Front Cover
 A message from the director...
 Table of Contents
 Innovation for local food...
 Innovation for human and environmental...
 Innovation to adapt to change
 CIMMYT funding overview 2002-2...
 Trustees and principal staff
 CIMMYT contact information
 CIMMYT worldwide
 Back Cover

Group Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 2002-2003
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00077461/00008
 Material Information
Title: CIMMYT annual report, 2002-2003
Series Title: CIMMYT annual report ...
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Publication Date: 2003
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00077461
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: issn - 0188-9214


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    A message from the director general
        Section 1
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Innovation for local food security
        Page 1
        Reducing the footprint of famine on African soil
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Risk management in maize systems
            Page 5
        Why seed matters : Hunger grows in a land of hybrids
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Producing the seeds of change in Nepal - one community at a time
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Afghanistan update
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Seed delivery systems for Africa's smallholders
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Innovation in Saraguro : Low investment, high impact
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
    Innovation for human and environmental health
        Page 17
        Conservation a necessity, not a luxury, for poorest farmers
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Arsenic and agriculture : Coping with the 'largest mass poisoning in history'
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Farmers' future rests on 'permanent' beds
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Food systems to prevent crippling disease in the children of Chakaria
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Underground wheat diseases : Out of sight, out of mind
            Page 29
        Nicaragua : Quality protein maize and farmers' fight to stay ahead
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
    Innovation to adapt to change
        Page 33
        Inside Mexico's traditional seed sharing networks
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Smallholders profit from lucrative new crop in Bangladesh
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Farmers and researchers find common ground in South Asia
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Solving the drought puzzle from the genome to the field
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Maize project have valuable spin-offs
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
    CIMMYT funding overview 2002-2003
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Trustees and principal staff
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    CIMMYT contact information
        Page 54
    CIMMYT worldwide
        Page 55
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text

for Development

A n u RI L' p rt 2[ II 2 0 3


r -

A Message from

Last year my message described how
diversity was essential to CIMMYT's
research and integral to its character as
an organization. I concluded by
discussing our plans to develop a
mission and strategy that would build
on that diversity and strengthen
CIMMYT's contribution to sustainable

* A new mission
for renewed impact

In the intervening year, CIMMYT has
consulted extensively with a broad base
of stakeholders to determine how
CIMMYT, with the mandate to work
with two of the world's most important
crops, can best contribute to sustainable
development. The consensus was that
CIMMYT should build on its networks
and knowledge to serve the poor as
stated in its proposed new mission:

CIMMYT acts as a catalyst and leader in
a global maize and wheat innovation
network that serves the poor in
developing countries. Drawing on
strong science and effective
partnerships, we create, share, and use
knowledge and technology to increase
food security improve the productivity
and profitability of farming systems, and
sustain natural resources.

This report, "Innovation for
Development," gives an idea of what
a "global maize and wheat innovation
network" can mean in practice and in
people's lives. It describes the ways
that partners create and share
knowledge and science-based
solutions that people can use to move
out of poverty and towards
environmental sustainability.

The first section, "Innovation for local
food security," describes strategies
that enable poor communities in
Africa, Asia, and Latin America to
achieve food security. Some strategies
start with soil nutrient management,
others begin with plant breeding, and
still others rely on selecting and
delivering improved seed-but all take
advantage of the unique contributions
of many partners. Usually they build
on years of prior research and much
local knowledge. These stories show
that a "one-size-fits-all" approach
cannot promote development. There is
no substitute for careful attention to
local needs, and there is no impact
without successful communication.

The second section of this report,
"Innovation for human and
environmental health," looks at the
integral role of food systems in

delivering health and nutrition and
conserving natural resources.
It describes how CIMMYT links
partners working on different aspects
of two major health problems (arsenic
poisoning and rickets). Through a
broad research consortium in Asia,
CIMMYT is also increasing the
potential for vital food systems to be
resource-conserving systems. With our
partners, we have developed resource-
conserving technologies that are
flexible and profitable enough for
some of the world's poorest
sharecroppers, who have little
incentive to improve the land under
their care, to conserve the agricultural
resource base.

The final section of this report,
"Innovation to adapt to change,"
shows how we work with poor people
to seize new opportunities and resolve
problems that arrive with change. For
example, we train farmers in
Bangladesh to grow maize-a "new"
crop that is rapidly growing in demand
throughout Asia. We study traditional
seed sharing networks in Mexico to
determine how rural emigration and
the potential loss of incentives for
traditional maize production will affect
seed sharing and genetic diversity. By
partnering with advanced research

institutes and the private sector,
we are learning how to help
plants-and by extension,
producers-cope with future
droughts or climate change.

*New ways of working

We do not merely recommend that
others adapt to change: CIMMYT is
doing the same. Although the range
of CIMMYT's products and services
will not change dramatically over
the coming years-we will still
develop improved maize and wheat
seed and production practices, for
example-we will make major
changes in how we orient our
research, how we work with others,
and how we structure our research
program. The details are available in
our forthcoming strategic plan
(Seeds of Innovation, CIMMYT,
2003), but we can summarize some
essential points here.

As indicated in our new mission,
poor people and their livelihood
strategies are at the heart of our
research program. Through a broad
and growing set of partnerships and
networks, we will:

* Reinforce research in locations
where poverty is deepest and
most widespread

* Take an integrated,
interdisciplinary approach to
understanding local needs and
developing a spectrum of
options for local circumstances
* Set priorities through regular
consultation with partners
* Focus on solutions tailored
specifically to the needs of
small-scale farmers
* Give careful attention to the full
cycle of innovation and the
sharing and use of knowledge
across scientific, institutional,
and national boundaries
* Stay attuned and responsive to
the needs of poor people and
promote the impact of all
partners' efforts to foster
sustainable human

CIMMYT's research-and its
organizational structure-will be
based on projects that emphasize
global and eco-regional priorities.
The projects reflect CIMMYT's
commitment to being as
integrative as possible in its
research, considering the different
natural, economic, and cultural
factors that determine where and
how maize and wheat are grown.

SA commitment
to the future

The stories in this report offer a glimpse,
in microcosm, of the new CIMMYT They
show that results depend on the
collaboration of many people and
organizations. They also show that
CIMMYT and its partners do not simply lay
the groundwork for solutions to the
problems of the future. They reveal how
field and laboratory research come to
fruition in the lives of the poor.

We are providing solutions that people
can use now-not when the next round
of trade negotiations ends, when the civil
war is over, or when the private sector
decides it is time to enter a new market.
Now is when people have to pay school
fees, buy seed, obtain medical treatment,
decide whether to abandon their village in
search of wage employment, or bury a
family member who has died of HIV/AIDS
or malnutrition. Although we have spent
much time over the past year in planning
for tomorrow, this report shows that we
have not interrupted our efforts to help
people today and every day. In the coming
year, as the "new CIMMYT" takes shape,
this important work will continue to
empower more people to transform their
lives for the better.

Dr. Masa Iwana,
F'H-1-d 1

Writing/editing/creative direction: Kelly Cassaday, Alma McNab,
G. Michael Listman, Jennifer Nelson, and David A. Poland, with
CIMMYT staff, visiting researchers, and research partners.
Production/design/creative direction: Miguel Mellado E.,
Wenceslao Almazan R., Antonio Luna A., Marcelo Ortiz S., and Eliot
Sanchez P. Photography: Lone Badstue, Kunduz Rehabilitation
Agency, G. Michael Listman, Alma McNab, Jennifer Nelson,
Guillermo Ortiz-Ferrara, Mahmood Osmanzai, David A. Poland, and
Ana Maria Sanchez

Acronyms and Abbreviations






Australian Centre for International Agricultural
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institue
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
Bacillus thuringiensis
International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Consultative Group on International Agricultural
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
International Potato Center
Civil society organization
Geographic information system
International Center for Agricultural Research in the
Dry Areas
International Center for Research in the Semi-Arid
International Food Policy Research Institute
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
International Rice Research Institute
Nepal Agricultural Research Council
Open-pollinated variety
Quality protein maize
Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains
Southern African Development Community
Metric tons
United States Agency for Inter national Development

Bibliographic Information

Correct citation: CIMMYT. 2003. CIMMYTin 2002-2003.
Innovation for Development. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.
ISSN: 0188-9214.* Agrovoc descriptors: Zea mays; wheats;
varieties; genetic resources; plant breeding; I 1 ....i 1ii plant
biotechnology; economic analysis; innovation adoption;
organization of research; research projects; research policies.
* AGRIS category codes: A50, A01. Dewey decimal
classification: 630

11 CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 2003. All rights reserved.
Printed in Mexico. Responsibility for this publication rests solely
with CIMMYT. The designations employed in the presentation of
material in this publication do not imply the expressions of any
opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT or contributory
organizations concerning the legal status of any country,
territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the
delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Learn more about
CIMMYT at www.cimmyt.org.

F U T U R E" CIMMYT is a Future Harvest Center of the CGIAR
HARV/EST (www.cgiar.or). Future Harvest@ is a not-for
profit organization that catalyzes action for a world with less
poverty a healthier global population, well-nourished children,
and a better environment (see www.futureharvest.org).

== .. .. .

.iill i. ............ ............. ..

"pA* E.

A Message from the Director General

Innovation for Local Food Security

2 Reducing the Footprint of Famine on African Soil

5 Risk Management in Maize Systems

6 Why Seed Matters: Hunger Grows in a Land of
8 Producing the Seeds of Change in Nepal-One
Community at a Time

10 Afghanistan Update

12 Seed Delivery Systems for Africa's Smallholders

14 Innovation in Saraguro: Low Investment, High

Innovation for Human and Environmental Health

18 Conservation a Necessity, Not a Luxury, for Poorest
21 Arsenic and Agriculture: Coping with the "Largest
Mass Poisoning in History"

24 Farmers' Future Rests on "Permanent" Beds

26 Food Systems to Prevent Crippling Disease in the
Children of Chakaria
28 Underground Wheat Diseases: Out of Sight, Out of

30 Nicaragua: Quality Protein Maize and Farmers'
Fight to Stay Ahead

32 HarvestPlus: Breedings Crops for Better Nutrition

Innovation to Adapt to Change

34 Inside Mexico's Traditional Seed Sharing Networks

36 Telling the Untold Stories of Rural People's Lives:
How Anthropological Approaches Make Research
More Effective

37 Smallholders Profit from Lucrative New Crop in

39 Whole Family Training for Maize: The Short Course

40 Farmers and Researchers Find Common Ground in
South Asia

42 Solving the Drought Puzzle from the Genome to
the Field

44 Maize Project Has Valuable Spin-offs

47 Unlocking Crop Genetic Diversity for Poor People
48 CIMMYT Funding Overview 2002-2003

51 Trustees and Principal Staff

54 CIMMYT Contact Information

CIMMYT Worldwide

* : : :i42; F~iiii l :


Will hunger become a lasting feature of their future?

...... .i..........I Ii.


2' O Famnle on ...
of Famine on Ican,
jg ^ .y a ..:. ***:; j~j ^ == ;;iJ. ; P ::;;:" :. .::g "I ii

CIMMYT cannot
conjure the rains or alter
the macro-economic

forces that are battering
African nations, but its
staff are mobilizing

partnerships, knowledge,
and other resources to
restore the future to farm

families despite famine
and depleted fields.

A single mother in Mbingwa Village,
some 100 kilometers northwest of
Malawi's capital, Lilongwe, Agness
Pungulani cannot produce enough on
her half hectare of farmland to feed
herself and her children. "My children
are not healthy," she says. "Our
problems are a lack of food, fertilizer,
and sources of income." She sells her
labor when she can find fieldwork, but
she must weed the equivalent of a 140-
meter row in a field, for example, to
purchase a single kilogram of maize at
the normal market price of 10 kwacha
(about US$ 0.11).

During the 2002 hungry season, markets
were devoid of grain, local traders were
selling maize at 25 kwacha per kilogram
or more, and little fieldwork was
available. When the
_ food stocks

disappeared, Pungulani and many
others foraged, drank tea from wild
occra leaves in place of evening
meals, and pounded banana tree
roots into a crude flour
approximating their preferred maize
staple, nsima. The head of a
neighboring household, which also
fared badly, says, "This flour tastes
sour, but we eat it because we have
no choice."

The hungry season normally arrives
during January-February in this part
of Malawi, but lately families have
run out of grain as early as
September and must survive until
the March harvests. World Vision
and other CSOs are distributing
foodstuffs to needy villagers like
Pungulani, but others have starved.
Similar levels of hunger have been
common in Zimbabwe of late, and
will probably worsen before the end
of 2003. An entire generation of
children is suffering the debilitating
physical and social effects of chronic
hunger. Will famine become a
lasting feature of their future?

Empty soils,
stomachs, and
Most of the region's
inhabitants live in rural
areas, farm for a living,
and eat large amounts of
maize when they can get
it. Poor soils, drought,
conflict, malnutrition,
and disease-particularly
malaria and HIV/AIDS-
are daily hardships. But of
all their troubles, the one
farmers mention most is a
lack of fertilizer for
depleted soils.


.... ::i .. i

"In Zimbabwe, for example, people Among Soil Fert Net's
used to apply lots of fertilizer and cattle accomplishments are "best bet"
manure, but they've suffered many options for improving soil fertility,
droughts and lost cattle," says Shephard technical input for agricultural
Siziba, CIMMYT research associate and policy decisions, improved fertilizer
economist from the University of use recommendations, training for
Zimbabwe. He has surveyed farmers in private input dealers, and support
Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and for thousands of smallholder
Zimbabwe to understand the economics farmers to test and adopt new
of soil fertility issues. "Subsidies have practices they might otherwise
been removed. Traders pay the least never have tried.
they can for harvests and sell the grain
back at premium prices during the Knowledge
hungry season. Farmers cannot afford to nurture soils
fertilizer. Soils are becoming more acidic,
less fertile. What farmers really need is Inhabitants of Chihota
help in leveraging their meager soil and Communal Area have AboII
water resources." the good fortune to
live only 50-80 The nIet
From dialogue kilometers from .... '
to development
capital, Harare.
Siziba, his CIMMYT colleagues, and the They sell J teiis
partners mentioned above are helping tomatoes, hnica
farmers find new ways to care for and onions, peas,
get more out of their soils through an greens, and
organization known as Soil Fert Net. other produce
to Harare
The network fosters communication and markets,
teamwork among hundreds of growing it on
researchers and institutions-ministries carefully tended f
of agriculture, extension agencies, and fertilized plots m
universities-nationally and known as or
internationally. "Soil Fert Net helps avoid "dambo" or "vlei"
duplication of effort and keeps the land, normally adjacent r...
focus on the real-world concerns of rivers. In contrast, on ii-, .ii
small-scale farmers," says Stephen acidic, sandy, upland :l...r
Waddington, network coordinator and they sow a range of n- ii.'
CIMMYT regional agronomist. "Soil hybrids, typically obtaining very low
scientists and agronomists, yields. In 1999, with support from
extensionists, CSOs, anthropologists, Soil Fert Net, extension staff of the
economists, and policymakers all take Zimbabwe Agricultural Research
part." Soil Fert Net also links with a and Extension Agency (AGRITEX)
complementary project to help helped hundreds of farmers to test
smallholders cope with agricultural risk liming-a chemical treatment that
(see "Risk Management in Maize reduces soil acidity-as well as
Systems," p. 5). green manures and rotations of
various crops in maize fields.

Several hundred local farmers have
picked up the improved soil
management practices, and many
continue to experiment. Mary
Munemo grew maize for three
seasons on a field to which she had
applied lime in 1999 and noticed a
big yield improvement. "It's difficult
and expensive to get lime and
sometimes the quantities are not
enough for everyone," says
Munemo, but now she and her
peers have begun pooling resources
to purchase inputs in bulk.

Venancio Gotami, an AGRITEX
supervisor who has worked in the
district since 1989, says Soil Fert Net
empowers farmers to experiment
with more complex, knowledge-
based practices. "The value of the
land has even gone up," says
Gotami, "because farmers see the
benefits of maize production using
the new practices."



" 2'1'-

= I0-

In Mozambique, Soil Fert Net
participants are helping the country's
recently established maize research
program to conduct a widespread
program of on-farm trials involving
intercrops of maize and grain
legumes and rotations of maize and
cassava. These practices maintain soil
fertility and provide food.

Long-term land care

Farmers in southern Africa need
multiple coping strategies, if they are
to build up resources for the future.
"Even with the use of fertility
management practices, maize
farming in southern Africa is basically
extractive," says Waddington.

Convincing farmers to diversify might
help, according to Siziba. "In Manica
Province, Mozambique, for example,
50-60% of the area is devoted to
maize, but there's also sorghum,
millet, legumes, cassava, and fruits,"


iir i, lr-

80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 2000

Fertilizer use continues to fall in Africa.

he notes. "In Zimbabwe, where
people sow 80% of their land to
maize, there's nothing to eat when
the crop fails."

Conservation agriculture also holds
promise. It includes practices that
reduce tillage and recycle crop
residues to save labor, enrich the
soil, and capture and retain
moisture. In May 2003,
representatives from CIMMYT,
Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia,
Zimbabwe, the African Conservation
Tillage Network, the University of
Hohenheim, the Regional Land
Management Unit based in Kenya,
German Technical Cooperation
(GTZ), and Sasakawa Global 2000
met to design a conservation
agriculture project for eastern and
southern Africa.

In June, Soil Fert Net members
and representatives from the
International Center for Tropical
Agriculture (CIAT), World Forestry
Center, and International Crops
Research Intitute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics (ICRISAT) met with John
Lynam, associate director of the
Rockefeller Foundation Food
Security Program, with special
responsibility for soil fertility. A
major outcome was an undertaking
to develop a consortium on soil
fertility research and development to
enhance food security in southern
Africa. "The idea is to broaden
participation, bringing more
resources to bear on these important
problems, and to coordinate and
focus everyone's efforts," says

SFor more information:
V s.waddington@cgiar.org


.6 ...
' i i:i ...i1i::


"NA H -Hi

...... .. .. .... .
:d iii : i

Risk Mgement A Ci



Af .I .
dE::"~~~ ~~ ~~~~ EEEE:.r :E"' ,EL.


In southern

Africa, many

farmers plant

hybrid maize.

So why are

they hungrier

than ever?

In southern Africa, declining soil
fertility, climate risks like drought, and
a lack of cattle manure or chemical
fertilizer mean that once-productive
hybrids are now sown in exceptionally
harsh settings. Most farmers save
seed from their harvests to sow the
following year, even though the yield
will be lower.

From the second generation onward,
hybrid maize becomes genetically
mixed. After several seasons, it
generally yields less than a good
open-pollinated variety (OPV). A good
OPV can give better value than even
first-generation hybrids in tough
environments-say, where yields
average 1.5 tons per hectare or less,
as typically occurs on small farms in
southern Africa. Farmers who plant
OPV seed saved from a previous
harvest sacrifice less in yield than is
the case for hybrids.

Farmers have been asking for more
appropriate varieties, and government
agencies and CSOs are promoting
OPVs. Meanwhile, breeders have
found a way to develop hardier
varieties. This new "stress-tolerant"
maize yields well in years of good
rains but can also produce enough
grain for household needs in dry
years. Most important, it uses no
more water or soil nutrients than
other varieties.

* Tough handling
turns out hardy strains
Maize breeders once selected varieties
based chiefly on their performance in
optimal environments-with adequate
water and more than enough
fertilizer. Now they also grow their
experimental varieties under
controlled drought and in poor soils to
identify plants that are superior
anywhere, anytime.

In 1996 the Southern African Drought
and Low Soil Fertility Project (SADLF)
brought this "stress breeding"
approach to the region and helped
hundreds of scientists and technicians
to use it. (A joint effort between
CIMMYT and national research
programs, SADLF is funded by the
Swiss Agency for Development and
Cooperation and the Rockefeller
Foundation.) Stress-tolerant OPVs from
this work have been released in
Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa,
Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and they are
also used in Angola and Zambia.

In trials from Ethiopia to South Africa,
one OPV from this effort (ZM521)
produced an average 34% more grain
than popular improved varieties. A new
generation of SADLF maize is 15%
more productive than ZM521 or its
sister varieties. The SADLF varieties are
currently grown on more than 100,000
hectares region-wide, and their
coverage is expanding.

* More than seed
is needed
Useful maize seed that sits on a
researcher's shelf is of little help to
humanity. "To verify the performance
of the best varieties under farmers'
conditions and make the seed available
quickly, we devised a cost-effective,
farmer-centered approach known
popularly as 'mother-baby trials,'" says
Mick Mwala, senior lecturer at the
University of Zambia and CIMMYT
research affiliate. Mwala has been
helping partners to implement the
trials since 2000 (see next page).

"CIMMYT is fostering the
establishment of the trials widely in the
region," says Mwala. "We're talking
150 mother trials region-wide, with
more than 800 baby trials!"


i.ll.i. i .... Ai::: r
h =........B i t H.r

Mother-baby trials implemented in
eastern and southern Africa.
:.L E

SFor three years (2000- --,_
For two years (2001-2 -,,
I For one year (2002)

Karsto Kwazira and Xavier Mhike
from AGRITEX are coordinating
mother-baby trials in Zimbabwe.
"Our own coordinating unit includes
representatives from several CSOs as
well as from extension, and there are
regional representatives for local
implementation," says Mhike. "This
is the first time information is shared
like this among national programs,
Ministries of Agriculture, CSOs, and
private companies. Previously
everyone worked somewhat in
isolation. Now there is
complementarity, with a heightened
awareness about the farmer."

" For more information:
T m.banziger@cgiar.org


0 E

Mother tridas 4
(new elite cultivars,
with ad without




I Baby trial

0 E



r '



::: II

S Producing the Sej

ian e in

"'. .
.. ..."'"" ,

How can an

insignificant handful of

people hope to improve

prospects in Nepal's

mid-hills region, where

armed insurrection

compounds the suffering

imposed by poverty,

hunger, and isolation?

In Balefi, a tiny hamlet alongside the
road in Sindhupalchok District, Nepal,
the Hill Maize Research Project (HMRP),
in collaboration with a local farmers
association, helps six farmers produce
maize seed. The harvest should be good.

"I estimate that they'll produce four or
five tons of quality maize seed,"
speculates Neeranjan Rajbhandari,
CIMMYT adjunct scientist with the
HMRP. "The average yield in this area is
about one ton per hectare."

The project provided the farmers with
source seed, plus training in seed
production techniques, storage, and
marketing. "We're counting on getting
50 to 100% more money for our seed
than we get for maize grain," says
one producer. "Other farmers want to
buy our seed because it will produce
'.-:, to three times more than their
I irrent varieties. "

* Tuki lights the way
Just a few kilometers up the road is
one of many farmers' groups called
Tuki associations (tuki means "oil lamp"
or "leader" in Nepal). These associations,
established with funding from the
Swiss Agency for Development and
Cooperation, seek to improve farmers'
yields and their welfare, a goal that
meshes with CIMMYT's mission.

Tuki has a network of farmers involved in
producing maize seed. (Where there are
no networks, the HMRP starts producers'
groups.) Ten years old, this particular Tuki
association spans 30 village units and has
a leader in each. Of the leaders, 35% are
women. This excellent network extends to
areas that can be reached only on foot.

Tuki not only provides farmers with seed
but buys their production, which is usually
200-300% above the average maize yield
in this region. It pays a premium (double
what farmers would normally get) for
excellent quality. The fact that Tuki buys
the seed just after harvest is a great
advantage: the money flows in, and
farmers do not have to look for markets
or risk storing the seed and having insects
eat it. Because the sustainability of seed
production depends on successful
marketing, the HMRP is careful to
coordinate production and avoid creating
a glut that would affect the premium
paid to producers.

Seed producers sow three CIMMYT-
derived maize varieties: a Rampur
composite, Arun 2, and Manakamana 1.
Other activities to improve maize
production, including the use of soil-
conserving practices, have been initiated
in 6 villages with 84 farmers. Tuki provides
extensive community support in many
other ways, such as teaching women to
read, write, and keep accounts and
instructing them about which crops to

I. ::


sow off-season to make higher profits.
An educational program ensures that all
children go to school. Tuki also operates a
savings and loan association.

* Braving the insurgency

Kabre Village in Dolkha District is the site
of Kabre Experiment Station, which was
destroyed not long ago by insurgents.
"We have some trials there again,"
comments Salendra Thapa, technical
assistant assigned to Kabre, "but most of
my time is spent interacting directly with
farmers at the station's outreach sites,
providing training in many things,
including maize seed production." The
HMRP has supported and collaborated
on all maize-related activities in the area
for four years.

Farmers' holdings are small: 72% are less
than one hectare. Women do most of the
farming. Few men are left in these
communities. In the village of Kiratichap,
10 women produce maize seed on 1.4
hectares. The quality of the seed is so
good that the extension agents use their
field as a demonstration plot and buy the
seed to distribute to other producers.

"We never had enough to eat until we
started producing seed," recalls Debaki
Karki, leader of the women's group. "Our
maize harvests were so small that the
grain provided enough food for only
three or four months. Then Mr. Thapa
came and taught us to produce seed. We
started harvesting three tons of seed per
hectare, and the difference was like night
and day!" Soon the women were doing
so well that they initiated a savings and
loan service for their group.

The number of people involved in seed
production is rising steadily. "When other
farmers see seed producers increasing
their yields and earning a lot of money,
they are very interested in joining," says
B.N. Adhikari, technical officer at Kabre.
With support from the HMRP, he and


Thapa constantly form new groups in the
extensive area they cover. They have not
let the destruction of their base station
discourage them, nor are they letting
fear of the insurgents keep them from

reaching out to farmers.

"Mr. Thapa is like a member
family," points out Durga De
a group member who is the
head of her household. "He
didn't leave us when things
got rough."

The income from seed
sales has improved the
lives of the women and
their families. Any
leftover grain (only the
best is used as seed)
goes to the household,
and the maize stover is
fed to the livestock.
Better-fed animals
produce more milk, and
the women sell the
surplus on the local
market. The additional
income is spent on their
children's schooling, clothes,
and shoes, as well as on foo
and other household expense

"Just three of the women in
read and write. The rest can
our names, but we're sendir
children-girls and boys-to
are even learning English!"
says. Simple words, but they
volumes about the success o
and its partners.

of our
evi Karki,

Ao a ai



our group
barely sign

ig our
school. They
Durga Devi
f the HMRP


in Nepal is
in the mid-hill

SFi IIII II I,11 &1
S n lajlbliandai i- cgalai o,1 g








Wheat and maize

occupy 80% of the

area sown to annual

crops in Afghanistan.

How has CIMMYT

responded to the

desperate need to

reinvigorate Afghan


Wheat is the number one staple crop
in Afghanistan. Maize is number
three in importance and the number
one summer crop. One of CIMMYT's
main objectives in Afghanistan is to
make improved, high-quality seed of
both crops available to farmers,
along with appropriate crop
management technologies. Given
the many challenges of working in
Afghanistan, CIMMYT focuses on
community-based approaches in
which farmers help identify the
varieties and crop management
practices that will be most helpful.

To date, CIMMYT has responded to
Afghanistan's most urgent needs by:

*Distributing 300 tons of quality
seed of locally adapted wheat
variety MH-97 to 9,000 farmers in
4 provinces of Afghanistan in time
for 2002 fall planting.

*Producing 2.5 tons of breeder's
and foundation maize seed and
delivering them for planting by
Afghan farmers in the 2003

* Planting 35 wheat variety trials
at 6 sites, and 24 maize trials at
8 sites, to identify additional
materials that are well suited
to farmers' needs.

*Training Afghan researchers
in-country and at CIMMYT
in Mexico. Already 15
researchers have attended
courses in Mexico, and more
training is planned.

CIMMYT has responded quickly
to Afghanistan's needs for seed of
locally adapted wheat and maize
varieties because it has
collaborated with Afghan
researchers for over three decades
(even during the war, thanks to
the Swedish Committee for

Most wheat varieties grown in
Afghanistan are of CIMMYT
origin. Several hundred CIMMYT
wheat and maize nurseries have
been evaluated in different parts
of Afghanistan in the past 30
years. Duplicates of these
nurseries have also been tested in
the region (e.g., Pakistan,
Tajikistan, and Iran) and in other
parts of the world. This testing
has identified wheats with high
yield potential and improved
disease resistance that are well
adapted to Afghanistan. In maize,
results of trials conducted in
Afghanistan have been analyzed
and promising cultivars selected
from several populations.


::J iii::" i..........

............ ... .. ii i i iii........

!~i ~~JL' 4

"The maize which

was brought by


implemented by



Agency is doing


-Ghulam m Aqtash,
Executive Director, KRA

CIMMYT activities in Afghanistan
are made possible by the Future
Harvest Consortium to Rebuild
Agriculture in Afghanistan (funded
by the US Agency for International
Development and coordinated by
the International Center for
Agricultural Research in the Dry
Areas, ICARDA) and a separate
initiative funded by AusAID and th-
Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research. We
particularly appreciate the valuable
cooperation and help of many
CSOs and development
organizations operating in the
country, including the UN's Food
and Agriculture Organization (FAO,
International Fertilizer Development
(a French CSO), the Aga Khan
Development Network, and the
Improved Seed Enterprise. Also
essential is the collaboration of the
Agricultural Research Institute
of Afghanistan and the Afghan
Ministry of Agriculture.

For more information:

Seed Delivery Systems

for Africa's Smallholders

Thi l1iinir dilemma is
smll/.l) Trlir-' maly be only
oni s. Si/ %iippliri- nearby,
and thIl tairmi-i finds only a
sI)l/ O iiO arl-t\ 'o hybrid on
t1i- sllfl and there's no
in0ii ,nation about its
liialitiis or li'ii best to
Lroio i So i'oii can she be
insure that /b\ spending her
limited a-l l on this seed, it
nill \% ild ioii.ll, to feed

The dilemma for this farmer-as
described by CIMMYT maize
physiologist Marianne Banziger-
may be simple, but solving the
problem is not. CIMMYT adjunct
scientist Peter Setimela is working
with myriad partners in southern
Africa to establish sustainable
systems for delivering appropriate
seed to small-scale farmers.

"My job is somewhat
improvisational," says Setimela.
"I'm looking for ways for CIMMYT
to make a difference by capitalizing
on its science, its knowledge of the
problems, and its awareness of
stakeholders' diverse needs and

:,.,i-: ,-,: -,I il countries and CSOs are working on seed
:,...:i.,:r,...-, .i e also linking with seed companies to see how much
i,- ,,: r-,-. I:i...:.:, and what type. Sometimes there's enough seed,
b :hut distribution is inadequate."

'i recent visit to Malawi took Setimela to the office of
Ieff H. Luhanga, deputy director of the Department
...f Agricultural Research and Technical Services of the
1 1 11 ...t i .:1i. ilture. "W ith government assistance, 1,500 farmers
I-, .- ie-l. :1 iito seed production," says Luhanga, "and
the government and CSOs have helped farmers to form associations
that address issues of seed production, marketing, and linkages
to seed companies."

Farmers also urgently need accurate information about seed. Setimela
and Banziger have developed and distributed a guide to the open-
pollinated maize varieties (OPVs) available in Africa. The guide (see
next page) helps people choose the best variety for their particular
circumstances and provides contact information for seed suppliers.

"We also work with extension to train farmers to produce seed
of OPVs, as well as to come up with seed production systems
that work," says Setimela. "The crux is marketing! If small-scale
farmers are linked to a seed company, they know the company will
package and sell the seed."

Marketing through the private sector

In Malawi, Setimela also visited the Lilongwe office of Seed-Co, Ltd.,
which is producing well over 2,000 tons of seed of drought-tolerant
varieties for sale in Malawi in 2003. The varieties were developed
through the Southern African Drought and Low Soil Fertility Project
(SADLF), described on p. 6.

"We're propagating three of
their OPVs-ZM421, 521, and 621-
which are quite good," says John
Lungu, the Seed-Co production
manager. This seed promises to be a
reasonably-priced, key input for many
maize farmers, as well as a welcome
source of income for others.
Lungu reckons that some 130
farmers-many of them smallholders-
produce OPV seed for Seed-Co.

* The CSO connection

Most of Seed-Co's OPV seed is being
produced for CSOs involved in
community seed production schemes
throughout Malawi. One example is
the work of World Vision International
in the Chitera Area Development
Program, about 20 kilometers from
Blantyre in southern Malawi. Setimela
traveled to Chitera with World Vision
officer Walter Mwachande.

Chitera has a population density of
nearly 450 persons per square
kilometer, meaning that the average
farm household of about five members
must gain its food and livelihood from
less than half a hectare of land.
According to Mwachande, the area has
always been food insecure, so work
has aimed at raising yields. In four
years of trials with hybrids as well as
OPVs, the outstanding performer has
been ZM521. "ZM521 outyielded all
others, and farmers like its other
qualities-early maturity, poundability,
good flour quality, high yields, taste,
resistance to head smut, and superior
drought tolerance," says Mwachande.

World Vision International has worked
in Chitera for 12 years and administers
the Europan Union-funded Agricultural
Production and Investment Program.
The program provides inputs and
"loans" about 20 tons of seed to
2,000 farmers. The farmers pay for the

seed, which is enough to sow about
half a hectare, with earnings from their
harvest. World Vision charges 40
kwacha (about
US$ 0.48) per kilogram of seed-
about three times the market price for
grain and just enough to cover costs.

World Vision procured seed last year
from Zimbabwe, but this year they
want to produce it locally. The farmers
have produced seed of other crops but
are just learning the complexities of
producing high-quality maize seed.
CIMMYT and the Chitedze Research
Station are providing the foundation
seed for future community seed
production efforts. World Vision is
furnishing some training and linking to
organizations that can provide training
in accounting and marketing.

* Regionalizing seed
production and marketing

A new CIMMYT study sponsored by
the Rockefeller Foundation is taking a
much closer look at seed marketing
incentives to foster the spread of
improved seed among southern
Africa's poorest farmers. Augustine
Langyintuo, the CIMMYT economist

... .. .-

1- ---

w .

conducting the study, explains that
some of the technical, economic, and
institutional constraints that prevent
poor households from acquiring
commercial maize seed are well
known but not always well
documented. By gathering detailed
information about the organization
and performance of seed production
and distribution systems, the study
should help seed company officials
and/or policymakers to identify
bottlenecks in seed supply and
enable them to implement reforms.

CIMMYT and others are already
exploring the possibility of
approaching seed delivery from a
regional perspective. In April 2003,
CIMMYT, ICRISAT, and other
stakeholders from the public and
private sector took part in discussions
led by the Seed Security Network of
SADC on the regional harmonization
of seed laws. CIMMYT geographic
information system (GIS) tools,
together with information from
SADC trials, were used to show the
advantages of exploiting new
varieties across eco-regions rather
than within national borders. CIMMYT
and ICRISAT scientists also helped
develop a working model that was
used for discussion.

,IMMYT is not just about finding a
,:..,)d variety, distributing it to solve
,.,,n problem or set of problems, and
ii -n going on to the next variety,"
:i,s Banziger. "We look at each and
,very part of the system and see
where we can make a difference."

For more information:

.. .. ..:.......... :..



..... 100

The Saraguro

Indians have

literally won an

uphill battle for

food security,

thanks to a few

key innovators.

x*~F~ *~ 45_~~
''~ L,''

; \u -' ,r F~,

Scattered over the Andes in southern
Ecuador, between 2,000 and 3,500
meters above sea level, lie the
communities of the Saraguro Indians.
The Saraguro have subsisted in this area
since the Incas brought them from
neighboring Bolivia, more than five
centuries ago.

At first glance, the slopes look
impossibly steep to farm, but green
fields and the occasional grazing cow or
sheep are everywhere, as if glued to the
mountainsides by a giant hand. Though
beautiful, these peaks and valleys are
covered by thin soil that once produced
very little. Such low production put
families at risk every year. Recalls Doria
Lucrecia Espinoza, a farmer in the village
of Selva Alegre, "We had at least one
month each year we called el mes del
Ilun.ii r Lr I 'rlI- riii-,, i if uii.nger], w hen
I. :ii ll I .:1 .1- I .i r I nl-d the new
II .:.I i-'I I l :,I r.:. I arvest." Poor
I ,: :I:: -II:i ri iiI:-ii' distance from
11r.11Ir, rioi i: ll:iiral of Ecuador,
vii-n1 r rll i r Farmers were
:.r .:ff from most
-:- i-i nment
~.. :I grams.

* The road starts
with just one farmer

In 1995, improved agricultural
technology started trickling into
Saraguro through a modest project
aimed at helping farmers to try new
varieties of barley, one of their main
food crops. The two new varieties,
called Shyri and Atahualpa, were
developed by Ecuador's National
Institute of Agricultural and Livestock
Research (Instituto Nacional de
Investigation Agropecuaria, or INIAP)
and the ICARDA/CIMMYT Barley
Breeding Program for Latin America,
under the leadership of Hugo Vivar,
based at CIMMYT. The new varieties
resisted diseases and potentially could
yield much more than farmers'
current varieties.

The work in Saraguro is a
collaboration between CIMMYT and
INIAP, which assigned breeders Jorge
Coronel (see p. 16) and Oswaldo
Chicaiza (who led the effort for
several years) to the project. Coronel
asked the local priest to announce at
Sunday Mass that researchers were
looking for farmers to plant improved
varieties. Just one farmer, Abel
Gualan, agreed to try the new barley.
Gualan took a sack of seed, plus
some fertilizer, and sowed his crop.
"A few months later he harvested
eight times more grain than his
neighbors," relates Coronel.

Next year, a number of farmers were
eager to try the new seed. Coronel
proposed a deal: they could have a
sack of seed and a little fertilizer-on
credit. Most farmers had never been
considered eligible for credit, and they
were wary. Coronel explained that
they were not to repay the loan in
cash but with the harvested grain.
Thirteen farmers accepted. None had
any trouble repaying the loan.




.... ... ..... "

-4: 6

Nine years later, the project helps more
than 3,000 farmers in 17 communities.
Average barley yields in these
communities (2.8 tons per hectare) are
the second highest in South America,
after those of Chile (3.5 tons per
hectare), where resources are much
more plentiful. The Saraguro have
enough to eat all year, and most
farmers have a surplus to sell.
Comments Dona Lucrecia, "Nowadays
if people don't have maize, barley,
wheat flour, and potatoes to eat, it's
because they'rejust plain lazy."

* Expanding
choices for farmers
Now that they do not have to worry
about food security, individual
communities have started tackling
other problems. The people of Selva
Alegre recently pooled their resources
to dig small reservoirs high in the
mountains, where they store water
from streams and rain. They hooked up
several kilometers of plastic pipe to
bring the water down to their fields.
The new system allows them to sow
two crops per year. Their next goal is to
provide all 36 households in Selva
Alegre with running water The
inhabitants of Seucer, the driest
environment in the area, carved a
reservoir from the rock at the top of a
hill, but they have not raised enough
funds to buy the three kilometers of
pipe they need to fill the reservoir and
channel the water to their fields.

The project has also raised awareness
about conserving and improving the
soil. Concerned farmers have begun
rotating barley, maize, wheat, triticale,
or potatoes with beans, peas, and
other nitrogen-fixing species. Local
leaders such as Don Lucho Garcia of
Selva Alegre are trying zero tillage.

Vivar and Coronel are promoting the
formation of natural terraces with
earth-anchoring grasses to keep soil
from washing away.

The Saraguro are increasingly interested
in new options. In response to their
request for improved versions of other
crops, INIAP selected and released
Cotacachi, a high-yielding wheat
introduced from CIMMYT and well
adapted to the high, harsh environment
of Saraguro. Farmers are also sowing an
improved potato variety from the
International Potato Center (CIP). The
variety is resistant to potato late blight,
a serious disease in the area.

The women of Selva Alegre are
improving family nutrition by
diversifying the vegetable crops they
grow in their household plots, and they
have learned to prepare a wider range
of foods from barley and maize through
training from INIAP.

*The secret of success
"The success in Saraguro is the result of
a combination of factors: the farmers
themselves, the local leaders, the
project coordinator, and the
technology," points out Vivar. "The fact
that the loans were payable in kind, not
cash, was essential. In the past nine
years, economic conditions in Ecuador
have fluctuated widely-even the
currency changed, from the sucre to
the dollar-but none of this affected
farmers' ability to repay their loans."

Village teamwork underpins the
project. In each village, one farmer
distributes seed and encourages others
to try new crops and practices. These
well-respected men and women set an
example of hard work, collaboration,
and openness to new ideas. )


A man had

ridden all night

from his remote

villagefor some

of the barley

seed that could

be gotten just on

the strength of

one's signature.



P 1.

P- ;l, I l .3 1 I. .,3
i I

with her husband and their nine
children. Tall and wiry, she is
indefatigable at home and in the
field. She was among the first to
plant a new maize variety introduced
from Bolivia. Called quality protein
maize, or QPM, it could improve
protein intake-particularly of
children and farm animals.

Patricio Ordonez, from San Pablo de
Tenta, began helping with the project
some years ago. Not long ago he was
roused from bed early one morning
by a man who had ridden on
horseback all night from his remote
village. He had come for some of the
barley seed that could be gotten on
the strength of one's signature.


: _1 :, .- rI:

in l e lil, I. I ll .I : l l I I l
with the usual response in a place
where people do not even listen to you
unless you "know someone." Honoring
this confidence, project participants
have an excellent record of repaying
their loans.

* A highly productive

The project's achievements were made
on a shoe-string budget: starting with
virtually nothing (in cash) the first year,
it now has a budget of US$ 20,000
annually. Supporters have included
Oregon State University, Colorado State
University, CIMMYT, ICARDA, Field Crop
Development Centre/Alberta, Canada,

l:,;n : In:rr.i ro Nacional de
ii ,- :i ,:l:': -i Tecnologia Agraria y
-liii i-nrI,, :,nid PREDUZA (a CSO
FLli-i.c .J i il Netherlands). Operating
on such a low budget has been
possible because of low local costs
and the efficiency with which the
project is managed. Nevertheless, the
lack of funds prevents the project
from moving into similar poverty-
stricken areas.

A major concern is what will happen
after the project draws to a close.
Vivar and Coronel are trying to set up
cooperatives, for example, to produce
and sell seed or to raise livestock for
the local market. In this and other
ways, they hope the Saraguro will
maintain their new-found food
security for a long time to come.

For more information:

Jorge Coronel: Committed to the Community

Jorge Coronel, the INIAP agriculturalist
who is the mainstay of the project, is
totally committed to the people of
Saraguro. His role goes far beyond
f.ili, ', 1,.i transfer: he knows everyone
and has become an integral part of the
community. He provides a whole range
of services. Every weekend, when he
returns to his family in Biblidn, near the
city of Cuenca, he takes a long list of
things not locally available-from farm
tools to medications-which people have
asked him to purchase.

Since there is no hospital or ambulance
in the small villages and the project's
pick-up is one of thefew vehicles in the
area, Coronel also rushes people to the

hospital in the town of Saraguro when
there is an ii. I .. I..I When someone
dies, he usually fetches the c ttmi Every
day as he makes his way from village to
village, people are waiting along the road
for a ride. It's not unusual to see the pick-
up ,. i. ..7,. Ii ,y with men, women, small
children, farm animals, dogs, and even
small farm machines and motorcycles.

Coronel spent six months at CIMMYT
in Mexico in 1991. He credits the
CIMMYT way of working for the things
he has achieved in Saraguro: "People who
have been to CIMMYT generally have
one thing in common: their dedication
and ;i illI,, ,i :: to do whatever it takes to
get the job done."



.J X s .

Jfl S)

*:,, "


Giving sharecroppers incentives to use resource-conserving practices



,rf p~i~
~4~c, i.*lr~Ff

Environmentally sensitive agriculture is often viewed as

a luxury even by wealthy farmers and nations, but in

eastern India, some of the world's poorest farm

Households regard it as an absolute necessity.

The roads are more potholes than macadam. The dusty
Shanty shops lining the roads are thinly stocked with
necessities: matches, laundry soap, cigarettes (sold singly).
In nearby fields, people toil barefoot, without even a pair of
plastic sandals. One can physically feel the poverty that
stifles India's state of Bihar, and unfortunately that feeling is
supported by official statistics.

In April 2003, India' president expressed his anguish at the
results of a study from the Rajeev Gandhi Institute of
Contemporary Studies and the Confederation of Indian
Industry, which ranked Indian states from "A" to "E" in
their economic progress and development. Bihar was the
only state in all of India to "earn" an "E" rating.

"Bihar is where
CIMMYT needs to be"

"Bihar is exactly where we want to be, where CIMMYT
needs to be," says Raj Gupta, CIMMYT researcher and
regional facilitator of the Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) of
the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

Gupta and the RWC promote resource-conserving
technologies (RCTs) and crop diversification in rice-wheat
areas of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The RCTs,
as the name implies, are technology packages (tillage, crop
management, and other agronomic practices) that conserve
soil and water and reduce fuel and labor requirements
(detailed in CIMMYT's last two Annual Reports).

"There is a misconception that RCTs such as zero tillage and
bed planting only benefit large-scale farmers in high
production areas such as the Punjab," says Gupta. "This is
far from the truth. If you want to see impact on people's
livelihoods, come to Bihar, come to eastern Uttar Pradesh."

* Diversification with

At a five-acre farm in the village of
Pilkhi, Bihar, a slightly built man with
an entourage of old and young family
members approaches and identifies
himself as Mr. Mehato. Gupta explains
that this small farm exemplifies the
goals and general approaches of the
RWC: providing farmers with
management options employing RCTs,
taking a farmer participatory approach
to research, diversifying the cropping
system, and assembling a committed
project team.

Mehato and agronomist Mruthyunjaya
Kumar of Rajendra Agricultural
University view a plot in which maize
and boro (winter) rice are planted on
beds. Mehato was encouraged that
the rice was doing fairly well in the
scheme suggested by Kumar, and was
more than pleased that the maize,
Shaktiman, a CIMMYT-derived quality
protein maize (QPM) hybrid, did well
during the coldest winter in 50 years,
when his neighbors' maize failed.

Following these winter crops,
monsoon rice will be planted, then
potatoes on beds and maize in the
furrows. After the potatoes are
harvested, the soil is mounded around
the maize and boro rice is planted
again. "The analysis is still underway,"
says Gupta, "and this may not be the
most efficient rotation, but we are
moving toward diversifying the
cropping system, and we are doing it
hand-in-hand with farmers."

* Uttar Pradesh: Even results in
sharecroppers benefit Keshoran
to one tc
Mehato's holdings may seem modest Gupta, "
to outsiders, but they are grand 20 to 30
compared to those of Keshoram, who convent
farms one acre (less than half of a
hectare), and of sharecroppers Sharecro
Rameshwar Singh and his wife his wife
Parameshwari Devi, all from eastern zero tilla
Uttar Pradesh. advantage
Keshoram has planted zero-till rice wheat fr
and wheat for the past year. He had Gupta nc
to take the risk of planting the rice scientific
directly rather than transplanting it. also save
His neighbors mocked him. Even the custom I
RWC team was concerned because of done--o
shortcomings with the zero-till planter zero tilla
and the uneven nature of the field. for whea
Weeds-a big challenge of zero under co
tillage for poor farmers, who have
little money for herbicides-were When far
handled by Keshoram the old- it is not t
fashioned way. He weeded his field counts, b
manually. In the end, his persistence who use
paid dividends in the form of technolo
abundant rice and wheat yields. estimate
farmers r
Zero tillage allows farmers to plant Eastern L
wheat earlier than usual because they
can avoid the multiple stages of land
preparation entailed by conventional
tillage. With wheat, each day of delay
in planting past the optimal time

Farmer Mehato (left) and
agronomist Kumar assess rice

and maize planted on beds.

They want to diversify

Mehato's range of crops and

use practices that conserve

resources, especially water.

a 1-1.5% loss in yield. "On
n's acre that would work out
n lost over the season," says
given that planting delays of
days are common under
onal tillage."

pper Rameshwar Singh and
pictured on p. 17) adopted
ge to gain that early planting
e. Singh maintains that he
j at least 800 kilograms more
om his single acre. While
)tes that this is not a
finding, he adds that Singh
d on costs because less
and preparation had to be
nly a single tractor pass with
ge, as opposed to 3-6 passes
t and 3-8 passes for rice
nventional tillage.

mers crop such small areas,
he size of the farm that
*ut the number of farmers
gies. Local researchers
that in Bihar about 1,700
low use the technology; in
Jttar Pradesh, about 2,800. )

The maize, a quality protein "

variety, survived the coldest

winter in 50 year ,.-


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Can efforts to untangle sources of contamination in the food

chain counteract the "largest mass poisoning in history "?

Hashem Mondal had not been feeling
well. A rickshaw puller in rural
Bangladesh, he noticed that on sunny days
he tired easily, and his skin became itchy
and prickly That was about a year and a
half ago. Shortly afterward, his skin
became mottled with dark brown patches,
and lesions festered on the palms of his
hands and soles of his feet. It was more
than an inconvenience. A rickshaw puller's
livelihood (US $2 on a good day) is earned
through his feet and hands.

Unbeknownst to Mondal, he had joined
tens of millions of Bangladeshis as another
victim of arsenicosis-arsenic poisoning-
in what the World Health Organization
(WHO) has called the "largest mass
poisoning of a population in history" In a
poignant and bizarre tale, this health
threat arose from a humanitarian effort in
the 1970s to bring clean drinking water to
Bangladesh and curb deadly water-borne
diseases such as typhoid, dysentery, and
diarrhea. Thousands of tubewells were
drilled throughout the country. The
incidence of water-borne diseases
decreased dramatically. What was not
foreseen was that the nation's shallow
aquifers would become increasingly
contaminated with arsenic. Arsenic was
part of the silt deposited throughout the
lowland basin of Bangladesh and West
Bengal in India as the Himalayas eroded.
As large amounts of irrigation water were
pumped over the land in the winter, the
arsenic was released into the water for
drinking and agriculture.

The maximum level of arsenic in water
viewed as safe by the WHO is 10 parts per
billion (ppb); the official Bangladeshi

threshold is 50 ppb in drinking
water. In rural Bangladesh, man,.
wells pump water with arsenic
concentrations exceeding 500
ppb. The well Mondal fetched .
his water from later tested at
400 ppb, and his early
symptoms of arsenicocis are
typical. Longer exposure often
results in cancer. It is estimated
that arsenic in drinking water
will cause as many as 270,000 'r
cancer deaths in Bangladesh in '
coming years. There may also be -ff-.:r
related to diabetes, vascular dise::.-: -,i.:i '
reproduction. The poor cannot arff..i.: ri,-
bottled water, meat, or even lentils that
could counteract the toxin's effects.

* Arsenic: Flowing through
the food chain?

Not surprisingly, arsenic has become a top
priority of the government and of aid
organizations. Until recently, research and
remediation focused almost exclusively on
drinking water. Key links between arsenic
and agriculture, specifically irrigated land
and crops, had been largely overlooked.

"Arsenic in irrigation water poses a
potential threat to soils and crops, the food
chain generally, and consequently to
human health," says CIMMYT agronomist
Craig Meisner. "On average, a Bangladeshi
adult drinks about 4 to 5 liters of water a
day and consumes about 450 grams of
rice. Assuming 200 ppb arsenic in the
drinking water and about 0.5 milligrams
per kilogram in rice grain, the total daily
intake of arsenic would be around 1.2
milligrams, which may not be safe." )

The lesions on Hashem
Mondal's hands are from

arsenic poisoning. They
make his work as a

rickshaw puller
unbearably painful.

4 The problem as it relates to the food
chain and human health is
multifaceted (see figure). According
to CIMMYT affiliate scientist G.M.
Panaullah, "There are questions
about how much arsenic is actually
absorbed by the plant, and then how
much of that is taken into the grain
and straw under diverse conditions
and farm management systems.
Then, does arsenic in the grain
actually pose a health hazard, and if
so, at what levels and under what
conditions? Consider also that the
straw is fed to animals and burned as
fuel. Will people be affected by
drinking the milk or eating the meat
of those animals? Will the smoke
from a straw-fueled fire
prove harmful?"

Arsenical herbicides
and pesticides

Much more information and
knowledge are needed. "At this
point," Panaullah says, "we do not
want to alarm people about
circumstances that ultimately may
not prove to be hazardous. On the
other hand, it's critical that we
determine what is happening in the
fields and the food chain, and start
formulating responses."

* "Mainly, we are
grateful that someone is
trying to help"

CIMMYT, together with the
Bangladesh Agricultural Research
Institute (BARI), the Bangladesh Rice
Research Institute (BRRI), the

food grain

Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear
Agriculture (BINA), the Bangladesh
Agricultural University, and Cornell
and Texas A&M Universities, is tackling
these issues through a USAID-funded
project. The project will assess arsenic
contamination in irrigation water and
soils, study the effects of arsenic on
crop yield and grain and straw
composition and quality, and develop
mitigation technologies for safe
agriculture and food. To accomplish
this, the project provided rigorous
training for Bangladeshi scientists and
research technicians at the US
universities. The project is also
sponsoring PhD programs for four
Bangladeshi students.

drinking water

Volatile arsenic

Straw burning

Volatile arsenic

I : _-,
Sr ] l ,- ,,, -IiIih _i i -n



Hand tuibevell

Soil solution arsenic

['I n on.:1r 1 r-

H .:lr.:,-, r.n : ,r nh _-nn n n i _-,l i.n

Arsenic-contaminated irrigation water from tubewells is
thought to lead to arsenic consumption in roots, shoots,
and grain of anaerobic rice in proportions of 100:10:1.

Atmospheric precipitation

irrigation water
Shallo% liihbevell


'in' _.-i i

WVV- r.i n.,

4 r l'nn," I -, i'nn 'n

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During 2002 and early 2003, a
preliminary assessment was conducted
at 450 shallow tubewell sites in five
representative areas in eastern, central,
and western Bangladesh. Irrigation
water, soil samples, and grain and
straw samples were collected from all
sites and analyzed by the recently
trained Bangladeshi team, with results
confirmed in the US university labs.

The farm of Yusuf Ali Sarker in Faridpur
was typical of the research sites. The
farmer works with officials of the
Department of Agricultural Extension
and BINA scientists to set up sampling
regimes for testing irrigation water at
different distances from the well,
boring soil samples at different field
sites, and collecting grain and straw at
different distances from the wellhead
and from different varieties of rice. The
project team regularly visits the site and
monitors data collection.

Ali Sarker has little if any formal
education, but he fully realizes the
magnitude of the situation. "When the
government began testing the
tubewells five or six years ago, I
became aware of the problem," he
says. "The well where I get my drinking
water tested red [the designation for a
dangerous well-in this case, 181 ppb
or 18 times the WHO acceptable limit],
but what can I do? I'm poor and no
man can live without water. So I'm
working with the scientists and
extension workers to see what we can
do. Mainly, we are grateful that
someone is trying to help."

* Early results

The project has already made useful
discoveries, while confirming that the
path from water to soil to crops to
food is complex. Rice grain and straw
analyses revealed unusually high levels
of arsenic in grain (0.8-1.0 mg/kg) at a
few sites, but more generally the
range was 0.2-0.4 mg/kg. Panaullah
says that a general rule of thumb
emerged that arsenic concentrations
were on the order of 1:10:100,
grain:straw:root. Notably for farming
systems research, in some soils, rice
grown under anaerobic conditions had
arsenic levels 10-20 times greater than
wheat, which is grown under aerobic
conditions. It is anticipated that similar
ratios will be found between rice and
crops such as maize and potatoes.

Water and soil arsenic concentrations
do not always correlate well with each
other, however, and individually they
do not always correlate to high arsenic
concentrations in plants. High and low
arsenic concentrations in both
irrigation water and soil consistently
result in plants with high and low
arsenic concentrations, respectively.
But the scientists report that "there is
a large middle ground where the
picture is muddled." Mineralogy, soil
texture, or factors related to irrigation,
such as flow rate and distance from
the wellhead, may play a role. There
are some of the possibilities
investigated at the farms of Ali
Sarker and others.

By sampling soil, water,

grain, and straw,

researchers learn how

Following data collection and analysis,
says Meisner, the project will issue a
risk assessment. "It will tell farmers
that if they have a well with this level
of arsenic and their crop is this or that
distance from the wellhead, here is
what the impact will be." Depending
on the research conclusions,
substituting maize, wheat, or other
crops for boro rice (irrigated winter
rice), or accelerating the adoption of
water-conserving technologies such as
zero tillage and bed planting, might be
an important response to the problem.

Even at this early stage, Panaullah,
Meisner, and the project team feel that
they can make a positive impact on
the health and livelihoods of
Bangladeshis. The rickshaw puller's
illness was recognized in a chance
encounter with project staff who
directed him to a doctor and have
followed up with him since then. His
strength is returning and the painful
lesions receding. "It is gratifying to see
he's getting better," Panaullah
comments. "Nowjust imagine if we
can do that for millions more.

i,- For more information:

arsenic enters the food chain.

Ken Sayre left India disappointed in
I..larch 2000 and said he would not
.:ome back until a lot more was
Happening with bed planting,"
recalls Raj Gupta, regional facilitator
of the Rice-Wheat Consortium. He
then cheerily notes that Sayre,
head of crop management in
CIMMYT's Wheat Program and
a tireless proponent of
conservation agriculture,
returned in July 2003 and was
not disappointed. Farmers are
now experimenting extensively
with bed planting, especially to
reduce costs and diversify their mix
i:f crops (see pp. 18-20).

Bed basics

in the bed planting system refined by
,ayre, wheat (or another appropriate
crop) is planted on raised beds that
typically vary from 65 to 90
centimeters in width, with 2 to 3
rows per bed. After the harvest, most
farmers remove or incorporate crop
residues, destroy the beds by tilling
the soil, and make the beds again
before planting the next crop. Now,
new implements have been
developed, and farmers who grow
crops on beds can simply reshape the
beds before planting the next crop
and retain all or part of the crop
residues on the surface. This practice
is referred to as "permanent bed

Bed planting has numerous benefits,
not the least of which is a 30%
reduction in production costs through
more timely sowing, a 20-40%
reduction in irrigation water
(compared to flood irrigation), fewer
tractor passes, more efficient use of
fertilizer, and lower seed planting rates
that produce yields equal to or greater
than yields obtained under traditional
tillage systems. Of long-term import,
bed planting, particularly on
permanent beds, is environmentally
friendly: it improves soil fertility and
structure, reduces erosion and water
requirements, and facilitates
mechanical and manual weeding,
which reduces herbicide applications.

The components of the system are not
new. Bed planting of wheat was
practiced to varying degrees for years
in the Yaqui Valley of Mexico. Building
on this practice, in the early 1990s
CIMMYT scientists worked with Valley
farmers to develop the new,
permanent bed planting system that
integrated raised beds with residue
retention, reduced tillage, and
irrigation in the furrows between the
beds. Farmers in the Valley are
adopting permanent bed planting as
appropriate implements become
commercially available. The
tremendous benefits of bed planting,
combined with its ready adoption by
Mexican wheat farmers, led CIMMYT
to pursue its use in other areas.

* Options for Asia

Farmers in India, Bangladesh, and
Pakistan value the flexibility that b
planting offers for crop rotations a
intercropping. They benefit from
higher profits and better nutrition
planting high-value crops such as
mung bean, potato, pulses, and rr
within the system. The developme
appropriate rice varieties for
transplanting or seeding directly ir
beds should give farmers even mo
options and opportunities.

China is also moving ahead with rl
technology Shortages of irrigaticio
water from the Yellow River have
greatly reduced the area planted r
rice and even caused farmers to
abandon fields. Given water s:i ii-
of 30-45%, Chinas interest irn I:,-
planting is not surprising. Sayr-
has been working with Chine,-
scientists in four locations in
the Yellow River basin to test
and extend bed planting. In
the province of Shandong,
bed planting has grown
from a few test plots in
1998 to more than 26,000
hectares today. With two
CIMMYT projects being
developed under the
CGIAR Challenge Program
for Water and Food, there
is reason to believe that
bed planting will reach other
parts of this critically
important river basin.

Seeing impact from the Yellow River
basin to the Indo-Gangetic Plains has
given Sayre a new take on whether
bed planting in Asia is taking off:
"Our Asian colleagues have really
initiated big changes. I look forward
to working with them to refine bed
planting systems, especially for small-
scale farmers, who can easily get left
behind in the race to intensify
production. I won't say it will be
easy-but it's not impossible."

For more information:

In Bangladesh, the Chakaria Food
System Rickets Project meets a large
and heartrending need-preventing
and treating diet-related rickets.
Children are extremely vulnerable to
this disease. Their bones soften and
become malformed.

"You wouldn't call it a maize project
or a wheat project," says CIMMYT
agronomist Craig Meisner "It looks
at rickets from a 'food system' or
'nutrient delivery' perspective. In
other words, what's happening in
Chakaria's food and nutrition
system to cause this disease?"

Shahidul Haque, of the CSO Social
Assistance and Rehabilitation of
Physically Vulnerable (SARPV),
Tays that CIMMYT has
helped focus the
capabilities of many
agencies to work
on the food


system-nutrition link as it relates to
rickets, including CSOs such as the
Bangladesh Rural Advancement
Committee (BRAC), national agencies
such as BARI and BRRI, and
institutions such as Cornell University.

Before meeting Meisner, Haque
focused on combating rickets through
a school he established, where
children receive treatment, an
education, and learn about diets to
prevent rickets (see photo, next page).
The organization also lobbies
government officials and has modest
public awareness activities. It was
through Meisner, however, that
Haque saw the connection between
agriculture and rickets prevention. He
was also brought into the Cornell
University-USAID-supported Chakaria
Food Systems Project, which further
extended his networking and
outreach efforts.

"I've worked with CSOs that address
nutrition-related diseases and
deficiencies," says Haque, "but they
never talked about the whole food
production system at the family level.
Dr. Meisner and Dr. Razzaque from
CIMMYT and their Cornell colleagues
talk about family nutrition and family
food production, and they also tie the
issue into generating income and
food security. Now I think that rather
than reverting just to treatments, we
need to look at food production and
cropping systems and nutrient
availability, if we are to address the
affliction of rickets."

Linking agriculture
and health

Chakaria, which is located in
southeastern Bangladesh, has an
abnormally high incidence of rickets.
Compared to many other people in
South Asia, the people in Chakaria are

a farming system heavily
disposed to rice, and then get
people to consume them.

Living and learning with

rickets in Bangladesh

doing relatively well in terms of
access to food, but in the past 20
years the incidence of rickets has
gone from very low to high. About
50,000 children show some form of
the disease.

"Usually rickets is associated with a
lack of vitamin D," Meisner explains.
"The body manufactures vitamin D in
the presence of sunlight, but there's
no shortage of sun here. Based on
results of a USAID-funded clinical
trial, we surmise that calcium
deficiencies are a root cause of the
disease, but questions remain.
Rickets is not as prevalent in poorer
areas of Bangladesh where more rice
and a less varied diet are consumed.
So why here, why now, and what
can we do about it?"

Even when calcium is found in the
diet, there are questions about its
bioavailability, how the presence or
absence of other micronutrients
affects its absorption, and agronomic
factors that affect calcium levels in
the crops themselves. Perhaps the
biggest challenge is to produce more
calcium-rich vegetables and crops in

Catalyzing change
in local food and
nutrition systems

Aside from acting as a catalyst in the
project, CIMMYT is pursuing the food
and cropping system side of the
disease equation and helping with
public awareness.

"We bring CIMMYT's knowledge in
cropping systems research to the table
together with the knowledge of the
Bangladeshi institutes," says Meisner.
"Some dark green vegetables, pulses,
and maize are high in available
calcium, but not all are adapted to
Chakaria's acidic soils, and many
diseases and pests make it risky for
farmers to grow them."

CIMMYT has contributed improved
maize varieties to Chakaria, where
maize itself is a relatively new crop.
CIMMYT also provides expertise to
produce seed of a virus-resistant okra
developed by BARI so that more
farmers can grow it. Aside from its
health benefits-okra is rich in
calcium-it fetches a high price, so
growers like it. Improved cowpea
varieties are available through ICRISAT,
and project partners are facilitating
their adoption along with improved
mung beans. Both crops are rich in

Meisner and Razzaque are excited
about increasing the production of
calcium-rich foods in local farming
systems through other technologies
that CIMMYT works with, such as zero
tillage and bed planting. Zero tillage
would allow farmers to plant mung
beans and other pulses more quickly

after rice, which means higher yields
and less risk of crop loss. Bed planting
works well with okra and could
encourage more lentil production.
CIMMYT provides technical
backstopping at a demonstration farm
owned by SARPV, where techniques
for producing calcium-rich vegetables
are evaluated and demonstrated to
local residents.

Reaching thousands

Through theatrical productions and a
video, the project has reached tens
of thousands of Bangladeshi:
with messages about
treating rickets, eating
a diverse diet to
prevent rickets, and
growing the food to
support diverse diets.
CIMMYT is also
developing materials
and a cadre of trainers
to use the Whole Family
Training approach (see p. 3
to promote farming systems that
produce calcium-rich vegetables
and pulses.

"Being involved in these types of
networks extends the impact of
agriculture in many ways," says
Meisner. For Meisner, those payoffs
are important, but they are not his
immediate priority. "When you see a
mother and father with their
bowlegged, rachitic child, and they
look into your eyes thinking you are
'Doctor' Meisner who is going to help
them, it gets to you. I can't do
anything as a medical doctor-my
doctorate's in agriculture-but we can
do something about the delivery of
nutrition and food."

For more information:

... ... j

y ":*" i?
l" :.:...
...i" : :' ;

I:....r I..r: ind nematodes (minute
i::r: r :lt suck the sap out of plant
I .::r: rr ack cereal crops under the
I :i.ii' :l,I but they are not visible,
.. ini rhe symptoms they cause
ii difficult to identify. For
f iirmers and even most plant
pIathologists, these
pathogens are "out of
.sight, out of mind."

Helping poor farmers
avoid 20% yield losses is
good reason to dig into
the ground and find out
About root pathogens. To
date, little research has
focused on these problems,
::impared to above-ground
-:i -eases and pests. A prime
i--n is that research on soil-
j 'i': n- pathogens involves an
n i-, iin. .:- amount of grunt work,
:ii,:i :: ,Iqging up roots (lots of them)
n.:1 i 1'ing them to rid them of soil.
INuneil less, when researchers in the
affected areas realize the extent to
which soil pathogens affect yields,
they immediately develop an interest
in them.

The countries of Central and West
Asia, and North Africa (CWANA), plus
China and India, regularly suffer
substantial yield losses caused by soil-
borne pathogens. "We've been aware
for a long time of these problems and
of the need to train national program
scientists in this field," says Hans-
Joachim Braun, head of CIMMYT's
office in CWANA, located in Turkey
"The best way to control soil-borne
pathogens is to establish research
networks for transferring knowledge
and exchanging breeding materials
among affected countries in the
region." The first step towards that
goal was taken when CIMMYT
assigned Julie Nicol, an expert in soil-
borne pathogens, to CWANA.

Since arriving in CWANA, Nicol had
explored the possibilities of holding a
course on soil-borne pathogens for
researchers in the region. "I'm
Australian, so I naturally looked to
Australia first for help in funding,
organizing, and giving the course,"
says Nicol. "I was motivated by their
interest in holding such a course and
their willingness to fund it." She
especially cites the guidance and
support of Bruce Holloway, director of
the Crawford Funds Master Class
Program, and Albert Rovira,
coordinator of the Fund in South

Australia, where wheat is grown in the
rainfed environments preferred by
these pests, is one of a small number
of countries where such research has
been systematically conducted. As a
result, the country has more than the
usual share of experts in this field.

Laying the ground-
work to control soil pests

With the invaluable help of local
CIMMYT staff, Nicol organized a two-
week "master class" and training
manual. The course was held in June
2003, mainly at ANADOLU Experiment
Station in Eskisehir, Turkey, which has
excellent laboratory facilities,
classrooms, and accommodations. The
group also traveled to key locations
within Turkey, such as Konya and
Cumra. Twenty-three researchers from
Afghanistan, Australia, India, Iran,
Kazakhstan, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia,
Turkey, and Uzbekistan attended
the course.

Lectures in the classroom were
combined with visits to farmers' fields
and research stations to observe root
rot and nematode damage in a wheat
crop. Plants collected from those fields
were used to extract soil-borne fungi

j.r:.:-.w. W**

and nematodes in the lab. The
instructors also demonstrated how to
culture soil-borne pathogens and use
molecular markers to identify host
plant resistance. All lab sessions were
highly interactive and hands-on to give
participants the opportunity to try the
methodologies themselves. Almost
every evening there was a session
during which participants would make
presentations on the agricultural
conditions and problems in their
countries, and what they are doing to
try to solve them.

Zafer Uckun and Zafer Mert from
Turkey commented, "During the
course we realized that soil-borne
diseases are one of the most important
factors limiting our yields." Another
participant from Iran indicated that
back in their own countries they would
"need to convince the breeders of the
importance of these problems and
then work closely with them."

The teaching staff was made up of
Turkish, Australian, and French
nationals from various universities,
advanced research institutions,
national research programs, CIMMYT,
and ICARDA. Amor Yahyaoui (ICARDA)
and Turkish scientists Mikail Caliskan,
Ahmet Bagci, and lIker Kepenekci
helped Nicol and Braun prepare and
present specific course components.
The instructors included Roger Rivoal,
a leading nematologist from INRA/
France; Lester Burgess of the University
of Sydney; Hugh Wallwork, a
pathologist from the South Australian
Research Development Institute; lan
Riley, a nematologist from the
University of Adelaide; and several
Turkish researchers (Halil Elekcioglu,
Berna Tunali, Mucella Tekeoglu, and
Necmettin Bolat). Course participants
appreciated the opportunity of
interacting with these internationally
known experts. As Hussam Abidou, a

doctoral student from Syria, pointed out,
"Though all the lectures were full of new
information, one of the best advantages
of the course was the beneficial
discussions we had with the scientists."

By the time the course was over,
participants were determined to form a
strong regional network. The network
will improve the control of soil-borne
pathogens through the exchange of
information and the development of
resistant varieties to benefit farmers who
depend on wheat for their survival.

The course was funded by the South
Australia Branch of the Australian
Academy of Technical Sciences and
Engineering Master Class Fund, Turkey's
General Directorate of ^-riciltl.uri l
Research, Australi : : -.1 :ii':
Research Develop'iL-nr
Corporation, and rl,-
Kirkhouse Trust ir rli.-
United Kingdom, inI,
addition to

For moit inliommatlion.

Alberto Espinoza and his colleagues
work with CIMMYT maize breeders
Hugo Cordova and Salvador
Castellanos to provide new options
for Vanegas and thousands of other
Nicaraguan farmers. Their efforts
recently culminated with the release
of a yellow-grained variety of quality
protein maize (QPM), called Nutrinta
Amarillo. Grain of QPM has nearly
twice the lysine and tryptophan-
essential amino acids for humans,
pigs, and poultry-as normal maize.
"Nearly half the population of
Nicaragua is rural, and nearly all rural
inhabitants raise pigs, poultry, or
both," says Espinoza. "Many cannot
afford animal feed, but if they use
yellow QPM, the animals will be
healthier and more productive, and
the farm families better off."

A third of Nicaragua's population-
more than 1.6 million out of a total
5.4 million-cannot meet the basic
nutritional requirement of at least
2,200 calories a day, according to the
United Nations World Food Program.
Nearly 0.7 million endure "very high
food insecurity." The average maize
plot is only about 1.5 hectares.
Nutrinta Amarillo is the first yellow
maize variety released in Nicaragua. A
white-grained QPM variety released in
2000, NB-Nutrinta, is sown on nearly
10,000 hectares.

* Fortifying feed

"This QPM gives the animal greater
strength and is a lot cheaper and
simpler to prepare," says Vanegas,
who is growing a stand of yellow
QPM. "It also makes chickens lay
more eggs.

According to Espinoza, Nutrinta
Amarillo has been well received, but
its widespread adoption has been
constrained by insufficient seed

production and promotion. Only INTA
is producing QPM seed, and the
institute either gives it away or
distributes it through a government
program, in which farmers pay back
loans of improved seed with equal
amounts of grain. "We've held field
days for farmers on QPM
management," says Espinoza. "We
recommend that they select seed from
the center of the plot and, if possible,
grow the QPM in isolation from other
maize fields. Farmer groups are
organizing to produce lower-priced
seed of improved varieties, including
Nutrinta Amarillo."

Seed production isjust one of the
interests of Elvis Curiel Cerratos, a
farmer who lives near Managua and
works at an INTA research station. He
saw Nutrinta Amarillo for the first time
when he attended the release
ceremony, and now he is growing
some for seed. "I was already aware of
the experiments with pigs," says
Curiel, referring to tests in which
piglets that ate QPM-based feeds grew
bigger and more quickly than those
raised on standard maize-based
mixtures. He has 20 pigs, and also
breeds fighting cocks and grows
maize, beans, bananas, and squash on
about 4 hectares-3 of which he rents
to support a household of 20. "You
can get up to two very big ears of
Nutrinta Amarillo per plant," he says.

SSelf-help for the

Civil society organizations are also
trying to promote QPM, particularly in
remote areas. One is Self-Help
International, a small, US-based
organization that began working with
QPM in Ghana in 1989 and brought
that country's successful QPM variety,
Obatanpa, to southern Nicaragua in


Science at its Best

1999. "We wanted to work in a
difficult area, so we chose a
community at the southern tip of Lake
Nicaragua, near Costa Rica," says
Merry Fredrick, Executive Director of
Self-Help. "People there are very
poor-the community had the second
highest maternal death rate in the
world. There had been lots of damage
from Hurricane Mitch, and farmers had
lost their seed. We realized that we
needed to establish a seed base." They
launched a seed bank, giving farmers a
bag of seed to be paid later with two
bags that would in turn be given to
other farmers. "In June of 1999 five
farmers each sowed half a kilo of QPM
seed," says Fredrick. "By December of
2002, more than 7,000 were planting
and using the seed."

Self-Help staff began with Obatanpa,
but they are also working with NB-
Nutrinta and are interested in Nutrinta
Amarillo. "We don't have to promote
QPM now-it promotes itself," says
Fredrick. "Women like its texture for
cooking, and everyone likes its taste,
and the husks in Obatanpa really cover
the ears, protecting them from
diseases. Farmers also tell us that QPM
ears tend to have more and larger
kernels per row than traditional maize,
and much higher yields."

Self-Help is branching out to new
locations in the region and training
farmers in seed production and
improved crop management. Fredrick
credits INTA with assisting her
organization to disseminate QPM as
widely as possible.

For more information:

II- _, ,,,,, II II I, I ,ii: I, I I, l., t l. l .:i I ,: .:. rI.e
II I I I -.,t i It -: r Ih yb Id lll I ll i I,1 :li: ll 1

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.:1 .e ..:.,,. I-. i r : ...:1. ::J, :. O p .: 1 /

an I I, ,r Fi i H-I P I : r r -i-,r r is, could save
Ui,---$ I ,- li ,-i I" r I-i ji.l-l r T PIM inI Fl- I -Io I ,x I I
j r, 1 rr,-, i i -iI l

' _11 II I_ T ,-_ ,-_,_ l,,-_ I_ _,_-_i1,__- ,_, _,_ ___'-1-'1 __I I r,:, i l I

p o eII II I, I i: I I ir : ,,r' F-,l I

Nippon Foundation, the
0.5 Rockefeller Foundation,
0 Lysine Trypophan and CIDA-Canada; QPM is

Average amino acid content in grown in 22 developing
maize grain protein (%) countries.

Quality protein maize improves the diets of people who
consume a great deal of maize and also shows advantages in
animal feed. For :yril:d I rli I -t Ijan feed industry could save
US$ 0.3 million : i :, ,:ii 1:i i 111ng QPM instead of expensive
protein supple'i-r:i 11-1 ,:11~: 1 i1 ld .

A new breeding :i:.i ::1..i I molecular tool called RNA
interference to :i:: :: 1:::ii r: of seed proteins of low
nutritional value. This effect resembles that of opaque-2. The
new approach does not improve protein quality as much as
opaque-2, but it opens an interesting possibility. Opaque-2 is a
recessive gene, which makes it hard to maintain during
:.I 1-iln.-i F iIi viers' circumstances. Using the new
ma11:iiiz I i -i:,i i: :. could produce a dominantly controlled
ulF:iit ip r, oi r rF i ir survives crosses with normal maize.

Segal, G., R. :'i-i :,in:1 I I lessing. 2003. A New Opaque Variant
of Maize by :, ii- Il I r:i. ant I ii ir' rference-Inducing
Transgene. C-uperrr I :7-3

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uses for a new







Dona Maria is returning from a day in
the maize fields, where she has been
hacking acahual, a weed good for
animal fodder, out of another
farmer's field. CIMMYT
anthropologist Lone Badstue and
agronomist Alejandro Ramirez Lopez
are waiting at her gate.

When Dona Maria sees them, she
breaks into a wide smile and motions
with her machete for them to enter
her little compound. The two
researchers help her unload the
acahual, and Dona Maria fills them in
on her life since they last spoke
several months ago. Her health has
not been good. She could not afford
to plow the little field she usually
sharecrops, and the plot of
communal land where she managed
to plant a bit of maize was ravaged
by heavy rain.

Nearing 65, Dona Maria lives alone.
Her husband died several years ago,
leaving her little money and no land.
Her children have all migrated. She
works as a day laborer for other
farmers and sells tortillas she makes
from maize purchased in the village.
Even the animals she raises belong to
someone else. If they breed well, she
may finally have some of her own.

Badstue points to a stand of maize in
the corner of Dona Maria's yard and
asks if she is trying out different
maize to plant next year. "No, that's
just some maize that my friend
Josefina gave me that I'm growing
for elote [fresh maize]," Dona Maria
says. She then pulls some maize
grains out of the pocket of her
apron. "These I found as I was
gathering acahual, and I'm going to
plant them for elote, too." She rolls
the seeds between her fingers like
worry beads.

This story illustrates two of the
countless ways maize seed travels
around this community. Seed exchange
is one important reason that the
genetic diversity of maize in Oaxaca
has remained vibrant for thousands of
years. This diversity ensures that we
still have options for developing maize
varieties that withstand problems such
as drought, diseases, and pests.

* Does collective action
regulate seed exchange?

Badstue leads the fieldwork for a
project that investigates informal
modes of seed exchange. Funded by
the CGIAR's System-Wide Collective
Action and Property Rights Initiative,
the project examines the structure
and function of traditional farmers'
networks and their role in the
evolution and conservation of maize
genetic diversity. The research is
based in the Central Valleys of
Oaxaca, Mexico, an area of
significant maize diversity.

The researchers hypothesized that
farmers would have strong incentives
to act collectively to maintain access
to many different maize landraces, for
example by forming community seed
banks. In principle, collective action
would allow farmers to build and
safeguard a larger base of genetic
diversity than they would be able to
maintain individually. Because
collective action is common for other
purposes in Oaxaca cultures, it
seemed likely to play a role in farmers'
seed supply systems.

The researchers discovered,
however, that seed exchange among
farmers was far more fluid, complex,
and integrated into the cultural
fabric of these communities than
they had hypothesized. They found

no evidence of collective action for
maintaining access to seed of
diverse maize landraces. If seed
exchange did not follow a pattern
of collective action, what pattern
did it follow? How did it evolve
differently, and why? To answer
these questions and assess the
implications for maintaining maize
diversity, Badstue charted a new
course for her research.

* The importance of
social relations and

"To understand how seed exchange
is organized, we have to understand
the role of seed in the community
and in the farming household,"
Badstue says. Badstue and her team
informally interviewed farmers, set
up focus groups, and conducted a
study to trace seed transactions.
Presently they are conducting in-
depth ethnographic studies of 18
households in 2 villages, including
Dona Maria's single-person

The results of this research suggest
that farmers' custom of routinely
selecting and saving seed is central to
understanding why no specialized
networks or social institutions have
developed to ensure access to seed.
Saving seed is associated closely with
being a good farmer, so it is an
activity that is undertaken on an
individual basis, rather than as part of
a larger social group.

Seed exchanges do occur, however.
Most transactions are motivated by
farmers' interest in experimenting
with an unfamiliar variety.
Transactions take place between
individuals, and the recipient carefully
weighs the tradeoffs involved in

obtaining seed from one person
rather than another. The priority is to
obtain seed from someone who can
be trusted to provide reliable
information and seed with desirable

In comparison to the current, highly
flexible, ad hoc approach, a
permanent institution such as a seed
club or community seed bank would
be relatively costly. A community seed
bank might also draw attention to
someone's failure to save seed.

"The more we understand about
practices for exchanging and
managing maize seed, the better
equipped the development
community is to support the evolution
and conservation of this important
mechanism for maintaining diversity,"
Badstue says.

If social change reduces the
effectiveness of these seed exchange
networks, what could substitute for
them? The answer may lie in
Badstue's work. Perhaps it will be
learned from Dona Maria, who is
very much alone in a community
where kinship networks are safety
nets in the worst of times and the
primary social and economic outlets
all the time.


i For more information:

Farmer Dofia Maria, heading towards

an uncertain future in Oaxaca,

Mexico. What happens if social

change tears apart the seed networks

that sustain farming and diversity?

Telling the Untold Stories of Rural People's Lives:

How Anthropological Approaches Make Research

More Effective

Lone Badstue walks up and down
the rows, dropping maize seeds
every three feet or so and swiping
dirt over them with her foot. Step,
step, swipe, step, step, swipe.
Nearby, the other half of the
research team, Alejandro Ramirez
L6pez, walks alongside Don
Leonardo, whose field they are
planting today, chatting with him
about his maize crop. How do you
determine what maize to plant
where? How did you select this
seed? What other crops have you
planted this year?

Don Leonardo is plowing the last
few rows of his field. He steers the
ox-drawn plow like a rudder as it
carves straight lines down the
length of the field. The soil is hard
packed after months of
uncharacteristically heavy rain in
this part of Oaxaca, Mexico. Don
Leonardo's daughter Dionisia,
dropping beans into the row next
to Badstue's, jokes about Badstue's
less-than-perfect sowing technique.

Badstue, an anthropologist, spends
a lot of time with farmers nnd theiir
families to understai iI I .,.
their maize product!., 'i!1 I
seed management
practices influence tll
genetic diversity of
local maize

"Of course,
they ask me a
lot of
questions, too,
from how to
protect their seed
against pests, to
what farming
practices are like in
Denmark, my homn

country," she says. This same
desire for information inspires
their experimentation with
landraces, which is one reason for
the high level of genetic diversity
in their maize.

Coping with change
"Part of my job is to investigate
small-scale farmers' strategies for
coping with change," Badstue
explains. "Maize isn't grown in a
vacuum. In these households,
maize production informs and is
informed by every other activity.
We view it as the product of social
processes that change as the
socioeconomic and cultural context
changes." When maize diversity is
conserved or lost, that outcome is
the result of complex factors
and decisions.

To understand how people
accommodate their needs,
preferences, and values to
economic, political, and social
change, Badstue uses an "actor

oriented approach," which
acknowledges the individual's
power to process experience and
determine how to respond to new
threats and opportunities. In
choosing how to respond, these
"social actors" do not passively
submit to changes imposed on
them from outside. They influence
the outcomes of change, in part by
making adjustments to their
agricultural production methods.

A wider perspective

Researchers like Badstue try to
make the priorities of smallholder
farmers and the complex realities
of their lives understood at
CIMMYT and in the wider
development community, so that
this knowledge is incorporated
into the programs, products, and
techniques devised to help them.
"This perspective is important if
organizations like CIMMYT are
truly going to work with people to
develop sustainable ways of
coping with the overwhelming
changes occurring in the
agricultural sector," says Badstue.

i'. ,le sometimes think this kind
I,, search is too specific and
I' alized to make a difference,"
,he continues. "But if it
enables us to work with the
people of Oaxaca to
conserve the diversity of
their traditional maize
varieties, we've probably
had an impact of global


For more information:

Maize, a new anc

expanding comm

crop in Banglade

offers smallholder

options for impro

income and food

security. But first

have to learn how

grow it. Nur-E-E

happy to help.

SMaize production has increased
almost three-fold in Bangladesh
ercial since 2000. Rising incomes have
increased local consumption of eggs
sh, and meat, particularly poultry, and
maize is the primary ingredient in
poultry feed. Because maize is a
ing relatively new crop in Bangladesh,
training plays an essential role in
empowering smallholders to profit
from this new commodity.
t they
The benefits of growing maize,

to however, are not limited to more
income. CIMMYT, as part of its
lahi is Whole Family Training project for
maize, also seeks to improve health
and nutrition in poor rural
households. The project explores
opportunities for households to
consume and find alternative
uses for the maize they
grow, for empowering
omen in crop
production, and for
contributing to

CIMMYT affiliate
scientist Nur-E-
Elahi is optimistic
about these
i: jectives, based on
V rl- geometric expansion
.:rrr ing, women'
S I:':,,: l:': on in m aize
W l i:., i.:.. r,. i ind one notable
example of community development
in a poorer region of the country
where the training project has played
a prominent role.

* Spreading the news
and the profits

Whole Family Training for maize relies
on a system of training trainers-
usually village extension workers,
either from the government or NGOs.
These people conduct short
workshops (roughly eight families per
workshop, including husband, wife,
and two older or adult children) in
selected communities. Since early
2002, 228 trainers have been trained.
They have facilitated workshops with
7,284 individuals in the 9 districts
initially targeted by the project.

A key element of Whole Family
Training is the recognition that
women, even in the most conservative
areas of Bangladesh, provide labor
and contribute to decisions related to
the production, marketing, and
utilization of crops.

"Whole Family Training takes this fact
into account," says CIMMYT
agronomist Craig Meisner. "It
acknowledges that each family
determines the roles of its members.
The training is inclusive. It provides
knowledge and technology for
everyone, independent of gender,
age, or any other differences among
family members."

The success of the training had been
well documented for wheat (another
relatively new crop in Bangladesh),
but would it work for maize? Nur is
encouraged by what he has seen,
including one very visible indicator:
poor maize farmers, even
sharecroppers, now earn enough
money to cover their children's school
fees and put tin roofs on their houses
(a marked improvement in the quality
of life in a land where average annual
rainfall is nearly two meters).

* Links from farm to
industry raise local

Nur has also seen the potential for
broader impact at the community
level in Patgram, an area long
considered isolated and poor. In
Patgram, local entrepreneur Mizanul
Hoque, community leader Earshed
Hossain, a large CSO (the Bangladesh
Rural Advancement Committee, or
BRAC), and CIMMYT teamed up to
bring better income-producing
options to farmers.

Through a business arrangement called
Doyel Agro Industrial Complex Limited
(DAICOL) 2002, Hoque and Hossain
hoped to create a farm-to-industry
project. Thanks to rapidly growing
demand for poultry feed, they lined up
solid commitments within the country
and Southeast Asia to purchase high-
quality maize. DAICOL 2002 planned to
sell seed provided by BRAC (Pacific 11,
which contains CIMMYT germplasm) to
Patgram's farmers, provide technical
backstopping, and guarantee an
attractive price at harvest.

Hoque says that when DAICOL 2002
went looking for "the best source of
technical support available," they
were consistently referred to CIMMYT.
In 2002, through the USAID-funded
Whole Family Training Project for
Maize, Nur and his teams of trainers
came on the scene. Aside from training
farm families, Nur facilitated critical
support from local banks for the
DAICOL initiative. "Because farmers
were assured a fixed price and
market," says Nur, "the local banks
were reassured that they could lend
farmers enough money for seed and
inputs, and get their money back."

Five years ago, only about 121
hectares of maize were planted in the
Patgram and Hatibanda sub-districts.
In early 2003, 1,821 hectares were
planted, with 2,023 hectares
anticipated for 2004 as farmers clamor
to join the project.

"Based on this success," Nur

Aside from direct gains to farmers, 20
skilled and 40 unskilled people will be
needed to run the silo. Others will
earn income transporting maize to the
silo and providing inputs and services
to farmers. All of this creates added
economic spin-offs that are greatly
welcomed here and fosters optimism
that farmers can benefit from Asia's

continues, "we have a lot of interest maize revolution.
from government and private banks
in supporting farmers and For more information:
constructing a large drying and silo n.elahi@cgiar.org
facility. USAID has pledged technical
support for training pe:i:i-i
to work at the silo. So
we can see the
economic ball
rolling for
the area."

CIMMYT was "the best source of N
technical support" to train families to
profit from maize production.

Whole Family Training for Maize: The Short Course

Asked to sum up how Whole Family Training works for maize
producers, Nur E-Elahi, CIMMYT affiliate scientist, grins
and tosses a copy of the project's training manual on the table.
"It's all right there in the figure on the cover," he says.

The U shaped figure summarizes the recommendations for
maize production, from seed to food. The semicircular U is
also the seating arrangement for the training courses. Nur
explains that farmers and trainers sit together in a semicircle
to foster a sense of equality, encourage participation, and get
away from formal teaching styles. Training aids consist of
simple picture posters and props.

Trainers are asked to "keep training seminars active, fun, and
varied to maintain interest levels and enhance retention."
Females and males are encouraged to participate equally. The
production recommendations are not complicated, and key
messages are repeated through different training mediums.

At the end of the two-hour training seminars, each family is
presented with practical incentives for trying the new
technologies: a two-kilogram bag of hybrid maize seed, a maize
cultivation manual depicting key recommendations, a
certificate for completing the course, and the equivalent of
US$ 2.50 to cover transportation costs.

In pvprv lnr;litv nParlv 100% of thp invited families came to
1,, iils/,, I s I, .!, 1 s 11, iii 1 1r Iiigh attendance tn
ili, i,, i 1p1, I I Iv. Workers and their
. i, !i,, ,1 p.I, ,..ni ii /, ,I in\ f i, i11, i ., the selection of
, 1 .!0 H i,o III I I ii l Ii 1 fill, s

5 6

1. Before planting, test seed germination.
2. Make the ridge for planting in a systematic manner. Topdress with fertilizer at
the 8-leaf stage.
3. Apply the final topdress of fertilizer five days before flowering (when
the top leaf appears).
4. Irrigate. The amount and timing of water is determined by soil type.
5. Monitor for cutworm damage at the 4-leaf stage.

6. Monitor for and respond to damage from jackals, birds,
rodents, and thieves.
7. Sun dry the harvested crop at the homestead. Learn when
maize is ready for shelling.
8. Shell manually or with a power sheller.
9. Store maize correctly to avoid losses.
10. Learn about domestic uses of maize.


Long before university-

trained breeders arrived on

the scene, farmers were the

world's experts in plant

improvement, but today the

professional divide between

them seems wider than ever.

There are ways to bridge the

divide-as researchers in

South Asia are doing. ,

At a meeting in Nepal's Lallitpur District,
three groups of farmers, mostly women,
talk about their experiences with the
new wheat varieties they chose through
participatory varietal selection (PVS).
"We've gotten a 100% increase in
yields-from one ton to two," says
Saru Godar, who heads one of the
groups. "The new wheats germinate
better and are resistant to diseases."

Other farmers hasten to point out that a
yield of two tons is very good on their
tired soils, and that now they work half
as much because the new varieties
are easier to harvest and thresh. As
the session continues, the
participants discuss the
problems they still face. For
example, they have to break
up clods of soil by hand
after plowing, or the clods
will limit nutrient
absorption. "Our group is
planning to buy a tractor
_ind a power tiller to break
the clods. Our yields
could go up to maybe
three tons," says
Maya Devi Silwal,
leader of another
farmer group.

Listening attentively are Guillermo
Ortiz-Ferrara, CIMMYT wheat
breeder, and Binod Sharma, head of
extension at Nepal's Agriculture
Department Organization (ADO) in
Lallitpur District. They like what they
hear. "Participatory varietal selection
is a new approach for ADO,"
comments Sharma, "but we think it
should be applied to other crops in
other areas of Nepal. With PVS,
farmers participate in research.
There's less chance of failure and
more accountability."

This interaction is one of many
promoted by a CIMMYT-coordinated
project on PVS that involves partners
in the national agricultural research
programs of Bangladesh, India,
Nepal, and Pakistan. In its sixth year,
the project helps farmers replace
their older wheat varieties with new
ones that resist disease and yield
better. This new line of defense is
important. If epidemics gain a
foothold in South Asia, they will
bring disaster to millions of farmers.
The varieties that are integral to PVS
are developed through strong
collaboration between regional
researchers and CIMMYT.

* Members of the same
club in Varanasi

Near Varanasi, in eastern Uttar Pradesh,
India, some of the world's poorest
farmers survive by growing rice and
wheat in rotation. Five years ago, the
Banares Hindu University team of A.K.
Joshi, breeder, Ramesh Chand,
pathologist, and V.K. Chandola,
agriculturalist and water and machine
specialist, decided to try PVS.

Prior to PVS, the team's closest contact
with farmers was through on-farm
trials, in which farmers tested
technology as directed by the
researchers. Ortiz-Ferrara suggested that
PVS would give the researchers two-
way communication with farmers.
Before PVS, researchers were sometimes
apprehensive about such interaction.
Farmers might take them to task if a
technology failed. Breeders ended their
involvement once a new variety was
developed and left technology transfer
to the extension agents.

With Ortiz-Ferrara, the Varanasi team
set up PVS trials in a few villages. Says
Joshi, "We started building friendship
bridges between us and the farmers,
setting up linkages aimed at giving
them options." The farmers compared
their favorite variety, HUW234, and
their usual practice, conventional
tillage, with a technology package
that included new wheat cultivars and
zero tillage.

Farmers have been growing HUW234
for decades. They like its "bold"
(large) grain. The variety yields less
than newer varieties, but it matures
early and tolerates heat. In many
places, HUW234 covers as much as
90% of the wheat area, which
dramatically increases the risk of a
widespread epidemic if HUW234's
disease resistance breaks down.

During the PVS trials, farmers identified
two varieties that they liked better than
their old one. The new varieties have
bold grain and mature as rapidly as
HUW234, but they can yield up to six
tons per hectare.

As for zero tillage, the team obtained five
specially adapted zero-tillage planters
from the Directorate of Wheat Research
in Karnal. Farmers could plant wheat 20
days earlier because they could prepare
their fields faster. Farmers further reduced
the time between the rice harvest and
wheat sowing by growing an earlier
maturing rice variety and sowing it 15
days earlier. The result: lower production
costs and higher yields.

The information provided by farmers was
an eye-opener for Joshi, Chand, and
Chandola. Based on farmers' feedback,
researchers felt they proposed more
relevant solutions to local problems. The
farmers were more willing to try the
proposed solutions. As word of the benefits
of PVS spread, the team set up similar trials
in other communities. Soon the researchers
were working 365 days a year to keep up
with farmers' demand for PVS.

"Farmers gained confidence in
themselves," says Chand. "As for us,
instead of telling farmers to just take a
technology, our message now is 'take
only what's good, what suits your
needs.'" The team gives high marks to
Ortiz-Ferrara for promoting PVS. "Our
entire institute has adopted the
concept," says Chandola. "Today,
farmers and researchers are members of
the same club."

* Bangladesh: On the
brink of an epidemic

The biggest worry for wheat researchers
in Bangladesh comes from a tremendous
success: Kanchan, a variety released in
1972, occupies about 70% of the wheat

area. Kanchan
has become
susceptible to
diseases '
such as leaf
rust and
foliar blight,
so the risk of a
epidemic is high.

A few years ago, researchers set out to
replace Kanchan with four new, disease
resistant varieties derived from CIMMYT
wheats. They had heard about PVS
through Ortiz-Ferrara, and it struck
them as a promising way for farmers to
choose whether to try something new.
The Bangladeshi team initiated PVS in
four locations with farmers from eight
villages. In the first year, farmers
identified several varieties they preferred
over their beloved Kanchan. The
researchers are obtaining seed of these
varieties to distribute to farmers in the
coming season. Next year they plan to
repeat the experience in other locations.

* Research and funding


This project is funded by the
Department for International
Development-UK. Major partners are
agricultural CSOs active in the area),
the Center for Arid Zone Studies of
the University of Bangore, the Rice-
Wheat Consortium, the Indian Council
for Agricultural Research, the
Directorate of Wheat Research, and
several CGIAR Centers.

For more information:

Outside temperate ecologies, 15% of
the world's maize crop, or 19 million
tons, is lost every year to drought. (This
loss is nearly equivalent to total annual
maize production in Mexico, one of
the developing world's largest maize
producers.) Conventional breeding has
been used to develop drought-tolerant
cereals, but progress is often slow.

"Progress could be far more rapid if
we understood more about key
physiological and genetic aspects of
the way plants respond to drought,"
says CIMMYT molecular geneticist and
plant physiologist Jean-Marcel Ribaut.
Ten years ago, Ribaut initiated research
on drought tolerance at the flowering
stage of development in maize, a
critical period that makes the
difference between crop failure and a
sufficient harvest. Since then the effort
t,_-. i.il tl-,_ .z _i _t f qh-- Ihl-t

tolerance has gained momentum.
Thanks to a dedicated team of
scientists and recent collaboration with
Pioneer Hi-Bred International and
Cornell University, a fuller
understanding of how maize plants
lI act to drought is emerging.

SMaking a mosaic
of the genome

SUpon Ribaut's arrival at
CIMMYT in 1993, he began
developing segregating maize
populations for drought.
Segregating populations are a
tool for learning about the
genetic basis of a trait. A resistant
*:I tolerant maize line is crossed
Iri- a susceptible line for a particular
r:ir creating what Ribaut calls "a
Iii-:lc of the genome." At this stage,
I:, Iiregrating phenotypic screening
in e 'aluation of a plant's physical
characteristics, which indicate how the
plant responds to the environment)
with molecular analysis (an evaluation
of a plant's genetic composition),
scientists can begin to identify the
genes and/or the genetic regions
(quantitative trait loci, QTLs)
that contribute to drought
tolerance mechanisms.

In the early years, researchers
identified QTLs related to yield
components and secondary
morphological traits of interest, such
as flowering traits or senescence. This
information is a powerful resource,
but it has limitations. "It's great to
characterize all those QTLs," Ribaut
continues, "but we were really
interested in what was going on
beneath this level-in terms of
physiological mechanisms and gene
expression-to track the key pathways
in"ol"red in drouIciht rrepon e

* A picture emerges

Plant physiologist Tim Setter of Cornell
University had developed techniques to
research exactly those aspects of maize
drought response, and Ribaut began
working with him to identify these
pathways in the segregating populations.
Setter was interested in CIMMYT's
germplasm because it was well
characterized at the morphological and
genetic levels, and this information was
complemented by a large QTL database.
Since 2001, the collaboration has
intensified. Setter has provided valuable
data about levels of plant growth
hormones, sugars, and the osmolite
proline in Ribaut's segregating material,
generating about 20,000 measurements
in 2002. Changes in the concentration of
those components in target organs are
indicative of metabolic activity, and they
provide an understanding of why a given
plant yields better than another when
water is scarce.

"We already had the QTLs related to
grain yield and traits of interest, and with
Tim Setter's input, we identified QTLs for
key physiological pathways related to
drought response," Ribaut reflects.
"Then the missing link was at the level of
gene expression." The differential gene
expression observed in plants that react
differently under drought makes it
possible to identify which particular
genes, among the 40,000 present in the
maize genome, play a role in regulating
drought tolerance.

Ribaut's team wanted to pursue that
missing link through functional
genomics. Good fortune arrived in the
form of Chris Zimselmeier and Jeff
Habben, experts in maize functional
genomics at Pioneer Hi-Bred
International. Ribaut met them at a
workshop on molecular approaches to
drought tolerance funded by the

Rockefeller Foundation and held at
CIMMYT in 1999. Soon the teams
from Pioneer and CIMMYT
entered a collaboration devoted to
using microarrays (a genomics
tool) to identify key genes with
differential expression under
water-limited conditions.

Ribaut's work received a big boost in
2001 when the Rockefeller Foundation
funded a CIMMYT project devoted to
innovative and integrated approaches
to drought tolerance in maize, which
was extended for an additional two
years in 2003. "We've been incredibly
fortunate, because all this new
technology, the partners, and the
support of the Foundation arrived
right when we needed them," says
Ribaut. "For the last decade we've
been trying to put a picture of drought
tolerance together like a puzzle."
Ribaut gives great credit to lab
companions Maria de la Luz Gutierrez
and Mark Sawkins, as well as CIMMYT
maize physiologist Marianne Banziger,
who played a critical role in selecting

germplasm with different responses
under drought and evaluating
segregating populations under
drought in Zimbabwe. "Through a
team effort, we're starting to see the
bigger picture," he says.

* A wide view

The bigger picture brings three major
components of understanding drought
tolerance together-gene expression,
metabolic pathways, and plant
morphology-and reveals their
interrelationships. For example, by
combining information from
functional genomics, data on sugar
levels, and the QTL analyses, the
important genomic regions involved in
regulating glucose have been
identified (see figure). "Through the
collaborations we developed, we have
those three knowledge components at
our disposal. This puts us in a unique
position to bridge the gap between
changes in gene expression and plant
phenotype," observes Ribaut.

Equipped with this knowledge,
scientists have strong hopes of
accelerating the development of
drought-resistant maize in three ways:
by creating a drought consensus map,
which indicates the key genomic
regions involved with drought
tolerance and uses this information for
marker-assisted selection; by
identifying elite alleles at target genes,
the presence of which would serve as
predicting factors for plant breeders;
and by using genetic engineering to
alter specific genes or pathways.

"By engaging in a multidisciplinary
approach with good collaborators,
we've gained a much wider view of
the problem," Ribaut concludes. "Best
of all, there's more to come. The
benefits of this research could extend
to other cereals such as wheat, as
some regulatory genes involved in
drought tolerance might be common
across genomes.

For more information:


Cgha gIn
gone minprtian
IVR 1)

Changes in sugar DEfflrouaI ilIlk
mncentrmtion and ear growth
kca bohydrates)

Differaii thal
grain yield


Spin-offs are additional

benefits or products that

accrue in the course of

pursuing a larger aim. A

familiar example is the US

space program, which

developed spin-offs as

diverse a' nimlerc detectors,

th1111f l' I L',, I'll Tl H I tt

IlL' lL i L \'L tIh Il I IL '4tl 1'1

.,, 111; CIA IAI 1) T ,,,t Lt

The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa
(IRMA) project, extended in 2003 by
its primary sponsor, the Syngenta
Foundation for Sustainable
Agriculture, is an excellent example
of a project that has made lasting
contributions to related areas of
knowledge as it pursues its goal.

The IRMA project seeks to develop
maize varieties that resist stem
borers, the major insect pests of
maize in East Africa. Project
scientists from the Kenya
Agricultural Research Institute
(KARI) and CIMMYT will achieve
that goal in two ways: through
conventional breeding to produce
more resistant plants, and through
transgenic Bt maize, which
produces its own insecticide
targeted specifically to various stem
borer species. Two spin-offs from
this work are of enduring value: an
arthropod reference collection for
maize cropping systems in Kenya
(arthropods include insects, spiders,
and crustaceans), and the
systematic collection of farmer's
local maize varieties (landraces) and
related information for Kenya's
National Gene Bank.

Entomologists Josephine Songa of
KARI and David Bergvinson of
CIMMYT amassed an insect
collection that attracted the
attention of the National Museum
of Kenya and is available digitally
to researchers worldwide.

* A classic museum
collection and a digital
arthropod warehouse

Before Bt maize can be released into
farmers' fields, potential ecological
impacts must be investigated. "To
respond to this need, the IRMA
project is establishing baseline data
and conducting experiments to
determine what impacts the
technology may have on nontarget
arthropods-all arthropods except
stem borers," explains KARI
entomologist Josephine Songa.

During the past two years, project
scientists and extension personnel
collected and characterized more
than 101,000 arthopod specimens
from maize fields in Kenya. This
reference collection enables
scientists to identify important
arthropods associated with maize. It
also helps them to monitor and
study nontarget arthropods,
especially natural enemies of the
stem borers. In this way, potential
problems can be exposed before Bt
maize is released, and monitoring
following release will be effective.

The reference collection is presented
in two formats: preserved arthropod
specimens and a digital database.
"The classical wet and dry specimen
collections are a necessity and an
asset," says Songa, "but the digital
database marks a big leap forward
for expanding access to the
collection through CD-ROMs and
the Internet."

The arthropod collection attracted the
interest of the National Museum of
Kenya (NMK), because it is the first
time that arthropods were
systematically collected from maize
growing regions. For the NMK this
information represents a snapshot of
arthropod diversity that will be a
reference for generations to come. The
collection will also be used by other
KARI entomologists and university
students as a technical reference.

The potential uses of the digital
database extend beyond Kenya's
borders. According to Songa's
CIMMYT collaborator, David
Bergvinson, "The digital database
enables entomologists throughout East
Africa and beyond to classify
specimens to family level, which will
enhance our monitoring of insect
diversity and abundance." The
database is Internet friendly and links
information on the type of trap used
to catch the arthropod, location of
catch, and the growth stage of the
maize crop at the time of collection.
"This information will help many
entomologists with their collecting
activities, and the system as a whole
could serve as a model for efforts in
other ecologies and countries," says

When the database is linked with a
geographic information system (GIS)
platform, scientists can map and track
the distribution and abundance of
different arthropod families and cross-
reference that information with the
treasure trove of environmental and
crop data available in GIS databases.

* Conserving
knowledge of Kenya's
maize diversity

Maize diversity is not limited to the
cereal's center of origin and
domestication in Mesoamerica. A
basket of maize from coastal Kenya
looks surprisingly like its counterpart in
far-off Mexico-a colorful display of
black, purple, red, yellow, white, and
mixed-color ears of varying length and
circumference. In its germplasm, too,
Kenyan maize carries traits that
breeders and future generations may
find extremely useful.

In a modest project, CIMMYT, the
International Plant Genetic Resources
Institute (IPGRI), the International Food
Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and
the National Gene Bank of Kenya
joined forces to capture and
characterize that diversity for the
researchers of today and tomorrow

CIMMYT socioeconomist Hugo de
Groote and George Owuor of Egerton
University conducted extensive farmer
surveys as part of the IRMA project.
Their primary interest was to
document varieties that farmers
already had in their fields, prior to the
release of insect resistant maize
varieties, and to learn how farmers
selected varieties and seed for planting
the following season. De Groote and
IPGRI's Dan Kiambi explored the idea
of physically collecting samples of local
farmer varieties during the surveys.
They obtained a small grant for
collecting, with the anticipation of
further funding for morphological and
genetic characterization by IPGRI and
KARI scientists. Guidance on collection
methodologies came from IPGRI, while
IFPRI's Melinda Smale contributed
approaches for analyzing maize
biodiversity. )

"This is the first such effort in maize
conducted in Africa by IPGRI," says
Jaime Estrella, Kiambi's successor in
the project, "and though it is small,
we consider it important." He was
surprised by the diversity discovered.

Owuor and de Groote provide a key
explanation: risk management by
farmers. On the coast, farmers often
grow five or six varieties. Kanjerenjere,
a yellow landrace, is grown because
"even when rains are variable, you get
something," but it yields poorly and is
susceptible to storage pests. Dark
purple Mdzihana is a good yielder,
resistant to field and storage pests,
but vulnerable to erratic water
conditions. A farmer will plant
both landraces along with four
or five others having different
agronomic and consumption

George Owuor, as
part of the IRMA
project, links local
varieties and farmer
seed selection
strategies in his
collection activities.

It is information on these unique traits
and adaptations that Zachary
Muthamia, officer-in-charge of the
National Gene Bank of Kenya, hopes
to capture. Muthamia, a breeder who
undertook a two-year training in
applied molecular genetics at
CIMMYT, is revitalizing a collection
that has fallen on hard times. "This
project provides a major renewal of
our maize materials and allows us to
do a systematic and deliberate
collection and characterization of
these resources. It's an important
contribution to the future," he says.

Muthamia's observation rings true for
a range of spinoffs from IRMA and
other CIMMYT projects. A
"contribution" need not be a formal
project objective or large undertaking
to be significant. Just ask the people
whose lives have been saved by smoke

af For information:

The science of

genomics has

been put to work

for human health

and well-being,

but who benefits

from these


Partners from the public and private
sector are marshaling resources to bring
the genomics revolution to the world's
poorest people.

Within five years, the 19 member
organizations of the Challenge Program
for Unlocking Crop Genetic Diversity
hope that genomics will identify useful
genetic variation among the staple
crops of developing countries.
Researchers will identify genes and
pathways to use in improving those
crops, identify marker systems to speed
the selection of varieties with valuable
traits, and develop integrated
bioinformatics systems to organize and
share the research data.

Within 10 years, in partnership with
national research programs in
developing countries, the Challenge
Program aims to incorporate this
valuable diversity into elite breeding
materials and locally adapted landraces.
The new lines will ultimately be passed
to farmers for assessment.

Approved in July 2003, the new
Challenge Program has already started
its work. At the Technical Planning
Workshop in Wageningen, the
Netherlands, in August, there was a
palpable sense of promise and
excitement about focusing international
expertise in genomics on crop
production in areas left behind by other
technological revolutions. The
Challenge Program will focus on four
crop groups-cereals, roots and tubers,
legumes, and bananas and the
forages-to ensure that all 22 CGIAR
mandate crops benefit from the public
development of genomic tools for crop
improvement. The tools and products
that the Challenge Program develops
will be generic-that is, they will be
applicable to any crop, any gene, and
any trait. Capacity building is an
integral part of the Program.

Partners include the national
agricultural research systems of China
(Chinese Academy of Agricultural
Sciences) and Brazil (Brazilian
Agricultural Research Corporation);
several CGIAR Centers (CIAT,
IPGRI, and IRRI), six advanced
research institutes (Agropolis, John
Innes Centre, Cornell University, the
Comparative Cereal Genomics
Initiative at Kansas State University,
National Institute of Agrobiological
Sciences-Japan, and Wageningen
University), the Global Forum on
Agricultural Research (representing
CSOs and developing country farmer
groups), and three private companies
(Mahyco Research Centre, Bayer
CropScience, and Pioneer Hi-Bred

The Program is generously supported
by the European Union and the
World Bank.

SFor more information, see

CIMMYT Funding Overview 2002-2003

Other foundations
United Kingdom



',,,.kefeller Foundation

IEuropean Commission

Figure 1. Top donors to CIMMYT, 2002.

CGIAR members (South)

I N.-n-CGIAR members (South)

Foundations (CGIAR members)

H. Foundations (Non-CGIAR members)

j Advanced research institute
agreements (public)
Advanced research institute
agreements (private)

Figure 2. Investors in CIMMYT, 2002.

Total funding

7 Targeted

^15,000 Unrestricted

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003"

Figure 3. Trends in grants to CIMMYT
(US$ 000), 1996-2002.

Funding at a glance

The 10 governments and agencies that
provided the largest share of our
funding in 2002 are shown in Figure 1.
The contributions to CIMMYTs budget
by CGIAR member countries, North
and South, as well as foundations and
advanced research institutes (public
and private), are presented in Figure 2.

Sources of income from grants are
presented in Table 1. Targeted funding
continues to provide almost two-thirds
of CIMMYTs research resources (Figure
3). We fully expect that the trend for
core unrestricted funding to decline in
relation to targeted contributions will
continue to provide challenges for
managing research and financing the
research agenda. Full costing of
projects will be more important than
ever, along with the recovery of all
direct and indirect costs. Indirect cost
recovery is currentlyjust less than 13%.

Funding in 2002

Total funding for 2002 was US$ 35.806
million (including other income and
overhead recovery); of this funding,
81% came from CGIAR investors and
19% from other sources. Expenditures
were US$ 43.933 million. The larger-
than-anticipated deficit for 2002 is the
outcome of unexpected funding
decisions and compliance with a
recommendation from our auditors to
take a more prudent approach to
writing off unfulfilled pledges from
donors. The deficit for 2002 comprised
an operating loss of US$ 1.441 million
(including staff reduction costs of US$
1.193 million) in addition to US$ 2.312
million in write-offs of unfulfilled
pledges from previous years and audit

To strengthen financial management
at CIMMYT, particular attention has
been given to guarding against
exchange rate losses through the use
of more conservative exchange rate
forecasts. The Center has
implemented a more thorough and
stringent review of unpaid funds to
avoid multi-year accumulation of bad
debts. It has also taken a much more
conservative approach to budgeting
activities funded by core unrestricted
and core restricted contributions.

Prospects for 2003-2004

The revised budget estimate for 2003
is US$ 38.8 million. Through more
conservative financial management
and vigorous efforts to raise
additional income, CIMMYT expects
to increase its working capital
reserves by more than US$ 1 million
by the end of 2003. The Center has
embarked upon a concerted effort to
raise working capital reserves to the
level of 90 days by the end of 2007.
Staff reductions over the past 16
months-voluntary and
involuntary-have been undertaken
to provide a more flexible cost
structure while maintaining
core competencies.

The funding landscape will also be
transformed as the CGIAR Challenge
Programs and other funding
mechanisms come into play, and as
various donors alter their CGIAR
investment strategies. CIMMYT
expects that participation in the
CGIAR Challenge Programs will
somewhat offset changes to the
general support allocations of the

Table 1. CIMMYT sources of income from grants by country/entity (US$ 000s), 2002

ADB (Asian Development Bank) 829 1
Australia 1,773
AusAID 3031
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research 603 1
CRC Molecular Plant Breeding 179 6
Grains Research and Development Corporation 683 6
Southern Cross University 5
Austria-IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) 7 6
Azerbaijan-Agency for Support to the Development of the Agricultural Private Sector 43 3
Belgium-Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and International Cooperation 423 1
Brazil-EMBRAPA i i ..... ,iii.,, .1 Research Corporation) 40 2
Canada 970
Agriculture and Agri-Food 38 6
Canadian International Development Agency 924 1
International Development Research Centre 81
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) 16
CGIAR Finance Committee 5
International Food Policy Research Institute 127 1
International Livestock Research Institute 3
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute 8
Standing Panel on Impact Assessment 31 1
China 453
CAAS (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) 300 6
Department of International Cooperation, Ministry ofAgriculture 130 2
Lamsoo Milling Company 23 7
Colombia 191
CORPOICA (Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria) 41 3
FENALCE (Federacion Nacional de Cultivadores de Cereales y Leguminosas) 11 3
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 139 2
Denmark-Danish International DevelopmentAgency 822
European Commission-Rural Development and Food Security 2,402
Ecuador-Promsa 25 3
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) 21 1
Ford Foundation 64
Foundation for Harvest Solutions 753 4
France 1,290
Minister de I'Education Nationale, de la Recherche et de la Technologie- 1,191
DRIC I i,, 1 I -.. ,,.. Relations Internationales et a la Cooperation)
Club Cinq (Wheat i. 1..11 99 7
Germany 886
Eiselen Foundation 68
Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development 813
University of Hohenheim 5 6
India 149
Department of Agriculture, Research and Education 113
Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Co. Ltd. (Wheat Germplasm) 36 7
IDB (Inter-American Development Bank) 95 1
IFAD (International Fund For Agricultural Development) 439 1
Iran, Islamic Republic of-Ministry ofAgriculture 283 2
Japan 1,948
APN (Asian Pacific Network for Global Change Reseach) 39 6
Economic Cooperation Bureau, Ministry of F ....i..i .i 1,428 1
Nippon Foundation 472
Sasakawa Global 2000 9
Korea, Republic of-Rural Development Administration 154 2
Mexico 706
CODEPAP (Consejo de Desarrollo de la Cuenca de Papaloapan) 4
SAGAR (Secretaria deAgricultura,Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca yAlimentacion) 324 2
Fundacion Guanajuato Produce A.C 30
Fundacion Hidalgo 42
Fundacion Sonora 169
ICAMEX (Maize and wheat improvement) 98 7
Grupo Industrial Bimbo (industrial quality in wheat) 39 7
Miscellaneous Research Grants 128 6

Table 1. CIMMYT sources of income from grants by country/entity (US$ 000s), 2002

DGIS (Directorate General for International Cooperation)
M ministry of F .... .. I II 1,
New Zealand-Ministry of i'......i II and Trade
Norway-Royal Norwegian Ministry of F' ......in I
OPEC Fund for International Development
Other Foundations
Peru-National Institute of Natural Resources
Philippines-Bureau of Agriculture Research, Department of Agriculture
Portugal-Institute for International Scientific and Technological Cooperation
Rockefeller Foundation
SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Enviroment)
South Africa, Republic of
Agricultural Research Council
National Department of Agriculture
Agrovegetal, S.A.
Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion
Sweden-Swedish International Development Agency
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture
Thailand-Department of Agriculture
United Kingdom-Department for International Development
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)-Africa Bureau
Uruguay-National Institute ofAgricultural Research
Cornell University
Kansas State University
Monsanto Company (hybrid wheat)
Oklahoma State University
Pioneer Hi-Bred International
Stanford University
United States Agency for International Development
United States Department of Agriculture
1, 1,,,,11 ,, I .,' U university
World Bank
Total Grants*


World Bank and other donors.
We also anticipate that the
introduction of performance-
based funding allocations will
enable CIMMYT to continue to
pursue science that is based on
excellence and relevance for
developing countries.

In late 2003, CIMMYT anticipates
that it will embark upon a new
phase with the implementation
of its new long-term strategy A
well-articulated strategy that is
reflected clearly in CIMMYTs
new project and financing plans
will more clearly highlight the
range of activities that CIMMYT
pursues to benefit poor farmers
and consumers in developing

1) CGIAR members (North).
2) CGIAR members (South).
3) Non-CGIAR members (South).
4) Foundations (CGIAR members)

5) Foundations (Non-CGIAR members).
6) Advanced research institute agreements (public).
7) Advanced research institute agreements (private).
* Does not include Center Income of US$ 0.736M.

Trustees and Principal Staff

As of October 2003

Alexander McCalla (Canada), Chair, Board of Trustees and Chair of
Executive Committee; Emeritus Professor, Department of Agricultural
and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis, USA

Sebastian Acosta-Nuhez (Mexico),* Director General, Agricultural
Research, National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock
Research, Mexico

Hisao Azuma (Japan), Senior Vice-President, Japan International
Cooperation Agency, Japan

Tini (C.M.) Colijn-Hooymans (Netherlands), Management Director,
Plant Sciences Expertise Group, the Netherlands

Edwina Cornish (Australia), Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research),
University of Adelaide, Australia

Robert M. Goodman (USA), Professor, Russell Laboratories,
University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, and Vice-Chair, Board of

Masa Iwanaga (Japan),* Director General, CIMMYT

Carlos Felipe Jaramillo (Colombia), Lead Economist, Central
America Department, World Bank, and Chair of Finance and
Administration Committee

Dr. Romano M. Kiome (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research
Institute, Kenya

Lene Lange (Denmark), Science Director, Molecular Biotechnology,
Novozymes A/S, Denmark

Klaus M. Leisinger (Germany), Executive Director, Novartis
Foundation for Sustainable Development, Switzerland

Jesus Moncada de la Fuente (Mexico),* Vice-Chairman, Board of
Trustees, and Director in Chief, National Institute of Forestry,
Agriculture, and Livestock Research, Mexico, and Vice-Chair, Board
of Trustees

Mangala Rai (India), Director General, Indian Council for
Agricultural Research, and Secretary, Department for Agricultural
Research and Education, GOI, India

Uraivan Tan-Kim-Yong (Thailand), Chairperson, Graduate Program
in Man and Environment Management (Chiang Rai), College of
Graduate Study, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, and Chair of Audit
Committee, Board of Trustees

Javier Usabiaga (Mexico),* Secretary of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural
Development, Fisheries, and Food, Mexico

John R. Witcombe (UK), Manager, DFID Plant Sciences Research
Programme, Centre for Arid Zone Studies, University of Wales, UK

* Ex officio position.

Principal Staff

Masa Iwanaga ii I Director General
Claudio Cafati (Chile), Deputy Director General,
Administration and Finance2
Pilar Junco (Mexico) Executive Assistant to the Director
Coenraad Kramer (Netherlands), Senior Advisor to the
Director General
Monica Mezzalama (Italy), Scientist, Plant P irl i..i... r
Seed Health Unit
Agustin Munoz (Mexico), Senior Auditor
Peter J.Ninnes i11, iii Interim Finance Director and
Executive Officer
Shawn Sullivan (USA), Intellectual 1,i i 1 ..i. and
AnneAcosta (USA)
Norman E. Borlaug (USA)
Gerardo Leyva (Mexico)
Gregorio Martinez (Mexico)

Shivaji Pandey (India), Director
Ganesan Srinivasan (India),Associate Director, Principal
Scientist, Leader, Subtropical Maize; Head, International
Maize Testing Unit
Marianne Banziger (Switzerland), Senior Scientist,
I i .. I.. 1 I (based in Zimbabwe)
David Beck (USA), Principal Scientist, Breeder/Leader,
Highland Maize
David Bergvinson (Canada), Senior Scientist,
Hugo Cordova (El Salvador), Principal Scientist, Breeder/
Leader of Tropical Maize
Carlos de Leon G. (Mexico), Principal Scientist,
ill-- iii I I I 1 11 -... i Officer (based in Colombia)
Julien de Meyer (Switzerland), Associate Scientist,
Training Coordinator
Alpha O. Diallo (Guinea), Principal Scientist, Breeder/
Liaison Officer (based in Kenya)
Dennis Friesen (Canada), IFDC/CIMMYT, Senior Scientist,
Agronomist (based in Kenya)
Fernando Gonzalez (Mexico), Senior Scientist, Breeder
(based in Nepal)2
Daniel Jeffers (USA), Senior Scientist, Pi rl .I ... r
Fred Kanampiu (Kenya), Scientist, Agronomist (based in
Stephen Mugo (Kenya), Scientist, Breeder (based in Kenya)
Luis Narro (Peru), Senior Scientist, Breeder (based in
Marcelo E. Perez (Mexico), Program Administrator
Kevin V Pixley (USA), Principal Scientist, Breeder/Liaison
Officer (based in Zimbabwe)
Joel K. Ransom (USA), Senior Scientist,Agronomist (based
in Nepal)1
Efren Rodriguez I I. ...i I ..... i International Maize
Testing Unit
Suketoshi Taba II i. i Principal Scientist, Head, Maize
Germplasm Bank
Douglas G. Tanner (Canada), Senior Scientist, Agronomist,
EastAfrica/Liaison Officer (based in Ethiopia)
Strafford Twumasi-Afriyie (Ghana),Associate Scientist,
Breeder (based in Ethiopia)
Carlos Urrea (Colombia), Associate Scientist, Breeder
(based in Nepal)
Surinder K. Vasal (India), Distinguished Scientist, Breeder2

BindiganavileVivek (India),
Scientist, Breeder (based in Zimbabwe)
StephenWaddington (UK), Principal
Scientist, Agronomist/NRG Associate
(based in Zimbabwe)
Adjunct Scientists
Miguel Barandiaran (Peru), Breeder
(based in Fbru)1
Salvador Castellanos (Guatemala),
Breeder (based in Guatemala)2
Duncan Kirubi (Kenya), Breeder
(based in Kenya)
Philippe Monneveux (France),
Adjunct Principal Scientist, Breeder/
1 .. .. I- I
Sarvesh Paliwal (India), Breeder
(based in India)
Neeranjan Rajbhandari (Nepal),
Agronomist (based in Nepal)
Peter Setimela I. ...1 Breeder
(based in Zimbabwe)
Postdoctoral Fellows
Matthew Krakowsky (USA), Breeder2
Slobodan Trifunovic .11.. 1, i,

Consultants/Research Affiliates
Gonzalo Granados R. (Mexico),
Training Consultant
Mick S. Mwala (Zambia), Breeder
(based in Zambia)
MthakatiA.R. Phiri (Malawi), Socio
economist (based in Malawi)
Jens Riis-Jacobsen (Denmark)
Ashish Srivastava (India), Breeder
(based in India)
Narciso Vergara (Mexico), Breeder

Sanjaya Rajaram (India), Director,
Distinguished Scientist2
Thomas S. Payne (USA), Interim
Director; Senior Scientist, Head,
International Wheat Improvement
Osman S.Abdalla (Sudan), Senior
Scientist, Regional Bread Wheat
Breeder West Asia and North Africa
(based in Syria)2
Karim Ammar (i i...I Associate
Scientist, Triticale and Hybrid Wheat
Hans-Joachim Braun .,,, I
Principal Scientist, Head, Winter Wheat
Breeding/Liaison Officer (based in
Efren del Toro (Mexico),
Administrative i ..... i
Etienne Duveiller i. i......i Senior
Scientist, Regional P Irli i ,I .I- r South
Asia (based in Nepal)
Guillermo Fuentes Davila (Mexico),
Senior ScientistP rl ,.l.h ..I r (Bunts/
Lucy Gilchrist Saavedra (Chile),
Senior Scientist, P Irli ,i .. r (Fusarium/

Arne Hede (Denmark), Scientist,
Facultative and Winter Wheat Breeder
(based in Turkey)
Monique Henry(France), Scientist,
p rl h, ,lI,,, r 1, .1 1 ,. II
Man Mohan Kohli (India), Principal
Scientist, Regional Wheat Breeder,
Southern Cone/Liaison Officer (based
in I in-i h. I
Jacob Lage I ........ I Associate
Scientist, Breeder2
Alexei Morgounov I ... Senior
Scientist, Regional Representative
W heat ... I. i........... i Central
Asia and Caucasus (based in
A. Mujeeb-Kazi (USA), Distinguished
Scientist, Head, Wide Crosses
M. Miloudi Nachit ,,, ,,1 i
Senior Scientist, Regional Durum
Wheat Breeder West Asia and North
Africa/Liaison Officer (based in Syria)2
Julie Nicol ,, i, ,i, Scientist,
Pirli ,..h l r (Root Diseases) (based in
Guillermo Ortiz-Ferrara (Mexico),
Principal Scientist, Regional
Coordinator Wheat Germplasm, South
Asia (based in Nepal)
Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio (Mexico),
Senior Scientist, Agronomist
Rocio Navarro (Mexico), Program
Mahmood Osmanzai ,,,, i ,,,
Principal Scientist, Country
Coordinator (based 1,, ii I111. i ,,,
Roberto J. Pena (Mexico), Principal
Scientist, Head, Industrial Quality
Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer .1. I
Principal Scientist, Head, Durum
Wheat Breeding
Matthew P. Reynolds (UK), Senior
Scientist, Head ii. I. i
Kenneth D. Sayre (USA), Principal
Scientist, Head, Crop 1 i.i. 1..i.
Ravi R Singh (India), Principal
Scientist, 1ii, I i ,.1 1... 1 i
Bent Skovmand (Denmark),
Principal Scientist, Head, Wheat
Germplasm Bank and Genetic
Richard Trethowan ii iii ii
Senior Scientist, Spring Bread Wheat
Breeder I I i-in I Environments)
Maarten van Ginkel (Netherlands),
Principal Scientist, Head, Spring Bread
Wheat Breeding (Optimum
Reynaldo L.Villareal I In.II. ,
Principal Scientist, Head, Germplasm
Improvement Training2
He Zhong-Hu (China), Principal
Scientist, Regional Wheat Coordinator,
EastAsia (based in China)

Adjunct Scientists
Flavio Capettini I iii,,-, i ICARDA/
CIMMYT Head, Barley Program
Julio Huerta (Mexico), PF ril ,,i, i, r
Jong Jin Hwang (Korea), Winter
Wheat Breeder
D.K. Joshi (Nepal), Wheat Breeder
(based in Nepal)
Muratbek Karabayev (Kazakhstan),
Liaison Officer (based in Kazakhstan)
Sae-Jung Suh (Korea), Breeder
Postdoctoral Fellows
Patricia Dupre (France), Breeder/
p F I ,I ,,in r
Morten Lillemo 'I ... I Wheat
Garry Rosewarne ,, ii iii ii
Molecular Geneticist
Jiankang Wang (China), Breeder
Graduate Students
Stacey Copland (UK), Reading
Bram Govaerts I 11......1 Catholic
University of Leuven
Sybil Herrera (Sweden), Swedish
University of Agricultural Sciences
Consultants/Research Affiliates
Arnoldo Amaya (Mexico)
David Bedoshvili ,i
Jesse Dubin (USA)
Guillermo Fuentes Davila (Mexico)
Lucy Gilchrist Saavedra (Chile)
Man Mohan Kohli (India)
Bill Raun (USA)
George Varughese (India)
Reynaldo Villarreal (Philippines)
Hugo Vivar (Ecuador)

Michael Morris (USA), Director,
Pedro Aquino (Mexico), Principal
Research Assistant, Economist
Lone Badstue I ,, ,,1,I I Associate
Scientist, ',, i ml i irl ii, i ,, i r
Mauricio Bellon (Mexico), Senior
Scientist, Human Ecologist
Hugo de Groote I iii...... Senior
Scientist, Economist (based in Kenya)
Javier Ekboir ,I, ,iin I Scientist,
Dagoberto Flores (Mexico),
Principal Research Assistant
Roberta Gerpacio I 11 ....1.
Research Associate, Economist (based
in the Philippines)2
Maximina Lantican I i .ii11. '
Research Associate, Economist
Mulugetta Mekuria I II, 1,I1 i
Scientist, Economist (based in
Erika Meng (USA), Scientist,
Wilfred M. Mwangi (Kenya),
Principal Scientist, Economist (on leave
of absence)

Maria Luisa Rodriguez (Mexico),
Program Administrator
Gustavo E. Sain (Argentina), Senior
Scientist, Economist (based in Costa
Adjunct Scientist
Kamal Paudyal (Nepal), Economist
(based in Nepal)2
Postdoctoral Fellows
Augustine Langyintuo (Ghana),
Monika Zurek ........ 1 Economist2
Consultants/Research Affiliates
Amanda King (USA)
Cheryl Doss (USA)
Janet Lauderdale (USA)
Mitch Renkow (USA)
DavidWatson (UK)

Larry Harrington (USA), Director
Raj Gupta (India), Senior Scientist,
Regional Facilitator Rice-Wheat
Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic
Plains (based in India)
Peter R. Hobbs (UK), Principal
Scientist,, .. ii 1 ; ,; ii Officer
(based in I i
David Hodson (UK), Scientist, Interim
Head, GIS Laboratory
Jaime Lopez Cesati (Mexico),
i .. i,, ., i and Plant Nutrition
Eduardo Martinez (Mexico), GIS
Craig A. Meisner (USA), Principal
Scientist, Agronomist (based in
E: 1 1-II '- IIl
Maria Luisa Rodriguez (Mexico),
Program Administrator
Marcos Penalva 'II-p.i I Research
Associate, Agronomist
Patrick C.Wall (Ireland), Principal
Scientist, Conservation Tillage and
Agriculture Specialist
Jeff White (USA), Senior Scientist,
Head, GIS/Modeling Laboratory'
Adjunct Scientists
Luis Fregoso Tirado (Mexico),
National Institute of Forestry
Agriculture and Livestock Research
Zondai Shamudzarira (Zimbabwe)
(based in Zimbabwe)
Bernard Triomphe (France), CIRAD,

Pre-doctoral Fellows
Scott Justice (USA), Agricultural
Mechanization Specialist (based in
Rolf Sommer (Germany), Agronomist
Research Affiliates
Lav Bhusan (India), Soil Water
i..... i ....... (based in India)

Parvesh Chandna (India), GIS and
Remote Sensing (based in India)
Ravish Chandra (India), Irrigation
W ater 1 ........... (based in India)
A.B.S Hossain I mqi1.1. 1i 1 Wheat
(based in E: Illl Il Ii
Bernard Kamanga (Malawi),
Participatory Research Specialist
(based in Malawi)
Nur-E-Elahi I i.... .I 1. 1 Maize
(based in E:B i ,l i l I i
G. Panaullah I ... Ii 1 Arsenic/
Soil Science (based in E:m11 ill I'i
Shahid Parvez (Nepal), Social
Sciences (based in India)
S.VR.K. Prabhakar (India),
Agronomist (based in India)
M.A. Razzaque (Bangladesh),
Liaison (based in E:. III1 idi Il'l
Samar Singh (India),Weed
S1 1. 1..... 1. (based in India)

JockAnderson (Australia)
Ken Fisher (Australia)
D. Jha (India)
Jens Riis-Jacobsen (Denmark)
Ashok Seth (India)
Jonathan Woolley (UK)

David Hoisington (USA), Director
Jean Marcel Ribaut (Switzerland),
Senior Scientist, Assistant Director and
Molecular Geneticist
Maria Luz George I 1iii1 .....
Scientist, AMBIONET Coordinator
(based in the Philippines)
Scott McLean (USA), Scientist,
Alessandro Pellegrineschi (Italy),
Scientist, Cell Biologist
Enrico Perotti (Italy), Scientist,
Molecular Biologist (based in
Mark Sawkins (UK),Associate
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist
Marilyn Warburton (USA), Senior
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist
Manilal William (Sri Lanka),
Scientist, Molecular Geneticist

Adjunct Scientists
Julien Berthaud (France), IRD/
France, Senior Scientist, Molecular
Daniel Grimanelli (France), IRD/
France, Scientist, Molecular Geneticist
Olivier Leblanc (France), IRD/France,
Scientist, Molecular Cytogeneticist
Antonio Serratos (Mexico), INIFAP/
Mexico, Scientist, Molecular Biologist
Postdoctoral Fellows
Maria de la Luz Gutierrez
(Mexico), Molecular Geneticist
Sarah Hearne (UK), Molecular
, I~ /h~ i, ,I, ,,l l II

Graduate Students
Jakoba Drent (Netherlands),
i .......1 i I University/Netherlands
Haide Jimenez (Mexico), CINVESTAV/
Rainer Messmer (Switzerland), ETH/
Gael Pressoir (France), Institut
Agronomique de Paris-Grinon/France
Jan Jose Olivares (Mexico),
University of Adelaide/Australia
Fabiola Ramirez Corona (Mexico),
Magdalena Salgado (Mexico),
University ofAdelaide/Australia
Pingzhi Zhang (China), University of
Stewart Gillmor (USA)
Diego Gonzalez de Leon (Mexico)
Mirjana Trifunovic .... 1 i, i

Jose Crossa I I.i I Principal
Scientist, Head
Consultants/Research Affiliates
Jan Burgueno I ii1"i I
Jorge Franco I ii,,i, i I
Mateo Vargas (Mexico)

Ed Brandon (Canada), H1 1 ,
Carlos Lopez (Mexico), Software
Development i ..... i l .11
Development Department
Enrique Martinez (Mexico), Head,
Development and Implementation of
New Projects, Systems and Computer
Marcos Paez (Mexico), Network
Administrator, Systems and Computer
Fermin Segura (Mexico), Network
Infrastructure Supervisor, Systems and
Computer Services
Jesus Vargas (Mexico), Systems and
Operations 1 i .. i Systems and
Computer Services

Hugo Alvarez (Mexico),
Administrative i .....
Luis Banos (Mexico), Supervisor,
Enrique Cosilion (Mexico),
Supervisor, Housing'
Eduardo de la Rosa (Mexico), Head,
Building Maintenance
Joaquin Diaz (Mexico), Head,
Maria Garay (Mexico), Head, Food
and Housing
Jan Carlos Gonzalez (Mexico),
Mayra Sandoval (Mexico),
Accountant. Mutual Fund

Zoila Cordova (Mexico), Interim
Finance '1 i ,, i,
Martha Duarte (Mexico), Senior
Finance 1 i 1, i
Salvador Fragoso (Mexico), Head,
Payroll and Taxes
Hector Maciel (Mexico), i ..... ,
Accounting Operations
Guillermo Quesada (Mexico), Head,
Treasury Supervisor
German Tapia (Mexico), Warehouse

Marisa de la 0 (Mexico), Interim HR
" ; ni i, I
Georgina Becerra (Mexico), Human
Resources Specialist
Carmen Espinosa (Mexico), Head,
Legal Transactions
Eduardo Mejia (Mexico), Head,
Ma. del Carmen Padilla (Mexico),
Teacher, Childcare Center
Fernando Sanchez (Mexico), Head,
National Staff
Cuauhtemoc Marquez (Mexico),
Physician, Medical Service

Linda Ainsworth (USA) 1H. i,
Visitor Conference, and Training

Kelly A.Cassaday (USA), Head
Satwant Kaur I ,., I Writer/
G. Michael Listman (USA), Senior
Alma L. McNab iil,,,Ini Senior
Writer/Editor and Translations
Miguel Mellado (Mexico), Head,
Publications Production
David Poland (USA), Writer/Editor
Sarah Fennell (UK)
Kristian Harrington (USA)
Jennifer Nelson (USA)

Fernando Garcia (Mexico), Interim
Head Librarian
John Woolston (Canada), Visiting

Fernando Delgado (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Toluca
Raymundo Lopez (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Agua Fria
Francisco Magallanes (Mexico),
Field Superintendent, El Batan

Rodrigo Rascon (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Cd. Obregon
Abelardo Salazar (Mexico), Field
Superintendent, Tlaltizapani


Larry W. Harrington, Director, Natural
Resources Group
David Hoisington, Director,Applied
,1. .I 11. .i. ,I and Bioinform atics
Masa Iwanaga, Director General
Coenraad Kramer, Senior Advisor to the
Director General
Michael Morris, Director, Economics
Peter J. Ninnes, Interim Finance Director
and Executive Officer
Shivaji Pandey, Director, Maize Program
Thomas S. Payne, Interim Director,
Wheat Program


Larry W. Harrington, Director, Natural
Resources Group
David Hoisington, Director, Applied
Ma ,i I.,, i .- i and Bioinformatics
Masa Iwanaga, Director General
Coenraad Kramer, Senior Advisor to the
Director General
Michael Morris, Director, Economics
Peter J. Ninnes, Interim Finance Director
and Executive Officer
Shivaji Pandey, Director, Maize Program
Thomas S. Payne, Interim Director,
Wheat Program

for terms of at least 2 months, September
2002 to September 2003
Delphine Benard (France), Natural
Resources Group
Daniel James Biggs (UK), Wheat
Md. Mahfuzul Hoque I i....II i, 1ii
F: IIm11 0l-II Agricultural Research
Institute, Maize Program
Geoffrey Mwimali Murenga (Kenya),
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute,
Applied i.i. Iin. .i..i Center
Catherine Ongecha Ngaah (Kenya),
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute,
Applied i.i. Iin. .i..i Center
Claudia Andrea Bedoya Salazar
(Colombia), Applied 'i. ., iin.. I"i Center
ZahoorA. Swati I ,I I i,,, Institute of
i, I h i,, I, and Genetic Engineering,
Wheat Wide Crosses
Antonin Vergez (France), Natural
Resources Group

Left in 2002
SLeft in 2003

CIMMYT Contact Information

'* .. ^
,* 0,

'. ...


Mexico (Headquarters) iI 11 .I ,'T
i: r i I :. :. I i -
D.F., Mexico Tel.: +52 (55) 5804 2004
* Fax: +52 (55) 5804 7558 Email:
cimmyt@cgiar.org Primary contact:
Masa Iwanaga, Director General

Afghanistan CIMMYT, PO Box 5291,
Kabul, Afghanistan Email:
m.osmanzai@cgiar.org; zai@telus.net *
Primary contact: Mahmood Osmanzai

Bangladesh CIMMYT, PO Box 6057,
Gulshan, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
* Fax: +880 (2) 882 3516 (send c/o
CIMMYT Bangladesh) Email:
c.meisner@cgiar.org Home page:
* Primary contact: Craig Meisner

China CIMMYT, c/o Chinese Academy
of Agr :u.llrn., l sciences No. 30
Baishiqcli::o -: I .: Beiing 100081, PR.
China Fax: +86 (10) 689 18547 *
Email: zhhe@public3.bta.net.cn *
Primary contact: Zhonghu He

Colombia CIMMYT, c/o CIAT, -i:..:I-:-.
a8 ro 67-13, Cali, Colombia F:, '_.7
i -4450 025 Email:
.: :i.-ieon@cgiar.org Primary contact:
Carlos De Leon

Ethiopia C ll i i 1 1 1 I- : '.l. : :
-.:i.:hi: -,babe IE nrl .:.|:. i I::, I l
464645 Email: cimmyt-
ethiopia@cgiar.org Primary contact:
Douglas Tanner

Georgia CIMMYT, 12 Kipshidze Str.,
Apt. 54, Tbilisi 380062, Georgia *
d.bedoshvili.cimmyt@caucasus.net *
Primary contact: David Bedoshvili

India CIMMYT-India, CG Centre
Block, National Agricultural Science
Centre (NASC) Complex, DP Shastri
Marg, Pusa Campus, New Delhi
110012, India Fax: +91 (11) 582
2938 Email: cimmyt-india@cgiar.org *
Primary contact: Raj K. Gupta

Kazakhstan CIMMYT, PO Box 374,
Almaty 480000, Kazakhstan Fax: +7
(3272) 282551 Email:
cimmyt@astel.kz Primary contact:
Alexei Morgounov

Kenya CIMMYT, PO Box 25171,
Nairobi, Kenya. Fax: +254 (2) 522 879
* Email: cimmyt-kenya@cgiar.org *
Primary contact: Alpha O. Diallo

M a law i ,- II 1. T i : uI.-: ', ,:, ,-,_-i -: .:.r

SI1 i F -i 11 i i mail:
:.I1 I i ir Ij i i ary
,:nr r Bernard Kamanga

N epal 1 I II. T i:,I I- '-136,
': i :lli: i-i ,1: :1 i: :: 1 i I : I -iadrakali,
rl II i l 7 (1) 229
! 4 I- 1 I j .- 1 :giar.org
in :, nr Guillermo Ortiz

Philippines i In I I. T .: II PIl DF PO,
:,,- I i :,r I n 1: 1 : :i l .l: ,l: .-

I l I : l iii contact:
Maria Luz George

Turkey CIMMYT, PK 39 Emek, 06511
Ankara, Turkey Fax: +90 (312) 287
8955 Email: cimmyt-turkey@cgiar.org
* Primary contact: Hans-Joachim

Zimbabwe .: II I .T I:,:) Box MP
IW I I,:, ir I :: nr -H II 3re,
I ., ; I. F 4, l i301 327
1- 1 .1 i I II, i I i I -cgiar.org
I:I :, .:nr r Kevin Pixley

CIMMYT Worldwide


F iindling

-Ii 0i 1 110[1.] I itnI i

Ii -I .-I Iy ;i I i -I I- -I .:
1 Iii Ii". 1' 11 -1. 1 -I- fl


which maize and wheat, toC-rt i-i
or separately, are important t:,
people's livelihoods and ha t
potential to help alleviate po -i l,
and sustain the environme ir '..'iri
our partners, we develop solutions
tailored specifically to the needs of
small-scale farmers.


We benefit from the expertise of
colleagues in national agricultural
research and extension programs,
universities, and other centers of
research excellence throughout the
world; in the donor and
development community; and in
civil society organizations, farmer,
community, and self-help groups.
Together, we sustain the global
iiii'i:i :1tin:-i network for maize and
VA hlL.

SII 1 1 I I l 1in : I._ i n :i -1-1 1 n ,
gove Ininn_ : 1: I i Ii1- n i ,:i i 'in:
that il[ : n v: n o -Iii -I i .I: Iit
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this pi.il ln: ii i: n-i .. l.: 1 I bi.:- i i l- n
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i- :,t-Ii I l ,llh LO 6 (. 1 i ll 1lh lli.

Every year, an additional 22 million
people must escape hunger. To
reach these goals, many
organizations must act on many
fronts. CIMMYT and its partners
help by:

* Conducting research to develop
better seed and cropping

* Conserving and using the great
diversity in maize and wheat
seed for future generations.

"* :i : -:iiitn : 1pp ,pi i l: i -l:I rl
[,I j, l, l'l I, -I. l__, ] ,i, i lI -1f; li l .I: I n

riii r.-n-in; .l-o .':ir .n-i.:

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I.: p p in.l [p I .: I,.: I i I :l


i: 11 11 T 1 : n I--i -i ii i ll
rionpi:lr. oi in:ii' 3tion with offices
thi ,;Uii .]hu[ ri i t .. world.

Visit CIMMYT at www.cimmyt.org.





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