1997-98 annual report
 An overview of the 1997 HCM...
 New products
 Updated products
 78th annual TRB meeting

Group Title: McTrans newsletter
Title: McTrans newsletter. Vol. 14.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00078185/00007
 Material Information
Title: McTrans newsletter. Vol. 14.
Series Title: HCS: Highway Capacity Software
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Center for Microcomputers in Transportation, College of Engineering, University of Florida
Publisher: Center for Microcomputers in Transportation, College of Engineering, University of Florida
Publication Date: Fall 1998
Subject: University of Florida   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States -- Florida -- Gainesville
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00078185
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida


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Table of Contents
        Page 1
    1997-98 annual report
        Page 2
    An overview of the 1997 HCM update
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    New products
        Page 7
    Updated products
        Page 8
    78th annual TRB meeting
        Page 9
Full Text

M Volume 14, Fall 1998 Newsletter

TM Center for Microcomputers in Transportation

HCS-3TM is now available. (see page eight)




1997-98 Annual Report
An Overview of the
1997 HCM Update
New Tools for Highway
Development and
New Products
HCS-3 Announcement
Updated Products
Products Listing
Calendar of Events

512 Weil Hall, PO Box 116585, Gainesville FL 32611-6585
(352) 392-0378
Messages 1-800-226-1013
Fax (352) 392-3224
Email mctrans@ce.ufl.edu

2 cTas al9

The Mc Trans Center experienced
another busy and productive year
during 1997-1998. Our team contin-
ued to focus on the completion of
a number of substantial software
development projects. The most
noteworthy accomplishment during
this period was the recently
released Version 3.1 of the Highway
Capacity Software (HCS-3). Our
software development group
worked tirelessly to build each HCS
module from the ground up, imple-
menting the procedures of the 1997
Update to the Highway Capacity
Manual (HCM) in a Windows
95/98/NT interface. The upgrade of
this program from release 2 to 3
was a major undertaking for
Mc Trans and was funded exclu-
sively by distribution fees. We are
pleased with the results and hope
that our users will be too. With the
release of this new version, all
HCS-2 registered users were auto-
matically notified.
Mc Trans also continued the expan-
sion of its product offering with the
addition of 23 new software and
technical resource products. We
now offer our members over 475
transportation-related products.
Titles and brief descriptions of the
products that were introduced in
our newsletters this last year are
listed at the end of this report
under their respective categories.
If you are interested in learning
more about any of these products,
please feel free to contact Debbie
Escalera or Bill Heitman, or visit
our website at
Along with the new products,
eight existing products received
major updates. Many updated prod-
ucts included conversion to
Windows 3.1, 95 and NT, and pro-
vided the users with an expanded,
more comprehensive program with
improved utilities. Traffic Software
Integrated Systems (TSIS) was
updated to Version 4.2 with an
increased network size to include
more links, nodes and vehicles and
to make NETSIM and FRESIM logic
more consistent within CORSIM.
TRANSYT-7F was updated to
release 8.1 in late spring with
improvements in the explicit mod-
eling of saturated and spill back
conditions, use of horizontal
queue, multi-cycle and multi-period

simulation, and in the optimization
under congested conditions. We
also continued our support of
Version 2.1 of the HCS with the
release of patches e, f and g.
Finally, during this last year, we
hit the road again to meet with our
users by exhibiting at the 77th TRB
Annual Meeting in Washington and
the ITE Annual Meeting in Toronto.
We enjoyed talking with our mem-
bers face to face about our profes-
sion, products, future plans and
ideas. We look forward to seeing
many of you at the 78th TRB
Annual Meeting in Washington this
coming January. Please come visit
our booth.
Plans for Next Year
Mc Trans has formulated a challeng-
ing plan for the 1998-1999 fiscal
year with a substantial change in
emphasis. Although it includes fur-
ther software development work,
we are also undertaking a major
effort to update and improve our
communication and accessibility of
information for all of our members
and proprietors.
The software development team
will continue to maintain and
improve the latest version of HCS
and complete the testing and
release of the Windows 95/NT inter-
face for release 8 of TRANSYT-7F.
The interface is planned for release
before the end of 1998 and will be
automatically sent to all registered
To improve our service to our
members, we will begin work to
provide online membership sign-
up, software ordering, and a com-
plete online database to allow
retrieval of information for all of
our products. This database will
allow us to maintain detailed infor-
mation on each product in a timely
manner improving consistency in
our newsletters, print and electron-
ic catalogs, and invoicing. These
long needed improvements should
help us to better maintain our
growing product offering and meet
the information needs of our mem-
bers and proprietors alike.
If you have any questions, com-
ments, or recommendations,
please call or e-mail us.We greatly
appreciate your continuing support
and look forward to another
rewarding year of service to the
transportation profession.

New Products Announced Last Year
Highway Engineering Highway Design
CBEAR analyzes bearing capacity of shallow foundations
PIZER EARTH earthwork cut and fill calculator
Reinforced Slope Stability analyzes and designs reinforced &
unreinforced soil slopes
Highway Engineering Hydraulics
BASINOPT & BASINOPT Simulation Add In detention basin
design programs
BOSS RiverCAD AutoCad based river modeling software package
CAHH DOS Programs hydrology and hydraulics design programs
CHANNEL open channel hydraulics design program
EPANET Modeling System water distribution/network modeling package
RIMS highway drainage utility
Surfacewater Modeling System two dimensional surfacewater
modeling package
River Modeling System AutoCad based computation of water
surface profiles for structures
Urban Drainage Design Program & Manual design of storm
drainage systems associated with transportation facilities
Watershed Modeling System hydrology modeling package for
rural and urban catchment basins
Traffic Engineering Capacity Analysis
CCGICALC2 signalized intersection analysis package
Traffic Engineering Data Processing
SpeedPLOT (+) traffic data collection and analysis program
Traffic Engineering General Traffic
Advanced Rural Transportation Compendium listing of rural
technology based projects
Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices unification standard
for road & street control devices
Traffic Noise Model predicts noise impacts in the vicinity of highways
Traffic Engineering Signal Timing & Warrants
Traffic Engineering Simulation & Analysis
SIMTRAFFIC performs simulation of traffic networks
Transportation Planning Site Analysis
TRAFFIX traffic impact analysis program for analysis of new
development, intersections, and LOS
TRANMAP tools for performing site traffic impact analysis

1997-98 Annual Report

An Overview of the 1997 HCM Update

by Rod Troutbeck and Wayne Kittelson, P.E.

This feature summarizes the
major changes contained
within the 1997 update and
provides an in-progress
review of further work that
ultimately will result in a com-
pletely revised manual.
(Reprinted by permission from ITE
Journal, July 1998.

The 1997 update of the Transportation
Research Board's Special Report 209
(the Highway Capacity Manual or HCM)
represents a significant advancement
in the methods by which capacity and
level of service (LOS) are estimated for
highway facilities. This feature summa-
rizes the major changes contained
within the 1997 update and provides an
in-progress review of further work that
ultimately will result in a completely
revised HCM (dubbed the HCM2000).
The decision to produce a 1997
update to the HCM did not come easily,
considering that the 1994 update is
still fairly recent and that a completely
new edition of the HCM is scheduled
for publication in the year 2000. It
would have been much simpler for
TRB's Committee on Highway Capacity
and Quality of Service to skip this 1997
update, waiting until the scheduled
year 2000 publication of an entirely
new HCM to introduce several signifi-
cantly improved analysis methods.
Ultimately, however, the committee was
swayed by the belief that it is impor-
tant to put the best possible analysis
tools into the hands of practitioners as
quickly as possible, and this became
the fundamental reason for publication
of the 1997 update.
The 1997 update provides improved
analytic procedures for the following
basic facility types:
SBasic freeway segments (Chapter
3): improved method for estimating
free flow speed; updated estimates
of the ideal capacity of a basic
freeway segment; inclusion of a
speed-flow curve for free-flow
speeds of 75 mph;
SWeaving areas (Chapter 4): level-
of-service estimates based on den-
* Signalized intersections (Chapter
9): improved procedure for evaluat-
ing the effect of an actuated sig-
nal; improved equation for estimat-
ing lane group delay; revised LOS
definitions; improved method to
account for lane utilization effects;
minor enhancements to the permit-
ted left-turn model; additional guid-
ance on the use of the central
business district (CBD) factor;

* Unsignalized intersections
(Chapter 10): improved and
expanded method for evaluating
two-way stop-controlled (TWSC)
intersections; improved and
expanded method for evaluating
all-way stop-controlled (AWSC)
intersections; guidance for estimat-
ing the capacity of a single-lane
modern roundabout;
* Arterials (Chapter 11): a new arteri-
al class for high-speed arterial
facilities; method to account for
the effect of upstream intersec-
tions on downstream delay; con-
sistency with all changes and
updates made to the signalized
intersections analysis method; and
* Metric Analysis Reference Guide:
specific guidance to HCM users on
how to convert from English (U.S.
customary) units to metric units in
conjunction with a highway capaci-
ty analysis; converted tables, fig-
ures, formulas and worksheets for
each chapter of the HCM; general
rules for metric conversion and
expression, and presentation of
example problems illustrating the
conversion process.
The new chapters continue to use
U.S. customary units in order to main-
tain consistency with the remaining
chapters of the HCM, which are not
being updated. However, a Metric
Analysis Reference Guide also is pro-
vided, and this document details the
conversions necessary to conduct a
metric analysis. The need for the Metric
Analysis Reference Guide will disap-
pear in the year 2000, when the
HCM2000 will be published entirely in
metric units.
Basic Freeway Segments
This chapter of the 1997 update
reflects the results of the recently com-
pleted National Cooperative Highway
Research Program National
Cooperative Highway Research
Program (NCHRP) Project 3-45.1
Significant changes have been made in
the methods used to estimate both
capacity and LOS. The most significant
of these changes include:
* Free-flow speed is estimated
through an improved algorithm
which accounts for the effects of
various freeway design character-
istics, including lane width, shoul-
der width, number of freeway
lanes and interchange density
(Figure 1);
SThe ideal capacity of a basic free-
way segment is found to be a func-
tion of free-flow speed. It is esti-
mated to range between 2,250 pas-

senger cars per hour per lane
(pcphpl) and 2,400 pcphpl, and to
occur at densities ranging from
43.6 pc/miles (mi)/lane (In) to 46.0
pc/milln; and
SA speed-flow curve has been
included for free-flow speeds of 75
miles per hour (mph). The need for
this curve became apparent when
the federally mandated speed lim-
its were removed, but unfortunate-
ly these mandates were not elimi-
nated until after the data collection
phase of NCHRP 3-45 was com-
pleted. Therefore, this curve was
developed through extrapolation.

the sensitivity of the analysis to
such factors as the location and
type of detectors as well as the
specific controller settings. As a
result, the accuracy of the delay
and capacity estimates are
improved substantially for inter-
sections controlled by actuated
signals. The method also can be
used to optimize the controller set-
tings, though the development of
timing plans in this manner would
be an iterative process; and
Improved delay equation. The delay
equation contained in the 1994
HCM update had associated with it

----70 ----- -.---- ---
E 60 1_450 100
S60- 410)0 0
| .. -. 1750 -

40-. .1 9
,<,* B C .."* D .* E

30- -
20- -

0. -- 20

Figure 1. The speed flow relationships and LOS criteria have been modified in
the 1997 HCM update.

Weaving Areas
Density has replaced speed in the 1997
update as the measure of LOS for
weaving areas. Since density also is
used as the LOS measure for basic
freeway segments, this change will
provide more consistency in the analy-
sis of freeway systems. The technical
analysis procedure for weaving areas
remains unchanged in the 1997
update. It should be noted, however,
that a research project is underway to
update and extend the weaving area
analysis procedures. It is expected that
the results of this research project will
be incorporated into the HCM2000.
Signalized Intersections
The 1997 HCM update includes several
significant changes to the procedure
for evaluating signalized intersections.
These include:
SImproved procedure for evaluating
the effect of actuated signals. A
new procedure has been devel-
oped that allows timing plans to be
estimated using actual controller
data and signal design characteris-
tics. This substantially enhances

several known weaknesses. Using
the 1994 version of the equation,
traffic engineers were unable to: a)
discriminate between fixed time
and actuated control operation; b)
evaluate oversaturated intersec-
tions or variable-length analysis
periods; c) evaluate intersections
using variable demand profiles on
the intersection approaches; d)
consider the filtering and metering
effects of upstream signals; and e)
fully consider the effects of pro-
gression on delay.
Each of these known weaknesses in
the procedures has been either reme-
died or significantly improved in the
1997 HCM update. The delay equation
now includes a third term that specifi-
cally accounts for the effects of over-
saturation. It also includes a parameter
that allows the traffic engineer to
adjust the analysis so as to reflect
varying durations of congestion. New
parameters are provided that allow the
traffic engineer to account for coordi-
nated operation and the effects of
upstream signals. Finally, ,next

M Tan fal 8

Physical Compute Compute Evaluate I I Evaluate
Data Conflicting Potential nB Upstream 2-Stage Gap
--Flows Capacity Signal Effects Acceptance

Determine I Evaluate
Impedance Flared Approach
II 1 Adjustment ~ Effect
Determine Compute
Probability of J Movement
Queue-Free State Capacity


Figure 2. The new TWSC intersection analysis method accounts for several addi-
tional geometric and operational elements.

guidance is given on how to collect
data in oversaturated conditions.
SRevised definition for level-of-
service.The LOS for a signalized
intersection is now defined in
terms of "control delay." Control
delay is always higher than the
stopped delay that was used as
the primary determinant of LOS in
the 1994 update because it
includes stopped delay plus all of
the acceleration/deceleration
delay that is caused by the signal-
ized intersection. It is fairly easy
to estimate control delay from
field measurements, and the 1997
update includes directions on how
this can be done. Because the
1994 HCM implicitly assumed a
direct relationship between
stopped delay and control delay,
this revision will have no signifi-
cant effect on the LOS designa-
tions resulting from application of
either the 1994 update or the 1997
SImproved method to account for
lane utilization effects. Prior to the
1997 update, lane utilization
effects were taken into account
through a volume adjustment
process wherein the lane group
volume was multiplied by a factor
(usually 1.05 or 1.10) to account
for imbalanced lane distribution.
This had the effect of creating
phantom vehicles that were sub-
sequently carried through the
remainder of the capacity and
LOS analysis as if they were real
vehicles. The 1997 update corrects
this problem by moving the
adjustment process from the
demand side (in the volume
adjustment module) to the supply
side (in the saturation flow rate
adjustment module).

Minor enhancements to the per-
mitted left-turn model. Enhancing
the accuracy of the permitted left-
turn model continues to be one of
the more challenging aspects of
the signalized intersection analy-
sis procedure. The reasons that
the task is so challenging are at
least twofold: 1) permitted left
turns occur in an environment of
many variables and many interac-
tions; and 2) the operation of per-
mitted left turns depends heavily
on driver behavior and judgment,
neither of which is consistent or
easily quantifiable, the 1997
update makes some enhance-

C 1000

P 500

signalized intersection. Therefore,
it is important for traffic engineers
to understand why and under
what conditions it should be
applied. The 1997 update is much
more explicitly about the purpose
and application of this factor.
Unsignalized Intersections
The 1997 update both modifies and
extends the analysis procedures for
unsignalized intersections, which are
now defined to include TWSC, AWSC
and modern roundabout intersec-
tions. The chapter primarily results
from work completed under NCHRP
Project 3-46.2
TWSC intersections. The analysis
method continues to rely on gap
acceptance theory. The chapter
includes significant methodological
modifications and extensions, result-
ing in substantially improved accura-
cy and applicability (Figure 2). The
most significant changes include the
SNew defaults for critical gap and
follow-up times based on actual
observations through the United
* A method for adjusting the critical
gap and follow-up times to
account for variations in approach
grade, vehicle mix and intersec-
tion geometry;
* Modified equations for estimating
the conflicting volumes for each
minor movement;

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Circulating Flow

Figure 3. The 1997 HCM provides an estimated range
within which the capacity of a single-lane modern
roundabout can be expected.

ments to this model in the follow-
ing ways: a) a method is provided
to estimate the proportion of left
turns in the left lane on multilane
approaches; and b) adjustments
have been made at the boundary
conditions of several equations
(specifically, at zero or very low
flow conditions).
Additional guidance on the use of
the CBD factor. The CBD factor
can have a significant effect on
the overall capacity and LOS of a

* Capacity adjustments to account
for the effects of pedestrians,
upstream traffic signals, wide
medians andlor two-way left-turn
lanes and flared minor street
approaches; and
* A modified equation for estimat-
ing control delay; and correspon-
ding changes in the control delay
thresholds for defining LOS.
AWSC intersections. The regression-
based analysis method used to ana-
lyze AWSC intersections in the 1994

update has been replaced with a theo-
retically based procedure. This proce-
dure follows an approach proposed
earlier by Richardson.3 More specifi-
cally, it estimates capacity as a proba-
bilistically weighted function of the
various "environments" or "states"
that a driver might encounter on the
approach being analyzed.
The method for estimating control
delay at an AWSC intersection also
has been modified so that it is now
consistent with the theoretical basis
used for TWSC intersections.
Modern roundabouts. The 1997 update
also includes some information on the
analysis of modern roundabouts. This
new section has been included
because of the emerging interest
throughout the United States in the
application and evaluation of modern
roundabouts. The information con-
tained in the 1997 update is necessari-
ly quite limited because there is, as
yet, very little U.S. data upon which to
base the development andlor valida-
tion of an analysis method. Instead,
the 1997 update looks to methods cur-
rently being used in other countries,
and uses these to establish lower- and
upper-bound estimates of the capacity
that can be expected for a single-lane
roundabout in the United States
(Figure 3). No estimates of delay or
LOS are given because of the degree
of uncertainty that exists with the cur-
rently limited database.
The 1997 update of the chapter on
urban and suburban arterials is prima-
rily focused toward assuring consis-
tency with the changes previously dis-
cussed for signalized and unsignal-
ized intersections. Thus, many of the
changes contained in this chapter mir-
ror the changes described earlier.
Beyond this, however, are two
changes that are specific to this chap-
SA new arterial class has been
established for high speed arterial
facilities. With this change, there
are now four arterial class alterna-
tives; and
* The delay equation has been mod-
ified to take into account the
effect of upstream intersections.
This change is in addition to
those described earlier for signal-
ized intersection analysis.
Metric Analysis Reference
The 1997 HCM update is published in
English (U.S. customary) units in
order to remain consistent with those
chapters of the HCM that were not
updated. The HCM2000 will be pub-

4 cTas al9

New Tools for
Development and
Management: HDM-4
By Neil Robertson, PIARC HDM-4
Project Coordinator

lished entirely in metric units, but in
the meantime many HCM users may
still need to conduct their analyses in
metric units. To meet this need, a doc-
ument accompanies the 1997 update
entitled, Metric Analysis Reference
Guide. This document is designed to
guide users of the HCM through the
process of converting from U.S. cus-
tomary to metric units in conjunction
with a highway capacity analysis. It
includes converted tables, figures,
formulas and worksheets for every
chapter of the HCM, as well as exam-
ple problems illustrating the conver-
sion process.
The Metric Analysis Reference
Guide also includes basic rules gov-
erning the conversion to and expres-
sion of metric units. In general, a hard
conversion is used wherever possible
to maintain consistency with the
American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials'
Guide to Metric Conversion. Even so,
there are some situations where soft
conversion is more appropriate, such
as empirically derived formulas and
observed speed values.
The HCM2000
A complete update of the HCM will
occur in the year 2000. Currently
referred to as the HCM2000, this new
document will be entirely metric. It
will be expanded considerably from
the current HCM to meet the needs of
a growing and more diverse user
base. Key features of the HCM2000
are expected to include the following:
* Updated andlor extended analysis
procedures for weaving areas,
freeway systems, two-lane high-
ways, pedestrians and transit;
* A new method for evaluating the
operational characteristics of
closely spaced signalized inter-
sections in interchange ramp ter-
minal areas;
* A comprehensive set of planning
applications for the analytical
techniques contained in the HCM,
including default values and input
estimation techniques; and
STechniques for planning-level
analysis of corridors and subar-
The format of the HCM2000 also
will be modified to make it more read-
able and useful. This will include a
different page layout incorporating
wide margins and marginalia (for
example, thumbnail sketches and
summary notes). Example problem
sets also will be updated and extend-

In addition to the paper version of
HCM2000 described above, there also
will be a multimedia version on CD-
ROM which takes advantage of hyper-
text linkages, sound, still photogra-
phy and video clips to elaborate on
the analysis techniques that are pre-
The 1997 update of the HCM repre-
sents a significant advancement in
the methods available to practitioners
for evaluating basic freeway seg-
ments, signalized and unsignalized
intersections and urban arterials.
Used in conjunction with the Metric
Analysis Reference Guide, this
update will enhance the quality and
accuracy of operational analyses that
will be performed through the end of
this century. The publication of a new
HCM in the year 2000 will continue
this trend and will be a significant
step toward meeting the transporta-
tion profession's growing need for
system-wide evaluation tools.

1 Schoen, J., A. May, W. Reilly and T
Urbanik. Speed-Flow Relationships for
Basic Freeway Segments, Final Report.
NCHRP 3-45 (May 1995).
2 Kyte, M., Z. Tian, Z. Hameedmansoor,
W. Kittelson, M. Vandehey, B. Robinson,
W. Brilon, L. Bondzio, N. Wu and R.
Troutbeck. Capacity and Level of
Service at Unsignalized Intersections,
Final Report. NCHRP 3-46 (April 1996).
3 Richardson, A. A Delay Model for
Multiway Stop-Sign Intersections,
Transportation Research Record 1112.
Transportation Research Board (TRB),
Washington, D.C., USA, 1987.
Rod Troutbeck is the head of the Civil
Engineering Department at the
Queensland University of Technology in
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. He is
the chair of the Subcommittee on
Unsignalized Intersections; a member of
the User Liaison and Interpretations
Subcommittee of the TRB's Committee
on Highway Capacity and Quality of
Service; and a member of ITE.
Wayne Kittelson, P.E., is chair of the
User Liaison and Interpretations
Subcommittee of the TRB's Committee
on Highway Capacity and Quality of
Service. He is a principal at Kittelson
and Associates and a member of ITE.

HDM-4 System Architecture

he Highway Design and
Maintenance Standards Model
(HDM-Il), developed by the World
nk, has been used for over two
cades to conduct technical and eco-
mic appraisals of road investment
ejects, and to analyse standards and
ategies for road network maintenance
d improvements. Mc Trans distributes
e HDM-Il software and documenta-
The International Study of Highway
*velopment and Management (ISO-
)M) has extended the scope of the
)M-lll model to provide a harmonised
stems approach to road management,
h adaptable and user-friendly soft-
are tools. The new Highway
*velopment and Management (HDM-
System is the result of the study.
ISOHDM was set up in August 1993
four main sponsors; the UK
apartmentt for International
*velopment (DFID), the World Bank
3RD), the Asian Development Bank
DB) and the Swedish National Road
ministration (SNRA). Significant finan-
Il and other contributions were made
a number of organizations and indi-
luals including the Finnish National
iad Administration (Finnra), the US
deral Highway Administration
HWA), the governments of Malaysia,
ance, South Africa, Japan and
stralia, and the Federation of Inter-
nerican Cement Manufacturers
Coordination of the project has been
nducted by the University of
rmingham (UK) during the )next

Analysis Tools

Project Program



uC -- HDM-4
can be
used in

c ras al 9

New Tools: HDM-4 continued

development phase, and will be conduct-
ed by the Permanent International
Association of Road Congresses
(PIARC) during the implementation
The HDM-4 Approach
Management Functions
The new HDM-4 provides a powerful
system for:
* road management
* programming road works
* estimating funding requirements
Budget allocations
Predicting road network perform-
* project appraisal
Policy impact studies
Sa wide range of special applica-
The scope of the new HDM-4 has been
broadened considerably beyond tradi-
tional project appraisals, to provide a
powerful system for the analysis of road
management and investment alterna-
tives. The new HDM-4 is intended to
cater for the wide ranging needs of road
agencies, international funding institu-
tions, consultants and research organi-
sations through separate application
tools developed to perform the following
management functions:
Strategic planning
Sroadwork programming
* project preparation
* research and policy studies
Strategic Planning
This function can be performed using the
HDM-4 Strategy Analysis application.
It involves an analysis of the road sys-
tem as a whole, to prepare long term
strategic planning estimates of expendi-
ture for road development and mainte-
nance under various budgetary and eco-
nomic scenarios. The physical road sys-
tem is usually characterized by represen-
tative lengths of road, or percentages of
the network, in various categories
defined by parameters such as road
class or hierarchy, traffic flow/capacity,
pavement and physical condition.
The main outputs are estimates of medi-
um to long term budget requirements for
the entire road system together with fore-
casts of pavement performance and road
user effects. The results of the planning
exercise are of most interest to senior
policy makers in the road sector, both
political and professional.
Roadwork Programming
This function can be performed using the
HDM-4 Program Analysis application.
It involves the preparation, under budget
constraints, of multi-year road works and

Register your interest in HDM-4!
More information about HDM-4 and the ISOHDM project can be found at the following web sites:
* HDM-4 Overview: http://www.bham.ac.uk/publicationslcivenglhdm-4/index
* Recent newsletters: http:/lwww.bham.ac.uk/publications/civeng/hdm-4/news/hdm4janhttp://www.bham.ac.uk/publica-
SISOHDM project and documents: http://www.bham.ac.uklisohdm
*Various HDM-4 reports and other information: http://www.roadsource.com/hdm
If you would like to register your interest in using HDM-4, and to be kept informed of future activities, obtain an interest registra-
tion form from the RoadSource site (http://www.roadsource.com/hdm), the PIARC site (http://www.piarc.lcpc.fr), or directly
from the HDM-4 Coordinator, Neil Robertson at the PIARC headquarters (contact details below). The interest registration includes
some questions that will enable us to better plan the implementation activities.
Contact Details The HDM-4 Project Coordinator, Neil Robertson, may be contacted as follows.
World Road Association (PIARC)
La Grande Arche, Paroi Nord (niv 8)
92055 La Defense cedex

Tel: +(33) 1 47 96 81 21 or direct line: +(33) 1 41 02 05 84
Fax: +(33) 1 49 00 02 02
Email: piarc@pratique.fr

expenditure programs in which candidate
road sections likely to require mainte-
nance, improvement, or new construction
are identified in a tactical planning exer-
cise. The programming activity produces
estimates of expenditure required in the
short to medium term, under defined
budget heads, for different types of road
works. Budgets are typically constrained,
and a key aspect of programming is to
prioritise works to find the optimal set of
road works.
Typical applications are the preparation
of a budget for an annual or rolling multi-
year work program for a road network, or
sub-network. Managerial-level profes-
sionals within a road agency normally
undertake programming activities.
Project Preparation
This function can be performed using the
HDM-4 Project Analysis application, and
replaces the function performed by
Project preparation is concerned with the
evaluation of one or more road projects
or investment options. Road sections
with user-specified treatments are
analysed over a specified life cycle.
Project analysis can be used to estimate
the economic or engineering viability of
road investment projects by performing
life cycle analysis of pavement perform-
ance, maintenance and/or improvement
effects together with estimates of road
user costs. The main outputs include:
Annual predictions of pavement
* pavement maintenance and road
improvement effects
Road user costs and benefits
* estimates of environmental effects

* standard economic indicators;
NPV, EIRR, BCR, etc.
Typical projects include pavement main-
tenance and rehabilitation, road widening
or geometric improvements, new con-
struction, and so on.
Research and Policy Studies
HDM-4 can be used to conduct a num-
ber of road sector policy studies includ-
* Funding policies for competing
needs, e.g. feeder versus main
* Road user charges for setting up
Road Funds
* Impacts of road transport policy
changes on energy consumption
SImpact of axle load limits
* Pavement maintenance and reha-
bilitation standards
System Architecture
The HDM-4 technology is designed to be
modular to allow it to be integrated with
present and future road management
systems. The technology has been
developed at three levels:
SThe knowledge and algorithms
embodied in the modelling of
technical and economic perform-
ance of road infrastructure;
* The program modules which
deliver the models in explicit
* The HDM-4 software, including the
modelling modules, which pro-
vides the investment analysis and
works programming functions.
The system architecture, shown in the
diagram below, consists of
Sa database manages the input
data and analysis results;

* data managers software that
provides the user interface, and
controls data flows;
* models software modules that
reflect the modelling algorithms;
* analysis tools software that con-
trols the system applications.
These modules can interface with, or in
some cases be integrated into, existing
road agency information systems.
Implementing HDM-4
The first version of the HDM-4 software
is currently going through a beta testing
phase and software refinement, together
with finalisation of documentation, which
is expected to continue until the end of
1998. Following that, the software will
go to its first global release.
The software will not be released as
public domain or shareware, but will be
available through electronic and hard
copy distribution channels on a user-
pays basis, to provide funds for user
services and continuing research and
development. Implementation activities
will include:
Sales and distribution of software
Sales and distribution of manuals
Regional training and support
* train the trainer services
* maintenance and upgrades of
Information dissemination activi-
Research and development.

6 Mc TrnIsfll


CULVERT4 is using the Caltrans
(California DOT) culvert corrosion criteria
included in the California Highway
Design Manual, dated May 30, 1997,
memo to District Designers dated May
26, 1998, and the current California Test
Methods 417, 422, 532, and 643. Using
Caltrans corrosion criteria for culverts,
CULVERT4 (English or Metric units)
presents alternative culvert materials
thickness acceptable for 50 years of
service using site specific test data. The
minimum resistivity test data (ohm-cm)
and pH of the site soils and/or water are
required for all analysis. Water soluble
sulfate and chloride concentrations (ppm)
are required for aggressive sites when
the minimum resistivity is less than 1000
ohm-cm. Culvert materials addressed
include Corrugated Steel Pipe, CSP;
Corrugated Aluminized Steel Pipe,
Type2, CASP; Corrugated Aluminum
Pipe, CAP; and Reinforced Concrete
Pipe, RCP. Also, recent Caltrans analysis
shows that aluminized steel pipe (type 2)
performs significantly better than previ-
ously suggested. Coating materials
addressed include Bituminous Coatings,
soil side and water side; Bituminous
Coating plus Paved Invert, water side
abrasion; Polymerized Asphalt on the
inside/outside bottom 90 degrees, water
side. Also, CULVERT4 presents new
Caltrans pH and SULFATE criteria for
structural concrete and RCP.
Coats is available at LOS 6 for $50.

Drainage Requirements In
The windows based microcomputer pro-
gram DRIP contains all key drainage
design elements and provides graphical
displays of computations and results. The

performs drainage designs for flexi-
ble and rigid pavements and retrofit
edge drains;
Calculates the time-to-drain and
depth-of-flow in the drainage layer;
performs separator layer and geot-
extile designs;
Performs edge drain and geocom-
posite fin drain designs; and
Converts input and output from SI to
English units, or vice versa.
The most important drainage parameter,
the coefficient of permeability, is an input
(from laboratory tests) with an option that
it can be determined from empirical
equations if no laboratory or field perme-
ability test results are available for the
material. Both a clogging criterion and
permeability criterion are used. After
determining the material properties of the
drainage material, the resultant slope
and the resultant length is determined
from a trial road geometry. For a given
trial thickness, the drainage capacity is
determined from the permeability, the
slope, the thickness, and the length of
the drainage layer. The time-to-drain is
determined from these parameters along
with the effective porosity of the soil. The
steady-state flow criterion is used to
ensure that the drainage capacity is
greater than the design inflow. The
unsteady-state flow criterion (time-to-
drain) is applied to ensure rapid removal
of infiltrated water and limit the saturation
time period. If these two requirements
are not satisfied, a new design will be
determined by changing the coefficient of
the permeability of drainage materials
and/or the road and drainage layer
geometry, and combining these methods
to achieve the optimal practical and eco-
nomical solution. After completing the
drainage layer design, the final state in
the design process is to design a system
of longitudinal collectors with transverse
collectors at critical points to remove the

free water from the drainage layer and
transfer it to suitable outlets. The
Manning's formula is used to determine
the diameter of the pipe for a given later-
al inflow, distance between outlets,
roughness coefficient, and slope of the
pipe. The geocomposite flow equation
along with other appropriate design crite-
rion is employed to design geocomposite
fin drains.
Proper execution of the DRIP program
requires at minimum an Intel 486 proces-
sor and the Windows 3.1 operating envi-
ronment. Due to the graphical nature of
the program, a 256-color monitor with
800x600 resolution is recommended.
The User Manual provides the microcom-
puter operator with instructions on the
operation, use and application of the soft-
ware, examples of typical design calcula-
tions, and documentation of the pro-
gram's technical background with a list of
reference documents.
The User Manual contains general infor-
mation on drainage design methodology,
organization of the program, and key
components for preparing the input,
operating procedures and display of the
design results. Example problems walk
the user step-by-step through the design
process and demonstrate all aspects of
DRIP. Default values are provided
throughout the system to allow the user
to retrieve an example typical value for
any parameter.
DRIP (#DRIP) by FHWA is available at
LOS 3 for $40 The User Manual
(#DRIP.D) is available for $10.

The popular program NOSTOP for arteri-
al bandwidth optimization has recently
been released by Strong Concepts as a
new Windows-based program. Like its
DOS predecessor, NOSTOP/TEAPAC for
Windows performs simplified arterial

bandwidth optimization of signal timings.
With a minimum of input, NOSTOP will
first optimize the system cycle length and
produce a graph that shows how cycle
length impacts progression band efficien-
cy. Then for the best cycle, or one select-
ed by the user, NOSTOP produces a
complete detailed timing report showing
all of the optimum settings, including a
time-space diagram. Additional options
include creating a preferential flow direc-
tion, searching for optimal progression
speeds and exploring lead versus lag
NOSTOP is now available for several
Windows platforms. The Windows ver-
sions have all of the features noted
above (found in the DOS version), plus a
unique Visual Mode which provides an
intuitive, graphical user interface as a
true Windows program, like
WinSIGNAL94. These versions also pro-
vide a fully-indexed on-line user guide
and context-sensitive help. Data files are
fully interchangeable with the DOS ver-
sion of NOSTOP. The .WIN versions will
run on any of the Windows 3.x or
Windows 95/98 platforms; the .W95 ver-
sions will run on any of the Windows
95/98 or Windows NT platforms.
The 12-intersection version of NOS-
TOP/TEAPAC Ver 4.30 from Strong
Concepts (#TPCNST1, #TPCNST.1.WIN
and #TPCNST.1.W95) is available at
LOS 7 from McTrans for $395. The full-
size, 25-intersection version of NOS-
NST.2.WIN and #TPCNST2.W95) is
available at LOS 7 for $495. Educational
versions are available for half-price and
demonstration versions are available for
$5 or as free downloads from the WWW
#TPCNST.0.W95). Registered licensees
of DOS versions of NOSTOP may
upgrade to a Windows version directly
from Strong Concepts.

M Tan fal 8


Release 3 of the Highway

Capacity Software, which

implements the proce-
dures in the 1997

Update to the

Highway Capacity

Manual (HCM), is
now available in a


Houston Transportation engineers at the Texas Transportation Institute have
refined their versatile software, C.A.T.S. (Computer Aided Transportation
Software), to include several improvements over the old version.
The newest improvements to C.A.T.S. include multiple speed profiles on
one graph, user-selected speed bins, built-in data file utilities, and selectabil-
ity of output. Output features include: distance, time, average speed, stan-
dard deviation from average speed, user defined speed bins (time and percent
time between user defined speeds i.e., 0 mph to 30 mph, 3 mph to 40 mph
which can be used as an estimate of level of service) acceleration, acceleration
noise, and fuel consumption.
C.A.T.S. was developed by TTI in 1996 to improve data collection methods involving
a Distance Measuring Instrument (DMI). Prior to C.A.T.S., this information was
recorded with a stopwatch and a notepad, and later with a DMI unit and a notepad.
The cumbersome methods were far more costly and less accurate than C.A.T.S.,
which focuses on quality control of the data. The versatile Windows program can be
used for anything from travel time runs and congestion management, to producing
speed profiles for roads and synchronizing traffic signals.
C.A.T.S. collects 20-30 times the data as the stopwatch method. Since it is computer-
ized, it easily records information every half-second, or approximately every 100 feet
at freeway speeds.
There are two modules in C.A.TS.: the DOS-based DMI-Read module records data
from the probe vehicle and DMI unit and the Windows-based Setup and Analysis
module, which allows the user to customize DMI-Read, define function keys, process
data collected by DMI-Read, and create yardstick files, which match up with data col-
lected to ensure excellent quality control.
The software possesses a unique file naming system, which avoids overwrites and
runs on a 386 CPU (or higher), although the DMI-Analyze module requires a 486
CPU or better.
C.A.TS. by Texas Transporttion Institute (#CATS) is available at LOS 6 for $150.

Update Watch
Package Version Status Target Distribution

HCS 2.1g Complete Available Patch File
HCS-3 3.1 Complete Available Registered users may upgrade
TRANSYT-7F 8.1 Complete Available Registered users may upgrade
TRANSYT-7F Win Under development Winter Automatic to registered users

The TSIS web site (www.fhwa-tsis.com)
now has a discussion group for TSIS
users. It is intended for TSIS users to
exchange ideas, questions, techniques,
etc. Additionally, TSIS developers will
monitor the group and participate in
To read the contents of this list or to
post a message, visit the TSIS web site
and select the "Support" button. The
group is labeled "TSIS Discussion
Group (Public)." Follow the directions
to get the messages.
This web based group is available
through any Internet browser. If you
have any questions about it or problems
accessing it, please send e-mail to

U.S.DOT Invests in Internet

The U.S. Department of Transportation
(U.S.DOT) is funding a project to share
ITS information through the Internet.
State and international transport bodies
will contribute to the ITS Cooperative
Deployment Network (ICDN), which aims
to use several linked Web sites to reach
state and local transport decision makers.
The network will include discussion
forums, a newsletter, calendars and links
to other ITS Web sites. ICDN information
will be integrated into member organiza-
tions' homepages, using the member's
branding and site layout to present the
common information. This will enable the
U.S.DOT to easily reach a diverse audi-
ence and solicit feedback on its initiatives.
The Institute of Transportation Engineers
is the prime contractor for the network.
Other members include the Federal
Highway Administration, ITS America, the
Joint ITS Program Office of the U.S.DOT,
Transportation Research Board and the
International Bridge Tunnel and Turnpike
Association. The newsletter is already
available at two member Web sites:
http://www.ite.org and
The ICDN's members belong to the 36-
member National Associations Working
Group, which has been sharing informa-
tion on ITS developments through meet-
ings every six weeks for three years.
(Reprinted from ITS International maga-
zine, May/June 1998.)

78th Annual Meeting

c ras al 9

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