' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMX' 'sip-files00092thm.jpg'
95e4aca523a2f3b00c9f1d941e006b98
752d64e77efea2fd3625d4bd5f3050afcf4f5996
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMY' 'sip-files00093.jp2'
5bed5ce9e800bc4173517484868dd0ae
19633c6cb705b34ecefc7d62f639f210a6e0add1
'2011-12-12T23:10:44-05:00'
describe
'182305' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUMZ' 'sip-files00093.jpg'
34c8652e98335fcaa49b1775aab864d2
3b0866ee86eb1ef21ffd1be682fd74c68f34844b
describe
'41749' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNA' 'sip-files00093.pro'
5c6fd527165b48ef1d7b7bf8e764132f
0f5c5354a261c245a1ab651f9a905032aaa66a64
describe
'70443' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNB' 'sip-files00093.QC.jpg'
a9c00be729683b537abc2702d7b4e295
e7ad66d5ef7a023619860aa2422cb16c85548276
describe
'2911804' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNC' 'sip-files00093.tif'
560a86cb6f2e5d8ace25bedcc108c587
62b40ab6d12d32c545c5e7072fc6ee89ba153bec
describe
'1652' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUND' 'sip-files00093.txt'
1fb955845b4661c9930c69853a3978ce
e7904946f99de996f5886b2776875a73ad51ce80
describe
'32276' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNE' 'sip-files00093thm.jpg'
3650465676c319e9d0e92e78545d91e1
8fd9b8a8194700f1124482e9a372c4e94e0708d5
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNF' 'sip-files00094.jp2'
b22dd56abe26e527561e88e7b02e580c
ed045ccbfb2dbb763ef78d1a1568a73d6d9af5d9
describe
'181837' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNG' 'sip-files00094.jpg'
45f9988052b16c46bbc0fb3cd9134bd9
3f5c8411e61213f3a3a84764871c489ebb701c33
describe
'41486' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNH' 'sip-files00094.pro'
d03c07260ac6a97667d7b0854e25385e
30a7e04acd15bc5a8c255ba0ac9ea5d384c42847
describe
'70647' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNI' 'sip-files00094.QC.jpg'
208be5709a57c072fd217f0e2378c881
3dd250840289ce464b184597bd63e71383084fdb
describe
'2911660' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNJ' 'sip-files00094.tif'
087482a999695e4753949da1789eeeb2
54a38f8216312cbd69593e486d93d2c582ee8e20
describe
'1667' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNK' 'sip-files00094.txt'
2fd795df22728e46e0a5eaad1a4cad36
2f1895e31b649002c49a60654d1960b5151c3309
describe
'32295' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNL' 'sip-files00094thm.jpg'
3b1dbea5842fe0db83172430187ae3b8
a2c4596e4b37efd012aaddfd38dd2f3627f768ce
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNM' 'sip-files00095.jp2'
a138811802d383f8279416f3ac622069
25a57e01437ae1d30e88757508f5874956129f1f
describe
'111061' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNN' 'sip-files00095.jpg'
6527fab4bcd5b16e26aed87db78dc008
dfe7213caa8ed707989206fd58cde872730a66f3
describe
'20666' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNO' 'sip-files00095.pro'
90d5ffc3aee2fd9e85eacb1e89969cdf
fcfcdc809f62ce238ddf4d4a051d37172a29a73f
describe
'46580' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNP' 'sip-files00095.QC.jpg'
80aeb4f26bf2cc26b22c5f2d30216ce4
927407daf23086fa3a4fc11bd481f5ca1bd2eca8
describe
'2909692' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNQ' 'sip-files00095.tif'
289a19a5a44c97892aee5564b541f451
222321383478c32bea43bd2ff3bdebab214034e6
describe
'817' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNR' 'sip-files00095.txt'
9648f9641163dcb2bc8f7fc1095c56aa
f4cd368d8f46c453e6eed4734cd121d4ddfb5039
describe
'25635' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNS' 'sip-files00095thm.jpg'
e6ee6ded70bd75cbd6ba1a48add3e610
27e2ee0bcc42a7cfefcf9e74ead8a0e4c6b102fc
describe
'361265' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNT' 'sip-files00096.jp2'
a986d5cc6da834a46decdf3947076419
d1860a24b060eca31bf8d05fd9fe08451b2c15ab
describe
'143861' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNU' 'sip-files00096.jpg'
1a608460c3c28ee614e7d9f573d74584
6b375a747149ad9f2056d4f1696c8ef29a42466b
describe
'24616' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNV' 'sip-files00096.pro'
2c137515db82dbba4fb4a6b09f401a4e
277daa6c9c73b6b3fcb33a03ce2c516e2dd160e5
describe
'55798' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNW' 'sip-files00096.QC.jpg'
ab45ca0fb77381fcda2eb9c6c12c32a7
2df703ef25f38f72e7b672eb302d9fa64fa08a82
'2011-12-12T23:10:21-05:00'
describe
'2910700' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNX' 'sip-files00096.tif'
0d2987f38bab4f46ae683de11b330132
be90ff4581ff09b212927ce3f16093a4ece05566
describe
'1161' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNY' 'sip-files00096.txt'
14bcf8503a0fc38df520880d68791bde
09b2d79d8f9b1bf507feeb0d5be51454f0e3f856
describe
Invalid character
'28757' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUNZ' 'sip-files00096thm.jpg'
b29b84609550f26658f7a835b72cf2b5
bdb23adb6547bfbba47914cb2b37fd5c6d1cd2ff
describe
'361266' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOA' 'sip-files00097.jp2'
526247dca49e40b6d12b6b951f496972
37dfee53d575af7b4a24f9c4774f94bc5929d050
describe
'180048' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOB' 'sip-files00097.jpg'
69637cab83a3e3e86c0e94035dbfbeac
666f94aa29e9e8ece9d24b449169cf000f8b4505
'2011-12-12T23:10:11-05:00'
describe
'41065' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOC' 'sip-files00097.pro'
2e88dc776dd9f591d1f7066205a25c41
62e80fb1b64e99fa6aff3557bba9ec3694e2eaf0
describe
'70514' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOD' 'sip-files00097.QC.jpg'
771dca45bce384a144f9d1ebd964f1ec
509e829aa579c58ac0a403655eba39b15a03d858
describe
'2911648' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOE' 'sip-files00097.tif'
35d3328c8b125402b8953aa5e75d86fd
7dd3a583adbe5fb13d344fca3da65a0f5a3fb1d9
describe
'1636' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOF' 'sip-files00097.txt'
4a249a3fa6422f06ea249f491e843bbd
d68bc8ab92f196628bf372ae79bd59948366254f
describe
'32303' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOG' 'sip-files00097thm.jpg'
b1d474056a228e53d3d282609ee4c6c5
c5efad4d3ae6bc9d9b782edf897ea6715cf1cd85
describe
'361280' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOH' 'sip-files00098.jp2'
f94e5e2a24b96fb5b8c5e57649b5a42e
2da5d1c5d9233cb9b253f600e1e59d11eb0ea2d3
describe
'168634' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOI' 'sip-files00098.jpg'
000bd822abb9157ebddb96015e57ba84
9efbe96624da484b5f08fc19f8724979462c7783
describe
'29744' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOJ' 'sip-files00098.pro'
1f3132185e2966df7ddb09faf937fe6a
042531b825c032b5953bc53c0dfaf956edbd5333
describe
'64780' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOK' 'sip-files00098.QC.jpg'
ec3447fd7ea07db21adb935221fb5abf
e69309d9ab7c660079e4b18e1a0720d00a83999c
describe
'2911572' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOL' 'sip-files00098.tif'
c52ad8d24ac55c7df51817d2a43682ae
553f078a07b9c6df19cb29d5c36ee5d36480414e
describe
'1278' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOM' 'sip-files00098.txt'
717c0b92b3b298265c2d5b65f3a0a45d
2dffe52693fca7f61dcfcc9c7332338493023bf1
describe
'31519' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUON' 'sip-files00098thm.jpg'
18d8e75e8ac61de40b61fecef89bcba2
99fc26cdfbfe12925a8d7a7636d2f6cb6507658a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOO' 'sip-files00099.jp2'
74b6d797dd2156799097144d21349a85
f1f73a9b9a4f19221711ca043d3b0585eba5e211
'2011-12-12T23:10:39-05:00'
describe
'181762' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOP' 'sip-files00099.jpg'
980732c80f34b35ff94eb738525bcce3
d09e23cf9588e05a5ca471a1e190e1718df6a629
describe
'37303' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOQ' 'sip-files00099.pro'
ba95ffcbf69e1fd2b24d171bd8f91076
c21d96d7f8d56a9ee2a7a140ff94c000c16cdadf
describe
'69894' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOR' 'sip-files00099.QC.jpg'
e93893379fed6f940328a02914b5bc0a
43ae5d47d154a1fed1efd3f5434334bc0b803304
describe
'2911848' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOS' 'sip-files00099.tif'
fd5a8f292a3a98951fb880b97c1d8bec
495acdab1ff917562c1f256a40dd243dfa5aa69f
describe
'1733' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOT' 'sip-files00099.txt'
d5db6b201e1f72184c152c5cd938ff8b
7455ca46773879f5d11947c3f55cf68de513b53b
'2011-12-12T23:08:38-05:00'
describe
'32672' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOU' 'sip-files00099thm.jpg'
275c93f0240048beced0f4b25c1ef746
a76584469cff0b894eebd8337f5c055d60f2ab3a
'2011-12-12T23:08:26-05:00'
describe
'361304' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOV' 'sip-files00100.jp2'
f69e4b3b0f959487caacccb32af0688b
4a9986bc5440406e377375bb4a4c65d40734c858
describe
'181953' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOW' 'sip-files00100.jpg'
bef9d1a2a7d533e98a89d293aa59a2ce
982aeb00d7bcaf11d3b5f8c12c32c4096939f3a5
describe
'43969' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOX' 'sip-files00100.pro'
1fde15e56e12d976493121b55d214cd7
ea48c8ef64ba80eefefdaab519bff2788a9f94b8
describe
'71024' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOY' 'sip-files00100.QC.jpg'
04fbb9a2f827fea684c56b1ab1c6c536
2803191fc297322b8e21f718b0ddea36ec821146
describe
'2911568' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUOZ' 'sip-files00100.tif'
ddff01cc1b5eaf3ab672eef713e783e2
2ebdda93a112ae090b1129b44383eb31aa20b1ba
describe
'1755' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPA' 'sip-files00100.txt'
b119b99fde4c429aafca34ec82baf40e
b7fde4cad1975387e4ea6b104514690e3ccf5b15
describe
'32020' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPB' 'sip-files00100thm.jpg'
79c0e3fa70dc0a4a420702d219c60f16
241983eda22f4c77c038c0b49e35c3beece29f65
describe
'361245' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPC' 'sip-files00101.jp2'
1adf9803e3fb81891a4cc2a44b2b859c
d21d7bfaee68e8e861d81e35021ad84b141c9b2e
describe
'184103' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPD' 'sip-files00101.jpg'
ce7a584d21a7412d0cea549fef37c5d7
4837157ecc8ff2a6b192d96582deb2178b6a8792
describe
'42186' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPE' 'sip-files00101.pro'
19bb6cd92a270589337dccc23fc96fae
f36ea0fa0160531692af74a13f814def75304ef3
describe
'72004' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPF' 'sip-files00101.QC.jpg'
7329aed344a866e1e89b927950cdb697
13da3a92e0815d6cc46bcb479929585de1f1e109
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPG' 'sip-files00101.tif'
63c191e57694c017d186acc861bd23f5
3b3f59f5a765be796870ee04580a4d690bebd60d
describe
'1681' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPH' 'sip-files00101.txt'
46bf0a1e89e3e01c57f6ac48c6798df2
95392df59831d629d003d88ec728ec2b1be99a59
describe
'32548' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPI' 'sip-files00101thm.jpg'
1d595b7949ebd9b1552323c9d21e5c1b
6ce4fcda5a76d113d455d383be0a11e6349144e9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPJ' 'sip-files00102.jp2'
e9968a0c7a4179008acbf35667c30932
76a1d61f2131a02434a26a4967a30fe3b8ad5dad
describe
'174956' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPK' 'sip-files00102.jpg'
0ec7163828b98a6e599c668e1ed46a7d
4ef1bce36865c12613f8b036246e41d90e94f353
describe
'37486' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPL' 'sip-files00102.pro'
df9790e5a6ef327114f03ebbf65d6b70
a233753f32e13605039c686b3e409f10fab6cb80
'2011-12-12T23:09:04-05:00'
describe
'67040' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPM' 'sip-files00102.QC.jpg'
2f698bdaab5637f9630d71f79a7fa270
71e4a3dc6a7c97d0fe808774c84e2b9d04463da4
describe
'2911856' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPN' 'sip-files00102.tif'
cfe38c3187998e8a9bb70b563b2c4ee6
5ab9789688b8d055a27a540f7e9e86f1f0659672
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPO' 'sip-files00102.txt'
211b562bd25511cd8f859412306484a6
53bc502b7f3c1be69fb9bd4ceadd96a9cb44e1de
describe
'32549' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPP' 'sip-files00102thm.jpg'
01e352c65bc4d046063b2d63a6c49a21
bfeec4a96c15cea28f6addd6bff8ca621cbd2b23
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPQ' 'sip-files00103.jp2'
a502391ae69eb7cc0204506e6cfb2577
5dd4ef5eb920ad6b0de18514cb209105a5f2a788
'2011-12-12T23:09:15-05:00'
describe
'175350' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPR' 'sip-files00103.jpg'
20001760845b2366b145bfefa9599ada
c3b7093f0faaead5940f796c7ce0a810e6d4f063
'2011-12-12T23:10:36-05:00'
describe
'41362' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPS' 'sip-files00103.pro'
3cfce0b17599e2d4103098d75413a2cd
1bcacb61650fa7ccc579c07409e70e8aff79965e
describe
'68680' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPT' 'sip-files00103.QC.jpg'
59d3f118831a144659ade95c79721272
7cf826928e74a827a31e686032e160df10567b43
describe
'2911464' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPU' 'sip-files00103.tif'
6c49ffe5b0b8d136699f7c4580607220
5ea279b593c5c386d0b60bcabeff15b71ffedd06
describe
'1637' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPV' 'sip-files00103.txt'
37e645003d43ae58ca98fa07281ceec9
a40bf72ab6774c2e86b6724b9547cc0446e1900b
describe
'31967' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPW' 'sip-files00103thm.jpg'
ff604543fc41da7a24f79fcecf9eaaa5
a124da1ad3212c7b0333da17a0d1a483dd986676
'2011-12-12T23:08:35-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPX' 'sip-files00104.jp2'
0f283498be67d0f27f3a4f7d1495607d
322bac2f6520e13e49ed2fb92d72b4e356f01563
describe
'141653' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPY' 'sip-files00104.jpg'
cd05058fc345215f130f1e4904bb8f6b
3e4c274954191fc6d97ff752a05da9bddc11dc2f
'2011-12-12T23:10:34-05:00'
describe
'28481' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUPZ' 'sip-files00104.pro'
4575ff9b28f546fba99bb24b33f2279c
cb7d1ba82be53dc8a8e77557d4dcec870f0da227
describe
'57130' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQA' 'sip-files00104.QC.jpg'
c903104a030938bbed4410f3b1ed1345
6433b34e6a8818c1f1c4cb9bb023bc8875126734
'2011-12-12T23:04:49-05:00'
describe
'2910880' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQB' 'sip-files00104.tif'
a88cd245dbeb6df6740485cb95b9a775
c941f0b541e444b445b459c046f19472a2a17437
'2011-12-12T23:08:58-05:00'
describe
'1253' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQC' 'sip-files00104.txt'
083ff79f86a3a12865a528d34dad392e
6f1dc5a8e2e4ef67048c20e42ec78ffcfe64ac06
describe
Invalid character
'29458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQD' 'sip-files00104thm.jpg'
cbd0d765a733c07a0cdaf2d5815d97b6
49a251bbcd43cec80836dbc95d948441349d83d6
describe
'361288' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQE' 'sip-files00105.jp2'
7348d16392d66d2f3ed8aea45f06bdec
6b1417460c9638f5803a0471df4bd69037b2a924
describe
'176693' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQF' 'sip-files00105.jpg'
22093c53229286953ef68d36f35987e0
a84f47f6ff551287fcd1cf3190c27c7971ed01ec
'2011-12-12T23:06:16-05:00'
describe
'41548' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQG' 'sip-files00105.pro'
df11266cc72c7bdd8c101fc665f78074
03594a853a0127a87e8c0a60ff86c592ccf42582
describe
'69759' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQH' 'sip-files00105.QC.jpg'
095d98fbb7cf5ab4011545163e8a5d58
d7e3270b854f260e7db75f71f36372cd2022e71d
describe
'2911772' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQI' 'sip-files00105.tif'
d47b023d67f77186d2e6ccca463a6d30
248e771a4c90fea7cd7eb1620d358b00196f33ef
'2011-12-12T23:07:54-05:00'
describe
'1662' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQJ' 'sip-files00105.txt'
c4a4e39b2387fa360c9790fe12c1f1ac
fec11c849e3dc9c38c57817ffd4e3d7d624534f0
describe
'32164' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQK' 'sip-files00105thm.jpg'
a3b7c05cffd60d9c7e35ced5c415466b
56247887f1bb08753d025e4f42c07a5e7329339c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQL' 'sip-files00106.jp2'
8ccc9231a951534825ad56287f7b3ce4
e3240882da5bf61c4c3583599863ca2ac0629166
describe
'168319' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQM' 'sip-files00106.jpg'
e53c1f60278d3ba1fe66d546b204bd07
7f17a2119e6e687a59c85a16e5186c8e86d19eb1
'2011-12-12T23:05:48-05:00'
describe
'38172' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQN' 'sip-files00106.pro'
f9101d10da478382cafbe32736eb110c
a30f0667ea2e92a59006593e70d37e9a7662b8ce
describe
'67321' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQO' 'sip-files00106.QC.jpg'
8e14ada50d1fb66ed26e761d29625738
9730aff134eb93f67246e05001b095011f5ec6b1
describe
'2911616' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQP' 'sip-files00106.tif'
d3645e6767c58e7a25c13a6b7e025d89
39b74aa74c049683722a7b6a69ceaac6f3b15468
describe
'1625' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQQ' 'sip-files00106.txt'
173d0e8046f60ee6962d380974d8f6c8
047580fc4f63e427bea9b5b7276661bf37143c06
describe
'32021' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQR' 'sip-files00106thm.jpg'
de48c86bc8df8f646c3f9f08ccdd191b
98b29cf47d962d38143df3a83119f35e6434c4ed
'2011-12-12T23:06:09-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQS' 'sip-files00107.jp2'
126852cef98690a931b2fcd011d7d750
1ba72b95e8b9bbef774087f23e5d12b0af311fd6
describe
'175641' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQT' 'sip-files00107.jpg'
3a2899b5f734122b21021995d9b52d4d
5c56841a15d1777663e56de72312e85d3483019c
describe
'40947' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQU' 'sip-files00107.pro'
d180b2b358e6f67f938a8ffa75e4d5a9
0fa5b704e7064a31216d248f29d509d78ab6619b
describe
'69663' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQV' 'sip-files00107.QC.jpg'
6792f0af5a338eb665d7a8476f40349a
0e200aacf875c130b2b8b57943c93040f848dff1
describe
'2911720' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQW' 'sip-files00107.tif'
45c69843eccca59fcd7f04589eea2916
e51c35e362ef04b26b56ddbfbc8e2f3e647606e7
'2011-12-12T23:10:28-05:00'
describe
'1629' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQX' 'sip-files00107.txt'
03e7237c8df7fdd71ba72e03471a3df2
1b4ee819c146a9736e58c0f31f0ce5c4b0b09766
describe
'32403' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQY' 'sip-files00107thm.jpg'
06ad58605ff5c99d4c78095864606461
02a6a0988aa54276ca88f3b33c280c5f9e69f480
describe
'361282' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUQZ' 'sip-files00108.jp2'
4b5c5f21133034bd7f5cdd27eab08310
61724550b7079404668bdaf62404bdf4542b5fa3
describe
'172672' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURA' 'sip-files00108.jpg'
d16a967bbaebf91d7dcab47adc3ebe55
ecaae5337de5aea28ec13296c5fa79aa9b564815
describe
'36236' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURB' 'sip-files00108.pro'
523a9057a8d4ee4172a9cb9a41bddb8c
1f928add63bff9975c867e86ce051a6e00a9fe52
describe
'68015' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURC' 'sip-files00108.QC.jpg'
d45e41508de5c8f40951ced64fd06811
3286525e374257df67901e49c8ad1de937d906ec
describe
'2911732' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURD' 'sip-files00108.tif'
5ae52576e4da48cbd1e13106205b238c
5580a01d4dd2f1166ea2267592751a5610438f6b
describe
'1500' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURE' 'sip-files00108.txt'
fb109b1671feb575cd7606899be2dc1e
8d9cb1a846d70698cc65a34e6c974e93768296cd
describe
'31947' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURF' 'sip-files00108thm.jpg'
cec5d63f8385914ea4d94aa9df2ff1c8
bcf55d8a680a64631b349b5d152b92d08125696f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURG' 'sip-files00109.jp2'
2ba7b792daa3a360a0997451002bc756
834be4cb588f5afe68927d83fd297e39d0366756
describe
'162759' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURH' 'sip-files00109.jpg'
181bf06e3125d3492c35231d6ed00284
420be463def066341ee2049d7a836a0de357fdb5
'2011-12-12T23:07:03-05:00'
describe
'33746' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURI' 'sip-files00109.pro'
f049172b57234d104c135455335e91d8
1b9009d283e3ae289dd7f882667dac9742101318
describe
'63141' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURJ' 'sip-files00109.QC.jpg'
dc63b584d0e0aa53a63d659175a43a9d
f90a386a86ba4c85f5a80d846f1f41213f2fa407
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURK' 'sip-files00109.tif'
807f1e8e8ec907189329f5e03318ef98
1d29428a6a502c1ecb0695be85b9394f0eceee22
describe
'1422' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURL' 'sip-files00109.txt'
bd93d328c762c2a856d5c65237fddb71
a752796d665ec92f6de6d7e1252645d61f0eea4f
describe
'31205' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURM' 'sip-files00109thm.jpg'
90e5c7252bf25aa3c8b17befa530ddab
e2bd792d78b6d22b57790b9f10b2f23b770dac60
describe
'361258' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURN' 'sip-files00110.jp2'
4213b68d84ed99b1b825c861e9bf9dda
e8cbe549488bb44676a1fbc4f480ec72f0643361
describe
'163925' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURO' 'sip-files00110.jpg'
dc8156ecc88896ac7a2b46fc3ea6f4ac
b3571e61be448d2506dac5239bc28669ebf69513
describe
'34422' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURP' 'sip-files00110.pro'
95380621577e5b70d58f47e142a13dea
23b33da9f809914114df27de152394da5f0cd639
describe
'63433' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURQ' 'sip-files00110.QC.jpg'
5bb27b2ed7682b4bd0c05d0f15a4dfd4
7150d85ce6e7fc1d66939f13410b3f9f108055b8
'2011-12-12T23:05:27-05:00'
describe
'2911628' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURR' 'sip-files00110.tif'
7bccd16e70dece31969bcd8caf5cbd1a
c481692354cfea759479af3678ac21f420ba494f
describe
'1458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURS' 'sip-files00110.txt'
6a61a9bfd4aa68626924d1ff34c8458e
5f5847f1b411d3b3f3e6a7fc5f1f978ff6100abc
'2011-12-12T23:08:44-05:00'
describe
'31365' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURT' 'sip-files00110thm.jpg'
76a89b506a7e5500ba95578b302a7b83
e17d8b87d1d9e320e553269cb7ce978ce0010397
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURU' 'sip-files00111.jp2'
506b5c431ebc83f1f7f0469a30b36800
31093f6038a2b77dda03c2155322cb7dbb666f24
describe
'181973' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURV' 'sip-files00111.jpg'
b64c2433711d90c7d93644aea47d4686
e747b4b7b231753697b4702c929d4bc427ca5ee6
describe
'43272' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURW' 'sip-files00111.pro'
5ca1007d4187618b70178151cd6ae382
61f301e5703f3950d159b56195b6c1b5c64efbf7
describe
'71340' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURX' 'sip-files00111.QC.jpg'
caf0e0061f1b3b71e000a09b400352d8
19b475b7a399aa03a00d7e74db8a9a6ffad45ae4
describe
'2911640' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURY' 'sip-files00111.tif'
5ef3985928c7c57416ccee979093d298
8344122d1963f21277c11a0ec144328939a678ea
'2011-12-12T23:08:29-05:00'
describe
'1706' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAURZ' 'sip-files00111.txt'
1d17288de5cf547c5f5a9e957a630640
ab689a93d871f404dc307684f684749e4c48c082
describe
'32287' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSA' 'sip-files00111thm.jpg'
2bc2cca4c9e4d87c8d58335e270748de
c8821983ebc269e58f81453c40c1ce2cfb2cd29e
'2011-12-12T23:05:42-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSB' 'sip-files00112.jp2'
8de4838dae65626d2cad26b641c73a38
31a117e1e40a36f4974c9774967a39989bf8bc37
describe
'179212' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSC' 'sip-files00112.jpg'
15dee3b487712b99bf45cd2d177d75f5
b0935b1a6a462c05139ad6ce905cb2c52a6f4584
describe
'42698' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSD' 'sip-files00112.pro'
48744cf9358b7a0ffc8cd89c9846e84c
5f62911cdbfc8ef4513de042f9d917a78f20caef
describe
'71173' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSE' 'sip-files00112.QC.jpg'
7ac57fd2bb980ee84d09748c08dbd42b
a525fa2208de12369b23054d151f6c2791a6ec38
'2011-12-12T23:09:33-05:00'
describe
'2911724' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSF' 'sip-files00112.tif'
5bedd727f49a289d3f11a20a81d32869
aa2978ffb2fec5c8d176caa376e4b456d0fc42ab
describe
'1684' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSG' 'sip-files00112.txt'
4ec243200948318e85eabb018a9ada79
a2eaa7c88104dbd4e2478d6f0f74b7f15d5dbfdb
'2011-12-12T23:06:11-05:00'
describe
'32369' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSH' 'sip-files00112thm.jpg'
d9f0678eb02078aa0625d7aca99103f0
6c9155cc628410ce5add1de573e9138235d808d5
describe
'361262' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSI' 'sip-files00113.jp2'
d294afe8570fa8a47e7e82c715f3b54b
04c970b29777a0eaf42640a5375d97deb591d462
describe
'180053' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSJ' 'sip-files00113.jpg'
f1edc1dc02058545b69447610c03229a
5c71b96987a85ef1758026223b3c44d9a5f7f78d
'2011-12-12T23:06:34-05:00'
describe
'42131' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSK' 'sip-files00113.pro'
dc563a46a8a7e2f87a6d0f12a39617f0
15f1fb4a6739d38b3a7699b772257d6b4c8487f0
describe
'69795' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSL' 'sip-files00113.QC.jpg'
73a36121a12a10b17f10f94404657a91
6549838d4865cefef30008f3c1b984b678827e91
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSM' 'sip-files00113.tif'
350929be0c4ca4c852a501cb484657d9
4a732428c91116e7e63e77feb9aa26163615753f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSN' 'sip-files00113.txt'
2e795b22ae2838749f444f71e17d0312
371f104d5d98ba8940b1eccb2fd91fb5c8c64731
describe
'32121' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSO' 'sip-files00113thm.jpg'
b59aed6e80f5af77e0f405c0f2a67434
850414148d9ba97bc23f5751ff7149b3dc0a1450
'2011-12-12T23:06:01-05:00'
describe
'361295' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSP' 'sip-files00114.jp2'
0d5b710d86f49803f2adc006d4fa6a2f
ffbae6c831f8a346b330911eeb6e30d657cdb1fe
describe
'169514' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSQ' 'sip-files00114.jpg'
27aba1254882b8940ea3aa5a498559ac
78678b997b05db38c2092facc95ad50415e53f0d
describe
'33571' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSR' 'sip-files00114.pro'
6168be2f591cf2be472281bd08938553
f6482ac966b7a842ff679315b2399c29effb1e31
describe
'66423' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSS' 'sip-files00114.QC.jpg'
69701ebb8f600afb0a639c26c2f30fc7
65b6d567fa1f43eaee4911f26605516462821386
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUST' 'sip-files00114.tif'
7c8e6ff5359792fb712ec18e999cde9d
0ba1d7f4c1273d9a29bc54704ae2889cd69004a2
describe
'1396' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSU' 'sip-files00114.txt'
c8c9070162cbc79c921fd1eab3f2fd28
da36e1fc7b7d83ee45cc7b3a1c278d8b419177c9
describe
'32012' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSV' 'sip-files00114thm.jpg'
a4aba5f9e482ae56fb983affe01c38a7
942202755ff3ec9f9cbfa4d8de804cd513e0d607
describe
'361263' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSW' 'sip-files00115.jp2'
fdefe72b3a3849cf5fcf06d9f5c1cfaa
2c18c3e7725e25e5f4262f9c1d9846404c016965
describe
'180723' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSX' 'sip-files00115.jpg'
864456df73516f5fe0e8e7476b4055a2
bce98d433656ad4f230315fcd28a00156f27c747
describe
'40862' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSY' 'sip-files00115.pro'
6f32e60dcb24801d13acbc9b06cf3d7a
1a208536b2478ec8fbdd6aced2ebd427e9213896
describe
'71933' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUSZ' 'sip-files00115.QC.jpg'
0f85954a767df49ffbb790d811a2a1ad
6aa4eefdcf2717f0f218d6888a6a8a45c2e73324
'2011-12-12T23:07:37-05:00'
describe
'2911608' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTA' 'sip-files00115.tif'
72a491a846ab16710027ba9cb1cacc8d
dc47c95d0c566a1a921f8599ef48d035d4b30372
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTB' 'sip-files00115.txt'
2ae3b173825c4fd8ce3c627228c7c8cb
5717e1c3bd2b619c4d1c81c98432515997c5c5cd
describe
'32394' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTC' 'sip-files00115thm.jpg'
438b770281012d21e7042b83f89c165f
c89b1b91a7fcbdf6640b2acd204633cc92660c72
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTD' 'sip-files00116.jp2'
90fd7e83ee068198988d9b4412d122a1
e17c1f43ecde6c832e6eca23a2e07186c2fa991a
describe
'109874' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTE' 'sip-files00116.jpg'
985ab3973fa29faa41b68b23c63eb062
d7e39b314c59eafe727310ee0892f85365fe3267
describe
'22861' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTF' 'sip-files00116.pro'
b6bc0bceaa3545e6d3523a0890bfb00a
9e56bf1ebddeb42169a50202d18384de4bc34e65
describe
'47331' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTG' 'sip-files00116.QC.jpg'
e08a1121ec4d0d514ec8e3704c65938d
0a14bc42715df2a5a587c531dff15ca64a9e60fa
describe
'2909808' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTH' 'sip-files00116.tif'
cdd8b4ab6ffa6989e7d62c3c6c45150a
8caa6f861bc811517b942cec50fc889aff1d399a
describe
'911' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTI' 'sip-files00116.txt'
186110e42e7e2b724aab42e76cab7ed3
feb467579d226cef14d800fb9286942c76361231
describe
'25951' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTJ' 'sip-files00116thm.jpg'
f76c44a5338e109bddc7446202106e10
0756fa326e1039c20f8dceb898bcae20c0cc9a54
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTK' 'sip-files00117.jp2'
8eb820a71f7b9afc0b8361232e92d2e8
482fba46bbc034f34c622fef50a45868719c8ab5
describe
'145972' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTL' 'sip-files00117.jpg'
0594f9299d616ef2404b72e2034e89d2
d5f90f12fa9ad3a5daf2e09d7c93d64c4366bdab
describe
'23226' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTM' 'sip-files00117.pro'
57c94bcab54ab8894501b972d0eaf2d8
4b4d8cd4ed56531487d83f417ffc8f2c1dd076df
describe
'56333' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTN' 'sip-files00117.QC.jpg'
9360d543864a398c40ca8b16232d73b8
e141fd0dbd7613e515613386665b77dbc40cf466
describe
'2910724' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTO' 'sip-files00117.tif'
38d6bf0ed16d18afc7e25be74531fc72
a4b4ee92334d509000aa7976f99d3f3474a11334
describe
'1188' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTP' 'sip-files00117.txt'
60ab91b02b94681d659ded56f2222a53
002b032900ba6b3061dd1e0c5ef699942bf7ea0b
describe
'28957' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTQ' 'sip-files00117thm.jpg'
3b3247f6ede7bd673d728b02080e910d
f53321cd222b8e6677437f5a9d71cdcebba981fd
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTR' 'sip-files00118.jp2'
a136dc84995344744d88f932eb5dfbb7
ef7d5bae773882f212210d3e7dbc5e0cf8319f60
describe
'178488' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTS' 'sip-files00118.jpg'
5f58082b36d059750fecd59590f144df
b33d8de5d48209e4a92fc601be5ca60354833e71
describe
'21502' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTT' 'sip-files00118.pro'
e3d406d6fc913dccf8b58cbbeda86d21
bcdf6172f259851703eadecd9fdf0aa6f16df009
describe
'62939' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTU' 'sip-files00118.QC.jpg'
9ff9d7b020d8ef4973d25f37b1906ae9
f2fa3533bd3e1968d62df1188cd33b180b170c03
describe
'2911312' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTV' 'sip-files00118.tif'
8258aafe3cf7c10b60459f961e2db5bc
a547666c194c10004d20710a6add9ed7547166f4
describe
'909' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTW' 'sip-files00118.txt'
7930d112e2ad7494f864f30c4698bee4
7db4d2e334526fc0ceca69442bb5c184fcc1da9c
describe
'30513' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTX' 'sip-files00118thm.jpg'
f99aa3db0f3718e0b960a039934dabea
721dcd031ae67b86b6f840c05c572859010df12d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTY' 'sip-files00119.jp2'
57afb35272c48ccb46441394c2b74aab
d5e64e172f44771dc9cd61d3edf9664e96a77988
describe
'179417' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUTZ' 'sip-files00119.jpg'
ee434534fd76d90cb0a071fb80a61faa
2ce7e884124e4e37d01dce20f943dedffe02f5a2
describe
'42234' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUA' 'sip-files00119.pro'
6521078cee35480b808b3d8d2606bd40
bdc8bf7d13793e40924c97fec6932d67d24d7621
describe
'70433' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUB' 'sip-files00119.QC.jpg'
d1012703ef4d9c8fcfde51136dfabb1f
36093c1e875d7816cb941a47167a0d9e79bfcc62
describe
'2911576' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUC' 'sip-files00119.tif'
47ff4867d4d5c4db8c535fbd7e2bd2d8
37bc9575db4dd7d0b7709808cc3a2a35c712cc64
describe
'1671' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUD' 'sip-files00119.txt'
153c49b8fb78d8827d327c7fa0f3c821
9854c985a56cc0343349b72f7c9938ee175c1f7d
describe
'32051' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUE' 'sip-files00119thm.jpg'
c7806e59bec715f4ed0aeed504eeebea
771ed7f667ada0503d214d4da682fb1fb5ce94f5
'2011-12-12T23:06:08-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUF' 'sip-files00120.jp2'
a207592d00c6b7df53845d3ce70645f4
c7fafae27397aee1c319289fd418246046da6c44
describe
'177295' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUG' 'sip-files00120.jpg'
f1c62695327598a4cb9907bf94402765
77915f4b0a0b807877c40549b8ca05df24678392
describe
'41445' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUH' 'sip-files00120.pro'
b2d7f41888067214c22739f550b6524d
a169a017fe1feb0a307910dd192de0b20bf2635f
describe
'70335' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUI' 'sip-files00120.QC.jpg'
17fc1a94a7c90ab2629e96c825a2bbf5
6d9763ef1b9903131bc9adbe8edf4d55a88ee91f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUJ' 'sip-files00120.tif'
0aa031718f3c3e5ce592bc7ef3269bd6
c67f00df2baeed7a60cfd87d96b1ea77d64729f8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUK' 'sip-files00120.txt'
9f28f7ee51284be06df06a5dc2f88bb0
c7e695084d325640115f29797964143d4641f1f1
'2011-12-12T23:10:01-05:00'
describe
'32099' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUL' 'sip-files00120thm.jpg'
382929262edaa278a40c827cb818d188
37cffdc25ff2dec97c192f44e9b748080070b475
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUM' 'sip-files00121.jp2'
ca229e882a9286247a7eaaf431b4a4ee
1131838491be27077ddf94839a7d82f2bfdf1b2d
describe
'159317' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUN' 'sip-files00121.jpg'
ce5c45635deefd8c80c8f12d2a84155d
5fa44902dd5599b82f10b33bbad9996422d7225c
describe
'28302' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUO' 'sip-files00121.pro'
909bbb476be5c126753287108415b6f4
7e4739b290843c8f7a7615fa0671e79a6d0ca4da
describe
'61681' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUP' 'sip-files00121.QC.jpg'
fbeb9cc1d7a395540310db6e335d369e
0204b0ec98e97ebb9e38943a983aa550074601f7
'2011-12-12T23:08:11-05:00'
describe
'2911152' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUQ' 'sip-files00121.tif'
4f543c40f09a0e9492d7003866725e72
acc63fd039445290e6634288e8ab6e3995b38889
describe
'1175' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUR' 'sip-files00121.txt'
0a06ecfcdb1cbe584d5ebfa30b929b2c
b204d57e153f1503f1cfd65bc41960a8180527b5
'2011-12-12T23:06:45-05:00'
describe
'30347' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUS' 'sip-files00121thm.jpg'
e4bcf9fec99e3f0b5d6bf937a6ff7bb6
96b8bdceeb21971e1d5e63444b810dc73e97a52d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUT' 'sip-files00122.jp2'
4fde6077291eba1ed873424ec7c26f52
ffdc126968e2b09c7321df155c27765eade0bfc6
describe
'179764' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUU' 'sip-files00122.jpg'
6f311f70e9b50f7e148fa4563bfc1e68
56f7369567f63d36df3a592b7436975954b7f710
describe
'43042' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUV' 'sip-files00122.pro'
33ef73866820cbce1f620cce0c93944c
5889cda5a6d493bd87192faf3f574aacdffd171f
describe
'70053' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUW' 'sip-files00122.QC.jpg'
397164ddfa0e928593ecc153272219b7
af47ab926cf3fc1ed29ed325cb5bd3a0a29bad32
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUX' 'sip-files00122.tif'
605a1800596f1e6c65ed3b07177da6cb
adedc93e1433e00d5710a8a53749ce459260c9b8
describe
'1735' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUY' 'sip-files00122.txt'
fc78f9f95682662db7944c43bbd2b66d
323e3a44e68064c3437f21ea654bfb0c3f0d9114
'2011-12-12T23:07:24-05:00'
describe
'32521' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUUZ' 'sip-files00122thm.jpg'
4f9c939e1be0091b7e1d81eb46814d30
a944d8d6bbea7ab44431abb0a6fc1c6279d78ec7
describe
'361220' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVA' 'sip-files00123.jp2'
be962d9e218d9014465af2d2ce6e4e18
134785abbad0f66d2360d219d2ead8eccca05f4a
describe
'183658' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVB' 'sip-files00123.jpg'
7cbb99d0fe1f728f2e1384be55824b1f
79d4cecd4f9233f4b00345c9809bd778bcfcb5f3
'2011-12-12T23:08:10-05:00'
describe
'41633' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVC' 'sip-files00123.pro'
207e10ad14b0f91586718621f0f08949
0b8ccd88fbf4a402d8d7e3b39f14de8d8a6a9bb7
describe
'71154' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVD' 'sip-files00123.QC.jpg'
3a1b9ae452804c4d854fecc2780504dd
d9a8f8cc46bd6c0573ed49abf336dee15e430416
describe
'2911652' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVE' 'sip-files00123.tif'
70605096cb1af366ccf5c0c651f9e100
a64d717ac171816f96be628ab901bcb771c32e86
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVF' 'sip-files00123.txt'
ac095f7cf8d65b0ae9687f498faa4eef
793074164c84baece8a378e9b8a773864d7135a5
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVG' 'sip-files00123thm.jpg'
3282e57e4f2c7eb78dec870a104288bd
083e1aebe63248ef815cc576c00005879cb936e5
describe
'361241' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVH' 'sip-files00124.jp2'
b9cfc04d6a0988a69eebbf5befd3aa55
6fe202757c407727b623a04c0508a4565df69d07
describe
'178645' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVI' 'sip-files00124.jpg'
4c6d071d4e86ea2cebe045c67ecb1ac9
a434406d8538e387a1b59a794c342901171b536b
describe
'41921' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVJ' 'sip-files00124.pro'
b9d5d2e747b8e7dd96bb50de3a13153b
660808f98f10c8a24f258798f6043ebb7aeb13e6
describe
'70209' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVK' 'sip-files00124.QC.jpg'
f48d30d8f356b49f938d38cb75f5ce85
c2d58d240c9d1adffa53761477f62292fa29b10e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVL' 'sip-files00124.tif'
6dc4caef3ef872e819fb93b219a90640
7868716b7d520697bd03ee5606a9257ade004c4e
'2011-12-12T23:06:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVM' 'sip-files00124.txt'
16fb159d29259c154de2e35834d2b9b4
696d50f134af880ac17968114f4aba51106203df
'2011-12-12T23:06:57-05:00'
describe
'32074' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVN' 'sip-files00124thm.jpg'
cc0a57916a6cf585ccd3f0dbad9c37b4
c7e0608daf1d9f3e0b612dab94329891f4c5c5bf
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVO' 'sip-files00125.jp2'
cfd64126d61c3969309f7ac610b20179
10f8ec60b93dad84dbd534df5475cc08bedc1974
describe
'181737' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVP' 'sip-files00125.jpg'
d5470fc6cb2d3d209019e1af100cf672
4f4e576e63c6f6127082f2462ac4b9f336639215
describe
'42338' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVQ' 'sip-files00125.pro'
8e70e6f98e428ac0d87f004e4cb51199
69c87092042e966a943aea0aa3fc41fc378160b3
describe
'70180' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVR' 'sip-files00125.QC.jpg'
81f8e1b2fa56815a77e58c955ff6cc31
69726486490b9b538ec611dcb05dc90e46ece2f4
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVS' 'sip-files00125.tif'
dbe3a23820692673d31909076132e008
c63173628724e31a56a0f53e2aa88f9aa88a0136
describe
'1676' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVT' 'sip-files00125.txt'
11d1eaa4c6280045343ef9e03538c94b
e06c43e8aa86dc4327252c3dd6378fa73521e359
describe
'31921' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVU' 'sip-files00125thm.jpg'
644b98900ba6776058015e0ce108f7a9
ffafe27cca688b8d313163e19348498a40772076
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVV' 'sip-files00126.jp2'
06c60a2dd5954ab5598415f281b9a060
b74044dc73d1f9b67495d6e5d5615261fc239cac
describe
'152393' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVW' 'sip-files00126.jpg'
1e83844e96f06f35b3cb7c7ca01761c9
e050dc6d0b48e67a302965ddfe9de604ee91508b
describe
'22011' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVX' 'sip-files00126.pro'
e64993493833961acd7c2f2a142acb79
a15b4873c320ba38fc64561e3a5049fa992a873d
describe
'55180' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVY' 'sip-files00126.QC.jpg'
bf2b7eb6e2443561b3abf2606ec6d068
7cf1a813a6bc7cbff077ec6a8a2760ac9adf1740
describe
'2911004' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUVZ' 'sip-files00126.tif'
d628ab23a4e8980c67c514947b83facc
d01941be19b40ed6fdf0ef7926aa9b396430ab69
'2011-12-12T23:07:02-05:00'
describe
'954' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWA' 'sip-files00126.txt'
3f66a36d5fbdd930beb8431bbccc4c96
34768e7c822fbaa77b3e9db7c3ff60d00300c1d0
describe
'29366' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWB' 'sip-files00126thm.jpg'
7d6e4224b818cdbf6a2d6abae4326b83
b6997189a3df974ea62f9dbe7d9ab512e81b9a35
describe
'361294' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWC' 'sip-files00127.jp2'
9e3e40b84bd92da1a67aa4b0a79d847a
261427f8e345a27b685a1f68dae3ec2c97d635db
describe
'181285' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWD' 'sip-files00127.jpg'
e84d680dbae6c30faec3a9d313675da6
368d3b95780041e02073e384574259ffdddea31b
describe
'42085' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWE' 'sip-files00127.pro'
321f5a9e27749cc6b815a725f01b3619
fe8d57722c854359e6f7294d6960772616757e1a
describe
'71323' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWF' 'sip-files00127.QC.jpg'
585143cb6344ae3d4f24dc5d1c0f0c17
c2b2f39a15638ae1ce50528bbaa3c713f82f887c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWG' 'sip-files00127.tif'
4278265dd046c55bb70efa5e9e08deca
f45265ae201eb7e79b5cffb7cebb91bb50e984d7
describe
'1726' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWH' 'sip-files00127.txt'
9e9d62744d4a96d7ff4c6ecb7d0ed407
93d9b35c8f823ba937b8a569201af4664074fa2f
describe
'32095' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWI' 'sip-files00127thm.jpg'
1432cf2740f1980ee18ecca946ca7af2
95533747f0a8a9d2c2f67694a68fcede748d1c12
describe
'361298' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWJ' 'sip-files00128.jp2'
b4dcdd2c22c7667d59505c10a97f8635
70ed08a38e3fd93be39142653d6035b4352b5e92
describe
'171966' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWK' 'sip-files00128.jpg'
bace46589bceddb3b19ff04353c936b3
b5581cf08da6f6b69df0c6319403847e0f9a10ce
'2011-12-12T23:06:23-05:00'
describe
'42376' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWL' 'sip-files00128.pro'
ada45eb157bc7b169bf4cdea0221b150
bcad460d53490e5075c77ea159d47c11109175a4
describe
'67724' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWM' 'sip-files00128.QC.jpg'
76846551fea49078111ed7f423787523
1de078bf7b6223637dd1784f04ec8ebf6f77de3b
describe
'2911136' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWN' 'sip-files00128.tif'
cccfc0cfe022c4e3f992735e5183a72d
43cb78289c76822feddbe8a0a827db7948c00adc
'2011-12-12T23:08:43-05:00'
describe
'1709' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWO' 'sip-files00128.txt'
d06b5f1d976af549abc246c8f5ce032e
3723353f7aca68f910f42396bbeef7a5f4c8c349
describe
'31007' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWP' 'sip-files00128thm.jpg'
0774ceb4932b029ab930a67d207a1a87
a8cc3e75e8251ec7bfb7c171be3afdf622cf8a73
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWQ' 'sip-files00129.jp2'
c0b8b2d438404ac0e679d5c168d0333e
f5a82ba2c371006370dd382b71438bc482497d11
describe
'165643' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWR' 'sip-files00129.jpg'
6cf73e810db3a7f73441d23dc2cba192
9bf4017b3d3c539b8e0d55d4696fe5e6be7795bc
describe
'34311' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWS' 'sip-files00129.pro'
be625c0d13b63ad87319fe3987dc6222
09fd10f65992627f41e8275419ed5b4219a6e4cd
describe
'62692' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWT' 'sip-files00129.QC.jpg'
d4489733ed27421b90d4fc481ac3f9d3
6e21433697ac70f0628b5d3a16c4fd00b0e83613
describe
'2911160' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWU' 'sip-files00129.tif'
7623f991746c6978657f434ae9ef1203
ad00c8a3a8706755546222d6f9e320b1518dbd8a
describe
'1482' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWV' 'sip-files00129.txt'
59efec175ed24f2d6a1bfc0cf85b8328
297b3d8d739880312527af2f11adcfca2188045b
describe
'30748' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWW' 'sip-files00129thm.jpg'
77eca9109a31bbd366e0b878a85be5e6
e0fc0cecbedb0d19f7e6ed5b13b5375965cea90c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWX' 'sip-files00130.jp2'
36d6bb492d8cd8a4832524d09df6d26e
51c0f29be427f147ae5b12537d0089d5e9d86e89
describe
'182596' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWY' 'sip-files00130.jpg'
171f6f15f91726a2642de1613a6a1b3a
69da9270076851720d15e242da9f4fcaaa23d8ac
describe
'32375' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUWZ' 'sip-files00130.pro'
2f74cca3bf5ba96425626847da679040
6396ed803a4eeb4c0b178a7daee71de829172e09
describe
'65778' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXA' 'sip-files00130.QC.jpg'
b9bc69656b12a4e6483867bd2b66f225
154623f8947de38cde63deb65f5a7f4579d14fd3
describe
'2911348' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXB' 'sip-files00130.tif'
84680ddb89b5c52dc9a7217495f972fc
75baa3c07fdc653d1633ed6a2d4aa2e32ff46104
describe
'1345' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXC' 'sip-files00130.txt'
c5d46ce7fd8c26e4b8f102f4031f707b
d1b1e9d24b975f84d130553d97b75b103f5a4982
describe
'30965' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXD' 'sip-files00130thm.jpg'
c7a07bb07c6b382a03dfce771d19485c
9dc45446ed8b202abe2935fbb12ffc9357e3e97f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXE' 'sip-files00131.jp2'
7146fa1922b22711a612530d5766c4af
13ec1f67fefd0048fbbdfe3d6326a8d7a628dff7
describe
'166889' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXF' 'sip-files00131.jpg'
32c15570da2d61cd54c852d2df8087ee
dc5281cc8321124f1251e327d26293e26ca0c931
describe
'30821' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXG' 'sip-files00131.pro'
1c850928d8c6154938f9ff70b15b1a40
6eee37fa4c75735add000a69270587f262361fba
describe
'64065' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXH' 'sip-files00131.QC.jpg'
59294deeee0be5eac42d8baac7880724
eea34b92c31210dcd41758609d3a851064b1b86a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXI' 'sip-files00131.tif'
b960ce89a29f8e592ebae50ebe4a2ad0
563354ecd372a9d959a46ef0dbc0cc894c7663f9
describe
'1673' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXJ' 'sip-files00131.txt'
f3ef035beb164c3a791904f3159f320e
4bb74dd272f502bf4e38016fd373dd111de28ab7
describe
'31587' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXK' 'sip-files00131thm.jpg'
4e9912fa8a29c6e5026c3ace2fbcd0fc
fc25a67a5ee8a23273b2e218036e392d0b71c62f
describe
'361261' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXL' 'sip-files00132.jp2'
edda4c60236011556af2df902877ef19
eacb60d7c6bb0909ab78b23d3398d7de37f5f672
describe
'179426' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXM' 'sip-files00132.jpg'
ed41b4e4342c37f9ebdd08b53bea55a5
739ac8aef699158c3a4aacdc938dfbe2e3ba5f6f
describe
'41533' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXN' 'sip-files00132.pro'
4480cb17640dcce189c1d6c49d77ea24
66e61c61232efa82211115bc5ffc23690b3808a4
'2011-12-12T23:06:19-05:00'
describe
'68611' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXO' 'sip-files00132.QC.jpg'
d8f3a334528a093a71db4e6a5646d27c
3aa7750da3f916d5917ea97fcf7a5107a5c016fc
describe
'2911244' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXP' 'sip-files00132.tif'
6f9b300bd0ac526c980c7fae6287a237
a14334cd68e2a98362d3058648a3816d093e615b
describe
'1703' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXQ' 'sip-files00132.txt'
40cc3cea6f6d59be2dd3d3f0e7cd3d76
d0789de1ff499e309b09a8f88e811e49863c99f6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXR' 'sip-files00132thm.jpg'
de1382b48794785d348b8ecc10a8247d
cba58c70e4a9d82e88b64adf4a0aad082d8f0ec7
'2011-12-12T23:06:20-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXS' 'sip-files00133.jp2'
429615b38a75aa02abee8fb7b4d43700
e6a21f39c22991fff8d5f0243e233746ec53b2ae
describe
'171862' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXT' 'sip-files00133.jpg'
c9734adcfe5e5c32544bb1f674bc7c48
f07d538204a122dbf12e836a0d415137e7c2dc08
'2011-12-12T23:05:02-05:00'
describe
'37708' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXU' 'sip-files00133.pro'
2d1933460986df2976e20ca32f379c40
cd35803eaedc7a0cfc7848ea2e1233b46c02293b
describe
'66288' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXV' 'sip-files00133.QC.jpg'
ecf7f192c506a3944411c1d6148de828
808fdf95c8eb70634d99b31e2916330f2e0a5de4
describe
'2911304' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXW' 'sip-files00133.tif'
8716b46cf7121157b289de492ab202e1
8a6268e550916f2f53f9a5666d778ba3f94aa39c
describe
'1704' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXX' 'sip-files00133.txt'
39ddb8fc28dedb39538813f8ad790ced
52f1f512ec5426a92aad2760207c8d1730b18748
describe
'31329' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXY' 'sip-files00133thm.jpg'
b5487bbd83c2d5470f149a50151311fe
1af8c6b03a20dde6f87c49d40429f8d260ffb665
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUXZ' 'sip-files00134.jp2'
8def10c34a976d254b8dc02522ad8b5e
123772ea1d3cac15b2f35aa25ec596f39dfcb3eb
describe
'170150' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYA' 'sip-files00134.jpg'
aeb1782e3413ad99cbf00df9b0e941a8
36191c95c292b02727a5fd20183e31dbc4d9587e
'2011-12-12T23:09:07-05:00'
describe
'41892' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYB' 'sip-files00134.pro'
9193226b5ee89105ba531b4678f5650c
690aa4cf9ecf9ac068fa544b17e4fe2856a7d954
describe
'66761' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYC' 'sip-files00134.QC.jpg'
2e33a332dd007c00c77afa79d10e2cab
6a5788eda3eccda5931df6b2be82f0f3730d53de
describe
'2911108' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYD' 'sip-files00134.tif'
972bac5635c4400ab52291c7db909c39
ffe11bd4b621c279ad80f2c66e3ed94e3ac02cb2
describe
'1716' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYE' 'sip-files00134.txt'
c3a8d00b98eac7641e3e93554e4ae64e
7d520f5f78046a307adecc568e17ddde9d102fd9
'2011-12-12T23:07:33-05:00'
describe
'31011' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYF' 'sip-files00134thm.jpg'
85add16435595b047a41440666532585
ace1b84099ef2981efd14659e77f19e70ede8648
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYG' 'sip-files00135.jp2'
11af5225fcd98a8cbf7154c9c3e396ec
c1d64b50a94ec872db6a6f5fd22a830e24deefdb
'2011-12-12T23:09:59-05:00'
describe
'177813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYH' 'sip-files00135.jpg'
06769423d9664b34935a91df72dc1de2
d5a76c87087c97366cf3f93c0c6f96034183d867
describe
'40537' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYI' 'sip-files00135.pro'
deefc91f11c2ecc51970095be98be3ea
10d112102a5a0f5d06a1a7e1a5a899154e98700d
describe
'68182' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYJ' 'sip-files00135.QC.jpg'
b66752d02e37d3c2cb5a1d227d1ed76c
08890b7fb4085ef310c76c333a2be9920b0a7ad6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYK' 'sip-files00135.tif'
2d0d5a1b431337b5f1c9a238eaef5047
5d9eeb1a91276e28e143a2dc99fa74f256886438
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYL' 'sip-files00135.txt'
39b23a0bd555444099679c2be0f55958
8091a00b44aef8178d81e92b774a1e7884c0a7c5
describe
'31538' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYM' 'sip-files00135thm.jpg'
1ea3345a9a9f11c8aa72c23c7c476751
e634b357a8e38def9eafbf41ea2bb96de45a6f81
describe
'361190' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYN' 'sip-files00136.jp2'
02560de73face4b0985daf65b41c6023
70802ed6ca980e96299484368c4afc4d9864e8d0
describe
'178648' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYO' 'sip-files00136.jpg'
ba691a248fd2c04874805adaa79fff1c
4888fe92fbeb87bbe4e1bf61137fefc3616c3285
'2011-12-12T23:07:06-05:00'
describe
'35239' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYP' 'sip-files00136.pro'
105dbb9bdffc59a8a4b75fd1af39df9f
bd990fc6355eac173de812a3827c1bd87fcc89b4
describe
'64603' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYQ' 'sip-files00136.QC.jpg'
fd0cf14f7b4e63417dcce48c51b449f1
506fdbf1f7614c2a667dcbd7666b8c1c0b0aefbb
describe
'2911420' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYR' 'sip-files00136.tif'
1b899e2e936bc88beb6e4e035f5028d8
87fd926ce0995798e3765f03dde3f1ec4bd67f86
describe
'1561' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYS' 'sip-files00136.txt'
761d2cfbb5f0e0c34baffbf83bd1a6a9
8bef22efbc02bff71513f7c33f2b0da2b8570544
describe
'31304' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYT' 'sip-files00136thm.jpg'
94aacde54a4b429d6cbcefc55fc6196a
76d971996f92e23ffe52a930b7794439325dc76c
describe
'361273' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYU' 'sip-files00137.jp2'
8c0374ada0d505ebac0f50fe8c9f6a7b
44f8d667883eeb2ef3a389ec809cdb594c02f783
describe
'168985' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYV' 'sip-files00137.jpg'
c28ba073b8f61e5ce445606dd92ae1fa
782be3f070e4449cc3ba7cc58312350cd0adaf51
describe
'37789' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYW' 'sip-files00137.pro'
9708170db1ab140bcf1f844ad66caf97
4c979bbf0728b882242a3e1c49add0c48cd5df6a
describe
'65322' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYX' 'sip-files00137.QC.jpg'
9d347ca4a619baf2b0fd4776a90ac0e4
a16ffd1ba17ab859fb4ee602c705e2616561397f
describe
'2910968' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYY' 'sip-files00137.tif'
bb0033959f77b3b05cfd2a3990ab9172
ed78363452bf64072c3436f92da0478d94b33657
describe
'1545' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUYZ' 'sip-files00137.txt'
c60408d8571e81080a16e645a6901ebc
5afc2469752c2a9bbe86f7902fe9806681b10587
describe
'30458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZA' 'sip-files00137thm.jpg'
29f13345c95f415923d0d3c647c730ef
53bacafd17a1c518fae5926ababf89fc02014a21
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZB' 'sip-files00138.jp2'
c73bc0bae4608c89cce237a74a722971
5dfdb27934b5f3305794a62cca4bb5831e9734da
describe
'141371' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZC' 'sip-files00138.jpg'
3bb6a339725e6c143bb20983c7a2696f
0e9e34b81968c54c0d018afd19b832b3b9965b2f
describe
'23510' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZD' 'sip-files00138.pro'
7cc62f7327296db7407574bb1822a809
facfa568695ada54f4cd99bd93039d571c34d904
describe
'54117' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZE' 'sip-files00138.QC.jpg'
8eeb10e11bb8187e67d7d06bff8bf1af
8e58af4c5bfb3040c906ce4c0264f70d16641658
'2011-12-12T23:07:39-05:00'
describe
'2910664' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZF' 'sip-files00138.tif'
35f236cb31634e7cd24c45989ffc6018
7b1ae5de02981c8729e1042c011d39393c7d3a98
describe
'1173' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZG' 'sip-files00138.txt'
e3e18c892f1cd3d0a9c66beb527bb0a0
a3315e9e8563c12eb2c4adeac42f1b62f5cac515
describe
'28674' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZH' 'sip-files00138thm.jpg'
bebe58e564dc68131e17717c9160f51f
421ffe58c3302e424b04e44741e27ed318996d6a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZI' 'sip-files00139.jp2'
7bab1feabcd7651567b6855f6d86d112
82ca4553039129e4e01064579f06f5ec572009aa
describe
'171765' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZJ' 'sip-files00139.jpg'
5dbc6155aa2b1e969e014641e154b6a4
aed0502801b30bb24364d6aba5ef61771a3cf261
describe
'41845' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZK' 'sip-files00139.pro'
fdae0ed6e6093b101a04ff3e384299d6
e7b5129fab255446c4c9b82f6d74bb0acc734ffc
describe
'67113' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZL' 'sip-files00139.QC.jpg'
f3a704ef621e3ace7c9c5e9b019da8be
e7a495d994ee457680858da9438acbc7a522c57a
describe
'2911232' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZM' 'sip-files00139.tif'
37194e836f3ad08f8c7903150a3b0d7c
0a115840f41811c3f0548b7be403f790e71fed74
describe
'1650' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZN' 'sip-files00139.txt'
592504f1c281210035363f5236cb2f73
44eb59bbaec5e18171a06fb7dff9e7bc4ec79e91
describe
'31092' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZO' 'sip-files00139thm.jpg'
98800df3af6679674d6ce707ede2d0d6
608ac9bdd07478b80aa3a2fdefa0849100147a86
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZP' 'sip-files00140.jp2'
c2f53b9801e07989e4a2e4d01da2317b
d7af6a466568666d28c2c534e261789e4a9c131f
describe
'173598' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZQ' 'sip-files00140.jpg'
3c7552ed1f1f3dcdecc1d0c8f170c089
e5d0b734f8c8ed7e8a25ecc772fd14b9dc9e68f1
describe
'43076' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZR' 'sip-files00140.pro'
88cb505be7a91eef23d64c10a8dff0ab
b5ae133bfa0d2bf9f9171a0e6454837d2a7423ac
describe
'67595' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZS' 'sip-files00140.QC.jpg'
22e0007718495b21ed46cce53c9a7ce1
8234ab8aa4bb525fb34bfdc2be401583fb975872
describe
'2911336' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZT' 'sip-files00140.tif'
abdfa5c8a86055a27397484ca2ddec98
72fa1368d01df3d2f4ef3f2b09eb2e394728c49e
describe
'1720' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZU' 'sip-files00140.txt'
bf37dfd2cb3accfb7b6bc67bcd6c660c
5bd33e39238520829502e403072982d8bdfffc9b
describe
'31044' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZV' 'sip-files00140thm.jpg'
01cd3e0165d535b3ebff912539b7d254
fadc37fe51de60053c97f0440ed200c9dcfc9381
'2011-12-12T23:09:30-05:00'
describe
'361234' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZW' 'sip-files00141.jp2'
495466eed82b2c360a3bb1b902b78ae6
240fd3f0e1a18927bf9a1c37fad840a3ca71080f
describe
'132782' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZX' 'sip-files00141.jpg'
48b9e613a4d08ac25e04204b441df1fa
fbfbe852580e9615924408b9eaee94b89aecdec1
describe
'21275' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZY' 'sip-files00141.pro'
110dea8288b5c9f481f750fdc379a92a
03f216fd4094f3bb903d2880b925e9e71b1f4093
describe
'52394' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAUZZ' 'sip-files00141.QC.jpg'
e5daefeaeaa45add056f709889ea6d40
5db1ed137a0162062ff53d171eb38dd9ecaf54e3
describe
'2910780' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAA' 'sip-files00141.tif'
3c0e95c7af85777133b60634f0a559ed
0307a455c7b9199a155aa280cc4b8b6a0c6f7283
describe
'899' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAB' 'sip-files00141.txt'
d7ae16837808a9e3dc818adf02ef5d0f
61ae4d9ec475b38197127dbaed764809bf175c62
describe
'28890' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAC' 'sip-files00141thm.jpg'
6bb1c20ceffdfe640b35c424180536fe
fb5fee9297282a95d243201fd78bbf013bfe2281
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAD' 'sip-files00142.jp2'
d4c69baad8b06434045aeb43db437657
1f6ff7c304014a3b0972771ab01d77a584793c34
describe
'180897' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAE' 'sip-files00142.jpg'
9dace80e2764f708b599a6db6df4670f
524c97f7a7cef97404a58b38b1bb47a881eba6d9
describe
'42689' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAF' 'sip-files00142.pro'
23dfb4723a93192478941a34b9291b4d
90312514a789fc6ecaeb5df27ba70b7e7c8272ad
describe
'69064' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAG' 'sip-files00142.QC.jpg'
ab682563389d39c268e61a0733b00360
3181d8fcab8177fddeca6da8ab3eef5df8dc68ff
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAH' 'sip-files00142.tif'
a1c3bce123f3cca5fc5fd592359b3408
e58da2cc22292b461f4b362cf67e58501f47113c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAI' 'sip-files00142.txt'
2c369c18e350512f8448b934eeec0edb
841de0fa7a6c66549104fae3bbe8150262a3fb4c
describe
'32343' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAJ' 'sip-files00142thm.jpg'
8e69db4bf3c15a30e2119c7b748e2de4
2988136e1c36c8b5fc0d056dc13bc880dde73d2d
describe
'361074' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAK' 'sip-files00143.jp2'
7c28d7228f4f9885ebdf7e1e8722a2c3
b4ee47efab69d074b3c5ccd844c9c40f06365062
describe
'164871' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAL' 'sip-files00143.jpg'
d8af564f72a38b9cf3160f8aeb606ba9
8b0b8fcb279c382f2351089c97eace3e8971daa1
describe
'22263' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAM' 'sip-files00143.pro'
d0786c1959642b0f41af11453348fe20
782b873e1abfa348333c56a451cb32312d148f13
describe
'56046' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAN' 'sip-files00143.QC.jpg'
23fbff356519fe501579cf99633917ab
3da7035074bc7fea2efe8a166b383c269c1bfc74
describe
'2910692' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAO' 'sip-files00143.tif'
65059ca071d4fb83aa8d539856a6dd2b
c6c3efa2c156ddfe1639bc8304ed86d379adcca0
describe
'925' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAP' 'sip-files00143.txt'
524d9d46fcbc222bdee699de2775991a
9c4168e29773902edff1b4879f02e35b627f405b
describe
'28907' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAQ' 'sip-files00143thm.jpg'
cbed81f9b8ab3edcb8714a4cb9131350
b86022ca0b0f066cd4e7f2e441bbe810580085a8
describe
'361257' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAR' 'sip-files00144.jp2'
9104b1ec8beb19fbcb2ef5de33f1df9a
9bc1f7c0e360d01f86b187d1fe60e03c187485d4
'2011-12-12T23:09:18-05:00'
describe
'183705' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAS' 'sip-files00144.jpg'
defdc6a0ddbfcee5eba15aa1bc804230
3d3f0e1c081709915e3e490c504ff933efb744a8
describe
'43721' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAT' 'sip-files00144.pro'
6b8437577f5176de8c20c40aa9d75ec4
304add0986e506c0abcf96b5fa8c92400aca2375
describe
'70170' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAU' 'sip-files00144.QC.jpg'
d2abe946e99b2025a8727ada852f255f
e866c4a77775b5217f4514f1c6e4f271149af7bf
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAV' 'sip-files00144.tif'
8426d1c9e934dafe7607c776577113ce
2bba37eb6e6888a093eacb8f2e444d056f7403b5
'2011-12-12T23:06:28-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAW' 'sip-files00144.txt'
4de1ae0a9e8975660da6d0bba3c0504c
57e164d38129b71efadca0e082990ca6c8e4cde6
describe
'31856' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAX' 'sip-files00144thm.jpg'
839fd36433ae8ae9d06932b9c2e2765c
b7f8bde4013cf0b1b9fee81b4471fb5656e71713
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAY' 'sip-files00145.jp2'
753094584f9626b911121cfe1765d514
6566e58ce0b0713b066633449033d30538711ab4
describe
'179850' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVAZ' 'sip-files00145.jpg'
4bb05cb5c5fd4e7cd6fddd59504bb81f
14a80b0d3a6f48a5ea097cfefef7f5c3b46dda9e
describe
'16027' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBA' 'sip-files00145.pro'
d959809f0ddb98dd6f03ea2ce9c7c36d
c519f90402627ba529474fad4cb72ae5057ba3a6
describe
'57118' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBB' 'sip-files00145.QC.jpg'
1faad27ade8a2c3d6a274cf06a2159f1
127f9d5b8c98c82e104894dce0e0cec2138d0f0a
describe
'2910768' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBC' 'sip-files00145.tif'
52b2bc89aad81e1c6938c902453a6f20
af74f418d30f1775ac0c11e7b0f3a4e257617f73
'2011-12-12T23:08:03-05:00'
describe
'735' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBD' 'sip-files00145.txt'
79581651351dbe32d236bc669f4d2dd4
ddda33806d068ee14454056ce50cedcff8f0f545
describe
'29102' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBE' 'sip-files00145thm.jpg'
cc0a513f298682f6d90301c32f30fd14
3494cfe2ababc5f2eaed978fd2332a195bae7e44
describe
'361247' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBF' 'sip-files00146.jp2'
ce683e481609fdbdba8db8c70cc0729d
59d93eef40a7befc98fa63936ce9c1c7d3194695
describe
'172638' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBG' 'sip-files00146.jpg'
0e4c40ee90d8e54eb826eaac18c6a0ae
cba340182f133cbf58ce35bfbf3ffbd36a54df0b
describe
'41872' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBH' 'sip-files00146.pro'
b69963b0890fc163155f0abadbea412b
5677246ad5343ad5d642cf5ef6878bef7ad79a52
describe
'67465' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBI' 'sip-files00146.QC.jpg'
f747e2b520d7ad3fa2772017e4c26178
39dddf556c022506ad1112e326ee290c2f659522
describe
'2911268' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBJ' 'sip-files00146.tif'
a65de9bfb519acb8b7beb0e55fe0f2c5
083c07de8df442ec17ed2fda0d576f0026e575bd
describe
'1707' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBK' 'sip-files00146.txt'
e4916d26a63b563edd66097cc3360fb0
6ca101723bda6a4960846b11847019613405fe6e
describe
'31192' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBL' 'sip-files00146thm.jpg'
9e1fa6abbe21ebaa6e581a86bcf4578c
49502f2a99e8ef90a607904773362a8e426e794d
describe
'361286' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBM' 'sip-files00147.jp2'
f8daad70ec4423e8c289380bc235e997
d930b8122cd30788b7e26b6049f61325ce922f06
describe
'180669' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBN' 'sip-files00147.jpg'
360ccb5ed57a9785345992e81ba01405
9398cf44272d085cda212941d0d3d9737f78ce23
describe
'43268' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBO' 'sip-files00147.pro'
ed68e42525ce59d25218db5c99d7bc4a
0d44d070d060a75d489edf745f84f7c111077f69
describe
'70011' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBP' 'sip-files00147.QC.jpg'
69bc2b22ce8625a06401981eb381fafc
2bcc81f7ebe4d8bb1b93d3fa7c5449a65fc8b565
describe
'2911444' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBQ' 'sip-files00147.tif'
681085d89e9520a3cef4b8d9363cee0e
84ecd67c4886a1e10a108d0a034d083b0b7ee3b8
describe
'1751' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBR' 'sip-files00147.txt'
43b304a8bf2cb51de33d6d8365d2c1bf
52be78a2de99c031724466c26c344cc39ec64754
describe
'31804' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBS' 'sip-files00147thm.jpg'
8b30af82fcdd6ea90f2bebee4a190a5b
47a6aabe99cbae2804f099bdcc270916850f88d5
describe
'18434' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBT' 'sip-files00148thm.jpg'
237ccbde9df8c6f7c1950e7897277b31
1e0b2ff5969606f33c42a358facebc0c932c5688
describe
'374154' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBU' 'sip-files00149.jp2'
91a9090bddccb325a3ffb98b57ebd924
74f0be5d8def25b7be75f556b2393efb8f7ce5b7
describe
'64185' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBV' 'sip-files00149.jpg'
9c2cb39fd285cfa8326ce02bce3ef6c9
96c6ddaa5a5ff69ff8e4b380a0eafe001f6abadb
'2011-12-12T23:08:04-05:00'
describe
'5250' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBW' 'sip-files00149.pro'
1af4e5c3ec2c07d364a79a274d8a9fc1
56ff073b488f6483f6bb667693c6cd6fbbd93b36
describe
'34356' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBX' 'sip-files00149.QC.jpg'
5a762dc9c2a0ced3490ac538c4489151
7531a636a23d276b605e8dfd2d0c52e435789252
describe
'9002512' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBY' 'sip-files00149.tif'
9c0216e6d8a622aaed33f844c789fd80
5cf78f3a94f46b89b81599957dab96475d0fd3d5
describe
'514' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVBZ' 'sip-files00149.txt'
c4faeb086530f4813d585c3e1d216fc0
a7ebc7361de63d5efb7a639c51af0fb910877237
describe
'25586' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCA' 'sip-files00149thm.jpg'
43125a42ed3bf46e306ec9001e5dd35a
65ed8541309c1d1fb710e7cc7cd813ee09cdd584
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCB' 'sip-files00150.jp2'
3b655637bda327f50817b81b1dba2e49
fafb67d59e1988cc21643389e687b6208a50d73a
describe
'183258' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCC' 'sip-files00150.jpg'
bfd3cb526f51b90ce948f135cca98022
831027c1980ed7c6b09b694f91aef25b9f0341ec
describe
'46031' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCD' 'sip-files00150.pro'
b078b3961d480947df556726778c5fc2
96c4370e7dd3e5f77dcd17bac38754df14bb073e
describe
'69108' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCE' 'sip-files00150.QC.jpg'
5baaf43b747e478510e61181b99d7d05
7b5171e700bc26942cc2a0f614491ee6025f90f8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCF' 'sip-files00150.tif'
c0837b83da0b89a7c6420d467c9b5f7b
7207bf74382980b3c907147099e269af1b3e4bae
describe
'1832' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCG' 'sip-files00150.txt'
34e1890140b12ccd8e485268d7528317
63515f0b34254ab36c87d5839cfc3d57e7b6f399
describe
'31759' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCH' 'sip-files00150thm.jpg'
209e071a5b90604fe07d5b2c1eb8ca97
56c0677024693d040165882ce56cceec6e860bd3
describe
'361102' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCI' 'sip-files00151.jp2'
fb2b2fa9ef567956e393c455cd34b207
6e4dde8b687cee833a41012146b3e73e8bbe0e75
describe
'132136' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCJ' 'sip-files00151.jpg'
b99f058836444852a4f1bf5a8173a4b5
640d7122d6fc8a603fd5d39b3385607a9d359041
describe
'22870' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCK' 'sip-files00151.pro'
a3f64b039b82c04d244692de2b49823e
7641634c345f74be3913a967c5d196346e3c2612
describe
'52607' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCL' 'sip-files00151.QC.jpg'
f4cf2cc3ec26df3e4c8aef97be2dbdaf
70a7fa2db3f359cd9932197313c0384813529b7e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCM' 'sip-files00151.tif'
f28cef250a11655edb8f3d4a79019fbd
950b5d831359ddd70bc873e889ee3b26d511daca
describe
'1012' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCN' 'sip-files00151.txt'
85b9d35f37754f2c8220c2c1385676f1
d372558c0cf3020bb352575c911f0fb0fb792aab
describe
'28445' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCO' 'sip-files00151thm.jpg'
112d4e27a3e76f1a01cfa8757770a038
23f86d7d6192ef497706b25e85f692ec7f904666
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCP' 'sip-files00152.jp2'
d27a33d9158df20827811de17007711c
d1055b8cf04aea900dcc4b7ea44e27cb1445e15d
describe
'188222' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCQ' 'sip-files00152.jpg'
288f8242584ff213a41b34d181114ddc
098cf450ff91f9d54575b219e026c0c5e30b1854
describe
'43479' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCR' 'sip-files00152.pro'
b2945197aaa9474b8fb634a74526bc99
bece67b6bb542a5e4a80b43d5a4ef293b56b2121
describe
'72264' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCS' 'sip-files00152.QC.jpg'
dad91f3b31a0b9adf2bb5a2de67d413e
dd045ab26d64dd827ee30cc498f09a876627080c
describe
'2911936' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCT' 'sip-files00152.tif'
3f5c5a80ccded232c191ba6dd0d974b7
4a2a49a307719937646ec965d4002ddd00d36007
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCU' 'sip-files00152.txt'
eb3ab148eb3f33e39846b6d0c9d1a568
4de661228d404453ded1a6a628960121d2abf85e
describe
'33123' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCV' 'sip-files00152thm.jpg'
fb520eaf09c84e3eec1b4839d073a84c
40e75f2184f5fe2138154772670057268f47ed09
describe
'361285' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCW' 'sip-files00153.jp2'
8f6136fa90668f682a880ed578771d74
ae8f2254848d699601b5814a0d3a91a98e3ac016
describe
'184219' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCX' 'sip-files00153.jpg'
a490d21465877a55199029da34404206
f8a9620265413d09e4a6169bd00dd4fc010d7dc4
describe
'43834' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCY' 'sip-files00153.pro'
a9c642eb53760eba56faca5373871a97
06835d67fe3927b4c8240a219c42f60046c17947
describe
'70630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVCZ' 'sip-files00153.QC.jpg'
04875bdd4acfe1fea9c6bc5cba2b5ca3
8089aae91bb1a60ad68f6d4ee9107a215b2640cc
describe
'2911796' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDA' 'sip-files00153.tif'
e4c24b25b3e84b604912bcc6855c1f51
d1fae32c7f4902e2698c9987656a7121868e5e28
describe
'1740' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDB' 'sip-files00153.txt'
c5632135ff9f9b137da2ee35fb946d3b
09c41c94442e10833c4a83265136d3f60a67e1dd
describe
'32322' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDC' 'sip-files00153thm.jpg'
3f03ea1c93372924e47ce7de83155d74
c871f13956761a11a2d4249eeb7e09b161527df6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDD' 'sip-files00154.jp2'
93a5172eace3b9d05cd13023faa62e4c
c8a3870df86a715bc8fdc148737391563e4a03f4
describe
'186938' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDE' 'sip-files00154.jpg'
c52a5c5d31cdb5d22a4795b7b0928225
a23b7b5a77d45f8158fe4183afba5fe36c5a0ccf
describe
'43332' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDF' 'sip-files00154.pro'
aa7c1e07de803c43b4abd7648af7aa80
7b3dde5c92b86ec09de5703e9a264a27a0e235a3
describe
'71126' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDG' 'sip-files00154.QC.jpg'
73c32a521e481716e79d0241085e9771
f6443e42ea302a1c2eff3b1f6d37bb7018192e9a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDH' 'sip-files00154.tif'
779a5106e5e762c97af1e856f2fab412
39f1a548445979a82da95796a1ef41ae720b5abc
describe
'1729' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDI' 'sip-files00154.txt'
9f0dcda92714cb34c3b29cd9f5e81f15
46acde4ffa0243911300e40f4b91ab645d39cc01
describe
'32479' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDJ' 'sip-files00154thm.jpg'
00368a56d8b407a8a66b1258b0e713b3
0d46f6437186b9d0d189f04ddd9d717b7936c46d
describe
'361246' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDK' 'sip-files00155.jp2'
b58228e64d241fdadfd471e949c507ac
47ae94c10c0e7f48db69df97dd3177674a3ab644
describe
'142516' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDL' 'sip-files00155.jpg'
23f3f0e780fb190f4ca594c3d5184f37
18fa367d8420b6d2bcac224c5e5563f44ce13e1d
describe
'19649' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDM' 'sip-files00155.pro'
b0b33a8eadd722083ea20283cab211f9
77d4d5770f0469184daa67e62b6ffeaf496c1cb4
describe
'51833' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDN' 'sip-files00155.QC.jpg'
689f8b2cf18d36fdb0e9fe193a3830d5
3fb65d22b6aa911338e0fbf237f3ee714630cd79
describe
'2910820' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDO' 'sip-files00155.tif'
48d3629dbfdd6d0f9f290c477eb96137
43f6d9d6ef8df44be047c316e2c7d84aa640687b
describe
'876' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDP' 'sip-files00155.txt'
a81249af369ce1ea96991a72d20db768
4df2534f9f11ee1cbe691275d705df9278eb2b3c
describe
'28627' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDQ' 'sip-files00155thm.jpg'
76ab02ce710648f5395cfc205688b889
14b3c732d226083f7550f11ef82a4af8ccf25d78
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDR' 'sip-files00156.jp2'
79a08637606483839d9a28cf7699332e
51843ce7e222c171186f7adcff5ee895a5c67277
describe
'177770' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDS' 'sip-files00156.jpg'
6cff33d40e6b30a2ab85bb924d663c09
7fc95dfc43cbdb7702e384178672af40d627a30e
describe
'41903' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDT' 'sip-files00156.pro'
73cc971caec109820d69c632c439cf72
db3f9e0ac757f8a2435ff6f0505b2307c1e1e60c
describe
'69242' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDU' 'sip-files00156.QC.jpg'
3b205b759d4ebcefd1a019b68ac4b84d
e27929c78c609d227b52bd11b238c145c72967e4
'2011-12-12T23:08:37-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDV' 'sip-files00156.tif'
a69aa10e49a6536b7a37a0054257af76
aa04935be929be0f03c862f403b4b5588f2164cb
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDW' 'sip-files00156.txt'
28e499bdcb890dc964838b8d7420d76f
a0862dc7b9c495e2f4423a37ea0ce52c000b5b86
describe
'32143' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDX' 'sip-files00156thm.jpg'
7657305fd02685eca2aa4198fe793a7d
198861c105033b93e633074865ebf04b3b6856dc
describe
'361250' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDY' 'sip-files00157.jp2'
0d8410d87be1ac45ccc033c589ea1230
676a6c2f524b64db27d1f8b469ca28dce95b5741
describe
'172366' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVDZ' 'sip-files00157.jpg'
2c0181d1d912123bb17cf845260ae08d
06de34fe5d7aa6cb7d90d8fdc0fc49d65096b92e
describe
'32893' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEA' 'sip-files00157.pro'
256f0378c4e1de9ebe8942a8ec3dc0a5
d235d573a6eaa1689004953f369231f624d24a1f
describe
'64821' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEB' 'sip-files00157.QC.jpg'
e8c4953718eb7b78c12d6b8e5aa1a62c
ca5cf10909753d8c58951b077d7c1f0cde0059af
describe
'2911440' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEC' 'sip-files00157.tif'
92f16e77bdb91efc70362e2f7e896569
8734b264e728c01540544a88468010d58edece9b
describe
'1375' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVED' 'sip-files00157.txt'
f9f649df7bb9bfe84cfbe1e4e3e408f6
3c6365a82a7b165d23c98f64faf8c1c8271584a5
describe
'31185' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEE' 'sip-files00157thm.jpg'
b1a1e22204413081feffab826cdd5494
58fc66b58727a1b905b9164abf94ebe95bc7d4c2
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEF' 'sip-files00158.jp2'
2349a56db5e023320af8e403d55ac922
31167a5595e5aa95b4d52023e47ca3e28be2460a
describe
'180413' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEG' 'sip-files00158.jpg'
a964d57bac982a649a05b0200e88229f
a544f6cb986ac402706f0a6cd17ca658405fd009
describe
'42559' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEH' 'sip-files00158.pro'
f3901bf4cd1f8ce7602e148bd9e465b6
a25cc0d394dcbd3828a93d7b3c085708be84516a
describe
'69729' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEI' 'sip-files00158.QC.jpg'
078783a1d844fa1b1d13570d64f7f069
166467acda53f3aee76b7676de19c7f8f1f1d562
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEJ' 'sip-files00158.tif'
ccaf4f093c9a1fa45f324cdde3df224a
d728cf7458fa11000a93caf2d66be5446c345a35
describe
'1693' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEK' 'sip-files00158.txt'
81016f20af5fd16bf450c94e6977708d
32261f7c06b976dfa0ccd10d1ad6ecbdbbc164df
describe
'31934' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEL' 'sip-files00158thm.jpg'
778c6b570acd14edc3723260cbe400f6
e548e400ba30fe38311462c4b36a78c90cb64501
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEM' 'sip-files00159.jp2'
e014e9dd12b1fc59d5c96f89067fe58f
5f07abb3e3c982f3ba55cc742def9d6b992618b2
describe
'176662' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEN' 'sip-files00159.jpg'
ae33f0fd072314e06df9d7ae271a30b0
2a01bd6d6cdc37da8b7714281ace896d6b7cfcf1
describe
'17565' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEO' 'sip-files00159.pro'
f3551bf7c3997cd9c346853060ba94ae
826344a3066aee1103414ccb7dba2325f51b6cfa
describe
'59577' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEP' 'sip-files00159.QC.jpg'
81bbf42d5244398d8705c4010e098a54
90bad15bb6b0f8cf3144a911fb390a0df10f766e
describe
'2911456' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEQ' 'sip-files00159.tif'
25118bdd4ca327b544ff1dfa106a98a6
b1f87587c02a45d5053636e39e1f38d0b3986317
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVER' 'sip-files00159.txt'
9c602a02a683778c237b5ed20c7bf870
c5916f702d8f2a83f43714763e7b1443c653ecfe
describe
'30634' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVES' 'sip-files00159thm.jpg'
140afc879fec5b9135f8ffcf6621ff2d
5f3b3c4f546aec9df83524a30b1ad6cef0a90558
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVET' 'sip-files00160.jp2'
72183b9a1d4d465935a6ff87afc55a62
1dbe3219c5dc2b586aca2c8a7220975f1bee5327
describe
'180055' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEU' 'sip-files00160.jpg'
9ab9da765b1a80e29855cd57d432c0d7
98394f06fa3b5c67af5651d5b2943dbf691079cf
describe
'42746' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEV' 'sip-files00160.pro'
b38b94031d3f2583e5f00fd07a628545
7b6d12e1701b7f099be868bd41728964fc094ce2
describe
'69597' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEW' 'sip-files00160.QC.jpg'
8ea0e5ecefeda6a31e1af51e8c8332d4
927e4e73447d24810901d2911e4b2eea78692f48
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEX' 'sip-files00160.tif'
40aca0f2dadb666c623ae7c00e48067d
9ce04cf6a13c6e7608ead3e110b7fb607e0f17b9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEY' 'sip-files00160.txt'
13fe5d668802236c1d9dddce4c50348d
bc582537184c2f6e4ef32597de50cec564456f51
describe
'32201' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVEZ' 'sip-files00160thm.jpg'
de4946239651b17629a5464a0d56cf55
63b5fd53fa8f1c74e78a57dd4fba3ab859d06483
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFA' 'sip-files00161.jp2'
2bcd46affc9b2541ec180655243fd153
6917a9d8bd5bbbc94a197ef2a8d41bbd606f2caf
describe
'178978' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFB' 'sip-files00161.jpg'
9ad512ba23ef68330abba0b0baf12fbc
29256db83a8686f1ca4eaabcc28e89ad1b4987a4
describe
'42703' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFC' 'sip-files00161.pro'
53b558d430c10f7e54fb784e70da45f4
99728069b3993f6e49b62b9770f851e59fc6bb5d
describe
'69058' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFD' 'sip-files00161.QC.jpg'
36869f6da63b190789903275554468a6
aa8431a04ad42c505e287489d7e7ae8e3f067db7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFE' 'sip-files00161.tif'
82226c0d12b8787cad4c7be6f872b727
65c7639747cf47377db1bdada5b9f8860221eb56
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFF' 'sip-files00161.txt'
4e816928d3e99e4180e10d6beb1ac2bf
5362f9c90ef86231123bd7f0b89522d2b58d8261
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFG' 'sip-files00161thm.jpg'
4ace95e6b2cf45b7b523b57c217eddc6
6840836552aadaee0f7db3bbf958aca38ff09f17
describe
'361229' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFH' 'sip-files00162.jp2'
d0814e02a7f4fc805c8e7302c210e791
ae7ead1506f405ff6262c2e5ac84aadfa1301230
describe
'183839' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFI' 'sip-files00162.jpg'
ff688105317f1d47e779d4badd599f82
300b199fb45af17ca8e5fe3fbee2969a0d460200
describe
'43075' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFJ' 'sip-files00162.pro'
9ed57093f1aaf1e9932846b9971179a8
866a1bbd3075478e2b525a19f222e629fd7c3a29
describe
'71565' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFK' 'sip-files00162.QC.jpg'
7dda4627b764e1711517fdc53344ba1d
d7a4b49c4e97bff5c18e24ea94e72dc02ccb11e8
describe
'2911756' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFL' 'sip-files00162.tif'
ba2377d69b9984a7b334de0ed6366aa9
572a317faa6f5490435b0dd6d96add47f18ea2be
describe
'1698' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFM' 'sip-files00162.txt'
35135eff93e603ccfb9c25ea5bac44e5
2a8a0521664f37d86ac7c297d0c6d88dd3e99fcc
describe
'32370' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFN' 'sip-files00162thm.jpg'
f332fa351b3cf7df2db33b499ea130dc
201ae2addd3eed06a8758ed1dd5402356b241161
describe
'361213' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFO' 'sip-files00163.jp2'
a70befd11f42175684505ae427e28dc3
acd7eebc663fc06e8b24e56b952f112494f20cc2
'2011-12-12T23:06:58-05:00'
describe
'184981' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFP' 'sip-files00163.jpg'
650fedfa39c2256912447719f7099ff6
ff1f3c8068c0fc61f1607837037a32287928fcc6
describe
'21618' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFQ' 'sip-files00163.pro'
da9e872140d21096fa10a5fc6d3913d9
5705a03893b917a7c02fa869557a7d0d9c3fb9ef
describe
'63590' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFR' 'sip-files00163.QC.jpg'
2ecc0a3a0d41e6fd120c6f02b6c49293
2b7f8db332cbbea8875bde26139ef590d7cfb16f
describe
'2911500' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFS' 'sip-files00163.tif'
f76a1f92040b264ce4ba6a5828183a29
84ebaecc3e971f139c8574eac1400d84db552f33
describe
'898' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFT' 'sip-files00163.txt'
a13970dbe828643967c959fbae5b478a
b9dc222324fd7b58e6c47282d0d06d5662a206a0
describe
'31328' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFU' 'sip-files00163thm.jpg'
275c47b68d0a54a506e7b7e9a8d8c0eb
b064976e5cdd938288113211de88a7c65ca117f0
describe
'361264' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFV' 'sip-files00164.jp2'
2c542ff0a13d988a041be5d5185bf250
eeda232437d9adce763059d494884fe9210ee6bd
describe
'208368' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFW' 'sip-files00164.jpg'
6c292ae0ee845312bebfc3a377cbfd22
1d285f136df54e56fb19d990f484c68a96079467
describe
'19140' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFX' 'sip-files00164.pro'
071c6b6748c6834b930bf13f10f9a46e
bffa2666013a2ded1e323f24bbc44c5f27be5986
describe
'70938' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFY' 'sip-files00164.QC.jpg'
46e84b4724a7c9b3e81236e30f47ea84
3f3c7e53ac93415c988a60b413bdd6519d86cc6e
describe
'2912240' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVFZ' 'sip-files00164.tif'
53d297fe87c60505dbabac1c5cdd2e50
45120ee37b5264a9b4ed18f03719c5563ef0c975
describe
'820' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGA' 'sip-files00164.txt'
189e347f528e5e9505ed19b5e7c4c730
9a67a326b9555aef446391221f552ddabe478813
describe
'33214' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGB' 'sip-files00164thm.jpg'
94345ca57f5d9b92ca40dace6d9576c8
08687a13bf5492f8ea4421242d84f2453d18e5bd
'2011-12-12T23:09:52-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGC' 'sip-files00165.jp2'
703c0864551fd2812c15886ee9e27fc5
82d465d1eb0d5e217fdc482b5ebc91abbdfd1895
describe
'185508' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGD' 'sip-files00165.jpg'
21382c8e25eef97fb5298b8db327e692
51fa258c5ccff6aac46456d31d0d2871f14234b2
describe
'42194' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGE' 'sip-files00165.pro'
32fd2b44bf1a8d2594fba6bf628f2bc8
476644b7c0fc8fc013058d9550cc5dcd2acdf200
describe
'72161' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGF' 'sip-files00165.QC.jpg'
a120a6a6c75966b48712f874c0ef0ac4
852844ab7fa397b176bbd69b7c8527cba368498f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGG' 'sip-files00165.tif'
7d3d89cea1605d531fcaebff611fd342
84eb3a62c9510f7afdaba18a3e9192c754ec8ddb
describe
'1658' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGH' 'sip-files00165.txt'
74933f75382e6b19eb1942b1d707792d
0979f5fb2b09c6f7a1c3f0fd90972a044bc3a24b
'2011-12-12T23:08:55-05:00'
describe
'32937' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGI' 'sip-files00165thm.jpg'
6728a3d39e021d07c57d0a00813e7f95
b9e5c24471adbc84aedcdb369ee30b76fe793f47
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGJ' 'sip-files00166.jp2'
d09caee459453fa67540e54aaa713271
8388f4b4dcff301c35fc85e526fe8b2d3925a85c
describe
'186992' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGK' 'sip-files00166.jpg'
6bba13418e1854f3c455da78836139d7
cd73d0c6c0c9e9f8c01321a7447f71e446681169
describe
'43607' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGL' 'sip-files00166.pro'
a763655aba92909c8be6e04c74654c0d
5be9a4b7446a8cebd6ba7d41f5fd40a039ca8652
describe
'72683' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGM' 'sip-files00166.QC.jpg'
7e177f285e6533c777c48173291a9617
9b4bc30d7a561a9b223d9d1f96bf1f61de1d0663
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGN' 'sip-files00166.tif'
06ca406df75d30dea0e7d873993dcd18
80024d1496fbb97f7cc231c14d698041287d46a4
describe
'1774' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGO' 'sip-files00166.txt'
8ea91b2286df78d7c5ffb172ad492257
486b271a39ef6adae6e51e4d446febba6bd69335
describe
'32819' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGP' 'sip-files00166thm.jpg'
848b4be14dde6279770eab53973d37d7
10777b0906a566b18738fb1b229413a2977f68e9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGQ' 'sip-files00167.jp2'
b4bff896d305903e440962e068d04e85
07656c5cba5dfa84b63856e363b45891016bfd00
describe
'73907' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGR' 'sip-files00167.jpg'
298b28abdd09cba962a66006538010c7
ef044892a18c09af8e77994fcca9c08e7d697892
describe
'9959' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGS' 'sip-files00167.pro'
a2f0305bcd111ffea6e6feb6ba5f1903
9deb8312ac8172b2567fa27aae99f38308e342a0
describe
'33301' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGT' 'sip-files00167.QC.jpg'
1caf023429dfbfdbb2602f88ba0a4e6a
40fdecb0ccbf5f737d2e531f3ec804d028931930
describe
'2908692' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGU' 'sip-files00167.tif'
8bb3c5141ad5305eab80abd5e68403e9
644d1a21e1273b6624180a2000f3c53c7ec66696
describe
'397' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGV' 'sip-files00167.txt'
009fc59bfe046cc5e89a78b7c42b27c4
319c843166914291cce29fe605741a787bb24415
describe
'22086' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGW' 'sip-files00167thm.jpg'
eed76bbd3206e00d91aa3b96d3f3f4d8
df7c64b35be9cffc663470263ea505c5e79380fe
describe
'361259' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGX' 'sip-files00168.jp2'
eeeb67cd90140ef1ae4a05adf0f5bc93
eab0f06cfb83b8bbac5e438b3f28f7a8891d37f1
describe
'147712' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGY' 'sip-files00168.jpg'
97f1ecb426348dd0dc653ae14a43bb79
61ae717c41f9bbbdeabf434cc7a09728253b9464
describe
'24621' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVGZ' 'sip-files00168.pro'
68eab45fb1fad585990a526d3f0cfb92
2cf9123d41ad49533f902512b44d175ae903ab22
describe
'57136' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHA' 'sip-files00168.QC.jpg'
8d332cb99462d721e722ed46c5f29209
fdd3903975b35f2b58128fb3fbfb6d4b1a897322
describe
'2910840' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHB' 'sip-files00168.tif'
ca5288eb2eba15ed709b84a7ea753229
d8558dc9fe34e50e042d1c74bab4c630c834d708
describe
'1256' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHC' 'sip-files00168.txt'
b77de995c66c6bbfc4baa073e237eb46
a59c8f3d846939fca71f1de2b730a691807c1db3
describe
'29309' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHD' 'sip-files00168thm.jpg'
7f9277e22c07f932f0cf1d5aa14c072a
6c35fa536c3a64bfd5dbfd42bfc6febcebee6341
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHE' 'sip-files00169.jp2'
585f0da1cd81589d363f6cd5f0a7eceb
edb4a07fa27237fadf3588d47420600b0c14bd04
describe
'183654' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHF' 'sip-files00169.jpg'
3c42fef5fa0520ff5d9c4563ea2336de
9fe29edae37387e2927a2a5ebd20f10e87decc46
describe
'42999' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHG' 'sip-files00169.pro'
bc1b5a5799c4b381ad2ea8b4a9e52711
6f6495a0627c97af331d08314a6443a342362f5b
'2011-12-12T23:06:24-05:00'
describe
'72399' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHH' 'sip-files00169.QC.jpg'
4dd4730cf869cd28cf512a735ed0af10
4a7e77f80f92278f5d3c8c02a3cba5c0637b63fc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHI' 'sip-files00169.tif'
d2315a2d4a138d372fb9281d7f1db925
c66993266e05555da3f4295eaab0234aaaf1920a
describe
'1695' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHJ' 'sip-files00169.txt'
2ab9647545b316716d9d74bebcfa0cc4
30626048c10824a85a0f7f91d311138ba6e1bd36
describe
'32751' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHK' 'sip-files00169thm.jpg'
bb1d49bb4791eb1a9959a8557a2af436
5909b7163a54bd851b5ddf627ea6b6a209182ae9
describe
'361310' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHL' 'sip-files00170.jp2'
c9333df3a61ab5327622249839597886
e9b0d7f883de4490cc5b5cf51008e54935fc59fe
describe
'176965' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHM' 'sip-files00170.jpg'
39b3569c1904549ec37fb535ebcad0e4
810258ab14028b1bf799d826424204a593630851
describe
'40681' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHN' 'sip-files00170.pro'
95c253e01713112f73a7938a20878b87
cabdd5c4ebfd2b4f3f268524c7b64982439e63c1
describe
'68427' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHO' 'sip-files00170.QC.jpg'
67155edc3ed92cbe1a161af76b5df989
4650c6e65c010d8ff5edaaa55ccc74759b3eac74
describe
'2911584' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHP' 'sip-files00170.tif'
ea678a71ed4ced02e692568e43ce2830
24f7cb9e4c775e2b964bab2f73dec41e1a47920b
describe
'1633' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHQ' 'sip-files00170.txt'
80dc995dc9223ac22541f82207d04e93
2b7129f6a9569d4d16bbf1bc11f124905cbe3aaa
describe
'32082' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHR' 'sip-files00170thm.jpg'
5a067d5afa5cf563c822fc28ad05818b
cc219846e11e2ebd1e9a876f24c4fc07c6c3acd4
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHS' 'sip-files00171.jp2'
585f0679beb93c0d5614951e0c4d053e
af011f34659beb1320b86ec97c0475e9549e0a16
describe
'73732' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHT' 'sip-files00171.jpg'
8e8dbb1eb46be951bb9955170adc0075
4020feed5788c6c18e31186f294040d5215b0486
'2011-12-12T23:04:46-05:00'
describe
'2669' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHU' 'sip-files00171.pro'
d10f34d570b2fae9c33dd99c7c46bc4f
300ec7e460ad17f4bc5ac771c1438079c3d05334
describe
'32996' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHV' 'sip-files00171.QC.jpg'
40d5382b82f1628f44b2771cf65691a1
1055ecf2198d6e410e0435031f4415f3a3a7a6f3
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHW' 'sip-files00171.tif'
676adf8c49d39e1478adbcd6a876bbcb
7e754633b7391597f2b511a29500f46c01bbd593
describe
'114' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHX' 'sip-files00171.txt'
97b46aa37e9026dff531b3045ed52d90
81c375d3d35cb4eaef478de5ca931737037d9c9a
describe
'24240' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHY' 'sip-files00171thm.jpg'
1079f7d7c9619f12052304e5e4e46dfe
60729c52139c4350523346c588aa3c02261188f7
describe
'360963' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVHZ' 'sip-files00172.jp2'
e0a2777db49b27d1837ba51a679905e3
c2d06d963be54c472d2bf9c3e509a7db07393626
describe
'183027' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIA' 'sip-files00172.jpg'
26f2afda080fe8963b8ede55ad89a62a
ecf9e50a15e67a0fd345d3cad11eae07ceda7746
describe
'32934' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIB' 'sip-files00172.pro'
db4d309b9eb6a51ec0d28ee61c2d1323
0c490d78c582ccce02ad683d720257be1fb8647c
describe
'66085' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIC' 'sip-files00172.QC.jpg'
8c29b7d23405b77d7ab00f9f6a75a432
9eeece59833dcbb7e1edf6cfa5af887532298ae9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVID' 'sip-files00172.tif'
262fa73ae49f6921a60458911a1d37d3
47eb8602ef53e2aa621537c39564fd4b9d759cdb
describe
'1357' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIE' 'sip-files00172.txt'
0bb287717be782813aa94d5f454cf7b6
ae58e8a2c286ce50df2b1646200375e0e91975d9
describe
'31630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIF' 'sip-files00172thm.jpg'
bcf91c404dba62704cea697e1fc3d6d4
4dba9934a0075c933b11c239705377675c9567b6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIG' 'sip-files00173.jp2'
d0db3f52c1bcbac5d15aa8dc627788f3
fe5e18a2d4f454f650d9a6e80b0f7396e152e1a0
describe
'174389' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIH' 'sip-files00173.jpg'
dc26c313ef7ce7cdff3a5c62cbb16e77
750ffee5c50695db647577538eb6bd7b91c710ff
describe
'34886' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVII' 'sip-files00173.pro'
f656227a8b3470a5d95bcdbd47006a20
51654456cfc03760030209657ce675cdf1bac8e8
describe
'66915' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIJ' 'sip-files00173.QC.jpg'
8d67a1ffb1641a3969b861e9d59353ea
454046f153ebd595fe4c8160c9c359d8192dd9c1
describe
'2911620' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIK' 'sip-files00173.tif'
8d717ceeb66fd5f12f5b00181ac58f46
c18b132c47109f1a49369bdc00db8d4a0dc6a54c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIL' 'sip-files00173.txt'
2c38b150bd7d6f3071906f0c235d1666
9439ad01aa739f0d1bf4c5b0de44df950c1a76f6
describe
'31810' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIM' 'sip-files00173thm.jpg'
34813ab7dfa12aa166e6995cbce6a8c4
5ca6d9b8b088058e46cec675feffb1307df0f88c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIN' 'sip-files00174.jp2'
22a48fd2f9eca0832848d38d61462eda
c7d6ec8acbda0ea1d8137f2742dbe38bb1c95d10
describe
'162257' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIO' 'sip-files00174.jpg'
69eb03bf9e3a77da24f3cd62fbda6e0f
e2286092cdcb1b42bb10080a48588b724aba8931
describe
'32342' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIP' 'sip-files00174.pro'
b12888d359c62975b42ee89d01bfb6fb
27b53156589c8b1d45feadd64e045d6e0893d491
describe
'63020' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIQ' 'sip-files00174.QC.jpg'
1205ea836726b7d94ce69f26612d093c
0c331b7d2bf52bdf53d30a20b1b2e33cd2e00f0e
describe
'2911356' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIR' 'sip-files00174.tif'
db7d5a0d9fd78d653c18c1ae1cb1a1f5
a67d035b88058cc78e689a4e74b64e38d7730d9d
describe
'1380' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIS' 'sip-files00174.txt'
b0cf0cf082678eb6d39ce7d3b3ba98e8
cebb95e03cc6ce21d02d7e568fd2be7e2448d69e
describe
'31603' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIT' 'sip-files00174thm.jpg'
4d6a9f0838a5de9560186ef979361d86
2b4887d17653d9f8e7621e84d05109c4b805afc2
'2011-12-12T23:09:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIU' 'sip-files00175.jp2'
0d0b1b93c3afa6c31981866b89ed8ee8
9b7c674760b350e100c1fb0a1f5aa9c198212a11
describe
'186625' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIV' 'sip-files00175.jpg'
17fe701418b7591afe3cb90ed1e8485e
74c893fd09b4bd8856f91741bc9c87a165b878a6
describe
'43693' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIW' 'sip-files00175.pro'
0f670932dfe71cfe3c1a1513f120ee29
3055e222bdaa75847a215bb8786797948dd7eb06
describe
'71410' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIX' 'sip-files00175.QC.jpg'
edc259d9d258f25e12af2f979b4005f2
482cc6a4dd4e8d48c3b978342138654a6d861c45
describe
'2911880' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIY' 'sip-files00175.tif'
befabaced60aceff96a2754619013e3d
e59202faed1e7d22936b3e30109aff5985d0b2ab
describe
'1742' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVIZ' 'sip-files00175.txt'
bfc229af9241b2e6f4fb0c4099a829cb
1c94177a86f27f6edb66ecf14c2ffce8439446da
describe
'32908' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJA' 'sip-files00175thm.jpg'
4b7dc67a8afcefe1f96712ccbef74c6d
4600c585ed77da070f6ad8083c685391ef9350c6
describe
'361203' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJB' 'sip-files00176.jp2'
f8618b8126a6f59170185ec8103f3915
3eef43080771f377f61696d45d968a16cb51004f
describe
'190091' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJC' 'sip-files00176.jpg'
1d33d5abff259d9c268b562487f3f591
efced464136d4bbcb418850044700597b113b349
describe
'43477' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJD' 'sip-files00176.pro'
ce4364f73c6aa7d09550783d1e574c72
2ef1f8ae1e522f5ca6db9412c5637347244f82fd
describe
'73112' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJE' 'sip-files00176.QC.jpg'
af13a6729763a35de51fecdf1c7e29e7
52710f48fb2642f3076e6ffef8f39f891cee2be6
describe
'2911800' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJF' 'sip-files00176.tif'
16411fc0095fc87d645200ecb05e9f6b
f9fadecf83082d05813a944ea10d95010c02530e
describe
'1730' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJG' 'sip-files00176.txt'
c159808f2c70a72a22200ae8025dec69
4131597ffcf95d11561c535da6c2e307f2c779ad
describe
'32883' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJH' 'sip-files00176thm.jpg'
cb8b282e679a447828f5b0ee21b58b0e
8a0e66bc7b82d0715ec557820d563b394479de02
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJI' 'sip-files00177.jp2'
74d8a8d90ab4f7d331e09d0119eac0b0
81189e35e0f505bf731daa2497ea08b789b3ba86
describe
'186646' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJJ' 'sip-files00177.jpg'
89fdfff59753302901ad5745c2165e75
78f74d186d1c3f36e8011f418e1bb51a6500bf86
describe
'41383' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJK' 'sip-files00177.pro'
70a990ff89abe6862a9d6a91788e87bb
992010c8713fd7ac0afc4e183192b64551f3fca4
describe
'71941' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJL' 'sip-files00177.QC.jpg'
bd5ddd5f3ee47cbf54f6fdda58344f0b
4b1aa660c6d037331a3549825510bbdc62ae55f7
describe
'2911776' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJM' 'sip-files00177.tif'
7c820eac2bf67d64555546cabf952bde
99e2ac49663b9e946491e4b5ddb3224c3fe5183e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJN' 'sip-files00177.txt'
bf3ee9ddc0d900ba5d0dea09a4604548
f62a375abb8a5ff25bfc9d778b9d889c95a76fab
describe
'32730' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJO' 'sip-files00177thm.jpg'
32b2864d54c2be656585a71f2326a9b2
8750920949df966059231937aba60cdba3a2f9f7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJP' 'sip-files00178.jp2'
b0b8afe5f8a5f43d0e6898b6d0218f6f
06187ea84458aacf546e3fa53daab9cdab0f983e
describe
'180026' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJQ' 'sip-files00178.jpg'
155860e36054560b51c4d71c3646d9bd
3fd98502ac4346dadc156177b376d1c8483f8a27
describe
'42593' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJR' 'sip-files00178.pro'
f064ad82f0292101c8449bd13725660a
25f9a424af6c0c93d50685b39c8d5211a5329285
describe
'68779' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJS' 'sip-files00178.QC.jpg'
2352a217feb5b575f0a453efd9003f35
7a7b78031c8e412bd47e6641c37c2daedeec855d
describe
'2911564' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJT' 'sip-files00178.tif'
20b063be03ef969e88fa7e37dcac688a
9af913b5b00d5a151855f788bef2e9635743327f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJU' 'sip-files00178.txt'
a94e9c2e1a4a6a73693fc7e18dd0093e
e98609ab014808824ae7f3722510ed8fec4730f4
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJV' 'sip-files00178thm.jpg'
32f80e354d8d81ec021bb51f61e76840
fb1466534672124885a91969819b7931354a1ef8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJW' 'sip-files00179.jp2'
6148e52ae3780e1770fdf63d3d9db3d3
eeed42b925a07bfb5f3f46a104464b59d78eb12b
describe
'69211' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJX' 'sip-files00179.jpg'
ae5d40896b54e98c18a48d3312cbf00e
987886535bb32317a56aad7d253b6aaf3965acee
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJY' 'sip-files00179.pro'
2485e5ab0b4e67bc050c59ebadff2578
6c26f30094d1c4f19bf20461c4c2a8b1789b2d31
describe
'32086' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVJZ' 'sip-files00179.QC.jpg'
30813bc0d3dfb4f73d76881b64f12182
4afbb3c5520eee17af3c2e029110f69fbb716591
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKA' 'sip-files00179.tif'
0c9963562497bb67b50d6f60c9fffab8
6c57a4d488dbc3b862c8e96bfb1424a196110f76
'2011-12-12T23:09:23-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKB' 'sip-files00179.txt'
4024d6948a58fdea97ac81f92972fbcd
ed74d69077d98892b813962000accf2ba64d632d
describe
'23807' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKC' 'sip-files00179thm.jpg'
70e1534418f7f0427ac99d0bad586a55
d0ce2ac5aeee0a72f3647c973a1d22ec8c4a46c6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKD' 'sip-files00180.jp2'
51c7968b1c8a3ae1aa600ae232a90fab
42f03196d5d78e4e3720689b714073cfc9b14532
describe
'155332' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKE' 'sip-files00180.jpg'
fe582e4a21e80695b23fcdf947d69d54
085c730343b359c2c71161a91987b5ed3b6c51f5
describe
'23231' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKF' 'sip-files00180.pro'
a3a1d44ea5cc367842e347abb13a5f20
c4ad42ba05ac24bd402ebb0288ed1497df05a971
describe
'57133' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKG' 'sip-files00180.QC.jpg'
f97b73f08ea21ed415a874b4142ed587
37b100ad971c02220a5b41869b553da033ba35fe
describe
'2910896' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKH' 'sip-files00180.tif'
6f19215c467254831ab40b77e4168de6
3cd0365921e16c7219692d5e0d2053ddc428fc97
describe
'981' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKI' 'sip-files00180.txt'
357c7d05a5de85e9ba40d305841c7619
acc6fd7bb6bf060ccc488f65c27e10e9f06fa00e
describe
Invalid character
'29547' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKJ' 'sip-files00180thm.jpg'
13d080e13e972c3b0dcabc6360729dfc
e766870d28bcf86734b2cca4a48bdc48cd911f3c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKK' 'sip-files00181.jp2'
bbba452c8d6d20183851f7370a25f682
b2a61bcea1ee8ed3c188b54286029387052da43d
describe
'183205' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKL' 'sip-files00181.jpg'
f56d4bead70b1262c2e192e009c8a316
102bab03ce7e2db3ca1ecc567392466c11620156
describe
'40837' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKM' 'sip-files00181.pro'
d89abf81dee546d59f0769a9168e7c48
b8528f602227c87d001668fb9c5dcb50f27f2257
describe
'69846' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKN' 'sip-files00181.QC.jpg'
a1a14e1c050f2f2f7b2b5b2b83e67af5
bfe4482048231a32adacdb101129644ece22ee6e
describe
'2911688' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKO' 'sip-files00181.tif'
0b7ce5e862424789ee7bfdf2543e0944
64b7f919e047eff16bf6bcc84260c4d4f8ac539a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKP' 'sip-files00181.txt'
ed0d3a4b58313dc6605868e1c323695f
b946321683e91a9b58e393928491a244fc60bac2
describe
Invalid character
'32147' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKQ' 'sip-files00181thm.jpg'
439770e24d4db7f0d0e0f64b44f9ecb8
f250faa69eb3cac28727ca4648dce99a37a139da
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKR' 'sip-files00182.jp2'
7202d5fb54feec51c35990ce88eaf692
90b6e79ac8963e60fe65cbc629bbf9c2646abfe5
describe
'154136' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKS' 'sip-files00182.jpg'
81bb71b428c07139f3b68eeda144a790
6c2ed1f0ce53237ab7db712724d8fdd6734a59c7
describe
'27653' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKT' 'sip-files00182.pro'
c6e7f78bc6f2384818c9eb176af55d1a
e9bfec6b66b1da88196691055f36585d71166f5c
describe
'59194' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKU' 'sip-files00182.QC.jpg'
fe549b0803deff698181a83920fe1ddf
d3820b4128f5548f3ad1259dd2390a294d9f6ed5
describe
'2911188' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKV' 'sip-files00182.tif'
c527d7d4fa9867a53314bb38c87bbce0
d92874e320e438d257b70b4b1d57bb1eb4984680
describe
'1165' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKW' 'sip-files00182.txt'
f2ae93b7e6ee93be95080dc695d2a5ad
337e324e429f6125465b29ced2c20c3b4db1cfe5
describe
'30406' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKX' 'sip-files00182thm.jpg'
97d388cc32f702d1ebc7bd6aee8a9768
8fe2193ebcf5e58cc43689ada36d8b95219ab7be
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKY' 'sip-files00183.jp2'
5703175e856c3eb9bc1bbf006bfd1496
6b437263bb745f6d6885923e55f4ae1005e204d0
describe
'186106' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVKZ' 'sip-files00183.jpg'
d905fd02133bbbfa9f924c55b015e504
8520fcdb721f5358f0bb2ec8b5465e97ed51e422
describe
'42978' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLA' 'sip-files00183.pro'
37235149b97bb5db6bb9add8a2e7339a
fd3f03e52c5b3aab27e9112c80c03e30c264806c
describe
'71359' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLB' 'sip-files00183.QC.jpg'
320f06d1f81026ff5e09b2d5fddaff5c
22508cc9fa8a2f8713efc26f1ce8441625c4cfaa
describe
'2911708' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLC' 'sip-files00183.tif'
fba9924905f9373d8bee0d4d425aa3dc
f2a4a078e6b46455423b295817ccec87bcc5e7b0
describe
'1691' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLD' 'sip-files00183.txt'
aadb79928b7b29879e0723fa442a9483
c53dfdd128b5a61228a08e2ceaaf756fe4f2d837
describe
'32128' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLE' 'sip-files00183thm.jpg'
0160735cc8e8417980edced3a0541c7e
1af42ef302b3700b253265c06cf676a4d84263b7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLF' 'sip-files00184.jp2'
5fb6534d142b46395a136b497b0b249b
aeaa15440addf185cf153c09b69f4ee8e0de58a2
'2011-12-12T23:04:51-05:00'
describe
'184366' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLG' 'sip-files00184.jpg'
adc7667e2a8dac4d430ab31c7413fe95
d4c370e8f9f6a8a9c4512562d1b0d7ba476576f0
describe
'43334' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLH' 'sip-files00184.pro'
622f5f0f04398c9094ea878b047aa0a6
e34a119a71e3923b89b0b444edd344ba82d13f90
describe
'70536' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLI' 'sip-files00184.QC.jpg'
49fd0b57a75555b68fd6535a54dcda97
01cec415822116002e79159f4bb1309d25a7b50e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLJ' 'sip-files00184.tif'
5c17e21e956dcba22cded343e625e1a7
81fb13f1c3ff2c92182c62a9edfb1a6c4824a1bf
describe
'1708' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLK' 'sip-files00184.txt'
34275ff5e0ba6b12388eec8912a78cac
a9456c73361e0db10c403a8089dbf4205988cef2
describe
'31936' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLL' 'sip-files00184thm.jpg'
693c72cc5f0a7cfb8524a6643bb5ddb9
281c2f6ae6166a6d427605a93334164c4b584ed5
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLM' 'sip-files00185.jp2'
7c5694e8eda35297431eb0887944996d
88f110b58d4ac9db39998ef9eb298406c851ce2b
describe
'154108' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLN' 'sip-files00185.jpg'
f56679a88dfeea2641a69595da1fd218
cd6a65867fd2a191597a2be174bab6d84f19610a
describe
'24349' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLO' 'sip-files00185.pro'
aa323ad5cbaae9d49c459cd211c2fdc1
0e38bf9b92efc2fb56760ca7b1ea865b69d32828
describe
'56825' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLP' 'sip-files00185.QC.jpg'
a8268dfe87702a267725d686e50838d7
5dcf6c25f415e285000cd9d6b5e3ab060653491d
describe
'2910848' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLQ' 'sip-files00185.tif'
6c39575ce548aa613abaf98ad1fbc9bb
65d4a5d0515e88510b2691779133aaa90eb5a42f
describe
'1049' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLR' 'sip-files00185.txt'
af36d272e89ccf9c7fe07cf6ada4d144
90dfbcf2b1578385f618ae08c0aae98f3bf9e4cd
describe
'29098' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLS' 'sip-files00185thm.jpg'
6037b876129fb8fcc851bf94b2d8d3d7
663278fb5be40e59c9e75a2be9354cf488b48e7f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLT' 'sip-files00186.jp2'
29476e848e6f5c4f092fbe69c596f0aa
f938ae8e295c636b39774dc706cd9a672d12708f
describe
'185711' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLU' 'sip-files00186.jpg'
634003345b5f0339e3cf314deb88c2bc
8d640823e5e254cdb3ee43bf8eeb8798422529a2
describe
'43739' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLV' 'sip-files00186.pro'
8b412f869e732d0ff8ebc5aba9178f4d
6771edcae2b1572ef6d95be470e35b796c022d22
describe
'71875' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLW' 'sip-files00186.QC.jpg'
4ef969f23f0609509cf6fee483b6bdd5
b622204a47403cbf8c18a3c9abe5ffc7bf8f54c6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLX' 'sip-files00186.tif'
2aba1335d58626a2eebcb9bf388d612c
37a57c0e0ab28fc1f4275b5f8cb8b2ef5f3fd9b8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLY' 'sip-files00186.txt'
cceccfd8a37b95b87b4881cf7e0a848d
e48d5326b5eaa0eba5b8559997cef862a15dba10
describe
'32371' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVLZ' 'sip-files00186thm.jpg'
5eda4eb9d169e8d394fa1030a567cec7
23c35518efccec757145ed92020b5f460e417ca6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMA' 'sip-files00187.jp2'
9b815e8ac37edf98dccfa8c10e5dda1e
1e91eb0f4fa3fe8f3cad894117ad70c65ca6a0b9
describe
'177391' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMB' 'sip-files00187.jpg'
83843e32b071dbfbfdfe97ba1a8a5f01
4cc7e5009c1ae7586868111c1dfee6baed25092e
describe
'41877' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMC' 'sip-files00187.pro'
d9d98fe9936e1b4f95c81ad7fc97f82d
0447c6345442aced1c42f18b93c547103fa07cb4
describe
'68854' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMD' 'sip-files00187.QC.jpg'
b27ea91437bfbed92e08c3a5b1a38250
f719455ff6c1da3f7a971ca814bcf2822164a834
describe
'2911680' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVME' 'sip-files00187.tif'
f8d0152e1d15e0b92a09ab6689a6f0c8
4fc96373cc85f0a0672a37d905da1d9efc4bdd58
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMF' 'sip-files00187.txt'
cdf35878dde53349e79f3e9bb6fb4776
796333f70dbc05f412b9cc05d3671d1c0e9434ef
describe
'32018' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMG' 'sip-files00187thm.jpg'
a3bb3a98acb25c800fb106fe6214800e
363587a1316fd3abaa32fd7c49969dd8f896d683
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMH' 'sip-files00188.jp2'
d4f9c8afed49a7e45b1c984dc9c6718c
f5d66c671fe86092bfab8a8ed5752580d64346b4
describe
'174861' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMI' 'sip-files00188.jpg'
0e3f4fcfe33c5ece01dc880b1972428c
a794739321b5ea084845665601b2b8cc7536ad8c
describe
'42949' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMJ' 'sip-files00188.pro'
7c375ba0fd717eee7f0285d1c2f9ee01
7274ccd7c0688d3ad5a8a5d61cb89e1ecdfe4d27
describe
'68397' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMK' 'sip-files00188.QC.jpg'
2297f06d3bb5dd193deec96639522de5
79ff3a78c2914622ec2f2c27077e8613903151d9
describe
'2911412' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVML' 'sip-files00188.tif'
3a5388c2005820418e80077456ae564f
2c3aeab3ad27ab08f3df4503ef097538adc7782b
describe
'1692' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMM' 'sip-files00188.txt'
3c5e2df44fd90dbca7c0fec801da893d
8aefa316113992502059d48e2661fb8fc7c3ef38
describe
'31639' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMN' 'sip-files00188thm.jpg'
9b94c80f703f4e9f10ecca01fabc98c5
a6b733cb98c1c100afe67104e8aac2065eba377e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMO' 'sip-files00189.jp2'
0c00a5d8daad7084fa6aa9d6f0ceec52
1cac3bbc101ada9080a46bb3507b933ba8efe800
describe
'167061' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMP' 'sip-files00189.jpg'
79be1c11e3eeb2c4968882a87a2995d1
f82beff1ca24cbf98ef7ed48255bbd77fc86ee4b
describe
'36085' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMQ' 'sip-files00189.pro'
3f5ebb7ffa588a95572c87c77771ee2c
e47355d9eeb65ecf7ca972d38afef0e39f86ae47
describe
'66093' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMR' 'sip-files00189.QC.jpg'
5a1f96cf34d65094c42e75b07bf6f8fe
b949dd7813da7299c65159d8b6a87f11b90c2e17
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMS' 'sip-files00189.tif'
635c59fe2a24c8829df6ad783ac76898
9b956bc0a5bc965f070b2065c16b3d173dcb381b
describe
'1731' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMT' 'sip-files00189.txt'
c10d641a8209cd24811997023f10b0bc
ef652972cb67b54a3c73c2d10ec8ac6a354d4f96
describe
'31451' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMU' 'sip-files00189thm.jpg'
5caec9eeed5c43516d5d2bd09837bb83
e0b8f97f5b3aa2f017004f977c0747872d771365
describe
'18490' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMV' 'sip-files00190thm.jpg'
89ef250cdb25e99a7855cb3e0efe12cb
c0c7449be1fad159029f61a4223a2aacfa692f5b
describe
'363108' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMW' 'sip-files00191.jp2'
4b29802e42e882d5b9517208480908a5
a649afdb6821a51ece96cb7436cf963099280882
describe
'133017' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMX' 'sip-files00191.jpg'
7d318d11d77ef00acafd5a2fb408f960
4882780e15b8a75625173b66c506c36b65351d06
describe
'3694' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMY' 'sip-files00191.pro'
a7dff3e4242b2defae91932e72010142
6bd68ff43851d1e93c8521402cac338ba07d28c6
describe
'47917' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVMZ' 'sip-files00191.QC.jpg'
58f43de5e88cc2b66411ea1f2feadf50
d8ab78d720f7bb02d249dd2bf89224ea71d5b5d9
describe
'8736192' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNA' 'sip-files00191.tif'
6971c62d270484a2394763aeee00215c
eb588d85c6daaa45753fc4978da8a3fb9d37998c
describe
'154' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNB' 'sip-files00191.txt'
182f4eb647eed972c22a5637b93fb9d0
e732b57a2529b246e0b068f905995f136a8cbcaa
describe
'28753' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNC' 'sip-files00191thm.jpg'
67e16babe03d1c6ca6789767dfc833a8
2bc8a776b921b09fa472ddd359385a6615dea5ea
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVND' 'sip-files00192.jp2'
9f16fbf0eb880ca9ed67397528fafca8
ad197f62e766bf8c80642fe0750b8331e2c84826
describe
'182328' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNE' 'sip-files00192.jpg'
a6c92a0da8515befd3333cf8b44b1ae3
ee56fdd278400ff532305dd0ff5a01d623ab1fb9
describe
'42931' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNF' 'sip-files00192.pro'
2e93d5c66c792d9a5b5ec487ddec9ce3
b38d4ee931824494f09278958805c030d0a8cf41
describe
'69789' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNG' 'sip-files00192.QC.jpg'
7beb82200b36627b3153964f24bfaa22
aeaab6241081cbde7e09d25edddcf0613166c87f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNH' 'sip-files00192.tif'
01bc2fb88b996c3d3243cdeee4b73506
0af1829587c71fdf383d16c35a4a93522e9eda63
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNI' 'sip-files00192.txt'
08cf7df2fbe75ee3feac4b80c354639b
a6fad0aba509f9ef0c42b894d5ef162a35772f0e
describe
'32150' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNJ' 'sip-files00192thm.jpg'
3913e2fc3dd5f8ed5bf702ead4648f60
f557cfff8380bfcd4dab4938a32cbf3d5c4116a8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNK' 'sip-files00193.jp2'
cbba820797f653e7725b691662f61073
fb5a5a032a2ab8326cc57842d0e6e64c8ce0e74c
describe
'180764' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNL' 'sip-files00193.jpg'
f62e7b66125fac2ec66302267b8b93cc
08c13405a3241d98ebe49110892a254eb888f2d1
describe
'43208' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNM' 'sip-files00193.pro'
2ae5d557ebad48fb992250ab391b4ac4
f6c3b615ade674ec7c33f522be9d05806c4a1e1e
describe
'69140' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNN' 'sip-files00193.QC.jpg'
ff5b35e9e3cefb89eb5e794daf3eb4ee
dc7c678f9b2893883d52ed2a4921ca5ef38835d5
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNO' 'sip-files00193.tif'
5bbdf99aa409bcd96c72efcf0f6d32e4
29d1a1d0ea2aa7b9f5f7d4229e0b1d318078130c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNP' 'sip-files00193.txt'
6e35f4fe23189dcb5e46c812d505a68c
3ce19c6587b537d85f2e254a8605090a62051a3e
describe
'31780' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNQ' 'sip-files00193thm.jpg'
a93c64087750bddc67ea764c0e476df3
6b1d2a6ed030108a4e17ae0bbe9fccc164475d41
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNR' 'sip-files00194.jp2'
bd62e5513f9826fd04b00f9a9441439e
1901c4b9b7ee5ecb78367710802a85c1068774bd
describe
'179904' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNS' 'sip-files00194.jpg'
78417fbd94acc8b40daad9f32782ed84
1f2fb930168af5827cded84c92b9d9ed208dab23
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNT' 'sip-files00194.pro'
d671be3389898969ba9b249e6cc0d242
ff751d5df3836b85b45e0f3ba5a4376308956c79
describe
'69398' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNU' 'sip-files00194.QC.jpg'
70731e452b01c83af06659505f5e5345
b424e423f169c309845c055f8b7bc0e09ce8aa2d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNV' 'sip-files00194.tif'
4c7f9da5872488c1db69fa93cd641c5f
6db7c4c42f618044ba71a33f093739850f7d90f8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNW' 'sip-files00194.txt'
8b0778cddf9261699e995e3cfcf7141d
b07fa9b31b3860fe9ba8742324ba5e90c0d70f35
describe
'31778' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNX' 'sip-files00194thm.jpg'
c00b684c5895ddcf52dac31fd5ee31f6
5d8ae021306413ebe22fac0cf8ca6a310296234c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNY' 'sip-files00195.jp2'
82f0e77b399112d76d4a4102f0aec001
43f55e7a9deb9399fde318416edfa13c4e4dabf0
describe
'186011' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVNZ' 'sip-files00195.jpg'
2b7e7c72d35499f3897e16f45df6492d
0eff117a55fdab1a70c2d9d4fed1774f0fa48938
describe
'41772' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOA' 'sip-files00195.pro'
1977c7a54307f4427cbc9c7ebaf47735
b99e533fcd708007a5d78b434b9f60c1350b85a9
describe
'72082' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOB' 'sip-files00195.QC.jpg'
5681b9a94546d1be45a203aa5cf52461
cab8897f9b0ac56b4dcf96b97b780ba34cb771ef
describe
'2911996' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOC' 'sip-files00195.tif'
6724357f989e0d95f16197694981e0d8
d9880e9d458588a606abea898f7b76fecbcf2f20
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOD' 'sip-files00195.txt'
79e309955f95e639fee9283d9315b71f
fd59914e56db67648733cdb3c00dd8ef039f1cbd
describe
'32801' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOE' 'sip-files00195thm.jpg'
c31065597f10273d6aed69974dd41c62
0419fff2a45b49969a41268b89b59333f77f422f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOF' 'sip-files00196.jp2'
509fed90e5c7007189b2aab3c2d1bfbe
507fa202616f9f6166710293dd3e38168073fdc5
describe
'158609' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOG' 'sip-files00196.jpg'
7d73c2c0a6a65bf2cc35ff6937a82197
2247e5a3b8e457e7d0acf4d5468b000591d7f7ce
describe
'36131' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOH' 'sip-files00196.pro'
bd7569912e34ce2ba388d20b3da6248d
1fc81c0517ca8d6ee3a6f63bc00d210f795a1cbd
describe
'62295' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOI' 'sip-files00196.QC.jpg'
bbb12ca066f4cbb8a1de23c8d64aa7af
e723c223b1cf63a94739536f05437b7cc40a974c
describe
'2910836' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOJ' 'sip-files00196.tif'
d85d963c9fb881309d6e1a25d56b0e89
6208466529fba4ad45fd6061fb4aaa576758e51b
describe
'1423' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOK' 'sip-files00196.txt'
e7a304377df4e8929247b17d9b1d4311
23f09d48d5bcbe219db7d17fcbdd5c8bd8443eb2
describe
'29872' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOL' 'sip-files00196thm.jpg'
adf34629c46eb77fab42d9064642bb50
9a44c58df3137ff303b7f9353a67b2286d4ca9c1
describe
'361221' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOM' 'sip-files00197.jp2'
cceeac85796f1eb6c288a3ff49edd2ac
56d62d85b0a7c7688f7ec113f56c2e9ecb9176ba
describe
'148683' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVON' 'sip-files00197.jpg'
70d12cfb4e5ea6445a2f034add66870e
d56797530c24dfddd938096a52bbf76880c91374
describe
'26177' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOO' 'sip-files00197.pro'
89953c307aea8d1a5495d271fc24201f
6c82eb9d96a45987a3b6fb0d85092a625b082680
describe
'57159' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOP' 'sip-files00197.QC.jpg'
7856c275a1d8cb8fbaba2658360d6fde
be19b972832df56a12f0bc9e5645553f783bd139
describe
'2910920' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOQ' 'sip-files00197.tif'
55ba28aafb96b026491271d2aa0b8785
cf8659d3debba9f9535a952f2f761db0d329fa62
describe
'1227' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOR' 'sip-files00197.txt'
c436f005835757cec33fa901c483436d
ea2edacc1969f44a8cc72c8b3342bb8d48b9da17
describe
'29091' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOS' 'sip-files00197thm.jpg'
91f7f3b09c8a189e85e36df27ea4f272
99a7a82aa4616dbcac4963c08ce995f5d68ade59
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOT' 'sip-files00198.jp2'
b5273dfaad59b82fe0dc87996b75dce0
f8f5f20512b6676179247bdcd12608e145f773f5
describe
'180337' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOU' 'sip-files00198.jpg'
34b7c26834c1c1af9d01d2ada27bcd9b
62d6a6c7b5a6320ebd3bbcc43d43d362554b7acd
describe
'41733' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOV' 'sip-files00198.pro'
2238b9eb5fe13d2b0eede3091fe29231
671de9a00ef94b8a37b3197f6c788a68d8673ad0
describe
'69055' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOW' 'sip-files00198.QC.jpg'
d30f6ec71ec1aef159a73e062b3c37cb
3f729f81a90e46b65779bfa98d904dd66d80345e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOX' 'sip-files00198.tif'
7278e36782c0b8c76fa1ff17dcfb4d5f
95f1fbeb4aabf95619c2b88a504fae4dcb416a0d
describe
'1645' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOY' 'sip-files00198.txt'
95edc9d298a972cb6e8a8a38244d9ec6
ab22ee44dfa45a0e7434610a3bdb145a1fb60c7d
describe
'32187' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVOZ' 'sip-files00198thm.jpg'
691c0a98a4ca82dbf146f7fbf8c69937
940118db1d11008a10f8a3b25a30cd322823290b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPA' 'sip-files00199.jp2'
363a685ae821515b90dedddb93392e8e
d84ba577494a5b1b88be30f0777c71422a9dd2c6
describe
'187797' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPB' 'sip-files00199.jpg'
b768ffaf517e94db3ea7f1f594eb344e
4090de5ba47841b0ad975db2a6a08068929d76ef
describe
'43717' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPC' 'sip-files00199.pro'
81bdfe212189ae39868333b48998fa5f
87eac2564ebb77a1a868bff78949be85c9f85706
describe
'71764' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPD' 'sip-files00199.QC.jpg'
c0d2e50d54b785bc104cce27dc5d73ea
98ca56b5c395a87d9c2a9e452635d254829a2e17
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPE' 'sip-files00199.tif'
ee5af747702ee9a097af9255cf5d28b7
b052c58d440c98e6ee56dca1156a3a9c42df1abc
describe
'1714' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPF' 'sip-files00199.txt'
b25c6a70b007d6f7c10eaa4770db817e
62ed628ed807f486506661774f0273a1f93aa2b5
describe
'32653' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPG' 'sip-files00199thm.jpg'
5b037e6fa9b6f951d06db10569d25039
5591660b14bcfd24b565001800987bf138a1cb89
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPH' 'sip-files00200.jp2'
7f9801b6b1c402aaed11f62f62ba5fa4
6b12c64542d9553fc4a4aa04ff80f47b819a0420
describe
'173229' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPI' 'sip-files00200.jpg'
031506a45cd12b77bc44e924fd6dfaa9
a61f1ba5a14adc35e3b7a83ff2044b74a072a54d
describe
'21669' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPJ' 'sip-files00200.pro'
cf81446584fa0eb3f94fdfc0e101a968
03c1fcb6155c2de187c9b91d562bded4ff163a46
describe
'63601' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPK' 'sip-files00200.QC.jpg'
2008f312a461d845174ac8f166a0bb4d
f9a5d98c2fe09dd02c201315961861547a569a48
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPL' 'sip-files00200.tif'
5bd11b7ce46ff247698290b5220973a0
5318cd2feec9f9e1dda6098f273051bf35ec1f63
describe
'941' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPM' 'sip-files00200.txt'
1cdbb98aad2ef46ecd88efbad3fd5f51
ada5da51c8485df9392928b3844f61839fcb5a61
describe
'31380' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPN' 'sip-files00200thm.jpg'
5ced9e21923eb5d37d498cbc68e229d7
907a9b9fe179b99a7ffbe6253beef97da2b20b4a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPO' 'sip-files00201.jp2'
648d2170933b73b35f8d960b270db410
1be27a624b0f55ed4eff56f8dcef80942f707568
describe
'173400' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPP' 'sip-files00201.jpg'
46a8e58cb924734110384087f09e15cc
4fe486be4da27d11c54036c0aadc4437c7e35a40
describe
'37944' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPQ' 'sip-files00201.pro'
71b0f8426c5ebb0e93fbfcc52ecec760
853293b8551f45bb3001289626ff0d7e4f30edbd
describe
'66724' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPR' 'sip-files00201.QC.jpg'
bdef272d797f30bc9d12bc4200503216
685bfa5f944ebc0e6f7c94abf7c76709117c49a0
describe
'2911888' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPS' 'sip-files00201.tif'
0064caab9d5f4ac9e0d98d42a1003048
5eb193e96945dc2c3fdcd62991156e064ccb62ce
describe
'1848' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPT' 'sip-files00201.txt'
61c3446d759d473cabae35ffe7dbf653
876089bd2f4d1537e1f1aae9c9c7542affc34afd
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPU' 'sip-files00201thm.jpg'
284cc409664a63df957478cf6fa73b4f
b274cba09b1e272c2a67a5cc0e414ce3f6b53097
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPV' 'sip-files00202.jp2'
db35b44b3da4093bc026763d16d98631
7bca81c3f8052c859daa3f1e1cd0f0571fba8ca2
describe
'167946' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPW' 'sip-files00202.jpg'
be7e4172620c15d356ba19f39b70acde
35fbee1bc5647fc1e380e66063a3d603b72b80f1
describe
'35563' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPX' 'sip-files00202.pro'
61cf68c5a97980e35587bcc8f1352638
49771ea549a89bf745ed7c47c4b4f335faa06f48
describe
'65122' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPY' 'sip-files00202.QC.jpg'
fe84016fcc0d43740128d66caba5945e
24e462afc27438b43ff417de1240b4547febfd0e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVPZ' 'sip-files00202.tif'
2c480bb38e96f7180ce55f834f87ab4d
3e5ab42f50cf1aa73d144c50c67814f114bf9b85
describe
'1540' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQA' 'sip-files00202.txt'
c544ee9a4faf9507a7cd152c7c4fefd5
9416b3b73b7119203fed13598074671e8972f34d
describe
'31961' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQB' 'sip-files00202thm.jpg'
19e3bde3d64db038005e35f73e463668
f078f2060b2e62ecca98b4dba0f0d703481a04a2
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQC' 'sip-files00203.jp2'
8f4b3dd8e913d31d7249b22f30233afd
e9f0c802f9c266949828ae8f047d74ebe56681d7
describe
'180892' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQD' 'sip-files00203.jpg'
60f0147084fdba193231c947da97357b
6cc4724f91d33dcedadd09640bb04be3ebddb287
describe
'41204' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQE' 'sip-files00203.pro'
e9ef2bf1ab2f5e3a2bf799404a835d2a
0d8381c18dca12f8a8de6effe245b31afaeca9c9
describe
'70129' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQF' 'sip-files00203.QC.jpg'
4cf4028a59bf7d5f01ce337369960667
42c1587c5e03cfa93417270eae055e48e66b6990
describe
'2911920' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQG' 'sip-files00203.tif'
29f5900fc96d2429863734e4af561153
6d6ce8945cb90a55c1d4611b9d05ef8b8be1eec3
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQH' 'sip-files00203.txt'
812694291ba58c2661554300cadb9183
c8b818fca689c6f429bc26b5b57ef846106b891f
describe
'32528' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQI' 'sip-files00203thm.jpg'
0485415d8137059e7c669aaebf600021
5f596b322f29c29b422e3c9693bf3ced1492f1c7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQJ' 'sip-files00204.jp2'
915f0d136e93ddc87ca504925c81f246
285e67897f5964079ac238f2bdfad15ce356e84f
describe
'183668' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQK' 'sip-files00204.jpg'
f716fc1208d344ae099d88f8b4a4154e
631e24138274c4f3c5fd279b3176620d03984d44
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQL' 'sip-files00204.pro'
4fb0d1211552b105f77991c148e6609b
ceeec9033c56038c012ac9dbc094525513648c4f
describe
'68941' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQM' 'sip-files00204.QC.jpg'
441e452ce5f40a59cc747b7ffe396ebd
b8775713832d955104fe9668fd75c5456d83126c
describe
'2911964' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQN' 'sip-files00204.tif'
4e833c206c0ca878a5fe9b16af7b6e6e
f7ce049b11623b0db7dbe2b0d9edf7aa5fcf8a75
describe
'1653' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQO' 'sip-files00204.txt'
df1f38d4c71d40d0c848b514893c3d34
224eb7916a2c0c5b53dd36ad07241821dc32ac46
describe
'32792' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQP' 'sip-files00204thm.jpg'
2a58babb3a4391e1aadf263609db15c8
6fc3513599bcfcfc38e6cc3c0b2d75580e9d5896
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQQ' 'sip-files00205.jp2'
9f2a83497df18b524c36e08501ee7a37
af34e3f660dc8f50b3f17d27583ea78c5aa7ddf3
describe
'175039' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQR' 'sip-files00205.jpg'
df3583773414c6cfd7545429b4c754d6
9f1bfc45efec86efcf5f31e103fe4e9df4708aa0
describe
'38903' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQS' 'sip-files00205.pro'
715d35f69748fb938aeb379a3b2882c9
dcd2ab207336f4143948859d82aea5eda5b9a28a
describe
'66540' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQT' 'sip-files00205.QC.jpg'
d03ac7b48f342d2623132dae9504fdb1
eb55781ce9b72cf801a7f3fc05b2a0ec186edc1f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQU' 'sip-files00205.tif'
76b7d8cca18d0236147e80dc8a9bbcff
ea6861d3c972759c404bfccf59f118e8c9fd1484
describe
'1784' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQV' 'sip-files00205.txt'
0e4adcf32f920c81469b73e2c7687e80
6ca9650767aa94bb957e2b47b51d90bfccb2434e
describe
'31624' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQW' 'sip-files00205thm.jpg'
58202573ca0db7fb18c808ed3cbc4044
ffd47d3f6d748f356fdfcfd1c2eadd863042d882
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQX' 'sip-files00206.jp2'
b71b775d92efe539d7c7601babfc2a90
07fb8bcf904057d1ca8a150a997ffb480c021749
describe
'177212' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQY' 'sip-files00206.jpg'
b92a07ef502b2a21a10393086480aa10
458ee63ee4bd57ca33244b1b404bc430fe7bf4ca
describe
'41836' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVQZ' 'sip-files00206.pro'
5cda1804ee404518831f99487cea11e3
e2b01c9cf3682a09329927670275b8da79d8fd96
describe
'69420' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRA' 'sip-files00206.QC.jpg'
f0e93e7e4cc0af8422ebfc487ab21138
8440121c3ef914c9c762a47764af9e586e9b3b5e
describe
'2911408' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRB' 'sip-files00206.tif'
bdf941404586665c51efb8f162bfe971
f9648f89f01967bb60c03aca17a1a434a063b0a8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRC' 'sip-files00206.txt'
d070e3866b7df09fcab447622282ca54
962c94da36102a27f1aece4bc4f16fe534d09078
describe
'31629' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRD' 'sip-files00206thm.jpg'
0e382d95a3ab34e0b079c84396a09281
43eb417954734a3de1a29e555ce57979273d0901
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRE' 'sip-files00207.jp2'
40d276b0f960408768614c9adb69c4b7
69dd3f13d63e2ad8d697de22fc6e50d4cf89118b
describe
'179601' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRF' 'sip-files00207.jpg'
cd06781538a3071691a544b9f3effc6d
525c973702a6f0fee6ca457b12193e4512cf1ae0
describe
'36843' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRG' 'sip-files00207.pro'
fc87becd0369d13cf0ef5d557cb6d02b
7139006e708849bc49a54d53297952b7781f2390
describe
'67519' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRH' 'sip-files00207.QC.jpg'
b63e9d8f807695f6d1ebef8f46d7f837
e4cfc57c758721cef5cffb2d79aacd5fa458ad40
describe
'2911872' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRI' 'sip-files00207.tif'
40d32cd0f6e94249d1c31686afc63622
1c61101938859295e9dea90e47ee8f84ed96c4bc
describe
'1904' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRJ' 'sip-files00207.txt'
468a33d1f2f616115f26ecbb36b24fc8
64900063eaddf4414013873247e5e3e54f939289
describe
'32338' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRK' 'sip-files00207thm.jpg'
85ec3091b088ee77db62ca9927843b04
f3ce41e67b9652d89ba01a1a86430e1c7a6bc565
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRL' 'sip-files00208.jp2'
fe17d34da35a781b5598e78f6d23e6d8
3059728d2c16cc8c9a8d6b095cb2157e378ae2a7
describe
'179454' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRM' 'sip-files00208.jpg'
5d5fc6f7260459431ecf65b4a10aa71f
8fa4e8f7428da1dd8346271adf13053912cddc59
describe
'40906' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRN' 'sip-files00208.pro'
ba29cb08d4ec8adf20ab48d77024ddf1
b08776b308403bad3c71b2be6ad6e50ee3224ed7
describe
'69732' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRO' 'sip-files00208.QC.jpg'
6ec53aaaa62099e5d9fcbf843c9cef08
ea9be8ca7d5df261c7992109f08c2995f0c52f12
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRP' 'sip-files00208.tif'
9c1838d5c0ec94d55d05ee44dddc3bfc
40685d06f2a81992415a419435c7f4b8b520eb35
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRQ' 'sip-files00208.txt'
d1588e13f37b67bbe358470ffdb7af73
8e1422b360d4165068345b563da5085fd0feda1b
describe
'31604' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRR' 'sip-files00208thm.jpg'
52af422e2558a9f29550f610ff03de9e
91dc74e6592667b985ca6579838282e603d2a3b9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRS' 'sip-files00209.jp2'
fc87f528404cb1e48100f62678388596
e25694d3dd8bcb55a9590c702fa020bc94ef7343
describe
'176501' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRT' 'sip-files00209.jpg'
bfdfaec0a9ee56456b8415a96788eefe
689aa0de5fc59179a0d06ec0b6c2f4fd63793ab8
describe
'31938' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRU' 'sip-files00209.pro'
99988b4d80664d5516b15afd0469c73d
6f7fef3ef32fb7043367edf199d7c4fffb377b80
describe
'66005' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRV' 'sip-files00209.QC.jpg'
5d62c14d86beab761db858a576bbe08f
51bbef0fbaa35bafa67908cdc941d7bf6d22a4f4
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRW' 'sip-files00209.tif'
b18187d250560e88daf4691b00230fe5
5fc3751da4c1e57cd7fb01df97fe0aae3bacc70f
describe
'1799' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRX' 'sip-files00209.txt'
378935ca5adeee878564b8b7e5670b12
1a4d073f586bcaeed588d1ada050b009154eb081
describe
'31956' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRY' 'sip-files00209thm.jpg'
beeadbf83b4584abeadbd9f39ca63e70
3244331c03e7d29c2f089901a83ba4766c88e3c7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVRZ' 'sip-files00210.jp2'
d4fd65624a792861fc9e36660fb7416d
fd3380199a68748d9e58070e8b63a3bf21eae5bc
describe
'173254' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSA' 'sip-files00210.jpg'
8470616b282736fa9456a1624afcd375
1a6f539b7ce1ad764091a12955ff8da370c76cda
describe
'39756' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSB' 'sip-files00210.pro'
ced26fa073a6b21e39f3a51c262d35fb
916eb996e1b0d7a36399b82d819b5407d226128a
describe
'67400' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSC' 'sip-files00210.QC.jpg'
85a3359e301d8a14cc430f59f27ca80a
c4e6cd64bec4086ac53046f53ddd97a25362b52e
describe
'2911508' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSD' 'sip-files00210.tif'
834313636097725acbc770031502e86e
8d4c801e790c27ce0175bd8740b5595be2e50bab
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSE' 'sip-files00210.txt'
a107b496a53e380b57ca867873aca14d
2779dfb53dfd89dc16a05f053c155ef0aeb74b91
describe
'31769' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSF' 'sip-files00210thm.jpg'
858c4994119f50bc9676d64fb639188d
509010dcdcd387bfdd5b1fdbb3337643a86b8f61
describe
'361300' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSG' 'sip-files00211.jp2'
4d186a1a1ab49f2c2872ca8b5728ec2a
c9cf6312a051bc59f781355fbeafde1c9e66f491
describe
'172636' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSH' 'sip-files00211.jpg'
664a33b780d2270d52efd0285dfa8be1
512f650dad2fab3af32dfa9ca8c3adfe9ea277ab
describe
'40390' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSI' 'sip-files00211.pro'
0a5d0bc9de436c553ca97986e2c67adc
94836e20b4d0cc99b880b10fb6fa165d8f626ba9
describe
'68343' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSJ' 'sip-files00211.QC.jpg'
3d689c22b9ac5dba3bef4afb52018b6e
4e4fde5df3a1deebd4776077610ce15b1798dd8c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSK' 'sip-files00211.tif'
c18b58b3ffe8043e000a8853b05a5926
006834701d235975e80b5e5bdcc8d96a5d11f885
describe
'1605' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSL' 'sip-files00211.txt'
43834bd578cbbafce1b67b98f0e4b5aa
65fddfa860125b37b9bbb45174b8dfe1c5a85c60
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSM' 'sip-files00211thm.jpg'
6ca760bada37b319e3161b2087d37fbc
09b96bc576109051912a9c0247d31357e2f4037b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSN' 'sip-files00212.jp2'
f82a6f071ab27a3ed0848d6a52fd2cd4
7d38beda67e37e45577f0faddf0f661d657ec59b
describe
'169914' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSO' 'sip-files00212.jpg'
e0ae75e8ca2856781ad34c92acf38bdc
db704023e44f1408656c600c6befe29cfc2f0b32
describe
'30397' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSP' 'sip-files00212.pro'
345f6cd3b9ff01d91d64eb72371e5651
ca2fe023584567f7ab9137b9bb716e50b5af47da
describe
'62469' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSQ' 'sip-files00212.QC.jpg'
54b868d3366242b175a144d99226b505
ca0ecae1c44b5a1a3baa7b3c9a0dd5bbf2d85271
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSR' 'sip-files00212.tif'
d151dabf19ff02b56d0fd237afa2c48a
342119853821d788fd8855b1da3c0c46751cb3e7
describe
'1299' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSS' 'sip-files00212.txt'
9c76b60dcaf5d6487035f975909f2bd2
cd46b0947bc17b4ab33007461d27bca88675076e
describe
'31034' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVST' 'sip-files00212thm.jpg'
0ca1915c3310e37c1a2207eca0e77530
cc12faef582ce0e6c84b99df5f93c6a3b443764e
describe
'361210' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSU' 'sip-files00213.jp2'
48387bb9c87c02c5e064710acf8a2cfb
0f1d2986f8b7008b951fbf2102236366fa229cc6
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSV' 'sip-files00213.jpg'
e260699528b027bebe2227c2e6613340
d550610f1e8a684d3b703f7783efc3608ada4a17
describe
'42671' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSW' 'sip-files00213.pro'
1abf5311046a41f4b7dc9fe55d904ea9
1d1363c98c1c0f26cdef0c7f3f5bbf7ee8c94780
describe
'70549' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSX' 'sip-files00213.QC.jpg'
397a8b775482b78e58670a0763f72ef4
2ee93d21f4d535de67ff2bf64e87fd4de9a1fe51
describe
'2911480' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSY' 'sip-files00213.tif'
86e41503bbbabdeb9012e434762833d9
80ee109138289b48c4ecb0bf8622565be487bdc9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVSZ' 'sip-files00213.txt'
4f2ac94158ca9e070b2fd68403ee6393
c4e23eaade32c7a3e5a72e7ec6e86536124a0fcb
describe
'32267' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTA' 'sip-files00213thm.jpg'
96d71388415ecf24e3f1f002cb897775
ee3f070c24e2abcf192be2d0a1420d92abf43b6e
describe
'361232' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTB' 'sip-files00214.jp2'
1455eee1423d27f30849a20f4eff68ea
d99f626b866713c875e82bc861703b26eb60fa48
describe
'180859' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTC' 'sip-files00214.jpg'
026e6577923d46c71bf0540bd74a66eb
45b4041f4b93afd31c6b504cc988638ec56a30dc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTD' 'sip-files00214.pro'
c7919a10676ec21d156591a2e96e3e2a
0616d0aad782b4e5e0004b3a1568b10390c1a39d
describe
'70137' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTE' 'sip-files00214.QC.jpg'
2501ec45c649572940e287da69b09506
f31ae3388ee5ee836ce6461be93f1e9a04a358b2
describe
'2911376' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTF' 'sip-files00214.tif'
678964e4d0201514510988b8e82b8f2e
72388105f8f9a09e0e71f7773aa15b41f1d4e292
describe
'1752' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTG' 'sip-files00214.txt'
e2cadf1ad89d5537d74e3dc2d27e5ba8
e069b3f05dc213dcec6fa6036cce4bb83fe2946c
describe
'31793' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTH' 'sip-files00214thm.jpg'
71e09f0354966e8f6485dfad90e6ca46
8c9b3ebd04353c6a30f7c77aefea0ccf25dc6a80
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTI' 'sip-files00215.jp2'
063f36cc1bc27fd0058964ebc318d88e
09f6b1fdf151035978b2584906cabf87a7d64a93
describe
'181604' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTJ' 'sip-files00215.jpg'
d4b2f7096a6940a497bb043a61daa7b9
9ee0d102c3575bbc97bc031c19d26f008206fa6f
describe
'42440' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTK' 'sip-files00215.pro'
27d4af579108f301879ed18aa0c7faee
22fa8ed018b16d4caa5300a6637407ef4689be05
describe
'70204' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTL' 'sip-files00215.QC.jpg'
6224792f0ed6a28191e7ad1bb8b0a68f
beb691e7ccfe2c1da810d41e5636857fe324f72f
describe
'2911944' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTM' 'sip-files00215.tif'
f280446c09fa1cbb8fdd62b4adfb5442
84540b7c7da03fae13c196ce9030ce0b05d6ec04
describe
'1688' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTN' 'sip-files00215.txt'
6f2dfdf951889949e7ad1ab365a53b5d
41a9ca8bb77e119294b594c3aec1b05d6bd823ed
describe
'32656' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTO' 'sip-files00215thm.jpg'
0ac58d663f77a658601d6184105b3a16
2cdeb13a9ca6c67299d2df7ba0331fe8c0368ff8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTP' 'sip-files00216.jp2'
cabdab6738535b303e84a091d1155c69
07f49cc7f16df839425547b22707784f1cf118a3
describe
'176546' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTQ' 'sip-files00216.jpg'
f7ee7922057fb7650944cac9b8647487
f5450a6d570e7e84d8a626e83d1679c2a0aea6b8
describe
'36603' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTR' 'sip-files00216.pro'
54b900905552e8e8b20d85abc0876dde
2591bb70f0c3a662d67a876e891e41bb54e51e35
describe
'67271' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTS' 'sip-files00216.QC.jpg'
670f98b9c729dfa01811c6068fa4e1e4
04029308aa29adeb4f9cebcfb57226dc5f5ab251
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTT' 'sip-files00216.tif'
0ac51f054704e2b612a5c68beb1b07c6
83dd803216be1de0f9025941989c3d8c356d9f7a
describe
'1501' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTU' 'sip-files00216.txt'
b5e8d1aff0a6edd8b75b77f317c6cb50
e4803a4c5bf8381cb3d158650ffb99fccd29aa5a
describe
'32313' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTV' 'sip-files00216thm.jpg'
0f78db58ef8fea27f45c41f77952a0e8
e2f3ffbc7c58e8d423247cbfa245d7df635d3f4e
describe
'361249' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTW' 'sip-files00217.jp2'
d6333af6472e825ac4d40075eba0a84b
72744f1d1aa67dcd4353d627b777c401c7c0d877
describe
'181903' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTX' 'sip-files00217.jpg'
d6801cca0171b869092a617a4575e6e9
0cdc1aa4bd44120f444cc6043fadbf19ff5affd8
describe
'37804' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTY' 'sip-files00217.pro'
4bee6710a27985be85127ea2db10b60a
f80b4d8f1416b3429faf7f36260ccbcee0795e28
describe
'66742' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVTZ' 'sip-files00217.QC.jpg'
325d9f70f2061f089d5f753a49e5aed0
93bcf33c3c3623629204b92212e78039284d62fd
describe
'2911548' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUA' 'sip-files00217.tif'
288dcb312f718fbd153689a319776886
c48611b43b94f2ebbba6105d34d0d6784ea8f733
describe
'1899' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUB' 'sip-files00217.txt'
7b096100f81574da8cd5e5ddffa779ee
41750a017a2e311bd63bcfe22d83ec6bc5779cab
describe
'31491' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUC' 'sip-files00217thm.jpg'
0c4bed87d9769342ca58a8cee8688c42
fa145bd6524a4f982f3e8bbf9295e658cb53076b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUD' 'sip-files00218.jp2'
b860483f4932b0d5e47c2b316a73bb94
cbad0674781370e2cab522d7f607b53467779ed4
describe
'185776' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUE' 'sip-files00218.jpg'
7c6c39d07b2ffbfdd97180717877a424
d44f69d57a31ec868cd3465ce4be0a62cbdbe196
describe
'42038' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUF' 'sip-files00218.pro'
b80b318faa62b22736f964805017ec7b
837ce056e1a8ede975ba6228b2035783abc49995
describe
'70545' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUG' 'sip-files00218.QC.jpg'
629404bfe36520808a2f2f19a4d38081
ffdb245c39d847d6b807fb4e6fefeebc5f2d27a9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUH' 'sip-files00218.tif'
6c6867f4708f20098d7c42c13a9aa491
81b604817af8fac4bd06b7a93a45affc543f5cf2
describe
'1768' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUI' 'sip-files00218.txt'
42bb0b9c2dc40e950a1850afb7b5b657
fbd9f84029dcae7a88384973a8a5ccbcb1988ee8
describe
'32016' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUJ' 'sip-files00218thm.jpg'
7a5085f2a457899d02c6e71b093e38d3
49829ba035f7e71d6b7118a8dd3018f69960accb
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUK' 'sip-files00219.jp2'
c2c54af622f183b33569c668fa1189df
1a2cf936b8a033417e8e81fda8dfdc5c511e1646
describe
'159713' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUL' 'sip-files00219.jpg'
d53bcf300285d6b6c60d33c8f3d66550
5cd5a4c8d370341f088aad435bb3b7195218a6f6
describe
'35292' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUM' 'sip-files00219.pro'
b5c560f07e22847efa6eeda2e6aaaecd
dcb35edf2d512df405a2302a6ae0d91eed9dd415
describe
'62594' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUN' 'sip-files00219.QC.jpg'
c996d670fd6300e1dc4b8d77557742b9
6db5c910ec0ff5b4c0798ea0607e5c5e0ddce3a2
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUO' 'sip-files00219.tif'
fe9861e4c2548a873d360e411fa927cf
7ed9eaca175901665e1646301215220bd00d82a5
describe
'1390' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUP' 'sip-files00219.txt'
3515ee818d073522acb659e91b904dc4
691bb2274b2e980acce3f877e907fc628e1a8971
describe
'29993' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUQ' 'sip-files00219thm.jpg'
e2b8d4ae0e6d6a20a7e318d2df200756
770fe23c6f56fae6cf83ea6d388d4d8a0809435f
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUR' 'sip-files00220.jp2'
be928b63c860916821164121220466bf
29dd4b7b7b8fb9546ba011c880d81ec6ca09df38
describe
'132961' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUS' 'sip-files00220.jpg'
25146ed09b858fd2b8b773d52e5a1cef
9219f6853f0f1024e4d731bafb21d13f25199528
describe
'20013' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUT' 'sip-files00220.pro'
b3c93e3b946349ebb2a8542c40809416
78c82c84d5be0c2d4bdc36239a12232ef198e893
describe
'50833' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUU' 'sip-files00220.QC.jpg'
373935a815e9a465d2a32c2372ef53d0
c6c1ecf9726aad636406678669629b61a516a7b7
describe
'2910316' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUV' 'sip-files00220.tif'
a8d841f0cfc25a5bc9743694e8ee00cb
816e76d5e7a75df9c99b06657ddfb4bbcef6b082
describe
'1046' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUW' 'sip-files00220.txt'
3c03391db5b74f25faa28fe371ee6264
bb52472902251dc6f510a9c59b6918b22c0436d7
describe
'27306' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUX' 'sip-files00220thm.jpg'
fc96b9ab6f7a5d24370877a69a55c5fd
fae25a50580464fdc4ab0ece8bf122264a80e50d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUY' 'sip-files00221.jp2'
a446a7dca7416e91f532c336afc35086
9332b78d5b12a2ad19905f64a3f08b797378c2c3
describe
'183642' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVUZ' 'sip-files00221.jpg'
39d9bcce807c18bfaca5376683266771
40ba83fbb9132967dc39def635f8f7c90bb9a3e9
describe
'42307' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVA' 'sip-files00221.pro'
903834dd9a182fe783101df91fe7c827
1e0f4c5275d88335ef2bd4ab719ac2457f58c682
describe
'70887' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVB' 'sip-files00221.QC.jpg'
1948edd41963ea9e410bbee3f775247a
2f1b3137480ef6c67740bf0356c614bebcdc2bb9
describe
'2911820' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVC' 'sip-files00221.tif'
962a81410aa6521af66d0099536b6a81
10793adf12fad7d29dee436907f1e0a429126389
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVD' 'sip-files00221.txt'
937419dc352858947c68f23aae3a2971
d9fe55ab15f5cfc3bfc86fdc076dc2f2dd542ffa
describe
'32551' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVE' 'sip-files00221thm.jpg'
0d2e28c82978ba6ce818161e0a2d6670
a47dececb25468ba34cce1940edd646ced37a71e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVF' 'sip-files00222.jp2'
835f0a3ed4c5729d0b4f6aa6382c51f4
52eee839fadc7ac85a2f9dca878b8cfc13ef1b41
describe
'181518' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVG' 'sip-files00222.jpg'
b4e916ef34b094edda96de608b37b07b
f3e46a3760b2396675baa84076bf4996860c3729
describe
'42250' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVH' 'sip-files00222.pro'
efb63befa22298450de3913c17018e6d
54f6dd5f6a6ce4255427883a2ff0b21b01e3b898
describe
'70002' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVI' 'sip-files00222.QC.jpg'
14c159462c61c1915438d728b576e2d3
b97f01ce57eccb90f29686b599c0f29100dd7bac
describe
'2911728' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVJ' 'sip-files00222.tif'
f3b12c2a8a1f2041197ff34104990b06
530c7fc0feda30d2ff9e18ea9c1db0c60431bc8b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVK' 'sip-files00222.txt'
48a43e0797329dab6e98d4c4dcc7e8f2
ee5a03cd441973e35c69de8d1e2b5b94adebc7d2
describe
'32453' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVL' 'sip-files00222thm.jpg'
993f7a913977650196d77ac3b1cbc9f4
d4b5b64f145a5eec4b8a3120be3c1105c6fc5c4d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVM' 'sip-files00223.jp2'
882e3c2197dcc0d7fefa117cccabd882
4e5992e799180e26e3e00d2f4f1dfe35e04180b3
describe
'182569' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVN' 'sip-files00223.jpg'
73c0ff4b30d9f06b19f5baed1163f001
d3907ff6839f433cf09a342f27dac4a6d93cbe3d
describe
'41879' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVO' 'sip-files00223.pro'
393640b05c3a5618e9ac40e96621b2aa
0f105ed9f87899332baaec12dfe44ab332cdb91a
describe
'68667' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVP' 'sip-files00223.QC.jpg'
70bd279db93df10a8f99ac5d5656b5c0
e0840f89faffa27d069e0f95ee7b2c771045a584
describe
'2911416' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVQ' 'sip-files00223.tif'
07236af2a2f5e31add7425fc20ca0fbe
b583a0388ed30fae9684e7ca31191f51d8354286
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVR' 'sip-files00223.txt'
462fe46ed92c471bfd431b17018b8b61
39d293bd66625a10bea4aef89cad625bc3c762c1
describe
'31983' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVS' 'sip-files00223thm.jpg'
3925a14e0af6725f6be91b5d6145508a
fa45dc4d6610b1afa4e0c2ed52f065915b2f5d6b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVT' 'sip-files00224.jp2'
7527d4d1674f8303ae572171c4ac770d
81a0f4a7fd15c74d9e2d3e33de18f147d9229fea
describe
'184479' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVU' 'sip-files00224.jpg'
6bed46a644417df4a19170a86a04b44a
44cb69d75782c10640bc53f6a8af0ec91e4bd15d
describe
'42322' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVV' 'sip-files00224.pro'
df5d54d82f4240aa0de7da7c27645ffe
7e3d35e29c077ce09be4f8d4715fb8efc41317e2
describe
'71092' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVW' 'sip-files00224.QC.jpg'
d77da10ad30001a44849dc9d6865873c
1ca2ad6f299f480675b25aa9bef80f6f90087a30
describe
'2911644' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVX' 'sip-files00224.tif'
4364616380dec921412e8203095886e9
db501686fbaba3220f153eda239a743ee7ace9ad
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVY' 'sip-files00224.txt'
00b9a85415d5bed1dfd69ecb94c8e64c
3bb0f025609177870eb374d79de0ee13c0c131a0
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVVZ' 'sip-files00224thm.jpg'
1b58cfa674584c7bd2aaad300f03badb
8969c3fcc7cc8b64beb5c25e7ccd798102093f90
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWA' 'sip-files00225.jp2'
6678f57a2794877504eca2e08bf107f6
765b17330f17172aab22eb013339ce785811085f
describe
'164401' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWB' 'sip-files00225.jpg'
177091333f3e748f86a8a2953725de02
2377a0172f5acf9ca656b437ac378e1586d40a07
describe
'36694' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWC' 'sip-files00225.pro'
4e7cb1e366a557045fbafc41255d119a
99a2d0752b0a8a9915ef0cb2de84196eb349ec50
describe
'62210' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWD' 'sip-files00225.QC.jpg'
75fca2d320eb2d848e198bc29ed93906
1a0192f8bd20cb93476e6c1c78a7a69da8faaa62
describe
'2911164' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWE' 'sip-files00225.tif'
39c2af38dcf053a30ff0894a14896d54
4a91e0801d3609406c27c435760459d4ebab8e65
describe
'1598' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWF' 'sip-files00225.txt'
009eadcb6a58b52cc6cf5e9c4fd63751
3c461d0d6211f9680bc5f3971dfe147ffcd3a655
describe
'30341' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWG' 'sip-files00225thm.jpg'
235534a2edc41af3ddd0e88798f902fe
040d1390cdcd5c3f85fcc103abe7ac9f7caaf225
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWH' 'sip-files00226.jp2'
32a8a1495912a0d9d47b239b99be977e
8f7e44fa69c772de4dd546e69cc2a0201aa1d892
describe
'161242' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWI' 'sip-files00226.jpg'
3b1311186d5689da2c0375a4e8837741
b987f07ab60c0a1fd419eceed5fe4f9db9447b7e
describe
'24676' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWJ' 'sip-files00226.pro'
4a5cbe9e2ba91f259b3e37c0d4b9e727
4b7cb2de38e7c62fb292a11b224a8643d1d30c82
describe
'58105' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWK' 'sip-files00226.QC.jpg'
9b76a75ca05287e22f8d67b3e816cd7b
46fb841964b694e2ccff1ebdf9b86e3820dee7c0
describe
'2911032' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWL' 'sip-files00226.tif'
dbdaccd74e94edb7957e4496e545d39c
cbc83fb7fa8fcfe0aaa83ce8639f26f602ab0e4b
describe
'1074' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWM' 'sip-files00226.txt'
4e33330fed2a202012cfd4fd7637bcf3
0b6f87ba46bc0f8103de615c2b707fea7c6b7a47
describe
'29706' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWN' 'sip-files00226thm.jpg'
29741cfefc51ee7948151cbef88cc4de
e6792d13c20e50854f31f446e309e371512c1eb8
describe
'361199' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWO' 'sip-files00227.jp2'
0f3a50cbdb4fe3d0a1a30dc87e36c906
698e713f1f3d1e8f396b1fe32b812cea291a1b67
describe
'165836' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWP' 'sip-files00227.jpg'
d967c14d88ce85221da4e3df5d9eb183
243dd1742843d10bdd1b77ea3054c74e75a00480
describe
'24408' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWQ' 'sip-files00227.pro'
1ee54b8a53283b9386f2d5f06800fdd0
e894384b2a3e2011e7953a9a8748c341a2ec809e
describe
'61305' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWR' 'sip-files00227.QC.jpg'
bf9e89bd5df3cb513b56f9783601adfb
5a8b7a70da83d3a4bb356ab0022c43c8f338c516
describe
'2911368' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWS' 'sip-files00227.tif'
0f24da08d0bdf85b344eddc6b0ce1210
420ed0a96f35c511cd46e3304e4f28d56a865b09
describe
'1059' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWT' 'sip-files00227.txt'
71703c660fbb4ff22ae2286034e9cb2c
c947f8cc315711808d615fdbeb7e8df231c677a2
describe
'30730' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWU' 'sip-files00227thm.jpg'
5e03fabdc090abba43eb0e2ef1a21928
e31a1ddfa1da61722c5da0f52596afaffe8c0bfc
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWV' 'sip-files00228.jp2'
d3da167f8e919f86506fa4976f58694b
993733c10a696638289a029914cca596bba5e805
describe
'178397' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWW' 'sip-files00228.jpg'
0d0807a7438e94a26228498d6cea3bdc
1da05bbdf5f85dc63017313888338f227adbf1bc
describe
'40427' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWX' 'sip-files00228.pro'
e642016c8191846ee660c7f134f31468
1c290b7f88883df75c9bf721e5cfe2b3e1fa3763
describe
'68207' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWY' 'sip-files00228.QC.jpg'
de53a5b39cadbf319efcd094095bedc6
ec0a1e5bc69d7640556f326b96513aeb8a038f17
describe
'2911428' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVWZ' 'sip-files00228.tif'
c224fc5d742587d7b4720d846eb14ff4
118baeb9e79404bf5a01194c729db523a9d3bd62
describe
'1630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXA' 'sip-files00228.txt'
116f5f91dad55ebd1ddc4848028e6cda
0491cd5c465489bb189639ac39499eae2645092e
describe
'31842' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXB' 'sip-files00228thm.jpg'
396e60ed4d8b4017ea0f950b44c09647
d138cbe904c34091d1ade1af530e95dbed3109ea
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXC' 'sip-files00229.jp2'
5693d77a6ed824918fb8a6c3317dec86
9a34e2a96553ff083db9aa3660004e6ab3c0fe57
describe
'179852' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXD' 'sip-files00229.jpg'
39f8d47867465292f29130efd6c40463
7bfc81160025567913b69a3eee70afa4ad1a3871
describe
'41719' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXE' 'sip-files00229.pro'
8d4cb179b9b4e5f3fa5b629c51f1411d
8b7ecf20f6bafe324e0d8d177dd0d814902a8a50
describe
'68513' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXF' 'sip-files00229.QC.jpg'
c90c39bd95e3a1cc3c3a30b89a2888d3
e335576ad6f4f70c2fc43ece5b262a1e2ca12678
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXG' 'sip-files00229.tif'
90f7629b556f0a44284c72f5856eb7d7
6ee20a2664e638dc05289990a854635a84464a07
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXH' 'sip-files00229.txt'
0b0ba5daffaaa80149abf3126718da0c
a6c4b5d1828c449bfb2b2dfe31a0977cecf83c60
describe
'31528' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXI' 'sip-files00229thm.jpg'
f72c8b07a4c691749fb9cb48f8b37238
c71f9641d2b64c5d60eef22c210c0a40c6c52328
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXJ' 'sip-files00230.jp2'
396e457cf352cc1935ac280f676af0b5
6fcc6f3b2f5bcdc3b6b080e2b5d66e98905f91bd
describe
'180831' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXK' 'sip-files00230.jpg'
e6fa438f33a104560dfb97dbcaf212f0
7667656815575e756b35c15d40f7c191541cc659
describe
'42523' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXL' 'sip-files00230.pro'
eb43ea46e3e5f7a12f816c906f57ff54
980bc07e5e2e0563f255c165a1c85c0ed83d09ee
describe
'69461' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXM' 'sip-files00230.QC.jpg'
961ee942648843c3d10bce8804b6f794
e93036100f26f6b983a7071addf77a0a0a1ff025
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXN' 'sip-files00230.tif'
c05a59fcbb732c3ef5b7d5cd00f48d03
77893dc6c0178152548e5cdbef32a22a7888121a
describe
'1694' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXO' 'sip-files00230.txt'
256c2c4cbf5bbb05131a35325a6340a2
631bdf45e3955579e5b3ba41ea131b8e62fa7696
describe
'31784' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXP' 'sip-files00230thm.jpg'
1b5f5dda8ec372e686a65613c96fa7ca
85e6eff78afdba144ee6f677cdb548ae882167c3
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXQ' 'sip-files00231.jp2'
659a12d66ba985f231616ae56d311acc
90102330819f917b3b347b19d48c408b1b2c82f1
describe
'154009' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXR' 'sip-files00231.jpg'
093e617243af1313fa6a55f4444134cb
3f605ee50e4bc9e712e76c0a6e97b76fb5d05a39
describe
'25147' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXS' 'sip-files00231.pro'
09e77c94294a1b92a2bf8610a7ceb512
b8c376ce0f17a24ab71105ee7233e1a4adb9b651
describe
'57690' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXT' 'sip-files00231.QC.jpg'
65e0711cce84e6731f3a20208ee433ea
a50d28ee47d5847b5d5c8ab0abb8d9300045e0fc
describe
'2910936' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXU' 'sip-files00231.tif'
92e20ad129132970105bded9d8bd1755
c461dd8f9386a60762f21e8069e594d8704d14f6
describe
'1145' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXV' 'sip-files00231.txt'
53c95d63b01a8b42810f36b5074e15ef
9721898c8db46d4b29fe5856719a8c67a1341d4b
describe
'29422' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXW' 'sip-files00231thm.jpg'
7a6551de1f9e315fcdfbd05c1ad4e15c
4e5a589b4fdbc2f91cec9d5dcca14fb1c16c5d69
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXX' 'sip-files00232.jp2'
3a75648c98e98cc89f0c92a019863e0b
6e2c06fb432e9e8fa6db40f4604899d2676bd1b0
describe
'180625' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXY' 'sip-files00232.jpg'
d684e668d4d9be8f5a94d98708984b1a
8c17795bb32767a61d98bcd76e86a46489a0ec5d
describe
'42134' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVXZ' 'sip-files00232.pro'
b4201f226e3d46700bb0f25bcb4c0469
d22fb427f0c18f8a0ac5c27fd0335cd4a0b28b6c
describe
'69907' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYA' 'sip-files00232.QC.jpg'
5ca898a4133d5cf2ad3652c0df46b110
9e1ed9bba17f1e4d9622298f21af642dae9c59fa
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYB' 'sip-files00232.tif'
485c83a28fd6f5474e17981504f53e1c
1fa62bf3a80dd13876ea50c0bd6b98e7491761c9
describe
'1675' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYC' 'sip-files00232.txt'
be76d5244c39800d3f21e253b20347b4
fe6cf730753fcd9cdae6ae5ea2cdde7e3e759cfd
describe
'32083' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYD' 'sip-files00232thm.jpg'
ec2238d20a6732b7b9364a2e26432ebf
da6e3052d8a5bd7d13477a8ec229dd13634ba08e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYE' 'sip-files00233.jp2'
8531a08ac38b61ed61389969dfc8f4f0
fcc5bdcbe0fd2cd3bd8ee5277746862c4fec0f1a
describe
'86473' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYF' 'sip-files00233.jpg'
d3780f2bbd8795c65fe161c53f6b049c
9bacbfaf3c75a66722ec4b76d9a866b5229b1499
describe
'11095' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYG' 'sip-files00233.pro'
e4aee45c9ea042f9be75214314b8417b
0ba9de3f2a86d57555f943b952b68146049713a3
describe
'35444' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYH' 'sip-files00233.QC.jpg'
1c4b4fc716f98c6509498b653f4b62ec
45bbfd67071973c075240577451804f390622194
describe
'2908812' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYI' 'sip-files00233.tif'
612f13f2f1afb32d8390d9df510e35f4
6c13d77150208579dc46e6b7e02d1fe9c9828d70
describe
'445' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYJ' 'sip-files00233.txt'
f3d4c35653e7e1a3e81b54669110304f
47b967ec3b4d3f7820d39beb89e05a3953e67d66
describe
'22582' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYK' 'sip-files00233thm.jpg'
5c0a743663998a3b6cef9a69b3aa70f0
818d07d19d2b3a8e118f04a86a04b521e8fb0457
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYL' 'sip-files00234.jp2'
8dd79b2cdfda6823a6b25095305a8819
c6c13387d9369d9537b84916e768883f70b8c507
describe
'148278' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYM' 'sip-files00234.jpg'
315d109f28448d072870acc442e5553b
d8e92186aa07be2e8a88cc988ea7cc9844ce6ee4
describe
'23438' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYN' 'sip-files00234.pro'
66961fb3d956c785d404aa39623529ca
48a08eef411047b43038ad6965ad695a7ffe003b
describe
'56000' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYO' 'sip-files00234.QC.jpg'
bf3bfd889ba7a6697534d212c47d941b
a5f0923f88634e01150b2253a73d354911bb0e52
describe
'2910796' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYP' 'sip-files00234.tif'
d737093ef7f62d92b29660b32baef28c
525787583ac9c140acc7a0a0c303cd56a243397c
describe
'1167' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYQ' 'sip-files00234.txt'
9984be7be6a757bbeb3da7e93cd53e15
c9476bfba91a732392a7caec2cc7df5507a0bf03
describe
'28976' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYR' 'sip-files00234thm.jpg'
3b08773fea20e2fd83c30beeda37d716
af1fdb22cd1c8499fb0676048ee054dfac3a177b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYS' 'sip-files00235.jp2'
842b74f6e62c8d91beb8753410a618f1
39ca88a84c98aecae8e9a67b20b8806d9269e6c0
describe
'176777' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYT' 'sip-files00235.jpg'
6f8c3231b65e848d3f5bfd4dc81b7513
a350f8d1752f2b0a23ddde306fad67c4061752ab
describe
'39247' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYU' 'sip-files00235.pro'
31401328f22d9d8ea10258ff4cb173c7
7949088b0e927a6be16f37f46c80c43c43f34115
describe
'67876' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYV' 'sip-files00235.QC.jpg'
17289dac272c2a3dd797d27cf87f4c4a
694ee0981bf98a672fb31c67b784925cafe6d9b0
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYW' 'sip-files00235.tif'
32558f6e9187f5a27ddd7cb025ba7347
3acf7dad196aae3d383a84f932e62d617e67a43a
describe
'1557' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYX' 'sip-files00235.txt'
4668c8d96f26ecbf47eedca87cac1ab3
b06ae023f78ecd98c4112479115a5e42a38db665
describe
'31668' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYY' 'sip-files00235thm.jpg'
b8d361c5352f18fccf0e67f29166ddb1
48ded119aaa07afe9f87b73170458a85b86b8050
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVYZ' 'sip-files00236.jp2'
8d358d211611f5fa320b48ac19818602
d8d7aeb92edcb7719e8fb7411c2991f1def11447
describe
'184463' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZA' 'sip-files00236.jpg'
4956e8c9c2f2701c35024daedd5ca744
f2db3bcc293770a411f6433b8806700ce38a14d1
describe
'41759' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZB' 'sip-files00236.pro'
39e5fb5ab2a87546496b9e6664803a82
3d70a14e8987bd3c28edfc986e4844fb25cbea08
describe
'70373' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZC' 'sip-files00236.QC.jpg'
e9fa03467b1207e82fd5880a6113193b
9997cb13f438b95e8137e42ad64764b8270a099d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZD' 'sip-files00236.tif'
4828b96e25ee15447ee20453c7450f4c
080dcbc7e3cb61e4e90564afdb56117d10166515
describe
'1664' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZE' 'sip-files00236.txt'
4ee26fd35429b08aa0d9d05f76945c08
7d12bf2d72a6de9a29820628daf836340bd68636
describe
'32455' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZF' 'sip-files00236thm.jpg'
fa9e5bc656901a1b6a3b6590ea46d3cc
b751095bbd3d03ce6da518f638de45a87c505fd3
describe
'361192' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZG' 'sip-files00237.jp2'
77476749ed8688df93b7ab7fab345017
b8a5db9fc13599aff7267700338c8ff54be7b6ab
describe
'193735' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZH' 'sip-files00237.jpg'
d14d81c18003e0c81d99d9cfd0dbf922
f8582c976ebe0de8354abb4090394be04baff5b5
describe
'16501' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZI' 'sip-files00237.pro'
2eb2591f28904c663e9f30bdc6268a98
6ba74f20f45da695e2aa3ec271a74b29ca56ccd7
describe
'64611' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZJ' 'sip-files00237.QC.jpg'
3f9457bb16f975e6e2d76bd8180f652a
1203f0dcf56f281af88c770358d485b62401c8b9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZK' 'sip-files00237.tif'
72aa25f75fc41c650e67d77e7a6326b7
5874ac57dd147163df2f15d718023383d5fcd841
describe
'762' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZL' 'sip-files00237.txt'
21a5a520bb1bd255dc93d0f5417fdb7f
190a4c640ab7e18a33f6da26015afbb58fd57aab
describe
'31403' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZM' 'sip-files00237thm.jpg'
2f7cfb79c99caf6ccd2454eaf7969dea
70353a9bf848e293f3942ea6e2e589a9b548b151
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZN' 'sip-files00238.jp2'
c3ce412515d9b9711f86268ef95912a7
9987b46f65d6d62bd34fbb5c9c934aa6c8e83649
describe
'166696' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZO' 'sip-files00238.jpg'
8bc77bc1612bcd9faa126b8403751ed6
620b64ab43c3607da5c8f29542f148f2b00e715e
describe
'35926' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZP' 'sip-files00238.pro'
c974a7db27a464796c19f334ab70e929
b6c275efe1c5888ff8ada480cd73ef484a73cd8c
describe
'63794' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZQ' 'sip-files00238.QC.jpg'
3dd8e32a841e4cfed7fe6db3bb31ac04
a13ca00e6f0bc5f6ca29d7944dc2bf8772b76982
describe
'2911436' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZR' 'sip-files00238.tif'
051338ca08ab392b38ad6f1990dde443
f9192a764d160145616dfa7782d41a69655c9022
describe
'1603' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZS' 'sip-files00238.txt'
374688d8d7eba5b566e28f02e73a81a1
74b74c6a104d4dfd9d6de0e7ef74a68fb56b5e4b
describe
'31272' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZT' 'sip-files00238thm.jpg'
926dc9c4ecdfc1fd2866c14a6af479a3
ff4ab8ba0f24eac49712e5a67e0a79a268e8eb6d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZU' 'sip-files00239.jp2'
e33b4a6aaa75f482bc81002a5eced829
ccade72c14aa8ab43b62989d0a9a720ad6c6ae0a
describe
'187677' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZV' 'sip-files00239.jpg'
d271cf8e85085cd7bcaf748527e63cb6
1ca26e48f6531065f0137f5e956c05d7dd8a1aea
describe
'42955' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZW' 'sip-files00239.pro'
18241895fcb97577e8ed80dc1adffba0
a58ac0b32bcdf6168aac0307fa6f44debe6e3ebe
describe
'70337' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZX' 'sip-files00239.QC.jpg'
9bf5427645c732485b8c06e78cea8a80
bacf3ce419681fa91aac9be99413bf8653a84413
describe
'2911676' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZY' 'sip-files00239.tif'
f6c03053e97ca0c597d8889895a8acca
25e6179972e30c6fc5d5a8bb951e50f945f97eca
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAVZZ' 'sip-files00239.txt'
aea75a7cdc398dec0f5c20260c7e3b49
dbe0f29778dcddfc80229ba05c21449d324ffcf1
describe
'32363' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAA' 'sip-files00239thm.jpg'
00199ef4227b54c39b2f2b4ff78d22cd
a73d914f0ae33a7b0c2679b8b4eb6fb863e0bf31
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAB' 'sip-files00240.jp2'
202a8501f3d85ac610e1eb6f54127196
19ffe4c88b878e428ed7649722d216711771bd60
describe
'178630' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAC' 'sip-files00240.jpg'
5380520e4cf832aff68d663eed668f35
e724a4cf5d84144368131ad2cb1f9436eaf66603
describe
'41863' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAD' 'sip-files00240.pro'
a66007b0261951635f7f2cc7aa9f5be9
04e85e821b0b87fc7f3ef162d7f7054b64f87f6a
describe
'68840' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAE' 'sip-files00240.QC.jpg'
c1c0dd3a3dc66030fbc428ba1af0993e
f58713bfc43640f8dd5ddbf0f75198d017ac932d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAF' 'sip-files00240.tif'
0dfe2d1f8515a176cba4ae3cf6af24f0
eec71fafef2266cd3c17a2945985355da309a1f8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAG' 'sip-files00240.txt'
6107cb4652cdb0bae4560ee1464a78c1
54da14f3a78f0945cf2af18a81d14444b319f72c
describe
'31853' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAH' 'sip-files00240thm.jpg'
d08010cc0eb938b4efe787b2cdc95389
0523e9fd424ef3214f34d559777dbb33b3a6f96c
describe
'361211' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAI' 'sip-files00241.jp2'
4de35d30b0135d5d8036b05998e2f4ec
7684b417d33539e84e12be0187c7f1eda37f51ff
describe
'174506' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAJ' 'sip-files00241.jpg'
e8d4781ead82f8c99586511259ce16b7
5a5321c77d856859d7953b200861088bd661322d
describe
'30782' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAK' 'sip-files00241.pro'
2311c463bc4415b10ce16236b1b800ee
7223e89d73deebccf96bdf5b68d23524691fbe0f
describe
'63186' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAL' 'sip-files00241.QC.jpg'
38a6b283c4adc0bb9a816922bf3a2cd6
70bbe10cb23fa493f55c3cdf2aade37b78d50061
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAM' 'sip-files00241.tif'
71683f35ac6c3c44dc104b48f4cf0857
5356e65e50b3679e00636c50b347cd49f09f901d
describe
'1268' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAN' 'sip-files00241.txt'
8b47683e3321ccab8a162aaebedb4cca
31312db09172c545c56c0ef25e69d941e6fb6570
describe
'30818' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAO' 'sip-files00241thm.jpg'
d9657bcf38a379a96e4aff2c38297897
e2d6e6cf276891a4045c11061ed390790be1f470
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAP' 'sip-files00242.jp2'
f66716650cbb12e8330b72cc399167e3
e576e9138128c21f9fe260820b5cd50cd45e696a
describe
'180181' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAQ' 'sip-files00242.jpg'
799a6ad7e992ca7b7a829a501f596686
a34d4ff3ed9367fc5398a62c556f1fbbf45f9db5
describe
'41452' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAR' 'sip-files00242.pro'
28ab1e25a4aedb4522a62be42d4d9f44
b212fd03a3a390d6de4cb2578c09cc9caad66327
describe
'69139' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAS' 'sip-files00242.QC.jpg'
f5a7e998e8c3a0db979fac09b75034e5
ddf1f0083db9ba9f19c7c7390b9d74587c3529d2
describe
'2911372' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAT' 'sip-files00242.tif'
15219ecd9e7a55c391b43944a611c270
22d7016d545c239093beba94953e7ecf3b501dc7
describe
'1663' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAU' 'sip-files00242.txt'
0e25672a0d2780ab8076c960f9be95eb
f90f500261ff07b1bc8d3f5e292139e777baaf0c
describe
'31495' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAV' 'sip-files00242thm.jpg'
dc4551e86a556dff0968e66ad45ae44e
9b219317ebb624f927214e4d1b7916c4b24413be
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAW' 'sip-files00243.jp2'
7f07092a42bd5ca114f70f844ee15f96
0342b954d3d29ec18660fe73b1866c13757963fd
describe
'177162' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAX' 'sip-files00243.jpg'
a2b0f8186809d7210bbe6ddbfa75fc8f
96dbbc9c2899d077c2c8f6cb8abac3ec20c2c854
describe
'39196' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAY' 'sip-files00243.pro'
c8dc058738746d3e777431467cc15c01
7de72b5258f208f3390056eb1abed5d8db322412
describe
'68820' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWAZ' 'sip-files00243.QC.jpg'
abdfee56938d4efcf4c1c94dd0ab0dc2
be8e0cc697c32456b9f0d31eb8af34b316af5779
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBA' 'sip-files00243.tif'
7e12ea550e7d12a1eecaf6389c3081af
dc688a6ce0e87454845fef2d64416b1baa19f783
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBB' 'sip-files00243.txt'
51339be5225665d12f6a3d51df3192a1
3cb19e882d5f2456e6a3c7e759a2fd7b9bfe9cf3
describe
'31690' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBC' 'sip-files00243thm.jpg'
e3180102ac0426abf9fdabc9446c9acc
5db291dc115b514fda81934a3954ecb842a667d8
describe
'361252' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBD' 'sip-files00244.jp2'
765f59ee7d898a39bac14379c14abec0
95e9872f339a13cfaaa7ba474688bb37af5e6eef
describe
'154259' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBE' 'sip-files00244.jpg'
1017505ba3863a45c8a3b2cce2d93889
ff29157e140ec1d6370091f1d65a06558e66e1db
describe
'29421' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBF' 'sip-files00244.pro'
9e33db18cc3d2d2a72a81a6092dff60c
e82b135eee96f329b7572c170a923482ff9d811f
describe
'58459' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBG' 'sip-files00244.QC.jpg'
763a5251f9e1b2b3a04ec2e53f92435b
e238563834d38f62f57e702e2251d89dbe2dbced
describe
'2910852' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBH' 'sip-files00244.tif'
54d8c564140a78f61b2480d3a57bd1a0
86082b4a9e56898ecd384e919af3fb570f396f0f
describe
'1337' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBI' 'sip-files00244.txt'
ef52b2e5c8673740995470ad7ee36f12
54fb9a7dec1571bcc50eb764bce872223f1b97f0
describe
'29461' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBJ' 'sip-files00244thm.jpg'
efb48b3ac73e9218e030387e52ecad1d
b229247b383edc0ec598f67dedb1b9e7b4669338
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBK' 'sip-files00245.jp2'
7d05a3be52af079d48acb3b483deb164
b298b589f83e2167f68b5990ccbdaaeea0dce7eb
describe
'184300' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBL' 'sip-files00245.jpg'
b739a1ae17a04d542f3c51ce8639d6bc
05151fa1fb7c60a4a24064ae248a6f1f6e39cfc7
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBM' 'sip-files00245.pro'
4c176fa39658cb43cc4835a2f58a0486
1fb3b5df0bd5f7f392d5d678259f7833b8737d47
describe
'70112' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBN' 'sip-files00245.QC.jpg'
893d590bfda49251e2681b16d3711a82
11b521c7ecdbabad6b2c1e561b335018b7eb5850
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBO' 'sip-files00245.tif'
91e4e8233508cd072e5aad0e7f3cda11
dba3b06c69833da307165a423f13c4c36fb7cd04
describe
'1682' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBP' 'sip-files00245.txt'
401b8bc3c42fc22692f0b59e1b7fe376
52bbaf3c1d7ded0f67b26ec0e5251ce42b04d088
describe
'32109' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBQ' 'sip-files00245thm.jpg'
9680ce9c371e700c2bf6ae32e90e8f22
27a345e325d60281aa06e23e43cb5cd131220f03
describe
'361059' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBR' 'sip-files00246.jp2'
b168960b31f0f8532289c69d9e858358
5cccda8703c713bd7ddea59c4cec9c2824ee7a0e
describe
'187312' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBS' 'sip-files00246.jpg'
5a0d3404fe2408c0e6226267763468ad
37c2fa208bfdd72455fa7131974b97d5dbd99f2e
describe
'16086' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBT' 'sip-files00246.pro'
9a5db8b804d9758d3a0d36f2e5083cce
5eb5e487fa5191d03ae314d43887faecc16d01d1
describe
'62548' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBU' 'sip-files00246.QC.jpg'
8b9f2371d01afd6a998555ad209711e6
9c4e210aa7f3aeb0753927f625236526bd419494
describe
'2911344' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBV' 'sip-files00246.tif'
9f39475eedda1eab0baa9d43f720c092
efb53b77bfc4763e1c46400467b8dfd8737eb18f
describe
'668' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBW' 'sip-files00246.txt'
eee91142c4dd684cd111aa06d271986d
82202508f93d9fe76818153236af3a4a5d9b7547
describe
'30771' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBX' 'sip-files00246thm.jpg'
f985b72c6401de3e6a81f941d751938c
c05a04ed35f6cbf939b93d9c7c8250608e83c648
describe
'361277' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBY' 'sip-files00247.jp2'
0475c21c4935ba4f460e915800c95e80
6b7965b276d99876a8c3ce42b4fa6434651839af
describe
'183959' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWBZ' 'sip-files00247.jpg'
65435b3b6358e578c8172e93ac15f81b
356aa0ded6d07afa17a27354cd2be8f29ff54e22
describe
'42648' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCA' 'sip-files00247.pro'
46b64787f4dbfb55384e16b45682bdd7
6d2b5358170f274e5d2e4897e2c18ff4d78b239c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCB' 'sip-files00247.QC.jpg'
5209bb40f17f45a4418f3367ce5770f4
b45c19d9a383c022f57674e66a0d60ac7cf51f2d
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCC' 'sip-files00247.tif'
291d0cc269d6f36943abf94f1b622bed
bbe32dc369cba9ef0ba6c0e1c1c07c9b3f4a39d9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCD' 'sip-files00247.txt'
d0288389b9b2aa10702f3221c8131073
6ef778bcf5101749010d930014f894bb6f409338
describe
'31510' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCE' 'sip-files00247thm.jpg'
85f55a58d8ffe99970e06ced9b854eda
0c21452120b2ba35a6acc1639d0a64dfdbf76b35
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCF' 'sip-files00248.jp2'
90f4ccc2e0a35e92dcc18e2affdd34a9
762d3f3f302f1051bc6bc9e9b64e3df6b5adbfbc
describe
'164122' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCG' 'sip-files00248.jpg'
18aeb7b8c51b4cb016e6ba7da78807ff
40680e6bf472fb3be104bac6fb97cee62a891720
describe
'27839' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCH' 'sip-files00248.pro'
954af464356ca5b707e369d18cdb1a45
32073438a5b195776b20145f64a7f9c741b9c2b0
describe
'61443' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCI' 'sip-files00248.QC.jpg'
ee577eefb08fcd0831fab97209223e77
6c531fdecf5b1b6651f446951f6b0c407e16d179
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCJ' 'sip-files00248.tif'
637ff2cdf5468beaa4bdb4d5c4b2a924
15ddb22bafb9182bb25c1880ab1b5230d7eec3c8
describe
'1184' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCK' 'sip-files00248.txt'
aa76a6d4491af61cf086e1215f2b2e72
460345c0812c0b225ff65aefc5dceaa12e8372d1
describe
'30898' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCL' 'sip-files00248thm.jpg'
44d04b9c543945a83d5319d2dae93321
64904f2331b704d78b4dffaf15b28e0e646e3ec5
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCM' 'sip-files00249.jp2'
fa76ebb3db9cc72522ec8036560a754c
602fd53f963b8abf3ab2f74be75de373ee675d1e
describe
'190894' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCN' 'sip-files00249.jpg'
a4f81b440b5198e4046e2fa5a3240cdc
98d0e211dad68cbc2ec729fd6503c10bcb9cfcc5
describe
'18914' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCO' 'sip-files00249.pro'
db177491cbbaf9ebcd80d0304b192e31
9e562aaa54e8038041c06f04a4ebaf7a0fd183e9
describe
'63591' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCP' 'sip-files00249.QC.jpg'
78346c5a0f0804ec9ef5cf661ac3e29a
e02a8bc9c821fae512c325bcc10e4e6bd278d616
describe
'2911404' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCQ' 'sip-files00249.tif'
9960fc5025f6a46efb3076b1cf167fb3
a1afa5073e2e3ce2702e86c6314cc92f6ac24b4a
describe
'801' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCR' 'sip-files00249.txt'
d722e6654f6665cbc5f09a5b64f84db2
b477bf57cf511f1c95c24752da27a239b7027eca
describe
Invalid character
'31086' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCS' 'sip-files00249thm.jpg'
73e7c73ce674baa926653c9002e4a819
fc8049d5bea87143a1e91fccf0533445f1758b0a
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCT' 'sip-files00250.jp2'
0c6891977e2c43a3371234c0336057a9
60e11c729de2042a8eb68297cf9fcc81b7ff12fc
describe
'174351' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCU' 'sip-files00250.jpg'
c79d13d94233cb4c5d71558e5c9fb23c
d29f0fb2ef2f2d8ff9cb69710c7ff67fab9fc4ec
describe
'39497' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCV' 'sip-files00250.pro'
ed9edccaa5f605fc394703ef126af897
a039fa72b8787b94c76e1ecbbec7a094bcd94282
describe
'66727' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCW' 'sip-files00250.QC.jpg'
37397f0ea4527c53d67dd05818812c26
390338749a52fd0d379e2ff7d14fdca12c35f0ae
describe
'2911200' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCX' 'sip-files00250.tif'
89f50e39512b724af9b75ebf0a8bb53e
ab31bf4737d9cb418f2dc6f4ed63756ecd029323
describe
'1569' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCY' 'sip-files00250.txt'
d1a8c57fa7675aeb96a860ec743ba0b0
2e7bccd1481053bf42a57615c29308efef4efeba
describe
'30863' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWCZ' 'sip-files00250thm.jpg'
58c9805cd5959f1e8f3aa8611799b8c7
40356fb81055d0fa62c859ec46290d84ea13d9ee
describe
'361207' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDA' 'sip-files00251.jp2'
3e55f512adc564269141ff944c10a2f7
ca4c6c3d1939803b8b95cb32ce4e55277b813b94
describe
'65206' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDB' 'sip-files00251.jpg'
0e40062f2cbbb10d7a46e2ec01b1b7ce
dcb031441ad364c5b7e92ddb5652df0a5a4c64f1
describe
'7210' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDC' 'sip-files00251.pro'
433a1da9f6a77a5f954451debf19e128
e31b850c47665e3599e4cd692bf4933f8ae8dab1
describe
'29485' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDD' 'sip-files00251.QC.jpg'
6584f9e051f45d9c6119742c87bb12e0
846b13f55dd005ee388a57dd0a7fc00369eed485
describe
'2908468' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDE' 'sip-files00251.tif'
c74870c1f7b6be6dd8eedaa1f70d7dbd
6954e6bef2c7f83c9785605662840624ff3d6001
describe
'293' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDF' 'sip-files00251.txt'
b2a046864ad8e01e02ee266578715aac
b46bf2962bd4ee0b703c62435c7bf7eecee99d66
describe
'21192' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDG' 'sip-files00251thm.jpg'
dc485237a925c9326b2707eb7a387981
7253fbbcfc2643e20d8008723e50fd21027ef20b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDH' 'sip-files00252.jp2'
04e7b03f864638b996b3d4b73c296bba
678847f445f3de16c2ae1ea58816543eb8a93133
describe
'143214' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDI' 'sip-files00252.jpg'
8209ae59dcf54126f72694a9dea4b0d1
c40719f17c4e1cf59945ffa5b27cf65686d926cd
describe
'48323' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDJ' 'sip-files00252.pro'
c5e277a9a7529630a6065904f768dd8a
4ef23e9d2a692f17c2b2e0f68a14eeaf5c309bae
describe
'50458' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDK' 'sip-files00252.QC.jpg'
a29bd1c99d6b599a354945631b9d66cc
66e97f8444e79a9b65c19784ab3fe8d80624ed54
describe
'2910128' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDL' 'sip-files00252.tif'
87a965d5062f911351e753dc5788c5f1
f369d2fe2b17e16954a2b4326bf74b07123e0d2f
describe
'2093' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDM' 'sip-files00252.txt'
b76da9e4220e5f8a82c77fe09b9a3e46
af2a250a7da94ddbc68d884b3d9e1d550f575d84
describe
'26989' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDN' 'sip-files00252thm.jpg'
e7cb0c0b2c9293552184eb247c702547
f7841e2375112a5d5b98061d142f9be676b23aad
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDO' 'sip-files00253.jp2'
273910d47d71984ece95a1b055425055
9f689567147223d00388fcffb1a7669745b13a20
describe
'187869' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDP' 'sip-files00253.jpg'
555d029197bfdcef3c6c35ab4a43bcc7
c50f756ffe6707ef963fc5fbad21a8fd7dc62c4e
describe
'70917' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDQ' 'sip-files00253.pro'
c6652b5e9516cf3bf55826807b3364b1
71577a6997784799ac7746ecd931fad48fdb020d
describe
'63345' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDR' 'sip-files00253.QC.jpg'
a8d647bb3174acc1b713712257d24c6f
c9c9e842730b56769d68bcfaa9007246057975a1
describe
'2911288' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDS' 'sip-files00253.tif'
ba56cf6ee24b00d147fdc7bf99f98021
b87d464d60f363bf3d312e85532aeb95b3850607
describe
'3086' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDT' 'sip-files00253.txt'
9a98c178a4c191b1119ae17985256c21
818696e82ed4aa178ee3e36cf804d04c313b2bdc
describe
Invalid character
'30697' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDU' 'sip-files00253thm.jpg'
14ba9b5f2ab8e8d38d616f17bcb320c1
4839f2a0157293524b1e987a2c490126ebf9422f
describe
'361214' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDV' 'sip-files00254.jp2'
3eab262bb551930df563fdc1b8bd63e6
120fb52e8fee896fa1dc4c2e60e96646c97a6d22
describe
'187755' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDW' 'sip-files00254.jpg'
ab6b189891f58d6b6c3e7bc63c89e0dd
b96b2aeecc2479881754c26cd36c0c4e3b93bde7
describe
'67492' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDX' 'sip-files00254.pro'
be082e42b5662de185cea43a34c18588
0e271e0bb2a40517f4e8ad6ea67a7ebf2d7e35bb
describe
'62687' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDY' 'sip-files00254.QC.jpg'
5bf1f5eac719355d8eee15e02988ac40
f5cae85aab630c7a5394a03edd73751f82f21faa
describe
'2911124' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWDZ' 'sip-files00254.tif'
4742efe8fe883d29e175812a851b76a7
1ccb80fa1128690662416f1a018d1d1a2effd23f
describe
'2880' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEA' 'sip-files00254.txt'
e97c3a58c16a3453b82e99fbc8172e29
7b0f2b34cd50bbf7dd341f3f9e6f00fdedfa60f1
describe
'30585' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEB' 'sip-files00254thm.jpg'
0bf5766584446c0e5d808bd5aae30af4
75adf9eb087abc54e5a27cb1ad7d459d5126d8a4
describe
'361270' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEC' 'sip-files00255.jp2'
17e0399775aea8ba74ade4efc845a76a
2ec9982a4072e57685f42ce9d8b39f357645956c
describe
'179246' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWED' 'sip-files00255.jpg'
47a152a25184022221d3cfad39b471c9
b638acf26346e7f801dade5cb7a11284a64f902b
describe
'68051' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEE' 'sip-files00255.pro'
62ee8bf7a0c57f01f825ce6ce09754f0
341dfe238746e2aeb5ea7f7f1ab791f3a582319a
describe
'61813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEF' 'sip-files00255.QC.jpg'
f0b6cf657c5b62497ef4b2849b4e2b99
085eb3c040c48c10318580c583c36f698d839fd4
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEG' 'sip-files00255.tif'
8dedcdc3fa87315ac63d3689e86fdeba
d2557d586108cdee2df45104cd46b73096002d6c
describe
'3015' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEH' 'sip-files00255.txt'
71a1fbfd7e58484c23b5042913db7b1e
d8d67b12815055df55672b93d174b84cebe28a9f
describe
'30675' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEI' 'sip-files00255thm.jpg'
599c4b58939dbaedfc88959fe8c66e6e
9efc96ebd26cc0675ed46a62749dbbf544574ef9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEJ' 'sip-files00256.jp2'
154f6248ecc101598643cf6e366644c0
ed5c45921297165379763700fed9312e66f734e3
describe
'185744' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEK' 'sip-files00256.jpg'
2517ba8ba3f809b3278af3630a308c9a
ec5e802960b15e77abe21be58ac15a39e998596b
describe
'68602' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEL' 'sip-files00256.pro'
7c29b1d71b7f4076105fc5691c4e2437
985f1c827eee59cb5b1525eb7568ad9689c39198
describe
'64300' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEM' 'sip-files00256.QC.jpg'
82ad805b67c9caf3399b163043493d21
789ba50054501aa28aeaf6813286b7b2944e4dc5
describe
'2911328' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEN' 'sip-files00256.tif'
7dca6302d8e408e070e534ad9bc4be97
e1bf4ab15b95a54d80d444f6cdbda8c5587ea1ac
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEO' 'sip-files00256.txt'
4cf26442c3bb6423ad8a2ed27d146b89
c7ef815e575e448401d7103d95bb6d9c2670e3b2
describe
'30792' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEP' 'sip-files00256thm.jpg'
b79ee471522d7ba626880002d8a1cd4b
1ff8e396e80520bf126fdedeb657c214511dccc0
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEQ' 'sip-files00257.jp2'
852315908c6af6aa11478f2a25b39a5b
7fca9ab1070f3f252923f76f462cffbd4f540fb3
describe
'178159' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWER' 'sip-files00257.jpg'
2682e96afc3b3dadc76be144934d795b
cceb03507ef68822ebd137bede754fabbc9f801c
describe
'63902' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWES' 'sip-files00257.pro'
8395fd5452c682a0a97c8659f3869762
94c903ee4fda83c4e6a6d6675c0ca7ab78854ecb
describe
'62700' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWET' 'sip-files00257.QC.jpg'
1d2ccb424429c353a1d1e7c4da0580c3
b874a9aad6b7b177817061859b194c306ae0fc35
describe
'2911320' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEU' 'sip-files00257.tif'
7a29c9c517bd6b047be9987c8f52f5fc
9df3ab5a66b2663d23ffadc1eff230c67741056b
describe
'2715' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEV' 'sip-files00257.txt'
e7f06e7f6d81c2713af5977db86308db
71ddc7a95f164b3c5e49e1af2c936e1345344e85
describe
'31074' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEW' 'sip-files00257thm.jpg'
218c09db8789c0ca864e3c0a72ceef2c
aae6c38c03034763903f03146025c096c1c9d6ed
describe
'361238' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEX' 'sip-files00258.jp2'
211bf520a11d4c4445447afd23dddcc1
429ba32a12019737eada6152b3e8ba4fdb0a9760
describe
'189716' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEY' 'sip-files00258.jpg'
211a728cc8a43843b45f0e752dae4838
7d1e32a15347dd8117a0f65144df84303c56fd47
describe
'71008' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWEZ' 'sip-files00258.pro'
07da03cd75bc05281b53573b9ef002a3
0050c40fafbe62391a822478b7459e4ae3b70c71
describe
'64637' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFA' 'sip-files00258.QC.jpg'
cb58c518e8e24258afb8c63a046d1377
87f2a7cbf5ec10c149d6ed531bf8b3f9cc20669c
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFB' 'sip-files00258.tif'
742dc21e34aeed7259e3b5230bb529c5
917e5e1ee9f8d2cef144b7f48c11cc80d9455184
describe
'3061' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFC' 'sip-files00258.txt'
4e369462223bc1cc6ddf02bca8ec0ada
f9734ab38336665aa97f817c89e777fa85b6c79e
describe
'31167' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFD' 'sip-files00258thm.jpg'
4c1e89198dbb14710ee9e1bbf7e93dd8
11ca89eee67df3a9e6b5e1058766d96e01014224
describe
'361089' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFE' 'sip-files00259.jp2'
5b02824c674b17706f37f6a3e8ec41cb
c9c4ae9b0c714cc29a80aff2f3833e4d150f3bb0
describe
'91700' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFF' 'sip-files00259.jpg'
d89fdc5d1038b6e93fb1b15fa8def0ce
0cb647aca775a5bda44f4acbaeebaf2e6b80f770
describe
'18515' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFG' 'sip-files00259.pro'
d89a92983de643243c8664211e19b94f
f1475045b3bb87bbf23fe9a08938d8d94298d75e
describe
'35219' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFH' 'sip-files00259.QC.jpg'
43345ee4ddd879cd504b5a4384b53d3a
9794c914eff9700ba7af1b764a4d80cb6cf0805b
describe
'2908804' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFI' 'sip-files00259.tif'
dc6cfb403c0d219e305265526e7efa7a
05c38e8e879a8b2c3012c9ed96e825c36a6c70bc
describe
'813' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFJ' 'sip-files00259.txt'
265fa1c68aa0be1bbc0da87e50171a0f
e08f427372c8975084cedf9eea1c04610a0a1582
describe
'22603' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFK' 'sip-files00259thm.jpg'
bb5aaff32b8f11c55e0c51cd3f0951da
711650de5c6ae4d3945bad7d80da841b26b3046b
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFL' 'sip-files00260.jp2'
24356889e39add4747501537d4c2003f
011f3c3a856522cbd67583fc7b49a351c6d05410
describe
'174010' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFM' 'sip-files00260.jpg'
0b9e1a73347b15b3acb92dfd970f5d43
6f00bce75e441e71e9122ad33555c50ac432e5bd
describe
'49090' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFN' 'sip-files00260.pro'
a0737549c10c13441a19d94fd91433be
295d967f9983a380353bb125acee45f629968bc5
describe
'64496' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFO' 'sip-files00260.QC.jpg'
f8e7c38a99190989b702aff58cca1d79
3cf5f97c969ad2b3c5f5086af7f547f0dd311ecb
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFP' 'sip-files00260.tif'
ed9fa00cba3899f86393d1e06de13bb5
b30b532bc167bc9665911ba0183d6b1bff8e798c
describe
'2123' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFQ' 'sip-files00260.txt'
0f5cd66848aac333b8dd38155fb33544
482bde804e4da1de9114e1b3e59720d4812e82bd
describe
'32087' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFR' 'sip-files00260thm.jpg'
4681b2fc72cbd7ecd1e08585aaea579f
c358fc9ac5be8488c3f606b2fc33624e4d8157c8
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFS' 'sip-files00261.jp2'
270abe1d7faab165864a8a1b204f57de
88b30f050a0ad0bca6a280111981f9d1acaf67c1
describe
'188298' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFT' 'sip-files00261.jpg'
bf0c7e0796656f454fa46c3adc4099a9
8a9249d7817414544b7953e93fb752a26cd00537
describe
'61682' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFU' 'sip-files00261.pro'
0e9e864ac8a9632982d43eeaa64d499e
741a126e5a4f4b98e2d0c6471ebbcf10f64c3986
describe
'66655' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFV' 'sip-files00261.QC.jpg'
3a1191122fc35f124391b86e699dfc7a
e9d08399e3563cc6e0e5a982464431c58abf8869
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFW' 'sip-files00261.tif'
ed0efb651e492b7cda433f4b10e97c4b
047b8888513b0a3a1d875de9b4eb22d1c3b699c0
describe
'2657' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFX' 'sip-files00261.txt'
6833a0860aa8d7ef21521f299a8e07ba
c5a995fe187c7ca69ff96ed9e53d7974a89e7975
describe
'32057' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFY' 'sip-files00261thm.jpg'
02d6d2cece519aeeeed8ee59e08b2ffa
d934c31763204492950e07670819193f7050c74e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWFZ' 'sip-files00262.jp2'
92f36e91d7cf0132c8233647ce5cf1d8
da2591cf1673f7ce0da2ca0cd107d7f0a2d9bc43
describe
'186346' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGA' 'sip-files00262.jpg'
e8b0e257e98ecc5acc1d394899776e7f
58bba4459ec7e42e4d1616b593264ade3a4dd554
describe
'70419' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGB' 'sip-files00262.pro'
be7c2af684c87f4359ae2268363c2460
73142270bc31921716ca031a694dbe50dc3240fb
describe
'66099' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGC' 'sip-files00262.QC.jpg'
81d39a6bf4b8e74142d86970904b1cc8
5ac84ec2cc3fbb47941e76894025835c31b778fe
describe
'2911744' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGD' 'sip-files00262.tif'
48db59b8d3b2ef8a7ee35c329e496855
12a8484584f4b762827ea8a17d913a93e1f29757
describe
'2994' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGE' 'sip-files00262.txt'
b31df12fba52ee1c6129bbb4467fa9db
2b8b6c7fc9099b028081826508fa8ec79823509c
describe
'32084' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGF' 'sip-files00262thm.jpg'
058ccaf2fe0feae8a2617dc5b8e77747
44c1fe502b5d3214111c3dbcd0502ba3b75e600e
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGG' 'sip-files00263.jp2'
42ff6574d0be023ecebcdf9ca0fb2959
38f577a6813471e9adf66f87b7cf76fcbb5ff0c3
describe
'186544' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGH' 'sip-files00263.jpg'
54de16cf6459b0dcaeede50905d9e4b0
bb0a0d0f6cace87fad841230bbf04faeb10ae251
describe
'66945' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGI' 'sip-files00263.pro'
67db52c35ec11544fc32386c26a58ab5
4db9eb33ca48e4937bdb7045ce6de67c99181c58
describe
'65449' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGJ' 'sip-files00263.QC.jpg'
acf9ec2fbfdfb213d483eb92198903c9
1b2841108465eb86f5a695f31c90d632600188b9
describe
'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGK' 'sip-files00263.tif'
5e5507b367cded2d22b544985da29919
d624f2774dd056e9885cb3ae1466fddb955c6ca0
describe
'2866' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGL' 'sip-files00263.txt'
17517a72c28fef8cd5c98e0155737a4b
a472883537f84e8f2433ef4e0a0af3266486ecb5
describe
'31779' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGM' 'sip-files00263thm.jpg'
29ae1cd584a2851d905fdb6a5582ec4d
87626b3f6cdfb6cef25d08910e2d73eb81359ab8
describe
'19046' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGN' 'sip-files00264thm.jpg'
69770b2243b1e33f9a51248c93273edb
c74029732267533ce320b5e84f2874cd4d249634
describe
'19064' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGO' 'sip-files00265thm.jpg'
f6cc09795856363e762ffdbed6b398c1
ab3d8f6f2f03ac2a86876760e358c8d6bc2a1d8a
describe
'18757' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGP' 'sip-files00266thm.jpg'
e36ee58dfd3167c37859e3a97547f8f9
38d92ce211764833cc9034e6508bf87d827ccca6
describe
'20176' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGQ' 'sip-files00267thm.jpg'
c06dd38b33c9aaf396edbce68c076567
7f5e320b7b582f606e0469946ca8c65e740f8cd6
describe
'419779' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGR' 'sip-files00268.jp2'
14256d3eceaa5407ebbd10fcfd65da84
ece752688ed7f6056517dcb2c8f657063d492053
describe
'94829' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGS' 'sip-files00268.jpg'
630b4949c3aa8f1d49bfd1ed1d425553
64f1c9587cd00b84ea1d8bf1ddd2f73d909f37c6
describe
'31877' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGT' 'sip-files00268.QC.jpg'
bb0c6a9d4d1ba32833ee547dfb409083
18f8c9c2ac2f8d9451db2c49b909cd82383ca538
describe
'10096324' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGU' 'sip-files00268.tif'
be48beb7143b21811a7c610d8a883082
eb71cb3b83685a5925c815a19b846ced038e5de3
describe
'21235' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGV' 'sip-files00268thm.jpg'
eebf2449b6c1415f1950d8b8d65a7941
225cb1c1c741f4a3323e052a602f607a60ad1612
describe
'395600' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGW' 'sip-files00269.jp2'
37e4ef0a7badf700ec9aa1b2a5d392c1
f6deb5fdee6491fb7a432ba70bfed1739bb8c622
describe
'139311' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGX' 'sip-files00269.jpg'
57a096e09c487bb8dee73cc99e979e1a
02fbc0bcc0f132e1f457dc44d7434cfc1dd41092
describe
'34452' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGY' 'sip-files00269.QC.jpg'
d4fcca68a0c34095f77ad6a83204bf7b
05b35d31b19a6c3c5ccc3df95b789600ea7d8603
describe
'9514336' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWGZ' 'sip-files00269.tif'
758b188af98db310618dd256ef4dd008
bf32f0003d14bedd044d46d3a7488a4d2243f920
describe
'20353' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHA' 'sip-files00269thm.jpg'
0b5ef8766188b561ab94eda2d90c689d
525a5619cb2734c9385ad89ec9b895d5606aab6b
describe
'101033' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHB' 'sip-files00270.jp2'
1d1ddb25733bfc369b5ec3c5b7ce5acd
b4fc55fbd307d1c64868ac967398ec9c0587a523
describe
'79049' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHC' 'sip-files00270.jpg'
61e2c06973f5d15d225492b6f8f72e46
7395bfa7d669e593388ce387173c41067c1c2ea8
describe
'209' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHD' 'sip-files00270.pro'
2416f3405c4b792ed0870b5517c15e32
0908fc217b90184715ef63666f8c141fd316b57f
describe
'31904' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHE' 'sip-files00270.QC.jpg'
0534fd7814ae21b1a9313eb6d991ca57
93f10d4d996b588cfd126b1fe833fcb422911180
describe
'2442768' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHF' 'sip-files00270.tif'
b471bda96657f0cd5ceab9fb1435749b
480ce92ea3015a05f338cf4d1b35cc74ee31ed1c
describe
'3' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHG' 'sip-files00270.txt'
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
describe
'23360' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHH' 'sip-files00270thm.jpg'
3f0ba1e6544031580cf37414a3f773b0
a37bf6264d5d55c00f6be9c94249bd3712c759e9
describe
'32' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHI' 'sip-filesprocessing.instr'
6b3c4932be7a2bf383537810c4f5038c
d6de53d17fd1555c2703cdf28ddca966247b98ae
describe
'428180' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHJ' 'sip-filesUF00078569_00001.mets'
56f7de4d9a0a90d21034ed2ef0dfc513
89dc16accbd6978769edd5d259aea4ef2ae9b8f0
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2013-12-18T07:27:28-05:00' 'mixed'
xml resolution
http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsdhttp://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema
BROKEN_LINK http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/ufdc2.xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema
The element type "div" must be terminated by the matching end-tag "
".
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'556892' 'info:fdaE20080515_AAAAEGfileF20080517_AAAWHM' 'sip-filesUF00078569_00001.xml'
f9ffc39ff855b88a4655628aa8d3049d
cfd64f91ecf5abfd241ed9ba4b20a79c5c88109a
describe
'2013-12-18T07:27:32-05:00'
xml resolution